L RIC NOTES 2

L RIC NOTES 2
L2RIC NOTES
WINTER 2012
'
What’s'new'at'L2RIC?'
L2RIC Mission Statement
To#play#a#pivotal#role#in#second#language#education#in#
Canada#and#abroad#including#teacher#preparation,#
research,#bilingual#program#evaluation,#and#policy#
development.#
'
Quisque'
“Graduate'studies'in'Education'is'a'dynamic'and'evolving'field'that'involves'
a'wide'range'of'areas'of'study.'Our'graduate'Faculty'is'comprised'of'
scholars'who'have'diverse'interests'ranging'from'quantitative'research'
using'large'data'sets'to'the'publication'and'promotion'of'children's'
literature.'We'encourage'you'to'explore'the'website'further'and'seek'out'
more'detailed'information'on'our'Masters'and'PhD'programs'as'well'as'the'
research'being'conducted'in'our'various'Research'Centres.'
Graduate'studies'in'Education'at'the'University'of'New'Brunswick'culminate'
in'a'Master'of'Education'or'Doctor'of'Philosophy'degree.'The'programmes'
are'administered'by'the'Graduate'Studies'Coordinating'Committee'of'the'
Faculty'of'Education.”''
(http://www.unbf.ca/education/grad/message.html)'
In'this'issue:'Graduate'
research'by'members'of'
the'L2RIC'team'
L RIC Notes – Winter 2012
2
Renée Bourgoin – BA, BEd, MEd
Doctoral Candidate
From#L1#to#L2:#Literacy#Development#and#Intervention#
Strategies#in#a#Delayed#Entry#Immersion#Program#
'
Renée'Bourgoin'
Renée'Bourgoin'is'a'fullVtime'doctoral'
student'at'the'University'of'New'
Brunswick.'Her'current'area'of'research'
centers'on'teaching'and'intervention'
strategies'needed'to'support'struggling'
learners'in'French'immersion.'Renée'is'
also'a'partVtime'instructor'at'the'
Second'Language'Research'Institute'of'
Canada'within'the'Faculty'of'Education.'
Along'with'her'responsibilities'teaching'
the'elementary'level'French'second'
language'methodology'course,'Renée'is'
a'member'of'the'Institute’s'research'
team'on'best'teaching'practices.'Before'
undertaking'her'doctoral'studies,'Renée'
was'a'French'immersion'teacher'for'
School'District'18'where'she'was'
involved'in'numerous'schoolVbased'
second'language'projects.'Renée'holds'
an'MEd'from'the'University'of'Victoria,'
and'BEd'and'BA'degrees'from'the'
University'of'New'Brunswick.'
'
'
ABSTRACT:(In#2008,#the#New#Brunswick#government#announced#
significant#changes#to#its#delivery#of#French#second#language#programs.#
Among#the#changes,#the#province’s#grade#1#French#immersion#program#
was#eliminated#and#replaced#with#a#grade#3#French#immersion#delayed#
entryDpoint.#The#restructuring#of#the#French#immersion#program#is#
intended#to#reduce#‘streaming’#in#grades#1#and#2#and#promote#equal#
opportunities#for#all#students#(NB#Dept.#of#Ed.,#2008).#This#case#study#
proposes#to#examine#more#deeply,#in#the#context#of#the#new#French#
second#language#program#reality#in#New#Brunswick,#the#extent#to#which#a#
delayed#French#immersion#entry#can#facilitate#inclusion#and#a#more#
equitable#education#system#for#all#children.#It#aims#to#discover#exemplary#
teaching#practices#and#intervention#strategies#that#effectively#address#
both#the#academic#needs#of#students#atDrisk#for#literacy#difficulties#in#
French#immersion#and#students’#literacy#achievement#scores.#By#
identifying#teaching#strategies,#techniques#and#approaches#within#L1#and#
L2#language#contexts,#this#study#creates#opportunities#to#develop#a#
deeper#understanding#of#how#best#to#deliver#literacy#instruction,#
