Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
This chapter provides these topics for troubleshooting problems:

Diagnosing Problems, page 75

How to Recover Passwords, page 78

Finding the Switch Serial Number, page 78
Diagnosing Problems
The switch LEDs provide troubleshooting information about the switch. They show boot fast failures, port-connectivity
problems, and overall switch performance. You can also get statistics from Device Manager, the CLI, or an SNMP
workstation. See the Cisco IE 2000 Switch Software Configuration Guide, the Cisco IE 2000 Switch Command Reference
on Cisco.com, or the documentation that came with your SNMP application for details.
Switch Boot Fast
See Verifying Switch Operation, page 72 for information on boot fast.
Note: Boot fast failures are usually fatal. Contact your Cisco TAC representative if your switch does not successfully
complete boot fast.
Note: You can disable the boot fast and run POST by using the Cisco IOS CLI, see the Cisco IE 2000 Switch Software
Configuration Guide and the Cisco IE 2000 Switch Command Reference for more information.
Switch LEDs
Look at the port LEDs information when troubleshooting the switch. See LEDs, page 20 for a description of the LED colors
and their meanings.
Switch Connections
Bad or Damaged Cable
Always examine the cable for marginal damage or failure. A cable might be just good enough to connect at the physical
layer, but it could corrupt packets as a result of subtle damage to the wiring or connectors. You can identify this problem
because the port has many packet errors or it constantly flaps (loses and regains link).

Exchange the copper or fiber-optic cable with a known good cable.

Look for broken or missing pins on cable connectors.

Rule out any bad patch panel connections or media converters between the source and the destination. If possible,
bypass the patch panel, or eliminate media converters (fiber-optic-to-copper).

Try the cable in another port to see if the problem follows the cable.
Cisco Systems, Inc.
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Ethernet and Fiber-Optic Cables
Ensure that you have the correct cable:

For Ethernet, use Category 3 copper cable for 10 Mb/s UTP connections. Use either CAT5, CAT5e, or CAT6 UTP for
10/100, 10/100/1000 Mb/s, and PoE connections.

Verify that you have the correct fiber-optic cable for the distance and port type. Make sure that the connected device
ports match and use the same type encoding, optical frequency, and fiber type.

Determine if a copper crossover cable was used when a straight-through was required or the reverse. Enable
auto-MDIX on the switch, or replace the cable.
Link Status
Verify that both sides have a link. A broken wire or a shutdown port can cause one side to show a link even though the
other side does not have a link.
A port LED that is on does not guarantee that the cable is functional. It might have encountered physical stress, causing
it to function at a marginal level. If the port LED does not turn on:

Connect the cable from the switch to a known good device.

Make sure that both ends of the cable are connected to the correct ports.

Verify that both devices have power.

Verify that you are using the correct cable type. See Cables and Adapters, page 90 for information.

Look for loose connections. Sometimes a cable appears to be seated but is not. Disconnect the cable, and then
reconnect it.
10/100 and 10/100/1000 Port Connections
If a port appears to malfunction:

Verify the status of all ports by checking the LEDs. For more information, see Switch LEDs, page 75.

Use the show interfaces privileged EXEC command to see if the port is error-disabled, disabled, or shut down.
Reenable the port if necessary.

Verify the cable type. See Cable and Connectors, page 87.
SFP Module
Use only Cisco SFP modules. Each Cisco module has an internal serial EEPROM that is encoded with security information.
This encoding verifies that the module meets the requirements for the switch.

Inspect the SFP module. Exchange the suspect module with a known good module.

Verify that the module is supported on this platform. (The switch release notes on Cisco.com list the SFP modules
that the switch supports.)

Use the show interfaces privileged EXEC command to see if the port or module is error-disabled, disabled, or
shutdown. Reenable the port if needed.

