FEEDING YOUR BABY From Six Months

FEEDING  YOUR BABY From Six Months
FEEDING
YOUR BABY
From Six Months
To One Year
Your guide to help you
introduce food to your baby
Acknowledgements
The Best Start Resource Centre and the Nutrition Resource Centre would like to thank the members of
the advisory committee who contributed their time and expertise to the development of this resource.
The committee included representatives from Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario; Haldimand Norfolk Health
Unit; Middlesex London Health Unit; NorWest Community Health Centre; Peel Public Health; Porcupine Health
Unit, Woolwich Community Health Centre. We also want to thank the consultant
who guided the process, Nicola Day.
Table of Contents
Baby’s first food
1
Six Months
- Starting solid food at six months
2
- Introduce your baby to family foods
3
- How to start solid food
4
- Help your baby be a healthy eater
5
Six to Nine Months
- What to feed your baby from Six to Nine months
6
- Adding other foods: six to nine months
7
Nine Months to One Year
8
Making homemade baby food
9
Safety and allergies
10
Sample menus for baby
11
Resources and references
12
Feeding Your Baby From Six Months To One Year
This booklet has been adapted with permission by the Best Start Resource Centre and the
Nutrition Resource Centre.
CNB-5765
Baby’s
FIRST
FOOD
Baby’s FIRST FOOD
Note: This guide uses the
words “breastfeeding” and
“breast milk” to talk about
milk feedings for your baby.
Follow the instructions for
introducing new foods to
your baby even if you are
not breastfeeding.
For the first six months of life breast milk is the only food that your baby needs to
grow and be healthy. Breastfeeding is the normal way to feed babies.
If you give your baby any other food, including infant formula, you will make less
breast milk. If you stop breastfeeding, it can be hard to start breastfeeding again. Your
baby will not get all of the benefits of breastfeeding.
• Breastfeeding is healthy, natural, convenient, and free. It is a good
way to bond with your baby.
• Breast milk protects your baby from colds, infections, and allergies. Infant
formula does not protect babies in the same way.
• Mothers who breastfeed have less risk of breast cancer, and
ovarian cancer.
If you are breastfeeding, give your baby 10 micrograms (400 IU) of vitamin D each
day. Continue until your baby is one year old and eating foods that have vitamin D. In
Canada, the sun is not strong enough throughout the year for
mothers and babies to make the vitamin D they need through their skin. Also, babies
who are less than one year old need to stay out of direct sunlight.
Continue to breastfeed until your baby is two years old or more. The longer you
breastfeed, the more benefits you and your baby get. If you are thinking about using
infant formula, get all the facts first. Breast milk protects your baby’s health in
ways that infant formula does not.
If you have decided not to breastfeed, use an infant formula
that has iron added (“iron-fortified”). Talk to your health care provider
about infant formula and your baby’s health. Ask for information on
how to:
• reduce infections; and
• prepare infant formula safely.
1
Starting SOLID
foods at six
months
Starting SOLID foods at six months
When your baby is six months old he is ready for solid foods. Your baby does not
need teeth to start eating solid food.
Starting solid foods too early or too late can cause problems.
If you:
Your baby may:
Start your baby on
solid foods too early
Breastfeed less often causing you to make
less breast milk
Stop breastfeeding too early
Not get all the benefits of breast milk such
as protection from illness and allergies
Have lower iron levels
Have a diet low in protein, fat, and other
important nutrients
Start your baby on
solid foods too late
Be slow to accept solid foods
Have a hard time chewing food
Remember, healthy
babies come in all
weights, shapes, and
sizes. Try not to compare
your baby to other
babies.
Not get all the vitamins and minerals
he needs, such as iron and vitamin A
Growth Spurts
Growth spurts are common at about:
• three weeks;
• six weeks;
• three months.
Your baby may want extra breast milk at these times.
• This is not a sign that your baby needs solid foods.
• It is too early to introduce solids.
• Starting solids does not help your baby sleep through the night.
Breastfeed more often when your baby seems hungry during a growth spurt.
2
Introduce your
baby to
FAMILY
FOODS
Introduce your baby to FAMILY FOODS
At six months it is important to
offer iron-rich foods such as:
Since birth, your baby has been growing on breast milk. At six months old, breast milk is
still the most important food but the time has come to add solid foods. Extra iron is needed
at six months. Solid foods provide a variety of nutrients, flavours, and textures for your baby.
