Loving Care 6 to 12 Months

Loving Care 6 to 12 Months
Loving Care
6 to 12 Months
Loving Care: 6 to 12 Months
Loving Care is a series of four books for parents of children from birth to age 3 developed by Nova Scotia’s Department of
Health and Wellness. As a public health resource, Loving Care focuses on information that will help young families to protect,
promote, or improve their health, and to prevent illness, injury or disability.
Three of the Loving Care books focus on babies and children at specific ages—Birth to 6 Months, 6 to 12 Months, and 1 to 3 Years. The
fourth book—Loving Care: Parents and Families—offers information that will be useful to families whatever their child’s age. You’ll find
references to Parents and Families in all of the other books.
Loving Care
Loving Care
Loving Care
Loving Care
Birth to 6 Months
6 to 12 Months
1 to 3 Years
Parents and Families
Writing: Janis Wood Catano, Easy-to-Read Writing
Design: Derek Sarty, GaynorSarty
Photography: Shirley Robb, Communications Nova Scotia; Peter Barss; Margo Gesser
When referring to this resource, please cite it as follows:
Parent Health Education Resource Working Group. Loving Care: 6 to 12 Months.
[Halifax]: Nova Scotia Department of Health and Wellness, 2015. reprinted (Fredericton): Province of New Brunswick, 2016.
ISBN: 978-1-4605-0665-3 (print edition)
ISBN: 978-1-4605-0666-0 (PDF: English)
Crown Copyright, Province of Nova Scotia, 2009, Revised 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015.
All rights reserved. Adapted with permission by the Province of New Brunswick. Adapted and reprinted with written
permission form the Province of Nova Scotia
The information in this book is up-to-date as of the date of printing. This information is not a substitute for the advice of a
health professional.
Loving Care
6 to 12 Months
Introduction
Loving care is what every
baby needs. It’s what
every parent wants to
give.
Loving Care is the title of this series of books for
parents. Each book gives information based on
the age of your baby or child. We try to answer
the questions you’ll have as your tiny newborn
grows into a busy toddler. This book gives you
information about your baby from age 6 to 12
months.
Babies are born into many kinds of families. You
may be on your own, married or in a relationship.
You may be a parent by birth, adoption or
fostering. You may have lots of family around or
be far from home. You may have one baby, or
two, or more!
Babies are raised by many different kinds of
parents. You may be young or an older parent,
able-bodied or living with a disability. You may be
gay, lesbian, bisexual, or straight. You may be
male, female, or transgender. You may be
Aboriginal, new to Canada or from a family who’s
Added info...
The information in all of the Loving Care
books applies mainly to healthy, full-term babies.
If your baby is premature or has special needs,
you’ll still find these books helpful. However, you
may want to look for more information from your
health care provider and other sources.
lived here for generations with Acadian, African,
Asian, European, or Middle-Eastern roots.
This book is written for all the parents and
families that make New Brunswick a good place
to live.
All babies need love and care. All kinds of
parents and all kinds of families can give babies
the love and care they need.
All parents wonder if they’ll be a good parent, if
they’ll know what to do. You grow and learn as
a parent by watching and listening to your baby.
Your baby grows and learns with your love and
support.
Don’t forget about Loving Care: Parents and
Families. It contains information that will
continue to be helpful as your baby grows.
Life is a journey of discovery that you and your
baby are taking together. No parent starts out
having all the answers. Every day brings
something new. You and your baby will both
discover new skills and new strengths as you go
along.
We hope these books will help you on your
journey and will help you to make your own
decisions about what’s best for you and your
family.
He or she ?
In this book, we take turns using “he” or “she.”
Please know that whichever word we use,
the information applies to both boys and girls.
In Loving Care we use the term “health care provider”
to mean professionals who offer primary health care
services to parents and families.
Don’t forget about Loving Care: Parents and
Families. It contains information that will continue
to be helpful as your baby grows.
As well, Public Health Services and many other
professionals and community resources are available
to offer advice and support.
You’ll find more information in the “Welcome” section
of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Contents
Attachment
Building love, trust, and confidence................. 2
Temperament................................................... 4
Different temperaments................................... 5
Development
Developing skills............................................ 10
New skills to watch for................................... 12
Help your baby develop................................. 16
You help your baby develop every day.......... 18
When to wonder about your baby’s
development................................................. 20
It’s too soon for toilet training......................... 22
Play
Play is important............................................ 26
Games and activities...................................... 28
• Games for you and your baby—
6 to 9 months............................................. 30
Games
for you and your baby—
•
10 to 12 months......................................... 33
Toys............................................................... 37
Behaviour
Cues............................................................... 42
What to expect............................................... 43
• Your baby may not want to let you out
of his sight................................................ 44
• Your baby may become shy and afraid
of strangers............................................. 45
Your
baby may get upset when he
•
can’t do what he wants to do................... 46
Discipline—loving guidance........................... 47
Sleep
Sleep.............................................................. 52
Helping your baby sleep................................ 53
Safe places to sleep....................................... 54
• Bed-sharing............................................. 55
Moving your baby to another room................ 56
Reducing the risk of SIDS.............................. 58
Loving care is what every baby needs. It’s what
every parent wants to give.
Food
How do I start giving my baby solid food?
How should I introduce solid food?......... 62
How can I tell that my baby is ready for
solid food?............................................... 65
How can I tell when my baby is hungry
and when she’s full?............................... 66
How much will my baby eat?................... 67
Expect a mess!........................................ 68
How to offer your baby solid food for the
first time.................................................. 69
Learning to drink from a cup.................... 71
Eating together is important.................... 72
What kind of food is good for my baby?
Healthy food to offer your baby............... 73
Finger foods............................................ 76
Iron-rich foods......................................... 77
Healthy drinks for babies......................... 78
Sample menus........................................ 81
Foods and drinks to avoid ...................... 84
Health and safety issues
Gagging and choking.............................. 86
Food allergies ......................................... 88
Feed your baby safely............................. 89
Health
Hand washing................................................ 94
Immunizations................................................ 95
Flu vaccine..................................................... 96
Questions that your health care provider
may ask........................................................ 97
When to see a health care provider............... 98
Common concerns......................................... 99
• Giving medicine....................................... 99
• Dehydration............................................. 99
Dental health................................................ 100
• Three steps to preventing cavities........ 100
• Teething................................................ 103
• Thumb sucking and soothers................ 103
A smoke-free home and car......................... 104
Safety
Babyproof early............................................ 108
Babyproofing checklist................................. 109
Lead poisoning............................................. 114
Car safety..................................................... 115
Bath safety................................................... 116
Support and Information
Provincial services....................................... 120
Other Resources and Services.................... 123
Thanks!
Thanks!........................................................ 130
Building
love, trust, and confidence...............................................2
Temperament..............................................................................4
Different temperaments...............................................................5
Attachment
Attachment
My baby is really turning into his own person. He can be quite a little
character! I’ve been responding to my baby the best way I know but he
seems very clingy. Is that normal?
Building love, trust, and confidence
You have been building a bond with your baby
by consistently responding to his needs with love
and care. You come when he cries. You feed
him when he’s hungry. You comfort him when
he’s cold, tired or lonely. You pay attention to his
cues and try to figure out what he needs.
Responding in this way won’t spoil your baby.
While you’ve been learning about your baby over
the past months, he’s been learning that he can
count on you to be there when he needs you.
This helps your baby to build love, trust, and
confidence. It helps him feel secure.
Your baby will show his growing love,
trust, and confidence by:
•
Wanting to be close to you.
At this age, you may find that your baby wants to be close to you all the time.
•
Wanting you to hold and cuddle him.
Your baby needs as much love and cuddling as ever—maybe even more.
•
Responding to you.
Smiling when you smile, laughing and
squealing when you play.
•
Looking to you for comfort.
You are the centre of your baby’s world! He’s beginning to understand that he needs you and can count on you.
2
Attachment
Building love, trust, and confidence
Attachment influences the way your baby’s brain
develops. It affects how your baby will think,
learn, feel, and behave for his whole life. As your
baby grows, his attachment to you will mean that:
•
He’ll be more likely to come to you with his problems.
•
He’ll be better at controlling his feelings. For example, he’ll be less likely to shout or hit when angry.
•
He’ll be more confident.
Babies understand feelings long before they
understand words. A gentle voice and gentle
handling will let your baby feel your love. Babies
are very sensitive to angry voices and rough
handling—like pushing, grabbing, or pulling. This
can make it more difficult for your baby to form a
bond with you.
Your baby can’t be too attached to you.
A strong attachment gives him the confidence
he needs to explore his world. It enables him to
develop independence. A strong attachment
allows him to let go because he knows you’ll
always be there when he needs you.
Added info...
Added info...
Different cultures and ethnic groups have
special activities and rituals. These offer
opportunities for being close and building
bonds between parent and baby. They can
also build your child’s pride in his culture and
who he is. These kinds of rituals could include
things like hair care, massage, songs or
stories.
It’s never too late to begin building bonds
between you and your baby.
Think about the things that made you feel close
to your own parents and culture when you were
a child. Make these activities a special part of
your baby’s life.
You may be adopting a baby or may
have been separated from your baby for
a while and wonder if you’ve missed your
chance for attachment. You have not.
Responding to your baby’s needs will
build love and trust between you at any
age.
Talk to your health care provider if you
are concerned about your baby’s
attachment.
Attachment
3
Temperament
By the time your baby is 6 months old, you’ll
have a pretty good idea about what she’s like—
that is, the kind of temperament she has. You’ll
know how active she is and how she reacts to
new people and events. You’ll know whether she
usually wakes up smiling or crying.
You can’t change your baby’s temperament. But
how you respond to her will make a difference in
how she sees herself and the kind of person she
becomes. If you see your child’s qualities as
special, she’ll see herself that way, too.
Parents have temperaments and personalities,
too. Are you quiet or talkative? Are you easygoing? Or do you get upset when little things
go wrong? Are you out-going or do you make
friends slowly?
The kind of person you are can make it easier or
more difficult for you to appreciate your baby’s
special qualities. For example, if you and your
baby have the same kind of temperament, you
may find it easy to understand her behaviour.
If your temperament is different from your baby’s,
you may have to make more of an effort to
understand and appreciate her.
Don’t give your baby a nickname you wouldn’t
want to have yourself, even if you’re only
joking.
An unkind nickname like “Piggy” or “Dummy”
or “Chubby” might seem funny or cute when
your baby is small. But nicknames have a way
of sticking and it won’t be funny when she’s
older.
It’s also not helpful to give your baby a label—
like telling her or others that she’s “shy,”
“difficult,” “picky,” or “bad.” These kinds of
labels may make your baby feel bad about
herself as she gets older.
4
Attachment
Your baby’s temperament is something he was
born with. It doesn’t change. It’s not the same
as a mood that can change from day to day.
His temperament affects how your baby reacts to
the world and the people around him.
Most likely, your baby won’t be exactly
like any one of these three kinds of
temperaments. But he may be most like one
and the ideas on how to help him be
his best may be helpful to you.
On the next pages, you’ll find descriptions of 3
kinds of temperaments.
Attachment
Temperament Different temperaments
Different temperaments
5
Temperament 1
Temperament 2
If your baby...
If your baby...
•
• Is active—can sometimes sit quietly, but likes •
• Usually—but not always—wants to eat and Is happy to sit or play quietly—is not very active
Eats and sleeps at the same times every day
•
•
•
•
•
•
Gets used to new people, places and activities easily
Doesn’t get upset often
Whimpers quietly if wet or hungry
Doesn’t make a fuss when upset
Doesn’t cry often
Is usually happy and smiles a lot
You can help him be his best by...
•
•
•
•
Spending time with him. He needs to be played with and talked to even if he seems happy on his own.
Paying close attention to his cues. He may be so quiet that you need to look closely to see what he needs.
Supporting his routines. Have regular mealtimes and bedtimes.
Letting him enjoy other people. Find friends and relatives to spend time with him.
to move, too
sleep at the same times every day
• Takes a while to get used to new people, places, and activities
• Clings to familiar people
• Gets upset if there’s too much activity or excitement
• Cries when upset
• Takes some time to warm up before smiling
You can help him be his best by...
• Giving him chances to play quietly and to be active.
• Encouraging his routines. Have regular mealtimes and bedtimes.
• Being patient.
Give him time to get used to new things and new people. Don’t rush or push him. Stay close so he’ll know he’s safe.
• Introducing new people slowly.
Don’t leave him with someone he doesn’t know until he’s had a chance to get used to them.
• Watching for his cues that he’s getting upset or over-excited. Move him to a quieter place.
• Responding when he cries.
• Smiling at him. Give him lots of reasons to smile back.
6
Attachment
Different temperaments
Temperament 3
If your baby...
• Is very active—twists and squirms.
It’s hard to keep him still long enough to change a
diaper.
• Has a hard time settling into an eating and sleeping routine—wakes up often at night
• Has a very hard time getting used to new people, places, or activities. Does not like moving from one activity to another.
• Gets upset when he doesn’t like something and lets everyone know it. Has a hard time calming down when upset.
• Cries loudly when wet, hungry or angry
• Is strong-willed
• Demands attention—will keep pushing to get what he wants
You can help him be his best by...
• Childproofing your home early.
Your baby will probably move faster and sooner than others. You need to be ready to keep him safe.
• Developing routines. Have regular mealtimes and bedtimes. Gently help your baby get used to them. Find a quiet bedtime routine that helps him calm down.
• Allowing enough time for him to get used to new people and places. Let him know what’s coming next. Give him time to get used to the idea.
• Accepting that your child will react strongly. Respond quickly and help him calm down. Stay calm. By staying calm you’re teaching him to be calm.
• Giving your child the love, support, and attention he needs. Be consistent.
Your baby wants you to know...
You are the centre of my world.
I need to know that you’re near.
I worry when I can’t see you.
I need you to hold me and
respond to me. I need to know
you love me just the way I am.
Attachment
7
Developing skills.......................................................................10
New skills to watch for..............................................................12
Help your baby develop.............................................................16
You help your baby develop every day.........................................18
When to wonder about your baby’s development...........................20
It’s too soon for toilet training....................................................22
Added info...
If your baby is premature or has special needs, she may develop skills at different
times than other babies.
Talk to your health care provider about what to expect with your baby.
8
Development
Development
My baby has grown so much! She’s learning to do new things every day.
What can I do to help her?
Developing skills
This is an exciting time! Your baby is growing
stronger and is able to do more things day by
day.
voices and faces. She’ll say her first words.
She’s starting to learn about her world and the
people in it.
She’s getting better at using her hands. She’ll
be learning to feed herself with her fingers and to
hold a spoon. She’ll be learning to hold and drink
from a cup.
Children develop new skills by building on what
they’ve already learned. For example, first they
learn to lift their head, then to push up on their
arms, then to get up on all fours, then to crawl.
Encourage your baby as she develops each new
skill, but don’t rush her. Give her time to get
comfortable with each skill before she moves on
to the next.
She’s becoming more mobile. Over the next
few months, she’ll learn to crawl, to stand, and
maybe to take her first steps.
She’s becoming more and more responsive to
10
Development
Developing skills
Every baby grows and develops new skills in her
own way and in her own time. Children are very
different in how fast they grow and at what age
they develop new skills.
On the next few pages you’ll find new skills
your baby will be developing over the next few
months. Don’t be concerned if your baby can’t
do every one of these things at these times.
Babies develop skills at slightly different times.
If you are concerned, see “When to wonder
about your baby’s development” on page
20.
Praise your baby’s efforts as she tries out
new skills. Your baby depends on your love
and support as she grows and develops.
Development
11
New skills to watch for between 6 and 9 months
your baby will learn to...
12
Get up on hands and knees.
Eat with fingers.
Sit up alone.
Stand with support.
Move around. Some babies crawl,
some scoot on their tummy, some
shuffle along on their bum.
Pass things from hand to hand.
Pick up small things with thumb
and first finger.
Throw, wave, drop, and bang toys
together.
Babble. This can almost sound
like talking.
Development
your baby will learn to...
Shake his head “no.” Wave
bye-bye.
Say “dada” and “mama.”
Recognize the names of other
family members.
Copy what you do—clap his
hands, wave, and copy sounds
you make.
Look for things when you
show them to him, then let
him watch you hide them—for
example, under a cushion. If
you hide something behind
your back, your baby might
crawl around you to find it.
Respond to other people’s
feelings. He’ll know by the
sound of your voice when you’re
happy, sad or angry. He’ll smile
when you’re happy. He’ll frown
or look worried when you sound
angry.
Recognize and be happy to see
people he knows. He’ll show
you how much he loves you by
smiling or laughing when he
sees you.
Turn and look when you call his
name.
New skills to watch for
New skills to watch for between 6 and 9 months
Look to see where things go
when they fall out of sight.
Development
13
New skills to watch for between 10 and 12 months
your baby will learn to...
Hold a spoon and a cup. Try to feed himself.
Drink from a cup with help. Hold, bite and
chew on soft foods.
Take a few steps holding your hand or
holding onto furniture or a push toy. Babies
learn to walk best in soft shoes or bare feet.
Stand alone and bend over.
Clap hands.
Take things out of a box or container.
14
Development
your baby will learn to...
Say one or two words. These might be
hard to understand at first.
Start to recognize the word “no.” Your baby might know what the word means, but is still
too young to stop what he’s doing when he
hears “no.”
New skills to watch for
New skills to watch for between 10 and 12 months
Begin to respond to simple requests—like,
“More bananas?” or “Give it to Daddy.”
Use actions to let you know what he wants.
He might hold out his arms to be picked up.
Or might make the same sound or do the
same thing over and over until you notice
him.
Use exclamations, such as “Uh-oh!”
Development
15
Help your baby develop
To help your baby develop her muscles:
•
Show her how to do things.
Show her how to drop toys into large pots or other containers. Show her how to dump them out and put them back in. Let her copy what you do.
•
Encourage her to move.
