Model Shipways | MS2120 | Instruction manual | Model Shipways MS2120 Instruction manual

The Baltimore Clipper
P R I D E
O F
B A LT I M O R E
II
Early History
A type of sailing vessel known as the Baltimore
Clipper first appeared during the American
Revolution. Because the ship was so fast,
it’s hull design became a favorite and was
patterned after by privateers, slavers, and
others desiring rapid transportation on
the sea. The Baltimore Clipper was
fully developed and most successful during the period from 1805 to
1815 and is generally accepted
as the precursor to the Clipper
ship era of the 1850’s.
(continued on page 3)
Technical Characteristics
Scale: 3/16” = 1’ 0” (1: 64)
Length: 32”
Width: 5-1/4”
Height: 22-1/4”
Model Shipways
Kit No. MS2120
2
3
Instruction Manual
The Baltimore Clipper
Pride of Baltimore II
1988
By Ben Lankford, 1994
Built-up Model by Bob Bruetsch, 1994
Detail photos of actual ship by Bob Bruetsch, 1994
The Model Shipways plans for Pride of Baltimore II were prepared in 1993
and 1994. They were developed from the original design drawings for the ship by
Naval Architect Thomas C. Gillmer. Mr. Gillmer was also the designer of the first
Pride of Baltimore, and other replica ships such as the pungy, Lady Maryland, and
the brig, Peggy Stewart.
In addition to the design drawings, the Model Shipways plans incorporate
current as-built details of the ship. A number of modifications were made to the
original design drawings during construction, and even during the period following construction. Photographs were taken, and detailed measurements were
made to assure an accurate representation of the ship in Baltimore, Maryland. The
plans represent the ship as it appeared from October 1993 to April 1994.
Model Shipways is indebted to Mr. W. Bruce Quackenbush, Jr., Executive
Director of the Pride of Baltimore, Inc. ; Mr. Michael McGeady, Deputy Director;
and Captains Jan Miles and Robert Glover. These people not only encouraged the
project, but assisted with taking measurements off the ship, made numerous
sketches of details, and provided descriptions of the various rigs and operations.
With the ship continually on the move around the world, the project could not
have been completed without their assistance.
Copyright 1994
Model Shipways, a division of Model Expo, Inc.
Tobyhanna, PA 18466-1000
4
(Continued from cover)
It was as a privateer during the War of 1812 that the Baltimore
Clipper became most famous. With sleek lines and few guns, the
Baltimore Clippers were light and exceptionally fast. Their maneuverability made it possible to wreak havoc on the British; the
speedy privateers could overtake and outrun the enemy with ease,
and this enabled the privateering owners to take large profits from
the many prizes they seized. When the war ended in 1815 with the
Treaty of Ghent, the ship type began to diminish. Many of the
schooners were sold to South American and Caribbean owners. By
1860, the Baltimore Clipper was gone.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, the waterways of the Chesapeake Bay provided an excellent home and work environment
for the early settlers. The overseas demand for tobacco and new
ships kept the area alive with commerce. Many talented shipwrights plied their trade at the numerous shipyards located on
the Eastern Shore. One in particular, Thomas Kemp, departed for
Baltimore and Fells Point in 1803 to seek his fortune and avoid
the local competition. Establishing himself as a leader, he built
many fast and notorious Baltimore Clippers. With the newly
independent America’s need to establish itself in European trade,
and develop militarily on the open seas, his success was immediate, and paved the way for others who migrated north. Because
Baltimore had the investment capital, it could provide the higher
wages that eventually drew the best builders and craftsmen, as
well as the many excellent captains and sailors required to man
the ships. With the turning away from shipping tobacco to the
major export of flour, Baltimore became one of the most productive shipbuilding and shipping centers of the time.
Although the ship type had been fully developed, the name Baltimore Clipper was not applied to it until the ship was almost
extinct. The type was once called a Baltimore Flyer, and early
records simply refer to it as a Virginia-Built Boat, or Fast Sailing
Schooner: light and sleek, fast and seaworthy, it was a topsail
schooner with extremely raked masts. It had a wide, flush deck
to allow easy handling of the ship, and when fitted as a privateer, it had guns. The type seems to have developed from the
Chesapeake Bay sloop, soon found to be too small.
The Baltimore Clipper carved out a place for itself in history. The
schooners facilitated the nation’s ability to win independence,
and they helped the city of Baltimore establish its identity as a
major shipbuilding center.
The First Pride of Baltimore
In 1974, officials from the City of Baltimore wanted to re-create a
Baltimore Clipper as a means of providing public attraction to
the Inner Harbor. They required that the craft be an authentic
replication of an early 19th century Baltimore Clipper, and that it
be built on location at the Inner Harbor waterfront.
Thomas C. Gillmer, a noted author, historian, and former director of Naval Architecture for the U.S. Naval Academy in
Annapolis, was hired as the designer. The bid for construction
was won by the International Historical Watercraft Society, a corporate designation of Mr. Melbourne Smith of Annapolis, Maryland. Mr. Smith is a noted authority on Baltimore Clippers.
The ship’s design was based on early drawings done in Britain
during dockyard surveys after the war of 1812. The plans were of
several original ships that were captured privateers. After reviewing them, it was decided that Baltimore’s ship would be 90 feet in
overall length with a 23-foot extreme beam, adding up to 140 tons.
In late 1976, the ship was officially named the Pride of Baltimore,
taking it’s name from the nickname affectionately given to the
famous Baltimore Clipper, Chasseur. The Chasseur was built in
1813 at Fells Point in Baltimore
by Thomas Kemp. (Note: the
ship’s boat on the Pride of Baltimore II carries the name Chasseur.)
Ship’s boat Chasseur
The Pride of Baltimore was launched at Inner Harbor on February 27,
1977 and sailed on May 1, 1977. The ship logged over 150,000
miles sailing to and from such places as the Great Lakes, Spain,
Europe and from Newfoundland to the Florida keys, and many
other ports. On May 14, 1986, the Pride of Baltimore met hurricane
winds on its return home from St. Thomas and was lost at sea
along with four crew members.
Pride of Baltimore II
After a period of mourning, it was decided to replace the Pride
of Baltimore. Late in 1986, Thomas Gillmer once again was
hired as the designer. The contracted builder was G. Peter
Boudreau, a shipwright, crew member, and a captain of the
first Pride of Baltimore.
Pride of Baltimore II was to be a larger ship: 108 feet overall with a
26-foot beam, and weighing 197 tons. Among these and other differences, this schooner would have a greater cruising radius and
be licensed by the Coast Guard for carrying passengers.
The Pride of Baltimore II keel was laid on May 3, 1987 and the
schooner was launched on April 30, 1988. It was commissioned on
October 23 and on January 3, 1989 received full certification and
put out to sea. Since then, the ship has sailed to many ports. The
schooner’s permanent home is Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland.
While the Pride of Baltimore II is as authentic as possible, a few variations in design were required to meet today’s standards of economy and safety. Interior watertight bulkheads were provided for
safety, and the ship was fitted with auxiliary engines and feathering props. These were required because of the busy ports the ship
is scheduled to visit. The ship also has a steering wheel instead of
a tiller arm typical of a 19th century ship. If fitted with a tiller arm,
the Coast Guard would require a two-helmsman watch. To do this,
the crew would have to be increased by four which was unacceptable to officials. Also, it was decided not to include a fore course
on the foremast. Such a sail was probably carried on Baltimore
Clippers of the past, but was only used in light wind conditions.
This sail plan decision was made during the building of the first
Pride of Baltimore.
If fitted as a privateer, the Pride of Baltimore II would have to carry
guns. So, the ship design included ten gun ports with five on each
side. Simply for show, the schooner carries four large cannons and
two small swivel guns.
More History
For a complete history of the Baltimore Clippers, and both the
Pride of Baltimore and Pride of Baltimore II, consult the
bibliography for some excellent books with many good
photographs and drawings.
5
CONSTRUCTION STAGES AND TABLE OF CONTENTS
Brief History
Introduction/Credits
Before You Begin
What You’ll Need to Start Construction
How to Work With the Plans & Parts
Painting & Staining the Model
Cover, pg 3
Pg 4
Pg 7
Pg 7
Pg 8
Pg 9
Stage A: Framing the Plank-On-Bulkhead Hull
1. Bending Wood
2. Center Keel Assembly
3. Cutting the Rabbet
4. Installing the Keel/Stem & Sternpost
5. Installing the Bulkheads
6. Installing the Transom Framing
7. Covering the Mast Slots
8. Installing the Planksheer & Bulwark Stanchions
9. Installing the Hawse Timbers
10. Installing the Main Rail
Pg 10
Pg 10
Pg 10
Pg 10
Pg 11
Pg 11
Pg 12
Pg 12
Pg 12
Pg 13
Pg 13
Stage B: Planking the Plank-On-Bulkhead Hull
1. Getting Started
2. Planking Battens & Belts
3. Planking Butts
4. Spiling
5. Fastening the Planks
6. Planking the Outer Hull
7. Planking the Transom & Counter
8. Planking the Bulwarks
9. Planking the Deck
Pg 14
Pg 14
Pg 14
Pg 14
Pg 15
Pg 15
Pg 15
Pg 18
Pg 18
Pg 19
Stage C: Completing the Basic Hull Structure
1. Correcting & Sanding
2. Gunport Lids & Interior Rail
3. Swivel Gun Stocks
4. Natural Wood/Double Plank Option
Pg 20
Pg 20
Pg 20
Pg 20
Pg 20
Stage D: Mounting the Hull
1. Building-Ways
2. Mounting Board with Two Pedestals
Pg 21
Pg 21
Pg 21
Stage E: Adding the Hull Details
1. Locating Deck Fittings & Structures
2. Bow Fairlead
3. Cabin Trunks
4. Ventilator Boxes & Mushroom Vents
5. Binnacle
6. Steering Wheel & Box
7. Hatches
8. Deck Lockers
9. Samson Post & Bitts
10. Windlass & Chain Pipes
11. Catheads & Anchors
12. Pin Rails
13. Fife Rails
14. Bilge Pumps & Fire Stations
15. Deck Prisms
16. Rubber Pads
17. Steps
18. Lifelines
19. Life Rings
20. Cavels & Mooring Chocks
21. Channels
22. Eyebolts & Cleats
Pg 21
Pg 21
Pg 21
Pg 21
Pg 22
Pg 22
Pg 22
Pg 22
Pg 24
Pg 24
Pg 24
Pg 24
Pg 25
Pg 25
Pg 25
Pg 25
Pg 25
Pg 26
Pg 26
Pg 26
Pg 26
Pg 26
Pg 26
6
23. Props & Struts
24. Rudder
25. Swivel Guns
26. Cannons
27. Ship’s Bell
28. Running Lights, Stern Light & Crosstree Spotlights
29. Stern Flag Emblem
30. Ship’s Name
31. Ship’s Boat & Cradles
Pg 27
Pg 27
Pg 27
Pg 27
Pg 27
Pg 27
Pg 27
Pg 28
Pg 28
Stage F: Mast & Spar Construction
1. The Importance of Scale
2. Shaping & Tapering Masts & Spars
3. Building & Installing the Masts
4. Building & Installing the Bowsprit, Jibboom,
Dolphin Striker & Jibboom Spreaders
5. Building the Fore Yards
6. Building the Main Boom & Gaffs
7. Ringtail & Studding Sail Booms & Yards
Pg 29
Pg 29
Pg 29
Pg 29
Stage G: General Rigging & Sailmaking Information
Rigging Terms Defined
1. Rigging Options
2. Using the Rigging Plans
3. Rigging Line Sizes & Colors
4. Wire vs. Rope Rigging Line
5. Treating the Lines
6. Belaying Pins & Their Lines
7. Rigging Tools
8. Blocks & Deadeyes
9. Sailmaking
10. Rigging the Model Without Sails
Pg 33
Pg 33
Pg 33
Pg 34
Pg 34
Pg 34
Pg 34
Pg 34
Pg 36
Pg 36
Pg 36
Pg 37
Stage H: Standing Rigging
1. Shrouds
2. Backstays
3. Running Backstays
4. Fore & Aft Stays
5. Bowsprit Rigging
6. Footropes & Studding Sail/Ringtail Lashings
Pg 38
Pg 38
Pg 38
Pg 38
Pg 39
Pg 39
Pg 39
Stage I: Running Rigging
1. Jib Topsail, Jib & Fore Staysail
2. Foresail
3. Mainsail
4. Ringtail
5. Main Gaff Staysail
6. Fore Topsail & Lower Yard
7. Studding Sails
8. Fore Topgallant Sail
9. Miscellaneous Rigging
10. Final Touches
Pg 40
Pg 40
Pg 40
Pg 40
Pg 40
Pg 41
Pg 41
Pg 42
Pg 42
Pg 42
Pg 43
Bibliography
Rigging Line Diameters
Scale Conversion Table
Millimeter/Inches Conversion Formula
Pg 44
Pg 44
Pg 44
Pg 44
Pg 31
Pg 31
Pg 32
Pg 32
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
WHAT YOU’LL NEED TO START CONSTRUCTION
The Pride of Baltimore II is a very beautiful schooner and makes a
splendid model. The plank-on-bulkhead hull construction with
laser-cut parts offers a unique building experience. It assures an
accurate hull form, and develops an understanding of how real ships
are constructed.
The following tools and supplies are recommended for the construction process. Modelers who have built before may have their
own favorites.
The kit is manufactured to a scale of 3/16” = 1’ 0” and reflects the
scale of the plans. The kit is supplied with a set of Britannia, brass,
and wooden fittings to eliminate problems in making or machining
such parts from scratch, which may be beyond the ability or
resources of the average modeler. Many of these fittings, however,
will require final finishing before they are suitable for installation on
the model. This will be especially true for the Britannia fittings and
will be discussed later.
This kit will provide less experienced modelers with the opportunity to acquire some scratch-building techniques. As an aid, various
techniques will appear throughout the instructions. While the modeling progresses, you will see where you may want to substitute
some of the kit fittings with your own creations. By all means try
them, especially if you think you can improve the model. The worst
that can happen is a little lost time. But, the experience gained will be
most valuable for future projects.
If you are a beginner, take your time. This model has a considerable
amount of detail and small parts. Make sure you complete one
stage before moving to the next. When things go awry, consider
doing it over.
A. Knives
1. Hobby knife
2. No. 11 blades
B. Files
Set of needle files
C. Clamps
1. A few small C-clamps
2. Wooden clothespins
3. Rubber bands, #16 and #33
D. Tool Set
A small carving tool set or individual gouges and chisels for carving center keel rabbets, stern filler pieces, tapering the keel/stem,
and carving the ship’s boat.
E. Sharpening Stone
Necessary to keep tools razor sharp
F. Boring Tools
1. Set of miniature drills: #60 to #80
2. 1/16”, 3/32”, and 1/8” drills
3. Pin vise
G. Miscellaneous
1. Tack hammer
2. Tweezers (a few)
3. Small fine-pointed scissors
4. Miniature pliers (small round and flat nose)
5. Bench vise (small)
6. Soldering iron or torch, solder and flux
7. Sewing thread (black and tan for seizing)
8. Beeswax block (for treating rigging lines)
9. 1/2” or 3/4” masking tape
10. Wire cutters (for cutting fine wire and strip metal)
H. Sandpaper
Fine and medium grit garnet or aluminum oxide sandpaper
(#100 to #220)
I. Sail cloth
Light weave cotton, linen, or balooner cloth, if you intend to
add sails. Model Expo carries a suitable fine weave 100% cotton
muslin which is unbleached and doesn’t need dyeing.
