I Canada Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92 r

I Canada Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92 r
85-515E
C.3
I
Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92
r
May 1993
I
Canadian Centre
for Justice Statistics
1 ^ 1
St^^'stics
Canada
Statistique
Canada
Centre canadien
de la statistique jurldique
Canada
Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92^
Highlights
I.
*
In 1991-92, the average daily count of youths in custodial facilities across CunaJa
was 4,417, a slight increa-se of 27c over 199{)'91.
*
Custodial dispositions were ordered in youth courts in about one-third (30%) of
cases resulting in convictions across Canada.
*
Of those youths held in custody, 37% were held in secure custody, 44% in open
custody, and 19% were on remand.
*
The proportion of youths with guilty findings, receiving custodial dispositions
varied across jurisdictions, ranging from 47% in the Yukon to 21% in Alberta.
*
Males accounted for 93% of all youths sentenced to secure custody and KK% of
youths sentenced to of)en custody.
Introduction
This report profiles youth custody in Canada, with a focus upon trends of secure and open
custodial dispositions. Caseload data, from all youth courts in Canada, have been collected through the
Youth Court Survey (YCS), in collaboration with provincial and territorial government departments
responsible for youth courts. Survey coverage in Ontario and British Columbia was incomplete for
1991-92, representing 85% of each province's caseload. Data on young offender corrections in Canada
were taken from the Young Offender Key Indicator Report (Y-KIR). Both surveys are conducted by
the Youth Justice Program of the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS).
The unit of analysis for the fu"st part of this report is the case, which is defined as one or more
charges laid against a young person, first presented in youth court on the same date. YCS records are
retained in master charge files, organized by fiscal year based on the date of disposition. A case file is
created by linking persons records (accused identifier code, sex and date of birth) and the same court
code and date of first appearance.
'
By Tracey Leesti, Analyst, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Corrections Program
CCJS ^k^ CCSJ
Pogf^
_
^
''""''' ^•'"'°^y •" Canada, 1991-92
As case counts are categorized by most serious disposition, less serious dispositions are underrepresented. The seriousness of a disposition is determined by the effect it has on a young person.
Dispositions are ordered from most to least serious as follows: secure custody; detention for treatment;
open custody; probation; fine; compensation; pay purchaser; compensation in kind; community service
order; restitution; prohibition, seizure, or forfeiture; other dispositions (e.g., letters of apology); and,
absolute discharge.
II. Custodial Dispositions Ordered in Youth Courts, 1991-92
Under the Young Offenders Act (YOA), there are two types of custodial dispositions: secure and
open. A secure custody disposition, pursuant to s.20(l)(k) and s.24.1(l), commits the offender to a
facility designated for the secure detention of young persons. This includes facilities with perimeter
security features in which youths are under constant observation. An open custody disposition commits
the young offender to a community residential centre, group home, child care institution, forest or
wilderness camp, or similar facility.
Disposition counts refer only to cases in which the most serious decision is a finding of guilt.
Of the 116,397 youth court cases reported to the YCS in 1991-92, almost two-thirds (65%) had a guilty
verdict (this also includes cases where the accused plead guilty). Almost one-third of all cases found
guilty in youth courts received a custodial disposition; 17% received an open custody disposition, while
13% received secure custody.
In 1991-92, males were involved in 82% of all cases, and in 84% of cases resulting in a guilty
finding. In addition, 93% of all youths sentenced to secure custody, and 88% of those sentenced to open
custody were male. A notable proportion of all cases receiving secure custody (60%) or open custody
(48%) involved males 16 or 17 years of age (Table 1).
In 1991-92, over half of all cases with guilty findings involved youths aged 16 or 17 years
(53%)^. These same offenders were more likely to receive a term of secure custody than were youths
under 16 years of age (see box on the next page). In 1991-92, 16% of 16 and 17 year olds were
sentenced to secure custody, compared with 11% of 14 and 15 year olds and 4% of 12 and 13 year olds.
However, differences by age were less apparent in the case of open custody, with 14 and 15 year olds
receiving the highest proportion of orders (18%) (Table 1).
This age is the age of the youth at the time of the offence. The youth will actually be somewhat older
on the date of disposition.
Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92
Page 3
Limits to the Use of Secure Custody According to the YOA
The Youn^ Offenders Act limits the use of secure custody through ss. 24,1(3) and 24.1(4). Section
24.1(3) applies to young persons who were of 14 years of age at the time the offence was
committed. This section states that a youth may receive custody when
(a)
(b)
(c)
the offence is one for which an adult would be liable to imprisonment for
five years or more;
the offence is an offence under section 26 of this Act in relation to a
disposition under paragraph 2(Kl)(i), an offence under section i44(prison
breach) or subsection 145(1 )(escape or being at large without excuse) nf the
Criminal Code or an attempt to commit any such offence; oi
the offence is an indictable offence and the young person was
(i) within twelve months prior to the commission of the
offence, found guilty of an offence for which an adult would
be liable to imprisonment for five years or more, or adjudged
to have committed a delinquency under the Juvenile
Delinquents Act, chapter J-3 of the Revised Statutes of
Canada, 1970, in respect of such offence, or
(ii) at any time prior to the cominission of the offence,
committed to secure custody with respect to a previous
offence, or committed to custody in a place or facility for the
secure containment or restraint of a child, within tlie meaning
of the Juvenile Delinquents Act... whh respect to a delinquency
under that Act.
