Loving Care Birth to 6 Months

Loving Care Birth to 6 Months
Loving Care
Birth to 6 Months
Loving Care: Birth to 6 Months
Loving Care is a series of four books for parents of children from birth to age 3 developed by Nova Scotia’s Department
of Health and Wellness. As a public health resource, Loving Care focuses on information that will help young
families to protect, promote, or improve their health, and to prevent illness, injury, or disability.
Three of the Loving Care books focus on babies and children at specific ages—Birth to 6 Months, 6 to 12 Months, and 1 to 3
Years. The fourth book—Loving Care: Parents and Families—offers information that will be useful to families whatever their child’s
age. You’ll find references to Parents and Families in all of the other books.
Loving Care
Loving Care
Loving Care
Loving Care
Birth to 6 Months
6 to 12 Months
1 to 3 Years
Parents and Families
Writing: Janis Wood Catano, Easy-to-Read Writing
Design: Derek Sarty, GaynorSarty
Photography: Shirley Robb, Communications Nova Scotia; Margo Gesser
When referring to this resource, please cite it as follows:
Parent Health Education Resource Working Group. Loving Care: Birth to 6 Months.
[Halifax]: Nova Scotia Department of Health and Wellness, 2015; reprint [Fredericton]: Province of New Brunswick, 2016.
ISBN: 978-1-4605-0665-3 (print edition)
ISBN: 978-1-4605-0666-0 (PDF: English)
Crown Copyright, Province of Nova Scotia, 2008, Revised 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015.
All rights reserved. Adapted with permission by the Province of New Brunswick.
The information in this book is up-to-date as of the date of printing. This information is not a substitute for the advice of a
health professional.
Adapted and reprinted with written permission from the Province of Nova Scotia.
Loving Care
Birth to 6 Months
Introduction
Loving Care is the title of this series of books for
parents. Each book gives information based on
the age of your baby or child. We try to answer
the questions you’ll have as your tiny newborn
grows into a busy toddler.
This book gives you information about your baby
from birth to 6 months.
Enjoy these first weeks and months with your
baby. This is a special time when you get to
know—and fall in love with—your baby.
Babies are born into many kinds of families. You
may be on your own, married or in a relationship.
You may be a parent by birth, adoption, or
fostering. You may have lots of family around or
be far from home. You may have one baby, or
two, or more!
Babies are raised by many different kinds of
parents. You may be young or an older parent,
able-bodied, or living with a disability. You may
be gay, lesbian, bisexual, or straight. You may
be male, female, or transgender. You may be
Aboriginal, new to Canada or from a family who’s
lived here for generations with Acadian, African,
Asian, European, or Middle-Eastern roots.
This book is written for all the parents and
families that make New Brunswick a good place
to live.
All babies need love and care. All kinds of
parents and all kinds of families can give babies
the love and care they need.
Becoming a parent is the start of a relationship
between you and your baby that lasts forever.
All parents wonder if they’ll be a good parent,
if they’ll know what to do. You grow and learn as
a parent by watching and listening to your baby.
Your baby grows and learns with your love and
support.
Life is a journey of discovery that you and your
baby are taking together. No parent starts out
having all the answers. Every day brings
something new. You and your baby will both
discover new skills and new strengths as you go
along.
We hope these books will help you on your
journey and will help you to make your own
decisions about what’s best for you and your
family.
He or she ?
In this book, we take turns using “he” or “she.”
Please know that whichever word we use,
the information applies to both boys and girls.
In Loving Care we use the term “health care
provider” to mean professionals who offer
primary health care services to parents and
families.
As well, Public Health services and many other
professionals and community resources are
available to offer advice and support.
You’ll find more information in the “Welcome”
section of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Added info...
The information in all of the Loving Care books
applies mainly to healthy, full-term babies.
If your baby is premature or has special needs, you’ll
still find these books helpful. However, you may want
to look for more information from your health care
provider and other sources.
Don’t forget about Loving Care: Parents and
Families. It contains information that will
continue to be helpful as your baby grows.
Contents
Getting to Know Your Baby
Breastfeeding
What your baby is telling you.....................
The best start............................................. 34
2
Baby temperament..................................... 4
Help Your Baby Learn to Love
Attachment.................................................
8
Skin-to-skin contact with your baby............ 10
Growth and Development
Step by step............................................... 14
What a newborn baby can do.....................
Developing new skills.................................
New skills to watch for................................
Helping your baby develop.........................
When to wonder about your baby’s
development .................................................
16
18
20
22
24
Play
Games and activities..................................
• Tummy time.........................................
• Baby massage.....................................
• Tracking...............................................
• Copycat................................................
• Pull-ups................................................
Toys............................................................
28
28
29
29
30
30
31
Connecting with your baby.........................
Breastfeeding to comfort your baby...........
Babies need to feed often..........................
How to tell if your baby is breastfeeding well...
Weight gain and growth..............................
Growth spurts.............................................
It’s too soon for solid food..........................
Breastfeeding anytime, anywhere..............
Support is important when you breastfeed..
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
44
45
Crying
Why babies cry........................................... 48
How to comfort a crying baby.....................
Crying and colic..........................................
• Comfort for parents..............................
• Colic comfort........................................
When your baby keeps crying....................
Never shake your baby...............................
50
52
53
54
56
57
Sleeping
How much do babies sleep?......................
Your baby’s sleep and wake cycle.............
Helping your baby fall asleep.....................
Helping your baby put herself to sleep.......
Bedtime routines........................................
Reducing the risk of SIDS..........................
Safe places to sleep...................................
• Bed-sharing.........................................
60
62
64
67
68
69
70
70
Cord care....................................................
Diapers.......................................................
Diaper rash.................................................
Bathing.......................................................
74
75
76
77
Keeping Clean
Loving care is what every baby needs. It’s what
every parent wants to give.
Safety
Health
Hand washing.............................................
Well-baby check-ups..................................
Immunizations............................................
Questions that your health care provider
may ask...................................................
When to see a health care provider...........
Common concerns.....................................
• Baby pimples.......................................
• Swollen genitals and breasts,
erections...............................................
• Cradle cap...........................................
• Flat head..............................................
• Pee and poop......................................
Dental health..............................................
• Mouth and gum care............................
• Teething...............................................
• Soothers..............................................
80
81
82
83
84
86
86
86
86
87
87
88
88
89
89
Car safety..................................................
Safety at home..........................................
• Baby furniture.....................................
• Baby slings.........................................
• Toys....................................................
Protect your baby.......................................
• Falls....................................................
• Overheating........................................
• Pets.....................................................
• Choking...............................................
• Drowning.............................................
• Burns..................................................
A smoke-free home and car......................
92
93
93
94
95
96
96
96
96
96
97
97
98
Support and Information
Provincial Services.................................... 102
Other Resources and Services................. 105
Thanks!
Thanks!...................................................... 112
What your baby is telling you......................................... 2
Baby temperament........................................................ 4
Getting to Know Your Baby
Getting to Know Your Baby
I was happy when I brought my baby home, but I was scared, too. How
would I ever figure out what she needed? How would I know what to do?
What your baby is telling you
Babies don’t have wants. They only have needs.
When you respond to your baby, you are not
spoiling her. You are giving her what she needs
to grow and be well.
Your baby can’t talk yet, but she has ways to
let you know what she needs. These are called
“cues.”
Pay attention to your baby. You’ll soon begin to
understand her cues and see what she’s telling
you.
Your baby is telling you, “I’m hungry,” by:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Holding hands or fists over her chest
Sucking on her fingers or fist
Turning toward your body with her mouth open
Smacking her lips
Sticking out her tongue
Making sucking sounds
Crying
Your baby is telling you, “I’m full,” by:
•
•
•
•
2
Turning away
Closing her mouth
Falling asleep
Relaxing her hands and arms
Getting to Know Your Baby
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Looking away
Fussing
Crying
Hiccupping
Making faces—wrinkling her forehead, frowning
Opening and closing her eyes
Arching her back
Squirming
Kicking
Pulling away
What your baby is telling you
Your baby is telling you “I’m tired,” or
“I need a break,” by:
Your baby is telling you “I want you,”
“I’m lonely,”or “Play with me,” by:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Turning toward you
Looking at your face with bright, wide eyes
Reaching for you
Making soft sounds
Raising her head
Smiling
Your baby is telling you, “I’m sleepy,” by:
•
•
•
•
Becoming calmer, quieter and less active
Slowly opening and closing her eyes
Yawning
Sucking more and more slowly
Your baby wants you to know...
Let me know you love me! Your smiling face, soft voice, and
gentle touch all tell me you love me.
Getting to Know Your Baby
3
I thought all babies were the same. But my baby is NOTHING like my
sister’s. Her baby is quiet and cuddly. Mine is noisy and pulls away when I
try to cuddle. Is something wrong with my baby?
Baby temperament
Every baby is born with his own temperament.
Temperament is what makes one baby quiet and
another baby noisy. It’s what makes one baby
calm and another baby fussy. It’s what makes
one baby cuddly and another squirmy.
These differences are what make every baby his
own special person.
A baby’s temperament affects how he sees the
world and how the world reacts to him. For
example, most of us can’t help smiling when we
see a smiling baby. It takes more effort to smile
at a baby who isn’t smiling at you.
A baby develops his personality by interacting
with the world around him. How you respond to
your baby’s temperament will have a big effect
on the kind of person he becomes.
if your baby gets upset when lots of new people
fuss over him, you can keep visits short. Or you
can take your baby to a quieter room to calm
down when he starts to get fussy.
Getting to know how to respond to your baby’s
temperament can take time and practice. It may
take a while for you to figure out what your baby
needs to feel safe and happy. All parents learn
by trying things until they find something that
works. Keep trying.
As you respond to your baby, you are developing
a bond of love and trust. When you accept your
baby’s temperament and respond to him with
loving care, your baby will learn to feel good
about himself. And you’ll feel good too!
Babies with the same temperament can develop
different personalities depending on how parents
and others respond to them.
It’s up to you to understand and respond to your
baby’s temperament in ways that will help him
feel safe and loved. Your baby can’t change who
he is. But you can change what you expect from
him and how you respond.
When you understand your baby’s temperament,
you can find ways to work with it. For example,
4
Getting to Know Your Baby
People often ask new parents if they have a “good baby.”
They mean, “Does your baby sleep a lot and cry very
little?” But parents may wonder, “If my baby’s not like that,
does it mean he’s a ‘bad’ baby?”
There are no “good” or “bad” babies. Every baby’s
temperament is a mix of qualities that parents can find easy
to handle or hard to deal with.
Baby temperament
Added info...
Your job as a parent is to understand your child’s
temperament and love him for who he is.
Your baby wants you to know...
You are my world. I see myself through your eyes. I need to
know that you love me just the way I am.
Getting to Know Your Baby
5
Attachment.................................................................... 8
Skin-to-skin contact with your baby................................. 10
6
Help Your Baby Learn to Love
Help Your Baby Learn to Love
I’ve heard that something called “attachment” is very important for a baby.
But what exactly is attachment and how do I make it happen?
Attachment
Attachment is a bond of love and trust between
parent and child. You build this bond when you
pay attention to your baby and respond to her
needs.
Your baby depends on you for everything. She
needs to learn that she can trust you to come
every time she needs you.
When you respond to your baby with loving care,
you aren’t spoiling her. You are teaching her
that:
•
•
•
•
She can trust and depend on you.
She is important to you.
She matters.
Her world is a good and safe place.
You are teaching her what it feels like to be
loved. You are building a bond of attachment
between you and your baby.
How your baby thinks, feels, and acts for the rest
of her life depends on this bond. When the bond
between you and your baby is strong, she can
love, learn, and grow. She can be healthy and
happy. She will be able to give you—and
others—the love you have given her. A healthy
relationship with you will enable her to have
healthy relationships throughout her life.
Attachment doesn’t happen all at once. It takes
time to develop. As your baby grows, the bond
of love and trust between you grows too. This
attachment between you and your baby will keep
growing and will last a lifetime.
Added info...
You may find it hard to respond to your child
with the love and care she needs. There are
many reasons for this–for example, you may
have had a difficult childhood yourself. Or you
may be suffering from post-partum depression.
You need to deal with your own feelings so you
can build a loving bond with your baby.
If you are worried, talk to a health care provider
or call Tele-Care at 811.
You’ll find more information on post-partum
depression in Loving Care: Parents and Families.
8
Help Your Baby Learn to Love
It’s never too late to begin building
bonds between you and your baby.
You may be adopting a baby or may
have been separated from your baby
for a while and wonder if you’ve
missed your chance for attachment.
You have not.
Responding to your baby’s needs will
build love and trust between you at
any age.
Baby
temperament
Attachment
Added info...
Your baby wants you to know...
Respond to me!
Teach me to love and to trust by responding to my needs with
loving care. This won’t spoil me.
Come when I cry.
I need to know I can depend on you. When you don’t come
quickly, I think you might not come at all.
Comfort me.
Feed me when I’m hungry. Change me when I’m wet. Warm me when
I’m cold. Hold and cuddle me when I’m upset or scared.
Notice me.
Pay attention to my cues. Try to figure out what I like and what I don’t
like. Talk to me when I make little sounds. Smile at me when I smile at you.
Help Your Baby Learn to Love
9
Skin-to-skin contact with your baby
Newborn babies love skin-to-skin contact.
Snuggling against their mother’s chest right after
birth helps babies get used to the outside world
after being born. It helps keep their heart rate,
blood pressure, breathing, and body temperature
normal. Babies who get skin-to-skin contact cry
less. It helps them feel safe, warm, and calm.
Snuggling your baby skin-to-skin in the weeks
after birth helps you to feel close to your baby.
It lets your baby learn how you feel and smell. It’s
a way of connecting with your baby and building
bonds of love and attachment that last a lifetime.
Added info...
To cuddle skin-to-skin, lay your naked baby
belly down on your chest and cover her with
a blanket.
