BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM email: web:

BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM email: web:
email: urban@unb.ca
web: unb.ca/urban
BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM
monday, november 4, 2013
lundi 4 novembre, 2013
Wu centre, fredericton, nb
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Welcome
UNB’s Urban and Community Studies Ins tute (UCSI) is delighted to host the byrne @ 50 Symposium commemorating the 50th anniversary of the royal commission on finance
and Municipal Taxa on in New Brunswick. Tabled on this day in 1963, the Byrne Report was a watershed moment in New Brunswick history, rese ng local governance and paving the way to Equal Opportuni es and other landmark reforms.
the Byrne Report’s legacy will be discussed and debated this morning. We will take stock, but we also aim to con nue discussions on contemporary challenges to local governance: Dr. Yves Bourgeois,
capacity, collabora on and change. Experts from various parts director / directeur ucSi
of North America have joined prominent New Brunswick leaders in a series of keynote presenta ons and expert panel discussions. We also expect you, audience par cipants, to engage experts over the course of the day and in the years ahead. UCSI would be pleased to hear of your ideas on be er understanding the problems and tackling the solu ons discussed today.
web: unb.ca/urban
-
email: urban@unb.ca
UCSI serait ravi d’entendre de vos idées pour mieux comprendre
les enjeux et trouver les solu ons discutées aujourd’hui.
bienvenue
L’Ins tut d’études urbaines et communautaires (UCSI) de UNB a le grand plaisir de vous accueillir au Symposium Byrne @ 50 commémorant le 50e anniversaire du dépôt, en ce jour en 1963, du rapport de la Commission royale sur la finance et la taxa on municipale. Le « Rapport Byrne » annonça des changements profonds au paysage néo-­‐brunswickois, menant à la refonte de la gouvernance locale et présageant des réformes majeures comme Chances égales.
Nous discuterons et déba rons ce ma n de l’impact du Rapport Byrne. Nous profiterons de l’occasion pour poursuivre les discussions sur les défis contemporains en gouvernance locale : capacité, collabora on et changement. Des experts de divers coins de l’Amérique du Nord se fro eront les coudes avec leaders néo-­‐brunswickois lors d’une série de présenta ons et discussions en panel. Nous nous a endons également que vous, membres de l’auditoire, allez par cipez ac vement et échangerez entre vous et avec les experts lors des heures et années à venir.
BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM - PAGE 3
7:30 – 8:15 Breakfast keynote / Conférencier de pe t-­‐déjeuner
Jim O’Sullivan
Remembering the Byrne Commission
Souvenirs de la Commission Byrne
Former Secretary to the Byrne Commission, 1962-3
Ancien Secrétaire à la Commission Byrne, 1962-3
Jim o’Sullivan served as Secretary to the byrne
Commission in 1962-­‐63. He was also Secretary to the (Deutsch) Royal Commission on Higher Educaon in New Brunswick in 1961-­‐62. Born in Saint John, Jim’s first job was as a sports reporter for The Telegraph-­‐Journal. He is a graduate of the University of New Brunswick and over the years held various posi ons in the federal and New Brunswick governments, including chair of the cabinet Secretariat, before returning to unb as vice-President Finance and Administra on from 1974 to his re rement in 1999. In 2008 he and the late Tom Condon were co-­‐chairs of the UNB Commission on Inter-­‐Campus Rela ons, Funding and Governance. Jim is a former president of both the Ins tute of Public Administra on of Canada and the Canadian Associa on of University Business Officers. He lives in Fredericton.
Jim O’Sullivan a été Secrétaire de la Commission Byrne (1962-­‐63), après avoir servi comme Secrétaire à la Commission royale d’enquête sur l’enseignement supérieur au Nouveau-­‐Brunswick (Deutsch) en 1961-­‐62. Originaire de Saint-­‐Jean, il a travaillé comme journaliste des sports chez le Telegraph-­‐Journal. Diplômé de l’Université du Nouveau-­‐Brunswick, il a œuvré de nombreuses années au sein des gouvernements fédéral et du Nouveau-­‐Brunswick, dont président du Secrétariat au Cabinet, avant de revenir à UNB comme vice-­‐président Finance et administraon de 1974 jusqu’à sa retraite en 1999. En 2008 il a co-­‐présidé avec feu Tom Condon la Commission UNB sur les rela ons, finances et gouvernance inter-­‐campus. Jim est ancien président à la fois de l’Ins tut d’administra on publique du Canada et de l’Associa on canadienne du personnel administra f universitaire. Il habite à Fredericton.