particularly#with#respect#to#reading#and#atDrisk#students.#Studies#which#
focus#on#FI#students#atDrisk#for#reading#difficulties#(Wiss,#1993;#Genesee#
2007;#MacCoubrey,#WadeDWoolley,#Klinger,#&#Kirby,#2004)#and#research#
on#the#effectiveness#of#intervention#strategies#in#addressing#these#
students’#educational#needs#continue#to#be#virtually#nonexistent#
(Genesee,#2007;#Wiss,#1993).#As#the#debate#over#the#suitability#of#French#
immersion#for#atDrisk#learners#persists,#the#need#for#research#in#this#area#
is#imperative.#This#particular#study#has#the#potential#to#contribute#to#the#
field#of#second#language#education#by#adding#greater,#much#needed#
academic#knowledge#to#the#French#immersion#debate.#
#
2'
L RIC Notes – Winter 2012
2
Josée Le Bouthillier – BA, BEd, MEd
Étudiante au doctorat
Les#effets#des#pratiques#d’enseignement#exemplaire#en#
écriture#sur#les#connaissances#et#la#performance#
d’élèves#de#la#7e#en#immersion#précoce#
'
Josée'Le'Bouthillier'
Josée'Le'Bouthillier'travaille'comme'
associée'à'la'Faculté'de'l’éducation'à'
l’Institut'de'recherche'en'langues'
secondes'du'Canada.''Ses'
responsabilités'actuelles'comprennent'
la'recherche,'l’enseignement''du'cours'
de'méthodologie'du'français'langue'
seconde'aux'niveaux'intermédiaire'et'
secondaire'ainsi'que'la'supervision'des'
stagiaires.''Avant'son'prêt'de'service'à'
l’université,'Josée'enseignait'dans'une'
école'intermédiaire'du'district'18,'à'
Fredericton,'au'NouveauV
Brunswick.''Dans'le'système'public,'elle'
a'aussi'enseigné'aux'niveaux'
élémentaire'et'secondaire'en'
immersion'et'en'français'cadre.''De'
1992'à'1996,'elle'a'enseigné'le'français'
langue'seconde'à'l’Université'SainteV
Anne'en'NouvelleVÉcosse'pour'ensuite'
enseigner'aux'fonctionnaires'
provinciaux'et'fédéraux'de'1996'à'1998.'''
'
RÉSUMÉ(:(Dans#une#étude#de#cas#ethnographique#pour#son#doctorat,#
Josée#s’intéresse#au#développement#en#écriture#d’élèves#de#la#7e#année#en#
immersion#précoce,#car#de#nombreuses#recherches#dans#le#domaine#de#
l’immersion#française#rapportent#des#difficultés#au#niveau#des#habiletés#
productives#des#élèves#ainsi#qu’un#effet#plateau#au#niveau#intermédiaire.#
À#l’aide#d’entrevues#semiDstructurées#avec#les#élèves#et#d’analyses#de#
textes#produits#par#les#élèves,#Josée#désire#étudier#si#les#savoirs#déclaratif#
(quoi),#procédural#(comment)#et#conditionnel#(quand#et#pourquoi)#
influencent#la#qualité#des#textes#écrits#par#les#élèves.#Aussi,#elle#souhaite#
voir#si#l’utilisation#de#pratiques#d’enseignement#exemplaires#mettant#en#
évidence#les#savoirs#déclaratif,#procédural#et#conditionnel#et#intégrant#un#
accent#sur#les#formes#linguistiques#affecte#la#qualité#des#écrits#des#élèves.#
Il#s’avère#important#pour#Josée#d’analyser#et#de#comparer#les#effets#de#
l’utilisation#de#ces#pratiques#d’enseignement#sur#les#connaissances#et#la#
performance#des#élèves#plus#habiles#et#moins#habiles#afin#de#proposer#
des#pistes#pour#un#enseignement#de#qualité#pour#tous#les#élèves.#
#
#
3'
L RIC Notes – Winter 2012
2
Karla Culligan – BA, BEd, MEd
Doctoral Student
Purposes#and#Implications#of#First#Language#Use#in#
Second#Language#Mathematics#Tasks#
'
Karla'Culligan'
'
Karla'Culligan'is'a'fullVtime'doctoral'
student'in'the'Faculty'of'Education'at'
the'University'of'New'Brunswick.'Her'
current'research'interests'include'
French'immersion'and'mathematics'
education,'and'codeVswitching'
