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BIBLIOGRAPHIC
EMPLOYMENT EQUITY
DATABASE
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Employment Equity
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BIBLIOGRAPHIC
EMPLOYMENT EQUITY
DATABASE
Prepared by: Lapp-Hancock Associates Limited
Developed for the Interdepartmental Working Group on
Employment Equity Data
Published by authority of the Minister responsible for Statistics Canada
C Minister of Industry, Science and Technology, 1995
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
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Cost:
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Product 89F0029XPE
ISBN: 0-660-15562-1
Ottawa
Version frangaise de cette publication disponible stir demande (Produit 89F0029XPF)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This report was compiled by K.E. Hancock, D. Rogers, M. Saso, J. Szepesi and C. Paschal of
Lapp Hancock Associates for the Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity
Data.
The compilers of this Bibliographic Employment Equity Database wish to express their thanks
for the assistance provided by the staff of all of the libraries and other organisations which were
contacted during this work, and in particular to the staff at Carleton University Library, Ottawa.
2 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Table of Contents
Page
1. INTRODUCTION
5
2. BIBLIOGRAPHY
7
2.1 General Studies
2.2 Annual Reports
2.3 Designated Groups
2.3.1 Aboriginal Peoples
2.3.2 Persons with Disabilities
2.3.3 Visible Minorities
2.3.4 Women
2.3.5 Sources Referring to Two or More of the
Designated Groups
2.3.6 Immigration and Employment Equity
2.3.7 International Comparisons
3. INDEX
3.1 Subject Index
3.2 Author Index
3.2.1 Corporate Author Index
3.2.2 Personal Authors
7
17
29
29
48
60
73
126
139
146
148
148
152
152
156
APPENDICES
A List of Sources
B List of Search Terms
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
163
166
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 3
BIBLIOGRAPHIC EMPLOYMENT EQUITY DATABASE
1. INTRODUCTION
On August 13, 1986 the Employment Equity Act was proclaimed with the objective of achieving
equality in the workplace. More specifically, its intention was to identify and remove barriers
to the employment of four designated groups (women, persons in a visible minority in Canada,
Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities) and to ensure that these groups achieve a
degree of employment which is at least proportionate to their representation in the workforce as
defined by qualification, eligibility and geography.
With the introduction of employment equity initiatives came the need for data on the four
designated groups. In order to coordinate data development, the Employment Equity Data
Program (EEDP) was established in Statistics Canada in 1986.
The Bibliographic Employment Equity Database (SEED) is an annotated bibliography of
available research and studies containing employment equity data related to the four designated
groups covered by the Employment Equity Act. It is available in both print and machine readable
formats.
The Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity Data (IWGEED) defined the
following criteria for the inclusion of research and studies in the BEED: Sources listed must:
■
■
■
■
be published in 1982 or later
refer to Canadian data
be in English or French
include statistical data and/or analysis of data.
The BEED was developed for use as a resource instrument by:
■
■
■
■
■
the Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity Data (IWGEED)
researchers
other governmental agencies
private industry
others with an interest in employment equity.
The bibliography is broken down into seven sections. The General Studies section includes
publications dealing with Employment Equity in general, the overall results of the program, and
references which did not fit in any other section. This is followed by a section listing Annual
Reports of government departments and programs, and other agencies. Sources relating
uniquely to one or other of the designated groups are listed in the appropriate sections:
Aboriginal Peoples, Persons with Disabilities, Visible Minorities and Women. There follows
a section listing Sources Referring to Two or More of the Designated Groups, which seem
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 5
to be self-explanatory, except that references to women as members of one or the other
designated groups (e.g., visible minority women) are listed with that group. The other two
sections list references to Immigration and Employment Equity, and International
Comparisons.
It will be noted that there are many more references in the Women section than in the other
sections. One reason for this is that there have been affirmative action programs for women
since the 1970's, and therefore more studies have been published.
The Subject Index is a keyword index, generated by noting and combining terms occurring in
the titles or annotations. The Subject Index may be supplemented by using the SEARCH
commands in WordPerfect. It may be necessary to consider alternative spellings, synonyms and
so forth when using the SEARCH command. It should also be noted that references to any of
the designated groups are not indexed under the name of that group (e.g., references to persons
with disabilities will not appear in the Index under the term "Persons with disabilities").
The Author Index includes names of government departments and other agencies and groups,
as well as individuals. It was generated by marking terms in the text, which is why authors are
cited with surname first.
The List of Sources in Appendix A lists the databases, printed bibliographies, libraries and other
sources from which the BEED was compiled.
The List of Search Terms shows the terms and subject headings which were used when
searching the sources listed in Appendix A. Various permutations and combinations were used
to ensure that, as far as was possible, no useful reference was missed.
It is the compilers' hope that the Bibliographic Employment Equity Database will be a useful
resource for researchers in the field, and for those who are responsible for providing information
on employment equity data to the public; also that it will provide a means to:
■
■
■
■
prevent duplication of effort in research
provide assistance to those interested in the determination of trends over time
allow a comparison between studies
identify other agencies and researchers in this field.
All the references listed in this bibliography are available through one or another of the libraries
listed in Appendix A. Most of the federal and provincial government documents are accessible
in the microfiche collection MICROLOG, available at several libraries. Most libraries will be
able to obtain any of the items listed through the Interlibrary Loans system.
6 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
2. BIBLIOGRAPHY
2.1 GENERAL STUDIES
Agocs, Carol; Burr, Catherine; Somerset, Felicity. Employment equity: co-operative
strategies for organizational change. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall, 1992. 420 p.
Bibliography. Tables.
The book describes Canadian policy and legislation on employment equity, examines its
implementation, and barriers to it, defines issues and proposes suggestions. The authors view
employment equity as fundamental to human resource management in organizations.
Benimadhu, Prem P.; Wright, Ruth. Implementing employment equity: a Canadian
experience. Ottawa: Conference Board of Canada, 1992. 10 p. Charts.
Reviews the qualitative experiences of 100 employers and designated group members with the
federal Employment Equity Act. 360 federally regulated organizations were surveyed by the
Conference Board and 100 companies responded. 45% of the responding companies had fewer
than 500 employees and over 60% of the respondents were unionized. Findings included: little
or no involvement of employees in equity programmes; about one fifth reported involvement in
joint employee-management boards; the most common title for the person managing the
employment equity activities of respondents was "manager"; smaller firms were less likely to
have comprehensive employment equity programs; and 40% of the firms that offered
employment equity awareness training did not offer this training to non-management staff.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment equity availability data report
on designated groups, from the 1986 Census of Canada, for employers under the Employment
Prepared by Technical Services,
Equity Act and the Federal Contractors Program.
Employment Equity Branch, Employment and Immigration Canada. Ottawa, 1988. 187,
190 p.
Presents detailed statistical data from the 1986 Census on the availability of members of the four
designated target groups covered under the Employment Equity Act and the Federal Contractors'
Program. The tables are designed to assist employers in preparing their employment equity
plans and establishing reasonable goals. Information on the data sources and limitations, the
definitions of variables and occupations, along with a brief description of the tables, can be
found in the Technical Notes. A separate list of the Standard Occupational Classification Unit
Group Codes is provided. Bilingual.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 7
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Affirmative Action Directorate.
Management of affirmative action in hard times: the implications of the current economic
recession for affirmative action programs, by Townson, Monica. Ottawa: Employment and
Immigration Canada, 1983. 44 p. 16 tables.
Using statistics from numerous sources, this report examines the impact of the current recession
on employment equity. It describes the extent of the decline of jobs in different occupations and
industries. It forecasts possible directions of economic recovery and its impact on employment.
It outlines how employees have responded to the recession; its effect on affirmative action; and
how these programs will be affected in the future. Bilingual.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Forum:
discussion paper on the Employment Equity Act. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services
Canada, 1990. 14 p. Tables.
This paper is designed to facilitate discussion on issues related to the Employment Equity Act,
leading to the first Parliamentary review in 1991. It defines employment equity, and gives a
brief history and overview of the Act's requirements and operations. It summarizes the first two
years of reporting under EE legislation, including relevant statistics on the four target groups.
Looking to the future, it outlines key issues that need to be considered. Bilingual.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Data
Development and Systems Analysis. Employment Equity availability data report on
designated groups by Canada Employment Centres for employers under the Employment
Equity Act and the Federal Contractors Program. Ottawa: Employment and Immigration
Canada, 1990(?) 43 p. Tables.
The purpose of this series of reports is to aid employers locate Employment Equity designated
groups in their area in order to improve the representation of these groups in the workplace.
This report provides statistics from 1986 Census on men, women, Aboriginal persons, and
visible minorities. It shows the representation and distribution of target groups by occupational
group and by Canada Employment Centre. Reports are available for Newfoundland, Nova
Scotia, P.E.I., New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta-N.W.T.,
and B.C.-Yukon. Bilingual.
8 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Data
Development and Systems Analysis. Employment Equity availability data report on
designated groups for employers under the Employment Equity Act and the Federal
Employment and Immigration
Contractors Program: Ontario (additional tables). Ottawa:
Canada, 1990. 45 p. Tables.
This report provides more detailed tables for Ontario in addition to those provided by the
Employment equity availability data report on designated groups (1988). It gives statistical
information on women, Aboriginal peoples, visible minorities, and persons with disabilities for
Ontario. It gives information on the number of qualified people within a geographic area, and
the percentage of the designated groups in the external labour force. Similar reports are available
for each of the provinces and territories. Bilingual.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Technical
Services. Employment Equity availability data report on designated groups, for employers
under the Employment Equity Act and Federal Contractors program.
Ottawa: Employment
and Immigration Department, 1989. 25 v. Tables.
This collection of reports presents data on women, Aboriginal peoples, visible minorities and
disabled persons, for each of the following cities: St.John's, Newfoundland; Halifax; St.John,
N.B.; Chicoutimi-Jonquiere; Montreal; Quebec; Sherbrooke; Trois-Rivieres; Hamilton;
Kitchener; London; Oshawa; Ottawa-Hull; St. Catherines-Niagara; Sudbury; Thunder Bay;
Toronto; Windsor; Winnipeg; Regina; Saskatoon; Calgary; Edmonton; Vancouver; and
Victoria.. The purpose is to show the representation of the target groups in the work force for
1985-86 by occupation, gender, sex, and age, in order that employers can determine the number
of qualified workers available in a geographical area.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Technical
Services. Employment Equity availability data report on designated groups from the 1986
Census of Canada, for employers under the Employment Equity Act and Federal Contractors
Program. Ottawa: Employment and Immigration Department, 1988. 150 p. Tables.
This report provides employers with information needed to plan for Employment Equity. It
allows them to compare their work force with the external labour force in 10 provinces and 2
territories. It gives them information on the number of qualified people within a geographic area.
Tables 1 through 9 show data on women, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. Tables 10
through 15 focus on persons with disabilities. Information is based on the 1986 Census and 1986
Health and Activity Limitation Survey. Related publications are the Employment Equity
availability data report on designated groups: Supplement (Tables 5 and 15), for employers
covered by the Federal Contractors Program (for each province); and the Employment Equity
availability data report on designated groups, 1986, based on the 1981 census.
Bilingual.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
9
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Technical
Services. Employment Equity availability data report on designated groups: supplement 5 and
Ottawa: Employment and
15; for employers covered by the Federal Contractors Program.
Immigration Canada, 1989. 12 v. Tables.
This collection provides additions to tables 5 and 15 from the Employment Equity availability
data report from the 1986 Census of Canada, for each province and territory. Table 5 gives data
on population 15 years and over who worked in 1985 or 1986, showing representation of
designated groups by occupational group and standard occupational classifications. Table 15
shows representation of persons with disabilities (limited at work) aged 15 to 64 years who
worked any time between 1981 and 1986, by occupational groups and standard occupational
classification. Bilingual.
Canada. Health and Welfare Canada. Equal employment opportunities: report of activities
1982-83. Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada, 1983. 38 p. Tables.
Part I summarizes the activities of the Personnel Administration Branch regarding employment
equity in Health and Welfare Canada. Part II presents a statistical analysis of the representation
of women, persons with disabilities, francophone and Aboriginal peoples employed and receiving
training in the ministry across Canada, using data from 1979-83. Bilingual.
Canada. Health and Welfare Canada. Equal employment opportunity program: report of
activities 1981-1982. Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada, 1982. 39 p. Tables.
The report summarizes goals, programs, and achievements of the Equal Employment
Opportunity Office in the Personnel Administration Branch. It provides data from 1980-82 on
recruitment and training of women, persons with disabilities, francophone, and Aboriginal
peoples employment by the ministry across Canada. Bilingual.
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. A report on the evaluation of the Public
Service Commission employment equity operations. Ottawa: Public Service Commission of
Canada, 1988. 56 p. Tables.
Using statistics from 1983 to 1987, the report evaluates the employment equity program of the
Public Service Commission, and its implementation. It makes recommendations for improving
the program to meet its goals.
10 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Canada. Royal Commission on Equality in Employment. Report. Ottawa: Supply and
Services Canada, 1984. 393 p. Tables.
The Commission's terms of reference were to explain the means of promoting equality in
employment for women, persons with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and Visible minorities;
and to inquire into the employment practices of 11 designated crown and government-owned
corporations. Part 1 outlines data derived from questionnaires completed by the 11 corporations;
part 2 considers proposals and discusses why mandatory measures are necessary and what form
they should take. Tables show distribution, salaries, and education of target groups. Judge
Rosalie Abella, Commissioner. Cover title: Equality in employment. French ed.: Egalite en
matiere d'emploi.
Canada. Royal Commission on Equality in Employment. Research studies of the Commission
on Equality in Employment. Ottawa: The Commission, 1985. 683 p.
These studies, mostly written in 1983, were crucial to the development of the Commission's
conclusions. They deal in a scholarly way with equality in employment in its widest sense,
exploring the cultural, legal, and economic aspects of the issue, and provide a factual and
conceptual complement to other available research at the time. Many contain statistical tables,
and most include data relating to one or more of the designated groups, with analysis. Papers
by (among others) Aggarwal, Gunderson, Townson, Harvey and Blakely.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Labour market activity of groups designated under the
Employment Equity Act, 1988-89, by Silver, Irving B.; Cheung, Ken; Lavallee, Laval;
Prudhomme, Marc. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1993. 51 p. Tables.
(Employment Equity User file no. 1.15)
This report examines the characteristics of the 4 groups designated under the Employment
Equity Act: women, visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities. Using
the Labour Market Activity Survey, the authors examine socio-demographic characteristics,
labour force participation, employment rates, and employment characteristics for the period
1988-89 and compare where possible to 1986-87 for the 10 provinces. Bilingual.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 11
Canada. Statistics Canada. The labour market activity of groups designated under the
Employment Equity Act, 1988-89. Part 2: tabulations.
Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1993.
50 p. Tables.
(Employment Equity user rile no. 1.15, pt.2)
This report provides the tabulations gathered from the Labour Market Activity Survey 1988-1989
for groups designated under the Employment Equity Act. Tables include information on persons
of labour force age by group and by age, by group and by occupation, by group and by
province. It also gives information on women compared to all employees by age and occupation,
education and occupation, by industry and hourly wage for full and part-time employment. It
also provides statistics on labour force participation, unemployment, and job tenure.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division. Affirmative
action: an examination of the Women in Non-Traditional Occupations Model, by Shepherd,
Robert; Shepherd (R. P.) Associates; Henderson, Rick; Cardillo, Brenda; Grainger, Pat.
Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1989. 44 p. Tables.
(Employment Equity User file no. 2.1.)
This report analyzes the premises and relevance of the Women in Non-traditional Occupations
Model as a measure of workforce change. In addition to examining whether it is still applicable
to women, it examines whether it is transferable to other designated groups such as Aboriginal
persons and members of visible minority groups. Tables include representation by gender and
occupational group; proportion of Native peoples by occupational group; and total female
employees in the federal public service by occupation.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity
Data. Job changes, wage change and employment equity groups, by Boothby, Daniel.
Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1992. 71 p. Tables.
(Employment Equity user file no. 1.6)
The report examines job movements between occupations for men and women using data from
the 1987 Labour Market Activity Survey. The determinants of different types of job
movements, including gender and visible minority status, are also considered, along with the
effects of job mobility on earnings and the possible influence of gender and visible minority
status on wage changes following a job change. Bilingual.
12 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Canada. Treasury Board. Employment equity in the Public Service of Canada: report to the
Special Committee on the Review of the Employment Equity Act; a background paper.
Ottawa: Treasury Board of Canada, Secretariat, 1992. 1 v.(various pagings). Tables.
The report provides information to a Special Committee on the Review of the Employment
Equity Act, on the employment equity policy of the federal public service. It describes policy,
programs, initiatives, consultation mechanisms and provides a statistical overview. Statistics are
from 1986 to 1992.
Canada. Treasury Board. Status report on the representation of women, persons with
disabilities, aboriginal peoples and members of visible minority groups in the Federal Public
Service as of December 31, 1987, Ottawa: Treasury Board of Canada, Secretariat, 1988.
32 p.
With the passage of the Employment Equity Act, Canada has tried to eliminate employment
barriers faced by four disadvantaged groups: women, persons with disabilities, aboriginal
peoples, and members of visible minorities. Although the Act only directly legislates Crown
Corporation employment activities, the Act is also incorporated as a guideline for the whole of
the Public Service. The annual report reviews efforts at employment equity for these
disadvantaged groups in the Public Service during 1987. Data covers employment levels and
salary ranges by occupational group. French ed.: Rapport d'etape....
Canada. Treasury Board. Personnel Policy Branch. On target: progress in employment equity
in the Federal Public Service, 1985-1988. Ottawa: Treasury Board Secretariat, Personnel
Policy Branch, 1988. 10, 10 p. illus.
The Treasury Board has prepared this publication to show the progress of the Public Service
Employment Equity program between 1985 and 1988. It defines employment equity, and
describes employment equity in the public service. The paper also discusses self-identification
of disadvantaged groups, and presents graphs showing the results of the government's efforts.
It concludes with the new targets that have been set for the future and a glossary of related
terms. French ed.: En bonne voie.
Canadian Human Rights Commission. The Canadian Human Rights Commission and
employment equity, 1987-1991: a background paper. Ottawa:
Canadian Human Rights
Commission, 1992. Tables.
Summarizes the Canadian Human Rights Commission's employment equity program and its
legislative foundation; the scope of its work and results to date; court challenges; and a statistical
overview describing the representation of designated groups in the federally regulated workforce
during the past four years, including 44 federal government departments. Bilingual.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 13
Fraser Institute. On employment equity: a critique of the Abella Royal Commission report,
by Block, Walter; Walker, Michael. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1985. 111 p. Tables.
Well-known critics of affirmative action legislation present their version of the labour market
situation and their analysis of the conclusions reached by the Royal Commission on Equality in
Employment (1985).
Gadacz, Rene It., editor. Employment equity: issues and perspectives.
Consulting Services, 1986. 144 p. References.
Edmonton: CSC
Papers by Neil Gavigan, Jim Derksen, Noel Kinsella, and Rene Gadacz, entitled "Federal
government initiatives in employment equity," "Preferential selection as a means to equality,"
"Affirmative action and the right to work," and "Employment equity and equality rights:
perspectives on government intervention," analyze available data and discuss effectiveness of
government legislation and policies relating to employment equity. The volume is dedicated to
the Alberta Committee of Disabled Citizens.
Gunderson, Morley. "Labour market aspects of inequality in employment and their
application to Crown Corporations." IN Canada. Royal Commission on Equality in
Employment. Research studies. (Ottawa: 1985), p. 3-44.
Discusses underlying causal motives for discrimination, one of which is erroneous or misleading
statistical information. Analyzes the potential impact of different policy options, and actual
impact of different legislated policies is assessed, based on a number of econometric studies
(which are listed). A number of program evaluation criteria related to affirmative action policies
are analyzed extensively, and the relevance of different policy initiatives to crown corporations
is discussed.
Leck, Joanne D.; Saunders, David M. "Canada's Employment Equity Act: effects on
employee selection." Population Research and Policy Review 11:21-49, 1992. Bibliography.
Tables.
Analyzes the effectiveness of the Act in increasing the representation in the workplace of
women, Aboriginal peoples, disabled persons, and visible minorities, since 1986.
14 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Ontario. Human Resources Secretariat. Human Resources Secretariat employment equity
data base: service wide counts analysis. Toronto: Ontario Human Resources Secretariat,
1987. 75 p.
Contains tables based on data collected from the June 1986 I COUNT census of classified and
unclassified staff in the Ontario public service. Contains counts for geographical location, age,
education, staff status, salary, tenure and job category. These are organized by aboriginal
status, race, francophone status, disability status and gender.
Parekh, Nevin M. Institutional responses to a multicultural, multiracial work force. Nepean,
Ontario: Training and Development Associates. 1988. 64 p. Bibliography. Tables.
The paper discusses how Canadian institutions are responding to a multicultural and multiracial
workforce. Part I analyzes data from the 1981 Census on the composition of the labour force
by region, occupation and industry, where there is a large enough cultural and racially mixed
population. Parts II and DI summarize institutional responses to this, and lesson to be learned
from their responses.
Quebec. Commission des droits de la personne du Quebec. Discrimination systemique:
fondement et mithodologie des programmes d'acces a Pegalite en emploi, Chicha-Pontbriand,
Marie-Therese. Cowansville: Les Editions Yvon Blais, 1989. 197 p. Tables. Bibliography.
(Commission des droits de la personne du Quebec. Etudes et documents de recherche sur les
droits et libertes, 2)
This study was funded by the Commission as part of its mandate to promote research on
fundamental rights and freedoms. Its aim is to correct the commonly held view that
discrimination is an isolated action or series of acts, springing from individual prejudices, and
to demonstrate that it is a systemic phenomenon in our society, thus justifying such programs
for its elimination as the employment equity program. The author takes a multidisciplinary
approach to the subject, integrating the results of research in sociology, economics and law, to
effect her analysis of the labour market situation in relation to employment equity. US
comparisons are included. The author also makes recommendations regarding the collection of
statistical data for employment equity purposes.
Universite du Quebec a Montreal. Programmes d'acces a Vegan& analyze et impacts, par
Simard, Carolle; Tahon, Marie-Blanche. Montreal: Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 1987.
47 p.
(Universite du Quebec a Montreal. Notes de recherche, no.33)
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 15
From a study on the implementation of the Employment Equity Act at Hydro-Quebec and the
National Film Board, the authors come to the conclusion that equality of opportunity in
employment faces not merely legislative, but also social and cultural obstacles, right in the workplace. Union perspectives are discussed, and figures for other corporations are also referred to.
16 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
2.2 ANNUAL REPORTS
Alberta. Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1985-86. Edmonton: The Commission,
1986.
Under the auspices of the Individual's Rights Protection Act, the Human Rights Commission is
mandated to protect Albertans from discrimination in areas of employment, tenancy, public
services and accommodation, and signs and notices with respect to race, colour, sex, religious
beliefs, physical disability, ancestry or place of origin and with limited respect to age, pregnancy
and marital status. This annual review reports on the activities of the Commission in relation
to its mandate through amendments and recommendations made, special events held, educational
and promotional activities, and discrimination complaints.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Act: Annual report.
Ottawa: Employment and Immigration Canada, 1988 - .
The Employment Equity Act (1986) requires all federally regulated employers with 100 or more
employees to report annually on their progress in implementing the legislation in their work
places. Each Annual report of Employment and Immigration Canada on the Employment Equity
Act consolidates and analyzes the results reported by employers (353 employers in 1992) for the
preceding year, and provides information on how the four designated groups are represented in
the workforce(620,000 employees in 1992). Data are analyzed by sector and by employment
status, and are presented by CMA and province, as well as nationally. Salary, hirings and
separations data are presented by industrial sector and employment status. All data contain
breakdown by sex. The numerous tables in the reports are listed by title in the annual Directory
of Statistics in Canada, as are the individual reports of all federally regulated employers under
the Act. Tables were published separately in some years. Bilingual.
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Annual report 1990-91. Ottawa: The Dept.,
1991. 75, 82 p. Maps.
The Department provides a broad range of services to Canada's Indians and Inuit aimed at
improving their overall social and economic conditions and advancing the cause of
self-government. The Department also promotes the economic and political development of the
Yukon and Northwest Territories and coordinates federal activities in the North. This annual
report details activities directed at Indian self-government, economic development for Aboriginal
people and the northern communities, lands, revenues and trusts, and policy and legislation.
Appendices include budgetary expenses and statutes administered. Bilingual.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Annual report 1989-90. Ottawa: The Dept.,
1990. 69, 78 p. Illus., Maps.
Includes a table on employment equity figures in the department. See 1990-91 report for
annotation.
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Annual report 1986-87. Ottawa: The Dept.,
1987. 79, 87 p. Illus., Maps.
See 1990-91 report for annotation.
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Annual report 1990. Ottawa: The
Commission, 1991. 146, 146 p.
Covers trends and issues in public service today; staffing the public service; management;
employment equity; official languages; workforce adjustment; and training. An audit report,
appeals, investigations, and the preventive role of appeals and investigations is also included with
an appendix of a report on the activities under sections 6(1), 6(4) and 41 of the Act. Bilingual.
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Annual report statistics, 1991. Ottawa: The
Commission, 1992. 82, 82 p.
Includes information on population, population and occupational categories, appointments,
separations, appeals, and training. Data broken down by type of employment, geographic area,
department, occupational category and group, language requirements of position, age, sex, and
language group. Bilingual.
Canadian Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1991. Ottawa: The Commission, 1992.
90, 100 p. Illus.
The Commission must endeavour by persuasion, publicity, or any other means that it considers
appropriate, to discourage and reduce discriminatory practices and to promote equal opportunity.
It is also responsible for fostering public understanding of the Act, and the role and activities
of the Commission, and for initiating or sponsoring research programs relating to human rights.
