Landscape Horticulturist 2015 National Occupational Analysis

Landscape Horticulturist 2015 National Occupational Analysis
National Occupational Analysis
Landscape
Horticulturist
2015
National Occupational
Analysis
Landscape Horticulturist
2015
Trades and Apprenticeship Division
Division des métiers et de l’apprentissage
Labour Market Integration Directorate
Direction de l’intégration au marché du
travail
National Occupational Classification:
2225
Disponible en français sous le titre :
Horticulteur-paysagiste/horticultricepaysagiste
You can download this publication by going online: publicentre.esdc.gc.ca This document is
available on demand in multiple formats by contacting 1 800 O-Canada (1-800-622-6232),
teletypewriter (TTY), 1-800-926-9105.
© Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada, 2015
droitdauteur.copyright@HRSDC-RHDCC.gc.ca
PDF
Cat. No.: Em15-1/21-2015E-PDF
ISBN: 978-0-660-03746-2
ESDC
Cat. No. : LM-580-11-15
_________________________________________________________________
You can download this publication and find more information on Red Seal trades by going
online: http://www.red-seal.ca
FOREWORD
The Canadian Council of Directors of Apprenticeship (CCDA) recognizes this National
Occupational Analysis (NOA) as the national standard for the occupation of Landscape
horticulturist.
Background
The first National Conference on Apprenticeship in Trades and Industries, held in Ottawa in
1952, recommended that the federal government be requested to cooperate with provincial and
territorial apprenticeship committees and officials in preparing analyses of a number of skilled
occupations. Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) sponsors a program, under
the guidance of the CCDA, to develop a series of NOAs.
The NOAs have the following objectives:

to describe and group the tasks performed by skilled workers;

to identify which tasks are performed in every province and territory;

to develop instruments for use in the preparation of Interprovincial Red Seal
Examinations and curricula for training leading to the certification of skilled workers;

to facilitate the mobility of apprentices and skilled workers in Canada; and,

to supply employers, employees, associations, industries, training institutions and
governments with analyses of occupations.
-I-
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The CCDA and ESDC wish to express sincere appreciation for the contribution of the many
tradespersons, industrial establishments, professional associations, labour organizations,
provincial and territorial government departments and agencies, and all others who contributed
to this publication.
Special acknowledgement is extended by ESDC and the CCDA to the following representatives
of the trade, and the apprenticeship bodies or national organizations that nominated them.
Karen Carrier
Doug Conrad
William Dorman
Guy Dowhy
Mike Gallant
Sally Harvey
Tim Kearney
Michael Murray
Kurtis Langton
John Soychak
Heike Stippler
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
Alberta
Manitoba
Prince Edward Island
Canadian Agricultural Human Resource Council (CAHRC)
Canadian National Landscape Association (CNLA)
Newfoundland and Labrador
Saskatchewan
Ontario
British Columbia
This analysis was prepared by the Labour Market Integration Directorate of ESDC. The
coordinating, facilitating and processing of this analysis were undertaken by employees of the
NOA development team of the Trades and Apprenticeship Division. The host jurisdiction of
Ontario also participated in the development of this NOA.
Comments or questions about National Occupational Analyses may be forwarded to:
Trades and Apprenticeship Division
Labour Market Integration Directorate
Employment and Social Development Canada
140 Promenade du Portage, Phase IV, 5th Floor
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0J9
Email: redseal-sceaurouge@hrsdc-rhdcc.gc.ca
- II -
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD
I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
II
TABLE OF CONTENTS
III
STRUCTURE OF ANALYSIS
V
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYSIS
VII
ANALYSIS
SAFETY
3
SCOPE OF THE LANDSCAPE HORTICULTURIST TRADE
4
OCCUPATIONAL OBSERVATIONS
6
ESSENTIAL SKILLS SUMMARY
7
BLOCK A
BLOCK B
BLOCK C
COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
Task 1
Performs safety-related functions.
9
Task 2
Maintains tools, equipment and vehicles.
12
Task 3
Organizes work.
15
Task 4
Participates in marketing and sales.
22
HORTICULTURAL PRINCIPLES
Task 5
Applies horticultural principles.
26
Task 6
Applies environmental practices
31
LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION
Task 7
Performs pre-construction activities.
36
Task 8
Installs hardscape.
40
Task 9
Installs softscape.
47
- III -
BLOCK D
BLOCK E
LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE
Task 10
Maintains softscape and green ifrastructure.
53
Task 11
Maintains hardscape and green infrastructure.
59
PRODUCTION OF PLANT MATERIALS (NOT COMMON CORE)
Task 12
Constructs growing facilities (NOT COMMON
CORE).
66
Task 13
Operates and maintains components of growing
facilities (NOT COMMON CORE).
68
Task 14
Maintains greenhouse crops (NOT COMMON
CORE).
72
Task 15
Maintains nursery plants (NOT COMMON CORE).
76
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
83
APPENDIX B
PLANT MATERIAL
88
APPENDIX C
GLOSSARY
95
APPENDIX D
ACRONYMS
123
APPENDIX E
BLOCK AND TASK WEIGHTING
124
APPENDIX F
PIE CHART
127
APPENDIX G
TASK PROFILE CHART
128
- IV -
STRUCTURE OF ANALYSIS
To facilitate understanding of the occupation, the work performed by tradespersons is divided
into the following categories:
Blocks
the largest division within the analysis that is comprised of a
distinct set of trade activities
Tasks
distinct actions that describe the activities within a block
Sub-Tasks
distinct actions that describe the activities within a task
Key Competencies
activities that a person should be able to do in order to be called
‘competent’ in the trade
The analysis also provides the following information:
Trends
changes identified that impact or will impact the trade including
work practices, technological advances, and new materials and
equipment
Related Components
a list of products, items, materials and other elements relevant to
the block
Tools and Equipment
categories of tools and equipment used to perform all tasks in the
block; these tools and equipment are listed in Appendix A
Context
information to clarify the intent and meaning of tasks
Required Knowledge
the elements of knowledge that an individual must acquire to
adequately perform a task
-V-
The appendices located at the end of the analysis are described as follows:
Appendix A —
Tools and Equipment
a non-exhaustive list of tools and equipment used in this trade
Appendix B —
a non-exhaustive list of plants in Canada
Plant List
Appendix C —
Glossary
definitions or explanations of selected technical terms used in the
analysis
Appendix D —
Acronyms
a list of acronyms used in the analysis with their full name
Appendix E —
Block and Task
Weighting
the block and task percentages submitted by each jurisdiction,
and the national averages of these percentages; these national
averages determine the number of questions for each block and
task in the Interprovincial exam
Appendix F —
Pie Chart
a graph which depicts the national percentages of exam
questions assigned to blocks
Appendix G —
Task Profile Chart
a chart which outlines graphically the blocks, tasks and sub-tasks
of this analysis
- VI -
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYSIS
Development of Analysis
A draft analysis is developed by a committee of industry experts in the field led by a team of
facilitators from ESDC. This draft analysis breaks down all the tasks performed in the
occupation and describes the knowledge and abilities required for a tradesperson to
demonstrate competence in the trade.
Draft Review
The NOA development team then forwards a copy of the analysis and its translation to
provincial and territorial authorities for a review of its content and structure. Their
recommendations are assessed and incorporated into the analysis.
Validation and Weighting
The analysis is sent to all provinces and territories for validation and weighting. Participating
jurisdictions consult with industry to validate and weight the document, examining the blocks,
tasks and sub-tasks of the analysis as follows:
BLOCKS
Each jurisdiction assigns a percentage of questions to each block for an
examination that would cover the entire trade.
TASKS
Each jurisdiction assigns a percentage of exam questions to each task
within a block.
SUB-TASKS
Each jurisdiction indicates, with a YES or NO, whether or not each subtask is performed by skilled workers within the occupation in its
jurisdiction.
The results of this exercise are submitted to the NOA development team who then analyzes the
data and incorporates it into the document. The NOA provides the individual jurisdictional
validation results as well as the national averages of all responses. The national averages for
block and task weighting guide the Interprovincial Red Seal Examination plan for the trade.
This method for the validation of the NOA also identifies common core sub-tasks across
Canada for the occupation. If at least 70% of the responding jurisdictions perform a sub-task, it
shall be considered common core. Interprovincial Red Seal Examinations are based on the
common core sub-tasks identified through this validation process.
- VII -
Definitions for Validation and Weighting
YES
sub-task performed by qualified workers in the occupation in a specific
jurisdiction
NO
sub-task not performed by qualified workers in the occupation in a specific
jurisdiction
NV
analysis Not Validated by a province/territory
ND
trade Not Designated in a province/territory
NOT
COMMON
CORE (NCC)
sub-task, task or block performed by less than 70% of responding
jurisdictions; these will not be tested by the Interprovincial Red Seal
Examination for the trade
NATIONAL
AVERAGE %
average percentage of questions assigned to each block and task in
Interprovincial Red Seal Examination for the trade
Provincial/Territorial Abbreviations
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nova Scotia
Prince Edward Island
New Brunswick
Quebec
Ontario
Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Alberta
British Columbia
Northwest Territories
Yukon Territory
Nunavut
- VIII -
ANALYSIS
SAFETY
Safe working procedures and conditions, accident prevention, and the preservation of health
are of primary importance to industry in Canada. These responsibilities are shared and require
the joint efforts of government, employers and employees. It is imperative that all parties
become aware of circumstances that may lead to injury or harm. Safe learning experiences and
work environments can be created by controlling the variables and behaviours that may
contribute to accidents or injury.
It is generally recognized that safety-conscious attitudes and work practices contribute to a
healthy, safe and accident-free work environment.
It is imperative to apply and be familiar with the Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Acts
and Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) regulations. As well, it is
essential to determine workplace hazards and take measures to protect oneself, co-workers, the
public and the environment.
Safety education is an integral part of training in all jurisdictions. As safety is an imperative part
of all trades, it is assumed and therefore it is not included as a qualifier of any activities.
However, the technical safety tasks and sub-tasks specific to the trade are included in this
analysis.
-3-
SCOPE OF THE LANDSCAPE HORTICULTURIST
TRADE
“Landscape Horticulturist” is this trade’s official Red Seal occupational title approved by the
Canadian Council of Directors of Apprenticeship. This analysis covers tasks performed by
landscape horticulturists whose occupational title has been identified by some provinces and
territories of Canada under the following names:
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
Horticultural
Technician
ON MB
BC
NT
YT
NU


Landscape Gardener

Landscape Worker
LandscapeHorticulturist
AB

Horticulture
Technician
Landscape
Horticulturist
SK






Landscape horticulturists survey and assess landscape, draw sketches and interpret plans. They
construct and maintain gardens, parks, golf courses and other landscape environments. In
addition, they advise clients on issues related to horticulture and landscape construction.
Landscape horticulturists also propagate, cultivate and study plants, and treat injured and
diseased trees and plants. They are employed by landscape designers, architects and
contractors, lawn service and tree care establishments, recreation facilities, golf courses, parks,
nurseries, greenhouses, and municipal, provincial and federal governments. They may also be
self-employed.
Landscape horticulturists work with machinery and equipment ranging from simple hand tools
to heavy equipment. They may be responsible for the routine maintenance of tools and
equipment. Landscape horticulturists may also work with a variety of products such as
pesticides, fertilizers and fuels and must be aware of their safe use, environmental best practices
and government regulations.
Some landscape horticulturists specialize in areas such as landscape design, construction and
maintenance, and greenhouse, sod and nursery production. They may work independently or
with other professionals such as architects, engineers, and municipal planners.
Landscape horticulturists require good communication skills to coordinate and facilitate work
with clients, co-workers and other trades. They also require strong analytical, decision making
and organizational abilities.
-4-
Employment in this trade is often seasonal with long hours. The majority of the work such as
landscape construction and maintenance, and snow and ice management is performed outdoors
in all types of weather. Indoor work may involve greenhouse production, interior landscaping,
and the sale of plants, landscape materials and supplies. The work may be strenuous and may
involve activities such as lifting, climbing, carrying and bending.
With experience and proven competence, landscape horticulturists may advance to supervisory
positions or become business owners.
This analysis recognizes similarities or overlaps with the work of other tradespeople such as
arborists, utility arborists, bricklayers/masons, heavy equipment operators, electricians, concrete
finishers, roofers, plumbers, small engine mechanics and carpenters.
-5-
OCCUPATIONAL OBSERVATIONS
The landscape industry must continuously adapt to changing trends in education, certification,
legislation and the labour market as they relate to safety, environmental stewardship and
conservation. This market-driven industry will continue to evolve through the introduction of
new products, implementation of new technology and green horticultural principles to meet the
needs of its clients.
There is an increasing demand from the emerging workforce for year round work rather than
seasonal employment. More employers are encouraging employees to improve their technical
skills towards obtaining their credentials during the slower period. The demand for specialized
skilled workers in the landscape industry is growing. Increasingly, consumers and employers
are requesting certified landscape horticulturists who are aware of best practices to provide the
best products and services.
As jurisdictional safety and prevention legislation changes, compliance requirements by
industry are increasing. Safety awareness and implementation of safe work practices in the
industry is evolving to better protect the workforce and the general public.
The industry plays a role in promoting environmental consciousness and sustainable
development. Public awareness of conservation measures to protect our living spaces is
empowering the landscape industry to reduce its environmental impact. There is increased
collaboration across the industry and stakeholder groups in Canada resulting in better
environmental awareness and application of best practices.
The work is becoming more intricate because of the complexity of the designs and expanding
customer requests for items such as outdoor living spaces and, organic gardening and
sustainable design. There is an increased focus on water conservation and protection. The use of
native and natural materials and green infrastructure is becoming more prevalent.
A higher degree of attention is paid to plant health starting at the design phase and through
installation and maintenance due to environmental and jurisdictional regulations. The industry
is growing more pest and disease-resistant varieties of plants. There are changes to pest and
disease control measures including legislation that has reduced dependence on chemical use.
Tools and equipment that produce fewer emissions, less noise and less vibration are more in
demand.
The landscape horticultural industry continues to apply technological advancements to
improve its business and workforce skills. Digital devices, satellite technology and production
innovation enable improved production, efficiency and quality.
Due to an increase in government regulations concerning the conservation, capture and
recycling of water, industry is continuously seeking new technologies, techniques and plant
varieties to reduce environmental impact and production costs.
-6-
ESSENTIAL SKILLS SUMMARY
Essential skills are needed for work, learning and life. They provide the foundation for learning
all other skills and enable people to evolve with their jobs and adapt to workplace change.
Through extensive research, the Government of Canada and other national and international
agencies have identified and validated nine essential skills. These skills are used in nearly every
occupation and throughout daily life in different ways.
A series of CCDA-endorsed tools have been developed to support apprentices in their training
and to be better prepared for a career in the trades. The tools can be used independently or with
the assistance of a tradesperson, trainer, employer, teacher or mentor to:



understand how essential skills are used in the trades;
learn about individual essential skills strengths and areas for improvement; and
improve essential skills and increase success in an apprenticeship program.
Tools are available online or for order at: http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/les/tools/index.shtml.
The application of these skills may be described throughout this document within the
competency statements which support each subtask of the trade. The following are summaries
of the requirements in each of the essential skills, taken from the essential skills profile. A link to
the complete essential skills profile can be found at www.red-seal.ca.
Reading
Landscape horticulturists require reading skills to review work-related documents such as site
plans, work orders, contracts, purchase orders, safety documents, product directions and
specifications, promotional materials and manuals. They may also read trade publications,
catalogues, scientific articles and papers, regulations and building codes.
Document Use
Landscape horticulturists refer to drawings, photographs, grade plans, graphs, tables and other
technical information related to their trade. They may also interpret scale drawings of landscape
designs and detail drawings, and refer to schematics for irrigation systems.
Writing
Writing skills are used by landscape horticulturists to compose letters or e-mails to clients,
contractors and colleagues, and to accurately record information such as safety, maintenance
and production information. Landscape horticulturists write investigative reports covering
damaged or diseased trees, shrubs, plants, turfgrass and hardscape elements.
Oral Communication
Oral communication is a very important skill for landscape horticulturists. A substantial
amount of communication is done in order to exchange information, instruct, convey
-7-
knowledge and to coordinate work with others. They talk to clients about horticultural and
landscaping topics such as plant care, landscape design and landscape maintenance. They speak
with other professionals including suppliers, architects and engineers to coordinate projects.
Numeracy
Landscape horticulturists use numeracy skills, particularly to calculate financial transactions
such as purchasing and sales. They also perform calculations related to production such as
labour rates, material quantity take-offs, and seeding rates and measurements such as weight,
volume and site areas. They also calibrate equipment such as spreaders and sprayers. They
perform numerical estimations of time requirements, slope and quantities of materials.
Thinking Skills
Landscape horticulturists need to be able to problem solve when unexpected situations arise in
their work. For instance, inclement weather may impact the ability to proceed as planned.
Decision making and critical thinking skills are required to determine how to distribute tasks
associated with issues such as plant health care, environmental protection, and selection of
plant species, products and practices. Planning and organizing skills are used to coordinate and
organize tasks with those of many others involved in the process. Landscape horticulturalists
need to comprehend, interpret and apply safety documentation and regulations.
Digital Technology
Landscape horticulturists use computers and other digital devices when researching
horticultural information. They may also use applications for communication, word processing,
labeling, spreadsheets, databases and global positioning systems (GPS). They may use design,
estimating, accounting and inventory software.
Working with Others
Landscape horticulturists coordinate work with others, including other landscape
horticulturists, supervisors, architects, clients, homeowners, surveyors, engineers, bylaw
officers and other contractors. Landscape horticulturists mentor other employees and cooperate
in team building.
Continuous Learning
Landscape horticulturists are required to stay abreast of landscaping and horticultural
information and practices, and regulatory requirements such as environmental protection and
conservation, zoning and bylaws. Landscape horticulturists are governed by the regulatory
body in the jurisdiction in which they practice. They may be required to participate in
developing their learning plans and complete continuous education to maintain their industryrelated certification.
-8-
BLOCK A
COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
Trends
Safety concerns are leading to increased commitments to legislated
safety programs and best practices.
The use of respirators in lieu of dust masks is becoming common
practice.
Tools and equipment are more ergonomic and user-friendly.
Motorized equipment is becoming less noisy. More environmentally
friendly options are available.
Information is increasingly being shared among landscape
horticulturists as a result of more sophisticated digital devices and the
internet.
There are increasing restrictions in the movement of plant material
across jurisdictional borders.
Keeping accurate and up-to-date records is important.
Related
Components
All components apply.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 1
Performs safety-related functions.
Context
Proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential for
personal safety. Awareness of safety considerations, completing
assessments and the use of safety equipment such as pylons and
barricades is important to maintaining a safe work environment.
Required Knowledge
K1
safety regulations and company safety manual
K2
types of PPE and their operation
K3
types of safety equipment and their operation
K4
storage procedures for tools and equipment
K5
safety regulations that apply to the transporting of material and equipment
K6
WHMIS procedures
K7
health and safety procedures
-9-
K8
site hazards such as public and private utilities
K9
universal hand signals
K 10
first aid training
Sub-task
A-1.01
NL
yes
Uses personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety equipment.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies:
A-1.01.01
select and use PPE such as ear, eye, hand and foot protection, and safety vests
as required for task, tools, equipment, machinery and environment
A-1.01.02
select and use safety equipment such as ventilation fans, spill kits and fire
extinguishers according to manufacturers’ specification
A-1.01.03
store PPE and safety equipment in a dry, protected environment to maintain
its integrity
A-1.01.04
check operation and condition of PPE and safety equipment regularly and
prior to use
A-1.01.05
check PPE and safety equipment inventory to ensure that there is a ready
supply
A-1.01.06
recognize damaged and expired PPE and safety equipment and remove from
service
A-1.01.07
check and replace PPE components according to manufacturers'
specifications and workplace requirements
- 10 -
Sub-task
A-1.02
NL
yes
Maintains safe work environment.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-1.02.01
assess hazards such as high voltage, motorized equipment and working at
heights according to OH&S and company safety policy
A-1.02.02
take action for overhead hazards such as power lines and tree branches to
prevent damage and personal injuries
A-1.02.03
identify required PPE and safety equipment for task
A-1.02.04
follow specified safety procedures such as use of fall arrest, establishing
fuelling zones, trenching and shoring, and confined space procedures
A-1.02.05
maintain a clean and tidy work area to avoid injuries to self and others
A-1.02.06
comply with lock-out/tag-out procedures when working on equipment
A-1.02.07
coordinate tasks with other workers to avoid injury to self, co-workers and
others
A-1.02.08
place flagging, pylons and signage when working in high traffic areas
according to jurisdictional regulations
A-1.02.09
handle hazardous materials in accordance with jurisdictional regulations and
WHMIS procedures such as disposal, labelling and use of PPE
A-1.02.10
participate in safety meetings and discussions to ensure that information is
recorded and distributed to all team members
A-1.02.11
recognize and report unsafe conditions
A-1.02.12
recognize safety and warning signals such as back-up signals, back-up alarms
and warning lights
A-1.02.13
use universal hand signals when communicating with equipment operators
and drivers
A-1.02.14
contain and dispose of spill contaminants according to regulations
A-1.02.15
coordinate with emergency response teams such as spill response and fire
A-1.02.16
administer first aid treatment
- 11 -
Task 2
Maintains tools, equipment and vehicles.
Context
Landscape horticulturists must maintain various types of tools,
equipment and vehicles to increase longevity and to ensure that work is
done in a safe and productive manner.
Required Knowledge
K1
tool, equipment and vehicle operation and function
K2
safety regulations and safe work practices
K3
types of PPE such as safety glasses and gloves
K4
storage and sanitation procedures for tools, equipment and vehicles
K5
maintenance practices for tools, equipment and vehicles
K6
record keeping procedures for maintaining tools, equipment and vehicles
K7
engine types and their requirements
K8
types of hitches and ball sizes
Sub-task
A-2.01
NL
yes
Maintains hand tools.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.01.01
clean and disinfect hand tools to ensure proper operation and to prevent
transfer of contaminants
A-2.01.02
lubricate hand tools such as secateurs and shears
A-2.01.03
check tools regularly for damage, excessive wear and proper operation and
remove from service
A-2.01.04
store hand tools for organization, safety and security
A-2.01.05
sharpen hand tools such as secateurs, shears and shovels
A-2.01.06
replace components in tools such as secateurs and loppers due to damage
and wear
- 12 -
Sub-task
A-2.02
NL
yes
Maintains power tools.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.02.01
lubricate power tools according to manufacturers' specifications
A-2.02.02
adjust power tools such as chain saws, mowers and power washers
A-2.02.03
check tools for wear, damage and malfunction such as a damaged power
cord, and remove from service
A-2.02.04
follow recommended maintenance schedule according to manufacturers'
specifications
A-2.02.05
check fluid levels, fuel mixture ratios and air pressure
A-2.02.06
grease nipples on motorized equipment
A-2.02.07
sharpen and balance mower blades
A-2.02.08
sharpen tools such as chainsaws and hedge shears according to
manufacturers' specifications
A-2.02.09
check, charge or replace batteries on power tools
A-2.02.10
check components such as filters and mufflers
A-2.02.11
refuel equipment according to manufacturers' specifications
A-2.02.12
disinfect tools to prevent cross-contamination from site to site
A-2.02.13
store power tools for organization, safety and security
Sub-task
A-2.03
NL
yes
Maintains measuring equipment.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.03.01
clean and disinfect measuring equipment to ensure proper operation and to
prevent transfer of contaminants
A-2.03.02
calibrate measuring equipment such as pH meters, levels and electrical
conductivity (EC) meters
A-2.03.03
check, charge and replace batteries on measuring equipment
- 13 -
A-2.03.04
check tools for damage, excessive wear and proper operation, and remove
from service
A-2.03.05
store measuring equipment for organization, safety and security
Sub-task
A-2.04
NL
yes
Maintains vehicles and motorized equipment.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.04.01
perform and document a circle check of vehicles and motorized equipment to
check for defects such as compromised lights, plates and brakes
A-2.04.02
clean motorized equipment for reasons such as maintaining optimal
operation, detection of leaks and sanitation
A-2.04.03
inspect equipment visually for damage and wear, and lock-out and tag-out
A-2.04.04
inspect equipment to ensure efficient functioning
A-2.04.05
check condition of safety features such as lockout devices, chutes, trimmer
and belt guards, rollover protection devices (ROP) and operator presence
switches
A-2.04.06
check fluid levels such as oil, coolant and hydraulic fluids according to
manufacturers' specifications
A-2.04.07
check and replace components such as spark plugs, belts, hoses and pull
cords according to manufacturer’s specifications
A-2.04.08
check and adjust air pressure in components such as tires and air
compressors for tools
A-2.04.09
check and tighten loose connections and fittings
A-2.04.10
check cutting height and adjust according to client expectations and turfgrass
needs
- 14 -
Sub-task
A-2.05
NL
yes
Maintains equipment attachments and trailers.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.05.01
grease fittings on trailers and equipment such as aerators and cultivators
A-2.05.02
inspect attachments for damage and wear, and lock-out/tag-out
A-2.05.03
adjust attachments for parking, travel and operation
A-2.05.04
check hydraulic fluids and hose condition to ensure optimum and safe
operation of equipment
A-2.05.05
clean and disinfect attachments such as drop spreaders, sprayers and mowers
A-2.05.06
replace damaged and worn components such as bushings, blades and tines
A-2.05.07
perform a circle check of equipment attachments to check for defective parts
such as lights, chains, plates, safety guards and brakes
A-2.05.08
check operation of safety brake, latch pin and safety chain on trailers
Task 3
Organizes work.
Context
Landscape horticulturists organize work for productivity and safety.
Required Knowledge
K1
site assessment and determine logistics
K2
site hazards
K3
site access
K4
types of growing media
K5
features that require preservation and protection
K6
interpretation of documentation
K7
source and reliability of documentation
K8
types of documents such as government publications, specifications, and
instruction and assembly manuals
K9
types of records such as vehicle maintenance logs and mileage records
K 10
jurisdictional regulations
K 11
plant identification and nomenclature
- 15 -
K 12
verbal and written communication methods
K 13
transportation effects on plants
K 14
acclimatization requirements of plant materials
K 15
WHMIS procedures
K 16
health and safety procedures
K 17
monitoring devices such as recording devices and thermometers
K 18
material handling techniques
K 19
safe loading/unloading and transportation of equipment and materials
K 20
load and weight distribution for transporting equipment
K 21
weight restrictions for transporting equipment
K 22
securing methods for transporting tools and equipment
K 23
regulations that apply to the transporting of material and equipment such as
straps and chains
K 24
basic traffic control procedures and bylaws
K 25
licensing requirements for transporting materials and equipment such as load
securement and weight loads
Sub-task
A-3.01
NL
yes
Performs site assessments.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.01.01
assess access points to identify site restrictions and challenges for work
A-3.01.02
perform visual inspection of site and neighbouring properties for factors such
as existing damage and extensional (surrounding) landscape
A-3.01.03
use jurisdictional ‘call before you dig’ service to identify utility locations
A-3.01.04
identify markings for private and public utilities such as cable, natural gas,
power and telephone
A-3.01.05
identify and mark locations of private utilities such as irrigation lines,
drainage systems and landscape lighting components
A-3.01.06
perform tests such as percolation, core sampling and texture tests to
determine quality of existing soil
A-3.01.07
locate septic field components and wells
A-3.01.08
identify health and vigour of existing plants for cultural maintenance or
removal
- 16 -
A-3.01.09
identify areas to be excavated and protected
A-3.01.10
identify existing and proposed grading and drainage patterns
A-3.01.11
identify security requirements
Sub-task
A-3.02
NL
yes
Uses documentation and reference material.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.02.01
locate and interpret documentation such as drawings and specifications,
tenders, addendum and contracts, site locates, and product instructions
A-3.02.02
refer to WHMIS documentation for procedures such as usage of PPE, storage
requirements, spill containment, and usage and cleanup of hazardous
material
A-3.02.03
use catalogues for reasons such as plant identification, comparing products
among suppliers, and ordering tools, equipment and plant materials
A-3.02.04
use resources such as text books, field books, operator equipment manual
(OEM) and internet for in-depth information regarding plant materials, pests
and diseases
Sub-task
A-3.03
NL
yes
Maintains records.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.03.01
complete safety records such as accident reports, tag-outs and safety meeting
records according to governmental, industry and company regulations
A-3.03.02
complete work records such as work orders, daily time sheets, change orders
and site assessment records according to company policy
A-3.03.03
complete tool and equipment sign-out and training sign-off sheets according
to company policy
A-3.03.04
maintain records related to integrated pest management (IPM) and plant
health programs
- 17 -
A-3.03.05
record information such as fertilizer application, treatments, temperatures,
cropping schedules and inventory management
A-3.03.06
record shipping information such as inventory adjustments, regulatory
documentation and Phytosanitary Certificates
A-3.03.07
compare packing slips with original orders to ensure that shipments are
complete
A-3.03.08
read test results and monitoring devices and record data
Sub-task
A-3.04
NL
yes
Complies with policies and regulations.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.04.01
review and comply with current governmental and company policies and
regulations such as labour, transportation, pest control, conservation of
water, habitat preservation and control of spraying
A-3.04.02
enforce safety regulations such as PPE usage, usage of tools and equipment,
and handling and storage of materials
A-3.04.03
comply with jurisdictional and company environmental protection agencies
such as Health Canada, Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO),
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Environment Canada
A-3.04.04
contact appropriate authorities for information and to report accidents and
incidents
A-3.04.05
verify that personal licensing and certification are current
- 18 -
Sub-task
A-3.05
NL
yes
Plans daily tasks.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.05.01
identify and prioritize tasks to assist in time management and efficient
performance
A-3.05.02
organize labour, materials and equipment for tasks
A-3.05.03
delegate tasks to team members to utilize individual strengths
A-3.05.04
modify daily tasks according to challenges such as site hazards, weather, lack
of materials and competing projects
A-3.05.05
refer to historical information and previous records to assist in the daily
planning
A-3.05.06
uses design software applications and 3D modelling
Sub-task
A-3.06
NL
yes
Communicates with others.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.06.01
use effective verbal and written communication to relay information to
persons such as co-workers, clients, suppliers and office staff
A-3.06.02
mentor apprentices
A-3.06.03
use universal hand signals to communicate with machine operators, truck
drivers and crane operators
A-3.06.04
communicate visually to direct movement of machinery, equipment and
people
A-3.06.05
use communication equipment such as two way radios, computers and cell
phones
A-3.06.06
ensure that co-workers understand instructions using techniques such as onthe-job-training (OJT) method and repeating back
A-3.06.07
practice active listening
A-3.06.08
employ conflict resolution strategies
- 19 -
A-3.06.09
report discrepancies and seek direction from supervisor
A-3.06.10
provide input for employee evaluations
Sub-task
A-3.07
NL
yes
Orders plants and materials.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.07.01
identify size, quality, quantity and type of required materials
A-3.07.02
use botanical nomenclature when ordering plant material to ensure accuracy
of orders
A-3.07.03
record order number, tracking number and name of supplier representative
A-3.07.04
compare prices for budget purposes
A-3.07.05
determine availability, time and date of delivery or pick up
A-3.07.06
ensure documents such as movement certificates and import permits are in
place
Sub-task
A-3.08
NL
yes
Transports materials.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.08.01
protect plant materials with items such as tarps and anti-desiccants
A-3.08.02
secure materials using appropriate load bearing tie downs according to
jurisdictional regulations
A-3.08.03
load/unload materials using tools and equipment such as dollies and forklifts
A-3.08.04
load materials in sequence and direction to allow for optimal transport and
unloading
A-3.08.05
ensure that loose materials such as branches, wood chips, soil and aggregates
are secure and loaded in a manner to prevent spillage
A-3.08.06
cover materials according to company policy and jurisdictional regulations
- 20 -
A-3.08.07
load and transport material according to weight restriction regulations and
load distribution requirements
A-3.08.08
perform and document circle check of vehicle and towed equipment
Sub-task
A-3.09
NL
yes
Organizes plants, materials and equipment.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.09.01
inspect and verify plants and materials for accuracy, quality, quantity and
damage prior to unloading and according to purchase order
A-3.09.02
place imported plants in a separate location from local plants until inspected
by CFIA and according to jurisdictional regulations
A-3.09.03
remove and inspect monitoring devices such as temperature recorders and
environmental recorders
A-3.09.04
receive, unload and record plants and group/match plants by size and species
A-3.09.05
place plants in designated areas such as job site, hot house, shaded area or
heeling-in-bed
A-3.09.06
unload, place and protect materials such as wood chips, soil and aggregates
in an organized fashion in designated storage areas to avoid contamination
and maintain product quality
A-3.09.07
allocate specified storage area for equipment and hazardous materials
A-3.09.08
receive and record materials such as soils, seed, plugs, roots, labels and
containers
A-3.09.09
quarantine, reject and dispose of substandard materials according to
regulations
A-3.09.10
perform final check of required plants, materials and equipment on site
- 21 -
Sub-task
A-3.10
NL
yes
Transports equipment.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.10.01
select trailer type according to equipment and weight restrictions
A-3.10.02
secure loads according to jurisdictional requirements
A-3.10.03
determine route from shop to work site for heavy hauling
A-3.10.04
tie flags to back end of trailers to indicate extended load according to
jurisdictional regulations
A-3.10.05
place traffic cones and wheel chocks when loading and unloading trailer
A-3.10.06
follow road closure procedures according to jurisdictional regulations
A-3.10.07
comply with licensing requirements for transporting equipment
A-3.10.08
transport equipment in a manner to avoid personal injury and damage to
equipment and property.
Task 4
Participates in marketing and sales.
Context
Landscape horticulturists sell products and services that meet and
exceed client expectations. Establishing and maintaining customer
relations is a critical component of the marketing strategy.
Landscape horticulturists need to manage and control a broad range of
inventory products. They also need to know about estimating,
tendering and contracting processes.
Required Knowledge
K1
purchase order and record keeping techniques
K2
plant identification and nomenclature
K3
inventory software
K4
tracking methods
K5
phytosanitary inspection and certification
K6
softscape products such as plants, fertilizers, soils, chemicals and containers
K7
merchandising and marketing techniques and tools such as business cards,
brochures and website
- 22 -
K8
professional conduct
K9
customer retention skills and relationship building
K 10
selling skills
K 11
basic estimating of materials
K 12
regulations, permits, specifications, bylaws and restrictions
K 13
installation techniques
K 14
hardscaping products such as paving stones, natural stone, weed barriers and
edging
K 15
site access requirements
K 16
site restriction and security requirements
K 17
environmental constraints
K 18
tendering systems and requirements such as bonding, payment schedules,
deficiencies and extras
K 19
time allocation to perform tasks required in contract
K 20
equipment and tools required to perform job
K 21
scheduling and critical path analyses
Sub-task
A-4.01
NL
yes
Controls inventory.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
Key Competencies
A-4.01.01
identify and count inventory using manual or electronic systems
A-4.01.02
maintain inventory records
A-4.01.03
identify and sort materials
A-4.01.04
identify restock orders
- 23 -
YT
ND
NU
ND
Sub-task
A-4.02
NL
yes
Sells products and services.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-4.02.01
advise and educate clients on plants, products and services
A-4.02.02
direct customer to seasonal purchases such as Christmas trees and seasonal
lighting
A-4.02.03
up-sell additional products and services to clients and advise of special offers
A-4.02.04
merchandize products and services in an attractive and visible way
A-4.02.05
apply marketing principles such as creating internet presence and advertising
A-4.02.06
handle payments for products and services
A-4.02.07
write invoices, calculate taxes and issue receipts for payment
A-4.02.08
maintain professional image and appearance
A-4.02.09
prepare and administer contracts
Sub-task
A-4.03
NL
yes
Maintains customer relations.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-4.03.01
address client’s concerns with tact, politeness and in a timely manner
according to company policy
A-4.03.02
practice customer service by acknowledging clients and potential clients
A-4.03.03
maintain customer record information such as address, phone number, email
and product preferences
A-4.03.04
provide after-service follow-up
A-4.03.05
practice active listening
- 24 -
Sub-task
A-4.04
NL
yes
Prepares estimates.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
A-4.04.01
interpret tendering document when provided to understand requirements for
estimate
A-4.04.02
estimate basic material requirements