practices.'Karla'also'works'at'the'
Second'Language'Research'Institute'of'
Canada'(L2RIC)'at'the'University'of'New'
Brunswick.'Her'current'responsibilities'
include'contributing'to'onVgoing'
research'projects'at'L2RIC'and'teaching'
courses'in'the'area'of'bilingualism'and'
education'in'both'faceVtoVface'and'onV
line'formats.'Karla'completed'her'BA'at'
Mount'Allison'University,'and'her'BEd'
and'MEd'at'the'University'of'New'
Brunswick.'Before'beginning'her'fullV
time'doctoral'studies,'Karla'was'a'
faculty'associate'at'the'University'of'
New'Brunswick.'She'has'also'taught'
French'immersion'mathematics'and'
science'at'the'high'school'level.'
'
ABSTRACT:(This'study'will'examine'the'crucial'role'of'language'in'French'
immersion'(FI)'mathematics.'Immersion'students'learn'language'not'only'
through'direct'language'instruction'but'also'through'content.''School'
subjects,'including'mathematics,'are'taught'through'the'medium'of'the'
students’'second'language'(L2),'French'(Day'&'Shapson,'1996).''However,'
students'in'FI'classrooms'sometimes'rely'on'the'use'of'English'for'a'number'
of'reasons'(e.g.,'Swain'&'Lapkin,'2000),'a'practice'that'has'traditionally'been'
strongly'discouraged'in'immersion'programs'(Turnbull'&'DaileyVO’Cain,'
2009).'In'L2'mathematics'classrooms,'learners'often'engage'in'“codeV
switching”.''Baker'(2011)'explained'that,'“codeVswitching'has'generally'been'
used'to'describe'any'[language]'switch'within'the'course'of'a'single'
conversation”'(p.'107).'CodeVswitching'is'notably'absent'from'the'existing'
literature'on'mathematics'in'FI'in'Canada.''Some'research'has'suggested'that'
teacher'or'student'use'of'the'first'language'(L1)'may'have'a'place'in'the'FI'
language'classroom'(e.g.,'Swain'&'Lapkin,'2000;'Turnbull,'2001),'but'that'it'
must'be'judicious'and'limited.''Cummins'(2007),'however,'has'recently'
challenged'what'he'referred'to'as'one'of'three'“monolingual'instructional'
assumptions”,'namely'that'“instruction'should'be'carried'out'exclusively'in'
the'target'language'without'recourse'to'the'students’'L1”'(p.'222),'even'in'
an'immersion'program.'Furthermore,'recent'research'exploring'students’'
experiences'in'FI'mathematics'has'suggested'that'the'role'of'the'L1'in'
student'learning'is'a'key'area'of'interest'for'students'and'educators'
(Culligan,'2010).'Using'a'mixed'method'approach'I'will'record'secondary'FI'
students'working,'in'dyads'in'their'L2,'on'a'series'of'mathematical'problems'
that'gradually'increase'in'difficulty.'Qualitative'data,'in'the'form'of'student'
discussions,'will'be'transcribed'and'then'coded'using'“the'turn”'as'the'unit'
of'analysis'(Swain'&'Lapkin,'2000).'Incidences'of'codeVswitching'will'be'
counted'and'coded'for'meaning.'Quantitative'analysis'will'include'MANOVA'
with'student'French'proficiency,'student'mathematics'ability,'and'task'
difficulty'as'three'independent'variables,'and'the'ratio'of'L1'turns'to'total'
turns'as'the'dependent'variable.''Additional'qualitative'data'by'way'of'
student'interviews'will'also'be'collected,'transcribed,'and'analyzed'in'order'
to'provide'further'insights'into'student'codeVswitching'practices'(Johnson,'
2002;'Warren,'2002).'This'research'study'will'help'provide'insights'into'the'
purposes'and'effects'of'student'codeV
switching'that'will'be'important'for'
educators'and'researchers'seeking'to'
understand'how'students'best'learn'
mathematics'in'their'L2.''