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8:15 – 9:45 Research presenta ons / Communica ons de recherche
Understanding Byrne’s Legacy
Comprendre l’héritage de Byrne
Maurice Basque
Université de Moncton
Acadians and Local Governance Before Byrne
Les Acadiens et la gouvernance locale avant Byrne
Nicole O’Byrne
Assistant professor, Law,
UNB Fredericton
Media Response to the
Byrne Commission (1963-1966)
Dr. Greg Marquis
Professor, History, UNB Saint John
Saint John 1967: Amalgama on, Equaliza on, Industrializa on
Dr. David Frank
Professor, History,
UNB Fredericton
The Byrne Report and the Labour
Ques on in New Brunswick
Moderator / modérateur
Dr. Greg Kealey
Professor, History,
UNB Fredericton
BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM - PAGE 5
About / Au sujet de
UNB’s Urban and Community Studies Ins tute
The Urban and Community Studies Ins tute (UCSI) is an inter-­‐disciplinary ins tute whose mission is to promote research, teaching and dialogue on the challenges and opportuni es facing small and medium size ci es. Many of our research projects are focused on New Brunswick as our living laboratory, but we look to global comparisons and connec ons to provide perspec ve to understand be er the issues at hand. Based in Saint John, Canada’s first incorporated city, UCSI seeks to improve our understanding of urbaniza on’s dynamics and challenges in smaller city jurisdic ons, and to bolster decision-­‐makers’ policies and programs through sound evidence-­‐based policy research. UCSI is ac ve in four major projects of key importance to smaller city jurisdic ons.
• • • • Polycentric urbanism and mul -­‐city planning
Innova on and economic development
Transporta on
A rac ng talent
L’Ins tut d’études urbaines et communautaires (UCSI) est un ins tut mutli-­‐disciplinaire dont la mission est de promouvoir la recherche, l’enseignement et le dialogue
sur les défis et opportunités auxquels font face les villes de plus pe te taille. Nous empruntons le Nouveau-­‐Brunswick comme notre laboratoire vivant, mais nous comparons et réseautons à l’échelle mondiale pour donner plus grande perspec ve sur les ques ons déba ues.
Situé à Saint-­‐Jean, la première ville incorporée au Canada, UCSI cherche à mieux comprendre les dynamiques d’urbanisa on et défis en plus pe te ville, ainsi que d’améliorer les capacités des décideurs d’améliorer poli ques publiques et programmes par moyen de poli ques basées sur les faits.
UCSI poursuit quatre avenues de recherche d’importance aux pe tes villes :
• • •
• Urbanisme polycentrique et aménagement mul -­‐centre
Innova on et développement économique
Transport
L’a rac on d’individus talentueux
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10:00 - 11:00 Leaders’ panel / Panel des leaders
Local governance challenges
Défis de gouvernance locale
Dominic Cardy
Leader, New Democra c Party of New Brunswick
Chef, Nouveau par démocrate du Nouveau-­‐Brunswick
David Coon
Leader, Green Party of New Brunswick
Chef, Par vert du Nouveau-­‐Brunswick
Brian Gallant
Leader, Liberal Party of New Brunswick
Chef, Par libéral du Nouveau-­‐Brunswick
Moderator / modérateur
Harry Forestell
CBC News
BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM - PAGE 7
11:00 -­‐ 11:15 Research presenta on / Communica on de recherche
Dr. Jean-Philippe Meloche
Is there enough money?