A slightly more restrictive Section 24.1(4) applies to young persons who were under the age of 14
years at the time the offence was committed. This section states that a youth may receive custody
only when
(a)
(b)
(c)
the offence is one for which an adult would be liable to life imprisonment;
the offence is one for which an adult would be liable to imprisonment for
five years or more and the young person was at any tiine prior to the
commission of the offence found guilty of an offence for which an adult
would be liable to imprisonment for five years or more or adjudged to have
committed a delinquency under the Juvenile Delinquents Act..An respect of
such offence; or
the offence is an offence under section 26 of this Act in relation to a
disposition under paragraph 2Q(l)(^(), an offence under section 144 (prison
breach) or subsection 14.5(1) (escape or being at large without excuse} of the
Criminal Code or an attempt to commit any such offence.
Page 4
Youth Custody in Canada. 1991-92
Distribution of Offence Categories for Custodial Dispositions
In 1991-92, half of all custodial dispositions handed down in youth courts were for property
offences (50%), most often for break and enter offences (Figure 1). "Other" Criminal Code offences
(21%), in particular failure to appear, accounted for the next highest proportion of custodial dispositions
ordered. Violent offences comprised 15% of all custodial dispositions ordered, with minor assault being
the most common offence in this category. Young Offenders Act offences accounted for 12% of
custodial dispositions, with the most common offence in this category being wilful failure/refusal to
comply with a disposition. Narcotic Control Act offences. Food and Drugs Act offences, and "other
federal statute" offences were associated with the remaining 2% of custodial dispositions ordered in
youth courts across Canada (Table 2).
Figure 1
Distribution of Custodial Dispositions
by Offence Type, Canada(1), 1991-92
Y0A{3)
Ottier(2)
2*
Break & Enter 43%
12%
Theft under $1,000 18%
Possession Stolen 16%
Theft over $1,000 9%
Mischief/Damage B%
Forgeiy/Frauds 4%
Other property(S) 4%
All Offence types (N-22,298)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Property OHences
100%
YCS data for Ontario and British Columbia represent 85% of the total caseload in each jurisdiction.
"Other" offences include: NCA offences; FDA offences; and, "other federal statute" offences.
YOA offences include: failure to comply with a disposition; failure to comply with an undertalcing; contempt
against youth court; and, assist, interfere and other YOA dispositions.
Other Criminal Code includes: impaired operation of a motor vehicle; escape custody; unlawfully at large;
failure to appear; failure to comply; attempts, accessories and conspiracy; disorderly conduct/nuisances; and
other Criminal Code offences.
"Other" property offences include: arson; motor vehicle theft; and, other thefts.
Source: Youth Court Survey, 1991-92.
Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92
Pages
Custodial Dispositions Ordered by Offence Type
Secure or open custody orders were the most serious dispositions in about one-third (30%) of all
cases resulting in convictions in 1991-92. Custody was by far the most common disposition ordered in
the small number of cases involving offences such as murder (91% or 10 of 11 cases) and attempted
murder (95% or 18 of 19). Two-thirds of all aggravated assaults received custody orders, whUe onethird of assault with weapon offences received terms of custody, and just over one-fifth of all minor
assaults received custody (Table 2).
Custody was also ordered fi-equentiy in cases involving offences such as: being unlawfully at
large (90%); escape from custody (86%); robbery (56%); trafficking, import, export narcotics (43%);
failure to appear (39%); break and enter (38%); and, theft over $1,000 (38%).
Custodial Dispositions Ordered by Jurisdiction and Length of Custodial Disposition
A higher proportion of custodial dispositions were ordered in the Yukon (46%) and Prince
Edward Island (43%) than, for example, in British Columbia and Alberta (21%) (Table 3). Looking at
the mean disposition length for all offence types in 1991-92, however, while the Yukon had the highest
proportion of custodial dispositions, it also had the shortest average custodial disposition length (31
days). Prince Edward Island (155 days) and Manitoba (151 days) had the longest average disposition
lengths (Figure 2).
Figure 2
Mean Custodial Disposition Length for Aii Offence
Types by Province/Territory, 1991-92
Days
J5&.
jat
150
ju^a
98
100
4X14.
ga
Canada - 96 days
•au
^M"tllll' - ^fWW***)
Jii,
,..85,,
jaa.
r^^!r3
Ill
so
k ^
J3X.
iniiii ni
^^- ,«>• ^^ ^9 ^-
oo^- ^^ ^^- r
^ ^—"^'-
9,^' y
^^^
Note:
YCS data for Ontario and British Columbia represent 85% of the total caseload in each
jurisdiction. Custodial dispositions refer to secure and open custody.
Source:
Youth Court Survey. 1991-92.
Page 6
Youth Custody in Canada. 1991-92
When considering the proportion of secure versus open custody ordered in 1991-92, youth courts
across Canada ordered a slightiy higher proportion of open custody dispositions (17%) than secure
custody dispositions (13%) (Table 3). This pattern of higher proportions of open than secure custodial
dispositions was evident, for example, in Nova Scotia (21% open versus 5% secure), Ontario (22% open
versus 14% secure), and British Columbia (15% open versus 6% secure). A higher proportion of secure
than open custody was ordered in Quebec (21% secure versus 12% open). Alberta (11% secure versus
10% open), and the Northwest Territories (15% secure versus 12% open) (Figure 3).
Figure 3
Distribution of Cases Receiving Custodial
Dispositions by Province/Territory, 1991-92
I Secure Custody ^ Open Custody
Percent
Note:
YCS data for Ontario and British Columbia represent 85% of the total caseload in each
jurisdiction. Custodial dispositions refer to secure and open custody.
Source:
Youth Court Survey, 1991-92.
Length of Custodial Disposition by Offence
Under the YOA, youth courts may sentence a youth found guilty of an offence to secure or open
custody for no longer than 3 years for the most serious offences or for multiple serious offences^ The
average secure custodial disposition length was highest for murder and manslaughter (2 years, 3 months),
attempted murder (1 year, 8 months), and other violent offences (10 months, 16 days). For open
custody, the average disposition length was highest for murder (1 year, 11 months), and attempted
murder (1 year, 1 month). The two largest categories of property offences, break and enter and theft
under $1,000, received average secure custody disposition lengths of 4 months, 16 days; and 2 months,
10 days respectively. The average open custody disposition length was very similar for these offences
(Table 2).