'
4'
L RIC Notes – Winter 2012
2
Allan Roy – BEd, MEd
Maîtrise en éducation
Un#modèle#d’écriture#en#immersion#tardive#:#une#
recherche#action#
'
Allan'Roy'
Allan'Roy'est'associé'à'la'faculté'
d'éducation'de'l'UNB'où'il'travaille'à'
l'Institut'de'recherches'en'langue'
seconde'du'Canada.'Il'possède'un'BEd'
de'l’université'McGill'et'un'MEd'de'
l’UNB.'Allan'a'enseigné'pendant'
plusieurs'années'dans'les'programmes'
d’immersion'précoce'et'tardive.'Il'a'
mené'un'projet'de'recherche'au'sujet'
de'l’écriture'en'immersion'tardive'et'un'
deuxième'sur'l’intégration'des'
matières.'Allan'est'formateur'pour'les'6'
traits'd’écriture.'
'
'
RÉSUMÉ(:(La#recherche#indique#que#les#élèves#en#immersion#française#
ont#beaucoup#de#succès#en#apprenant#la#langue#cible,#mais#éprouvent#des#
difficultés#dans#les#domaines#de#la#production#orale#et#écrite.#Ce#
problème#s’aggrave#en#immersion#tardive#(IT)#à#cause#d’une#exposition#
différée#au#français.#Ce#projet#de#rechercheDaction#a#examiné#la#
didactique#de#l’écriture#en#IT#en#appliquant#un#modèle#de#l’écriture#qui#a#
déjà#connu#du#succès#en#immersion#précoce#aux#niveaux#élémentaire#et#
intermédiaire.#Les#questions#de#recherche#concernent#l’efficacité#de#ce#
modèle#en#IT,#les#attitudes#et#la#confiance#des#élèves#envers#l’écriture#en#
IT,#et#la#confiance#de#l’enseignant#face#à#l’enseignement#de#l’écriture.#Les#
participants#à#la#recherche#ont#complété#un#sondage#sur#leurs#attitudes#
envers#l’écriture#en#IT.#Ils#ont#rédigé#également#un#texte#d’écriture#(un#
préDtest)#et,#suite#à#l’enseignement#d’une#unité#d’écriture#basée#sur#un#
modèle#systématique#(Kristmanson#et#al.,#2008),#ont#rédigé#un#deuxième#
texte#(un#postDtest).#Enfin,#les#élèves#ont#complété#de#nouveau#le#sondage#
sur#les#attitudes.#La#collecte#des#données#compris#les#observations#de#
classe,#les#réflexions#de#l’enseignant#via#un#blogue,#les#sondages#et#les#
textes#écrits#par#les#élèves.#
#
5'
L RIC Notes – Winter 2012
2
Julie Webb – BA, BEd
Master’s Student
Making#French#Real:#FSL#Teachers’#Experiences#with#
French#Cultures#in#the#French#Second#Language#
'
ABSTRACT:(This#phenomenological#study#explores#FSL#teachers’#
experiences#with#French#cultures#and#teaching#culture#in#the#FSL#context.#
Using#a#phenomenological#research#methodology,#interview#data#were#
collected#from#9#teachers#from#various#school#districts#and#grade#levels#in#
New#Brunswick,#Canada.#These#data#suggest#that#teachers’#experiences#
with#French#culture#are#varied#and#there#is#ambiguity#with#regard#to#
pedagogical#implications#of#culture.#The#findings#are#described#through#
emergent#themes#relating#to#how#teacher#knowledge#is#developed,#how#it#
is#enacted,#and#the#external#factors#influencing#their#practice#with#respect#
to#culture.#
#
Julie'Webb'
Julie'Webb'is'a'New'Brunswick'FSL'
teacher'who'is'completing'her'MEd'in'
Curriculum'Studies'at'the'University'of'
New'Brunswick.''Julie'is'focusing'on'the'
role'of'culture'in'second'language'
education.'