When she’s on the floor, put toys just out of reach and encourage her to move to get them. Put cushions on the floor for her to climb over. Lay on the floor and let her climb over you! When she starts learning to walk, give her an upside down laundry basket to push.
•
Give her lots of chances to use her fingers and hands.
Once your baby is eating solid foods, put small pieces of soft food in a bowl and let her pick out pieces to eat. Let her hold a spoon at mealtime. Give her toys that squirt water or make noise when squeezed.
As your baby starts to move around and to do
more things, safety becomes an even bigger
concern.
• You’ll find information on babyproofing your home on pages 109–113.
• You’ll find information on eating safely on page 70.
Added info...
Babies like to do things over and over. For
example, your baby might drop her spoon
onto the floor over and over. If you build a
tower of blocks, she’ll knock it down over and
over.
Be patient and enjoy the action! This is how
babies learn that they can make things
happen!
16
Development
To help your baby develop social
skills:
• Talk to your baby.
• Show your baby how to do things.
Describe everything you do and see. Use real words, not baby talk. Describe what she’s hearing, seeing, feeling, and doing. “Now I’m washing your arm.” “Daddy’s kissing your toes.” “Mommy’s holding the book.” “Look at the red flower.” “See the black kitty?” “Does your blanket feel soft?” Repeat the sounds your baby makes.
• Sing to your baby.
Recite rhymes and poems. Read to her.
Babies like to hear the same songs and
stories over and over. It is a gift to your baby when you and others in your family talk and sing to her in different languages.
Clap hands, blow kisses, and wave bye-bye.
• Respect her feelings.
Your baby is starting to notice that people are different. She’ll be glad to see some people. She’ll start to be shy with some people. Let her take her time. She’ll decide for herself who she likes.
• Interact with your baby.
Help your baby develop
To help your baby develop hearing
and speech:
Sit face-to-face when you play so she can see you smile and make faces. Copy her facial expressions and give her time to respond to yours.
• Praise and encourage your baby. Smile when you praise your baby. Say things like, “Good job getting your red ball!” and “Wow! You pulled yourself up!” Let her know that you notice and care about what she does.
Added info...
Don’t rush your baby. Give her the time
and support she needs to grow and
learn.
Development happens naturally as you
play with and take care of your baby
and other children. Including your other
children when you play with your baby
can be fun for everyone.
Development
17
You help your baby develop every day
Many of the things you do every day will help
your baby develop. You don’t always need to set
aside special time to do special activities to help
your baby develop. Often, a single activity will
help your baby in many different ways.
When you hold your baby on your
lap and read to him:
•
You’re helping him develop hearing and speaking skills.
•
When you name the things he sees in the
pictures, you’re helping him learn that words have meanings.
•
When you let him hold the book and turn the pages, you’re helping him learn to use the small muscles in his hands.
•
You’re helping him develop social skills by strengthening your attachment to one another.
•
You’re teaching him to love learning by
showing him that reading is fun!
12
18
Development
•
You’re helping your baby to learn new words by hearing them over and over.
•
You’re helping him learn about rhythm and rhyme.
•
You’re helping him develop muscle skills by doing simple hand motions.
Added info...
Clapping, singing, rhyming, and moving
games are so important to babies’
development that every culture has
some of its own!
You can share your culture with your baby
by playing the games and singing the
songs you knew as a child.
•
You’re helping him develop social skills by learning that playing with others is fun!
Helping your baby learn new and exciting skills
can be fun for you both!
Development
You help your baby develop every day
When you play rhyming, clapping,
and singing games—like patty-cake,
peek-a-boo, or ring-around-a-rosie:
19
When to wonder about your baby’s development
Between 6 and 12 months, most babies have
developed a basic set of skills.
Talk to a health care provider if by
12 months your baby:
•
•
Cannot sit by herself
•
•
•
•
•
Cannot stand when you hold her up
Has not started crawling or scooting around the floor
Isn’t usually interested in playing peek-a-boo
Doesn’t usually smile back when you smile
Doesn’t usually laugh back when you laugh
Doesn’t babble. Doesn’t say simple words like “mama” or “dada”
•
Doesn’t look for toys that you hide while she watches
•
Doesn’t point to objects or pictures when you say their name
Trust your instincts. If you are concerned about
your baby’s development at any time, you
can contact your local health care provider, or
Family and Early Childhood agencies. (contact
information, page 120).
20
Development
You have a right to information about your baby’s health and
development. There are no stupid questions!
Development
When to wonder about your baby’s development
Remember: You know your baby best! You’ll find information
on looking for help from health services in your community in the
“Welcome” section of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
21
It’s too soon for toilet training
Most children aren’t ready to learn to use the
toilet until after age 2.
to do something that he’s not old enough to
learn, you’ll both get frustrated and upset.
Your baby won’t have the ability to hold back pee
or poop until after he’s 2.
Be patient. Wait until after your baby’s second
birthday. By then, your toddler will be more
ready to learn. Teaching him to use the toilet on
his own will be easier for both of you.
Don’t try to force your child to use the toilet
before he’s ready. If you try to teach your baby
22
Development
It’s too soon for toilet training
Your baby wants you to know...
Talk to me! Play with me! Respond to me! Give me the time and
attention I need to learn and grow.
Development
23
Play is important..........................................................................26
Games and activities..................................................................... 28
• Games for you and your baby—6 to 9 months.......................... 30
• Games for you and your baby—10 to 12 months...................... 33
Toys............................................................................................37
24
Play
How does playing help my baby? Is it still important for me to play with her?
What can I do that will be fun for us both?
Play is important
Play is how babies learn about themselves, their world, and the people in it.
Play builds babies’ brains in many ways:
•
Play gives babies the chance to learn what their bodies can do:
hold, let go, reach, clap, wave, sit, move, crawl, and make sounds.
•
Play gives babies the chance to explore and learn about cause and effect.
What happens if I drop this rattle? Where does the toy go when it’s under the blanket? If I climb over the pillow, will I get to Mommy? Can I catch the ball rolling on the floor?
•
Play gives babies the chance to have fun with people who love them.
They learn new words, copy your smiles and actions, and begin to learn how to get along with others.
Play is good for the whole family! Healthy
activities like going for walks together, visiting a park, or dancing around the room together are fun for everyone.
Play with your baby. Follow her cues.
Watch your baby’s expression and listen to the sounds she makes. They will tell you how your baby is feeling while you play. Put these feelings into words for her— “You love singing!” “You’re a happy girl when we play together!”
The best time to play is when she’s quiet and alert. When she’s tired of playing, she’ll show you by turning away or losing interest.
26
Play
Play is important
Added info...
Babies learn best and have the most fun
playing with people. Screen time—with
TV, videos, and computers—can’t replace
your love and attention. You are a much
better teacher than TV can ever be!
At this age, propping your baby in front
of the TV won’t teach her anything. She
learns from exploring her world and by
watching and playing with you. When
you’re busy, your baby will learn more
being in a playpen or highchair where she
can see what you’re doing.
For more information on screen time, see
the “Families” section of Loving Care:
Parents and Families.
Play
27
Games and activities
Games and activities are fun for you and your
baby. They also help your baby to learn. Babies
learn by:
•
•
•
Seeing something they want to do
Trying to do it
Doing it over and over
When you play with your baby, be sure he’s
looking at you when you start. Show him what to
do. Give him a chance to copy you. Praise him
for trying. Praise him when he succeeds.
Learning takes time. Don’t rush your baby. Play
with him when he’s alert and interested. Stop
when he loses interest or turns away. Let your
baby set the pace. If you try an activity and your
baby isn’t interested, wait a few days or weeks
and try it again.
Added info...
You can encourage your baby by being very
clear about what you’re praising. Say things
like:
“You did it!”
“You put the ball in the basket!”
“You’re trying hard to climb the cushion!”
When you praise your baby, smile and clap.
Let him see and hear how proud you are.
28
Play
Added info...
•
Sometimes they’ll like active play—rolling, creeping, crawling and climbing, crawling through tunnels, and hiding under tables.
•
Sometimes they enjoy quiet play—like songs and stories, being read to, or playing clapping games and peek-a-boo.
•
Sometimes they like to play on their own—
filling containers and dumping them out,
banging toys together.
Try lots of different activities with your baby.
Grandparents and elders can be a good source
for games, songs, and rhymes from your culture.
When you’re playing with your baby, most
of the time you’re showing him what to do
and he’s copying you. It can be great fun
for you both to switch this around.
When your baby is playing, let him take the
lead and then copy whatever he does.
• If he claps his hands, clap along.
• If he crawls over a cushion, crawl after him.
• If he puts lids in a container, put them in too.
• If he bangs lids together, bang with him.
Games and activities
Babies like to play in different ways at different
times.
On the next pages you’ll find a few games and
activities to get you started. Follow your baby’s
cues. He’ll let you know what he likes best.
Play
29
Games for you and your baby—6 to 9 months
Creeping crawlers
Climbing and crawling
To help your baby strengthen her arms and
legs:
To help your baby practice crawling:
1. When your baby has started crawling, put some cushions and folded blankets on the floor.
1. Lay your baby on her tummy on the floor. Move in front of her so she can see you. Crawl. See if she tries to copy you.
2.
Gently support her in a crawling position on all fours. Let go. Trying to stay up on all fours will help her muscles get strong enough for crawling.
2. Encourage your baby to crawl over and around them. Your baby may enjoy you
crawling beside or behind her.
3. When she can stay up on her own, put a toy she likes on the floor in front of her. This will encourage her to crawl toward it.
30
Play
Games and activities
Lots of lids
To help your baby learn to use her hands:
1. Collect lids from frozen juice containers and
metal lids from jars. Use the kind of lids that
pull off with no sharp edges, NOT the kind
that open with a can opener.
2. Find a plastic or metal container with no
sharp edges, like a margarine container.
3. Show your baby how to put the juice lids in
the container. Let her watch you do it. See
if she tries to copy you. Be patient. There’s
no rush. If your baby would rather bang the
lids together or play with them in another
way, that’s fine. Just wait a few days and try
again.
4. Next, show your baby how to spill all the lids
out, and start over.
Describe what you’re doing while playing this
game. Talk about how you’re putting the lids into
the container. Describe the noise they make, or
how they spin or roll around.
Added info...
Your baby will enjoy playing with these lids for
a long time, so keep collecting lids.
For example, when your baby gets a bit older,
you can put simple, brightly-coloured stickers
on the lids. You can use them to teach him
the names of the colours, animals, or shapes
on the stickers.
You can put the same stickers on two or more
lids and use these to help her learn about
matching.
Play
31
Row, row, row your boat
Added info...
To help your baby strengthen her body:
Just in case you haven’t heard this song in a
while...
1. Sit on the floor with your legs long and your
knees apart.
2. Sit your baby between your legs, facing you,
so that her hands are near your knees.
3. Hold your baby’s hands or shoulders. Gently
rock back and forth while you sing “Row,
Row, Row Your Boat” or another familiar
song.
4. When you get to the word DREAM, reach her
hands up high.
32
Play
Row, row, row your boat,
Gently down the stream,
Merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily,
Life is but a DREAM!
Cardboard tunnels
To help build your baby’s muscles; to help him learn about ideas like under, through, in,
and out:
1. Find a large box—bigger is better. Check
to be sure there are no staples or packing
materials in the box. The box should be
at least big enough for your baby to crawl
through.
5. While your baby is playing, describe
what he’s doing. For example, “You’re
crawling fast!” “You rolled the ball
through the tunnel!” This will help him
learn new words and ideas.
2. Open the flaps on the ends of the box. Tape
them to form a tunnel.
If you don’t have a box, you can also make
a tunnel by throwing a sheet over a table or
over two chairs placed back to back.
3. To keep the box from falling over, prop it with
chairs on each side.
Games and activities
Games for you and your baby—10 to 12 months
4. Show your baby how to crawl through the
tunnel. Show him how to roll balls or trucks
through.
Play
33
29
Read to me
To help your baby learn to like books; to help
him learn to connect words with pictures; to
make reading fun for parents and baby:
1. Collect children’s books from friends, yard
sales, or the library. Babies like plastic
coated board books with simple, brightly coloured pictures.
5. Go at your baby’s pace. The point is to give
your baby a chance to have fun with books.
You don’t have to read the entire story or look
at every page. Babies like to “read” the same
books over and over.
Take books with you when you go out—on
the bus, in the car, and to the health care
provider’s office. Find time every day to share
books with your baby.
2. Hold your baby on your lap. Let him turn the
pages if he wants to.
3. Point at the pictures and talk about them. For
example: “That’s a big green bird. Do you
like the bird?” “I see a bear sitting in a tree.
Can you point to the bear?”
4. Make up little stories for pictures your baby
seems to like. For example: “Look, here’s
an orange cat, just like Grandpa has. The
cat says meow. Can you say meow? Meow,
meow.”
34
Play
Added info...
Check out your local library or bookmobile for
books and programs for babies. The librarian
can suggest good books for your baby’s age.
(Contact information, page 125)
Clapping
To help your baby learn the names of body
parts; learn to move the right part of his body
when he hears its name; and to give him a
chance to have fun:
To help your baby learn to use his
hands:
1. Sing the song and do the actions. Help your
baby do the actions until he learns to do them
on his own.
If you’re happy and you know it,
CLAP YOUR HANDS
If you’re happy and you know it,
CLAP YOUR HANDS
1.Clap your hands where your baby can see you.
2.Encourage him to clap on his own.
You can encourage clapping by clapping and cheering when your baby does something new or
exciting.
Games and activities
If you’re happy and you know it
If you’re happy and you know it, and you
really want to show it
If you’re happy and you know it,
CLAP YOUR HANDS!
2. Repeat, using different body parts in the
song. For example:
If you’re happy and you know it,
TOUCH YOUR NOSE
If you’re happy and you know it,
KICK YOUR FEET
If you’re happy and you know it,
TOUCH YOUR EARS
If you’re happy and you know it,
PAT YOUR HEAD
If you’re happy and you know it,
RUB YOUR ELBOW
Added info...
Think about the songs you loved as a child.
Enjoy them again with your baby!
Play
35
Building up and knocking down
Rolling ball
To help your baby build muscles; develop
coordination; and learn about cause and
effect:
To help your baby play with others:
You can use tissue boxes, plastic containers, or
wooden or soft blocks for this.
1. Sit on the floor with your baby.
2. Build a tower using 2 or 3 blocks.
3. Knock it over.
4. Let your baby try.
1. Sit on the floor facing your baby.
2. Roll a ball toward him.
3. Ask him to roll it back to you.
4. When he does, roll it toward him again, this
time a little faster.
This can be fun for older brothers or sisters to
play with the baby.
Added info...
Babies learn to talk by listening to the people
around them.
• When you play with your baby, talk, talk, talk about what you and your baby are doing.
• “Talk” to your baby by repeating the sounds he makes like “da, da, da,” or “ma, ma, ma.”
• Talk back and forth with your baby on a play phone.
• As you do everyday jobs—like cooking, cleaning, and shopping—describe them to your baby as you do them. 36
Play
You are still your baby’s best “toy.”
•
•
You can talk, sing, and read to her.
You can help her to sit, crawl, stand, and move around.
•
You can show her how to clap and wave, how to put things in boxes and take them out, and how to crawl through tunnels.
•
You can show her the world by telling her what she sees when you take her for walks or
grocery shopping.
Games and activities Toys
Toys
What other toy can do all that?
At this age, your baby is curious about
everything. She wants to see, feel, hear, and
taste everything. She wants to do things and
make things happen. She needs toys that can
help her explore.
Toys don’t need to be expensive, or even store
bought. Lots of things in your home make fine
toys for babies.
Added info...
It can be a good idea to put some toys away
for a few days once in a while. Then, when
you bring them back, they’ll seem new to your
baby.
Many Family Resource Centres have toy
libraries where you can borrow toys. This is a
good way to give your baby the chance to play
with different toys. (Contact information, page
124)
Play
37
Your baby will enjoy:
•
Toys that make noise:
Pots and pans to bang, wooden spoons to hit them with, rattles to shake, squeaky toys to squeeze
Everything your baby plays with should be
safe, clean, and right for her age.
Safe baby toys:
Toys that move:
Balls to roll, cars to push
• Have no sharp points or edges.
• Have no small parts that could break or pull •
• Are too big to swallow or choke on.
•
off.
Toys to stack and nest:
Soft blocks to stack up and knock down, empty plastic containers to stack, measuring cups that fit inside one another
Anything that can fit through a toilet paper roll is too small for your baby to play with.
that you have to raise your voice above the noise, it’s too noisy for your baby.
• Are not too noisy. If a toy is loud enough •
Toys to hold and squeeze:
Dolls, stuffed animals, soft books
Check your baby’s toys often. Keep them
clean. Carefully wash any household items
you use as toys. Throw away broken or
damaged toys.
•
Toys to crawl through and climb:
Big empty boxes to crawl through, firm
cushions to climb over
•
Toys for bath time:
Toys that float, containers, funnels, squeeze bottles, cups
If you buy toys second hand or are given toys,
check with Consumer Product Safety to be
sure the toys haven’t been recalled. (Contact
information, page ##)
See page 113 for more information about toy
safety.
38
Play
Toys
Your baby wants you to know...
Play with me! Help me learn about my world. I can learn more from
you than from any other person or toy.
Play
39
Cues ......................................................................................42
What to expect.........................................................................43
• Your baby may not want to let you out of
his sight.........................................................................44
• Your baby may become shy and afraid of
strangers.......................................................................45
• Your baby may get upset when he can’t do
what he wants to do........................................................46
Discipline—loving guidance........................................................47
40
Behaviour
Behaviour
My baby is changing so fast! I thought that as he got older, he’d be more
independent, but he seems to be getting more clingy and afraid. And he’s
starting to get angry when he doesn’t get his own way!
Cues
Your baby was born with a set of built-in cues to
let you know what he needs. For example, he
might suck on his fist or fingers when he’s
hungry. Or close his mouth when he’s full.
42
more, his cues will change. He’ll begin to
develop new ways of communicating.