J. Finishing
1. Paint Brushes
a. fine point for details
b. 1/4” to 1/2” flat square for hull
K. Supplies
(will be covered in detail in the Painting & Staining section
and throughout the instructions)
1. Paints
2. Primer
3. Stains and varnish
4. White or Carpenter’s (yellow) wood glue
5. Super glue
6. Five-minute epoxy glue
7. Wood filler
Note about glues: White glue, or Carpenter’s wood glue (yellow
in color; also available in tan), will suffice for most of the model.
Five-minute epoxy provides extra strength for gluing fittings.
Cyanoacrylate glue (super glue), such as Jet, can be used for quick
adhesion and is ideal for adding a touch to a rigging seizing to
hold it in place. The best super glue for most applications is a
medium viscosity gap-filling type. The watery thin type is recommended to fill a narrow crack by capillary action, and for quickly
securing hull planking to the bulkheads.
7
HOW TO WORK WITH THE PLANS & PARTS
Before starting model construction, examine the kit and study the
plans carefully. Familiarizing yourself with the kit will serve two
purposes. First, it will let you determine that all parts have been
supplied as listed. And second, you’ll be surprised at just how
quickly handling the parts allows you to better understand the kit
requirements. Try to visualize how every part will look on the
completed model. Also, determine ahead of time what must be
done first. The instructions will help you in this regard, but a thorough knowledge of the plans at the outset is essential.
It is suggested that all small fittings and hardware be sorted into
labeled boxes or compartments to avoid loss during the building
process.
1. The Plans
Six Plan Sheets are provided:
1. Plank-On-Bulkhead Hull Patterns - Sheet 1 of 6
2. Plank-On-Bulkhead Hull Construction - Sheet 2 of 6
3. Hull Plan and Profiles - Sheet 3 of 6
4. Hull and Spar Details - Sheet 4 of 6
5. Rigging and Sails - Sheet 5 of 6
6. Rigging Sections and Details - Sheet 6 of 6
In addition, a set of sketches appears throughout the instruction
manual to further illustrate the various stages of construction.
The Pride of Baltimore II kit is manufactured to a scale of 3/16” = 1’ 0”.
Each plan sheet is drawn to the exact scale that the model is to be
built, except where some details have been enlarged for clarity.
Most often, a clarifying detail is twice as large as the model scale;
3/8” = 1’ 0”. Most dimensions can be lifted directly off the plans by
using a set of draftsman dividers or by using a “tick” strip, which
is simply a piece of paper used to “pick up” the dimensions (a roll
of calculator tape works very well). Lay your paper strip over the
plan and mark the lengths of items carefully with a sharp pencil.
Then use the strip to transfer the marks to the wood or item to be
made to scale. When ticking the larger scale details, just cut the
measurement in half.
It is handy to have a triangular architect’s scale. Measuring and
cutting parts using the 3/16” scale gives you a better feel for real
ship sizes. You would need this scale for building a model with full
ship sizes shown on the plans. However, the Pride of Baltimore II
plans have already been converted and show only actual model
sizes. Actual sizes were converted to the nearest 1/64”, or 1” full
scale. Consequently, you will be working in increments of 1/64”.
For example, if the actual size was 2-1/2” (or 5/128” model scale)
it has been rounded up to 3/64”; close enough at this scale and it
better fits the standard basswood sizes.
2. Making Allowances Along the Way
Try to be exact when following the plans, but use common sense
along the way. You may need to make adjustments or allow for
small differences in how your model is shaping up; perhaps your
mast has too much rake (the angle at which it sits). When lines go
to belaying points they should not drape over parts or conflict with
other lines. If necessary, move a belaying point or a fairlead. In
other words, put yourself on the ship and use your judgement.
3. Understanding Hull Lines
Beginners may not be familiar with hull lines. Buttock lines are vertical longitudinal planes cut through the hull. Waterlines are horizontal planes, and sections are transverse vertical planes. All of
these lines define the hull shape and are used by the draftsman to
fair the hull form (create regular even curves).
8
A complete set of hull lines is not shown on the plans because they
are not needed for this particular model. With the plank-on-bulkhead construction, the laser-cut bulkheads and center keel define
the hull form. These are based on the Pride of Baltimore II designer
hull lines to the outside of the planking, but are made smaller to
allow for the thickness created by adding the planks. The Hull
Planking Layout on Sheet 2 shows all the bulkhead lines together
which are similar to a lines drawing body plan that shows the sections. Consult these lines when it is necessary to determine the
hull form slopes. This will be necessary when installing the bulwarks since the bulwark stanchions are built separately from the
lower bulkheads.
4. Using Basswood Lumber
Standard cut basswood is available in sheets and strips. Normally, thicknesses are available in 1/32”, 1/16”, 3/32”, 1/8”, 5/32”,
3/16”, 1/4”, and 1/2”. Widths of strips are available in the same
increments. Sheets may be 1”, 2”, 3”, or 4”. A thickness of 3/64” is
a manufactured thickness, but not found in many catalogs. It is
being supplied in this kit because it is needed for full-size ship
thicknesses of 3”, as is the case for the main rail.
Note: Your kit will contain either U. S. grown basswood or European limewood. Lime is similar to and just as good a model wood
as our well-known basswood. In fact, it has superior steam bending qualities to basswood. Both woods are a similar species from
trees called lime and linden. Limewood is often called basswood
in Europe.
For the model scale 3/16” = 1’ 0”, 1/64” is equal to 1” full ship
size. 1/32” is equal to 2”, and so on. Generally, the available sizes
of basswood fit the full ship size quite well and the strips or sheets
can be used directly. Occasionally, you will find a size where the
strip must be thinner than the basswood size supplied. In order to
use a correct thickness, you will need to sand down a certain
thickness of basswood. This is easily done with a sanding block
before making a part.
If you are fortunate enough to own a powered sanding thickness
planer for models, all the better. These can be purchased commercially. You can also make your own, using a drum sander in a
drill press. Clamp a block alongside the sander so the wood can
be inserted between the block and sander. It’s a makeshift deal,
but it works quite well.
A thickness of 1/64” is required for many parts in this kit. Birch
aircraft three-ply plywood could be used for this thickness. However, since it is birch, not basswood, it will not stain exactly the
same as basswood. There is a lot of staining to be done, so it is
preferable to stick with basswood so that the color will be uniform. Just bite the bullet and sand a 1/32” piece down to 1/64”.
It is a good idea to sort the wood contained in the kit by thickness.
When building a certain part, select a suitable size from the proper thickness pile. After cutting what you need, return the remaining piece to that thickness pile. This saves a lot of time looking for
a given thickness. Don’t worry about using a piece for one item
that was intended for another. It will all come out in the wash.
There is enough extra wood in the kit so you should not run out
before you complete the model.
5. Cast-Metal Fittings
The kit is supplied with Britannia metal castings. The Britannia
metal is a great improvement over the white metal that was used
in some older kits. Unlike white metal and pewter, Britannia does
not contain lead, so there are no possible corrosion problems.
Many of these fittings, however, will require final finishing before
they are suitable for installing on the model.
Before painting the cast-metal fittings, clean them up by
removing all the mold-joint flash. To do this, use a No. 11
hobby blade to cut the flash, then file or sand with fine sandpaper. It is also suggested that you clean the fittings thoroughly with warm soapy water before applying primer.
Make sure they are rinsed thoroughly and allowed to dry
before painting.
6. Soldering & Working with Brass
The Pride of Baltimore II is a replica ship of a period that had
very little iron fittings. Consequently, you will not be
required to do much soldering. Many of the fittings are cast
Britannia. However, some items are difficult to cast or would
be too soft, so these items must be made from brass strip and
wire. Here are a few tips on soldering those or items you
decide to scratch build.
Brass sheet and strips can be cut with a small pair of tin snips
or heavy scissors. Heavier brass will require the use of a jeweler’s saw. After cutting, all edges should be smoothed with
needle files and fine wet-or-dry sandpaper. When cutting
slivers from the brass sheet, you may notice that shears tend
to bend the sheet sideways, as well as curl the piece. To
straighten the edges in both directions, grip them with a pair
of small pliers.
Drilling holes in brass can be accomplished using small drills
and a pin vise, which is a slow process. A Dremel Moto-Tool
mounted on a Dremel drill press is ideal. This tool is worth
the cost. Prior to drilling, use a small centerpunch to start;
otherwise, these small drills tend to wander. Lubricate with a
light oil and drill very slowly to avoid breakage. When using
the Dremel, clamp the pieces in place or hold them down
with a stick of wood. The brass will be very hot, so keep your
fingers off!
Soldering: The key here is to keep all brass parts clean. Use a
solvent, or lightly sand, or both. Keep your fingers off to
avoid grease spots. Soldering is easy if care is taken to set up
your work area properly first. Use jigs or other holding
devices, so the parts do not move around. Soldering can be
done with a small torch or pencil soldering iron. First, add
flux to the joint; just enough to do the job. The solder will flow
where the flux is applied. Next, heat the joint.
This sequence is important. The larger the parts, the longer it
will take to heat the brass before the solder will flow. If you
get too much solder on the joint, file it off with needle files.
You’ll want the joint to look like the real thing, not a big glob
of fillets.
Solder: Today, there are many lead-free solders available and
they are very strong. There is not much need to use pure silver solder. It is much more difficult to use because of the high
melting temperature. Some of the lead-free solders have a
small percentage of silver in the composition but the melting
temperature is low.
PAINTING & STAINING THE MODEL
It may seem strange to begin an instruction manual with directions on applying the finishes to the model. Not so! Much time
and effort can be saved, and a more professional result can be
obtained, if the finishing process is carried out during construction. Proper timing in application of finishes and the use of masking tape to define painted edges should eliminate unsightly glue
marks and splotchy stained surfaces. In the end, following these
general suggestions will be to your advantage.
Paint:
Use a flat-finish paint such as the excellent model paints made
by Model Shipways (www.modelexpo-online.com). You could
also use artist’s paints by Jo Sonja (used by many bird carvers)
or Holbein Acryla Gouache. These paints are a combination
acrylic-gouache.
Paint colors:
The color scheme used for the Pride of Baltimore II is given on the
plans. You will see color notes such as “color A.” In a notes column on plan sheet 3, the color A is described. In order to convey
a more accurate color, commercial Floquil ship model or railroad
model colors and stains, and Minwax stains are referenced. A
color was selected as close as possible to the real ship colors.
If you use a paint other than Model Shipways, match the Model
Shipways color referenced on the plans with the paint you select,
or get as close as you can.
Primer:
Use a grey primer. Model Shipways brand is excellent. The grey
color will highlight sanding scratches and other defects better
than white primer. Prime all woodwork to be painted, and prime
all metal fittings. Lightly sand the primed items. Use a spackling
compound, such as Pic-n-Patch brand, to fill any scratches and
defects, then re-prime. Careful! Do not prime parts to be stained
or varnished.
Stains & Finishes:
For natural finished wood, use a protective coating after staining,
such as low sheen polyurethane varnish or the Floquil coatings.
You can also use an oil-resin mix such as natural Minwax. Model
Shipways stain, or Minwax stains can be used to tone the wood.
Brushes & Procedures:
Use good quality soft sable or synthetic hair artist brushes. A
small pointed brush is good for details. For the main hull areas,
use a 1/4 to 1/2 inch flat brush.
Before painting, clean the model with a tack rag. Apply your
paint in smooth even strokes, overlapping the strokes as you go.
Thin the paint enough to eliminate brush strokes, but not run.
You will need four or five coats of the light colors to cover the
grey primer, and maybe only two coats of the dark. Check your
finish between coats, and sand or add spackle as necessary to get
rid of any blemishes.
You will be told how to mark the load waterline location later.
At this line, and anywhere else two colors meet, use masking
tape. Electrician’s black plastic tape is ideal. It leaves a nice edge
and is not overly sticky. Do not use drafting tape. The edges are
wrinkled and paint may run under the edge.
9
STAGE A
FRAMING THE PLANK-ON-BULKHEAD HULL
1. Bending Wood
Building a P-O-B hull requires some wood bending
and twisting, and the wood must remain in the
desired position so as not to put too much stress on
glue joints and fasteners. The term “steam-bent” will
be used throughout the text whenever such a process
is necessary. However, here are three ways to do it.
Steam-bending–For actual steam-bending, hold the
piece over a kettle of steaming water and bend. Hold
the wood in position until it cools. It should remain
nearly in that position, but may spring back slightly.
Soaking–Another method is to soak the piece in
warm water for several hours. Try adding a little
household ammonia to the water. You can also use
pure ammonia. This speeds up the soaking process
and makes the wood fibers slippery so the wood is
easily bent. Hold the wood in position with a form
after soaking and let it dry completely.
Hot iron–You may also bend wood quickly over a
soldering iron, but don’t let it get too hot. A large soldering iron with a tubular end is ideal. The tube near
the handle is not as hot as the very end. It is also possible to purchase model plank bending irons commercially. They are designed for controlled heat.
2. Center Keel Assembly
The first step in constructing the hull is to assemble
the two laser-cut center keel pieces. First, use a sharp
pencil and mark the bulkhead locations below the
slots and the WL reference lines. One line is used to
locate Bulkheads “A” through “L” and another for
locating Bulkhead “M”. Mark on both sides of each
center keel piece. Be especially critical in locating the
reference lines. Measure from several points from the
plans. The reference lines are a key to proper alignment.
Place the two parts, 1 and 2, over a sheet of wax
paper or plastic wrap, on a flat building board or
table. Glue the joint with white or carpenter’s wood
glue. Use a steel or aluminum straight edge to align
the WL reference lines. Place a weight on each piece
to hold it down while the glue dries. Let the glue dry
at least overnight, preferably 24 hours (see figure 1).
3. Cutting the Rabbet
Cut the rabbet in the center keel. The bearding line is
the intersection of the center keel and the inside face
of hull planks. After the center keel is ready, mark the
bearding line on both sides. The bearding line
appears along the sternpost and the keel/stem. Measure from the P-O-B plans. Using a chisel, start the
rabbet cut at the bearding line and cut toward the
edge of the center keel. When the planking is
installed, the planks will lie flush on the cut portion
from bearding line to rabbet (see figure 2).
10
4. Installing the Keel/Stem & Sternpost
The ship has no real point of change between the keel
and stem, so we will call it a keel/stem. The laser-cut
keel/stem, and sternpost can now be added. Taper
the keel/stem according to the plans before gluing in
place or do it later. Dowels can be used to help align
and hold the pieces. Remove any glue squeeze-out
from the rabbet before it sets (see figure 3).
An Option: If you like, you can glue the sternpost and
keel/stem onto the center keel before cutting the rabbet. This makes cutting the rabbet a little more difficult, but on the other hand, it makes the installation
of the sternpost and keel/stem easier since there is
more gluing surface.
FIG. 5 – Squaring the Bulkheads
Bulkheads
F.
RE
Reference
lines must
line up
RE
F.
Tack temporary
strip until glue dries
5. Installing the Bulkheads
The bulkheads are labeled “A” through “M”. Compare the laser-cut bulkheads with the plans to determine which is which, and label each bulkhead. Check
each bulkhead to make sure it will slide into the center keel slots. Machine tolerances during laser cutting
may provide a too tight fit. Sand the slots, if necessary, until the bulkheads slip on. The fit should be
snug, allowing a little tolerance for glue.
On each bulkhead, mark the location of the WL reference lines in pencil. This mark should line up with
the WL mark on the center keel. It will assure that the
hull form is accurate and that each bulkhead is correctly related to the others. There are two WL marks.
One is for Bulkhead “A” through “L”, and the other
is a higher mark for Bulkhead “M”.