• iron-fortified infant cereals;
How do I tell if my baby is ready for solids?
• well cooked
- beef;
- chicken;
- turkey;
- lamb;
- fish;
- pork;
- egg yolk;
- legumes such as beans,
lentils, and chickpeas.
• tofu.
Your baby is ready to start eating
solids when she:
• is six months old;
• holds her head up;
• sits up in a high chair;
• opens her mouth wide when you offer
food on a spoon;
• turns her face away if she doesn’t want
the food;
• closes her lips over the spoon; and
• keeps food in her mouth and
swallows it instead of pushing it out.
Make sure your baby shows all of
these signs of readiness before you start
solid foods.
• At first your baby may not accept new
foods. If she shows you that she does
not like the food by closing her mouth
or turning her head away, stop feeding
her that food. Try it again another day.
Keep feeding time pleasant. If your
baby feels pressured to eat, she may not
want to try other new foods.
• Each baby is different. Try not to
compare your baby to other babies.
Follow your baby’s signs of readiness for
food. Talk to your health care provider
to help you decide if your baby is ready.
3
How
to start
SOLID FOOD
How to start SOLID FOOD
• Give solid food after your baby has had breast milk. Continue to breastfeed throughout the day as your baby needs it.
It is safest to sit your
baby in a high chair.
Do up the seat belt to
help keep your baby
safe. Never leave your
baby alone.
• Start a new food when your baby is happy and hungry. Start new foods in the
morning or at lunchtime. Include him at family mealtimes.
• Sit your baby up straight. It is safest to sit your baby in a high chair. Do up the seat
belt to help keep your baby safe. Never leave your baby alone.
• Keep mealtimes pleasant. Never force your baby to eat.
How should I start my baby on a new food?
• Put a small amount of food on the tip of a small spoon. Hold the spoon so your baby
can see it. Then put some food on his lips. Put food in his mouth only if he opens it.
• If your baby does not swallow the food, he may not be ready for solid food yet. Wait a
few days and try again.
• If your baby does not like a new food at first, try it again another day. He may need to
try a new food many times before he likes it.
• Gradually give your baby more food. Let your baby guide you. Your baby will tell you
he has had enough to eat when he turns his head away or keeps his mouth shut.
How do I protect my baby from allergies?
• Continue to breastfeed. Breastmilk helps protect your baby from allergies.
• Start with single foods, not mixed. If your baby shows signs of allergy, this makes it
easier to know which food is causing the problem.
• Give the same food for three to five days before you try a new food. Signs of food
allergy may take up to five days to appear.
• Signs of allergy are rash, vomiting, diarrhea, or breathing problems. Stop
feeding the food if you think it causes any of these symptoms. Talk to your
doctor. Call 911 if your baby is having trouble breathing.
4
Help your
baby be
a HEALTHY
EATER
Help your baby be a HEALTHY EATER
• Bring your baby to the table to join in at family mealtimes. Babies learn by watching others.
Keep mealtimes pleasant.
• It is best if there are no toys or television to distract your baby.
If you have questions
or concerns about your
baby’s eating, talk to your
health care provider.
• Talk to your baby quietly and encourage him while he is eating. Do not pressure
your baby to eat. This can make him refuse food even more and may lead to
feeding problems.
• Always stay with your baby when he eats.
• Let your baby explore his food with his hands. Let your baby feed himself with his
fingers or a spoon when he is able.
• Let your baby decide how much to eat. Never pressure your baby to eat more than he wants.
Do not restrict the amount you give her to eat when she seems hungry.
• It is normal for babies to eat different amounts of food each day. It is alright if your baby
refuses a meal or two.
• Be patient with new foods. You may need to try new foods many times on
different days.
• Do not use games to get your baby to eat.
• Never force food into your baby’s mouth.
• Never use food as a reward or a punishment.
You and your baby’s responsibilities:
• You are responsible for what your baby is given to eat. You also decide where and when to
feed your baby.
• Your baby is responsible for how much and even whether he eats.
5
What to feed
your baby
from SIX to
NINE months
What to feed your baby from SIX to NINE months
To prevent iron
deficiency
Iron-containing foods
are recommended as
the first food.
Your baby needs iron for good health. Continue to:
• breastfeed; and
• provide the extra iron that your baby needs by offering her the iron-rich foods listed in the section
called Introduce your baby to family foods on page 3.