On May 15, 1992, an amendment to the Young Offenders Act and the Criminal Code (c.ll, S.C.
1992), came into force, increasing the maximum sentence imposed in youth courts for murder to
five years.
Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92
Page 7
m . Trends in Custodial Dispositions Ordered in Youth Courts from 1986-87 to 1991-92
As mentioned earlier, YCS data for Ontario and British Columbia represent approximately 85%
of the caseload in each jurisdiction. As a result, data for both Ontario and British Columbia are excluded
from the analysis of trends over time. Due to collection problems in the earlier years of the survey, data
from the Northwest Territories are also excluded from analyses which look at trends over time.
Between 1986-87 and 1991-92, there has been a 35% increase in the number of cases heard in
youth courts across selected jurisdictions, and a 26% increase in the number of cases resulting in a
finding of guilt. However, the proportion of cases receiving a guilty verdict has remained the same over
the years, with approximately three-quarters (74%) of all cases resulting in guilty findings.
Custodial Dispositions Ordered Over Time
Between 1986-87 and 1991-92, there has been a 41% increase in the number of cases receiving
custody as a most serious disposition. However, there has been littie change in custody as a proportion
of all dispositions ordered by youth courts. In 1991-92, excluding Ontario and British Columbia, youth
courts ordered a slightiy higher proportion of secure (14%) and open (14%) custody dispositions than
they had in 1986-87 (12% secure, 12% open).
Between 1986-87 and 1991-92, the proportion of secure custody dispositions ordered by youth
courts has changed very little, except in the Yukon, where secure custody dispositions increased from
9% of total dispositions in 1986-87 to 19% in 1991-92 (Table 3).
Over the years, the Atiantic provinces have shown increases in the proportion of cases receiving
open custody dispositions. Open custody, as a proportion of total dispositions, increased from 9% to
20% in Newfoundland; from 18% to 27% in Prince Edward Island; from 10% to 18% in New
Brunswick; and, from 12% to 21% in Nova Scotia.
While there has been very littie change in the proportion of males (14%) and females (5%)
receiving secure custody dispositions since 1986-87, the proportions ordered to open custody have
increased. In 1986-87, 13% of all males, and 7% of all females found guilty in youth courts received
a disposition of open custody. By 1991-92, these proportions had increased to 18% and 12%,
respectively.
Page 8
Youth Custody in Canada. 1991-92
Length of Custodial Dispositions
Although the pattern of custodial dispositions ordered by youth courts over the years has varied
only slightiy since 1986-87, generally, there has been a trend toward shorter terms for custodial
dispositions (Figure 4).
Figure 4
Distribution of Cases Found Guiity by Sentence Length for
Custodial Dispositions, Canada, 1986-87 to 1991-92
i 1986-87 • 1987-88 D1988-89 ^1989-90 H1990-91 11991-92
>3-6
> 6
Months
Note:
Data exclude Ontario and the Northwest Territories. YCS data for British Columbia
represent 85% of the total caseload for that jurisdiction. Custodial dispositions refer to
secure and open custody.
Source:
Youth Court Survey, 1986-87 to 1991-92.
This pattern is consistent when secure and open custody dispositions are examined separately.
The proportion of cases receiving a secure custody disposition of 3 months or less increased from 57%
in 1986-87 to 67% in 1991-92, while the proportion receiving secure custody for more than 6 months
decreased from 22% in 1986-87 to 15% in 1991-92 (excluding only Ontario and Northwest Territories)
(Table 4).
In 1986-87, 55% of youths sentenced to open custody received a term of 3 months or less,
compared with 66% in 1991-92. Those receiving an open custody disposition of more than 6 months
decreased from 16% in 1986-87 to 10% in 1991-92. Sentencing information reported to the YCS does
not include a consecutive/concurrent indicator in cases involving multiple terms of the same disposition
type; as a result, sentence lengths in multiple disposition cases may be underestimated.
Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92
Page 9
Recidivism
Prior record is one of the "legal" factors that potentially affects the decisions made and the
dispositions ordered by youth justice system personnel. An earlier Juristat on recidivism in youth
courts, released by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) indicated that, in 1990-91, in every
jurisdiction for which recidivism data were available, the likelihood that a young offender would receive
a custodial disposition increases with the number of prior convictions. In addition, although prior record
was associated with the severity of the disposition, the number of prior convictions was not related to
the length of custodial terms, especially open custody. For more information on this topic, please refer
to Juristat, Volume 12, No. 2, "Recidivism in Youth Courts, 1990-91", February, 1992.
IV.
Young Persons in Custodial Facilities
In this report, "average daily institutional count" data available from the Youth Key Indicator
Report, are "actual-in" counts" as opposed to "on-register" counts of young offenders in each
jurisdiction. These data are presented by custody status: "secure custody sentenced"; "open custody
sentenced"; and, "remand". In 1991-92, the average daily in-count of custodial facilities across Canada
was 4,417 young offenders (Table 5)', a slight increase of 2% over 1990-91. This number includes
young offenders in secure custody (37%), open custody (44%), and remand status (19%).
Number of Youths in Custodial Facilities
The number of youths actually in custodial facilities in Canada has increased slightiy over time.
In 1991-92, excluding remand, 3,572 youths were held in custody, up 7% from 1986-87. While the
number of youths in custodial facilities has not changed by much over the past six years, the number
of youths sentenced to custody, as reported in the YCS section, increased by 40%. The fact that custody
"in-counts" remained relatively stable while the number sentenced to custody increased may be due to
the fact that the lengths of custodial dispositions handed down over the six years have decreased. More
frequent, but shorter sentences have become the trend.