Municipal finance issues in Quebec and Canada
Professeur adjoint, Ins tut d’urbanisme, Université de Montréal
Assistant professor, Ins tut d’urbanisme, Université de Montréal
Jean-Philippe meloche has a degree in economics
(MSc.) and a PhD in Geography. He is currently assistant professor in urban planning at the Université de Montréal, and a researcher at the CIRANO. His research focuses on the economics of urban policies and planning with a special a en on to local public finances. He is the author of a number of ar cles and working papers and has worked with many municipali es, mainly in the Montreal metropolitan region.
Jean-­‐Philippe Meloche dé ent une maitrise en sciences économiques et un doctorat en géographie. Il est professeur adjoint en aménagement urbain à l’Université de Montréal et chercheur au CIRANO. Ses recherches gravitent autour des impacts économiques des poli ques urbaines et d’aménagement, par culièrement en ce qui a trait aux finances publiques locales. Il a publié nombreux ar cles et documents de travail et a travaillé avec plusieurs municipalités principalement dans la région métropolitaine de Montréal.
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11:15 - 12:15 Panel discussion / Discussion en panel
Municipal finances and capacity
Finances et capacités municipales
Frédérick Dion
Directeur général / Execu ve Director
Associa on francophone des municipalités du Nouveau-Brunswick
Mike McKendy
Consultant and former senior civil servant
Expert-­‐conseil et ancien haut fonc onnaire
Paul Stapleton
Consultant and re red Chief Administra ve Officer, Fredericton
Expert-conseil et Directeur-général
à la retraite, Fredericton
Moderator / modérateur
Dr. Daniel Bourgeois
Ins tut Beaubassin
BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM - PAGE 9
Partners / Partenaires
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12:15 - 1:00 Lunch with the Minister / Diner avec le Ministre
Hon. Danny Soucy
Ministre, Environnement et gouvernements locaux
Minister, Environment and Local Government
Danny Soucy a consacré une grande par e de sa vie adulte à travailler avec les personnes handicapées et à défendre leurs droits. Il est au service de l’Associa on du NB pour l’intégra on communautaire Inc. et de l’Associa on canadienne pour l’intégra on communautaire depuis 1988. M. Soucy a aussi siégé à tre de représentant communautaire au conseil d’administra on de l’Associa on des orthophonistes et des audiologistes du Nouveau-­‐Brunswick. En 2002, il a co-­‐organisé, avec une équipe de sept membres, un colloque sur l’inclusion en éduca on au Mali, qui a accueilli des déléga ons de sept pays africains. Il est ac f au sein d’un grand nombre de groupes communautaires, dont les castors et Jouets pour la joie
Inc. M. Soucy a été élu aux élec ons provinciales de 2010 pour représenter la circonscrip on de Grand-­‐Sault—Drummond—Saint-­‐André. Député progressiste-­‐conservateur à la 57e législature, M. Soucy a été nommé ministre de l’Éduca on postsecondaire, de la Forma on et du Travail en octobre 2012 et d’Environnement et gouvernements locaux en septembre 2013. M. Soucy et sa femme, Jacinthe Belzile, ont quatre enfants, dont le plus jeune a eint du syndrome de Down.
Danny Soucy has spent much of his adult life working with, and advoca ng for, people with disabili es. He has worked for both the New Brunswick Associa on for Community Living Inc. and the Canadian Associa on for Community Living since 1988. Mr. Soucy also served as the community representa ve on the board for the New Brunswick Associa on of Speech-­‐Language Pathologists and Audiologists. In 2002, he co-­‐organized and was part of a seven-­‐member team that hosted a seminar on inclusive educa on in Mali for delega ons from seven African naons. He is ac ve in many community groups, including Beavers and Toys for Joy Inc. Mr. Soucy was elected to represent Grand Falls—Drummond—Saint-­‐André in the 2010 elec ons. A Progressive Conserva ve Member of the 57th Legislature, Mr. Soucy was appointed Minister of Post-­‐Secondary Educa on, Training and Labour in October 2012 and of Environment and Local Government in September 2013. Mr. Soucy and his wife, Jacinthe Belzile, are the parents of four children, the youngest of whom has Down syndrome.
BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM - PAGE 11
1:00 - 1:45 Keynote address / Conférencier invité
Dr. John Hardin
Inter-­‐city collabora ons: Lessons from North Carolina
John Hardin is the Execu ve Director for the North Carolina Board of Science & Technology since 2003. The Board advises and makes recommenda ons to the North Carolina Governor, General Assembly, Secretary of commerce, and economic development board on the role of science and technology in
the economic growth and development of the state. From 1998 to 2003, he served as Assistant VP for the research and Sponsored Programs division at the university of north carolina (UNC). He holds an Adjunct Assistant Professor posi on in the Department of Public Policy at UNC-­‐Chapel Hill, teaching courses on American poli cs, public policy, science policy, and policy analysis. A na ve of Tulsa, Oklahoma, Hardin holds M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in poli cal science from UNC-­‐Chapel Hill, a B.A. in economics from Baylor, and a cer ficate of comple on for the Leadership Decision Making program at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government.
John Hardin est Directeur général du Conseil des sciences et technologies de la Caroline du Nord depuis 2003. Le Conseil donne avis et recommanda ons au Gouverneur, à l’Assemblée générale, au Secrétaire au Commerce et au Conseil de développement économique de la Caroline du Nord quant au rôle des sciences et technologies dans la croissance économique et développement de l’État. De 1998 à 2003 il a agi comme VP adjoint au Bureau des programmes de recherche et commandités pour l’Université de la Caroline du Nord (UNC). Dr. Hardin occupe le poste de Professeur adjoint auxiliaire au Département de poli ques publiques à UNC-­‐Chapel Hill, enseignant cours en poli que américaine, poli ques publiques, y compris en ma ère de sciences, et analyse de poli ques. Originaire de Tulsa, Oklahoma, Hardin dé ent un MA et Ph.D. en science poli que de UNC-­‐Chapel Hill, un BA en économie de Baylor University et un cer ficat pour avoir complété le programme Leadership Decision Making du John F Kennedy School of Government à Harvard.
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2:00 - 3:00 Panel discussion / Discussion en panel
Inter-­‐community collabora ons
Collabora ons entre communautés
Gérard Belliveau
Directeur général, Commission de services régionaux du Sud-est
Execu ve Director, Southeast Regional Service Commission
Barry Gander
EVP Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance (CATA),
Co-­‐Founder i-­‐CANADA, Founder Networked Vehicle Associa on
Vice-­‐président exécu f Alliance CATA, Co-­‐fondateur i-­‐CANADA, Fondateur Networked Vehicle Associa on
Wendy MacDermo
Execu ve Director, United Way Serving Saint John, Kings, and Charlo e
Directrice générale, Centraide desservant SaintJean, Kings et Charlo e
Moderator / modératrice
Michelle LeBlanc
Chroniqueur-Recherchiste
Reporter-Researcher, Radio-Canada
BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM - PAGE 13
3:00 -­‐3:15 Research presenta on / Communica on de recherche
Dr. Michael Haan
Demographic challenges and smaller centres
Défis démographiques et plus pe ts centres
Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair
in Popula on and Social Policy, University of New Brunswick.
Professeur associé et Chaire de recherche du Canada
en popula on et poli ques sociales, University of New Brunswick.
BA (Dordt College); MA (University of Windsor); PhD (University of Toronto). Michael Haan studies why immigrants make the loca on choices they do, and what impact these choices have on both their well-­‐being and that of the communi es they join. This research is cri cal to understanding the rela onship between locaon choice and socio-­‐economic well-­‐being, and to preven ng over-­‐urbaniza on in some parts of Canada and popula on decline in others. Haan’s earlier work focused on housing and immigra on, although the focus on inequality and stra fica on was evident there as well.
BA (Dordt College); MA (University of Windsor); Ph.D. (University of Toronto). Michael Haan étudie ce qui condi onne les choix des immigrants où vivre, et quels impacts ces choix ont sur leur bien-­‐être et celui des collec vités dans lesquelles ils s’intègrent. Ces recherches sont cri ques pour comprendre le lien entre emplacement et bien-­‐être, pour prévenir l’urbanisa on excessive dans certains endroits au Canada et le déclin de popula on ailleurs. Dans ses œuvres antérieures Haan s’intéressait aux ques ons de logement et d’immigra on, où les enjeux d’inégalités et de stra fica on se manifestaient aussi.