Dads and partners can snuggle skin-to-skin
with their baby, too.
10
Help Your Baby Learn to Love
Skin-to-skin contact with your baby
11
Help Your Baby Learn to Love
Step by step................................................................. 14
What a newborn baby can do.......................................... 16
Developing new skills.................................................... 18
New skills to watch for.................................................. 20
Helping your baby develop............................................. 22
When to wonder about your baby’s development............... 24
12
Growth and Development
Growth and Development
much can he see? Can he hear me?
My baby is so small! He seems so helpless. What can he do? How much
can he see? Can he hear me?
Step by step
From the minute your baby is born, he’s busy
doing two things:
•
Growing: Getting stronger, growing longer, and gaining weight.
•
Developing: Learning new things and being able to do new things.
Babies grow and develop step by step over time.
As they grow bigger and stronger, they’re able to
develop new skills.
14
Every baby grows and develops at his own pace.
Your baby needs your help to grow and develop
into a healthy, happy person.
When you feed and take care of your baby, you
help him to grow.
When you pay attention to him and play with him,
you help him to develop. You teach him about
himself and his world.
Growth and Development
Step by step
Added info...
If your baby is premature or
has health concerns, he will
develop in different ways and
at different times than other
babies. Check with your health
care provider about what’s
normal for your baby.
Growth and Development
15
What a newborn baby can do
From the moment they’re born, babies have abilities that will help them to learn and grow.
Your newborn baby can:
See
•
Hear
New babies see light and dark, black and white shapes, and bright colours.
• They see things clearly when they are 18 to 25 cm (7 to 10 inches) away.
•
•
They blink at bright lights. •
•
•
•
New babies hear very well.
They turn toward a sound or voice.
Gentle sounds soothe.
Sudden or loud noises startle them.
They stare at faces.
Added info...
Your baby’s hearing should be tested in the
hospital after birth.
If for some reason your baby’s hearing hasn’t
been checked, contact the Speech and Hearing
Department at your local hospital (contact
information, page 105).
16
Growth and Development
•
•
•
•
Make sounds
New babies move their arms and legs.
They hold your finger.
They turn their heads.
•
•
New babies cry.
They make soft little sounds.
They lift their head for a few seconds when lying on their tummy.
What a newborn baby can do
Move
Added info...
Babies can also FEEL. It’s important to
hold them close. Babies love to be held
skin-to-skin and to hear your heartbeat.
This not only makes them feel good, it
helps them grow and develop.
Growth and Development
17
Developing new skills
Babies grow and develop at their own speed,
step by step. Every baby develops in her own
way.
Every day, your baby is learning new things and
developing new skills. She’s developing a
personality and becoming her own special self.
Your baby will develop new skills bit by bit over
the months. It doesn’t happen all at once. Your
baby needs time to learn.
In the end, most babies do just fine.
Your baby wants you to know...
By the time I’m about 6 weeks old, I’ll have learned to smile at you!
Smile back when I smile at you! Your smiles tell me you love me.
18
Growth and Development
Developing new skills
Growth and Development
19
New skills to watch for
At 1 month, does your baby...
•
•
Look at you?
•
•
Notice sounds? Startle at loud noises?
Lift his head for a few seconds when lying on his tummy?
20
Blink at bright lights?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
At 3 months, does your baby...
Know your face?
Smile when you smile?
Follow objects with his eyes?
Hold his head steady?
Coo, gurgle, laugh, and squeal?
Open and close his hands?
Hold your finger?
Kick his legs?
Growth and Development
•
•
Like to look at faces more than anything else?
Smile when he hears your voice? When he sees someone he knows? When he’s happy?
When he wants to play with you? When he sees himself in a mirror?
•
Push himself up on his arms when lying on his tummy?
•
Pull himself to a sitting position if you hold his hands?
•
•
Make singsong noises and copy sounds?
•
•
•
•
Turn his head to see where a sound is
coming from? Make sounds while he’s playing by himself?
Love listening to music, rhythm, voices, and toys that make noise?
•
Recognize voices he hears a lot? Look for you when he hears your voice? Notice when he hears a strange voice?
•
Enjoy games like peek-a-boo?
Roll over—from front to back and back to front?
Push down on his legs and support his weight when you hold him?
New skills to watch for
At 6 months, does your baby...
•
Put his hands—and other things!—in his mouth?
•
•
•
Reach for things with one or both hands?
Grab and shake small toys?
Pass things from one hand to the other?
Growth and Development
21
Helping your baby develop
You can help your baby develop by talking, reading, and singing to her, playing with her, and
responding to her.
To help your baby develop social skills:
To help your baby develop her muscles:
•
•
•
Hold toys so your baby will reach for them.
Give her things to hold and feel.
Give your baby lots of tummy time. (See page
28 to learn more about tummy time.)
•
Respond to your baby. Smile back when she smiles at you. Go to her when she cries.
Help her learn she can depend on you.
•
Make faces for her to copy. Stick out your tongue. Puff out your cheeks. Wrinkle your nose. Let your baby try to copy you.
•
Respect your baby’s feelings. Some babies warm up to new people quickly. Others take more time. Let your baby get used to people in her own way.
•
Give your baby new things to think about. Take her for walks outside. Talk to her about what she’s seeing.
22
Growth and Development
•
Give your baby lots of things to listen to. Sing to her. Talk to her. For example, tell her what you’re doing while you work. Tell your baby what you’re doing while you dress her, wash her, and change her diaper. Describe what you see when you’re out walking. It is a gift to your baby when you and other members of your family speak to her in different
languages.
•
Give your baby rattles to make noise with. Play music for her. Give her soothing sounds to listen to. Sudden loud noises can scare her.
Helping your baby develop
To help your baby develop hearing and speech:
•
Copy the sounds your baby makes. Make sounds for her to copy.
•
Play games with her that have songs or words—like patty-cake, peek-a-boo, or this
little piggy.
•
Read to your baby.
Your baby wants you to know...
Smile at me!
I love to look at faces! Hold me close so I can see your smile. Give me bright
colours, patterns, and shiny things to look at.
Talk to me!
I like gentle voices and soft sounds. Read to me. I like music. I like to hear
you sing and hum.
Cuddle me!
I need to feel gentle touches and cuddles. Your touch tells me that you love
me. It welcomes me to the world. You can’t hold or cuddle me too much.
Growth and Development
23
When to wonder about your baby’s development
By 6 months, most babies have developed a set
of basic skills. You should talk to your baby’s
health care provider if your baby:
•
•
Does not roll over
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Has not started babbling
Does not push down with his legs when his
feet are placed on a firm surface
Has not started smiling
Does not turn his head toward sounds
Cannot sit up, even with help
Does not laugh or make squealing sounds
Seems very stiff—like his muscles are tight
Seems very floppy—like a rag doll
Still holds his hands in fists and doesn’t hold things
Has crossed eyes most of the time
Added info...
If your baby is a preemie, remember that he
may develop skills at different ages. Check
with your health care provider to find out
what’s normal for your baby.
24
Growth and Development
When toyopur
wonder
about
your baby’s
Helping
baby
develop
Whendevelopment
to wonder about your baby’s development
25
Growth and Development
Games and activities...................................................... 28
• Tummy time......................................................... 28
• Baby massage....................................................... 29
• Tracking............................................................... 29
• Copycat................................................................ 30
• Pull-ups............................................................... 30
Toys............................................................................ 31
26
Play
Play
much can he see? Can he hear me?
I know that play is important for babies. But she’s so small!
What can I do that she’ll like and is safe?
Games and activities
Play is how your baby learns. It helps her to develop the skills she needs to grow and learn.
When you spend time playing with your baby, you’re showing her that you love her and that she’s
important to you. And it’s fun for both of you!
Tummy time—To build strong muscles
Tummy play gives your baby a break from lying
on his back. It helps him learn to lift his head and
to push up on his hands and arms.
•
•
Lay on your back.
Lay your baby on his tummy on top of your chest.
•
Play with him. Talk to him so he’ll lift his head to look at you.
•
•
•
•
OR
Lay baby tummy down on a blanket on the floor.
Lay on your tummy, facing him.
Talk to him. Play with him.
Show him toys so he’ll lift his head to look. Put an unbreakable mirror nearby, so he can see himself when he looks down.
•
Play music so he’ll look to see where it’s
coming from.
28
Tummy time will also help prevent flathead. For
information on flathead, see page 87.
Play
While doing this, sing to your baby. Talk to her.
Say the names of her body parts.
•
•
•
Lay your baby on her back.
Sit or kneel next to her.
Gently stroke each of her arms, from top to bottom, all the way to her fingertips. Do this several times.
•
Stroke each of her legs from top to
bottom, all the way to her toes. Do this several times.
•
Stroke the sides of her head from top to
bottom. Go from the top of the forehead, around the cheeks, and under the chin.
•
Rub her hands and feet between your hands.
Games and activities
Baby massage—
To teach baby about her body
Tracking—To help baby learn to follow
things with his eyes
•
•
•
Lay your baby on his back.
Say his name until he looks at you.
Hold something black and white about 20 cm
(8 inches) from his face.
•
Slowly move it from side to side. Go slowly so
baby’s eyes have time to follow.
•
•
Give baby a rest. Smile, talk to him.
Repeat the game a few more times.
Play
29
Copycat—To help baby learn by copying
what you do
•
•
•
•
•
Lay your baby on her back.
Say her name until she looks at you.
Bring your face close to hers—about 25 cm
(10 inches) away.
Slowly stick out your tongue. Wait a few
seconds. Do it again.
Give baby time to copy you.
Pull-ups—To help your baby
use his muscles
Do this activity with your baby when
he’s old enough to hold up his
head.
•
•
•
Lay your baby on his back.
Hold both his hands.
Slowly pull up until baby is
sitting.
•
Talk to him while pulling.
Say things like, “Up we go!”
Do this several times.
•
30
Play
After a while, you’ll find that your
baby tries to do more of the work
and you have to pull less.
Games and activities Toys
Toys
Babies don’t need a lot of
expensive toys. They need:
•
Things to look at—
colourful pictures, mobiles, books
•
Things to hold and chew on—
teething toys, clean wet facecloth
•
Things that make noise—
rattles, musical toys
•
Soft toys—
to feel different textures
For a baby, a parent is the best toy
in the world!
Your face and smile to look at...
Your voice to hear...
Your fingers to grab and hold...
Your warm body and arms to keep
her safe while she learns about the
world...
You are your baby’s best toy!
Your baby wants you to know...
The best times to play with me or read to me are when I’m quiet,
calm, and awake.
When I’m tired of playing, I’ll look away or turn my head.
If I’m very tired, I’ll cry.
Play
31
The best start............................................................... 34
Connecting with your baby............................................. 36
Breastfeeding to comfort your baby................................ 37
Babies need to feed often............................................... 38
How to tell if your baby is breastfeeding well................... 39
Weight gain and growth................................................. 40
Growth spurts............................................................... 41
It’s too soon for solid food............................................. 42
Breastfeeding anytime, anywhere.................................... 44
Support is important when you breastfeed....................... 45
If you decide to feed your baby with
infant formula, talk to your health care
provider about infant formula and your
baby’s health. You’ll find information
about how to use infant formula as
safely as possible in How to Feed
Your Baby with Infant Formula.
You’ll find more information about
breastfeeding in Breastfeeding
Your Baby.
You can get a copy from your local
Public Health office
(contact information, page 104).
You can get a copy from your local
Public Health office (contact
information, page 104).
32
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
much can he see? Can he hear me?
Breastfeeding turned out to be the most amazing experience for me and for
my family. I was a bit uncertain at first, but I’m glad that I did it.
The best start
Breastfeeding gives your baby the healthiest
possible start! It’s the best food for your baby.
Breastmilk is the only food babies need until
they’re 6 months old. If your baby gets any other
food or drink—including infant formula—you will
make less breastmilk. This means that your
baby will get less breastmilk and will not get all
the benefits that breastfeeding offers.
Breastfeeding has lots of benefits—for babies,
mothers, families, and communities.
Breastfeeding benefits babies
•
Human milk is the perfect food for human babies.
•
It keeps them healthy by protecting them from ear infections, allergies, diarrhea, vomiting, and anemia (low iron).
•
It helps their brain develop. Breastmilk
contains exactly the right mix of the nutrients that babies need for their brain to develop.
•
It lowers the risk that babies will develop
childhood leukemia, type 1 and 2 diabetes, respiratory infections, and SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome).
•
Babies are less likely to come into contact with
germs because breastmilk is always clean.
•
Babies can be fed right away when they’re hungry, because breastmilk is always ready.
Added info...
All breastfed babies need 400 IU of Vitamin D
drops every day.
•
Babies are less likely to be burned, because breastmilk is always the right temperature.
34
Breastfeeding
•
Breastfeeding helps your uterus return to its
pre-pregnancy size more quickly.
•
It uses up the fat your body stored during
pregnancy.
•
It releases a hormone that makes you feel good!
•
It makes it less likely that you will develop breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or osteoporosis.
•
Breastmilk is ready and waiting all the time. You do not have to purchase, measure, and mix formula. You don’t have to warm bottles during the night. You can meet your baby’s need right away.
Breastfeeding benefits
families and communities
•
•
Breastfeeding saves money. You
don’t need to buy formula, bottles, and
equipment. Breastmilk requires no preparation. There’s no need to use
electricity and hot water.
The best start
Breastfeeding benefits mothers
Breastfeeding protects the environment. Breastmilk doesn’t need packaging. Producing it doesn’t harm the
environment.
•
Breastfeeding reduces health care costs. Breastfed babies are sick less. They need fewer visits to health care providers and hospitals.
•
Breastfeeding reduces the number of sick days that families must use to care for their sick children.
Added info...
You and your baby will both be healthier
if you don’t smoke or use alcohol or other
drugs while you are breastfeeding.
However, even if you smoke,
breastfeeding is still the best way to
feed your baby.