This annual report contains information on how the Commission is organized and operated; an
explanation of members' terms of appointment, duties and responsibilities; issues in human
rights covering aboriginal peoples, disability, race, origin and religion, sex, age, and
18 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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employment equity; case work; complaints; and statistics on the number of complaints and
enquiries, with figures on results to date for all target groups. Bilingual.
Canadian Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1989. Ottawa: The Commission, 1990.
79, 87 p. Illus.
See 1992 report for annotation.
Canadian Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1987. Ottawa: The Commission, 1988.
36, 36 p.
See 1992 report for annotation.
Manitoba Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Annual report 1986-87. Winnipeg: The
Council, 1987. 18 p.
Created in 1970, the Advisory Council works towards equality of opportunity and treatment for
women and men in Manitoba by identifying issues of concern to women. It conducts
independent research, promotes the development of government initiatives which reflect the
rights of women to equality, and works in cooperation with women and women's organizations
to support and facilitate community activities aimed at improving their status. The annual report
introduces the members of Council with brief employment histories. Includes recommendations
on issues of education in women's studies, family life, child abuse, women in non-traditional
occupations, family law, government funding, health, human rights legislation, labour force
equality, pay equity, the Manitoba Jobs Fund, the Manitoba Telephone System, women and the
Limestone Project, violence against women, community involvement, and future directions with
midwifery, reproductive technology, women with disabilities, and pornography. Includes a list
of publications and brief financial statements.
Manitoba Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1990. Winnipeg: The Commission,
1991. 42 p. Illus.
The Commission is the agency chiefly responsible for carrying out the provisions of The Human
Rights Code which prohibits discrimination on the basis of ancestry, nationality, religion, sex,
age, disability, or other group stereotypes. The Commission is authorized by the Code to accept
and investigate complaints of discrimination and to attempt to settle substantiated complaints, to
carry out educational activities, and to issue binding advisory opinions. This annual report
reviews 1990 activities, and provides information on sample cases, statistics, biographies of
Commissioners, and presents publications, audio-visual aids, and the complaint form.
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Manitoba Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1989. Winnipeg: The Commission,
1990. 46 p.
See 1991 report for annotation.
Manitoba Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1987. Winnipeg: The Commission,
1988. 45 p. Illus.
See 1991 report for annotation.
Manitoba Labour Board. Annual report 1986 87. Winnipeg: The Board, 1987. 44 p.
-
The Board is responsible for the adjudication of matters referred under The Labour Relations
Act, The Workplace Safety and Health Act, and The Pay Equity Act. The Board also acts as
a wages board or the adjudicating body for the administration of The Payment of Wages Act,
The Employment Standards Act, and The Remembrance Day Act. This annual report reviews
the year's activities, lists available publications, and presents highlights of Board decisions. It
also summarizes expenditure and court activity and supplies statistical tables together with a
review of cases.
New Brunswick. Dept. of Labour. Annual report 1990-91. Fredericton: The Dept., 1991.
6 P.
Review of the year's activities for Employment, Labour, Technical and Inspection Services, and
the Human Rights Commission. Labour data include employment tandards, industrial relations
and statistics. Includes Report of the New Brunswick Human Rights Commission, with
statistics on employment discrimination cases heard by the Commission. Bilingual.
New Brunswick. Dept. of Labour. Annual report 1989-90. Fredericton: The Dept., 1990.
88 p.
Includes report of the New Brunswick Human Rights Commission. Bilingual.
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New Brunswick. Dept. of Labour. Annual report 1988-89. Fredericton: The Dept., 1989.
57, 60 p.
Includes report of the New Brunswick Human Rights Commission. Bilingual.
New Brunswick. Dept. of Labour. Annual report 1986-87. Fredericton: The Dept., 1987.
46, 50 p.
Includes report of the New Brunswick Human Rights Commission. Bilingual.
New Brunswick. Women's Directorate. The Employment Equity Program for women in the
New Brunswick Civil Service: Annual report 1991-92. Fredericton: Women's Directorate,
1992. 97 p.
The Directorate is responsible for initiating and developing government policies and programs
which enhance the social, economic and legal status of women in the province, as well as
initiating, developing and reviewing policies with respect to the employment and advancement
of women in the Civil Service. The annual report reviews activities for the year with emphasis
on areas where women's representation is low. Includes profiles of employment levels for each
sex, by government department and agency. Bilingual (Programme d'egalite en matiere...).
New Brunswick. Women's Directorate. The Employment Equity Program for women in the
New Brunswick Civil Service: 1990-91 annual report. Fredericton: Women's Directorate,
1991. 76 p.
See 1991-92 report for annotation.
New Brunswick. Women's Directorate. The Employment Equity Program for women in the
New Brunswick Civil Service: Annual report 1989. Fredericton: Women's Directorate, 1990.
57 p.
See 1991-92 report for annotation.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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New Brunswick. Women's Directorate. The Employment Equity Program for women in the
New Brunswick Civil Service: annual report 1988. Fredericton: Women's
Directorate, 1989. ii, 53 p.
See 1991-92 report for annotation.
New Brunswick. Women's Directorate. The Employment Equity Program for women in the
New Brunswick Civil Service: annual report 1987. Fredericton: Women's Directorate, 1987.
ii, 49 p.
See 1991-92 report for annotation.
New Brunswick. Women's Directorate. The Employment Equity Program for women in the
New Brunswick Civil Service: 1986 annual report. Fredericton: Women's Directorate, 1987.
ii, 45 p.
See 1991-92 report for annotation.
Newfoundland. Dept. of Health. Division of Research and Statistics. Disability Information
System: Annual report 1989-90. St. John's: Dept. of Health, Health Research and Statistics
Division, 1990. iii, 20 p.
This report provides an overview of the Disability Information System's operations and includes
a cumulative statistical summary of cases registered to March 31, 1990. The objective is to
indicate the different types of demographic data available through the Registry and to provide
the necessary data for improvement of service to disabled persons in Newfoundland and
Labrador. The Registry was established in 1974, after a joint decision by New Brunswick, Nova
Scotia, Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island that each would do this. It was under the Dept.
of Education from 1974-1984. The focus was the educational needs of disabled children.
Newfoundland. Dept. of Health. Division of Research and Statistics.Disability Information
System: Annual report 1988-89. St. John's: Dept. of Health, Health Research and Statistics
Division, 1989. ii, 17 p.
This report provides an overview of the Disability Information System's operations and includes
a cumulative statistical summary of cases registered to March 31, 1989. The objective is to
indicate the different types of demographic data available through the Registry and to provide
22 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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the necessary data for improvement of service to disabled persons in Newfoundland and
Labrador.
Newfoundland. Dept. of Health. Division of Research and Statistics. Disability Information
System: Annual report 1986-87. St. John's: Dept. of Health, Health Research and Statistics
Division, 1987. ii, 25 p.
See 1988-89 report for annotation.
Newfoundland. Dept. of Health. Division of Research and Statistics. Registry report,
1985-86. St.Johns: Dept. of Health, Division of Research and Statistics, 1986. ii, 20 p.
This report provides an overview of the Registry's operations and includes a cumulative
statistical summary of cases registered to March 31, 1986. The objective is to indicate the
different types of demographic data available through the Registry and to provide the necessary
data for improvement of service to the disabled persons in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Northwest Territories. Annual report 1987. Yellowknife: The Government, 1988. 120 p.
The Government of the Northwest Territories issues a combined annual report for all
departments and agencies. Information contained in this report covers Native rights, energy
policy, women's issues, education, public works, cultural affairs, government services and
finance, health and social services, economic development and tourism, justice, renewable
resources, housing, highways, public utilities and workers' compensation. In addition, there is
a report from the courts, the Legislative Assembly and the Office of the Commissioner, and a
report from each of the regional governments describing the accomplishments for the year 1987.
Northwest Territories. Equal Employment Directorate. Annual report 1985-86: working
together for our future. Yellowknife: The Directorate, 1986. 43 p.
While a strong native leadership has ensured that native northerners' views are taken into
account in policy development, they have not fully participated in the territorial public service.
This report makes recommendations for achieving equal employment. It focuses on labour
supply, education, and public service. It includes an historical perspective on affirmative action.
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23
Northwest Territories. Equal Employment Directorate. The First two years: progress reports
and action plans, 1985-87. Yellowknife: The Directorate, 1988. 60 p.
See 1985-86 report for annotation.
Nova Scotia. Civil Service Commission. Annual report 1987-88. Halifax: The Commission,
1988. 51 p.
Provides highlights of the activities of the divisions and programs within the Commission, such
as: the Staffmg Division, Compensation Division, Affirmative Action Program, Co-operative
Education Employment Program, Office Services Section, and Staff Relations Division. Also
includes tables on appointments; occupational distribution by sex; pay reviews; employee
separations; and employees by department.
Nova Scotia. Civil Service Commission. Annual report 1986-87. Halifax: The Commission,
1987. 48 p.
See 1987-88 report for annotation.
Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1990-91. Halifax: The Commission,
1991. 42 p.
The Commission is responsible for the administration and enforcement of the Human Rights Act,
which prohibits discrimination against any individual or class of individuals because of race,
religion, creed, colour, ethnic origin, national origin, sex, or physical or mental disability in the
following areas: employment; accommodation, services, and facilities; housing occupancy; sale
of property; membership in employee organizations or professional, business, or trade
associations; membership in volunteer organizations performing a public service. This report
reviews administration, investigation, public education, affirmative action, and field services.
It gives tables with data on complaints heard, including discrimination in employment.
Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1989-90. Halifax: The Commission,
1990. 37 p.
See 1990-91 report for annotation.
24 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1988-89. Halifax: The Commission,
1989. 33 p.
See 1990-91 report for annotation.
Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission. Report 1986-88. Halifax: The Commission, 1989.
34 p.
See 1990-91 report for annotation.
Ontario Advisory Council for Disabled Persons. Annual report 1987-88. Toronto: The
Council, 1988. 25, 27 p.
Focuses on key issues and achievements of 1987/88 involving independent living, transportation,
employment, accessibility, and communications. Provides an update on disabled symbol licence
plates, one-stop access, and the Ontario Home Renewal Program. Bilingual.
Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship. Annual report 1988-89. Toronto: The Ministry, 1990. 16,
16 p. Illus.
This annual report describes the Ministry's activities for the year under the headings of
multiculturalism, race relations, native people, immigrant settlement and multicultural
development, and human rights. Appendices give basic financial and employment statistics.
Bilingual.
Ontario. Women Crown Employees Office. Ninth annual report on the status of women
Crown employees 1982/83. Toronto: Women Crown Employees Office, 1983. 54, 6 p.
This report on the status of women Crown employees is prepared by the Women Crown
Employees Office of the Ontario Women's Directorate, and presented in the Legislature by the
Honourable Robert Welch.
Ontario. Women Crown Employees Office. Eighth annual report on the status of women
Crown employees, 1981-82. Toronto: The Office, 1982. 136, 7 p.
See 1982/83 report for annotation.
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Quebec. Commission des Droits de la personne du Quebec. Rapport annuel 1990. Quebec:
La Commission, 1991. 60 p.
The Commission's principal function is to promote the principles contained in the Quebec
Charter of Rights and Freedoms. It conducts inquiries, establishes an information program,
carries out research on fundamental rights, and makes recommendations to the Government. This
Annual Report describes the administrative structure of the Commission and its activities for the
year, and provides information on cases heard as well as those of general application.
Quebec. Commission des Droits de la personne du Quebec. Rapport annuel 1989. Quebec:
La Commission, 1990. 74 p.
See 1990 report for annotation.
Quebec. Commission des droits de la personne du Quebec. Rapport annuel 1988. Quebec:
La Commission, 1989. 55 p.
See 1990 report for annotation.
Quebec. Conseil des Communautes culturelles et de ('Immigration du Quebec. Rapport
annuel 1988-89. Quebec: Le Conseil, 1990. 30 p.
The Council is a permanent independent body whose purpose is to advise the Minister of
Cultural Communities and Immigration. This report presents an account of the Council's
activities.
Quebec. Conseil des Communautes culturelles et de ('Immigration du Quebec. Rapport
annuel 1986-87. Quebec: Le Conseil, 1987. 23 p.
See 1988-89 report for annotation.
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Quebec. Ministere de la main-d'oeuvre, de la securite du revenu et de la formation
professionelle. Rapport annuel. Quebec: Le Ministere, 1989/90 - .
Each annual report contains a description of the mandates of the different sections, a list of laws
and regulations administered by the ministry, and statistical data on training programs, and job
creation programs. Previous name, Ministere de la main-d'oeuvre et de la securite du revenu.
Saskatchewan Employment Development Agency. Annual report 1986-87. Regina: The
Agency, 1987. 18 p. Hlus.
The Agency, established in 1985, monitors, promotes and coordinates the continued development
and implementation of programs relating to employment in the Province. The annual report
outlines the year's activities including publication of its occupational directory Job Futures and
the effect of the Government Organization Act. The report also lists jobs created for youths,
Native peoples, and other employment provided through its associated programs.
Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1990. Saskatoon, Sask.: The
Commission, 1990. 28 p.
The Commission protects fundamental freedoms and equality rights with regard to freedoms of
conscience, religion, expression, association, the right to vote, and ensures that no discrimination
in housing, employment, public services, education, contracts and publications exists on the basis
of race or colour, creed or religion, nationality, ancestry or place of origin, sex (including
sexual harassment), marital status, physical disability and age. The annual report reviews the
cases heard before the Board for the year, and affirmative action programs operating in the
Province.
Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission. Annual report 1989. Saskatoon, Sask.: The
Commission, 1990. 31 p. Illus.
This report contains tables relating to complaints on discrimination in employment based on race,
Aboriginal ancestry, or sex. See 1990 report for further annotation.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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2.3 DESIGNATED GROUPS
2.3.1 ABORIGINAL PEOPLES
British Columbia. Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs. The Aboriginal peoples of British
Columbia: a profile. Rev.ed. Victoria: Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs, 1992. 29 p. thus.
Maps.
Discusses the history, language and organization, and culture of aboriginal people today in
British Columbia. It includes information on the Tribal Councils in British Columbia identifying
for each Council listed its address, telephone number, fax number, and employment ranges.
Canada. Aboriginal Employment Equity Consultation Group. Aboriginal employment and
community relations: best practices case studies. Ottawa: Treasury Board of Canada, 1992.
viii, 131 p. Tables.
The purpose of the study is to provide deputy ministers and their managers with a perspective
on approaches to Aboriginal human resource development being used in Canada. Case studies
of 8 organizations (out of 30 surveyed) show best practices towards employment equity policies
for Aboriginals, and results of these practices, with statistical tables to support the study.
Canada. Aboriginal Employment Equity Consultation Group. Completing the circle: first
report to the Secretary of the Treasury Board. Ottawa: Treasury Board, 1991. 28 p. Tables.
The report provides tools for deputies and managers throughout the public service for
implementing employment equity for Aboriginal peoples. It describes the best practices of 30
public and private organizations, their principles and goals for employment equity for
Aboriginals, and tabulates their progress in meeting these goals.
Canada. Canadian Aboriginal Economic Development Strategy. Status report. Ottawa:
Government of Canada, 1991. 36, 36 p.
Outlines the individual highlights from the following departments in achieving Strategy
objectives: Industry, Science and Technology Canada; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada; and
Employment and Immigration Canada. The broad objectives of the Strategy include: greater
Aboriginal participation in the design of and control over the delivery of economic development
programs and services; strengthening Aboriginal fmancial, sectoral and local development
institutions; decentralization of program delivery; harmonization of program delivery; removal
of barriers within federal programs; increased involvement with Canadian business and
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29
investment interests; and active participation and support from provincial and territorial
governments. Bilingual.
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Native women: a statistical overview, by
White, Pamela M. Ottawa: Dept. of the Secretary of State, Social Trends Analysis
Directorate and Native Citizens Directorate, 1985. 31, 30 p. Tables. Maps.
This is one of a series of research papers prepared for the Dept. of the Secretary of State on
Native Canadian women in the 1980s, from an economic and social point of view. It compares
them to Native men and the non-Native population, using 1981 census information and the
Native Peoples Summary Tape. Focus is on those living in northern parts of the provinces and
territories; some information on urban conditions is provided. Certain socio-economic
information is missing from the background statistics and therefore eliminated from the study.
Bilingual: Les femmes autochtones: apercu statistique.
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Social Trends Analysis Directorate. The
use of Aboriginal languages in Canada: an analysis of 1981 census data, by Burnaby,
Barbara; Beaujot, Roderic. Ottawa, Dept. of the Secretary of State, Social Trends Analysis
Directorate and Native Citizens Directorate, 1986. xiii, 79, xvi, 85 p.
This study analyzes data from the 1981 Census on the Aboriginal population of Canada and the
languages they speak. Before 1981 the Census only coded the aboriginal languages as Native
Indian or Eskimo and on the 1981 census more than 50 Native Indian languages were coded and
divided into 11 language families. Also the 1981 Census asked Aboriginal people to specify if
they were ethnically Status Indians, Non-Status Indians, Metis, or Inuit and for the first time
more than one response on ethnicity was coded. This report documents background information
on the Aboriginal population in terms of language and ethnicity, and the total Aboriginal ethnic
population is considered in light of language maintenance and language shift at the level of ethnic
and geographic sub-groups. Language data are analyzed according to factors that might affect
language phenomena such as age, employment, and knowledge of the official languages. French
ed.: L'utilisation des langues....
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Native Albertan women in the labour
market: a preliminary analysis, by Ferguson, Theresa A. Ottawa: Employment and
Immigration Canada, 1985. 30 p. Tables.
This report summarizes the fmdings of a questionnaire documenting participation of 3,949 native
women in the labour market in Alberta, carried out by the Alberta Native Women's Association
(ANIMA) 1982-83. The goal was to gather statistics about the status of native women and their
attitudes in order to better design programs to help them gain more equal access to the labour
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market. Tables include information on recent employment, education, training, employment
goals, self-esteem, personal skills, and barriers to employment that they experience. It includes
details of the methodology of the study and discussion of results.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Data
Development and Systems Analysis. A profile of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ottawa:
Employment and Immigration Dept., 1990(?). 9 p. Tables.
This profile describes self-identified Aboriginal peoples in Canada using data from the 1986
Census. It gives an overview on their labour market status and other socio-economic
characteristics, and compares this to the total population. It includes tables on income,
education, labour force participation, distribution of residence, and age groups. Bilingual.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Data
Development and Systems Analysis. A profile of persons of Mills origin in Canada. Ottawa:
Employment and Immigration Department. 8 p. Tables.
This profile describes self-identified Metis living in Canada by labour force activity, percentage
unemployed, education, major field of study, concentration in occupations, distribution of
residence, and distribution in age groups.It compares Metis to other Aboriginal groups and the
population as a whole. The data base is the 1986 Census. A separate study is available on Inuit,
and persons of North American Indian origin in Canada. Bilingual.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Public Affairs Branch. Pathways to
produced by
success: Aboriginal employment and training strategy: a background paper;
Public Affairs, Employment and Immigration Canada, and the Aboriginal Employment and
Training Working Group. Ottawa: 1990, [c1991]. 32, 36 p. Tables.
Bibliography.
This paper reports on effectiveness of services and programs of Employment and Immigration
Canada for aboriginal peoples related to training and employment in order to improve their
representation in the department. Reference period is 1987 to 1990. Bilingual.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Public Affairs Branch. Pathways to
success: Aboriginal employment and training strategy: a policy and implementation paper.
Produced by Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Public Affairs Branch.; and
Canada. Aboriginal Employment and Training Working Group. Ottawa: Employment and
Immigration Canada, 1991. 20, 22 p.
Presents information on the following partnership principles: Consultation process and local
control of decision making; delivery machinery; funding mechanisms and institutional
development capacity; employment equity; and eligibility for programs and services. Bilingual
(Les chemins de la reussite: strategie...).
Canada. Federal-Provincial-Territorial Conference of Ministers Responsible for the Status
of Women (Fairmont Hot Springs, B.C., 1986). Economic issues facing Native women in
Ontario. Fairmont Hot Springs, B.C.: Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat,
1986. 12 p.
This demographic profile of Native women in Ontario, prepared for the Conference by the
Ontario government, summarizes government efforts to improve their economic circumstances.
Discusses accessibility and potential improvements to grant money, loans, training spaces and
employment programs with the critical assumption that the special needs of these women must
meet the criteria set by the women themselves. French ed.: Les preoccupations economiques....
Canada. Health and Welfare Canada. Analysis of affirmative action survey of Native
employees. Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada, 1984. 37 p. Tables.
By means of a questionnaire, this study researched the impact of employment policies in Health
and Welfare Canada on 124 self-identified Native employees. It includes tables showing a profile
of respondents, their occupational fields, career goals, perceived obstacles, degree of success
in the competitive process, and representation of indigenous employees by branch and status.
Canada. Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 1981-82 annual report to Treasury
Board: Native employment: participation of indigenous persons in the Department of Indian
Affairs and Northern Development. Ottawa: Indian Affairs and Northern Development,
1982. 127 p. Tables.
Summarizes activities, achievements and plans of the Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern
Development in its effort to improve participation of indigenous peoples in the department at all
levels across Canada. Identifies barriers to employment in each province and territory; shows
numbers of indigenous employees in each region by occupation, under contract and involved
in training. Lists the designated indigenous positions. Bilingual.
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Canada. Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 1982-83 annual report to Treasury
Board on Native employment: participation of indigenous persons in the Department of Indian
Affairs and Northern Development. Ottawa: Indian Affairs and Northern Development,
1983. 65 p. Tables.
Outlines programs to improve representation of indigenous population within the department
across Canada. Includes lists of barriers to employment and actions or suggestions to remove
them. Identifies the jobs that need persons with experience and knowledge of indigenous culture.
Provides statistics on the number of indigenous people added to department during the year, by
geographic location, and the representation of indigenous people employed in each department
by region. Bilingual.
Canada. Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Report of the study of human resources
development requirements, by PMA Consulting Group Ltd. Ottawa: Indian Affairs and
Northern Development, 1984. 70 p. Tables.
This report summarizes the study of the human resource development requirements of Native
peoples in Canada. The purpose of the study was to analyze the education levels of Indian
peoples, 15 years to 64 years, compared to the Canadian population; identify the education and
training requirements needed to bring them up to the same educational level as the rest of the
population; recommend the resources that could provide the upgrading; and outline the
implications of this plan. Data used were based on customized 1981 Census, Statistics Canada
data reports, DIAND Indian Registry, DIANDMIS educational reports, special tabulations from
Employment and Immigration Canada, and DIAND data on 1984-85 training program usage.
Canada. Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Task Force on Indian Economic
Development. Summary of the Report to the Deputy Minister, Indian and Northern Affairs
Canada. Ottawa, 1986. 45 p. Tables.
The report shows data on the status of Indian business development in Canada, compared to nonNatives, the effect of the tax system, other barriers to this development and recommendations
for improvement. Bilingual.
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. 1986 census highlights on registered Indians:
annotated tables, by Larocque, G.Y.; Gauvin, R.P. Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs
Canada, 1989. vii, 31 p.
Provides a comparative description of key socio-demographic conditions of registered Indians
in Canada, the provinces, and the territories. Draws comparisons among the situation of on- and
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off-reserve Indians, the general population and the population residing in communities with
comparable circumstances near reserves.
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research. Basic departmental data, 1991. Ottawa: Indian and Northern
Affairs Canada, Finance and Professional Services, Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research, 1991. xiv, 101 p. Illus.
This report is a data reference document on the demographic, social and economic conditions
of registered Indians in Canada using departmental administrative databases. It provides
historical and current statistics on the evolution of the conditions of registered Indians living on
reserve over the past 30 years as well as Northerners. French ed.: Donnees ministerielles....
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research. Basic departmental data, 1990. Ottawa: Indian and Northern
Affairs Canada, Finance and Professional Services, Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research, 1990. xiii, 101 p. Illus.
See 1991 edition for annotations.
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research. Basic departmental data, 1989. Ottawa: Indian and Northern
Affairs Canada, Finance and Professional Services, Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research, 1989. xiii, 97 p. Illus.
See 1991 edition for annotations.
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research. Characteristics of public administration employment
on-reserve: 1986 census, by McBride, C.; Gagne, M. A.; Atwell, K. Ottawa: Indian and
Northern Affairs Canada, Finance and Professional Services, Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research, 1990. 18 p. Illus. (Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs
Canada. Quantitative Analysis and Socio-demographic Research. Working paper series,
90-2)
During the last decade, devolution has resulted in major changes in the management of public
administration on-reserve. Through devolution, DIAND has transferred much of the
responsibility for service delivery on-reserve to Indian bands and tribal councils, increasing the
34 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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role played by Indians in the administration of their own affairs and contributing to continuing
growth in the Indian Public Sector. This document presents information on the industries within
public administration, employment status, occupations by industry, occupations by ethnic group,
and the limitations of census data.
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research. Highlights of Aboriginal conditions, 1981-2001, part III:
economic conditions, by Hagey, N. J.; Larocque, G.; McBride, C. Ottawa: Indian and
Northern Affairs Canada, Finance and Professional Services, Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research, 1989. 40 p. Illus.
(Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research. Working paper series, 89-3).
Canada's aboriginal population has experienced major changes in its components and conditions
in the 1980s. This report compares the economic conditions of the total status Indian population,
Indians on-reserve, Indians off-reserve, Inuit and the total aboriginal population to the Canadian
population and to the non-Indian population in comparable communities near reserves. The total
aboriginal population includes status and non-status Indians, Metis, and Inuit. It also presents
actual and projected data related to education, employment, and income.
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Quantitative Analysis and
Socio-demographic Research. Indian attachment to the labour force, by Peters, E.;
Rosenberg, M. W. Ottawa: Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Finance
and Professional Services, Quantitative Analysis and Socio-demographic Research, 1992.
vii, 48 p. Bibliography.