In 1991-92, 1,633 youths were held in secure custody facilities, slightiy less than half (46%) of
all youths in custody. The number of youths in secure custody has remained consistent over the past
six years, with the exception of 1988-89, which showed a slight decline (5%). The number of youths
in open custody fluctuated, but has recorded an overall increase of 13%.
Includes all youths on remand and temporary detention, sentenced offenders and other young
offenders who are legally required to be at a facility, and are present at the time the count is taken.
Annual custodial counts are calculated from monthly counts based on average daily counts.
Page 10
Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92
The number of youths in secure and open custodial facilities has not been stable in all
jurisdictions since 1986-87. For example, in Nova Scotia, while the number in open custody faciUties
increased gradually (40%) over the six years, the number in secure custody facilities remained stable
until 1990-91 and then dropped 30% in 1991-92. In New Brunswick and Ontario, the secure custody
counts showed stight changes between 1986-87 and 1991-92; the open custody counts increased by 153%
and 30%, respectively. In Manitoba and Alberta, the secure custody counts increased (7% and 36%,
respectively) between 1986-87 and 1991-92; the open custody counts dropped (20% and 25%). In
British Columbia, the secure custody count decreased (31%), while the open custody count increased
shghtiy (8%) (Table 5).
Figure 5
Average Daily Count of Young Offenders
by Custody Status, 1991-92
Percent
I Secure Custody @ Open Custody @ Remand
^-
>•
*?•
Note: See Table 5 footnotes (page 18).
Source: Youth Key Indicator Report, September, 1992.
Within each jurisdiction, the proportional breakdown of young offenders in secure custody, open
custody and remand varied in 1991-92. For example, based on the average daily counts for young
offenders. Nova Scotia had 23% in secure custody, 66% in open custody, and 11% on remand, while
Manitoba had 37% in secure custody, 36% in open custody, and 27% in remand (Figure 5)
Youth Custody in Canada, 1991-92
Page 11
Rates of Youth in Custodial Facilities per 10,000 Youth Population
Between 1986-87 and 1991-92, youth custody rates in Canada have remained stable, with
approximately 16 youths per 10,000 youth population in custodial facilities (Table 5). Generally, within
most provinces, the custody rate has remained relatively stable over the past six years. The most notable
change in custody rates occurred in the Territories. The Yukon and Northwest Territories had the lowest
estimated youth populations in 1991 (2,200 and 5,500 respectively) and the highest rates of youth
custody. However, the rates in both the Yukon and the Northwest Territories are decreasing. In 1991,
Quebec had the second highest estimated youth population of 557,200 youths, and the lowest rate of
youth in custody (Table 5). In 1991-92, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick (both 30 per 10,000), and Prince
Edward Island (29 per 10,000) reported the highest rates of custody among the provinces. While the
actual number of youths in custody in Newfoundland has decreased by 14% from 1986-87, the custody
rate has, in fact, remained stable (21 per 10,000 youth population) due to a 14% drop in Newfoundland's
youth population (from 68,000^ in 1987 to 60,000 in 1992).
Number of Youths on Remand
Between 1986-87 and 1991-92, there has been a 23% increase in the total number of youths on
remand across Canada. The number of youths on remand increased in all provinces except Manitoba
and British Columbia. For example, during this period, the number of youths on remand increased by
34% in Alberta, 31% in Ontario, and 19% in Quebec. In 1991-92, as a proportion of total "actual-in"
custody, the western provinces generally had a higher proportion of youths on remand than the eastern
provinces (Figure 5).
Number of Youths on Probation
The change in the number of youths on probation in Canada between 1986-87 and 1991-92
cannot be calculated due to gaps in the Y-KIR survey coverage. However, in provinces for which data
are available, the number of youths on probation has increased. For example, in Newfoundland, the
number of youths on probation increased by 16%, from 1,144 youths in 1986-87 to 1,329 youths in
1991-92 (Table 6). In New Brunswick, between 1988-89 (the first year of reported probation counts) and
1990-91, the number of youths on probation remained fairly stable. However, this number increased by
16% in 1991-92. In Quebec, after an 18% drop in the number of youths on probation (from 2,404
youths in 1986-87 to 1,975 youths 1987-88), the probation count subsequentiy increased by 44% in
1988-89, after which the count remained fairly stable. Between 1990-91 and 1991-92 in Ontario, the
probation count for young offenders, as reported by the Y-KIR survey, increased by 28% (from 11,864
to 15,145). The remainder of the provinces generally recorded gradual increases in the number of youths
in probation over the past six years.
Post-Censal Estimates, Demogr^hy Division, Census and Household Statistics Branch, Statistics
Canada.
Page 12
V.
Youth Custody in Canada. 1991-92
Methodology
Youth Court Survey (YCS)
The Youth Court Siuvey (YCS) is intended to be a census of Criminal Code and other federal
statute offences heard in youth court for youths aged 12 to 17 (up to the 18th birthday) at the time of
the offence. In April 1984, 12 became the minimum age requirement for criminal responsibility under
the Young Offenders Act (YOA). However, it was not until April 1985 that the maximum age of 17 (up
to the 18th birthday) was established in all provinces and territories. One of the objectives of this report
is to describe changes over time, and so comparable data must be used (i.e., youths must be defined by
the same minimum and maximum age limits). Due to changes in the upper and lower age limits, data
from the first year of the YCS, 1984-85, cannot be directiy compared with 1991-92 data. The same is
true for 1985-86 data, which may refer to cases with charges laid in the previous year. Thus, the base
year for all analyses in this report is 1986-87.