You can find more information in
Breastfeeding Your Baby. You can get
a copy from your local Public Health
office (contact information, page 104).
You’ll find more information on stopping
smoking in the “Parents” section of
Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Breastfeeding
35
Connecting with your baby
Feeding your baby is a special time. It’s a time to
cuddle, enjoy, and connect with your baby.
When you breastfeed your baby:
•
Hold him close. Babies love to be held
skin-to-skin. Babies latch on and breastfeed better when they’re often snuggled
skin-to-skin.
•
•
Look into his eyes.
Smile, talk, and sing to him.
Other family members can share in
breastfeeding, too.
Added info...
There are many ways that fathers and
partners can connect with their baby.
•
•
Skin-to-skin cuddling after breastfeeding
Holding, rocking, cuddling, massaging, and playing
• Changing, burping, and bathing
There are many ways to build a loving
connection with your baby!
Feeding times are a good time for brothers and
sisters to connect with their new baby. They can
sit with you and have a snack. They can talk or
sing to the baby. You can tell everyone a story.
Support from fathers and partners helps mothers
to breastfeed happily and successfully. By
bringing the baby to Mom for breastfeeding,
or by bringing Mom food, drinks, and pillows,
fathers and partners can connect with both Mom
and baby. Their encouragement, praise, and
pride in giving their baby the best start in life
can get mothers through times when they are
tired and wonder if breastfeeding is worth it.
When you feed your baby, you do more than
nourish his body. You are making connections
that will last a lifetime.
Your baby wants you to know...
Hold me close when you feed me. Look into my eyes and tell me you
love me.
36
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding does more than make your baby’s
body strong. Your breast gives your baby comfort
as well as food. You can breastfeed your baby
when she’s lonely, tired, or scared—not just
when she’s hungry.
Being held close to breastfeed helps a baby feel
safe and loved. You aren’t spoiling your baby by
breastfeeding her when she needs comfort and
closeness.
Added info...
To get your baby off to a good start
with breastfeeding, it’s best not to use a
soother until about 6 weeks. By this time,
your baby will be breastfeeding well.
Connecting with your baby
Breastfeeding to comfort your baby
Breastfeeding to comfort your baby
Your baby wants you to know...
When you breastfeed me, your love nourishes me too.
Breastfeeding
37
Babies need to feed often
Babies come in different weights and lengths, but
all babies have very tiny tummies!
Babies’ tummies can’t hold much at one time, so
they need to be fed often—day and night.
Every baby has his own way of breastfeeding.
Most newborn babies need to feed every 1 to 3
hours. Some babies need to feed many times
during the night. Others may not need to feed as
often. Follow your baby’s cues. You’ll soon learn
what’s normal for him.
A newborn baby’s
tummy is the size of a
cherry.
By 3 or 4 days, a
baby’s tummy is the
size of a walnut.
Added info...
Your baby has many ways to tell you he’s
hungry. Some feeding cues are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Holding hands or fists over his chest
Sucking on his fingers or fist
Turning toward your body with an open mouth
Smacking his lips
Sticking out his tongue
Making sucking sounds
Crying
By 5 or 6 days, a
baby’s tummy is the
size of an apricot.
By 1 to 3 weeks, a
baby’s tummy is the
size of an egg.
Information on ‘Baby’s
Tummy Size’ is adapted with
permission from Best Start
Resource Centre.
38
Breastfeeding
You know your baby is breastfeeding well when:
•
You can hear her swallowing while she’s
feeding.
She’s content after breastfeeding.
more wet diapers. On the first day, she might have 1. Then, each day of the first week, she’ll have a few more. After the first week, she should have between 6 and 10 wet or dirty diapers each day.
She has wet or dirty diapers each day.
As your baby’s tummy gets bigger, she’ll have •
There may be a good reason why babies
want to breastfeed during the night!
Nighttime feedings increase your milk
supply. You make more milk at night
because that’s when the hormones that
help you make breastmilk are at their
highest levels.
She’s growing and gaining weight.
Your baby wants you to know...
Come when I call!
Crying is only one of the ways I can let you know I’m hungry. When
you come as soon as I start to cry, you help me learn that I can trust you to come when I need
you.
How to tell if your baby is breastfeeding well
•
•
Added info...
Babies need to feed often
How to tell if your baby is breastfeeding well
When I cry, I need you to come quickly. If you wait too long, I worry that you won’t come. I cry
so hard you’ll have to calm me down before I can breastfeed.
Breastfeeding
39
Weight gain and growth
It’s normal for babies to lose a little weight in the
first few days after they’re born. By 2 to 3 weeks,
most babies have gained that back and weigh
the same as they did at birth.
From birth to 3 months, most babies gain about
675 to 900 grams (1 and a half to 2 pounds) per
month.
As well as gaining weight, your baby is also
growing longer. You may notice her outgrowing
her newborn size sleepers!
Remember that every baby grows at her own
pace. Talk to your health care provider if you
have any concerns about how your baby is
growing.
From 4 to 6 months, most babies gain about 450
to 560 grams (1 to 1 and a quarter pounds) a
month.
3 days old
40
3 months old
Breastfeeding
Babies have times when they grow very fast.
For most babies, these growth spurts happen at
around 10 days, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months,
and 6 months.
Growth spurts usually last for only a few days.
By feeding your baby whenever he’s hungry,
you will make enough milk to meet your baby’s
needs. Your milk will give him the nourishment
he needs to grow. At this age he does not need
solid foods.
Added info...
Growth spurts
During a growth spurt, babies usually want to
breastfeed more often or for longer at each
feeding. Follow your baby’s cues. He’ll let you
know when he’s hungry and how much he needs.
Weight gain and growth
Growth spurts
Just because your baby reaches for the foods
she sees you eating, it doesn’t mean she’s ready
for solid food. Babies reach for just about
everything they see—not just food.
Breastfeeding
41
When will my baby be ready for solid food? My mother says that she gave
me cereal when I was just a couple of months old. She says it will help my
baby sleep through the night. Is that true?
It’s too soon for solid food
Parents often feel pressure to give their baby
solid food. Babies shouldn’t get solid food before
6 months.
When you give your baby solid food too soon,
it fills her tummy. It makes her too full to drink
much breastmilk. This means that you will make
less and your baby will not get enough
breastmilk to give her the nourishment she
needs.
Six months may be later than the age you were
when your parents first gave you solid foods. It
may be different from what others tell you.
42
But there are good reasons to wait until 6
months.
• By 6 months, babies are able to begin learning
how to swallow, chew, and pick up solid food.
•
By 6 months, babies’ bodies are ready for
solid food.
•
By 6 months, babies need foods that contain iron.
Until they’re 6 months old, the nourishment
babies get from breastmilk is more important to
their growth and development than anything they
could get from solid food.
Breastfeeding
It’s too soon for solid food
Added info...
Giving your baby solid food will not help him
sleep through the night.
Giving a baby solid food early does not mean he
is more mature or is developing faster than other
babies.
Breastfeeding
43
Breastfeeding anytime, anywhere
You have the right to breastfeed your baby
anytime, anywhere. The Canadian Charter of
Rights and Freedoms protects this right.
No one can legally ask you to leave a public
place because you’re breastfeeding.
Other mothers are a good source of ideas for
ways to breastfeed in public. Look for La Leche
League meetings or breastfeeding support
groups in your community. If you have friends
who have breastfed their babies, talk to them.
44
Added info...
You will see moms and babies breastfeeding
in many places in your community. There are
many options for breastfeeding in public.
Do whatever feels comfortable to you.
•
You can wear clothes that lift up from the waist.
•
You can drape a blanket or towel around you and your baby.
You can also get information about how to
continue breastfeeding when you return to work
or school from your local Public Health office
(contact information, page 104).
•
Everyone has a part to play in making our
communities welcoming to breastfeeding
families.
Look for breastfeeding rooms in malls, airports,
and other public spaces. Breastfeeding rooms
are especially helpful if you are uncomfortable
breastfeeding in public—for example, because
of your religion, cultural beliefs, or personal
feelings.
You can use a cloth baby sling that will cover the baby while breastfeeding.
•
You can turn your body away from other
people while your baby latches on.
Breastfeeding
Support is important when you breastfeed
Every mother and baby learn to breastfeed
together. For some, it comes easily. Others have
more questions or concerns. Parents often enjoy
sharing their stories, experiences, and feelings
about breastfeeding with other parents.
You can get information and support for
breastfeeding from:
Other mothers who are breastfeeding—or who
have breastfed—are one of the best sources of
support, information, and someone to talk with.
You can meet other breastfeeding mothers in
your community through:
•
•
•
•
Family Resource Centres
La Leche League Canada
(Contact information, page 105)
•
Health care providers, public health
offices, community health centres, First Nation health centres
Books and videos from your local library
Websites like:
www.lalecheleaguecanada.ca
www.first6weeks.ca
www.gnb.ca/publichealth
www.nb.unvanl.ca
www.facebook.com/
BreastfeedingNB.AllaitementNB
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding anytime, anywhere Support is important when you breastfeed
I have many questions about breastfeeding! Who can I talk to?
Who will listen?
45
Why babies cry............................................................. 48
How to comfort a crying baby......................................... 50
Crying and colic............................................................ 52
• Comfort for parents............................................... 53
• Colic comfort ....................................................... 54
When your baby keeps crying......................................... 56
Never shake your baby.................................................. 57
46
Crying
Crying
What should I do when my baby cries? Will I spoil her if I pick her up as soon as she cries?
What should I do when my baby cries? Will I spoil her if I pick her up as
soon as she cries?
Why babies cry
Most of the time, babies cry because they need
something. They don’t cry to upset you or bother
you. You cannot spoil your baby by going to him
every time he cries.
Added info...
Letting your baby cry does NOT develop his lungs!
Your baby needs to know that he can depend on
you to be there when he needs you. When you
answer his cries with loving care you are
teaching him that he can trust you.
Most healthy babies cry between 1 and 3 hours
a day. Babies start to cry a little less after about
3 months. They don’t do all their crying at once,
though. It’s spread out over the day and night.
If your baby cries for more than 4 to 5 hours a
day, talk to your health care provider.
Watch your baby closely. Pay attention to his
sleep patterns and to what he is telling you.
As you get to know him, you’ll get better at
understanding and meeting his needs. Trust
your instincts. You know your baby best. Most
of the time, you’ll probably be able to figure out
why he’s crying and what he needs. Sometimes,
you won’t be able to figure out why your baby is
crying. When this happens, all you can do is
keep trying to comfort him.
48
Crying
Why babies cry
You’ll find information on what
your baby is telling you on
page 2.
You’ll find information on
baby’s sleep and wake
patterns on page 62–63.
Your baby wants you to know...
I don’t cry to make you mad! When I cry, it’s not because I’m mad at
you. It’s not because you’re a bad parent.
I cry because I need something. But I don’t always know what it is I
need. Sometimes I cry because I just can’t help it.
Crying
49
How to comfort a crying baby
Nobody’s calm all the time, but the calmer you are, the calmer your baby will be. When you go to your
baby, take a deep breath, make an effort to calm down, and smile.
•
Go to your baby as soon as she starts to cry. You can’t spoil your baby by picking her up when she cries. When you come quickly, it helps both you and your baby. Babies cry less when someone comes as soon as they start to cry.
•
Try to figure out what your baby needs.
Look for what your baby is telling you. Is she
hungry? Wet? Too warm? Cold? Sick? Is she lonely? Tired? Bored? Upset? Too
excited? Maybe it’s just your baby’s fussy time of day.
•
Offer comfort and loving care. If your baby isn’t hungry and doesn’t need a diaper change, try different things until you find what she needs. For example:
• Cuddle her close.
• Hold her against your shoulder.
•
Try a baby carrier. Some babies need a lot of close contact with a parent. Try carrying your baby next to your body in a cloth baby carrier or sling. Try carrying your baby next to your skin.
•
Try soothing with sound. Hum or sing. Make soft shushing sounds—“shhh, shhh.” Play soft music. Some babies like the sound of the clothes dryer, washing machine,
vacuum cleaner, running shower, or
dishwasher. Make a tape or a CD of a sound your baby likes and play it when she cries.
•
Move your baby to a different room. If there’s a lot of noise or activity going on, your baby might be too excited. Try moving to a quieter room. If your baby is in a quiet place, she might be bored. Try moving her to a place where there’s more activity.
• Rub her back.
• Move her around. Try walking or gentle rocking. Take her out for a walk in the stroller. Take her for a drive.
• Give your baby something to suck. Most babies like to suck on their fingers or fist.
Added info...
To see if your baby is too warm, touch the back
of her neck. If it’s damp, she’s too hot.
50
Crying
How to comfort a crying baby
Added info...
You can get help and information about how to
handle your baby’s crying from your health care
provider.
Crying
51
Crying and colic
A baby with colic cries for hours at a time every
day, often in the evening. Your baby may scream
as if he’s in pain. He might pull his knees up
toward his chest. He keeps crying no matter how
many things you try.
If your baby is going to have colic, it usually
starts when he’s a few weeks old. It will usually
stop by 3 months.
Colic is more than just a baby being fussy. It’s a
medical condition. No one knows what causes
colic. No one knows why some babies have it
and others don’t. It is not the result of anything
you did or didn’t do. Talk to your health care
provider if you think your baby might have colic.
Colic is hard for both babies and parents. It can
be very difficult to stay calm when your baby
keeps crying. It’s important to keep trying to
comfort your baby. He may not be able to show
it, but he needs to know you’re there.
Your baby wants you to know...
When I’m crying, I need your loving care the most. Even when it
seems like I’ll never stop crying, I still need you to comfort me. When
you help me through this difficult time, it makes the bonds between us
stronger.
52
Crying
Crying and colic
Comfort for parents
You may need help from friends
and family to get through this
difficult time.
If you have someone with you, take
turns when your baby cries. One
of you can go outside or to another
room for some quiet or some
exercise, while the other comforts
the baby.