Focuses on the labour market theories and their application to the labour force participation of
Indians on reserves. Reviews variables relevant to Indian labour force attachment in three
sections: first, uses the general literature on labour markets and the literature on Indian labour
force activities to identify variables which measure different kinds of Indian participation in the
labour force; second, identifies individual characteristics which affect Indian wage work patterns;
and third, discusses the nature of reserves and local economies as critical aspects to explore in
taking account of Indian participation in the labour force. French ed.: Les Indiens et la
population active....
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Quantitative Analysis and SocioDemographic Research. The Indian public sector analysis of existing data and discussion of
other data issues. Ottawa: Finance and Professional Services, Indian and Northern Affairs,
1990. 24 p. Tables.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 35
Analyzes available data sources and estimates the size of the Indian public sector. Data sources
used were reports from regions, data from customized 1986 Census and Revenue Canada data
bases.The report also discusses the need for a definition of a model for the Indian public sector
and possible uses for the data. Bilingual.
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Quantitative Analysis and SocioDemographic Research. University education and economic well-being: Indian achievement
and prospects, by Armstrong, Robin; Publow, R.; Kennedy, Jeff; Oberle, Peter R. Hull:
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1990. xi, 44 p. Tables.
.
This report provides statistics on the number of Indian people, 15 and over, who attend
university and earn degrees; and their economic position, compared to Indians without degrees,
and non-Indians with degrees. It analyses factors that may account for differences between
Indians and non-Indians using variables such as high school success rates, labour market
opportunity and work experience. It uses Census data from 1981 and 1986, and DIAND
administrative data.
Canada. Intergovernmental Working Group on the Mineral Industry. Sub-committee on
Native Participation in Mining. Report on Native participation in mining, phase 145.1.]: The
Sub-committee, 1990. 174 p. Maps.
In August 1989, the Working Group formed a sub-committee to study the nature of native
participation in the mining industry in Canada. The sub-committee's objectives included
documenting best practices, with a realistic view of the incidence of the costs and benefits of
each and identifying new ways of matching native lifestyles with mineral industry employment
opportunities; identifying the concrete steps which governments, mining companies, native
groups and individuals could take to substantially boost native participation in mining; and
examining what, if any, incentives could be identified and what legal and structural barriers to
development could be removed. Participation was defined broadly to include employment,
provision of services by natives or native-owned companies, fmancial involvement, and input
into mine development and regulatory review processes. This report provides a summary of
each area of work and also includes the compilation of a selected annotated bibliography.
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. A study on the retention of Aboriginal
peoples in the federal Public Service. Ottawa: Public Service Commission of Canada, 1991.
46 p. Tables.
This report examines the departure of Aboriginal employees from the federal public service in
light of the goal of the government to increase their representation. The universe studied is 3,893
self-identified Aboriginal employees. Using interviews, together with demographic and
36 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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employment statistics for 1989, the report describes the employment experiences and causes for
resignation. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Aboriginal Crime in Urban Centres.
Statistics Canada, 1992. Bilingual. Tables.
(Data File). Ottawa:
This one-time study, carried out by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics in 1990-1991,
examined the circumstances associated with aboriginal crime in Calgary, Regina and Saskatoon
by providing accused and victim profiles. The target universe was all accused charged with an
offence, and all reported victims of violent offenses. Crime data were obtained from
administrative files of the police and justice systems. Demographic and socio-economic data for
each city (from 1986 Census and 1990 projections) were also examined. Aboriginal/nonAboriginal data are compared. Data on victims are provided for Calgary and Regina only.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Canada's North: a profile, by Maslove, Allan M. and Hawkes,
David C. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1990. 40 p. Tables.
(Focus on Canada series)
One of a series of 16 studies featuring data from the 1986 Census, this report describes the
demographic, economic and social conditions of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations
living in the North. Data on labour and income characteristics are presented, along with other
variables such as linguistic diversity, education, and housing. Comparisons between various
populations of the North, as well as between the populations of Canada's northern and southern
regions, are given. For purposes of this publication, 'Canada's North' includes the Yukon and
Northwest Territories, Labrador and Northern Quebec around Ungava Bay and Hudson Bay.
Some data from the 1981 Census are also presented.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Ethnic and Visible Minorities Unit. Employment equity: fact
sheets: 1986 census: Aboriginal population. Prepared by Ethnic and Visible Minorities Unit,
Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Statistics Canada. Ottawa: Employment
Equity Data Program, Statistics Canada, 1991. xii, [42] 1. Mus. Maps.
(Employment equity user file no. 3.12)
This report presents highlights from the 1986 Census figures on Aboriginal peoples. For each
Census Metropolitan Area (Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, Regina, Edmonton, Calgary
and Vancouver) it includes a two-page description of the Aboriginals living there: the number
residing in each city, the percentage of aboriginal children and seniors in comparison to the total
population, the percentage of females to males, the proportion of low income families compared
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
37
to total population, mother tongue, percentage with post-secondary education and percentage that
had moved since last Census.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division. A profile of the
Aboriginal population residing in selected off-reserve areas, 1986 Census. Ottawa: Statistics
Canada, 1990. 2 v.(250 p. each). Tables.
(Employment Equity User file no. 3.7)
The publication presents a statistical profile of the Aboriginal population residing off Indian
reserves and settlements based on data collected from the 1986 Census. It provides information
on age, sex, marital status, home language, mother tongue, official language, mobility status,
highest level of schooling, major field of study, labour force activity, income characteristics, and
living arrangements. Data are presented for Canada, the provinces and territories, Census
Metropolitan Areas, Census Agglomerations, and Census Subdivisions. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Post-Censal Surveys Program. Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS).
(Data File). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1992.
This is a post-censal survey that was carried out for the first time following the 1991 Census of
Population. It collects data on Aboriginal peoples who identify themselves as Aboriginal or are
Registered Indians. It includes statistics on Aboriginal population (Indians, Mods and Inuit), in
Canada, on Indian reserves and in selected communities. It provides information on disability,
education, work and related activities by employment status and patterns, expenditure and source
of income, housing conditions, and language. Information was collected from September 1991
to January 1992 through personal interviews of 200,000 persons in Canada, the provinces and
territories. Data available for Canada, the provinces and the territories. Four related publications
are available.
Canada-Manitoba Northern Development Agreement.
[Winnipeg?]: 1990. v, 64 p. Tables.
Progress report, 1989-90.
This report presents an overview of the Agreement and its establishment, and the progress by
each program under the Agreement. Programs include community/regional economic
development planning, resource opportunity development, Northeast Manitoba development,
resource development (forestry, parks, agriculture, wildlife), local government development,
Canada career opportunities, employment programs and services, Indian professional
development, Northern Manitoba affirmative action, relocation and support services, youth
development, community services for northern Indian communities and for northern provincial
communities, and remote airstrips. A summary of expenditures is included. Tables include:
38 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
employment by sex/ancestry; female and/or Native persons assisted in job search; outreach
projects (jobs for Native persons); affirmative action program.
Canada-Manitoba Northern Development Agreement.
[Winnipeg?]: 1989. v, 83 p.
Progress report, 1988-89.
See 1989-90 report for annotation.
Canada-Manitoba Northern Development Agreement.
[Winnipeg?]: 1988. vi, 87 p.
Progress report, 1987-88.
See 1989-90 report for annotation.
Coates, K.S. Indian participation in the economy: draft discussion paper.
University of Victoria, 1986. 33 p. Bibliography. Tables.
Victoria, B.C.:
(Yukon 2000 series)
This background paper, prepared for the Yukon Economic Development Strategy Fall
Conference, analyzes the participation of Indians in the Yukon economy. It discusses their
history, aspirations and the effectiveness of government initiatives. It includes tables on average
earnings, family incomes, participation rates in the labour force, percentage of labour force
employed, and representation in labour force by sector. It compares native and non-native, male
and female, 15 years of age and over, using data based mainly on the 1981 census, as well as
other information. It also lists employment projects and analyses the effectiveness of these up
to 1984.
Franks, C.E.S. "Native Canadians: the question of their participation in northern public
services." Population Research and Policy Review 8:79-95, Jan. 1989. Bibliography. Tables.
The article describes disproportionate under representation of Native population employed in
government, based on 1981 census data. It includes some consideration of the demands for
representative bureaucracy and the alleged failure of the educational system to produce a
sufficient number of qualified graduates.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 39
Hobart, Charles W. "Industrial employment of rural indigenes: the case of Canada."
Human Organization 41(1):54 - 63, 1982.
An examination of the industrial employment experience of North American Indians and Inuit
(Eskimos) in northern Canada. Information is presented on the preparation of these peoples for
industrial employment, the quality of their work performance, and their social adjustment at the
work site. The adjustment of the workers' families under relocation and worker rotation
conditions is discussed, including consequences for wives and children, and their attitudes toward
employment of the husband/father. A review of employment impacts on native communities
includes the effects of hunting and trapping, community leadership and participation, and
retention of traditional cultures, a salient concern among Canadian native peoples today. These
findings are related to employment of indigenes in other countries. 3 Tables, 24 References. HA
(Copyright 1984, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Institute for Research on Public Policy.Alternatives to social assistance in Indian
communities, edited by Cassidy, Frank; Seward, Shirley B. Halifax: Institute for Research
on Public Policy, 1991. xiii, 116 p. Tables.
This book resulted from the March 1990 National Workshop on Approaches to Welfare Reform
in Indian Communities, sponsored by the Institute. It is concerned with such matters as: the fact
that the current approach of federal and provincial governments to social assistance in First
Nations communities is not working, that it is seen as culturally insensitive and excessively
costly, that it encourages dependence upon governments; and the movement towards the exercise
by First Nations of more of their powers of self-government. New, community-based approaches
are needed. The social conditions, employment, job creation programmes, and social assistance
programmes, of Indian communities are discussed, and alternatives are proposed. Tables show
employment figures for population of reserves, compared to non-native workers. Prefatory
material in English and French.
Institute for Research on Public Policy. The dynamics of government programs for urban
Indians in the Prairie Provinces, by Breton, Raymond; Grant, Gail. Montreal: Institute for
Research on Public Policy, 1984. xcv, 628 p. Bibliography. Tables. Charts.
Focuses on employment and economic development, education, law and justice, health, welfare,
and housing.
40 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Institute for Research on Public Policy. Rebuilding the economic base of Indian communities:
the Micmac in Nova Scotia, by Wien, Fred. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public
Policy, 1986. 'Div, 200 p. Bibliography.
This publication analyzes contemporary conditions of Micmac Indians compared to non-Indians.
The economic history of the Micmac in Nova Scotia is detailed, and the contemporary
demographic, educational and employment patterns of the population are examined. An overview
of the four important social science theories that apply to the population is given. Policies and
strategies to promote development of both on- and off-reserve populations are elaborated. Uses
1975-76 and 1980-81 statistics from a comprehensive original database.
Kariya, Paul Hideo. The Indian reserve as a negotiated reality: the social worlds of Indian
leaders and Department of Indian Affairs officials in the Northwest District of British
Columbia. Ph.D thesis, 1987, Clark University. 535 p.
This dissertation examines the socio-economic development problems of Canadian Indians as
exemplified by the case of fifteen Indian bands in northwestern British Columbia. Often
characterized as a landscape of despair, the Indian reserve is treated as the manifestation of a
relationship between the social worlds of the Indian leader and Department of Indian Affairs
administrator. Employing the notion of two social worlds and the concept of insider and outsider
meanings, the objective of the thesis is to explore and understand the themes which emerge from
each world and at the interface between them. Primary data collection was effected through a
participant observation methodology during three and one-half years of fieldwork. Taking on the
role of an employee within a district office of the Department of Indian Affairs, I maintained
a journal focusing upon actors, actions, activities and accounts. A key fmding of the study is
that, despite poor level of living statistics, the aboriginal societies of northwestern British
Columbia have never totally collapsed. Outlets for power, status and self expression exist. More
importantly, hereditary leadership structures have survived and continue to be an important
institution in the communities. Similarly, the social world of the Department of Indian Affairs
administrator is textured with the desire by individuals for self expression. A bureaucratic ethos
only masks the cliques, quest for office space and uncertainty about job duties. Numerous
socio-economic development policies designed by government have failed because they have not
been sensitive to the context and taken-for-granted reality of both the client and public service
deliverer. Where effective examples of policy development and program implementation exist,
they tend to be locally negotiated as opposed to nationally developed. Progress in Indian reserve
development appears to be predicated upon the emergence of key charismatic leaders in both
social worlds who can understand the outside and inside meanings of the other's social world.
Only in this manner can co-constructive approaches to changes be formulated and only with this
formulation can the dependency based on internal colonialism be broken. (Dissertation Abstracts
International, vol.49/05-A, page 1241)
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
41
Kativik Regional Government (Quebec). Inuit support program for hunting, fishing, and
trapping activities: annual report 1986. Quebec: The Administration, 1987. 66 p. Illus.
The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (1975) has sections that provide for programs
directed at supporting Inuit hunting, fishing and trapping employment. The annual report
discusses grant allocations from the Agreement that support related activities of materials
purchases, organization of search and rescue operations, developing hunting, fishing and trapping
areas, the marketing of products, preservation, improvement and restoration of wildlife habitats,
and other activities. Includes a list of payments to each Inuit community with selected
expenditure details. Bilingual.
Makivik Corporation. Employment and income patterns in northern Quebec: summary:
"Colonised in our homeland - Colonises chez nous". Fort Chimo, Quebec, 1984. 119 p. 15
tables.
The study looks at Inuit living north of the 55th parallel in Quebec and compares them to nonInuit to see if there is a discrepancy in employment and income, analyses the disparity and
makes 32 recommendations for solutions. It includes 28 tables, including Inuit employment
breakdown per profession, impact of co-operatives in northern Quebec, income patterns and
working age population breakdown in the N.W.T. It excludes traditional activities: hunting,
fishing, trapping. Bilingual.
Manitoba. Aboriginal Advisory Committee. Civil service: Aboriginal needs assessment survey
report. Winnipeg: Aboriginal Advisory Committee, 1991. 118 p. Bibliography. Mus.
This study has been undertaken to assess the employment situation of Aboriginal people in
government. The survey addresses the obstacles and challenges facing Aboriginal people in the
Manitoba government. This document contains statistical data and an impact analysis which
identify the special measures and opportunities needed to change the employment situation of
Aboriginal people in the civil service.
Morrow, Jeff. "Job study finds Native women discriminated against."
v.7(41): 2, Dec.15, 1989, p.2.
Windspeaker,
This article reports on Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women figures on the labour
force experience of women, which show that no improvements have been realized in the four
years since the Secretary of State released its study Native women: a statistical overview. Also
refers to the findings of the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives report on Aboriginal
peoples in the banking sector, and National Employment Equity Network research.
42 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Native People of Thunder Bay Development Corp. Shattered dreams: an employment and
related needs study of native women in Thunder Bay. [Thunder Bay, Ontario], 1983. 50 p.
Tables.
The study analyses the employment needs of native women living in Thunder Bay. It contains
29 tables including statistics on length of previous employment, duration of employment at
present job, gross income while employed, occupational status, and barriers to prevent
attendance at training programs. It makes 17 recommendations for improving their situation.
New Brunswick. Dept. of Education. Closing the gap: the native Indian students achievement
study, by Hamilton, W. D. Fredericton: Dept. of Education, 1991. x, 123 p.
This document reports on the study which examined the academic performance of First Nations
students in attendance at New Brunswick schools relative to that of non-Native students. It offers
recommendations for educational improvements for the Native school population.
New Brunswick Human Rights Commission. Occupation segregation and inequality between
Native and non-Native Canadians: a report submitted to the New Brunswick Human Rights
Commission, by Lautard, E. Hugh. Fredericton: The Author, 1982. v, 38 p. Bibliography.
Document not seen for annotation.
Northwest Territories. Bureau of Statistics. Renewable resource harvester survey, winter
1990: overall results. Yellowknife: Bureau of Statistics, 1991. iv, 42 p.
Presents the results of this survey, which was completed during the winter of 1990. Topics
covered in the survey and in this report include demographic characteristics of native households
and the level of involvement in trapping, in hunting and fishing, in wage employment, and in
traditional crafts. Other topics covered are household income, consumption of country food,
types of harvesting equipment owned, and operating costs of harvesting.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 43
Oishi, Mitsuko. Native education and labour market segmentation: a thesis submitted to the
Graduate Studies and Research Department, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Master of Education in Intercultural Education.(Department of Educational
Foundations, University of Alberta). Edmonton, Alberta, 1985. 186p. Bibliography.
18 tables.
The thesis examines representations of native people in four major sectors of the economy of
the Northwest Territories, using statistics from 1971 and 1981 Canada census. It focuses its
research on the monopoly and competitive sectors and compares how employment of Natives
in the different sectors changed as Natives' level of education increased in the ten years.
Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship. Working Group on Employment Equity. Status report:
Ontario Native population. Prepared by ABT Associates for the Working Group on
Employment Equity. Toronto: Working Group on Employment Equity, Ministry of
Citizenship, 1989. 58 p. Tables.
Tables show demographic characteristics, labour force activity by sex, native population, (1981
statistics), education (to 1982).
Ontario Women's Directorate. Economic status of Native women in Ontario; prepared by
Nicholson, J. Phillip, Policy and Management Consultants Inc. Toronto: Ontario
Women's Directorate, 1987. 55 p., 7 1. Graphs. Tables.
Review of Native population, labour force and selected income data for both sexes, with
comparison to non-Native population. Some interprovincial comparisons. Six of the 15 tables
deal with labour force, occupation, work history (part- and full-time). Data from 1981 Census.
Provides information on the development of policies and programs that address the concerns of
Native women and provides baseline data to facilitate the on-going assessment of the economic
status of Native women, and to measure their progress through a demographic overview of
Native women in Ontario. Describes and assesses the current economic conditions, and
circumstances affecting Native women and reviews disparities and inequities in the economic
status and prospects facing Native women with comparisons to Native men, non-Native men and
women and Native peoples in other provinces and highlights major bathers facing Native women
in economic and employment development.
44 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Ontario Women's Directorate. Employment equity for Aboriginal women: putting skills to
work. Prepared in conjunction with the Ontario Metis and Aboriginal Association. Toronto:
Ontario Women's Directorate, 1991. 47 p. Tables.
Includes graphs and charts on demographic characteristics, income, labour force participation,
occupational groups, and education. Bilingual: L'equite en matiere d'emploi pour les femmes
autochtones.
Ponting, J. Rick.(ed.) Arduous journey: Canadian Indians and decolonization.
McClelland and Stewart, 1986. 413 p. Tables.
Toronto:
A collection of papers by various authors, edited by Ponting, on different aspects of the
"decolonization" of the Indian peoples in recent times. Tables include distribution of Status
Indians in the experienced labour force, by occupational category, sex, age education, etc.
Priest, G.E. "Aboriginal youth in Canada: a profile based upon 1981 census data."
Canadian Statistical Review 60:vi-xxiii, Sept. 1985. Tables. Charts.
Mobility status, family status, level of schooling, school attendance, labour force participation,
occupation and income of the Inuit, status Indian, non-status Indian, Metis, and non aboriginal
populations aged 15 to 24.
Quebec. Secretariat aux affaires autochtones. The Aboriginal peoples and Quebec: the road
to the present. Montreal: Gouvernement du Quebec, Ministere du Conseil executif,
Secretariat aux affaires autochtones, 1991. 38 p. Bibliography.
This document, prepared for a series of four regional conferences held in the Fall of 1991,
examines the current condition of Quebec's Aboriginal people, their relations with other
Quebeckers and with the Quebec government, and Quebec's initiatives with respect to Aboriginal
affairs. Following an overview of the demography, social conditions, culture, economy and
political structure of Quebec's Aboriginal people, it describes the stages which have marked
relations between the Quebec government and Aboriginal people over the last 30 years.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
45
Stabler, Jack C. "Dualism and development in the Northwest Territories." Economic
Development and Cultural Change 37:805-839, 1989. Tables. Charts.
Discusses whether the dual economy is beneficial to the aboriginal people. Some emphasis on
occupation choice, types of jobs available in the modern sector, whether there is a queue in
which people wait for a job in the modern economy.
Stabler, Jack C.; Howe, Eric C. "Native participation in Northern development: the
impending crisis in the NWT." Canadian Public Policy/Analyze de politiques 16:262-283,
1990. Bibliography. Tables.
Describes efforts of the federal and territorial governments to develop the Canadian Northwest
Territories during the past 40 years, and the economic prospects to 2000.
Stabler, Jack C. "A utility analysis of activity patterns of Native males in the Northwest
Territories." Economic Development and Cultural Change 39:47-60, 1990.
A mixed economy involving both wage employment and subsistence harvesting has developed
in remote regions of northern Canada and Alaska in which most native people are participants.
Here, 1984 survey data are used to investigate the individual activity patterns of
English-speaking native males (N = 6,000+) ages 15-44 in the Northwest Territories, drawing
on a particularized version of the allocation of time theory. Results provide a much more
satisfactory interpretation of activity patterns of native people than do alternative received
theories. 3 Tables, 3 Figures. Modified AA (Copyright 1991, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all
rights reserved.)
University of Winnipeg. Institute of Urban Studies. The effects of length of urban residency
on Native labour market behaviour, by Clatworthy, Stewart J. Winnipeg, 1983. 44p.
Bibliography. Tables.
Using data from Institute of Urban Studies Native Data Base, the author tries to determine if
there is a relationship between the length of residence in the city for native people and their
participation in the labour market. He concludes that there is none. However, he fmds their
participation in the labour force is affected by their level of education, sex, age and the Native
group to which they belong. This study was sponsored by the Federal Task Force on Labour
Market Development, Department of Employment and Immigration. (Available: Indian and
Northern Affairs Canada Library, Hull, Quebec)
46 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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University of Winnipeg. Institute of Urban Studies. Native women and work: summary
report of a Winnipeg survey, by Hull, Jeremy. Winnipeg, 1983. 54 p. Bibliography.
16 tables.
(University of Winnipeg. Institute of Urban Studies. Report, no.2)
This is a summary of major fmdings of a 1982 survey of 182 native women living in Winnipeg.
The purpose of the survey was to learn more about the opinions of native women on
employment, child care, career aspirations,and what they perceive as barriers to employment.
It includes 16 tables on issues ranging from job preferences, educational attainment, job tenure
comparisons, occupational distribution by educational attainment, and the subjects' opinions on
the probability of being employed as managers.
Wagg, Dana. "CBC 'not happy' with hiring record (for Natives and other visible
minorities)." Windspeaker 7(22):5, August 4, 1989.
Discusses results of Employment Equity report regarding Aboriginal peoples at CBC.
Wagg, Dana. "Few Natives hired by CBC on prairies." Windspeaker 7(22):3, August 4,
1989.
Document not seen for annotation.
Young, R. A.; McDermott, Peter. "Employment training programs and acculturation of
native peoples in Canada's Northwest Territories." Arctic 41(3):195-202, 1988. Graphic.
Bibliography.
This article presents a critical analysis of current training programs in the Northwest Territories,
with statistical tables.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 47
2.3.2 PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
Baker, David. "The next generation: anticipating equality issues in employment for disabled
people in Canada." Rehabilitation Digest 20(3):3-9, Fall 1989. Bibliography.
Document not seen for annotation.
Barrett, Tammy D. "Employing disabled persons: bona fide occupational requirement or
qualification, reasonable accommodation and the tolerance of safety risk." Windsor
Yearbook of Access to Justice 9:154-182, 1989.
On disabled persons' employment rights and employers' responsibilities; what is a bona fide
occupational requirement or qualification; what constitutes "reasonable accommodation", and the
tolerance of safety risk.
British Columbia. Premier's Advisory Council for Persons with Disabilities. A Closer look:
a profile of people with disabilities in British Columbia, published through the collaborative
efforts of the Premier's Advisory Council for Persons with Disabilities...et al. Victoria: The
Council, 1992. 48 p. Illus.
This document focuses on demographic characteristics of persons with disabilities in B.C. It
outlines the conditions most often identified as limiting the activities of British Columbians and
considers factors such as education, employment, and income which affect their livelihood and
independence. It provides both measured facts and personal accounts of several individuals who
have disabilities.
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Basic statistical information on persons
with disabilities in Canada. Ottawa: Dept. of the Secretary of State, Status of Disabled
Persons Secretariat, 1990. 7 p. Tables.
This document consists of tables based on the Health and Activity Limitation Survey 1986,
including disability rates by age group; nature of limitations by sex; severity of disability, by
sex; highest level of schooling, comparing disabled and non-disabled; labour force status by sex
and age group; labour force status of women comparing disabled and non-disabled; and average
employment earnings by age and sex comparing disabled and non-disabled. Bilingual.
48 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. An economic profile of persons with
disabilities in Canada, by Ross, David P.; Shillington, E. Richard. Ottawa: Secretary of
State of Canada, 1990. iii, 72 p. Tables.
Based on statistics from the Health and Activity Limitations Survey 1986, the report describes
the economic problems that persons with disabilities experience. It analyzes factors that are
associated with success and failure in employment, and includes general profiles of noninstitutionalized persons with disabilities who are 15 years and over, living in Canada. It also
includes a detailed economic profile of the same group; an analysis of data concerning the
experience of the persons with disabilities in the labour market; and statistical regression analysis
of factors associated with success or failure in the labour market.
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Profile of disabled persons in Canada.
Ottawa: Dept. of the Secretary of State, Social Trends Analysis Directorate, 1986. 23,
23 p. Tables.
