National Occupational Analysis Landscape Horticulturist 2015 National Occupational Analysis Landscape Horticulturist 2015 Trades and Apprenticeship Division Division des métiers et de l’apprentissage Labour Market Integration Directorate Direction de l’intégration au marché du travail National Occupational Classification: 2225 Disponible en français sous le titre : Horticulteur-paysagiste/horticultricepaysagiste You can download this publication by going online: publicentre.esdc.gc.ca This document is available on demand in multiple formats by contacting 1 800 O-Canada (1-800-622-6232), teletypewriter (TTY), 1-800-926-9105. © Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada, 2015 droitdauteur.copyright@HRSDC-RHDCC.gc.ca PDF Cat. No.: Em15-1/21-2015E-PDF ISBN: 978-0-660-03746-2 ESDC Cat. No. : LM-580-11-15 _________________________________________________________________ You can download this publication and find more information on Red Seal trades by going online: http://www.red-seal.ca FOREWORD The Canadian Council of Directors of Apprenticeship (CCDA) recognizes this National Occupational Analysis (NOA) as the national standard for the occupation of Landscape horticulturist. Background The first National Conference on Apprenticeship in Trades and Industries, held in Ottawa in 1952, recommended that the federal government be requested to cooperate with provincial and territorial apprenticeship committees and officials in preparing analyses of a number of skilled occupations. Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) sponsors a program, under the guidance of the CCDA, to develop a series of NOAs. The NOAs have the following objectives: to describe and group the tasks performed by skilled workers; to identify which tasks are performed in every province and territory; to develop instruments for use in the preparation of Interprovincial Red Seal Examinations and curricula for training leading to the certification of skilled workers; to facilitate the mobility of apprentices and skilled workers in Canada; and, to supply employers, employees, associations, industries, training institutions and governments with analyses of occupations. -I- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The CCDA and ESDC wish to express sincere appreciation for the contribution of the many tradespersons, industrial establishments, professional associations, labour organizations, provincial and territorial government departments and agencies, and all others who contributed to this publication. Special acknowledgement is extended by ESDC and the CCDA to the following representatives of the trade, and the apprenticeship bodies or national organizations that nominated them. Karen Carrier Doug Conrad William Dorman Guy Dowhy Mike Gallant Sally Harvey Tim Kearney Michael Murray Kurtis Langton John Soychak Heike Stippler New Brunswick Nova Scotia Alberta Manitoba Prince Edward Island Canadian Agricultural Human Resource Council (CAHRC) Canadian National Landscape Association (CNLA) Newfoundland and Labrador Saskatchewan Ontario British Columbia This analysis was prepared by the Labour Market Integration Directorate of ESDC. The coordinating, facilitating and processing of this analysis were undertaken by employees of the NOA development team of the Trades and Apprenticeship Division. The host jurisdiction of Ontario also participated in the development of this NOA. Comments or questions about National Occupational Analyses may be forwarded to: Trades and Apprenticeship Division Labour Market Integration Directorate Employment and Social Development Canada 140 Promenade du Portage, Phase IV, 5th Floor Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0J9 Email: email@example.com - II - TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS II TABLE OF CONTENTS III STRUCTURE OF ANALYSIS V DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYSIS VII ANALYSIS SAFETY 3 SCOPE OF THE LANDSCAPE HORTICULTURIST TRADE 4 OCCUPATIONAL OBSERVATIONS 6 ESSENTIAL SKILLS SUMMARY 7 BLOCK A BLOCK B BLOCK C COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS Task 1 Performs safety-related functions. 9 Task 2 Maintains tools, equipment and vehicles. 12 Task 3 Organizes work. 15 Task 4 Participates in marketing and sales. 22 HORTICULTURAL PRINCIPLES Task 5 Applies horticultural principles. 26 Task 6 Applies environmental practices 31 LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION Task 7 Performs pre-construction activities. 36 Task 8 Installs hardscape. 40 Task 9 Installs softscape. 47 - III - BLOCK D BLOCK E LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE Task 10 Maintains softscape and green ifrastructure. 53 Task 11 Maintains hardscape and green infrastructure. 59 PRODUCTION OF PLANT MATERIALS (NOT COMMON CORE) Task 12 Constructs growing facilities (NOT COMMON CORE). 66 Task 13 Operates and maintains components of growing facilities (NOT COMMON CORE). 68 Task 14 Maintains greenhouse crops (NOT COMMON CORE). 72 Task 15 Maintains nursery plants (NOT COMMON CORE). 76 APPENDICES APPENDIX A TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 83 APPENDIX B PLANT MATERIAL 88 APPENDIX C GLOSSARY 95 APPENDIX D ACRONYMS 123 APPENDIX E BLOCK AND TASK WEIGHTING 124 APPENDIX F PIE CHART 127 APPENDIX G TASK PROFILE CHART 128 - IV - STRUCTURE OF ANALYSIS To facilitate understanding of the occupation, the work performed by tradespersons is divided into the following categories: Blocks the largest division within the analysis that is comprised of a distinct set of trade activities Tasks distinct actions that describe the activities within a block Sub-Tasks distinct actions that describe the activities within a task Key Competencies activities that a person should be able to do in order to be called ‘competent’ in the trade The analysis also provides the following information: Trends changes identified that impact or will impact the trade including work practices, technological advances, and new materials and equipment Related Components a list of products, items, materials and other elements relevant to the block Tools and Equipment categories of tools and equipment used to perform all tasks in the block; these tools and equipment are listed in Appendix A Context information to clarify the intent and meaning of tasks Required Knowledge the elements of knowledge that an individual must acquire to adequately perform a task -V- The appendices located at the end of the analysis are described as follows: Appendix A — Tools and Equipment a non-exhaustive list of tools and equipment used in this trade Appendix B — a non-exhaustive list of plants in Canada Plant List Appendix C — Glossary definitions or explanations of selected technical terms used in the analysis Appendix D — Acronyms a list of acronyms used in the analysis with their full name Appendix E — Block and Task Weighting the block and task percentages submitted by each jurisdiction, and the national averages of these percentages; these national averages determine the number of questions for each block and task in the Interprovincial exam Appendix F — Pie Chart a graph which depicts the national percentages of exam questions assigned to blocks Appendix G — Task Profile Chart a chart which outlines graphically the blocks, tasks and sub-tasks of this analysis - VI - DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYSIS Development of Analysis A draft analysis is developed by a committee of industry experts in the field led by a team of facilitators from ESDC. This draft analysis breaks down all the tasks performed in the occupation and describes the knowledge and abilities required for a tradesperson to demonstrate competence in the trade. Draft Review The NOA development team then forwards a copy of the analysis and its translation to provincial and territorial authorities for a review of its content and structure. Their recommendations are assessed and incorporated into the analysis. Validation and Weighting The analysis is sent to all provinces and territories for validation and weighting. Participating jurisdictions consult with industry to validate and weight the document, examining the blocks, tasks and sub-tasks of the analysis as follows: BLOCKS Each jurisdiction assigns a percentage of questions to each block for an examination that would cover the entire trade. TASKS Each jurisdiction assigns a percentage of exam questions to each task within a block. SUB-TASKS Each jurisdiction indicates, with a YES or NO, whether or not each subtask is performed by skilled workers within the occupation in its jurisdiction. The results of this exercise are submitted to the NOA development team who then analyzes the data and incorporates it into the document. The NOA provides the individual jurisdictional validation results as well as the national averages of all responses. The national averages for block and task weighting guide the Interprovincial Red Seal Examination plan for the trade. This method for the validation of the NOA also identifies common core sub-tasks across Canada for the occupation. If at least 70% of the responding jurisdictions perform a sub-task, it shall be considered common core. Interprovincial Red Seal Examinations are based on the common core sub-tasks identified through this validation process. - VII - Definitions for Validation and Weighting YES sub-task performed by qualified workers in the occupation in a specific jurisdiction NO sub-task not performed by qualified workers in the occupation in a specific jurisdiction NV analysis Not Validated by a province/territory ND trade Not Designated in a province/territory NOT COMMON CORE (NCC) sub-task, task or block performed by less than 70% of responding jurisdictions; these will not be tested by the Interprovincial Red Seal Examination for the trade NATIONAL AVERAGE % average percentage of questions assigned to each block and task in Interprovincial Red Seal Examination for the trade Provincial/Territorial Abbreviations NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU Newfoundland and Labrador Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Northwest Territories Yukon Territory Nunavut - VIII - ANALYSIS SAFETY Safe working procedures and conditions, accident prevention, and the preservation of health are of primary importance to industry in Canada. These responsibilities are shared and require the joint efforts of government, employers and employees. It is imperative that all parties become aware of circumstances that may lead to injury or harm. Safe learning experiences and work environments can be created by controlling the variables and behaviours that may contribute to accidents or injury. It is generally recognized that safety-conscious attitudes and work practices contribute to a healthy, safe and accident-free work environment. It is imperative to apply and be familiar with the Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Acts and Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) regulations. As well, it is essential to determine workplace hazards and take measures to protect oneself, co-workers, the public and the environment. Safety education is an integral part of training in all jurisdictions. As safety is an imperative part of all trades, it is assumed and therefore it is not included as a qualifier of any activities. However, the technical safety tasks and sub-tasks specific to the trade are included in this analysis. -3- SCOPE OF THE LANDSCAPE HORTICULTURIST TRADE “Landscape Horticulturist” is this trade’s official Red Seal occupational title approved by the Canadian Council of Directors of Apprenticeship. This analysis covers tasks performed by landscape horticulturists whose occupational title has been identified by some provinces and territories of Canada under the following names: NL NS PE NB QC Horticultural Technician ON MB BC NT YT NU Landscape Gardener Landscape Worker LandscapeHorticulturist AB Horticulture Technician Landscape Horticulturist SK Landscape horticulturists survey and assess landscape, draw sketches and interpret plans. They construct and maintain gardens, parks, golf courses and other landscape environments. In addition, they advise clients on issues related to horticulture and landscape construction. Landscape horticulturists also propagate, cultivate and study plants, and treat injured and diseased trees and plants. They are employed by landscape designers, architects and contractors, lawn service and tree care establishments, recreation facilities, golf courses, parks, nurseries, greenhouses, and municipal, provincial and federal governments. They may also be self-employed. Landscape horticulturists work with machinery and equipment ranging from simple hand tools to heavy equipment. They may be responsible for the routine maintenance of tools and equipment. Landscape horticulturists may also work with a variety of products such as pesticides, fertilizers and fuels and must be aware of their safe use, environmental best practices and government regulations. Some landscape horticulturists specialize in areas such as landscape design, construction and maintenance, and greenhouse, sod and nursery production. They may work independently or with other professionals such as architects, engineers, and municipal planners. Landscape horticulturists require good communication skills to coordinate and facilitate work with clients, co-workers and other trades. They also require strong analytical, decision making and organizational abilities. -4- Employment in this trade is often seasonal with long hours. The majority of the work such as landscape construction and maintenance, and snow and ice management is performed outdoors in all types of weather. Indoor work may involve greenhouse production, interior landscaping, and the sale of plants, landscape materials and supplies. The work may be strenuous and may involve activities such as lifting, climbing, carrying and bending. With experience and proven competence, landscape horticulturists may advance to supervisory positions or become business owners. This analysis recognizes similarities or overlaps with the work of other tradespeople such as arborists, utility arborists, bricklayers/masons, heavy equipment operators, electricians, concrete finishers, roofers, plumbers, small engine mechanics and carpenters. -5- OCCUPATIONAL OBSERVATIONS The landscape industry must continuously adapt to changing trends in education, certification, legislation and the labour market as they relate to safety, environmental stewardship and conservation. This market-driven industry will continue to evolve through the introduction of new products, implementation of new technology and green horticultural principles to meet the needs of its clients. There is an increasing demand from the emerging workforce for year round work rather than seasonal employment. More employers are encouraging employees to improve their technical skills towards obtaining their credentials during the slower period. The demand for specialized skilled workers in the landscape industry is growing. Increasingly, consumers and employers are requesting certified landscape horticulturists who are aware of best practices to provide the best products and services. As jurisdictional safety and prevention legislation changes, compliance requirements by industry are increasing. Safety awareness and implementation of safe work practices in the industry is evolving to better protect the workforce and the general public. The industry plays a role in promoting environmental consciousness and sustainable development. Public awareness of conservation measures to protect our living spaces is empowering the landscape industry to reduce its environmental impact. There is increased collaboration across the industry and stakeholder groups in Canada resulting in better environmental awareness and application of best practices. The work is becoming more intricate because of the complexity of the designs and expanding customer requests for items such as outdoor living spaces and, organic gardening and sustainable design. There is an increased focus on water conservation and protection. The use of native and natural materials and green infrastructure is becoming more prevalent. A higher degree of attention is paid to plant health starting at the design phase and through installation and maintenance due to environmental and jurisdictional regulations. The industry is growing more pest and disease-resistant varieties of plants. There are changes to pest and disease control measures including legislation that has reduced dependence on chemical use. Tools and equipment that produce fewer emissions, less noise and less vibration are more in demand. The landscape horticultural industry continues to apply technological advancements to improve its business and workforce skills. Digital devices, satellite technology and production innovation enable improved production, efficiency and quality. Due to an increase in government regulations concerning the conservation, capture and recycling of water, industry is continuously seeking new technologies, techniques and plant varieties to reduce environmental impact and production costs. -6- ESSENTIAL SKILLS SUMMARY Essential skills are needed for work, learning and life. They provide the foundation for learning all other skills and enable people to evolve with their jobs and adapt to workplace change. Through extensive research, the Government of Canada and other national and international agencies have identified and validated nine essential skills. These skills are used in nearly every occupation and throughout daily life in different ways. A series of CCDA-endorsed tools have been developed to support apprentices in their training and to be better prepared for a career in the trades. The tools can be used independently or with the assistance of a tradesperson, trainer, employer, teacher or mentor to: understand how essential skills are used in the trades; learn about individual essential skills strengths and areas for improvement; and improve essential skills and increase success in an apprenticeship program. Tools are available online or for order at: http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/les/tools/index.shtml. The application of these skills may be described throughout this document within the competency statements which support each subtask of the trade. The following are summaries of the requirements in each of the essential skills, taken from the essential skills profile. A link to the complete essential skills profile can be found at www.red-seal.ca. Reading Landscape horticulturists require reading skills to review work-related documents such as site plans, work orders, contracts, purchase orders, safety documents, product directions and specifications, promotional materials and manuals. They may also read trade publications, catalogues, scientific articles and papers, regulations and building codes. Document Use Landscape horticulturists refer to drawings, photographs, grade plans, graphs, tables and other technical information related to their trade. They may also interpret scale drawings of landscape designs and detail drawings, and refer to schematics for irrigation systems. Writing Writing skills are used by landscape horticulturists to compose letters or e-mails to clients, contractors and colleagues, and to accurately record information such as safety, maintenance and production information. Landscape horticulturists write investigative reports covering damaged or diseased trees, shrubs, plants, turfgrass and hardscape elements. Oral Communication Oral communication is a very important skill for landscape horticulturists. A substantial amount of communication is done in order to exchange information, instruct, convey -7- knowledge and to coordinate work with others. They talk to clients about horticultural and landscaping topics such as plant care, landscape design and landscape maintenance. They speak with other professionals including suppliers, architects and engineers to coordinate projects. Numeracy Landscape horticulturists use numeracy skills, particularly to calculate financial transactions such as purchasing and sales. They also perform calculations related to production such as labour rates, material quantity take-offs, and seeding rates and measurements such as weight, volume and site areas. They also calibrate equipment such as spreaders and sprayers. They perform numerical estimations of time requirements, slope and quantities of materials. Thinking Skills Landscape horticulturists need to be able to problem solve when unexpected situations arise in their work. For instance, inclement weather may impact the ability to proceed as planned. Decision making and critical thinking skills are required to determine how to distribute tasks associated with issues such as plant health care, environmental protection, and selection of plant species, products and practices. Planning and organizing skills are used to coordinate and organize tasks with those of many others involved in the process. Landscape horticulturalists need to comprehend, interpret and apply safety documentation and regulations. Digital Technology Landscape horticulturists use computers and other digital devices when researching horticultural information. They may also use applications for communication, word processing, labeling, spreadsheets, databases and global positioning systems (GPS). They may use design, estimating, accounting and inventory software. Working with Others Landscape horticulturists coordinate work with others, including other landscape horticulturists, supervisors, architects, clients, homeowners, surveyors, engineers, bylaw officers and other contractors. Landscape horticulturists mentor other employees and cooperate in team building. Continuous Learning Landscape horticulturists are required to stay abreast of landscaping and horticultural information and practices, and regulatory requirements such as environmental protection and conservation, zoning and bylaws. Landscape horticulturists are governed by the regulatory body in the jurisdiction in which they practice. They may be required to participate in developing their learning plans and complete continuous education to maintain their industryrelated certification. -8- BLOCK A COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS Trends Safety concerns are leading to increased commitments to legislated safety programs and best practices. The use of respirators in lieu of dust masks is becoming common practice. Tools and equipment are more ergonomic and user-friendly. Motorized equipment is becoming less noisy. More environmentally friendly options are available. Information is increasingly being shared among landscape horticulturists as a result of more sophisticated digital devices and the internet. There are increasing restrictions in the movement of plant material across jurisdictional borders. Keeping accurate and up-to-date records is important. Related Components All components apply. Tools and Equipment See Appendix A. Task 1 Performs safety-related functions. Context Proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential for personal safety. Awareness of safety considerations, completing assessments and the use of safety equipment such as pylons and barricades is important to maintaining a safe work environment. Required Knowledge K1 safety regulations and company safety manual K2 types of PPE and their operation K3 types of safety equipment and their operation K4 storage procedures for tools and equipment K5 safety regulations that apply to the transporting of material and equipment K6 WHMIS procedures K7 health and safety procedures -9- K8 site hazards such as public and private utilities K9 universal hand signals K 10 first aid training Sub-task A-1.01 NL yes Uses personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety equipment. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies: A-1.01.01 select and use PPE such as ear, eye, hand and foot protection, and safety vests as required for task, tools, equipment, machinery and environment A-1.01.02 select and use safety equipment such as ventilation fans, spill kits and fire extinguishers according to manufacturers’ specification A-1.01.03 store PPE and safety equipment in a dry, protected environment to maintain its integrity A-1.01.04 check operation and condition of PPE and safety equipment regularly and prior to use A-1.01.05 check PPE and safety equipment inventory to ensure that there is a ready supply A-1.01.06 recognize damaged and expired PPE and safety equipment and remove from service A-1.01.07 check and replace PPE components according to manufacturers' specifications and workplace requirements - 10 - Sub-task A-1.02 NL yes Maintains safe work environment. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-1.02.01 assess hazards such as high voltage, motorized equipment and working at heights according to OH&S and company safety policy A-1.02.02 take action for overhead hazards such as power lines and tree branches to prevent damage and personal injuries A-1.02.03 identify required PPE and safety equipment for task A-1.02.04 follow specified safety procedures such as use of fall arrest, establishing fuelling zones, trenching and shoring, and confined space procedures A-1.02.05 maintain a clean and tidy work area to avoid injuries to self and others A-1.02.06 comply with lock-out/tag-out procedures when working on equipment A-1.02.07 coordinate tasks with other workers to avoid injury to self, co-workers and others A-1.02.08 place flagging, pylons and signage when working in high traffic areas according to jurisdictional regulations A-1.02.09 handle hazardous materials in accordance with jurisdictional regulations and WHMIS procedures such as disposal, labelling and use of PPE A-1.02.10 participate in safety meetings and discussions to ensure that information is recorded and distributed to all team members A-1.02.11 recognize and report unsafe conditions A-1.02.12 recognize safety and warning signals such as back-up signals, back-up alarms and warning lights A-1.02.13 use universal hand signals when communicating with equipment operators and drivers A-1.02.14 contain and dispose of spill contaminants according to regulations A-1.02.15 coordinate with emergency response teams such as spill response and fire A-1.02.16 administer first aid treatment - 11 - Task 2 Maintains tools, equipment and vehicles. Context Landscape horticulturists must maintain various types of tools, equipment and vehicles to increase longevity and to ensure that work is done in a safe and productive manner. Required Knowledge K1 tool, equipment and vehicle operation and function K2 safety regulations and safe work practices K3 types of PPE such as safety glasses and gloves K4 storage and sanitation procedures for tools, equipment and vehicles K5 maintenance practices for tools, equipment and vehicles K6 record keeping procedures for maintaining tools, equipment and vehicles K7 engine types and their requirements K8 types of hitches and ball sizes Sub-task A-2.01 NL yes Maintains hand tools. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-2.01.01 clean and disinfect hand tools to ensure proper operation and to prevent transfer of contaminants A-2.01.02 lubricate hand tools such as secateurs and shears A-2.01.03 check tools regularly for damage, excessive wear and proper operation and remove from service A-2.01.04 store hand tools for organization, safety and security A-2.01.05 sharpen hand tools such as secateurs, shears and shovels A-2.01.06 replace components in tools such as secateurs and loppers due to damage and wear - 12 - Sub-task A-2.02 NL yes Maintains power tools. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-2.02.01 lubricate power tools according to manufacturers' specifications A-2.02.02 adjust power tools such as chain saws, mowers and power washers A-2.02.03 check tools for wear, damage and malfunction such as a damaged power cord, and remove from service A-2.02.04 follow recommended maintenance schedule according to manufacturers' specifications A-2.02.05 check fluid levels, fuel mixture ratios and air pressure A-2.02.06 grease nipples on motorized equipment A-2.02.07 sharpen and balance mower blades A-2.02.08 sharpen tools such as chainsaws and hedge shears according to manufacturers' specifications A-2.02.09 check, charge or replace batteries on power tools A-2.02.10 check components such as filters and mufflers A-2.02.11 refuel equipment according to manufacturers' specifications A-2.02.12 disinfect tools to prevent cross-contamination from site to site A-2.02.13 store power tools for organization, safety and security Sub-task A-2.03 NL yes Maintains measuring equipment. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-2.03.01 clean and disinfect measuring equipment to ensure proper operation and to prevent transfer of contaminants A-2.03.02 calibrate measuring equipment such as pH meters, levels and electrical conductivity (EC) meters A-2.03.03 check, charge and replace batteries on measuring equipment - 13 - A-2.03.04 check tools for damage, excessive wear and proper operation, and remove from service A-2.03.05 store measuring equipment for organization, safety and security Sub-task A-2.04 NL yes Maintains vehicles and motorized equipment. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-2.04.01 perform and document a circle check of vehicles and motorized equipment to check for defects such as compromised lights, plates and brakes A-2.04.02 clean motorized equipment for reasons such as maintaining optimal operation, detection of leaks and sanitation A-2.04.03 inspect equipment visually for damage and wear, and lock-out and tag-out A-2.04.04 inspect equipment to ensure efficient functioning A-2.04.05 check condition of safety features such as lockout devices, chutes, trimmer and belt guards, rollover protection devices (ROP) and operator presence switches A-2.04.06 check fluid levels such as oil, coolant and hydraulic fluids according to manufacturers' specifications A-2.04.07 check and replace components such as spark plugs, belts, hoses and pull cords according to manufacturer’s specifications A-2.04.08 check and adjust air pressure in components such as tires and air compressors for tools A-2.04.09 check and tighten loose connections and fittings A-2.04.10 check cutting height and adjust according to client expectations and turfgrass needs - 14 - Sub-task A-2.05 NL yes Maintains equipment attachments and trailers. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-2.05.01 grease fittings on trailers and equipment such as aerators and cultivators A-2.05.02 inspect attachments for damage and wear, and lock-out/tag-out A-2.05.03 adjust attachments for parking, travel and operation A-2.05.04 check hydraulic fluids and hose condition to ensure optimum and safe operation of equipment A-2.05.05 clean and disinfect attachments such as drop spreaders, sprayers and mowers A-2.05.06 replace damaged and worn components such as bushings, blades and tines A-2.05.07 perform a circle check of equipment attachments to check for defective parts such as lights, chains, plates, safety guards and brakes A-2.05.08 check operation of safety brake, latch pin and safety chain on trailers Task 3 Organizes work. Context Landscape horticulturists organize work for productivity and safety. Required Knowledge K1 site assessment and determine logistics K2 site hazards K3 site access K4 types of growing media K5 features that require preservation and protection K6 interpretation of documentation K7 source and reliability of documentation K8 types of documents such as government publications, specifications, and instruction and assembly manuals K9 types of records such as vehicle maintenance logs and mileage records K 10 jurisdictional regulations K 11 plant identification and nomenclature - 15 - K 12 verbal and written communication methods K 13 transportation effects on plants K 14 acclimatization requirements of plant materials K 15 WHMIS procedures K 16 health and safety procedures K 17 monitoring devices such as recording devices and thermometers K 18 material handling techniques K 19 safe loading/unloading and transportation of equipment and materials K 20 load and weight distribution for transporting equipment K 21 weight restrictions for transporting equipment K 22 securing methods for transporting tools and equipment K 23 regulations that apply to the transporting of material and equipment such as straps and chains K 24 basic traffic control procedures and bylaws K 25 licensing requirements for transporting materials and equipment such as load securement and weight loads Sub-task A-3.01 NL yes Performs site assessments. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.01.01 assess access points to identify site restrictions and challenges for work A-3.01.02 perform visual inspection of site and neighbouring properties for factors such as existing damage and extensional (surrounding) landscape A-3.01.03 use jurisdictional ‘call before you dig’ service to identify utility locations A-3.01.04 identify markings for private and public utilities such as cable, natural gas, power and telephone A-3.01.05 identify and mark locations of private utilities such as irrigation lines, drainage systems and landscape lighting components A-3.01.06 perform tests such as percolation, core sampling and texture tests to determine quality of existing soil A-3.01.07 locate septic field components and wells A-3.01.08 identify health and vigour of existing plants for cultural maintenance or removal - 16 - A-3.01.09 identify areas to be excavated and protected A-3.01.10 identify existing and proposed grading and drainage patterns A-3.01.11 identify security requirements Sub-task A-3.02 NL yes Uses documentation and reference material. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.02.01 locate and interpret documentation such as drawings and specifications, tenders, addendum and contracts, site locates, and product instructions A-3.02.02 refer to WHMIS documentation for procedures such as usage of PPE, storage requirements, spill containment, and usage and cleanup of hazardous material A-3.02.03 use catalogues for reasons such as plant identification, comparing products among suppliers, and ordering tools, equipment and plant materials A-3.02.04 use resources such as text books, field books, operator equipment manual (OEM) and internet for in-depth information regarding plant materials, pests and diseases Sub-task A-3.03 NL yes Maintains records. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.03.01 complete safety records such as accident reports, tag-outs and safety meeting records according to governmental, industry and company regulations A-3.03.02 complete work records such as work orders, daily time sheets, change orders and site assessment records according to company policy A-3.03.03 complete tool and equipment sign-out and training sign-off sheets according to company policy A-3.03.04 maintain records related to integrated pest management (IPM) and plant health programs - 17 - A-3.03.05 record information such as fertilizer application, treatments, temperatures, cropping schedules and inventory management A-3.03.06 record shipping information such as inventory adjustments, regulatory documentation and Phytosanitary Certificates A-3.03.07 compare packing slips with original orders to ensure that shipments are complete A-3.03.08 read test results and monitoring devices and record data Sub-task A-3.04 NL yes Complies with policies and regulations. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.04.01 review and comply with current governmental and company policies and regulations such as labour, transportation, pest control, conservation of water, habitat preservation and control of spraying A-3.04.02 enforce safety regulations such as PPE usage, usage of tools and equipment, and handling and storage of materials A-3.04.03 comply with jurisdictional and company environmental protection agencies such as Health Canada, Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Environment Canada A-3.04.04 contact appropriate authorities for information and to report accidents and incidents A-3.04.05 verify that personal licensing and certification are current - 18 - Sub-task A-3.05 NL yes Plans daily tasks. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.05.01 identify and prioritize tasks to assist in time management and efficient performance A-3.05.02 organize labour, materials and equipment for tasks A-3.05.03 delegate tasks to team members to utilize individual strengths A-3.05.04 modify daily tasks according to challenges such as site hazards, weather, lack of materials and competing projects A-3.05.05 refer to historical information and previous records to assist in the daily planning A-3.05.06 uses design software applications and 3D modelling Sub-task A-3.06 NL yes Communicates with others. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.06.01 use effective verbal and written communication to relay information to persons such as co-workers, clients, suppliers and office staff A-3.06.02 mentor apprentices A-3.06.03 use universal hand signals to communicate with machine operators, truck drivers and crane operators A-3.06.04 communicate visually to direct movement of machinery, equipment and people A-3.06.05 use communication equipment such as two way radios, computers and cell phones A-3.06.06 ensure that co-workers understand instructions using techniques such as onthe-job-training (OJT) method and repeating back A-3.06.07 practice active listening A-3.06.08 employ conflict resolution strategies - 19 - A-3.06.09 report discrepancies and seek direction from supervisor A-3.06.10 provide input for employee evaluations Sub-task A-3.07 NL yes Orders plants and materials. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.07.01 identify size, quality, quantity and type of required materials A-3.07.02 use botanical nomenclature when ordering plant material to ensure accuracy of orders A-3.07.03 record order number, tracking number and name of supplier representative A-3.07.04 compare prices for budget purposes A-3.07.05 determine availability, time and date of delivery or pick up A-3.07.06 ensure documents such as movement certificates and import permits are in place Sub-task A-3.08 NL yes Transports materials. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.08.01 protect plant materials with items such as tarps and anti-desiccants A-3.08.02 secure materials using appropriate load bearing tie downs according to jurisdictional regulations A-3.08.03 load/unload materials using tools and equipment such as dollies and forklifts A-3.08.04 load materials in sequence and direction to allow for optimal transport and unloading A-3.08.05 ensure that loose materials such as branches, wood chips, soil and aggregates are secure and loaded in a manner to prevent spillage A-3.08.06 cover materials according to company policy and jurisdictional regulations - 20 - A-3.08.07 load and transport material according to weight restriction regulations and load distribution requirements A-3.08.08 perform and document circle check of vehicle and towed equipment Sub-task A-3.09 NL yes Organizes plants, materials and equipment. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.09.01 inspect and verify plants and materials for accuracy, quality, quantity and damage prior to unloading and according to purchase order A-3.09.02 place imported plants in a separate location from local plants until inspected by CFIA and according to jurisdictional regulations A-3.09.03 remove and inspect monitoring devices such as temperature recorders and environmental recorders A-3.09.04 receive, unload and record plants and group/match plants by size and species A-3.09.05 place plants in designated areas such as job site, hot house, shaded area or heeling-in-bed A-3.09.06 unload, place and protect materials such as wood chips, soil and aggregates in an organized fashion in designated storage areas to avoid contamination and maintain product quality A-3.09.07 allocate specified storage area for equipment and hazardous materials A-3.09.08 receive and record materials such as soils, seed, plugs, roots, labels and containers A-3.09.09 quarantine, reject and dispose of substandard materials according to regulations A-3.09.10 perform final check of required plants, materials and equipment on site - 21 - Sub-task A-3.10 NL yes Transports equipment. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-3.10.01 select trailer type according to equipment and weight restrictions A-3.10.02 secure loads according to jurisdictional requirements A-3.10.03 determine route from shop to work site for heavy hauling A-3.10.04 tie flags to back end of trailers to indicate extended load according to jurisdictional regulations A-3.10.05 place traffic cones and wheel chocks when loading and unloading trailer A-3.10.06 follow road closure procedures according to jurisdictional regulations A-3.10.07 comply with licensing requirements for transporting equipment A-3.10.08 transport equipment in a manner to avoid personal injury and damage to equipment and property. Task 4 Participates in marketing and sales. Context Landscape horticulturists sell products and services that meet and exceed client expectations. Establishing and maintaining customer relations is a critical component of the marketing strategy. Landscape horticulturists need to manage and control a broad range of inventory products. They also need to know about estimating, tendering and contracting processes. Required Knowledge K1 purchase order and record keeping techniques K2 plant identification and nomenclature K3 inventory software K4 tracking methods K5 phytosanitary inspection and certification K6 softscape products such as plants, fertilizers, soils, chemicals and containers K7 merchandising and marketing techniques and tools such as business cards, brochures and website - 22 - K8 professional conduct K9 customer retention skills and relationship building K 10 selling skills K 11 basic estimating of materials K 12 regulations, permits, specifications, bylaws and restrictions K 13 installation techniques K 14 hardscaping products such as paving stones, natural stone, weed barriers and edging K 15 site access requirements K 16 site restriction and security requirements K 17 environmental constraints K 18 tendering systems and requirements such as bonding, payment schedules, deficiencies and extras K 19 time allocation to perform tasks required in contract K 20 equipment and tools required to perform job K 21 scheduling and critical path analyses Sub-task A-4.01 NL yes Controls inventory. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND Key Competencies A-4.01.01 identify and count inventory using manual or electronic systems A-4.01.02 maintain inventory records A-4.01.03 identify and sort materials A-4.01.04 identify restock orders - 23 - YT ND NU ND Sub-task A-4.02 NL yes Sells products and services. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-4.02.01 advise and educate clients on plants, products and services A-4.02.02 direct customer to seasonal purchases such as Christmas trees and seasonal lighting A-4.02.03 up-sell additional products and services to clients and advise of special offers A-4.02.04 merchandize products and services in an attractive and visible way A-4.02.05 apply marketing principles such as creating internet presence and advertising A-4.02.06 handle payments for products and services A-4.02.07 write invoices, calculate taxes and issue receipts for payment A-4.02.08 maintain professional image and appearance A-4.02.09 prepare and administer contracts Sub-task A-4.03 NL yes Maintains customer relations. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-4.03.01 address client’s concerns with tact, politeness and in a timely manner according to company policy A-4.03.02 practice customer service by acknowledging clients and potential clients A-4.03.03 maintain customer record information such as address, phone number, email and product preferences A-4.03.04 provide after-service follow-up A-4.03.05 practice active listening - 24 - Sub-task A-4.04 NL yes Prepares estimates. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies A-4.04.01 interpret tendering document when provided to understand requirements for estimate A-4.04.02 estimate basic material requirements A-4.04.03 perform take-off from drawings to determine parameters such as quantity, size, type and volume of materials and products A-4.04.04 identify and apply additional costs such as sub-trades, transportation, safety program, contingencies, change orders, surcharges, accommodations and overhead A-4.04.05 co-ordinate project logistics with other contractors, suppliers and employees, to establish direct costs by discussing items such as skill requirements, machinery and products A-4.04.06 calculate price and labour requirements to supply and install products and materials A-4.04.07 provide estimates for contract preparation - 25 - BLOCK B HORTICULTURAL PRINCIPLES Trends As horticultural stewards of the environment, there is an increased awareness of the benefits and applications of blue and green infrastructure. There is an increase in the use and benefits of native, non-invasive, edible and organically-grown plant materials and a more targeted use of pest management best practices by using IPM principles. Due to environmental awareness and jurisdictional regulations, landscape horticulturists use materials and operate vehicles, tools and equipment that have a reduced carbon foot print. Consumers are more conscious of their purchasing choices and impact on the environment which transforms landscape horticultural practices. Related Components All components apply. Tools and Equipment See Appendix A. Task 5 Applies horticultural principles. Context Landscape horticulturists must identify plants and plant requirements to manage plant health, growing conditions, pests, diseases and invasive species. They apply horticultural principles to sustain and promote plant life and growing environment. Required Knowledge K1 growing media conditions K2 signs and symptoms of plant stress K3 mature plant structure, size and life expectancy K4 tests such as pH, air quality and nutrient tests K5 treatment methods K6 plant requirements such as light, hardiness and moisture K7 life cycle of pests and diseases and disease triangle - 26 - K8 pest and disease introduction and spread K9 beneficial organisms such as fungi, insects and bacteria K 10 companion planting procedures K 11 basic plant science such as botany and physiology K 12 action and disease thresholds K 13 Canadian Standards for Nursery Stock (CSNS) K 14 IPM principles K 15 regional landscape standards K 16 jurisdictional regulations K 17 plant characteristics such as form, foliage and foliage pattern, stems and bark, bud, fruit, flower, size and colour K 18 plant classification such as coniferous trees, coniferous shrubs, deciduous trees, deciduous shrubs, herbaceous, woody, broad leaf evergreen, turfgrass, vines, weeds, annual, perennial, biennial, edible, native, non-native and invasive species K 19 plant key and application K 20 Plant Hardiness Zone Map K 21 plant nomenclature K 22 reasons for pruning such as size reduction, thinning for air circulation, removal of dead, diseased, damaged or interfering material, unwanted growth, shape and design intent K 23 factors that affect pruning times such as dormancy, flower period, growth response, wind and frost damage, and scorch K 24 pruning methods according to plant classification K 25 1/3 pruning rule K 26 pests such as plant feeding animals, weeds and insects K 27 diseases such as blight, leaf spot, scab, gall, rust, canker, bacterial wilts, fungi, rot and mildew, and bacterial and fungal turfgrass diseases K 28 causes of diseases such as pathogens, nematodes and nutrient deficiencies K 29 pathogens such as viruses, bacteria and fungi K 30 biotic factors such as diseases and insects K 31 abiotic factors such as temperature, light, mechanical damages and nutrition - 27 - Sub-task B-5.01 Identifies plants and plant requirements. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU yes yes NV yes yes yes yes yes yes yes ND ND ND Key Competencies B-5.01.01 inspect plants visually by examining plant classification and characteristics, and use reference material B-5.01.02 examine plant by touching to determine texture and unique characteristics B-5.01.03 determine growth habits and cultural requirements of plants such as light, moisture, soil type and nutrients to identify suitable plant location B-5.01.04 determine health and vigour of plants based on observed plant characteristics to establish next steps such as growing, designing, placing, installing and maintaining of plants Sub-task B-5.02 Manages plant health and growing conditions. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU yes yes NV yes yes yes yes yes yes yes ND ND ND Key Competencies B-5.02.01 determine exposure to conditions such as light, wind, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, moisture and reflective heat load based on location B-5.02.02 identify signs and symptoms of plant health B-5.02.03 collect growing media samples to determine growing media conditions B-5.02.04 test growing media samples and irrigation water manually or by lab analysis to identify texture, drainage capacity, pH, nutrients and contaminants B-5.02.05 collect foliar sample to identify plant health and determine nutrient deficiencies, diseases and pests, using reference materials and resources B-5.02.06 interpret lab results to determine plan of action B-5.02.07 determine air quality that might affect interior and exterior plants - 28 - B-5.02.08 adjust plant selection and placement according to microclimate, topography, natural habitat, pH level, soil type, growing environment and plant hardiness zone B-5.02.09 develop corrective measure plan according to findings and plant requirements B-5.02.10 implement measures to optimize plant health and microclimates such as growing media, nutrition, temperature, light, exposure, moisture and humidity B-5.02.11 take corrective measures such as fertilization, liming, adding organics, neutralizing water and correcting drainage B-5.02.12 measure and apply fertilizer and amendments according to plant requirements such as foliar feed, injection, and liquid and granular applications B-5.02.13 remove and dispose of pest ridden and fallen foliage to prevent spreading of pests and diseases, according to jurisdictional regulations and horticultural best practices B-5.02.14 divide and space plants to ensure adequate air circulation Sub-task B-5.03 Prunes plant material. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU yes yes NV yes yes yes yes yes yes yes ND ND ND Key Competencies B-5.03.01 assess plant structure, species and environment to establish pruning plan B-5.03.02 select pruning methods such as shearing, heading, thinning, cleaning, canopy raising, crown balancing, reducing and restoring, according to plant morphology, anatomy, physiology, maturity, time of year, and type of plant material B-5.03.03 determine pruning process to maximize efficiency according to pruning plan B-5.03.04 select cutting technique such as 3-cut method, flush cut, according to size of limb and required equipment B-5.03.05 select and use tools and equipment such as hedge trimmers, shears, saws, secateurs, pruners and loppers according to task - 29 - B-5.03.06 cut plant material to remove dead, disease, damage, interfering (DDDI) material to improve plant health, structure and to reduce size B-5.03.07 cut, pinch and deadhead plant material according to requirements B-5.03.08 dispose of pruning debris according to sanitation and jurisdictional regulations Sub-task B-5.04 Manages pests, diseases and invasive species. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU yes yes NV yes yes yes yes yes yes yes ND ND ND Key Competencies B-5.04.01 determine conditions that lead to plant stress by inspecting plants visually for signs and symptoms of plant diseases, deficiencies and environmental impacts such as discoloration, wilting, defoliation and foliar burn B-5.04.02 inspect plants visually for pest population and damage such as leaf disfiguration, notching and stippling B-5.04.03 identify pests, diseases, invasive species and beneficial insects by visually inspecting plant B-5.04.04 recognize and comply with jurisdictional guidelines for native plants and invasive species to determine course of action B-5.04.05 monitor pest populations, spread of disease and damage characteristics B-5.04.06 monitor biological control populations to determine efficacy and course of action B-5.04.07 establish injury and action thresholds according to economics, aesthetics and plant health B-5.04.08 select treatment and control method according to types of pests, diseases and environment and that will not negatively impact native or existing ecosystem B-5.04.09 identify and calibrate pesticide application equipment B-5.04.10 prevent pest and disease by rotating crops, selecting pest-resistant varieties and managing plant health B-5.04.11 prevent invasion or reinvasion of pest, diseases and invasive species by maintaining healthy growing environment, and supporting and encouraging native ecosystem - 30 - B-5.04.12 apply treatment methods such as cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical in compliance with jurisdictional requirements B-5.04.13 evaluate results of treatment and review on an on-going basis B-5.04.14 identify quarantine protocols based on host plants, host media and predatory organisms, according to jurisdictional regulations B-5.04.15 store, handle and dispose of pest and disease management related products and materials B-5.04.16 dispose of pest and diseased plant material and invasive species, according to jurisdictional regulations Task 6 Applies environmental practices Context Landscape horticulturists, as environmental stewards, identify and apply environmental best practices to conserve, preserve, protect and reclaim natural habitats and ecosystems to sustain a healthy environment. Required Knowledge K1 environmental practices for physical elements such as water, air quality and soil K2 ecosystems such as meadows, ponds, parks and urban landscape K3 types of green infrastructure such as living walls, green roofs, rain gardens, rainwater harvesting, storm water management, green parking, permeable pavement, bioswales, urban tree canopy and land conservation K4 types of blue and grey infrastructures K5 benefits of green infrastructures such as biodiversity, water conservation, erosion control, flood mitigation, climate control and air purification K6 green infrastructure purpose K7 jurisdictional regulations K8 green field and brown field reclamation K9 benefits of plants such as climate control, carbon capturing, symbiotic relationships K 10 xeriscape principles - 31 - K 11 smart water technology K 12 value of environmental, economic and social impact of tree canopy K 13 fire smart practices K 14 natural ecosystems function, purpose and structure K 15 site sustainability K 16 landscape design and development process K 17 aesthetics K 18 due diligence K 19 preservation, conservation and regeneration principles and applications related to plant life, habitat and water table K 20 water retention and weed prevention materials such as soil, mulch, compost and plants K 21 water retention practices K 22 pest and disease introduction and spread K 23 life cycle of pest and diseases K 24 mechanical control practices such as aeration, mulching mowers and sanitizing and sharpening mowing blades K 25 cultural control practices such as mulching of grass, by-products of pruning and fall leaves, and adjusting mowing height K 26 jurisdictional regulations of disposal vehicle, equipment parts and byproducts K 27 environmental waste management best practices such as reduce, reuse and recycle K 28 surface and subsurface drainage systems and practices such as roof-top gardens, catch basins, bioswales, french drains, retention ponds and wicking beds K 29 filtration systems K 30 local sourcing of material and equipment K 31 site protection such as silt fencing and erosion control - 32 - Sub-task B-6.01 Practices environmental stewardship. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU yes yes NV yes no yes yes yes yes yes ND ND ND Key Competencies B-6.01.01 select and use material such as plants, paving stones and irrigation components, to reduce negative impact on environment and ecosystems B-6.01.02 select and use vehicles and equipment to minimize negative environmental impact such as compaction, fuel emission and noise pollution, according to jurisdictional regulations B-6.01.03 select native species and plant varieties that are pest resistant and suited to the environment such as soil type, light and pH, and according to jurisdictional regulations B-6.01.04 select conservation and preservation strategies such as plant selection, storm water management, smart water systems, water retention methods and water harvesting, according to jurisdictional regulations B-6.01.05 minimize introduction of diseases through plant selection B-6.01.06 minimize spread of disease by practicing methods such as reducing the movement and transportation of infected plant material and growing media, by sanitizing material, tools and equipment and by disposing of plant material, according to jurisdictional regulations B-6.01.07 select fertilizers and amendments that support plant health and minimize environmental impacts B-6.01.08 reduce unnecessary idling of vehicles and equipment, according to jurisdictional regulations and environmental best practices - 33 - Sub-task B-6.02 Selects green infrastructure. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU yes yes NV yes no yes yes yes yes yes ND ND ND Key Competencies B-6.02.01 determine green infrastructure needs by inspecting site-specific environmental conditions such as topography, water flow, drainage patterns, humidity, air flow, existing vegetation and growing media B-6.02.02 confirm factors such as drainage systems, water proofing, equipment access and other requirements B-6.02.03 identify benefits and applications of green infrastructure technologies that mimic nature for selection according to site requirements B-6.02.04 select green infrastructure technologies, methods and products taking into consideration the client’s needs, site restrictions, product availability and jurisdictional regulations - 34 - BLOCK C Trends LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION The use of technologies such as light emitting diode (LED) landscape fixtures and GPS is becoming more prevalent. This increases the training necessary for landscape horticulturists to perform their tasks. Safety concerns on the construction site are leading to increased commitments to legislated safety programs and best practices. Increased awareness of the environmental benefits of sustainable landscape is changing the training, certification and practices of the industry. The use of new turf seed cultivars, pest-resistance plants and IPM practices is becoming more popular. Implementing water management, infiltration and erosion control measures is becoming more important. Structural soils which support load and plant growth are being created and used more frequently. Outdoor living space features such as fireplaces, outdoor kitchens and entertainment units are becoming more popular. Indoor plants are becoming more popular due to increased awareness of health benefits. Related Components (including, but not limited to) Softscape material: growing media, mulch, turf, aquatic plants, tropical plants, bulbs, exterior plants, fertilizers, amendments, structural soils. Hardscape materials: drainage components, irrigation components, pre-cast concrete, aggregates, manufactured stone, natural stone, lumber, mortar, geogrids, rebar, geotextiles, filter cloths, erosion mats, river rock, boulders, edging materials, recycled materials. Structures and features: wood, metals, rails, posts, concrete, , fasteners, decorative details, composite boards, pumps, hoses, electrical conduits and wiring for low voltage lighting, water feature components, low voltage lighting components. Tools and Equipment See Appendix A. - 35 - Task 7 Performs pre-construction activities. Context Landscape horticulturists participate in the planning of construction. They also perform pre-construction activities prior to installation. They prepare the site according to landscape drawings and specifications. Required Knowledge K1 tool use and application K2 equipment use and application K3 growing media structure and quality K4 codes and standards K5 hardscape and construction materials K6 softscape materials K7 surveying and measurement principles K8 design principles K9 site assessment principles K 10 jurisdictional regulations K 11 types of landscape drawings and specifications K 12 horticulture K 13 plant identification and nomenclature K 14 scope of landscape horticulturist and other trades K 15 productivity management K 16 safe work practices K 17 site preservation best practices such as compaction and erosion prevention and reduction K 18 habitat recognition and preservation K 19 excavation practices such as cut and fill, and trench slope K 20 drainage techniques K 21 site access requirements K 22 site restriction and security requirements K 23 environmental constraints K 24 equipment and tools required to perform job K 25 scheduling and critical path analyses - 36 - Sub-task C-7.01 NL yes Participates in basic landscape design activities. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-7.01.01 select and use tools such as levels, GPS and measuring devices C-7.01.02 measure and inventory existing site conditions to provide information for the design C-7.01.03 apply design principles such as texture, color, form and scale C-7.01.04 create basic landscape drawings according to client consultation and jurisdictional regulations Sub-task C-7.02 NL yes Interprets landscape drawings. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-7.02.01 identify scale to guide site layout and job planning activities C-7.02.02 identify symbols such as property lines, grades and elevations, and hardscape and softscape elements to determine the scope of work C-7.02.03 identify project specifications such as planting plan, and softscape and hardscape details C-7.02.04 identify infrastructure and utilities such as gaslines, catchbasins, and water valves C-7.02.05 identify stakeholders on the plan such as property owners, designers and engineers for future reference - 37 - Sub-task C-7.03 NL yes Participates in job planning activities. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-7.03.01 identify labour expertise and allocate production hours according to specifications and in consultation with project manager (designer/estimator) C-7.03.02 review safety requirements to ensure safe completion of the project C-7.03.03 locate private and public utilities to ensure safe completion of project C-7.03.04 verify term of project and determine sequence of job to ensure project is completed according to plan and budget C-7.03.05 verify materials and procedures to meet project specifications C-7.03.06 plan on-site staging such as environmental protection, vehicle parking, storage, portable office and toilets C-7.03.07 identify and schedule sub-contractors to fulfill the scope of work C-7.03.08 identify and schedule materials, tools, equipment and attachments to ensure availability C-7.03.09 identify and schedule daily and end of project clean-up Sub-task C-7.04 NL yes Prepares construction site. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-7.04.01 select and use hand and measuring tools such as shovels, engineer levels and transits C-7.04.02 select and use motorized equipment such as loaders, skid-steers and excavators C-7.04.03 identify and communicate discrepancies between plans and site conditions C-7.04.04 preserve and protect existing hardscape and softscape elements such as trees and decks according to plans and specifications C-7.04.05 remove hazards, debris and other unwanted materials C-7.04.06 create access to ensure site efficiency and security - 38 - C-7.04.07 identify markings of underground and overhead utility hazards to avoid personal injury and damage to utilities C-7.04.08 interpret privately-owned and public utilities such as fibre-optics, gas lines and septic locate documents C-7.04.09 locate and cordon off areas to minimize environmental impact C-7.04.10 install environmental mitigation mechanisms such as filters, silt fencing and storm sewer guards C-7.04.11 lay out site by marking and staking location of hardscape and softscape elements to be installed C-7.04.12 excavate and place service conduits to support activities such as installing irrigation systems and low voltage wiring C-7.04.13 verify that site is prepared according to specifications Sub-task C-7.05 Performs grading NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU yes yes NV yes yes yes yes yes yes yes ND ND ND Key Competencies C-7.05.01 select and use tools such as shovels, rakes and levels C-7.05.02 select and use equipment such as excavators, loaders, skid-steers and tractors C-7.05.03 lay out drainage elements by marking and staking grades C-7.05.04 strip and stockpile topsoil C-7.05.05 cut and fill material to establish rough grade according to drawings and specifications C-7.05.06 verify that site is prepared according to specifications - 39 - Task 8 Installs hardscape. Context Landscape horticulturists install hardscape features that comply with drawings, specifications, regulations and codes to ensure the integrity of the installation. Required Knowledge K1 tool use and application K2 equipment use and application K3 sub-base structure and quality K4 codes and standards K5 hardscape and construction materials K6 softscape materials K7 design principles K8 jurisdictional regulations K9 types of landscape drawings K 10 horticulture K 11 plant identification and nomenclature K 12 scope of landscape horticulturist and other trades K 13 productivity management K 14 safe work practices K 15 site preservation best practices such as compaction, and prevention and reduction of erosion K 16 excavation practices K 17 drainage techniques K 18 water quality management K 19 sub-irrigation and irrigation K 20 landscape structures such as pergolas, fences and decks K 21 low-voltage lighting systems K 22 habitat recognition and preservation K 23 water features such as ponds, fountains, waterfalls and streams K 24 green infrastructure such as green roofs, living walls, retention ponds, permeable pavers, bio-swales, storm water retention and wet land reserves K 25 precast concrete products such as pavers, slabs, and segmental retaining wall units (SRWs). - 40 - Sub-task C-8.01 NL yes Installs drainage systems. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-8.01.01 ensure drainage system complies with jurisdictional regulations C-8.01.02 select and use tools such as shovels, picks and wheelbarrows C-8.01.03 select and use equipment such as excavators, trenchers, loaders and skidsteers C-8.01.04 excavate subsoil to required grade and depth C-8.01.05 store or remove excavated materials C-8.01.06 move specified drainage system materials into desired location C-8.01.07 lay out and assemble drainage components C-8.01.08 backfill drainage system with specified materials to finished grade C-8.01.09 verify that installation meets specifications according to jurisdictional requirements Sub-task C-8.02 NL yes Installs landscape structures. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-8.02.01 select and use hand and power tools such as mitre saws, power drills and hammers C-8.02.02 select and use equipment such as excavators, loaders, skid-steers and attachments C-8.02.03 lay out and mark construction area C-8.02.04 excavate as required C-8.02.05 prepare foundation suitable for structure installation C-8.02.06 construct specified structure such as decks, pergolas, outdoor kitchens and gazebos C-8.02.07 verify that installation meets specifications C-8.02.08 clean structures using tools such as brooms, water and power blowers - 41 - C-8.02.09 repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction C-8.02.10 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations C-8.02.11 apply preservatives, stains and sealants to provide ease of cleaning, longevity and aesthetics according to product specifications and jurisdictional regulations Sub-task C-8.03 NL yes Installs walkway, patio, driveway and parking lot materials. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-8.03.01 select and use tools such as shovels, picks, chisels and wheelbarrows C-8.03.02 select and use equipment such as excavators, plate compactors and concrete saws C-8.03.03 lay out and mark construction area C-8.03.04 excavate as specified and stabilize by compaction C-8.03.05 store or remove excavated materials C-8.03.06 place geotextiles for base stability C-8.03.07 add aggregate base and compact in lifts according to specifications C-8.03.08 create or maintain adequate grade to ensure positive drainage C-8.03.09 secure edge restraints for finished material C-8.03.10 place bedding materials such as sand, limestone screening, high performance bedding materials and concrete bases C-8.03.11 screed bedding materials C-8.03.12 install materials such as flagstones, concrete, aggregates and paving stones C-8.03.13 measure, cut and fit materials C-8.03.14 clean surfaces using tools such as brooms and power blowers C-8.03.15 apply joint materials such as mortars, sand and polymeric sand according to product specifications C-8.03.16 compact surfaces C-8.03.17 clean and seal, according to manufacturers’ specifications C-8.03.18 verify that installation meets specifications C-8.03.19 clean and repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction C-8.03.20 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations - 42 - Sub-task C-8.04 NL yes Installs steps and retaining walls. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-8.04.01 select and use tools such as shovels, picks, stone chisels and wheelbarrows C-8.04.02 select and use equipment such as excavators, plate compactors, concrete saws and concrete mixers C-8.04.03 lay out and mark construction area C-8.04.04 excavate as specified and stabilize by compaction C-8.04.05 store or remove excavated materials C-8.04.06 place geotextile materials for stability C-8.04.07 install aggregate base and compact in lifts according to specifications C-8.04.08 place bedding materials such as sand, limestone screening and concrete footing C-8.04.09 screed bedding materials C-8.04.10 build wall and steps by performing actions such as stacking and assembling courses, installing geogrid and using materials such as timber, natural stone, and manufactured stones according to drawings, specifications and jurisdictional regulations C-8.04.11 place drainage systems and backfill while maintaining the grade, according to specifications C-8.04.12 install adhesives or mortar to secure capstones and treads C-8.04.13 clean surfaces using tools such as brooms, power blowers and power washers C-8.04.14 seal steps and retaining walls according to product specifications C-8.04.15 verify that installation meets specifications and is ready for next phase C-8.04.16 repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction C-8.04.17 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations - 43 - Sub-task C-8.05 NL yes Installs irrigation systems. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-8.05.01 select and use tools such as pipe cutters, crimping tools, trenching shovels and wheelbarrows C-8.05.02 select and use equipment such as excavators, trenchers, loaders, skid steers and attachments C-8.05.03 excavate or trench to required grade and depth according to specifications and jurisdictional regulations C-8.05.04 store or remove excavated materials C-8.05.05 lay out and assemble irrigation components according to manufacturers’ specifications and irrigation plan C-8.05.06 backfill irrigation systems with specified materials to finished grade C-8.05.07 set head heights and nozzles of irrigation system to ensure coverage C-8.05.08 install and program control system according to the landscape and environmental requirements C-8.05.09 verify that installation is not leaking and meets specifications C-8.05.10 clean and repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction C-8.05.11 dispose of and recycle waste material according to jurisdictional regulations Sub-task C-8.06 NL yes Installs water features. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND Key Competencies C-8.06.01 select and use tools such as shovels, picks, chisels and wheelbarrows C-8.06.02 select and use equipment such as excavators, loaders and skid-steers C-8.06.03 lay out and mark construction area C-8.06.04 excavate and store or remove excavated materials - 44 - NU ND C-8.06.05 place geotextile materials, membranes and components such as pumps, drains, valves, filtration systems and electrical conduits according to specifications C-8.06.06 apply adhesives, foams and mortar to secure and seal assembly C-8.06.07 complete assembly of water supply components, filtration systems and lighting C-8.06.08 add water, run water systems and check for leaks C-8.06.09 add aggregates and decorative features such as rocks, garden art and foot bridges according to specifications C-8.06.10 verify and adjust water flow for optimal performance, sound and aesthetics C-8.06.11 drain water and clean all components C-8.06.12 refill water features and add ecosystem enhancement products such as beneficial bacteria and pH amendments C-8.06.13 place aquatic plants C-8.06.14 verify that installation meets specifications C-8.06.15 repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction C-8.06.16 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations Sub-task C-8.07 NL yes Installs low voltage landscape lighting. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-8.07.01 select and use tools such as wire strippers, voltmeters, ladders and trenching shovels C-8.07.02 dig trenches to required depth C-8.07.03 store or remove excavated materials C-8.07.04 lay out and assemble lighting components according to manufacturers’ specifications and lighting plan C-8.07.05 verify operation of the lighting system and check voltage C-8.07.06 position and secure lighting components into final location C-8.07.07 program lighting controller C-8.07.08 adjust fixtures for desired effects - 45 - C-8.07.09 clean and repair damage that has occurred as a result of construction C-8.07.10 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations Sub-task C-8.08 NL yes Installs green infrastructure. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-8.08.01 select and use tools such as shovels, picks and wheelbarrows C-8.08.02 select and use equipment such as excavators, trenchers, lifts, loaders and skid-steers C-8.08.03 excavate subsoil to required grade and depth C-8.08.04 store or remove excavated materials C-8.08.05 move specified drainage system materials into desired location C-8.08.06 lay out and assemble green infrastructure components such as geomembranes, green roof and living wall systems, water management systems and landscape on slab C-8.08.07 place materials such as soil, structural and filter media to support softscape and hardscape applications C-8.08.08 install plants and surface materials such as permeable pavers and organic mulch C-8.08.09 verify that installation meets specifications C-8.08.10 verify structural integrity of components C-8.08.11 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations - 46 - Task 9 Installs softscape. Context Landscape horticulturists install softscape features that comply with plans, specifications, regulations and codes to ensure the integrity of the installation. Required Knowledge K1 tool use and application K2 equipment use and application K3 growing media structure and quality K4 codes and standards K5 hardscape and construction materials K6 softscape materials K7 design principles K8 jurisdictional regulations K9 types of landscape drawings K 10 horticulture K 11 plant identification and nomenclature K 12 scope of landscape horticulturist and other trades K 13 productivity management K 14 safe work practices K 15 site preservation best practices such as compaction and prevention and reduction of erosion K 16 excavation practices K 17 drainage techniques K 18 plant growing requirements K 19 water quality management K 20 interior landscape planting guidelines K 21 exterior landscape planting guidelines K 22 sub-irrigation and irrigation K 23 IPM K 24 erosion control methods and materials such as live staking, fibre blanket and coco fibre K 25 seed and fertilizer application rates K 26 seed species, variety, blends and purpose K 27 equipment calibration K 28 habitat preservation and conservation - 47 - K 29 transplanting methods such as manual and mechanical K 30 plant growing requirements such as nutrients, light and water K 31 sampling and testing methods K 32 standards and quality of products K 33 effective product storage and requirements Sub-task C-9.01 NL yes Installs growing media. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-9.01.01 select and use tools such as shovels, picks, rakes and wheelbarrows C-9.01.02 select and use equipment such as skid-steers, loaders and excavators C-9.01.03 verify that drainage systems are effective and functioning C-9.01.04 scarify subsoil with mechanical and manual tools and equipment C-9.01.05 move growing media into desired location C-9.01.06 add growing media in lifts, and compact and irrigate as specified C-9.01.07 add and incorporate amendments such as fertilizers, composts and peat moss C-9.01.08 grade growing media by mechanical and manual raking to elevation C-9.01.09 verify that growing media depth and elevation meet specifications Sub-task C-9.02 NL yes Installs exterior landscape plants. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-9.02.01 select and use tools such as tree dollies, shovels and rakes C-9.02.02 select and use equipment such as excavators, and loaders and attachments C-9.02.03 prepare plant materials by performing activities such as removal of containers, scarifying root ball and managing nutrient balance C-9.02.04 monitor and maintain plant health throughout installation process C-9.02.05 move plant materials to desired location - 48 - C-9.02.06 lay out plant materials as per plan C-9.02.07 plant, stake and guy plant materials as specified C-9.02.08 prune plant material that may have been damaged during the process of installation C-9.02.09 verify moisture content of growing media to ensure adequate irrigation C-9.02.10 verify that plant installation meets specifications C-9.02.11 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations Sub-task C-9.03 NL yes Transplants plants. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-9.03.01 select and use tools and equipment such as shovels, tree gantry, tree spades and axes C-9.03.02 verify plant is viable for transplant considering factors such as species, health and time of year C-9.03.03 remove plant with as large a root ball as possible considering factors such as root structure, soil condition and size C-9.03.04 plant according to specifications C-9.03.05 prune plant material that may have been damaged during the process of transplanting C-9.03.06 verify moisture and nutrient content of growing media to ensure plant health C-9.03.07 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations - 49 - Sub-task C-9.04 NL yes Installs mulch. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-9.04.01 select and use tools such as wheelbarrows, landscape rakes and pitch forks C-9.04.02 select and use equipment such as loaders, skid-steers and blower trucks C-9.04.03 verify that area to be mulched is prepared according to specifications C-9.04.04 verify that mulch materials such as wood, aggregates and composts meet specifications C-9.04.05 apply mulch according to specifications avoiding contact with plant material C-9.04.06 verify that mulch installation meets specifications Sub-task C-9.05 NL yes Installs turf from seed. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-9.05.01 select and use tools such as rollers, landscape rakes and seed spreaders C-9.05.02 select and use equipment such as hydro-seeders, seed drills, and tractors and attachments C-9.05.03 verify seedbed is prepared according to specifications including amendments and fertilizers C-9.05.04 verify that seed variety selected meets specifications and jurisdictional regulations C-9.05.05 apply seed to prepared area according to specifications and weather conditions C-9.05.06 use landscape rollers to ensure seed is in direct contact with growing media C-9.05.07 verify that seed distribution will result in uniform turf by visual inspection and correct C-9.05.08 apply organic matter such as hydro mulch and straw to retain moisture and minimize seed movement as specified C-9.05.09 monitor turf regularly to ensure irrigation meets germination requirements - 50 - Sub-task C-9.06 NL yes Installs sod. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-9.06.01 select and use tools such as landscape rakes and sod knives C-9.06.02 select and use equipment such as and tractors and attachments C-9.06.03 verify that area to be sodded is prepared according to specifications C-9.06.04 verify selected sod meets specifications C-9.06.05 apply fertilizers and amendments as specified C-9.06.06 lay sod to prepared area according to specifications C-9.06.07 secure sod according to slope C-9.06.08 use landscape rollers to ensure sod is in direct contact with growing media C-9.06.09 monitor sod regularly to ensure irrigation meets established requirements C-9.06.10 verify that sod installation meets specifications C-9.06.11 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations Sub-task C-9.07 NL yes Installs erosion control materials. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies C-9.07.01 select and use tools such as shovels, post pounders and knives C-9.07.02 select and use equipment such as augers, trenchers and loaders C-9.07.03 move specified erosion control material into desired location C-9.07.04 lay out and apply erosion control material C-9.07.05 secure placement of erosion control material to ensure performance C-9.07.06 verify that erosion control installation meets specifications C-9.07.07 dispose of and recycle waste materials according to jurisdictional regulations - 51 - Sub-task C-9.08 NL yes Installs interior landscape plants. NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND Key Competencies C-9.08.01 select and use tools such as tree dollies, shovels and rakes C-9.08.02 select and use equipment such as skid-steers and tree gantrys C-9.08.03 prepare plant materials by performing activities such as foliar washing, scarifying root ball and managing nutrient balance C-9.08.04 monitor and maintain plant health throughout installation process C-9.08.05 protect interior furnishings and surfaces C-9.08.06 move plant materials to desired location C-9.08.07 lay out plant materials according to drawing C-9.08.08 plant interior landscape plants according to specifications C-9.08.09 prune plant material that may have been damaged during the process of installation and acclimatization C-9.08.10 verify moisture content of growing media to ensure adequate irrigation C-9.08.11 verify that plant installation meets specifications - 52 - NU ND BLOCK D LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE Trends A higher degree of attention is paid to plant health due to more effective maintenance practices and environmental awareness. Due to increased regulations, IPM processes for the managing of plant health have become more prevalent. There is an increase in the use of technology to track maintenance activities and to assist in inventory. There is an increased awareness and a demand for sustainable maintenance practices. Maintenance contractors are more engaged in maintaining green infrastructures and their associated technologies. Related Components (include, but not limited to) Softscape material: growing media, mulch, turf, bulbs, plants and plant materials, fertilizers, amendments. Hardscape materials: drainage components, irrigation and lighting components, pre-cast concrete, aggregates, manufacturers’ stones, natural stone, wood, stone, mortar, joint materials, rebar, geotextiles, filter cloths, erosion mats, river rock, boulders, edging materials, recycled materials. Structures and features: wood, metals, rails, posts, concrete, metal hangers, steel sheets, nails, screws, composite boards, pumps, hoses, electrical conduits and wiring, water feature components. Tools and Equipment Task 10 See Appendix A. Maintains softscape and green infrastructure. Context Landscape horticulturists are responsible for maintaining all interior and exterior plant materials to sustain plant health, maintain the integrity of the design and to provide a functioning and aesthetically pleasing environment. Required Knowledge K1 plant identification and an understanding of nomenclature K2 growing media conditions such as moisture, pH and nutrient levels K3 drainage systems and components and drain locations K4 fertilizer requirements and schedules - 53 - K5 soil amendment requirements and schedules K6 irrigation components K7 edging, cultivation and pruning techniques K8 industry standards K9 nutrient requirements for interior and exterior softscape K 10 watering requirements and scheduling K 11 climate conditions K 12 methods of weed control K 13 customer/client expectations K 14 IPM K 15 maintaining the design concept K 16 maintenance practices K 17 light requirements of interior and exterior softscape K 18 cleaning materials and techniques for interior and exterior softscape K 19 turfgrass varieties such as Kentucky blue grass, red fescue, perennial rye grass, bentgrass and annual blue grass K 20 types of PPE required for tasks and equipment, environmental safety and product safety K 21 specialized propagation methods such as air layering, cuttings and layering K 22 root division methods K 23 growing media such as custom formulations, composts and non-soil products K 24 sampling and testing methods K 25 jurisdictional regulations K 26 species and cultivars and their growing regime K 27 basic plant botany and physiology K 28 storage and sanitation of tools K 29 monitoring devices such as rain gauges, moisture probes and insect traps K 30 staking and guying as per industry standards - 54 - Sub-task D-10.01 NL yes Maintains growing media. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-10.01.01 assess growing media composition for conditions such as texture, moisture levels and porosity using ribbon tests and tools such as probes D-10.01.02 collect and label growing media and water samples, and send to lab to determine pH, nutrient and deficiency levels D-10.01.03 interpret lab results to determine nutrient requirements for growing media, irrigation water and implement amendments required D-10.01.04 cultivate growing media with tools such as garden fork, cultivator, hoe and mechanical rototillers for reasons such as aeration, weed control and maintenance of growing media structure Sub-task D-10.02 NL yes Maintains turfgrass. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-10.02.01 perform visual inspection of turfgrass area to determine conditions and irregularities with colour, thinning, grades and drainage D-10.02.02 irrigate turfgrass according to species, environmental conditions and usage D-10.02.03 mow and trim turfgrass using tools and equipment according to varieties, usage of site and climate conditions D-10.02.04 aerate turfgrass using tools and equipment according to growing media analysis, turfgrass conditions, time of year, usage of site and climate conditions D-10.02.05 fertilize and adjust pH according to growing media analysis, usage of site and climate conditions D-10.02.06 overseed turfgrass for reasons such as repairs, rejuvenation and introduction of new cultivars - 55 - D-10.02.07 topdress turfgrass using tools and equipment for reasons such as enhancement of substrate profile, and promotion of growth of existing and newly-introduced turfgrass D-10.02.08 dethatch turfgrass to promote optimum growth conditions Sub-task D-10.03 NL yes Maintains interior softscape. NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-10.03.01 perform visual inspection to determine plant health D-10.03.02 test and amend irrigation water D-10.03.03 irrigate and fertilize plants according to plant needs using manual or automated methods D-10.03.04 cultivate growing media with tools such as garden fork, cultivator and core aerator for reasons such as aeration and maintenance of growing media structures D-10.03.05 clean foliage and containers for aesthetics and plant health D-10.03.06 replace damaged or broken containers D-10.03.07 perform seasonal plant rotation for health and aesthetic reasons D-10.03.08 protect furnishings and surfaces from the effects of caustic materials such as salts, fertilizers and sprays - 56 - Sub-task D-10.04 NL yes Maintains exterior softscape. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-10.04.01 perform visual inspection to determine plant health D-10.04.02 irrigate and fertilize plants according to plant needs using manual or automated methods D-10.04.03 cultivate growing media with tools such as garden fork, cultivator, mechanical rototiller and hoe for reasons such as aeration, weed control and maintenance of growing media structures D-10.04.04 perform seasonal planting and removal of plants such as annuals, biennials and bulbs D-10.04.05 apply or install seasonal protection such as anti-desiccants, burlap wrapping and binding with twine to ensure plant survival through winter D-10.04.06 perform hardening-off practices such as mulching activities to ensure plant survival through winter D-10.04.07 protect plants from snow load by constructing and installing seasonal structures D-10.04.08 remove weeds for plant health and aesthetics D-10.04.09 mulch beds and containers for reasons such as moisture retention, weed suppression, growing media temperature moderation and aesthetics D-10.04.10 edge beds for reasons such as bed definition and aesthetics D-10.04.11 inspect and maintain natural and manufactured edge such as, brick, poly edging or aluminum edging D-10.04.12 perform site cleanup such as litter pickup, removing excess clippings and cleaning sidewalks D-10.04.13 remove staking and guying materials to prevent plant damage - 57 - Sub-task D-10.05 NL yes Propagates plant materials. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-10.05.01 select and use clean hand tools such as knives, spades, digging forks and secateurs D-10.05.02 sow seeds using mechanical methods such as broadcast spreaders and motorized slit seeders D-10.05.03 harvest and divide roots, tubers, bulbs and corms according to plant species D-10.05.04 select and perform specialized propagation methods such as layering, grafting, and cutting according to time of year and species Sub-task D-10.06 NL yes NS yes Repairs softscape. PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-10.06.01 repair living components damaged as a result of activities such as snow and ice, vehicular traffic and animal damage D-10.06.02 replace interior and exterior plants due to death, damage and disease D-10.06.03 repair natural and manufactured edge such as brick, poly edging or aluminum edging D-10.06.04 repair staking and guying materials to prevent plant damage D-10.06.05 repair soil irregularities such as grading and drainage - 58 - Task 11 Maintains hardscape and green infrastructure. Context Landscape horticulturists are responsible for maintaining all hardscape systems and features. Other tradespersons may be required to complete tasks in the maintenance of hardscape lighting and irrigation. Required Knowledge K1 drainage requirements K2 site layout K3 operation of mechanical systems such as pumps, irrigation system and lighting K4 water quality and pressure requirements for irrigation and water features K5 low voltage electrical lighting systems and their components K6 basic electrical practices and principles K7 types of hard surface materials such as wood, concrete, natural stone and asphalt K8 types of irrigation systems and their components K9 installation practices for hardscape systems K 10 types of drains K 11 effects of frost heaving on hard surfaces and footings K 12 causes and results of efflorescence and spalling K 13 hardscape components K 14 IPM K 15 environmental stewardship practices K 16 types of green infrastructures such as green roofs, living walls, retention ponds, permeable pavers, bio-swales, storm water retention, wetland reserves an silva cells K 17 snow and ice best management practices that meet industry standards K 18 industry standards for segmental concrete installation and associated products K 19 basic carpentry skills for repair - 59 - Sub-task D-11.01 NL yes Maintains green infrastructure. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.01.01 inspect green infrastructures for deficiencies such as blocked drains, and excessive and invasive plant growth to ensure plant and systems viability D-11.01.02 assess site to determine health and well-being of plants D-11.01.03 inspect drainage systems, permeable surfaces and drainage swales for debris and blockages D-11.01.04 protect existing trees by installing snow fence D-11.01.05 protect critical root zones, native woodland areas and waterways to ensure the integrity of the area Sub-task D-11.02 NL yes Maintains drainage systems. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.02.01 check drains, catch basins and retention ponds to ensure proper operation D-11.02.02 inspect and replace screens to avoid blockage D-11.02.03 remove debris from drainage systems to ensure optimal flow D-11.02.04 maintain grades according to original design to allow for adequate flow D-11.02.05 inspect performance of drains, catch basins and retention ponds by flushing drainage systems with water D-11.02.06 ensure drain covers are secure for safety and proper operation D-11.02.07 winterize drainage systems by performing activities such as cleaning, flushing and installing heating cables to prevent damage and ensure proper operation - 60 - Sub-task D-11.03 NL yes Maintains walkways, patios, driveways and parking lots. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.03.01 remove debris and undesirable growth manually or by using tools and equipment such as blowers, brooms, high pressure sprayers and torches D-11.03.02 top up jointing sand on interlock surfaces according to manufacturers' specifications D-11.03.03 fix or replace interlock paver surfaces with improper slope or elevation that has occurred as a result of construction or weather Sub-task D-11.04 NL yes Maintains irrigation systems. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.04.01 start-up systems by charging and running systems through a test cycle D-11.04.02 visually inspect site to determine functioning of systems D-11.04.03 identify problems with irrigation systems, and troubleshoot and repair D-11.04.04 visually inspect system components such as screens, heads and pipes for damage such as clogging, cracks and corroded wiring and repair or adjust D-11.04.05 check functioning of zone valves according to manufacturers' specifications D-11.04.06 adjust irrigation controllers according to environmental conditions D-11.04.07 clean and clear sensors to ensure optimum operation D-11.04.08 winterize systems by blowing out irrigation systems - 61 - Sub-task D-11.05 NL yes Maintains landscape lighting. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.05.01 turn on systems to detect defects D-11.05.02 visually check light fixtures, fuses and transformers for function and damage, and repair and replace D-11.05.03 repair low voltage wiring D-11.05.04 check and adjust lighting coverage and positioning D-11.05.05 clean and clear sensor to ensure optimum operation D-11.05.06 check light timing and adjust program according to seasonal requirements Sub-task D-11.06 NL yes Maintains water features. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.06.01 inspect water features for defects such as cracks, leaks, plugged filters, and faulty gaskets and seals D-11.06.02 charge systems to prime pumps and start-up operation for the season and replace pumps D-11.06.03 set and reset timers according to manufacturers' specifications D-11.06.04 drain and refill features for seasonal maintenance D-11.06.05 clean components such as filters, screens, nozzles, pumps and skimmers D-11.06.06 run systems to ensure functioning according to manufacturers' specifications D-11.06.07 inspect water for conditions such as clarity, algae and debris D-11.06.08 test water for conditions such as pH levels and presence of bacteria D-11.06.09 test ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) D-11.06.10 clean basins manually and amend the water with aquatic products D-11.06.11 remove and protect plants and fish during winter or when cleaning the features according to conditions and species requirements - 62 - D-11.06.12 winterize features by disassembling, insulating, covering and draining to avoid damage D-11.06.13 disconnect feature components and store according to manufacturers' specifications D-11.06.14 clean fountains by draining water and washing features Sub-task D-11.07 NL yes Maintains steps and retaining walls. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.07.01 inspect steps and walls to detect defects that require remediation D-11.07.02 recognize hazards of structures, flag area and report to supervisor D-11.07.03 clean steps and walls using tools and equipment such as pressure washers and brooms Sub-task D-11.08 NL yes Maintains landscape structures. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.08.01 inspect structures for defects such as compromised hardware, rotting wood, heaving and settling D-11.08.02 recognize hazards of structures, flag area and report to supervisor - 63 - Sub-task D-11.09 NL yes Practices snow and ice management. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.09.01 select and use tools and equipment such as vehicles with blades, walk-behind and tractor mounted blowers, spreaders and skid-steers D-11.09.02 determine snow storage locations and removal requirements D-11.09.03 remove snow according to contractual requirements D-11.09.04 apply ice control products according to industry standards and jurisdictional regulations Sub-task D-11.10 NL yes Repairs hardscape. NS yes PE NV NB yes QC yes ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC yes NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies D-11.10.01 perform minor repairs to drainage systems such as damaged pipes, plugged catch basins and french drains D-11.10.02 apply preservatives, stains and sealants on hard surfaces to provide ease of cleaning, longevity and aesthetics D-11.10.03 repair damage to aggregate-based hard surfaces such as structural planters, paving stones, gravel, asphalt and concrete D-11.10.04 visually inspect structural integrity of hard surfaces for cracks, frost heave, efflorescence, spalling and settling D-11.10.05 repair faulty and broken irrigation heads, valves, pipes and solenoid switches D-11.10.06 seal steps and retaining walls D-11.10.07 apply adhesive to loose caps on steps and retaining walls D-11.10.08 perform lift and re-lay of all hard surface materials D-11.10.09 repair low-voltage wires, fixtures and replace bulbs D-11.10.10 perform minor repairs such as replacing cracked stones, rotting, splintering and cracked timber, levelling structures, and staining or painting wood structures - 64 - D-11.10.11 repair cracks, leaks and holes in water features D-11.10.12 reinstate all damaged hardscape components due to all snow clearing activities such as replacing broken concrete, damaged fences and exterior utilities D-11.10.13 reinstate utilities by calling in the professional services that handle those utilities - 65 - BLOCK E PRODUCTION OF PLANT MATERIALS (NOT COMMON CORE) Trends There is an increase of mechanisation of production facilities reducing labour inputs. Due to customer demand, landscape horticulturalists are producing new plant varieties, dwarf plants, native plants, edible plants and more mature plants. Biodegradable and recyclable containers are increasingly being sought out due to environmental concerns. Producers are becoming environmentally conscious with the goal of reducing their carbon footprint. Alternative energy systems are being considered to reduce cost and environmental impact. Related Components (include, but not limited to) Water, fertilizers, growing media, media and amendments, containers, irrigation system components, heating, venting and cooling system components, chemicals, fuels, labels, packing and shipping materials, files and records, plant coverings, ground covers, barriers, alarm and security system components, stakes, signage, conveyors. Tools and Equipment See Appendix A. Task 12 Constructs growing facilities (NOT COMMON CORE) Context Landscape horticulturists are involved in the planning and building of greenhouse structures and nursery facilities. Greenhouse structures may include glass and poly growing houses. Nursery structures and facilities may include shade houses, climate control storage sheds and header houses. Required Knowledge K1 manufacturers’ construction standards K2 codes and jurisdictional regulations K3 basic carpentry skills K4 tools and equipment used to construct systems and equipment K5 irrigation systems such as flood, ebb and flow, and drip line K6 water conservation and recapture systems such as tanks and ponds - 66 - K7 drainage systems to alleviate excess water K8 site preparation and construction of growing structures K9 types of growing structures such as gutter-connected greenhouses, free standing greenhouses, cold frames, and shelter and shade houses K 10 types of monitoring systems such as climatic control alarms and security K 11 generator systems K 12 irrigation and fertigation systems for field and greenhouse applications K 13 facility contents such as benches, carts and wagons K 14 interpreting constructions drawings and specifications K 15 installation of greenhouse covers such as polyethylene, poly carbonate and glass Sub-task E-12.01 NL yes Builds growing facilities. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB no QC no ON no MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-12.01.01 assist in building greenhouses and growing structures E-12.01.02 excavate base and prepare grade according to drawings and specifications E-12.01.03 install footings according to specifications E-12.01.04 install in-ground drainage, services and granular base material according to drawings and specifications E-12.01.05 construct frame, install greenhouse covers according to drawings, specifications and jurisdictional regulations E-12.01.06 assemble premade structures and components according to manufacturers’ specifications and jurisdictional regulations E-12.01.07 construct walkways for accessibility throughout the facility - 67 - Sub-task E-12.02 NL yes Installs growing facility components (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB no QC no ON no MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-12.02.01 install operational components such as ventilation, heat distribution, lighting, generators for emergency backup systems, irrigation and fertigation, according to building codes, jurisdictional regulations and manufacturers’ specifications E-12.02.02 assemble and install components such as benches, nursery carts and conveyors according to manufacturers’ specifications E-12.02.03 install or assist in installation of utilities such as fuelling system, heating, plumbing, electrical and water according to drawings, specifications and jurisdictional regulations Task 13 Operates and maintains components of growing facilities. (NOT COMMON CORE) Context Landscape horticulturists are involved in operating and maintaining growing facilities. These may include glass and poly growing houses, shade houses, climate control storage sheds and header houses. These structures, facilities and systems need to be maintained to operate efficiently, to grow and store plant materials Required Knowledge K1 control systems for heating, cooling and ventilation, misting and injecting CO2 and their alarms K2 monitoring devices such as thermometers, relative humidity meters and light meters K3 light and heat regulating materials such as shade cloths, thermal blankets and liquid shade K4 winterizing procedures such as blowing-out and draining-down lines, pumps and filters, installing anti-freeze and insulating pipes K5 tools and equipment used to maintain and winterize systems and equipment K6 irrigation and fertigation systems such as flood, ebb and flow, and drip line K7 fertilizer in-line injectors - 68 - K8 irrigation and fertigation systems for field and greenhouse applications K9 water conservation and recapture systems such as tanks and ponds K 10 sanitation practices such as bleaching, barriers to entry, and staff and customer notices K 11 installation of greenhouse covers such as polyethylene, poly carbonate and glass K 12 monitoring systems such as climatic control alarms and security K 13 generator systems K 14 facility contents such as benches, carts and wagons K 15 IPM protocols Sub-task E-13.01 NL yes Operates growing facility structures and components. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-13.01.01 maintain and test emergency alarm system to ensure proper function E-13.01.02 calibrate instruments and equipment to establish standard settings and accuracy according to crop requirements E-13.01.03 inspect and maintain greenhouses and growing structures using methods such as replacing greenhouse covers, weed barriers and shade cloths E-13.01.04 use generators for emergency back-up systems E-13.01.05 inspect, maintain and repair contents using methods such as replacing bolts and bearings, and oiling and greasing components - 69 - Sub-task E-13.02 NL yes Maintains sanitary environment. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-13.02.01 conduct regular inspections and follow check lists to ensure sanitation practices such as hand washing, plant quarantine and the use of foot baths E-13.02.02 select cultural, physical or chemical methods to maintain continuous sanitation and pest control E-13.02.03 sanitize equipment, tools, benches and containers to minimize pests and diseases E-13.02.04 select and use sanitized tools and equipment such as hoes, sprayers and weed barriers to control pests and diseases E-13.02.05 perform regular maintenance activities on adjacent buildings and properties to manage sanitation and promote plant health Sub-task E-13.03 NL yes Operates climate control and components. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-13.03.01 interpret results of environmental climate monitoring devices such as automated and computerized control systems, thermometers, relative humidity meters and light meters to determine inside and outside climate conditions E-13.03.02 perform basic repairs on heating, cooling and ventilation systems such as replacing fan belts, thermocouples and vent tubes to limit downtime E-13.03.03 maintain heating, cooling, and ventilation systems to ensure efficient operation E-13.03.04 conduct regular inspections and follow check lists to ensure integrity of heating, cooling and ventilation systems E-13.03.05 winterize heating and cooling systems when shutting greenhouse for winter to protect from frozen lines, and ice and water damage of equipment E-13.03.06 regulate humidity levels by using systems such as misting and venting - 70 - E-13.03.07 maintain gas levels by using CO2 injection systems according to crop requirements E-13.03.08 calibrate instruments and equipment such as controllers and zone valves to establish standard settings and accuracy depending on crop and seasonal requirements E-13.03.09 select and use hand tools appropriate to specific task to perform maintenance E-13.03.10 use shading materials and thermal blankets to regulate light and heat levels E-13.03.11 select and use artificial lights to ensure adequate light levels according to crop requirements Sub-task E-13.04 NL yes Operate irrigation and fertigation systems. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-13.04.01 interpret test results and meter readings from monitoring equipment such as thermometers, and flow, pH and EC meters to determine water quality E-13.04.02 calibrate instruments and equipment such as controllers and zone valves to establish standard settings and accuracy E-13.04.03 perform basic repairs such as replacing distribution and drip lines, nozzles and injector systems on irrigation and fertigation systems E-13.04.04 maintain irrigation and fertigation systems to ensure efficient operation E-13.04.05 perform regular inspections and follow check lists to ensure integrity of irrigation and fertigation systems E-13.04.06 winterize irrigation and fertigation systems to protect equipment from frozen lines, and ice and water damage E-13.04.07 inspect water retention, capture and recycling systems to ensure that the systems are functioning according to design parameters, and meeting industry standards and jurisdictional regulations E-13.04.08 maintain water retention, capture and recycling systems using methods such as filter replacement, ultraviolet (UV) bulb replacement and chemical treatment to preserve water quality - 71 - Task 14 Maintains greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) Context Landscape horticulturists are involved in the planning and production of greenhouse plant materials. These products are distributed in retail and wholesale facilities, and in the horticultural industry. Required Knowledge K1 chemical application equipment K2 fertigation systems K3 propagation methods such as seeding, cutting, division and grafting K4 specialized propagation methods such as air layering, layering and micropropagation K5 propagation materials such as rooting hormones and growing media K6 manual and mechanical transplanting methods K7 storage facilities such as cold rooms, refrigerators and freezers K8 containers such as flats, pots and decorative K9 growing media such as custom formulations, composts and non-soil products K 10 plant growing requirements such as nutrients, light, CO2 levels, growth regulators and water K 11 pest and disease identification and treatment methods such as biological and low-impact chemical controls K 12 other plant growth limiting factors such as over-watering, lack of nutrients and physical damage K 13 sampling and testing methods K 14 plant identification and nomenclature K 15 plant maturity for market K 16 jurisdictional regulations K 17 PPE, environmental safety and product safety K 18 species and cultivars and their growing regime K 19 hardening-off procedures such as reduction of temperature, changing fertility programs and reduction of light K 20 standards and quality of products K 21 product storage and requirements K 22 handling techniques when packaging plant materials K 23 use of fork lifts, pallet jacks and conveyors K 24 packing materials such as boxes, nursery carts, pallets and trays K 25 monitoring devices - 72 - K 26 basic plant botany and physiology K 27 storage and sanitation of tools K 28 IPM Sub-task E-14.01 NL yes Propagates greenhouse plant materials. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-14.01.01 select and use tools and equipment such as mechanical seeders, dibble sticks, watering cans and misters E-14.01.02 sow seeds in flats and containers using methods such as hand seeding and mechanical seeding E-14.01.03 take leaf, root and stem cuttings, plugs and tissue cultures to grow additional plants E-14.01.04 treat cuttings according to species requirements using methods such as callusing, hormone treatment and leaf incisions to promote root growth E-14.01.05 harvest and divide roots, tubers, bulbs and corms to produce additional plants E-14.01.06 graft scion wood and buds to selected rootstocks and stems to create additional plant material E-14.01.07 maintain propagated materials until viable for transplanting, harvesting and growing-on E-14.01.08 label plants to identify species and date of seeding Sub-task E-14.02 NL yes Transplants greenhouse plants. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND Key Competencies E-14.02.01 select most viable and true-to-type stock for transplanting E-14.02.02 select containers according to intended use E-14.02.03 select growing media according to species requirements and containers - 73 - NU ND E-14.02.04 plant according to container, species requirements and presentation E-14.02.05 water to species requirements to promote optimum growth and development E-14.02.06 place plants in optimum growing environment E-14.02.07 label plants for species and date of transplanting Sub-task E-14.03 NL yes Grows greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-14.03.01 maintain and monitor water requirements to optimize plant health and development, and apply interventions such as pH and nutrient adjustments, and watering levels E-14.03.02 maintain and monitor crop for pests to ensure threshold levels are not exceeded E-14.03.03 maintain and monitor crop growth to ensure proper health and development rate E-14.03.04 transplant in bigger pot to grow E-14.03.05 segregate for quarantine purposes E-14.03.06 apply interventions such as pinching, hormone growth application, temperature, fertility, lighting and water adjustments to manage crop growth E-14.03.07 monitor growing media fertility levels using methods such as soil and tissue sampling, testing and analyzing to determine corrective action E-14.03.08 harden-off crops to prepare for sale - 74 - Sub-task E-14.04 Harvests greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU yes no NV yes no yes yes yes yes no ND ND ND Key Competencies E-14.04.01 select crop according to maturity to fill sales orders E-14.04.02 inspect plant material before shipping to ensure it is free of diseases and free of insects, according to standards E-14.04.03 label plants for marketing, species, cultural practices and retail price E-14.04.04 prepare harvested plants for staging area ensuring they are groomed, clean and pruned Sub-task E-14.05 NL yes Ships greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND Key Competencies E-14.05.01 package orders for transport using identified packing materials such as boxes, nursery carts, pallets and trays E-14.05.02 assemble products in staging or marshalling area E-14.05.03 arrange orders and load on appropriate transportation E-14.05.04 install monitoring devices such as recording thermometers to ensure optimum climate during shipping E-14.05.05 advise management on status of orders - 75 - NU ND Task 15 Maintains nursery plants. (NOT COMMON CORE) Context Landscape horticulturists are involved in the planning and production of field and container-grown plant materials. These products are distributed in retail and wholesale facilities, and in the horticultural industry. Required Knowledge K1 chemical application equipment and products specific to target pests K2 propagation methods such as seeding, cutting, division and grafting K3 specialized propagation methods such as layering and air layering K4 propagating tools and equipment such as grafting knives, potting machines and secateurs K5 field management practices such as cultivating, harrowing and discing K6 operation of field equipment such as u-blades, tree spades, root pruners, cultivators, harrows, land discs and spray equipment K7 storage facilities such as cold rooms, refrigerators and freezers K8 pruning techniques K9 methods for shaping plant materials K 10 growing media characteristics such as porosity, water holding capacity, uniformity and weight K 11 plant culture specific to container grown plant materials to avoid issues such as spiralling and pot-bound roots K 12 jurisdictional regulations pertaining to the movement and quarantine of identified species K 13 production scheduling for inventory management K 14 propagation materials such as rooting hormones, fungicide and growing media K 15 manual and mechanical transplanting methods K 16 containers such as wire baskets, fibre and plastic pots K 17 growing media and soil amendment practices K 18 plant growing requirements such as nutrients, light and water K 19 pest identification and treatment methods such as biological and low-impact chemical controls K 20 plant growth limiting factors such as over-watering, and physical and environmental damage K 21 sampling and testing methods K 22 plant identification and nomenclature - 76 - K 23 jurisdictional regulations K 24 species and cultivars and their growing regime K 25 timing of harvest related to plant physiology K 26 standards and quality of products K 27 product storage requirements K 28 packing materials such as boxes, nursery carts, pallets and trays K 29 monitoring devices K 30 field tools and equipment K 31 storage and sanitation of tools K 32 IPM Sub-task E-15.01 NL yes Propagates field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-15.01.01 harvest and divide roots, tubers, bulbs and corms to produce additional plants E-15.01.02 take cuttings, graft scion wood and buds to selected rootstocks and stems E-15.01.03 maintain propagated material until viable for transplanting, harvesting and growing-on to marketable size E-15.01.04 label plants with propagation information such as row marking and tagging E-15.01.05 prepare fields and beds for activities such as lining-out, pot-in-pot and seeding E-15.01.06 plant out field materials such as liners, whips, roots and bulbs E-15.01.07 direct-seed using mechanical field seeding equipment for crops such as nursery sod, herbaceous and woody plants E-15.01.08 select suitable growing media for container-grown plant materials based on variety of plant E-15.01.09 transplant container crops from plant formats such as liners, rooted cuttings, plugs and roots - 77 - Sub-task E-15.02 Transplants field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU yes no NV yes no yes yes yes yes no ND ND ND Key Competencies E-15.02.01 select most viable and true-to-type stock for transplanting E-15.02.02 select containers according to intended use E-15.02.03 select growing media according to species requirements and containers E-15.02.04 plant according to container, species requirements and presentation E-15.02.05 irrigate to species requirements to promote optimum growth and development E-15.02.06 place plants in optimum growing environment E-15.02.07 prune selectively to compensate for transplanting shock E-15.02.08 label plants for species and date of transplanting Sub-task E-15.03 NL yes Grows field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-15.03.01 collect field data such as fertilizer applications, treatments, temperatures, cropping schedules and inventory management to transmit to record keeping E-15.03.02 maintain and monitor irrigation requirements to optimize plant health and development E-15.03.03 apply interventions such as pH adjustments, nutrient adjustments and watering levels to optimize plant health and development E-15.03.04 apply interventions such as pruning, mowing, hormone growth application and temperature, fertility and water adjustments to ensure proper health and development rate E-15.03.05 monitor crops to identify signs of nutritional and physiological disorders, and apply corrective actions - 78 - E-15.03.06 monitor growing media fertility levels using methods such as soil and tissue samplings, testing and analyzing to determine corrective actions E-15.03.07 winterize and protect field and container crops using procedures such as installing snow fences, heeling in nursery stock, utilizing shelter houses and applying animal repellents E-15.03.08 perform spring maintenance activities such as removal of protective materials, spacing out containers, pruning, plant culling and checking labels E-15.03.09 stake plant materials E-15.03.10 mulch fields Sub-task E-15.04 NL yes Harvests field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-15.04.01 identify and dig harvest-ready plant materials using tools and equipment such as tree spades and mechanical diggers E-15.04.02 select suitable root containment products for trees and shrubs such as containers, baskets, and balled and burlap (B&B) E-15.04.03 select container grown plant materials for potting-on, potting-up and filling orders E-15.04.04 select appropriate growing medium E-15.04.05 transplant plants for growing-on or sale E-15.04.06 wash and divide bare root plant materials including perennials, vines, shrubs and trees for activities such as cold storage, potting-up, replanting and filling orders E-15.04.07 lift, cut, roll sod crop using mechanical sod cutters and palletize E-15.04.08 collect seeds, roots, corms, bulbs, and cuttings for propagation E-15.04.09 grade plant materials according to size, conditions and industry standards E-15.04.10 protect roots from desiccation and frost damage E-15.04.11 inspect plant material before shipping to ensure it is free of diseases and insects E-15.04.12 label plants for marketing, species, cultural practices and retail price E-15.04.13 prepare harvested plants for staging area ensuring they are groomed, clean and pruned - 79 - Sub-task E-15.05 NL yes Ships field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) NS no PE NV NB yes QC no ON yes MB yes SK yes AB yes BC no NT ND YT ND NU ND Key Competencies E-15.05.01 assemble products in staging or marshalling area according to order specifications E-15.05.02 select plants and label orders using recognized handling techniques E-15.05.03 protect and package orders for transport using identified packing materials such as boxes, nursery carts, pallets and trays E-15.05.04 install monitoring devices such as recording thermometers to ensure optimum climate during shipping E-15.05.05 advise management on status of orders E-15.05.06 select and use equipment such as forklifts, loaders and tractors to load plant materials onto transportation E-15.05.07 secure and cover loads using materials such as tarps, security straps and nets E-15.05.08 select and use equipment such as flat deck trucks and spider lifts to load and ship sod to customer - 80 - APPENDICES APPENDIX A TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT Hand Tools allen keys axes backpack sprayer blocks box cutters brick carriers brick splitter brooms bypass pruners calculator cart chains chisels clay pick clearing axes core samplers (probe) crimpers crowbars cultivator (manual) dethatching rake dibblers dolly drop spreaders edgers files flags garden forks grease guns hammers (hand, sledge) hand plane hand tamper handheld watering equipment handsaws (crosscut, back cut, pruning, hack) hedge shears hoes knives (budding and grafting, sod ) ladders (step, extension, orchard) landscape rakes laser level - 83 - loppers mallet microscope nursery carts paving stone cart paving stone cutter paving stone extractor pick axes picks pipe cutters pitch forks pliers (various types) plumb line pole pruners pole saw post hole auger post maul post pounder pruning shears pry bar rakes rakes (various types) roller scaffolding screeding bars screwdrivers (various types) scythe secateurs seed/fertilizer spreader sharpening tools shears shoring equipment shovels (coal, clam, scoop/barn, spade, garden) side cutters sod knives sod lifter soil screener spades (various types) spanfix Hand Tools (continued) sprinklers stone chisels string line tape measure tarps tie downs (straps, chains) transit level transplant table tree cart trenching shovels trowels water hose water key watering cans weed digger weed torch wheelbarrow, trolley wire strippers wrenches (various types) Power Tools air seeder attachments chainsaw (pole) circular saw compressor concrete saw (dry, wet) core aerator demolition hammer (electric) demolition hammer (pneumatic) electric drill fertilizer injector grinder hammer drill heat gun hydro-seeders lathe mechanical diggers misters mitre/chop saw mortar/cement mixer mower/mulcher powder-actuated tools power auger power cultivator (rototiller) power seeder/ power spreader power soil screener power sprayer power washers powered wheelbarrow reciprocating saw sabre saw saws spider lifts table saw torch tree spade trencher vacuum (wet/dry, leaf) walk-behind aerator wet saw Measuring Equipment anemometer automated plan scaler barometer catch can reader compaction measuring device ec meter engineer levels flow meter gas meter gauges - 84 - Measuring Equipment (continued) gps hygrometer laser distance measure levels (line, hand, zip, laser, transit) light meter measuring cups (metric/imperial) measuring devices measuring wheel moisture metre/sensor monitoring devices ph meter scale ruler scales soil tester tape measure thermometer timers & controllers tire pressure meter volt metre/multi metre water meter Motorized Equipment air compressor all-terrain vehicles backhoe baggers bale breaker bed edger blender (power) blower trucks blowers (backpack, hand held, push, earth auger) brush cutter chipper circulation/exhaust Fans clearing saw conveyor belt dollies edgers elevated work platforms excavator fertilizer injector flat filler fork lift front end loader generators golf carts guillotine under hand tools hedge trimmer (extension, long reach) - 85 - hydro-seeding equipment lawn/weed string/line trimmers (gas & electric) lifts loaders( front end, pay) mechanical rototillers mortar mixer mower (push, intermediate, riding) mulcher paddle broom pallet jacks peat shredder plate compactor plate tamper post hole auger post pounders pot filler potting machines power dethatcher power rake powered rollers powered wheelbarrow pressure washer pumps ram compactor (jumping jack) riding mowers/mulchers roto tiller Motorized Equipment (continued) shredder skid-steer (loader, back hoe, walk behind) skid-steers slit seeder sod cutter soil screener spider lifts steam cleaners jenny sterilizers tractors tractors tree gantry tree spades trencher trucks vehicles with blades walk behind walk-behind aerator walk-behind snowblower Equipment Attachments aerator auger/post hole digger back hoe blade bucket cultivator plough power sweeper rollers rototiller seeders snow blower soil profiler spray equipment spreader tiller top dresser tow behind dethatcher tow behind trencher trailer tree dollies tree spade u-blade vacuum water tanker disc harrow discer fertilizer spreader flat deck trucks forks harrow ladders landscape leveller leaf vacuum loaders mower baggers mowers overseeder PPE and Safety Equipment chaps/ballistic pants chemical suit cones ear protection eye protection (glasses, shields) eye wash kit face shields fall protection equipment (harness) fire extinguisher first aid kits flares gloves hard hat hearing protection high visibility clothing lanyard particle masks reflective shirts, jackets - 86 - PPE and Safety Equipment (continued) respirators safety boots or shoes safety vests scabbard/Protective Sheath skin protection spill kit sun hat sunblock traffic cones ventilation fans Office Equipment camera cold rooms (refrigerators and freezers) communication devices computers drafting scale 1-100 laminator printers thermal printer - 87 - APPENDIX B Botanical Name Acer griseum Acer negundo Acer palmatum Acer rubrum Acer saccharinum Acer saccharum Aesculus hippocastanum Betula papyrifera * Can be grown as a shrub Cercis canadensis Cornus kousa var. chinensis Cotinus coggygria Fagus sylvatica Fraxinus americana Ginkgo biloba Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis and cultivars Juglans nigra Magnolia ×soulangeana Malus and cultivars Morus alba ‘Pendula’ Platanus x acerifolia Prunus serrulata ‘Kwanzan’ Pyrus calleryana Quercus alba Quercus rubra Robinia pseudoacacia Syringa reticulata ‘Ivory Silk’ Tilia cordata Ulmus americana Plant Material Deciduous Trees Common Name Family Paperbark Maple Sapindaceae (Aceraceae) Manitoba Maple Sapindaceae (Aceraceae) Japanese Maple Sapindaceae (Aceraceae) Red Maple Sapindaceae (Aceraceae) Silver Maple Sapindaceae (Aceraceae) Sugar Maple Sapindaceae (Aceraceae) Horse Chestnut Sapindaceae (Hippocastanaceae) Paper Birch Betulaceae Category Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree* Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Canada Redbud Chinese Kousa Dogwood Smoke Tree European beech Beech White Ash and/or cultivars Ginkgo Thornless Honeylocust Fabaceae Cornaceae Anacardiaceae Fagaceae Oleaceae Deciduous Tree* Deciduous Tree* Deciduous Tree* Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Ginkgoaceae Fabaceae Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Black walnutWalnut Saucer Magnolia Crabapple Weeping Mulberry London Plane Tree Kwanzan Cherry Ornamental Pear White Oak Red Oak Black Locust Ivory Silk Tree Lilac Greenspire Linden American Elm Juglandaceae Magnoliaceae Rosaceae Moraceae Platanaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Fagaceae Fagaceae Fabaceae Oleaceae Tiliaceae Ulmaceae Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree Deciduous Tree - 88 - Coniferous Trees Botanical Name Abies concolor Common Name Silver Fir Family Pinaceae Category Coniferous Tree Callitropsis nootkatensis 'Pendula' Larix laricina Metasequoia glyptostroboides Picea abies Picea glauca Picea pungens f. glauca Pinus nigra Pseudotsuga menziesii Thuja occidentalis 'Smargd' Emerald® Tsuga canadensis Weeping Nootka False Cypress Eastern or American Larch Dawn Redwood Norway Spruce White Spruce Colorado Blue Spruce Austrian Pine Douglas Fir Emerald or Smaragd Cedar Canada Hemlock Cupressaceae Coniferous Tree Pinaceae Taxodiaceae Pinaceae Pinaceae Pinaceae Pinaceae Pinaceae Cupressaceae Coniferous Tree Coniferous Tree Coniferous Tree Coniferous Tree Coniferous Tree Coniferous Tree Coniferous Tree Evergreen Shrub/Tree Coniferous Tree Botanical Name Amelanchier canadensis Berberis thunbergii Buddleia davidii Caryopteris × clandonensis Chaenomeles japonica Clethra alnifolia Cornus alba ‘Elegantissima’ Cotoneaster apiculatus Deutzia gracilis Euonymus alatus ‘Compactus’ Forsythia × Intermedia Hibiscus syriacus Hydrangea arborescens 'Anabelle' Hydrangea paniculata Hydrangea quercifolia Kerria japonica Kolkwitzia amabilis Ligustrum amurense Magnolia stellata Philadelphus coronarius Physocarpus oppulifolius Potentilla fruticosa Rhus typhina Deciduous Shrubs Common Name Family Serviceberry Rosaceae Japanese Barberry Berberidaceae Butterfly Bush Buddlejaceae Bluebeard or Blue-spirea Verbeneaceae Flowering Quince Rosaceae Summersweet Clethraceae Silverleaf Dogwood Cornaceae Cranberry Cotoneaster Rosaceae Slender Deutzia Saxifragaceae Dwarf Burning Bush Celastraceae Showy Forsythia Oleaceae Rose-of -Ssharon Malvaceae Anabelle Hydrangea Hydrangeaceae Peegee Hydrangea Hydrangeaceae Oakleaf Hydrangea Hydrangeaceae Japanese Kerria Rosaceae Beautybush Caprifoliaceae Amur Privet Oleaceae Star Magnolia Magnoliaceae Mockorange Hydrangeaceae Ninebark Rosaceae Cinquefoil Rosaceae Sumac Anacardiaceae - 89 - Pinaceae Category Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Botanical Name Ribes alpinum Rosa rugosa Sambucus nigra Spiraea bumalda ‘Goldflame’ Syringa vulgaris Viburnum opulus Viburnum trilobum Weigela florida Deciduous Shrubs (continued) Common Name Family Alpine Currant Saxifragaceae Rugosa Rose Rosaceae Elderberry Adoxaceae Goldflame