Records are retained in master charge files, organized by fiscal year based on the date of
disposition. A "case" file is created by linking "persons" records (accused identifier code, sex and date
of birth) and the same court code and date of first appearance. The tabulations in this report are derived
from the case file.
The YCS collects data from all youth courts in Canada. Some participating jurisdictions may
be under-reporting. The jurisdictions notify the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) of
reporting problems. Ontario data are included in this 1991-92 report with approximately 85% coverage
of the province. Similarly, YCS data for British Columbia represent approximately 85% of the
provincial caseload for 1991T92.
Differences in data over time and across jurisdictions result from a number of factors that reflect
how the Young Offenders Act (YOA) has been implemented. Pre-court screening procedures may affect
the number of youths appearing in court. The Crown Attorney, for example, may decide not to proceed
with a charge, or the initial charge may be changed. A youth may also be diverted from the court
process into a program such as Alternative Measures or a police diversion program. Differences in
procedures and eligibility requirements of these programs across the jurisdictions may also influence the
volume and characteristics of cases heard in youth courts. Consequentiy, these data should be considered
indicative rather than definitive and their analysis is limited to general comparison.
Young Offender Key Indicator Report (Y-KIR)
The Young Offender Key Indicator Report presents the average daily counts of young offenders
in secure and open custody, and on remand. These data are presented monthly, by fiscal year. The data
for the monthly average daily counts are calculated by dividing the total days stay for all secure and
open correctional institutions within the jurisdiction by the number of days in the month. Annual counts
are calculated by averaging the monthly counts.
For Further Information
For further information, please contact Information and Client Services (613-951-9023 or toll-free
at 1-800-387-2231) or contact the Youth Justice Program (613-951-6647), Canadian Centre for Justice
Statistics, 19th Roor, R.H. Coats Building, Ottawa, Ontario, KIA 0T6.
Table 1 -
Number and Distribution of Cases Heard by Youth Courts by Type of
Custodial Disposition, Age and Sex of the Accused, 1991 - 9 2
Tableau 1 - Nombre et repartition de causes entendues devant les tribunaux de la jeunesse,
selon le genre de garde, I'age et le sexe de I'accuse. 1991 - 1 9 9 2
Cases Found Guilty
Causes avec verdict
de culpabilite
No.
%
Age/Age (1)
Secure Custody
Garde en milieu ferme
Open Custody
Garde en milieu ouvert
No.
%
No.
%
Total
T
M
F
75,143
63,156
11,987
100%
100%
100%
9.720
9,014
706
13%
14%
6%
12.578
11,110
1,468
17%
18%
12%
12
T
M
F
1.985
1,596
389
100%
100%
100%
39
34
5
2%
2%
1%
236
194
42
12%
12%
11%
13
T
M
F
5.473
4,303
1,170
100%
100%
100%
284
246
38
5%
6%
3%
814
661
153
15%
15%
13%
14
T
M
F
10.770
8,439
2,331
100%
100%
100%
1.011
882
129
9%
10%
6%
1,819
1,484
335
17%
18%
14%
15
T
M
F
15.881
13,001
2,880
100%
100%
100%
2.014
1,816
198
13%
14%
7%
2.916
2,530
386
18%
19%
13%
16
T
M
F
19,093
16,405
2,688
100%
100%
100%
2.763
2,604
159
14%
16%
6%
3.409
3,119
290
18%
19%
11%
17
T
M
F
20.510
18,202
2,308
100%
100%
100%
3.386
3,226
160
17%
18%
7%
3,158
2,928
230
15%
16%
10%
>17
T
M
F
668
572
96
100%
100%
100%
121
113
8
18%
20%
8%
47
37
10
7%
6%
10%
T
763
638
125
100%
100%
100%
102
93
9
13%
15%
7%
179
157
22
23%
25%
18%
Unknown
tnconnu
IVI
F
—
—
Nil or zero
neant ou zero
Too small to be expressed
nombres Infimes
(1)
Age is the age at the time the most significant charge was committed.
L'age est relie a la date de I'accusation la plus importante.
Note:
Nota:
Source:
Source:
YCS data for Ontario and British Columbia represent 85% of the
total caseload in each jurisdiction.
Les donnees de I'ETJ rapportees pour I'Ontario et la Colombie-Britannique representent
85% du volume des causes pour chacun de ces secteurs de competence.
Youth Court Survey, 1991 - 9 2 .
I'Enquete sur les tribunaux de la jeunesse, 1986-1987 a 1991- 1992.
Table 2 -
Number of Cases(l) with Guilty Findings by Type of Custodial Disposition, Type of Offence,
and Mean Duration of Disposition, 1 9 9 1 - 9 2
Tableau 2 -Nombre de causes(1) qui se sont soldees par une declaration de culpabilite, selon le genre de garde,
le genre d'infraction et la duree moyenne de la peine. 1991 - 1 9 9 2
Tola
Dispositions
Secure Custody
Order
Open Custody
Order
Total
des decisions
Garde en milieu
ferme
Garde en milieu
ouvert
Gerve d'infraction
OffencGS
No.
No.
%
Mean
Duration
%
nbre
fibre
Dur^e
moyenne
No.