If you are on your own, call
someone you trust for help when
you need a break.
Crying
53
Colic comfort
Often, a baby with colic can’t calm down, no matter how many things you try. But even if she keeps
crying, your baby might feel better if you try some of these things.
•
54
Hold your baby over your arm. Lay your baby with her belly on your forearm and her head in the bend of your elbow. Hold her with her back against the front of your body. Let her arms and legs hang down.
•
Lay your baby with her belly on your forearm, with your hand supporting her head. Let her arms and legs hang down. Rub or pat her back.
Crying
Hold your baby with her back against the front of your body. Support her bum with one hand. Wrap your other arm under her legs, so that her knees are bent and she’s curled up against you.
Added info...
Some colicky babies find massage very
comforting. You can find some basic
information on this on page 29 of this
book.
•
Hold your baby skin-to-skin on your
stomach or chest.
Crying and colic
•
•
Carry your baby next to your chest in a cloth baby carrier or sling. Walk, dance, or move around.
•
•
Crying
Take your baby for a walk or a drive.
Give your baby a warm bath.
55
Sometimes my baby just cries and cries. Nothing seems to help! I get so
upset and angry. I don’t know what to do!
When your baby keeps crying
All parents need help sometimes. Try to find
someone to help you—like a trusted friend or
relative who can come on short notice when you
need a break. Keep their phone number handy
for the times when you need support. Talking to
other parents can also be a source of
information and support.
Sometimes your baby cries and cries no matter
how many things you try. This can be very
difficult for parents. You can feel helpless,
frustrated, angry, and alone.
You may even feel so desperate that you’re
afraid you might hurt your baby.
If you start to feel out of control:
•
Gently lay your baby in his crib, leave the room, and close the door.
•
•
Give yourself 10 to 15 minutes to calm down.
Go back to your baby and try again to comfort him.
•
If you start to lose control again, put him down and leave again.
•
Call someone you trust—a friend, neighbour, or family member.
Keep returning to comfort your baby every 10 to
15 minutes. Even when he can’t stop crying, he
still needs to know you’re there. He still needs to
know you love him.
56
Crying
Your baby has a heavy head and a weak neck. If you shake
her, her head will jerk back and forth. Her brain will be
damaged and will bleed. Her spine can be injured. Your baby
could die.
Babies can be injured by caregivers or other family members.
Be sure everyone who takes care of your baby knows that they
should NEVER SHAKE A BABY.
You’ll find information about how to handle stress and anger in
the “Parents” section of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Never shake your baby
No matter how upset or angry you feel, never,
ever shake your baby!
When your baby keeps crying
Never shake
your baby!
Your baby wants you to know...
Shaking can kill me. It can hurt my brain or spine in ways that can
never be healed.
Crying
57
How much do babies sleep?............................................ 60
Your baby’s sleep and wake cycle................................... 62
Helping your baby fall asleep.......................................... 64
Helping your baby put herself to sleep............................. 67
Bedtime routines........................................................... 68
Reducing the risk of SIDS.............................................. 69
Safe places to sleep....................................................... 70
• Bed-sharing.......................................................... 70
58
Sleeping
Sleeping
How much should a baby sleep? It seems like mine just gets to
sleep and then he’s awake again!
How much do babies sleep?
Babies sleep more than you might think. A
newborn sleeps between 12 and 17 hours a day.
This can be hard to believe because babies don’t
often sleep for more than a few hours at a time.
In fact, a new baby should not have more than
one long sleep of about 4 to 5 hours in a 24-hour
day. This is because babies’ tummies are very
small. They need to be fed every few hours, day
and night.
Over the first weeks and months of your baby’s
life, you’ll start to see a pattern to when your
baby is awake and when he needs to sleep.
Watch what your baby is telling you. Put him
on his back in his crib when he shows you he’s
tired. This will help him learn to connect
sleeping with his crib.
and to sleep a bit more during the night. Most
babies like 2 or 3 naps during the day—1 nap in
the morning and another 1 or 2 naps in the
afternoon.
Between 3 and 6 months, some babies start to
sleep through the night once in a while. This
means that they sleep for about 5 hours without
waking up to feed. This doesn’t mean that your
baby will sleep through every night. But slowly,
over time, he’ll sleep through more and more
often.
As your baby grows, he’ll slowly spend less time
sleeping.
•
At 1 month, most babies sleep about 15 and a half hours a day.
•
•
At 3 months, they sleep about 15 hours a day.
At 6 months, they sleep about 14 hours a day.
During the day, babies sleep in short naps. At
night, they sleep for longer periods, but will still
wake up to be fed.
By the time they’re about 4 months old, most
babies start to be awake more during the day
60
Added info...
Some babies are very sensitive to being
handled. They get upset when they get too
much attention from too many people at once.
This can happen at parties, social events, or
when you have visitors.
When your baby gets wound up like this, he’ll
need some quiet time before he can calm down
and go to sleep.
Sleeping
How much do babies sleep?
Your baby wants you to know...
When I wake up at night:
Come as soon as I start to cry. It’s easier for me to go back to sleep if I stay calm.
Keep the room dim. Bright lights can wake me up.
Keep things quiet. Hum or talk softly to me.
Sleeping
61
Your baby’s sleep and wake cycle
Every baby has her own pattern of sleeping and
waking. She moves through this cycle several
times over the course of a day and night. What
your baby needs can depend on where she is in
her journey from sleeping to being awake.
Watch closely and you’ll learn where your baby is
in her sleep cycle. When you know this, it’s
easier to figure out what she needs.
Baby’s Sleep and Wake Cycle
WHAT BABY DOES
WHAT BABY NEEDS
Deep Sleep
•
•
Lies mostly still, but may move a little
Face and eyes are still, except for a
little sucking •
•
•
•
•
Let baby sleep. Take a nap yourself.
Active Sleep
Still asleep, but not so deeply
Body moves more
Face moves—baby may suck or smile,
eyelids may flutter
• Might make fussy sounds or cry a little
•
•
Wait. Your baby may wake up or go back
to deeper sleep.
Drowsy–Half Asleep
• Wait. Your baby may wake up or go back to sleep.
• Wait. Your baby may wake up or go back
Body moves slowly
to deeper sleep.
Eyes open and close, but are dull and
sleepy looking
• If you need to wake your baby, talk to her, undress her, or change her diaper.
• Face moves
62
Sleeping
WHAT BABY DOES
•
•
•
•
WHAT BABY NEEDS
Awake and Alert
•
•
This is the best time to feed your baby.
This is a good time to play or talk to your
baby. When your baby looks away, she’s
telling you she needs a rest.
• Give your baby something to look at or
listen to.
More body movement
Bright, open eyes
Bright, alert face
Interested in what’s going on around her
Awake and Active
•
•
•
•
•
Lots of movement of arms and legs
Fussy
Eyes wide open
Bothered by noises
May be hungry
•
•
Your baby’s sleep and wake cycle
Baby’s Sleep and Wake Cycle
•
If
you’re playing with baby, stop and let her
rest. Try another activity.
• See if she wants to suck on her fist or
fingers.
Awake and Crying
Cries
Makes faces
•
If you are playing with your baby, stop. She’s had enough.
• Comfort your baby. (See page 50 for
information on how to comfort a crying baby.)
• Be patient.
Sleeping
63
Helping your baby fall asleep
All babies are different. Some sleep more than
others. Some sleep less. Some fall asleep
easily and stay asleep. Others find it hard to
get to sleep and wake up at the least little noise.
This is not something you can change. It’s just
the way your baby is.
If your baby has problems going to sleep, be
patient. Help him to get the sleep he needs by:
•
•
Having bedtime and naptime routines
(For more information see page 68.)
Going to bed and having naps at the same time every day
•
Waking him up at the same time every
morning
•
Helping him put himself to sleep
Parents can feel very frustrated if their baby falls
asleep in their arms or while feeding, but then
wakes up the minute they try to lay him in the
crib. Or if their baby just doesn’t want to go to
sleep. The table on the next 2 pages lists some
reasons why this might be happening and some
things you can try if it does.
If your baby always sleeps with his head turned
in the same direction, he can develop flathead.
See page 87 for more information on preventing
flathead.
Never prop a bottle or put your baby to bed with
a bottle.
This can cause ear infections and choking. It
can also cause early childhood tooth decay (for
more information see page 88).
64
Sleeping
POSSIBLE PROBLEM
WHAT PARENTS HAVE TRIED
Temperature Change
Your baby has been warm and snug in your
arms. The cold sheets in the crib can be
enough to shock him awake.
Normal family noises keep some babies
awake.
Lay your baby on a warm blanket. You
can warm the blanket by sitting on it while
feeding your baby. Or you can wrap your baby in a blanket while feeding, and then lay him on it in his crib.
Loneliness
Your baby feels better knowing you’re near.
•
Helping your baby fall asleep
Causes of sleep problems
•
Pat your baby’s tummy when you lay him
down. Slowly make your pats lighter until
you can move your hand away without
waking baby up.
Noise• Wait. Your baby may wake up or go back to sleep.
• Use a soothing sound to cover other noises. This can be a fan, or a tape or CD of some other noise your baby likes—like a dishwasher, a vacuum cleaner, or a dryer.
• When your baby wakes in the night, keep things quiet. Use a calm voice and soft, soothing sounds—like “shhh.”
Sleeping
65
Causes of sleep problems
POSSIBLE PROBLEM
WHAT PARENTS HAVE TRIED
Light
Too much light can keep some babies awake.
Help your baby learn the difference
between day and night.
•
During the day, give him lots of light—
especially outdoor light—but keep him out of direct sunlight. Talk to and play with your baby during the day. At night, keep the room he sleeps in dark and quiet.
• Try dimming the light during your
bedtime routine. Talk and play quietly to
your baby in the evening and the night. Save the active fun and games for
daytime.
Too Tired or Excited
If your baby has had a busy day or missed
some naps, he may be too tired and wound up
to sleep.
•
Try to stop this problem before it starts.
Pay attention to the ways your baby tells
you he’s sleepy. Some babies get quiet.
Some get fussy. Some yawn or blink
their eyes. Put him down to sleep before
he gets too tired. Try to organize the day so he gets regular naps. This will help keep him from getting too tired.
If your baby is too wound up to relax
and sleep, you can try soothing him by
cuddling, walking him in a carrier, rocking, or doing anything else you know calms your baby down.
•
66
Sleeping
Little babies often fall asleep in a parent’s arms.
But sooner or later, all babies put themselves to
sleep. For some babies, this happens at an early
age. For some, it can take up until they’re about
3 years old.
There is no hurry for your baby to learn to go
to sleep by herself. Some parents find that if
they start laying a sleepy baby in her crib once in
a while, it helps her get used to falling asleep in
the crib.
When you do this, you can make it easier
for your baby by gently rubbing her tummy
until she’s nearly asleep. This lets her know
you’re still there.
Do what feels right to you. What works for
every family will be different.
put asleep
herself toHelping
sleep your baby put herself to sleep
Helping your baby fall
Helping your baby put herself to sleep
Your baby wants you to know...
I need to sleep, even when it seems like I don’t want to sleep. I need
your love, care, and patience to help me get the sleep I need.
Sleeping
67
Bedtime routines
By the time your baby is 3 to 5 months old, he
may be ready for a bedtime routine. This means
doing the same things at the same time every
night. This will help your baby calm down and
ease into sleep.
A bedtime routine should be very quiet and
gentle. It should also suit your baby. For
example, a common bedtime routine for a baby
is a bath, a story or song, a feeding with a
cuddle, and then bed. But if a bath makes your
baby excited and eager to play, it won’t work as
part of a soothing bedtime routine. You’ll need
to use something that soothes and quiets him
instead.
68
Added info...
It’s never too soon to start reading to your baby.
Reading a story as part of a bedtime routine is
a good way to start your baby on a lifetime of
reading.
You’ll find contact information for the “Born to
Read” Program on page 107.
Sleeping
Death—is the sudden death of a baby who seemed perfectly
healthy. SIDS is the most common cause of death in babies’
first year of life. SIDS usually happens while the baby is
sleeping.
No one knows what causes SIDS. No one knows how to
prevent it.
But we do know that there are things parents can do to make
SIDS less likely. Since parents started following these
suggestions, the number of babies dying from SIDS in Canada
has been cut almost in half.
SIDS is LESS LIKELY
to happen when:
•
•
Babies sleep on their back.
•
•
•
Babies are breastfed.
Babies live in a smoke-free
home.
Reducing the risk of SIDS
SIDS—Sudden Infant Death Syndrome or Crib
Bedtime routines
Reducing the
risk of SIDS
See page 98 for
more information on
a smoke-free home
and car.
Babies are not too hot.
The crib has a firm mattress. There should be no pillows, comforters, stuffed toys, or bumper pads in cribs. If your baby needs a blanket, a knitted or crocheted blanket is a good choice.
Sleeping
69
Safe places to sleep
It is NOT SAFE to bring your baby into bed if
there is any reason that you might find it hard
to respond to your baby. This could be
because you or any other person in the bed:
The safest place for all babies to sleep for the
first 6 months is in a crib within arm’s reach of
your bed. To lower the risk of SIDS, your baby
should sleep on her back.
•
Are so tired that you might have trouble waking up when your baby cries
Bed-sharing
Many breastfeeding mothers enjoy the closeness
of sharing their bed with their baby and find that it
makes nighttime feedings easier.
There has been a lot of research looking at
whether bed-sharing is safe or whether it
increases the risk of SIDS. One thing that the
research shows is that if you smoked during
pregnancy or if you smoke now, bed-sharing
increases the risk of SIDS.
•
Have an illness or condition that could affect your ability to respond to your baby
•
Have taken medicine that could make you very sleepy
•
The safest approach is co-sleeping. Have your
baby sleep in a crib near you. Bring her into your
bed to breastfeed and return her to her own crib
after the feeding.