Check 90°
with square
Glue
FIG. 6 – Applying Battens
Check alignment
visually in all
directions
Check straightness of center
keel with straight edge
Check spacings
Next, mark the bevels on the bulkheads. Use a tick strip
to transfer the bevel line as shown on the plans, or cut
the bulkhead patterns from the plan and glue onto the
bulkheads. You can also lay the pattern over the bulkhead and use a pin prick to locate the bevel. Cut the
bevels with a #11 blade as shown (see figure 4).
Some of the bevels are very slight, especially the deck
bevels and the side bevels near amidships. These can
be sanded after the bulkheads are installed instead of
pre-cutting them.
Glue the bulkheads in place, making sure that the
WL marks on the bulkheads and the center keel line
up. Use a square to make each bulkhead perpendicular to the center keel, then tack a temporary strip to
the top to hold the bulkhead in place while the glue
dries (see figure 5).
After all bulkheads are in place, tack a temporary batten on each side of the hull just below the deck as
shown. (see figure 6). This is a critical step. Measure
the spacing between bulkheads and retack the battens until the hull is aligned. Even though the center
keel was assembled flat, it could warp out of line. The
result could be that you end up with a bananashaped hull. Check the spacing between bulkheads,
and the port against starboard spacing. Look at the
the hull to see if it is properly aligned.
When you are satisfied that the hull is aligned, check
to see that the bottom of each bulkhead feathers out
and lies precisely on the bearding line. Trim as necessary to line up. Also, check to make sure that the
top of each bulkhead at the centerline is flush or
slightly higher than the center keel. Since all alignment is based on the WL marks, there could be some
slight errors. If the center keel is below the top of the
bulkheads, that’s OK. If above, trim the center keel
until it is flush with the bulkheads (see Figure 7).
Tack temporary
batten on hull
FIG. 7 – Aligning the Bulkheads
Sand flush with top of
bulkheads if necessary
REF.
Line up with reference
line on center keel
Bearding line
Smooth flow
into rabbit
Trim if neccessary to line
up on the bearding line
11
Next, check the fairness of the hull form and sand in
the slight bevels that were not pre-cut. To do this, use
a stiff basswood batten about 3/32” thick and lay it
across the bulkhead edges and deck in various locations (see figure 8). If not fair, sand the bevels that
stick out, or add shim material if there are dips. This
is an important check. The planks must lie flat
against the bulkheads without incurring any bumps
and dips on the surface. A model like the Pride of Baltimore II has many bulkheads, so it is possible for
manufacturing or assembly errors to creep in.
Critical Area: Planks from Bulkhead “K” to the sternpost rabbet take a severe bend. The bevel on Bulkhead “L” is critical. Check this area thoroughly so a
batten curves smoothly from “K” over “L” and into
the sternpost rabbet. Trim “L” if necessary. This area
will require steam-bending. Otherwise, the planks
may break or buckle as they pass over Bulkhead “L”.
FIG. 8 – Fairing the Hull Form
Needs shim
(gap)
Needs trimming
(bump)
Good
Good
Option: To avoid the possibility of a break at “L”, you
could fill the space from bulkhead “L” to the rabbet
with a solid wood block, carved to the hull curvature.
Heavy batten across
several bulkheads to
check fairness
6. Installing the Transom Framing
The transom framing is composed of a filler block
port and starboard that is glued to the aft side of
Bulkhead “M” and to the center keel. On top of the
blocks you will glue six laser-cut inboard knees and
two outboard knees. The outboard knees should
slope inboard and curve on the outboard side to
catch the bulwark planking which will require a lot
of tumblehome aft near the transom.
FIG. 9 – Installing the Transom Framing
Deck camber curve
Stern block
P/S
BHD”M”
First, carve the two rectangular blocks provided in
the kit in accordance with the plans (see also figure
9). The top will need to be curved to the deck camber.
The aft side of the blocks indicate the slope and curvature of the transom, and the counter below should
be a curve, but straight across. Note that the front of
each block will be exactly the same as the aft side of
Bulkhead “M”.
Add the laser-cut frame knees atop the carved blocks
(see figure 10). The inboard knees are straight, but the
outboard knees must be sanded to the hull curvature.
The transom will be planked later. For now, you may
want to tack a strip along the top of the knees so you
won’t accidentally break them off as you proceed.
7. Covering the Mast Slots
On both sides of the mast slots in the center keel, add
the pieces shown on the P-O-B plan. Cut from scrap
wood. Glue them securely, because you can’t get to
them after the decking is installed. The mast slots are
slightly larger than the actual mast. The mast will be
wedged in the hole when installed.
8. Installing the Planksheer
& Bulwark Stanchions
The Pride of Baltimore II has a single planksheer (or
call it a waterway). Inboard of the planksheer is a nibbing strake running parallel to the planksheer. The
planksheer is provided laser-cut with holes for each
bulwark stanchion. The planksheer is 1/16” thick like
the deck planks. On the real ship, the planksheer is
slightly thicker than the deck planks (about 3/8” to
1/2”) but at 3/16” model scale this variance is not
necessary. The planksheer will be painted, so the difference will not be seen.
12
Transom slope
Glue to “M”
P/S = Port & Starboard
Counter curve
FIG. 10 – Adding the Frame Knees
Knee (vertical)
Temporary strip
to hold knees
Glue
Outboard knee
angled inboard
BHD “M”
Stern block
Glue the two-piece planksheer together, then glue it
to the top of the bulkheads, port and starboard. The
planksheer should extend beyond the edge of the
bulkheads by 3/32”. After the hull planking is
added, the planksheer will protrude out from the
planks by 1/32”.
The planksheer across the stern must be fitted
between the stern knees as shown on the plans.
The bulwark stanchions on the real ship are not
extensions of the hull frames, but separate timbers set
between frames. For the model, you will proceed in a
similar manner except that the stanchions will go
only to the bottom of the planksheer. The stanchions
are provided laser-cut in the kit. Notice that the stanchion at the cathead is 1/8” wide while all others are
3/32”. If for some unknown reason this particular
stanchion was laser-cut like the others, simply add a
piece of 1/32” sheet to the side to make the stanchion
1/8” wide.
The trick now is to install the bulwark stanchions so
that they are properly angled and follow the hull
form. Using the Hull Planking Layout drawing as a
guide, and also paying attention to the shape of the
bulkheads, install and glue a bulwark stanchion
about every three or four inches. Check the angle and
make sure it is exact. Next, insert the remaining stanchions in the planksheer holes, but before gluing
these in place, add the inboard stringer at the top of
the stanchions. This stringer will act as a guide for
fairing the other stanchions. You may need to put
some temporary strips between the port and starboard stringer to hold them to the correct shape.
When satisfied with the alignment, add a touch of
super glue at each stanchion to secure them in the
holes (see figure 11).
A stringer is also required at the inboard top of the
stern knees. Glue this on at this time.
Notice on the plans that each stanchion has chamfered edges on the inboard side. At 3/16” scale, it
may be overkill to try to add these chamfers on the
model. They would be more effective if the stanchions were made from a harder wood, such as cherry, and the scale were a little larger.
9. Installing the Hawse Timbers
The hawse timbers will be glued to the top of the
planksheer. Fit the hawse timbers as shown on the
plans (see also figure 12). Drill the hawse holes
through the lower section as shown.
10. Installing the Main Rail
Cut the main rail from 3/64” x 1/2”-wide stock provided in the kit and according to the plans. Use several scarf joints in the main rail. Cut each section so
the grain of the wood follows the rail. Fit the rail carefully on top of the bulwark stanchions. Drill some
holes for alignment pins or dowels before gluing as
shown (see figure 13).
Most of the basic framing is now complete and you
will begin the planking next. First, take a moment to
look over what you have done so far. Re-check the
fairness of the hull. Making corrections now will
allow the planking process go smoothly.
13
STAGE B
PLANKING THE PLANK-ON-BULKHEAD HULL
Before getting started, it is a good idea to know some
of the more common shipbuilding terms that apply
to the planking process. Consider the following few
key words as you work:
1. A plank is a single length of wood used for planking a hull or deck. A planking strake is a continuous
line of planks, butted end to end from bow to stern,
or wherever the strake begins and ends.
2. A garboard strake is that strake of planking adjacent
to the keel.
3. The sheer strake is the uppermost main hull strake.
4. The wale is a heavy layer of strakes below the sheer
strake along the length of the hull’s side.
5. When discussing planking belts, we are talking
about a group of planks along the hull. Belts are laid
out using battens, which are temporary strips of flexible wood used to locate the belt. A ribband is also a
batten, used on boats and ships to hold the frames in
place while the planking is being added. Ribbands
are removed as the planking is completed.
6. Spiling is a term used to describe a process for
marking and cutting a plank to a given shape.
7. Edge-bending, also called springing, is when you
bend a plank edgewise.
8. When planking, the use of the word fair refers to
smooth, gradual curves.
9. Nib or nibbing is where one plank runs into another at a sharp angle. In order to eliminate the feathered
edge, the plank is cut off on the end and it is fitted
into a similar cut in the other plank. Nibbing is generally applied to decks, but hull planks are also
nibbed.
10. A stealer is a plank inserted into another plank, or
notched in between two adjacent planks when the
spacing between the planks gets too wide. Or, when
two planks are tapering toward a narrow end, it may
be necessary to cut off both planks, then substitute a
wider plank to continue so there will be enough
wood left for fastening the end of the plank. I’m at a
loss for the proper term for this. One model publication calls it a joggle plank, but I’m not sure about that.
Stealer is a common term , but joggle plank is not.
11. The counter is the underside of the overhanging
portion of a ship’s stern.
1. Getting Started
The planking process is tedious and you should plan
on spending some time doing the job. Work on each
plank as a project unto itself. Rushing will only result
in frustration and a poor result.
Since both sides of the hull will be identical, you can
cut two planks the same shape at once. Fit the plank
on one side, then the other. Before starting, place the
hull upside down and secure it in a vise or cradle.
Something portable would be ideal so you can rotate
the hull easily.
2. Planking Battens & Belts
It is easier to plank a hull by first dividing the hull
into a series of “belts”. The belts flow along the hull
14
in smooth curves. Each belt is designed so the planks
lay against the hull without having to excessively
edge bend them. They sweep up at the ends like the
deck sheer. Within each belt, the planks are usually
spaced evenly, tapered, and fitted as required. The
belts help accomplish the planking job without accumulating errors as you work.
When selecting a belt width and the number of
planks within each belt, you need to consider how
the planks will lay against the frames and how they
will taper. If the planks are too wide, they will not lay
flat on the bulkheads. Also, you don’t want them to
taper so much that there is no width left for fasteners.
This would require substituting a larger plank for
two to increase width. Also, in some areas, the planks
may get wider rather than taper. If they get too wide,
a stealer plank must be cut into the plank. While
these alterations are acceptable and are used on
many ships, it is best to design the run of planking to
limit the number of such inserts (see figure 14 which
illustrates some of these inserts).
For the Pride of Baltimore II model, a planking layout
has already been developed for you. The layout is
taken from the actual ship and is shown on the P-O-B
plans. The belts are not necessarily related to how the
real ship was planked, but were selected for the convenience of the model maker. The real ship planking
has been followed as closely as possible and was
based on photographs and several key measurements of planking widths. Stealers have been placed
where they were found on the real ship.
3. Planking Butts
Before you start, consider the planking butts. Since
the lengths of wood cut from trees are generally
shorter than the overall lengths of real ships, shipbuilders generally have to work with planks only 20
or 30 feet long. Some modelers think it is easier to use
a plank length the full length of the model. Fake butts
can be scribed in later or omitted. Granted, this can
be done. It’s really up to the modeler. By using shorter pieces, however, there are some advantages. Since
all planks taper to some degree, using the shorter
piece will let you mark the taper quick, and the plank
will be easier to fasten in place. And with a short
piece, only one hand is necessary to hold it down.
Also, if you make a mistake, you only have a small
piece to do over. So, the following is based on the use
of the shorter lengths.
Planking butts will not be exactly like the real ship.
Because the model is designed to be built on the bulkhead system, no attempt was made to identify all the
butts,so a deviation from the real ship planking butts
was necessary.
A plank length approximately 6 inches will cover
four bulkhead spaces. This is a comfortable length to
handle for this model. To scale, it is a plank 32 feet
long. However, to avoid having very short pieces at
the bow and stern, you may need to use a longer
plank to complete the run.
To follow real ship rules, you should stagger the butts
on the model (see figure 15 for a sequence that is similar to that of a real ship). The stagger also applies to
the deck planking. The 6-inch long plank works well
with the rules. With this length you can meet the rule
for three full plank-widths between butts on a single
frame. If you use a plank length to cover only three
bulkhead spacings, this would not be possible. Since
the butts occur on bulkheads, you would wind up
with only two full planks between the butts.
4. Spiling
Edge-bending planks on a real ship is done, but it is
limited. The wood is very stiff, so many planks must
be cut to shape. Spiling is the term used for laying out
the cuts (see figure 16). It’s simply a matter of transferring curves to a straight plank, then sawing the
plank to shape. For the Pride of Baltimore II model, the
wide planks landing at the sternpost should be the
only strakes you need to spile. For narrow planks, the
basswood strips are flexible enough so they can be
edge-bent in place.
5. Fastening the Planks
There are some fancy plank clamps on the market,
but they are more trouble than they are worth. They
must be screwed into the edge of the bulkheads, leaving big holes to contend with when doing subsequent
planks. With short pieces, you can hold or pin the
planks in place. Be careful not to split the plank with
the pins. If necessary, drill a small pilot hole first.
Glue each plank to the bulkheads, and edge-glue
them together. For the edges, use white or carpenter’s
wood glue so that setting will not occur too fast. At
the bulkheads, it is good to use thin super glue to
quickly secure the plank in place. Be careful not to
glue your fingers.
While glue alone will hold the planks, you may wish
to use small brass brads or wooden treenails for additional holding power, or just for looks. Using fine
brass brads, cut off and discard the heads, then hammer them into place. If treenails are desired, you can
buy them commercially. Better yet, get some long
bamboo skewer sticks, strip off small pieces, then pull
them through a draw plate until you have very small
dowels. Drill holes for the treenails, add a touch of
glue, and drive them into place. Treenails are good if
you want to add them for each frame. While there are
no frames, only bulkheads, use the bulwark stanchions for locating where a frame would be.
6. Planking the Outer Hull
Belt Layout: Now the fun begins! The hull is divided
as follows: a single strake below the planksheer, a
wale below that strake, then four belts A through D.
The wale is a thick band of planking which cannot be
varied from the real ship. The lower planking, on the
other hand, could be slightly different and would not
be noticed. The wale will be painted a light color.
From the Hull Planking Layout drawing, use a tick
strip along each bulkhead location and mark the wale
location and the belt seams below. Using a tick strip,
transfer the location of the seams on each bulkhead
and mark them with a pencil. Now, using 1/16” x
3/32” temporary basswood battens, lay the battens
along the marks and temporarily tack them in place.
The purpose of the battens is to assure an accurate
flow of the planking belts. Although the Hull Planking Layout was developed to provide an accurate
flow of belts, errors in drafting and tick strip marking
and transferring may occur. With the battens actually in place, these errors can be corrected.
With all the battens in place, visually check their
flow. Look at the model from the side and from the
bow and stern. Do the battens have nice smooth
curves? Adjust the battens if necessary (see figure
17). The plans show what they should look like from
the side and ends. When everything seems okay,
remark the belt seam lines on the bulkheads, making
sure they are clearly indicated. You do not want to
15
FIG. 17 – Batten Layout
Main rail
Planksheer
Look for smooth flow
of battens
Bottom wale
“A”
“B”
“C”
“D”
Battens
lose them. You could now remove the temporary battens or leave them in place until they need to be
removed in order to add a plank.
