Bricklayer 2016 National Occupational Analysis

Bricklayer 2016 National Occupational Analysis
National Occupational Analysis
Bricklayer
2016
National Occupational
Analysis
Bricklayer
2016
Trades and Apprenticeship Division
Division des métiers et de l’apprentissage
Labour Market Integration Directorate
Direction de l’intégration au marché du
travail
National Occupational Classification:
7281
Disponible en français sous le titre :
Briqueteur-maçon/briqueteuse-maçonne
You can download this publication by going online: publicentre.esdc.gc.ca. This document is
available on demand in multiple formats by contacting 1 800 O-Canada (1-800-622-6232),
teletypewriter (TTY), 1-800-926-9105.
© Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada, 2016
droitdauteur.copyright@HRSDC-RHDCC.gc.ca
PDF
Cat. No.: Em15-1/26-2016E-PDF
ISBN: 978-0-660-04310-4
ESDC
Cat. No. : LM-518-01-16E
_________________________________________________________________
You can download this publication and find more information on Red Seal trades by going
online: http://www.red-seal.ca
FOREWORD
The Canadian Council of Directors of Apprenticeship (CCDA) recognizes this National
Occupational Analysis (NOA) as the national standard for the occupation of Bricklayer.
Background
The first National Conference on Apprenticeship in Trades and Industries, held in Ottawa in
1952, recommended that the federal government be requested to cooperate with provincial and
territorial apprenticeship committees and officials in preparing analyses of a number of skilled
occupations. Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) sponsors a program, under
the guidance of the CCDA, to develop a series of NOAs.
The NOAs have the following objectives:
•
to describe and group the tasks performed by skilled workers;
•
to identify which tasks are performed in every province and territory;
•
to develop instruments for use in the preparation of Interprovincial Red Seal
Examinations and curricula for training leading to the certification of skilled workers;
•
to facilitate the mobility of apprentices and skilled workers in Canada; and,
•
to supply employers, employees, associations, industries, training institutions and
governments with analyses of occupations.
-I-
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The CCDA and ESDC wish to express sincere appreciation for the contribution of the many
tradespersons, industrial establishments, professional associations, labour organizations,
provincial and territorial government departments and agencies, and all others who contributed
to this publication.
Special acknowledgement is extended by ESDC and the CCDA to the following representatives
of the trade, and the apprenticeship bodies or national organizations that nominated them.
Gilbert Beausoleil
John Deleskie
Stephen Egan
Clarence Gallant
Brian Gebhardt
Michael Hazard
Clifford Kobelsky
Tim Maxson
Melvin Sparkes
Justin Stewart
Quebec
Nova Scotia
Manitoba
Prince Edward Island
Canadian Masonry Contractors
Association
British Columbia
Saskatchewan
Ontario
Newfoundland and Labrador
New Brunswick
This analysis was prepared by the Labour Market Integration Directorate of ESDC. The
coordinating, facilitating and processing of this analysis were undertaken by employees of the
NOA development team of the Trades and Apprenticeship Division. The host jurisdiction of
Ontario also participated in the development of this NOA.
Comments or questions about National Occupational Analyses may be forwarded to:
Trades and Apprenticeship Division
Labour Market Integration Directorate
Employment and Social Development Canada
140 Promenade du Portage, Phase IV, 5th Floor
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0J9
Email: redseal-sceaurouge@hrsdc-rhdcc.gc.ca
- II -
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD
I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
II
TABLE OF CONTENTS
III
STRUCTURE OF ANALYSIS
VI
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYSIS
VIII
ANALYSIS
SAFETY
3
SCOPE OF THE BRICKLAYER TRADE
4
OCCUPATIONAL OBSERVATIONS
6
ESSENTIAL SKILLS SUMMARY
7
BLOCK A
BLOCK B
BLOCK C
COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
Task 1
Performs safety-related functions.
9
Task 2
Uses and maintains tools and equipment.
11
Task 3
Uses scaffolding.
14
Task 4
Organizes work.
16
GENERAL MASONRY PRACTICES
Task 5
Performs substrate preparation.
19
Task 6
Performs fundamental masonry tasks.
22
Task 7
Uses mortars, grouts and adhesives.
25
MASONRY SYSTEMS
Task 8
Builds masonry walls.
28
Task 9
Builds horizontal masonry surfaces.
31
Task 10
Builds and installs prefabricated masonry units.
32
- III -
Task 11
BLOCK D
BLOCK E
BLOCK F
BLOCK G
BLOCK H
Installs surface-bonded masonry units.
34
NATURAL STONE SYSTEMS
Task 12
Builds natural stone walls.
36
Task 13
Installs natural stone cladding.
38
CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES
Task 14
Builds chimneys.
41
Task 15
Builds fireplaces.
45
REFRACTORIES AND CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIALS
Task 16
Installs and maintains refractories.
50
Task 17
Installs and maintains corrosion resistant materials.
53
RESTORATION
Task 18
Rebuilds masonry work.
57
Task 19
Repairs and cleans existing masonry work.
59
ADDITIONAL MASONRY
Task 20
Installs glass blocks.
63
Task 21
Installs ornamental and sculpted masonry.
65
Task 22
Builds arches.
66
- IV -
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
72
APPENDIX B
GLOSSARY
77
APPENDIX C
ACRONYMS
86
APPENDIX D
BLOCK AND TASK WEIGHTING
87
APPENDIX E
PIE CHART
91
APPENDIX F
TASK PROFILE CHART
92
-V-
STRUCTURE OF ANALYSIS
To facilitate understanding of the occupation, the work performed by tradespersons is divided
into the following categories:
Blocks
the largest division within the analysis that is comprised of a
distinct set of trade activities
Tasks
distinct actions that describe the activities within a block
Sub-Tasks
distinct actions that describe the activities within a task
Key Competencies
activities that a person should be able to do in order to be called
‘competent’ in the trade
The analysis also provides the following information:
Trends
changes identified that impact or will impact the trade including
work practices, technological advances, and new materials and
equipment
Related Components
a list of products, items, materials and other elements relevant to
the block
Tools and Equipment
categories of tools and equipment used to perform all tasks in the
block; these tools and equipment are listed in Appendix A
Context
information to clarify the intent and meaning of tasks
Required Knowledge
the elements of knowledge that an individual must acquire to
adequately perform a task
- VI -
The appendices located at the end of the analysis are described as follows:
Appendix A —
Tools and Equipment
a non-exhaustive list of tools and equipment used in this trade
Appendix B —
Glossary
definitions or explanations of selected technical terms used in the
analysis
Appendix C —
Acronyms
a list of acronyms used in the analysis with their full name
Appendix D —
Block and Task
Weighting
the block and task percentages submitted by each jurisdiction,
and the national averages of these percentages; these national
averages determine the number of questions for each block and
task in the Interprovincial exam
Appendix E —
Pie Chart
a graph which depicts the national percentages of exam
questions assigned to blocks
Appendix F —
Task Profile Chart
a chart which outlines graphically the blocks, tasks and sub-tasks
of this analysis
- VII -
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYSIS
Development of Analysis
A draft analysis is developed by a committee of industry experts in the field led by a team of
facilitators from ESDC. This draft analysis breaks down all the tasks performed in the
occupation and describes the knowledge and abilities required for a tradesperson to
demonstrate competence in the trade.
Draft Review
The NOA development team then forwards a copy of the analysis and its translation to
provincial and territorial authorities for a review of its content and structure. Their
recommendations are assessed and incorporated into the analysis.
Validation and Weighting
The analysis is sent to all provinces and territories for validation and weighting. Participating
jurisdictions consult with industry to validate and weight the document, examining the blocks,
tasks and sub-tasks of the analysis as follows:
BLOCKS
Each jurisdiction assigns a percentage of questions to each block for an
examination that would cover the entire trade.
TASKS
Each jurisdiction assigns a percentage of exam questions to each task
within a block.
SUB-TASKS
Each jurisdiction indicates, with a YES or NO, whether or not each subtask is performed by skilled workers within the occupation in its
jurisdiction.
The results of this exercise are submitted to the NOA development team who then analyzes the
data and incorporates it into the document. The NOA provides the individual jurisdictional
validation results as well as the national averages of all responses. The national averages for
block and task weighting guide the Interprovincial Red Seal Examination plan for the trade.
This method for the validation of the NOA also identifies common core sub-tasks across
Canada for the occupation. If at least 70% of the responding jurisdictions perform a sub-task, it
shall be considered common core. Interprovincial Red Seal Examinations are based on the
common core sub-tasks identified through this validation process.
- VIII -
Definitions for Validation and Weighting
YES
sub-task performed by qualified workers in the occupation in a specific
jurisdiction
NO
sub-task not performed by qualified workers in the occupation in a specific
jurisdiction
NV
analysis Not Validated by a province/territory
ND
trade Not Designated in a province/territory
NOT
COMMON
CORE (NCC)
sub-task, task or block performed by less than 70% of responding
jurisdictions; these will not be tested by the Interprovincial Red Seal
Examination for the trade
NATIONAL
AVERAGE %
average percentage of questions assigned to each block and task in
Interprovincial Red Seal Examination for the trade
Provincial/Territorial Abbreviations
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nova Scotia
Prince Edward Island
New Brunswick
Quebec
Ontario
Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Alberta
British Columbia
Northwest Territories
Yukon Territory
Nunavut
- IX -
ANALYSIS
SAFETY
Safe working procedures and conditions, accident prevention, and the preservation of health
are of primary importance to industry in Canada. These responsibilities are shared and require
the joint efforts of government, employers and employees. It is imperative that all parties
become aware of circumstances that may lead to injury or harm. Safe learning experiences and
work environments can be created by controlling the variables and behaviours that may
contribute to accidents or injury.
It is generally recognized that safety-conscious attitudes and work practices contribute to a
healthy, safe and accident-free work environment.
It is imperative to apply and be familiar with the Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Acts
and Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) regulations. As well, it is
essential to determine workplace hazards and take measures to protect oneself, co-workers, the
public and the environment.
Safety education is an integral part of training in all jurisdictions. As safety is an imperative part
of all trades, it is assumed and therefore it is not included as a qualifier of any activities.
However, the technical safety tasks and sub-tasks specific to the trade are included in this
analysis.
-3-
SCOPE OF THE BRICKLAYER TRADE
“Bricklayer” is this trade’s official Red Seal occupational title approved by the CCDA. This
analysis covers tasks performed by bricklayers whose occupational title has been identified by
some provinces and territories of Canada under the following names:
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
Brick and Stone
Mason
Bricklayer
Bricklayer - Mason
ON
MB
SK
AB



BC
NT
YT
NU







Mason

Bricklayers build and repair walls, floors, arches, pavings, partitions, fireplaces, chimneys,
smokestacks, furnaces, kilns and other structures. They work with materials such as brick,
natural stone, manufactured stone, tiles, precast masonry panels, glass blocks, concrete blocks,
light-weight insulated panels, other masonry units, insulation and membranes. They erect,
install, maintain, repair and alter various masonry. The structures vary in complexity from a
simple masonry walkway to an ornate exterior on a multi-level building.
Bricklayers use wheelbarrows and forklifts to transport materials. They use hand and power
tools to cut and trim masonry units to required size. Trowels are used to spread mortar to bond
layers of masonry units together. Measuring and layout tools such as a plumb line, level and
laser level are used to ensure proper alignment.
Bricklayers work on industrial, commercial, institutional and residential buildings. They may
specialize in stone work, restoration work or ornamental work. They may also specialize in
installing refractories in high-temperature environments or installing corrosion resistant
materials to line corrosive environments such as tanks and vessels.
Key attributes for people in this trade are manual dexterity, mechanical aptitude, the ability to
problem solve and think sequentially, and the ability to work at heights. Bricklaying is
physically demanding work and requires considerable effort in lifting heavy materials,
climbing, bending, kneeling, working in confined spaces and working on scaffolding.
Bricklayers need to have an eye for detail in order to create accurate and aesthetically pleasing
work.
Most of the work is performed outdoors exposing bricklayers to the elements. The winterization
of job sites allows the work to continue year round. Construction safety and accident prevention
is a priority.
-4-
This analysis recognizes similarities or overlaps with the work of other trades such as tilesetters,
concrete finishers, carpenters, and drywall finisher and plasterers.