Ensure that all fiber-optic connections are clean and securely connected.
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Interface Settings
Verify that the interface is not disabled or powered off. If an interface is manually shut down on either side of the link, it
does not come up until you re-enable the interface. Use the show interfaces privileged EXEC command to see if the
interface is error-disabled, disabled, or shut down on either side of the connection. If needed, re-enable the interface.
Ping End Device
Ping from the directly connected switch first, and then work your way back port by port, interface by interface, trunk by
trunk, until you find the source of the connectivity issue. Make sure that each switch can identify the end device MAC
address in its Content-Addressable Memory (CAM) table.
Spanning Tree Loops
STP loops can cause serious performance issues that look like port or interface problems.
A unidirectional link can cause loops. It occurs when the traffic sent by the switch is received by the neighbor, but the
traffic from the neighbor is not received by the switch. A broken cable, other cabling problems, or a port issue can cause
this one-way communication.
You can enable UniDirectional Link Detection (UDLD) on the switch to help identify unidirectional link problems. For
information about enabling UDLD on the switch, see the “Understanding UDLD” section in the switch software
configuration guide on Cisco.com.
Switch Performance
Speed, Duplex, and Autonegotiation
Port statistics that show a large amount of alignment errors, frame check sequence (FCS), or late-collisions errors, might
mean a speed or duplex mismatch.
A common issue occurs when duplex and speed settings are mismatched between two switches, between a switch and
a router, or between the switch and a workstation or server. Mismatches can happen when manually setting the speed
and duplex or from autonegotiation issues between the two devices.
To maximize switch performance and to ensure a link, follow one of these guidelines when changing the duplex or the
speed settings.

Let both ports autonegotiate both speed and duplex.

Manually set the speed and duplex parameters for the interfaces on both ends of the connection.

If a remote device does not autonegotiate, use the same duplex settings on the two ports. The speed parameter
adjusts itself even if the connected port does not autonegotiate.
Autonegotiation and Network Interface Cards
Problems sometimes occur between the switch and third-party network interface cards (NICs). By default, the switch
ports and interfaces autonegotiate. Laptops or other devices are commonly set to autonegotiate, yet sometimes issues
occur.
To troubleshoot autonegotiation problems, try manually setting both sides of the connection. If this does not solve the
problem, there could be a problem with the firmware or software on the NIC. You can resolve this by upgrading the NIC
driver to the latest version.
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Cabling Distance
If the port statistics show excessive FCS, late-collision, or alignment errors, verify that the cable distance from the switch
to the connected device meets the recommended guidelines. See Cables and Adapters, page 90.
Resetting the Switch
These are reasons why you might want to reset the switch to the factory default settings:

You installed the switch in your network and cannot connect to it because you assigned the wrong IP address.

You want to reset the password on the switch.
Note: Resetting the switch deletes the configuration and reboots the switch.
Caution: If you press the Express Setup button when you power on, the automatic boot sequence stops, and the switch
enters bootloader mode.
To reset the switch:
1. Press and hold the Express Setup button for about 10 seconds. The switch reboots. The system LED turns green
after the switch completes rebooting.
2. Press the Express Setup button again for 3 seconds. A switch 10/100 Ethernet port blinks green.
The switch now behaves like an unconfigured switch. You can configure the switch by using the CLI setup procedure
described in Configuring the Switch with the CLI-Based Setup Program, page 101. You can also configure the switch by
using Express Setup as described in Running Express Setup, page 97.
How to Recover Passwords
Password recovery is a feature that a system administrator can enable or disable. If password recovery is disabled, the
only way to recover from a lost or forgotten password is to clear the switch configuration entirely. For this procedure, see
How to Recover Passwords, page 78.
The Cisco IE 2000 Switch Software Configuration Guide provides details about enabling and disabling the password
recovery feature and the procedure for recovering passwords.
Finding the Switch Serial Number
If you contact Cisco Technical Assistance, you need to know the serial number of your switch. The serial number is on
the compliance label on the right-hand side of the switch. See Figure 47 on page 79. You can also use the show version
privileged EXEC command to obtain the switch serial number.
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332705, 781-00736-01
Figure 47 Serial Number Location for the Cisco IE-2000 Switches
SN: XXXNNNNXXXX
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