If you are a breastfeeding mother who does not
smoke and did not smoke during pregnancy, you
can make bed-sharing as safe as possible by
being sure that:
Have had alcohol or other drugs
It is NOT SAFE to bring your baby into bed with
you if you (or any other person in bed) smoke—
even if you never smoke in bed. If you smoked
during pregnancy or after the baby’s birth, it
increases the risk of SIDS. If you smoke,
sharing a bed with your baby increases this risk
even more.
It is NOT SAFE to sleep with your baby on a
sofa, armchair, or recliner. They can fall off or get
stuck between the cushions and the back of the
sofa.
•
It is NOT SAFE for pets to sleep with your baby.
•
Added info...
Your mattress is firm. No waterbeds, soft
mattresses, or cushions.
Your baby can’t fall out of bed or get stuck between the mattress and the wall. She can’t get trapped under the sheets, blankets, or
pillows.
•
•
Your partner knows the baby is in the bed.
Your baby sleeps on her back when she’s
finished feeding.
70
Co-sleeping means that your baby is near
you, but in his own crib. Research has
shown that this is safe and may reduce the
risk of SIDS.
Bed-sharing means bringing your baby
into your bed.
Sleeping
Safe places to sleep
See page 93 for more
information on safe baby
furniture.
There is a risk that your
baby’s head can fall forward
and block her breathing if
she sleeps while sitting up.
All babies sometimes fall
asleep in a car seat, stroller,
or swing. But it is NOT
SAFE to use a car seat or
stroller as a bed.
Watch your baby closely
when she falls asleep while
sitting up.
Never leave your baby alone
when she falls asleep in a
car seat, stroller, or baby
swing.
Sleeping
71
Cord care..................................................................... 74
Diapers........................................................................ 75
Diaper rash.................................................................. 76
Bathing........................................................................ 77
72
Keeping Clean
Keeping Clean
How clean do babies need to be? Should I give mine a bath everyday?
What should I do about the cord?
Cord care
Your baby’s cord can take anywhere from a week
to several weeks to dry up and fall off. It’s normal
to have a little bleeding when this happens.
Don’t worry if the cord gets wet while you’re
changing a diaper or bathing the baby. Just
gently dry it off.
Call the health care provider if:
•
•
The area around the cord is red or swells up
It’s leaking pus or fluid
Until the cord falls off, turn the top of the diaper
back to let the air dry the cord. You don’t need to
do anything else to it.
74
Keeping Clean
Check with your health care provider if your
baby has fewer than 6 wet diapers a day.
A dry bottom will keep your baby comfortable.
Change your baby’s diaper as soon as it gets
wet or dirty.
Wash and dry the diaper area carefully every
time you change the diaper.
•
For girl babies, wash from front to back. Be sure all the creases are clean.
Added info...
You don’t need to use baby powder or
cornstarch.
If you choose to use baby powder, make
sure the baby doesn’t breathe it in.
Diapers
A healthy newborn has about 6 to 10 wet or dirty
diapers over the day and night. Babies between
ages 6 weeks and 6 months usually have 6 to 8
wet or dirty diapers per day.
Cord care
Diapers
Added info...
Washing your hands after you change your
baby’s diaper stops the spread of germs.
This helps keep the whole family healthy.
•
For boy babies, don’t pull back the foreskin when you wash the penis.
Your baby wants you to know...
I like to play while I’m getting my diaper changed. Kiss my fingers,
toes, and belly. Talk to me. Sing to me. Tell me the names of my
body parts.
Keeping Clean
75
Diaper rash
Diaper rash is very common. All babies get a red
or sore bottom once in a while. To help
prevent diaper rash:
•
•
Change your baby’s diaper often.
Wash the diaper area with a clean wash
cloth whenever you change a diaper. Dry the area well.
•
Leave your baby’s bottom bare as often as
possible.
Call your health care provider if:
•
The skin in the diaper area is very red
and peeling.
• There are sores along with the rash.
• You’ve tried everything on this page and
the rash won’t go away or is getting worse.
To treat diaper rash:
•
•
Change diaper as soon as it is wet.
•
Cover the rash with a zinc-based ointment.
Wash and dry the diaper area carefully at each
diaper change.
76
Keeping Clean
It’s important to keep your baby clean. Make your
baby’s bath time fun by talking, singing, and
playing.
Every day, you need to:
Until your baby’s first tooth comes in,
you need to clean the inside of your
baby’s mouth every day.
• Wash your baby’s face with warm, clear water.
Wrap a clean damp facecloth around your
finger. Wipe the inside of baby’s mouth and
around the gums.
Wash your baby’s hands and diaper area. Use a clean washcloth and mild soap. Rinse well.
If you notice white spots or a white coating
that doesn’t wipe off the gums, tongue, or
cheeks, contact your health care provider.
Wash and dry around the base of the cord.
You’ll find more information about care of
your baby’s mouth and teeth on page 88.
•
•
It may take a while for some babies to learn to
like tub baths. This is because babies like to be
warm and snug. Many don’t like the feel of cool
air on their bare, wet skin.
Many babies enjoy an after-bath massage.
Bathing
You can give your baby a tub bath every day if
you and your baby enjoy it, but it’s not necessary.
Added info...
Diaper rash
Bathing
Always test the water before you put
your baby in the bath. You can test the
water by dipping your elbow. Hot tap water
can burn your baby.
Never turn your back or let go of your
baby during a bath, even for a second.
A baby can drown in less than 2.5 cm
(1 inch) of water.
Bath seats and rings are NOT safe for
babies.
Your baby wants you to know...
Give me time to get used to a bath. In a few months, I might like
playing with you during bath time so much, I won’t want to stop!
Keeping Clean
77
Hand washing............................................................... 80
Well-baby check-ups...................................................... 81
Immunizations.............................................................. 82
Questions that your health care provider may ask............. 83
When to see a health care provider................................. 84
Common concerns......................................................... 86
• Baby pimples........................................................ 86
• Swollen genitals and breasts, erections ................... 86
• Cradle cap ........................................................... 86
• Flat head.............................................................. 87
• Pee and poop ....................................................... 87
Dental health................................................................ 88
• Mouth and gum care.............................................. 88
• Teething .............................................................. 89
• Soothers .............................................................. 89
Added info...
If your language or culture is different from your health care provider’s, a
cultural health interpreter may be able to help you.
Ask your health care provider if cultural health interpreters are available in
your community. If they are, a health care provider can help you contact
one.
78
Health
Health
Hand washing
One of the best and easiest things
you can do to keep your baby
healthy is to be sure that you—and
anyone else who cares for your
baby—wash their hands before
they feed, wash, or dress him.
Hand washing protects you, your
baby and your family from germs
that could make you all sick.
Hands should be washed:
•
•
•
•
•
After you change a diaper
•
•
•
•
After you use the toilet
Before you eat
Before you feed your baby
Before you cook or prepare food
Before you clean your baby’s mouth
After you handle anything dirty
After you pet an animal
After you wipe your nose—or anyone else’s nose—or after sneezing or coughing into your hand
80
Health
Well-baby check-ups
Well-baby check-ups
Hand washing
How often does my baby need a check-up? When does she get her
needles?
Your baby will need well baby check-ups. Ask
your health care provider about when you and
your baby should be seen.
The health care provider is interested in your
baby’s growth and development and will ask lots
of questions while examining your baby.
During a check-up, the health care provider
usually:
•
Weighs and measures your baby to be sure she’s growing well
•
Checks to be sure your baby is developing normally
•
•
Checks your baby’s vision and hearing
Answers your questions about your baby’s health, growth, and development
•
Offers suggestions for how to handle any
concerns you have about your baby
Added info...
Added info...
During your baby’s check-up, your health care
provider will also ask how you are doing. If you
have any questions or concerns about your own
mental or physical health, this is a good time to
talk about them with your health care provider.
Make a running list of questions as they
come up between visits to your baby’s
health care provider. This will help you
keep track of all your concerns.
Health
81
Immunizations
Immunizations are an important part
of keeping your baby healthy. They
protect babies from serious illnesses.
The needles your baby gets during
her first six months protect her from
hepatitis B, diphtheria, whooping
cough, tetanus, polio, haemophilus
influenzae type b, and pneumococcal
disease.
Your baby should get a needle in
hospital at birth and from a public
health nurse, doctor or nurse
practitioner at 2, 4, and 6 months.
It’s your responsibility to keep a
record of your baby’s needles.
You can use the green personal
Immunization Record card to do
this. The health care provider that
immunizes your baby should provide
you with this card.
You can get information on where to
take your baby from your local Public
Health office (contact information,
page 104).
Added info...
Flu vaccine
Flu can make your baby very sick, very quickly. Flu vaccine is not recommended for babies under 6 months
of age, so it is important for mothers to get immunized for flu during pregnancy so they will pass on temporary
immunity to their babies once they are born. It’s also a good idea for anyone who lives with or cares for your
baby to get the flu vaccine. In New Brunswick, flu vaccine is free of charge for children 6 months to 18 years
of age, household contacts of children less than 5 years of age and members of a household expecting a
newborn during the flu season.
You can find out more about flu and flu vaccine from your health care provider or local Public Health office
(contact information, page 104).
82
Health
When your baby is sick, the health care provider
will ask questions about your baby’s illness.
Be ready to answer questions like:
•
•
Fever? How high? How long has she had it?
All of us are entitled to health care that
responds to our individual needs and allows
us to feel safe and respected.
•
•
Throwing up? How often? What’s it look like?
Talk to your health care provider about what
you want and need for yourself and your
baby. Help your health care provider to offer
care that respects your race, culture, religion,
sexual orientation, and ability.
•
•
•
Not feeding?
Added info...
Added info...
If you are looking for a family doctor you can
register with Patient Connect NB by calling
Tele-care at 811.
Diarrhea? How often? How much? What does it look like?
Cough or runny nose? Is she having trouble breathing?
Bad rash?
Is your baby acting differently than usual? Is she very sleepy or fussy?
Write down your baby’s symptoms as you notice
them. If you can, write down the time you
noticed them. Write down anything you think you
might forget to tell the health care provider.
When you visit or talk to the health care provider,
make sure you understand everything you’re told
to do. If you’re not sure, keep asking until you
understand.
Questions that your health care provider may ask
Before you talk to your health care provider think
about what’s wrong and why you think your baby
is sick. This will help you to explain your
concerns clearly.
Immunizations
Questions that your health care provider may ask
Your baby wants you to know...
I depend on your loving care to keep me well. When I’m sick I need
you to take care of me and get me the help I need.
Health
83
I don’t want to be one of those mothers who’s always running to the
doctor. But if my baby really is sick, I want him to get the help he needs—fast.
How can I tell what to worry about?
When to see a health care provider
Don’t worry about taking your baby to the health care provider too often. Trust your instincts. You know
your baby best. If you are concerned about any change in your baby—either physical or in the way he
behaves—see your health care provider or call Tele-Care at 811.
Talk with a health care provider if your
baby has any of these symptoms:
Added info...
• Is having a hard time breathing
• Is sleepy all the time and you have a hard time
Use a plastic digital thermometer when you
take your baby’s temperature.
•
Put the thermometer in the baby’s armpit. Keep
the thermometer in place by gently pressing
your baby’s elbow against his side.
waking him up
Has fewer wet diapers than usual or has dark
yellow, smelly pee
•
Cries a lot more than usual, or sounds
different when crying
•
•
•
•
•
•
Not interested in eating or drinking
•
•
•
Is not alert or smiling at you
Wait 2 minutes or until you hear the beep.
Check the temperature.
Keeps rubbing or pulling on his ear
Added info...
Has very runny or liquid poop
Has hard, dry poop
If you are concerned about your baby and can’t
reach your health care provider, call Tele-Care
at 811 or go to the Emergency Room or a walkin clinic.
Has a cough that lasts for several days
Has diaper rash that is red and peeling or
has sores in it
84
Isn’t interested in playing
Has a temperature higher than 37.3 C (99.1 F)
o
o
Health
Cord
Whencare
to seeDiapers
a health care provider
You’ll find information on some things to
do when looking for medical care in the
“Welcome” section of Loving Care:
Parents and Families.
Check with your health care provider
or pharmacist before you give your
baby any medicine.
Your baby wants you to know...
You know me better than anyone else does. If I just don’t seem right
to you, trust your instincts.
Health
85
Common concerns
You should check with your doctor anytime your baby is sick. Fevers, colds, diarrhea, and other
illnesses in a baby under 6 months of age can be serious. This section covers conditions that you may
wonder about but which aren’t usually serious.
Baby pimples
Cradle cap
Many babies get little white pimples on their face.
They’re caused by oil in the baby’s skin.
Cradle cap is a dry, yellowish crust on the scalp.
Leave them alone. Continue to wash baby’s face
with warm, clear water. These pimples won’t hurt
your baby and they will go away on their own.
To prevent cradle cap:
You may be able to prevent cradle cap by:
•
•
Don’t try to pick off the cradle cap.
Both boy and girl babies may have swollen
breasts or genitals after they’re born. Girl babies
may have a little bit of bleeding from their vagina.
These are caused by hormones from their
mother’s pregnancy. They’re normal and will
go away on their own.
It’s normal for a baby boy to get erections. The
penis gets hard for no reason. This is nothing to
worry about.
Some racial or ethnic groups have health issues
that are of particular concern to their community.
Talk with your health care provider if you are
concerned about a health issue of this kind.
86
Brushing baby’s hair and scalp every day.
To treat cradle cap:
Swollen genitals and breasts,
erections
Added info...
Rinsing well after washing baby’s head
or hair.
1. Rub vegetable oil, baby oil, or mineral oil into your baby’s scalp. Be careful to keep it out of his eyes.
2. Leave it overnight or for at least 15 to 20 minutes.
3. Wash the oil off.
4.Brush gently with a fine-tooth comb to remove the cradle cap.
5.Do this every day until the cradle cap is gone.