Experienced bricklayers may advance to supervisory positions for masonry contractors or in
other related fields such as construction management, estimating or building inspection. They
may also become contractors.
-5-
OCCUPATIONAL OBSERVATIONS
The trend away from fully masonry-veneered single-family homes continues. However, a new
trend towards masonry in condominiums is increasing. Builders are starting to value the selling
strength of brick and block construction. The advantages include energy efficiency, reduced
maintenance, fire resistance, sound resistance, structural soundness and longevity of masonry.
In the construction of housing, manufactured stone/thin veneers are being used more often due
to ease of installation and consumer-driven interest.
Work practices and equipment are being designed with the bricklayer in mind, with
consideration given to ergonomics and efficiency. Climbing scaffolding and tower scaffolding
are designed to keep the bricklayer at a comfortable position to eliminate excessive bending and
lifting. Cordless power tools such as drills, grinders and jackhammers are allowing greater
mobility and efficiency. The use of dustless cutting and drilling technologies is being embraced
by industry.
Specifications and documentation, owing to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
(LEED), have become more complex. Energy efficiency and environmental awareness affect this
trade as new regulations are imposed on building processes and materials. The masonry
industry is a leader in compliance with LEED requirements. Bricklayers must keep up-to-date
with these guidelines and requirements. There is a trend of increased safety documentation
requirements on job sites.
-6-
ESSENTIAL SKILLS SUMMARY
Essential skills are needed for work, learning and life. They provide the foundation for learning
all other skills and enable people to evolve with their jobs and adapt to workplace change.
Through extensive research, the Government of Canada and other national and international
agencies have identified and validated nine essential skills. These skills are used in nearly every
occupation and throughout daily life in different ways.
A series of CCDA-endorsed tools have been developed to support apprentices in their training
and to be better prepared for a career in the trades. The tools can be used independently or with
the assistance of a tradesperson, trainer, employer, teacher or mentor to:
- understand how essential skills are used in the trades;
- learn about individual essential skills strengths and areas for improvement; and
- improve essential skills and increase success in an apprenticeship program.
The tools are available online or for order at:
http://www.edsc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/les/tools/index.shtml.
The application of these skills may be described throughout this document within the
competency statements which support each subtask of the trade. The following are summaries
of the requirements in each of the essential skills, taken from the essential skills profile. A link to
the complete essential skills profile can be found at www.red-seal.ca.
Reading
Bricklayers require strong reading skills to read a variety of documentation such as job
specifications, manufacturers’ directions for product preparation and application, job site,
company and jurisdictional safety requirements, and correspondence from suppliers and
contractors.
Document Use
Bricklayers interpret blueprints, read assembly drawings and make sketches of items to be built.
They complete forms such as time sheets, incident reports, request for information (RFI),
personal safety information (PSI) and field level risk assessments (FLRA).
Writing
Bricklayers use writing skills to complete documents such as lists of materials, incident reports,
and time sheets. They may correspond in writing with co-workers regarding supplies or work
to be done.
Oral Communication
Bricklayers talk with suppliers, delivery personnel, customers and co-workers, and co-ordinate
activities with other trades. They give directions to apprentices, liaise with supervisors and
participate in meetings.
-7-
Numeracy
Bricklayers measure the length, height and width of structures to be built and calculate angles
of arches when constructing openings. They estimate mix ratios by weight and volume.
Bricklayers estimate the amount of time and material required to complete a job.
Thinking Skills
Bricklayers use problem solving skills to address issues that may arise on the job such as design
changes or omissions. Bricklayers plan the materials and equipment they need for a job and
schedule tasks according to priority, sequence and to meet the needs of other trades on site.
Working with Others
Bricklayers usually work in a team environment although they may work alone on some jobs.
Many jobs are done with a fellow worker. Therefore, they must cooperate and coordinate with
others to ensure consistent work. Bricklayers may perform supervisory functions and guide or
monitor the work performance of others.
Digital Technology
Bricklayers may use digital devices to complete numeracy related tasks and to communicate
with others. They may access online information posted by suppliers and manufacturers to stay
current on industry trends and practices. Bricklayers may also access databases to retrieve
forms such as change orders and to retrieve architectural drawings. Bricklayers may use
computer controlled layout equipment such as surveying equipment and smart levels to
measure distances and horizontal and vertical angles of brick structures.
Continuous Learning
Bricklayers learn continuously through experience and creativity on the job. They may attend
sessions provided by manufacturers of new products. Bricklayers may also attend specialty inperson or online courses, for example safety or landscaping with bricks, blocks and stone, or
reference pamphlets, booklets or manuals on specific topics. Bricklayers may need to expand
their skills by getting additional certifications such as scaffold building, welding, hoisting and
rigging and confined space.
-8-
BLOCK A
COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
Trends
The emphasis on safety continues to increase and there are more strict
regulations to protect workers and the public. Related safety
documentation has become more important. Equipment used by
bricklayers such as dustless cutting systems has improved efficiency
and safety.
There is an increased use of mast climber scaffolding systems and
scissor lifts resulting in a reduction in labour needs and an increase in
production as a result of working at optimum heights.
Related
Components
All components apply.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 1
Context
Performs safety-related functions.
Bricklayers integrate safety practices, such as wearing personal protective
equipment (PPE), throughout every task included in the scope of their trade.
They maintain a safe work environment through awareness of work
surroundings. Compulsory safety training is standard practice.
Required Knowledge
K1
WHMIS
K2
locations of WHMIS documents such as labels and safety data sheets (SDS)
K3
safety and environmental regulations such as OH&S
K4
company safety policies and procedures
K5
workers’ rights and responsibilities
K6
hazards inherent in bricklaying and masonry materials such as sand, cement
and chemicals
K7
types of PPE such as high visibility apparel, safety glasses, noise protection,
respirators, gloves and hard hats
K8
location of PPE and safety equipment
K9
types of safety equipment such as first aid kits and eyewash stations
K 10
types, operation and capacity of fire extinguisher equipment
-9-
K 11
training requirements for certain PPE, safety equipment and safety
procedures such as fall arrest, first aid and confined space
K 12
emergency procedures, phone numbers and location of first aid stations and
medical facilities
K 13
disposal and recycling procedures
K 14
Safe Operating Procedure (SOP)
Sub-task
A-1.01
Maintains safe work environment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-1.01.01
handle, store and dispose of hazardous materials according to jurisdictional
regulations and WHMIS
A-1.01.02
set up barricading devices and signage such as caution tape and tagging
systems, fences and barriers to define work perimeters and contain
contaminants or other hazards
A-1.01.03
follow tag procedures for access
A-1.01.04
participate in FLRA meetings prior to beginning a new task
A-1.01.05
maintain clean and organized work area
A-1.01.06
perform safety inspections to recognize and report potential hazards
A-1.01.07
acknowledge and inform surrounding co-workers concerning safety and
well-being
A-1.01.08
identify and respect physical limitations of self and others
A-1.01.09
identify location of safety zone containing components such as first aid kit,
fire extinguishers, SDS and eye wash stations
A-1.01.10
document items such as inspections, potential hazards, safety meetings,
injuries and training according to jurisdictional regulations
- 10 -
Sub-task
A-1.02
Uses personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety equipment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-1.02.01
apply local, provincial, territorial and national safety regulations such as
OH&S
A-1.02.02
identify company and site policies and site hazards requiring the use of PPE
and safety equipment
A-1.02.03
select PPE and safety equipment appropriate for individual tasks and
situations
A-1.02.04
maintain and store PPE and safety equipment according to OH&S and
manufacturers’ specifications
A-1.02.05
identify damaged PPE such as excessively worn boots, worn harnesses and
cracked safety glasses
A-1.02.06
recognize PPE approved by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and
applicable safety equipment
A-1.02.07
ensure proper fit of PPE such as fall arrest harnesses and face shields
A-1.02.08
participate in fit test to confirm respirator fit
A-1.02.09
report and replace damaged or faulty equipment
Task 2
Context
Uses and maintains tools and equipment.
Bricklayers must maintain all their tools to ensure that they work properly
and safely. Rigging, hoisting and lifting equipment is used to move heavy
material on the worksite. Access equipment is used to allow bricklayers to
reach their work area.
Required Knowledge
K1
types of hand tools such as trowels, hammers, levels and jointers
K2
hand tool operating procedures and limitations
K3
types of power tools such as electric and gas powered
K4
power tool operating procedures and limitations
K5
hazards of power tools
- 11 -
K6
powder-actuated tool operating procedures and limitations
K7
jurisdictional and company training and certification requirements for
powder-actuated tools
K8
types of pneumatic tools such as grinders, air guns and jackhammers
K9
types of hydraulic tools such as brick splitters and saws
K 10
hazards of pneumatic and hydraulic tools
K 11
types of measuring equipment such as bricklayer tapes, laser levels and
storey poles
K 12
layout tools such as transits, laser levels, gauge rod/storey pole and mason’s
line
K 13
measuring and layout equipment operating procedures
K 14
types of rigging, hoisting and lifting equipment such as forklifts, cranes, block
and tackles, chain hoists and electric winches
K 15
types of material handling equipment such as wheelbarrows and pallet jacks
K 16
applications of rigging, hoisting and lifting equipment
K 17
regulations regarding licensing and training requirements of rigging,
hoisting, lifting and material handling equipment
K 18
limitations of rigging, hoisting, lifting and material handling equipment
K 19
types of access equipment such as scissor lifts, and articulated and telescopic
boom lifts, their operating procedures and limitations
Sub-task
A-2.01
Maintains tools and equipment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.01.01
repair or replace defective or damaged tools and equipment according to
manufacturers’ specifications
A-2.01.02
clean and store tools and equipment according to manufacturers’
specifications
A-2.01.03
document tool and equipment maintenance
A-2.01.04
recognize worn, damaged and defective tools, and tag and remove from
service
A-2.01.05
lubricate equipment such as chain hoists and gin wheels when necessary
A-2.01.06
sharpen tools such as chisels and hammers when necessary
- 12 -
Sub-task
A-2.02
Uses rigging, hoisting and lifting equipment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.02.01
select rigging, hoisting and lifting equipment such as shackles, spreader bars
and chain hoists according to task, load size and capacity
A-2.02.02
locate centre of gravity of load
A-2.02.03
secure load to rigging using equipment such as slings, shackles, bridle hitches
and lifting clamps
A-2.02.04
communicate with personnel involved in lift using methods such as hand
signals and two-way radios
A-2.02.05
recognize safe lifting locations or points
A-2.02.06
calculate weight of material
A-2.02.07
operate forklift according to jurisdictional regulations
A-2.02.08
stabilize load during lift using tag lines
A-2.02.09
inspect rigging, hoisting and lifting equipment according to maintenance
schedule
A-2.02.10
maintain and store rigging, hoisting and lifting equipment according to
manufacturers’ specifications
A-2.02.11
remove worn, damaged or expired rigging, hoisting and lifting equipment
from service
Sub-task
A-2.03
Uses access equipment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.03.01
select access equipment such as scissor lifts, and articulated and telescopic
boom lifts according to task, load size and capacity
A-2.03.02
recognize safe lifting locations such as stable surface and safe distance from
overhead electrical wires
- 13 -
A-2.03.03
inspect access equipment according to maintenance schedule and tag and
remove from service if defective
A-2.03.04
operate access equipment according to jurisdictional regulations
Task 3
Context
Uses scaffolding.
This task is a crucial part of a bricklayer’s job since the majority of bricklaying
is performed on scaffolding. The knowledge of the proper setup and
maintenance of scaffolding are important to ensure the safety of bricklayers
and other tradespeople on the jobsite.