A selected summary, from a social perspective, of data from the Canadian Health and Disability
Survey 1983-84, using short texts and graphs. Its focus is on identifying areas where progress
has been made in improving the status of persons with disabilities in Canada. It also points to
areas that still need improvement. It combines data from October 1983 and June 1984 from
CHADS and weights them to estimate the population as of June, 1984. Out of 126,698
interviewed, 15,854 adults and 3,382 children were identified as disabled. Bilingual (Profil des
personnes vivant...).
Canada. Parliament. Library. Research Branch. Status of disabled persons, by Young, W.
R. Rev. ed. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Research Branch, 1991. 27 p. Bibliography.
(Canada. Parliament. Library. Research Branch. Current issue review, 86-17E)
On 31 May 1988, Statistics Canada released the results of its Health and Activity Limitation
Survey which showed that there were 3.3 million Canadians with a disability. Such people
comprised 13.2 percent of the population in 1986-87. This paper provides definitions of
disability; and discusses increased visibility of persons with disabilities; evolution of
organizations of persons with disabilities; and evolution of major issues including social
programs and services, employment, transportation, taxation, rights and court challenges, deinstitutionalization and independent living, immigration, and coordination of federal policy.
French ed.: La condition des personnes....
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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49
Canada. Statistics Canada. Adults with disabilities: their employment and education
characteristics: 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1993.
376 p. Tables.
This publication presents data from the 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS '91),
a post-censal survey conducted after the 1991 Census. It provides information on employment
and education characteristics of persons aged 15-64 residing in households, both for disabled and
non-disabled. It also includes information on barriers encountered by persons with disabilities
in the areas of employment. Tables are provided for Canada, the provinces and territories, and
for selected census metropolitan areas. Bilingual: Characteristiques de l'emploi et du niveau de
scolarite chez les adultes ayant une incapacite.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Blindness and visual impairment in Canada, by Naeyaert,
Kathleen. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1990. 76 p. Tables.
(Health and Activity Limitation Survey. Special topic report series, vot 3)
The data are from the 1986-1987 Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS), a post-censal
survey of persons with disabilities. This report compares demographic and socio-economic
characteristics of the 450,000 adults with vision impairment residing in households and those of
the non-disabled adult population. It also discusses the barriers faced in everyday activities by
people with vision impairment. Tables include data on age, marital status, education, and labour
force activity. Available on audio-cassette. Bilingual: La cecite et la deficience visuelle au
Canada.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health and Disability Survey.
Statistics Canada, 1984.
(Data File). Ottawa:
The survey was initiated by Statistics Canada, in response to the recommendations of the
Parliamentary Committee on the Disabled and the Handicapped, in its report Obstacles (1981).
The purpose of the Survey was to generate comprehensive data on persons with disabilities in
Canada. Data were collected in 1983 and 1984, using forms, by the Household Surveys Division
for the Health Division. Geographical coverage excluded Yukon and Northwest Territories,
residents of institutions, persons living on Indian reserves. Sample size was 126,698 (adults),
and 59,195 (children less than 15 years). CHADS became HALS with the 1986-87 Survey.
50 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Canada. Statistics Canada. Canadians with impaired hearing, by Schein, Jerome D. Ottawa:
Statistics Canada, 1992. 80 p. Tables.
(Health and Activity Limitation Survey. Special topic report series, vol. 5)
This report analyzes data from the 1986-1987 Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS)
for persons with impaired hearing residing in households. It deals with the severity and cause
of hearing impairments by age of onset and gender. The use of technical aids and the number
and nature of other disabilities is also analyzed. The report compares the population with
impaired hearing with the non-disabled population for such variables as marital status, family
structure, education, employment and income. Available on audio cassette. Bilingual: La
deficience auditive au Canada.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Health and Activity Limitation Survey: selected data for Canada,
provinces and territories. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1989. 52 p.Tables.
Presents selected data from the 1986-1987 Health and Activity Limitation Survey, for Canada,
the provinces, and the territories.
Canada. Statistics Canada. A profile of the disabled, by Furrie, Adele; Coombs, John.
Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1990. 42 p. Tables.
The 1986 Census identified the disabled population for the first time. Based on this, further data
were collected through a post-census sample survey to present this profile of persons with
disabilities in Canada. Audio cassette available. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Report of the Canadian Health and Disability Survey, 1983-84.
Ottawa, 1986. 108 p. Tables.
The report presents data on: demographics (e.g.urban or rural residency), types of disability,
use of aids and prostheses, socio-economic disadvantage, education, accommodation,
employment, Labour Force Survey characteristics,and disabled children.Data were collected
from 126,698 adults, 15 years of age and over, and 59,195 children under 15 in the provinces.
It excluded the territories, residents of institutions, persons living on Indian reserves and those
with psychiatric disabilities. CHADS evolved into HALS, the Health and Activity Limitation
Survey. Bilingual.
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Canada. Statistics Canada. Selected socio-economic consequences of disability for women in
Canada; prepared by Harvey, Edward B. and Tepperman, Lorne. Ottawa: Minister of
Supply and Services Canada, 1990. 69 p. Tables.
(Health and Activity Limitation Survey. Special topic report series, vol.2) (Employment
Equity User file no.5.4)
The data are from the 1986-1987 Health and Activity Limitation Survey(HALS), a post-censal
survey of persons with disabilities residing in Canada. This report focuses on women with
disabilities aged 15 and over residing in households in Canada, the provinces and territories; it
compares various socio-economic characteristics of this population to men with disabilities and
to the non-disabled population. Sections include: General characteristics; Education; and Labour
force characteristics. Also discusses the type and severity of women's disabilities and the barriers
these women face in everyday activities. Available on audio-cassette. Bilingual: Certaines
consequences socio-economiques de l'incapacite pour les femmes au Canada.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Employment Equity Data Program. The economic well-being
and labour market activity of persons with disabilities in Canada, by Hum, Derek; Simpson,
Wayne. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1993. 51 p. Tables.
The purpose of the study is to describe the socio-economic characteristics of persons of working
age with disabilities compared to non-disabled population using data from HALS (1986 and
1989 LMAS tables). It also tests whether the HALS questions on measuring disabilities are of
use in examining the work patterns of persons with disabilities in the LMAS survey; and it
presents an initial econometric investigation of the earnings and hours worked of persons with
and without disabilities. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Employment Equity Data Program. Profile of persons with
disabilities (limited at work). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1992. 128 p. Tables.
This report profiles persons with disabilities, aged 15-64, who are limited at work. Data were
obtained from the 1986 Health and Activity Limitation Survey and the 1986 Census. Data are
presented for Canada, the provinces, and the 8 Employment Equity designated Census
Metropolitan Areas. Information is presented on the nature and severity of disability, marital
status, highest level of schooling, effect of education on disability, major field of study, official
language spoken, living arrangements, total income, transportation, special aids used by persons
with different types of disabilities, and labour force characteristics. Bilingual.
52 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Canada. Statistics Canada. Health Division. Health and Activity Limitation Survey;
highlights: disabled persons in Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1990. 151 p. Tables.
This report presents data from the Health and Activity Limitation Survey conducted in
households in 1986 and in health-related institutions in 1987, as part of Statistics Canada's
ongoing commitment to build and maintain a national database on disability. This survey was
the first "post-censal" survey. Details of the sample design are provided. The target population
consisted of all persons with a physical or psychological disability living in Canada, including
residents of all provinces and both territories, and persons living on reserves. The profile
includes selected demographic data as well as information on the nature and severity of
disability, lifestyle, out-of-pocket expenses, income, and the barriers encountered in everyday
activities. Data are presented for various age groups, at the Canada, province and territory
levels. Audio-cassette and microdata files are available. Bilingual: Faits saillants: personnes
ayant une incapacite au Canada
Canada. Statistics Canada. Health Division. Highlights from the Canadian Health and
Disability Survey, 1983-84. Ottawa: 1985: 38 p. Tables.
This preliminary report presents tabulations showing the levels and socio-demographic correlates
of disability in the Canadian population aged 15 and over, based on data from a household
sample survey conducted in October 1983 and June 1984. The estimates are based on a sample
of 65,800 households representing 126,698 individuals. Also available on tape under reference
82-563T.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Health Division. Subprovincial/subterritorial data: Health and
Activity Limitation Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1989. 12 v. Tables.
These publications, from the 1986-1987 Health and Activity Limitation Survey, consist of one
report for each province and territory in Canada, and include data from approximately 225
subprovincial and subterritorial areas. They present a statistical profile of the disabled population
residing in households, with one table ("Selected demographic characteristics of disabled
persons, for Canada, provinces, and territories") including the institutions sample. Included in
this profile are selected demographic data from the 1986 Census of Canada as well as
information on the nature and severity of the disability, the barriers encountered in education,
employment, accommodation, transportation and leisure activities, the type of technical aids used
or needed and any out-of-pocket expenses and income as a result of the health condition. The
statistics are estimates based on a sample survey from a portion of the Canadian population:
approx. 1 out of 25 persons who answered "Yes" to the disability question in the Census long
questionnaire (which was completed by 20% of households), and 1 out of 300 persons who
answered "No," together with approx. 20,000 individuals residing in health-related institutions.
Bilingual: Donnees infraprovinciales.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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Canada. Statistics Canada. Institutions and Social Statistics Branch. Health and Activity
Limitation Survey (HALS). (Data File). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1987.
A post-censal disability survey to identify the numbers and distribution of persons with
disabilities in Canada and the barriers experienced by them in such areas as employment,
transportation, education and community support. The survey frame was the 1986 Census, with
a sample size of 200,000 individuals from private households.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division. Disability and
the labour market; an analysis of disabled persons not in the labour force, by Cohen, Gary
L. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1989. 29 p. Tables.
(Employment Equity user file no. 5.1)
This report presents a comparative analysis of persons with disabilities (limited at work) who
are in the labour force and those who are not in the labour force. It outlines the main factors
associated with the high level of non-participation among disabled persons who are limited at
work. The most important factors determining the labour force status of persons with disabilities
were found to be educational attainment, or highest level of schooling, and whether the
disability occurred before or after formal education was completed. Data for this report were
obtained in the 1986 Health and Activity Limitation Survey, from 1,768,000 subjects, 15 to 64
years of age, living in Canada, 10 provinces and 2 territories. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division. Labour
market activity of disabled persons in Canada, by Gower, David E. Ottawa: Statistics
Canada, 1988. 96 p. Tables.
(Labour analytic report no.1)
Using data from the Canadian Health and Disability Survey (1983-84), this study attempts to
answer questions raised in Statistics Canada's Report of the Canadian Health and Disability
Survey (1986): specifically, To what extent is a disabled person's participation in the labour
market influenced by education, age, and degree of disability? The Survey covered the same
population as the Labour Force Survey, that is, it excluded residents of the Yukon and the
Northwest Territories, residents of Indian reserves, inmates of institutions, and members of the
Canadian Armed Forces. Bilingual: Activite sur le marche du travail des canadiens atteints d'une
incapacite.
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Canada. Statistics Canada. Post-Censal Surveys Program. Health and Activity Limitation
Survey (HALS) 1986: Household Component (Data File). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1988.
Tables.
This post-censal disability survey, carried out in Fall 1986, was undertaken in order to identify
the numbers and distribution of persons with disabilities, including children, in Canada, and the
barriers experienced by them in such areas as employment, transportation, education and
community support. The survey frame was the 1986 Census. The sample size was 200,000
(individuals living in private households), from an estimated universe of 3,070,000. Information
collection was by interview. Several related publications have been released. Bilingual.
Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre. Transportation and
disabled persons: a Canadian profile: summary report, by Geehan, T. E.; Geehan, R. R.;
Smith, T. N. Rev. ed. Montreal, Transportation Development Centre, 1988. iv, 20 p.
Bibliography. Illus.
Analysis of the incidence of disabled persons in the Canadian population. Data are from the
Canadian Health and Disability Survey conducted in October 1983 and June 1984, and the
Transportation Survey of Special Care Facilities, conducted in May 1984. A review of the
numbers, types and causes of disability, as well as the education, employment, income,
travelling habits and transportation needs of disabled Canadians is given. French ed.:Le transport
des personnes....
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Research Division. A Socio-demographic
profile of Canadians experiencing health or activity limitations, by Rostum, H.; Thonney, E.
Editors: Karnig, Albert K.; McClain, Paula D. Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing
Corporation, Research Division, 1991. vii, 84 p. thus.
This document includes a profile of disabled persons by type of disability. It includes a
rural-urban comparison. The profile focuses on males and females, age groups, labour force
status, occupation, tenure, and income status. It also includes a profile of disabled persons by
severity of disability. It provides household comparisons and looks at housing situations.
Canadian Human Rights Advocate. "Disability groups file 9 equity cases." Vol.4 no.10,
pp.1, 13-14, December 1988.
Document not seen for annotation.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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55
Gower, David. "Employment of disabled Canadians." Canadian Social Trends, Summer
1988. p. 30-32.
Using data from the Ontario Ministry 'of Health's Survey of non-institutionalized physically
handicapped persons in Ontario: socio-demographic and need-related characteristics(Toronto:
1982), compares disabled and abled employment related to education. Gives comparative tables
on employment and education from the Statistics Canada publication The Labour Force, 19791980.
Jordan-Simpson, Deborah A.; Dowler, Judith M. "Disabled women in Canada: fmdings of
the Health and Activity Limitation Survey." Chronic Diseases in Canada 11:30-32, Mar.
1990. Charts.
Women living in households and in institutions, 1986 and 1987. Data on the severity and nature
of the disability, health care use, labour force participation, and the need for assistance with
selected activities.
Ontario. Handicapped Employment Program. Resource list: Handicapped Employment
Program. Toronto: The Program, 1987. 58 p.
Contains list of Program's brochures and information kits with title and intended audience.
Articles listed are categorized by the following subject areas: affirmative action; attitudes and
awareness; accommodations, aids and adaptation; physical, mental retardation, learning disabled,
and mental disorder disabilities; government as employer; human rights; information to job
seekers; organized labour; rehabilitation; employment statistics; transportation; and women with
disabilities. Also includes locations of outreach recruitment lists and employer resource
guides, and titles and brief explanatory note of films and videos available.
Ontario. Manpower Commission. Employment and the physically handicapped.
Ministry of Labour, 1982.
Toronto:
This study uses data derived from the Ontario Ministry of Health Survey of non-institutionalized
physically handicapped persons in Ontario (1982), and from Statistics Canada's Labour force,
1979-1980. Gives comparative tables on employment and education.
56 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship. Working Group on Employment Equity. Status report:
persons with disabilities. Toronto: Ministry of Citizenship, 1989. 97 p. Tables.
This report, prepared for the Working Group by ABT Associates of Canada, describes the
situation of persons with disabilities in relation to the work force in Ontario. Tables show
education, labour force participation, demographic characteristics of the employed,
unemployment, work experience, job-seeking experience, by sex and age.
Ontario. Ministry of Health. Survey of non-institutionalized physically handicapped persons
in Ontario: socio-demographic and need-related characteristics.Toronto: Ministry of Health,
1982. 150 p. Tables.
The report presents data obtained in a household survey conducted in 1980 in response to the
needs of volunteer agencies and government departments for more accurate information on the
physical problems and needs of physically handicapped persons living outside of institutions. A
preliminary survey defined what was meant by the term "handicapped." The data are derived
from interviews with 1,764 physically handicapped persons. Description of the survey methods
and sample design, data limitations, questionnaire, and related studies are included. 17 of the
69 tables are in the section on "Employment and Job Training."
Ontario. Office for Disabled Persons. Statistical profile of disabled persons in Ontario.
Toronto: Office for Disabled Persons, 1988. 14, 14 p.
Detailed data on the disabled population of Ontario, taken from an analysis of data from the
Canadian Health and Disability Survey of 1983-4 undertaken by Statistics Canada. Tables show
data describing characteristics of persons with disabilities (prevalence, age distribution, age and
marital status, disabling conditions, types and severity of disability), and factors affecting
independent living, such as assistive devices, accommodation, personal assistance, education,
school attendance, employment, workplace modification, income and transportation. Bilingual
(Profit statistique des...).
•
Ontario. Office for Disabled Persons. Statistical profile of disabled persons in Ontario, vol.
IL Toronto: Office for Disabled Persons, 1990. 25, 25 p.
Presents characteristics of disabled persons, and identifies factors affecting independent living.
Discusses education, employment, expenditures, transportation, and leisure activities, as they
relate to persons with disabilities. Bilingual (Profit statistique des personnes...).
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57
Roeher (G. Allan) Institute. On target? Canada's employment-related programs for persons
with disabilities. North York, Ont.: Roeher Institute, 1992. xvii, 235 p.
Persons with disabilities are seriously under-represented in the labour force. This document
outlines this problem across gender, age, geography, occupation, and a number of other lines.
It provides a 'snapshot' of the broad policy and program framework that can either contribute
to the problem or assist in counteracting it. It also looks at the problem of low participation in
the labour force from a variety of perspectives: human rights; addressing labour market
disadvantage; personal support and rehabilitation; training and education; the delivery of
counselling, placement, information and follow-up services; and the impact of income security
measures.
Roslin, A. "What employment? What equity? Progress in the Decade of Disabled Persons."
Canadian Dimension 24(8):16-19, 1990.
Discusses the application of the Employment Equity Act to persons with disabilities, with tables
indicating failure of the Act and of Human Rights Commission enforcement.
Toronto. Planning and Development Dept. Integration and independence: a demographic
Toronto:
profile of people with disabilities, and policy options for the 1991 Central Area Plan.
City of Toronto Planning and Development Dept., 1990. vi,
76 p. Bibliography. Illus.
Presents information on the incidence of disability by age and jurisdiction, and projections,
functional limitations, activity restrictions and dependency; and education, labour force activity
and income. Discusses the implications of the issues, the policy context and initiatives of the
City, and planning policies for the future. Includes recommendations.
Walker, Cathy. "Employment rights of people with disabilities: a union perspective."
Rehabilitation Digest, vol. 20 no.4, February 1990, pp.14-19. Tables. Bibliography.
Document not seen for annotation.
58
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"Why business is hiring the mentally abled." Canadian Business 64(5), May 1991, p. 19.
plain business sense is responsible for recruiting among the 3.3 million physically disabled
Canadians. Over 1,000 people with disabilities are employed by Bell Canada, representing 2%
of its permanent workforce. Recent Statistics Canada figures show 52.2% of Canada's
working-age disabled are unemployed. Ray Cohen, publisher of Abilities, a lifestyle magazine
marketed to disabled people, says federal legislation (passed in 1986) should have real power
by 1992. The Ontario government has proposed a bill whereby a company with a $300,000-plus
payroll could be fined up to $200,000 if it discriminates.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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2.3.3 VISIBLE MINORITIES
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Employment of ethnic groups in the
federal and provincial governments; prepared for Multiculturalism, Policy Research and
Analysis Division, Secretary of State, by Rostum, Hussein. Ottawa: TEEGA Research
Consultants, 1988. vi, 35 1. Tables.
The report describes employment of ethnic groups (including visible minorities as defmed by
employment equity legislation) in provincial and federal governments, showing labour force
activity by ethnic origin, sex, and income, for Canada, the provinces and territories, and the
Ottawa-Hull metropolitan area, using data from the 1981 Census.
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Employment of ethnic groups in the
clothing, textile, knitting mill, and leather industries; prepared for Multiculturalism, Policy
Research and Analysis Division, Secretary of State, by Thonney, Eliane. Ottawa: TEEGA
Research Consultants, 1988. iii, 20 p. Tables.
Describes the employment of ethnic groups in the clothing, textile, knitting and leather industries
in Canada using data from the 1981 Census. Tables and statistics highlight labour force activity
by ethnic origin, sex and industry; includes data on visible minorities as defmed by employment
equity legislation.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Employment
and Immigration Commission and employment of visible minorities. Ottawa, Employment and
Immigration Canada, Employment Equity Branch, 1990. 32 p. tables.
Provides information and analysis of the numbers, distribution and employment status of visible
minorities in Canada. The employment situation of sub-groups of visible minority groups are
analyzed. The main source of data is the 1986 Census and other material based on it.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch.
Socioeconomic comparisons among Employment Equity visible minority subgroups and the
reference population, by Urban Dimensions Group Inc. Ottawa: Employment and
Immigration Canada, 1991. 3 v. Tables.
This is a 3-volume report examining the relationship between different visible minority subgroups and various socio-economic variables, using 1986 census statistics to compare minorities
with the total population in each geographical area examined. Volume 1 presents tables on
visible minority sub-groups by sex and educational levels, and a multi-variate analysis of data
60 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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using multiple regression techniques. Volume 2 presents tables on visible minority sub-groups
by sex and major field of study; by sex and labour force activity, and by sex and labour force
activity and period of immigration. Volume 3 presents tables on visible minority sub-groups by
sex and Employment Equity occupational groups, and by sex and language. Bilingual.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Data
Development and Systems Analysis. A profile of members of visible minorities in Canada.
Ottawa: Employment and Immigration Canada, 1990(?). 18 p. Tables.
The purpose of this publication is to outline information about labour market status and other
socio-economic characteristics of members of visible minority groups in Canada. Data are from
the 1986 Census. Includes information on visible minorities by age groups, province of
residence, average income, and participation in the labour force, with some comparison to total
population. Bilingual.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Data
Development and Systems Analysis. A profile of visible minorities in Canada: Blacks.
Ottawa: Employment and Immigration Canada, 1990(?). 18 p. Tables.
The profile describes blacks living in Canada in terms of labour force activity, percentage
unemployed, average income, educational attainment in comparison to other visible minorities
and total population. It also outlines percentage of blacks living in each province and territory,
and percentage in each age group. A separate profile is also available for each of the other
designated visible minorities: Indo-Pakistanis, Latin Americans, West Asians and Arabs, Pacific
Islanders, Filipinos, South East Asians, Japanese, Koreans, and Chinese. Bilingual.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch. Technical
Services. Visible minorities: summary tables. Ottawa: Employment and Immigration Canada,
1986. 150 p.Tables.
This publication provides 26 sets of tables showing socio-demographic and economic
characteristics of self-identified visible minorities in Canada and the provinces, based on
statistics from the 1981 Census. It includes data on educational level attained, income,
representation in occupational groups, representation in the population and in geographical areas,
and labour force characteristics. Bilingual.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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61
Canada. Multiculturalism Canada. Visible minorities in Canada, 1986: a graphic overview.
Ottawa: Policy and Research Directorate, Multiculturalism and Citizenship, 1989. Unpaged.
Charts. Tables.
Prepared for Employment and Immigration Canada for the administration of the Employment
Equity Act. Consists of 11 charts covering both demographic distribution and socio-economic
aspects of the visible minority population, showing distribution by province, major cities,
occupation/sex, labour force participation rates, unemployment rate, and representation in
managerial and professional occupations. Statistical tables are included in an "Annex". The
information is based on 1986 Census data, using the "ethnic origin" question, and in some cases
other questions such as place of birth and mother tongue. A similar report based on 1981 data
was published; however, the definition of visible minority persons was not the same as in 1986
so the data are not fully comparable. Bilingual: Les minorites visibles au Canada
en 1986: presentation graphique.
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Staffing Programs Branch. Human
Resources Planning Division. Availability of visible minorities in the Canadian labour market,
by Leblanc, Rene. [Ottawa]: Public Service Commission, 1986. 1 v. (various pagings).
Bibliography. Tables.
Using the 1981 census, an estimate of the number of visible minorities was done cross matching
data on ethnic origin, birthplace, religion and mother tongue. This report shows representation
of visible minorities in population, labour force, age groups, educational levels, geographical
districts, and occupational groups in the public service. It also makes recommendations for
improving their representation in the public service commission. Part I presents an overview of
visible minorities in the labour market as well as can be done considering limitations of data
from 1981 census. Part II presents an overview of visible minorities in the Public Service of
Canada, using data based on a survey of federal employees prepared by the Treasury Board in
1985. Part DI is a recommendation of a methodology for estimating numbers of visible
minorities in the labour market. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Employment Equity fact sheets, 1986 Census. Ottawa: Statistics
Canada, 1991. 250 p. Tables.
(Employment Equity user file no. 4.7)
Using 1986 Census data, this report presents information on the characteristics of the visible
minority sub-groups for the 8 Employment Equity designated Census Metropolitan Areas. The
fact sheets present selected information on sex ratios, educational attainment, age structure, etc.,
in the form of highlights and graphs.
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Canada. Statistics Canada. Demographic Division. Visible minorities among the extended
target population for the 1991 Census: estimate as of August 1, 1990, by Michalowski,
Margaret. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1991. 45 p. Tables.
(Technical Report) (Employment Equity user file no.4.14)
For the 1991 Census the population universe was extended to include: 1) persons claiming
refugee status in Canada; 2) persons in Canada who hold a student authorization; 3) persons in
Canada who hold an employment authorization - and 4) persons in Canada who hold a Minister's
permit. This report is intended to provide a numerical estimate of the extended target population
who are in a visible minority and to assess the potential impact on Employment Equity
availability data. Data used for this study were derived from Visitors Immigration Data Systems
(VIDS), compiled by Employment and Immigration Canada. Information is provided on total
count of visible minorities in extended population; estimates by sex, country of birth,
documented status, age, location in Canada, and occupation. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Employment Equity Data Program. Labour Market Activity
Survey: part I: analysis of visible minority questions, by Mohan, M. Ottawa: Statistics
Canada, 1990. 39 p. Bilingual. Tables.
(Employment Equity user file no. 4.11)
Compares the estimates of the visible minority population produced from the 1986 Census of
Population and the 1986-1987 Labour Market Activity Survey; also assesses the three items on
the LMAS questionnaire which were designed to identify the visible minority population,and
considers the level of agreement in the responses to the two main questions on visible minorities.
An analysis of the labour market patterns and job characteristics of the visible minority
population is provided.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division. Comparison of
1981 and 1986 Census counts on visible minorities in Canada; working paper. Ottawa:
Statistics Canada, 1989. Tables.