FIG. 18 – Sloping the Plank Edges
Sloping Plank Edges: As you proceed with the planking, you may need to slope the edges of a particular
plank so it butts flush against the adjacent plank. This
is especially true for a plank adjacent to another
member intersecting at an angle. For example, the
first plank below the planksheer at the bow butts
against the planksheer at an angle. The edges of these
planks must be trimmed so they fit against the
planksheer (see figure 18).
To begin with, all of the planks on the hull have
square edges. When butted against each other on a
round hull form, a small gap will appear between
each plank. Most of the gaps eventually will be filled
with glue, or you can fill them with wood filler. On a
real ship, the gaps are caulked. In fact, the edges of
the planks are often sloped to increase gapping. This
measure assures that the inside of the planks butt
against each other, while on the outside there are sufficient gaps for caulking. If you want a perfectly
smooth hull without the gapping, you must trim the
edge of each plank as you fit it. It’s a lot of work, but
your decision.
First strake below the planksheer: This is a single
strake that is 1/16” thick by 3/32” wide from bow to
stern. You will not taper it. Edge-cut the plank so it fits
flush to the underside of the planksheer. Note that at
the bow, the wale rides up to the planksheer. Run the
plank forward, then when doing the wale, just add a
doubler over the plank so that it will be the same thickness as the wale (see figure 19).
Wale: The wale is made up of three planks that are
3/32” thick. The planks will need to taper toward the
stern since the overall wale should taper. Make each
plank equal in width. On the real ship the wale is
thicker than the hull planking, but not quite as much
as you will get using a 1/16” hull plank and a 3/32”
wale plank (a 2” difference on the real ship). If you
desire, sand the wale down a little so it is not so thick.
At this model scale, however, it is probably not necessary.
Planksheer
Edge must be
sloped and fitted
(Bow area)
FIG. 19 – First Strake Below the Planksheer
First plank strake
Wale planks
Doubler at bow to
match wale thickness
FIG. 21 – Stealers in Belt D
The aft end of the wale and the counter planks intersect in a miter joint. See the expanded counter view
on P-O-B plan sheet 2.
Sternpost
16
Stealers
Laying the Planks in Belt A: Each belt of planking
should be done separately. Consequently, you can
start with any belt. For discussion, let’s start at the
top and work down. Belt A has six 1/16”–thick plank
strakes below the wale. The maximum plank width is
at Bulkhead G and is roughly a 9” real ship width (a
little over 1/8” model scale). The planks should taper
both forward and aft to about 3/32”. On the real ship,
the planks taper to no less than 5-1/2”. Use the 1/16”
x 3/16” strips for the planking in this belt.
Use a tick strip and lift the plank widths from the
Hull Planking Layout on Sheet 2. If you have
changed the locations of the battens, simply divide
the space into six equal plank widths at each bulkhead. A set of proportional dividers would help.
Mark these lines on the bulkheads with a pencil. You
will then have a completely marked area for Belt A.
The next step is to cut planks to fit between the
marks. Belt A will not require spiling, so a straight
tapered plank can be made. Start at Bulkhead G. Use
four planks, one from Bulkhead G to Bulkhead K,
another from K to the transom, Bulkhead G to Bulkhead C, and Bulkhead C to the stem. First, lay a piece
of planking material over the bulkheads and mark
the length. Mark the plank in pencil at each of the
bulkheads. Next, use a set of dividers or a tick strip
and lift the plank widths from the marks on the bulkheads and transfer to the plank. Draw a line through
the points and cut the plank. You now have a tapered
plank. Trace this plank to obtain another one for the
other side of the hull.
Install the planks on the hull, butting them up against
the wale. Then, do the same process for the next
strake below. Stagger the butts for this strake. Install a
plank from Bulkhead F to B, B to the stem, F to J, and
J to the transom. You should have four planks making
up each strake from bow to stern (see figure 20).
At the stern, some planks will need to be twisted into
place. You may need to steam bend the twist if it is
severe.
Now move down to the next planking strake and
work it the same way as you did the previous one.
Stagger the plank butts, starting at Bulkhead E. Continue until this strake is finished, then complete the
strakes in Belt A.
Laying the Planks in Belt B: This belt is very similar to
Belt A. It has six plank strakes about the same width
as those in Belt A. If you have not removed the temporary batten, do it now. Then you may start the
process for Belt B. Remember to stagger the butts.
Laying the Planks in Belt C: This belt is also similar to
Belt A except that the planks do not get tapered as
abruptly at the stern. Also, there are seven, rather
than six, strakes. As mentioned when you were checking the fairness of the bulkheads, the area near the
sternpost takes a severe bend. Steam-bending this
area is essential, otherwise the planks may break or
knuckle as you lay them over Bulkhead L. You can
also use the filler block as an option.
Laying the Planks in Belt D: This belt will contain the
garboard strake (next to the keel) and two other
strakes. It will also contain three stealers in order to
reduce the width aft as shown (see figure 21). All the
planks in this belt will be very wide (about 13” fullship size) and must be spiled. You will need to use the
wide planking strips provided in the kit. There will
also be some severe twist to the forward part of the
planks. The twist should be steam-bent.
Toward the bow, the planks will feather out at the
rabbet rather sharply. This is fine for the model, but
on the real Pride of Baltimore II, four of the lower
planks have nibs in them as shown (see figure 22).
You may do this if you desire.
P-O-B plan sheet 2 has a complete planking profile as
shown. Use this drawing to determine the plank
widths in Belt D. The sections, Hull Planking Layout
drawing , cannot show all the planks aft so the profile
view is necessary.
Plank Variations within a Belt: Suppose you are working within a belt, and have five planks the same
width, and then find that the last plank in the belt
needs to be made slightly wider to complete the
belt...should you worry? Certainly not. No planking
job, even on real ships, is that precise. You are dealing
with hand-cut planks. The important thing is to keep
the flow of planks smooth. A variation in widths is of
no great concern. Even though this kit tries to duplicate the planking on the real Pride of Baltimore II, you
must be realistic. There are going to be some slight
variances as you proceed.
For now, let the aft ends of the planks that rest on the
counter extend just beyond the counter. When you
plank the counter, the counter and hull planks should
meet in a miter like the wale noted previously.
17
7. Planking the Transom & Counter
For the model, the side hull planks can be extended
past the counter (bottom curved portion of the stern
overhang), and the 1/16”-thick counter planks
butted into the hull planks or vice versa. On the real
ship, however, the counter plank meets the hull
plank in a miter joint. If you elect to do this, first cut
the ends of the hull plank that you left hanging over,
then add the counter planks. Cut the miter on each
plank, then glue them in place (see figure 23). You
could also cut the miter as you add each side plank.
Add a strip to the upper edge of the counter planking
so it covers the end grain. Round this edge like the
molding above it.
Plank the outside of the transom with 1/32”-thick
planks (see figure 24). The section below the molding
strip can be made from 1/32”-wide material. On the
real ship, the upper part is mahogany and the planks
can be seen. The lower section should either be
planked or you may use a wide sheet (It was not possible to decipher this detail from photographs taken
of the transom). Over top of the 1/32” planks, add
the 1/32”-thick fancy piece and the molding strip.
Leave a little gap in the upper horizontal molding for
inserting the Maryland flag emblem.
The inside of the transom will not be planked, so
make sure you remove any glue squeeze-out
between the outer plank seams and along the stern
knees.
8. Planking the Bulwarks
The planks between the planksheer and main rail
will be in two thicknesses. There are five planks that
are 1/32”-thick, and a 3/64”-thick plank at the top.
Check the width of the inboard stringer, the head of
the bulwark stanchions, and the outboard thick
strake. The total width must be correct since these
pieces must fit under the main rail. If any one part is
oversize it won’t fit. You should not have to make the
rail wider to cover a mistake. The rail would look
bulky and be out of scale.
The bulwark planks are fairly uniform and will not
require any severe tapering forward or aft. If you do
not want to use the five planks, you may use only
two, or even a solid piece. The real ship, however,
was planked as described. Simplification is up to you
and it is certainly justified if you intend to paint the
model.
As you plank the bulwarks, remember that there will
be no planking inboard so you should clean up any
glue squeeze-out on the inside as you plank. If left to
harden, it would be difficult to remove.
Note that there will be a continuous scupper along
the side, so the lowest bulwark plank should not
touch the planksheer from gunport 2 to 5 (see figure
25). There is a real ship gap of 1” at the deck. For the
model, you could cheat a little and use about a 1/32”
gap rather than 1/64” so it shows up better. Forward
and aft of the two gunports, small drilled scuppers
are used.
18
The top 3/64” plank should continue across the gunports. Apply a 1/32”-square vertical strip of wood on
each side of the gunport, simply to cover the end
grain of the bulwark plank (you could omit this on
the model).
Next, fit a fashion piece on each side of the transom
as shown (see figure 26).
9. Planking the Deck
Hatch & Trunk Coamings: Before planking the deck,
you must decide how you want to treat the hatch and
trunk coamings. A recommended approach for doing
it the way it was done on the real ship, is to install all
coamings first. You can then plank around the coamings. This saves some planking work and material.
On the underside of the coamings, insert some scrap
wood so the deck planks have support for gluing (see
figure 27).
If you elect not to install the coamings now, they
must be included in the construction of the hatches
and trunks and glued down on top of the deck.
Deck Planks: The deck planks should be 1/16” thick
x 3/32” wide except for a 1/16” x 3/16” plank port
and starboard at the centerline. On the real ship, the
two center wide planks are just slightly thicker than
the other planks. It is not necessary to indicate this
variation in size at this 3/16” model scale.
Prepare the strips by painting one edge black or dark
brown. When the planks are glued together, this will
simulate caulking in the seams. You can also use a
brown colored carpenter’s wood glue on the edges of
the planks. When dry, this glue is dark enough to
simulate the caulking.
Thick Pads: There are some thick pads that must be
put on the deck around the windlass (used on the
real ship to take abrasion from the anchor chain). The
pads are shown on the plans. Add these doublers on
top of the deck planks.
Deck Inserts: As shown on the plans, there is an
insert located under each of the fife rails. These
inserts should be flush with the deck planking. You
can add them as you plank the deck, or just omit
them. The inserts are stained the same color as the
fiferail so you could just stain the area rather than
actually adding the insert.
Deck Planking Procedure: The deck planks should be
laid parallel to the centerline. Start at the centerline
and work outboard. The nibbing plank is a narrow
plank running parallel with the planksheer. Cut the
nibs into the edge of the planksheer as you go (see
figure 28).
Scrape off any glue squeeze-out before going to the
next plank. Planking butts can be used, like the outer
hull, or they can be omitted. On the real ship, they do
not show up as readily as the seams. You can also
scribe butts after the planks are laid. Since there is no
cutting or curves involved like there was with the
hull planking, using long deck strips is no problem.
Use brads or treenails if you like. See Hull Plank discussion.
19
STAGE C
COMPLETING THE BASIC HULL STRUCTURE
1. Correcting & Sanding
After all the planks are installed, look over the entire
hull. If you find seams with starved glue joints, rub
some wood glue in the cracks and, if necessary, add
some wood filler. When seams are filled, sand the
entire hull and deck plank smooth.
2. Gunport Lids & Interior Rail
The gunport lids can be made now or you could add
them later. Make the gunport lids from three planks,
1/32” thick, or you may use a solid piece. Make the
hinge straps from brass strip. Inboard, add the small
rail across the gun ports (see figure 29).
3. Swivel Gun Stocks
A swivel gun stock is a post with a hole in the top that
guns can be set upon and pivoted. Some ships have
several stocks along the bulwarks. There are two stocks
on the Pride of Baltimore II, one port and one starboard.
These stocks are shown on the outboard profile of the
plans but are actually “fake” stocks (as shown). Each
stock should stop just below the main rail. The swivel
gun for each stock should be set into a hole in the center of the main rail both port and startboard (rather
than in the top of the stock). This is interesting because
Tom Gillmer’s original design drawings show an actual stock extending above the rail with the swivel gun in
the stock itself. This was just another change made during the building process.
Notch out the fake gun stocks to fit the hull shape
along the planksheer.
4. Natural Wood, Double Plank Option
Most wooden ships have single-thickness planking, as
does the Pride of Baltimore II. Furthermore, the kit is
intended to be painted the colors of the real ship. Many
modelers, however, are familiar with the European
double-planked kits, or want to have a natural wood
tone finish on the hull, typical of the Admiralty type
models. Also, after the planking job is completed, some
modeler’s wish to try again to improve the looks of the
job. If this is your desire, you may double plank the
model right over the basswood planking.
To complete the double planking task, thin wood strips
in mahogany, walnut, and some other types of exotic
hardwood can be purchased from Model Expo. For the
Pride of Baltimore II, you will need 85 strips sized 0.5mm
x 5mm x 20 inches long. This amount includes about 20
percent increase for waste and errors.
The natural wood planks will cover the existing planking, but you will still have a basswood planksheer and
main rail exposed. You could substitute these initially
with the wood of your choice, cap them with the
strips, or simply stain them to look similar.
When applying the strips, proceed exactly as you did
for the basswood planking process. You may want to
work with longer strips since the basswood planking
already defines the plank shapes. Simply lift dimensions from the hull and cut the natural wood strips.
When completed, sand and finish the hull with Floquil oil or glaze, or tung oil. Finally, add a coat of wax
and then polish it.
20
STAGE D
STAGE E
MOUNTING THE HULL
ADDING THE HULL DETAILS
Before continuing with additional work it is best to
mount the hull. Doing this step will help prevent
details from becoming damaged while you handle
the model. It will also allow you to make any alignments that require a true waterline. So, proper
mounting of the hull is very important. While any
modeler can devise his own mounting, this kit contains a building-ways mounting system. A second
option, which can be purchased separately, is a
mounting board with two brass, or wooden,
pedestals.
1. Locating Deck Fittings & Structures
1. Building-Ways
The building-ways mounting system is mostly suitable for models without sails. The one contained in
the kit is similar to the actual building-ways used for
constructing the Pride of Baltimore II at Baltimore,
Maryland’s Inner Harbor.
You must drill the keel of the model in order to apply
the rods that anchor the model to the ways. The
building-ways are easily assembled, consisting primarily of 3/16” square stock, representing square
timbers (see figure 30 for actual construction). The
ways should be mounted on a baseboard sized
approximately 24” x 9”. The board must be purchased separately, or you may make your own.
Expanding the size of the board will allow you to create a mini-diorama comprised of boat yard ground
activity. At Inner Harbor, the lowest wide timbers
were set directly on the ground.
2. Mounting Board with Two Pedestals
As an option, you can purchase two brass or wooden
pedestals. You will need a 1” long and a 1-3/8” long
pedestal, or any length with one about 3/8” longer
than the other. If you own a router, or can borrow
one, you will be able to cut a nice fancy edge on the
baseboard if you do not purchase one commercially.
Finish the base with a dark stain or paint.
If you decide to use the mounting board and
pedestals, drill pilot holes in the keel and screw holes
in the mounting board. Locate the pedestals so the
load waterline is parallel to the mounting board. Plan
sheet 3 shows the approximate location of the two
optional pedestals. If something went awry and the
balance is off, add a brass shim under one pedestal to
correct it.
If you intend to put the model in a glass or plastic
case, you could let the bottom of the case serve as a
baseboard.
Note: It is recommended that either choice mounting
piece be finished before mounting the Hull Assembly
into place.