A-4.04.03
perform take-off from drawings to determine parameters such as quantity,
size, type and volume of materials and products
A-4.04.04
identify and apply additional costs such as sub-trades, transportation, safety
program, contingencies, change orders, surcharges, accommodations and
overhead
A-4.04.05
co-ordinate project logistics with other contractors, suppliers and employees,
to establish direct costs by discussing items such as skill requirements,
machinery and products
A-4.04.06
calculate price and labour requirements to supply and install products and
materials
A-4.04.07
provide estimates for contract preparation
- 25 -
BLOCK B
HORTICULTURAL PRINCIPLES
Trends
As horticultural stewards of the environment, there is an increased
awareness of the benefits and applications of blue and green
infrastructure.
There is an increase in the use and benefits of native, non-invasive,
edible and organically-grown plant materials and a more targeted use
of pest management best practices by using IPM principles.
Due to environmental awareness and jurisdictional regulations,
landscape horticulturists use materials and operate vehicles, tools and
equipment that have a reduced carbon foot print.
Consumers are more conscious of their purchasing choices and impact
on the environment which transforms landscape horticultural practices.
Related
Components
All components apply.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 5
Applies horticultural principles.
Context
Landscape horticulturists must identify plants and plant requirements
to manage plant health, growing conditions, pests, diseases and
invasive species. They apply horticultural principles to sustain and
promote plant life and growing environment.
Required Knowledge
K1
growing media conditions
K2
signs and symptoms of plant stress
K3
mature plant structure, size and life expectancy
K4
tests such as pH, air quality and nutrient tests
K5
treatment methods
K6
plant requirements such as light, hardiness and moisture
K7
life cycle of pests and diseases and disease triangle
- 26 -
K8
pest and disease introduction and spread
K9
beneficial organisms such as fungi, insects and bacteria
K 10
companion planting procedures
K 11
basic plant science such as botany and physiology
K 12
action and disease thresholds
K 13
Canadian Standards for Nursery Stock (CSNS)
K 14
IPM principles
K 15
regional landscape standards
K 16
jurisdictional regulations
K 17
plant characteristics such as form, foliage and foliage pattern, stems and bark,
bud, fruit, flower, size and colour
K 18
plant classification such as coniferous trees, coniferous shrubs, deciduous
trees, deciduous shrubs, herbaceous, woody, broad leaf evergreen, turfgrass,
vines, weeds, annual, perennial, biennial, edible, native, non-native and
invasive species
K 19
plant key and application
K 20
Plant Hardiness Zone Map
K 21
plant nomenclature
K 22
reasons for pruning such as size reduction, thinning for air circulation,
removal of dead, diseased, damaged or interfering material, unwanted
growth, shape and design intent
K 23
factors that affect pruning times such as dormancy, flower period, growth
response, wind and frost damage, and scorch
K 24
pruning methods according to plant classification
K 25
1/3 pruning rule
K 26
pests such as plant feeding animals, weeds and insects
K 27
diseases such as blight, leaf spot, scab, gall, rust, canker, bacterial wilts, fungi,
rot and mildew, and bacterial and fungal turfgrass diseases
K 28
causes of diseases such as pathogens, nematodes and nutrient deficiencies
K 29
pathogens such as viruses, bacteria and fungi
K 30
biotic factors such as diseases and insects
K 31
abiotic factors such as temperature, light, mechanical damages and nutrition
- 27 -
Sub-task
B-5.01
Identifies plants and plant requirements.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
NV
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.01.01
inspect plants visually by examining plant classification and characteristics,
and use reference material
B-5.01.02
examine plant by touching to determine texture and unique characteristics
B-5.01.03
determine growth habits and cultural requirements of plants such as light,
moisture, soil type and nutrients to identify suitable plant location
B-5.01.04
determine health and vigour of plants based on observed plant characteristics
to establish next steps such as growing, designing, placing, installing and
maintaining of plants
Sub-task
B-5.02
Manages plant health and growing conditions.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
NV
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.02.01
determine exposure to conditions such as light, wind, and heating,
ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, moisture and reflective
heat load based on location
B-5.02.02
identify signs and symptoms of plant health
B-5.02.03
collect growing media samples to determine growing media conditions
B-5.02.04
test growing media samples and irrigation water manually or by lab analysis
to identify texture, drainage capacity, pH, nutrients and contaminants
B-5.02.05
collect foliar sample to identify plant health and determine nutrient
deficiencies, diseases and pests, using reference materials and resources
B-5.02.06
interpret lab results to determine plan of action
B-5.02.07
determine air quality that might affect interior and exterior plants
- 28 -
B-5.02.08
adjust plant selection and placement according to microclimate, topography,
natural habitat, pH level, soil type, growing environment and plant hardiness
zone
B-5.02.09
develop corrective measure plan according to findings and plant
requirements
B-5.02.10
implement measures to optimize plant health and microclimates such as
growing media, nutrition, temperature, light, exposure, moisture and
humidity
B-5.02.11
take corrective measures such as fertilization, liming, adding organics,
neutralizing water and correcting drainage
B-5.02.12
measure and apply fertilizer and amendments according to plant
requirements such as foliar feed, injection, and liquid and granular
applications
B-5.02.13
remove and dispose of pest ridden and fallen foliage to prevent spreading of
pests and diseases, according to jurisdictional regulations and horticultural
best practices
B-5.02.14
divide and space plants to ensure adequate air circulation
Sub-task
B-5.03
Prunes plant material.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
NV
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.03.01
assess plant structure, species and environment to establish pruning plan
B-5.03.02
select pruning methods such as shearing, heading, thinning, cleaning, canopy
raising, crown balancing, reducing and restoring, according to plant
morphology, anatomy, physiology, maturity, time of year, and type of plant
material
B-5.03.03
determine pruning process to maximize efficiency according to pruning plan
B-5.03.04
select cutting technique such as 3-cut method, flush cut, according to size of
limb and required equipment
B-5.03.05
select and use tools and equipment such as hedge trimmers, shears, saws,
secateurs, pruners and loppers according to task
- 29 -
B-5.03.06
cut plant material to remove dead, disease, damage, interfering (DDDI)
material to improve plant health, structure and to reduce size
B-5.03.07
cut, pinch and deadhead plant material according to requirements
B-5.03.08
dispose of pruning debris according to sanitation and jurisdictional
regulations
Sub-task
B-5.04
Manages pests, diseases and invasive species.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
NV
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.04.01
determine conditions that lead to plant stress by inspecting plants visually for
signs and symptoms of plant diseases, deficiencies and environmental
impacts such as discoloration, wilting, defoliation and foliar burn
B-5.04.02
inspect plants visually for pest population and damage such as leaf
disfiguration, notching and stippling
B-5.04.03
identify pests, diseases, invasive species and beneficial insects by visually
inspecting plant
B-5.04.04
recognize and comply with jurisdictional guidelines for native plants and
invasive species to determine course of action
B-5.04.05
monitor pest populations, spread of disease and damage characteristics
B-5.04.06
monitor biological control populations to determine efficacy and course of
action
B-5.04.07
establish injury and action thresholds according to economics, aesthetics and
plant health
B-5.04.08
select treatment and control method according to types of pests, diseases and
environment and that will not negatively impact native or existing ecosystem
B-5.04.09
identify and calibrate pesticide application equipment
B-5.04.10
prevent pest and disease by rotating crops, selecting pest-resistant varieties
and managing plant health
B-5.04.11
prevent invasion or reinvasion of pest, diseases and invasive species by
maintaining healthy growing environment, and supporting and encouraging
native ecosystem
- 30 -
B-5.04.12
apply treatment methods such as cultural, mechanical, biological and
chemical in compliance with jurisdictional requirements
B-5.04.13
evaluate results of treatment and review on an on-going basis
B-5.04.14
identify quarantine protocols based on host plants, host media and predatory
organisms, according to jurisdictional regulations
B-5.04.15
store, handle and dispose of pest and disease management related products
and materials
B-5.04.16
dispose of pest and diseased plant material and invasive species, according to
jurisdictional regulations
Task 6
Applies environmental practices
Context
Landscape horticulturists, as environmental stewards, identify and
apply environmental best practices to conserve, preserve, protect and
reclaim natural habitats and ecosystems to sustain a healthy
environment.
Required Knowledge
K1
environmental practices for physical elements such as water, air quality and
soil
K2
ecosystems such as meadows, ponds, parks and urban landscape
K3
types of green infrastructure such as living walls, green roofs, rain gardens,
rainwater harvesting, storm water management, green parking, permeable
pavement, bioswales, urban tree canopy and land conservation
K4
types of blue and grey infrastructures
K5
benefits of green infrastructures such as biodiversity, water conservation,
erosion control, flood mitigation, climate control and air purification
K6
green infrastructure purpose
K7
jurisdictional regulations
K8
green field and brown field reclamation
K9
benefits of plants such as climate control, carbon capturing, symbiotic
relationships
K 10
xeriscape principles
- 31 -
K 11
smart water technology
K 12
value of environmental, economic and social impact of tree canopy
K 13
fire smart practices
K 14
natural ecosystems function, purpose and structure
K 15
site sustainability
K 16
landscape design and development process
K 17
aesthetics
K 18
due diligence
K 19
preservation, conservation and regeneration principles and applications
related to plant life, habitat and water table
K 20
water retention and weed prevention materials such as soil, mulch, compost
and plants
K 21
water retention practices
K 22
pest and disease introduction and spread
K 23
life cycle of pest and diseases
K 24
mechanical control practices such as aeration, mulching mowers and
sanitizing and sharpening mowing blades
K 25
cultural control practices such as mulching of grass, by-products of pruning
and fall leaves, and adjusting mowing height
K 26
jurisdictional regulations of disposal vehicle, equipment parts and byproducts
K 27
environmental waste management best practices such as reduce, reuse and
recycle
K 28
surface and subsurface drainage systems and practices such as roof-top
gardens, catch basins, bioswales, french drains, retention ponds and wicking
beds
K 29
filtration systems
K 30
local sourcing of material and equipment
K 31
site protection such as silt fencing and erosion control
- 32 -
Sub-task
B-6.01
Practices environmental stewardship.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
NV
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-6.01.01
select and use material such as plants, paving stones and irrigation
components, to reduce negative impact on environment and ecosystems
B-6.01.02
select and use vehicles and equipment to minimize negative environmental
impact such as compaction, fuel emission and noise pollution, according to
jurisdictional regulations
B-6.01.03
select native species and plant varieties that are pest resistant and suited to
the environment such as soil type, light and pH, and according to
jurisdictional regulations
B-6.01.04
select conservation and preservation strategies such as plant selection, storm
water management, smart water systems, water retention methods and water
harvesting, according to jurisdictional regulations
B-6.01.05
minimize introduction of diseases through plant selection
B-6.01.06
minimize spread of disease by practicing methods such as reducing the
movement and transportation of infected plant material and growing media,
by sanitizing material, tools and equipment and by disposing of plant
material, according to jurisdictional regulations
B-6.01.07
select fertilizers and amendments that support plant health and minimize
environmental impacts
B-6.01.08
reduce unnecessary idling of vehicles and equipment, according to
jurisdictional regulations and environmental best practices
- 33 -
Sub-task
B-6.02
Selects green infrastructure.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
NV
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-6.02.01
determine green infrastructure needs by inspecting site-specific
environmental conditions such as topography, water flow, drainage patterns,
humidity, air flow, existing vegetation and growing media
B-6.02.02
confirm factors such as drainage systems, water proofing, equipment access
and other requirements
B-6.02.03
identify benefits and applications of green infrastructure technologies that
mimic nature for selection according to site requirements
B-6.02.04
select green infrastructure technologies, methods and products taking into
consideration the client’s needs, site restrictions, product availability and
jurisdictional regulations
- 34 -
BLOCK C
Trends
LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION
The use of technologies such as light emitting diode (LED) landscape
fixtures and GPS is becoming more prevalent. This increases the
training necessary for landscape horticulturists to perform their tasks.
Safety concerns on the construction site are leading to increased
commitments to legislated safety programs and best practices.
Increased awareness of the environmental benefits of sustainable
landscape is changing the training, certification and practices of the
industry. The use of new turf seed cultivars, pest-resistance plants and
IPM practices is becoming more popular. Implementing water
management, infiltration and erosion control measures is becoming
more important.
Structural soils which support load and plant growth are being created
and used more frequently.
Outdoor living space features such as fireplaces, outdoor kitchens and
entertainment units are becoming more popular.
Indoor plants are becoming more popular due to increased awareness
of health benefits.
Related
Components
(including, but not
limited to)
Softscape material: growing media, mulch, turf, aquatic plants, tropical
plants, bulbs, exterior plants, fertilizers, amendments, structural soils.
Hardscape materials: drainage components, irrigation components,
pre-cast concrete, aggregates, manufactured stone, natural stone,
lumber, mortar, geogrids, rebar, geotextiles, filter cloths, erosion mats,
river rock, boulders, edging materials, recycled materials.
Structures and features: wood, metals, rails, posts, concrete, , fasteners,
decorative details, composite boards, pumps, hoses, electrical conduits
and wiring for low voltage lighting, water feature components, low
voltage lighting components.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
- 35 -
Task 7
Performs pre-construction activities.
Context
Landscape horticulturists participate in the planning of construction.
They also perform pre-construction activities prior to installation. They
prepare the site according to landscape drawings and specifications.
Required Knowledge
K1
tool use and application
K2
equipment use and application
K3
growing media structure and quality
K4
codes and standards
K5
hardscape and construction materials
K6
softscape materials
K7
surveying and measurement principles
K8
design principles
K9
site assessment principles
K 10
jurisdictional regulations
K 11
types of landscape drawings and specifications
K 12
horticulture
K 13
plant identification and nomenclature
K 14
scope of landscape horticulturist and other trades
K 15
productivity management
K 16
safe work practices
K 17
site preservation best practices such as compaction and erosion prevention
and reduction
K 18
habitat recognition and preservation
K 19
excavation practices such as cut and fill, and trench slope
K 20
drainage techniques
K 21
site access requirements
K 22
site restriction and security requirements
K 23
environmental constraints
K 24
equipment and tools required to perform job
K 25
scheduling and critical path analyses
- 36 -
Sub-task
C-7.01
NL
yes
Participates in basic landscape design activities.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.01.01
select and use tools such as levels, GPS and measuring devices
C-7.01.02
measure and inventory existing site conditions to provide information for the
design
C-7.01.03
apply design principles such as texture, color, form and scale
C-7.01.04
create basic landscape drawings according to client consultation and
jurisdictional regulations
Sub-task
C-7.02
NL
yes
Interprets landscape drawings.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.02.01
identify scale to guide site layout and job planning activities
C-7.02.02
identify symbols such as property lines, grades and elevations, and
hardscape and softscape elements to determine the scope of work
C-7.02.03
identify project specifications such as planting plan, and softscape and
hardscape details
C-7.02.04
identify infrastructure and utilities such as gaslines, catchbasins, and water
valves
C-7.02.05
identify stakeholders on the plan such as property owners, designers and
engineers for future reference
- 37 -
Sub-task
C-7.03
NL
yes
Participates in job planning activities.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.03.01
identify labour expertise and allocate production hours according to
specifications and in consultation with project manager (designer/estimator)
C-7.03.02
review safety requirements to ensure safe completion of the project
C-7.03.03
locate private and public utilities to ensure safe completion of project
C-7.03.04
verify term of project and determine sequence of job to ensure project is
completed according to plan and budget
C-7.03.05
verify materials and procedures to meet project specifications
C-7.03.06
plan on-site staging such as environmental protection, vehicle parking,
storage, portable office and toilets
C-7.03.07
identify and schedule sub-contractors to fulfill the scope of work
C-7.03.08
identify and schedule materials, tools, equipment and attachments to ensure
availability
C-7.03.09
identify and schedule daily and end of project clean-up
Sub-task
C-7.04
NL
yes
Prepares construction site.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.04.01
select and use hand and measuring tools such as shovels, engineer levels and
transits
C-7.04.02
select and use motorized equipment such as loaders, skid-steers and
excavators
C-7.04.03
identify and communicate discrepancies between plans and site conditions
C-7.04.04
preserve and protect existing hardscape and softscape elements such as trees
and decks according to plans and specifications
C-7.04.05
remove hazards, debris and other unwanted materials
C-7.04.06
create access to ensure site efficiency and security
- 38 -
C-7.04.07
identify markings of underground and overhead utility hazards to avoid
personal injury and damage to utilities
C-7.04.08
interpret privately-owned and public utilities such as fibre-optics, gas lines
and septic locate documents
C-7.04.09
locate and cordon off areas to minimize environmental impact
C-7.04.10
install environmental mitigation mechanisms such as filters, silt fencing and
storm sewer guards
C-7.04.11
lay out site by marking and staking location of hardscape and softscape
elements to be installed
C-7.04.12
excavate and place service conduits to support activities such as installing
irrigation systems and low voltage wiring
C-7.04.13
verify that site is prepared according to specifications
Sub-task
C-7.05
Performs grading
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
NV
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.05.01
select and use tools such as shovels, rakes and levels
C-7.05.02
select and use equipment such as excavators, loaders, skid-steers and tractors
C-7.05.03
lay out drainage elements by marking and staking grades
C-7.05.04
strip and stockpile topsoil
C-7.05.05
cut and fill material to establish rough grade according to drawings and
specifications
C-7.05.06
verify that site is prepared according to specifications
- 39 -
Task 8
Installs hardscape.
Context
Landscape horticulturists install hardscape features that comply with
drawings, specifications, regulations and codes to ensure the integrity
of the installation.
Required Knowledge
K1
tool use and application
K2
equipment use and application
K3
sub-base structure and quality
K4
codes and standards
K5
hardscape and construction materials
K6
softscape materials
K7
design principles
K8
jurisdictional regulations
K9
types of landscape drawings
K 10
horticulture
K 11
plant identification and nomenclature
K 12
scope of landscape horticulturist and other trades
K 13
productivity management
K 14
safe work practices
K 15
site preservation best practices such as compaction, and prevention and
reduction of erosion
K 16
excavation practices
K 17
drainage techniques
K 18
water quality management
K 19
sub-irrigation and irrigation
K 20
landscape structures such as pergolas, fences and decks
K 21
low-voltage lighting systems
K 22
habitat recognition and preservation
K 23
water features such as ponds, fountains, waterfalls and streams
K 24
green infrastructure such as green roofs, living walls, retention ponds,
permeable pavers, bio-swales, storm water retention and wet land reserves
K 25
precast concrete products such as pavers, slabs, and segmental retaining wall
units (SRWs).
- 40 -
Sub-task
C-8.01
NL
yes
Installs drainage systems.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.01.01
ensure drainage system complies with jurisdictional regulations
C-8.01.02
select and use tools such as shovels, picks and wheelbarrows
C-8.01.03
select and use equipment such as excavators, trenchers, loaders and skidsteers
C-8.01.04
excavate subsoil to required grade and depth
C-8.01.05
store or remove excavated materials
C-8.01.06
move specified drainage system materials into desired location
C-8.01.07
lay out and assemble drainage components
C-8.01.08
backfill drainage system with specified materials to finished grade
C-8.01.09
verify that installation meets specifications according to jurisdictional
requirements
Sub-task
C-8.02
NL
yes
Installs landscape structures.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.02.01
select and use hand and power tools such as mitre saws, power drills and
hammers
C-8.02.02
select and use equipment such as excavators, loaders, skid-steers and
attachments
C-8.02.03
lay out and mark construction area
C-8.02.04
excavate as required
C-8.02.05
prepare foundation suitable for structure installation
C-8.02.06
construct specified structure such as decks, pergolas, outdoor kitchens and
gazebos
C-8.02.07
verify that installation meets specifications
C-8.02.08
clean structures using tools such as brooms, water and power blowers
- 41 -
C-8.02.09
repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction
C-8.02.10
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
C-8.02.11
apply preservatives, stains and sealants to provide ease of cleaning, longevity
and aesthetics according to product specifications and jurisdictional
regulations
Sub-task
C-8.03
NL
yes
Installs walkway, patio, driveway and parking lot materials.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.03.01
select and use tools such as shovels, picks, chisels and wheelbarrows
C-8.03.02
select and use equipment such as excavators, plate compactors and concrete
saws
C-8.03.03
lay out and mark construction area
C-8.03.04
excavate as specified and stabilize by compaction
C-8.03.05
store or remove excavated materials
C-8.03.06
place geotextiles for base stability
C-8.03.07
add aggregate base and compact in lifts according to specifications
C-8.03.08
create or maintain adequate grade to ensure positive drainage
C-8.03.09
secure edge restraints for finished material
C-8.03.10
place bedding materials such as sand, limestone screening, high performance
bedding materials and concrete bases
C-8.03.11
screed bedding materials
C-8.03.12
install materials such as flagstones, concrete, aggregates and paving stones
C-8.03.13
measure, cut and fit materials
C-8.03.14
clean surfaces using tools such as brooms and power blowers
C-8.03.15
apply joint materials such as mortars, sand and polymeric sand according to
product specifications
C-8.03.16
compact surfaces
C-8.03.17
clean and seal, according to manufacturers’ specifications
C-8.03.18
verify that installation meets specifications
C-8.03.19
clean and repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction
C-8.03.20
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
- 42 -
Sub-task
C-8.04
NL
yes
Installs steps and retaining walls.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.04.01
select and use tools such as shovels, picks, stone chisels and wheelbarrows
C-8.04.02
select and use equipment such as excavators, plate compactors, concrete saws
and concrete mixers
C-8.04.03
lay out and mark construction area
C-8.04.04
excavate as specified and stabilize by compaction
C-8.04.05
store or remove excavated materials
C-8.04.06
place geotextile materials for stability
C-8.04.07
install aggregate base and compact in lifts according to specifications
C-8.04.08
place bedding materials such as sand, limestone screening and concrete
footing
C-8.04.09
screed bedding materials
C-8.04.10
build wall and steps by performing actions such as stacking and assembling
courses, installing geogrid and using materials such as timber, natural stone,
and manufactured stones according to drawings, specifications and
jurisdictional regulations
C-8.04.11