Required Knowledge
K1
types of scaffolding such as frame, tubular, hydraulic, swing stage and
jack-up
K2
scaffolding components such as pins, braces, decks, planks, outriggers and
cross braces
K3
applications of various types of scaffolding
K4
OH&S considerations as they apply to scaffolding and scaffolding systems
K5
load limitations
K6
possible defects such as rusting, damage and split planks
K7
counter weight requirements according to safety regulations and job
requirements
K8
sequence of assembly
K9
sequence of dismantling
- 14 -
Sub-task
A-3.01
Erects scaffolding.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.01.01
select scaffolding for the job taking into consideration size, site conditions
and task being performed
A-3.01.02
inspect scaffolding for damage and missing components, and tag and remove
from service
A-3.01.03
identify hazards such as excess loads when erecting access equipment
A-3.01.04
use scaffolding within operating limitations as indicated on manufacturers’
tags and in compliance with OH&S regulations
A-3.01.05
lay out scaffolding ensuring substrate is level and stable
A-3.01.06
install scaffolding mud sills, scaffold jacks and other components according
to assembly sequence and regulations
A-3.01.07
set up swing stage components according to manufacturers’ specifications
and job requirements
A-3.01.08
level and secure scaffolding according to jurisdictional regulations
A-3.01.09
install means of access and egress
A-3.01.10
install kickboard, debris net, guardrails and mid-rails according to OH&S
regulations
Sub-task
A-3.02
Dismantles scaffolding.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.02.01
lower components to lower levels or to ground
A-3.02.02
remove tie-ins as scaffolding is lowered
A-3.02.03
remove components with equipment such as forklifts, cranes and roof
winches according to dismantling sequence
A-3.02.04
sort and prepare equipment for transportation
- 15 -
Sub-task
A-3.03
Maintains scaffolding.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.03.01
inspect scaffolding for damage and missing components, and tag and remove
from service
A-3.03.02
replace damaged or missing scaffolding components
A-3.03.03
clean and store scaffolding
Task 4
Context
Organizes work.
This task describes activities that bricklayers perform in order to organize
their daily work.
Required Knowledge
K1
types of documentation such as specifications, sketches and change orders
K2
safety documentation such as SDS, WHMIS symbols and OH&S acts
K3
documentation specific to work sites such as refineries and paper mills
K4
types of materials such as membranes, primers, fuels and masonry materials
K5
loading limitations of storage location
K6
tarp systems such as insulated tarps, debris screens and shrink wraps
K7
types of heaters such as salamanders, furnaces and construction heaters
K8
types of heater power sources such as propane, diesel, electric, natural gas
and kerosene
K9
company safety procedures
K 10
methods for protecting surrounding areas such as setting up barriers and
covering with tarp
K 11
environmental protection regulations and guidelines
K 12
job site hazards such as overhead and underground power lines
K 13
types of drawings such as architectural, structural, mechanical and electrical
- 16 -
Sub-task
A-4.01
Uses drawings and specifications.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-4.01.01
interpret drawings to identify requirements such as layout and material
requirements
A-4.01.02
interpret specifications such as architectural, structural and manufacturers’
A-4.01.03
draw sketches to communicate work coordinates and details
Sub-task
A-4.02
Plans daily tasks and activities.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-4.02.01
schedule tasks according to deadlines
A-4.02.02
sequence tasks in coordination with co-workers and other trades
A-4.02.03
estimate amount of time required for tasks
Sub-task
A-4.03
Prepares job site and materials.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-4.03.01
estimate and confirm amount of material required
A-4.03.02
coordinate delivery of materials
A-4.03.03
perform site assessment to identify hazards
A-4.03.04
set up mixing area in location accessible to power and water supply
- 17 -
A-4.03.05
place materials on job site for convenience and to avoid interference with
other trades
A-4.03.06
store and protect materials such as sand, cement, sealants and masonry
A-4.03.07
weatherize installation location by installing tarp system and temporary
roof,and setting up heaters and fuel tanks
A-4.03.08
ensure adequate ventilation for heaters
A-4.03.09
store hazardous materials such as fuels and primers in marked designated
area
Sub-task
A-4.04
Protects surrounding areas.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
A-4.04.01
determine surrounding areas requiring protection such as finished work,
personal property, vegetation and traffic areas
A-4.04.02
assess risks to surrounding areas such as airborne debris, excess mortar and
fumes
A-4.04.03
restrict dust creation using techniques such as wet sawing, vacuuming and
mixing in a separate area
A-4.04.04
set up protective materials such as tarps, plywood sheeting and construction
fence
- 18 -
BLOCK B
GENERAL MASONRY PRACTICES
Trends
There are new types of insulation and membranes such as spray-on.
There are more environmentally-friendly types of sealers being used.
There is increased awareness of containment practices. In some
jurisdictions, the size of masonry units is getting larger for cost
reduction.
Related
Components
All components apply.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 5
Context
Performs substrate preparation.
Substrate needs to be prepared to receive and support masonry.
Membranes, flashing and insulation are installed to maintain a complete
building envelope.
Required Knowledge
K1
types of anchoring/tie systems such as fastened-in-place and embedded
K2
anchoring/tie systems, adhesives and insulation application techniques
K3
substrate condition
K4
types of anchors such as drop-in, pin bolts, wedge, screws and self-tapping
K5
types of ties such as wire, adjustable and corrugated metal
K6
sequence of levelling, plumbing and aligning
K7
tools and equipment required
K8
types of flashings such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), rigid, self-adhesive and
rubber
K9
location of flashings
K 10
counter flashing and step flashing
K 11
building envelope systems
K 12
types of membranes such as torch-on, self-adhesive and trowelled
K 13
effect of ultraviolet rays and moisture on membranes
- 19 -
K 14
types of insulation such as ceramic fibre, vermiculite, extruded, fibreglass,
spray-on, rock wool and mineral-refractory grade
K 15
jurisdictional and national codes and specifications
Sub-task
B-5.01
Prepares vertical substrates and foundations.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.01.01
remove glues, old membranes and accessories to ensure smooth substrate
B-5.01.02
replace deteriorated material such as broken block or brick and nails
B-5.01.03
wash and dry substrate to improve product adhesion
B-5.01.04
fill holes and cracks in substrate using mortar and other filler materials
matching existing substrate
B-5.01.05
fasten mesh to substrate using mechanical fasteners according to
manufacturers’ specifications and building code
B-5.01.06
prime substrate according to manufacturers’ specifications
Sub-task
B-5.02
Applies parging.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.02.01
dampen substrate to improve bonding
B-5.02.02
apply bonding agents to substrate
B-5.02.03
mix parging material according to application and manufacturers’
instructions
B-5.02.04
trowel on parging material to substrate maintaining a uniform thickness
according to specifications
- 20 -
Sub-task
B-5.03
Installs anchoring/tie systems.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.03.01
select type of system according to engineering specifications, codes and
standards
B-5.03.02
determine vertical and horizontal spacing of anchors and ties according to
specifications, codes, coursing and layout
B-5.03.03
attach or place anchors to substrate using tools and materials such as drills
and fasteners
B-5.03.04
attach ties to anchors
Sub-task
B-5.04
Installs membrane and flashing.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.04.01
select base flashing according to specifications, codes and standards
B-5.04.02
attach base flashing and membrane
B-5.04.03
seal seams and tears to membrane, and cuts and joints in flashing to avoid
compromising the building envelope
B-5.04.04
overlap below grade membranes to complete the building envelope
- 21 -
Sub-task
B-5.05
Installs insulation.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.05.01
select insulation according to specifications, codes and standards
B-5.05.02
cut and fit insulation to fully insulate the wall and seal joints according to
manufacturers’ specifications
B-5.05.03
secure insulation to substrate and membrane ensuring as tight a fit as
possible
Task 6
Context
Performs fundamental masonry tasks.
This task describes typical methods used in masonry construction.
Required Knowledge
K1
measuring and layout equipment and practices
K2
sequence of layout procedures
K3
drawings, specifications, codes and standards
K4
wall systems
K5
bonds and patterns
K6
types of joints such as concave, raked and flush
K7
when to finish joints
K8
environmental hazards
K9
types of cleaners such as acids, alkali-based, water and detergent
K 10
sequence of cleaning procedures
K 11
mixing sequence and mixing ratio for cleaning materials
K 12
applications of waterproofing and dampproofing
K 13
types of waterproofing and dampproofing materials such as silicone-based,
solvent-based and alkaline-based
- 22 -
Sub-task
B-6.01
Lays out wall and coursing.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-6.01.01
determine wall location and floor grade
B-6.01.02
perform layout using techniques such as snapping chalk lines, laying out
units dry, and measuring with a tape
B-6.01.03
mark off location of units to guide placement
B-6.01.04
adjust bond to suit openings such as windows, doors and accessories
Sub-task
B-6.02
Finishes joints.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-6.02.01
select type of joint finishes such as concave, convex, flush, raked, weather and
extruded according to specifications
B-6.02.02
assess by touch mortar readiness for finishing (thumbprint method)
B-6.02.03
tool joints in order to achieve uniformity and straightness, and to avoid
damage to masonry units
B-6.02.04
fill voids in joints
B-6.02.05
remove excess mortar and retool joint to achieve finished look
- 23 -
Sub-task
B-6.03
Cleans new masonry surfaces.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-6.03.01
rub down wall using like material to remove excess mortar
B-6.03.02
match cleaning material to masonry surface to be cleaned according to
manufacturers’ specifications
B-6.03.03
prepare cleaning material by mixing to required proportions
B-6.03.04
pre-soak, brush and scrub surfaces
B-6.03.05
clean using pressure washer according to manufacturers’ specifications
B-6.03.06
rinse surface
B-6.03.07
check surface to ensure uniform cleanliness
Sub-task
B-6.04
Seals masonry surfaces.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-6.04.01
select sealant according to existing masonry and locations such as above
grade and below grade
B-6.04.02
verify that the surface is clean and dry in order to ensure sealant adhesion
and prevent trapping visible stains
B-6.04.03
apply sealant using methods such as brushing, spraying and rolling
according to manufacturers’ specifications
- 24 -
Task 7
Uses mortars, grouts and adhesives.
Mortars, grouts and adhesives hold and structurally support masonry units
and accessories. Concrete and grouts are materials containing cementitious
materials, aggregate and water, and are used to secure reinforcing within
block walls. Mortars, grouts and adhesives are used in every aspect of
masonry. Bricklayers must be able to safely handle, prepare and apply these
products.
Context
Required Knowledge
K1
types of mortars such as M, S, N, O and K, and their properties
K2
admixtures such as accelerators, retardants, dyes and waterproofing
components
K3
codes and regulations
K4
mixing equipment and procedures
K5
testing such as strength tests, slump tests and bond tests
K6
types of concrete or grout and their properties
K7
reinforcing materials such as fibre and rebar
K8
grout consistency required to fill masonry cavities
K9
grouting methods and procedures
K 10
types and uses of adhesives such as polymers, epoxies, resins, caulking and
latex
K 11
shelf and pot life of adhesives and mortars
K 12
reinforcement requirements when pouring concrete and grout
Sub-task
B-7.01
Mixes mortar, concrete, grout and adhesives.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-7.01.01
select mortar, concrete, grout and adhesive according to job specification
B-7.01.02
verify that water supply is clean and potable to avoid contamination of
mixture
B-7.01.03
adjust mixing conditions such as heating sand and water according to code
requirements
- 25 -
B-7.01.04
measure components according to ratio and proportions required by
specifications
B-7.01.05
add admixture to achieve required properties
B-7.01.06
add aggregate such as sand and gravel
B-7.01.07
use mixing equipment such as barrel mixer, shovel and paddle mixer
B-7.01.08
time mixing according to specifications
B-7.01.09
visually assess readiness of product for consistency and moisture content
Sub-task
B-7.02
Uses mortars.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-7.02.01
apply mortar using methods such as buttering and spreading
B-7.02.02
assess mortar condition and usability, and adjust consistency for particular
use
Sub-task
B-7.03
Uses concrete and grout.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-7.03.01
assess wall prior to filling
B-7.03.02
prime holes according to size of block and jurisdictional regulations
B-7.03.03
place grout and concrete using processes such as high-lift and low-lift
grouting
B-7.03.04
place grout and concrete using equipment such as buckets, hoppers and
pumps
B-7.03.05
consolidate grout to fill voids
- 26 -
Sub-task
B-7.04
Uses adhesives.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
B-7.04.01
select adhesives such as two-part epoxies and primers
B-7.04.02
prepare surface to receive adhesives
B-7.04.03
apply adhesives using methods such as trowelled, brushed on, injected and
caulked
- 27 -
BLOCK C
Trends
MASONRY SYSTEMS
There is an increasing trend in using surface-bonded units on the
outside of commercial and residential buildings. There is a greater
variety of surface-bonded masonry products being used such as thin
cut brick and natural stone, and manufactured stone.