If you included the coamings when planking the
deck, you at least have those structures located. Now
it is time to locate all the other items that must be
added: on the deck, inside bulwarks, and top of the
rail; this includes items such as fife rails, bitts, windlass, deck prisms, binnacle, watertight steel hatch,
steering wheel box, ship’s boat cradles, ventilator
boxes, mushroom vents, fire hydrants, bilge pumps,
pin rails and belaying pin holes in the rail, eyebolts,
cleats, catheads, lifelines and stanchions, swivel
guns, and deck lockers. Outboard, you will locate the
propeller struts, shaft log, channels, and eyebolts for
bowsprit rigging, rudder preventer chains, and rudder pintles and gudgeons.
To locate items, measure from some known “bench
mark” such as the center of a mast, the centerline, or
outboard from the keel/sternpost intersection. The
centerline has those two wide deck planks so it is
easy to find. Mark all items lightly in pencil.
Fittings such as eyebolts and cleats associated mostly
with rigging can wait until later. However, it is not a
bad idea to get all these fittings installed while working on the deck. Get them done, then clean up and
varnish the deck. Afterward, when you start the rigging, you will be glad all those fittings are ready.
2. Bow Fairlead
Make the fairlead at the bow from wood and drill the
five holes for lines leading toward the bow pin rail
platform. Paint the fairlead black.
3. Cabin Trunks
The crew berthing access trunk, main salon trunk,
engine room trunk, and after cabin trunk are all similar in general construction, but the companionways,
skylights, and other top details vary on each trunk.
Follow the plans carefully and do not make any
assumptions that one item looks like another.
The basic box for each trunk should be made from
3/64”-thick basswood. You could also use a solid
block. The kit contains a chunk of basswood for this
purpose (see figure 31 for the basic structure and how
it fits upon the deck coamings). If you did not install
coamings while installing the deck planking, the figure also shows the detail which must be made now.
The top of the main salon trunk and the after cabin
trunk must be planked. The outboard wide plank
and the fore and aft end planks on the real ship are
mahogany, so on the model, they should be
mahogany in color. The top planking within these
planks on the real ship looks exactly like the main
deck planking. It is Douglas fir with a weathered
grey look, and you can see the caulking seams. The
other trunks have all mahogany tops. With so many
fixtures attached, you could use solid sheet wood for
the top on the model.
All of the companionways, skylights, etc. can be
made and just glued on the tops of the trunks. If you
want to have any one of the companionways, or
hinged covers open, you must cut out an opening in
the top and do some detailing below.
21
Some details of the various components on the tops
of the trunks are shown (see figure 32). Companionway slide rails and some of the other components
must be 1/64” thick. Sand down the 1/32” stock
supplied. You could also use 1/64” aircraft plywood, but as mentioned earlier, it will not stain the
same as basswood, so you probably would get a mismatch in color.
4. Ventilator Boxes & Mushroom Vents
There are two ventilator boxes. One is a long box
with doors on each end for storing miscellaneous
gear. It vents the engine room. The smaller box was
added since the ship was built and vents the salon.
Make the boxes from strip wood or solid blocks similar to the cabin trunks. Britannia metal fittings are
provided for the ventilator cowls. The vents are able
to rotate so you may install them facing any direction
on the model (see figure 33).
Notice that the boxes do not sit on a built-in coaming
like the trunks and hatches. Instead, they are bolted
on top of the deck. These boxes were added after the
ship was built.
Two small mushroom vents are provided as Britannia fittings. One is in front of the steering wheel box
and vents the lazarette (provision storeroom) below.
The other one is alongside the bowsprit and vents the
forepeak.
5. Binnacle
The binnacle is made from wood (see figure 34). The
binnacle can be glued directly to the top of the deck
and to the forward side of the hatch. The glass cover
and compass are so small that detailing will be difficult. You could simply paint a black oval on top of
the box. Also, you could cut out the oval and pour in
some epoxy. The shiny epoxy would simulate a glass.
The box also has a small metal gravity roll indicator
on the aft side. This is also too small to model, but
interesting to know about.
6. Steering Wheel & Box
The real ship steering wheel is a nice mahogany
wheel with brass hub. The model kit wheel is a Britannia metal fitting that you will need to paint in
order to simulate the colors. The wheel box can be
made from the strip wood provided in the kit or you
may wish to substitute a solid block. If you do, add
sheeting on the top so it protrudes beyond the box
(see figure 35). The real ship box has a removable top
but this is not necessary on the model.
7. Hatches
There is a forward hatch to the forecastle and aft
hatch to the lazarette (provision storeroom). Both
hatches are different (see figure 36). The aft hatch has
a number of molding strips that were added to prevent foot slippage (on the real ship it is necessary to
stand on the hatch to read the compass). To our
model scale, these strips are very small and could be
omitted. The forward hatch has a small rectangular
frame with glass for letting in light. This is also very
small and may be painted on, or a small piece of
acetate may be inserted to simulate the glass.
The round steel watertight hatch at the bow, port
side, can be made from a thin piece of brass or wood
and may be painted grey or black.
22
The steering wheel on the actual Pride of Baltimore II.
The binnacle as it exists today.
Pride of Baltimore II cabin trunks & hatches.
23
8. Deck Lockers
There are five deck lockers which are simple boxes.
One has a set of doors. It contains propane tanks.
Like the vent boxes, these boxes do not have built-in
coamings. All the lockers are complete boxes (have
their own bottoms), but are permanently secured to
the deck with bolts and in the locations shown on the
plans. Some of the boxes have rope handles on the
ends. Sometimes the boxes are removed from their
locations during repairs, so the handles are used to
lift the boxes. I suspect these boxes were also an afterthought following construction.
A typical box is shown (see figure 37). It can be made
from strip wood or a solid block with a sheet top.
These boxes are small. 1/32”-thick basswood is
included in the kit for their construction. Notice that
some of the boxes have feet, so they are raised slightly. Some of the lockers have mahogany tops and others are painted. Follow the plans for the colors.
9. Samson Post & Bitts
The samson post (double) at the bow; and the port
and starboard bitts aft, should be made from wood as
shown (see figure 38). The inboard end of the
bowsprit will fit between the samson posts. For locating the bitts, you could also cut a square hole in the
deck and insert the bitts rather than using the dowel
pins shown in the figure. Other bitts are described
under fife rails.
10. Windlass & Chain Pipes
The windlass barrel with quadrants, windlass pawl,
pump and bracket, are all Britannia fittings. The riding bitts with knees for the windlass are provided
laser-cut. A small hole must be drilled in the windlass quadrants and pump handle brackets. The connecting links should be made from brass wire.
The windlass fitting in the kit does not have any
whelps (projecting ribs) on its barrel. On the real
ship, there are twelve very thin whelps on the windlass barrel’s starboard side, for handling an anchor
rope. On its port side, every other whelp is a larger
one to handle anchor chain. If you want to add the
whelps to the kit fitting, glue on small slivers of
wood. However, with rope or chain wrapped around
the barrel, you can’t see the whelps very well so they
could be omitted.
To set the windlass, drill a hole in the bottom of each
bitt and add a locating pin. Drill holes in the deck and
glue the windlass in place (see figure 39). The chain
pipes are supplied as Britannia fittings. On the real
ship the chain pipe has a removable cap and a hole in
the side where the chain comes out with the cap in
place. The model fitting has no hole, so the chain
must be glued to the side of the chain pipe to simulate that it actually goes inside the pipe. You could
also drill a hole in the fitting or substitute a piece of
brass tubing and run the chain down the tube.
11. Catheads & Anchors
The catheads and stowage of the anchors is shown on
the plans. The anchors are supplied as Britannia fittings. Fit chain on the port side. Bring the chain in
through the hawse pipe, around the windlass, and
down the chain pipe directly aft of the windlass barrel.
The starboard side should have a rope instead of chain.
24
12. Pin Rails
The pin rails at the shrouds are attached directly
below the main rail to the bulwark stanchions (see
figure 40). The real ship rails hold 19”-long conventional belaying pins. Brass belaying pins are provided in the kit. The pin rail at the bow is actually a triangular platform. It has two bronze rod pins outboard, but three cleats inboard since there is little
clearance underneath because of the bowsprit.
There are no pin rails aft, only a single belaying pin
in the main rail itself.
13. Fife Rails
The main and fore fife rails, and the small pin rail forward of the foremast, should be made from wood
strips. The rails should be fitted with pins, not conventional belaying pins, but simple bronze rods 1/2”
in diameter. They should be fixed, not removable.
Drill holes in the rails where required and glue a section of brass wire in each (see figure 41).
Winch heads are provided in the kit as Britannia
castings. Two heads go on each of the fore and
main fife rails (see figure 42). No fitting is provided
for the winch pawls. Make them as shown in the
sketch. The real ship winches are operated by
wooden rods. These are stowed below the winches
in front of the masts.
14. Bilge Pumps & Fire Stations
On the real ship, one fire hydrant and hose is located
on the aft side of the crew berthing access trunk. The
hose lays in metal clips. Another fire hydrant is
found aft of the main mast on the starboard side
within the fife rail. For the model, the hydrants are
supplied as Britannia castings, or you can make them
from a 1/16” diameter brass wire. Chuck in a drill,
and file the shape. Then solder a short piece of brass
on the side to represent the side outlet pipe. The hose
can be simulated using a strip of cloth or paper.
Bilge pumps on the real ship, are provided as Britannia
castings for the model, and are located just aft of the
main fife rail bitts, port and starboard (see figure 43).
The metal rod handles for operating the bilge pumps
are found stowed in wood chocks on the forward side
of the engine room trunk. Each bilge pump has a ten
foot length of hose connected so the water can be
pumped directly overboard. You could add this last
detail to the model or omit it.
15. Deck Prisms
The 14 deck prisms of the real ship are simply glass
fitted into a metal frame. They let in light to the
spaces below. The kit provides brass rings and jewel
inserts for the prisms. First, glue each jewel into a
brass ring, then drill the holes in the deck and insert
each unit.
16. Rubber Pads
There are a number of rubber pads along the topside
of the main rail. They are used as step pads for the
crewmen, or as anchor pads to protect the rail from
abrasion created by the stowed anchor (see plan
sheet 3 of 6). These pads are about 1/2” thick on the
real ship. A piece of paper or very thin piece of wood
painted white, off-white, or light grey can be used if
you wish to include this detail on the model.
25
17. Steps
The small steps port and starboard shown on the
plans are used for stepping up to the gangway when
in port. Make these using 1/32” basswood sanded to
1/64”.
18. Lifelines
The kit provides brass wire for making the lifeline
stanchions for inserting in the main rail (see figure
44). At the bow and stern, insert an eyebolt in the rail
for securing the ends. The line should run through
the eyes in the stanchions. Notice on the outboard
profile of the plans, that the line is tied to the shrouds
rather than having a stanchion at that location. On
the model, droop the line slightly between stanchions. It should not be too taught.
19. Life Rings
There are three life rings and they are provided as
Britannia metal fittings in the kit. One should be
installed on top of the access hatch forward, held by
wooden chocks. Two aft life rings should be hung on
a cleat inside the bulwarks both port and starboard.
These are colorful orange rings with white cord. If
your kit casting does not contain the cord, glue on a
thread to simulate the cord. On each ring of the real
ship, black lettering spells out Pride of Baltimore II. At
our model scale, forget it, unless you are one of those
people who can write the Gettysburg Address on the
head of a pin.
20. Cavels & Mooring Chocks
Make these from wood and install as shown (see
figure 45).
21. Channels
The channels can be made from wood strips and
installed now, or wait until you make the chain plates.
Consult Stage H for chain plates and channels.
22. Eyebolts & Cleats
The kit has a sufficient number of metal cleats and
eyebolts. You could make your own cleats out of
wood, but at this scale they are rather small to create
from scratch. Since there will be some strain on these
items from rigging, they must be secured firmly. Drill
a small hole through the cleats and insert a brass wire
or pin. Drill a hole in the deck or wherever required
and insert the eyebolt and cleat pin. Use some super
glue on a toothpick and touch the glue around the
eyebolt and cleat to secure it. Careful...not too much
glue! Tug on it to be sure that it will not come out.
The eyebolts are simply a wire bent into a loop. If you
want to close the loop, touch the opened parts with a
little solder.
The locations for all of the rigging eyebolts are shown
on the deck plan and bulwarks. Between this plan
and the rigging plan, you should have no trouble
finding the exact locations.
26
23. Props & Struts
The props have been supplied in the kit as Britannia
castings (see figure 46). Paint them to look like brass.
The struts should be made from brass strip and tubing. Brass rod is provided for the shaft. The shaft
should be steel so it can be painted silver or a dull
black. Make sure your layout on the hull is correct so
the port and starboard props are at the same level.
The real Pride of Baltimore II has props, a 20th century
necessity, but if you want to model a typical old Baltimore Clipper, the props and struts could be omitted.
24. Rudder
The rudder is a laser-cut piece, but needs to be
tapered according to the plans. The pintles and gudgeons and other straps are to be made from brass
strip (see figure 47).
25. Swivel Guns
The two kit-supplied Britannia metal swivel guns
should be mounted on the main rail adjacent to the
fake gun stocks. As shown on the plans, the real ship
gun is metal with a varnished wooden grip. There is
a small wooden seat on the rail for securing the handle of the gun when not in use. A small cord is used
to tie the handle in the seat.
26. Cannons
The Pride of Baltimore II carries four cannons. The kit
provides brass cannon barrels, laser-cut wood carriages, and laser-cut trucks ( wheels). Notice that the
front wheels are larger than the rear wheels. This levels the carriage over the deck camber. Use a 1/32”
brass rod for the truck axle. When set up, the guns are
located only at Gunports 3 and 4, port and starboard.
Gunport 2 is not even usable because the pin rail and
belaying pins are in the way (see figure 48 for gun
construction and rigging).
27. Ship’s Bell
A brass bell is provided in the kit. It should be hung
by a U-shaped brass bracket and set on the forward
end of the after cabin trunk. Make the bracket from
wire or brass strip.
28. Running Lights, Stern Light &
Crosstree Spotlights
The stern light can be added now. The running lights
will be added after the shrouds are installed. The
light itself is a Britannia casting. Make the boards out
of wood as shown on plan sheet 4. The spotlights,
supplied as Britannia fittings, are located in both the
fore and main crosstrees as shown on plan sheet 4.
Drill a small hole and insert the lights. Cut the stem
of the fitting off equal to the thickness of the
crosstree. It’s long, so it can be handled easier before
installation.
29. Stern Flag Emblem
On the transom there is a small plaque which replicates the Maryland Flag, or Lord Baltimore’s Coat of
Arms. Cut the emblem from wood or a small piece of
brass. The plans show an enlarged view of the
emblem. While you may not be able to paint it exactly, you should attempt to at least get the black, red,
yellow, and white colors touched in for a colorful
visual effect.
27
30. Ship’s Name
The PRIDE OF BALTIMORE II name should be lettered on the stern and bow as shown on the plans.
Also, the name CHASSEUR must be applied to the
stern of the ship’s boat. The best way to add these
details is to use dry transfer letters. These can be purchased at a number of art and office supply stores.
After applying the lettering, paint over the letters
with a coat of flat varnish. You can also find decal lettering from model railroad stores.
With the dry transfer letters, you may not be able to
find the right colors. The stern has gold and red. If
you can’t find these colors, use white or black lettering, then paint over the letters. This is tedious, but the
letters provide the guide, so painting the colors by
hand usually looks good.
31. Ship’s Boat & Cradles
Cut the ship’s boat cradles from basswood. The seat
is rubber on the real ship. For the model, just paint
the top black. On the real ship, the cradles are removable. For the model, glue them in place.
The ship’s boat is unique. Instead of the usual Britannia casting or solid block boat found in most kits, this
kit has laser-cut lifts for “bread & butter” construction (see figure 49). As shown, there are end tabs on
each lift to assist with the alignment. The wide tab is
the stern and the narrow tab is the bow. Each lift from
tab end to tab end is the same length. As you glue
upward on the lifts, keep the tabs in line. Use only a
thin coat of glue. If you get too much glue on each lift,
the accumulated thicknesses of the glued lifts will
create an overall height that is too great.