When you respond to these cues, you are
communicating with your baby. You are showing
him that he has ways to let you know what he
needs. As your baby grows and is able to do
Your baby is still too young to be able to tell you
what he needs or to explain how he feels. He
can only show you. His behaviour is a way of
communicating with you. When you respond to
your baby, think: “What is my baby trying to tell
me?”
Your baby will show he’s happy and enjoying
himself by:
Your baby will show you he’s unhappy, tired,
or upset by:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Turning, moving, or reaching toward you
Looking at you with bright, wide eyes
Clapping, laughing, squealing
Touching, hugging, kissing
Waving his arms and kicking his legs
Turning, looking, or moving away from you
Arching his back, pushing away
Frowning, pouting, sticking out his lower lip
Fussing, crying, screaming, kicking
Pointing at what he wants
Behaviour
Cues What to expect
What to expect
Between 6 and 12 months, many parents notice
a few big changes in the way their baby behaves.
•
Your baby may not want to let you out of her sight.
•
Your baby may become shy and afraid of strangers.
•
Your baby may get upset and angry when she can’t do something she wants to do.
Parents are sometimes surprised by these
changes but they are a natural and important part
of your baby’s development. Try to see things
from your baby’s point of view. This can help you
understand what she’s feeling and why she acts
the way she does.
Added info...
It can be tiring and frustrating when your
baby cries, clings, and wants you every
minute. All parents need some help once
in a while.
Try to find someone to help you—like
a trusted friend or a relative—who can
come on short notice when you need a
break. Keep their phone number handy.
Talking to other parents can also be a big
help. You’ll find information about support
for families in the “Welcome” section of
Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Behaviour
43
Your baby may not want to let you out of his sight
What your baby is feeling
What you can do
Your baby knows that you are the most important
person in his life. He depends on you for
everything. He has formed a strong bond with
you. When he can’t see you, he doesn’t know
where you are. He doesn’t know if you’ll come
back. This is very scary for a baby. He’ll cry for
you when he can’t see you.
This can be very tiring for parents! Be patient.
Your baby needs to learn that he can count on
you to be there when he needs you. He needs
to know that he can trust you to come back when
you go away. This can take time.
This is a healthy part of your baby’s
development. It means that your baby is
strongly attached to you. It means that he’s
learning how much he needs you.
Added info...
•
Give him as much love and time as you can.
Keep him near as much as possible. When he can crawl, let him follow you from room to room. This won’t spoil him! When your baby gets the love he needs, he’ll feel safe. When he feels safe, he’ll be able to become more independent.
•
Don’t feel guilty about leaving your baby to go
out once in a while! You need some time to
relax—by yourself, with your partner, or with
friends.
And your baby needs to learn that when you go
away, you do come back.
44
To help your baby feel safe and loved:
Help him become attached to other people in his life.
Your baby needs other people, even if he doesn’t know it. Encourage the other people your baby is comfortable with to give him lots of love and attention.
Don’t sneak out on your baby.
It can be very hard to leave when your baby is
screaming for you. It can seem easier to just sneak away when he’s not looking and avoid the fuss. Don’t do it. This will only teach your baby that he can’t trust you. It will make him more worried when he can’t see you. He’ll cling to you more.
When you have to leave your baby, be sure he knows the person you’re leaving him with. Tell your baby “bye-bye” and that you’ll be back soon. He’ll still cry, but he’ll also slowly learn to trust that you will come back.
•
Behaviour
What your baby is feeling
What you can do
Your baby knows she loves you, but she’s not so
sure about other people anymore. She’s learned
that people are different. And there are some
people she’s more comfortable with than others.
Respect your baby’s feelings.
Give her time to get used to someone new.
Let her meet new people while sitting safely
on your lap or looking over your shoulder.
When your baby is ready, she’ll move
toward anyone she wants to go to.
Often what scares your baby isn’t the new
person. It’s what the new person does. For
example, would you like a perfect stranger to
come up to you on the street and hug you? Your
baby doesn’t like it much either. Remember
that people you know—even relatives—may be
strangers to your baby.
Behaviour
What to expect
Your baby may become shy and afraid of strangers
45
Your baby may get upset when he can’t do what he wants to do
•
What your baby is feeling
Your baby is curious about everything. He wants
to try new things. It can be very frustrating for
him when he can’t do what he wants to! And he
lets you know he’s upset by crying, screaming,
and kicking. This doesn’t mean that your baby is
bad. It’s the only way he has to show you how
he feels.
What you can do
Be calm.
The best thing you can do when your baby is
upset and angry is to stay calm. Your baby is
much more likely to quiet down when you are
calm and speak to him in a gentle voice. Ask
yourself what your child is feeling. Put his
feelings into words for him. For example,
“You’re upset!” or “You feel angry.”
These strong feelings are new to your baby. He
needs you to be calm and in control when he’s
feeling out of control. When you get angry, it
frightens your baby and makes things worse. No
matter how upset your baby gets, never spank,
shake, or yell at him.
There are several reasons why your baby might
get frustrated:
•
Your baby wants to do something he’s not yet able to do.
For example, he’s learned to sit up by himself, but he hasn’t yet learned how to go from
sitting to crawling. He gets stuck in one
position.
You’ve stopped your baby from doing something that he wants to do.
You can’t let your baby do things that could hurt him or someone else, no matter how much he wants to. Try distracting your baby with another interesting toy or activity. Try moving him to another place. Sometimes this doesn’t work right away and your baby keeps crying. When this happens, tell him you understand how he feels. For example, “I know you want to play with the plastic bag,
but it’s not safe.” Keep comforting him.
Never shake, spank, or yell at your baby.
Shaking can hurt or kill your baby.
Spanking won’t teach your baby to behave.
It will hurt and frighten him. It will teach him to
be afraid of you. It will teach him that he can’t
trust you not to hurt him. It will teach him that
it’s okay for him to hit other people.
Yelling won’t teach your baby to behave
either. It will frighten him. It will teach him
that it’s okay for him to yell when he’s angry or
upset.
For information on handling stress and anger,
see the “Parents” section in Loving Care:
Parents and Families.
If this is the case, help your baby learn the skill he needs. Help him practice going from sitting to crawling.
46
Behaviour
What to expect Discipline—loving guidance
Discipline—loving guidance
Discipline is never about punishment. The word
“discipline” means teaching.
At this age, discipline is loving guidance that
keeps your baby safe and helps her learn. This
means being patient, gentle, and consistent as
you set limits and help your baby handle her
feelings. Your baby may not always be happy
about this, but keeping her safe and helping her
learn is your job.
There’s no point in making rules for babies.
They are too young to understand them or to
follow them. Babies learn bit by bit, over time.
You won’t spoil your baby by being patient,
gentle, and consistent.
To keep your baby safe and help her learn:
•
Be patient.
This is an exciting time. Your baby is learning new things every day—like when she drops a spoon, it makes a noise. Babies learn by doing the same thing over and over. When you understand this, it can be easier to be patient and help her learn.
• Be consistent.
Don’t keep changing your mind about what your baby can and can’t do. It’s very hard for a baby to learn if what you expect of her keeps changing.
It’s also helpful when all your baby’s care
givers—parents, grandparents, and others—
treat your baby in the same way.
Babies also need consistency in their day-to-
day life. They need regular routines.
Added info...
You are your baby’s first teacher.
How you treat your baby teaches your
baby how to treat you and other people.
If you are calm and patient, even when
you feel stressed or upset, your baby will
learn to act this way.
If you lose your temper and yell, your baby
will learn that this is the way to act when
he feels stressed or frustrated.
Behaviour
47
They need to know what to expect. This kind of consistency helps them feel secure and feeling secure helps them learn.
•
Be gentle.
If your baby is reaching for something
dangerous, don’t slap her hands. Hold them gently and move away. Say, “hot” or “ouch” to let her know about the danger. And be gentle when you speak to your baby. Babies are very sensitive to your tone of voice and angry
voices frighten them.
•
Help your baby begin to learn warning words.
Don’t always say “no.” If you say “no” too often, your baby may stop listening to it. Use words like “hot,” “yucky,” “ouch,” “stop,” and “wait.” Help your baby learn these words and what they mean.
•
Respond to your baby.
Your baby wants your attention, love, hugs, and smiles more than anything. Praise her when she learns new things. Praise her for trying. Be specific when you praise. “Yay! You’ve learned to blow a kiss!” “You did it!
You put the block in the bucket!” “Good try!”
•
Make your home safe.
Your baby needs to explore. She needs to see and do new things. Make her world safe so she can’t get hurt and so you won’t have to say “no” so often.
•
Give your baby other things to do.
If your baby is doing something dangerous or wants something she can’t have, distract her with another activity.
• Help your baby learn how to do things. For example, if your baby hits the dog, show her how to pet gently. Show and tell her how to do things. “Chairs are for sitting on.” “Sand is for scooping.” “Grannies are good to hug.”
• Help your baby get the rest and food she needs.
Babies are often unhappy when they are tired or hungry. Be sure your baby is well rested and not hungry when you take her out. Try to stick to her regular times for eating and
sleeping.
48
Behaviour
Hang on to your temper!
Helping your baby learn and keeping her safe
can be frustrating and tiring.
You’ll find information on managing stress and
anger in the “Parents” section of Loving Care:
Parents and Families.
You’ll find information on babyproofing your
home on page 108.
You’ll find information on pet safety in the
“Families” section of Loving Care: Parents and
Families.
Discipline—loving guidance
Your baby wants you to know...
Be patient with me. Give me the time I need to learn I can trust you
and other people. Give me the time I need to explore and
understand my world.
Behaviour
49
Sleep...................................................................................... 52
Helping your baby sleep............................................................ 53
Safe places to sleep.................................................................. 54
• Bed-sharing.....................................................................55
Moving your baby to another room............................................ 56
Reducing the risk of SIDS......................................................... 58
50
Sleep
Sleep
What should I do when my baby cries? Will I spoil her if I pick her up as soon as she cries?
My baby seems to be having a harder time settling down to sleep. And he
wakes up at night and cries for me. What can I do?
Sleep
Babies need their sleep! A tired baby is a fussy
baby.
should depend on what works for you, your baby,
and your family.
Most babies 6 to 12 months old need 12 to 14
hours of sleep every day. Your baby may sleep
more or less than this.
Most babies still take a nap in the morning and
another in the afternoon. But some don’t. Every
baby is different.
Many parents notice that at about 6 months, their
baby’s sleep patterns change. For example, their
baby may have more trouble settling down to
sleep. Or he might have trouble falling back
to sleep when he wakes up at night. These
changes in sleep patterns are a normal part
of your baby’s development.
52
It’s not common for babies this age to sleep
through the night. It’s normal for breastfed
babies to need a feeding during the night, either
because they’re hungry or they need comfort. If
you’re feeding your baby with infant formula, he
may also need a feeding during the night.
Hold your baby during feedings.
In this section, you’ll find information to help you
with parenting your baby during the night. Most
parents get lots of advice from family and friends
about where babies should sleep, how much
sleep they need, and how they should respond
when their baby wakes up at night. What you do
This can cause ear infections and choking. It
can also cause early childhood tooth decay.
(See pages 100–102.)
Sleep
Never prop a bottle or a sippy cup. Never put
your baby or toddler to bed with a bottle or a
sippy cup.
There are several things you can do to help your baby settle down to sleep.
• Have a routine for bedtimes and naps.
• Have a regular daily schedule.
This means:
• Getting up at about the same time every day
• Having meals, naps, and play times at about the same time every day
• Going to bed at about the same time every night
Babies like to know what to expect every day
and this kind of routine helps them get used to
sleeping and being awake at regular times.
Make an effort to stick to this routine even when
you have visitors or are away from home.
Do the same things, in the same order every day at bedtime. A routine at
naptime will help your baby settle down to sleep during the day.
A bedtime routine should be quiet and
calming. It could include: a feeding, a bath and tooth brushing, a massage or quiet play, a bedtime story or song, a night kiss, and lights out.
You and your baby will find a routine that works for you. What matters is that your
routine calms your baby, stays the same, and happens at about the same time every day.
Sleep Helping your baby sleep
Helping your baby sleep
Bedtime routines work best when every
one who cares for your baby knows and follows them.
It’s the same for naptime routines. They can be very simple—a feeding, a cuddle, and a kiss. Find a routine that works for you. Do it at about the same time and the same way every day.
Added info...
Turn off the lights and TV in the room
where your baby sleeps.
Light and noise can make it harder for your
baby to get the rest he needs.
Sleep
53
• Watch your baby’s cues.
Bedtime and naptime routines work best when you plan them for times when your baby is starting to get tired. Your baby will let you know when she’s tired. She might rub her eyes or yawn. She might become less active or less interested in what’s going on. She might get very quiet. She might get fussy, cranky, or whiny.
Added info...
Naptimes are important!
Making sure your baby gets naps during the
day will help him sleep at night.
Babies can have a hard time falling asleep at
night because they are too tired.
Safe places to sleep
The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends
that after 6 months, the safest place for babies to
sleep is in their own crib, either in their own room
or in their parent’s room.
If your baby has been sleeping in a crib in your
room, you can continue with this. Or you can
move your baby’s crib to another room. Either
choice is safe. Do whatever feels most
comfortable for you and your baby.
Added info...
Co-sleeping means that your baby is near
you, but in his own crib. Research has
shown that this is safe and may reduce the
risk of SIDS.
Bed-sharing means bringing your baby
into your bed.
54
Sleep
Many breastfeeding mothers enjoy the closeness
of sharing their bed with their baby and find that it
makes nighttime feedings easier.
There has been a lot of research looking at
whether bed-sharing is safe or whether it
increases the risk of SIDS. One thing that
the research shows is that if you smoked during
pregnancy or if you smoke now, bed-sharing
increases the risk of SIDS.
The safest approach is co-sleeping. Have your
baby sleep in a crib near you. Bring her into your
bed to breastfeed and return her to her own crib
after the feeding.
If you are a breastfeeding mother who does not
smoke and did not smoke during pregnancy, you
can make bed-sharing as safe as possible by
being sure that:
• Have taken medicine that could make you very sleepy.
• Have used alcohol or other drugs.
It is NOT SAFE to bring your baby into bed
with you if you (or any other person in the
bed) smoke—even if you never smoke in
bed. If you smoked during pregnancy or
after the baby’s birth, it increases the risk
of SIDS. If you smoke, sharing a bed with
your baby increases this risk even more.
It is NOT SAFE to sleep with your baby on
a sofa, armchair, or recliner. They can fall
off or get stuck between the cushions and
the back of the sofa.
It is NOT SAFE for pets to sleep with your
baby.
• Your mattress is firm. No waterbeds, soft mattresses, or cushions.
•
Your baby can’t fall out of bed or get stuck between the mattress and the wall. He can’t get trapped under the sheets, blankets or pillows.
Helping your baby sleep Safe places to sleep
Bed-sharing
• Have an illness or condition that could affect your ability to respond to your baby.
• Your partner knows the baby is in the bed.
• Your baby sleeps on his back when he’s finished feeding.
It is NOT SAFE to bring your baby into bed
with you if there is any reason that you might
find it hard to respond to your baby. This
could be because you or any other person in the
bed:
• Are so tired that you might have trouble waking up when your baby cries.
Sleep
55
Moving your baby to another room
Over time, your baby will gradually make the
move to sleeping in another room. There is no
hurry for this. Do what works best for you and
your baby.
It’s not always easy for a baby to get used to
sleeping in a different room. You are the most
important person in your baby’s life and she
worries when she can’t see you. When she
wakes up alone, she may need to see you before
she can relax and go back to sleep.
There are several things you can do to help your
baby get used to sleeping alone.
• Help your baby learn to soothe herself to sleep.
Lay your baby in her crib when she’s drowsy, but still awake. Give her the chance to soothe herself to sleep by making sure her sleeping area is quiet and the lights are dim. Some babies like soft music or a mobile over their bed to look at.
Babies often soothe themselves to sleep by
sucking on their fingers.
56
Everyone wakes up several times during the night. Most of the time we put ourselves back to sleep so quickly that we don’t even
remember we’ve been awake. If your baby learns to soothe herself to sleep when she first goes to bed, it’s more likely that she’ll be able to soothe herself back to sleep when she wakes up during the night.
Sleep
Remove mobiles from the crib as soon as your
baby can sit up by himself.
If your baby is still awake after about 5
minutes, go to her. Leave the lights off. Comfort her without picking her up. You can talk softly, stroke her head or pat her tummy. Let her know you’re there and you love her. Then leave. Playing with her or doing
anything fun or interesting will just give her a reason to stay awake.
If your baby calls you again, go to her and do the same thing again. If she wakes up later on, keep going to her, comforting her, and then leaving. Soon you should both be
sleeping better! If you’ve done this for two weeks and your baby is still not sleeping, talk to your health care provider.
Added info...
Learn your baby’s cues.
Many babies still need to be fed during
the night. Pay attention to your baby’s
cues so you can tell when she’s hungry.
For many breastfed babies, breastfeeding
is an important source of comfort as well
as nourishment. Follow your instincts and
your baby’s cues to give her what she
needs to soothe herself back to sleep.
Moving your baby to another room
• If your baby wakes up and is making
noises or calling, give her a few minutes to soothe herself back to sleep.
• If your baby wakes up crying loudly go to her and comfort her right away.
When babies are actively crying they can’t soothe themselves and need your comfort. The longer they cry, the more upset they become and the harder it is for them to go back to sleep. Pay
attention to your baby’s cries. You’ll soon learn which ones you need to respond to quickly.
Added info...
Your baby’s sleep patterns may change
when she is sick or teething. If your baby
is sick, pick her up and comfort her. A sick
baby needs care day or night.
DO NOT put your baby to bed with a bottle
or sippy cup. This can cause ear
infections, choking and tooth decay.
You’ll find information on how to soothe a
teething baby on page 103.
Sleep
57
Reducing the risk of SIDS
SIDS—Sudden Infant Death Syndrome or Crib Death—is the sudden death of a baby who
seemed perfectly healthy. SIDS is the most common cause of death in babies’ first year of
life. SIDS usually happens while the baby is sleeping.