Prefabricated masonry units are slowly becoming more common.
Related
Components
(including, but not
limited to)
Masonry units, air and vapour barrier, insulation, flashing,
vertical/horizontal reinforcing, base plates, expansion and contraction
joints, soft joints, grout, fastening and anchoring systems, ties (anchors),
adjustable veneer ties, mortars, nails, adhesives, bonding agents,
epoxies, stone bond, rigid insulation, steel wire cables, stickclips,
caulking, parging, compressive backer rod, insulation tape, air
ventilation accessories, draining systems, lateral support system, lintel
supports, lintel reinforcements, sills and soffits, water repellents,
waterproofing, cleaning agents, shelf angles, fire stops, wedges, batter
boards.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
- 28 -
Task 8
Context
Builds masonry walls.
Non-load-bearing masonry walls include veneer walls, interior partitions and
exterior curtain walls. This task describes the proper method of installing
these walls using brick, block and full-bed manufactured stone, and
accessories. Stone walls are described in Block D. Load-bearing walls,
columns and pilasters are designed to carry loads in addition to their own
load. Load-bearing walls include structural and cavity walls which are above
grade, and foundation walls which are below grade. They also include
retaining walls which resist lateral forces. Reinforcing systems in loadbearing walls are always included and are critical as they carry or resist
stresses and forces.
Required Knowledge
K1
applicable sections of National Building Code (NBC)
K2
types of masonry units such as clay brick, concrete brick, sand-lime brick,
concrete block and full-bed manufactured stone
K3
sizes and shapes of masonry units such as bricks and blocks
K4
types of non-load-bearing walls such as curtain walls, garden walls and
partition walls
K5
types of load-bearing walls such as retaining walls, cavity walls and
windload walls
K6
columns, pilasters and buttresses
K7
bonds and patterns
K8
types and consistencies of mortars
K9
construction joints such as expansion and control (movement joints)
K 10
masonry wall drainage and ventilation systems such as weep and vent holes
K 11
horizontal and vertical coursing
K 12
ground conditions and grades
K 13
retaining wall systems and designs
K 14
footings and foundations
K 15
building envelope components such as membranes and insulation
K 16
types of reinforcing material such as rebar and reinforcement wire
K 17
reinforced wall systems
K 18
specifications for reinforcing
K 19
accessories such as anchors, plates and bolts
K 20
finished height of column and pilaster
- 29 -
K 21
regional reinforcement requirements such as seismic and hurricane
K 22
use of cleanouts
Sub-task
C-8.01
Builds non-load-bearing walls.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.01.01
select and use tools and equipment
C-8.01.02
determine wall properties such as finished height, length and location
according to drawings
C-8.01.03
install reinforcements according to specifications for additional wall stability
C-8.01.04
build lead to establish each course and height
C-8.01.05
cut units using hand and power tools to required sizes and shapes
C-8.01.06
maintain bond
C-8.01.07
lay units to the top of the line
C-8.01.08
adjust joint thickness within code requirements to allow for openings
C-8.01.09
install lintels such as cast-in-place, precast and angle iron to support units
over openings
C-8.01.10
build in accessories such as electrical, mechanical and plumbing
C-8.01.11
brace and support walls at required intervals
Sub-task
C-8.02
Builds load-bearing walls.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.02.01
select and use tools and equipment
C-8.02.02
determine wall properties such as finished height, length and location
according to drawings
C-8.02.03
install reinforcements and structural accessories according to specifications
for additional wall stability and load-bearing requirements
- 30 -
C-8.02.04
build lead to establish each course and height
C-8.02.05
cut units using hand and power tools to required sizes and shapes
C-8.02.06
maintain bond
C-8.02.07
lay units to the top of the line
C-8.02.08
adjust joint thickness within code requirements to allow for openings
C-8.02.09
shore up openings to receive and support lintels
C-8.02.10
install lintels such as cast-in-place, precast and angle iron to support units
over openings
C-8.02.11
build in accessories such as electrical, mechanical and plumbing
C-8.02.12
batter and slope retaining walls in order to offset lateral forces
C-8.02.13
brace and support walls at specified intervals
C-8.02.14
install drainage systems on retaining walls
Task 9
Context
Builds horizontal masonry surfaces.
Bricklayers build horizontal surfaces such as patios, walkways, stairways and
driveways. These surfaces must be built to specifications. Bricklayers may use
various types of masonry units such as brick, flagstones and pavers to build
flexible or rigid surfaces.
Required Knowledge
K1
excavations
K2
soil conditions
K3
drainage
K4
membranes
K5
codes and regulations
K6
slope and grade
K7
assemblies in mortared and mortarless applications (rigid and flexible)
K8
types of masonry units for horizontal surfaces such as brick, pavers and
flagstones
K9
bonds and patterns
K 10
mortars and aggregates
K 11
bonding agents and additives
- 31 -
K 12
sealants
K 13
required tools and equipment such as a tamper, screed poles and guillotines
(brick splitter)
Sub-task
C-9.01
Prepares horizontal substrate.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.01.01
clean, clear and excavate area
C-9.01.02
layer and compact aggregate to grade and slope
C-9.01.03
install landscape fabric
C-9.01.04
determine borders according to job requirements
C-9.01.05
install edge restraints
C-9.01.06
select required mixture of concrete for application such as stairs and patios
C-9.01.07
form and pour concrete to required thickness
C-9.01.08
screed and finish surfaces to maintain and produce even surfaces
Sub-task
C-9.02
Lays masonry units on horizontal surfaces.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.02.01
determine and layout pattern such as basket weave, herring bone and
running bond
C-9.02.02
cut masonry units to fit required space and create uniform joints
C-9.02.03
place and align units to be aesthetically pleasing and according to bond used
C-9.02.04
apply sand and use tamper to compact masonry unit
C-9.02.05
sweep to remove excess sand and to fill voids
C-9.02.06
finish joints in mortared systems
- 32 -
C-9.02.07
incorporate construction joints to allow movement
C-9.02.08
seal assemblies
Task 10
Builds and installs prefabricated masonry units.
Prefabricated masonry is usually fabricated off-site and delivered to be
assembled and/or mechanically fastened. They are made of masonry units,
reinforcing steel, grout and mortar. Bricklayers are involved in both the
fabrication and installation of these components. They may be used for
greater efficiency of installation or for situations where masonry cannot easily
be built on site.
Context
Required Knowledge
K1
form release agents
K2
storage, stacking and transport
K3
colour matching and inspection for installation
K4
effects of temperature and humidity on the prefabrication curing process
K5
fastening systems
K6
grouting and caulking procedures
K7
rigging and hoisting
Sub-task
C-10.01
Builds prefabricated masonry. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
no
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
C-10.01.01
align and level units of prefabricated masonry according to engineered
design
C-10.01.02
build panel to gauge according to installation location and specifications
C-10.01.03
prepare forms or jigs to accept materials by applying form release agent and
adding materials such as reinforcing, anchoring and bearing plates
- 33 -
C-10.01.04
add masonry materials to forms to complete prefabrication
C-10.01.05
remove forms or jigs
Sub-task
C-10.02
Erects prefabricated masonry.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
C-10.02.01
verify that substrate has been prepared using required anchoring systems
C-10.02.02
align and set panels and anchors in place for welding or bolting
C-10.02.03
repair damaged masonry on site, if necessary
C-10.02.04
seal joints using materials such as caulking and mortar
Task 11
Context
Installs surface-bonded masonry units.
Surface-bonded masonry units are thin masonry components applied to a
variety of surfaces. They are used for aesthetic purposes using a variety of
applied components.
Required Knowledge
K1
mortar and bonding agents
K2
standards (CSA and NBC) and manufacturers’ specifications
K3
types of material such as brick, stone and cement products
K4
layout dimensions
K5
types of bonds and patterns
- 34 -
Sub-task
C-11.01
Prepares substrate for surface-bonded masonry units.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
C-11.01.01
install weatherproofing components to allow for drainage according to
jurisdictional regulations
C-11.01.02
install backing material using specified mechanical fasteners over entire
substrate area to support masonry unit
C-11.01.03
apply scratch coat into wire mesh to ensure full coverage
Sub-task
C-11.02
Applies surface-bonded masonry units.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
C-11.02.01
dampen the substrate and back of the surface-bonded masonry unit to
improve bonding
C-11.02.02
butter back of surface-bonded masonry units
C-11.02.03
apply and finish joints for surface-bonded masonry units
C-11.02.04
clean and seal surface-bonded masonry units according to manufacturers’
specifications
- 35 -
BLOCK D
NATURAL STONE SYSTEMS
Trends
There are more advanced anchoring systems to improve strength and
longevity.
Related
Components
(including, but not
limited to)
Masonry units, air barriers, insulation, flashing, vertical/horizontal
reinforcing, movement joints, soft joints, grout, fastening and anchoring
systems, mortars, adhesives, bonding agents, epoxies and resins, rigid
insulation, stickclips, caulking, parging, compressive backer rod, weep
holes, vents, air ventilation accessories, draining systems, lateral
support system, lintel supports, lintel reinforcement, sills and soffits,
water repellents, waterproofing products, cleaning agents, shelf angles,
fire stops, wedges, batter boards.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 12
Context
Builds natural stone walls.
Stone walls may be load-bearing or non-load-bearing. Examples include
veneers, multi-wythe, garden walls and retaining walls. Stones may be
natural, quarried, or produced in a stone-cutting and finishing facility. Size,
shape and type of stone vary greatly; therefore, correct selection and
preparation are critical to maintain integrity of the wall.
Required Knowledge
K1
classifications, types and properties of natural stone
K2
types of mortars
K3
mortar consistencies according to stone
K4
types of bonds and patterns
K5
bedding planes
K6
anchoring systems
K7
flashing materials and procedures
K8
supporting backup wall
K9
rigging and hoisting
K 10
caulking, epoxies and other bonding agents
K 11
cleaning materials and procedures for natural stone
- 36 -
K 12
types of wall systems such as veneers, multi-wythe, garden walls and
retaining walls
K 13
components of building envelope
K 14
installation procedures for building envelope
K 15
damp curing requirements
Sub-task
D-12.01
Prepares natural stone.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.01.01
cull stones that are either defective or otherwise undesirable to prevent
failures or to enhance aesthetics of the finished assembly
D-12.01.02
remove debris to prevent bonding failures or to enhance aesthetics of the
finished assembly
D-12.01.03
resize units using methods such as cutting, grinding, dressing and pitching to
suit design and to ensure proper fit
D-12.01.04
dress unit surfaces to suit design and for aesthetic purposes
D-12.01.05
determine anchoring system according to job specifications
D-12.01.06
determine style and pattern for stone and joint finish according to
specifications
Sub-task
D-12.02
Lays natural stone.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.02.01
select colour, strength and consistency of mortar, according to specifications
D-12.02.02
apply sufficient mortar bed to support stone
D-12.02.03
set stone on mortar bed to required degree of alignment and plumb using
tools such as levels and tape measures
- 37 -
D-12.02.04
use temporary supports such as wedges or bracing to maintain joint size and
alignment
D-12.02.05
follow established bonding and pattern practices
D-12.02.06
tool joints according to specifications to maintain integrity of assembly or for
aesthetic purposes
Sub-task
D-12.03
Damp cures walls.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.03.01
mist completed assembly at required intervals according to specifications to
ensure adequate curing
D-12.03.02
apply and secure moist burlap or plastic according to specifications and
weather conditions to ensure adequate curing
Task 13
Context
Installs natural stone cladding.
Bricklayers apply stone cladding by mechanically fastening stone to a
structural backup wall. Stone used for cladding is typically large and
pre-finished in a stone-cutting and finishing facility. Stone cladding is not
load-bearing and has an aesthetic and a protective function.