place drainage systems and backfill while maintaining the grade, according
to specifications
C-8.04.12
install adhesives or mortar to secure capstones and treads
C-8.04.13
clean surfaces using tools such as brooms, power blowers and power washers
C-8.04.14
seal steps and retaining walls according to product specifications
C-8.04.15
verify that installation meets specifications and is ready for next phase
C-8.04.16
repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction
C-8.04.17
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
- 43 -
Sub-task
C-8.05
NL
yes
Installs irrigation systems.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.05.01
select and use tools such as pipe cutters, crimping tools, trenching shovels
and wheelbarrows
C-8.05.02
select and use equipment such as excavators, trenchers, loaders, skid steers
and attachments
C-8.05.03
excavate or trench to required grade and depth according to specifications
and jurisdictional regulations
C-8.05.04
store or remove excavated materials
C-8.05.05
lay out and assemble irrigation components according to manufacturers’
specifications and irrigation plan
C-8.05.06
backfill irrigation systems with specified materials to finished grade
C-8.05.07
set head heights and nozzles of irrigation system to ensure coverage
C-8.05.08
install and program control system according to the landscape and
environmental requirements
C-8.05.09
verify that installation is not leaking and meets specifications
C-8.05.10
clean and repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction
C-8.05.11
dispose of and recycle waste material according to jurisdictional regulations
Sub-task
C-8.06
NL
yes
Installs water features.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.06.01
select and use tools such as shovels, picks, chisels and wheelbarrows
C-8.06.02
select and use equipment such as excavators, loaders and skid-steers
C-8.06.03
lay out and mark construction area
C-8.06.04
excavate and store or remove excavated materials
- 44 -
NU
ND
C-8.06.05
place geotextile materials, membranes and components such as pumps,
drains, valves, filtration systems and electrical conduits according to
specifications
C-8.06.06
apply adhesives, foams and mortar to secure and seal assembly
C-8.06.07
complete assembly of water supply components, filtration systems and
lighting
C-8.06.08
add water, run water systems and check for leaks
C-8.06.09
add aggregates and decorative features such as rocks, garden art and foot
bridges according to specifications
C-8.06.10
verify and adjust water flow for optimal performance, sound and aesthetics
C-8.06.11
drain water and clean all components
C-8.06.12
refill water features and add ecosystem enhancement products such as
beneficial bacteria and pH amendments
C-8.06.13
place aquatic plants
C-8.06.14
verify that installation meets specifications
C-8.06.15
repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction
C-8.06.16
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
Sub-task
C-8.07
NL
yes
Installs low voltage landscape lighting.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.07.01
select and use tools such as wire strippers, voltmeters, ladders and trenching
shovels
C-8.07.02
dig trenches to required depth
C-8.07.03
store or remove excavated materials
C-8.07.04
lay out and assemble lighting components according to manufacturers’
specifications and lighting plan
C-8.07.05
verify operation of the lighting system and check voltage
C-8.07.06
position and secure lighting components into final location
C-8.07.07
program lighting controller
C-8.07.08
adjust fixtures for desired effects
- 45 -
C-8.07.09
clean and repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction
C-8.07.10
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
Sub-task
C-8.08
NL
yes
Installs green infrastructure.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-8.08.01
select and use tools such as shovels, picks and wheelbarrows
C-8.08.02
select and use equipment such as excavators, trenchers, lifts, loaders and
skid-steers
C-8.08.03
excavate subsoil to required grade and depth
C-8.08.04
store or remove excavated materials
C-8.08.05
move specified drainage system materials into desired location
C-8.08.06
lay out and assemble green infrastructure components such as geomembranes, green roof and living wall systems, water management systems
and landscape on slab
C-8.08.07
place materials such as soil, structural and filter media to support softscape
and hardscape applications
C-8.08.08
install plants and surface materials such as permeable pavers and organic
mulch
C-8.08.09
verify that installation meets specifications
C-8.08.10
verify structural integrity of components
C-8.08.11
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
- 46 -
Task 9
Installs softscape.
Context
Landscape horticulturists install softscape features that comply with
plans, specifications, regulations and codes to ensure the integrity of the
installation.
Required Knowledge
K1
tool use and application
K2
equipment use and application
K3
growing media structure and quality
K4
codes and standards
K5
hardscape and construction materials
K6
softscape materials
K7
design principles
K8
jurisdictional regulations
K9
types of landscape drawings
K 10
horticulture
K 11
plant identification and nomenclature
K 12
scope of landscape horticulturist and other trades
K 13
productivity management
K 14
safe work practices
K 15
site preservation best practices such as compaction and prevention and
reduction of erosion
K 16
excavation practices
K 17
drainage techniques
K 18
plant growing requirements
K 19
water quality management
K 20
interior landscape planting guidelines
K 21
exterior landscape planting guidelines
K 22
sub-irrigation and irrigation
K 23
IPM
K 24
erosion control methods and materials such as live staking, fibre blanket and
coco fibre
K 25
seed and fertilizer application rates
K 26
seed species, variety, blends and purpose
K 27
equipment calibration
K 28
habitat preservation and conservation
- 47 -
K 29
transplanting methods such as manual and mechanical
K 30
plant growing requirements such as nutrients, light and water
K 31
sampling and testing methods
K 32
standards and quality of products
K 33
effective product storage and requirements
Sub-task
C-9.01
NL
yes
Installs growing media.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.01.01
select and use tools such as shovels, picks, rakes and wheelbarrows
C-9.01.02
select and use equipment such as skid-steers, loaders and excavators
C-9.01.03
verify that drainage systems are effective and functioning
C-9.01.04
scarify subsoil with mechanical and manual tools and equipment
C-9.01.05
move growing media into desired location
C-9.01.06
add growing media in lifts, and compact and irrigate as specified
C-9.01.07
add and incorporate amendments such as fertilizers, composts and peat moss
C-9.01.08
grade growing media by mechanical and manual raking to elevation
C-9.01.09
verify that growing media depth and elevation meet specifications
Sub-task
C-9.02
NL
yes
Installs exterior landscape plants.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.02.01
select and use tools such as tree dollies, shovels and rakes
C-9.02.02
select and use equipment such as excavators, and loaders and attachments
C-9.02.03
prepare plant materials by performing activities such as removal of
containers, scarifying root ball and managing nutrient balance
C-9.02.04
monitor and maintain plant health throughout installation process
C-9.02.05
move plant materials to desired location
- 48 -
C-9.02.06
lay out plant materials as per plan
C-9.02.07
plant, stake and guy plant materials as specified
C-9.02.08
prune plant material that may have been damaged during the process of
installation
C-9.02.09
verify moisture content of growing media to ensure adequate irrigation
C-9.02.10
verify that plant installation meets specifications
C-9.02.11
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
Sub-task
C-9.03
NL
yes
Transplants plants.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.03.01
select and use tools and equipment such as shovels, tree gantry, tree spades
and axes
C-9.03.02
verify plant is viable for transplant considering factors such as species, health
and time of year
C-9.03.03
remove plant with as large a root ball as possible considering factors such as
root structure, soil condition and size
C-9.03.04
plant according to specifications
C-9.03.05
prune plant material that may have been damaged during the process of
transplanting
C-9.03.06
verify moisture and nutrient content of growing media to ensure plant health
C-9.03.07
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
- 49 -
Sub-task
C-9.04
NL
yes
Installs mulch.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.04.01
select and use tools such as wheelbarrows, landscape rakes and pitch forks
C-9.04.02
select and use equipment such as loaders, skid-steers and blower trucks
C-9.04.03
verify that area to be mulched is prepared according to specifications
C-9.04.04
verify that mulch materials such as wood, aggregates and composts meet
specifications
C-9.04.05
apply mulch according to specifications avoiding contact with plant material
C-9.04.06
verify that mulch installation meets specifications
Sub-task
C-9.05
NL
yes
Installs turf from seed.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.05.01
select and use tools such as rollers, landscape rakes and seed spreaders
C-9.05.02
select and use equipment such as hydro-seeders, seed drills, and tractors and
attachments
C-9.05.03
verify seedbed is prepared according to specifications including amendments
and fertilizers
C-9.05.04
verify that seed variety selected meets specifications and jurisdictional
regulations
C-9.05.05
apply seed to prepared area according to specifications and weather
conditions
C-9.05.06
use landscape rollers to ensure seed is in direct contact with growing media
C-9.05.07
verify that seed distribution will result in uniform turf by visual inspection
and correct
C-9.05.08
apply organic matter such as hydro mulch and straw to retain moisture and
minimize seed movement as specified
C-9.05.09
monitor turf regularly to ensure irrigation meets germination requirements
- 50 -
Sub-task
C-9.06
NL
yes
Installs sod.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.06.01
select and use tools such as landscape rakes and sod knives
C-9.06.02
select and use equipment such as and tractors and attachments
C-9.06.03
verify that area to be sodded is prepared according to specifications
C-9.06.04
verify selected sod meets specifications
C-9.06.05
apply fertilizers and amendments as specified
C-9.06.06
lay sod to prepared area according to specifications
C-9.06.07
secure sod according to slope
C-9.06.08
use landscape rollers to ensure sod is in direct contact with growing media
C-9.06.09
monitor sod regularly to ensure irrigation meets established requirements
C-9.06.10
verify that sod installation meets specifications
C-9.06.11
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
Sub-task
C-9.07
NL
yes
Installs erosion control materials.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.07.01
select and use tools such as shovels, post pounders and knives
C-9.07.02
select and use equipment such as augers, trenchers and loaders
C-9.07.03
move specified erosion control material into desired location
C-9.07.04
lay out and apply erosion control material
C-9.07.05
secure placement of erosion control material to ensure performance
C-9.07.06
verify that erosion control installation meets specifications
C-9.07.07
dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations
- 51 -
Sub-task
C-9.08
NL
yes
Installs interior landscape plants.
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
Key Competencies
C-9.08.01
select and use tools such as tree dollies, shovels and rakes
C-9.08.02
select and use equipment such as skid-steers and tree gantrys
C-9.08.03
prepare plant materials by performing activities such as foliar washing,
scarifying root ball and managing nutrient balance
C-9.08.04
monitor and maintain plant health throughout installation process
C-9.08.05
protect interior furnishings and surfaces
C-9.08.06
move plant materials to desired location
C-9.08.07
lay out plant materials according to drawing
C-9.08.08
plant interior landscape plants according to specifications
C-9.08.09
prune plant material that may have been damaged during the process of
installation and acclimatization
C-9.08.10
verify moisture content of growing media to ensure adequate irrigation
C-9.08.11
verify that plant installation meets specifications
- 52 -
NU
ND
BLOCK D
LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE
Trends
A higher degree of attention is paid to plant health due to more
effective maintenance practices and environmental awareness.
Due to increased regulations, IPM processes for the managing of plant
health have become more prevalent.
There is an increase in the use of technology to track maintenance
activities and to assist in inventory.
There is an increased awareness and a demand for sustainable
maintenance practices. Maintenance contractors are more engaged in
maintaining green infrastructures and their associated technologies.
Related
Components
(include, but not
limited to)
Softscape material: growing media, mulch, turf, bulbs, plants and plant
materials, fertilizers, amendments.
Hardscape materials: drainage components, irrigation and lighting
components, pre-cast concrete, aggregates, manufacturers’ stones,
natural stone, wood, stone, mortar, joint materials, rebar, geotextiles,
filter cloths, erosion mats, river rock, boulders, edging materials,
recycled materials.
Structures and features: wood, metals, rails, posts, concrete, metal
hangers, steel sheets, nails, screws, composite boards, pumps, hoses,
electrical conduits and wiring, water feature components.
Tools and
Equipment
Task 10
See Appendix A.
Maintains softscape and green infrastructure.
Context
Landscape horticulturists are responsible for maintaining all interior
and exterior plant materials to sustain plant health, maintain the
integrity of the design and to provide a functioning and aesthetically
pleasing environment.
Required Knowledge
K1
plant identification and an understanding of nomenclature
K2
growing media conditions such as moisture, pH and nutrient levels
K3
drainage systems and components and drain locations
K4
fertilizer requirements and schedules
- 53 -
K5
soil amendment requirements and schedules
K6
irrigation components
K7
edging, cultivation and pruning techniques
K8
industry standards
K9
nutrient requirements for interior and exterior softscape
K 10
watering requirements and scheduling
K 11
climate conditions
K 12
methods of weed control
K 13
customer/client expectations
K 14
IPM
K 15
maintaining the design concept
K 16
maintenance practices
K 17
light requirements of interior and exterior softscape
K 18
cleaning materials and techniques for interior and exterior softscape
K 19
turfgrass varieties such as Kentucky blue grass, red fescue, perennial rye
grass, bentgrass and annual blue grass
K 20
types of PPE required for tasks and equipment, environmental safety and
product safety
K 21
specialized propagation methods such as air layering, cuttings and layering
K 22
root division methods
K 23
growing media such as custom formulations, composts and non-soil products
K 24
sampling and testing methods
K 25
jurisdictional regulations
K 26
species and cultivars and their growing regime
K 27
basic plant botany and physiology
K 28
storage and sanitation of tools
K 29
monitoring devices such as rain gauges, moisture probes and insect traps
K 30
staking and guying as per industry standards
- 54 -
Sub-task
D-10.01
NL
yes
Maintains growing media.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.01.01
assess growing media composition for conditions such as texture, moisture
levels and porosity using ribbon tests and tools such as probes
D-10.01.02
collect and label growing media and water samples, and send to lab to
determine pH, nutrient and deficiency levels
D-10.01.03
interpret lab results to determine nutrient requirements for growing media,
irrigation water and implement amendments required
D-10.01.04
cultivate growing media with tools such as garden fork, cultivator, hoe and
mechanical rototillers for reasons such as aeration, weed control and
maintenance of growing media structure
Sub-task
D-10.02
NL
yes
Maintains turfgrass.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.02.01
perform visual inspection of turfgrass area to determine conditions and
irregularities with colour, thinning, grades and drainage
D-10.02.02
irrigate turfgrass according to species, environmental conditions and usage
D-10.02.03
mow and trim turfgrass using tools and equipment according to varieties,
usage of site and climate conditions
D-10.02.04
aerate turfgrass using tools and equipment according to growing media
analysis, turfgrass conditions, time of year, usage of site and climate
conditions
D-10.02.05
fertilize and adjust pH according to growing media analysis, usage of site
and climate conditions
D-10.02.06
overseed turfgrass for reasons such as repairs, rejuvenation and introduction
of new cultivars
- 55 -
D-10.02.07
topdress turfgrass using tools and equipment for reasons such as
enhancement of substrate profile, and promotion of growth of existing and
newly-introduced turfgrass
D-10.02.08
dethatch turfgrass to promote optimum growth conditions
Sub-task
D-10.03
NL
yes
Maintains interior softscape.
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.03.01
perform visual inspection to determine plant health
D-10.03.02
test and amend irrigation water
D-10.03.03
irrigate and fertilize plants according to plant needs using manual or
automated methods
D-10.03.04
cultivate growing media with tools such as garden fork, cultivator and core
aerator for reasons such as aeration and maintenance of growing media
structures
D-10.03.05
clean foliage and containers for aesthetics and plant health
D-10.03.06
replace damaged or broken containers
D-10.03.07
perform seasonal plant rotation for health and aesthetic reasons
D-10.03.08
protect furnishings and surfaces from the effects of caustic materials such as
salts, fertilizers and sprays
- 56 -
Sub-task
D-10.04
NL
yes
Maintains exterior softscape.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.04.01
perform visual inspection to determine plant health
D-10.04.02
irrigate and fertilize plants according to plant needs using manual or
automated methods
D-10.04.03
cultivate growing media with tools such as garden fork, cultivator,
mechanical rototiller and hoe for reasons such as aeration, weed control and
maintenance of growing media structures
D-10.04.04
perform seasonal planting and removal of plants such as annuals, biennials
and bulbs
D-10.04.05
apply or install seasonal protection such as anti-desiccants, burlap wrapping
and binding with twine to ensure plant survival through winter
D-10.04.06
perform hardening-off practices such as mulching activities to ensure plant
survival through winter
D-10.04.07
protect plants from snow load by constructing and installing seasonal
structures
D-10.04.08
remove weeds for plant health and aesthetics
D-10.04.09
mulch beds and containers for reasons such as moisture retention, weed
suppression, growing media temperature moderation and aesthetics
D-10.04.10
edge beds for reasons such as bed definition and aesthetics
D-10.04.11
inspect and maintain natural and manufactured edge such as, brick, poly
edging or aluminum edging
D-10.04.12
perform site cleanup such as litter pickup, removing excess clippings and
cleaning sidewalks
D-10.04.13
remove staking and guying materials to prevent plant damage
- 57 -
Sub-task
D-10.05
NL
yes
Propagates plant materials.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.05.01
select and use clean hand tools such as knives, spades, digging forks and
secateurs
D-10.05.02
sow seeds using mechanical methods such as broadcast spreaders and
motorized slit seeders
D-10.05.03
harvest and divide roots, tubers, bulbs and corms according to plant species
D-10.05.04
select and perform specialized propagation methods such as layering,
grafting, and cutting according to time of year and species
Sub-task
D-10.06
NL
yes
NS
yes
Repairs softscape.
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.06.01
repair living components damaged as a result of activities such as snow and
ice, vehicular traffic and animal damage
D-10.06.02
replace interior and exterior plants due to death, damage and disease
D-10.06.03
repair natural and manufactured edge such as brick, poly edging or
aluminum edging
D-10.06.04
repair staking and guying materials to prevent plant damage
D-10.06.05
repair soil irregularities such as grading and drainage
- 58 -
Task 11
Maintains hardscape and green infrastructure.
Context
Landscape horticulturists are responsible for maintaining all hardscape
systems and features. Other tradespersons may be required to complete
tasks in the maintenance of hardscape lighting and irrigation.
Required Knowledge
K1
drainage requirements
K2
site layout
K3
operation of mechanical systems such as pumps, irrigation system and
lighting
K4
water quality and pressure requirements for irrigation and water features
K5
low voltage electrical lighting systems and their components
K6
basic electrical practices and principles
K7
types of hard surface materials such as wood, concrete, natural stone and
asphalt
K8
types of irrigation systems and their components
K9
installation practices for hardscape systems
K 10
types of drains
K 11
effects of frost heaving on hard surfaces and footings
K 12
causes and results of efflorescence and spalling
K 13
hardscape components
K 14
IPM
K 15
environmental stewardship practices
K 16
types of green infrastructures such as green roofs, living walls, retention
ponds, permeable pavers, bio-swales, storm water retention, wetland reserves
an silva cells
K 17
snow and ice best management practices that meet industry standards
K 18
industry standards for segmental concrete installation and associated
products
K 19
basic carpentry skills for repair
- 59 -
Sub-task
D-11.01
NL
yes
Maintains green infrastructure.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.01.01
inspect green infrastructures for deficiencies such as blocked drains, and
excessive and invasive plant growth to ensure plant and systems viability
D-11.01.02
assess site to determine health and well-being of plants
D-11.01.03
inspect drainage systems, permeable surfaces and drainage swales for debris
and blockages
D-11.01.04
protect existing trees by installing snow fence
D-11.01.05
protect critical root zones, native woodland areas and waterways to ensure
the integrity of the area
Sub-task
D-11.02
NL
yes
Maintains drainage systems.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.02.01
check drains, catch basins and retention ponds to ensure proper operation
D-11.02.02
inspect and replace screens to avoid blockage
D-11.02.03
remove debris from drainage systems to ensure optimal flow
D-11.02.04
maintain grades according to original design to allow for adequate flow
D-11.02.05
inspect performance of drains, catch basins and retention ponds by flushing
drainage systems with water
D-11.02.06
ensure drain covers are secure for safety and proper operation
D-11.02.07
winterize drainage systems by performing activities such as cleaning,
flushing and installing heating cables to prevent damage and ensure proper
operation
- 60 -
Sub-task
D-11.03
NL
yes
Maintains walkways, patios, driveways and parking lots.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.03.01
remove debris and undesirable growth manually or by using tools and
equipment such as blowers, brooms, high pressure sprayers and torches
D-11.03.02
top up jointing sand on interlock surfaces according to manufacturers'
specifications
D-11.03.03
fix or replace interlock paver surfaces with improper slope or elevation that
has occurred as a result of construction or weather
Sub-task
D-11.04
NL
yes
Maintains irrigation systems.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.04.01
start-up systems by charging and running systems through a test cycle
D-11.04.02
visually inspect site to determine functioning of systems
D-11.04.03
identify problems with irrigation systems, and troubleshoot and repair
D-11.04.04
visually inspect system components such as screens, heads and pipes for
damage such as clogging, cracks and corroded wiring and repair or adjust
D-11.04.05
check functioning of zone valves according to manufacturers' specifications
D-11.04.06
adjust irrigation controllers according to environmental conditions
D-11.04.07
clean and clear sensors to ensure optimum operation
D-11.04.08
winterize systems by blowing out irrigation systems
- 61 -
Sub-task
D-11.05
NL
yes
Maintains landscape lighting.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.05.01
turn on systems to detect defects
D-11.05.02
visually check light fixtures, fuses and transformers for function and damage,
and repair and replace
D-11.05.03
repair low voltage wiring
D-11.05.04
check and adjust lighting coverage and positioning
D-11.05.05
clean and clear sensor to ensure optimum operation
D-11.05.06
check light timing and adjust program according to seasonal requirements
Sub-task
D-11.06
NL
yes
Maintains water features.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.06.01
inspect water features for defects such as cracks, leaks, plugged filters, and
faulty gaskets and seals
D-11.06.02
charge systems to prime pumps and start-up operation for the season and
replace pumps
D-11.06.03
set and reset timers according to manufacturers' specifications
D-11.06.04
drain and refill features for seasonal maintenance
D-11.06.05
clean components such as filters, screens, nozzles, pumps and skimmers
D-11.06.06
run systems to ensure functioning according to manufacturers' specifications
D-11.06.07
inspect water for conditions such as clarity, algae and debris
D-11.06.08
test water for conditions such as pH levels and presence of bacteria
D-11.06.09
test ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)
D-11.06.10
clean basins manually and amend the water with aquatic products
D-11.06.11
remove and protect plants and fish during winter or when cleaning the
features according to conditions and species requirements
- 62 -
D-11.06.12
winterize features by disassembling, insulating, covering and draining to
avoid damage
D-11.06.13
disconnect feature components and store according to manufacturers'
specifications
D-11.06.14
clean fountains by draining water and washing features
Sub-task
D-11.07
NL
yes
Maintains steps and retaining walls.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.07.01