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3:15 - 4:15 Panel discussion / Discussion en panel
Demographic challenges and smaller centres
Défis démographiques et plus pe ts centres
Jean-Guy Finn
Ancien sous-ministre, Commissaire et auteur en 2008 du Plan
d’ac on sur l’avenir de la gouvernance locale au Nouveau-­‐Brunswick
Former Deputy Minister, Commissioner and author of 2008 Ac on Plan for the Future of Local Governance in New Brunswick
Dr. JP Lewis
Poli cal science, UNB Saint John
Raymond Murphy
Execu ve director, Union of Municipali es of New Brunswick
Directeur général, Union of Municipali es of New Brunswick
Moderator / modérateur
Daniel McHardie
Researcher, Renaissance College, UNB
Chercheur, Renaissance College, UNB
BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM - PAGE 15
NB then and now: 1961-2011 Socio-economic snapshot
NB alors et maintenant: profil socio-­‐économique 1961-­‐2011
The full version with sources of this paper can be read via unb.ca/urban
La version complète de cet ar cle avec références peut être lue à par r de unb.ca/urban
Natalie Folster, Phd
Yves Bourgeois, Phd
UNB Urban and Community Studies Ins tute
The 1962-­‐63 Royal Commission on Finance and Municipal Taxa on in New Brunswick (“The Byrne Commission”) sought to recalibrate the provision of public services and the capacity to deliver them. Prosperity in a have-­‐not province was a key part of its end game. This paper is meant to feed discussions at the Symposium by providing a short socio=economic profile of New Brunswick’s rela ve posi on to Canada, 1961 to 2011.
1. Popula on changes
New Brunswick’s declining share of Canada’s popula on has been a lengthy process. It had been in steady decline between 1901 (6.2%) through 1961 (3.3%) (table 1.1). By 2011 New Brunswick’s share of the na onal popula on had fallen to 2.2%. Manufacturing and related job crea on had a racted New Brunswickers to Central Canada and New England states for the be er part of the 20th century. The province also saw declining shares of interna onal migrants. While Canada’s share of popula on born outside Canada grew steadily from 15.6% in 1961 to 20.6% in 2011, New Brunswick’s share of interna onal immigrants hovers steadily at approximately 4% (table 1.2).
Par cularly worrisome from a public services provision perspec ve is the ageing of its popula on. With high youth out-­‐migra on, re ring baby boomers and repatriated re rees, a larger share of the popula on are consuming healthcare services and a smaller share of the popula on is working and paying taxes to support public programs. In 1961, New Brunswick was a youthful province. The popula on had a median age of 22 years – four years younger than the Canadian average (table 1.3). In the 1960’s, the median age began to climb, eclipsing the rest of Canada by 2001. By 2011, the median age of the province had increased 20 years, to 43.7 years, three years above (40.6) the na onal average.
The aging of the popula on can be a ributed to four factors. Two explain the ageing popula on in both New Brunswick and Canada: a steep decline in fer lity rates since the post-­‐war baby boom and an increase in average life expectancy (in Canada from 71 years in 1961 to 81 years in 2011). Two others explain New Brunswick’s faster median age increase: low immigra on to the province and a heavy outmigra on. Over the past fi y years, New Brunswick has experienced a net outmigra on of 75,485 people, with the decade between 1961 and 1971 seeing over half of this exodus (table 1.4). Within New Brunswick, at the Census sub-­‐division (CSD) level, the popula on of almost PAGE 16 - BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM
every county was growing through 1961. Then, by 1981, demographic growth had either halted or reversed in all cSds except those containing the province’s three largest ci es: Moncton (Albert and Westmorland), Fredericton (York) and Saint John (Kings) (table 1.1).