No one knows what causes SIDS. No one knows how to prevent it.
But we do know that there are things parents can do to make SIDS less likely. Since
parents started following these suggestions, the number of babies dying from SIDS in
Canada has been cut almost in half.
SIDS is LESS LIKELY to happen when:
• Babies sleep on their back
• Babies live in a smoke-free home
See page 104 for more information on a smokefree home and car.
• Babies are breastfed
• Babies are not too hot
•
58
The crib has a firm mattress. There
should be no pillows, comforters,
stuffed toys, or bumper pads in
cribs. If your baby needs a blanket,
a knitted or crocheted blanket is a
good choice.
Sleep
Reducing the risk of SIDS
Your baby wants you to know...
Help me get the sleep I need. Comfort me and come when I call.
Let me know you’re still there.
Sleep
59
How do I start giving my baby solid food?
How should I introduce solid food?..............................................62
How can I tell that my baby is ready for solid food?.......................65
How can I tell when my baby is hungry and when she’s full?...........66
How much will my baby eat?......................................................67
Expect a mess!.........................................................................68
How to offer your baby solid food for the first time.......................69
Learning to drink from a cup......................................................71
Eating together is important.......................................................72
What kind of food is good for my baby?
Healthy food to offer your baby..................................................73
Finger foods.............................................................................76
Iron-rich foods..........................................................................77
Healthy drinks for babies...........................................................78
Sample menus..........................................................................81
Foods and drinks to avoid .........................................................84
Health and safety issues
Gagging and choking.................................................................86
Food allergies...........................................................................88
Feed your baby safely................................................................89
60
Food
Food
What should I do when my baby cries? Will I spoil her if I pick her up as soon as she cries?
My baby is growing so fast! Is she ready for solid food?
How should I introduce solid food?
At six months, most babies are ready to start
eating solid food. Their body is ready to digest
solid food and they need the iron from food to
grow and develop. At 6 months, babies are
ready to learn the skills they need to pick up and
swallow solid foods.
Added info...
This is an exciting time for your baby! She’ll taste
new flavours, feel new textures, and discover
new foods.
This is when she begins learning to enjoy the
healthy foods her family likes. This is when she
starts to develop feelings about food and eating
that will last a lifetime.
62
Food
Some of the information in this section may be
new to you. It may be different from the way you
were fed or how you’ve fed your other children.
It may be different from the way your culture
introduces solid foods.
All of the advice in this section is based on
recommendations from Health Canada, the
Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of
Canada and the Breastfeeding Committee for
Canada.
• Knows when she’s hungry
• Knows when she’s full
• Knows that how much she eats is up to her
The key to developing healthy attitudes
toward food is to let your baby know from
the start that she is in charge of how much
she eats. From the first time you offer solid
foods from a spoon, give your child soft finger
foods to pick up. It will be a long time before she
gets much of the finger food into her mouth and
actually swallows it. But this helps her learn to
feed herself and teaches her that she’s in charge
of how much she eats.
Until about 12 months, your baby will still be
getting most of her nourishment from breastmilk
or formula. Your baby may not eat much solid
food at first but you can trust your baby to know
how much to eat. Babies know when they’re
hungry and when they’re full.
How should I introduce solid food?
From the first time you offer your baby solid
food, your goal is to help her develop healthy
attitudes toward food. This means that your
baby:
Added info...
Continue to breastfeed for as long as you
and your baby enjoy it. The New Brunswick
Department of Health, Health Canada,
the Canadian Paediatric Society, and the
World Health Organization all recommend
breastfeeding up to two years and beyond, as
long as mother and baby want to continue.
Food
63
As you introduce your baby to solid food,
each of you has a role.
• You decide what food to offer, and where and
at what times to offer food to your baby.
• Your baby decides which foods she eats, how
much she eats, and whether or not she eats.
This is a lot to learn! So take your time. Don’t
rush or force the process. Discovering new tastes
and textures can be exciting and fun for your child.
One of the best ways to help your baby develop
healthy attitudes toward food and eating is to relax
and enjoy the process yourself.
Between 6 and 12 months, your baby is learning
a lot about food and eating. She’ll learn to:
• Swallow
• Move food from the front of her tongue to the
back of her tongue
• Gum and chew food
• Pick up food
• Feed herself with her fingers
• Hold a spoon
64
Food
Once your baby is around 6 months old, you can
begin looking for signs that he’s ready to try solid
food. These include:
•
•
•
•
Holding his head up
Sitting up in a high chair
Picking up food and trying to put it in his mouth
Showing when he wants food by opening his
mouth wide when you offer food on a spoon
Added info...
Try not to compare your baby to other babies.
Healthy babies come in all weights, shapes, and
sizes.
•
•
•
Closing his lips over the spoon
Keeping food in his mouth and swallowing it
instead of pushing it out
Showing you that he doesn’t want food by
turning away, keeping his mouth closed, or
pushing the food away
When your baby can do most of these things,
he’s ready to start solid foods.
Talk to your health care provider if you’re not
sure if your baby is ready for solid foods or if
you’re worried because your baby isn’t eating
solid foods.
Added info...
They grow and gain weight at different rates.
Your baby doesn’t need to have teeth to be
ready to try solid food!
Food
How should I introduce solid food? How can I tell that my baby is ready for solid food?
How can I tell that my baby is ready for solid food?
65
How can I tell when my baby is hungry and when she’s full?
Even before your baby can talk, she has ways to
let you know when she’s hungry and when she’s
had enough to eat.
Cues that your baby is hungry:
• Turns toward food.
• Opens her mouth when she sees the food.
• Gets excited when she sees food or when you
say things like, “Let’s have lunch.” or “Time
for a snack.”
66
Cues that your baby has had enough to eat:
• Turns her head away.
• Doesn’t open her mouth.
• Pushes the spoon or food away.
All babies are different. Your baby may have cues
of her own to tell you when she’s hungry and
when she’s had enough. Pay attention to your
baby’s cues.
Food
Your baby will eat very little solid food at first.
Don’t be surprised if at first your baby just takes a
taste or eats less than a teaspoonful. Don’t worry
if some of the food ends up rubbed in his hair or
squished between his fingers.
He’ll gradually eat more as he grows.
As your baby starts eating solid foods, his
appetite will change from day to day and from
meal to meal. Sometimes he’ll be hungry and
want to eat more. Other times he’ll want less.
Your baby’s interest in eating will depend on:
•
•
•
How much fluid he’s getting. If your baby
gets more breastmilk than usual, he might be
less interested in solid foods at his next meal.
If you are formula feeding and your baby gets
more formula than usual, he’ll also be likely to
eat less.
How much he’s growing. Babies eat more
during growth spurts.
How he’s feeling. Babies may eat less when
they’re tired, sick, or teething.
•
•
•
What’s going on around him while he’s
eating. Your baby may be more interested
in the noise from other children, TV, toys, or
the phone than he is in eating.
How hungry he is. A baby’s appetite can
change from meal to meal. For example,
some babies like to eat more in the morning
and less in the evenings.
How well he is able to eat. Your baby’s
ability to swallow, chew, and pick up food
develops gradually. As his eating skills
improve, he’ll begin to eat more.
Watch closely! Your baby’s cues may not
always be easy to see. It’s not important that
your baby eat a certain amount of food at
each meal or snack. What matters most is that
your baby decides for himself how much he
needs to eat.
Added info...
Remember: Until about 12 months, your baby
will still be getting most of his nourishment
from breastmilk or formula.
Food
How can I tell when my baby is hungry and when she’s full? How much will my baby eat?
How much will my baby eat?
67
Expect a mess!
Squeezing, splashing, rubbing, and feeling food
are part of learning to enjoy eating!
Let your baby explore her food with her hands.
Let your baby feed herself with her fingers from
the first time you offer solid foods. Let her help
you to move the spoon toward her mouth and
help to hold the cup while she drinks. Help her
learn to hold a spoon on her own when she is
able.
Learning to feed herself is an important part of a
baby’s development. It builds her muscle skills
and her confidence too!
It takes time for babies to develop the muscle
control they need to feed themselves neatly.
Cleaning up the mess may not be much fun,
but it’s important for you to be patient while your
baby learns these skills.
Added info...
If you are concerned about wasting food, offer
your baby only a small amount of food at a
time. You can always offer more if she wants it.
68
Food
From the first time you offer your baby smooth,
soft food you can also give him soft foods to pick
up with his fingers. He won’t be able to actually
eat much of it, but it will help him learn to feed
himself and get used to different textures of food.
When your baby is ready for solid foods, start
slowly. At first, offer small amounts of food. Watch
for your baby’s cues. Your baby will let you know
when he is ready to eat more.
Added info...
Sitting face-to-face while your baby is eating
helps you connect with your baby. Facing your
baby allows you to make eye contact and see
your baby’s cues.
Mealtimes can be a time of learning and love
for you and your baby. Talk to your baby about
the colours, tastes, and textures of the food
she’s eating. Relaxed and happy mealtimes will
help her to learn to enjoy healthy eating.
Be patient. This is the first time your baby is
experiencing solid food. Give him time to learn
to move it around in his mouth and swallow it. If
your baby doesn’t swallow the food, wait a few
minutes and try again. If he’s still not interested,
try again in a few days.
Give your baby time to have fun getting used
to the new tastes and textures. Over time he
might discover that there are foods he likes to
eat from a spoon and others he’d rather pick
up with his fingers. Let him go at his own pace
as he learns about food and eating.
Added info...
Before your baby can eat solid food, he has
to be able to swallow it.
Trust your baby to know how much to eat. Never
force food into your baby’s mouth.
If your baby doesn’t swallow the first food
you offer, as a test, try a different food. If he
swallows this, it shows two things: that he
can swallow and that he just didn’t like the
first food!
To feed your baby:
• Sit facing your baby.
• Put a few pieces of soft food he can pick up
with his fingers on the high chair tray.
• Put a tiny bit of food on the tip of a small
spoon. Hold the spoon so your baby can see
it. Then put some food on his lips. Put food in
his mouth only if he opens it.
Expect
mess!
How
offer your
baby solid food for the first time
Helpingayour
baby
puttoherself
to sleep
How to offer your baby solid food for the first time
If he doesn’t swallow the second food, he
may not be ready to swallow solids yet. Wait
a day or two and try again.
Food
69
Added info...
Babies often make faces when trying new foods
and new textures. This is normal. He’s getting
used to something new. It doesn’t mean that he
doesn’t like the food.
It’s normal for babies to gag and spit out food while
they’re learning to eat. It’s nothing to worry about.
Sometimes your baby may refuse to eat a certain
food. Don’t worry about it. Just offer the food
again in a few days. Keep trying. You may need
to offer a new food many, many times before your
baby decides to eat it, if he ever does.
For more information on gagging and choking, see
page 86.
70
Food
One of the skills your baby learns during this time
is how to drink from a cup.
Added info...
Sippy cups
Your baby doesn’t need a sippy cup. If your
baby uses a sippy cup, it will take longer for
her to learn the skills she needs to drink from a
regular cup. Your baby can learn to drink from a
regular cup right from the start.
Don’t let your baby carry around a sippy cup.
Don’t allow her to take it to bed with her.
Continually sipping milk or juice can lead to
tooth decay. It can also fill your baby up so
she won’t eat well at mealtimes.
To drink from a cup, your baby has to learn to
control the muscles in her mouth. This can
take a lot of practice. Learning to drink from a
cup is a messy business!
To help your baby learn to drink from a cup:
•
•
•
•
Start with water while your baby is learning.
Use an unbreakable cup that doesn’t tip
over easily.
Expect lots of spills! You can cover your
baby with a waterproof bib.
Help your baby by holding the cup against
her mouth. Encourage your baby to hold
the cup with you.
Make sure your baby drinks while sitting at a
table. Sit with her. This will help your baby
develop a pattern of eating and drinking at
regular meal and snack times.
Food
How to offer your baby solid food for the first time Learning to drink from a cup
Learning to drink from a cup
71
Eating together is important
Mealtimes are a time when families can connect
with one another. Talking and spending this time
together makes the bonds between you stronger.
Even when your baby is small, bring him to the
table with everyone else. He’ll learn to enjoy eating
and enjoy this time together. As he gets older, he’ll
be used to eating and talking with everyone.
Try to make mealtimes a happy time for everyone.
Turn off the TV and put toys away so you all can
focus on eating and spending time together.
Eating together when your baby is small will pay
off as he grows.
You can find more information
about eating well as a family in
the “Families” section of Loving
Care: Parents and Families.
72
Food
Added info...
Families come in many different shapes and sizes.
When we say “family” we mean people who care
about one another. They may or may not live
together, but they are important in each other’s
lives.
Your family can be you and your baby or can
include whoever you want it to.
Lumpy
Smooth
The best way to introduce your baby to solid
foods is to feed your baby the same healthy
foods that your family eats. For example, if your
family eats curry, your baby can eat curry.
Added info...
Bite-size
With some family foods, you may need to
change the texture to match what your baby is
able to handle. You can mash, chop or grate
the food your family eats. You can use a fork,
potato masher, food grater, food processor, or
blender. Use whatever you have.
Added info...
As you start to offer solid food, keep in mind that
your baby is still getting most of her nourishment
from breastmilk or formula. Over time, she’ll
get more nourishment from food and less from
breastmilk or formula.
You don’t need store-bought baby foods.
They cost more than the food you prepare at
home and are not always the kinds of foods
that your family eats. They may not provide
the different textures your baby needs.
If you do buy baby food, read the list of
ingredients on the label so you’ll know what
you’re feeding your baby. For example, storebought baby food can be very high in sugar.
Check the best before date before you buy
or use it.
Eating together is important Healthy food to offer your baby
Healthy food to offer your baby
Your baby will learn to like the kinds of food
you offer her. Get her started on a lifetime of
healthy eating by offering her healthy foods
right from the start.
Food
73
Grains and cereals
Vegetables and fruit
Meats and alternatives
Milk products
• Smooth, plain cereals with iron. Prepare
cereal according to the directions on the
package.
• Whole-grain finger foods—like pieces of bagel,
dry toast strips, rice, roti, noodles, cooked
pasta, flatbreads, cereal, and unsalted crackers.
These can be chopped, minced, grated, or cut up.
You can purée or mash them in water, breastmik,
or the liquid you cooked them in. If you’re formula
feeding, you can use formula.
•
•
Cook, then mash, purée, chop, mince, grate,
or cut up squash, peas, sweet potatoes, green
or yellow beans, apples, peaches, pears,
apricots, and plums.
Vegetables should be cooked, but very soft
fruits – like bananas – can be served raw.
• Plain yogurt
• Cottage cheese
• Shredded cheese
Meats and alternatives include:
• Beef
•Chicken
•Turkey
•Lamb
• Fish: white fish—like haddock, halibut, sole,
and cod—salmon, and canned light tuna
•Pork
• Cooked eggs
•Tofu
• Well-cooked legumes such as beans, lentils,
and chickpeas
You’ll find more information on the four food
groups in Eating Well with Canada’s Food
Guide. You’ll find a copy in the “Resources”
section of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Added info...
If you are planning to feed your baby a vegetarian diet,
you need to replace meat with meat alternatives—like
tofu, beans, and lentils. These have the nourishment
your baby needs to grow and develop.
Talk with a registered dietitian about how to do this.
74
Food
Healthy food to offer your baby
Fish is a great food for babies, but there are
a few kinds of fish that Health Canada
recommends that you be careful with.
•
Canned albacore tuna may be high in
mercury. Your baby should have no more than 40 g (1.5 ounces) a week of this kind of fish.
Swordfish, shark, fresh or frozen tuna, marlin, and orange roughy may also have high mercury levels. Your baby should have no more than 40 g (1.5 ounces) a month of this kind of fish.
•
Added info...
When choosing foods from the four food
groups, think about buying foods produced
here in New Brunswick or the Maritimes.
Locally produced, nutritious foods are good for
your baby, your family, and your community.
Locally produced foods are often fresher. They
are better for the environment because they
don’t travel far to market and they have less
packaging.
• Escolar contains a kind of oil that humans can’t digest. Health Canada recommends that babies, children, pregnant women, and the elderly not eat it. Escolar is also called snake mackerel or oilfish.
When you buy locally produced foods, you
support local farmers and fishers. More of your
money stays in your community.
For more information, see the Agriculture
and Agri-Food Canada website or the Health
Canada website. (Contact information is in
Loving Care: Parents and Families.)
Consider shopping at your local farmers’
market. When you go to the grocery store, ask
if locally grown foods are available.
Food
75
Finger foods
The first solid foods you offer your baby will be
soft, smooth foods from a spoon.
Along with this smooth food, it’s important to also
offer your baby foods of different textures that
he can pick up on his own. This helps him learn
about lumpy foods and to bite and munch on
food. It also teaches him to feed himself and to
know that he is in charge of how much he eats.
Start with small, soft pieces of food. As your baby
gets better at eating, you can gradually increase
the size of the pieces.
Safe finger foods include:
• Pieces of soft-cooked vegetables
• Soft ripe fruit, such as banana
• Finely minced, ground, or mashed cooked meat
• Deboned fish, chicken or turkey
• Grated cheese
• Bread crust or toast
Added info...
Learning to handle food with different textures
now will help your baby be able to eat more
kinds of food as he grows.
This is why it’s important to offer lumpy foods
early – by 9 months at the latest.
76
Food
Finger foods Iron-rich foods
Iron-rich foods
When a baby is born, she has enough iron in
her body to last about six months. One of the
reasons your baby needs to start solid foods at
six months is that her supply of iron is running
low. Foods that are rich in iron should be the first
foods that you offer your baby.
Between 6 and 12 months, offer your baby ironrich foods two or more times a day. Iron-rich
foods include:
• Meat and alternatives (see page 74 for a list)
• Iron-fortified grain products
Food
77
Healthy drinks for babies
When you give your baby a drink with meals and snacks, use a regular cup, not a sippy cup. You will
need to help your baby drink from the cup for a while, but he’ll learn to drink on his own after a while.