(Employment Equity user file no. 4.3)
This paper examines in detail the methods used to derive counts of the visible minority
population from the 1981 and 1986 Census questions on ethnic origin. The comparability of the
1981 and 1986 Census ethnic origin data, specifically as it relates to the visible minority subpopulation, are examined for each of the sub-groups which make up the visible minority
population. The impact of changes in question wording, data capture and editing methodologies,
and changes in the defmitions of visible minority groups between 1981 and 1986 are also
considered. Tables include data on each visible minority group, showing change in the
population residing in Canada from 1981 to 1986.
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63
Canada. Treasury Board. Personnel Policy Branch. Affirmative Action Group. Work force
profile of visible minority groups in the public service as of March 1985. Ottawa:
Treasury
Board, Communications Division, 1986. ii, 30, ii, 32 p.
12 tables and 6 charts show distribution of "self-identified Visible Minority employees" by sex,
type of employment, area of origin, occupational category, salary. Bilingual (Profil des
groupes...).
Canada. Visible Minority Consultation Group on Employment Equity. Breaking through
the visibility ceiling: interim report of the Visible Minority Consultation Group on
Employment Equity, presented to the Secretary of the Treasury Board and to the Deputy
Ministers' Advisory Committee on Employment Equity. Ottawa: Treasury Board, 1992.
22 p. Tables.
This report reviews and makes recommendations regarding the definition of visible minorities
and the practice of self-identification used in the public service; it reviews employment
experiences of visible minorities in the Public Service Commission and identifies important
issues; and it outlines the work that VMCG is planning in oder to make recommendations to the
Secretary of the Treasury Board. Data refers to the period from 1986 to 1991. Bilingual.
Canada. Visible Minority Consultation Group on Employment Equity. Distortions in the
mirror: reflections of visible minorities in the Public Service of Canada; report of the Visible
Minority Consultation Group for the Secretary of Treasury Board and the Employment Equity
Council of Deputy Ministers. Ottawa: Treasury Board, 1993. 47 p. Tables.
The report summarizes views of 198 self-identified visible minority employees about their
working experiences in the public service, gathered from interviews and questionnaires. It
includes employees at the support, officer,and management level in eight Canadian cities. It
makes recommendations for meeting the Employment Equity goals of the Public Service of
Canada. An Appendix includes tables showing representation of minorities in the PSC; pilot
project on management training for visible minorities; summary of departmental employment
equity activities for visible minorities; and the questionnaire used in research. Bilingual.
Canadian Ethnocultural Council. Une enquite du CEC revue que les minorites visibles sont
faiblement representees dans les societes soumises a la reglementation fiderale. Ottawa: Is
Conseil Ethnoculturel du Canada, 1989. 2p.
Presents a French summary of its Race Relations Committee report, Not so visible.
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Canadian Ethnocultural Council. Employment Equity Committee. Employment inequity:
the representation of visible minorities in the federal public service, 1988-1991. Ottawa:
Canadian Ethnocultural Council, 1992. 24 [17] p. Tables.
This study is the second one prepared by Canadian Ethnocultural Council on employment status
of visible minorities in the public service. It includes statistics from 43 federal departments and
agencies, 200 or more employees, excluding Crown corporations. It shows that representation
of visible minorities in the public service is half of the representation shown in federally
regulated bodies; representation in management is poor; large differences exist between the
departments and representation has improved only marginally over the 4 years. Data are from
the Treasury Board publication Population, appointments, separations and labour market
representation of Employment Equity designated group members for 1989 and 1990, prepared
by the Analysis and Data Services Division of the Public Service Commission of Canada.
Introduction and summary also in French. French title: L'inequite en emploi: la situation....
Canadian Ethnocultural Council. Employment Equity Committee. Limited visibility.
Representation of visible minorities in federally-regulated employers,1988-90. Ottawa:
Employment Equity Committee, Canadian Ethnocultural Council, 1992. 41 p. Tables.
This study, is the fourth in a series, examining the representation of visible minorities in a cross
section of the largest federally regulated employers under the Employment Equity Act. It
describes their level of representation in the firms, in management and professional positions,
hiring and promotion rates using statistics from Employment Equity Annual Reports from 1988
to 1990.
Canadian Ethnocultural Council. Employment Equity Committee. The vertical mosaic: 25
years later; the representation of visible minorities in federally-regulated employees, 1988-90.
Ottawa: Canadian Ethnocultural Council, Employment Equity Committee, 1992. 39 p.
tables.
This study is the third in a series examining the representation of visible minorities employed
by 28 national firms who are federally regulated employers under the Employment Equity Act.
It describes their level of representation in the firms, in management and professional positions,
hiring and promotion rates using statistics from Employment Equity Annual Reports from 19881990.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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Canadian Ethnocultural Council. Race Relations Committee. Not so visible: a survey of
employment equity for visible minorities in the private and public sectors.
Ottawa: Canadian
Ethnocultural Council, 1989. 24 p. Tables.
This study analyses 13 of 373 federally regulated employers that come under the Employment
Equity Act, and shows the representation of visible minority workers in these firms and the
percentage of visible minority workers hired or promoted during 1987. The thirteen employers
used in the study were national firms, with a large labour force and belonging to one of the
industrial sectors designated in the Act. In addition, some smaller Halifax-based firms were
studied because of the escalation of racial tension in that city. Data are from Employment Equity
Annual Reports submitted by the federally regulated employers to Parliament for 1987. French
summary: Une enquete du CEC revele que les minorites visibles sont faiblement representes....
Canadian Ethnocultural Council. Race Relations Committee. Not so visible: a survey of
employment equity for visible minorities in the private and public sectors. Part IL Ottawa:
Canadian Ethnocultural Council, 1989. 38 p. Tables.
This report gives a comparative analysis of the representation of visible minorities employed by
28 national employers in banking, communication/media, transportation and other sectors,
between 1987 and 1988. Not so visible, Part I, published in March, 1989.
Canadian Ethnocultural Council. Race Relations Committee. On the sidelines of Her
Majesty's Service: a survey of employment equity for visible minorities in the Federal Public
Service (1988). Ottawa, Canadian Ethnocultural Council, 1988. [40]p. Tables.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the extent of equality of employment opportunities in the
Public Service of Canada for visible minority target group members. It focuses on 1988 crossdepartmental and interdepartmental statistics on visible minority representation rates and
occupational breakdown for 16 federal departments and institutions. It includes key
observations, recommendations and statistical summaries.
Chadney, James G. "India's Sikhs in Vancouver: immigration, occupation and ethnic
adaptation." Population Review 29:59-66, 1985.
Discusses the work experience of Sikhs in Vancouver.Includes a table, "Asian Indian
immigration to Canada, 1904-83. " .
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Cote, Michel G. "Visible minorities in the Canadian labour force." Perspectives on Labour
and Income 3:17-26, Summer 1991. Tables, Charts.
The article deals with proportion, occupational distribution, and demographic and income
characteristics. Tables based on 1986 statistics.
Daenzer, Patricia. "Unemployment and minority immigrants in Canada." International
Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 11:1-3, 29-50, 1991.
Government statistics and previous research are used to describe the labour-market status and
experience of racial minorities in Canada, criticizing labour-market policy that ignores the
employment and socio-economic disadvantage of this group. Racial discrimination in the labour
market is pervasive, and especially deleterious to new racial minority immigrants who face
compound obstacles. The Canadian Job Strategy is discussed as an example of public initiatives
that are inadequate to combat the racism minorities experience in the attempt to find suitable
employment. In addition, it serves to further marginalize immigrants and other racial minorities,
ensuring that they remain a pool of cheap labour. 2 Tables.(Copyright 1992, Sociological
Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
D'Costa, Ronald. "The occupational composition of Asian Indians in Canada." Population
Review 29:113-124, 1985. Tables.
Discusses the effect of changes in Canadian immigration policy on distribution of occupational
categories of East Indians, using data from 1968-82.
Driedger, L. (ed.) Ethnic Canada: identities and inequalities. Toronto: Copp Clark, 1987.
442 p. Tables.
Includes a chapter with tables on segregation of visible minorities in Montreal, Toronto, and
Vancouver.
I-Ierberg, Edward N. "The ethno-racial socioeconomic hierarchy in Canada: theory and
analysis of the new vertical mosaic." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 31 (34):206-221, 1990.
The two major models of socio-economic status (SES) - sponsored- ascription vs
contest-achieved - and the ideologies and forms of ethno-racial discrimination that accompany
each, are described as they developed in Canada, focusing on the extent, nature, and degree of
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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67
change of discrimination. Canadian census data relative to education, high status occupations,
and income are analyzed to determine the ethno-racial socio-economic hierarchy since 1921. A
contest system of SES attainment is operating in both acquisition and possession of education,
and in the achievement of occupational status; however, severe minority income inequality exists
due to racial discrimination. Policy implications are discussed. 3 Tables, 29 References.
(Copyright 1991, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Jabbra, Nancy W.; Cosper, Ronald L. "Ethnicity in Atlantic Canada: a survey." Canadian
Ethnic Studies / Etudes ethniques au Canada 20(3):6-27, 1988.
Data from published censuses beginning in 1871, with special tabulations from the 1986 census,
are used to: (1) conduct a historical survey and analysis of the growth of ethnic variation in
Atlantic Canada; and (2) analyze the relation between ethnicity and several variables related to
occupation. The chief factors affecting the development of ethnic variation include: the power
rivalries during the colonial period, economic opportunities, and immigration policies. As a
result of this process, Atlantic Canada has remained predominantly British in origin, with the
Acadians forming a strong presence only in New Brunswick. The remaining ethnic groups are
small minorities. Ethnicity today is related to occupation, income, and education. Variables such
as discrimination, ethnic group culture, rural or urban residence, and period of immigration are
the principal factors affecting the relationship of ethnicity to socio-economic status. 9 Tables,
17 References. (Copyright 1990, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Jain, Harish C. "Employment equity and visible minorities: have the federal policies
worked?" Canadian Labour Law Journal, 1:389408, 1993
Tables show data from 1987, 1988, and 1989, on employment of visible minorities in
Communications, Banking, and Transportation Sectors. Discusses problems with the
Employment Equity Act.
Jain, Harish C. "Recruitment and selection of visible minorities in Canadian police
organizations, 1985 to 1987." Canadian Public Administration 31(4):463-482, 1988. Tables.
Bibliography.
Examines and analyzes the figures on hiring of visible minorities in Canadian police
organizations, with tables. Some discussion of government policy and legislation. This study is
an update of the 1985 survey. The main object of the study was to review existing police
recruitment and selection policies across Canada between 1985 and 10 \ 987; identify systemic
barriers, if any, faced by visible minorities in entering police forces,; and to make
recommendations in order to increase the representation of such minority persons in Canadian
police departments. Fourteen departments were included. The fmdings indicate some
improvement and points out areas which need additional corrective measures.
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Montgomery, R. "The economic adaptation of Vietnamese refugees in Alberta: 1979-84."
International Migration /Migrations internationaks / Migraciones internacionales 24:749-768,
1986.
An investigation of the cultural, economic, and psychological adjustment of Vietnamese refugee
immigrants living in or near Edmonton, Alberta. Structured interviews were conducted with a
representative sample of 537 adult Rs by interviewers fluent in the Rs' native languages (Chinese
or Vietnamese). The dependent variables of employment, duration of unemployment, job search
problems, mean gross monthly income, net monthly financial situation, and standard of living
were analyzed according to four predictor variables: current English skill, education level on
arrival in Canada, population of the municipality resided in at time of interview, and ethnicity
(Chinese-Vietnamese or "pure" Vietnamese). Despite a high unemployment rate for the most
recent arrivals and the metropolitan (Edmonton) dwellers, and a high concentration in low status
occupations, it is concluded that Vietnamese refugees are doing no worse than comparable
cohorts of disadvantaged immigrants; especially considering Alberta's recessed economy and the
recency of the Vietnamese in Canada. 1 Appendix, 10 References. Modified AA (Copyright
1987, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Naidoo, Josephine C.; Edwards, R. Gary. "Combatting racism involving visible minorities:
a review of relevant research and policy development." Canadian Social Work Review /
Revue canadienne de service social 8:211-236, 1991.
In an examination of racism in Canada, focus is on discrimination against South Asians and
blacks living in Ontario, who are described as "victims of overt, institutional, and pervasive
covert racism. " Data are drawn from review of: existing empirical research; employment,
immigration, and census statistics; multicultural policy and human rights legislation; official
reports on racism; and race-relations programs at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels.
Official strategies for combating racism and promoting integration of visible (by physical traits)
minorities are examined. The role of social work educators and professionals in accelerating
minority integration is emphasized. 3 Tables. I. Shagrir (Copyright 1992, Sociological Abstracts,
Inc., all rights reserved.)
Nodwell, Evelyn; Guppy, Neil. "Effects of publicly displayed ethnicity on interpersonal
discrimination: Indo-Canadians in Vancouver," Canadian Journal of Sociology 29:87-99,
1992.
Tables show percentage of subjects reporting workplace discrimination.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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69
Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship. Working Group on Employment Equity. Status report:
visible minorities. Toronto: Ministry of Citizenship, 1989. 72 p. Tables.
The report, prepared for the Working Group by ABT Associates of Canada, describes the
situation of visible minorities in relation to the work force in Ontario. Tables show demographic
characteristics of the employed, education, labour force participation, unemployment, jobseeking experience, work experience, by sex and age.
Ontario Human Rights Commission. The experience of visible minorities in the work world:
the case of MBA graduates; report submitted to the Race Relations Division of the Ontario
Human Rights Commission by Zureik, Elia; Hiscott, Robert. Toronto: The Commission,
1983. 158, 17 p. Bibliography. Tables.
The authors found that MBAs were affected by racial and ethnic discrimination in their careers.
36 statistical tables are included.
Shadd, Adrienne L. "Dual labour markets in "core" and "periphery" regions of Canada:
the position of Black males in Ontario and Nova Scotia." Canadian Ethnic Studies / Etudes
ethniques au Canada 19(2):91-109, 1987.
Based on a world systems perspective, it is argued that minorities are far more disadvantaged
in poor regions than in rich ones. Analysis of data from the 1971 Canadian census reveals that,
for native-born Ms, black/white gaps in income, occupational status, industrial sector, and
unemployment are greater in Nova Scotia census metropolitan areas (CMAs) than in Ontario
CMAs. Blacks are poorer in Nova Scotia not only because they reside in a poor region, but also
because prejudice and discrimination are more intense there due to the greater competition for
jobs, particularly in the high wage, monopoly sector of the economy. 4 Tables, 53 References.
Modified HA (Copyright 1988, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto. A time for change: moving beyond racial
discrimination in employment; edited and updated by Finlayson, Judith. Toronto: Urban
Alliance on Race Relations; Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto, 1990. 90 p.
Bibliography. Tables.
A compendium of three previous studies which reviewed hiring and personnel practices for
visible minorities in entry level positions in small business and medium and large employers
in Metro Toronto. Includes 12 case studies.
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Suriya, Senaka K. The representation of visible minorities in Canadian police: employment
equity beyond rhetoric. Paper presented at the IGU International Population Geography
Symposium, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1992. ix, 72 1. Bibliography.
Tables. Chart.
Discusses the under-representation of women and ethnic minorities, corrective measures that
have been taken, and public opinion of these measures.
Toronto Board of Education. Research Services. Who seeks the work? a pre-employment
pilot survey, by Cheng, M. L. Toronto: Research Services, 1987. i, 39 p. Bibliography,
Illus.
(Toronto Board of Education. Research Services. Research report, no. 184).
As part of the Board's commitment to increasing representation of racial minorities and
publicizing the Board's equal opportunity policies and practices, this report documents progress
towards reaching these goals. Includes extract of plan proposal by the Director of Education and
reports on types of positions for which respondents reply, socio-economic characteristics,
sources of information about the job vacancies, similarities and differences between visible
minority applicants and all other applicants, with a summary of application rates in obtaining
appointments by racial minorities.
Toronto. Chief Administrative Officer's Dept. Multicultural and Race Relations Division.
The Composition and implications of Metropolitan Toronto's ethnic, racial, and linguistic
populations: final report, by T. Turner. Rev.ed. Toronto: Metropolitan Toronto, Chief
Administrative Officer's Dept., Multicultural and Race Relations Division, 1990. xii, 118 p.
Assesses the ethnic, racial, and linguistic composition of Metropolitan Toronto and its potential
impact on the race and ethnic relations climate, the provision of government service to diverse
ethnic, racial, and linguistic groups, settlement patterns, housing, and employment. Includes an
overview of historical and contemporary immigration patterns, settlement patterns of migrants,
age composition of the population, and a profile of particular groups in the labour force.
Toronto. Race Relations and Policing Task Force. Report, by C. Lewis, Toronto: Race
Relations and Policing Task Force, 1989. 294 p.
Studies the recruitment and training of police from minority groups. Gives tables on members
of visible minorities hired in 1988.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 71
University of Toronto, Centre for Urban and Community Studies. Ethnic group control of
jobs, by Reitz, Jeffrey G. Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies, 1982. 42 p.
Tables.
(Research paper, 133: Ethnic pluralism paper, no. 6)
Examines discrimination against minorities in employment in Toronto.
"Whites hired two to one over qualified Blacks, city-sponsored symposium on racism told."
Winnipeg Free Press, December 1, 1991, p. B12.
Annotation not available.
Williams, Dorothy W. Blacks in Montreal, 1628-1986: an urban demography. Montreal: Les
Editions Yvon Blais Inc., 1989. 147 p. Bibliography. Tables. Charts. Maps.
(Etudes et documents de recherche sur les droits et libertes)
This study, prepared for the Quebec Human Rights Commission, examines geographical and
residential patterns of movement, and describes occupation, lifestyle, family size and makeup,
education, and gender distribution patterns.
Winn, Conrad. "Affirmative action and visible minorities: eight premises in quest of
evidence." Canadian Public Policy/Analyze de politiques 11:684-700, 1985. Bibliography.
Tables.
Focuses on quota hiring in Canada, with some reference to the U.S. The author questions 8
premises about society and the economy upon which he believes affirmative action is based.
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2.3.4 WOMEN
Abbott, Ruth K. and Young, R.A. "Cynical and deliberate manipulation? Child care and
the reserve army of female labour in Canada." Journal of Canadian Studies 24 (2): 22-39,
1989. Table.
This paper examines the evolution of Canadian child-care policy, particularly in the Ontario
context. It aims to assess the adequacy of recent theories about the position of women in the
capitalist workforce, most of which portray them as members of a "reserve army" of labour.
Variants of this view are presented, and then tested using the state's stance towards child care
as an indicator of its intent to draw women into the labour force, or to restrict this movement,
or to encourage female labour only when economic fluctuations make it functional for capital.
We conclude that females have constituted a "latent" reserve army of labour, which has been
steadily drawn into wage work, and which is now central to the functioning of Canadian
capitalism. The installation by the state of an appropriate child-care system to facilitate this
work, however, is not inevitable. Table on child-care funding and spaces in Ontario.
Adam, Barry D.; Baer, Douglas E. "The social mobility of women and men in the Ontario
legal profession." Revue canadienne de sociologie et d'anthropologie / Canadian Review of
Sociology and Anthropology 21(1):21-46,1984.
Wallace Clement (in The Canadian Corporate Elite: An Analysis of Economic Power, Toronto:
McClelland and Stewart, 1975) points out the importance of law as a path to elite status in
Canada. The mobility structure of the Ontario legal profession is examined as a case in point on
the basis of questionnaire responses obtained from 403 members of the 1974 graduating class
of Ontario law schools. The impact of a series of background characteristics on career outcomes
is examined. Divergent routes are evident for women and some minorities. Findings indicate an
increasing commodification of law and an increasing stratification of the legal profession. 7
Tables, 51 References. (Copyright 1984, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Alberta. Legislature Library. Women in the Alberta labour force: a statistical overview,
1976-1986, by Schwartzenberger, J. Edmonton: Legislature Library, 1988. 30 p.
This statistical overview provides data on labour force participation for both sexes in Alberta and
all other provinces, by age and marital status. Information is also provided on employment and
unemployment for both sexes in Alberta and all other provinces by industry and occupation
along with statistics on full and part-time employment for men and women in Alberta.
Definitions of important terms are supplied.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 73
Andiappan, Palaniappan. "Discrimination against pregnant employees: an analysis of
arbitration and human rights tribunal decisions in Canada." Journal of Business Ethics
9:143-9, 1990. Bibliography. Table.
Comments on the obligations of employers, as they have been elaborated through labour
arbitration decisions and human rights boards of inquiry/tribunal decisions.
Andrew, Caroline. "La bureaucratie a Pepreuve du feminin: essai sur les trajectoires
familiales de gestionnaires quebecoises et ontariennes." Recherches feministes 2(2):55-78,
1989. Bibliography. Tables.
Based on a survey of 214 female managers earning at least $35,000 per year, 113 of them
working in the private sector and 101 employed by the government. Explores the correlation
between marital status and parenthood on the one hand, and professional advancement and career
on the other. Summary in English, p.191-2.
Armstrong, Pat; Armstrong, Hugh. "Sex and the professions in Canada." Journal of
Canadian Studies 27(1): 118-135, 1992. Tables. Bibliography.
This paper argues that the literature on professions reveals a fundamental failure to conceptualize
sex differences. Following a brief discussion of approaches to the definition of professions, the
authors employ Katherine Marshall's operationalization of professions in the Canadian
occupational structure to explore the different experiences of female and male professionals
during the 1971-86 period. Although women have here as elsewhere flooded into the
professions, pronounced patterns of sex segregation persist both within and between professional
occupations. Evidence reveals that years of education and other objective characteristics do not
account for the power, pay and prestige differences among professionals. Clear contrasts
emerge in the marital and parental statuses of female and male professions. In short, for the
professions sex counts.
Armstrong, Pat; Armstrong, Hugh. The double ghetto: Canadian women and their
segregated work. 3rd ed. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1993. 259 p. Bibliography.
23 tables.
The book describes how work in Canada is segregated by gender. It documents the nature of
women's work in the home and outside of the home, and tries to explain the reason for the
segregation based on 3 theories: materialism, idealism, and physical differences. The argument
is supported by numerous tables based on census data.
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Armstrong, Pat. Labour pains: women's work in crisis.
Press, 1984. 273 p. Tables.
Toronto: Women's Educational
Discusses women's employment situation and economic conditions, with 32 tables (mainly from
StatsCan) and a substantial bibliography. A chapter on methodology comments that "the data are
often sex-blind," due to " the way the data are collected and tabulated, the way questions are
asked (or not asked), the way government programs and policies are structured." The author
states that "a sex-conscious collection of data... would begin with a recognition that workers
come in two sexes and that the labour force is segregated." She also notes that men, as well as
women, do a great deal of work which economically benefits the family, but which is not
counted as work by the data-gathering agencies.
Association of Canadian Medical Colleges. Office of Research and Information Services.
Women in academic medicine in Canada; are women subject to discrimination? by Ryten, E.
Ottawa, The Association, 1992. 17 p.
Provides the first-ever statistics on the representation of women in academic medicine. Statistics
are provided on age, rank, educational background, and sex.
Baar, Ellen. "Using accountable self regulation to achieve employment equity in
universities." Canadian Woman Studies 12(3):46-52, 1992. Tables. Bibliography.
Annotation not available.
Beland, Francois; DeSeve, Michel. "L'inegalite et la discrimination sexuelles et linguistiques
au Quebec. Revue canadienne de sociologie et d'anthropologie / Canadian Review of
Sociology and Anthropology 23(3):309-330, 1986.
Occupational discrimination may be defined as the differences that remain between two groups
when inequality has been discounted. Here, a loglinear model is used to define both inequality
and discrimination. The two models are applied to distributions of occupations in a sample of
English- and French-speaking newlyweds residing in Quebec in 1954, 1964, and 1974. Eight
major categories of work type were defined, with subcategories where necessary. It was found
that sexual discrimination and sexual inequality in the allocation of occupations play a larger role
than linguistic discrimination and inequality. Although linguistic inequality tends to favor
anglophones linearly on an ordinal scale of occupations, sexual inequality and discrimination
have a sinuzoidal distribution on the same scale, indicating that women are at a disadvantage
compared to men in terms of coupled occupations. Very little evolution in discrimination and
inequality is noted between 1954 and 1974. Overall evolution of the professional structure is
seen to favor women and French speakers. 6 Tables, 4 Figures, 25 Refs. (Copyright 1987,
Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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Bell, Ruth Elizabeth. The hiring process of select Canadian national sport organizations.
M.H.K. University of Windsor, 1990. 128 pp.
The purpose of this study was to examine the hiring process of select National Sport
Organizations (NSOs) in order to search out a better explanation for why women are underrepresented in the middle and upper management positions within these organizations. This
study indicates that there are problems within the current NSO hiring system. These problems
relate to its objectivity and gender sensitivity. In terms of the directional propositions examined
with regards to objectivity in the hiring process, the organisations were not very objective in at
least three areas. These areas included: how they short listed candidates, use of the same
committee in both short listing and interviewing, and the use of primarily a discussion technique
in evaluation of the final candidates. Two of the five directional propositions concerning
objectivity were not supported. The NSOs tended to be more objective when they constructed
the interview schedule, and when they utilized that schedule.
Blakely, John H.; Harvey, Edward B. "Market and non-market effects on male and female
occupational status attainment." Revue canadienne de sociologie et d'anthropologie /
Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 25(1):23-40, 1988.
The status attainment process is examined in relation to four labor market perspectives: (1)
structural unemployment; (2) the business cycle; (3) queuing theory; (4) segmentation theory.
Their implications are evaluated by developing a status attainment model that varies along three
dimensions: time, socioeconomic background, and sex; and by testing the model on a
heterogeneous sample of individuals who entered their first full-time job between 1961 and 1972.