%
Mean
Duration
Dur6e
moyenne
nbre
TOTAL DES i r F R A C T I O N S
TOTAL OFFENCES
75,143
100%
0,720
13%
100
12,578
17%
03
Violent OHenc»s
Murder
Manslaughter
Attempted Murder
Sexual Assault
Aggravated Assault
Assault with a Weapon
Minor Assault
Other Assault(2)
Robbeiy
Weapon/Firearm/Explosive
Other Violent
11,828
11
14
19
869
127
1,895
5,560
295
1,297
1,384
357
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
1,577
6
7
12
125
54
292
430
41
412
148
50
13%
55%
50%
63%
14%
43%
15%
8%
14%
32%
11%
14%
161
785
836
593
220
307
115
70
98
233
86
316
1,873
4
2
6
167
30
325
753
43
306
174
63
16%
36%
14%
32%
19%
24%
17%
14%
15%
24%
13%
18%
112
708
360
370
168
182
113
73
74
155
100
163
Crimes d e violence
Meurtre
Homocide involontaire coupable
Tentative d e meurtre
Agression sexuelle
Voies d e f a i t graves
Voies de fait armees
Voies d e f a i t mineures
Autres voies d e fait(2)
Vol qualifie
Arme/arme a feu/explosif
Autres crimes d e vtolence
Property Offences
Break and Enter
Arson
Theft over $1,000
Theft under $1,000
Fraud^orgety
Possession of Stolen Property
Mischeif/Damages
Theft Other
42.867
12,593
205
2,690
13,631
1,729
6,085
4,138
1,796
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
4.524
2,230
29
481
555
162
729
236
102
11%
18%
14%
18%
4%
9%
12%
6%
6%
113
136
127
112
70
121
85
85
76
6.574
2,574
45
536
1.454
228
1,049
440
248
15%
20%
22%
20%
11%
13%
17%
11%
14%
105
130
179
118
76
85
92
88
89
Crimes contre la propri4t6
Introduction par effraction
Crime d'incendie
Vol d e plus d e 1 000 $
Vol d e moins de 1 000 $
Fraude^ux
Possession de biens voles
Mdfait/dommages
Autre vol
Other Criminal C o d e
Offences
Impaired Operation of Vehicle
Escape Custody
Unlawfully at Large
Failure t o Appear
Attempt/Accesscry/Conspiracy
Disorderly Conduct/Nuisances
Other Criminal Code
12,102
100%
2.238
18%
60
2.482
21%
61
1,065
1,056
1,038
5,125
580
811
2,427
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
26
647
543
669
95
18
240
2%
61%
52%
13%
16%
2%
10%
130
57
48
54
111
65
82
44
267
397
1,316
89
59
310
4%
25%
38%
26%
15%
7%
13%
65
44
36
64
122
53
79
Narcotic Control Act
Offences
Traflie/lmport/Export
Possession
Cultivation
1,347
100%
189
14%
77
101
14%
125
475
869
3
100%
100%
100%
115
74
24%
9%
112
41
-
-
-
89
101
1
19%
12%
33%
107
59
210
Food a n d I X u g s Act
Offences
102
100%
13
13%
98
13
13%
69
liitractioiB & la Loi sur les
aliments et drogues
6.654
100%
1,177
18%
47
1.444
22%
65
Infractions a la Loi sur les
jeunes cofitrevenants
243
100%
2
1%
105
1
1
I n t r a d i o i B aux autres lois
f&J^rales
Young Offenders Act
Offences
Oltier Federal Statute
Offences
—
—
Nil or zero
N6ant ou z^ro
Too snraB to be expressed
Noni>res infimes
1. YCS data for Ontario and British Columbia represent 85% of the total caseload in each jurisdiction.
1. Les donnees de I'ETJ rappcrt^s pour I'Ontario et la Colombie-Britannique representent 85% du volume des
causes pour chacun de ces secteurs de competence.
2. Other assault categay includes all ottier types of assault (eg., assaulting a peace officer).
2. Les autres voies de fait d^signent tous les autres genres de voies (par exeirple, voles de fait sur un policier).
Source: Youth Court Survey, 1991 - 9 2 .
Source: I'Enqudte sur les trliunaux de la jeunesse, 1991 -1992.
Aulres iiifiauliuiis a u C o d e
criminel
Conduite avec facult^s aftaiblies
Evasion
En liberty sans excuse
Defaut d e comparaitre
Tentative/complot/complice
Inconduite/nu'isance
Autres infractions a u Code criminel
Infractions a la Loi s i r les
sti4>£fiants
Trafic/importation/exportation
Possession
Culture
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Garde en milieu ouve
Total
<1 Month/Mois
1-3 Months/Mois
4-6 Months/Mois
7-12 Months/Mois
13-24 Months/Moi:
> 24 Months/Mois
U
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Garde en milieu ferm
Total
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1-31VIonths/Mois
4-61\^onths/Mols
7-12 Months/Mois
13-2 4 Months/Moi
> 24 Months/Mois
rts
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Table 5 Tableau 5 -
Average Daily Counts of Young Offenders by Custody Status, 1986-87 to 1991 -92(1)
Comptes quotidlens moyens des jeunes contrevertants selon le statut de la detention,
1986-1987 a 1991 -1992(1)
Sentenced - Condamnes
Secure
Custody
Open
Custody
Total
Custody
% Cfiange
from Previous
Year
Custody
Rate per
10.000 Youth{2)
Rennand/
temporary
detention
Actual
In (3)
Milieu
ferme
Milieu
ouvert
Total
% de variation
par rapport
a I'annee
prdcedente
Taux de
garde pour
10,000 jeunes(2)
Prevenus/
detention
provlsoire
Compte
reel (3)
Jurisdic:tion
Secteur de c»nnpetenc8
Newfoundland & Labrador
Terre-Neuve et Labrador (4)
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
61
51
43
42
43
51
85
81
74
42
45
75
146
132
117
84
88
126
-10
-11
-28
5
43
21
19
18
13
14
21
6
5
6
6
9
10
152
137
123
90
97
136
Prince Edward Island
f l e - d u - P r i n c e - f e d o u a r d (5)
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
5
10
9
23
18
18
14
18
9
13
14
16
19
28
18
36
32
34
47
-36
100
-11
6
15
23
IS
29
27
29
3
3
2
3
2
4
22
31
20
39
34
38
Nova Scotia
Nouvelle—^cosse
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
50
49
41
47
47
33
68
72
75
80
89
95
118
121
116
127
136
128
3
-4
9
7
-6
14
15
14
16
18
17
9
12
12
13
17
16
127
133
128
140
153
144
New Brunswick
Nouveau—Brunswick (6)
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
90
87
70
74
74
82
47
66
81
105
101
119
137
153
151
179
175
201
12
-1
19
-2
15
19
21
21
26
26
30
S
7
9
9
10
16
142
160
160
186
185
217
Quebec
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
239
238
226
229
219
228
265
239
227
235
222
241
504
477
453
464
441
469
-5
-5
2
-5
6
9
9
8
9
8
8
91
91
93
102
94
108
595
568
546
566
535
577
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
675
679
648
736
763
689
609
688
663
698
750
791
1,284
1,367
1,311
1,434
1,513
1,480
6
-4
9
6
-2
16
17
17
19
20
19
294
289
324
396
379
385
1,578
1,656
1,635
1,830
1,892
1,865
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
96
88
79
87
86
103
127
119
112
93
99
102
223
207
191
180
185
205
-7
-8
-6
3
11
23
21
20
19
20
22
78
90
90
72
75
77
301
297
281
252
260
282
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
104
133
130
125
119
121
121
145
132
127
142
145
225
278
262
252
261
266
24
-6
-4
4
2
24
30
28
28
29
30
44
39
35
39
52
51
269
317
297
291
313
317
Ontario
Manitoba
Saskatchewan (7)
Note: See footnotes on page 18.