Next, you will be doing some carving, and will be
faced with a challenge: how thin can you carve the
hull without breaking it? Begin with the inside of the
boat first, using chisels and sandpaper. Carve or sand
the corners of the lifts down to the intersection of two
lifts. When all is smooth, the shape should be reasonably correct. Next, cut off the tabs and carve the hull
to the correct profile. Then, carve or sand the outside
form. Be careful; the hull will be getting thin by now.
Carving a small boat hull is difficult. Make some templates from the body lines shown on the plans to get
the shape correct. Use a homemade double-ended
caliper as a way to check the thickness of the hull (see
figure 50). Add the keel and rudder and you will be
done with the basic hull.
Option: The boat may be easier to carve if you temporarily leave the two solid bottom lifts off initially.
Carve the inside close to the finished shape, then add
the bottom lifts and complete the inside carving.
How far you want to go with detailing is up to you.
You can add bottom boards, frames, thwart knees,
and gunwale molding. All these details add to the
model, but will be a little difficult. If you do it, always
keep the scale in mind. This is a delicate boat. Make
the thwarts 1/64” thick (sand down a 1/32” piece).
This particular boat on the real ship is lap strake
planked. You can carve or file the laps in the outer
hull of the model if you desire. Again, this is critical
carving. Beginners may want to pass this up for now.
If you are not up to a full open boat, you can do the
outside and cover the top. Lash the boat down to the
deck eyebolts as shown on the plans.
28
STAGE F
MAST & SPAR CONSTRUCTION
At this point, your model should have a considerable
amount of stuff on board. Take another look, correct
any mistakes and touch up paint blemishes. Go over
the plans again. Did you miss anything? The Pride of
Baltimore II has a lot of detail on the deck. When all
looks well, get ready for the masts and spars.
1. The Importance of Scale
While the scale of masts is important, the yards and
gaffs are probably the most critical spars to consider
in regard to proper scale. Stubby, fat-ended yards
stick out like sore thumbs, giving a model that
unprofessional look. Care should be taken to assure
that yards are tapered properly and to correct scale.
It is sometimes difficult to taper a small yard, because
breaking the yardarm is always a risk. However, the
amount of time and effort spent making a yard are
worth the investment when the end result is an overall appearance which is pleasing and scale-like.
2. Shaping & Tapering Masts & Spars
Plan sheet 4 shows all the masts and spars to scale.
Dimensions are given for the critical maximum
diameter at both center and end shoulders. The poles
and yardarms beyond the shoulders should be just
slightly smaller than the diameter given at the shoulder.
The kit provides round dowels for masts and spars,
but final tapering to plan dimensions is still required.
A dowel is difficult to taper since it is already round.
The best approach is to slice the dowel from a round
shape at maximum diameter to a square shape at the
ends, then to an eight-sided shape. Final rounding is
achieved by sanding. This approach prevents a
round dowel from becoming an oval (see figure 51).
Although a little tricky, you can also taper a dowel by
chucking it into an electric drill or lathe. As the speed
of the drill turns the dowel, use sandpaper to shape
the taper.
Many experienced modelers like to discard the dowels and make masts and spars from square stock. The
advantage: you can use a wood of your choice and
marking tapers is easier. It also permits including
square or octagonal sections in the spar without
adding any wood to build up the diameter. See discussion below.
3. Building & Installing the Masts
Both the fore and main mast are identical except for
the length of the mast. Note also that the lower masts
do not taper at all. It’s a straight section from the deck
up to the head.
The fore and main mast heads can be squared simply
by using a razor saw or hobby knife. After squaring,
cut the tenon (or tongue) at the top. The chamfer on
the edges is actually the outer surface of the dowel.
Just below the head, the sides must be flattened to
conform to the trestle tree cheeks (see figure 52).
Variations in Diameters: The masts at the deck will be
a little confusing because of the octagonal shape. On
the real ship, the distance across the flats of the octa-
29
gon is equal to the diameter of the round part of the
mast above. This means that the distance across the
corners of the octagon is larger than the diameter of
the round part of the mast. The dowel provided in the
kit is 5/16” diameter, which is the diameter of the
round part. If you cut the octagon into the dowel, the
distance across the flats will be too small. On the other
hand, since you will have a mass of cleats and belayed
rigging lines in this area, you may not notice the difference.
If you want to do it correctly, you must first build up
the heel by adding some wood to increase the diameter. Afterward, you may cut the octagonal shape
which will flow smoothly into the basic diameter (see
figure 53).
The fore and main topmast are similar except for the
length, and they must be tapered. The heel of the topmast dowels must also be modified to incorporate the
increased width of the square section. In the heel, drill
a hole and square it up with a file. The hole will hold
a fid which prevents the topmast from falling through
the top (see figure 54).
After the basic masts are completed, drill any holes
required to represent sheaves in the masts. You do
not need to install actual sheaves. They would be
covered by the line anyway. The topmasts also
require a cheek block on the side of the mast at top.
Mast Hoops: Important! The kit contains laser-cut
plywood mast hoops. Even though you may not rig
the model with sails, the hoops should be put in place
on the masts. Placement must be done BEFORE the
masts are assembled. So, before you add the boom
rest on the mainmast, and before you add deck
wedges on either mast, slide the hoops onto the
masts. This also would be a good time to seize the
brail blocks to the mast hoops, before putting the
hoops on the masts.
Put thirteen 7/16” O.D. (outside diameter) hoops on
the foremast, sixteen 7/16” O.D. hoops on the mainmast, and eight 5/16” O.D. hoops on the main topmast for the gaff topsail.
Mast caps: Both mast caps are supplied laser-cut.
However, since the caps will need to fit the mast at an
angle, you will have to shape the holes in the caps to
fit the square masthead tenon and the topmast diameter (see figure 55). The cap should also have an iron
band around it. It can be made from brass strip or
omitted. Add all the eyebolts though.
Trestle Trees & Crosstrees: Next, make the trestle
trees and crosstrees according to the plans (see figure
56). The primary difference between the fore and
main crosstrees is in the length. Two of the crosstrees
at the foremast require a hole for the futtock shrouds.
The mainmast crosstree needs only one hole for a
backstay. The crosstrees act like spreaders. There are
no shrouds for the main topmast.
Shades of the 20th century!––on the main mast trestle
trees, you will find an enclosed radar dome with
horns below the dome. Add the radar for a true Pride
of Baltimore II replica, but if you wish to model an
authentic old-time Baltimore clipper, please do not
include this radar.
Boom Rest: The main boom rest is also provided
laser-cut. File the hole so it will fit on the mast. Glue
it, then add the support brackets. Notice that the side
brackets have a hole for a belaying rod (see figure 57).
30
Cleats: Finally, add the cleats around the fore mast as
shown on the plans. The cleats are supplied as Britannia fittings but you can make them from wood if
desired. In any case, drill a hole through the cleat and
insert a pin for securing the cleat to the mast. Glue
alone will not do the trick; the cleat will probably fall
off as you belay a line.
Mast Assembly: With all parts made and pre-fitted,
and the mast hoops in place, assemble tops, caps, and
the topmast on the lower mast. Before you glue
everything in place, check to make sure the topmast
is in line with the lower mast. Adjust the holes if necessary (see figure 58).
Mast Installation: Paint and stain the masts before
you install them. Insert the masts in the deck holes
and add some slivers of wood, as necessary, to secure
the mast in the hole. Check the alignment forward,
aft and athwartship so the angles are in accordance
with the plans. Finally, make the mast wedges as
shown (see figure 59).
4. Building & Installing the Bowsprit,
Jibboom, Dolphin Striker
& Jibboom Spreaders
Bowsprit: The bowsprit should be made from square
stock, not a dowel. The bowsprit goes from square, to
octagonal, then to a round shape. The bowsprit cap is
supplied laser-cut, but like the mast caps, you will
need to angle the holes. The cap should have an iron
band around it. This can be made from brass or omitted. First, cut the bowsprit to the right length and
make sure you have a perfectly square stick. Next,
cut the bottom angled section inboard off the square.
The octagonal shape comes next, then cut the round
shape forward. Finally, cut the tenon at the forward
end (see figure 60).
Jibboom: The jibboom is straight forward. It does not
require any fittings. But, three holes need to be
drilled at the end for the head stays to pass through.
Assemble the cap and jibboom on the bowsprit. Be
careful to align it correctly before you glue. The aft
end of the jibboom fits into a shaped block as shown
on the plans. Just ahead of the block, the jibboom is
lashed to the bowsprit.
Dolphin Striker & Jibboom Spreaders: Make the dolphin striker and jibboom spreaders and attach them
to the bowsprit cap fitting. They should be secured
by a pin through eyebolts (see figure 61).
Insert the bowsprit assembly through the bow into
the samson posts. Again, check the alignment. Make
sure you have all the fittings, eyebolts, and holes finished. When you start to rig, you will want them to
be ready. There is a small angle iron at the heel which
bolts the bowsprit to the samson posts.
5. Building the Fore Yards
You will build the fore lower yard (also called the
course yard), topsail, and topgallant yards now, but
the installation will be done later during the rigging
stage. Some of the rigging, however, is included with
the yard construction because it’s easier to do with
yards in hand. Footropes and lashings for the studding sail and ringtail booms are best added at this
stage. They are shown along with the spar details on
plan sheet 4 (see also figure 62).
31
There are a number of cleats, yokes, and other fittings
that need to be added to the shaped spar. Plan sheet
4 shows all of the detail. You will discover the use of
the various cleats when you get to plan sheet 5 and
start the rigging process. By the way, some cleats are
the ones with two horns for belaying lines. The other
type of cleat is a simple piece of rectangular wood
used so an eyesplice or line passed around a spar will
not slide along the spar. These are typical on older
ships with a lot of rope stroppings instead of the iron
bands with eyebolts.
The topgallant yard is hoisted as needed on the real
ship, and is held only by a halliard and the
sheets––no parrals and no braces at all. Most of the
time, this sail is furled on its yard and it is stowed
along the port bulwarks just aft of the main shrouds.
If you do not intend to install this rig on the model,
you can stow it, or leave it off altogether. Plan sheet 4
shows the stowage location.
Reminder: Paint and stain the yards before you set
them aside. Some time ago you were told to paint as
you go along, but a reminder here is in order. Once
you start rigging, you must have all the painting (or
staining) completed.
6. Building the Main Boom & Gaffs
Like the yards, these spars should be completed in
hand as much as possible for installing later. The new
item to build now is a boom or gaff jaw. This is a fairly simple task, but make sure the port and starboard
jaws line up and are level. Don’t get them sticking up
like bird wings. The jaws are supplied laser-cut (see
figure 63).
Notice that the maximum diameter for the
boom and gaffs is not at the center like
the yards, but about 1/3 out from
the forward end. Taper the
booms the same as
a yard, just start at
a different place.
On the real ship,
the parrals for
the gaffs and
boom are a
series of wooden balls on a line.
Actually, the balls
are a little flat on one side. For the model, you can use
some small beads or just use a line for the parral.
7. Ringtail &
Studding Sail Booms & Yards
The real ship ringtail and studding sails (called stunsails, or stuns’ls, for short) require a boom, and a yard
(Pride of Baltimore II crew calls it a club) at the head of
the sail. When not in use, the boom is generally left in
place. The stunsail boom is pushed in toward the
mast. The yard and sail are removed and stowed
below deck. Consequently, if you do not want to rig
these sails, they just disappear, so you need not make
them in the first place.
32
STAGE G
GENERAL RIGGING
& SAILMAKING INFORMATION
Rigging Terms Defined
If you are new to the nautical world, there are a few
rigging terms you should know. You old salts can
skip this part and grab yourself a mug of grog:
1. A sail has names for each of its edges and corners.
On a square sail, the top edge is called the head, the
bottom is the foot, and sides the leech. The lower corners are the clews. On a fore and aft sail, the top is the
head, bottom the foot, aft side the leech, and forward
side the luff. The lower forward corner is the tack, aft
lower corner the clew, upper forward corner the
throat, and the aft upper corner the peak. A triangular
sail is similar except it has no head side, but the upper
corner is called the head. There is no throat or peak.
2. Standing rigging refers to the fixed rigging that supports the masts and spars. Generally, standing rigging
is tarred; therefore, it is black or dark brown. The Pride
of Baltimore II has some standing rigging that is not
black, so follow the color notes given on the plans.
3. Shrouds are transverse support lines for masts. Deadeyes, and their lines called lanyards, are used to taughtup the shrouds, stays, and other lines. Deadeyes are
wood and have three holes for reeving the lanyards.
On a modern day ship, such a device would be
replaced by a metal turnbuckle. Sometimes, you will
find a heart or a bullseye. These are similar to a deadeye
except there is only one large hole instead of three.
They are used for more permanent installations. Chain
plates are iron bars or a rod for holding shroud deadeyes along the hull. At the topmast shrouds, there are
no chain plates. Instead, there are rods or rope that go
from the deadeye to the mast or lower shrouds. These
are called futtock shrouds. If these shrouds go only to
the lower shrouds, they generally tie into a wooden or
metal rod called a futtock stave.
4. Stays and backstays support the masts from fore and
aft forces. A running backstay is one that has a tackle
at deck. It can be moved along the deck if necessary.
5. Footropes are lines that sailors stand on when working and furling sails. Stirrups hold the footropes.
6. Bobstays support the bowsprit from upward loads,
and guys support jibbooms and bowsprits from side
forces. Bowsprit guys are sometimes called bowsprit
shrouds. Bowsprits sometimes have a vertical strut
below the jibboom cap to help increase the downward pulling force of stays leading back to the hull.
This strut is called a martingale or dolphin striker. Head
stays go through the jibboom, down to the dolphin
striker, and back up to the bow. Separate stays starting at the jibboom, rather than continuing from the
head stays, are called martingale stays.
7. Running rigging is a term applied to lines that
move, reeve through blocks, and are used to operate
sails and spars.
8. Blocks are wooden or metal shells with sheaves for
handling lines. A tackle, or purchase, is a device made
up of several blocks and a line to provide a mechanical advantage for handling sails and spars.
9. Halliards (also spelled halyard) are lines for raising
and lowering a sail, yard, boom, gaff, or a flag. The part
of the halliard attached to a yard is called a tye. For gaffs,
the outer halliard is the peak halliard and at the gaff jaws
is a throat halliard, named for the part of the sail it operates. Downhauls, outhauls and inhauls haul a sail along a
boom, or up and down on a stay. Sheets hold the lower
corners of a sail or boom. Furling means to bundle the
sail up on its yard, boom, or mast, when not in use. Clew
lines pull up the corners of a square sail, leech lines pull
up the side, and buntlines pull up the belly of the sail for
furling. Brails are like buntlines except they are used on
loose footed fore and aft sails to pull the sail in toward
the mast for furling. Bowlines are lines attached to the
sides of a square sail to pull the sail forward. These are
used primarily on 18th-century and older ships.
10. Reef bands are horizontal bands of reinforcement
canvas that run across the sail. These bands have
short sections of rope called reef points. These are
used to tie the sail to the yard or boom to shorten sail
in heavy weather. Reef tackle is used to pull the sail
reef bands up (or down) to the boom or yard.
11. Parrals (also spelled parrel) are lines or devices for
holding yards, booms, and gaffs to their respective
masts and spars. A truss, jeer and sling are similar to a
parral. These terms describe lines used to hold a yard
up and against the mast. They are most common for
lower yards. The Pride of Baltimore II has a truss on the
fore lower yard and it is tightened from the deck. Its
crew calls this line a choker, rather than a truss.