See your baby’s doctor if this doesn’t clear up the
cradle cap.
Health
Flat head has become more common since
babies sleep on their backs to prevent SIDS.
This is because new babies have soft skulls.
If babies are always in the same position, the
back or side of their head can get flattened.
Flat head can be serious. If you have
concerns about it, talk to your health care
provider.
To prevent flat head:
• Change your baby’s position in the crib from day to day. One day lay her with her head at the top of the crib. The next, with her head at the foot of the crib.
• Hang a mobile or other interesting thing on the side of the crib facing the room. This will give her a reason to change the position of her head.
• Give your baby lots of awake time on her tummy. It’s important that babies sleep on their back. But when your baby is awake and someone is with her, lay her on her tummy. Make tummy time fun.
Lie on the floor with your baby and play together. Or lie on the floor with baby
laying tummy down on your chest.
Added info...
Your baby can get flat head from spending
too much time in any reclining seat—a car
seat, baby seat, or stroller.
If your baby spends lots of time in a seat,
be sure she has lots of time on her tummy
when she’s awake.
Pee and poop
Pee
Baby pee should be light yellow and not
too smelly. Check with your health care
provider if your baby’s pee:
• Has a strong smell
• Is dark yellow
Common concerns
Flat head
Poop
Your baby’s poop will look different as your
baby grows.
• Right after birth, his poop will be black and sticky.
• During the first week, it turns greenish brown.
• After the first week, a breastfed baby’s poop will be yellowish and runny. Sometimes it looks as if it has seeds in it. After the first month, it’s okay for a breastfed baby to go
several days without pooping. This doesn’t mean that he’s constipated.
Your baby may be constipated if his poop is
hard and dry and:
• He’s fussy and seems uncomfortable.
• He seems to be straining to poop.
• He isn’t pooping as often as usual.
If this happens, call your health care provider.
Call your health care provider if your baby’s
poop smells bad, is watery, and is different
from the way it usually looks. A baby with
diarrhea can lose a lot of fluid. This can make
him very sick, very fast.
Health
87
Dental health
Healthy baby teeth are important for overall health. Pain and infection from tooth decay can make it
hard for a child to sleep, chew, and grow normally. They make it difficult for her to concentrate and to
learn. Baby teeth also help shape your child’s face and guide adult teeth into place.
Good dental health starts even before the baby teeth come in. Make cleaning your baby’s mouth fun!
Sing a song. Make up stories about cleaning away the germs.
Baby teeth are worth taking care of! Start early to keep your baby cavity free for life.
Mouth and gum care
Clean the inside of your baby’s mouth once a day.
•
•
Wash your hands.
Wrap a clean damp facecloth around your
finger.
•
Wipe the inside of baby’s mouth and around the gums.
Added info...
Germs that cause cavities can pass from your
mouth to your baby. To protect your baby, take
care of your own dental health.
Keep your own teeth and mouth clean. You will
set a good example for your baby and there will
be fewer cavity-causing germs in your mouth to
pass along.
Most babies get their first tooth at around
6 months. If your baby gets a tooth
sooner, check the “Health” section of
Loving Care: 6 to 12 Months for information
on taking care of her teeth.
88
Health
Soothers
Sucking is natural for babies. Many babies
are happy sucking on their fists or fingers.
Some enjoy a soother.
Teething is a natural process during which your
baby’s teeth push through the gums. Most
babies’ first teeth start to come in at around 6
months. Some start teething a little earlier,
some start a little later.
If you give your baby a soother:
Teething can make your baby restless and fussy.
Some parents have found that these ideas help
their baby feel better.
•
Give your baby something safe to chew on—for example, a cold, damp face cloth or a cold—but not frozen—teething ring. Whatever you give your baby to chew on should be clean. Wash it often. Use warm soapy water. Rinse well.
•
Massage your baby’s gums using a clean finger.
Fever or diarrhea is not a normal part of teething.
If your baby has a fever or diarrhea for more than
24 hours, call your doctor.
Dental health
Teething
•
Don’t dip a soother in anything, especially honey. Honey can cause infant
botulism, a kind of food poisoning that only affects babies.
•
•
Make sure the soother can’t come apart.
Keep it clean. Use warm soapy water, and rinse it well before giving it to your baby.
•
Get a new one when it becomes sticky or has cracks or tears.
•
Don’t put a soother on a string around baby’s neck. Strings can choke.
•
Don’t pin soothers to clothes. Pins can hurt or be swallowed.
If your baby continues to be restless or fussy,
check with your health care provider.
DON’T use teething gels. They can affect your baby’s health or cause choking by making the throat numb.
Check with your dentist, health care provider, or pharmacist if you think your
baby might need medicine for teething
pain. Ask which kind to use and how
much is best for your baby.
Your baby wants you to know...
I need your loving care most
when I’m feeling fussy.
Health
89
Car safety.................................................................... 92
Safety at home............................................................. 93
• Baby furniture....................................................... 93
• Baby slings .......................................................... 94
• Toys ................................................................... 95
Protect your baby......................................................... 96
• Falls.................................................................... 96
• Overheating ......................................................... 96
• Pets .................................................................... 96
• Choking................................................................ 96
• Drowning............................................................. 97
• Burns .................................................................. 97
A smoke-free home and car........................................... 98
90
Safety
Safety
Car safety
Car crashes are a major cause of death and
serious injury. When you use the right car seat in
the right way, you can reduce the risk that your
baby will be hurt or killed by 70%.
Buy your baby’s car seat in Canada.
Car seats purchased outside of Canada—or
on-line from non-Canadian sources—do not
meet Canada’s safety standards.
In New Brunswick, it is the law that your baby
must be in a car seat whenever she is in a
car or truck. This includes your own car and
grandparents’ or caregivers’ cars.
It is illegal to use any car seat that does not
carry Canada’s national safety mark.
A rear-facing car seat gives the best protection
for your baby’s head and neck.
Keep your baby in a rear-facing car seat from
birth until she is at least 1 year old and until she
weighs at least 10 kg (22 lbs). Once your baby
is too heavy or too tall for the infant seat, use a
larger rear-facing seat. Many seats can be used
rear-facing until your baby weighs up to 18 kg (40
lbs).
Before you buy, check with Transport Canada
to be sure there have been no problems or
recalls with the car seat you are considering
(contact information, page 107).
Look for this safety mark.
A rear-facing car seat is safest for your baby.
Keep your baby in a rear-facing seat until she
reaches the seat’s height or weight limit.
You’ll find information on how to choose and
install car seats in Keep Kids Safe: A Parent’s
Guide to Car Seats. You’ll find a copy in the
back of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Never leave your baby alone in a car,
not even for a few minutes.
In New Brunswick, it is illegal to smoke in a
car with children present.
Your baby needs a smoke-free car! This
includes your own car and any others your
baby rides in.
You’ll find information about a smoke-free
home and car on page 98.
92
Safety
Baby furniture
Whether you are buying new or second-hand
baby furniture or borrowing furniture from friends
or family, whatever you use should be clean,
sturdy, and meet safety standards. Buy only
CSA approved cribs, cradles, playpens and
strollers.
Buy safe baby furniture and equipment.
Use it safely. Follow the directions that
come with it. Always use any safety straps
that come with the product.
Strollers
Second-hand baby furniture is not always
safe. Do not use or buy second-hand
baby furniture unless:
Buying safe strollers
• Made after 1985. They should have a label that says who made it, when it was made, and gives a model number.
• The manufacturer’s name, the model number, and the date when it was made are marked on the product.
• The right size for baby’s age and weight.
• The product comes with directions for putting it together and using it safely.
• Good brakes and well-attached wheels.
Before you buy or use second-hand
furniture, check with Consumer Product
Safety (contact information, page 107).
• Sturdy safety belt that is solidly attached to the frame.
Car safety Safety at home
Safety at home
Using strollers safely
• Never leave your child alone in a stroller.
Added info...
• Always use the safety belts. Be sure your baby stays seated in the stroller.
• Use the brakes whenever the stroller is stopped. Use them when putting your baby into, or taking him out of, the stroller.
• Don’t pad the stroller with pillows or
blankets. These can cause suffocation.
You can find information about recalls of
baby toys and furniture from Consumer
Product Safety (Contact information, page
107).
You can find more information about the
safety and safe use of baby furniture and
products at Child Safety Link (Contact
information, page 107).
• Don’t use the stroller on an escalator.
• Check the stroller often to be sure it’s in good repair.
Safety
93
Cribs
Bassinettes
Buying safe cribs
Bassinettes are not regulated in Canada.
• Made after 1986. The crib should have a label that says who made it, when it was made, and gives a model number.
Buying bassinettes
• Sturdy base. If the bassinette has wheels, they should lock in place.
• Sturdy. It should be built with screws and bolts. Nothing should rattle or come loose when you shake it.
• Firm, well-fitting mattress. You should not be able to fit more than 2 fingers between the mattress and the side of the crib. The
mattress should be no more than 15 cm (6 in.) thick.
• Easy to put together. The crib should come with clear, easy to understand directions.
Using cribs safely
• Place the crib away from windows. Be sure there are no blind cords, curtains, or electrical cords within reach.
• Move the mattress to its lowest level as soon as your baby can sit up.
• Bumper pads can cause suffocation. Keep
pillows, stuffed animals, and heavy blankets out of the crib.
• Don’t put your baby in the crib with a soother on a cord or string.
Right size for your baby. Many bassinettes are not safe if your baby weighs more than
6.8 kg (15 pounds), is older than 4 months, or can roll over.
• Should not rock from side to side.
Using bassinettes
• Follow the manufacturer’s instructions
carefully. Call the manufacturer if you have questions or have lost the instructions.
Baby slings
• Keep the side rails locked in place when your baby is in the crib.
• Don’t harness or tie your baby in a crib.
•
Many parents find slings to be a cozy way to
carry their baby. However, when not used
correctly, slings can cause suffocation.
A baby can suffocate in a sling for two reasons:
• Her face is pressed against your chest or the
sling.
• She’s curled up in a position where her chin is
on her chest.
Every time you use a sling:
• Check to be sure that it is in good shape—no
rips, tears, or damaged hardware.
• Keep the baby’s head above the edge of the
sling.
Cradles are only safe until your baby can roll over
or is 6 months old.
• Make sure her face is not pressing into your
body.
When you use a sling, make sure that you can
always see your baby’s face.
94
Safety
Safety at home
Toys
Toys that are safe for older children are not
always safe for babies. Check your baby’s toys
often. Throw away broken or damaged toys.
Check the toy package for safety information.
Read and follow all directions. Throw away all
plastic, cellophane, or styrofoam package
materials.
Safe baby toys:
• Are right for your baby’s age
• Have no sharp points or edges
• Have no small parts that could break or pull off
• Are bigger than your baby’s fist—too big to swallow or choke on
Added info...
First aid for children can be different from what
you would do for an adult. Many parents take a
first aid course to learn what to do if their child is
hurt.
St. John Ambulance and the Red Cross both
offer first aid courses. Check to see what’s
offered near you (contact information, page
107).
Babies love to chew. Anything a baby can hold
will go right into his mouth.
Be sure anything your baby plays with is clean
and safe to chew on.
Safety
95
Protect your baby
Your baby is always safest when someone is
watching her. Never leave your baby alone
unless she is in a safe crib or playpen. It takes
only a second for your baby to get hurt.
Falls
•
On a change table, use the safety strap and keep at least one hand on your baby at all times. Consider using the floor instead of a table so your baby can’t fall.
•
Overheating
• During hot weather:
Never leave your baby alone with a pet that could hurt her—for example, a dog or cat. Talk to your vet about the best way to
introduce your pet to the new baby.
You’ll find information on pet and animal safety
in the “Families” section of Loving Care:
Parents and Families.
• Unless your baby is in a safe crib, never leave her alone with no one watching. Babies can
wiggle off of a sofa or other surface.
• Infants and small children overheat easily in hot, humid weather. Overheating can cause serious health problems.
Pets
Choking
• Keep anything small enough to fit into your baby’s mouth out of reach.
• Avoid clothing with long belts, strings, or ties.
• Keep your baby in cool, shady places.
• Don’t prop a bottle anywhere— for example, in a crib, car seat, or stroller.
• Dress her in light clothing.
• Don’t put your baby to bed with a bottle. • Give her baths in lukewarm water to help keep her cool.
• Feed your baby more often to give her the fluid she needs. Babies don’t need to drink water.
• Use fans or air conditioners indoors.
Humidex and Health Advisories are issued when
the weather is hot enough to cause concern.
Listen for these on local radio and TV stations on
very hot days.
96
Safety
Propping or putting your baby to bed with a bottle
can also cause early childhood tooth decay (for
more information on dental health see page 88).
• Hold on when bathing your baby. Don’t leave her alone or turn your back. Babies can drown in just 2.5 cm (1 inch) of water.
• Don’t use a baby bath seat or bath ring in the tub. Health Canada warns parents that baby bath seats can cause drowning.
Protect your baby
Drowning
Burns
• Don’t carry hot liquids when you’re carrying your baby.
• Don’t drink anything hot while you’re feeding her.
• Don’t hold your baby while cooking.
•
Check the temperature of the bath water before you put the baby in. The water should be lukewarm. Check the temperature by
dipping your elbow into the water. If it feels hot to you, it’s too hot for your baby.
•
Make sure your home has a working smoke alarm on every floor. For information on fire safety, see the “Families” section of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Babies under 1 year should not be in direct
sunlight.
You’ll find information on sun safety and
preventing sunburn in the “Families” section of
Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Safety
97
A smoke-free home and car
One of the best things you can do for your baby’s
health is to give her a smoke-free home and car.
• Ear and lung infections
There is no level of tobacco smoke that is
safe for your baby. Tobacco smoke hurts
babies in several ways.