inspect steps and walls to detect defects that require remediation
D-11.07.02
recognize hazards of structures, flag area and report to supervisor
D-11.07.03
clean steps and walls using tools and equipment such as pressure washers
and brooms
Sub-task
D-11.08
NL
yes
Maintains landscape structures.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.08.01
inspect structures for defects such as compromised hardware, rotting wood,
heaving and settling
D-11.08.02
recognize hazards of structures, flag area and report to supervisor
- 63 -
Sub-task
D-11.09
NL
yes
Practices snow and ice management.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.09.01
select and use tools and equipment such as vehicles with blades, walk-behind
and tractor mounted blowers, spreaders and skid-steers
D-11.09.02
determine snow storage locations and removal requirements
D-11.09.03
remove snow according to contractual requirements
D-11.09.04
apply ice control products according to industry standards and jurisdictional
regulations
Sub-task
D-11.10
NL
yes
Repairs hardscape.
NS
yes
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
yes
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.10.01
perform minor repairs to drainage systems such as damaged pipes, plugged
catch basins and french drains
D-11.10.02
apply preservatives, stains and sealants on hard surfaces to provide ease of
cleaning, longevity and aesthetics
D-11.10.03
repair damage to aggregate-based hard surfaces such as structural planters,
paving stones, gravel, asphalt and concrete
D-11.10.04
visually inspect structural integrity of hard surfaces for cracks, frost heave,
efflorescence, spalling and settling
D-11.10.05
repair faulty and broken irrigation heads, valves, pipes and solenoid switches
D-11.10.06
seal steps and retaining walls
D-11.10.07
apply adhesive to loose caps on steps and retaining walls
D-11.10.08
perform lift and re-lay of all hard surface materials
D-11.10.09
repair low-voltage wires, fixtures and replace bulbs
D-11.10.10
perform minor repairs such as replacing cracked stones, rotting, splintering
and cracked timber, levelling structures, and staining or painting wood
structures
- 64 -
D-11.10.11
repair cracks, leaks and holes in water features
D-11.10.12
reinstate all damaged hardscape components due to all snow clearing
activities such as replacing broken concrete, damaged fences and exterior
utilities
D-11.10.13
reinstate utilities by calling in the professional services that handle those
utilities
- 65 -
BLOCK E
PRODUCTION OF PLANT MATERIALS
(NOT COMMON CORE)
Trends
There is an increase of mechanisation of production facilities reducing
labour inputs.
Due to customer demand, landscape horticulturalists are producing
new plant varieties, dwarf plants, native plants, edible plants and more
mature plants.
Biodegradable and recyclable containers are increasingly being sought
out due to environmental concerns.
Producers are becoming environmentally conscious with the goal of
reducing their carbon footprint. Alternative energy systems are being
considered to reduce cost and environmental impact.
Related
Components
(include, but not
limited to)
Water, fertilizers, growing media, media and amendments, containers,
irrigation system components, heating, venting and cooling system
components, chemicals, fuels, labels, packing and shipping materials,
files and records, plant coverings, ground covers, barriers, alarm and
security system components, stakes, signage, conveyors.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 12
Constructs growing facilities (NOT COMMON CORE)
Context
Landscape horticulturists are involved in the planning and building of
greenhouse structures and nursery facilities. Greenhouse structures
may include glass and poly growing houses. Nursery structures and
facilities may include shade houses, climate control storage sheds and
header houses.
Required Knowledge
K1
manufacturers’ construction standards
K2
codes and jurisdictional regulations
K3
basic carpentry skills
K4
tools and equipment used to construct systems and equipment
K5
irrigation systems such as flood, ebb and flow, and drip line
K6
water conservation and recapture systems such as tanks and ponds
- 66 -
K7
drainage systems to alleviate excess water
K8
site preparation and construction of growing structures
K9
types of growing structures such as gutter-connected greenhouses, free
standing greenhouses, cold frames, and shelter and shade houses
K 10
types of monitoring systems such as climatic control alarms and security
K 11
generator systems
K 12
irrigation and fertigation systems for field and greenhouse applications
K 13
facility contents such as benches, carts and wagons
K 14
interpreting constructions drawings and specifications
K 15
installation of greenhouse covers such as polyethylene, poly carbonate and
glass
Sub-task
E-12.01
NL
yes
Builds growing facilities. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
no
QC
no
ON
no
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-12.01.01
assist in building greenhouses and growing structures
E-12.01.02
excavate base and prepare grade according to drawings and specifications
E-12.01.03
install footings according to specifications
E-12.01.04
install in-ground drainage, services and granular base material according to
drawings and specifications
E-12.01.05
construct frame, install greenhouse covers according to drawings,
specifications and jurisdictional regulations
E-12.01.06
assemble premade structures and components according to manufacturers’
specifications and jurisdictional regulations
E-12.01.07
construct walkways for accessibility throughout the facility
- 67 -
Sub-task
E-12.02
NL
yes
Installs growing facility components (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
no
QC
no
ON
no
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-12.02.01
install operational components such as ventilation, heat distribution, lighting,
generators for emergency backup systems, irrigation and fertigation,
according to building codes, jurisdictional regulations and manufacturers’
specifications
E-12.02.02
assemble and install components such as benches, nursery carts and
conveyors according to manufacturers’ specifications
E-12.02.03
install or assist in installation of utilities such as fuelling system, heating,
plumbing, electrical and water according to drawings, specifications and
jurisdictional regulations
Task 13
Operates and maintains components of growing facilities.
(NOT COMMON CORE)
Context
Landscape horticulturists are involved in operating and maintaining
growing facilities. These may include glass and poly growing houses,
shade houses, climate control storage sheds and header houses. These
structures, facilities and systems need to be maintained to operate
efficiently, to grow and store plant materials
Required Knowledge
K1
control systems for heating, cooling and ventilation, misting and injecting
CO2 and their alarms
K2
monitoring devices such as thermometers, relative humidity meters and light
meters
K3
light and heat regulating materials such as shade cloths, thermal blankets and
liquid shade
K4
winterizing procedures such as blowing-out and draining-down lines, pumps
and filters, installing anti-freeze and insulating pipes
K5
tools and equipment used to maintain and winterize systems and equipment
K6
irrigation and fertigation systems such as flood, ebb and flow, and drip line
K7
fertilizer in-line injectors
- 68 -
K8
irrigation and fertigation systems for field and greenhouse applications
K9
water conservation and recapture systems such as tanks and ponds
K 10
sanitation practices such as bleaching, barriers to entry, and staff and
customer notices
K 11
installation of greenhouse covers such as polyethylene, poly carbonate and
glass
K 12
monitoring systems such as climatic control alarms and security
K 13
generator systems
K 14
facility contents such as benches, carts and wagons
K 15
IPM protocols
Sub-task
E-13.01
NL
yes
Operates growing facility structures and components. (NOT
COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-13.01.01
maintain and test emergency alarm system to ensure proper function
E-13.01.02
calibrate instruments and equipment to establish standard settings and
accuracy according to crop requirements
E-13.01.03
inspect and maintain greenhouses and growing structures using methods
such as replacing greenhouse covers, weed barriers and shade cloths
E-13.01.04
use generators for emergency back-up systems
E-13.01.05
inspect, maintain and repair contents using methods such as replacing bolts
and bearings, and oiling and greasing components
- 69 -
Sub-task
E-13.02
NL
yes
Maintains sanitary environment. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-13.02.01
conduct regular inspections and follow check lists to ensure sanitation
practices such as hand washing, plant quarantine and the use of foot baths
E-13.02.02
select cultural, physical or chemical methods to maintain continuous
sanitation and pest control
E-13.02.03
sanitize equipment, tools, benches and containers to minimize pests and
diseases
E-13.02.04
select and use sanitized tools and equipment such as hoes, sprayers and weed
barriers to control pests and diseases
E-13.02.05
perform regular maintenance activities on adjacent buildings and properties
to manage sanitation and promote plant health
Sub-task
E-13.03
NL
yes
Operates climate control and components. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-13.03.01
interpret results of environmental climate monitoring devices such as
automated and computerized control systems, thermometers, relative
humidity meters and light meters to determine inside and outside climate
conditions
E-13.03.02
perform basic repairs on heating, cooling and ventilation systems such as
replacing fan belts, thermocouples and vent tubes to limit downtime
E-13.03.03
maintain heating, cooling, and ventilation systems to ensure efficient
operation
E-13.03.04
conduct regular inspections and follow check lists to ensure integrity of
heating, cooling and ventilation systems
E-13.03.05
winterize heating and cooling systems when shutting greenhouse for winter
to protect from frozen lines, and ice and water damage of equipment
E-13.03.06
regulate humidity levels by using systems such as misting and venting
- 70 -
E-13.03.07
maintain gas levels by using CO2 injection systems according to crop
requirements
E-13.03.08
calibrate instruments and equipment such as controllers and zone valves to
establish standard settings and accuracy depending on crop and seasonal
requirements
E-13.03.09
select and use hand tools appropriate to specific task to perform maintenance
E-13.03.10
use shading materials and thermal blankets to regulate light and heat levels
E-13.03.11
select and use artificial lights to ensure adequate light levels according to
crop requirements
Sub-task
E-13.04
NL
yes
Operate irrigation and fertigation systems. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-13.04.01
interpret test results and meter readings from monitoring equipment such as
thermometers, and flow, pH and EC meters to determine water quality
E-13.04.02
calibrate instruments and equipment such as controllers and zone valves to
establish standard settings and accuracy
E-13.04.03
perform basic repairs such as replacing distribution and drip lines, nozzles
and injector systems on irrigation and fertigation systems
E-13.04.04
maintain irrigation and fertigation systems to ensure efficient operation
E-13.04.05
perform regular inspections and follow check lists to ensure integrity of
irrigation and fertigation systems
E-13.04.06
winterize irrigation and fertigation systems to protect equipment from frozen
lines, and ice and water damage
E-13.04.07
inspect water retention, capture and recycling systems to ensure that the
systems are functioning according to design parameters, and meeting
industry standards and jurisdictional regulations
E-13.04.08
maintain water retention, capture and recycling systems using methods such
as filter replacement, ultraviolet (UV) bulb replacement and chemical
treatment to preserve water quality
- 71 -
Task 14
Maintains greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
Context
Landscape horticulturists are involved in the planning and production
of greenhouse plant materials. These products are distributed in retail
and wholesale facilities, and in the horticultural industry.
Required Knowledge
K1
chemical application equipment
K2
fertigation systems
K3
propagation methods such as seeding, cutting, division and grafting
K4
specialized propagation methods such as air layering, layering and micropropagation
K5
propagation materials such as rooting hormones and growing media
K6
manual and mechanical transplanting methods
K7
storage facilities such as cold rooms, refrigerators and freezers
K8
containers such as flats, pots and decorative
K9
growing media such as custom formulations, composts and non-soil products
K 10
plant growing requirements such as nutrients, light, CO2 levels, growth
regulators and water
K 11
pest and disease identification and treatment methods such as biological and
low-impact chemical controls
K 12
other plant growth limiting factors such as over-watering, lack of nutrients
and physical damage
K 13
sampling and testing methods
K 14
plant identification and nomenclature
K 15
plant maturity for market
K 16
jurisdictional regulations
K 17
PPE, environmental safety and product safety
K 18
species and cultivars and their growing regime
K 19
hardening-off procedures such as reduction of temperature, changing fertility
programs and reduction of light
K 20
standards and quality of products
K 21
product storage and requirements
K 22
handling techniques when packaging plant materials
K 23
use of fork lifts, pallet jacks and conveyors
K 24
packing materials such as boxes, nursery carts, pallets and trays
K 25
monitoring devices
- 72 -
K 26
basic plant botany and physiology
K 27
storage and sanitation of tools
K 28
IPM
Sub-task
E-14.01
NL
yes
Propagates greenhouse plant materials. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.01.01
select and use tools and equipment such as mechanical seeders, dibble sticks,
watering cans and misters
E-14.01.02
sow seeds in flats and containers using methods such as hand seeding and
mechanical seeding
E-14.01.03
take leaf, root and stem cuttings, plugs and tissue cultures to grow additional
plants
E-14.01.04
treat cuttings according to species requirements using methods such as
callusing, hormone treatment and leaf incisions to promote root growth
E-14.01.05
harvest and divide roots, tubers, bulbs and corms to produce additional
plants
E-14.01.06
graft scion wood and buds to selected rootstocks and stems to create
additional plant material
E-14.01.07
maintain propagated materials until viable for transplanting, harvesting and
growing-on
E-14.01.08
label plants to identify species and date of seeding
Sub-task
E-14.02
NL
yes
Transplants greenhouse plants. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.02.01
select most viable and true-to-type stock for transplanting
E-14.02.02
select containers according to intended use
E-14.02.03
select growing media according to species requirements and containers
- 73 -
NU
ND
E-14.02.04
plant according to container, species requirements and presentation
E-14.02.05
water to species requirements to promote optimum growth and development
E-14.02.06
place plants in optimum growing environment
E-14.02.07
label plants for species and date of transplanting
Sub-task
E-14.03
NL
yes
Grows greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.03.01
maintain and monitor water requirements to optimize plant health and
development, and apply interventions such as pH and nutrient adjustments,
and watering levels
E-14.03.02
maintain and monitor crop for pests to ensure threshold levels are not
exceeded
E-14.03.03
maintain and monitor crop growth to ensure proper health and development
rate
E-14.03.04
transplant in bigger pot to grow
E-14.03.05
segregate for quarantine purposes
E-14.03.06
apply interventions such as pinching, hormone growth application,
temperature, fertility, lighting and water adjustments to manage crop growth
E-14.03.07
monitor growing media fertility levels using methods such as soil and tissue
sampling, testing and analyzing to determine corrective action
E-14.03.08
harden-off crops to prepare for sale
- 74 -
Sub-task
E-14.04
Harvests greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
no
NV
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
ND
ND
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.04.01
select crop according to maturity to fill sales orders
E-14.04.02
inspect plant material before shipping to ensure it is free of diseases and free
of insects, according to standards
E-14.04.03
label plants for marketing, species, cultural practices and retail price
E-14.04.04
prepare harvested plants for staging area ensuring they are groomed, clean
and pruned
Sub-task
E-14.05
NL
yes
Ships greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
Key Competencies
E-14.05.01
package orders for transport using identified packing materials such as
boxes, nursery carts, pallets and trays
E-14.05.02
assemble products in staging or marshalling area
E-14.05.03
arrange orders and load on appropriate transportation
E-14.05.04
install monitoring devices such as recording thermometers to ensure
optimum climate during shipping
E-14.05.05
advise management on status of orders
- 75 -
NU
ND
Task 15
Maintains nursery plants. (NOT COMMON CORE)
Context
Landscape horticulturists are involved in the planning and production
of field and container-grown plant materials. These products are
distributed in retail and wholesale facilities, and in the horticultural
industry.
Required Knowledge
K1
chemical application equipment and products specific to target pests
K2
propagation methods such as seeding, cutting, division and grafting
K3
specialized propagation methods such as layering and air layering
K4
propagating tools and equipment such as grafting knives, potting machines
and secateurs
K5
field management practices such as cultivating, harrowing and discing
K6
operation of field equipment such as u-blades, tree spades, root pruners,
cultivators, harrows, land discs and spray equipment
K7
storage facilities such as cold rooms, refrigerators and freezers
K8
pruning techniques
K9
methods for shaping plant materials
K 10
growing media characteristics such as porosity, water holding capacity,
uniformity and weight
K 11
plant culture specific to container grown plant materials to avoid issues such
as spiralling and pot-bound roots
K 12
jurisdictional regulations pertaining to the movement and quarantine of
identified species
K 13
production scheduling for inventory management
K 14
propagation materials such as rooting hormones, fungicide and growing
media
K 15
manual and mechanical transplanting methods
K 16
containers such as wire baskets, fibre and plastic pots
K 17
growing media and soil amendment practices
K 18
plant growing requirements such as nutrients, light and water
K 19
pest identification and treatment methods such as biological and low-impact
chemical controls
K 20
plant growth limiting factors such as over-watering, and physical and
environmental damage
K 21
sampling and testing methods
K 22
plant identification and nomenclature
- 76 -
K 23
jurisdictional regulations
K 24
species and cultivars and their growing regime
K 25
timing of harvest related to plant physiology
K 26
standards and quality of products
K 27
product storage requirements
K 28
packing materials such as boxes, nursery carts, pallets and trays
K 29
monitoring devices
K 30
field tools and equipment
K 31
storage and sanitation of tools
K 32
IPM
Sub-task
E-15.01
NL
yes
Propagates field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.01.01
harvest and divide roots, tubers, bulbs and corms to produce additional
plants
E-15.01.02
take cuttings, graft scion wood and buds to selected rootstocks and stems
E-15.01.03
maintain propagated material until viable for transplanting, harvesting and
growing-on to marketable size
E-15.01.04
label plants with propagation information such as row marking and tagging
E-15.01.05
prepare fields and beds for activities such as lining-out, pot-in-pot and
seeding
E-15.01.06
plant out field materials such as liners, whips, roots and bulbs
E-15.01.07
direct-seed using mechanical field seeding equipment for crops such as
nursery sod, herbaceous and woody plants
E-15.01.08
select suitable growing media for container-grown plant materials based on
variety of plant
E-15.01.09
transplant container crops from plant formats such as liners, rooted cuttings,
plugs and roots
- 77 -
Sub-task
E-15.02
Transplants field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
no
NV
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
ND
ND
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.02.01
select most viable and true-to-type stock for transplanting
E-15.02.02
select containers according to intended use
E-15.02.03
select growing media according to species requirements and containers
E-15.02.04
plant according to container, species requirements and presentation
E-15.02.05
irrigate to species requirements to promote optimum growth and
development
E-15.02.06
place plants in optimum growing environment
E-15.02.07
prune selectively to compensate for transplanting shock
E-15.02.08
label plants for species and date of transplanting
Sub-task
E-15.03
NL
yes
Grows field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.03.01
collect field data such as fertilizer applications, treatments, temperatures,
cropping schedules and inventory management to transmit to record keeping
E-15.03.02
maintain and monitor irrigation requirements to optimize plant health and
development
E-15.03.03
apply interventions such as pH adjustments, nutrient adjustments and
watering levels to optimize plant health and development
E-15.03.04
apply interventions such as pruning, mowing, hormone growth application
and temperature, fertility and water adjustments to ensure proper health and
development rate
E-15.03.05
monitor crops to identify signs of nutritional and physiological disorders,
and apply corrective actions
- 78 -
E-15.03.06
monitor growing media fertility levels using methods such as soil and tissue
samplings, testing and analyzing to determine corrective actions
E-15.03.07
winterize and protect field and container crops using procedures such as
installing snow fences, heeling in nursery stock, utilizing shelter houses and
applying animal repellents
E-15.03.08
perform spring maintenance activities such as removal of protective
materials, spacing out containers, pruning, plant culling and checking labels
E-15.03.09
stake plant materials
E-15.03.10
mulch fields
Sub-task
E-15.04
NL
yes
Harvests field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.04.01
identify and dig harvest-ready plant materials using tools and equipment
such as tree spades and mechanical diggers
E-15.04.02
select suitable root containment products for trees and shrubs such as
containers, baskets, and balled and burlap (B&B)
E-15.04.03
select container grown plant materials for potting-on, potting-up and filling
orders
E-15.04.04
select appropriate growing medium
E-15.04.05
transplant plants for growing-on or sale
E-15.04.06
wash and divide bare root plant materials including perennials, vines, shrubs
and trees for activities such as cold storage, potting-up, replanting and filling
orders
E-15.04.07
lift, cut, roll sod crop using mechanical sod cutters and palletize
E-15.04.08
collect seeds, roots, corms, bulbs, and cuttings for propagation
E-15.04.09
grade plant materials according to size, conditions and industry standards
E-15.04.10
protect roots from desiccation and frost damage
E-15.04.11
inspect plant material before shipping to ensure it is free of diseases and
insects
E-15.04.12
label plants for marketing, species, cultural practices and retail price
E-15.04.13
prepare harvested plants for staging area ensuring they are groomed, clean
and pruned
- 79 -
Sub-task
E-15.05
NL
yes
Ships field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
no
PE
NV
NB
yes
QC
no
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
yes
BC
no
NT
ND
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
E-15.05.01
assemble products in staging or marshalling area according to order
specifications
E-15.05.02
select plants and label orders using recognized handling techniques
E-15.05.03
protect and package orders for transport using identified packing materials
such as boxes, nursery carts, pallets and trays
E-15.05.04
install monitoring devices such as recording thermometers to ensure
optimum climate during shipping
E-15.05.05
advise management on status of orders
E-15.05.06
select and use equipment such as forklifts, loaders and tractors to load plant
materials onto transportation
E-15.05.07
secure and cover loads using materials such as tarps, security straps and nets
E-15.05.08
select and use equipment such as flat deck trucks and spider lifts to load and
ship sod to customer
- 80 -
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Hand Tools
allen keys
axes
backpack sprayer
blocks
box cutters
brick carriers
brick splitter
brooms
bypass pruners
calculator
cart
chains
chisels
clay pick
clearing axes
core samplers (probe)
crimpers
crowbars
cultivator (manual)
dethatching rake
dibblers
dolly
drop spreaders
edgers
files
flags
garden forks
grease guns
hammers (hand, sledge)
hand plane
hand tamper
handheld watering equipment
handsaws (crosscut, back cut, pruning, hack)
hedge shears
hoes
knives (budding and grafting, sod )
ladders (step, extension, orchard)
landscape rakes
laser level
- 83 -
loppers
mallet
microscope
nursery carts
paving stone cart
paving stone cutter
paving stone extractor
pick axes
picks
pipe cutters
pitch forks
pliers (various types)
plumb line
pole pruners
pole saw
post hole auger
post maul
post pounder
pruning shears
pry bar
rakes
rakes (various types)
roller
scaffolding
screeding bars
screwdrivers (various types)
scythe
secateurs
seed/fertilizer spreader
sharpening tools
shears
shoring equipment
shovels (coal, clam, scoop/barn, spade,
garden)
side cutters
sod knives
sod lifter
soil screener
spades (various types)
spanfix
Hand Tools (continued)
sprinklers
stone chisels
string line
tape measure
tarps
tie downs (straps, chains)
transit level
transplant table
tree cart
trenching shovels
trowels
water hose
water key
watering cans
weed digger
weed torch
wheelbarrow, trolley
wire strippers
wrenches (various types)
Power Tools
air seeder
attachments
chainsaw (pole)
circular saw
compressor
concrete saw (dry, wet)
core aerator
demolition hammer (electric)
demolition hammer (pneumatic)