Feed your baby at regular times. Include her at family mealtimes. Talk to her gently.
Start your baby on pureed foods. Next, move to lumpy, mashed foods. As your baby becomes
better at eating, give her finely chopped foods. Changing texture is important to help your baby learn to
chew. Babies who stay on pureed foods too long may be less willing to eat textured foods.
What types of infant cereal should I feed my baby?
• Start with an iron-fortified, single grain infant cereal, such as rice. Gradually try other single grain
cereals, such as oats, barley, and wheat.
• Use mixed grain cereals only after your baby has tried each of the single grain cereals.
• Mix the dry cereal with breast milk. At first add more breastmilk to make the cereal thin. As your
baby becomes better at eating, add less breast milk to make the cereal thicker.
• Choose plain infant cereals. Cereals with added fruits have extra sugar.
• Choose cereals without infant formula added. Read the labels.
• Do not give adult cereals.
• Always feed cereal from a spoon. Never add cereal to a bottle.
What kinds of meats and alternatives should I feed my baby?
• Start with pureed meats and alternatives so they are easy to swallow. Add extra water or cooking
liquids to meats and cooked beans. Use silken (soft) tofu.
• Do not give your baby deli meats such as ham, wieners, bologna, salami, or sausages.
These are high in fat and salt.
• Give your baby fish such as white fish, salmon and light canned tuna. Canned albacore tuna may
be given once a week and no more than 40g (1.5 ounces). Swordfish, shark, fresh or frozen tuna
steak, marlin, orange roughy and escolar should not be given more than once a month.
6
Adding
other
FOODS
Adding other foods: SIX to NINE months
What kinds of vegetables and fruits should I give my baby?
• Try one new vegetable or fruit at a time.
• Start with mild tasting foods such as squash, peas, sweet potatoes, green or yellow
beans, apples, peaches, pears, apricots, plums, avocados, bananas and prunes. You
can also give other vegetables and fruits that your family eats.
• Wash and peel fresh vegetables and fruit before using.
• Give your baby cooked and mashed vegetables and fruit. You can mash bananas,
papayas, avocados, mangoes, melon, and canned fruits without
cooking them. As your baby gets older he can have soft pieces of food.
• Use fresh fruit or canned fruit in juice. If you use baby food fruit avoid
“fruit desserts”. They are high in sugar.
• Store-bought combination vegetable and meat dinners have less nutrients. If
you use them add extra meat or alternatives and vegetables to your baby’s meal.
What about juice and other drinks?
• Your baby gets enough to drink from breast milk. He does not need juice. You can
give your baby tap water or bottled water from a cup if he seems thirsty. Do not give
distilled, carbonated, or mineral water.
Well water should be
checked twice per year
for bacteria. It should be
checked every two to three
years for chemical contents.
Contact your local Public
Health office if you require
more information.
• If you decide to give juice, wait until your baby is eating fruit and other foods. Serve
juice in a cup.
• Give your baby 100% pure fruit juices without added sugar. You do not need
to buy special baby juice. Just be sure the juice is pasteurized.
• Do not give your baby more than 1/4-1/2 cup (60 ml-125 ml) of fruit juice per day.
You do not need to add water to the juice.
• Do not give your baby fruit drinks, fruit punch, soft drinks, sports drinks, or herbal
teas.
7
NINE MONTHS
to ONE YEAR
What to feed your
baby from NINE MONTHS
to ONE YEAR
• As your baby gets older increase
the variety of foods and textures
that you offer.
• When your baby is eating a variety
of solid foods, give breastmilk after solid
foods at mealtime.
• Many women continue to breastfeed
when they return to work or school. To
help you with this transition, talk to your
health care provider.
At about nine months,
your baby can pick things
up with her thumb and
forefinger. Now is the time
to offer small pieces of table
foods or “finger foods” for
snacks and with meals.
NINE MONTHS to ONE YEAR
Food Group
Tips
Vegetables and fruit
Offer soft, cooked vegetables cut in bite-sized pieces.
Give pieces of soft, ripe fruit like bananas, peaches, cantaloupe, pear, melon and
mango.
Grain products
Continue to give your baby infant cereal. It is a good source of iron.
If your baby refuses to eat it, mix it with fruit or other healthy foods.