Healthy Drinks for 6 to 12 Months
Breastmilk
Continue to breastfeed. Your breastfed baby will need 400 IU of
vitamin D drops every day until she’s at least 12 months old. You’ll find
more information about breastfeeding in Breastfeeding your baby.
If you are feeding your baby with infant formula, continue following
your baby’s hunger cues. You’ll find information about formula
feeding in How to Feed Your Baby with Infant Formula.
Water
You can offer water as a drink between meals, especially in hot
weather when your baby needs extra fluids. Giving milk or juice
between meals can cause cavities.
Other Milk
Wait until your baby is between 9 and 12 months before offering
whole cow milk. The reason for this is that cow milk is low in iron and
can make it harder for your baby to absorb the iron in other foods.
Also, your baby may fill up on milk and not eat enough iron-rich
foods. Be sure your baby is eating a variety of iron-rich foods before
offering milk.
Before age 2, offer your baby only whole, 3.25% milk. Skim milk, 1%
milk and 2% milk will not give your baby the nourishment he needs
when used as a main milk source.
Pasteurized, full-fat goat milk with added folic acid and vitamin D
can be safely used in place of cow milk.
Soy, almond, rice and coconut milks do not have the same kind of
nourishment that whole cow or goat milk does. They cannot be used
as a main milk source for your baby.
78
Food
Healthy drinks for babies
If you’re breastfeeding: If you want, you can
offer small amounts of whole cow milk with
meals and snacks after your baby is eating a
variety of iron-rich foods. At this age, cow milk
doesn’t replace breastmilk.
Soy milk is not the same as soy-based
formula. If you use soy-based formula do
not switch your baby to soy milk without
checking with your health care provider.
If you’re using formula: Once your baby is
eating a variety of iron-rich foods, you can
replace formula with whole cow milk. If your
baby is not yet eating iron-rich foods regularly,
keep using formula. After 12 months, most
babies no longer need formula.
Food
79
Juice
Your baby does not need juice. It is not as
nourishing as the whole fruit or vegetable it is
made from. When babies fill up on juice, they eat
less of the foods they need. Even 100% juice is
high in sugar and can lead to tooth decay. As
well, drinking too much juice can give your baby
diarrhea.
If you decide to give your baby juice:
• Wait until your baby is eating fruit and other foods.
• Serve juice in a cup, with a sit-down meal or snack.
•
Give your baby 100% pure fruit and/or
vegetable juices with no added sugar. You do
not need to buy special baby juice. Check the
label to be sure the juice is pasteurized.
• Give your baby no more than ½ cup (125 ml)
of fruit juice per day.
Added info...
Water is the best drink for your baby between
meals and snacks. Make sure your water is
safe for your baby to drink. You’ll find
information on lead in water on page 114.
Added info...
If you get your water from a well be sure
to have it tested before your baby drinks
it. If you are not sure that your water is safe,
give your baby bottled water.
Be sure that any drink you offer your baby—
other than breastmilk, formula, and water—is
pasteurized.
For more information on safe well water and
to find out how to test your water contact
your regional Health Protection Branch office
(contact information, page 121).
80
Look for the word “pasteurized” on the label.
Food
Offer your baby solid food 2 or 3 times a day as
a meal and 1 or 2 times as a snack.
It helps to plan meals and snacks for about the
same time each day. As your baby gets more
and more of his nourishment from solid foods,
he needs to be able to depend on eating at
regular times.
Added info...
Remember: Offer your baby whole cow or goat
milk only after your baby is eating a variety of
iron-rich foods.
Continue to breastfeed or to offer breastmilk
with every meal and snack. To help your
baby learn to drink from a cup, you can give
breastmilk in a cup. You can offer breastmilk
before or after solid food. If you want to,
between 9 and 12 months you can begin
offering whole cow or goat milk.
If you are using formula, offer it to your baby
as usual. She’ll still be getting most of her
nourishment from formula, so she’ll need a
bottle for a while. To help your baby learn to
drink from a cup, you can give formula in a
cup. Over time, she’ll drink more and more
from a cup and by 18 months, you can give
all fluids in a cup. You can offer formula
before or after solid food. Starting at 9
months, gradually replace formula with
whole cow or goat milk.
Healthy drinks for babies Sample menus
Sample menus
The sample menu is only a guide.
Different times and different foods may work
better for your baby and family.
Food
81
Sample Menu
From 6 to 8 months
From 9 to 12 months
Early
morning
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
(Formula)
(Formula, gradually replacing formula
with whole cow or goat milk.)
Breakfast
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
(Formula)
(Formula, gradually replacing formula
with whole cow or goat milk.)
•
•
Iron-fortified infant cereal
Mashed strawberries or other soft fruit
•
•
Iron-fortified infant cereal
Chopped strawberries, kiwis or
other soft fruit
•
•
Iron-fortified infant cereal
Applesauce
OR
Snack
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
(Formula)
(Formula, gradually replacing formula
with whole cow or goat milk.)
•
Lunch
Whole grain toast, cut into small
pieces or strips
•
•
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
(Formula)
(Formula, gradually replacing formula
with whole cow or goat milk.)
•
•
•
Iron-fortified infant cereal
Hard-boiled egg, mashed, minced,
or grated
Cooked and mashed sweet
potato or other vegetable
•
•
•
Chicken, chopped
Steamed brown rice
Cooked broccoli, chopped
•
•
•
Canned salmon, mashed
Sweet potato, mashed
Green peas, cooked soft and mashed
•
•
•
•
Roast turkey leg, chopped
Whole grain bread, cut into strips
Squash, mashed
Canned peaches, chopped
OR
OR
82
Whole grain and fruit muffin
Grated cooked carrot
Food
From 6 to 8 months
Snack
From 9 to 12 months
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
(Formula)
(Formula, gradually replacing formula
with whole cow or goat milk.)
•
Unsweetened prunes, puréed
•
•
Cheddar cheese, shredded
Whole wheat pita, cut into small strips
•
•
Hard-boiled egg, chopped
Whole grain bread, cut into strips
•
•
•
Soft tofu, mashed
Berries
Unsalted crackers
OR
OR
Dinner
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
(Formula)
(Formula, gradually replacing formula
with whole cow or goat milk.)
•
•
Ground or finely minced plain,
dark-meat chicken or other meat
Cooked and mashed broccoli or
other vegetable
•
•
•
•
Lean pork roast, chopped
Whole wheat pasta
Cooked carrots, mashed
Banana and strawberries, chopped
•
•
Mixed dish: ground beef, cooked
with diced tomatoes and macaroni
Unsweetened stewed prunes, puréed
•
•
•
•
Trout or char, deboned and flaked
Steamed brown rice
Cooked green peppers, chopped
Canned peaches, chopped
OR
OR
Evening and
Nighttime
Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding
(Formula)
(Formula, gradually replacing formula
with whole cow or goat milk.)
Food
Sample menus
Sample Menu
83
Foods and drinks to avoid
Some foods are not healthy for babies. Many
families enjoy these kinds of foods once in a
while or on special occasions. But your baby is
still too young for them.
There are several reasons not to give these
kinds of foods to your baby:
• They won’t give him the nourishment he needs to grow and develop.
If your baby gets sweet and salty foods
now, he may learn to like them and to prefer
them to healthier foods. These foods can lead to health and dental problems.
•
Do not give your baby...
Foods with lots of sugar
For example:
•
•
•
•
Candy and chocolate
•
•
Sweetened gelatin
Ice cream and frozen desserts
Sweet desserts
Cakes, cookies, pastry, granola bars, donuts, store-bought muffins
Pop, freezie/slushie type drinks, fruit-flavoured
drinks
Honey is not safe for babies under 12 months. See
page 89 for more information.
•
•
Sugar coated cereals
Jams and jellies
Do not give your baby....
Drinks with added sugar, artificial sweeteners, caffeine, or alcohol
For example:
•
•
84
Pop, diet pop
Fruit drinks, fruit punch, fruit beverages, lemonade, freezie/slushie type drinks,
fruit-flavoured drinks
•
•
•
Food
Sports and energy drinks
Coffee, tea, herbal tea
Alcohol of any kind
Your baby needs healthy fats to grow and
develop. Healthy fats include:
For example:
• Pickles and olives
• Processed meats—like hot dogs, bologna, salami
•
•
Ketchup
•
Chips, nachos, cheese puffs, pretzels,
French fries
Dry or canned soups (Look for soups
labeled “low sodium.”)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Soft, non-hydrogenated margarine
Nut or seed butters
Vegetable oil
Fatty fish, like salmon
Avocado
Foods and drinks to avoid
Added info...
Do not give your baby...
Foods with lots of salt
Canned pasta
Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide is a
good place to find information about healthy
food choices.
It also contains information about how to read
the Nutrition Facts Table on food labels.
You’ll find a copy in the back of of Loving Care:
Parents and Families.
Keep in mind that you need to set an
example of healthy eating by eating healthy
foods most of the time.
Food
85
Gagging and choking
All babies gag and spit out food while they are
learning to swallow. They may also gag when
they first try lumpier or thicker foods. Gagging is
a normal response that helps protect babies from
choking. Gagging doesn’t mean that the baby
doesn’t like the food. As they get better at eating
solid food, babies gag less.
Someone should always be with your
baby while he’s eating or drinking.
Choking is much more serious than gagging.
Babies choke when they get food stuck in their
windpipe and can’t breathe.
Don’t put cereal or other food in a bottle.
This can cause choking and it won’t help
your baby sleep through the night.
To prevent choking:
• Be sure your baby is sitting up straight while
eating.
• Pay attention to what your baby is able to
chew and swallow. Be careful that the food
you give your baby has a texture that she
can handle.
• Help your baby pay attention while eating.
Avoid distractions like TV, toys, and noise
from other children during meals.
Learn what to do if your baby chokes. You
can find contact information for First Aid classes
on page 125. Keep emergency phone numbers
posted by the phone.
86
Food
How to make these foods safer
•
Smooth, sticky foods
like peanut butter and nut butters
•
Don’t give blobs or spoonfuls of these foods.
Hard foods
like some raw vegetables and fruit
•
•
Cook hard foods to soften them.
Small, round foods
like grapes and cherries
•
•
Cut each one into 4 small sections.
Tube-shaped foods
like cooked baby carrots
•
•
Cut them lengthwise into strips.
Stringy or chewy foods
like meat, long thin pasta, melted cheese
and fresh pineapple
•
Cut these foods into small pieces.
Spread them thinly on whole grain breads or
crackers.
Grate them into small pieces.
Gagging and choking
Foods that can cause choking
Remove seeds or pits.
Cut the strips into small pieces.
These foods can cause choking. They are NEVER safe for babies:
•
•
•
•
Nuts, seeds, popcorn
Hard candies, cough drops, gum
Marshmallows
Whole grapes
•
•
•
•
Carrots cut into rounds
Hot dogs
Fish with bones
Snacks using toothpicks or skewers
Food
87
Food allergies
Continue to introduce your baby to a wide
variety of family foods. Talk to a health care
provider if you think your baby is allergic to a
particular food.
Call 911 if your baby has a severe
allergic reaction. You need help quickly.
Signs of a severe allergic reaction are:
•
•
•
Food allergies are not as common as you might
think. Few babies have food allergies in their first
year of life. Even fewer have food allergies as
they get older.
The information in this section is based on the
most up-to-date allergy research. Some of it may
sound strange to you or be different from what
you’ve heard before.
For example, you may have heard that you
should wait 2 to 3 days after giving your baby
a new food so you can see if he has an allergic
reaction. This is not necessary. If your baby is
allergic to a food, he’ll likely have a reaction soon
after eating it.
You may also have heard that to prevent allergies
you should wait until your baby is a certain age
to introduce a particular food—like peanut butter.
Research has shown that this is not necessary
either. If your baby is allergic to a food, he’ll be
allergic no matter when you introduce it.
88
Food
Hard time breathing
Can’t swallow
Mouth, tongue or throat swell up
Added info...
Some signs of allergy are:
• Rash or hives
• Pain in the stomach
• Vomiting
• Diarrhea
• Watery or swollen eyes
Talk to your health care provider if your baby
has any of these symptoms. They may be
caused by a food allergy. However, there
could be other reasons for the symptoms that
have nothing to do with food.
You’ll find information on some things to do
when looking for medical care in the “Welcome”
section of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Cord
Diapers
Food care
allergies
Feed your baby safely
Feed your baby safely
Sit facing your baby while she’s eating. Never
leave her to eat alone. Be there to help as your
baby learns to feed herself.
Honey is not safe for babies under 1 year.
Do not give your baby honey, or any kind of
food made with honey, for the first year. This
includes baked and cooked foods that contain
honey. Don’t put honey on a soother.
Honey can cause infant botulism, a kind of
food poisoning that only affects babies. After
12 months, your baby will be developed
enough for it to be safe to eat honey.
No hot foods
Your baby’s food can be cold, room
temperature, or warm—never hot. If you
warm your baby’s food, stir it well to make
sure there are no hot spots.
Safe seats
To protect your baby from choking, be sure
she’s sitting up straight while eating.
The safest place for your baby while eating
is sitting up in a high chair. Do up the seat
belt to help keep your baby safe.
Food
89
Food safety
Food safety is important. Food poisoning can
make anyone sick. But it can make babies and
small children very sick. You can’t see, smell or
taste the bacteria that cause food poisoning.
One way that your baby could be exposed to
the germs that cause food poisoning is if you
feed him from a jar or container and then put
the leftover food back in the fridge to finish later.
This is because the spoon carries germs from
your baby’s mouth into the food. These germs
can then grow in the food and make your baby
sick the next time you use the food.
When feeding your baby with a spoon, take
the amount of food you’ll be using out of the
container and put it into a bowl. After your baby
is finished eating, throw away any food left in
the bowl.
For more information on how to keep things
clean, and how to handle, cook and store food
carefully, see the “Families” section of Loving
Care: Parents and Families.
90
Food
Feed your baby safely
Your baby wants you to know...
Your loving care helps me to feel safe and happy while I try new
foods and learn to enjoy new tastes and textures. You’re helping
me learn healthy eating habits that will last a lifetime.
Food
91
Hand washing...........................................................................94
Immunizations..........................................................................95
Flu vaccine...............................................................................96
Questions that your health care provider may ask.........................97
When to see a health care provider.............................................98
Common concerns.....................................................................99
• Giving medicine................................................................99
• Dehydration.....................................................................99
Dental health..........................................................................100
• Three steps to preventing cavities..................................... 100
• Teething......................................................................... 103
• Thumb sucking and soothers............................................ 103
A smoke-free home and car..................................................... 104
Added info...
If your language or culture is different from your health care provider’s, a cultural
health interpreter may be able to help you.
Ask your health care provider if cultural health interpreters are available in your
community. If they are, a health care provider can help you contact one.
92
Health
Health
My baby is healthy and strong. What can I do to help him stay that way?
Hand washing
Washing your hands with soap and water is one
of the best and easiest things you can do to keep
your baby—and your whole family—healthy.
When you don’t have access to water and soap,
use hand sanitizer.
Everyone should wash their hands:
• Before eating and before feeding the baby
• Before cooking or preparing food
• Before cleaning your baby’s mouth or teeth
• After changing a diaper
• After using the toilet
• After handling anything dirty
• After petting an animal
• After wiping their nose—or anyone else’s nose —or sneezing or coughing into their hand
Added info...
Wash your baby’s hands, too. It’s never too
soon for your baby to get used to hand washing.
Added info...
When guests come into your home, have them
wash their hands before they hold your baby.
This includes grandparents and other family
members.
94
Health
Immunizations protect your baby from serious
illnesses. Your baby’s needles are an important
part of keeping him healthy.
Your baby should have had needles at birth, 2 and
4 months.
He should get his next needles at 6 months.
These protect him from diphtheria, whooping
cough, tetanus, polio, haemophilus influenzae
type b, hepatitis B, pneumonia, and some ear
infections.
At 12 months or soon after, your baby should get
needles to protect him from measles, mumps
and rubella, chickenpox, meningitis, pneumonia
and some ear infections. It’s important that your
baby not get these needles too early. If he gets
them before his first birthday, they might not work.
Hand washing Immunizations
Immunizations
If you miss any of these needles, contact your
health care provider or a local Public Health office
to arrange for your baby to catch up.
Added info...
It’s your responsibility to keep a record of
your baby’s needles. This is your only record
of your child’s immunizations. Your child will
need this record for child care and school. You
can use the green Personal Immunization Record card. This card also has a chart with all the
needles your child will need. The health care
provider that immunizes your baby should provide you with the green personal Immunization
Record card.
Health
95
Flu vaccine
The flu—also called influenza—is an infection
caused by a virus. It affects the nose, throat and
lungs, and can cause fever, tiredness, and aches
and pains. Flu can make your baby very sick,
very quickly.
Flu vaccine is a safe and effective way to reduce
the risk that your baby will get this illness. If your
baby does get the flu, it will be much less
serious if she’s had flu vaccine.
protects for only 6 months, so you need to be
vaccinated every year.
You can get the flu vaccine from:
• Your health care provider
• Public Health office
• Selected pharmacies
• Community clinics
When your baby gets flu vaccine for the first time,
she’ll need 2 doses. These are given at least 4
weeks apart.
In New Brunswick, flu vaccine is free of charge.
for children 6 months to 18 years of age,
household contacts of children less than 5 years
of age and members of a household expecting
a newborn during the flu season. Getting the flu
vaccine yourself will help protect your baby. It’s
also a good idea for anyone who lives with or
cares for your baby to get the flu vaccine.
The best time to get the flu vaccine is between
mid-October and December. Flu vaccine
96
Health
Added info...
Remember to take your baby’s green Personal
Immunization Record card when you go for flu
vaccine.
Added info...
You can find out more about flu from your
health care provider or local Public Health office
(contact information, page 122).