12. Braces are lines attached to the ends of yards for
directing the yard angles and holding them taught.
Lifts are standing or running lines for holding yards
when lowered. A topping lift refers to a line for holding up the end of a boom when the gaff is down or
when there is no gaff. A vang is a line which steadies
a gaff from swinging sideways.
13. A lazy jack is a series of lines forming a finger-like
spread of lines along a boom. These lines keep the
sail from falling on deck when the gaff is lowered. On
the Pride of Baltimore II, the topping lift and lazy jacks
for the main boom are a combination rig. Lazy jacks
were used on Chesapeake Bay skipjacks. I don’t
know if it’s a Chesapeake Bay original rig or not.
This covers most of the important terms you should
know for the Pride of Baltimore II model. For the
future, get yourself a good book on nautical terms.
1. Rigging Options
Just as in rigging the real ship, there are numerous
options for rigging the model. Here is a list of some
of the possibilities. In the end, it’s your choice, but a
few comments are offered for your consideration:
Model with Sails
A. Rig the model complete with a full set of sails
including all fore and aft sails, square sails, studding
sails and the ring tail sail. Not many modelers go to
this extreme. It is a good approach, if simply to have
one model with all the detail. However, the mass of
sail obscures a lot of the nice detail on the spars and
on the deck. Sails really look better on a ship at sea,
rather on a model sitting on a table.
B. Rig the model with sails, but omit the topgallant
sail, studding sails, and ringtail. The topgallant
furled sail would be stowed on deck, port side bulwarks, just aft of the main shrouds as shown on plan
sheet 4. The studding sails, ringtail sails and their
yards are stowed below on the real ship, so they are
omitted from the model. The studding sail boom and
ringtail boom would remain in place but would be
shoved into a stowed position. This rigging choice is
33
not as top heavy as the one in item A, but still has
some of the drawbacks of cutting out the detail. Actually, a topsail schooner is a better candidate for sails
than a square rigger. Fore and aft sails look nice on a
model. With fewer square sails, the overall effect is
less heavy.
Model with Furled Sails
Furl all the fore and aft sails and the topsail. Stow the
furled topgallant sail on the port bulwark aft of the
shrouds (it does not get furled in place). The topsail
yard should be lowered on its lifts. All studding sails
and ring tail sails and yards would be removed and
stowed below on the real ship. The studding sail and
ring tail boom would be put in their stowed position.
This rigging option is a nice compromise. You will
get the feel of having sails, yet because they’ve been
furled they will let you see all the other detailing.
The rigging lines provided in the kit do not cover all
the sizes shown on the plans. There are only certain
sizes available and the kit contains only a .009” and
.017” diameter line. It is suggested you use the larger
line for all lines on the plans that are .012” or greater.
You may want to search out different line sizes to get
closer to the plan sizes, but you will not see any major
improvement at this scale. If you do want more variances in size, look for linen or a good grade of cotton
thread.
The color of the lines is shown on the plans. All lines
should be tan or weathered grey, except where noted
to be black. In general, most of the standing rigging
will be black.
4. Wire vs. Rope Rigging Line
Model with Mixed Furled & Hoisted Sails
For this option, use a mix of furled sails and full open
sails, or sails with yards partially down. The topsail
could be partially pulled up by buntlines and clew
lines. This look would give the ship an appearance
somewhat like it might be while in port; some sails
furled, and some still partially up as if drying out
after a day’s run. There are a lot of possibilities here,
so look for a pleasing effect. Take a look at artists’
paintings to get some ideas. Marine artist John Stobart’s work is an ideal reference.
The real Pride of Baltimore II is a replica of a 19th century schooner, but because it was built in the 20th
century, most of the standing rigging is wire instead
of good old rope. For the model, cotton or nylon
cordage is provided instead of wire, but the diameter
is that of wire. You may observe that sometimes a
lanyard between deadeyes is as large or larger than
the standing line it serves. This is because the wire is
much stronger than the hemp lanyard. On a ship
with hemp shrouds or stays, the lanyard would be
much smaller than the line it serves.
Model Without Sails
A. Without sails, the model should have the fore topsail yard lowered on its lifts. Omit the topgallant
yard. The fore gaff should be in the up position, the
main gaff in the down position on top of the main
boom. This is a proper look, as if the ship is in port,
and the sails have been removed for repairs. The only
drawback is the main gaff. When down, which is
where it should be for this rigging option, the space
aft of the main mast looks awfully empty.
5. Treating the Lines
B. This option is the same as A, except that you should
put the main gaff in the up position. In this position
you could fly the American flag on the flag halliards
from the gaff. This is the approach selected by most
modelers and typically what you see in museums.
With the gaff hoisted, that empty space disappears
and the overall model looks balanced. Beginners
should definitely select this option.
2. Using the Rigging Plans
The details of all the masts and spars are shown on
plan sheet 4. The actual rigging is shown on plan
sheets 5 and 6. Sheet 5 shows a profile of the ship, the
standing rigging, and the running rigging for fore
and aft sails. It also shows the braces for the square
sails. Plan sheet 6 has a section at the main mast and
two at the fore mast, one with sails and one without.
This sheet shows most of the rigging for the square
sails. Sheet 6 also includes the important belaying
arrangement, some block details, and some furled
sail details.
Rigging plans are often confusing because of the
numerous lines involved, and the fact that overlapping and concealing of some of the detail occurs.
Every effort has been made to make the Pride of Baltimore II rigging procedure as clear as possible on the
plans. Where a line goes behind something, a detail is
referenced to show the entire rig. Also, the instruction manual shows more sketches to help you understand the entire rig.
34
3. Rigging Line Sizes & Colors
Worming, Parcelling & Serving: Lines on ships were
wormed, parcelled and served (a method of protecting parts of a rope) where they are likely to be chafed,
such as the shrouds. For models, worming (“laying
thin pieces of line (the worms) between the strands”),
and parcelling (“winding strips of canvas saturated
with tar over the part wormed”) is unnecessary. Only
serving (“tightly binding the wormed and parcelled
area in the other direction with spun yarn”) should be
considered. Serving the lines should be done with fine
silk or linen thread. Avoid fuzzy cotton, if possible.
Since the real Pride of Baltimore II has wire rigging,
worming and parcelling was not done. The wire is
served with a small line, or just coated, or both. For
this model, because of the small sizes, serving is not
recommended. Just use the line as-is and coat it heavily with beeswax.
Seizings: Use sewing thread or silk to seize the lines.
After securing each line, touch the seizing with thin
super glue or diluted white glue (see figure 64 for
some seizing methods).
Beeswax: Beeswax protects the lines against moisture
and helps to eliminate fuzz. Hold the beeswax up to
a light bulb if it is hard. Run the line across the
beeswax block. Then run it through your fingers to
soften it and smooth it out. Do this several times so
you get a good coat of wax on the line.
6. Belaying Pins & Their Lines
You’ll find a belaying pin arrangement on Sheet 6.
See figure 65 which illustrates how to belay a line to
a pin. While not all pins are used if you omit sails, the
pins can, and should be, installed on the model.
Each pin location on the plan is numbered and is referenced on the particular line that gets belayed there
or elsewhere on the plan. Sometimes a line goes to a
Rigging lines belayed to fore mast cleats.
Details at the lower main mast.
Pride of Baltimore II windlass.
Swivel gun at the railing.
35
tackle before it goes to the belaying pin. In this case a
detail will be referenced to show the tackle, then the
belay number is referenced.
On this particular ship, conventional belaying pins as
we know them are used at the side pin rails at the
shrouds, and in the main rail aft. All the pins in the
fife rails, at the head, and in the main boom and
boom rest are actually fixed 1/2-inch diameter
bronze rods, instead of regular removable belaying
pins. For the model, glue in a piece of brass wire.
All belaying points should have a coil of rope (see figure 66).
7. Rigging Tools
It is possible to make some useful homemade tools
essential for the rigging process (see figure 67). You
can also purchase similar shapes commercially.
8. Blocks & Deadeyes
Rigging plans sheet 5 and 6 show all blocks and
deadeye sizes required for a model with or without
sails. Sheet 6 shows some block details. The sizes
shown on the plans are actual model sizes. You will
see a number of 1/16” blocks on the plans ( 4” full
ship size ), but you will not find this size included in
the kit. Only 3/32” and 1/8” blocks are provided. It
seems that the 1/16” wood block is no longer manufactured. You must use a 3/32” block provided, or
file that block down to 1/16”. The 3/32” block should
be sufficient. It will not look out of scale at all.
When the plans indicate a bullseye, you will need to
use a deadeye and ream out the center to make a
bullseye. Commercial wooden bullseyes are currently unavailable.
The kit blocks and deadeyes should be sanded and
the holes reamed larger, so it will be easy to reeve
lines. An indispensable jig for holding small blocks is
shown (see figure 68).
Stropping the blocks like the real ones is difficult at
3/16” scale. Some suggested modeling alternatives
are shown (see figure 69).
9. Sailmaking
In order to keep the plans less cluttered, the sails
shown on the plans are not completely drawn. However, there is sufficient information given for detailing a complete sail. Shown are the overall shape,
seam spacing, and some details of corner reinforcements and attachments to spars.
When making sails, it is important to choose the right
type of material.
Sail cloth for models must be light in weight, yet fairly opaque. A fine weave cotton cloth such as the
unbleached 100% cotton muslin available from
Model Expo is acceptable. An excellent choice is
Egyptian cotton spinnaker cloth referred to as “ballooner cloth”. Linen is an ideal material, but probably
too heavy for 3/16” scale models.
The cloth must be pre-shrunk, so wash it several
times. When dry, iron the cloth, but be careful not to
scorch it. Next, draw the seams and hem (tabling)
lines and other reinforcements in light pencil, then
sew the seams. A sewing machine makes fast work of
the project. Use light tan cotton thread so that the
seams show up nicely. Make some trial passes on a
36
piece of scrap cloth and set the tension so the thread
does not make puckers in the stitch line. No actual
reinforcement patches need be used. Instead, simply
sew two stitch lines to represent reinforcements, such
as the reef bands (see figure 70).
After the stitching is completed, you may iron the
sails. Be careful not to burn them. Next, cut the sail
shape using line “A” as shown in the sketch. Then
roll the hem according to the sketch, iron it flat, and
then sew (as close to line “B” as possible). Tuck the
ends and hand sew the corners as shown. The sail is
now ready for stretching.
Stretching the Sails: This step will assure that the sail
shape is correct, since it may have been altered during sewing. Using the original pattern, draw the outline of the sail’s shape on a piece of paper. Place the
piece of paper down on a solid ,but penetrable backing, such as a wooden board or cork. Now wash the
entire sail again and lay it over the outline you’ve just
drawn. Stretching the wet sail to the outline’s shape,
stick pins through its outer edges and into the backing to hold it in place. When the sail is dry, it will
have the proper shape. Iron it flat.
Edge Boltropes & Reef Points: Sewing edge boltropes
onto the sail can be omitted since they appear so
small in 3/16” scale. However, if you wish to include
them you may follow the tedious method shown (see
figure 71). The sketch also shows how to install reef
points.
Furled Sails: It is impossible to furl a sail made from
the same material and of the same size used for the
fully set sail. The cloth is usually too heavy, causing
the sail to become too bulky looking. There are two
solutions to this problem. First, you may use a lighter
material such as Silkspan, which is a model airplane
covering tissue; or second, you may elect to use the
same cloth, but cut it to a proportion one-third the
size of the original to reduce bulk (see figure 72).
Make a test first to see how much material is required
for a nice tight furl. Even if you furl the sails, you
must still add some seams and hems, since the detailing will show.
10. Rigging the Model Without Sails
Even though you may have chosen not to include
sails, you ought to include most all of the lines
attached to the sails, such as topsail clew lines and
sheets, buntlines and leechlines, and fore and aft sail
halliards and downhauls. On the real ship these lines
are not removed when sails are removed, but are
simply shackled together, tied off to jackstays, or
secured to some other stowage point. Plan sheet 6
shows the various riggings in the stowed positions.
The mast hoops should be in place on the masts.
Include all the belaying pins even though there may
be no lines belayed to them. Even if you show just the
spares, they will look better than the bare holes.
When rigging a model without sails, most modelers
do not install bunt and leech lines, or reef tackle and
their blocks, and they omit most all of the sheets for
fore and aft sails. The choice is yours. But, the more
lines you install, the more fun it will be––and in the
end, the more realistic.
37
STAGE H
STANDING RIGGING
Keep your standing lines handy, sorted by sizes, and
have them all nicely beeswaxed before you start. For
seizings, you can use cotton, silk, or nylon sewing
thread. These also should be beeswaxed beforehand.
Keep your white and super glues handy for dabbing
to seizings, if necessary, to hold them in place.
1. Shrouds
Begin the standing rigging with the lower shrouds.
The lower deadeyes have steel chain plates. These are
made of brass strip provided in the kit. Plan sheet 6
shows the proper sequence for installing the shrouds.
To set up the shrouds, make a temporary jig of brass
wire to establish the spacing of the deadeyes for
doing the seizing (see figure 73). This figure also
shows the sequence for reeving the lanyards. Keep an
eye on the masts as you rig shrouds, so you will not
pull them out of line.
The fore topmast also will have shrouds, but not the
main topmast. Instead of chain plates, however, there
will be futtock shrouds. These can be made from
brass rod and are connected to the mast band below
the crosstrees (see figure 74).
After the shrouds are in place, add the ratlines. Three
optional methods are shown (see figure75). In addition to the sheer pole just above the deadeyes, the
Pride of Baltimore II also has some wood battens about
every fifth ratline position instead of ratlines. Make
sure you beeswax the ratlines well before they are
installed. The wax will help hold the ratlines into a
slight downward curve. If the ratlines tend to bow
upward, tug them gently into position. You may
need to add a little super glue to “freeze” them. Ratlines are difficult to do if you tie the clove hitches. Try
to hold a group of shrouds between your fingers, so
that as you tie the knots, you will not alter the spacing between shrouds.
2. Backstays
The backstays will be similar to the shrouds, except
no ratlines will be connected. The forward backstay
should go from the topmast directly to the deadeyes
along the hull. The main backstays should first lead
through holes in the end of the crosstree spreader.
3. Running Backstays
The running backstays can be added next or you
could wait until the fore and aft stays are in place.
Notice that the fall line for the port main running
backstay should go through a snatch block on deck on
its way to the bulwark cleat for belaying. Apparently,
this was done to avoid the stowed topgallant yard
and the sail located across the top of the cleat.
The running backstays will need baggy wrinkles
along the line to “prevent sail chafing.” There also
should be one on the forward stay. On the real
ship, these are fuzzy rope strands platted up. For
the model, you can make them from wood, paint
them, and if desired, sprinkle some wood dust, or
other similar substance, in the paint to make them
look fuzzy.
38
4. Fore & Aft Stays
Install the fore and aft stays after you have completed the shrouds (see figure 76 for some detail at the
mastheads).
The Pride of Baltimore II has two mainstays, one port
and one starboard. Both have a running tackle at the
deck so one can be slackened if necessary to get it out
of the way of the foresail. The forestay is also two
separate stays, the starboard one a little forward of
the port one at the bowsprit. The fore staysail is fitted
to the port forestay.
All of the foremast and fore topmast stays must go
through holes in the jibboom and bowsprit bees (see
figure 77 for location of bees), and back to the hull.
Secure them to the hull with deadeyes and lanyards,
except for the jib stay and topmast stay which require
running jig tackles. These details are covered under
the bowsprit rigging paragraph that follows later.