Required Knowledge
K1
sizes and types of stone cladding such as granite, marble and limestone
K2
supporting backup wall
K3
rigging and hoisting
K4
stone properties such as mass, density and porosity
K5
anchoring systems
K6
caulking, epoxies and other bonding agents
K7
cleaning materials and procedures for natural stone
K8
type of wall system
K9
components of building envelope
- 38 -
K 10
installation procedures for building envelope
K 11
flashing materials and installation procedures
Sub-task
D-13.01
Prepares substrate for cladding.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
D-13.01.01
recognize deficiencies in backup to determine necessary repairs or potential
incompatibility with design
D-13.01.02
remove debris by brushing, scraping or grinding to create a continuous
smooth surface
D-13.01.03
fill voids in masonry or concrete backup by trowelling or grouting to create a
continuously smooth surface
D-13.01.04
apply air or waterproof membrane and insulation according to job
specifications
D-13.01.05
set horizontal and vertical grid lines to ensure positioning of anchors
according to specifications and drawings
D-13.01.06
install anchoring system on substrate as specified
Sub-task
D-13.02
Prepares natural stone for cladding.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
D-13.02.01
inspect stone for presence of stains, defects or debris to prevent failures or to
enhance aesthetics of the finished panel
D-13.02.02
resize units by cutting, grinding and chiselling to suit design
D-13.02.03
reface granite surface using a torch to achieve rough finish
- 39 -
D-13.02.04
drill holes for dowels or kerf to accommodate anchors
D-13.02.05
prefabricate sections by joining units and adhering them with products such
as epoxies to satisfy requirements
Sub-task
D-13.03
Installs natural stones.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
D-13.03.01
set units on anchors manually or using rigging and hoisting equipment for
support
D-13.03.02
align and temporarily stabilize units with shims using vertical and horizontal
string lines as reference
D-13.03.03
adjust anchoring system to secure units, correct potential incompatibility
with design and ensure aesthetically pleasing final alignment
D-13.03.04
finish joints according to specifications
- 40 -
BLOCK E
CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES
Trends
The market has seen an emergence of fireplace inserts, wood stoves and
direct vent gas fireplaces. There is also an increase of outdoor fireplaces,
fire pits and pizza ovens.
Related
Components
(including, but not
limited to)
Masonry units, air barriers, insulation, flashing, firebrick, anchoring
systems, membrane, vertical/horizontal reinforcing, grout, ties
(anchors), adhesives, mortars, ceramic insulation, rigid insulation,
caulking, compressive backer rod, insulation tape, weep holes, wood
forms, air ventilation accessories, draining systems, lateral support
systems, lintel supports, water repellents, cleaning agents, fire stops,
spark arresters, liners, clean-out doors, metal caps, metal flashings,
flue liners, cast iron doors, grills, dampers, fireclay, ceramic blanket,
angle irons, arch centre, sheet metal, ash pan, ash dump, fresh air kit,
facing material, mantel.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 14
Context
Builds chimneys.
Chimneys vent gases from combusted materials. They can be residential and
industrial. Chimneys can be decorative and installed in most areas of the
building.
Required Knowledge
K1
foundation materials such as concrete, concrete blocks and bricks
K2
codes and regulations such as NBC and CSA
K3
fireplace and chimney operation
K4
flue liners
K5
materials such as fireclay or refractory mortar and mortar types
K6
expansion and contraction of installation materials
K7
types and sizes of flues and fireboxes
K8
types of insulation and flashings
K9
backup and veneer materials such as brick, stone and tile
- 41 -
K 10
types of bonds
K 11
types and sizes of appliances such as heaters and furnaces
Sub-task
E-14.01
Builds foundation supports for chimneys.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.01.01
select tools and equipment such as levels, trowels and squares
E-14.01.02
select materials such as blocks, mortars and concrete according to plans and
job specifications
E-14.01.03
inspect excavation or specified area to ensure adequate for building
foundation, according to jurisdictional regulations and task requirements
E-14.01.04
modify excavation or specified area to meet jurisdictional regulations and
task requirements
E-14.01.05
calculate dimensions of chimney and lay out for formwork or block work for
footings and foundations according to plans and job specifications
E-14.01.06
install reinforcing steel and connections according to job specifications
E-14.01.07
place concrete in footing forms according to job specifications and
jurisdictional regulations, and allow curing time
E-14.01.08
form or build foundation wall on footing according to job specifications
E-14.01.09
build-in clean-outs and flue liners according to appliance requirements
E-14.01.10
ensure foundation is adequate to support the weight of the chimney
- 42 -
Sub-task
E-14.02
Lays masonry units to build chimneys.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.02.01
select and use tools and equipment such as trowels, levels, plumb lines and
measuring tapes
E-14.02.02
select mortar according to job specifications and mortar type
E-14.02.03
calculate the chimney height for draft according to manufacturers’
specifications, jurisdictional regulations and surrounding environment
E-14.02.04
install masonry units to predetermined dimensions
E-14.02.05
finish mortar joints according to job specifications
Sub-task
E-14.03
Installs flue lining.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.03.01
select and use tools and equipment and specified mortar
E-14.03.02
calculate placement of flue lining according to appliance, manufacturers’
specifications and jurisdictional regulations
E-14.03.03
calculate flue liner height and size to ensure proper draft
E-14.03.04
create hole for thimble to receive appliance
E-14.03.05
place and secure flue lining using specified mortar, according to jurisdictional
regulations
- 43 -
Sub-task
E-14.04
Installs related flashings.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.04.01
select and use tools and equipment such as tin snips, grinders and measuring
tapes
E-14.04.02
determine type of flashing method to be used such as reglet or step flashing
according to application
E-14.04.03
cut reglet to receive counter flashing where roof material intersects chimney
E-14.04.04
cut, install and seal flashing while building new chimney at roof intersections
Sub-task
E-14.05
Installs caps.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.05.01
select and use tools and equipment such as hammers, tape measures, trowels
and power tools
E-14.05.02
construct cap to direct water away from the chimney
E-14.05.03
install cap flashing and bond break between chimney and cap to avoid water
penetration
E-14.05.04
form, create drip edge and pour reinforced concrete cap
E-14.05.05
place pre-fabricated caps such as concrete, stone or metal
E-14.05.06
insulate and seal between chimney cap and flue lining with non-combustible
materials to protect against expansion and contraction, and water penetration
- 44 -
Task 15
Builds fireplaces.
Fireplaces combust material to provide heat and vent smoke and gases to the
chimney. Bricklayers may have to consider location of fireplaces in relation to
prevailing winds and surrounding obstacles.
Context
Required Knowledge
K1
codes and regulations such as NBC and CSA
K2
types of fireplaces
K3
fireplace and chimney operation
K4
firebox materials such as firebrick and fireclay, and their assembly
K5
expansion and contraction of installation materials
K6
size of openings required for room size
K7
size of liner based on opening size
K8
backup and veneer materials such as brick, stone, block and tile
K9
types of bonds
K 10
foundation supports for hearth
K 11
base construction for hearth
K 12
damper installation and function
K 13
smoke shelf and smoke chamber
K 14
types and sizes of inserts such as electrical, gas and wood
Sub-task
E-15.01
Builds foundation for hearth, firebox, backup material and veneer.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.01.01
select and use tools and equipment such as measuring tapes, trowels and
levels
E-15.01.02
select and install materials such as concrete blocks and reinforced concrete
E-15.01.03
calculate dimensions such as projection, width and height of hearth, firebox
and veneer
E-15.01.04
install openings required for ash dump and fresh air intake
E-15.01.05
form and pour concrete to build foundation, according to job specifications
- 45 -
E-15.01.06
place masonry units to build foundation, according to job specifications
E-15.01.07
form and pour concrete slab on top of foundation to accommodate firebox
and hearth
Sub-task
E-15.02
Builds hearth, firebox and backup.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.02.01
select and use tools and equipment such as measuring tapes, trowels and
levels
E-15.02.02
lay out dimensions of firebox to ensure proper proportion, according to plans
E-15.02.03
lay firebricks for inner hearth
E-15.02.04
lay backup bricks for outer hearth
E-15.02.05
install ash dump and air intake
E-15.02.06
cut firebricks and install walls of firebox
E-15.02.07
lay masonry units to build backup with smoke shelf behind firebox and
install anchoring system for veneer, according to NBC and CSA
Sub-task
E-15.03
Installs damper.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.03.01
assemble damper according to manufacturers’ specifications
E-15.03.02
position non-combustible material between damper and top of firebox to
allow for expansion and contraction
E-15.03.03
set damper in place and ensure that it is leveled, and sealed but not bonded
to the firebox
- 46 -
Sub-task
E-15.04
Builds smoke chamber.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.04.01
select and use tools and equipment such as levels, measuring tapes and
trowels
E-15.04.02
lay out dimensions of smoke chamber according to job specifications
E-15.04.03
install lintels over the damper
E-15.04.04
corbel brick to create smoke chamber to meet flue liner according to NBC and
CSA
E-15.04.05
parge smoke chamber and smoke shelf with mortar to allow for a smooth
transition
Sub-task
E-15.05
Prepares existing fireplace for insert.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.05.01
select and use tools and equipment such as trowels, levels and hammers
E-15.05.02
verify structural integrity of existing fireplace and chimney
E-15.05.03
create rough opening to manufacturers’ specifications
E-15.05.04
make modifications to existing fireplace components to meet job
requirements
E-15.05.05
install inserts in fireplace according to manufacturers’ specifications
- 47 -
Sub-task
E-15.06
Faces fireplaces and inserts.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.06.01
select and use tools and equipment such as trowels, levels, saws and bevel
squares
E-15.06.02
select materials such as brick, stone and tile according to client specifications
and desired finished appearance
E-15.06.03
determine mantel dimensions according to code and client specifications
E-15.06.04
install mantel
E-15.06.05
install lintels over opening
E-15.06.06
install accessories such as fans, vents, clean-outs, doors and intake
E-15.06.07
complete masonry veneer
E-15.06.08
complete facing on outer hearth
- 48 -
BLOCK F
REFRACTORIES AND CORROSION RESISTANT
MATERIALS
Trends
Refractories and corrosion resistant materials are constantly evolving
for cost effectiveness and longevity. Safety procedures continue to
improve. Environmental considerations are being emphasized in the
selection, application and disposal of materials.
Related
Components
(including, but not
limited to)
Insulation (ceramic modules, ceramic blankets, boards), firebrick, brick
(insulation, thermal, ceramic, lead, carbon, magnesia chrome, alkaline
resistant, acid-resistant), corrosion resistant tile, carbon and high
temperature mortars, bracing, vessels, anchoring systems, lock-out box,
membranes, vertical/horizontal reinforcing, embedded plates, grout,
ties (anchors), adhesives, resin injections, stickclips, plastics, wood
forms, draining systems, lateral support systems, lintel supports, sills
and soffits, water repellents, fire stops, cast iron doors, fireclay, angle
iron, castables, arch centre, arch templates, sheet metal, lumber,
polyethylene (plastic sheets), metal shims.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
- 49 -
Task 16
Installs and maintains refractories.
Refractories are used in various settings such as refineries, pulp mills, steel
mills, crematoriums and incinerators. Refractory materials are used to contain
the burning process and retain or refract heat. Refractory materials are
selected according to criteria such as ease of installation, cost effectiveness
and durability. The skills involved in installing refractories encompass many
of the general masonry skills as well as specialized knowledge of these
materials and applications. Due to the use of products containing refractory
ceramic fibres (RCFs) and the need to work in confined spaces, maintaining
personal safety is paramount.