Spirea Rosaceae Common Lilac Oleaceae European Snowball Caprifoliaceae Highbush Cranberry Caprifoliaceae Weigela Caprifoliaceae Category Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Deciduous Shrub Evergreen Shrubs Botanical Name Ajuga reptans Common Name Carpet Bugleweed Family Lamiaceae Arenaria verna Irish Moss Caryophyllaceae Buxus sinica var. insularis 'Green Velvet' or other cultivar Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Filifera Aurea’ Daphne cneorum Euonymus fortunei Green Velvet Boxwood Buxaceae Golden Threadleaf False Cypress Garland Daphne Euonymus Cupressaceae Junieprus horizontalis and/or cultivars Juniperus communis 'Green Carpet' Juniperus sabina ‘Tamariscifolia’ Horizontal Juniper Cupressaceae Green Carpet Juniper Cupressaceae Tamarix Juniper Cupressaceae Juniperus squamata 'Blue Star' Blue Star Juniper Cupressaceae Juniperus virginiana Mahonia aquifolium Eastern Red Cedar Oregon Grape Holly Cupressaceae Berberidaceae Picea abies ‘ Pendula’ Picea abies ‘Nidiformis’ Picea glauca ‘Conica’ Pieris japonica Rhododendron Weeping Norway Spruce Nest Spruce Dwarf Alberta Spruce Japanese Pieris Rhododendron Pinaceae Pinaceae Pinaceae Ericaceae Ericaceae Taxus ×media ‘Densiformis’ Taxus cuspidata 'Capitata' Dense Yew Upright Japanese Yew Taxaceae Taxaceae - 90 - Thymelaeaceae Celastraceae Category Semi - Evergreen Groundcover Evergreen Groundcover Broadleaf Evergreen Shrub Evergreen Shrub Evergreen Shrub Broadleaf Evergreen Shrub Evergreen Shrub/Groundcover Evergreen Shrub/Groundcover Evergreen Shrub/Groundcover Evergreen Shrub/Groundcover Evergreen Shrub Broadleaf Evergreen Shrub Conifer Coniferous Shrub Conifer Broadleaf Evergreen Broadleaf Evergreen Shrub Coniferous Shrub Coniferous Shrub Botanical Name Thuja occidentalis Yucca filamentosa Evergreen Shrubs (continued) Common Name Family White Cedar Cupressaceae Adam’s Needle Agavaceae Category Coniferous Shrub Broadleaf Evergreen Vines Botanical Name Campsis radicans Common Name Trumpet Vine Family Bignoniaceae Category Deciduous Vine Clematis Cucumis sativus Hedera helix and/or cultivars Clematis Cucumber English Ivy and/or cultivars Climbing Hydrangea Ranunculaceae Cucurbitaceae Araliaceae Deciduous Vine Annual Vine Evergreen Vine/Groundcover Deciduous Vine Honeysuckle Virginia Creeper Caprifoliaceae Vitaceae Boston Ivy Vitaceae Chinese Wisteria Fabaceae Botanical Name Astilbe hybrids Bergenia cordifolia Perennials Common Name Astilbe Heartleaf Bergenia Family Saxifragaceae Saxifragaceae Crocus Dicentra spectabilis Echinacea purpurea Gallardia Geranium species Hemerocallis hybrids Heuchera Hosta and/or cultivars Hyacinthus Hylotelephium spectabile Iris sibirica Lavandula angustifolia Matteuccia struthiopteris Narcissus Crocus Bleeding Heart Purple Coneflower Blanketflower Geranium Daylilies Coralbells/Alumroot Hosta Hyacinth Stonecrop or Sedum Siberian Iris English Lavender Ostrich Fern Daffodils Iridaceae Fumariaceae Asteracea Asteraceae Geraniaceae Liliaceae Saxifragacea Liliaceae Asparagaceae Crassulaceae Iridaceae Lamiaceae Dryopteridaceae Amaryilidaceae Paeonia lactiflora Garden Peony Paeoniaceae Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris Lonicera xbrownii 'Dropmore' Parthenocissus quinquefolia Parthenocissus tricuspidata ‘Veitchi’ Wisteria sinensis - 91 - Saxifragaceae Deciduous Vine Deciduous Vine/Groundcover Deciduous Vine/Groundcover Deciduous Vine Category Perennial Perennial (Evergreen) Bulb (Corm) Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial Bulb Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial Perennial (Spring Bulb) Perennial Botanical Name Phlox subulata Perennials (continued) Common Name Family Creeping Phlox Polemoniaceae Rheum palmatum Rosmarinus officinalis Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii 'Goldstrum' Salvia ×superba 'May Night' and/or other cultivars Sedum Solanum tuberosum Thymus serpyllum Tulipa Vinca minor Rhubarb Rosemary Goldstrum Black Eyed Susan May Night Salvia and/or other cultivars Sedum Potato Mother of Thyme Tulip Periwinkle Botanical Name Andropogon gerardii Festuca ovina glauca Helictotrichon sempervirens Imperata cylindrica 'Red Baron' Miscanthus sinensis and cultivars Molinia arundinacea 'Skyracer' Ornamental Grasses Common Name Family Big Bluestem Poaceae Blue Sheep Fescue Poaceae Blue Oat Grass Poaceae Japanese Blood Grass Poaceae Maiden Grass Poaceae Tall Moor Grass Poaceae Category Perennial Grass Perennial Grass Perennial Grass Perennial Grass Perennial Grass Perennial Grass Pennisetum alopecuroides Pennisetum setaceum 'Rubrum' Phalaris arundinacea ‘Picta’ Saccharum ravennae Fountain Grass Red Fountain Grass Ribbon Grass Hardy Pampas Grass Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Perennial Grass Annual Grass Perennial Grass Perennial Grass Botanical Name Ageratum houstonianum Antirrhinum majus Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Canna generalis Annuals Common Name Floss Flower Snapdragons Fibrous Begonia Garden Cannas Family Celosia cristata Cleome hasslerana Dahlia Cockscomb Spider Flower Dahlia Amaranthaceae Cleomaceae Asteraceae Daucus carota ssp. Sativus Carrot Apiaceae Category Annual Annual Annual Annual Summer Rhizome Annual Annual Annual Summer Tuber Annual - 92 - Polygonaceae Lamiaceae Asteraceae Category Perennial (SemiEvergreen Groundcover) Perennial Perennial Perennial Lamiaceae Perennial Crassulaceae Solanacea Lamiaceae Liliaceae Apocynaceae Perennial Perennial Groundcover Bulb Evergreen Groundcover Scrophulariaceae Begoniaceae Cannaceae Botanical Name Impatiens New Guinea Impatiens wallerana Lantana camara Lycopersicon esculentum Pelargonium ×hortorum Petunia ×hybrida Pisum sativum Solenostemon (Formerly Coleus) xhybridus Annuals (continued) Common Name Family New Guinea Impatiens Balsaminaceae Impatiens Balsaminaceae Lantana Verbeneaceae Tomato Solanacea Zonal Geranium Geraniaceae Petunia Solanacea Pea Fabacea Coleus Lamiaceae Category Annual Annual Annual Annual Annual Annual Annual Annual Turfgrass Botanical Name Bothriochloa insculpta Festuca rubra ssp commutata Festuca rubra ssp rubra Common Name Creeping bluegrassBluegrass Chewings fescueFescue Family Poaceae Category turfgrass Poaceae turfgrass Poaceae turfgrass Festuca trackyphylla Strong Creeping RedfescueFescue Slender Creeping Red Fescue Hard fescueFescue Poaceae turfgrass Lolium multiflorum Annual ryegrassRyegrass Poaceae turfgrass Lolium perenne Perennial ryegrassRyegrass Kentucky bluegrassBluegrass Rough bluegrassBluegrass Poaceae turfgrass Poaceae turfgrass Poaceae turfgrass Festuca rubra subsp. litoralis Poa pratensis Poa trivialis turfgrass Invasive species Botanical Name Butomus umbellatus Common Name Flowering Rush Family Butomaceae Category Invasive species Centaurea cyanus Bachelor’s Buttons Asteraceae Invasive species Echium vulgare Euphorbia cyparissias Blueweed Spurge, Cypress Boraginaceae Euphorbiaceae Invasive species Invasive species - 93 - Botanical Name Euphorbia esula Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis Gypsophila paniculata Hedera Helixhelix Heracleum mantegazzianum Hieracium aurantiacum Impatiens glandulifera Iris pseudacorus Knautia arvensis Lamiastrum galeobdolon Leucanthemum vulgare Linaria vulgaris, L. genistifolia subsp. dalmatica Lythrum salicaria Rubus armeniacus Tamarix ramosissima Tanacetum vulgare Invasive species (continued) Common Name Family Green Spurge, Leafy Euphorbiaceae spurge Japanese Knotweed, Polygonaceae Knotweeds Baby’s breathBreath Caryophyllaceae English Ivy Araliaceae Giant Hogweed Umbelliferae Orange Hawkweed Asteraceae Himalayan Balsam Balsaminaceae Yellow Flag Iris, Flad Iris Iridaceae Field Scabiosaus Dipsacaceae Yellow Archangel Lamiaceae Oxeye Daisy Asteraceae Toadflax Scrophulariaceae Purple Loosestrife Himalayan Blackberry Tamarisk, five-stamentamarix Common Tansy - 94 - Category Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Lythraceae Rosaceae Pinaceae Invasive species Invasive species Invasive species Asteraceae Invasive species APPENDIX C GLOSSARY 1/3 pruning rule a general guideline used to determine amount of wood that should be removed during a major pruning session. 3-cut method pruning steps to reduce the possibility of tearing the bark when a large limb is to be removed from a tree. abiotic factors non-living condition or thing, such as climate or habitat, that influences or affects an ecosystem and the organisms in it accident reports forms completed to record details following an accident acclimatization physiological adaptation of a plant to changes in climate or environment, such as light or temperature action threshold before taking any pest control action, IPM first sets an action threshold, a point at which pest populations or environmental conditions indicate that pest control action must be taken. Sighting a single pest does not always mean control is needed. The level at which pests will either become an economic threat is critical to guide future pest control decisions. aeration in soil, the process by which air from the atmosphere is brought into the soil. Usually to reverse loss of macropores resulting from compaction aerator mechanized equipment that either punctures the soil with spikes (spike aeration) or remove cores of soil from the ground (core aeration) aggregates broad category of coarse particulate material used in landscape construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete etc. air layering propagation method for woody plants that roots branches while still attached to the parent plant air purification removal of contaminants from air algae simple non-flowering plants that contain chlorophyll but lack true stems, roots, leaves, and vascular tissue. Includes seaweeds and many single-celled forms. alternative energy systems renewable, "free" energy sources with lower carbon emissions, compared to conventional energy sources and includes: Biomass Energy, Wind Energy, Solar Energy, Geothermal Energy, Hydro-electric Energy sources anatomy science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts anti-desiccants compounds applied to plants to reduce dehydration and prevent drying - 95 - aquatic plants plants that have adapted to living in saltwater or freshwater environments bacteria single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent organisms or as parasites bacterial wilts disease caused by bacteria that proliferate within the water-conducting xylem vessels, causing a water blockage resulting in wilting and death of leaves or the plant. balled and burlap (B&B) relating to a tree, shrub or other plant prepared for transplanting by allowing the roots to remain covered by a ball of soil around which burlap is tied and sometimes reinforced with a rope or a wire basket barriers fence or other obstacle that prevents movement or access bedding materials thin layer of material placed over a compacted base on which interlocking /segmental pavers will be installed benches mobile or fixed tables in a greenhouse or nursery beneficial organisms any pollinating insect, or any pest predator, parasite, pathogen or other biological control agent which functions naturally or as part of an integrated pest management program to control another pest. beneficial insects insects that perform valued services like pollination and pest control; a component of an Integrated Pest Management Program biennial flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle bills of lading serves as a receipt of shipment when goods are delivered to the predetermined destination and must be signed by an authorized representative blight plant diseases resulting in sudden conspicuous wilting and dying of affected parts, especially young, growing tissue and caused by bacterium, fungus, or a virus. bio swales landscape elements designed to remove silt and pollution from surface runoff water. They consist of a swaled drainage course with gently sloped sides and filled with vegetation, compost and/or riprap. biodiversity the variability among living organisms on the earth, including the variability within and between species and within and between ecosystems. Short for biological diversity. biological of, relating to, caused by, or affecting life or living organisms biotic factors living thing that influences or affects an ecosystem - 96 - blue infrastructure an approach to water management using technology that delivers, protects, restores, or mimics the natural water cycle to support a healthy water supply botanical nomenclature the formal, scientific naming of plants conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy. botany scientific study of plants, including their physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, classification, and economic importance broadcast spreaders lawn care tool or implement commonly used for spreading seed, lime, fertilizer, sand, ice melt, etc. broadleaf evergreen broad leafed plant that keeps its leaves throughout the year. brown field reclamation redevelopment of abandoned, vacant, derelict or underutilized commercial and industrial properties where past actions have resulted in actual or perceived contamination calibrate the process of measuring products and adjusting components in order to deliver the desired volume. ( Used for sprayers and fertilizer spreaders) callusing the tissue that forms over the wounds of plants, protecting the inner tissues and causing healing. Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) regulatory agency dedicated to the safeguarding of food, animals, and plants, which enhance the health and well-being of Canada's people, environment and economy. Canadian Standards for Nursery Stock (CSNS) a minimum standard of quality for the production of woody ornamentals and herbaceous perennials. Nursery stock specifiers, including landscape architects and designers, developers and municipalities and other government agencies, make reference to these standards in the development of tenders and contract specifications. canker localized diseased or necrotic area on a trunk, branch, or twig of a woody plant, usually caused by fungi or bacteria. canopy raising removal of lower branches from the tree crown to provide understory clearance capstones one of a set of slabs on the top of a wall or structure carbon capturing trapping the carbon emissions and storing them away from the atmosphere to prevent global warming carbon footprint total amount of greenhouse gases produced and emitted during the creation of products or services. catch basins receptacle or reservoir that receives surface water runoff or drainage. - 97 - change orders written order approved by a project owner directing the contractor to change contract amount, requirements, or time chemical any basic substance that is used in or produced by a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules circle check a visual, and sometimes physical, inspection of a piece of equipment (e.g., truck, trailer, forklift, etc.). It involves walking all the way around the equipment to ensure there are no safety concerns. climate control is the process of producing particular environmental conditions to regulate the growing environment such as temperature, ventilation and humidity climate control systems adjustable systems installed to grow crops with optimum efficiency. They control the indoor climate including; light, temperature, air exchange, humidity and CO2 concentration in greenhouses, cold storage facilities etc. coco fibre/coir the husk of a coconut used as a growing medium for plants codes construction technologies and techniques must meet safety standards and comply with municipal, provincial and federal codes such as: electrical, building, plumbing and fire codes etc. compaction aggregate elimination of voids in construction materials, as in concrete, plaster, or soil, by vibration, tamping, rolling, or some other method or combination of methods. compaction soil/media breaking down soil/media particles by mechanical means, resulting in loss of soil/media macropores and leading to lack of oxygen and water in soils/media. A major cause of death of tree roots companion planting close planting of different plants that enhance each other's growth or protect each other from pests composite boards range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding the strands, particles, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives to form composite materials compost decayed organic material used as a soil conditioner, amendment or plant fertilizer. concrete mixture of gravel, sand, cement, and water that can be spread or formed and forms a stone-like mass upon hardening. confined space a space that has not been designed or constructed for continuous human occupancy, has limited access and may cause atmospheric and ventilation hazards for workers - 98 - coniferous shrubs small to medium sized plants that bear seeds in cones and do not lose their leaves/needles at the end of their growing season. The leaves/needles stay the same color throughout the year. coniferous trees mostly needle-leaved or scale-leaved, chiefly evergreen, cone-bearing gymnospermous trees or shrubs of the order Coniferales, such as pines, spruces, and firs. conservation preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife conserve protecting an environmentally important place from harm or destruction contaminants biological, chemical, physical, or radiological substance (normally absent in the environment) which, in sufficient concentration, can adversely affect living organisms through air, water, soil, and/or food. contracts an agreement between two parties to perform work or provide goods, including an agreement or order for the procurement of supplies or services. control method once monitoring, identification, and action thresholds indicate that pest control is required, and preventive methods are no longer effective or available, IPM programs then evaluate the proper control method both for effectiveness and risk. Effective, less risky pest controls are chosen first, including highly targeted chemicals, such as pheromones to disrupt pest mating, or mechanical control, such as trapping or weeding. If further monitoring, identifications and action thresholds indicate that less risky controls are not working, then additional pest control methods would be employed, such as targeted spraying of pesticides. Broadcast spraying of non-specific pesticides is a last resort. conveyors frame-mounted continuous belts that move aggregate, earth, concrete and plants. corms rounded underground storage organ present in plants such as crocuses, gladioli, and cyclamens, consisting of a swollen fleshy stem base covered with thin external scale leaves; corms differ from bulbs in having much more stem tissue and fewer scale leaves - 99 - critical path a project management or planning tool that lists all activities required to complete the project (typically categorized within a work breakdown structure), identifies the time (duration) that each activity will take to complete, displays the dependencies between the activities and, sets logical end points such as milestones or deliverable items. cropping schedules schedule to grow plants to marketable size at the right time of year crown balancing primary consideration is given to the visual form and/or structural balance of the tree’s crown by removing eccentric growth cultivars a plant variety that has been produced in cultivation by selective breeding cultivating preparing and using land for crops or gardening cultivation the planting, tending, improving, or harvesting of crops or plants; or the preparation of ground to promote plant growth cultivator mechanical tool/implement for loosening the soil and uprooting weeds cut and fill excavation practices the process of constructing a railway, road or canal whereby the amount of material from cuts roughly matches the amount of fill needed to make nearby embankments, so minimizing the amount of construction labour. cuttings plant cutting, also known as striking or cloning, is a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium to grow daily time sheets a mechanism used to record the hours that are worked daily deadhead remove spent flower heads from a plant to encourage further blooming deciduous trees, shrubs, and herbaceous perennials that shed their leaves for part of the year due to climate changes not conducive to growth. defoliation to strip (a tree, bush, etc.) of leaves desiccation drying out of a living organism, such as when plants are exposed to sunlight or drought design principles include the component principles of repetition, variety, balance, emphasis, sequence (rhythm) and scale as they are applied to the quality of a design. - 100 - dethatch mechanical removal from a lawn of the layer of dead turfgrass tissue known as "thatch." discing implement that is dragged across ploughed land to smooth or break up the soil, to remove weeds or cover seeds; disease triangle conceptual model that shows the interactions between the host, pathogen and the environment diseases abnormal growth or dysfunction of a plant, caused by an interruption in the normal life cycles of a plant. Disease can be caused by biotic or abiotic factors. dormancy period in an organism's life cycle when growth and development are temporarily stopped in part, to low temperatures that slow chemical activity drainage movement of water through soil/media. After a normal amount of irrigation, water should percolate through the soil within a few hours. If pools of water remain or the soil appears excessively wet to the touch, the area may be poorly drained drainage components the parts of a drainage system that provides an outlet for runoff and groundwater flow via gravel, pipe, geotextile, catch basins, man holes, etc. drainage patterns the pattern formed by streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin drainage swales graded and engineered landscape feature appearing as a linear, shallow, open channel to promote the conveyance of storm water at a slower, controlled rate and acts as a filter medium removing pollutants and allowing storm water infiltration drawings graphic illustrations depicting the dimensions, design, and location of a project. Generally including plans, elevations, details, diagrams, schedules, and sections. ecosystem biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment edge restraints outside perimeter that holds interlocking/segmental pavers together and is responsible to with-stand horizontal loads created by inherent pavement energy and traffic edging blocks, bricks, pavers or materials used at the edge of a pavement edible plants any plant that can be safely consumed, specifically by humans efficacy the ability for a product to produce a desired or intended result. ( Pest Control products are judged by their efficacy or their level of control and achieving the intended result.) - 101 - efflorescence white powdery substance on the surfaces of unsealed concrete caused by migrating vapour bringing soluble salts to the surface electrical conductivity (EC) common measure of soil salinity and is indicative of the ability of an aqueous solution to carry an electric current. Indirect measurement that correlates very well with several soil physical and chemical properties. electrical conduits tubing system used for protection and routing of electrical wiring electrical wiring material consisting either of a single filament or of several filaments woven or twisted together and usually insulated with a dielectric material used as a conductor of electricity elevation vertical distance relative to a reference point emergency response plans mitigate the impact of an incident that threatens the safety, health and welfare of the public and the environment environmental mitigation mechanisms are steps taken to avoid or minimize negative environmental impacts. Mitigation can include: avoiding the impact by not taking a certain action; minimizing impacts by limiting the degree or magnitude of the action; rectifying the impact by repairing or restoring the affected environment; reducing the impact by protective steps required with the action; and compensating for the impact by replacing or providing substitute resources environmental stewards individuals who responsibly use and protect the natural environment through conservation and sustainable practices ergonomic intended to provide optimum comfort and to avoid stress or injury erosion natural process by which rock and soil is relocated by water or wind erosion control practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, riverbanks and construction erosion control measures physical barrier, such as vegetation or rock, to absorb some of the energy of the wind or water that is causing the erosion erosion mats roll-type materials designed to reduce seed and soil loss estimates to give or form a general idea about the value, size, or cost of something fertigation application of fertilizers, soil amendments, or other water soluble products through an irrigation system fertilizer a chemical or natural substance added to soil or land to increase its fertility - 102 - filtration systems process of filtering liquids or gases, such as air, through a filter in order to remove solid particles fire Smart practices https://www.firesmartcanada.ca the website provides a best practice guideline that supports enhancement of safety and stewardship aimed at prevention and mitigation of wildfires. flood mitigation involves the managing and control of flood water movement, such as redirecting flood run-off through the use of floodwalls and flood gates, rather than trying to prevent floods altogether flower seed-bearing part of a plant, consisting of reproductive organs that are typically surrounded by a brightly colored corolla and a green calyx. flower period time when a tree, shrub, perennial or annual plant will normally produce flowers flush cut pruning technique in which both branch and stem tissue are removed; generally considered poor practice. foliage leaves of a plant foliar burn browning of plant tissues, including leaf margins and tips, and yellowing or darkening of veins which may lead to eventual wilting and abscission of the leaf. foliar discolouration is often an indication of physiological stress, pest, or infectious disease problems. foliar feed feeding plants by applying liquid fertilizer directly to their leaves foliar sample a collection of leaves sent