When your baby is sick, your health care provider
will ask questions about your baby’s
illness when you call or visit. Before you talk
to the health care provider, think about what’s
wrong and why you think your baby is sick. This
will help you to explain your concerns clearly.
The health care provider will ask about how your
baby is feeling and what she’s been doing:
• Fever? How high? How long has she had it?
• Chills or shaking?
• Throwing up? How often? What does it look Added info...
All of us are entitled to health care that
responds to our individual needs and
allows us to feel safe and respected.
Talk to your health care provider about
what you want and need for yourself and
your baby. Help your health care provider
to offer care that respects your race,
culture, religion, sexual orientation, and
ability.
like?
• Diarrhea? How often?
does it look like?
How much? What Added info...
• Cough or runny nose?
Is she having trouble breathing?
• Not feeding? Has she lost weight?
• Hard, dry poop? When was her last poop?
• Does she have a rash?
• Is your baby acting differently than usual?
If you are looking for a family physician,
you can register with Patient Connect NB
by calling Tele-Care at 811.
Added info...
Is she very sleepy or fussy?
• Have you given your baby any medicine?
• Has your baby been around someone who’s recently been sick?
New Brunswick has a Prescription
Drug Program to help with the cost of
prescription drugs for children with special
needs.
Write down your baby’s symptoms as you notice
them. If you can, write down the time you
noticed them. Write down anything you think you
might forget to tell the health care provider.
Some families are also eligible for the New
Brunswick prescription drug program for
low-income children (Contact information,
page 122).
Flu vaccine Questions that your health care provider may ask
Questions that your health care provider may ask
When you visit or talk to the health care provider,
make sure you understand everything she tells
you to do. If you’re not sure, ask her to explain.
Health
97
When to see a health care provider
Trust your instincts. You know your baby best.
If you are concerned about any change in your
baby—either physical or in the way he behaves
—see your health care provider or call Tele-Care
at 811. Don’t worry about taking your baby to
your health care provider too often.
Talk with a health care provider if your baby has
any of these symptoms:
• Fever over 38.5 C (101 F)
• A hard time breathing
• Sleepy all the time. You have a hard time o
o
waking him up.
• Fewer wet diapers than usual or dark yellow, smelly pee
• Cries a lot more than usual or sounds
different when crying
• No interest in eating or drinking
• Keeps rubbing or pulling on his ear
• Poop is different from usual—it could be very runny or liquid, or very hard and dry
• A cough that lasts for several days
• Diaper rash that is red and peeling or has Added info...
sores in it
• Not alert or smiling at you
Use a plastic digital thermometer when you take
your baby’s temperature.
• Not interested in playing
Put the thermometer in your baby’s armpit.
Keep the thermometer in place by gently
pressing your baby’s elbow against his side.
You’ll find information on some things to do
when looking for medical care in the “Welcome”
section of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
98
Wait 2 minutes or until you hear the beep.
Check the temperature.
Health
Dehydration
Giving medicine
Check with your health care provider or
pharmacist before you give your child any kind
of medicine. This includes over-the-counter
medicines like acetaminophen.
When giving your baby medicine, be careful to
keep track of the amount you give. It’s easy to
give too much. To be safe:
• Have only one person give the medicine.
• Write down when you give the medicine.
• Write down how much you give.
If you are worried that your child has had
too much medicine, contact your health care
provider, call 911 or call Tele-Care at 811.
It’s NEVER safe to give your baby cough syrup.
Dehydration means the loss of body fluids.
It can happen very quickly when a baby has
diarrhea or is vomiting.
Some signs of dehydration are:
• Not peeing—less than 4 wet diapers in a day or more than 8 hours without peeing
• Drowsiness
• Weakness
• Dry mouth and lips
• Thirstiness
• No tears when crying
• Sunken eyes
Dehydration is serious. See a health care
provider right away if you think your baby is
dehydrated.
Added info...
You’ll find information on some things to
do when looking for medical care in the
“Welcome” section of Loving Care: Parents
and Families.
Eye exams
Soon after birth, a health care provider checked
your baby’s eyes. If that test showed that your
baby had a problem, she would have been sent
to an eye doctor for follow-up tests.
When to see a health care provider Common concerns
Common concerns
Added info...
Your child should also get an eye exam by the
age of 3. This is especially important if you
have a family history of eye problems.
Some racial or ethnic groups have health
issues that are of particular concern to
their community. Talk with your health
care provider if you are concerned about a
health issue of this kind.
If you are concerned about your child’s eyes,
ask your health care provider if he or she thinks
that you should take her to an eye doctor.
Health
99
Dental health
Healthy baby teeth are important for your baby’s overall health. Pain and infection from tooth decay
can make it hard for your baby to sleep, chew, and grow normally. They make it difficult for your baby
to concentrate and learn. Baby teeth also help to shape your child’s face and guide adult teeth into
place.
Make cleaning your baby’s mouth and teeth fun! Sing a song. Make up stories about cleaning away
the germs.
Baby teeth are worth taking care of! Start early to keep your baby cavity free for life.
1
Keep your baby’s teeth and mouth clean.
For children under age 3, the Canadian Dental
Association says that unless there is a risk for
tooth decay, you should use plain water to brush
your baby’s teeth.
After the first tooth comes in:
• If your baby IS NOT at risk for tooth decay, brush your child’s teeth and gums with a
child-sized toothbrush and water.
If your baby IS at risk for tooth decay, brush your baby’s teeth and gums with a child-sized toothbrush and a small smear of toothpaste with fluoride—about the size of a grain of rice. You use this tiny amount because small
children tend to swallow toothpaste while
brushing.
Added info...
Risk factors for tooth decay
Your baby could be at risk for tooth decay if:
• Your water supply is not fluoridated.
• Your baby has white or brown spots on his front teeth.
• Your baby eats or drinks anything high in sugar.
• Your baby’s teeth are brushed less than once a day.
• Your baby has visible plaque on his teeth.
Plaque looks like white or yellow deposits on the teeth.
• Your baby was premature.
• Your baby has health or behaviour issues that make it difficult for you to brush his teeth.
• You or other caregivers have tooth decay.
If your baby has one of these risk factors, talk
with a health care provider.
Keep toothpaste out of children’s reach.
100
Health
Dental health
• Brush your baby’s teeth every morning and every evening before bed. When you brush, sit or lay your baby in a safe position. You need to support your baby’s head so you can see his teeth clearly. Your hands should be clean and free to open his mouth and do the
brushing.
• Lift the lip to check your baby’s teeth for
cavities. Look at the front and back teeth.
If you notice brown or white spots on your
toddler’s teeth, call a dentist right away.
This may be the first sign of decay.
2
Don’t let food or drink stay on your baby’s teeth.
• Never prop a bottle or a sippy cup. Never put your baby or toddler to bed with a bottle or a sippy cup. Juice (even 100% juice), milk, and formula all contain sugar. They can cause tooth decay when left on the teeth too long.
other than water. If he sips all day on any drink that contains sugar—even milk and 100% juice—it increases the risk of tooth decay. Offer your baby milk or 100% juice at mealtime. Offer tap water to drink between meals. Have your baby sit in a high chair or at a small table for snacks and drinks.
• Never allow your baby to sip all day on drinks Health
Healthy snacks are important for healthy
teeth. Avoid sweet, sticky snacks.
Dried fruits and fruit leathers are healthy
foods but they stick to the teeth and can
cause cavities. If your children eat these
foods, brush their teeth right away.
For more information about healthy
eating, see the “Food” section of this
book, page 61.
101
3
See a dentist regularly.
• Take your baby for his first dental check-up
by his first birthday. The dentist or dental
hygienist will check your child’s risk for cavities and answer your questions. If you don’t have a dentist, ask your friends and family for
suggestions or check the yellow pages.
• Take your baby to a dentist if you see any What causes cavities?
Sugar in food and drinks plus plaque in the
mouth can lead to tooth decay.
Plaque is a thin, hard-to-see layer of germs
that covers the teeth and gums. These germs
use the sugars in food and drink to make
acid. This acid eats away the hard outer layer
of the teeth—called enamel—and causes
tooth decay.
white or brown spots on his teeth, or if he injures a tooth.
If you are concerned about the cost of
dental care...
The Healthy Smiles, Clear Vision Program of
the Department of Social Development covers
basic dental care for children from birth up to age
18 for low income families. You’ll find contact
information for the Healthy Smiles, Clear Vision
Program on page 121.
102
Added info...
Health
The longer food and sugary drinks stay on the
teeth, the greater the risk of tooth decay.
Germs that cause cavities can pass from your
mouth to your baby. To protect your baby,
take care of your own dental health.
Keep your own teeth and mouth clean. You
will set a good example for your baby and
there will be fewer cavity-causing germs in
your mouth to pass along.
Thumb sucking and soothers
Teething is a natural process during which your
baby’s teeth push through the gums.
Thumb sucking and using soothers are not
likely to cause problems as long as your
child stops by the time his permanent teeth
start to come in at about age 5.
Most babies’ first teeth start to come in at around
6 months. Some start teething a little earlier,
some a little later. Most babies get the two
middle teeth on the top and the two middle teeth
on the bottom first. But all babies are different
and some may get teeth in a different order.
Teething can make your baby restless and fussy.
To help her feel better:
• Give your baby a clean, cold facecloth to Dental health
Teething
If you give your baby a soother:
• Don’t dip a soother in anything,
especially honey.
• Make sure it can’t come apart.
• Keep it clean. Use warm soapy water and rinse it well before giving it to your baby.
suck or chew.
• Get a new one when it becomes sticky or • Give your baby a teething ring. Teething rings should be cold but not frozen. Wash them often. Use warm, soapy water and rinse well before giving them to your baby.
has cracks or tears.
• Don’t put a soother on a string around baby’s neck. Strings can choke.
• Massage your baby’s gums using a clean • Don’t pin soothers to clothes.
• Don’t use teething biscuits. Teething biscuits If you are concerned about thumb sucking
or soothers, talk to your dentist or health
care provider.
finger.
are high in sugar and may cause cavities.
• Don’t use teething gels. They can affect your hurt or be swallowed.
Pins can baby’s health or cause choking by making the throat numb.
Fever or diarrhea is not a normal part of
teething. If your baby has a fever or diarrhea
for more than 24 hours, call your health care
provider. If your baby continues to be restless
or fussy, check with your dentist or health care
provider.
It’s not safe to put honey on a
soother.
Honey can cause infant botulism, a
kind of food poisoning that only affects
babies. After 12 months, your baby will
be developed enough for it to be safe to
eat honey.
Check with your dentist, health care provider,
or pharmacist if you think your baby might
need medicine for teething pain. Ask which
kind to use and how much is best for your baby.
Health
103
A smoke-free home and car
One of the best things you can do for your baby’s
health is to give him a smoke-free home and car.
There is no level of tobacco smoke that is
safe for your baby. Tobacco smoke hurts
children in several ways.
• Second-hand smoke is smoke that children breathe in. It’s smoke that you can see in the air. Second-hand smoke is even more
dangerous for babies than for adults. Babies have smaller lungs and they breathe more quickly. This means they breathe in more smoke.
up through their skin and mouths. The poisons in tobacco smoke stick to everything they touch—for example, toys, clothes, sheets,
towels, carpets, furniture, and dishes. Babies are exposed to third-hand smoke just by living in a house where people smoke. They crawl on floors, climb on furniture, play with—or chew on—toys, and touch clothes, sheets, and towels that are all covered with third-hand smoke. These poisons stay around for a long time. When someone smokes in a house or car, the third-hand smoke they leave behind can affect children months later.
• Third-hand smoke is smoke that babies pick In New Brunswick, it is illegal to smoke
in a car with children present. Secondand third-hand smoke in cars is even more
dangerous than smoke indoors. The smoke
in a car builds up quickly, even with the
window down. Smoking in the small space
inside a car is 23 times more toxic than
smoking in a home. Even if you only
smoke in your car when your child isn’t
present, he will be exposed to the thirdhand smoke on the car seats and
upholstery.
Your baby can’t control the amount of
second- and third-hand smoke he’s
exposed to. Only you can do that. Air
exchangers and open windows will not
protect your baby. The only way to protect
your baby is to make sure no one smokes in
your home or your car.
Ask others who care about your baby not
to smoke in their home when your baby
is there. Remind them that it’s illegal to
smoke in their car when a child is present.
There is a link between children who live with
tobacco smoke and several serious illnesses.
These include:
You’ll find more information on stopping
smoking in the “Parents” section of Loving
Care: Parents and Families.
• Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
• Childhood cancer
• Leukemia
• Brain cancer
• Ear and lung infections
• Asthma
104
You can also contact the Smokers’
Helpline. (Contact information is on page
125.)
Health
A smoke-free home and car
Your baby wants you to know...
Your loving care keeps me well and strong. If I do get sick,
I depend on you to get me the help I need.
Health
105
107
Babyproof early....................................................................... 108
Babyproofing checklist............................................................. 109
Lead poisoning........................................................................ 114
Car safety............................................................................... 115
Bath safety.............................................................................. 116
106
Safety
Safety
My baby is growing fast! She’s moving around more every day. What can I
do to keep her safe while she explores?
Babyproof early
Being alert to all the new skills your baby is
learning is the best way to keep her safe. Your
baby is interested in everything she sees. She
needs to explore her world and her new skills
help her to do it.
Your baby can move faster and reach higher than
you might think. Now is the time to babyproof
your home and think about preventing injuries as
your baby begins to grow into an active toddler.
Babyproofing means making your home a clean
and safe place for your baby to explore.
The best place to start babyproofing is on your
hands and knees. Pretend to be a baby and
crawl around your home. Look at everything
from your baby’s point of view.
In this section you’ll find a checklist to help you
find and fix the things in your home that could
hurt your baby. Check every room in your home
for dangers. And check often. You need to keep
one step ahead of your baby’s developing skills.
Your baby depends on you to make her world
safe.
108
Safety
You’ll find information about sun safety, avoiding
insect bites, and pet safety in the “Families”
section of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
You’ll find more information about your baby’s
growth and development on pages 10–23 in this
book.
Your baby is always safest when someone is
watching her. It only takes a second for a baby
to get hurt.
Keep a close watch on your baby when visiting
other people’s homes. Their homes may not
be babyproof.
In Canada, more children die or go to the hospital because of injuries than for any other reason.
Nine out of 10 injuries in the home can be prevented.
Babyproofing your home, keeping a close watch on your baby,
and using the right car seat can prevent many injuries.
Check every room in your home. Check often.
Falling
LOOK FOR: Things that could cause a fall
Put gates at the top and bottom of stairs.
Make sure that the gates at the top of the
stairs are screwed into the wall. Never use
a pressure gate at the top of the stairs.
Be sure your high chair, wagon, swing, and
stroller have safety straps. Fasten the
safety strap whenever your baby uses
them. Never leave your baby alone in a
highchair, wagon, swing, or stroller.
Make sure that there is nothing near
windows or balcony rails that your baby
could climb on—for example, no furniture or
flowerpots.
Put window guards on windows above
the ground floor. Or fix the windows so
they can’t open more than 10 cm (4 in.).
Screens in windows are not enough to keep
your baby safe.
Put the crib mattress at its lowest
level so your baby can’t climb or
fall out.
Keep drawers closed so your baby
can’t climb them.
Babyproof early Babyproofing checklist
Babyproofing Checklist
Clean up spills and puddles
quickly. Babies can slip and fall.
Look for sharp edges on furniture. Tape
foam over the edges or remove the
furniture from the room.
Keep large toys and stuffed animals out of
cribs and playpens. Your baby could climb
up on them and fall out.
Safety
Use a non-slip mat in the bathtub.
Use a non-slip mat on the
bathroom floor.
Never use a baby walker with wheels.
Babies have fallen down stairs and
suffered serious head injuries in these
walkers.
They are so dangerous that they can’t be
sold in stores in Canada anymore.
If you have one, throw it away. If you see
one, don’t buy it.
109
Pulling down
LOOK FOR: Things your baby could pull down on himself
Check for dangling cords on lamps and
appliances. If your baby can reach the
cord, he can pull down a lamp, teakettle,
hair dryer, or toaster. Tape cords to the
wall or keep them out of reach.
Remove tablecloths and placemats.
Burning or scalding
110
Make sure TVs, TV stands, bookcases,
and other heavy furniture are attached to
something so your baby can’t pull them
over onto himself. For example, some
bookcases can be bolted to the wall.
LOOK FOR: Things that could burn or scald your baby
Make sure the water from your taps is not
hotter than 49oC (120oF). You can put a
scald protector on the bathtub faucet. This
shuts off the water if it becomes too hot.
You can find out how to adjust your water
temperature by contacting Child Safety Link
or Safe Kids Canada (contact information is
on page 125).
Cooked or heated food for baby can be
cold, room temperature, or warm—not hot.
If you warm your baby’s food, stir it well to
be sure there are no hot spots.
Turn pot handles toward the back of the
stove when cooking. Use the back burners
whenever you can.
Be sure that there is a working smoke
detector on every floor of your home.
Keep your baby away from all heat sources.
This includes: wood stoves, fireplaces,
space heaters, and radiators.
Keep your baby in a safe place where
you can see him while you are busy in
the kitchen—for example in a high chair
or playpen. Keep hot foods and liquids
out of reach.
Don’t carry hot liquids while you’re
holding your baby. Use a travel mug
with a tight lid for hot drinks even when
you’re at home.
Your baby’s skin is thin and very sensitive. It
burns very quickly and easily.
Babies under 1 year should not be in direct
sunlight. You’ll find information on fire safety, sun
safety and preventing sunburn in the “Families”
section of Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Cover all electrical outlets with plastic outlet
covers that fit tightly and are very difficult to
remove.
Safety
You’ll find information about fire safety in the
“Families” section of Loving Care: Parents and
Families.
Use a toy box without a lid. If your toy box
has a lid that you can’t remove, make sure
it has large air holes so that if your baby
gets trapped inside, he can still breathe.