Note: Veuillez vous r^ferer aux notes de la page 20.
Source: Young (Offender Key Indicator Report, September 1992.
Source: Rapport des Indlcateurs cl4s des jeunes contrevenanis, septembre 1992.
Table 5 — ixinc.
Tableau 5 — fin
Sentenced - Condamnes
Secure
Custody
Open
Custody
Total
Custody
% Change
from Previous
Year
Custody
Rate per
10,000 Youth(2)
Remand/
temporary
detention
ActLfll
In (3)
Milieu
ferme
Milieu
ouvert
Total
% de variation
par rapport
k I'annee
pr^c^dente
Taux de
garde pour
10,000 jeunes(2)
Prevenus/
detention
provlsoire
Compte
reel (3)
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
128
132
143
146
169
174
240
217
211
188
166
179
368
349
354
334
335
353
-5
1
-6
0
5
17
17
17
16
16
17
94
106
121
123
122
126
462
455
475
457
457
479
British Columbia
Colombie-Britannique (8)
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
156
142
137
122
129
108
135
150
141
137
133
146
291
292
278
259
262
254
0
-5
-7
1
-3
12
12
12
11
11
10
47
38
41
44
52
47
338
330
319
303
314
301
Yukon
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
7
6
4
3
4
4
10
9
9
9
10
7
17
15
13
12
14
11
-12
-13
-8
17
-21
74
64
59
59
72
50
2
2
6
4
4
3
19
17
19
16
18
14
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
30
27
21
19
23
32
39
35
40
23
62
66
56
59
46
6
-15
5
-22
99
107
99
104
84
3
2
3
62
66
59
61
49
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1,609
1,645
1,555
1,654
1,691
1,633
1,720
1,835
1,773
1,761
1,811
1,939
3,329
3,480
3,328
3,415
3,502
3,572
5
-4
3
3
2
15
16
15
16
16
16
685
682
738
813
817
845
4,014
4,162
4,066
4,228
4,319
4,417
Jurisdiction
Secteur d e c»fnp6tenc8
Alberta
Northwest Territories
Territoires du Nord-Ouest (9)
CANADA TOTAL
TOTAL CANADA (10)
.. Not available
.. non disponlble
...Not applicable
... sans objet
(1) Due to rounding, figures may not add to totals found in Y - KIR publication. Les chiffres ayant 6t6 arrondis, leur somme peut ne pas correspondre aux
totaux indlqu^s dans la publication R I C - J C .
(2) This rate includes secure and open custody counts only. Ce taux comprend uniquement les comptes relatlfs a la garde en milieu ferme et en
milieu ouvert
(3) Actual In counts include secure custody, open custody, and rennancVtemporary detention. Les compte reels d'adolescents places sous garde
se rapportent h ceux places en milieu ferm6, en milieu ouvert et en detention provlsoire.
(4) Newfoundland & Labrador - Open custody counts for fiscal years 1986-87 to 1988-89 are estlnnates. Terre-Neuve etie Labrador - Les chiffres qui
se rapportent aux exeroices financiers de 1986-1987 a 1988-1989 sont des estimations.
(5) Prince Edward Island - For the months July to December 1988, the Prince Edward Island Youth Courts were almost entirely closed awaiting a Supreme
Court ruling on the authority of Youth Court in Prince Edward Island. During this period, counts were lower than might usually be expected. L ' f l e - d u Prince-Edouard - Pour les mois de juillet 6 d6cembre 1988, les tribunaux de la jeunesse de I ' f l e - d u - P r i n c e - E d o u a r d ont ete presque enti^rement
fermes en attente du jugement de la Cour supreme du Canada sur rautorit6 des tribunaux de la jeunesse pour I ' l l e - d u - P r i n c e - E d o u a r d . Pour cette
p^riode, les donnees sont moindres qu'elles devraient etre normalement.
(6) New Brunswick - Secure custody counts are daily counts; open custody counts are weekly counts. Nouveau-Brunswick - Les comptes portant sur
la garde en milieu ferm6 sont 6tablls sur une base quotidienne et les comptes portant sur la garde en milieu ouvert sont 6tablls sur une base
hebdomadalre.