New Brunswick is o described as a rural province, with table 1.5 showing half of its popula on living in urban areas (53% in 2011 compared to 81% in all of Canada), defined as communi es of more than 1000residents. Surprisingly, more (57%) New Brunswickers were living in urban areas in 1971, before the trend reversed again in 1991. Were New Brunswickers leaving urban factories for rural pitchforks, axes and fishing nets? No. Table 3.3 illustrates that employment in resource-­‐based sectors had long started to decline, and con nued to do so despite this upsurge in rural popula on share. Employment in service sectors such as healthcare, educa on and professional services were among the fastest growing. In other words, so-­‐called de-­‐urbaniza on owed likely more to residen al choices, with a genera onal shi from resource-­‐dependent jobs to post-­‐industrial service jobs. Many live in rural areas but now work in nearby towns and ci es. Those who le for industrial jobs a genera on and two ago were just as likely to leave the region altogether (table 1.4)
If we adopt Sta s cs Canada more useful methodology of metropolitan-­‐influenced zones (MIZs), based on popula on density and thresholds of workers commu ng to nearby towns and ci es, New Brunswick’s share of popula on living in the province’s eight largest ci es alone jumps to 61.1% in 2011, and would be closer to two thirds considering those living outside CAs and CMAs but working there. 48% of the province lives in the Fredericton census area (CA), Saint John or Moncton Census metropolitan areas (CMA). Sugges ng that half of New Brunswick is rural is an exaggera on from a func onal, place-­‐of-­‐work and place-­‐of-­‐consump on perspec ve, although not from a place-­‐of-­‐local-­‐service. This is not devalua ng the significance of rural New Brunswick. Rather, it is arguing that it is much more useful to dis nguish and appreciate the challenges faced by smaller communi es remote from larger centres and ameni es (ex. airport, post-­‐secondary ins tu ons) in promo ng economic growth. The fiscal base and capacity to deliver local public goods and services will vary greatly across rural New Brunswick.
2. Educa on
Not surprisingly, the popula on of New Brunswick is more highly educated today than it was fi y years ago (table 2.1). In 1961, 1.8 percent of New Brunswickers had a university degree. In 2011, 15% of the popula on was university-­‐educated. Another 32 percent of the popula on holds a college diploma or is cer fied in a trade, double the percentage who held this qualifica on in 1981, and slightly higher than the Canadian average. In addi on, the percentage of New Brunswickers who le school without a high school diploma has shrunk significantly over the past 50 years.
Nonetheless, New Brunswick con nues to lag behind the rest of Canada in educa onal a ainment. The number of New Brunswickers without a high school diploma remains slightly higher than the Canadian average, although this is possibly a func on of the province’s higher median age and outmigra on. While the percentage of New Brunswickers with a university degree has risen drama cally since 1961, it has not kept pace BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM - PAGE 17
with the increase across the country. The gap between the Canadian average and the number of New Brunswickers who have earned a degree has widened steadily from a 1.1 percent disparity in 1961, to a gap of 6.5 percent in 2011. It is also es mated that more than half the adult popula on in New Brunswick has literacy skills below the level that allows them to func on adequately at home, at work and in their communi es.
The impact of the introduc on of French immersion in the English-­‐language school system in New Brunswick in 1973 is visible in the jump in French-­‐English bilingualism among 0-­‐19 year-­‐olds and 20-­‐45 year olds post-­‐1973 (table 2.2). The first cohort of French immersion graduates are now 46 years old. Not surprisingly, the highest rates of bilingualism are among people currently under the age of 44, and among the francophone popula on as a whole. Twenty-­‐one and 20.6 percent of Anglophones aged 0-­‐19 years and 20-­‐45 years respec vely report that they are func onally bilingual in both of New Brunswick’s official languages. However, overall, only 14.9 percent of Anglophone New Brunswickers speak both French and English, as compared to 71% of Francophones. Approximately half of New Brunswick francophone children aged 0 to 19 speak both French and English. This increases to 82 percent bilingualism among francophone adults in the 20 to 44 age group. It is not yet clear what impact the cancella on of French immersion for children in kindergarten – grade two in New Brunswick in 2008 will have on bilingual rates in the province. However, the rate of reported French-­‐English bilingualism has fallen in New Brunswick and the rest of Canada over the past ten years, except in Quebec. 3. Labour
In 1961, New Brunswick had a labour force numbering 179,702. By 2011 this had increased to 389,200. In 1961, women made up 25.1 percent of the labour force. By 2011, they accounted for half. Since 1981 at least, part-­‐ me workers have consistently accounted for about 15.5 percent of the employed workforce, and women have comprised between 70 and 90 percent of these workers.