electric drill
fertilizer injector
grinder
hammer drill
heat gun
hydro-seeders
lathe
mechanical diggers
misters
mitre/chop saw
mortar/cement mixer
mower/mulcher
powder-actuated tools
power auger
power cultivator (rototiller)
power seeder/ power spreader
power soil screener
power sprayer
power washers
powered wheelbarrow
reciprocating saw
sabre saw
saws
spider lifts
table saw
torch
tree spade
trencher
vacuum (wet/dry, leaf)
walk-behind aerator
wet saw
Measuring Equipment
anemometer
automated plan scaler
barometer
catch can reader
compaction measuring device
ec meter
engineer levels
flow meter
gas meter
gauges
- 84 -
Measuring Equipment (continued)
gps
hygrometer
laser distance measure
levels (line, hand, zip, laser, transit)
light meter
measuring cups (metric/imperial)
measuring devices
measuring wheel
moisture metre/sensor
monitoring devices
ph meter
scale ruler
scales
soil tester
tape measure
thermometer
timers & controllers
tire pressure meter
volt metre/multi metre
water meter
Motorized Equipment
air compressor
all-terrain vehicles
backhoe
baggers
bale breaker
bed edger
blender (power)
blower trucks
blowers (backpack, hand held, push, earth
auger)
brush cutter
chipper
circulation/exhaust Fans
clearing saw
conveyor belt
dollies
edgers
elevated work platforms
excavator
fertilizer injector
flat filler
fork lift
front end loader
generators
golf carts
guillotine under hand tools
hedge trimmer (extension, long reach)
- 85 -
hydro-seeding equipment
lawn/weed string/line trimmers (gas &
electric)
lifts
loaders( front end, pay)
mechanical rototillers
mortar mixer
mower (push, intermediate, riding)
mulcher
paddle broom
pallet jacks
peat shredder
plate compactor
plate tamper
post hole auger
post pounders
pot filler
potting machines
power dethatcher
power rake
powered rollers
powered wheelbarrow
pressure washer
pumps
ram compactor (jumping jack)
riding mowers/mulchers
roto tiller
Motorized Equipment (continued)
shredder
skid-steer (loader, back hoe, walk behind)
skid-steers
slit seeder
sod cutter
soil screener
spider lifts
steam cleaners jenny
sterilizers
tractors
tractors
tree gantry
tree spades
trencher
trucks
vehicles with blades
walk behind
walk-behind aerator
walk-behind snowblower
Equipment Attachments
aerator
auger/post hole digger
back hoe
blade
bucket
cultivator
plough
power sweeper
rollers
rototiller
seeders
snow blower
soil profiler
spray equipment
spreader
tiller
top dresser
tow behind dethatcher
tow behind trencher
trailer
tree dollies
tree spade
u-blade
vacuum
water tanker
disc harrow
discer
fertilizer spreader
flat deck trucks
forks
harrow
ladders
landscape leveller
leaf vacuum
loaders
mower baggers
mowers
overseeder
PPE and Safety Equipment
chaps/ballistic pants
chemical suit
cones
ear protection
eye protection (glasses, shields)
eye wash kit
face shields
fall protection equipment (harness)
fire extinguisher
first aid kits
flares
gloves
hard hat
hearing protection
high visibility clothing
lanyard
particle masks
reflective shirts, jackets
- 86 -
PPE and Safety Equipment (continued)
respirators
safety boots or shoes
safety vests
scabbard/Protective Sheath
skin protection
spill kit
sun hat
sunblock
traffic cones
ventilation fans
Office Equipment
camera
cold rooms (refrigerators and freezers)
communication devices
computers
drafting scale 1-100
laminator
printers
thermal printer
- 87 -
APPENDIX B
Botanical Name
Acer griseum
Acer negundo
Acer palmatum
Acer rubrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Aesculus hippocastanum
Betula papyrifera
* Can be grown as a shrub
Cercis canadensis
Cornus kousa var. chinensis
Cotinus coggygria
Fagus sylvatica
Fraxinus americana
Ginkgo biloba
Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis
and cultivars
Juglans nigra
Magnolia ×soulangeana
Malus and cultivars
Morus alba ‘Pendula’
Platanus x acerifolia
Prunus serrulata ‘Kwanzan’
Pyrus calleryana
Quercus alba
Quercus rubra
Robinia pseudoacacia
Syringa reticulata ‘Ivory Silk’
Tilia cordata
Ulmus americana
Plant Material
Deciduous Trees
Common Name
Family
Paperbark Maple
Sapindaceae
(Aceraceae)
Manitoba Maple
Sapindaceae
(Aceraceae)
Japanese Maple
Sapindaceae
(Aceraceae)
Red Maple
Sapindaceae
(Aceraceae)
Silver Maple
Sapindaceae
(Aceraceae)
Sugar Maple
Sapindaceae
(Aceraceae)
Horse Chestnut
Sapindaceae
(Hippocastanaceae)
Paper Birch
Betulaceae
Category
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree*
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Canada Redbud
Chinese Kousa Dogwood
Smoke Tree
European beech Beech
White Ash and/or
cultivars
Ginkgo
Thornless Honeylocust
Fabaceae
Cornaceae
Anacardiaceae
Fagaceae
Oleaceae
Deciduous Tree*
Deciduous Tree*
Deciduous Tree*
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Ginkgoaceae
Fabaceae
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Black walnutWalnut
Saucer Magnolia
Crabapple
Weeping Mulberry
London Plane Tree
Kwanzan Cherry
Ornamental Pear
White Oak
Red Oak
Black Locust
Ivory Silk Tree Lilac
Greenspire Linden
American Elm
Juglandaceae
Magnoliaceae
Rosaceae
Moraceae
Platanaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Fagaceae
Fagaceae
Fabaceae
Oleaceae
Tiliaceae
Ulmaceae
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
Deciduous Tree
- 88 -
Coniferous Trees
Botanical Name
Abies concolor
Common Name
Silver Fir
Family
Pinaceae
Category
Coniferous Tree
Callitropsis nootkatensis
'Pendula'
Larix laricina
Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Picea abies
Picea glauca
Picea pungens f. glauca
Pinus nigra
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Thuja occidentalis 'Smargd'
Emerald®
Tsuga canadensis
Weeping Nootka False
Cypress
Eastern or American Larch
Dawn Redwood
Norway Spruce
White Spruce
Colorado Blue Spruce
Austrian Pine
Douglas Fir
Emerald or Smaragd
Cedar
Canada Hemlock
Cupressaceae
Coniferous Tree
Pinaceae
Taxodiaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Cupressaceae
Coniferous Tree
Coniferous Tree
Coniferous Tree
Coniferous Tree
Coniferous Tree
Coniferous Tree
Coniferous Tree
Evergreen
Shrub/Tree
Coniferous Tree
Botanical Name
Amelanchier canadensis
Berberis thunbergii
Buddleia davidii
Caryopteris × clandonensis
Chaenomeles japonica
Clethra alnifolia
Cornus alba ‘Elegantissima’
Cotoneaster apiculatus
Deutzia gracilis
Euonymus alatus ‘Compactus’
Forsythia × Intermedia
Hibiscus syriacus
Hydrangea arborescens 'Anabelle'
Hydrangea paniculata
Hydrangea quercifolia
Kerria japonica
Kolkwitzia amabilis
Ligustrum amurense
Magnolia stellata
Philadelphus coronarius
Physocarpus oppulifolius
Potentilla fruticosa
Rhus typhina
Deciduous Shrubs
Common Name
Family
Serviceberry
Rosaceae
Japanese Barberry
Berberidaceae
Butterfly Bush
Buddlejaceae
Bluebeard or Blue-spirea
Verbeneaceae
Flowering Quince
Rosaceae
Summersweet
Clethraceae
Silverleaf Dogwood
Cornaceae
Cranberry Cotoneaster
Rosaceae
Slender Deutzia
Saxifragaceae
Dwarf Burning Bush
Celastraceae
Showy Forsythia
Oleaceae
Rose-of -Ssharon
Malvaceae
Anabelle Hydrangea
Hydrangeaceae
Peegee Hydrangea
Hydrangeaceae
Oakleaf Hydrangea
Hydrangeaceae
Japanese Kerria
Rosaceae
Beautybush
Caprifoliaceae
Amur Privet
Oleaceae
Star Magnolia
Magnoliaceae
Mockorange
Hydrangeaceae
Ninebark
Rosaceae
Cinquefoil
Rosaceae
Sumac
Anacardiaceae
- 89 -
Pinaceae
Category
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Botanical Name
Ribes alpinum
Rosa rugosa
Sambucus nigra
Spiraea bumalda ‘Goldflame’
Syringa vulgaris
Viburnum opulus
Viburnum trilobum
Weigela florida
Deciduous Shrubs (continued)
Common Name
Family
Alpine Currant
Saxifragaceae
Rugosa Rose
Rosaceae
Elderberry
Adoxaceae
Goldflame Spirea
Rosaceae
Common Lilac
Oleaceae
European Snowball
Caprifoliaceae
Highbush Cranberry
Caprifoliaceae
Weigela
Caprifoliaceae
Category
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Shrubs
Botanical Name
Ajuga reptans
Common Name
Carpet Bugleweed
Family
Lamiaceae
Arenaria verna
Irish Moss
Caryophyllaceae
Buxus sinica var. insularis
'Green Velvet' or other cultivar
Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Filifera
Aurea’
Daphne cneorum
Euonymus fortunei
Green Velvet Boxwood
Buxaceae
Golden Threadleaf False
Cypress
Garland Daphne
Euonymus
Cupressaceae
Junieprus horizontalis and/or
cultivars
Juniperus communis 'Green
Carpet'
Juniperus sabina ‘Tamariscifolia’
Horizontal Juniper
Cupressaceae
Green Carpet Juniper
Cupressaceae
Tamarix Juniper
Cupressaceae
Juniperus squamata 'Blue Star'
Blue Star Juniper
Cupressaceae
Juniperus virginiana
Mahonia aquifolium
Eastern Red Cedar
Oregon Grape Holly
Cupressaceae
Berberidaceae
Picea abies ‘ Pendula’
Picea abies ‘Nidiformis’
Picea glauca ‘Conica’
Pieris japonica
Rhododendron
Weeping Norway Spruce
Nest Spruce
Dwarf Alberta Spruce
Japanese Pieris
Rhododendron
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Ericaceae
Ericaceae
Taxus ×media ‘Densiformis’
Taxus cuspidata 'Capitata'
Dense Yew
Upright Japanese Yew
Taxaceae
Taxaceae
- 90 -
Thymelaeaceae
Celastraceae
Category
Semi - Evergreen
Groundcover
Evergreen
Groundcover
Broadleaf Evergreen
Shrub
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Shrub
Broadleaf Evergreen
Shrub
Evergreen
Shrub/Groundcover
Evergreen
Shrub/Groundcover
Evergreen
Shrub/Groundcover
Evergreen
Shrub/Groundcover
Evergreen Shrub
Broadleaf Evergreen
Shrub
Conifer
Coniferous Shrub
Conifer
Broadleaf Evergreen
Broadleaf Evergreen
Shrub
Coniferous Shrub
Coniferous Shrub
Botanical Name
Thuja occidentalis
Yucca filamentosa
Evergreen Shrubs (continued)
Common Name
Family
White Cedar
Cupressaceae
Adam’s Needle
Agavaceae
Category
Coniferous Shrub
Broadleaf Evergreen
Vines
Botanical Name
Campsis radicans
Common Name
Trumpet Vine
Family
Bignoniaceae
Category
Deciduous Vine
Clematis
Cucumis sativus
Hedera helix and/or cultivars
Clematis
Cucumber
English Ivy and/or
cultivars
Climbing Hydrangea
Ranunculaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Araliaceae
Deciduous Vine
Annual Vine
Evergreen
Vine/Groundcover
Deciduous Vine
Honeysuckle
Virginia Creeper
Caprifoliaceae
Vitaceae
Boston Ivy
Vitaceae
Chinese Wisteria
Fabaceae
Botanical Name
Astilbe hybrids
Bergenia cordifolia
Perennials
Common Name
Astilbe
Heartleaf Bergenia
Family
Saxifragaceae
Saxifragaceae
Crocus
Dicentra spectabilis
Echinacea purpurea
Gallardia
Geranium species
Hemerocallis hybrids
Heuchera
Hosta and/or cultivars
Hyacinthus
Hylotelephium spectabile
Iris sibirica
Lavandula angustifolia
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Narcissus
Crocus
Bleeding Heart
Purple Coneflower
Blanketflower
Geranium
Daylilies
Coralbells/Alumroot
Hosta
Hyacinth
Stonecrop or Sedum
Siberian Iris
English Lavender
Ostrich Fern
Daffodils
Iridaceae
Fumariaceae
Asteracea
Asteraceae
Geraniaceae
Liliaceae
Saxifragacea
Liliaceae
Asparagaceae
Crassulaceae
Iridaceae
Lamiaceae
Dryopteridaceae
Amaryilidaceae
Paeonia lactiflora
Garden Peony
Paeoniaceae
Hydrangea anomala subsp.
petiolaris
Lonicera xbrownii 'Dropmore'
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Parthenocissus tricuspidata
‘Veitchi’
Wisteria sinensis
- 91 -
Saxifragaceae
Deciduous Vine
Deciduous
Vine/Groundcover
Deciduous
Vine/Groundcover
Deciduous Vine
Category
Perennial
Perennial
(Evergreen)
Bulb (Corm)
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial
Bulb
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial (Spring
Bulb)
Perennial
Botanical Name
Phlox subulata
Perennials (continued)
Common Name
Family
Creeping Phlox
Polemoniaceae
Rheum palmatum
Rosmarinus officinalis
Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii
'Goldstrum'
Salvia ×superba 'May Night'
and/or other cultivars
Sedum
Solanum tuberosum
Thymus serpyllum
Tulipa
Vinca minor
Rhubarb
Rosemary
Goldstrum Black Eyed
Susan
May Night Salvia and/or
other cultivars
Sedum
Potato
Mother of Thyme
Tulip
Periwinkle
Botanical Name
Andropogon gerardii
Festuca ovina glauca
Helictotrichon sempervirens
Imperata cylindrica 'Red Baron'
Miscanthus sinensis and cultivars
Molinia arundinacea 'Skyracer'
Ornamental Grasses
Common Name
Family
Big Bluestem
Poaceae
Blue Sheep Fescue
Poaceae
Blue Oat Grass
Poaceae
Japanese Blood Grass
Poaceae
Maiden Grass
Poaceae
Tall Moor Grass
Poaceae
Category
Perennial Grass
Perennial Grass
Perennial Grass
Perennial Grass
Perennial Grass
Perennial Grass
Pennisetum alopecuroides
Pennisetum setaceum 'Rubrum'
Phalaris arundinacea ‘Picta’
Saccharum ravennae
Fountain Grass
Red Fountain Grass
Ribbon Grass
Hardy Pampas Grass
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Perennial Grass
Annual Grass
Perennial Grass
Perennial Grass
Botanical Name
Ageratum houstonianum
Antirrhinum majus
Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum
Canna generalis
Annuals
Common Name
Floss Flower
Snapdragons
Fibrous Begonia
Garden Cannas
Family
Celosia cristata
Cleome hasslerana
Dahlia
Cockscomb
Spider Flower
Dahlia
Amaranthaceae
Cleomaceae
Asteraceae
Daucus carota ssp. Sativus
Carrot
Apiaceae
Category
Annual
Annual
Annual
Annual Summer
Rhizome
Annual
Annual
Annual Summer
Tuber
Annual
- 92 -
Polygonaceae
Lamiaceae
Asteraceae
Category
Perennial (SemiEvergreen
Groundcover)
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial
Lamiaceae
Perennial
Crassulaceae
Solanacea
Lamiaceae
Liliaceae
Apocynaceae
Perennial
Perennial
Groundcover
Bulb
Evergreen
Groundcover
Scrophulariaceae
Begoniaceae
Cannaceae
Botanical Name
Impatiens New Guinea
Impatiens wallerana
Lantana camara
Lycopersicon esculentum
Pelargonium ×hortorum
Petunia ×hybrida
Pisum sativum
Solenostemon (Formerly Coleus)
xhybridus
Annuals (continued)
Common Name
Family
New Guinea Impatiens
Balsaminaceae
Impatiens
Balsaminaceae
Lantana
Verbeneaceae
Tomato
Solanacea
Zonal Geranium
Geraniaceae
Petunia
Solanacea
Pea
Fabacea
Coleus
Lamiaceae
Category
Annual
Annual
Annual
Annual
Annual
Annual
Annual
Annual
Turfgrass
Botanical Name
Bothriochloa insculpta
Festuca rubra ssp commutata
Festuca rubra ssp rubra
Common Name
Creeping
bluegrassBluegrass
Chewings fescueFescue
Family
Poaceae
Category
turfgrass
Poaceae
turfgrass
Poaceae
turfgrass
Festuca trackyphylla
Strong Creeping
RedfescueFescue
Slender Creeping Red
Fescue
Hard fescueFescue
Poaceae
turfgrass
Lolium multiflorum
Annual ryegrassRyegrass
Poaceae
turfgrass
Lolium perenne
Perennial
ryegrassRyegrass
Kentucky
bluegrassBluegrass
Rough bluegrassBluegrass
Poaceae
turfgrass
Poaceae
turfgrass
Poaceae
turfgrass
Festuca rubra subsp. litoralis
Poa pratensis
Poa trivialis
turfgrass
Invasive species
Botanical Name
Butomus umbellatus
Common Name
Flowering Rush
Family
Butomaceae
Category
Invasive species
Centaurea cyanus
Bachelor’s Buttons
Asteraceae
Invasive species
Echium vulgare
Euphorbia cyparissias
Blueweed
Spurge, Cypress
Boraginaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Invasive species
Invasive species
- 93 -
Botanical Name
Euphorbia esula
Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis
Gypsophila paniculata
Hedera Helixhelix
Heracleum mantegazzianum
Hieracium aurantiacum
Impatiens glandulifera
Iris pseudacorus
Knautia arvensis
Lamiastrum galeobdolon
Leucanthemum vulgare
Linaria vulgaris, L. genistifolia
subsp. dalmatica
Lythrum salicaria
Rubus armeniacus
Tamarix ramosissima
Tanacetum vulgare
Invasive species (continued)
Common Name
Family
Green Spurge, Leafy
Euphorbiaceae
spurge
Japanese Knotweed,
Polygonaceae
Knotweeds
Baby’s breathBreath
Caryophyllaceae
English Ivy
Araliaceae
Giant Hogweed
Umbelliferae
Orange Hawkweed
Asteraceae
Himalayan Balsam
Balsaminaceae
Yellow Flag Iris, Flad Iris
Iridaceae
Field Scabiosaus
Dipsacaceae
Yellow Archangel
Lamiaceae
Oxeye Daisy
Asteraceae
Toadflax
Scrophulariaceae
Purple Loosestrife
Himalayan Blackberry
Tamarisk, five-stamentamarix
Common Tansy
- 94 -
Category
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Lythraceae
Rosaceae
Pinaceae
Invasive species
Invasive species
Invasive species
Asteraceae
Invasive species
APPENDIX C
GLOSSARY
1/3 pruning rule
a general guideline used to determine amount of wood that should be removed
during a major pruning session.
3-cut method
pruning steps to reduce the possibility of tearing the bark when a large limb is to
be removed from a tree.
abiotic factors
non-living condition or thing, such as climate or habitat, that influences or affects
an ecosystem and the organisms in it
accident reports
forms completed to record details following an accident
acclimatization
physiological adaptation of a plant to changes in climate or environment, such as
light or temperature
action threshold
before taking any pest control action, IPM first sets an action threshold, a point at
which pest populations or environmental conditions indicate that pest control
action must be taken. Sighting a single pest does not always mean control is
needed. The level at which pests will either become an economic threat is critical
to guide future pest control decisions.
aeration
in soil, the process by which air from the atmosphere is brought into the soil.
Usually to reverse loss of macropores resulting from compaction
aerator
mechanized equipment that either punctures the soil with spikes (spike aeration)
or remove cores of soil from the ground (core aeration)
aggregates
broad category of coarse particulate material used in landscape construction,
including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete etc.
air layering
propagation method for woody plants that roots branches while still attached to
the parent plant
air purification
removal of contaminants from air
algae
simple non-flowering plants that contain chlorophyll but lack true stems, roots,
leaves, and vascular tissue. Includes seaweeds and many single-celled forms.
alternative energy
systems
renewable, "free" energy sources with lower carbon emissions, compared to
conventional energy sources and includes: Biomass Energy, Wind Energy, Solar
Energy, Geothermal Energy, Hydro-electric Energy sources
anatomy
science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts
anti-desiccants
compounds applied to plants to reduce dehydration and prevent drying
- 95 -
aquatic plants
plants that have adapted to living in saltwater or freshwater environments
bacteria
single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent organisms or
as parasites
bacterial wilts
disease caused by bacteria that proliferate within the water-conducting xylem
vessels, causing a water blockage resulting in wilting and death of leaves or the
plant.
balled and burlap
(B&B)
relating to a tree, shrub or other plant prepared for transplanting by allowing the
roots to remain covered by a ball of soil around which burlap is tied and
sometimes reinforced with a rope or a wire basket
barriers
fence or other obstacle that prevents movement or access
bedding materials
thin layer of material placed over a compacted base on which interlocking
/segmental pavers will be installed
benches
mobile or fixed tables in a greenhouse or nursery
beneficial organisms any pollinating insect, or any pest predator, parasite, pathogen or other
biological control agent which functions naturally or as part of an integrated pest
management program to control another pest.
beneficial insects
insects that perform valued services like pollination and pest control; a
component of an Integrated Pest Management Program
biennial
flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle
bills of lading
serves as a receipt of shipment when goods are delivered to the predetermined
destination and must be signed by an authorized representative
blight
plant diseases resulting in sudden conspicuous wilting and dying of affected
parts, especially young, growing tissue and caused by bacterium, fungus, or a
virus.
bio swales
landscape elements designed to remove silt and pollution from surface runoff
water. They consist of a swaled drainage course with gently sloped sides and
filled with vegetation, compost and/or riprap.
biodiversity
the variability among living organisms on the earth, including the variability
within and between species and within and between ecosystems. Short for
biological diversity.
biological
of, relating to, caused by, or affecting life or living organisms
biotic factors
living thing that influences or affects an ecosystem
- 96 -
blue infrastructure
an approach to water management using technology that delivers, protects,
restores, or mimics the natural water cycle to support a healthy water supply
botanical
nomenclature
the formal, scientific naming of plants conforming to the International Code of
Nomenclature. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy.
botany
scientific study of plants, including their physiology, structure, genetics, ecology,
distribution, classification, and economic importance
broadcast spreaders
lawn care tool or implement commonly used for spreading seed, lime, fertilizer,
sand, ice melt, etc.
broadleaf evergreen
broad leafed plant that keeps its leaves throughout the year.
brown field
reclamation
redevelopment of abandoned, vacant, derelict or underutilized commercial and
industrial properties where past actions have resulted in actual or perceived
contamination
calibrate
the process of measuring products and adjusting components in order to deliver
the desired volume. ( Used for sprayers and fertilizer spreaders)
callusing
the tissue that forms over the wounds of plants, protecting the inner tissues and
causing healing.
Canadian Food
Inspection Agency
(CFIA)
regulatory agency dedicated to the safeguarding of food, animals, and plants,
which enhance the health and well-being of Canada's people, environment and
economy.
Canadian Standards
for Nursery Stock
(CSNS)
a minimum standard of quality for the production of woody ornamentals and
herbaceous perennials. Nursery stock specifiers, including landscape architects
and designers, developers and municipalities and other government agencies,
make reference to these standards in the development of tenders and contract
specifications.
canker
localized diseased or necrotic area on a trunk, branch, or twig of a woody plant,
usually caused by fungi or bacteria.
canopy raising
removal of lower branches from the tree crown to provide understory clearance
capstones
one of a set of slabs on the top of a wall or structure
carbon capturing
trapping the carbon emissions and storing them away from the atmosphere to
prevent global warming
carbon footprint
total amount of greenhouse gases produced and emitted during the creation of
products or services.
catch basins
receptacle or reservoir that receives surface water runoff or drainage.
- 97 -
change orders
written order approved by a project owner directing the contractor to change
contract amount, requirements, or time
chemical
any basic substance that is used in or produced by a reaction involving changes
to atoms or molecules
circle check
a visual, and sometimes physical, inspection of a piece of equipment (e.g., truck,
trailer, forklift, etc.). It involves walking all the way around the equipment to
ensure there are no safety concerns.
climate control
is the process of producing particular environmental conditions to regulate the
growing environment such as temperature, ventilation and humidity
climate control
systems
adjustable systems installed to grow crops with optimum efficiency. They control
the indoor climate including; light, temperature, air exchange, humidity and
CO2 concentration in greenhouses, cold storage facilities etc.
coco fibre/coir
the husk of a coconut used as a growing medium for plants
codes
construction technologies and techniques must meet safety standards and
comply with municipal, provincial and federal codes such as: electrical,
building, plumbing and fire codes etc.
compaction aggregate
elimination of voids in construction materials, as in concrete, plaster, or soil, by
vibration, tamping, rolling, or some other method or combination of methods.
compaction soil/media
breaking down soil/media particles by mechanical means, resulting in loss of
soil/media macropores and leading to lack of oxygen and water in soils/media.
A major cause of death of tree roots
companion planting
close planting of different plants that enhance each other's growth or protect
each other from pests
composite boards
range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding the
strands, particles, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives to form
composite materials
compost
decayed organic material used as a soil conditioner, amendment or plant
fertilizer.
concrete
mixture of gravel, sand, cement, and water that can be spread or formed and
forms a stone-like mass upon hardening.
confined space
a space that has not been designed or constructed for continuous human
occupancy, has limited access and may cause atmospheric and ventilation
hazards for workers
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coniferous shrubs
small to medium sized plants that bear seeds in cones and do not lose their
leaves/needles at the end of their growing season. The leaves/needles stay the
same color throughout the year.
coniferous trees
mostly needle-leaved or scale-leaved, chiefly evergreen, cone-bearing
gymnospermous trees or shrubs of the order Coniferales, such as pines, spruces,
and firs.
conservation
preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural
ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
conserve
protecting an environmentally important place from harm or destruction
contaminants
biological, chemical, physical, or radiological substance (normally absent in the
environment) which, in sufficient concentration, can adversely affect living
organisms through air, water, soil, and/or food.
contracts
an agreement between two parties to perform work or provide goods, including
an agreement or order for the procurement of supplies or services.
control method
once monitoring, identification, and action thresholds indicate that pest control is
required, and preventive methods are no longer effective or available, IPM
programs then evaluate the proper control method both for effectiveness and
risk. Effective, less risky pest controls are chosen first, including highly targeted
chemicals, such as pheromones to disrupt pest mating, or mechanical control,
such as trapping or weeding. If further monitoring, identifications and action
thresholds indicate that less risky controls are not working, then additional pest
control methods would be employed, such as targeted spraying of pesticides.
Broadcast spraying of non-specific pesticides is a last resort.
conveyors
frame-mounted continuous belts that move aggregate, earth, concrete and plants.
corms
rounded underground storage organ present in plants such as crocuses, gladioli,
and cyclamens, consisting of a swollen fleshy stem base covered with thin
external scale leaves; corms differ from bulbs in having much more stem tissue
and fewer scale leaves
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critical path
a project management or planning tool that