The results support the structural unemployment and segmentation-theoretic hypotheses, partially
support the business cycle hypothesis, and are ambiguous with respect to the queuing hypothesis.
The discussion relates various labor market trends over the 1961-1972 period to the status
attainment process. In addition, it is emphasized that the characteristics of individuals
(particularly of women) entering into their first full-time job are time-dependent, and that this
has implications for the understanding of status attainment and social stratification processes in
complex societies. 3 Tables, 1 Figure, 37 References. HA (Copyright 1988, Sociological
Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Blakely, John H. and Haney, Edward B. "Socioeconomic change and lack of change:
employment equity policies in the Canadian context." Journal of Business Ethics 7:133-50,
1988. Bibliography, tables, charts.
This conference paper discusses the role of Employment Equity policy as a response to the
under-utilization of women in the workplace and its impact on employment.
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Boyd, Monica; Mulvihill, Mary Ann; Myles, John. "Gender, power and postindustrialism." Revue canadienne de sociologie et d'anthropologie / Canadian Review of
Sociology and Anthropology 28(4):407-436, 1991.
The labor market in Canada has shifted to a postindustrial configuration in which most labor is
employed in the provision of services, rather than production of goods. Examination of census
data, 1941-1986, indicates that this transition has affected males (Ms) and females (Fs)
differently. For Ms, the development of a postindustrial economy brought movement out of
agriculture, while the manufacturing sector remained relatively stable. Fs have experienced a
shift from unpaid domestic labor directly into paid employment in the service industries. As a
result, M employment patterns continue to resemble those of a traditional industrial economy,
while Fs now predominate in the service sector Analysis of detailed employment data from the
1982 Canadian Class Structure Survey (N = 1,761 currently employed Ms and Fs) reveals that
Fs' numerical dominance in the service industries has not reduced the gender gap in access to
positions of power. In both the traditional goods-producing and the service sectors, Ms continue
to occupy most positions of authority. Further analysis of census data indicates that, since 1971,
the gender gap in upper-level executive positions has actually widened, even though Fs now hold
more lower-level management jobs. 11 Tables, 4 Appendixes, 57 References. (Copyright 1992,
Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Boyd, Monica. "Sex differences in occupational skill: Canada, 1961-1986." Revue
canadienne de sociologie et d'anthropologie / Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
27(3):285-315, 1990.
An analysis of gender-based vocational differences and segregation in occupational skill
distribution among Canadians, based on 1961-1986 census data. Skill is measured as general
educational development (GED), specific vocational preparation (SVP), and occupational
responsibility. Results show that: male (M) and female (F) skill upgrading is evident over time,
especially among Fs; there are fewer Fs in higher skilled occupations despite such upgrading;
and there are fewer Fs than Ms in very high skill or very low skill occupations with the F labor
force concentrated in the middle skill levels, e.g., lower white-collar occupations Analysis of
white-collar, blue-collar, and service-sector occupations also indicates a pattern of M-F skill
differences with Fs concentrated in the less skilled occupations. Discussed are implications of
these findings for the position of Fs in the labor market, future trends in sex differences in skill,
and the literature on skill upgrading. 4 Tables, 59 References. C.Grindle (Copyright 1991,
Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Boyd, Monica. "Socioeconomic indices and sexual inequality: a tale of scales." Revue
canadienne de sociologie et d'anthropologie / Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
23(4):457-480, 1986.
A socioeconomic index of 1971 Canadian Census occupational titles is developed, based on the
income and educational characteristics of all members of the labor force, rather than on the
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 77
characteristics only of men (the Bernard R. Blislien & Hugh A. Roberts Scale) or only of women
(the Bernard R. Blishen & William K. Carroll Scale). The properties of the three indices are
assessed with data from the 1971 Census & the 1973 Canadian Mobility Survey. The results
suggest that a socioeconomic index based on the entire labor force is preferred for future
comparisons of M-F occupational attainments. 6 Tables, 1 Appendix, 42 References. Modified
HA (Copyright 1987, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
British Columbia. Ministry of Government Management Services. Women in British
Columbia: a statistical report, by Policynet Communications Ltd. Victoria: Ministry of
Government Management Services and Minister Responsible for Women's Programs, 1990.
77 p. Illus.
This report provides a statistical overview of the status of B.C. women in seven areas of life:
the role of women in a changing B.C. population; women and the family; educational
advancements and challenges facing women; the experience of women in the labour force;
women, earnings and income; the situation of women respecting housing; and finally, the health
of women in B.C. It focuses on general patterns of change and consistency in the seven areas
of female life.
British Columbia. Ministry of Labour. Women in the labour market 1983,
Patrick. Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Labour, 1984. 5 p.
by Stanton,
Annotation not available.
British Columbia. Task Force on Employment and Training. Recent labour market
by Gunderson,
developments in British Columbia, part II: the structure of unemployment,
Morley.; Riddell, W. C. Victoria: British Columbia Task Force on Employment and
Training, 1991. 81 p.
(British Columbia. Task Force on Employment and Training. Technical papers)
This document addresses the regional differences in labour market experience, age-sex
differences in labour market experience, incidence and duration of unemployment by age and
sex, long term unemployment by age and sex, and education and labour market outcomes.
78
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British Columbia. Women's Secretariat. Women in the B.C. labour market: a statistical
sketch, prepared by Women's Secretariat, with assistance from the Labour Market Policy
Branch. Victoria: Ministry of Advanced Education and Job Training, Ministry Responsible
for Science and Technology, Women's Secretariat, 1989. 17 p. Bibliography, Muse
Presents data on labour force participation and employment, employment by occupation and
industry, job tenure, part-time employment, and earnings which relate to women.
Canada. Consultation Group on Employment Equity for Women. More than the numbers:
case studies on best practices in the employment of women. Ottawa: Government of Canada,
1993. 147 p. Tables.
This report summarizes eight of the companies that were identified by the Consultation Group
in its report Gender balance: more than the numbers. The Group chose Canadian companies that
used the best practices to promote employment equity for women in their workplace. The
purpose of this study is to encourage the Public Service to use similar practices. Bilingual.
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination Against Women: report of Canada. Ottawa: Secretary of State,
1983. xxi, 268, [116] p. Bibliography. Tables. Charts.
This report is the first full government statement on equality between women and men in
Canada, including information from each province and territory. It shows the progress of the
Canadian government in meeting its international human rights commitments between 1980 and
1982. The report is divided into four sections: part I: General provisions; part II: Political
rights; part HI: Social and economic rights; part IV: Civil and family rights. It is supported by
tables on demography, employment, equal pay, education, social security, maternity leave and
child care facilities. French ed.: Convention sur relimination de toutes les formes de
discrimination a regard des femmes.
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Convention on the elimination of all
forms of discrimination against women: second report of Canada. Ottawa: Dept. of the
Secretary of State of Canada, 1988. 133 p. Bibliography. Illus.
The Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women is the main
international legal instrument which sets minimum standards of equality between the sexes.
Canada ratified the Convention in 1981 and is required to provide periodic reports f This second
report includes basic general information on Canada's division of power and legislating
authority, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, human rights legislation, and other
mechanisms related to the Convention's mandate. The document also reviews the measures
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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adopted by the federal, provincial and territorial governments.
French ed.: Convention sur
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Research and International Liaison
Directorate. The Labour market experience of social science graduates: the class of 1982
revisited, by Jasmin, G.; McDowell, R. Ottawa: Dept. of the Secretary of State, Education
Support Sector, Research and International Liaison Directorate, 1989. 66 p.
This report studied the employment prospects for university social science graduates in 1982.
The study provides findings on the distribution of degrees (ie. psychology, economics, law,
social work, etc.), the distribution of degrees by sex, the distribution by age, and detailed
statistics on the employment prospects for different graduates in different areas in the social
sciences.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Engineering and the future; a working
Prepared for the Canadian Engineering
paper on the availability of engineers in Canada.
Manpower Board, Canada Employment and Immigration Commission, by Dalcor
Innoventures Ltd. Ottawa: Supply and Services, May 1990. 18 p.
Summarizes the findings of an outlook study which involved the development of a
supply/demand model of the engineering labour market. The demand side of the model includes
construction, exploration, operation, and research and development sub-models. The supply side
includes a student flow and careers sub-model. The study identified the potential for a serious
shortfall in the stock of engineers in Canada, and several initiatives which could alleviate the
shortfall, including attracting more women into engineering.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Job futures: an occupational outlook to
1995; 1990 edition. Ottawa: Employment and Immigration Canada, 1990. 2 v. Maps.
This document is organized according to occupation as described in the Standard Occupational
Classification. Each occupational group has two pages of information devoted to it, one page
of statistical data, and one of descriptive and analytical text. The statistical tables are designed
for quick and easy reference which allows the reader a ready overview of the labour market
situation of the particular occupational group. The narrative texts contain brief job function
descriptions, information on working conditions, educational requirements, age and sex trends,
career ladders, and the effects of technological change; labour market assessments; notes on
seasonality of employment; notes on sensitivity to changes in the business cycle; and data on
earnings. Contents: Vol. 1: Occupational outlooks; vol. 2: Experience of recent graduates.
French ed.: Perspectives professionnelles....
80
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Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. A report on a model for making projections
by Ahamad, B.;
of interprovincial migration flows in aggregate and by occupation,
Rowley, R. Ottawa: Employment and Immigration Canada, 1986. ii, 59 p. Bibliography.
(Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. COPS: consultant report)
Describes a model for making projections of interprovincial migration flows in aggregate using
both economic factors, such as employment and income, and demographic variables, such as age
and sex, as determining factors or independent variables. It also describes a model for
disaggregating the projections derived in the first model by occupation using 1981 census data
and data from the Labour Force Survey Supplement of August 1982. Bilingual (Modele de
projection...).
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Ontario Region. Economic Planning and
Analysis Directorate. Toronto area labour market, 1981-1986. Toronto: Employment and
Immigration Canada, Ontario Region, Economic Planning and Analysis Directorate, 1988.
20 p.
(Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Ontario Region. Economic Planning and
Analysis Directorate. Occasional bulletin).
The analysis presents figures on population and employment; population statistics for people 15
years and over by sex and education; and the labour force by industry, occupation, age and sex.
It includes maps showing the six largest interprovincial migration flows. In addition, it presents
figures displaying the population in the 15-24 age group with university degrees by sex,
1971-1986; major fields of study of male and female university graduates in 1986; major fields
of study of male and female trades and other non-university certificate holders, 1986;
community, business and personal service industries as a percent of the experienced labour
force, 1951-1986; labour force participation rates by sex, 1951-1986; and percentage change in
full-time and part-time work by sex, 1980-1985.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Strategic Policy and Planning. Planning
environment assessment document (P.E.A.D.): trends and perspectives. Ottawa: The Branch,
1991. 27, 27 p. Illus.
This document sets out some of the trends which are likely to determine how the Canadian
labour market will evolve over the next decade.lt describes the need for competitiveness and
productivity; structural changes; the source and composition of the labour force by age, sex and
education; and the dynamics of the labour market. Bilingual (Document d'analyse d'...).
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Canada. Health and Welfare Canada. Canada Pension Plan contributors. Ottawa: Health
and Welfare Canada, 1988 -. 3 v.
This annual publication contains information on persons who made contributions to the Canada
Pension Plan in 1990. The tables include statistics on the number of contributors and the amount
of contributions distributed by sex, age, earnings level, employment status and province. The
information is taken from earnings data. Bilingual (Cotisants du Regime de pensions...).
Canada. Industry, Science and Technology Canada. Statistics on Engineers in Canada, by
Hanson, Wendy. Ottawa: Supply and Services, 1990. Paging unavail.
Based on 1986 census information, this statistical report provides figures and graphs on the
school-to-work transition in engineering, the engineering workforce and the professional
engineer. Findings include: 5% of the 155,800 engineers in Canada were women; 76% of the
7,630 women with engineering degrees had a Bachelor's degree, 21% had a Master's, and 2%
a Doctorate; 31% of the women with engineering degrees (39% for men) were working in
engineering occupations. Over 20% of the men and about 5% of the women worked in
management; men and women were almost equally represented in sales and service; over 30%
of the women and less than 20% of the men worked in occupations other than engineering; most
of the men and women (27%) worked in civil engineering. 21% of the women choose electrical
engineering, 16% chemical engineering, 13% mechanical, and 3% of the engineers with
professional designation were women, although they represented about 5% of all engineers in
Canada. Graphs, charts, and references.
Canada. Industry, Science and Technology Canada. Women in science and engineering,
vol. I: universities. Ottawa: Industry, Science and Technology Canada, 1991. 52 p.
Bibliography.
This document is the first in a series of three on women in science and engineering. It provides
data on the participation of women in engineering and the applied sciences, mathematics and the
physical sciences, agriculture and the biological sciences, health professions and occupations,
and the social sciences. Recent initiatives to attract more women into the science and
engineering professions are discussed, and a list of representative disciplines within fields of
study are given. Bilingual.
Canada. Joint Conference of Ministers Responsible for the Status of Women and Labour
Market Matters (Halifax, N.S., 1987). Training women in the workplace (Ontario). Halifax:
The Conference, 1987. 39 p. Bibliography.
Employer-based skills training and upgrading in Canada has been determined as inadequate and
it has also been seen that in this area women could benefit greatly in terms of gaining economic
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equality and helping Canada's international competitiveness. This report surveys women's
participation in the labour force, training programs, and barriers to work-related training. It
includes a survey of employer attitudes toward training women and concludes with a summary
of recommendations to combat the barriers. French ed.: La formation des femmes....
Canada. Parliament. Library. Research Branch. Pan-time work, by Baker, M. Ottawa:
Library of Parliament, Research Branch, 1987. 13 p. Bibliography.
(Canada. Parliament. Library. Research Branch. Current issue review, 85-7E)
Canadian as well as world trends indicate that the number of part-time workers will reach 20%
of the labour force by the end of the century - a rise, in Canada at least, from 3% of the labour
force in 1956. This report studies the trends and focuses on the issue that it is women who are
probably most adversely affected by the increase. Through a survey of types of part-time
workers and benefits, this report discusses the long-term implications for women, such as their
disproportionate level of old-age poverty, and consequences resulting from part-time employment
that affect their families. Overviews major government studies on part-time employment and
the federal government's performance as an employer in regulating part-time work. Documents
a chronology of related parliamentary action. French ed.: Le travail a temps partiel.
Canada. Parliament. Library. Research Branch. Women in Canada: socio-economic status
and other contemporary issues, by Harder, S. Rev.ed. Ottawa: Library of Parliament,
Research Branch, 1992. 18 p. Bibliography.
(Canada. Parliament. Library. Research Branch. Current issue review 91-5E)
Although a great deal of attention has been directed to the issue of women's status in Canada,
women continue to face conditions that set them apart from men in our society. Canadian
women on average continue to earn less than men. In 1987, women working full-time made
approximately 66 percent of the incomes of their male counterparts. This document discusses
accounts for gender inequality and looks at economic factors that contribute to this inequality
such as the labour market and poverty. It also presents information on social issues such as
violence, health, and politics. French ed.: Les femmes au Canada....
,
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Retention of Target Groups in the Scientific
and Professional Category, by Martin, Mireille. Ottawa: Public Service Commission of
Canada, 1990. 10 p.
This study follows recent research that indicates an upward trend in the separation rates of public
servants — from 8.1% in 1983 to 9.9% in 1988. During the same period, the separation rate
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of women in the Scientific and Professional Category went from 12.8% to 14.8% compared to
rates of 4.8% to 6.1% for men. In 1988, women in this employment category made up 24.4%
of all staff while they represented 39.4% of the separations. Women are also over-represented
in' temporary employment positions in this category. The top two occupational groups in this
employment category are nurses and educators.
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Women in the Federal Public Service of
Canada: a decade of change. Ottawa: Public Service Commission of Canada, 1985. 21,
23 p. Tables.
Over the decade 1975-1985, women's share of full-time public service jobs has increased from
34.6% to 40.3% mostly in administrative support but some increase in management as well.
Tables compare data for men and women, by department and occupational category.French ed.:
La femme dans la Fonction publique. Microlog 85-06547
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Staffing Programs Branch. Human
Resources Planning Division. Estimates of external availability of women in the labour force.
Ottawa: Public Service Commission, 1984. u, 14, 14, 144, ii p.
Document not seen for annotation. Information from PSC Library. Bilingual.
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Staffing Programs Branch. Human
Resources Planning Division. Estimates of external availability of women in the labour force:
officer categories. Ottawa: Public Service Commission, 1984. 9, 21, 10, 21 p.
Document not seen for annotation. Bilingual.
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Staffing Programs Branch. Human
Resources Planning Division. Estimates of external availability of women in the labour force:
operational and administrative support categories. Ottawa: Public Service Commission, 1984.
14, 23, 16, 23 p.
Document not seen for annotation. Bilingual.
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Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada. Staffing Programs Branch. Human
Resources Planning Division. Regional availability data on women in the external labour
force: officer categories, by McDonald, Joanne. Ottawa: Public Service Commission of
Canada, 1985. 5, 237, 12 p. Tables.
This report describes statistically the availability of women in officer categories in the external
labour market by region, to help government departments conduct their own analysis as to
whether the representation of target groups in their departments match the labour force as a
whole. This publication is a supplement to another report which outlines availability of women
in officer categories in external labour markets at the national level.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Canadians and their occupations: a profile. Ottawa:
Canada, 1989. 440 p. Bilingual. Tables.
Statistics
(Dimensions series)
In a single table, this publication profiles 200 occupations by demographic, socio-cultural and
economic characteristics. Occupations are listed alphabetically at the front of the table, to help
users gain quick access to data relating to a specific occupation. All data are reported from the
1986 Census for both males and females, for Canada only.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Industry: the nation. Ottawa:
Tables.
Statistics Canada, 1989. 383 p.
(The Nation series)
The two tables that make up this publication present 1986 Census of Canada data on industry.
Industries are listed according to 1980 Standard Industrial Classification, and are classified by
age group, sex and class of worker. Industry is also explored in terms of labour force activity.
The tables give the total number of males and females employed or unemployed in the labour
force, and the number of weeks worked in 1985. All data are collected for persons 15 years of
age and over. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Labour force activity: the nation. Ottawa:
1993. 139 p.
Statistics Canada,
One of a collection of 24 reports based on the 1991 Census, using data from a 20% sample of
Canadian households. This publication presents statistics on labour force activity and work
activity in 1990, cross-classified by age and sex, full- or part-time, and with historical data from
the five census years from 1971 to 1991. Bilingual.
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Canada. Statistics Canada. Labour force activity: the nation. Ottawa:
1989. 357 p. Tables.
Statistics Canada.
This publication presents 1986 Census data collected from one in five households in Canada.
The four tables found in this release contain data on labour force activity for the population 15
years of age and over. Tables 1 and 2 present historical data from 1971 to 1986 and from 1981
to 1986, respectively; the data found in Table 2 are for the female population only. Tables 3
and 4 present 1986 labour force activity as it relates to selected demographic and education
variables.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Labour force annual averages.
1990- . Annual. Tables.
Ottawa: Statistics Canada,
The purpose of this annual publication is to provide users of Labour Force Survey data with a
convenient source for annual avenges. Part A presents an overview of the labour force during
the period 1980-1990. It contains a brief description of major developments as well as three
tables giving 11 years of annual averages for selected labour force characteristics. Part B
presents annual avenges for all 37 tables in the monthly The Labour Force for the reference
year (e.g.1990). It also presents annual average estimates of some provincial breakdowns as well
as more detailed sub-provincial estimates. Student workforce activity is divided into two
sections, September-April and May-August. Methodological notes and definitions of concepts
are also provided. Published annually, 1990, 1991, 1992, with different special features in each
annual (e.g.1992: Goods-producing industries, 1976-1992).
Canada. Statistics Canada. Occupation. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1989. 499 p. Tables.
This publication features two tables that provide a detailed overview of labour force activity
across Canada. Occupation data are presented in relation to a number of variables. These
include sex, age group and class of worker (that is, whether a person is a paid worker, a selfemployed unincorporated individual or an unpaid family worker). In addition, labour force
activity for both employed and unemployed males and females, and number of weeks worked
in 1985, are tabulated. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Occupational trends, 1961-1986. Ottawa: Statistics Canada,
1988. 302 p. Tables.
(Dimensions series)
This publication provides a historical perspective on occupational trends for the labour force 15
years of age and over for Canada, the provinces and the territories. In Table 1, occupational data
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are divided according to major groups and sex; in Table 2, by detailed occupation and sex.
Labour force and occupation data have been adjusted as much as possible to permit accurate
comparisons between 1961, 1971, 1981, and 1986 Censuses.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Trends in occupation and industry,
Statistics Canada, 1989. 37 p. Tables.
by Silver, Irving. Ottawa:
(Focus on Canada series)
This study presents readers with 1986 Census data on current patterns of employment by
industry and occupation, as well as by age and sex. In addition, data from the 1971 and 1981
Censuses are presented in order to review changes in these patterns and gain insight into how
different variables influence particular trends. Data contained in this study are reported mainly
for Canada, with statistics for three Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) covered only to a
limited extent. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. University and College Academic Staff System (UCASS).
File). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Education, Culture and Tourism Division,
1946 - .
(Data
This annual survey is designed to collect information on the characteristics (e.g. salaries, age,
level of education, staff functions, rank, citizenship and social characteristics) of full-time
teachers in degree-granting institutions in Canada, provinces and regions. Preliminary data are
released in January of the reference academic year; supplementary data are released in June or
July. Related publications: StatsCan cat.no.81-258(3x per year); 81-241(2.5 years after the
academic year).
Canada. Statistics Canada. Women and the labour force, by Connelly, M. Patricia;
MacDonald, Martha (Institute for Research on Public Policy). Ottawa: Statistics Canada,
1990. 34, 34 p. Tables.
Presents data and analysis based on the 1986 Census of Canada, focusing on recent trends in
women's work in the labour market. Provides a descriptive analysis of women's labour force
participation, employment conditions and unemployment, in terms of industry, occupation, age,
income, marital status, presence of children and education. Comparisons are made with previous
censuses and data from related surveys such as the Labour Force Survey and the Family History
Survey are presented. Most of the data are for Canada, but there is some attempt to indicate the
provincial variations as well. Bilingual: Les femmes et la population active.
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Canada. Statistics Canada. Women in the work world. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1984. 24,
25 p. Tables. Charts.
Based on 1981 Census of Canada data. Using mostly bar graphs, shows total labour force
participation (men and women) in 1971, 1976 and 1981; age distribution of women in the work
force, 1971 and 1981; participation by marital status, 1971, 1976 and 1981; by marital status
and age, 1981; by province; by education and occupation; with summary analysis. Bilingual: La
femme dans le monde du travail.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Analytical Studies Branch. Modelling the lifetime employment
patterns of Canadians, by G. Picot. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch,
1986. 31 p. Bibliography
(Statistics Canada. Analytical Studies Branch. Research paper series, no. 4)
Utilizing data from Statistic Canada's Family History Survey, relationships were studied between
family-related variables and the movement of Canadians - women in particular - in and out of
employment. These relationships are explored by expressing transition probabilities as a
function of age, sex, marital status, age of youngest child, educational attainment, state occupied
the previous year, and the duration of that state. The goal is to develop an employment submodel of a larger lifetime income and pension policy simulation model. The simulated
employment patterns are compared to the actuals from the Family History Survey.
French ed.: La modelisation....
Canada. Statistics Canada. Household Surveys Division. Historical labour force statistics,
1992. Ottawa, Statistics Canada, 1969 - .
First issue 1953/67. Published annually. Presents a selection of historical labour force statistics
(e.g. employment and unemployment by sex, age, province, marital status, full- or part-time,
sector, occupation, and seasonal employment); and several hundred time series, derived from
the monthly Labour Force Survey: actual data, seasonal factors, seasonally adjusted data.
Includes data analysis, definitions, and data quality.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Household Surveys Division. The labour force. Ottawa: Statistics
Canada, 1959- Tables. Maps. Charts.
Each monthly issue contains an analysis of the population, labour force, employment, and
unemployment, and also a special feature on some aspect of the labour force. Most data are
disaggregated by sex and age group, varied with marital status, education, school attendance,
location, family status, female head of household and family composition. Main estimates
88
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seasonally adjusted and unadjusted, other figures unadjusted. Published one month after
reference month. Includes updates to historical series contained in Historical labour force
statistics; occasional special analyses; and a sample questionnaire, defmitions, a list of economic
regions, and bibliography. Name of Division responsible for compiling the data varies: Labour
Force Survey Group; Labour Force Surveys Section; Household Surveys Division (from 1991- ).
Bilingual: La force active.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Household Surveys Division. Labour force annual averages,
1981-1988. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1989. 377 p. Tables.
This publication provides annual avenges for the years 1981 to 1988 from the tables contained
in the monthly The Labour Force, revised to the latest census of population benchmark (1986).
Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division. Women in the
workplace. 2d ed., by Ghalam, Nancy Zukewich. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Target
Groups Project, 1993. Tables.
Updates and expands the information provided in the 1987 publication with the same title. Also
published in French: Les femmes sur le marche du travail.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division. Women's work
interruptions: results from the 1984 Family History Survey, by Robinson, Patricia. Ottawa:
Statistics Canada, 1987. 36, 40 p. Tables.
22 tables illustrate the timing, frequency, length, and causes of women's work interruptions,
correlated to age, education, marital status, and children. Methodology is described and data
analysis is included. Bilingual: Interruptions de travail chez les femmes.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division. Canada's
women: Ottawa, Statistics Canada, 1988 - .
These annual profiles of the labour market experience of Canadian women are based on the
Labour Market Activity Surveys. They provide data on employment and unemployment
patterns, wages, and job characteristics. Bilingual.