The bobstays should be a double line seized together. Use bullseyes rather than deadeyes. If the kit contains no bullseyes, simply ream out holes in some
deadeyes and use them. Or, you could use the deadeyes as-is.
The bowsprit has a mass of lines for crew safety and
containing the sails when dropped. These lines run in
the same direction as the bowsprit and can be
installed similar to the ratlines for the shrouds. Make
the forward netting separately, then seize it to the jibboom guys. You can create the net by actually tying,
or gluing lines together. You may also be able to find
a suitable net in a florist or craft shop. They have a
number of net-looking nylon meshes used for flower
corsages.
6. Footropes & Studding Sail/
Ringtail Lashings
On the real ship, the main topmast stay and main
topgallant stay are secured to the foremast cap by
two iron turnbuckles. Shame on them! Designer Tom
Gillmer probably did not intend it this way for an old
time replica, but they are there in any case.
As noted earlier, footropes for the yards, boom, and
bowsprit, and lashings for the studding sail boom,
are more easily installed while the spars are still in
hand. Like the ratlines, you may need to work on the
footropes a bit to get them to hang naturally.
5. Bowsprit Rigging
This completes the standing rigging. Take another
look before you move on. Check to make sure you
did not pull a mast, or the bowsprit and jibboom, out
of alignment. Now is the time to correct all of your
mistakes.
The bowsprit rigging is next (see figure 77). When
adding the gammoning, which ties the bowsprit to
the stem, wrap it neatly, laying each part of the line
side by side as you go. Seize the center after the line
is wrapped.
39
STAGE I
RUNNING RIGGING
It is now decision time. Will you rig with sails, or rig
without? The following paragraphs discuss both
choices and how to go about rigging them. Each particular sail, along with its spars, is presented separately so you can finish one sail grouping entirely
before moving to the next. The sequence is not that
critical, but it is recommended that you start at the
bow. Do all the fore and aft sails first, then add the
square sails.
The Jig Is Up! Most old-time rigs have a running end
and a standing end. The standing end goes to an eyebolt or other fixed point. The other end is the running,
or hauling end. The Pride of Baltimore II topsail yard
halliard rig is a good example of this rig: the standing
end goes to an eyebolt on the starboard rail, and the
running end on the port side has a purchase that
belays to the pin rail. In contrast, most of the other rigs
on the ship, such as head sail halliards, main and fore
peak halliards and throat halliards have a tackle on
the standing end, yet all the hauling is done on the
other, or running end. On the Pride of Baltimore II, this
tackle on the standing end is described as a jig; i.e., a
halliard jig, throat jig, etc. Captain Glover explained
that this tackle is for “tuning up” the rig. During normal operations at sea, the tackle is not touched––all
the hauling is done from the running end, which in
most cases, does not have a tackle at all. This type of
rig is unique to Pride of Baltimore II and not generally
found in old rigging texts.
1. Jib Topsail, Jib & Fore Staysail
For simplicity, this group of sails can also be called
head sails. So, if you’ve decided to install sails on the
model, add the halliard blocks with rigging line,
downhauls, and sheets to the sails before installing
them. Allow extra length for each line, so that when
you finish reeving them through the various blocks,
you will have enough left for belaying. Secure all the
head sails to the stays using metal hanks. On the
model, you can use a simple brass ring (see figure
78). The downhaul fairlead also requires a hank
which should be lashed to the sail about midway up
the sail.
Plan sheet 5 shows the rigging for the head sails and
the block locations. The sheet for the jib topsail that
leads to the mooring chock and cavel belay point
should be run outside of the fore shrouds, so it will
be clear for “running”. The other sheet not in use
should simply drape loosely over the sail to the other
side. You can rig the fore and aft sails on either tack
you desire. Just remember that one sheet should be
taught, and the other slack. Generally, you should
keep them consistent throughout the ship. Plan sheet
5 shows them on the port side.
If you’ve decided not to use sails in your rigging
plan, attach the halliard block to the downhaul and
take the downhaul to the end of the jibboom as
shown (see figure 79). The halliard runs are identical
to a rig with sails, except for the location of the head
block. The sheets can be omitted. The fore staysail
sheets, however, require a belaying pin on the pin rail
especially for storing the sheet, so you could install
these sheets and attach them to the designated pins:
adds a little more detail for interest.
40
The upper block for the jib and staysail halliard jig
can remain in the same location with or without sails.
Since the hauling is done on the other end, the jig
blocks will not move when sails are raised or lowered. This would not be true if the tackle was on the
hauling end. The topsail yard halliard shown on plan
sheet 6 is an example.
2. Foresail
Bend the foresail to the gaff with lacing as shown (see
figure 80). Add the peak and throat halliard blocks
and brail blocks, and make up the two halliard jigs to
go on the main rail. Add the foresail sheets to the sail.
Next, install the gaff and seize the sail to the mast
hoops with thread. Reeve the peak and throat halliards and add the gaff jaw parral. Seize the brail
blocks to the masthoops (if you installed the brail
blocks back when we talked about the masts, you are
ahead of the game). Add the brail lines. Don’t pull up
the brails so tight that it causes you to pull in the sail.
Add the sheets, and the fore tack at the mast, and
finally, the port and starboard gaff vangs. Lay the
other loose sheet on the deck and shackle it to the
deck eyebolt, then belay it.
If you don’t rig a foresail, install all the brail blocks,
but omit the brail lines. The gaff can remain aloft in
the same position with a foresail. The sheets can be
detached from the sail and hooked to the pin rails for
stowage, or omitted. If you want to use a furled foresail, see the sketch on plan sheet 6. This is the proper
look. The sail should be furled on both the gaff and
the mast.
3. Mainsail
The main sail should be bent to both the boom and
gaff, with all blocks and lines attached prior to installation (see figure 81). Do as much in-hand work as
possible. After installing the boom and gaff, seize the
sail to the mast hoops with thread. The halliards are
the same as on the foresail, and should be reeved first
to hold the rig up.
The boom guys shown on plan sheet 5 are used only
when the ship is in port or at anchor. They are used
to steady the boom. If you rig the model with no sails,
or furled sails, the guys should be installed.
The main boom sheets look a little odd with a single
and double block up at the boom rather than a triple
block. Captain Glover explains that it is because of
weight, and because the lines lead better through the
two blocks. Well, what do you know!
With no mainsail, you can bring the gaff down or
leave it up. This ship does have a single gaff vang
both port and starboard, so with the gaff up, you can
use the vangs to steady it. Belay the vangs anywhere
along the rail (normally, they are belayed to the
boom).
4. Ringtail
If you install the ringtail, it should be made up along
with the mainsail. The entire mainsail and ringtail
should be installed together. Again, do as much inhand work as possible. Without sails, leave the ringtail boom in place, or omit it. Omit the ringtail yard.
5. Main Gaff Staysail
Add all the necessary lines to the sail before installation. Seize the sail to the mast hoops, then run all the
lines to their respective belaying points. Like the
head sails, there is a port and starboard sheet. One is
tight, the other passes over the main gaff loosely to
the other side.
If you want to rig furled sails, plan sheet 6 shows
how this sail should be neatly furled on the port or
starboard side of the main masthead. If the sail is
omitted, the mast hoops just sit stacked on the topmast at the mast cap. Secure the halliard block to one
of the downhaul lines.
6. Fore Topsail & Lower Yard
The topsail has all the goodies; buntlines, leech lines,
and reef tackle. The sail should be bent to the topsail
yard jackstay on the forward side of the yard. Use
thread to seize the sail. The buntlines and leech line
reeve through thimbles seized to the jackstay (see figure 82). On most old ships, this fairlead would be a
block rather than a thimble. So much for economy in
the 20th century!
After the sail is attached to the yard, and with as many
lines as you can get on the rig, install the yard. The
parrel can be simplified on the model as shown (see
figure 83). Reeve the halliard first so it holds the yard
in place. Remember that the yard with a sail is in the
up position, and without a sail it is down, hanging on
its lifts. Plan sheet 6 shows the proper locations.
There are a mass of blocks on the topmast shrouds for
the buntlines, leech lines, reef tackle, lifts, and stunsail
halliards. After the lines have been rove through these
blocks, they should pass through fairleads at the
crosstrees on their way to their belaying points at
deck level (see plan sheet 6 and figure 84). There is
one exception. The topsail yard lifts stop at the
crosstrees and are tied off to the crosstree. This is indicated on the belaying arrangement of plan sheet 6.
The lower yard of the Pride of Baltimore II has no sail
(course). The decision not to have one was made during the construction of Pride I (a typical Baltimore
Clipper would have had a fore course sail for light
wind conditions). Consequently, the lower yard’s
primary job is to hold the sheets of the topsail.
The lower yard does not have a halliard and should
be hung by a chain sling. Make a truss and place it
around the mast as shown (see figure 85). The truss
can be tightened at deck level. The Pride II crew calls
this truss a choker. The lower yard requires braces
that lead back to the main shrouds as shown on plan
sheet 5.
Plan sheet 5 shows what the fore topsail would look
like if furled. There is also a complete view of the rig
without sails. Notice that the sheets and clew lines
are shackled together, and the leech and reef lines are
likewise shackled. Here, you have an option. Install
all the lines as shown, or omit the buntlines, leech
lines and reef tackle. If you do omit the lines, the
blocks still should be installed.
41
7. Studding Sails
Bend the stunsail to the stunsail yard with lacing similar to the gaffs. The halliard should go through a
block on the topsail yard. Notice on plan sheet 6 that
the stunsail tack goes to deck at the aft cavel when in
use. If no stunsail is installed, the tack line is knotted
off at the block, and the running end of the line is
coiled up and stowed on the topsail yard.
When the sail is omitted, the yard also should be
eliminated. The halliard can be knotted off at the
block, or you should drop the yard to the deck on the
halliard. Then remove the yard and belay the halliard
somewhere along the shrouds at the rail. This latter
scheme is possible, but will look somewhat awkward
on the model. It is preferable to knot off the halliard
at topside. With no sails rigged, the stunsail boom is
shoved in toward the mast.
8. Fore Topgallant Sail
The topgallant yard has no jackstays, so the sail
should be bent to the yard by a lacing similar to the
gaff lacing for the foresail. The sheets reeve through
a block at the end of the topsail yard and belay to a
cleat on the topsail yard yoke instead of going all the
way down to the deck. The yard has no braces. The
sail should fly freely, held by the halliard and sheets.
If sails are omitted, the topgallant yard should come
off and you should stow it on the port bulwarks.
9. Miscellaneous Rigging
Anchor Burton: The anchor burton is shown on sheet
6 in its stowed position on the forward side of the
foremast. It should be hooked into an eyebolt just
above the mast cleats.
Flag Halliards & Flags: Position flag halliards at each
topmast pole, at crosstrees, and on the main gaff, and
main boom topping lift. They should be single lines
that you reeve through very small metal blocks. The
flags are detailed on plan sheet 6. They are an American flag, Pride of Baltimore II pennant, Maryland
flag, and City of Baltimore flag. The real ship flies the
American flag on the gaff or topping lift halliard. The
halliard on the topping lift is used when the ship is in
port and the gaff is down. On her maiden voyage, the
ship flew a 15-star, 15-stripe flag. It is a replica of the
flag that flew over Fort McHenry during the war of
1812 and inspired Sir Francis Scott Key to write the
Star Spangled Banner. This flag is still flown today.
Never is a modern flag flown.
If you decide to add the flags and pennants, you can
make them from light weight cotton cloth and paint the
colors on with acrylics. Acrylic paint is fairly flexible.
Paper can also be used. Shape the paper before installing
the flags so that they hang as naturally as a flag might.
Gantlines: The gantlines are single lines rove through
single blocks at topside. Both ends of the lines are
belayed together. These simple tackle are used to
hoist the ship’s boat or anything else, such as deck
equipment and cargo. Plan sheet 6 shows the locations and details of the six gantlines.
Main Stay Hauling Tackle: The ship has two mainstays with a runner at the forward end. When sailing,
one mainstay is left loose so it will not be in the way of
the foresail. The dead weight of the loose stay pulls it
back toward the main mast. To get the stay out toward
the bulwarks, a small tackle is fitted port and star-
42
board on the main shrouds. The details of this tackle
and the stowage method are shown on plan sheet 6.
10. Final Touches
After all the rigging is in place, recheck every line, and
make sure all the seizings are sound. If necessary, add
another touch of super glue to seizings. Check to see if
there are any shiny places on the rig. If necessary,
touch up the standing rigging with black paint, or
black liquid shoe polish. For running rigging, use a tan
stain, or brown liquid shoe polish. Check to see if you
have fouled any of the painted wooden parts during
the rigging process and make repairs as necessary.
Congratulations––you’ve done it! Your model is
completed and we hope you like the results. If this
was your first effort, and you’re less than happy,
remember that it is only through repeated experience
that your level of skill will develop. Subsequent models can only get better! We look forward to helping
you with your next ship modeling project.
Area of bowsprit showing gammoning at the stem.
Dolphin striker & guy spreaders on bowsprit
View of main mast cap, topmast & yards.
Ship’s name on port side of bow.
View of ship at stern.
43
RIGGING LINE DIAMETERS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. The Baltimore Clipper,
by Howard Irving Chapelle.
1930, Marine Research Society. Reprinted by Bonanza Books,
Crown Publishing. This is a complete history of the Baltimore Clipper type. It contains many plans of contemporary
schooners.
2. Sailing With Pride,
by Greg Pease, Thomas C. Gillmer and Barbara Bozzuto.
1990, C.A.Baumgartner Publisher, Baltimore, MD. A little history, but mostly great photographs of both Prides.
3. Pride of Baltimore:
The Story of the Baltimore Clippers, 1800 - 1990,
by Thomas C. Gillmer.
1992, International Marine, Camden, Maine. This book is an
in-depth history of the type and discussion on building both
the Pride of Baltimore and Pride of Baltimore II, illustrating
some of the original design drawings, and photos during
construction.
.10mm (.004")
.20mm (.008")
.25mm (.010")
.40mm (.016")
.50mm (.020")
.60mm (.024")
.75mm (.030")
.80mm (.032")
.90mm (.035")
.95mm (.037")
1.00mm (.039")
1.20mm (.047")
1.25mm (.049")
1.30mm (.051")
1.50mm (.059")
1.60mm (.063")
SCALE CONVERSION TABLE
R
Diameters for Lifesize Vessel
5/16"
3/8"
1/2"
5/8"
3/4"
7/8"
1"
1-1/4"
B
44
G
G
I
N
G
Diameters in Tenths of an Inch Diameters Converted to 3/16" Scale
Inches in 10ths ÷ 64=
.3125"
.005" (.12mm)
.006" (.15mm)
.375"
.5"
.008" (.20mm)
.625"
.009" (.25mm)
.012" (.30mm)
.75"
.875"
.014" (.35mm)
1"
.016" (.40mm)
1.25"
.020" (.50mm)
Lengths for Lifesize Vessel
4"
5"
6"
7"
8"
10”
12”
I
L
O
C
K
1.70mm (.067")
1.75mm (.069")
2.00mm (.079")
2.50mm (.098")
S
Lengths Converted to 3/16” Scale
Inches in 10ths ÷ 64=
.06" (1.52mm or 1/16")
.08" (2.03mm or 5/64")
.09" (2.28mm or 3/32")
.10"(2.54mm or 7/64")
.13" (3.18mm or 1/8")
.16" (4.06mm or 5/32")
.19” (4.83mm or 3/16”)
FORMULAS FOR CONVERTING
MILLIMETERS AND INCHES
1 mm = .03937 of an inch
To find tenths of an inch:
.03937" x mms = tenths of an inch
To find mms from tenths of an inch:
Tenths of an inch ÷ .03937" = mms
Download PDF