to a laboratory to determine deficiencies, toxicities, response to applications and changes in maintenance practices. foliar washing physical removal of dust, dirt or spray residue from plants using various manual and mechanical sprayers foot baths/boot sprays a tub or mat containing disinfectants to provide sanitation protection of the footwear of all workers/visitors entering greenhouses to prevent the introduction of soil borne pests and diseases from contaminating crops. form temporary structure or mold for the support of concrete while it is setting and gaining sufficient strength to be self-supporting french drains trench filled with gravel or rock or containing a perforated pipe that redirects surface water and groundwater away from an area frost damage plant tissue damage caused by cold / freezing temperatures; ground frost and air and wind frost - 103 - frost heave the uplift of water-saturated soil or other surface deposits due to expansion caused by freezing temperatures that have penetrated into the soil. fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower and provide the mechanism by which plants disseminate seeds. fuels any material, as coal, oil, gas, wood, etc., burned to supply heat or power fungi any of a diverse group of eukaryotic single-celled or multinucleate organisms that live by decomposing and absorbing the organic material in which they grow, comprising the mushrooms, molds, mildews, smuts, rusts, and yeasts, and classified in the kingdom Fungi fungicide is a specific type of pesticide that controls fungal disease by specifically inhibiting or killing the fungus causing the disease. gall abnormal outgrowths of plant tissues caused by many living organisms living on plants including insects, mites, fungi, parasites, and bacteria. generator a device used for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy geogrids geosynthetic material used to reinforce soils on slopes and commonly used to reinforce retaining walls, as well as sub-bases or subsoils below roads or structures geo-membranes synthetic membrane liner or barrier with very low permeability used with any geotechnical engineering related material to control fluid (or gas) migration in a human-made project, structure, or system geotextile permeable synthetic fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, modify drainage, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain and serves as a weed barrier. germination the process by which a plant grows from a seed. Examples include the sprouting of seedlings from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm and the growth of hyphae from fungal spores global positioning system (GPS) a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. grades reshaping of land to meet specified elevations grading the work of altering existing terrain, base or an elevation or slope to meet specifications for work such as a foundation, base, landscape feature or surface drainage - 104 - green field an undeveloped or agricultural tract of land that is a potential site for industrial or urban development. green infrastructure are planned and managed vegetation and semi-vegetative technologies that reduce pollution and provide ecosystems that support healthy living. Green infrastructure takes many forms including but is not limited to the following: urban forests, natural areas, greenways, streams and riparian zones, meadows and agricultural lands; green roofs and green walls; parks, gardens and landscaped areas, community gardens, and other green open spaces; rain gardens, bio-swales, engineered wetlands and storm water ponds. green parking designed to do environmental work including reducing energy use, improving environmental quality and ensuring healthy conditions for people by incorporating permeable pavement, drainage features including rain gardens and bio-swales, and native plantings. greenhouse structures a structure, primarily of glass or sheets of clear plastic, in which temperature and humidity can be controlled for the cultivation or protection of plants. green roof an extension of an existing roof which includes a water proofing and root repellent system, a drainage system, filter cloth, a lightweight growing medium and plants that can provide building owners and municipalities with a return on investment. grey infrastructure traditional practices for storm water management and wastewater treatment including pipes and sewers, utilities and buildings. ground covers any plant that grows over an area of ground, used to provide protection from erosion and drought, and to improve its aesthetic appearance ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) a device that shuts off an electric circuit when it detects that current is flowing along an unintended path, possibly through water or through a person. It is used to reduce the risk of electric shock. growing conditions temperature, light, water, humidity, oxygen, and mineral nutrients growing facilities/structures structures and systems used for the production of plant materials growing media the material that plants grow in and has three main functions: to supply roots with nutrients, air, and water, to support maximum root growth, and to physically support the plant. growth habits general appearance, form (shape) and manner of growth of a plant guy tensioned cable designed to add stability to a tree or free-standing structure - 105 - habitat the natural environment in which a species or group of species lives habitat preservation land management practice that strives to conserve, protect and restore habitat areas for wild plants and animals to prevent extinction, fragmentation or reduction in population. hardening-off process of adapting a plant that has been grown under protective shelter indoors or in a greenhouse - to full outdoor exposure hardening-off procedures over time, the plant is exposed to increasing intervals of time outdoors so that when it is planted in the garden it can make the transition with a minimum of transplant shock hardiness describes a plant’s ability to tolerate and survive adverse growing conditions such as cold, heat, drought, flooding, or wind hardscape components of the design and construction of any landscape project that deals with a range of materials that include brick, stone, wood, metals or other natural or fabricated materials used in construction of the built landscape including streets, walkways structures, walls, street amenities, pools and fountains, and fireplaces and fire pits etc. hardscape materials brick, stone, wood, metals or other natural or fabricated materials used in construction of the built landscape hardscaping the placement of non-plant elements such as fences, walkways, paving, and lighting in a planned outdoor area. harrowing to break up clods (lumps of soil) and to provide a finer finish, a good tilth or soil structure that is suitable for seedbed use. Coarser harrowing may also be used to remove weeds and to cover seed after sowing. harvest selecting plant materials from greenhouses, nursery fields and standing yards that are ready for sale, storage and for further grow-on activities hazardous materials is defined as any substance or material that could adversely affect the safety of the public, handlers or carriers during transportation. hazards a hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects to individuals, equipment, property etc. under certain conditions at work. heading cutting back the terminal portion of a branch to a bud. A term whose subcategories include "topping" and "pollarding." heeling in process taken to cover the roots of dormant plants with soil or mulch for short periods. - 106 - herbaceous plants or plant parts that are fleshy as opposed to woody and that dies back to the ground each year hormone treatment chemical application by a horticulturist to regulate plant growth processes. In plant propagation, cuttings are dipped in a rooting hormone to stimulate root development. In greenhouse production, many potted flowering plants (like poinsettias and Easter lilies) may be treated with plant growth regulators to keep them short. Seedless grapes are treated with plant growth regulators to increase the size of the fruit. In special situations, turf may be treated to slow growth and mitigate the need for mowing. ice control products chemical (sodium chloride /rock salt) and abrasives (sand) materials used for snow and ice control that have friction or melting characteristics insect traps devices used to monitor or directly reduce pest populations by attracting and capturing insects using food, visual lures, chemical attractants and pheromones as bait. insects any animal of the class Insecta, comprising small, air-breathing arthropods having the body divided into three parts (head, thorax, and abdomen), and having three pairs of legs and usually two pairs of wings. integrated pest management (IPM) an approach to planning and managing pests that uses a combination of cultural, biological, mechanical and chemical methods to reduce pest populations to acceptable levels and with the least disruption to the environment starting with the least toxic control first. integrity a term applied to the engineering disciplines associated with the design, assurance, and verification functions that ensure a product, process, or system meets its appropriate and intended requirements for as long as the designed life of the structure. invasive species nonindigenous plants that have the potential to invade agricultural and natural areas causing serious damage to Canada's economy and environment and sometimes harm to human health. inventory management activities employed to maintain the optimum number or amount of each inventory item. irrigation controllers device to operate automatic irrigation systems such as lawn sprinklers and drip irrigation systems and that have a means of setting the frequency of irrigation, the start time, and the duration of watering. - 107 - irrigation systems Automated systems that deliver and distribute water to lawns, gardens, landscapes and horticultural crops (greenhouse and nursery), for the purpose of growing and maintaining healthy plants.. Components of these systems include sprinklers, nozzles, controllers, bubblers, drip emitters, valves, backflow prevention, pipe etc. joint materials compounds used to fill the space between adjacent paving units and wall stone. May be bound or unbound. Including: sand, polymeric sand, cement mortars, resin mortars, etc. jurisdictional regulations municipal, provincial or federal law or rule, or other order prescribed by authority such as building by-laws, labour laws and environmental protection laws. landscape drawings graphic illustrations depicting the dimensions, design, and location of a project. Generally including plans, elevations, details, diagrams, schedules, and sections. layering propagation method by which a branch/shoot takes root while still attached to the parent plant. leaf flattened structure of a higher plant, typically green and bladelike, that is attached to a stem directly or via a stalk. Leaves are the main organs of photosynthesis and transpiration. leaf spot round blemishes found on the leaves of many species of plants, mostly caused by parasitic fungi or bacteria and can cause defoliation. life cycle of pests incomplete Insects: Insects with incomplete life cycles have two distinct stages, the adult and nymph stage and include grasshoppers and true bugs (stink bug and squash bugs). Adults have fully developed wings and can fly great distances. Nymphs either do not have wings or have wings that cannot be used for flight.Many insects in this category have piercing, sucking mouthparts and suck juice from plants. Some, such as the grasshopper, chew on leaves and stems. Adult stage is most damaging. complete Life Cycle Insects: Insects in the complete life cycle group have four distinct stages, the egg, larvae, pupae and adult. Eggs, larva (wormlike or grublike creature that may feed on various plant parts), pupa (relatively inactive, often enclosed in some form of cocoon), and adult insect completely different in appearance. The larval stage with chewing and rasping feeding is most damaging. Examples of these insects are beetles and moths. lifts layers of soil or aggregate fill. light emitting diode (LED) semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it. LEDs are very energy efficient and have a long lifespan. - 108 - lighting components the various types of landscape lighting systems, controls and switching, wiring connections, fixture types, functions-purposes-styles, and light sources. liming treatment of soil or water with lime to reduce acidity (increasing pH) and improve fertility or oxygen levels. liners young, immature plants intended for ‘growing-on’ to mature sizes in nurseries, either by lining-out in the field or in containers. Typically 1 or 2 years old and often sold bare-root or in small containers. lining out all nursery stock suitable for planting out in nursery rows, beds, containers, or into natural areas. living wall systems self -sufficient vertical gardens that are attached to the exterior or interior of a building. They differ from green façades (e.g. ivy walls) in that the plants root in a structural support which is fastened to the wall itself. The plants receive water and nutrients from within the vertical support instead of from the ground. load distribution requirements a load distributed evenly over the entire length of a structural member or the surface of a vehicle, trailer, floor, or roof expressed in weight per length or weight per area. load securement all loads carried on a motor vehicle or trailer must be bound, covered or otherwise securely fastened or loaded such that no portion of the load can fall off the vehicle or trailer. Includes vehicle structure, blocking and bracing equipment, and securing devices that meet capability requirements, are in good working order, and have no obvious signs of damage or weakness. lock-out/tag-out is a safety procedure used in workplaces to protect workers by tagging dangerous tools, equipment and machines and ensuring that the energy source is locked out to prevent accidental use or start up prior to the completion of maintenance or servicing work. low voltage lighting systems permanently installed outdoor lighting fixtures operating at 12 volts or less, which illuminate landscape environments and exterior structures. Components of these systems typically include transformers, switching devices, multi-strand wiring, wire connectors, fixtures and lamps and other accessories metal hangers metal angle or strap used to support and fix the ends of wood joists or rafters to beams or girders microclimate local climate conditions of a specific area that include temperature, light, wind and moisture and influenced by walls, fences, slope, elevation, exposure and orientation. micro-propagation propagation of plants from very small plant parts, tissues or cells grown in a test tube or container where the environment and nutrition are rigidly controlled. - 109 - morphology the study of organism structures, including reproductive structures, and also addresses the pattern of development and relationships of these structures as they mature mortar a product composed of cement and sand. When water is mixed in with this product, the cement is activated. Mortar is used to hold together bricks, stones and hardscape components once hardened. mulch layer of bark, peat moss, compost, shredded leaves, hay or straw, lawn clippings, gravel, paper, plastic or other material spread over the soil around the base of plants primarily to modify the effects of climate. During the growing season, mulch can help reduce evaporation, inhibit weeds, moderate soil temperature and add nutrients. Fresh layers of mulch are also spread to enhance aesthetics. In the winter, mulch of evergreen boughs, coarse hay or leaves is used to protect plants from freezing. native ecosystem biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment that have not been affected directly or indirectly by human actions. native plants a term used to describe plants indigenous to a specific region in geologic time. This includes plants that have developed, occur naturally, or existed for many years in an area (e.g. trees, flowers, grasses, and other plants). native woodland area of woodland largely consisting of site specific native trees and shrubs, where an associated woodland flora is present or may develop over time. natural habitat area or natural environment in which a specific animal or plant species lives. natural stone stone shaped and sized by nature as opposed to stone that has been quarried and cut. nematodes microscopic roundworms with a tubular digestive system that live in soil or water and can be parasitic or beneficial. nomenclature the naming of things; often restricted to the correct use of scientific names in taxonomy; a system that sets out provisions for the formation and use of names. an international system of standardized New Latin names used in biology for kinds and groups of kinds of animals and plants non-native species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidentally. nursery place where plants are grown for transplanting, for use as stocks for budding and grafting, or for sale. Nurseries produce and distribute woody and herbaceous plants, including ornamental trees, shrubs, and bulb crops. - 110 - nutrient deficiencies inadequate supply of essential nutrients or present but not in the form the plant can use causing plant health problems nutrient tests laboratory analysis of soil or foliage to determine if deficiencies exist. nutrients elements needed by growing plants and supplied by minerals and organic matter in soil and by fertilizers. Includes: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron and micro-nutrients. on-the-job-training (OJT) employee training at the place of work while he or she is doing the actual job organic matter matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment. organically-grown plants organics plants grown without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides or fungicides. overseed to spread grass seed on turf or an established lawn to fill in thin or bare spots. pathogens biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host by disrupting the normal physiology. Can be a fungus, virus, bacteria or parasite. paving stones large, flat pieces of stone, brick, tile, concrete or similar material, used in paving and usually used in groups to cover a path or an area of ground peat moss spongy organic soil amendment used to increase acidity, organic matter, aeration and water retention of soil. Sphagnum peat moss is generally considered to be highest in quality. Most soilless mix features peat as its main ingredient. percolation the movement, under hydrostatic pressure, of water through the interstices of a rock or soil. Also, the movement of water within a porous medium such as soil without a definite channel. perennial a non-woody plant which grows and lives for more than two years. an organic substance such as a fertilizer of plant or animal origin; a pesticide whose active component is an organic compound or a mixture of organic compounds; or a plant produced by organic farming. permeable pavement paved surfaces made of sustainable materials such as pervious concrete, porous asphalt, permeable interlocking pavers, and other materials, that include a base and sub-base that allow the movement of storm water through the surface. In addition to reducing runoff, they trap suspended solids and filters pollutants from the water. - 111 - permeable pavers paving materials that allow rainwater to pass through into the ground to replenish the water table. personal protective equipment (PPE) special protective clothing, other garments, devices and equipment designed and worn by workers to protect the wearer from injury. Examples include respirators, goggles, ear plugs, face shields and CSA approved foot wear. pest any species of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent which reduces the productivity or health of plants, either directly by eating them or indirectly by spreading diseases among them. pest control regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, usually because it is perceived to be detrimental to the ecology or the economy. pest resistance plants plants that grow despite the presence of pests and diseases due to naturally occurring resistance or plants that contain chemicals that make them inedible to pests, and stop the spread of disease. pH the measure of a soil's acidity or alkalinity. and is measured in pH units. The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with pH 7 as the neutral point. As the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil increases, the soil pH decreases, thus becoming more acidic. From pH 7 to 0, the soil is increasingly more acidic, and from pH 7 to 14, the soil is increasingly more alkaline or basic. physiology the study of vital processes and functional activity occurring in plants in relation to its survival, metabolic activities, water relations, mineral nutrition, development, movement, irritability, organization, growth and transport processes. phyto-inspection official visual examination of plants, plant products or other regulated articles to determine if pests are present and/or to determine compliance with phytosanitary regulations phytosanitary certificates a document, issued by an inspector, that attests to the phytosanitary status of anything exported to and from Canada and that contains the information required by the Model Phytosanitary Certificate of the International Plant Protection Convention is signed by an inspector / official and sealed with an official Phytosanitary Certificate seal . pinching a form of pruning that encourages branching on the plant. plant classification assignment and identification of organisms to groups within a system of categories distinguished by structure, origin, ecological adaptation, use, cultural or climatic requirements, growth habit and life span etc. Plants are grouped by various common characteristics to help us communicate similar ecological adaptations and cultural requirements. - 112 - plant hardiness zone map outlines the different zones in Canada where various types of trees, shrubs and flowers will most likely survive. It is based on the average climatic conditions of each area and based on a wide range of climatic variables, including minimum winter temperatures, length of the frost-free period, summer rainfall, maximum temperatures, snow cover, January rainfall and maximum wind speed. In Canada, the map is divided into nine major zones: the harshest is 0 and the mildest is 8. Subzones (e.g., 4a or 4b, 5a or 5b) are also noted in the map legend. plant health care a process of scheduled preventative maintenance based on monitoring and use of cultural and chemical tactics, to enhance plant vitality. The plant and its requirements become the central focus of the activities, rather than responding to symptoms caused by pest presence, physical agents, or nutritional deficiencies. A plant health care practice addresses the basic causes of the reduction in plant health and provides corrective measures to promote plant health. plant key analytical guide to the identification of plants, based on the use of contrasting characters to subdivide a group under study into branches. planting guidelines provide jurisdictional / site specific specifications and details for tree planting. planting plan a ‘to scale’ plan that identifies plant name, location and spacing information. plant texture relationship between the foliage and twigs of plants. Appearance of plants in terms of coarseness or fineness, roughness or smoothness, heaviness or lightness, denseness or thinness. plugs a cylinder of medium in which a plant is grown. The term is generally used for seedlings and rooted cuttings. pollarding process taken to remove upper branches of a tree to promote a dense head of foliage and branches and is practiced today to maintain and control tree height. positive drainage grade that ensures that surface water drains away from all structures on a property so as not to damage to structures and buildings on a site nor negative impact on human health. posts a piece of timber or metal set upright in the ground and used to support something or as a marker potting-on transplanting a plant from a smaller container up to a bigger container in the growing-on process. potting-up moving young plants or rooted cuttings individually into containers and /or the process of filling containers with soil and plant material. - 113 - pre-cast concrete concrete structural components, such as steps, blocks, etc., produced by casting concrete in a reusable mold or "form" which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place. propagate production of more plants from a parent plant to preserve essential characteristics. Propagation may be achieved sexually by use of seeds or asexually by use of techniques such as cuttings, dividing, grafting and tissue culture. pruning the selective cutting and removing of parts of a tree or shrub. It covers a number of horticultural techniques that control growth, shape, remove dead or diseased wood, and stimulate the formation of flowers and fruit buds. Pruning often means cutting branches back, sometimes removing smaller limbs entirely to preserve or improve plant health and structure. public utilities service for the public such as water, sewers, telephone, cable, fibre optics, electricity, or gas purchase order formal written authorization provided by a buyer to a vendor to provide certain goods or services (types, quantities, qualities, and prices) and to bill the buyer for them at the specified price. The purchase order becomes a contract when it is accepted by the vendor. quarantine confinement or isolation of plants or plant products suspected of carrying an infectious agent for observation and research or for farther inspection, testing and/or treatment for a period of time, in an effort to prevent disease from spreading. rails a bar or series of bars, typically fixed on upright supports, serving as part of a fence or barrier or used to hang things on rain gauges device for collecting and measuring the amount of rain that falls. rain water harvesting