Context
Required Knowledge
K1
safety regulations
K2
safety procedures such as lockout, confined space, fall arrest, FLRA,
emergency evacuation and temporary bracing
K3
types of PPE for refractory material installation and material removal (tearouts)
K4
types of refractory materials such as bricks (alumina/silica, insulating,
carbon), accessories and blanket, board insulation, castables and plastics
K5
types of refractory mortar such as air setting and heat setting
K6
sequence of installation of brick and tile according to number and application
K7
types and use of insulations
K8
forms and arches
Sub-task
F-16.01
Prepares for installation of refractories and accessories.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-16.01.01
select and use tools and equipment such as dead blow hammers, rawhide
hammers, knives, trowels, wet saws, hand saws, air compressors and gunite
equipment
F-16.01.02
establish points and grid lines for anchors such as V-ties, stick pins and
threaded studs to maintain integrity of wall
F-16.01.03
position and secure accessories such as nuts, clips and V-ties
- 50 -
F-16.01.04
cut and shape insulation such as modules, blanket and j-paper for installation
F-16.01.05
cut and shape refractory units such as insulating, ceramic and arch bricks for
installation
F-16.01.06
build and install forms and arch centre for specific application
Sub-task
F-16.02
Prepares mortar for refractories.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-16.02.01
select, set up and use tools and equipment such as mixing drills, pails and
mixers
F-16.02.02
select and measure admixtures such as needles, resins and epoxies according
to manufacturers’ specifications
F-16.02.03
select, measure and mix mortars such as silica, high alumina mortar and
fireclays according to manufacturers’ specifications
Sub-task
F-16.03
Removes existing refractories.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-16.03.01
select and use tools and equipment such as pneumatic hammers, chisels and
grinders
F-16.03.02
cut, grind and hammer to remove specified material
F-16.03.03
clean up and dispose of materials according to site requirements
- 51 -
Sub-task
F-16.04
Installs refractories.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-16.04.01
select and use hand tools such as trimming trowels, dead blow hammers,
ratchet wrenches and curry combs specific to refractories
F-16.04.02
select and use equipment such as reed guns and high-pressure hoses specific
to refractories
F-16.04.03
pour and vibrate castables to consolidate
F-16.04.04
apply castables using methods such as hand packing, gunning and casting to
protect the substrate
F-16.04.05
install insulation such as blanket and modules and materials such as rigidizer
F-16.04.06
lay and sequence the installation of refractory material such as brick and tile
according to number and application
F-16.04.07
ram plastics to consolidate and vent plastics to remove moisture
F-16.04.08
install movement joints as specified
F-16.04.09
place material separation such as j-paper and blanket insulation to
accommodate expansion and contraction of materials
Sub-task
F-16.05
Repairs refractories.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-16.05.01
select and use tools and equipment such as pneumatic, hydraulic, power and
hand tools specific to refractory
F-16.05.02
isolate and remove damaged material
F-16.05.03
cut and shape replacement material to required dimensions
- 52 -
F-16.05.04
apply castables using methods such as hand packing, gunning and casting to
protect the substrate
F-16.05.05
install replacement material according to deficiency identified such as
damaged insulation, deteriorated bricks, damaged anchors, cracks and
refractory mortar erosion
Task 17
Context
Installs and maintains corrosion resistant materials.
Corrosion resistant applications are used in sites such as pulp mills, food
processing plants and gas plants. The materials are used to protect
containment units such as vessels, towers and chests, and the surrounding
environment. The skills involved in installing and maintaining corrosion
resistant materials encompass many of the general masonry skills as well as
specialized knowledge of these materials and applications. Due to the
presence of carcinogens and the need to work in confined spaces, maintaining
personal safety is paramount.
Required Knowledge
K1
safety regulations
K2
safety procedures such as lockout, confined space, fall arrest, FLRA,
emergency evacuation and temporary bracing
K3
types of PPE for corrosion resistant material installation and material removal
(tear outs)
K4
types of hazards such as ammonia, chlorine and hydrogen sulphate
K5
types of corrosion resistant units, mortars, accessories, membranes and
concrete
K6
causes of corrosion such as friction and chemicals
K7
sequence of installation of brick and tile according to number and application
K8
forms and arches
- 53 -
Sub-task
F-17.01
Prepares for installation of corrosion resistant materials and
accessories.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-17.01.01
select and use tools and equipment such as wet saws and trowels specific to
application and chisels for acid tile
F-17.01.02
establish points for anchors to maintain integrity of wall
F-17.01.03
position and secure accessories such as anchors
F-17.01.04
prepare the vessel surface for installation using methods such as
sandblasting, chemical etching and coating
F-17.01.05
select membrane according to application
F-17.01.06
cut and shape corrosion resistant materials such as brick, tile and membranes
for installation
F-17.01.07
build and install forms and arch centre for specific application
Sub-task
F-17.02
Prepares mortar for corrosion resistant materials.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-17.02.01
select, set up and use tools and equipment such as mixing drills, pails and
mixers
F-17.02.02
select and measure admixtures such as resins and epoxies according to
manufacturers’ specifications
F-17.02.03
select, measure and mix mortar ingredients such as resins and epoxies
according to manufacturers’ specifications
- 54 -
Sub-task
F-17.03
Removes existing corrosion resistant materials.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-17.03.01
select and use tools and equipment such as pneumatic hammers, grinders,
chisels and hand tools
F-17.03.02
cut, grind and hammer existing material
F-17.03.03
clean up and dispose of materials according to site requirements
Sub-task
F-17.04
Installs corrosion resistant materials.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-17.04.01
select and use tools and equipment such as gunite machines, concrete pumps,
wet saws and vibrators
F-17.04.02
pour and vibrate to consolidate
F-17.04.03
apply castables using methods such as hand packing, gunning and casting to
protect the substrate
F-17.04.04
lay and sequence the installation of corrosion resistant materials such as brick
and tile according to number and application
F-17.04.05
form and pour concrete to create base for containment area
- 55 -
Sub-task
F-17.05
Repairs corrosion resistant materials.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
F-17.05.01
select and use tools and equipment such as pneumatic, hydraulic, power and
hand tools specific to corrosion resistant materials
F-17.05.02
isolate and remove damaged material
F-17.05.03
cut and shape replacement material to required dimensions
F-17.05.04
apply castables using methods such as hand packing, gunning and casting to
protect the substrate
F-17.05.05
install corrosion resistant materials according to deficiency identified such as
the erosion of brick, tile, membrane and refractory mortar
- 56 -
BLOCK G
RESTORATION
Trends
Restoration work is increasing as original masonry in Canada has
reached the age where repairs are necessary. Large restoration projects
have been initiated on historical buildings across Canada. The use of
lasers for cleaning surfaces is being introduced into restoration projects.
Related
Components
(including, but not
limited to)
Stone, brick, concrete, mortars, sealants, aggregate sand, lime, cement,
epoxies, acrylics, dyes, colouring agents, grouts, steel angles, ties
(anchors), structural steel, flashing, sheet metal, weepers, vents,
insulation, membranes, lumber, fibreglass reinforcing, injection
systems.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 18
Context
Rebuilds masonry work.
This task describes the process of removing and reinstalling selected masonry
work ranging from small areas to entire assemblies. It involves using proper
equipment, support and bracing, as well as matching the existing structure.
Required Knowledge
K1
historical and current masonry construction techniques
K2
masonry load patterns
K3
types and colours of mortars
K4
types of anchoring systems
K5
effect of natural, mechanical or chemical processes on the materials
K6
site, personnel and public safety measures
K7
rigging and hoisting
K8
storage practices for salvaged units
K9
documentation methods for rebuilding such as tagging and photography
- 57 -
Sub-task
G-18.01
Disassembles unit masonry.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
G-18.01.01
determine plan of action based on assessed cause of deterioration and safe
approach
G-18.01.02
shore surrounding masonry to prevent collapse or further damage during
disassembly and reassembly
G-18.01.03
record placement of units using methods such as photography, tagging and
sketches to ensure accuracy of future placement
G-18.01.04
remove mortar and units using tools according to method of disassembly
selected
G-18.01.05
clean salvaged masonry units for reassembly using tools and cleaning agents
according to specifications
G-18.01.06
store salvaged masonry units in a secure dry area to protect against damage
and theft
Sub-task
G-18.02
Prepares restoration work area.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
G-18.02.01
remove remaining mortar from standing wall and backup wall
G-18.02.02
clean and restore components such as anchors, ties and shelf angles
G-18.02.03
repair backup wall and existing membrane according to deficiencies
identified
- 58 -
Sub-task
G-18.03
Reinstalls masonry and accessories.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
G-18.03.01
place and secure related components such as flashings, ties, angle irons and
electrical boxes
G-18.03.02
match appearance and composition of new material to existing material
G-18.03.03
lay new or salvaged masonry units based on recorded placement to match
appearance of existing or recently disassembled work
Task 19
Context
Repairs and cleans existing masonry work.
This task describes non-destructive methods of restoring masonry work,
including repointing and repairing of individual units. Repairs may be done
in place or after removal and may range from historic fabric to relatively new
construction.
Bricklayers clean existing masonry surfaces as part of restoration or after
restoration work has been performed so that the surfaces are returned to their
original appearance.
Required Knowledge
K1
mechanical repair techniques such as stitching, pinning or dowelling, using
spiral ties and dispersed hydrated lime (DHL) injections
K2
non-mechanical repair techniques such as composite repair, Dutchman
repair, cutting and refacing
K3
types of components such as bricks, stones and terracotta
K4
loss of moisture from mortar due to evaporation and absorption in the
masonry (curing)
K5
types and bonding properties of mortar
K6
preparation techniques of mortar
K7
admixtures such as colouring, air entrainment agents, waterproofing and
bonding agents
K8
historic and conventional construction methods
K9
types of materials used for refacing such as epoxies and acrylics
- 59 -
K 10
epoxy anchoring systems
K 11
masonry materials that may be affected by the cleaning, sealing or
waterproofing/dampproofing processes
K 12
abrasive materials such as sand, water, nut shells, baking soda and glass
K 13
cleaning methods to avoid damage
K 14
operating procedures for cleaning equipment
K 15
restoration cleaning agents such as acids and non-acid stain removers
K 16
safety practices when cleaning surfaces and handling products or equipment
K 17
waterproofing/dampproofing materials such as silicone and solvent-based
K 18
application methods to clean such as brushing, rolling and spraying
K 19
practices to protect surrounding materials or assemblies during and after
cleaning and waterproofing/dampproofing
K 20
types of soiling and stains
K 21
environmental regulations
Sub-task
G-19.01
Removes deteriorated components.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
G-19.01.01
determine and follow plan of action based on assessed cause of deterioration
and safe approach
G-19.01.02
shore surrounding masonry to prevent collapse or further damage during
removal and re-installation
G-19.01.03
record placement of units using methods such as photography and sketching
to ensure accuracy of future placement
G-19.01.04
document shape, size and finished face of non-salvageable units to create
templates
G-19.01.05
remove mortar, entire unit or damaged portion of a unit, using tools
according to method of removal selected
G-19.01.06
document failures in material such as hairline cracks, spalling and
delamination for record keeping
- 60 -
G-19.01.07
clean salvaged masonry units for re-installation according to specifications
using tools and cleaning agents
G-19.01.08
store salvaged masonry units in a secure dry area to protect against damage
Sub-task
G-19.02
Repoints joints.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
G-19.02.01
remove deteriorated mortar from existing joints
G-19.02.02
clean void after removal of defective mortar using water or air pressure
G-19.02.03
pre-moisten area to be repointed to ensure adhesion of new mortar
G-19.02.04
fill, compress and tool joints following established procedures to ensure
integrity of new joints
G-19.02.05
mist joints or cover them with wet burlap to prevent joint failure
G-19.02.06
protect surfaces from environmental conditions such as rain, wind and sun
Sub-task
G-19.03
Repairs masonry units.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
G-19.03.01
determine and follow plan of action based on assessed cause of deterioration
G-19.03.02
drill masonry for pinning and stitching
G-19.03.03
mix repair compound according to manufacturers’ specifications
G-19.03.04
fill voids, rebuild portions of existing material, or mould units to match
original features of the units
G-19.03.05
rejoin severed or cracked units using materials such as dowels, threaded pins
or epoxies
G-19.03.06
reattach units to backup wall
- 61 -
G-19.03.07
replace deteriorated unit face with newly cut face using mortar or adhesives
G-19.03.08
support refaced units using wedges until initial set
Sub-task
G-19.04
Reinstalls masonry units and accessories.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
G-19.04.01
match appearance and composition of existing mortar
G-19.04.02
pre-moisten adjacent surfaces to ensure correct adhesion of new mortar
G-19.04.03
lay repaired masonry units based on recorded placement to match
appearance of existing or recently disassembled work
G-19.04.04
apply mortar to unit and adjacent surfaces to ensure total joint integrity
G-19.04.05
compress and tool joints to match original
G-19.04.06
mist joints or cover them with wet burlap to prevent joint failure
Sub-task
G-19.05
Cleans existing masonry surfaces.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
G-19.05.01
determine cleaning method according to surface condition
G-19.05.02
test cleaning method on a small area
G-19.05.03
mix and apply cleaning agents according to manufacturers’ specifications
and in compliance with environmental regulations
G-19.05.04
pre-soak area to prevent absorption of the cleaning agent
G-19.05.05
use micro-abrasive cleaners such as soda, sand, water and nutshells
according to material to avoid damage
G-19.05.06
rinse cleaned area with water to eliminate any traces of cleaning agents
- 62 -
BLOCK H
ADDITIONAL MASONRY
Trends
Stone and brick are increasingly being used for decorative accents such
as house numbers and accents for brick fronts. There is an increase in
the use of accent arches over windows and doors in most jurisdictions.