Offer finger foods such as pieces of bagel, dry toast strips, rice, roti,
noodles, cooked pasta, flat bread, and unsalted crackers.
• Let your baby feed herself
with her hands or with a
baby spoon. Make sure
her hands are clean before
eating.
Meat and alternatives Give bite-size pieces of tender meat, fish, cooked beans, and tofu.
• Expect a mess! Making
a mess is just part of
learning how to eat.
Milk and alternatives
If your baby refuses meat, try chicken, fish, beans or tofu.
Give cooked egg yolk. Your baby can try cooked egg whites after one year of age.
Breast milk is still the most important food. Continue to breastfeed until your
baby is two years old or more.
In addition to breast milk, when your baby is eating a variety of foods every day, you
can offer your baby homogenized cow’s milk (3.25% milk fat).
She should be between nine months and one year old. Give milk in a cup.
Do not give skim, 1%, 2% milk, or low-fat milk products. Babies need the fat to grow.
Do not give soy, rice or other vegetarian beverages. They do not have enough fat
and may not have vitamin D added to them.
Never give unpasteurized milk.
Offer plain, regular yogurt, cottage cheese, and small cubes of soft cheese or
shredded cheese.
By one year old, your baby should be eating a variety of foods from each food group and drinking liquids
from a cup. Babies can go directly from breastfeeding to drinking from a cup.
8
Making
HOMEMADE
BABY FOOD
Making HOMEMADE BABY FOOD
It is easy to make your own baby food. You can use the same healthy foods that you feed your family.
Homemade baby food is healthy for your baby. It also:
• saves you money;
• lets your baby try a greater variety of foods;
• helps your baby get used to different textures and tastes; and
• lets your baby eat the same foods as your family.
How do I make my own baby food?
To make baby food you need:
• a food blender; • baby food mill (grinder) • a wire sieve and a clean spoon or a potato masher or fork
Wash your hands before you prepare food. Use clean utensils and cookware. Plain foods help baby learn
about flavours. Do not add sugar, artificial sweeteners, salt, margarine, or butter.
The following table outlines how to prepare different types of foods:
Foods
How to Prepare
Vegetables and fruit
Wash, peel, pit, and/or seed and slice fresh vegetables or fruit or use frozen.
Place vegetables or fruit in a small amount of boiling water. Cook until tender.
Drain and keep the cooking water.
Mash or blend vegetables or fruit using a small amount of cooking water.
You can blend or mash ripe, soft fruits like bananas, mangoes, avocados, and canned fruit
without cooking them.
Meat and fish
Place a piece of meat or fish in a saucepan with a small amount of water. Bring to a boil, reduce
heat, and simmer. Continue to cook until meat separates easily from the bones or the fish
flakes easily with a fork. You can also roast, bake, or braise meats and fish.
Remove the bones and skin and trim off the fat. Cut meat or flake fish into small pieces.
Blend with cooking water.
For more information
on making baby food,
call your local public
health office.
Meat alternatives
Cook legumes, such as beans, lentils, and chickpeas, according to package directions. Rinse
canned beans well. Cook egg yolk. Use plain tofu.
Blend with a little water or mash with a fork.
Your baby will not need puréed or blended foods for long. At seven months offer mashed foods.
Next, offer soft pieces of food.
9
SAFETY
and
ALLERGIES
SAFETY and ALLERGIES
Do not feed your
baby directly
from the jar or
container of baby
food.
How do I keep baby’s food safe?
• You must serve freshly made baby food or
an opened jar of store-bought baby food
right away. You can also store it in a covered
container in the fridge for two or three days.
• You can store baby food in a fridge
freezer for two months or a deep freezer
for six months. Once food has been thawed, do
not refreeze it. Throw out after 24 hours.
• Make sure the safety seal on the jar of
store-bought baby food is not broken.
Listen for a popping sound when you
open a jar of baby food.
• Check the “best before” date on
store-bought baby food.Do not feed your baby
directly from the jar or container of baby food.
Put the food for your baby into a bowl. Throw
out any food that has come in contact with your
baby’s saliva or that has been heated and not
consumed.
How do I keep my baby safe?
• Babies can choke easily. Always stay with your
baby while she is eating. Stop feeding if your
baby is crying or laughing. Do not feed your
baby in a moving car.