Choking
LOOK FOR: Things that could suffocate your baby
LOOK FOR: Things that could choke your baby
Keep cords from curtains and
blinds up high, out of your baby’s
reach. Attach a cleat to the wall
and wrap the cord round it. Or
use a clip clothespin, or twist tie
to wrap them up out of reach.
If your cord has a loop at the
bottom, cut it open and knot the
ends of the two cords. Be sure
there are no cords within reach
of your baby’s crib.
Store older children’s toys where
your baby can’t get at them. Teach
your other children to keep small
toys away from the baby.
Remove all mobiles and hanging
toys from the crib as soon as your
baby can sit up.
Make sure there are no long
strings, belts or ties on your baby’s
clothing. For example, remove strings from
hoods. Soothers should not be attached
to your baby’s clothes with long strings or
cords.
Keep latex balloons out of reach.
Balloons and pieces of popped
balloons can choke your baby.
Don’t let your baby put balloons or
balloon pieces in his mouth.
Keep plastic bags out of reach.
Tie a knot in the middle of the bag
so your baby can’t put it over her
head.
Check all toys for small pieces that might
come off. Check for broken toys and
remove them.
Store all small objects out of your baby’s
reach. This includes things like coins,
buttons, small batteries, keys, and earrings.
Store purses and backpacks out of reach.
There are lots of things in a purse or
backpack that your baby could choke on.
Remember: anything your baby can pick
up will go in his mouth.
Safety
Babyproofing checklist
Suffocating
When your baby starts to eat solid food,
make sure that it is mashed, grated,
or chopped so there are no pieces big
enough for her to choke on.
Don’t give your baby blobs or spoonfuls
of thick, sticky foods—like peanut butter.
Babies should never have nuts, popcorn,
hard candy, or gum.
You’ll find information on feeding your
baby on pages 62–91.
111
Poisoning
LOOK FOR: Things that could poison your baby
Keep dangerous products out of sight and
up high. Put childproof latches or locks on
any cupboard your child could reach. Store
purses and backpacks out of reach. Things
that can poison your baby include:
Keep plants out of your baby’s
reach. Some are poisonous.
• Alcohol—beer, wine, any kind of Keep anything that could poison
your child in its original container.
This way you will always know
what it is and won’t confuse it with
another product.
• Baby oil
• Cigarettes and cigarette butts
• Cosmetics and personal care
• Cleaning products
• Bug or weed killer
• Paint and paint thinner
• Gasoline and antifreeze
• Drugs—medicine, vitamins, legal and illegal drugs of any kind
alcohol
products—like perfume, shampoo, aftershave, and nail polish remover
Baby furniture
112
Added info...
In an emergency, call 911.
LOOK FOR: Baby furniture that could hurt your baby
Be sure all baby furniture is clean, sturdy,
and meets safety standards. Cribs,
playpens, and strollers should be CSA
approved. They should have a label that
says who made it and when it was made.
The label should also give a model number.
Cribs must be made after 1986.
Strollers must be made after 1985.
Playpens must be made after 1976.
Safety
LOOK FOR: Toys that could hurt your baby
Check your baby’s toys to be sure they are
safe for his age.
Check toys often to be sure there are no
loose or broken parts.
Make sure your baby’s toys are too big to
swallow or choke on. Anything that can fit
through a toilet paper roll is too small for
your baby to play with.
Be sure that toys have no strings or cords
that are long enough to wrap around your
baby’s neck.
Added info...
Noisy toys can hurt your baby’s hearing.
Babyproofing checklist
Toys
To avoid damage to your baby’s hearing:
Be sure that toys are not so loud that they
could damage your baby’s hearing. If a toy
is loud enough that you have to raise your
voice above the noise, it’s too loud for your
baby.
•
Reduce the amount of time they spend playing with noisy toys.
Keep a close eye on your baby while he plays with noisy toys.
Cover the speaker with tape to block some of the sound.
•
•
•
•
Added info...
You can find information about toys that have
been recalled from Consumer Product Safety
(contact information, page 125) or from Family
Resource Centres (contact information, page
124).
Don’t put batteries in the toy.
If there are volume controls, turn them to low.
Your baby doesn’t need noisy toys.
There are lots of other things he’ll enjoy,
like books, blocks, and puzzles.
Safety
113
Lead poisoning
Lead-based paint
Lead in water
Lead-based paint is a serious health hazard.
Lead poisoning can cause anemia. It can also
damage the brain and nervous system, resulting
in learning disabilities.
Whether you get your water from a well or a
municipal water supply, if there is lead in your
pipes, pumps, or plumbing, Health Canada
recommends that you let your cold water tap
run for about 5 minutes every morning. This will
flush out lead and copper that could build up in
the water overnight.
Lead-based paint is especially dangerous:
• When it is chipping or flaking
• When it is in a place that babies can reach or chew on
If your home was built before 1960 it is likely that
it has lead-based paint.
Hot water will draw out more lead and other
minerals that may be in your plumbing. Always
use cold tap water for drinking, cooking, filling
your kettle, and mixing formula.
If your home was built after 1980, paints used
indoors would be lead free, but there may be
lead in the paint used on the outside.
If your home was built after 1992, both indoor
and outdoor paints will be lead free.
If you think there is lead-based paint in your
home, contact your Regional Health Protection
Branch (contact information, page 121).
For more information on lead-based paints,
contact Health Canada (contact information,
page 125).
Lead in toys
Canada has laws that regulate the amount of
lead in children’s toys. You can check with
Consumer Product Safety to find out about any
toys that have been recalled because of high
levels of lead (contact information, page 125).
Family Resource Centres also often have
information about product recalls (contact
information, page 124).
114
Safety
Lead poisoning Car safety
Car safety
Car crashes are a major cause of death and
serious injury. When you use the right car seat in
the right way, you can reduce the risk that your
baby will be hurt or killed by 70%.
In New Brunswick, it is the law that your baby
must be in a car seat whenever she is in a car
or truck. This includes ALL cars—for example,
your own car, taxis, and grandparents’ or caregivers’ cars.
You’ll find information on how to choose and
install car seats in Keep Kids Safe: A Parent’s
Guide to Car Seats. You’ll find a copy in the
“Resources” section of Loving Care: Parents
and Families.
Buy your baby’s car seat in Canada.
Car seats purchased outside of Canada—
or on-line from non-Canadian sources—
do not meet Canada’s safety standards.
A rear-facing car seat gives the best protection
for your baby’s head and neck.
Keep your baby in a rear-facing car seat from
birth until she is at least 1 year old and until she
weighs at least 10 kg (22 lbs). Once your baby is
too heavy or too tall for the infant seat, use a larger
rear-facing seat. Many seats can be used rear-facing
until your baby weighs up to 18 kg
(40 lbs).
A rear-facing car seat is safest for your baby. Keep
your baby in a rear-facing seat until she reaches the
seat’s highest height or weight limits.
Safety
It is illegal to use any car seat that does
not carry Canada’s national safety mark.
Look for this safety mark.
Never leave your baby alone in a car,
not even for a few minutes.
115
Bath safety
• Run about 5 to 8 cm (2 to 3 inches) of water.
• Test the water temperature with your elbow before you put the baby in the tub. The water should be cooler than you would use for your own bath.
• Drain the tub as soon as bath time is over.
Babies often enjoy playing in water. This is a
good time for your baby to learn about splashing,
pouring, squirting, and squeezing. Bath time can
be fun for you both!
When your baby can sit up straight by herself,
she’s old enough to move to the regular bathtub.
To keep your baby safe while bathing:
Be sure any electrical items—like hairdryers—
are kept unplugged and away from the tub.
They can cause electric shock if they fall into
water while plugged in.
• Never leave your baby alone in the tub, even for a second. Babies can drown very quickly in very little water. Don’t turn your back—pay close attention while your baby is in the tub. Be sure you have everything you need before you put your baby in the tub. If you have to answer the phone or the door, wrap your baby in a towel and take her with you. Don’t leave your baby alone with another child.
• Use a non-slip mat in the tub.
• Put a padded cover on the faucet.
Face your baby away from the faucets so she’s less likely to reach for them.
• Run the water before you put the baby in the tub. Make sure it’s the right temperature —lukewarm, not hot or cold.
116
Safety
Don’t use a baby bath seat or bath ring in the
tub.
Health Canada warns parents that baby bath
seats can cause drowning.
Added info...
Babies love bath toys! To prevent mold and
mildew, dry the toys and store them in a mesh
bag or open container.
Bath safety
Your baby wants you to know...
I need to move so I can learn and grow. I depend on your loving
care and attention to keep me safe while I explore my world—
indoors and out.
Safety
117
119
Provincial Services..........................120
Other Resources and Services............... 123
• Child Protection Services................................. 120
• Autism Agencies................................................ 123
• Addiction Services............................................. 120
• Department of Education and
Early Childhood Development.......................... 120
• Department of Social Development................. 121
• First Nation Community Health Centres.......... 121
• Healthy Environments....................................... 121
• Healthy Smiles, Clear Vision............................. 121
• Mental Health Centres....................................... 121
• New Brunswick Courts...................................... 122
• New Brunswick’s Family Law
Information Centre............................................. 122
• New Brunswick Fetal Alcohol Spectrum
Disorder (FASD) Centre of Excellence............ 122
• Office of the Attorney General.......................... 122
• Prescription Drug Program............................... 122
• Public Health Offices......................................... 122
• Regional Health Authorities.............................. 123
• Horizon Health Network................................. 123
• Vitalité Health Network.................................. 123
• Adoptive and Foster Families........................... 123
• Breastfeeding Support...................................... 123
• Cancer Resources.............................................. 123
• Childcare Resources......................................... 123
• Communicable Diseases................................... 124
• Family and Early Childhood.............................. 124
• Family Resource Centres.................................. 124
• Family Resource Centres for
the Military.......................................................... 124
• First Nations Family Support............................ 124
• Food Safety Resources..................................... 124
• Hearing and Speech.......................................... 125
• Libraries.............................................................. 125
• Literacy Resources............................................ 125
• Multiple Birth Families....................................... 125
• Newcomer/Immigrant Families......................... 125
• Nutrition.............................................................. 125
• Physical Activity................................................. 125
• Safety Resources............................................... 125
• Smoking Resources........................................... 125
• Tele-Care............................................................. 126
• Transition Houses.............................................. 126
• Women’s Services............................................. 126
118
Support and Information
Support and Information
SUPPORT AND INFORMATION
Provincial services
You’ll find contact information for all the
resources and supports referred to in this book in
Loving Care: Parents and Families.
Addiction Services
Website: www.gnb.ca/0378/addiction-e.asp
• Bathurst.........................................(506) 547-2086
• Campbellton..................................(506) 789-7055
• Edmundston..................................(506) 735-2092
• Fredericton....................................(506) 452-5558
• Miramichi.......................................(506) 778-6111
• Moncton........................................(506) 856-2333
• Saint John.....................................(506) 674-4300
• Tracadie-Sheila.............................(506) 394-3615
To find out more on the programs and services in your
area, contact your local school district:
• Anglophone School District North
..................................................... 1-888-623-6363
• Anglophone School District East
..................................................... 1-888-746-1333
• Anglophone School District South
..................................................... 1-877-492-8255
• Anglophone School District West:
• Fredericton................................ 1-877-691-8800
• Woodstock................................ 1-866-423-8800
• District scolaire francophone nord-ouest
......................................................(506) 739-2863
• District scolaire francophone nord-est:
Child Protection Services
If you have concerns about a child call your local
Social Development Regional office. See Department
of Social Development
Report abuse: 1-888-992-2873
Website: www.gnb.ca/children Click on “Be Vigilant,
Report Child Abuse Booklet”
• Restigouche...............................(506) 789-2014
• Chaleur......................................(506) 544-2492
• Péninsule...................................(506) 394-3220
• District scolaire francophone sud
..................................................... 1-877-869-2040
Department of Education and Early
Childhood Development
You’ll find information and resources for Education
and Early Childhood Development in New Brunswick.
Website: www.gnb.ca\education
Talk With Me:
An Early Language Service that offers free information
and training to parents, community partners and the
general public. It helps prevent communication and
learning difficulties for all children from birth to 5 years
of age.
120
Support and Information
Department of Social Development
Website: www.gnb.ca\socialdevelopment
You can connect with Social Development Regional
Offices through this website.
Social Development Regional Offices:
• Redbank Metepenagiag Health Centre
......................................................(506) 836-6120
• St.Mary’s Medical Clinic, Fredericton
......................................................(506) 452-2750
• Tobique wellness Centre..............(506) 273-5430
• Acadian Peninsula....................... 1-866-441-4149
• Woodstock First Nation Health Centre
......................................................(506) 325-3570
• Edmundston................................. 1-866-441-4249
Healthy Environments
• Chaleur......................................... 1-866-441-4341
• Fredericton................................... 1-866-444-8838
• Miramichi...................................... 1-866-441-4246
• Moncton....................................... 1-866-426-5191
• Restigouche................................. 1-866-441-4245
• Saint John.................................... 1-866-441-4340
Wellness: For information about programs and
services in your community.
Website: http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/
departments/social_development/wellness.html
First Nation Community Health Centres
There are Community Health Centres on all First
Nations reserves in New Brunswick.
• Elsipogtog Health and Wellness Centre
......................................................(506) 523-8227
• Bouctouche First Nation Health Centre
......................................................(506) 743-2537
You’ll find information and resources for health
protection in New Brunswick
Website: www.gnb.ca/publichealth
Regional Health Protection Branch Offices:
Bathurst........................................ (506) 549-5550
Fredericton.................................... (506) 453-2830
Moncton........................................ (506) 856-2814
Saint John..................................... (506) 658-3022
Healthy Smiles, Clear Vision
The Department of Social Development manages the
Dental and Vision Program.
Website: www.gnb.ca/children Click on “Healthy
Smiles, Clear Vision”
Mental Health Centres
Website: www.gnb.ca/0055/mental-health-e.asp
• Burnt Church Wellness Centre
......................................................(506) 776-1246
• Bathurst.........................................(506) 547-2110
• Eel River Bar Health Centre.........(506) 684-6297
• Edmundston..................................(506) 735-2070
• Indian Island First Nation .............(506) 523-9795
• Grand Falls....................................(506) 475-2440
• Campbellton..................................(506) 789-2440
• Eel Ground Health Centre.............(506) 627-4693
• Caraquet.......................................(506) 726-2030
• Fort Folly First Nation Health........(506) 379-3400
• Fredericton....................................(506) 453-2132
• Kingsclear First Nation Health Centre
......................................................(506) 363-4001
• Grand Manan................................(506) 662-7023
• Madawaska Maliseet First Nation Health
......................................................(506) 735-0676
• Oromocto Wel-A-Mook-Took Health Centre
......................................................(506) 357-1027
• Pabineau First Nation Health Centre
......................................................(506) 547-4204
• Kedgwick.......................................(506) 284-3431
• Miramichi.......................................(506) 778-6111
• Moncton (Horizon).........................(506) 856-2444
• Moncton (Vitalité)..........................(506) 862-4144
• Perth-Andover...............................(506) 273-4701
• Richibucto.....................................(506) 523-7620
Support and Information
121
• Sackville........................................(506) 856-2444
Prescription Drug Program
• Shediac.........................................(506) 533-2816
• Shippagan.....................................(506) 336-3367
For information about which drugs are covered:
Phone: 1-800-332-3692
• St. Stephen...................................(506) 466-7380
Public Health Offices
• Saint John.....................................(506) 658-3737
• St. George.....................................(506) 755-4044
• Sussex..........................................(506) 432-2090
• Tracadie-Sheila.............................(506) 394-3760
• Woodstock....................................(506) 325-4419
New Brunswick Courts
The New Brunswick Courts website provides
information for matters related to family court.
Website: www.gnb.ca/cour
New Brunswick’s Family Law Information
Centre
This website offers general information and resources
about family law in New Brunswick such as child
custody and access. If you have questions about how
the courts work, court rules, and court procedures,
you can call the toll-free Family Law Information Line.
Phone: 1-888-236-2444
Website: www.familylawnb.ca
New Brunswick Fetal Alcohol Spectrum
Disorder (FASD) Centre of Excellence
(506) 869-2147
Office of the Attorney General
Check this website for basic information about family
law in New Brunswick.
Website: http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/
departments/attorney_general/services.html
122
Website: www.gnb.ca/0051/0212/index-e.asp
Website: www.gnb.ca/publichealth
• Bathurst.........................................(506) 547-2062
• Blackville.......................................(506) 843-2956
• Boiestown......................................(506) 453-5200
• Campbellton..................................(506) 789-2266
• Caraquet.......................................(506) 726-2025
• Chipman........................................(506) 453-5200
• Dalhousie......................................(506) 789-2266
• Edmundston..................................(506) 735-2065
• Fredericton....................................(506) 453-5200
• Grand Falls....................................(506) 475-2441
• Grand Manan................................(506) 662-7024
......................................................(506) 755-4022
• Kedgwick.......................................(506) 284-3422
• Miramichi.......................................(506) 778-6102
• Moncton........................................(506) 856-2401
• Neguac..........................................(506) 776-3824
• Oromocto......................................(506) 453-5200
• Perth-Andover.............................. 1-888-829-6444
• Plaster Rock................................. 1-888-829-6444
• Richibucto.....................................(506) 523-7607
• Sackville........................................(506) 364-4080
• Saint John.....................................(506) 658-2454
• Shediac.........................................(506) 533-3354
• Shippagan.....................................(506) 336-3061
• St. George.....................................(506) 755-4022
• St. Stephen...................................(506) 466-7504
..................................................... 1-888-476-3555
• Sussex......................................... 1-800-545-8008
......................................................(506) 432-2003
• Tracadie-Sheila.............................(506) 394-3888
• Woodstock................................... 1-888-829-6444
Support and Information
Regional Health Authorities
The Regional Health Authorities are good sources of
information about local programs and services.