Related
Components
(including, but not
limited to)
Masonry units, specialized and regular mortars, caulking compounds,
different aggregates, wire reinforcement, concrete, electrical
components, mechanical components, spacers, tracks, expansion strips,
anchoring systems, membranes, pigments, fasteners, fastening agents,
insulation tape, adhesives, adjustable veneer ties, rigid insulation,
stickclips, additives, epoxies and resins, bonding agents, lumber, plastic
spacers, weepers, cleaning agents, insulation, backer rod, wire mesh,
cement board, expansion and control joints, soft joints, air barriers,
flashing, air ventilation accessories, draining systems, lateral support
systems, lintel supports, sills, water repellents, shelf angles, fire stop
materials.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 20
Context
Installs glass blocks.
Glass blocks are manufactured in various shapes (square, rectangular,
corner), sizes, colours, fire ratings and clarities. They have insulating and
light transmission properties. They are used for aesthetics, for security and
privacy, and as waterproof partitions such as showers.
Required Knowledge
K1
types, shapes and sizes of glass blocks
K2
types of mortars and associated additives
K3
types of reinforcement and anchors
- 63 -
K4
uses of expansion strips
K5
installation procedures and methods for glass blocks
Sub-task
H-20.01
Prepares work area.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
H-20.01.01
determine the size of the opening or dimension of wall for laying up glass
blocks
H-20.01.02
verify and adjust the base surface to ensure that it is level
H-20.01.03
prepare a sill surface according to manufacturers’ specifications
H-20.01.04
install track to set glass block according to manufacturers’ specifications
Sub-task
H-20.02
Lays glass blocks.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
H-20.02.01
maintain mortar consistency as glass blocks do not absorb moisture
H-20.02.02
install spacers and expansion strips in a uniform manner to keep the mortar
joints consistent
H-20.02.03
lay up glass blocks to pattern and design to create a level and plumb finished
product
H-20.02.04
insert joint reinforcing and anchors to ensure structural integrity
H-20.02.05
joint glass blocks to create an aesthetically pleasing product
H-20.02.06
clean glass blocks to remove excess mortar and dust while not scratching or
damaging the surface
- 64 -
Task 21
Installs ornamental and sculpted masonry.
Ornamental and sculpted masonry can be made from, or designed with,
many types of materials such as brick, manufactured or sculpted stone. They
are used as decorative additions to buildings. They are assembled into
structures such as columns, sound reduction fences, cornices and hand rails.
Context
Required Knowledge
K1
materials such as stone, tile, brick and block
K2
types of bonds and patterns such as running, stack, herringbone and basket
weave
K3
types of mortars
K4
factors affecting durability such as weather, expansion joints, flashing and
capping
K5
unique anchoring systems associated with ornamental and sculpted units
Sub-task
H-21.01
Prepares for installation of ornamental and sculpted masonry.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
H-21.01.01
determine placement of unit or pattern according to drawings
H-21.01.02
verify the size, shape and weight of units
H-21.01.03
prepare the surface area to receive the unit to ensure proper anchoring and
good fit
H-21.01.04
determine the size of the opening or dimension of wall for laying up
ornamental patterns
- 65 -
Sub-task
H-21.02
Installs ornamental and sculpted masonry units.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
H-21.02.01
select mortar according to job specifications
H-21.02.02
match mortar to material for an aesthetically pleasing finished product
H-21.02.03
lay up units according to bonding and patterns in the drawing
H-21.02.04
finish joints to complete installation
Task 22
Context
Builds arches.
Arches can be built for ornamental and structural purposes. They are built in
various styles such as gothic, roman, segmental or jack arch. Arches are built
to span areas and distribute the loads above them.
Required Knowledge
K1
materials for arch such as brick, stone and block
K2
types, styles and sizes of arches
K3
template materials such as wood and steel
K4
geometric and arch mathematical concepts
K5
construction techniques for templates
K6
mortar setting times
K7
tray and step flashing
- 66 -
Sub-task
H-22.01
Prepares location.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
H-22.01.01
determine location of arch by referring to drawing
H-22.01.02
lay up wall to abutment height (spring line) to receive the arch
H-22.01.03
determine and install reinforcing in surrounding masonry buttresses,
columns, piers and abutments
H-22.01.04
build support system for template to accept the weight of the arch
Sub-task
H-22.02
Builds template.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
H-22.02.01
determine type, location, span, rise and depth of arch template by referring to
architectural drawing
H-22.02.02
determine structural strength requirements for template to ensure it will hold
the arch while mortar sets
H-22.02.03
lay out and cut template according to specifications
H-22.02.04
assemble the template using various materials such as wood or steel
- 67 -
Sub-task
H-22.03
Places template.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
H-22.03.01
position template on support system
H-22.03.02
adjust and shim template to achieve required degree of level and plumb
H-22.03.03
shore template to temporarily secure it while arch is being built
Sub-task
H-22.04
Installs arch masonry units.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
H-22.04.01
verify centre of arch to determine material lay-up requirements and keystone
location
H-22.04.02
calculate and cut skewback according to type of arch
H-22.04.03
calculate the spacing to determine lay out of masonry unit
H-22.04.04
calculate number, size and shape of voussoirs when building a gauged arch
H-22.04.05
shape masonry voussoirs by cutting material to fit gauged arch
H-22.04.06
lay arch masonry units according to calculations
H-22.04.07
cut creepers while laying up materials to create a uniform extrados
H-22.04.08
install tray and step flashings according to specifications
- 68 -
Sub-task
H-22.05
Removes template.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NV
NV
ND
Key Competencies
H-22.05.01
verify the mortar has cured sufficiently and has enough strength to hold once
template has been removed
H-22.05.02
remove any shoring materials and shims to release template
H-22.05.03
remove template without damaging arch material
H-22.05.04
clean and point joints in arch soffit to finish arch
- 69 -
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Hand Tools
adjustable wrench
banker bench
boltcutter
brick tongs
brooms
brushes
caulking gun
caulking tool
C-clamps
chisels
- pointed
- flat
- brick set
- pitching
- straight
- splitting
- toothed
- plugging
curry comb
grout bag
hammers
- brick
- mash
- refractory
- ball peen
- axe
- bush
- claw
- dead blow
- rawhide
- rubber mallet
- 71cotch
- sledge hammer
hawk
jointer
knives
line blocks
line pins
line stretchers/line holders
sponges
line trigs
manual splitter
mortar board
mortar hoe
pick axe
pliers
plug and feather (wedges and shims)
pogo stick
portable sprayer
pry bar
raker (wheel type)
sandbox
sandscreen
scrapers
screwdrivers
shims/spacers
shovels
slicker (tuck pointer)
socket set/wrench
- 71 -
staple gun
tarpaulin
templates
trammel points
trimmers
trowels
- mason’s
- margin
- pointing
- bucket
- buttering
- duck billed
venting tool
water bucket
water drum
water hose
wheelbarrow
wire snips
Power, Hydraulic, Pneumatic, Powder-actuated,
and Welding Tools and Equipment
air socks
chain block
chop saw
circular saw
compressors
concrete vibrator
couplers
diamond or abrasive disk
dollies/pump jacks
drill
dustless saw and vacuum
extension cord
generators
grease gun
grinder
grout guns
grout pump
gunite machine and hoses
hammer drill
hydraulic splitter
hydraulic winches
jackhammer
jig saw
laser cleaner
masonry table saw
mortar box
mortar buggy
mortar mixer
mortar silos
oscillating saw
pneumatic chisel
pneumatic gun
pneumatic hammer
pneumatic hoses
portable masonry saw (quick cut saw)
powder-actuated fastening tool
pressure washers
propane and diesel heater
tiger torch
vacuum cleaner
Personal Protective Equipment and Safety Equipment
apron
eye protection
face shields
fire blankets
fire extinguisher
hearing protection
first aid kit
fresh air respirator
gas detection equipment
gloves
hardhat
- 72 -
heat and cold protection
insulated gloves
knee pads
lock-out tags/locks
respiratory protection
safety boots/footwear
safety harness and fall arrest system
safety vest
skin barrier cream
Measuring and Layout Tools and Equipment
bricklayer’s tape
chalk line
gauge rod / storey pole
laser level
line block
mason’s level
mason’s line
mason’s spacing rule
measuring tape
plumb-bob
square (bevel, triangle)
straightedge
transit
Rigging, Hoisting and Lifting Equipment, Access Equipment and Scaffolding
block and tackle
boom lifts
bosun’s chair
bracing
cranes
elevators
fork extensions
forklift/telehandler
handcart
hydraulic scaffolding
ladders
lewis pins
mud sills
planks
powered boom platform
powered platforms
push-around powered platforms
scaffolds and their components
scissor lifts
screw jacks
shackles
shoring
slings
spreader beam
stairs
stone clamps
suspended platforms
suspended scaffolds
swing stage
work cages
- 73 -
APPENDIX B
GLOSSARY
accelerator
a material that speeds the initial setting time of concrete or mortar.
air barrier
a material used in the building envelope to retard the passage of air.
alumina
a mineral contained in clay used for brickmaking.
angle iron
a structural section of steel in the form of a 90 degree angle used, in
certain situations, to support brickwork.
ash dump
a trap door for ashes in the floor of a fireplace leading to a chute.
backup wall
the part of a masonry wall behind the exterior facing.
batter
recessing or sloping masonry in successive courses; the opposite of a
corbel
buttering
applying mortar to a masonry unit with a trowel.
castables
a refractory concrete that can be installed by pouring, gunning,
shotcreting and hand tamping
cavity wall
a multi-wythe wall built of masonry units arranged to provide a
continuous air space.
cement
a burned mixture of clay and limestone pulverized (crushed) for making
mortar or concrete.
control joint
a joint or space to allow for dimensional change of parts of a structure
due to expansion, shrinkage, temperature variations or other causes.
corbel
to build a projection or one of a series of projections, of masonry, brick,
or concrete built into a wall or any standing member, each projecting
progressively farther from its anchoring point and used to support an
overhanging member above.
course
one of the continuous horizontal layers of units, bonded with mortar in
masonry
curtain wall
a non- load-bearing wall built for the enclosure of a building.
dowels
straight metal bars used to connect two sections of masonry.
Dutchman repair
a repair involving carefully fitting a new piece of stone into a pocket cut
into the existing stone and finishing the new piece to match the
surrounding existing stone.
expansion joint
a joint in a concrete or masonry structure designed to permit expansion
without damage to the structure.
extrados
the upper or exterior curve of an arch.
face
the exposed surface of a wall or masonry unit.
- 74 -
flashing
shielding material (often sheet metal) put around building openings to
prevent water penetration and/or provide water drainage.
footing
the broadened base of a foundation wall or other superstructure.
foundation wall
that portion of a load-bearing wall below the level of the adjoining
grade, or below first floor beams or joists.
grout
a glue like component of high water-cement ratio that permits it to be
poured into spaces within masonry walls. Grout consists of water,
Portland cement, lime and aggregate.
gunite machine
a pressurized applicator machine for refractory
hearth
that portion of a fireplace level with the floor, upon which the fire is
built.
high temperature
mortar
a mortar used for refractories.
insulation
a material with above-average thermal resistance, that inhibits the flow
of heat.
joint
the narrow space between adjacent stones, bricks or other building
blocks usually filled with mortar.
kerf
to slot into the edge of stone with a saw blade for the insertion of
anchors.
keystone
wedge-shaped stone at the crown of an arch.
lateral support
means whereby walls are braced either vertically or horizontally by
columns, pilasters, crosswalls, beams, floors and roofs.
lime
the result of limestone burned in a kiln until the carbon dioxide has been
driven off.
lintel
a beam placed over an opening in a load-bearing wall.
masonry
brick, tile and stone or combination thereof, bonded with mortar.
mortar
a plastic mixture of glue-like materials, fine aggregate and water.
parging
the process of applying a coat of cement mortar on masonry.
pilaster
a pillar of brick work, rectangular in form, used as a supplement to a
pier, usually projecting one-third of the thickness of the wall.
pointing
pushing mortar into a joint after the masonry units are laid.
reglet
a groove in material or structure to accept flashing.
reinforcing
steel bars, wire mesh and reinforcement wire which are embedded in
concrete to give extra tensile strength to resist movement in concrete
slabs, walls, beams and columns.