In New Brunswick, it is illegal to smoke in a
car with children present. Second- and thirdhand smoke in cars is even more dangerous than
smoke indoors. The smoke in a car builds up
quickly, even with the window down. Smoking
in the small space inside a car is 23 times more
toxic than smoking in a home. Even if you only
smoke in your car when your baby isn’t present,
she will be exposed to the third-hand smoke on
the car seats and upholstery.
•
Second-hand smoke is smoke that babies breathe in. It’s smoke that you can see in the air. Second-hand smoke is even more dangerous for babies than for adults. Babies have smaller lungs and they breathe more quickly. This means they breathe in more smoke.
•
Third-hand smoke is smoke that babies pick up through their skin and mouth.
The poisons in tobacco smoke stick to
everything they touch—for example, toys, clothes, sheets, towels, carpets, furniture, and dishes. Babies are exposed to
third-hand smoke just by living in a house where people smoke. They crawl on floors, sit on furniture, play with—or chew on—
toys, and touch clothes, sheets, and towels that are all covered with third-hand smoke. These poisons stay around for a long time. When someone smokes in a house or car, the third-hand smoke they leave behind can affect a baby months later.
• Asthma
Your baby can’t control the amount of
second- and third-hand smoke she’s exposed to.
Only you can do that. Air exchangers and open
windows will not protect your baby. The only
way to protect your child is to make sure no one
smokes in your home or your car.
Ask others who care about your baby not to
smoke in their home when your baby is there.
Remind them that it’s illegal to smoke in their
car when a child is present.
There is a link between babies who live with
tobacco smoke and several serious illnesses.
These include:
• Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
• Childhood cancer
• Leukemia
• Brain cancer
98
Safety
A smoke-free home and car
You’ll find more information on stopping
smoking in the “Parents” section of Loving Care:
Parents and Families.
You can also contact the Smokers’ Helpline.
(Contact information, page 108).
Safety
99
Provincial Services..........................102
Other Resources and Services............... 105
• Child Protection Services................................. 102
• Autism Agencies................................................ 105
• Addiction Services............................................. 102
• Department of Education and
Early Childhood Development.......................... 102
• Department of Social Development................. 103
• First Nation Community Health Centres.......... 103
• Healthy Environments....................................... 103
• Healthy Smiles, Clear Vision............................. 103
• Mental Health Centres....................................... 103
• New Brunswick Courts...................................... 104
• New Brunswick’s Family Law
Information Centre............................................. 104
• New Brunswick Fetal Alcohol Spectrum
Disorder (FASD) Centre of Excellence............ 104
• Office of the Attorney General.......................... 104
• Prescription Drug Program............................... 104
• Public Health Offices......................................... 104
• Regional Health Authorities.............................. 105
• Horizon Health Network................................. 105
• Vitalité Health Network.................................. 105
• Adoptive and Foster Families........................... 105
• Breastfeeding Support...................................... 105
• Cancer Resources.............................................. 105
• Childcare Resources......................................... 105
• Communicable Diseases................................... 106
• Family and Early Childhood.............................. 106
• Family Resource Centres.................................. 106
• Family Resource Centres for
the Military.......................................................... 106
• First Nations Family Support............................ 106
• Food Safety Resources..................................... 106
• Hearing and Speech.......................................... 107
• Libraries.............................................................. 107
• Literacy Resources............................................ 107
• Multiple Birth Families....................................... 107
• Newcomer/Immigrant Families......................... 107
• Nutrition.............................................................. 107
• Physical Activity................................................. 107
• Safety Resources............................................... 107
• Smoking Resources........................................... 108
• Tele-Care............................................................. 108
• Transition Houses.............................................. 108
• Women’s Services............................................. 108
100
Support and Information
Support and Information
SUPPORT AND INFORMATION
Provincial Services
Addiction Services
Website: www.gnb.ca/0378/addiction-e.asp
• Bathurst.........................................(506) 547-2086
• Campbellton..................................(506) 789-7055
• Edmundston..................................(506) 735-2092
• Fredericton....................................(506) 452-5558
• Miramichi.......................................(506) 778-6111
• Moncton........................................(506) 856-2333
• Saint John.....................................(506) 674-4300
• Tracadie-Sheila.............................(506) 394-3615
• Anglophone School District East
..................................................... 1-888-746-1333
• Anglophone School District South
..................................................... 1-877-492-8255
• Anglophone School District West:
• Fredericton................................ 1-877-691-8800
• Woodstock................................ 1-866-423-8800
• District scolaire francophone nord-ouest
......................................................(506) 739-2863
• District scolaire francophone nord-est:
• Restigouche...............................(506) 789-2014
Child Protection Services
If you have concerns about a child call your local
Social Development Regional office. See Department
of Social Development
Report abuse: 1-888-992-2873
Website: www.gnb.ca/children Click on “Be Vigilant,
Report Child Abuse Booklet”
• Chaleur......................................(506) 544-2492
• Péninsule...................................(506) 394-3220
• District scolaire francophone sud
..................................................... 1-877-869-2040
Department of Education and Early
Childhood Development
You’ll find information and resources for Education
and Early Childhood Development in New Brunswick.
Website: www.gnb.ca\education
Talk With Me:
An Early Language Service that offers free information
and training to parents, community partners and the
general public. It helps prevent communication and
learning difficulties for all children from birth to 5 years
of age.
To find out more on the programs and services in your
area, contact your local school district:
• Anglophone School District North
..................................................... 1-888-623-6363
102
Support and Information
Department of Social Development
Website: www.gnb.ca\socialdevelopment
You can connect with Social Development Regional
Offices through this website.
Social Development Regional Offices:
• Redbank Metepenagiag Health Centre
......................................................(506) 836-6120
• St.Mary’s Medical Clinic, Fredericton
......................................................(506) 452-2750
• Tobique wellness Centre..............(506) 273-5430
• Acadian Peninsula....................... 1-866-441-4149
• Woodstock First Nation Health Centre
......................................................(506) 325-3570
• Edmundston................................. 1-866-441-4249
Healthy Environments
• Chaleur......................................... 1-866-441-4341
• Fredericton................................... 1-866-444-8838
• Miramichi...................................... 1-866-441-4246
• Moncton....................................... 1-866-426-5191
• Restigouche................................. 1-866-441-4245
• Saint John.................................... 1-866-441-4340
Wellness: For information about programs and
services in your community.
Website: http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/
departments/social_development/wellness.html
First Nation Community Health Centres
There are Community Health Centres on all First
Nations reserves in New Brunswick.
• Elsipogtog Health and Wellness Centre
......................................................(506) 523-8227
• Bouctouche First Nation Health Centre
......................................................(506) 743-2537
You’ll find information and resources for health
protection in New Brunswick
Website: www.gnb.ca/publichealth
Regional Health Protection Branch Offices:
Bathurst........................................ (506) 549-5550
Fredericton.................................... (506) 453-2830
Moncton........................................ (506) 856-2814
Saint John..................................... (506) 658-3022
Healthy Smiles, Clear Vision
The Department of Social Development manages the
Dental and Vision Program.
Website: www.gnb.ca/children Click on “Healthy
Smiles, Clear Vision”
Mental Health Centres
Website: www.gnb.ca/0055/mental-health-e.asp
• Burnt Church Wellness Centre
......................................................(506) 776-1246
• Bathurst.........................................(506) 547-2110
• Eel River Bar Health Centre.........(506) 684-6297
• Edmundston..................................(506) 735-2070
• Indian Island First Nation .............(506) 523-9795
• Grand Falls....................................(506) 475-2440
• Campbellton..................................(506) 789-2440
• Eel Ground Health Centre.............(506) 627-4693
• Caraquet.......................................(506) 726-2030
• Fort Folly First Nation Health........(506) 379-3400
• Fredericton....................................(506) 453-2132
• Kingsclear First Nation Health Centre
......................................................(506) 363-4001
• Grand Manan................................(506) 662-7023
• Madawaska Maliseet First Nation Health
......................................................(506) 735-0676
• Oromocto Wel-A-Mook-Took Health Centre
......................................................(506) 357-1027
• Pabineau First Nation Health Centre
......................................................(506) 547-4204
• Kedgwick.......................................(506) 284-3431
• Miramichi.......................................(506) 778-6111
• Moncton (Horizon).........................(506) 856-2444
• Moncton (Vitalité)..........................(506) 862-4144
• Perth-Andover...............................(506) 273-4701
Support and Information
103
• Richibucto.....................................(506) 523-7620
Prescription Drug Program
• Saint John.....................................(506) 658-3737
• Shediac.........................................(506) 533-2816
For information about which drugs are covered:
Phone: 1-800-332-3692
• St. George.....................................(506) 755-4044
Public Health Offices
• Sackville........................................(506) 856-2444
• Shippagan.....................................(506) 336-3367
• St. Stephen...................................(506) 466-7380
• Sussex..........................................(506) 432-2090
• Tracadie-Sheila.............................(506) 394-3760
• Woodstock....................................(506) 325-4419
New Brunswick Courts
The New Brunswick Courts website provides
information for matters related to family court.
Website: www.gnb.ca/cour
New Brunswick’s Family Law Information
Centre
This website offers general information and resources
about family law in New Brunswick such as child
custody and access. If you have questions about how
the courts work, court rules, and court procedures,
you can call the toll-free Family Law Information Line.
Phone: 1-888-236-2444
Website: www.familylawnb.ca
New Brunswick Fetal Alcohol Spectrum
Disorder (FASD) Centre of Excellence
(506) 869-2147
Office of the Attorney General
Check this website for basic information about family
law in New Brunswick.
Website: http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/
departments/attorney_general/services.html
104
Website: www.gnb.ca/0051/0212/index-e.asp
Website: www.gnb.ca/publichealth
• Bathurst.........................................(506) 547-2062
• Blackville.......................................(506) 843-2956
• Boiestown......................................(506) 453-5200
• Campbellton..................................(506) 789-2266
• Caraquet.......................................(506) 726-2025
• Chipman........................................(506) 453-5200
• Dalhousie......................................(506) 789-2266
• Edmundston..................................(506) 735-2065
• Fredericton....................................(506) 453-5200
• Grand Falls....................................(506) 475-2441
• Grand Manan................................(506) 662-7024
......................................................(506) 755-4022
• Kedgwick.......................................(506) 284-3422
• Miramichi.......................................(506) 778-6102
• Moncton........................................(506) 856-2401
• Neguac..........................................(506) 776-3824
• Oromocto......................................(506) 453-5200
• Perth-Andover.............................. 1-888-829-6444
• Plaster Rock................................. 1-888-829-6444
• Richibucto.....................................(506) 523-7607
• Sackville........................................(506) 364-4080
• Saint John.....................................(506) 658-2454
• Shediac.........................................(506) 533-3354
• Shippagan.....................................(506) 336-3061
• St. George.....................................(506) 755-4022
• St. Stephen...................................(506) 466-7504
..................................................... 1-888-476-3555
• Sussex......................................... 1-800-545-8008
......................................................(506) 432-2003
• Tracadie-Sheila.............................(506) 394-3888
• Woodstock................................... 1-888-829-6444
Support and Information
Regional Health Authorities
The Regional Health Authorities are good sources of
information about local programs and services.
Horizon Health Network
Website: http://www.horizonnb.ca/
Phone: (506) 623-5500
Toll-Free: 1-888-820-5444
Northwestern NB including Edmundston/Grand Falls/
Saint-Quentin/Kedgwick
Sylvie-Line Michaud
Phone: (506) 733-1691
Saint John Region, St. Stephen & Fundy Isles
Stepping Stones Fundy Region Inc.
Phone: (506) 693-9858
Vitalité Health Network
Website: www.vitalitenb.ca/en
Phone: (506) 544-2133
Toll-Free: 1-888-472-2220
Breastfeeding Support
Other Resources
and Services
www.facebook.com/breastfeedingnb.allaitementnb
For information on breastfeeding:
Website: www.gnb.ca/publichealth Click on “Healthy
People” and then Click on “Baby Friendly Initiative and
Breastfeeding.”
Information about pregnancy and breastfeeding
www.nb.unvanl.ca
Adoptive and Foster Families
La Leche League Canada
Website: www.lllc.ca
French: http://www.allaitement.ca/
Adoption Council of Canada
Website: www.adoption.ca; 1-888-542-3678 (Toll free)
Cancer Resources
Adoptive parents can contact a local Social
Development office for support and advice. You’ll find
contact information at: Website: www.gnb.ca/children
New Brunswick Adoption Foundation
Website: www.nbadoption.ca
Phone: (506) 832-0676
Cancer Information Service
Phone: 1-888-939-3333 (Toll free)
(Monday to Friday, 9am to 6pm)
Canadian Cancer Society
Website: www.cancer.ca
Autism Agencies
New Brunswick Cancer Network
Website: www.gnb.ca/0051/cancer/index-e.asp
Campbellton/Acadian Peninsula/Bathurst /Miramichi
Bay Chaleur
Autism Behavioral Intervention Center Inc.
Phone: (506) 542-2344
Child Day Care Services
For information about Autism Agencies call the
agency nearest you.
Fredericton Region Autism Intervention Services
Phone: (506) 455-7048
Moncton/Sussex/Kent
Autism Consultants NB Inc.
Phone: (506) 386-2262
You can find information about childcare in your
community through the Department of Education and
Early Childhood Development
Website: http://www.gnb.ca/0000/ELCC.asp
Early Childhood Care and Education New Brunswick:
(506) 454-4765 Toll free: 1-888-834-7070
Nackawic to Perth-Andover/Plaster
Rock River Valley Intervention Group
Phone: (506) 392-6458
Support and Information
105
Communicable Diseases
For information on Communicable Diseases:
Website: www.gnb.ca/publichealth
Click on “Diseases and Conditions A-Z”
• Kent Family Resource Centre, Richibucto
......................................................(506) 524-9192
• Kings County Family Resource Centre, Sussex
......................................................(506) 433-2349
Family and Early Childhood
For information on the services offered by Family and
Early Childhood call the agency in your school district.