lists all activities required to complete the project (typically categorized
within a work breakdown structure),

identifies the time (duration) that each activity will take to complete,

displays the dependencies between the activities and,

sets logical end points such as milestones or deliverable items.
cropping schedules
schedule to grow plants to marketable size at the right time of year
crown balancing
primary consideration is given to the visual form and/or structural balance of the
tree’s crown by removing eccentric growth
cultivars
a plant variety that has been produced in cultivation by selective breeding
cultivating
preparing and using land for crops or gardening
cultivation
the planting, tending, improving, or harvesting of crops or plants; or the
preparation of ground to promote plant growth
cultivator
mechanical tool/implement for loosening the soil and uprooting weeds
cut and fill
excavation
practices
the process of constructing a railway, road or canal whereby the amount of
material from cuts roughly matches the amount of fill needed to make nearby
embankments, so minimizing the amount of construction labour.
cuttings
plant cutting, also known as striking or cloning, is a technique for vegetatively
(asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the stem or root of the source
plant is placed in a suitable medium to grow
daily time sheets
a mechanism used to record the hours that are worked daily
deadhead
remove spent flower heads from a plant to encourage further blooming
deciduous
trees, shrubs, and herbaceous perennials that shed their leaves for part of the
year due to climate changes not conducive to growth.
defoliation
to strip (a tree, bush, etc.) of leaves
desiccation
drying out of a living organism, such as when plants are exposed to sunlight or
drought
design principles
include the component principles of repetition, variety, balance, emphasis,
sequence (rhythm) and scale as they are applied to the quality of a design.
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dethatch
mechanical removal from a lawn of the layer of dead turfgrass tissue known as
"thatch."
discing
implement that is dragged across ploughed land to smooth or break up the soil,
to remove weeds or cover seeds;
disease triangle
conceptual model that shows the interactions between the host, pathogen and
the environment
diseases
abnormal growth or dysfunction of a plant, caused by an interruption in the
normal life cycles of a plant. Disease can be caused by biotic or abiotic factors.
dormancy
period in an organism's life cycle when growth and development are temporarily
stopped in part, to low temperatures that slow chemical activity
drainage
movement of water through soil/media. After a normal amount of irrigation,
water should percolate through the soil within a few hours. If pools of water
remain or the soil appears excessively wet to the touch, the area may be poorly
drained
drainage
components
the parts of a drainage system that provides an outlet for runoff and
groundwater flow via gravel, pipe, geotextile, catch basins, man holes, etc.
drainage patterns
the pattern formed by streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin
drainage swales
graded and engineered landscape feature appearing as a linear, shallow, open
channel to promote the conveyance of storm water at a slower, controlled rate
and acts as a filter medium removing pollutants and allowing storm water
infiltration
drawings
graphic illustrations depicting the dimensions, design, and location of a project.
Generally including plans, elevations, details, diagrams, schedules, and sections.
ecosystem
biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
edge restraints
outside perimeter that holds interlocking/segmental pavers together and is
responsible to with-stand horizontal loads created by inherent pavement energy
and traffic
edging
blocks, bricks, pavers or materials used at the edge of a pavement
edible plants
any plant that can be safely consumed, specifically by humans
efficacy
the ability for a product to produce a desired or intended result. ( Pest Control
products are judged by their efficacy or their level of control and achieving the
intended result.)
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efflorescence
white powdery substance on the surfaces of unsealed concrete caused by
migrating vapour bringing soluble salts to the surface
electrical
conductivity (EC)
common measure of soil salinity and is indicative of the ability of an aqueous
solution to carry an electric current. Indirect measurement that correlates very
well with several soil physical and chemical properties.
electrical conduits
tubing system used for protection and routing of electrical wiring
electrical wiring
material consisting either of a single filament or of several filaments woven or
twisted together and usually insulated with a dielectric material used as a
conductor of electricity
elevation
vertical distance relative to a reference point
emergency response
plans
mitigate the impact of an incident that threatens the safety, health and welfare of
the public and the environment
environmental
mitigation
mechanisms
are steps taken to avoid or minimize negative environmental impacts. Mitigation
can include: avoiding the impact by not taking a certain action; minimizing
impacts by limiting the degree or magnitude of the action; rectifying the impact
by repairing or restoring the affected environment; reducing the impact by
protective steps required with the action; and compensating for the impact by
replacing or providing substitute resources
environmental
stewards
individuals who responsibly use and protect the natural environment through
conservation and sustainable practices
ergonomic
intended to provide optimum comfort and to avoid stress or injury
erosion
natural process by which rock and soil is relocated by water or wind
erosion control
practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land
development, coastal areas, riverbanks and construction
erosion control
measures
physical barrier, such as vegetation or rock, to absorb some of the energy of the
wind or water that is causing the erosion
erosion mats
roll-type materials designed to reduce seed and soil loss
estimates
to give or form a general idea about the value, size, or cost of something
fertigation
application of fertilizers, soil amendments, or other water soluble products
through an irrigation system
fertilizer
a chemical or natural substance added to soil or land to increase its fertility
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filtration systems
process of filtering liquids or gases, such as air, through a filter in order to
remove solid particles
fire Smart practices
https://www.firesmartcanada.ca
the website provides a best practice guideline that supports enhancement of
safety and stewardship aimed at prevention and mitigation of wildfires.
flood mitigation
involves the managing and control of flood water movement, such as redirecting
flood run-off through the use of floodwalls and flood gates, rather than trying to
prevent floods altogether
flower
seed-bearing part of a plant, consisting of reproductive organs that are typically
surrounded by a brightly colored corolla and a green calyx.
flower period
time when a tree, shrub, perennial or annual plant will normally produce flowers
flush cut
pruning technique in which both branch and stem tissue are removed; generally
considered poor practice.
foliage
leaves of a plant
foliar burn
browning of plant tissues, including leaf margins and tips, and yellowing or
darkening of veins which may lead to eventual wilting and abscission of the leaf.
foliar discolouration
is often an indication of physiological stress, pest, or infectious disease problems.
foliar feed
feeding plants by applying liquid fertilizer directly to their leaves
foliar sample
a collection of leaves sent to a laboratory to determine deficiencies, toxicities,
response to applications and changes in maintenance practices.
foliar washing
physical removal of dust, dirt or spray residue from plants using various manual
and mechanical sprayers
foot baths/boot
sprays
a tub or mat containing disinfectants to provide sanitation protection of the
footwear of all workers/visitors entering greenhouses to prevent the introduction
of soil borne pests and diseases from contaminating crops.
form
temporary structure or mold for the support of concrete while it is setting and
gaining sufficient strength to be self-supporting
french drains
trench filled with gravel or rock or containing a perforated pipe that redirects
surface water and groundwater away from an area
frost damage
plant tissue damage caused by cold / freezing temperatures; ground frost and air
and wind frost
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frost heave
the uplift of water-saturated soil or other surface deposits due to expansion
caused by freezing temperatures that have penetrated into the soil.
fruit
is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower and
provide the mechanism by which plants disseminate seeds.
fuels
any material, as coal, oil, gas, wood, etc., burned to supply heat or power
fungi
any of a diverse group of eukaryotic single-celled or multinucleate organisms
that live by decomposing and absorbing the organic material in which they
grow, comprising the mushrooms, molds, mildews, smuts, rusts, and yeasts, and
classified in the kingdom Fungi
fungicide
is a specific type of pesticide that controls fungal disease by specifically
inhibiting or killing the fungus causing the disease.
gall
abnormal outgrowths of plant tissues caused by many living organisms living on
plants including insects, mites, fungi, parasites, and bacteria.
generator
a device used for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy
geogrids
geosynthetic material used to reinforce soils on slopes and commonly used to
reinforce retaining walls, as well as sub-bases or subsoils below roads or
structures
geo-membranes
synthetic membrane liner or barrier with very low permeability used with any
geotechnical engineering related material to control fluid (or gas) migration in a
human-made project, structure, or system
geotextile
permeable synthetic fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the
ability to separate, modify drainage, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain and serves
as a weed barrier.
germination
the process by which a plant grows from a seed. Examples include the sprouting
of seedlings from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm and the growth of
hyphae from fungal spores
global positioning
system (GPS)
a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time
information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there
is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.
grades
reshaping of land to meet specified elevations
grading
the work of altering existing terrain, base or an elevation or slope to meet
specifications for work such as a foundation, base, landscape feature or surface
drainage
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green field
an undeveloped or agricultural tract of land that is a potential site for industrial
or urban development.
green infrastructure
are planned and managed vegetation and semi-vegetative technologies that
reduce pollution and provide ecosystems that support healthy living. Green
infrastructure takes many forms including but is not limited to the following:
urban forests, natural areas, greenways, streams and riparian zones, meadows
and agricultural lands; green roofs and green walls; parks, gardens and
landscaped areas, community gardens, and other green open spaces; rain
gardens, bio-swales, engineered wetlands and storm water ponds.
green parking
designed to do environmental work including reducing energy use, improving
environmental quality and ensuring healthy conditions for people by
incorporating permeable pavement, drainage features including rain gardens
and bio-swales, and native plantings.
greenhouse
structures
a structure, primarily of glass or sheets of clear plastic, in which temperature and
humidity can be controlled for the cultivation or protection of plants.
green roof
an extension of an existing roof which includes a water proofing and root
repellent system, a drainage system, filter cloth, a lightweight growing medium
and plants that can provide building owners and municipalities with a return on
investment.
grey infrastructure
traditional practices for storm water management and wastewater treatment
including pipes and sewers, utilities and buildings.
ground covers
any plant that grows over an area of ground, used to provide protection from
erosion and drought, and to improve its aesthetic appearance
ground fault circuit
interrupter (GFCI)
a device that shuts off an electric circuit when it detects that current is flowing
along an unintended path, possibly through water or through a person. It is used
to reduce the risk of electric shock.
growing conditions
temperature, light, water, humidity, oxygen, and mineral nutrients
growing
facilities/structures
structures and systems used for the production of plant materials
growing media
the material that plants grow in and has three main functions: to supply roots
with nutrients, air, and water, to support maximum root growth, and to
physically support the plant.
growth habits
general appearance, form (shape) and manner of growth of a plant
guy
tensioned cable designed to add stability to a tree or free-standing structure
- 105 -
habitat
the natural environment in which a species or group of species lives
habitat preservation
land management practice that strives to conserve, protect and restore habitat
areas for wild plants and animals to prevent extinction, fragmentation or
reduction in population.
hardening-off
process of adapting a plant that has been grown under protective shelter indoors or in a greenhouse - to full outdoor exposure
hardening-off
procedures
over time, the plant is exposed to increasing intervals of time outdoors so that
when it is planted in the garden it can make the transition with a minimum of
transplant shock
hardiness
describes a plant’s ability to tolerate and survive adverse growing conditions
such as cold, heat, drought, flooding, or wind
hardscape
components of the design and construction of any landscape project that deals
with a range of materials that include brick, stone, wood, metals or other natural
or fabricated materials used in construction of the built landscape including
streets, walkways structures, walls, street amenities, pools and fountains, and
fireplaces and fire pits etc.
hardscape materials
brick, stone, wood, metals or other natural or fabricated materials used in
construction of the built landscape
hardscaping
the placement of non-plant elements such as fences, walkways, paving, and
lighting in a planned outdoor area.
harrowing
to break up clods (lumps of soil) and to provide a finer finish, a good tilth or soil
structure that is suitable for seedbed use. Coarser harrowing may also be used to
remove weeds and to cover seed after sowing.
harvest
selecting plant materials from greenhouses, nursery fields and standing yards
that are ready for sale, storage and for further grow-on activities
hazardous materials
is defined as any substance or material that could adversely affect the safety of
the public, handlers or carriers during transportation.
hazards
a hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects to
individuals, equipment, property etc. under certain conditions at work.
heading
cutting back the terminal portion of a branch to a bud. A term whose
subcategories include "topping" and "pollarding."
heeling in
process taken to cover the roots of dormant plants with soil or mulch for short
periods.
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herbaceous
plants or plant parts that are fleshy as opposed to woody and that dies back to
the ground each year
hormone treatment
chemical application by a horticulturist to regulate plant growth processes. In
plant propagation, cuttings are dipped in a rooting hormone to stimulate root
development. In greenhouse production, many potted flowering plants (like
poinsettias and Easter lilies) may be treated with plant growth regulators to keep
them short. Seedless grapes are treated with plant growth regulators to increase
the size of the fruit. In special situations, turf may be treated to slow growth and
mitigate the need for mowing.
ice control products
chemical (sodium chloride /rock salt) and abrasives (sand) materials used for
snow and ice control that have friction or melting characteristics
insect traps
devices used to monitor or directly reduce pest populations by attracting and
capturing insects using food, visual lures, chemical attractants and pheromones
as bait.
insects
any animal of the class Insecta, comprising small, air-breathing arthropods
having the body divided into three parts (head, thorax, and abdomen), and
having three pairs of legs and usually two pairs of wings.
integrated pest
management (IPM)
an approach to planning and managing pests that uses a combination of cultural,
biological, mechanical and chemical methods to reduce pest populations to
acceptable levels and with the least disruption to the environment starting with
the least toxic control first.
integrity
a term applied to the engineering disciplines associated with the design,
assurance, and verification functions that ensure a product, process, or system
meets its appropriate and intended requirements for as long as the designed life
of the structure.
invasive species
nonindigenous plants that have the potential to invade agricultural and natural
areas
causing serious damage to Canada's economy and environment and sometimes
harm to human health.
inventory
management
activities employed to maintain the optimum number or amount of each
inventory item.
irrigation controllers
device to operate automatic irrigation systems such as lawn sprinklers and drip
irrigation systems and that have a means of setting the frequency of irrigation,
the start time, and the duration of watering.
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irrigation systems
Automated systems that deliver and distribute water to lawns, gardens, landscapes and
horticultural crops (greenhouse and nursery), for the purpose of growing and
maintaining healthy plants.. Components of these systems include sprinklers, nozzles,
controllers, bubblers, drip emitters, valves, backflow prevention, pipe etc.
joint materials
compounds used to fill the space between adjacent paving units and wall stone.
May be bound or unbound. Including: sand, polymeric sand, cement mortars,
resin mortars, etc.
jurisdictional
regulations
municipal, provincial or federal law or rule, or other order prescribed by
authority such as building by-laws, labour laws and environmental protection
laws.
landscape drawings
graphic illustrations depicting the dimensions, design, and location of a project.
Generally including plans, elevations, details, diagrams, schedules, and sections.
layering
propagation method by which a branch/shoot takes root while still attached to
the parent plant.
leaf
flattened structure of a higher plant, typically green and bladelike, that is
attached to a stem directly or via a stalk. Leaves are the main organs of
photosynthesis and transpiration.
leaf spot
round blemishes found on the leaves of many species of plants, mostly caused by
parasitic fungi or bacteria and can cause defoliation.
life cycle of pests
incomplete Insects: Insects with incomplete life cycles have two distinct stages,
the adult and nymph stage and include grasshoppers and true bugs (stink bug
and squash bugs). Adults have fully developed wings and can fly great
distances. Nymphs either do not have wings or have wings that cannot be used
for flight.Many insects in this category have piercing, sucking mouthparts and
suck juice from plants. Some, such as the grasshopper, chew on leaves and stems.
Adult stage is most damaging.
complete Life Cycle Insects: Insects in the complete life cycle group have four
distinct stages, the egg, larvae, pupae and adult. Eggs, larva (wormlike or grublike creature that may feed on various plant parts), pupa (relatively inactive,
often enclosed in some form of cocoon), and adult insect completely different in
appearance. The larval stage with chewing and rasping feeding is most
damaging. Examples of these insects are beetles and moths.
lifts
layers of soil or aggregate fill.
light emitting diode
(LED)
semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes
through it. LEDs are very energy efficient and have a long lifespan.
- 108 -
lighting components
the various types of landscape lighting systems, controls and switching, wiring
connections, fixture types, functions-purposes-styles, and light sources.
liming
treatment of soil or water with lime to reduce acidity (increasing pH) and
improve fertility or oxygen levels.
liners
young, immature plants intended for ‘growing-on’ to mature sizes in nurseries,
either by lining-out in the field or in containers. Typically 1 or 2 years old and
often sold bare-root or in small containers.
lining out
all nursery stock suitable for planting out in nursery rows, beds, containers, or
into natural areas.
living wall systems
self -sufficient vertical gardens that are attached to the exterior or interior of a
building. They differ from green façades (e.g. ivy walls) in that the plants root in
a structural support which is fastened to the wall itself. The plants receive water
and nutrients from within the vertical support instead of from the ground.
load distribution
requirements
a load distributed evenly over the entire length of a structural member or the
surface of a vehicle, trailer, floor, or roof expressed in weight per length or
weight per area.
load securement
all loads carried on a motor vehicle or trailer must be bound, covered or
otherwise securely fastened or loaded such that no portion of the load can fall off
the vehicle or trailer. Includes vehicle structure, blocking and bracing equipment,
and securing devices that meet capability requirements, are in good working
order, and have no obvious signs of damage or weakness.
lock-out/tag-out
is a safety procedure used in workplaces to protect workers by tagging
dangerous tools, equipment and machines and ensuring that the energy source
is locked out to prevent accidental use or start up prior to the completion of
maintenance or servicing work.
low voltage lighting
systems
permanently installed outdoor lighting fixtures operating at 12 volts or less,
which illuminate landscape environments and exterior structures. Components
of these systems typically include transformers, switching devices, multi-strand
wiring, wire connectors, fixtures and lamps and other accessories
metal hangers
metal angle or strap used to support and fix the ends of wood joists or rafters to
beams or girders
microclimate
local climate conditions of a specific area that include temperature, light, wind
and moisture and influenced by walls, fences, slope, elevation, exposure and
orientation.
micro-propagation
propagation of plants from very small plant parts, tissues or cells grown in a test
tube or container where the environment and nutrition are rigidly controlled.
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morphology
the study of organism structures, including reproductive structures, and also
addresses the pattern of development and relationships of these structures as
they mature
mortar
a product composed of cement and sand. When water is mixed in with this
product, the cement is activated. Mortar is used to hold together bricks, stones
and hardscape components once hardened.
mulch
layer of bark, peat moss, compost, shredded leaves, hay or straw, lawn clippings,
gravel, paper, plastic or other material spread over the soil around the base of
plants primarily to modify the effects of climate. During the growing season,
mulch can help reduce evaporation, inhibit weeds, moderate soil temperature
and add nutrients. Fresh layers of mulch are also spread to enhance
aesthetics. In the winter, mulch of evergreen boughs, coarse hay or leaves is
used to protect plants from freezing.
native ecosystem
biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
that have not been affected directly or indirectly by human actions.
native plants
a term used to describe plants indigenous to a specific region in geologic time.
This includes plants that have developed, occur naturally, or existed for many
years in an area (e.g. trees, flowers, grasses, and other plants).
native woodland
area of woodland largely consisting of site specific native trees and shrubs,
where an associated woodland flora is present or may develop over time.
natural habitat
area or natural environment in which a specific animal or plant species lives.
natural stone
stone shaped and sized by nature as opposed to stone that has been quarried and
cut.
nematodes
microscopic roundworms with a tubular digestive system that live in soil or
water and can be parasitic or beneficial.
nomenclature
the naming of things; often restricted to the correct use of scientific names in
taxonomy; a system that sets out provisions for the formation and use of names.
an international system of standardized New Latin names used in biology for
kinds and groups of kinds of animals and plants
non-native
species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by
human activity, either deliberate or accidentally.
nursery
place where plants are grown for transplanting, for use as stocks for budding
and grafting, or for sale. Nurseries produce and distribute woody and
herbaceous plants, including ornamental trees, shrubs, and bulb crops.
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nutrient deficiencies
inadequate supply of essential nutrients or present but not in the form the plant
can use causing plant health problems
nutrient tests
laboratory analysis of soil or foliage to determine if deficiencies exist.
nutrients
elements needed by growing plants and supplied by minerals and organic
matter in soil and by fertilizers. Includes: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron and micro-nutrients.
on-the-job-training
(OJT)
employee training at the place of work while he or she is doing the actual job
organic matter
matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of
organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the
environment.
organically-grown
plants
organics
plants grown without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides or fungicides.
overseed
to spread grass seed on turf or an established lawn to fill in thin or bare spots.
pathogens
biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host by disrupting the normal
physiology. Can be a fungus, virus, bacteria or parasite.
paving stones
large, flat pieces of stone, brick, tile, concrete or similar material, used in paving
and usually used in groups to cover a path or an area of ground
peat moss
spongy organic soil amendment used to increase acidity, organic matter, aeration
and water retention of soil. Sphagnum peat moss is generally considered to be
highest in quality. Most soilless mix features peat as its main ingredient.
percolation
the movement, under hydrostatic pressure, of water through the interstices of a
rock or soil. Also, the movement of water within a porous medium such as soil
without a definite channel.
perennial
a non-woody plant which grows and lives for more than two years.
an organic substance such as a fertilizer of plant or animal origin; a pesticide
whose active component is an organic compound or a mixture of organic
compounds; or a plant produced by organic farming.
permeable pavement paved surfaces made of sustainable materials such as pervious concrete, porous
asphalt, permeable interlocking pavers, and other materials, that include a base
and sub-base that allow the movement of storm water through the surface. In
addition to reducing runoff, they trap suspended solids and filters pollutants
from the water.
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permeable pavers
paving materials that allow rainwater to pass through into the ground to
replenish the water table.
personal protective
equipment (PPE)
special protective clothing, other garments, devices and equipment designed and
worn by workers to protect the wearer from injury. Examples include
respirators, goggles, ear plugs, face shields and CSA approved foot wear.
pest
any species of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent which reduces the productivity
or health of plants, either directly by eating them or indirectly by spreading
diseases among them.
pest control
regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, usually because it is
perceived to be detrimental to the ecology or the economy.
pest resistance
plants
plants that grow despite the presence of pests and diseases due to naturally
occurring resistance or plants that contain chemicals that make them inedible to
pests, and stop the spread of disease.
pH
the measure of a soil's acidity or alkalinity. and is measured in pH units. The pH
scale goes from 0 to 14 with pH 7 as the neutral point. As the amount of
hydrogen ions in the soil increases, the soil pH decreases, thus becoming more
acidic. From pH 7 to 0, the soil is increasingly more acidic, and from pH 7 to 14,
the soil is increasingly more alkaline or basic.
physiology
the study of vital processes and functional activity occurring in plants in relation
to its survival, metabolic activities, water relations, mineral nutrition,
development, movement, irritability, organization, growth and transport
processes.
phyto-inspection
official visual examination of plants, plant products or other regulated articles to
determine if pests are present and/or to determine compliance with
phytosanitary regulations
phytosanitary
certificates
a document, issued by an inspector, that attests to the phytosanitary status of
anything exported to and from Canada and that contains the information
required by the Model Phytosanitary Certificate of the International Plant
Protection Convention is signed by an inspector / official and sealed with an
official Phytosanitary Certificate seal .
pinching
a form of pruning that encourages branching on the plant.
plant classification
assignment and identification of organisms to groups within a system of
categories distinguished by structure, origin, ecological adaptation, use, cultural
or climatic requirements, growth habit and life span etc.
Plants are grouped by various common characteristics to help us communicate
similar ecological adaptations and cultural requirements.
- 112 -
plant hardiness zone
map
outlines the different zones in Canada where various types of trees, shrubs and
flowers will most likely survive. It is based on the average climatic conditions of
each area and based on a wide range of climatic variables, including minimum
winter temperatures, length of the frost-free period, summer rainfall, maximum