- 75 -
retardant
a set inhibitor to delay the setting and curing time of concrete and
mortar.
smoke chamber
the space in a fireplace immediately above the throat where the smoke
gathers before passing into the flue.
stone cladding
masonry units that are mechanically fastened to a structural backup
wall. Stone used for cladding are typically large and are pre-finished in a
stone-cutting and finishing shop.
template
any form or pattern, such as centring, over which brickwork may be
formed.
tie
any unit of material that connects masonry units or other materials.
veneer wall
a non-load-bearing wall securely anchored to a non-masonry backup
wall.
voussoir
wedge-shaped masonry units which form an arch ring.
waterproofing
a coating used to treat the surface of the substrate, preventing liquid
from entering, but allowing water vapour to pass.
weep holes
small openings left in the outer walls of masonry construction as an
outlet for water to move outside the wall and evaporate.
winterization
the process of organizing the work site for winter operation, which
include heating and hoarding of work area, providing proper storage of
materials, warming sand and water and protecting masonry work in
progress.
wythe
a continuous vertical section of masonry, one unit in thickness.
- 76 -
APPENDIX C
ACRONYMS
CSA
Canadian Standards Association
DHL
dispersed hydrated lime
FLRA
field level risk assessments
LEED
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
NBC
National Building Code of Canada
OH&S
Occupational Health and Safety
PPE
personal protective equipment
PVC
polyvinyl chloride
RCF
refractory ceramic fibres
SDS
safety data sheet
SOP
Safe Operating Procedures
WHMIS
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
- 77 -
APPENDIX D
BLOCK A
%
NL
10
BLOCK AND TASK WEIGHTING
COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
NS
9
Task 1
PE
12
NB
11
QC
13
ON
15
MB
10
SK
10
AB
10
BC
10
NT
NV
YT
NV
NU
ND
Task 2
25%
Uses and maintains tools and equipment.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 20 25 25 25 30 40 25 23 25 15 NV NV ND
Task 3
25%
Uses scaffolding.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 20 25 25 25 25 20 25 24 25 25 NV NV ND
Task 4
24%
Organizes work.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 30 25 25 25 15 20 25 28 25 40 NV NV ND
BLOCK B
%
11%
Performs safety-related functions.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 30 25 25 25 30 20 25 25 25 20 NV NV ND
NL
30
National
Average
26%
GENERAL MASONRY PRACTICES
NS
10
Task 5
PE
20
NB
12
QC
19
ON
20
MB
25
SK
20
AB
15
BC
21
NT
NV
YT
NV
NU
ND
National
Average
19%
Performs substrate preparation.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 20 30 20 28 17 20 15 40 30 20 NV NV ND
- 78 -
24%
Task 6
Performs fundamental masonry tasks.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 50 38 60 46 70 40 70 40 50 45 NV NV ND
Task 7
51%
Uses mortars, grouts and adhesives.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 30 32 20 26 13 40 15 20 20 35 NV NV ND
BLOCK C
%
NL
20
25%
MASONRY SYSTEMS
NS
18
Task 8
PE
21
NB
29
QC
18
ON
40
MB
25
SK
25
AB
25
BC
30
NT
NV
YT
NV
NU
ND
Task 9
52%
Builds horizontal masonry surfaces.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 10 30 40 23 20 10 30 10 10 18 NV NV ND
Task 10
20%
Builds and installs prefabricated masonry units.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 10 10 5
5 10 0 30 10 5 9 NV NV ND
Task 11
9%
Installs surface-bonded masonry units.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 20 30 15 18 20 20 10 20 25 10 NV NV ND
BLOCK D
%
25%
Builds masonry walls.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 60 30 40 54 50 70 30 60 60 63 NV NV ND
NL
5
National
Average
19%
NATURAL STONE SYSTEMS
NS
10
PE
10
NB
12
QC
8
ON
10
MB
10
SK
15
- 79 -
AB
10
BC
8
NT
NV
YT
NV
NU
ND
National
Average
10%
Task 12
Builds natural stone walls.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 50 55 50 51 50 50 70 60 60 60 NV NV ND
Task 13
56%
Installs natural stone cladding.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 50 45 50 49 50 50 30 40 40 40 NV NV ND
BLOCK E
%
NL
10
44%
CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES
NS
13
Task 14
PE
15
NB
13
QC
11
ON
5
MB
5
SK
5
AB
15
BC
11
NT
NV
YT
NV
National
Average
NU
ND
10%
Builds chimneys.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 30 45 50 61 40 30 30 60 40 30 NV NV ND
Task 15
42%
Builds fireplaces.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 70 55 50 39 60 70 70 40 60 70 NV NV ND
BLOCK F
%
NL
5
58%
REFRACTORIES AND CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIALS
NS
15
Task 16
PE
2
NB
6
QC
7
ON
3
MB
5
SK
5
AB
5
BC
5
NT
NV
YT
NV
NU
ND
National
Average
6%
Installs and maintains refractories.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 60 55 100 50 75 50 50 50 75 60 NV NV ND
Task 17
63%
Installs and maintains corrosion resistant materials.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 40 45 0 50 25 50 50 50 25 40 NV NV ND
- 80 -
37%
BLOCK G
%
NL
15
REFRACTORIES AND CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIALS
NS
15
Task 18
PE
10
NB
9
QC
14
ON
5
MB
10
SK
5
AB
10
BC
10
NT
NV
YT
NV
NU
ND
Task 19
52%
Repairs and cleans existing masonry work.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 40 40 40 40 50 50 50 60 50 60 NV NV ND
BLOCK H
%
11%
Rebuilds masonry work.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 40 50 40 NV NV ND
NL
5
National
Average
48%
ADDITIONAL MASONRY
NS
10
Task 20
PE
10
NB
8
QC
10
ON
2
MB
10
SK
5
AB
10
BC
10
NT
NV
YT
NV
8%
29%
Installs ornamental and sculpted masonry.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 40 30 10 17 30 20 20 20 20 10 NV NV ND
Task 22
National
Average
Installs glass blocks.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 20 30 35 33 20 30 40 40 20 20 NV NV ND
Task 21
NU
ND
22%
Builds arches.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 40 40 55 50 50 50 40 40 60 70 NV NV ND
- 81 -
49%
APPENDIX E
PIE CHART*
A
11%
H
8%
G
11%
B
19%
F
6%
C
25%
E
10%
D
10%
TITLES OF BLOCKS
BLOCK A
Common occupational
skills
BLOCK E
Chimneys and fireplaces
BLOCK B
General masonry practices
BLOCK F
Refractories and corrosion resistant
materials
BLOCK C
Masonry systems
BLOCK G
Restoration
BLOCK D
Natural stone systems
BLOCK H
Additional masonry
*Average percentage of the total number of questions on an interprovincial examination,
assigned to assess each block of the analysis, as derived from the collective input from workers
within the occupation from all areas of Canada. Interprovincial examinations typically have
from 100 to 150 multiple-choice questions.
- 82 -
APPENDIX F
BLOCKS
A - COMMON
OCCUPATIONAL
SKILLS
B - GENERAL
MASONRY
PRACTICES
TASK PROFILE CHART —
Bricklayer
TASKS
SUB-TASKS
1. Performs safety
related functions.
1.01 Maintains safe
work
environment.
1.02 Uses
personal
protective
equipment (PPE)
and safety
equipment.
2. Uses and
maintains tools
and equipment.
2.01 Maintains
tools and
equipment.
2.02 Uses rigging,
hoisting and
lifting equipment.
2.03 Uses access
equipment.
3. Uses
scaffolding.
3.01 Erects
scaffolding.
3.02 Dismantles
scaffolding.
3.03 Maintains
scaffolding.
4. Organizes
work.
4.01 Uses
drawings and
specifications.
4.02 Plans daily
tasks and
activities.
4.03 Prepares job
site and materials.
4.04 Protects
surrounding
areas.
5. Performs
substrate
preparation.
5.01 Prepares
vertical substrates
and foundations.
5.02 Applies
parging.
5.03 Installs
anchoring/tie
systems.
5.04 Installs
membrane and
flashing.
6. Performs
fundamental
masonry tasks.
6.01. Lays out wall
and coursing.
6.02 Finishes
joints.
6.03 Cleans new
masonry surfaces.
6.04. Seals
masonry surfaces.
7. Uses mortars,
grouts and
adhesives.
7.01 Mixes mortar,
concrete, grout
and adhesives.
7.02 Uses
mortars.
7.03 Uses concrete
and grout.
7.04 Uses
adhesives.
- 83 -
5.05 Installs
insulation.
BLOCKS
C - MASONRY
SYSTEMS
D - NATURAL
STONE SYSTEMS
E - CHIMNEYS AND
FIREPLACES
TASKS
SUB-TASKS
8. Builds masonry
walls.
8.01 Builds nonload-bearing walls.
8.02. Builds loadbearing walls.
9. Builds
horizontal
masonry surfaces.
9.01 Prepares
horizontal
substrate.
9.02 Lays
masonry units on
horizontal
surfaces.
10. Builds and
installs
prefabricated
masonry units.
10.01 Builds
prefabricated
masonry. (NOT
COMMON CORE)
10.02 Erects
prefabricated
masonry.
11. Installs
surface-bonded
masonry units.
11.01 Prepares
substrate for
surface-bonded
masonry units.
11.02 Applies
surface-bonded
masonry units.
12. Builds natural
stone walls.
12.01 Prepares
natural stone.
12.02 Lays
natural stone.
12.03 Damp cures
walls.
13. Installs
natural stone
cladding.
13.01 Prepares
substrate for
cladding.
13.02 Prepares
natural stone for
cladding.
13.03 Installs
natural stones.
14. Builds
chimneys.
14.01 Builds
foundation
supports for
chimneys.
14.02 Lays
masonry units to
build chimneys.
14.03 Installs flue
lining.
14.04 Installs
related flashings.
14.05 Installs caps.
15. Builds
fireplaces.
15.01 Builds
foundation for
hearth, firebox,
backup material
and veneer.
15.02 Builds
hearth, firebox
and backup.
15.03 Installs
damper.
15.04 Builds
smoke chamber.
15.05 Prepares
existing fireplace
for insert.
- 84 -
BLOCKS
TASKS
SUB-TASKS
15.06 Faces
fireplaces and
inserts.
F - REFRACTORIES
AND CORROSION
RESISTANT
MATERIALS
16. Installs and
maintains
refractories.
16.01 Prepares for
installation of
refractories and
accessories.
16.02 Prepares
mortar for
refractories.
16.03 Removes
existing
refractories.
16.04 Installs
refractories.
16.05 Repairs
refractories.
17. Installs and
maintains
corrosion
resistant
materials.
17.01 Prepares for
installation of
corrosion resistant
materials and
accessories.
17.02 Prepares
mortar for
corrosion
resistant
materials.
17.03 Removes
existing corrosion
resistant
materials.
17.04 Installs
corrosion resistant
materials.
17.05 Repairs
corrosion resistant
materials.
18. Rebuilds
masonry work.
18.01 Disassembles
unit masonry.
18.02 Prepares
restoration work
area.
18.03 Reinstalls
masonry and
accessories.
19. Repairs and
cleans existing
masonry work.
19.01 Removes
deteriorated
components.
19.02 Repoints
joints.
19.03 Repairs
masonry units.
19.04 Reinstalls
masonry units
and accessories.
19.05 Cleans
existing masonry
surfaces.
20. Installs glass
blocks.
20.01 Prepares
work area.
20.02 Lays glass
blocks.
21. Installs
ornamental and
sculpted
masonry.
21.01 Prepares for
installation of
ornamental and
sculpted masonry.
21.02 Installs
ornamental and
sculpted masonry
units.
22. Builds arches.
22.01 Prepares
location.
22.02 Builds
template.
22.03 Places
template.
22.04 Installs arch
masonry units.
22.05 Removes
template.
G - RESTORATION
H - ADDITIONAL
MASONRY
- 85 -
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