• Do not give your baby foods that are hard,
small, and round like nuts, seeds, popcorn,
whole grapes, or hard vegetables.
• Do not give your baby smooth and sticky foods,
such as peanut butter on its own.
• Do not give your baby honey or any food
made with honey for the first year. It can cause
botulism (food poisoning).
• Give your baby fish such as white fish, salmon
and light canned tuna. Canned albacore tuna
may be given once a week and no more than
40g (1.5 ounces). Swordfish, shark, fresh or
frozen tuna steak, marlin, orange roughy and
escolar should not be given more than once a
month.
What should I know about allergies?
• Your baby is more likely to have an allergy
if one or both parents or brothers or sisters have
allergies, asthma or eczema. If there is
a family history of allergies, speak to your health
care provider. You may need to wait to start
some foods until your baby is older.
• If there is no history of food allergies, there is
no reason to delay introducing foods except for
egg whites. Wait until your baby is one year old
before giving egg whites.
• Watch for allergic reactions when you offer new
foods. Follow the steps on how to start solid
foods on page 4 of this guide.
10
SAMPLE
MENUS for
BABY
SAMPLE MENUS for BABY
• Continue to breastfeed your baby on demand. When your baby is eating a variety of solid foods, give
breast milk after solid foods at mealtimes.
• These menus are only a guide. Your baby may eat foods at different times.
• Every baby is different. Trust that your baby knows how much to eat.
Time of Day
6 Months
6-9 Months
9-12 Months
Early morning
Breast milk
Breast milk
Breast milk
Morning
Breast milk
Breast milk
Breast milk
Iron rich food*
Iron rich food*
Iron rich food*
Soft fruit
Snack
Noon
None
Breast milk
Mashed fruit
Fruit and plain yogourt
Small pieces of toast, bread crust,
crackers, bagel, or pita
Breast milk or homogenized milk from
a cup
Breast milk
Iron rich food*
Mashed vegetables
Cooked pasta or cooked rice, chopped
vegetables
Iron rich food*
Mashed fruit
Soft fruit
Breast milk or homogenized milk from
a cup
Snack
None
None
English muffin or unsweetened/
unsaltedcrackers
Cubes of soft cheese
Evening
Breast milk
Breast milk
Iron rich food*
Iron rich food*
Iron rich food*
Mashed vegetables
Cooked pasta or cooked rice, chopped
vegetables
Mashed fruit
Soft fruit and/or plain yogurt
Breast milk
Snack
Breast milk
Breast milk
Breast milk
Small pieces of toast, bread crust,
crackers, bagel, or pita
Small pieces of toast, bread crust,
crackers, bagel, or pita
* Iron rich foods include: iron fortified infant cereal mixed with breast milk or water, meat and alternatives which include fish, cooked legumes,
beans and lentils, tofu and egg yolk.
11
RESOURCES
and
REFERENCES
RESOURCES and REFERENCES
Resources
Some recommended books and websites
If you have any
questions about
feeding your baby,
contact your local
Public Health
office.
Child of Mine, Feeding with Love and Good Sense (2000)
E. Satter. Bull Publishing Co. Ltd.
Ellyn Satter Associates
Website: www.ellynsatter.com
Raising Happy, Healthy, Weight Wise Kids (2000)
J. Toews and N. Parton. Key Porter Books
Mieux Vivre Avec Notre Enfant de la Naissance à Deux Ans Institut National de Santé (2006)
Publique du Québec (for French version only)
References
The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Systemic Review (2001)
Kramer and Kakuma. World Health Organization
The Baby Friendly Initiative in Community Health Services: A Canadian Implementation Guide (2002)
The Breastfeeding Committee of Canada
Website: www.breastfeedingcanada.ca
Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants - Statement of the Joint Working Group: Canadian Pediatric Society,
Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada (2005)
Health Canada
Website: www.hc-sc.gc.ca
A Practical Workbook to Protect, Promote and Support Breastfeeding in Community Based Projects (2002)
Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program. Health Canada
Website: www.hc-sc.gc.ca
12
Best Start: Ontario’s Maternal Newborn and Early Child Development Resource Centre (www.beststart.org)
is a key program of the Ontario Prevention Clearinghouse (www.opc.on.ca).
Nutrition Resource Centre (www.nutritionrc.ca) is a key program of the Ontario Public Health Association (www.opha.on.ca)
www.gnb.ca/health
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