Note:#All#of#the#abstracts#featured#in#this#edition#are#taken#from#our#
2009D2011#Biennial#Report.#(Second#Language#Research#Institute#of#
Canada.#(2011).#Biennial'report'–'rapport'biennal.#Second#Language#
Research#Institute#of#Canada:#Fredericton,#NB.)#
'
6'
The'graduate'work'featured'in'this'edition'of'L2RIC&Notes'is'supervised'by'the'leaders'of'the'
L2RIC'team:'
'
'
Second Language Research
Institute of Canada
Joseph'Dicks'–'BEd,'BA,'MEd,'PhD'
Director(and(Professor(
Dr.'Dicks’'responsibilities'include'teaching'courses'in'the'areas'of'
bilingualism,'second'language'acquisition'and'French'Second'
Language'pedagogy.'Before'working'at'the'university,'Dr.'Dicks'
taught'French'as'a'Second'Language'at'the'elementary,'middle'
school,'and'high'school'levels.'His'research'interests'include'
teacher'education,'attitudes'and'motivation,'and'programme'
evaluation'in'FSL'contexts.'Recently,'he'has'worked'as'senior'
author'for'a'French'Second'Language'series'of'textbooks'for'the'
middle'school'level.'
'
Paula'Kristmanson'–'BEd,'CFLS,'MEd,'PhD'
Associate(Professor&&
Dr.'Kristmanson'plays'a'key'role'at'L2RIC'in'terms'of'onVgoing'research'and'
teaching'projects.'Her'academic'interests'currently'focus'on'classroomVbased'
action'research'focusing'on'writing'instruction'and'the'implementation'of'the'
European'language'portfolio.'She'has'been'involved'in'academic'work'related'
to'teacher'education'and'was'a'member'of'the'new'B.Ed.'program'steering'
committee.'She'completed'her'Master's'in'1994'and'her'Doctorate'in'2006'
with'theses'set'in'the'context'of'adult'second'language'learning'and'intensive'
language'programs'for'elementary'students'respectively.'Paula'is'involved'in'
many'second'language'associations'and'is'currently'the'President'of'TESL'NB'
and'a'member'of'the'board'of'TESL'Canada.'In'addition'to'presentations'at'
both'national'and'international'conferences,'Paula'has'also'given'keynote'
addresses'and'workshops'for'educators,'language'learners,'and'parent'groups.'
She'has'also'been'involved'in'the'administration'of'international'projects'at'
the'Institute,'such'as'the'CanadaVEurope'teacher'exchange'project'and'the'
Estonian'Language'Training'project.'
Our'L2RIC'team'also'includes':'
Hélène'Estey''
©L2RIC'
Hélène'est'assistante'administrative'à'l’Institut'de'recherche'en'langues'seconde'du'
Canada'au'sein'de'la'faculté'de'l’éducation'à'Université'du'NouveauVBrunswick.'
Hélène'compte'plus'de'25'ans'd’expérience'en'administration'et'en'bureau'de'
gestion.'En'plus'de'l’accueil'des'visiteurs,'les'responsabilités'd’Hélène'incluent'la'
gestion'des'domaines'suivants':'le'budget,'le'côté'administratif'de'projets'de'
recherche,'la'correspondance,'la'commande'de'matériel'et'de'ressources'et,'bien'
sûr,'le'fonctionnement'quotidien'de'l’Institut.'
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