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Canada. Statistics Canada. Target Groups Project. Women in the workplace: selected data.
Ottawa, Statistics Canada, 1987. 78 p. Tables, charts.
The statistical tables in this report are a sample of the available data on the characteristics of
women in the workplace, for Canada and, in most cases, provinces. Almost all of the data are
generated from sample surveys which do not include the territories. They are based on a
selection of what are considered useful variables for describing the current status of women in
the workplace, such as education in relation to earnings, ratio of female to male income,
employment of women with children, education, marital status, and occupation. Data, to 1985,
cover a 10 year period (some distribution tables go back to 1950 and 1968) and are presented
in 25 tables and 6 charts. Originally prepared jointly by Status of Women Canada and Statistics
Canada in 1985 as an experimental working paper, it proved so popular that it was decided to
update and re-issue it. French ed: Les femmes sur le marche du travail.
Canada. Status of Women Canada. Educating girls and women for the 21st century: its
significance to Canada's economy: background document. Ottawa: Status of Women Canada,
1991. ii, 38 p.
Prepared for the Joint Meeting of Federal/Provincial/Territorial Ministers Responsible for the
Status of Women and Provincial/Territorial Ministers Responsible for Education. Forecasts the
distribution of Canada's population of working age. It presents various pictures of Canada's
labour force in the future and looks at various patterns and trends related to the education and
employment of women. It also examines the effect on Canada's economy of the different pictures
of the labour force. It shows that even higher gains to GDP would occur if women were equally
represented in the various types and levels of education so that they could perform jobs across
the full range of occupations. Finally, it outlines desirable directions for public policy in the
light of the conclusions reached in the paper.
Canada. Status of Women Canada. Statistical indicators: Status of Women Canada. Ottawa:
Status of Women Canada, 1986. 1 v. (various p.)
These tables present statistical indicators for women's participation rates in the labour force, the
demographic structure of the labour force, unemployment and financial data of women in
Canada.
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Canada. Task Force on Barriers to Women in the Public Service. Beneath the Veneer:
Supply and Services,
Task Force on Barriers to Women in the Public Service. Ottawa:
1990, 4 volumes.
Presents the findings of the Task Force, chaired by Edmonds, Jane. Research methods combined
numerical analysis with anecdotal material gathered from 12,044 questionnaires, briefs, 223
interviews and case studies. Main fmdings include: women are concentrated in a small number
of occupational groups (three-quarters are in secretarial, clerical, administrative services and
program management); the majority of women can be found at the lower levels of pay and
status; and in the scientific and professional category, women at the junior and middle levels
advance 22% to 50% more slowly than men. Barriers include stereotyped attitudes, a hostile
or unaccommodating corporate culture, and problems in balancing work and family life. 77%
of women believe there is a glass ceiling, an invisible but impassable barrier that prevents them
from advancing. The study makes four basic recommendations: the necessity to take gender
inequity as a serious problem which requires commitment; to treat inequity as a management
problem not a women's issue; past ideas about improvements to employment systems have not
been fully implemented but should be; and, nothing will change unless the attitudes of employees
and the corporate culture change. Methodology is discussed in detail. Charts, references and
annotated bibliography.
Canada. Women's Bureau. Adapting to a changing work force: the relocation policies and
practices of Canada's top companies, by MacBride-King, J. L. Ottawa: Labour Canada,
Women's Bureau, 1992. vi, 61 p. Bibliography.
This report looks at the ways leading Canadian companies are adapting their relocation policies
and practices to meet the changing needs of employees and their families. It focuses on
relocation in the context of workplace innovations aimed at balancing work and family
responsibilities. It examines direct support for relocated employees, such as financial assistance
with moving expenses or house-hunting trips. In view of the particular implications for women
who are spouses of the employee, it also looks at initiatives that address their needs, such as
career counselling or job search assistance. French ed.: S'adapter a une main d'oeuvre....
-
Canada. Women's Bureau. Economic sectors and gender discrimination in Canada: a critique
and test of Block and Walker... and some new evidence, by Denton, Margaret A.; Hunter,
Alfred A. Ottawa: Women's Bureau, 1984.
(Canada. Women's Bureau. Discussion paper, ser. A: Equality in the workplace,
no. 6)
Addresses the extent and nature of gender discrimination in the Canadian labour market.
Critiques the Fraser Institute publication Discrimination, affirmative action, and equal
opportunity, edited by Block and Walker, in order to counteract its possibly negative effect on
planned federal government anti-discrimination initiatives. Uses data from the Canadian Mobility
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Study, a supplement to the July 1973 Labour Force Survey. These data are "the best available
in Canada to study male-female wage disparities, containing individual-level information on the
most comprehensive set of income-related characteristics collected to date." Analyzes data,
mainly re wages, but also including occupation, career interruptions, and education. Proves that
Block and Walker were wrong in assuming that women in the public sector were worse off than
women in the private sector (and that therefore government anti-discrimination programs should
begin in the public sector).
Canada. Women's Bureau. Sex discrimination in the Canadian labour market: theories, data,
and evidence, by Gunderson, Morley Ottawa: Labour Canada, 1983.77 p. Bibliography.
(Equality in the workplace ; no. 3)
(Canada. Women's Bureau. Discussion paper, ser.A.: Equality in the workplace, no.3)
Assesses existing Canadian data sets. Pt. 2 contains a discussion of the alternative theoretical
models and some empirical tests of their implications. Pt. 3 discusses the various measurement
techniques that have been employed and presents some of the empirical evidence, focusing on
the relative importance of occupational segregation, wage discrimination, and productivity
differences. Pt. 4 contains a discussion of sex discrimination in fringe benefits. Pt. 5 assesses
the existing Canadian data sets that have been employed. Conclusion: a possible research
agenda based on existing data, as well as new data that may be needed. French ed: Le marche
du travail canadian...
Canada. Women's Bureau. Sexual equality in the workplace: proceedings of a conference
sponsored by the Women's Bureau, Labour Canada, Toronto, March 17-19, 1982. Ottawa:
Labour Canada, 1982. vii, 152 p. Illus. Tables. Bibliographies.
Four workshops dealt with "Work and Family Responsibilities," "Equal Compensation,"
"Occupational Segregation," and "Socialization, Education and Training." Report includes tables
on occupational distribution, education and occupation, labour force participation rates by
education, age, sex. Also in French: Egalite des sexes sur le marche de travail.
Canada. Women's Bureau. Towards the integration of women into the high technology labour
force in the National Capital Region; prepared for the Women's Bureau by Communicado
Associates. Ottawa: Labour Canada, 1982. 66 p. Tables.
(Canada. Women's Bureau. Discussion paper, ser.B: Changing world of work,
no.1)
This study documents the employment opportunities available for women in the high technology
industry, using the industry in the national capital region as the sample; explores barriers to
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employment, and looks at ways women could be more fully utilized; presents and analyzes data
on training programs for women. French ed.: Integration des femmes au marche du travail cree
par l'industrie de technologie de pointe....
Canada. Women's Bureau. Women in the labour force.
Ottawa: Women's Bureau, 1970-
. 1990/91 report includes data for the years 1987/88
Published annually, 1970-1987, 1991- 1989/90. Title, 1970-1984, Women in the labour force: facts and figures. Comprehensive
statistical account of women's workforce activities, with comparative data from 1975. Sources
of data include Statistics Canada, Health and Welfare Canada, Labour Canada. Bilingual . Les
femmes dans la population active.
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. The Equality game: women in the
federal public service, 1908-1987, by Morgan, N. Ottawa: Canadian Advisory Council on
the Status of Women, 1988. iii, 70 p. Bibliography.
Despite women's progress towards equality in the labour market, women constitute only 8.7%
of the Executive category and 13.2% of the Senior Management category. This paper explains
this phenomenon by proposing three hypotheses upon which the analysis is based. First, it
explains the situation by examining women as a complex and diverse group in relation to men.
Second, it places the situation of women within the sub-culture of the federal public service
organized around an internal power. Finally, it takes into consideration that while two jobs may
have equal pay, they are not necessarily equal in responsibility and authority. The information
in this document is based on a series of annual reports, data, and regulations dating from the
turn of the century to the present, together with interviews with 52 men and women in the public
service. French ed.: Jouer a l'egalite.
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Free trade and Canadian women: an
opportunity for a better future, by Macmillan, K. Ottawa: Canadian Advisory Council on
the Status of Women, 1987. iii, 37 p. Bibliography.
(Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Background paper.)
Discusses the view that women have the most to gain under a free trade agreement due to the
fact that any Canadian job loss would be in industries with the poorest working conditions, and
that women fare better than men in finding new jobs. Comments on how women will have the
most to gain from anticipated lower prices for consumer goods, since they earn lower wages and
therefore spend a higher proportion of their income on necessities. Also identifies world trends
that will affect women's position in the labour market, including exchange rate fluctuations,
technological change, competitive pressures from the developing world and depressed world
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commodity prices. Includes data on the percentages of women in different sectors of the
economy, and anticipated effect of free trade on them. French ed.: Le libre echange et Its
canadiennes...
-
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Free trade in services: an issue of
concern to women, by Cohen, M. G. Ottawa: Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of
Women, 1987. iii, 47 p. Bibliography.
(Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Background paper.)
The service sector makes up two-thirds of Canada's national incomes and it employs over 80%
of women in the labour force. This document discusses the job losses in industries that replace
domestic services with imported ones, including data processing, financial services,
telecommunications, transportation and culture. Also discusses the possibility that Canada could
lose control over economic and social development, including the tax system, because of
pressures from American trading partners, and increased privatization resulting from increased
contracting out of part-time work, and other cost-cutting measures that would reduce the working
conditions in the jobs held by women. French ed. : Le libre echange
-
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Impact of free trade on women in
manufacturing, by Porter, A.; Cameron, B. Ottawa: Canadian Advisory Council on the
Status of Women, 1987. iii, 50 p. Bibliography.
(Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Background paper)
This background paper examines the implications for women of bilateral trade with the United
States, and in particular, the potential impact of free sector. The paper begins with a brief
historical overview of Canadian trade policy and an outline of the assumptions of the current free
trade debate as background to the examination of the specific implications of free trade for
women and to the consideration of the role of women's organizations. French ed.: Consequences
du libre echange pour les femmes....
-
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Integration and participation: women's
work in the home and in the labour force. Ottawa: Canadian Advisory Council on the Status
of Women, 1987. 192 p. Tables.
This book is a collection of essays examining conditions of women's work, in and outside the
home, and how work effects women at different times in their life. It includes issues such as
marriage, divorce, unemployment, health, and unionization
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Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Women and labour market poverty,
by Gunderson, Morley; Muszynski, Leon; Keck, Jennifer. Ottawa: The Council, 1990. i,
254 p. Tables.
Examines the problem of working poverty in Canada, with a special focus on women. 383,000
people in Canada in 1986 worked full time yet had incomes below the "poverty line." More
women than men are poor (16% vs 11.7 %).The authors state that women's poverty is associated
with numerous factors, in particular their unpaid domestic and child-care work as mothers and
wives; and that since it is well known that women experience discrimination in pay and in job
opportunities and are segregated in low-paying occupations and industries, research on women's
inequality in the labour market has been critically important in developing strategies to alleviate
discrimination. We do not as yet -have a clear idea of the relationship between women's poverty
and women's labour market experience; nor do we have a comprehensive policy plan aimed at
solving the problem of poverty among women in the labour market. This book is an attempt to
fill that void. French ed.: Vivre ou survivre?
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Women and part-time work,
Julie. Ottawa: The Council, 1983. v, 159 p. Tables. Charts.
by White,
Part-time work is now a significant sector of the work force, having expanded steadily since the
1950s. This work examines part-time work, the reasons why some women seek part-time work,
the exploitation of part-time workers in the labour force, in an attempt to answer the question
as to whether part-time work is "good" or "bad" for women. Employment standards, industrial
relations, and social welfare legislation are examined, and specific suggestions for change are
offered. Ten tables include Women part-time/women and men full-time, by industry, 1981;
Women part-time/Women and men full-time, by occupation, 1981; Percentage expansion in parttime work, by industry, 1966-1975 and 1975-1981; Percentage increase in part-time work, and
average unemployment rate, 1958-1981. French ed.: Les femmes et le travail a temps partiel.
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. A working majority: what women must
do for pay, by Armstrong, Pat; Armstrong, Hugh. Ottawa: The Council, 1983. 280 p.
Tables.
The research was carried out through interviews with women about their work, to determine the
types of jobs they were performing, the quality of the jobs in terms of hours, supervision,
working conditions, unions, and tenure, and the effect of technology on them compared to men.
A statistical appendix with 25 tables, using Statistics Canada data on women and employment
from 1966 to 1980 is included, with comparative data from 1978, 1979, and 1980.
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Canadian Bar Association. Task Force on Gender Equality in the Legal Profession.
Ottawa: Canadian Bar
Touchstones for change: equality, diversity and accountability.
Association, 1993. 290 p. Tables.
The Task Force was established in August 1991, and chaired by the Hon. Bertha Wilson. Its
mandate included: the establishment of provincial and territorial Working Groups, to study the
status of women in their jurisdiction and developed solutions; analysis of 5 provincial Law
Society reports on women in the legal profession; studies and surveys to collect data;
consultations with groups including representatives of visible minority women and Aboriginal
women; and a national conference (Oct. 1992). The Task Force sets the goal as "substantive
equality," or "equality of result," rather than formal equality (criticized by the Supreme Court
in the 1987 Andrews decision), which causes apparently neutral rules and standards to have
different impacts on different groups and individuals. The Task Force found that more women
are entering the profession, but that they are also leaving at a higher rate than men, which
indicates that barriers to equality remain. These barriers are also described in a separate chapter.
"If the only women who succeed in law firms are those who succeed in adopting the male
model, then gender inequality continues unabated." Analyses of sexual harassment, and
employment practices of law schools, are also reported. The chapter on the judiciary includes
a table showing the pool of Ontario women lawyers qualified for judicial appointment, and the
numbers actually appointed (1929-1982). The discrepancy in available resources for family law
compared to criminal law is commented on. (From the Synopsis by Mary Eberts, Nov. 1993.
24 p.)
Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities for Women. Decade of promise: an
assessment of Canadian women's status in education, training and employment, 1976-1985;
prepared by Avebury Research and Consulting Ltd. Toronto: Canadian Congress for
Learning Opportunities for Women, 1986. 142, [6]p. Tables.
The purpose of the report (written by Herring, Barbara S ; LaFountaine, Helen) is to evaluate
statistically the progress (or lack of it) made by women in education, training and employment
between 1976 and 1985; identify any emerging trends; and analyze the impact of this on women.
Data used for comparison includes 1971 and 1981 Canada census, other Statistics Canada data
from 1975 and 1985; and Employment and Immigration Canada data from 1977/78 and 1983/84.
Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities for Women. The National Training Act: its
impact on women, by Henderson, Heather. Toronto: Canadian Congress for Learning
Opportunities for Women, 1984. 67 p. Tables.
Discusses the National Training Act (1982) and its shortcomings. Tables show participation of
women and men in various types of training: industrial and institutional, by province and nationwide, for purposes of equal employment opportunity.
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Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities for Women. Women's education and
training in Canada: a policy analysis, by Wismer, Susan. Toronto: Canadian Congress for
Learning Opportunities for Women, 1988. xv, 97 p. Bibliography. Tables.
The report analyses how Canadian federal and provincial education and training policies are
implemented, and their impact on women, particularly in regards to access, privatization and
outcomes, in order to cause changes in the structure of society to help women achieve greater
equality. It includes tables on percentage of women in major occupational groups, the wage gap
between men and women, average female employment income by clerical occupation, and
education and earnings for women and men.
Cannings, Kathy. "Managerial promotion: the effects of socialization, specialization, and
gender." Industrial and Labour Relations Review 42(1):77-88, 1988.
Analysis of questionnaire data obtained in 1983 from 256 female (F) and 436 male (M)
managers of Canadian firms reveals that women, whose average earnings were 87% of the
men's, were only 80% as likely as their M colleagues to be promoted in any given year of their
careers with the firm. Although career-relevant factors such as childhood socialization, formal
education, and firm-specific productivity had a significant impact on the probability of
promotion, the influence of gender is found to be sizeable even when those variables are held
constant. 7 Tables, 17 References. HA (Copyright 1989, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights
reserved.)
Chambers, Edward J.; Cullen, Dallas M. Shifts in gender ratios in the highly skilled labour
London, Ontario: National Centre for
market: an approach to organizational change.
Management Research and Development, University of Western Ontario, 1989. 10 p.
Based on Statistics Canada Census Data, this paper examines changes over time in the relatively
small pool of highly skilled labour force. The authors found, for example, that women
represented 10% of those in Bachelor of Commerce programs in Canada in 1972-73, while in
1987-88 this figure rose to 44%. In sciences and engineering, the trends have shifted from 22%
in 1973 to 28% in 1987-88 for scientific disciplines and from 1% to 12% for engineering
disciplines. The authors found that unlike professionally trained women of past generations,
young women want both career and children, and employers must adjust accordingly with
flexible work schedules. If senior management is reluctant to alter existing conditions in
response to the reality of childbearing and childraising, then the message management sends is
that accommodation is entirely the employee's responsibility, along with the stress that this
entails.
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Chawla, Raj K. "The changing profile of dual-earner families." Perspectives on Labour and
Income 4:22-29, Summer 1992. Bibliography. Tables. Charts.
Compares 1967 with 1989. Diminishing impact of husband's earnings and presence of pre-school
age children on participation of women in the labour market, and characteristics of working
spouses and their contributions to family income; Canada.
Cohen, Marjorie Griffm. Free trade and the future of women's work: manufacturing and
service industries. Toronto: Garamond Press, 1987. 100 p. Tables.
(Network basics series)
Published jointly with the Canadian Center for Policy Alternatives, this book focuses on free
trade with the U.S. It also discusses the implications of the results of trade liberalization
generally. See also the author's study, Free trade in services, published by the Canadian
Advisory Council on the Status of Women (1987).
Collin, Johanne."Les femmes dans la profession pharmaceutique au Quebec: rupture ou
continuite? Recherches feministes 5(2):31-56, 1992. Bibliography. Tables.
Growing presence of women in non-traditional professions vs. "feminization" or lowering of the
pay scale; case study of Quebec's pharmacists, 1947-87. Summary in English, p. 208.
Colloquium on the Economic Status of Women in the Labour Market, Montreal, 1984.
Towards equity: proceedings.
Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada, 1985. x, 196 p.
Tables.
A collection of papers presented at the Colloquium, including "The changing economic status
of the female labour force," and "Occupational diversification of women in the workplace," with
many tables from Statistics Canada and other sources, and a guide to sources of social and
economic data. French ed.: Pour un portage equitable.
Comeau, Joseph Lawrence. Women's struggle to gain equality status in the RCMP.
Carleton University, 1990. vii, 131 p.
M.A.
This research examines the case of women in non-traditional occupations with special reference
to those serving as police officers in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The numbers of
women in policing has been increasing steadily over the past several years. This research will
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point out that although their numbers have improved, to a large degree, the obstacles women
encounter are still present. A general theme of much of the literature reviewed is that the main
problem for women in policing is men in policing. Gaining entrance into policing has been
accomplished, acquiring equality in treatment in policing is still a slow process for women.
Cutt, James; Hodgkinson, Christopher. "Equity and excellence in the university." Policy
Options 13(7):6-9, September, 1992.
Focuses on equality of opportunity for women in university teaching. Cites a recent study (UBC)
which demonstrates that in terms of available male and female applicants there has been
discrimination in favour of, rather than against, women over the last 20 years. Women have
better access to formerly male dominated courses and to graduate studies, and this will bring the
numbers up in a way that is preferable (from the perspective of quality scholarship) to a quota
system of hiring.
Duchesne, Doreen. "Annual review of labour force trends."
26-32, Summer 1987. Illus. Tables. Charts.
Canadian Social Trends p.
This review covers the years 1976-86. Its contents include: Unemployment in Canada; Women
in the labour force; The aging of the labour force; Provincial changes; Changes in the
distribution of employment by industry.
Economic Council of Canada. The declining middle and technological change: trends in the
distribution of employment income in Canada, 1971-84, by Leckie, N. Ottawa: Economic
Council of Canada, 1988. xi, 100 p. Bibliography. illus.
(Economic Council of Canada. Discussion paper, no. 342)
The primary goal of this paper was to assess the view that technological change was leading to
a declining middle class. It was suggested that the new technologies create both higher- skilled,
better paid jobs and lower-skilled, poorly paid jobs while depleting mid-level incomes and skills.
Exacerbating this problem was the so-called de-industrialization phenomenon, a process
involving employment shifts from the better-paid manufacturing sector to the allegedly
lower-skilled, lower wage service sector. Also, changes in the demographic structure -particularly the influx of low-paid youth and women and the greater utilization of part-time
employment -- were contributing to greater income polarization. Through standardization
techniques, this paper seeks to disentangle and gauge the impact of these various changes on the
size of the middle class and other measures of income disparity. The accent on technological
change led to the choice of employment income as the object of analysis.
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Economic Council of Canada. Sources of Canadian employment change: a decomposition
analysis, by Postner, H. H.; Wesa, L. M. Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada, 1987.
vii, 152 p.
(Economic Council of Canada. Discussion paper, no. 339)
Presentation of an analysis of sources of Canadian employment change for 1971-1981 through
the use of decomposition analysis which expresses Canada employment as the summation of a
number of explanatory sources with each one accounting for a different economic view. The
decomposition analysis is performed by industry, occupation, sex and occupation, age and
educational attainment. Recommends future research areas. Methodology and statistical data
interpretation problems are discussed.
Fast, Janet E.; Munro, Brenda. "Value of household and farm work: evidence from
Alberta farm family data." Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics 39:137-50, Mr
1991. Bibliography. Tables.
Utilizes data from 1984 on men and women performing farm work, household work, off-farm
employment, volunteer work and providing informal help to neighbours, and their attitudes about
these activities. Summary in French.
Fillmore, Catherine J. "Gender differences in earnings: a re-analysis and prognosis for
Canadian women." Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 15:275299, 1990.
The utility of three models of labour (human capital, dual labour market, and reserve army) in
predicting the relation between gender composition of occupation and earnings and changes over
time of the gender earnings gap are tested, using 1931-1981 Canadian census data. Overall, a
trend toward a substantial reduction in the earnings gap between male (M) and female (F)
workers is apparent. In the leading F occupations, both Ms and Fs were earning significantly
less than average, but over time, as the % of M workers in a F occupation increased, the
earnings increased also. Women showed little penetration of M-dominated occupations, but
where they broke through, the earnings gap was considerable. Human capital theory cannot
explain the persistence of such a gap over the 50-year span, but the reserve army theory explains
the presence of low pay in F occupations, and the dual labour market theory explains the
exclusion of Fs from high-paying occupations. Using a 2-variable, 2-wave panel model, it is
shown that Fs were not drawn to high-paying occupations; the reserve army theory is a better
fit for the data, since neither F wage competition nor high-paying occupations were the causes
of low F earnings. The specifications of and issues in equal pay legislation and the 1986 federal
Employment Equity Act are discussed; it is concluded that current legislation has been
ineffective in narrowing the gender gap in earnings and occupational discrimination. 6 Tables,
1 Figure, 77 References. M. Pflum (Copyright 1991, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights
reserved.) .
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Fox, Bonnie J.; Fox, John. Occupational gender segregation of the Canadian workforce,
1931-1981. Downsview, Ontario: York University Institute for Social Research, 1987.
The authors used census data on occupational categories for this study. They question the
usefulness of Statistics Canada categories.
Fox, Bonnie J.; Fox, John. "Women in the labour market, 1931-81: exclusion and
competition." Revue canadienne de sociologie et d'anthropologie / Canadian Review of
Sociology and Anthropology 23:1-21, 1986.
Canadian and US research has revealed a negative relationship between the proportion of women
in occupations and occupational wage levels, interpreted as reflecting the negative competitive
impact of women's labour force participation on wages and as a result of the exclusion of
women from high paying occupations. A structural model is constructed that can capture
competition and exclusion effects using Canadian census data for 1931-1981; trends in
occupational segregation by gender and in relative earnings of men and women are also
examined. Findings indicate competition effects on men's earnings but no effect of gender
composition on women's earnings; selection effects are also evident, whereby women are
excluded from high earning M occupations and attracted to those occupations in which their own
earnings are high. 3 Tables, 3 Figures, 1 Appendix, 48 References. Modified HA (Copyright
1986, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Fox, John and Suschnigg, Carole. "A Note on Gender and the Prestige of Occupations;
Research note." Canadian Journal of Sociology, 14: 353-360, 1989. Table.
The purpose of this paper is to show that the conceptualization and measurement of occupational
status do not bring into focus the structured inequality between women and men in the
workforce.. We believe that this shortcoming is unsurprising in view of the failure of Weberian
and functionalist traditions to treat gender inequality as central to the study of stratification.
Table based on 1961 Census of Canada.
Fraser Institute. Discrimination, affirmative action, and equal opportunity; an economic and
social perspective, co-edited by Block, Walter E.; Walker, Michael A. Vancouver: The
Fraser Institute, 1982. xix, 271 p. Bibliographies. Tables.
Papers by Block, Walker, and several researchers discuss discrimination, affirmative action, and
the pitfalls in public policies attempting to deal with inequities. One paper reviews data on
affirmative action programs for women in Canada and concludes that they do not work. The
different theorists agree that affirmative action programs cause racial intolerance, a sense of
dependency on those who it tries to help, and will not help visible minorities achieve equal
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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earning levels. They also suggest that inequalities are caused, not by discrimination, but by
different values, geographical location and age range of the minority groups. The difference in
earnings between male and female is accounted for by the effects of marriage on the two sexes.
A satirical piece by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. is appended.