temperatures, snow cover, January rainfall and maximum wind speed. In
Canada, the map is divided into nine major zones: the harshest is 0 and the
mildest is 8. Subzones (e.g., 4a or 4b, 5a or 5b) are also noted in the map legend.
plant health care
a process of scheduled preventative maintenance based on monitoring and use of
cultural and chemical tactics, to enhance plant vitality. The plant and its
requirements become the central focus of the activities, rather than responding to
symptoms caused by pest presence, physical agents, or nutritional deficiencies. A
plant health care practice addresses the basic causes of the reduction in plant
health and provides corrective measures to promote plant health.
plant key
analytical guide to the identification of plants, based on the use of contrasting
characters to subdivide a group under study into branches.
planting guidelines
provide jurisdictional / site specific specifications and details for tree planting.
planting plan
a ‘to scale’ plan that identifies plant name, location and spacing information.
plant texture
relationship between the foliage and twigs of plants. Appearance of plants in
terms of coarseness or fineness, roughness or smoothness, heaviness or lightness,
denseness or thinness.
plugs
a cylinder of medium in which a plant is grown. The term is generally used for
seedlings and rooted cuttings.
pollarding
process taken to remove upper branches of a tree to promote a dense head of
foliage and branches and is practiced today to maintain and control tree height.
positive drainage
grade that ensures that surface water drains away from all structures on a
property so as not to damage to structures and buildings on a site nor negative
impact on human health.
posts
a piece of timber or metal set upright in the ground and used to support
something or as a marker
potting-on
transplanting a plant from a smaller container up to a bigger container in the
growing-on process.
potting-up
moving young plants or rooted cuttings individually into containers and /or the
process of filling containers with soil and plant material.
- 113 -
pre-cast concrete
concrete structural components, such as steps, blocks, etc., produced by casting
concrete in a reusable mold or "form" which is then cured in a controlled
environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place.
propagate
production of more plants from a parent plant to preserve essential
characteristics. Propagation may be achieved sexually by use of seeds or
asexually by use of techniques such as cuttings, dividing, grafting and tissue
culture.
pruning
the selective cutting and removing of parts of a tree or shrub. It covers a number
of horticultural techniques that control growth, shape, remove dead or diseased
wood, and stimulate the formation of flowers and fruit buds. Pruning often
means cutting branches back, sometimes removing smaller limbs entirely to
preserve or improve plant health and structure.
public utilities
service for the public such as water, sewers, telephone, cable, fibre optics,
electricity, or gas
purchase order
formal written authorization provided by a buyer to a vendor to provide certain
goods or services (types, quantities, qualities, and prices) and to bill the buyer for
them at the specified price. The purchase order becomes a contract when it is
accepted by the vendor.
quarantine
confinement or isolation of plants or plant products suspected of carrying an
infectious agent for observation and research or for farther inspection, testing
and/or treatment for a period of time, in an effort to prevent disease from
spreading.
rails
a bar or series of bars, typically fixed on upright supports, serving as part of a
fence or barrier or used to hang things on
rain gauges
device for collecting and measuring the amount of rain that falls.
rain water
harvesting
collection and storage of rainwater often from rooftops in storage units for reuse
on-site, rather than allowing it to runoff. Uses include water for garden,
irrigation, domestic use with proper treatment, etc.
rebar
steel bar, usually with manufactured deformations, used in concrete and
masonry construction to provide additional strength. Short for reinforcing bar.
regeneration
processes designed to build soil health or to regenerate soil, including
maintaining a high percentage of organic matter in soils, minimum tillage,
biodiversity, composting, mulching, and crop rotation to support a sustainable
growing environment.
respirators
apparatus worn over the mouth and nose or the entire face to prevent the
inhalation of dust, smoke, or other noxious substances.
- 114 -
retaining wall
wall built to stabilize a slope and keep soil from sliding or eroding downhill.
retention ponds
basins that are designed to temporarily hold a set amount of water and to catch
runoff from higher elevation areas while slowly draining to another location.
They are more or less around for flood control when large amounts of rain could
cause flash flooding.
ribbon tests
simple method used to estimate the percentage of sand, silt and clay in a soil
sample.
river rock
natural aggregate smoothed by forces of water. Can come in all sizes and colors
depending upon the source.
rollover protection
devices (ROP)
operator compartment structures (usually cabs or frames) intended to protect
equipment operators and motorists from injuries caused by vehicle overturns or
rollovers.
roof-top gardens
any garden on the roof of a building. Roof plantings provide food, temperature
control, hydrological benefits, architectural enhancement, habitats or corridors
for wildlife, and recreational opportunities.
root division
methods
process of reproducing plants by a division of roots or crowns.
rooted cuttings
a vegetative portion removed from a parent plant that has been induced to form
roots and eventually new leaves and shoots.
rooting hormones
growth substances that stimulate root formation when applied to the base of a
cutting.
roots
part of the plant, usually underground, that absorbs water and nutrients from
the soil and anchors the plant in the soil. However, roots can also be aerial
(growing up above the ground or above water)
rootstocks
the root or part of a root used for plant propagation. In grafting the rootstock is
that part of a grafted plant that supplies the roots
mildew
a fungi that forms fine webs on the surfaces of leaves on live plants. Mildews
thrive in warm, humid conditions and mainly affect plants not adapted to those
conditions. Also referred to as powdery mildew.
rot
also called decay, any of several plant diseases, caused by any of hundreds of
species of soil-borne bacteria and fungi. They are characterized by plant
decomposition and putrefaction. The decay may be hard, dry, spongy, watery,
and mushy.
- 115 -
rotating crops
a system in which crops are grown on different sections of a plot on a three- or
four-year cycle to build soil fertility, boost yields and economic returns, and
minimize the negative impact of soil borne pests and diseases.
rust
disease caused by a rust fungus, characterized by reddish or brownish spots on
leaves, stems, and other parts.
scab
fungal disease common in areas with summer rainfall - most commonly
troubling apples and crab apples. It causes disfiguring lesions, and can infect
other plants as well.
scarify
to break up and loosen (soil) to a shallow depth. Roughing up the surface of a
root ball that has circling roots
scion wood
short length of stem, taken from one plant which is then grafted onto the
rootstock of another plant.
soil texture
is a qualitative classification tool used in both the field and laboratory to
determine classes for soils based on their physical texture.
scorch
injury caused to a plant's leaves due to a pathogen heat or lack of water or
excessive transpiration .
screed
a straight board used to even off the surface of sand or freshly poured
concrete. The screed is usually slid across the tops of the form boards
holding the aggregate or concrete. In this process, aggregate or concrete
remaining above the level of the forms is moved to areas in which the
level is too low, or else simply removed as excess.
sealants
material usually applied as a liquid to waterproof, enhance color, and in some
cases reduce abrasion. Applied to wood, and interlocking concrete pavements.
shearing
removal of a shrub's surface by clipping in order to achieve a specific shape and /
or resulting in a very formal growth habit
shoring
props or posts of timber or other material in compression; used for the
temporary support of excavations, formwork, walls or unsafe structures.
shrubs
a woody plant that is never tree-like in habit and produces or shoots from or
near the base. A multi-stemmed, woody plant that does not exceed 20 feet in
height.
silt fencing
is a temporary sediment control device used on construction sites to protect
water quality in nearby streams, rivers, lakes and seas from sediment (loose soil)
in storm water runoff
- 116 -
site assessment
identifying the existing inventory of elements and features including roads,
neighbouring properties, soil type, drainage, microclimate, compaction, slopes,
water ways, existing plants, wildlife, utilities and hazards, access and security
requirements etc.
site locates
depicts the location of underground site utilities existing on a piece of property
including lines for telecommunication, electricity distribution, natural gas, cable
television, fiber optics, traffic lights, street lights, storm drains, water mains, and
wastewater pipes. In some locations, major oil and gas pipelines, national
defense communication lines, mass transit, rail and road tunnels also compete
for space underground.[1]
site preservation
steps taken to preserve site and minimize environmental impact ( erosion,
runoff, flooding, compaction etc.) on the site and neighbouring properties due to
the construction activity. (Traffic, ground disturbance etc.)
smart water
technology
irrigation best management practices and components that address landscape
needs without over watering.
softscape
parts of a landscape that comprise and support living material. For example
flowers, plants, grass, trees, soil, mulch, etc
softscape material
living, animated part of a landscape including plants, flowers, color scheme and
pattern of plantation.
soil
porous material at the surface of the earth and consists of minerals, organic
matter, water, gases, and living organisms.
soil amendments
any material added to a soil/media to improve its physical properties to enhance
production, such as water retention, permeability, water infiltration, drainage,
aeration and structure.
solenoid switches
electromagnet which is connected to a controller and facilitates the opening and
closing of automatic control valves within irrigation systems.
spalling
loss of a fragment/chip or splinter, usually in the shape of a flake, or pitted
appearance detached from the edge or surface of a paver or concrete due to a
blow or sudden force, or the action of weather, or pressure. Typically caused by
poor installation and / or weather factors.
species
is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A
species is often defined as the largest group of organisms capable of
interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. A class of individuals having some
common characteristics or qualities; distinct sort or kind; a plant that is a
representative member of a species, one that is not a hybrid or variety.
- 117 -
specifications
precise statement of legal particulars or documents that define the detailed
qualitative requirements for products, materials, and workmanship upon which
the contract for construction is based.
spill containment
where spills of chemicals, oils, sewage etc. are contained within a barrier or
drainage system rather than being absorbed at the surface.
spill kits
consist of absorbents that are sprinkled on top of the spill or sponge-like fabrics
that are placed around the spill in order to contain it. The kit may also include
protective equipment, such as goggles and gloves
standards
a document developed to establish recognized and accepted minimum levels of
quality that may be recognized by the Owner, User, Consultant for
material, product, plant, design, system or installation procedure and;
to standardize, or simplify such variables as dimensions, varieties or other
characteristics of specific products or plants in order to minimize variation in
manufacture, production and/or use.
stem cuttings
is a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of
the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist
soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. Also known as striking or cloning.
stems
the main body or stalk of a plant or shrub, typically rising above ground but
occasionally subterranean. Slender stalk supporting or connecting another plant
part, such as a leaf or flower.
stippling
leaf injury from insects resulting in leaf spotting as a result of localized
destruction of the chlorophyll by the injected enzymes at the feeding site.
Aphids, leafhoppers, and mites are commonly associated with this type of injury.
storm water
management
practices that are developed to reduce, control, and prevent storm water runoff
through a variety of strategies. These strategies vary in nature and effectiveness
and strive to improve water quality and either reduce or control flooding and
erosion.
structural integrity
ability of an item to hold together under a load, including its own weight,
resisting breakage or bending. It assures that the construction will perform its
designed function, during reasonable use, for as long as the designed life of the
structure.
structural soil
a designed medium which can meet or exceed pavement design and installation
requirements while remaining root penetrable and supportive of tree growth
even when surrounded by pavement. It is a mixture of gap-graded gravels, clay
loam, and a hydrogel stabilizing agent to keep the mixture from separating.
- 118 -
subsoil
the stratum of earth or earthy material immediately under surface of topsoil. It
contains little or no humus.
subsurface drainage
systems
the process of directing excess water away from the root zones of plants by
natural or artificial means, such as by using a system of pipes and drains placed
below ground surface level.
take-off or quantity
take-off
process in which detailed lists are compiled, based on drawings and
specifications, of all the material and equipment necessary to construct a project.
Estimators use construction blueprints, either manually or electronically, and
start "taking off" quantities of items they will need from those blueprints in order
to prepare part of the estimate. Examples of possible take offs include the
number of plants, linear measurement of pavers, volumes of aggregate etc.
needed to complete the work.
tenders
refers to projects or procurement and is the process whereby organizations,
clients, governments and institutions invite bids for large projects that must be
submitted within a finite deadline.
thinning
selective removal of plants/trees to allow sufficient room for the remaining plants
to grow
a form of pruning, that removes an entire shoot, limb, or branch at its point of
origin to revitalize a plant by removing over-mature, weak, problematic, and
excessive growths. When performed correctly, thinning encourages the
formation of new growth that will more readily bear fruit and flowers. This is a
common technique in pruning roses and "opening-up" the branching of
neglected trees, or for renewing shrubs with multiple branches. A thinned plant
becomes more
open and is more likely to retain its natural form. More light penetrates a plant
that has been thinned, and interior branches and foliage will be retained nearer
the center of a tree.
top-dress
application of soluble fertilizers, fresh soil, or compost to the soil surface around
a plant or to lawns to replenish nutrients and to improve plant health.
topography
shape, height and elevations of natural and man-made features of a particular
landscape, such as mountains, rivers, valleys, and human settlements, railway
lines, and roads.
topping
cutting back of the vertical stem (leader) and upper primary limbs (scaffold
branches) on mature trees to achieve a uniform height. Topping is also referred
to as heading, stubbing, or dehorning.
traffic control
directing the movement of vehicles, equipment, people or goods in a controlled
manner to ensure efficiency and safety for all
- 119 -
transformers
a device used to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another at a
different voltage.
trench slope
involves cutting back the trench wall at an angle inclined away from the
excavation.
tropical plants
all vegetation growing in a wide band around the equator between the Tropic of
Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Most interior plants are tropical plants.
true-to-type
a plant that, when self-fertilized, only produces offspring with the same traits.
The alleles for these type of plants are homozygous.
tubers
fat underground stem which stores food and plant energy and from which a
plant grows. (e.g. Dahlias)
turf/ turf grass
the upper stratum of soil bound by grass and plant roots into a thick mat.
Any of various grasses (as Kentucky bluegrass or perennial ryegrass) grown to
form turf
universal hand
signals
established code of signals used by a signaler to communicate with an
equipment /vehicle operator.
urban tree canopy
the layer of leaves, branches, and stems of trees that cover the ground when
viewed from above.
utilities
gas, water, electrical and sewer services beyond 5 feet from a building.
ventilation
natural or mechanical process by which air is introduced to, circulated or
removed from a space, with or without heating, cooling, or purification
treatment. The main purposes of ventilation are to regulate the temperature and
humidity to the optimal level, and to ensure movement of air and thus prevent
build-up of plant pathogens (such as Botrytis cinerea) that prefer still air
conditions. Ventilation also ensures a supply of fresh air for photosynthesis and
plant respiration, and may enable important pollinators to access the greenhouse
crop. Ventilation can be achieved via use of vents - often controlled automatically
via a computer - and recirculation fans.
vines
plant whose stem requires support and which climbs by tendrils or twining or
creeps along the ground.
water conservation
water management practices that improve the use of water resources to benefit
people or the environment by beneficial reduction in water use, loss or waste.
- 120 -
water harvesting
accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing
it to runoff. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for
irrigation, water for domestic use with proper treatment, and indoor heating for
houses etc.
water holding
capacity
is the ability of a soil to hold water and is used for irrigation scheduling, crop
selection, groundwater contamination considerations, estimating runoff and
determining when plants will become stressed. Water holding capacity varies by
soil texture.
water management
activity of planning, developing, distributing and optimum use of water
resources under defined water policies and regulations. It includes: management
of water treatment of drinking water, industrial water, sewage or wastewater.
water proofing
any of a number of materials applied to various surfaces, e.g., a building
foundation, to prevent the infiltration of water.
water table
the level below which the ground is saturated with water.
weed barriers
materials such as polypropylene blanket, fabric, mulches, composts that
stabilizes soil, controls erosion, separates soil profiles and hinders weed growth.
weed control
use of manual, mechanical or chemical means to discourage the growth of
unwanted, (usually) fast growing and/or invasive plants.
weeds
plants that grow where they are not wanted and if not kept under control will
compete with the ornamental plants or vegetables for nutrients and water in the
soil.
weight loads
recommended maximum weight load for a line, rope, crane or any other lifting
device or component of a lifting device.
wetland reserves
wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas that are
protected and managed in order to preserve a particular type of habitat and its
flora and fauna which are often rare or endangered.
whip
a slender, un-branched shoot or plant.
wicking beds
self-contained raised beds with built-in reservoirs that supply water from the
bottom up.
wire baskets
baskets made from heavy gauge wire that are often used to hold a B&B root ball
intact during shipping and handling. Wire also allows for the tree to be picked
up by the root ball instead of the trunk.
- 121 -
wood chips
medium-sized solid material made by cutting, or chipping, larger pieces of
wood. Woodchips may be used as a biomass solid fuel and are raw material for
producing wood pulp. They may also be used as organic mulch in gardening,
landscaping, restoration ecology and mushroom cultivation.
woody
stems or trunks that are hard and thickened rather than soft and pliable and
which increase in diameter each year.
work orders
written notice from the project owner to the contractor in which the contractor is
authorized to proceed with the work on a specified date.
xeriscape principles
is a landscape design and maintenance concept that conserves water and
protects the environment. The 7 principles include: Planning and design; Soil
analysis; Practical turf areas; Appropriate plant selection; Efficient irrigation; Use
of mulches; and Appropriate maintenance
zone
section of an irrigation system served by a single control valve. Zones are
comprised of similar sprinkler types and plant material types with similar water
requirements and types.
- 122 -
APPENDIX D
ACRONYMS
B&B
balled and burlap
CFIA
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
CSNS
Canadian Standards for Nursery Stock
DDDI
dead, disease, damage, interfering
DFO
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
EC
electrical conductivity
GFCI
ground fault circuit interrupter
GPS
global positioning systems
HVAC
heating, ventilation and air conditioning
IPM
integrated pest management
LED
light emitting diode
OEM
operator equipment manual
OH&S
Occupational Health and Safety
OJT
on-the-job-training
PPE
personal protective equipment
ROP
rollover protection
UV
ultraviolet
WHMIS
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
- 123 -
APPENDIX E
BLOCK A
%
NL
20
BLOCK AND TASK WEIGHTING
COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
NS
25
Task 1
PE
NV
NB
18
QC
5
ON
20
MB
20
SK
17
AB
15
BC
20
NT YT
ND ND
NU
ND
Task 2
26%
Maintains tools, equipment and vehicles.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 25 19 NV 25 25 30 35 28 35 25 ND ND ND
Task 3
27%
Organizes work.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 25 40 NV 33 50 25 20 23 20 40 ND ND ND
Task 4
31%
Participates in marketing and sales.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 25 19 NV 16 0 15 20 21 10 20 ND ND ND
BLOCK B
%
20%
Performs safety-related functions.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 25 22 NV 26 25 30 25 28 35 15 ND ND ND
NL
25
National
Average
16%
HORTICULTURAL PRINCIPLES
NS
25
Task 5
PE
NV
NB
18
QC
10
ON
23
MB
25
SK
20
AB
24
BC
30
NT YT
ND ND
NU
ND
National
Average
24%
Applies horticultural principles.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 50 77 NV 58 100 55 75 50 60 80 ND ND ND
- 124 -
67%
Task 6
Applies environmental practices.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 50 23 NV 42 0 45 25 50 40 20 ND ND ND
BLOCK C
%
NL
25
LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION
NS
25
Task 7
PE NB
NV 30
QC
60
ON
23
MB
25
SK
25
AB
22
BC
25
NT YT NU
ND ND ND
Task 8
Task 9
39%
Installs softscape.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 35 29 NV 32 30 33 40 38 25 40 ND ND ND
BLOCK D
34%
LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE
NS
25
Task 10
27%
Installs hardscape.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 35 44 NV 39 60 33 40 40 25 40 ND ND ND
%
National
Average
32%
Performs pre-construction activities.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 30 27 NV 29 10 34 20 22 50 20 ND ND ND
NL
25
33%
PE NB
NV 26
QC
25
ON
17
MB
15
SK
18
AB
23
BC
25
NT YT NU
ND ND ND
National
Average
24%
Maintains softscape and green infrastructure.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 70 53 NV 55 80 65 80 45 65 40 ND ND ND
- 125 -
61%
Task 11
Maintains hardscape and green infrastructure.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 30 47 NV 45 20 35 20 55 35 60 ND ND ND
BLOCK E
%
NL
5
39%
PRODUCTION OF PLANT MATERIALS (NOT COMMON CORE)
NS
0
Task 12
PE NB
NV
8
QC
0
ON
17
MB
15
SK
20
AB
16
BC
0
NT YT NU
ND ND ND
Constructs growing facilities (NOT COMMON CORE)
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 25 0 NV 0
0
0 10 23 7 0 ND ND ND
Task 13
Task 14
Operates and maintains components of growing facilities (NOT
COMMON CORE)
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 25 0 NV 27 0 20 15 17 17 0 ND ND ND
11%
20%
Maintains greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 25 0 NV 31 0 40 35 30 38 0 ND ND ND
Task 15
National
Average
0%
33%
Maintains nursery plants. (NOT COMMON CORE)
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 25 0 NV 42 0 40 40 30 38 0 ND ND ND
- 126 -
36%
APPENDIX F
PIE CHART*
E
0%
D
24%
A
20%
B
24%
C
32%
TITLES OF BLOCKS
BLOCK A
COMMON
OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
BLOCK D
LANDSCAPE
MAINTENANCE
BLOCK B
HORTICULTURAL
PRINCIPLES
BLOCK E
PRODUCTION OF
PLANT MATERIALS
(NOT COMMON CORE)
BLOCK C
LANDSCAPE
CONSTRUCTION
*Average percentage of the total number of questions on an interprovincial examination,
assigned to assess each block of the analysis, as derived from the collective input from workers
within the occupation from all areas of Canada. Interprovincial examinations typically have
from 100 to 150 multiple-choice questions.
- 127 -
APPENDIX G
BLOCKS
A – COMMON
OCCUPATIONAL
SKILLS
BHORTICULTURAL
PRINCIPLES
TASK PROFILE CHART —
Landscape Horticulturist
TASKS
SUB-TASKS
1. Performs
safety-related
functions.
1.01 Uses personal
protective
equipment (PPE)
and safety
equipment.
1.02 Maintains
safe work
environment.
2. Maintains tools,
equipment and
vehicles.
2.01 Maintains
hand tools.
2.02 Maintains
power tools.
2.03 Maintains
measuring
equipment.
2.04 Maintains
vehicles and
motorized
equipment.
2.05 Maintains
equipment
attachments and
trailers.
3. Organizes
work.
3.01 Performs site
assessments.
3.02 Uses
documentation
and reference
material.
3.03 Maintains
records.
3.04 Complies
with policies and
regulations.
3.05 Plans daily
tasks.
3.06
Communicates
with others.
3.07 Orders plants
and materials.
3.08 Transports
materials.
3.09 Organizes
plants, materials
and equipment
3.10 Transports
equipment.
4. Participates in
marketing and
sales.
4.01 Controls
inventory.
4.02 Sells products
and services.
4.03 Maintains
customer
relations.
4.04 Prepares
estimates.
5. Applies
horticultural
principles.
5.01 Identifies
plants and plant
requirements.
5.02 Manages
plant health and
growing
conditions.
5.03 Prunes plant
material.
5.04 Manages
pests, diseases and
invasive species.
6. Applies
environmental
practices.
6.01 Practices
environmental
stewardship.
6.02. Selects green
infrastructure.
- 128 -
BLOCKS
C – LANDSCAPE
CONSTRUCTION
TASKS
7. Performs preconstruction
activities.
7.01 Participates in
basic landscape
design activities.
7.02 Interprets
landscape
drawings.
7.03 Participates in
job planning
activities.
7.04 Prepares
construction site.
7.05 Performs
grading.
8. Installs
hardscape.
8.01 Installs
drainage systems.
8.02 Installs
landscape
structures.
8.03 Installs
walkway, patio,
driveway and
parking lot
materials.
8.04 Installs steps
and retaining
walls.
8.05 Installs
irrigation systems.
8.06 Installs water
features.
8.07 Installs low
voltage landscape
lighting.
8.08 Installs green
infrastructure.
9.01 Installs
growing media.
9.02 Installs
exterior landscape
plants.
9.03 Transplants
plants.
9.04 Installs
mulch.
9.05 Installs turf
from seed.
9.06 Installs sod.
9.07 Installs
erosion control
materials.
9.08 Installs
interior landscape
plants.
10.01 Maintains
growing media.
10.02 Maintains
turfgrass.
10.03 Maintains
interior softscape.
10.04 Maintains
exterior softscape.
10.05 Propagates
plant materials.
11.02 Maintains
drainage systems.
11.03 Maintains
walkways, patios,
driveways and
parking lots.
11.04 Maintains
irrigation systems.
11.05 Maintains
landscape
lighting.
9. Installs
softscape.
D - LANDSCAPE
MAINTENANCE
SUB-TASKS
10. Maintains
softscape and
green
infrastructure.
10.06 Repairs
softscape.
11. Maintains
hardscape and
green
infrastructure.
11.01 Maintains
green
infrastructure.
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BLOCKS
E - PRODUCTION
OF PLANT
MATERIALS
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
TASKS
SUB-TASKS
11.06 Maintains
water features.
11.07 Maintains
steps and
retaining walls.
11.08 Maintains
landscape
structures.
11.09 Practices
snow and ice
management.
12. Constructs
growing facilities
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
12.01 Builds
growing facilities.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
12.02 Installs
growing facility
components.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
13. Operates and
maintains
components of
growing facilities
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
13.01 Operates
growing facility
structures and
components.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
14. Maintains
greenhouse crops.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
15. Maintains
nursery plants.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
13.02 Maintains
sanitary
environment.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
13.03 Operates
climate control
and components.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
13.04 Operate
irrigation and
fertigation
systems.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
14.01 Propagates
greenhouse plant
materials.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
14.02 Transplants
greenhouse plants.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
14.03 Grows
greenhouse crops.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
14.04 Harvests
greenhouse crops.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
14.05 Ships
greenhouse crops.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
15.01 Propagates
field and container
crops.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
15.02 Transplants
field and container
crops.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
15.03 Grows field
and container
crops.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
15.04 Harvests
field and container
crops.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
15.05 Ships field
and container
crops.
(NOT COMMON
CORE)
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11.10 Repairs
hardscape.
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