(7) Saskatchewan - Young offenders on temporary absences are included in the a c t u a l - i n count Saskatchewan - Les jeunes contrevenanis en cong6
provlsoire sont Indus c^ns le compte r6el.
(8) British Columbia - As of October 1991, open custody data include youths placed in community based residential centres. Columbie-Britannique - A
partir d'octobre 1991, les donn6es relatives k la garde en milieu ouvert incluent les adolescents places en centres resldentlels locaux.
(9) Northwest Territories - Totals for Northwest Territory young offenders cover only the first six months of the 1990-91 fiscal year. Tenitoires du N o r d Ouest - Les totaux relatlfs aux jeunes contrevenants des Territoires du Nord-Ouest couvrent seulement les six premiers mols de I'exercice
financier 1990-1991.
(10) Canada Actual-In - For 1 9 8 7 - 8 8 to 1988-89 includes the Northwest Tenitories for "sentenced secure", "sentenced open", and "total" counte only.
Total C a n a d a - Pour 1987-1988 6 1988-1989, Inclut les Territoires du Nord-Ouest seulement pour les comptes relatlfs aux «oondamn6s en milieu
ferm6», aux «condamn6s en milieu ouvert» et au «total».
Source: Young Offender Key Indicator Report, September 1992.
Soun:e: Rapport des indlcateurs cl6s des jeunes contrevenants, septembre 1992.
Tables Tableau 6 -
Month-End Probation Counts of Young Offenders, 1986-87 to 1991-92 (1)
Comptes des probationnaires en fin de mois, 1986-1987 a 1991 -1992 (1)
Total
Supervised
Jurisdiction
Secsteur de compdten(»
Total avec
sulvl
% Change
from Previous
Year
Variation en %
par rapport
k rann4e
precedente
Newfoundland & Labrador
Terre-Net^e et Labrador
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1,144
1,203
1,164
1,177
1,209
1,326
5%
-3%
1%
3%
10%
Prince Edward Island
Ile-du-Prlnce-^douard (2)
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
275
277
261
327
368
425
1%
-6%
25%
13%
15%
Nova Scotia
Nouvelle—^cosse
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1,184
1,303
1,181
1,153
1,186
1,334
10%
-9%
-2%
3%
12%
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
687
829
877
1,020
• -7%
6%
16%
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
2,404
1,975
2,836
2,531
2,623
2.875
-18%
44%
-11%
4%
10%
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
5,972
7,338
7,064
6,556
11,864
15,145
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1,199
1,386
1,448
1,386
1,395
1,496
New Brunswbk
Nouveau-Brunswick (3)
Quebec
Ontario (4)
Manitoba
Secteur de oomp^tence
Alberta
British Columbia
Colombie-Britannique (5)
Yukon
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Total avec
sulvl
Variation en %
par rapport
it I'annde
precedente
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1.568
1,499
1,453
1,503
1,610
1,705
-4%
-3%
3%
7%
6%
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
2,724
2,529
2,730
2.584
2,597
2,871
-7%
8%
-5%
1%
11%
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
3,741
3,882
3,785
3,799
3,733
3,989
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
77
89
104
90
64
72
Northwest Territories
Territoires du Nord-Ouest
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
CANADA TOTAL
TOTAL CANADA (6)
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
28%
16%
4%
-4%
1%
7%
% Change
from Previous
Year
Jurisdiction
Saskatchewan
23%
-4%
-7%
Total
Supervised
4%
-2%
-
-2%
7%
16%
17%
-13%
-29%
13%
20.288
21,481
22,913
21,935
27,528
32,258
- Nil or zero / n ^ n t ou z6to
.. Not available / indlsponlble
... Not applicable/ sans objet
Due to rounding, figures may not add to totals found In Y-KIR report. Les chiffres ayant i\6 arrondis, leur somme peut ne pas correspondre aux totaux indlquds.
Prince Edward Island - Data include alternative measures. L'ile-du-Prlnce-Edouard - Les donnees se rapportent egalement aux mesures de rechange.
New Brunswick - Probation counts are monthly counts. Nouveau Brunswick - Les compte des probationnaires sont comptes mensueDement.
Ontario-Totals prior to 1990-91 Include young offenders aged 16-17 only. Ontario- Les donnees prteedant 1990-1991 se rapportent uniquement aux jeunes Sg^s de 16 a 17ans.
British Columbia - Due to the Implementation of the Probation Records System, the supenrlsed probation caseload does not Include custody orders as previously reported prior to April
1991. Colomble-Brltannkiue - Suite k I'lmplantatlon du -Probation Records System*, le volume des cas de probation avec sulvl n'lndut pas les ordonnances de garde, alors qu'avant avrll
1991, les chiffres d^clar^slnclualentces cas.
(6) Canada Total - Data do not Include New Brunswick for 1986-87 and 1987-88; 12 to 15 year olds In Ontario prior to 1990-91; and the Northwest Territories for all years. Due to gaps
in sun/ey coverage, yearly percentage change lor Canada totals is not applicable in most years. Total C3anada - Les donntes n'Induent pas le Nouveau-Brunswick en 1986-1987 et on
1987-1988; les 12 A 15 ans en Ontario pour les anntes pric^dant 1990-1991 et les Territoires du Nord-Ouest pour toutes ces anndes. En ralson des differences obsen;6es
quant k la couveiture de I'enqugte pour certalnes annees, le pourcentage de variation par rapport k I'annee prte^dente pour le total du Canada ainsi que pour les taux ne sont pas
approprids pour la plupart des annies.
Source: Young Offender Key Indicator Report, September 1992.
Source: Rapport des Indlcateurs c l ^ des jeunes contrevenants, septembre 1992.
STATISTICS CANADA LIBRARY
BIBLIOTHEQUE STATISTIQUE CANADA
1010298261
Ca OOS
d.J
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