Anglophone School District South:
Family and Early Childhood South: 1-855-383-5437
Anglophone School District West:
Family and Early Childhood West: 1-855-454-3762
Anglophone School District North:
Family and Early Childhood North: 1-855-778-6532
Anglophone School District East:
Family and Early Childhood East: 1-855-238-3694
District scolaire francophone Nord-Est :
Famille et petite enfance Nord-Est: 1-855-993-0993
District scolaire francophone Nord-Ouest :
Famille et petite enfance Nord-Ouest: 1-855-480-4060
District scolaire francophone Sud :
Famille et petite enfance Francophone Sud:
1-855-840-6269
• Madawaska Victoria Family Resource Centre,
Grand Falls....................................(506) 473-6351
• Restigouche Resource Centre for Parents,
Campbellton..................................(506) 753-4172
• Northumberland County Family Resource Centre,
Miramichi.......................................(506) 622-5103
• Valley Family Resource Centre, Woodstock
......................................................(506) 325-2299
Family Resource Centres for the Military
Gagetown Military Family Resource Centre
Phone: (506) 422-3352 or 1-800-866-4546
First Nations Family Support
NB Aboriginal Peoples Council........ (506) 458-8422
Fredericton Native Friendship Centre.(506) 459-5283
Gignoo Transition House................ (506) 458-1236
................. and 24 hour Crisis Line 1-800-565-6878
Skigin Elnoog Housing................... (506) 459-7161
Under One Sky Daycare................. (506) 458-9269
Family Resource Centres
Website: www.frc-crf.com/home.cfm
• Acadian Peninsula Family Resource Centre,
Caraquet.......................................(506) 727-1860
Food Safety Resources
• Chaleur Resource Centre for Parents
Bathurst.........................................(506) 545-6608
Health Canada offers information about food safety.
www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/eating-nutrition/safetysalubrite/index-eng.php
• Care N’ Share Family Resource Centre Inc.,
Chipman........................................(506) 339-6726
• Family Resource Centre of Charlotte County, St
Stephen.........................................(506) 465-8181
• Family Resource Centre, Saint John
......................................................(506) 633-2182
• Fredericton Regional Family Resource Centre
......................................................(506) 474-0252
106
• Childhood Family Resource Centre of WestmorlandAlbert.............................................(506) 384-7874
FightBac offers information on handling and storing
food safely.
Website: www.canfightbac.org/en/
Health Canada offers more information about mercury
levels in fish.
Website: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/
environ/mercur/cons-adv-etud-eng.php
Support and Information
Hearing and Speech
Nutrition
Libraries
Physical Activity
New Brunswick Audiology departments are located in
your local hospital.
NB Public Library Service
Website: www.gnb.ca/libraries
Active for Life
Website: www.activeforlife.com
Literacy Resources
Literacy Coalition of NB (LCNB)
Website: www.nbliteracy.ca
Phone: (506) 457-1227, 1-800-563-2211
Conseil pour le développement de l’alphabétisme et
des compétences des adultes du Nouveau-Brunswick
(CODACNB)
Website : www.codacnb.ca
Phone : 1 800 720-6253
Born to Read program
Website: www.borntoreadnb.com
Multiple Birth Families
Moncton
Website: www.monctonmultiples.com
Phone: (506) 204-2203
Fredericton
Fredericton Area Moms of Multiples
Website: www.multiplebirthscanada.org/~fredericton
Phone: (506) 455-8365
Newcomer/Immigrant Families
Website: www.bienvenuenb.ca
Click on “Immigrating and Settling.”
New Brunswick Multicultural Council
Website: www.nb-mc.ca/
Phone: (506) 453-1091
For information on reading Nutrition Facts labels
Website: www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/dailyvalue
Safety Resources
Canadian Red Cross Society, NB
Website: www.redcross.ca
Phone: (506) 674-6200
Child Safety Link
Website: www.childsafetylink.ca
Phone: 1-866-288-1388
Consumer Product Safety (Health Canada)
Website: www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/index-eng.php
Click on “Consumer products”.
Phone: 1-866-662-0666
Health Canada
For more information about lead-based paint
Website: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/securitysecurite/home-maison/lead_paint-peinture_
plomb-eng.php
Kids’ Help Line
Website: www.kidshelpphone.ca
Phone: 1-800-668-6868
Parachute
www.parachutecanada.org
Phone: 1-888-537-7777
St. John Ambulance
Website: www.sja.ca Select “New Brunswick.”
Phone: 1-800-563-9998
Transport Canada
For car seat safety information.
Website: www.tc.gc.ca/roadsafety
Click on “Child Safety.”
Phone: 1-800-333-0371
Support and Information
107
Smoking Resources
• Fredericton, Gignoo Transition House,
.............. (506) 458-1236; 1-800-565-6878 (crisis)
Website: www.smokershelpline.ca
Phone: 1-877-513-5333
• Fredericton, Liberty Lane Inc., (506) 451-2120
.................................... (506) 458-9774 (outreach)
New Brunswick Anti-Tobacco Coalition
Website: www.nbatc.ca
Phone: (506) 832-3857
• Fredericton, Women in Transition House Inc.
......................................................(506) 459-2300
Health Canada
Website: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/tobac-tabac/
index-eng.php
• Miramichi Emergency Centre for Women Inc.
......................................................(506) 622-8865
Tele-Care
• Saint John, Hestia House Inc., (506) 634-7571
.......................................... (506) 634-7570 (crisis)
Tele-Care is a free, bilingual, and confidential
telephone service for non-urgent health concerns.
Available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Website: www.gnb.ca/health Click on “Tele-Care 811”
Phone: 811
• Saint John, Second Stage Housing Inc.
......................................................(506) 632-9289
• Ste-Anne-de-Kent, Maison Sérénité/Serenity House 506-743-1530
• St. Stephen, Fundy Region Transition House
......................................................(506) 466-4590
Transition Houses
You can find information about transition houses
on the NB website or contact your local Social
Development office.
Website:
www.gnb.ca/0012/violence/PDF/Freeshelter.pdf
• Bathurst, Maison de Passage House
......................................................(506) 546-9540
• Campbellton, Maison Notre Dame,
......................................................(506) 753-4703
• Edmundston, Escale Madavic,...............................
......................................................(506) 739-6265
108
• Moncton, Crossroads for Women
............... (506) 857-4184; (506) 853-0811 (crisis)
• Sussex Vale Transition House.......... (506) 433-1649
.......................................... (506) 432-6999 (crisis)
• Tracadie-Sheila, Accueil Ste-Famille
......................................................(506) 395-1500
• Woodstock Sanctuary House.......... (506) 325-9452
Women’s Services
Executive Council Office: Women’s Equality
Website: www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/departments/
women/Violence_Prevention_and_Community_
Partnerships.html
Select: “End intimate partner violence”
Support and Information
Support and information
Support and Information
109
Thanks!........................................................................ 112
110
Thanks!
Thanks!
Thanks!
The Nova Scotia Department of Health and
Wellness acknowledges—with thanks!—the
many people whose commitment and concern for
Nova Scotia’s mothers, babies and families have
shaped this book. Your advice, insight, support
and hard work have made this book
possible.
•
In particular, we’d like to thank the Parent Health
Education Resource Working Group whose work
has been at the heart of Loving Care.
•
Parent Health Education Resource
Working Group
•
•
Annette Ryan, Perinatal Nurse Consultant, Reproductive Care Program of Nova Scotia
•
Tina Swinamer, Coordinator, Early Childhood Nutrition, Department of Health and Wellness
Shelley Wilson, Public Health Nutritionist, Southwest Nova District Health Authority
Special thanks to the many people who, over
the years, have contributed to the development
or revision of the Loving Care books.
Jennifer Macdonald (Co-chair), Provincial Health Educator, Department of Health and Wellness
•
Kathy Inkpen (Co-chair), Family Health Coordinator, Department of Health and Wellness
Sue Arsenault, Public Health Nurse, Colchester, East Hants, Cumberland, and Pictou County Health Authorities
Kim Arcon, Community Home Visitor, South West Nova, Annapolis Valley, and South Shore
District Health Authorities
•
•
•
Bonnie Anderson, Public Health Nutritionist, Capital Health
•
Susan DeWolf, Family Support Worker, Extra Support for Parents Volunteer Service, IWK Health Centre
•
Natasha Horne, Community Program Coordinator, Dartmouth Family Centre
•
Rose Couch, Early Childhood Coordinator, Department of Health and Wellness
•
Amy MacAulay, Early Childhood Coordinator, Public Health Services, Capital Health
•
Shelley Thompson, Coordinator, Child Care Centres Policy & Program Development, Department of Community Services
•
•
•
•
Sherry MacDonald, Public Health Nurse, Guysborough Antigonish Strait & Cape Breton District Health Authorities
Vicki MacLean, Public Health Nurse, Colchester East Hants & Pictou County District Health Authorities
•
Kathy Penny, Public Health Nurse, Capital Health
112
Trudy Reid, Public Health Nutritionist, Cumberland Health Authority
Shannon O’Neill, Public Health Dental Hygienist, Public Health Services, Capital Health
Marika Lathem, Early Childhood Development/Community Outreach Specialist, Department of Community Services
Thanks!
Alana Baxter, Program Administration Officer, Family and Youth Services, Department of Community Services
•
Fran Gorman, Public Health Nurse, Public Health Services, South Shore, Southwest, and Annapolis Valley District Health Authorities
•
•
Parents’ Place Family Resource Centre, Yarmouth
•
Kids First Family Resource Centre, Guysborough
•
•
•
•
•
Rita MacAulay, Public Health Nutritionist, Public Health Services, Capital Health
Maggie’s Place Family Resource Centre, Amherst
•
Supportive Housing for Young Mothers, Halifax
•
•
Deanna MacDonald, Regional Prevention Coordinator, New Glasgow District office,
Department of Community Services
•
•
Darlene MacInnis, Regional Prevention Coordinator, Eastern Regional office,
Department of Community Services
•
East Preston Family Resource Centre,
East Preston
Native Council of Nova Scotia, Liverpool
Expert Reviewers
We thank our reviewers for giving
generously of their time and expertise in
reviewing this book.
Pauline Raven, Photo Consultant
Geneviève Flynn, Resource Specialist,
Department of Health and Wellness
•
Michelle Amero, Healthy Eating Coordinator, Department of Health and Wellness
Michelle Newman, Resource Specialist, Department of Health and Wellness
•
We also offer special thanks to the many
public health and community partners who have
contributed to the development of this resource.
Focus Groups
We are especially grateful to the many parents
who participated in the focus groups that
reviewed the various drafts of Loving Care: Birth
to 6 Months. Their generosity in sharing their
experiences and ideas has contributed greatly
to this resource.
•
Dartmouth Family Centre, Dartmouth
Maggie’s Place Family Resource Centre, Truro
Donna Malone, Program Consultant, Community Action Program for Children (CAPC) and Canadian Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP), Public Health Agency of Canada
•
•
Cape Breton Family Place, Sydney
Thanks!
•
ESP (Extra Support for Parents) Group, Bayers Westwood Family Resource Centre, Halifax
Ross Anderson, D.D.S., FRCD(C), Chief of Dentistry, IWK Health Centre
•
Heather Christian, Director of Healthy Development Responsibility Centre, Department of Health and Wellness
•
Janelle Comeau, Directrice du
département des professions de la santé, Coordinatrice du Baccalauréat en service social, Université Sainte Anne
•
Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq, Catherine Knockwood, Maternal Child Health Program Coordinator, for
coordinating a review by member
communities
Thanks!
113
•
Sharon Davis Murdoch, Special Advisor to the Associate Deputy Minister on Diversity and Social Inclusion, Department of Health and Wellness
•
Carolyn d’Entremont, Executive Director, Maggie’s Place (Cumberland)
•
•
•
•
Maren Dietze, Registered Midwife (RM UK) BA
Doris Gillis, PhD Candidate, University of Nottingham, CIHR Fellow, Associate Professor, Department Human Nutrition, St. Francis Xavier University
•
Krista Jangaard, M.D., Neonatal
Co-director, Nova Scotia Reproductive Care Program
•
Charlotte Jesty, Mijua’jij Aqq Ni’n Coordinator, Unama’ki Maternal Child Health Program, Eskasoni
•
Michelle LeDrew, Health Promotion Manager and National Baby Friendly Initiative assessor candidate, Public Health Services, Capital Health •
Joanne MacDonald, M.D., Clinical Director, Reproductive Mental Health, IWK Health Services
•
Steve Machat, Manager, Tobacco Control, Department of Health and Wellness
•
Beverley Madill, Community Health Nurse, Potlotek Health Centre, Chapel Island
•
Hillary Marentette, Volunteer Doula Coordinator, Single Parent Centre, Spryfield
•
Heather McKay, Health Promotion Specialist, Child Safety Link, IWK Health Centre
•
Patricia Millar, Volunteer La Leche League Canada Leader, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
114
Kim Mundle, Car Seat Safety Specialist, Child Safety Link, IWK Health Centre
•
Tanya Poulette, Community Health Nurse, Membertou Wellness Centre
Dan Steeves, Nicotine Specialist, Capital Addiction Services
•
Gaynor Watson-Creed, M.D., Medical Officer of Health, Public Health Services, Capital Health
•
Tracey Williams, M.D.,Paediatric physician, Colchester East Hants Health Authority
Families Volunteering for Photo Shoots
We are especially grateful to the Nova Scotian
families whose photos appear in this book. Your
bright and beautiful children make this book
special.
Loving Care
Loving Care
1 to 3 Years
All four Loving Care books
can be downloaded at:
www.gnb.ca/publichealth
Loving Care is given free of charge
to all new parents in New Brunswick.
Loving Care
Birth to 6 Months
10575 April 2016
2016
New Brunswick Department of Health
www.gnb.ca/health
Adapted and reprinted with written permission from the Province of Nova Scotia in 2016.
Aussi disponible en français
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