Horizon Health Network
Website: http://www.horizonnb.ca/
Phone: (506) 623-5500
Toll-Free: 1-888-820-5444
Northwestern NB including Edmundston/Grand Falls/
Saint-Quentin/Kedgwick
Sylvie-Line Michaud
Phone: (506) 733-1691
Saint John Region, St. Stephen & Fundy Isles
Stepping Stones Fundy Region Inc.
Phone: (506) 693-9858
Vitalité Health Network
Website: www.vitalitenb.ca/en
Phone: (506) 544-2133
Toll-Free: 1-888-472-2220
Breastfeeding Support
Other Resources
and Services
www.facebook.com/breastfeedingnb.allaitementnb
For information on breastfeeding:
Website: www.gnb.ca/publichealth Click on “Healthy
People” and then Click on “Baby Friendly Initiative and
Breastfeeding.”
Information about pregnancy and breastfeeding
www.nb.unvanl.ca
Adoptive and Foster Families
La Leche League Canada
Website: www.lllc.ca
French: http://www.allaitement.ca/
Adoption Council of Canada
Website: www.adoption.ca; 1-888-542-3678 (Toll free)
Cancer Resources
Adoptive parents can contact a local Social
Development office for support and advice. You’ll find
contact information at: Website: www.gnb.ca/children
New Brunswick Adoption Foundation
Website: www.nbadoption.ca
Phone: (506) 832-0676
Cancer Information Service
Phone: 1-888-939-3333 (Toll free)
(Monday to Friday, 9am to 6pm)
Canadian Cancer Society
Website: www.cancer.ca
Autism Agencies
New Brunswick Cancer Network
Website: www.gnb.ca/0051/cancer/index-e.asp
Campbellton/Acadian Peninsula/Bathurst /Miramichi
Bay Chaleur
Autism Behavioral Intervention Center Inc.
Phone: (506) 542-2344
Child Day Care Services
For information about Autism Agencies call the
agency nearest you.
Fredericton Region Autism Intervention Services
Phone: (506) 455-7048
Moncton/Sussex/Kent
Autism Consultants NB Inc.
Phone: (506) 386-2262
You can find information about childcare in your
community through the Department of Education and
Early Childhood Development
Website: http://www.gnb.ca/0000/ELCC.asp
Early Childhood Care and Education New Brunswick:
(506) 454-4765 Toll free: 1-888-834-7070
Nackawic to Perth-Andover/Plaster
Rock River Valley Intervention Group
Phone: (506) 392-6458
Support and Information
123
Communicable Diseases
For information on Communicable Diseases:
Website: www.gnb.ca/publichealth
Click on “Diseases and Conditions A-Z”
• Kent Family Resource Centre, Richibucto
......................................................(506) 524-9192
• Kings County Family Resource Centre, Sussex
......................................................(506) 433-2349
Family and Early Childhood
For information on the services offered by Family and
Early Childhood call the agency in your school district.
Anglophone School District South:
Family and Early Childhood South: 1-855-383-5437
Anglophone School District West:
Family and Early Childhood West: 1-855-454-3762
Anglophone School District North:
Family and Early Childhood North: 1-855-778-6532
Anglophone School District East:
Family and Early Childhood East: 1-855-238-3694
District scolaire francophone Nord-Est :
Famille et petite enfance Nord-Est: 1-855-993-0993
District scolaire francophone Nord-Ouest :
Famille et petite enfance Nord-Ouest: 1-855-480-4060
District scolaire francophone Sud :
Famille et petite enfance Francophone Sud:
1-855-840-6269
• Madawaska Victoria Family Resource Centre,
Grand Falls....................................(506) 473-6351
• Restigouche Resource Centre for Parents,
Campbellton..................................(506) 753-4172
• Northumberland County Family Resource Centre,
Miramichi.......................................(506) 622-5103
• Valley Family Resource Centre, Woodstock
......................................................(506) 325-2299
Family Resource Centres for the Military
Gagetown Military Family Resource Centre
Phone: (506) 422-3352 or 1-800-866-4546
First Nations Family Support
NB Aboriginal Peoples Council........ (506) 458-8422
Fredericton Native Friendship Centre.(506) 459-5283
Gignoo Transition House................ (506) 458-1236
................. and 24 hour Crisis Line 1-800-565-6878
Skigin Elnoog Housing................... (506) 459-7161
Under One Sky Daycare................. (506) 458-9269
Family Resource Centres
Website: www.frc-crf.com/home.cfm
• Acadian Peninsula Family Resource Centre,
Caraquet.......................................(506) 727-1860
Food Safety Resources
• Chaleur Resource Centre for Parents
Bathurst.........................................(506) 545-6608
Health Canada offers information about food safety.
www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/eating-nutrition/safetysalubrite/index-eng.php
• Care N’ Share Family Resource Centre Inc.,
Chipman........................................(506) 339-6726
• Family Resource Centre of Charlotte County, St
Stephen.........................................(506) 465-8181
• Family Resource Centre, Saint John
......................................................(506) 633-2182
• Fredericton Regional Family Resource Centre
......................................................(506) 474-0252
124
• Childhood Family Resource Centre of WestmorlandAlbert.............................................(506) 384-7874
FightBac offers information on handling and storing
food safely.
Website: www.canfightbac.org/en/
Health Canada offers more information about mercury
levels in fish.
Website: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/
environ/mercur/cons-adv-etud-eng.php
Support and Information
Hearing and Speech
Physical Activity
Libraries
Safety Resources
New Brunswick Audiology departments are located in
your local hospital.
NB Public Library Service
Website: www.gnb.ca/libraries
Canadian Red Cross Society, NB
Website: www.redcross.ca
Phone: (506) 674-6200
Literacy Resources
Literacy Coalition of NB (LCNB)
Website: www.nbliteracy.ca
Phone: (506) 457-1227, 1-800-563-2211
Conseil pour le développement de l’alphabétisme et
des compétences des adultes du Nouveau-Brunswick
(CODACNB)
Website : www.codacnb.ca
Phone : 1 800 720-6253
Born to Read program
Website: www.borntoreadnb.com
Multiple Birth Families
Child Safety Link
Website: www.childsafetylink.ca
Phone: 1-866-288-1388
Consumer Product Safety (Health Canada)
Website: www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/index-eng.php
Click on “Consumer products”.
Phone: 1-866-662-0666
Health Canada
For more information about lead-based paint
Website: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/securitysecurite/home-maison/lead_paint-peinture_
plomb-eng.php
Kids’ Help Line
Website: www.kidshelpphone.ca
Phone: 1-800-668-6868
Moncton
Website: www.monctonmultiples.com
Phone: (506) 204-2203
Fredericton
Fredericton Area Moms of Multiples
Website: www.multiplebirthscanada.org/~fredericton
Phone: (506) 455-8365
Newcomer/Immigrant Families
Parachute
www.parachutecanada.org
Phone: 1-888-537-7777
St. John Ambulance
Website: www.sja.ca Select “New Brunswick.”
Phone: 1-800-563-9998
Transport Canada
For car seat safety information.
Website: www.tc.gc.ca/roadsafety
Click on “Child Safety.”
Phone: 1-800-333-0371
Website: www.bienvenuenb.ca
Click on “Immigrating and Settling.”
New Brunswick Multicultural Council
Website: www.nb-mc.ca/
Phone: (506) 453-1091
Nutrition
Active for Life
Website: www.activeforlife.com
Smoking Resources
For information on reading Nutrition Facts labels
Website: www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/dailyvalue
Website: www.smokershelpline.ca
Phone: 1-877-513-5333
New Brunswick Anti-Tobacco Coalition
Website: www.nbatc.ca
Phone: (506) 832-3857
Support and Information
125
Health Canada
Website: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/tobac-tabac/
index-eng.php
• St. Stephen, Fundy Region Transition House
......................................................(506) 466-4590
Tele-Care
• Tracadie-Sheila, Accueil Ste-Famille
......................................................(506) 395-1500
Tele-Care is a free, bilingual, and confidential
telephone service for non-urgent health concerns.
Available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Website: www.gnb.ca/health Click on “Tele-Care 811”
Phone: 811
Transition Houses
You can find information about transition houses
on the NB website or contact your local Social
Development office.
Website:
www.gnb.ca/0012/violence/PDF/Freeshelter.pdf
• Sussex Vale Transition House.......... (506) 433-1649
.......................................... (506) 432-6999 (crisis)
• Woodstock Sanctuary House.......... (506) 325-9452
Women’s Services
Executive Council Office: Women’s Equality
Website: www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/departments/
women/Violence_Prevention_and_Community_
Partnerships.html
Select: “End intimate partner violence”
• Bathurst, Maison de Passage House
......................................................(506) 546-9540
• Campbellton, Maison Notre Dame,
......................................................(506) 753-4703
• Edmundston, Escale Madavic,...............................
......................................................(506) 739-6265
• Fredericton, Gignoo Transition House,
.............. (506) 458-1236; 1-800-565-6878 (crisis)
• Fredericton, Liberty Lane Inc., (506) 451-2120
.................................... (506) 458-9774 (outreach)
• Fredericton, Women in Transition House Inc.
......................................................(506) 459-2300
• Miramichi Emergency Centre for Women Inc.
......................................................(506) 622-8865
• Moncton, Crossroads for Women
............... (506) 857-4184; (506) 853-0811 (crisis)
• Saint John, Hestia House Inc., (506) 634-7571
.......................................... (506) 634-7570 (crisis)
• Saint John, Second Stage Housing Inc.
......................................................(506) 632-9289
• Ste-Anne-de-Kent, Maison Sérénité/Serenity House 506-743-1530
126
Support and Information
Support and information
Support and Information
127
Thanks!................................................................................... 130
128
Thanks!
Thanks!
Thanks!
The Nova Scotia Department of Health and
Wellness acknowledges—with thanks!—the
many people whose commitment and concern for
Nova Scotia’s mothers, babies, and families have
shaped this book. Your advice, insight, support,
and hard work have made this book possible.
In particular, we’d like to thank the Parent Health
Education Resource Working Group whose work
has been at the heart of Loving Care.
Parent Health Education Resource
Working Group (2008-2011)
Guysborough Antigonish Strait & Cape Breton
District Health Authorities
• Sarah Melanson, Early Childhood Consultant,
Public Health Services, Capital Health
• Annette Ryan, Perinatal Nurse Consultant,
Reproductive Care Program of Nova Scotia
• Tina Swinamer, Coordinator, Early Childhood
Nutrition, Department of Health and Wellness
• Shelley Thompson, Coordinator, Child Care
Centres Policy & Program Development,
Department of Community Services
• Jennifer Macdonald, (Co-chair), Provincial
Health Educator, Department of Health and
Wellness
Special thanks to the many people who, over
the years, have contributed to the development
or revision of the Loving Care books.
• Rose Couch, (Co-chair), Early Childhood
Coordinator, Department of Health and
Wellness
• Amy MacAulay, Early Childhood Coordinator,
• Bonnie Anderson, Public Health Nutritionist,
Public Health Services, Capital Health
Capital Health
• Shannon O’Neill, Public Health Dental
Southwest Nova, Annapolis Valley, and South
Shore District Health Authorities
• Kathy Inkpen, Family Health Coordinator,
• Kim Arcon, Community Home Visitor,
• Sue Arsenault, Public Health Nurse, Pictou
Hygienist, Public Health Services, Capital
Health
Department of Health and Wellness
• Vicki MacLean, Public Health Nurse,
County Health Authority
• Audrey Caldwell, Public Health Nurse,
Colchester East Hants & Pictou County
District Health Authorities
• Alice de la Durantaye, Community Outreach
Health
Capital Health
Worker, Southwest Nova District Health
Authority
• Susan DeWolf, Family Support Worker, Extra
Support for Parents Volunteer Service, IWK
Health Centre
130
• Sherry MacDonald, Public Health Nurse,
• Kathy Penny, Public Health Nurse, Capital
• Trudy Reid, Public Health Nutritionist,
Cumberland Health Authority
• Shelley Wilson, Public Health Nutritionist,
Southwest Nova District Health Authority
Thanks!
• Acadian and Francophone parents in the
Clare area of Digby County
• Parents and Home Visitors from the
Department of Health and Wellness
Healthy Beginnings Enhanced Home
Visiting Program across Nova Scotia
• Michelle Newman, Resource Specialist,
Department of Health and Wellness
Expert Reviewers
Ad hoc Nutrition Working Group
• Tina Swinamer, Coordinator, Early Childhood
Nutrition, Department of Health and Wellness
• Mary Daly, Public Health Nutritionist, Cape
• Brenda Leenders, Public Health Nutritionist,
Colchester East Hants District Health Authority
• Bonnie Anderson, Public Health Nutritionist,
Specialist, Child Safety Link, IWK Health
Centre
Annapolis Valley District Health Authority
We also offer special thanks to the many public
health and community partners who have
contributed to the development of this resource.
Focus Groups
We are especially grateful to the many parents
who participated in the focus groups that
reviewed the various drafts of Loving Care:
6 to 12 Months. Their generosity in sharing their
experiences and ideas has contributed greatly
to this resource.
Truro
• Supportive Housing for Young Mothers,
Halifax
• Native Council of Nova Scotia, Liverpool
• Bayers Westwood Family Resource Centre,
• Ross Anderson, D.D.S., FRCD(C), Chief
• Sarah Blades, Health Promotion
• Joanne Llewellyn, Public Health Nutritionist,
• Maggie’s Place Family Resource Centre,
Coordinator, Department of Health
and Wellness
of Dentistry, IWK Health Centre
Capital Health
Pictou County
We thank our reviewers for giving
generously of their time and expertise in
reviewing this book.
• Michelle Amero, Healthy Eating
Breton District Health Authority
• Kids First Family Resource Centre,
Thanks!
• Pauline Raven, Photo Consultant
• Geneviève Flynn, Resource Specialist,
• Carol Camfield, M.D., Neurology, IWK
Health Centre
• Paula Canning, Diabetes/Endocrinology
Dietitian, IWK Health Centre
• Teri Cole, Communicable Disease
Prevention and Control Coordinator,
Department of Health and Wellness
• Janelle Comeau, Child and Youth
Strategy Specialist, Western Region,
Department of Community Services
• Confederacy of Mainland Mi’kmaq,
Catherine Knockwood, Maternal Child
Health Program Coordinator, for
coordinating a review by member
communities
• Sharon Davis Murdoch, Special Advisor
to the Associate Deputy Minister on
Diversity and Social Inclusion,
Department of Health and Wellness
Halifax
Thanks!
131
• Christine Ellsworth, Psychologist,
• Cornelia Melville, Registered Child
• Mary Anne Fraser, Coordinator Children
• Patricia Millar, Volunteer La Leche Psychologist, South West Nova District Health Authority
Preschool Pediatric Program, IWK
Health Centre
League Canada Leader, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
in Care, Department of Community
Services
• Dee Mombourquette, Communicable • Shelley Goodwin, Registered Psychologist,
Disease Prevention and Control Coordinator, Department of Health and Wellness
Yarmouth Mental Health Services,
South West Nova District Health Authority
• Beth Guptill, M.D., Family Physician,
South West Nova District Health Authority
• Sandra Muir, Prior Learning Bayer’s Westwood Family Resource
Centre
• Kim Mundle, Car Seat Safety Specialist, Assessment Coordinator, Institute Human Services Education
• Melissa Hum, Executive Director,
• Charlotte Jesty, Mijua’jij Aqq Ni’n Coordinator, Unama’ki Maternal Child Health Program, Eskasoni
• Nancy Pasquet, Professional Practice Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University
• Tanya Poulette, Community Health Nurse, Manager and National Baby Friendly Initiative assessor candidate, Public Health Services, Capital Health
Development Consultant, Central Region Children’s Unit, Department of Community
Services
• Sandeep Kapur, M.D. Pediatric Allergist, • Michelle LeDrew, Health Promotion • Joyce Ledwidge, Neonatal Dietitian, IWK Health Centre
• Steve Machat, Manager, Tobacco Control, Department of Health and Wellness
• Marilyn MacPherson, M.D., Pediatric Physician, Colchester East Hants Health Authority
• Beverley Madill, Community Health Nurse, Chief and Coordinator, Clinical Nutrition, IWK Health Centre
Membertou Wellness Centre
• Shari Ridgewell, Early Childhood • UK Baby Friendly Initiative UNICEF
• Kathy Venter, Lead Assessor, WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative
• Robin Walker, M.D., V.P. Medicine, IWK Health Centre
• Gaynor Watson-Creed, M.D., Medical Potlotek Health Centre, Chapel Island
Officer of Health, Public Health Services, Capital Health
Department of Health and Wellness
Colchester East Hants Health Authority
• Kim McGill, Immunization Coordinator, • Heather McKay, Health Promotion Specialist, Child Safety Link, IWK Health Centre
132
Child Safety Link, IWK Health Centre
• Tracey Williams, M.D., Pediatric Physician, • Robert Wright, Executive Director, Child and Youth Strategy, Department of Community Services
Thanks!
We are especially grateful to the Nova Scotian
families whose photos appear in this book. Your
bright and beautiful children make this book
special.
Thanks!
Families Volunteering for Photo Shoots
Special thanks to:
SHYM, Supportive Housing for Young Mothers,
Dartmouth
East Preston Day Care Family Health Resource
Centre, East Preston
Acknowledgements
• Great Kids Inc. for use of their games and activities from program materials Growing Great Kids
• We’d like to thank the Best Start Resource Centre and the Nutrition Resource Centre in Ontario, and Alberta Health and Wellness whose publications, Feeding Your Baby: From Six Months to One Year and Feeding Baby Solid Foods: From 6 to 12 Months of Age
provided the inspiration and starting point
for our treatment of this topic.
Thanks!
133
Loving Care
Loving Care
1 to 3 Years
All four Loving Care books
can be downloaded at:
www.gnb.ca/publichealth
Loving Care is given free of charge
to all new parents in New Brunswick.
Loving Care
6 to 12 Months
10576 April 2016
2016
New Brunswick Department of Health
www.gnb.ca/health
Adapted and reprinted with written permission from the Province of Nova Scotia in 2016.
Aussi disponible en français
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