collection and storage of rainwater often from rooftops in storage units for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to runoff. Uses include water for garden, irrigation, domestic use with proper treatment, etc. rebar steel bar, usually with manufactured deformations, used in concrete and masonry construction to provide additional strength. Short for reinforcing bar. regeneration processes designed to build soil health or to regenerate soil, including maintaining a high percentage of organic matter in soils, minimum tillage, biodiversity, composting, mulching, and crop rotation to support a sustainable growing environment. respirators apparatus worn over the mouth and nose or the entire face to prevent the inhalation of dust, smoke, or other noxious substances. - 114 - retaining wall wall built to stabilize a slope and keep soil from sliding or eroding downhill. retention ponds basins that are designed to temporarily hold a set amount of water and to catch runoff from higher elevation areas while slowly draining to another location. They are more or less around for flood control when large amounts of rain could cause flash flooding. ribbon tests simple method used to estimate the percentage of sand, silt and clay in a soil sample. river rock natural aggregate smoothed by forces of water. Can come in all sizes and colors depending upon the source. rollover protection devices (ROP) operator compartment structures (usually cabs or frames) intended to protect equipment operators and motorists from injuries caused by vehicle overturns or rollovers. roof-top gardens any garden on the roof of a building. Roof plantings provide food, temperature control, hydrological benefits, architectural enhancement, habitats or corridors for wildlife, and recreational opportunities. root division methods process of reproducing plants by a division of roots or crowns. rooted cuttings a vegetative portion removed from a parent plant that has been induced to form roots and eventually new leaves and shoots. rooting hormones growth substances that stimulate root formation when applied to the base of a cutting. roots part of the plant, usually underground, that absorbs water and nutrients from the soil and anchors the plant in the soil. However, roots can also be aerial (growing up above the ground or above water) rootstocks the root or part of a root used for plant propagation. In grafting the rootstock is that part of a grafted plant that supplies the roots mildew a fungi that forms fine webs on the surfaces of leaves on live plants. Mildews thrive in warm, humid conditions and mainly affect plants not adapted to those conditions. Also referred to as powdery mildew. rot also called decay, any of several plant diseases, caused by any of hundreds of species of soil-borne bacteria and fungi. They are characterized by plant decomposition and putrefaction. The decay may be hard, dry, spongy, watery, and mushy. - 115 - rotating crops a system in which crops are grown on different sections of a plot on a three- or four-year cycle to build soil fertility, boost yields and economic returns, and minimize the negative impact of soil borne pests and diseases. rust disease caused by a rust fungus, characterized by reddish or brownish spots on leaves, stems, and other parts. scab fungal disease common in areas with summer rainfall - most commonly troubling apples and crab apples. It causes disfiguring lesions, and can infect other plants as well. scarify to break up and loosen (soil) to a shallow depth. Roughing up the surface of a root ball that has circling roots scion wood short length of stem, taken from one plant which is then grafted onto the rootstock of another plant. soil texture is a qualitative classification tool used in both the field and laboratory to determine classes for soils based on their physical texture. scorch injury caused to a plant's leaves due to a pathogen heat or lack of water or excessive transpiration . screed a straight board used to even off the surface of sand or freshly poured concrete. The screed is usually slid across the tops of the form boards holding the aggregate or concrete. In this process, aggregate or concrete remaining above the level of the forms is moved to areas in which the level is too low, or else simply removed as excess. sealants material usually applied as a liquid to waterproof, enhance color, and in some cases reduce abrasion. Applied to wood, and interlocking concrete pavements. shearing removal of a shrub's surface by clipping in order to achieve a specific shape and / or resulting in a very formal growth habit shoring props or posts of timber or other material in compression; used for the temporary support of excavations, formwork, walls or unsafe structures. shrubs a woody plant that is never tree-like in habit and produces or shoots from or near the base. A multi-stemmed, woody plant that does not exceed 20 feet in height. silt fencing is a temporary sediment control device used on construction sites to protect water quality in nearby streams, rivers, lakes and seas from sediment (loose soil) in storm water runoff - 116 - site assessment identifying the existing inventory of elements and features including roads, neighbouring properties, soil type, drainage, microclimate, compaction, slopes, water ways, existing plants, wildlife, utilities and hazards, access and security requirements etc. site locates depicts the location of underground site utilities existing on a piece of property including lines for telecommunication, electricity distribution, natural gas, cable television, fiber optics, traffic lights, street lights, storm drains, water mains, and wastewater pipes. In some locations, major oil and gas pipelines, national defense communication lines, mass transit, rail and road tunnels also compete for space underground. site preservation steps taken to preserve site and minimize environmental impact ( erosion, runoff, flooding, compaction etc.) on the site and neighbouring properties due to the construction activity. (Traffic, ground disturbance etc.) smart water technology irrigation best management practices and components that address landscape needs without over watering. softscape parts of a landscape that comprise and support living material. For example flowers, plants, grass, trees, soil, mulch, etc softscape material living, animated part of a landscape including plants, flowers, color scheme and pattern of plantation. soil porous material at the surface of the earth and consists of minerals, organic matter, water, gases, and living organisms. soil amendments any material added to a soil/media to improve its physical properties to enhance production, such as water retention, permeability, water infiltration, drainage, aeration and structure. solenoid switches electromagnet which is connected to a controller and facilitates the opening and closing of automatic control valves within irrigation systems. spalling loss of a fragment/chip or splinter, usually in the shape of a flake, or pitted appearance detached from the edge or surface of a paver or concrete due to a blow or sudden force, or the action of weather, or pressure. Typically caused by poor installation and / or weather factors. species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. A class of individuals having some common characteristics or qualities; distinct sort or kind; a plant that is a representative member of a species, one that is not a hybrid or variety. - 117 - specifications precise statement of legal particulars or documents that define the detailed qualitative requirements for products, materials, and workmanship upon which the contract for construction is based. spill containment where spills of chemicals, oils, sewage etc. are contained within a barrier or drainage system rather than being absorbed at the surface. spill kits consist of absorbents that are sprinkled on top of the spill or sponge-like fabrics that are placed around the spill in order to contain it. The kit may also include protective equipment, such as goggles and gloves standards a document developed to establish recognized and accepted minimum levels of quality that may be recognized by the Owner, User, Consultant for material, product, plant, design, system or installation procedure and; to standardize, or simplify such variables as dimensions, varieties or other characteristics of specific products or plants in order to minimize variation in manufacture, production and/or use. stem cuttings is a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. Also known as striking or cloning. stems the main body or stalk of a plant or shrub, typically rising above ground but occasionally subterranean. Slender stalk supporting or connecting another plant part, such as a leaf or flower. stippling leaf injury from insects resulting in leaf spotting as a result of localized destruction of the chlorophyll by the injected enzymes at the feeding site. Aphids, leafhoppers, and mites are commonly associated with this type of injury. storm water management practices that are developed to reduce, control, and prevent storm water runoff through a variety of strategies. These strategies vary in nature and effectiveness and strive to improve water quality and either reduce or control flooding and erosion. structural integrity ability of an item to hold together under a load, including its own weight, resisting breakage or bending. It assures that the construction will perform its designed function, during reasonable use, for as long as the designed life of the structure. structural soil a designed medium which can meet or exceed pavement design and installation requirements while remaining root penetrable and supportive of tree growth even when surrounded by pavement. It is a mixture of gap-graded gravels, clay loam, and a hydrogel stabilizing agent to keep the mixture from separating. - 118 - subsoil the stratum of earth or earthy material immediately under surface of topsoil. It contains little or no humus. subsurface drainage systems the process of directing excess water away from the root zones of plants by natural or artificial means, such as by using a system of pipes and drains placed below ground surface level. take-off or quantity take-off process in which detailed lists are compiled, based on drawings and specifications, of all the material and equipment necessary to construct a project. Estimators use construction blueprints, either manually or electronically, and start "taking off" quantities of items they will need from those blueprints in order to prepare part of the estimate. Examples of possible take offs include the number of plants, linear measurement of pavers, volumes of aggregate etc. needed to complete the work. tenders refers to projects or procurement and is the process whereby organizations, clients, governments and institutions invite bids for large projects that must be submitted within a finite deadline. thinning selective removal of plants/trees to allow sufficient room for the remaining plants to grow a form of pruning, that removes an entire shoot, limb, or branch at its point of origin to revitalize a plant by removing over-mature, weak, problematic, and excessive growths. When performed correctly, thinning encourages the formation of new growth that will more readily bear fruit and flowers. This is a common technique in pruning roses and "opening-up" the branching of neglected trees, or for renewing shrubs with multiple branches. A thinned plant becomes more open and is more likely to retain its natural form. More light penetrates a plant that has been thinned, and interior branches and foliage will be retained nearer the center of a tree. top-dress application of soluble fertilizers, fresh soil, or compost to the soil surface around a plant or to lawns to replenish nutrients and to improve plant health. topography shape, height and elevations of natural and man-made features of a particular landscape, such as mountains, rivers, valleys, and human settlements, railway lines, and roads. topping cutting back of the vertical stem (leader) and upper primary limbs (scaffold branches) on mature trees to achieve a uniform height. Topping is also referred to as heading, stubbing, or dehorning. traffic control directing the movement of vehicles, equipment, people or goods in a controlled manner to ensure efficiency and safety for all - 119 - transformers a device used to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another at a different voltage. trench slope involves cutting back the trench wall at an angle inclined away from the excavation. tropical plants all vegetation growing in a wide band around the equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Most interior plants are tropical plants. true-to-type a plant that, when self-fertilized, only produces offspring with the same traits. The alleles for these type of plants are homozygous. tubers fat underground stem which stores food and plant energy and from which a plant grows. (e.g. Dahlias) turf/ turf grass the upper stratum of soil bound by grass and plant roots into a thick mat. Any of various grasses (as Kentucky bluegrass or perennial ryegrass) grown to form turf universal hand signals established code of signals used by a signaler to communicate with an equipment /vehicle operator. urban tree canopy the layer of leaves, branches, and stems of trees that cover the ground when viewed from above. utilities gas, water, electrical and sewer services beyond 5 feet from a building. ventilation natural or mechanical process by which air is introduced to, circulated or removed from a space, with or without heating, cooling, or purification treatment. The main purposes of ventilation are to regulate the temperature and humidity to the optimal level, and to ensure movement of air and thus prevent build-up of plant pathogens (such as Botrytis cinerea) that prefer still air conditions. Ventilation also ensures a supply of fresh air for photosynthesis and plant respiration, and may enable important pollinators to access the greenhouse crop. Ventilation can be achieved via use of vents - often controlled automatically via a computer - and recirculation fans. vines plant whose stem requires support and which climbs by tendrils or twining or creeps along the ground. water conservation water management practices that improve the use of water resources to benefit people or the environment by beneficial reduction in water use, loss or waste. - 120 - water harvesting accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to runoff. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, water for domestic use with proper treatment, and indoor heating for houses etc. water holding capacity is the ability of a soil to hold water and is used for irrigation scheduling, crop selection, groundwater contamination considerations, estimating runoff and determining when plants will become stressed. Water holding capacity varies by soil texture. water management activity of planning, developing, distributing and optimum use of water resources under defined water policies and regulations. It includes: management of water treatment of drinking water, industrial water, sewage or wastewater. water proofing any of a number of materials applied to various surfaces, e.g., a building foundation, to prevent the infiltration of water. water table the level below which the ground is saturated with water. weed barriers materials such as polypropylene blanket, fabric, mulches, composts that stabilizes soil, controls erosion, separates soil profiles and hinders weed growth. weed control use of manual, mechanical or chemical means to discourage the growth of unwanted, (usually) fast growing and/or invasive plants. weeds plants that grow where they are not wanted and if not kept under control will compete with the ornamental plants or vegetables for nutrients and water in the soil. weight loads recommended maximum weight load for a line, rope, crane or any other lifting device or component of a lifting device. wetland reserves wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas that are protected and managed in order to preserve a particular type of habitat and its flora and fauna which are often rare or endangered. whip a slender, un-branched shoot or plant. wicking beds self-contained raised beds with built-in reservoirs that supply water from the bottom up. wire baskets baskets made from heavy gauge wire that are often used to hold a B&B root ball intact during shipping and handling. Wire also allows for the tree to be picked up by the root ball instead of the trunk. - 121 - wood chips medium-sized solid material made by cutting, or chipping, larger pieces of wood. Woodchips may be used as a biomass solid fuel and are raw material for producing wood pulp. They may also be used as organic mulch in gardening, landscaping, restoration ecology and mushroom cultivation. woody stems or trunks that are hard and thickened rather than soft and pliable and which increase in diameter each year. work orders written notice from the project owner to the contractor in which the contractor is authorized to proceed with the work on a specified date. xeriscape principles is a landscape design and maintenance concept that conserves water and protects the environment. The 7 principles include: Planning and design; Soil analysis; Practical turf areas; Appropriate plant selection; Efficient irrigation; Use of mulches; and Appropriate maintenance zone section of an irrigation system served by a single control valve. Zones are comprised of similar sprinkler types and plant material types with similar water requirements and types. - 122 - APPENDIX D ACRONYMS B&B balled and burlap CFIA Canadian Food Inspection Agency CSNS Canadian Standards for Nursery Stock DDDI dead, disease, damage, interfering DFO Department of Fisheries and Oceans EC electrical conductivity GFCI ground fault circuit interrupter GPS global positioning systems HVAC heating, ventilation and air conditioning IPM integrated pest management LED light emitting diode OEM operator equipment manual OH&S Occupational Health and Safety OJT on-the-job-training PPE personal protective equipment ROP rollover protection UV ultraviolet WHMIS Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System - 123 - APPENDIX E BLOCK A % NL 20 BLOCK AND TASK WEIGHTING COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS NS 25 Task 1 PE NV NB 18 QC 5 ON 20 MB 20 SK 17 AB 15 BC 20 NT YT ND ND NU ND Task 2 26% Maintains tools, equipment and vehicles. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 25 19 NV 25 25 30 35 28 35 25 ND ND ND Task 3 27% Organizes work. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 25 40 NV 33 50 25 20 23 20 40 ND ND ND Task 4 31% Participates in marketing and sales. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 25 19 NV 16 0 15 20 21 10 20 ND ND ND BLOCK B % 20% Performs safety-related functions. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 25 22 NV 26 25 30 25 28 35 15 ND ND ND NL 25 National Average 16% HORTICULTURAL PRINCIPLES NS 25 Task 5 PE NV NB 18 QC 10 ON 23 MB 25 SK 20 AB 24 BC 30 NT YT ND ND NU ND National Average 24% Applies horticultural principles. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 50 77 NV 58 100 55 75 50 60 80 ND ND ND - 124 - 67% Task 6 Applies environmental practices. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 50 23 NV 42 0 45 25 50 40 20 ND ND ND BLOCK C % NL 25 LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION NS 25 Task 7 PE NB NV 30 QC 60 ON 23 MB 25 SK 25 AB 22 BC 25 NT YT NU ND ND ND Task 8 Task 9 39% Installs softscape. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 35 29 NV 32 30 33 40 38 25 40 ND ND ND BLOCK D 34% LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE NS 25 Task 10 27% Installs hardscape. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 35 44 NV 39 60 33 40 40 25 40 ND ND ND % National Average 32% Performs pre-construction activities. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 30 27 NV 29 10 34 20 22 50 20 ND ND ND NL 25 33% PE NB NV 26 QC 25 ON 17 MB 15 SK 18 AB 23 BC 25 NT YT NU ND ND ND National Average 24% Maintains softscape and green infrastructure. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 70 53 NV 55 80 65 80 45 65 40 ND ND ND - 125 - 61% Task 11 Maintains hardscape and green infrastructure. NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 30 47 NV 45 20 35 20 55 35 60 ND ND ND BLOCK E % NL 5 39% PRODUCTION OF PLANT MATERIALS (NOT COMMON CORE) NS 0 Task 12 PE NB NV 8 QC 0 ON 17 MB 15 SK 20 AB 16 BC 0 NT YT NU ND ND ND Constructs growing facilities (NOT COMMON CORE) NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 25 0 NV 0 0 0 10 23 7 0 ND ND ND Task 13 Task 14 Operates and maintains components of growing facilities (NOT COMMON CORE) NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 25 0 NV 27 0 20 15 17 17 0 ND ND ND 11% 20% Maintains greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 25 0 NV 31 0 40 35 30 38 0 ND ND ND Task 15 National Average 0% 33% Maintains nursery plants. (NOT COMMON CORE) NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU % 25 0 NV 42 0 40 40 30 38 0 ND ND ND - 126 - 36% APPENDIX F PIE CHART* E 0% D 24% A 20% B 24% C 32% TITLES OF BLOCKS BLOCK A COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS BLOCK D LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE BLOCK B HORTICULTURAL PRINCIPLES BLOCK E PRODUCTION OF PLANT MATERIALS (NOT COMMON CORE) BLOCK C LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION *Average percentage of the total number of questions on an interprovincial examination, assigned to assess each block of the analysis, as derived from the collective input from workers within the occupation from all areas of Canada. Interprovincial examinations typically have from 100 to 150 multiple-choice questions. - 127 - APPENDIX G BLOCKS A – COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS BHORTICULTURAL PRINCIPLES TASK PROFILE CHART — Landscape Horticulturist TASKS SUB-TASKS 1. Performs safety-related functions. 1.01 Uses personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety equipment. 1.02 Maintains safe work environment. 2. Maintains tools, equipment and vehicles. 2.01 Maintains hand tools. 2.02 Maintains power tools. 2.03 Maintains measuring equipment. 2.04 Maintains vehicles and motorized equipment. 2.05 Maintains equipment attachments and trailers. 3. Organizes work. 3.01 Performs site assessments. 3.02 Uses documentation and reference material. 3.03 Maintains records. 3.04 Complies with policies and regulations. 3.05 Plans daily tasks. 3.06 Communicates with others. 3.07 Orders plants and materials. 3.08 Transports materials. 3.09 Organizes plants, materials and equipment 3.10 Transports equipment. 4. Participates in marketing and sales. 4.01 Controls inventory. 4.02 Sells products and services. 4.03 Maintains customer relations. 4.04 Prepares estimates. 5. Applies horticultural principles. 5.01 Identifies plants and plant requirements. 5.02 Manages plant health and growing conditions. 5.03 Prunes plant material. 5.04 Manages pests, diseases and invasive species. 6. Applies environmental practices. 6.01 Practices environmental stewardship. 6.02. Selects green infrastructure. - 128 - BLOCKS C – LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION TASKS 7. Performs preconstruction activities. 7.01 Participates in basic landscape design activities. 7.02 Interprets landscape drawings. 7.03 Participates in job planning activities. 7.04 Prepares construction site. 7.05 Performs grading. 8. Installs hardscape. 8.01 Installs drainage systems. 8.02 Installs landscape structures. 8.03 Installs walkway, patio, driveway and parking lot materials. 8.04 Installs steps and retaining walls. 8.05 Installs irrigation systems. 8.06 Installs water features. 8.07 Installs low voltage landscape lighting. 8.08 Installs green infrastructure. 9.01 Installs growing media. 9.02 Installs exterior landscape plants. 9.03 Transplants plants. 9.04 Installs mulch. 9.05 Installs turf from seed. 9.06 Installs sod. 9.07 Installs erosion control materials. 9.08 Installs interior landscape plants. 10.01 Maintains growing media. 10.02 Maintains turfgrass. 10.03 Maintains interior softscape. 10.04 Maintains exterior softscape. 10.05 Propagates plant materials. 11.02 Maintains drainage systems. 11.03 Maintains walkways, patios, driveways and parking lots. 11.04 Maintains irrigation systems. 11.05 Maintains landscape lighting. 9. Installs softscape. D - LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE SUB-TASKS 10. Maintains softscape and green infrastructure. 10.06 Repairs softscape. 11. Maintains hardscape and green infrastructure. 11.01 Maintains green infrastructure. - 129 - BLOCKS E - PRODUCTION OF PLANT MATERIALS (NOT COMMON CORE) TASKS SUB-TASKS 11.06 Maintains water features. 11.07 Maintains steps and retaining walls. 11.08 Maintains landscape structures. 11.09 Practices snow and ice management. 12. Constructs growing facilities (NOT COMMON CORE) 12.01 Builds growing facilities. (NOT COMMON CORE) 12.02 Installs growing facility components. (NOT COMMON CORE) 13. Operates and maintains components of growing facilities (NOT COMMON CORE) 13.01 Operates growing facility structures and components. (NOT COMMON CORE) 14. Maintains greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) 15. Maintains nursery plants. (NOT COMMON CORE) 13.02 Maintains sanitary environment. (NOT COMMON CORE) 13.03 Operates climate control and components. (NOT COMMON CORE) 13.04 Operate irrigation and fertigation systems. (NOT COMMON CORE) 14.01 Propagates greenhouse plant materials. (NOT COMMON CORE) 14.02 Transplants greenhouse plants. (NOT COMMON CORE) 14.03 Grows greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) 14.04 Harvests greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) 14.05 Ships greenhouse crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) 15.01 Propagates field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) 15.02 Transplants field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) 15.03 Grows field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) 15.04 Harvests field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) 15.05 Ships field and container crops. (NOT COMMON CORE) - 130 - 11.10 Repairs hardscape.
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