Unemployment rates have been consistently higher in New Brunswick than the rest of Canada since 1951. “Going down the road” to look for work in Ontario and points west or south has a long history in Atlan c Canada. In the thirty years between 1931 and 1961, net migra on from New Brunswick totalled 89,007. More research is required to determine who is leaving New Brunswick, why, and where they are going, but is likely that these out-­‐migrants are primarily working-­‐age people who have le to find employment elsewhere. How many are young people who have completed their educa on at publically-­‐funded ins tu ons in New Brunswick or elsewhere in Atlan c Canada and how many from other provinces is New Brunswick drawing in?
As men oned in sec on 1, New Brunswick has long seen a decline in the share of the workforce devoted to resource sectors. This owes partly to challenges in those industries (ex. in the wood industry, shrinking demand for pulp and increased global compe on), and partly to technology automa ng many agricultural, fishing, forestry and mining-­‐related tasks. Meanwhile, employment in service sectors such as healthcare, educa on and professional services have grown rapidly. In some ways, New Brunswick PAGE 18 - BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM
is shi ing from a pre-­‐industrial staple-­‐based economy to a post-­‐industrial service-­‐oriented industry, without any large spike in manufacturing jobs since they have largely a racted New Brunswickers outside the province altogether (table 1.4)
4. Income
In 1961, New Brunswickers earned on average 19 percent less than the Canadian average. They s ll earn less than other Canadians, but the gap has closed to 8 percent. In 1961, the best-­‐paid jobs in New Brunswick were in the transporta on, communica on and other u li es sector; manufacturing; and construc on, in that order. The lowest paid work was in the service industry. The best-­‐paid jobs paid on average twice as much as the lowest paid employment. However, these figures exclude farm work and employment in the public service, two significant sectors of employment in New Brunswick in 1961. In 1971 and 1981, the highest paid sectors of employment in New Brunswick were construc on; transporta on, communica on and other u li es; and manufacturing (ranked highest to lowest). The lowest paid sector was the service industry. Those working in the service sector earned on average 51.4 percent what those working in the construc on sector in 1971, and 39.6 percent in 1981. In 2012, those working in the accommoda ons and food services industry (the lowest paid economic sector, employing about 5 percent of the work force) earned on average 27 percent what those working in the best paid sector in the province (mining and oil and gas extrac on), or 30.8 percent of what those working in informa on and culture industries did (this includes informa on and communica ons technology companies, which employs around 3 percent of the workforce).
While unemployment has increased since 1961, the percentage of New Brunswickers living in poverty has declined by more than 10 percent. As of 2011, the percentage of persons in low income in the province was lower than the Canadian average, but s ll accounts for 9 percent of the popula on. 5. Public servants and services
in absolute terms, the size of the civil service in New Brunswick has increased significantly since 1961 at all three levels of government. Likewise, the number of civil servants per capita at the provincial and municipal levels of government has risen
drama cally, as it has across the country. Public services and programs delivered by government have also mul plied over the past fi y-­‐two years. As outlined in table 5.1, New Brunswick currently has more provincial civil servants per capita than the Canadian average, but below average human resource capacity at the municipal level. In addi on, the number of federal government jobs in the province rela ve to the size of the popula on has declined significantly over the past fi y years, but is s ll higher than the Canadian average.
While the total number of civil servants at all three levels of government in New Brunswick has increased by 57 percent since 1961, the size of the civil service as a propor on of the total labour force in the province has declined since 1961, from 9.79 percent of the labour force in that year to 7.07 percent in 2011. The currently 27,500 public administra on jobs in New Brunswick are on average among the best paid in the province. BYRNE @ 50 SYMPOSIUM - PAGE 19
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Your day at a glance / Aperçu de la journée
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