Grignon, Julie; Vaillancourt, Francois. "Revenu, characteristiques sociodemographiques
et depenses des menages au Canada en 1978 et 1982." L'Actualite economique: revue
d'analyse economique, 64:231-50, 1988.
Correlates expenditures for 14 types of products and services with factors such as household
size, income, and location and the age, sex, employment, ethnic origin, language, and
educational background of the head of household. Summary in English. Bibliography. Tables.
Hacker, Pat. "Women want equity while the boys get IMAX." Canadian Woman Studies
12(3):76-79, Spring 1992. Tables. Bibliography.
A comment and analysis of the data on women in the media.
Harvey, Edward B.; Kalwa, Richard. "Occupational status attainments of university
graduates: individual attributes and labour market effects compared." Revue canadienne
de sociologie et d'anthropologie / Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 20:435-453,
1983.
The occupational status (OS) attainment process is analyzed with questionnaire survey data from
5 cohorts of Canadian males and females who graduated from universities in 1960, 1964, 1968,
1972, and 1976 (total N = 6,185). When compared to women, men on the whole achieve higher
occupational status (OS) after graduation and experience a wider distribution of social status. The
effects of socio-economic status variables on OS attainment are small or insignificant for both
sexes; the effects of educational variables are greater. The returns to a high undergraduate
academic average are similar for the two sexes; men experience a higher return to graduate
study, while women experience a larger return to majoring in science. The state of the labour
market at time of graduation has the largest effect on OS attainment; previous research has
largely neglected structural factors of this type. In addition, the focus of previous research on
occupational prestige has tended to mask sex differences in OS attainment. 5 Tables, 39
References. Modified HA (Copyright 1984, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
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Hersom, Naomi.(ed.) Women and the Canadian labour force; edited by Hersom, Naomi;
Smith, Dorothy E. Ottawa: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, 1982. 588 p.
Tables.
Proceedings and papers from a workshop held at the University of British Columbia in January
1981 to evaluate strategic research needs in women and the Canadian labour force. "Working
document: Not copy edited." The collection of papers and discussions here presented examine
the overall theme of women's role in the economic process of Canadian society. They represent
the forefront of current research and thinking on this subject. The whole brings into focus those
areas where more research is needed and points out the need for coordinating independent
research. Includes papers by Pat and Hugh Armstrong, and Martha MacDonald, with data and
analysis.
Hughes, K.D. "Trading places: men and women in non-traditional occupations, 1971-86."
Perspectives on Labour and Income 2(2):58-68, 1990. Bibliography. Tables. Charts.
Using Canadian census population data from 1971 and 1986, the author traces the changing
contours of women's and men's work activity. Questions addressed include: how has the
representation of women in non-traditional occupations changed, and in which occupations? The
number of occupations that had a very low proportion of women dropped from 224 in 1971 to
162 in 1986. For men, growth was recorded in occupations most stereotypically associated with
women: clerical, teaching and certain types of manufacturing. Methodology is discussed.
"Hydro survey: discrimination is holding female engineers back." Engineering Dimensions
13(3), May/June 1992, p. 16.
The article discusses working conditions of women engineers at Ontario Hydro, and claims that
they are not treated equally with men.
Institute for Research on Public Policy. The demographics of employment, by Denton, F. T.;
Pineo, P. C.; Spencer, B. G. Ottawa: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1991. la
160 p. Bibliography. thus.
(Institute for Research on Public Policy. Studies in Social Policy Program. Discussion paper,
91.A.1)
Discusses changes in the age and sex distributions of industrial and occupational employment
during the period 1971-86, as evidenced by the 1971, 1981, and 1986 censuses. It establishes
the general setting within which the patterns revealed by the censuses should be viewed. It also
provides detailed examinations of the 1971, 1981, and 1986 census data as they relate to
industrial and occupational patterns of growth and of changes in the age and sex composition of
employment.
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Institute for Research on Public Policy. Women's labour force participation, fertility rates,
by Townson, M.
and the implications for economic development and government policy,
Ottawa: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1987. 53 p.
(Institute for Research on Public Policy. Studies in Social Policy Program. Discussion paper,
87.A.11)
Since the 1960s, women have been streaming into the labour market. Twenty years ago, only
31 percent of adult women (that is women aged 25 or older) participated in the paid labour
force. By 1986, more than 52 per cent of women who were 25 or older were in the work force.
Econometric models which have tried to account for this dramatic change fail to capture the
strength of social change--the influence of the women's movement, for example, in changing
societal attitudes to women working outside the home. Because these influences are almost
impossible to quantify, they tend to be overlooked in the literature, yet their impact on women's
labour supply may be considerable. This paper acknowledges the extent of the changes that have
already taken place, and then examines the implications of those changes for the future. It also
looks at general trends in women's labour force participation, and outlines some challenges to
traditional views and explanations for women's labour supply. It then discusses some
implications for government policy and economic development. Finally it draws conclusions
from the analysis and suggests areas for further research.
Jones, J.C.H.; Walsh, William D. "Product market imperfections, job content differences
and gender employment discrimination at the management level: some evidence from the
Canadian manufacturing sector in 1971 and 1981." Canadian Journal of Economics 24:8W
858, 1991. Tables. Bibliography.
This article compares data from 1971 and 1981, and provides data and analysis to indicate that
women executives and managers in the manufacturing industries are discriminated against. This
paper presents a regression model of the relative employment level of female managers using
data for 1971 and 1981 on a forty-one industry sample drawn from the Canadian manufacturing
sector. The object of the anyalyis is to test the neoclassical proposition that employment
discrimination, here, against females, is fostered by imperfect product market conditions. In
addition, the model allows for the open nature of the Canadian economy and for interindustry
differences in the job and skill content of managerial occupations. The results support the
neoclassical view and as well emphasize the importance of post-secondary education to the
employment of females at the management level. Summary in French.
Healey, Linda. "Status of women in the historical professions in Canada, 1989 survey."
Canadian Historical Review 72:370-388, 1991. Tables. Bibliography.
Using data from the Statistics Canada UCASS file and other sources, this article compares the
relative status of men and women history professors and instructors in Canadian colleges and
universities in 1989. The survey updates a previous one conducted in the mid-1970s. Career
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interruptions mean that women are not represented in full time tenured positions. Attitudes and
fairness need re-examination. While "a large proportion of those surveyed reported the existence
of at least one women's history course in their departments, women and men perceived the value
or status of these courses completely differently."
Kempeneers, Marianne. "La discontinuite professionnelle des femmes au Canada:
permanence et changements." Population: revue bimestrielle 46:9-28, Ja/F 1991. Tables.
Charts.
Investigates career breaks among Canadian women born between 1934 and 1965 and possible
impact of birth rates on their frequency and duration. Summaries in English and Spanish.
Kempeneers, Marianne. Femmes et mouvements du travail; pour un elargissement de
!'analyse demographique de Pactivite salarie et de Pactivite maternelle des femmes. Montreal:
Universite de Montreal, 1987. 350 p.
Doctoral dissertation. Uses data from the Canadian Fertility Survey, 1984. [Document not
available to annotate.
Kuruvilla, P. K. "Still too few women." Policy Options 4(3):53-56, 1983.
Comments on the numbers of women in the public service, using data from the Annual Reports
of the Public Service Commission for 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1981, with tables by
category. The effectiveness of the affirmative action program is called into question.
Le Bourdais, Celine; Desrosiers, Helene. "Les femmes et l'emploi: une analyze de la
discontinuite des trajectoires feminines. Recherches feministes 3:119-184, 1990.
Bibliography. Charts.
Analyzes career breaks among Canadian women. Covers mostly the period since the mid-1970s.
Le Bourdais, Celine. "L'impact des transformations familiales sur Pactivite professionnelle
des femmes au Canada." Schweizerische Zeitschnft fur Soziologie / Revue suisse de sociologic.
15:57-74, 1989.
Investigates to what extent the increase in female (F) wage-earning activity reflects greater
occupational stability, and to what apparent extent modifications in the course of Fs' careers are
linked to the family changes that they experience. The "history of events" method is applied to
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1984 survey data on 7,256 Canadian Fs aged 18-65. It is concluded that the future professional
stability of Fs seems far from assured, and that links between family life and professional life,
though slackened, still seem fairly close. 4 Tables, 22 References. Modified HA (Copyright
1990, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Leck, Joanne D.; Saunders, David M. "Hiring women: the effects of Canada's Employment
Equity Act." Canadian Public Policy 18(2):203-220, 1992. Tables. Bibliography.
This article examines what effect the Employment Equity Act has had on women seeking work
and on employers' hiring patterns. Organizations in Canada's federal jurisdiction are required
to adopt Employment Equity Programs (EEPs) designed to increase the presence of four
traditionally underrepresented groups: women, aboriginal peoples, disabled persons and visible
minorities. This article reports the results of a study that examines the effect of EEPs on the
hiring of women. Results suggest that organization that adopt EEPs that are more formalized,
more comprenensive, and better supported are more likely to hire a more representative number
of women. The effects of EEPs, however, differ across occupational groups and among women
with and without dual status (visible minorities, aboriginals, disabled).
Li, Peter S., "Gender differences in work interruptions as unequal effects of marriage and
childrearing: findings from a Canadian national survey". Journal of Comparative Family
Studies 23:217-229, 1992. Tables.
Based on data from the Family History Survey carried out by Statistics Canada in 1984, this
study presents tables comparing the labour force characteristics of men and women, before and
after work interruptions. Summaries in French and Spanish.
Manitoba Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Women in the labour force: a case
Winnipeg: The
study of the Manitoba Jobs Fund; a report to the Government of Manitoba.
Council, 1987. 128 p. Tables.
This report looks at the Manitoba Jobs Fund (created in 1983) as a case study within the
framework of women's labour force participation. The study covers the first phase of the Fund's
operation, and the initial year of its second and current phase. The results of the study, together
with an analysis of the MJF, are presented. Includes a statistical overview of women in the
Canadian labour force. Data from Statistics Canada and other sources.
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Manitoba. Bureau of Statistics. Female-male employment patterns: an industrial/occupational
overview. Winnipeg: Manitoba Bureau of Statistics, 1989. 27 p.
Presents data on Manitoba's employed labour force as determined from the 1986 census
conducted by Statistics Canada. It specifies the distribution of the employed labour force by sex
and industry sector, as well as by sex and occupational group. It also presents the distribution
of the employed labour force by occupational group within industry sectors, for each sex.
Manitoba. Bureau of Statistics. Female/male income trends Manitoba, 1980-88.
Manitoba Bureau of Statistics, 1990. 55 p.
Winnipeg:
Presents a comparison of male and female income levels as reported on T1 individual income
tax returns. It also presents data on earnings and income of males and females, as collected by
Statistics Canada's Survey of Consumer Finances.
Manitoba. Bureau of Statistics. Manitoba female/male income trends.
Bureau of Statistics, 1988. 35 p.
Winnipeg: Manitoba
This report presents a comparison of male and female income levels, as reported on Ti
individual tax returns for the tax year 1985. It also examines mean income by sex, by selected
age group and occupation.
Manitoba. Bureau of Statistics. Manitoba labour force projections, 1987-2011.
Manitoba Bureau of Statistics, 1989. 49 p.
Winnipeg:
The projected labour force population, participation rates and labour force are presented by age
group and sex.
Manitoba. Civil Service Commission. The Manitoba civil service pay equity implementation,
October 1985-September 1987. Winnipeg: Civil Service Commission, 1988. iv, 83 p.
Although women's participation in the labour market continues to grow in Manitoba, the
segregation of women within a narrow range of occupational groups has not changed. This
report provides: highlights of The Pay Equity Act; a description of the Manitoba Civil Service;
pay equity implementation within the civil service including selection and application of a job
evaluation system; job analysis; the wage adjustment process and results; and the closure of the
female/male wage gap in the civil service.
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Manitoba. Manitoba Education. Planning and Research. 1984 National Grad Survey:
university, by C.J. Britton. Winnipeg: Manitoba Education, Planning and RegPorch Branch,
1986. ii, 28 p. (Research: a report of the Planning and Research Branch, Manitoba
Education; 86-02).
In order to study the relationship between education and the early employment experience of
graduates, Statistics Canada conducted a survey of 1982 post-secondary graduates from across
Canada. Specifically, this report analyses the outcome for Manitoba graduates from
undergraduate programs in comparison to those of similar graduates on a national basis.
Analysis includes breakdown by marital status, sex, age and family dependents and satisfaction
levels with current jobs in 1984.
Manitoba. Manitoba Employment Services and Economic Security. Research and Planning
Branch. Women in the Manitoba labour market: a statistical compendium. Winnipeg: The
Branch, 1986. xi, 141p.
This publication presents a variety of statistical information comparing women and men in the
labour market. The data include information on key labour market indicators: working age
population, labour force, participation rates, employment, unemployment and unemployment
rates. Additional information focuses on wages and salaries, people not in the labour force,
educational enrolments, and participation in government training and employment programs.
The main purpose is to provide statistical information in support of effective research and policy
development in the area of labour market programming responsive to women's evolving interests
and needs. Most of the tables in this compendium compare data for women and men in
Manitoba and Canada.
Marchis-Mouren, Marie-Francoise. Les femmes ingenieures a Hydro-Quebec et le
programme d'acces a Pigalilt
Prepared for the Canadian Committee on Women in
Engineering, Montreal, January 1991. 10 p. Tables.
Provides an overview of the employment equity program at Hydro-Quebec as it relates to women
engineers. Obstacles at the entry and promotion levels were identified by analyzing both
quantitative and qualitative data. Workforce statistics examined included comparing the number
of women and men working in engineering; analyzing salary differences between women and
men; and a review of the number of women available to work in engineering. A review of
policies, practices and procedures related to staffmg, mobility and compensation was also
conducted. Findings include: the average age of female engineers was 35 as compared to 41
for men; the average number of years of seniority for women was 8 compared to 12 for men;
92.5% of female engineers at Hydro-Quebec are concentrated in the first and second salary
levels as compared to 66% of the men; and the progression rate for women is slower than for
men (related to on-the-job training and the nature of assignments). Finally, the collective
agreement of the Union of Professional Engineers of Quebec was reviewed, along with a study
regarding perceptions among engineers at Hydro-Quebec.
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Marshall, Katherine. "Women in male-dominated professions." Canadian Social Trends,
Winter 1987: pp. 7-11. Charts.
This report uses 1971 and 1981 Statistics Canada data to report on women's advances in
occupations traditionally dominated by men. The author defines male-dominated professional
occupations as those in which 45% or more of employees had at least a Bachelor's degree and
where 65% or more of these employees in 1971 were men. Of the 46 occupational groups
considered professional, 34 were considered male-dominated. While women made significant
gains in these fields (83,340 in 1981 compared to 30,410 in 1971), women in professional fields
are more likely to have never married or to have had fewer children than women in other
occupations. The vast majority of professional women were in 12 occupational groups that were
not male-dominated in 1981, such as social workers and supervisors in library, museum and
archival science. Women made up more than half of the total employment growth between 1971
and 1981 in university teaching and related occupations such as mathematicians (55%),
optometrists (52%) and chemists (51%). The author considers some socio-economic
characteristics such as the significantly lower income of women in male-dominated professions
when compared to men in the same occupational groups. The author concludes that these figures
indicate that it is still far easier for men to maintain both a professional career and a family.
Marshall, Katherine. "Women in professional occupations: progress in the 1980s."
Canadian Social Trends 12:13-16, 1989.
Similar to the preceding paper, also by Marshall, but includes Statistics Canada data from 1986.
French title: "Presence accrue des femmes dins les professions depuis le debut des annees 80".
McKeen, Carol A.; Richardson, Alan J. "Still bumping up against the glass ceiling: ...
gender discrimination still exists for female CMAs ..."CMA, 66(4) 22-26,May 1992. Tables.
Bibliography.
The Society of Certified Management Accountants of Canada carried out a new survey of its
members in June 1991. Results show that gender discrimination still exists for female Certified
Management Accountants in many organizations. The results also show that few women
understand what attributes they need to crack the glass ceiling. Tables compare men and women
CMAs. Bilingual: "Ascension des femmes achoppe toujours."
Mukutmoni, Rumki. Barriers and Bridges — The Canadian National Railway Approach.
Paper prepared for the Canadian Committee on Women in Engineering, Montreal, January
1991. 9 p.
CN's representation of women engineers (8%) is higher than the national average of 3 %. This
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paper highlights CN's efforts to increase the representation of women in technical and
engineering positions. Initiatives discussed include recruiting current women employees to
return to university and grooming selected women for key management positions.
National Action Committee on the Status of Women. Review of the situation of Canadian
women. Toronto: The Committee, 1991. 21 p.
Reviews the social, economic and employment situation of women, from 1971-1991, and
discusses government policies related to these matters. Analyzes data on Canadian women's
education and work status. French ed.: Nouveau regard sur la situation des femmes au Canada.
National Film Board of Canada. Equality and access: a new social contract.
National Film Board, 1987. 90, 95 p.
Montreal:
Presents the Board's plan for employment equity for women, with statistical tables, by gender
and type of film, 1984-1985 and 1985-1986, with percentages, for English and French programs.
Bilingual: Egalite et acces.
New Brunswick. Dept. of Advanced Education and Training. Planning Services. The New
Brunswick community college graduate follow-up survey report, 1991, by Omnifacts Research
Limited. Fredericton: Dept. of Advanced Education and Training, Planning Services, 1991.
iii, 309 p.
The Department of Advanced Education and Training's Graduate Follow-up Survey was
conducted by telephone. From a survey population of 2521 graduates, 2014 were interviewed.
This report presents information on the profile of graduates, labour force participation,
employment, age, marital status and dependents, job status, job search, survey results by
college, the New Brunswick craft school, survey results by cluster, sponsorship, occupations,
and industries. It also provides information on further study, the evaluation results, and
summary tables. Cover title: N.B.CC graduate follow up survey report. French ed.: Sondage
-
sur le placement des....
New Brunswick. Dept. of Advanced Education and Training. Planning Services. The New
Brunswick graduate follow-up survey report, 1990, by Patterson, M. E. Fredericton: Dept.
of Advanced Education and Training, Planning Services,1990. iii, 182 p.
This survey is carried out annually to tabulate the employment results of graduates from recent
training programs in New Brunswick. This document presents the results of the survey carried
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out in 1990 with data on labour force status, income, relation of work to training, and
comparison of each and the college students graduated from. French ed.: Rapport de !'etude de
suivi....
New Brunswick. Dept. of Advanced Education and Training. Planning Services. The New
Brunswick graduate follow-up survey report, 1989. Fredericton: Advanced Education and
Training, Planning Services, 1990. 172 p.
See 1990 report for annotation.
New Brunswick. Labour Market Analysis Branch. Employment in the service industries.
Fredericton: Advanced Education and Labour, Planning, Labour Market Analysis Branch,
1992. 13, 13 p. Illus.
This document provides a brief overview of employment in the service-producing industries.
It examines the evolution of the service dominated economy, including the presence of part-time
employment, increase in employment among women, and the changing distribution of classes
of employment. Not all data were available for all characteristics of all service sector industries.
Therefore, some industries will have more description than others. The data presented are from
Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Bilingual (Emplois dans le secteur...).
New Brunswick. Labour Market Analysis Branch. New Brunswick labour force annual
averages, 1991. Fredericton: The Branch, 1992. 18, 18 p.
This document contain a description of main labour force characteristics, estimates by age and
sex, estimates by educational attainment, an industrial analysis, an occupational analysis, a
description of other employment characteristics, and an analysis of economic regions. Bilingual
(Moyennes annuelles de la population...).
New Brunswick. Women's Directorate. Affirmative Action/employment equity in the New
Brunswick Civil Service: a strategy for change. Fredericton: The Directorate, 1985. xviii, 120
p. Tables.
This report is a background study of occupational status of women and men in the New
Brunswick civil service as of 1984. The purpose of the study is to provide information to allow
the government to develop its affirmative action plan. It reviews human resource policies and
previous plans to improve occupational status of women in the civil service, identifies perceived
barriers, and makes recommendations for a plan and how to implement it. Bilingual.
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New Brunswick Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Oppression or liberation: money
matters: a report. Moncton, N.B.: The Council, 1991. 53 p. Bibliography, Illus.
This document examines the obstacles which continue to impede women's economic
independence in the areas of training and education, in the workplace, and in the family. It
suggests remedies to the problems raised, taking into account women who are doubly
disadvantaged. Tables illustrate the proportion of women in various occupations; on fields of
study for women in relation to employment; and job segregation, work and family. Summary
(14 p.) laid in. French ed.: Oppression ou liberation.
Newfoundland Statistics Agency. Employment and unemployment in Newfoundland.
John's: The Agency, 1986. 192 p. Bibliography.
St.
This report provides a general overview of the employment and unemployment situation in
Newfoundland over the past ten years. It relies mainly on annual information from the Labour
Force Survey though other information such as Unemployment Insurance beneficiaries and
income data are incorporated where appropriate. Section I contains labour force data for 1975
to 1985 whereas the later sections are based on data up to 1984.
Nova Scotia. Women's Directorate. Women in Nova Scotia: a statistical handbook.
Women's Directorate, 1990. v, 115 p. Thus.
Halifax:
Provides the most current statistical information on the following topics: the population in
transition; families in Nova Scotia; women in the paid labour force; the employment profiles of
women and men; women and education; the incomes of men and women; and aboriginal, 'visible
minority' and disabled women.
Ontario Advisory Council on Women's Issues. Girls and women in medicine, math, science,
engineering and technology, by Beauchamp, R. S.; Feldberg, G. Toronto: Ontario Advisory
Council on Women's Issues, 1991. v, 89 p. Bibliography. Mus.
This report summarizes recent trends in women's participation in medicine, math, science,
engineering, and technology (MMSET) in Ontario, both in the classroom and on the job. It
reviews the many factors responsible for the continued low participation of women. It also
provides an overview of programs in Ontario and elsewhere which seek to improve the
recruitment and retention of women in MMSET. French ed.: Les jeunes filles et les femmes
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Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. These women are engineers; summary report, by
Ellis, Dormer. Prepared for the Second Convention of Women Engineers of Canada.
Toronto: OISE, 1982. 27 p. Charts.
This study surveyed 1,037 women engineers (903 responded) on marital status, child care
arrangements, engineering discipline, support of occupational choice, and whether they had ever
felt discriminated against. It is found that women engineers are often married to other engineers
and that 37% of the women engineers receive their education as engineers before immigrating
to Canada. The report provides anecdotes related to difficulties and remedies available to twoincome families, as well as anecdotal evidence of discriminatory workplace behaviour. The
survey's findings are divided into sets of issues related to maintaining equal marriages,
combining motherhood with engineering, and a statistical report on perceptions of discrimination
in the workplace.
Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship. Working Group on Employment Equity. Status report:
women. Toronto: Working Group on Employment Equity, Ministry of Citizenship, 1989.
1 v. (various pagings). Tables.
This report describes the situation of women in relation to the work force in Ontario. Tables
show demographic characteristics of the employed, education, marital status, labour force
participation, unemployment, job-seeking experience, work experience.
Ontario. Ministry of Colleges and Universities. Employment equity in post-secondary
institutions: a report. Toronto: The Ministry, 1989. 31 p. Tables.
Provides data on academic and non-academic staff in the university sector. Also includes tables
which show full-time non-academic staff by Abella group (defined in Appendix) and gender;
salary range and gender; the number of full-time faculty by sex and rank; the average salary for
full-time faculty by field and gender; average salaries for full-time faculty by gender and rank;
the number of college employees by gender and by Abella group; and the average salaries of
college employees by gender and Abella category. Data on academic staff are from Statistics
Canada(1986-87); those for non-academic staff are from the Council of Ontario Universities
1987-88 survey. French ed.: L'equite d'emploi dans les etablissements d'enseignement postsecondaire.
Ontario. Ministry of Education. The status of women and employment equity in Ontario
school boards; report to the Legislature, 1990. Toronto: The Ministry, 1991. 56 p.
Describes the Affirmative Action-Employment Equity Incentive Fund Program and achievements
for 1989. It then goes on to describe Policy-Program memorandum no 111, which requires
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Boards to develop and implement employment equity policies for women. An analysis of
female-male employment patterns, including salary information, and a comparative analysis of
full-time education staff in elementary and secondary schools for both the public and Roman
Catholic separate school boards follow. Significant initiatives for 1990 conclude the document.
Uses data from the Ministry's Affirmative Action Data Base, derived from the September reports
of all school boards. French ed.: Le statist de la femme et l'action positiveld'equite d'emploi....
Ontario. Ministry of Education. The Status of women and affirmative action/employment
equity in Ontario school boards: report to the Legislature, 1988.
Toronto: The Ministry, 1989.
93 p.
Contains a profile of women's employment in school boards, and reviews the affirmative
action/employment equity incentive fund program, school board initiatives and results, and equal
opportunity/affirmative action unit initiatives. It also discusses the benefits of an affirmative
action/employment equity program. French ed.: Le statist de la femme....
Ontario. Ministry of Education. The status of women and affirmative action/employment
equity in Ontario school boards. Toronto: Ministry of Education, 1987. 131 p.
Tables show ranks, salaries, geographical distribution, in different classes of employment within
the school boards, by sex. Data from the Ministry's Affirmative Action Data Base, derived from
the September reports of all school boards. French ed.: Le statist de la femme....
Ontario. Ministry of Education. The Status of women and affirmative action/employment
equity in Ontario school boards: report to the Legislature. Toronto: The Ministry, 1986.31 p.
Historical overview of the status of women in the education sector and a current status report
of women's employment in school boards obtained from survey results. Discusses the
Affirmative Action Incentive Program and identifies initiatives undertaken through the program
and preliminary indication of results achieved to 1985. Compares female administrators to male
rates, and list grants to schools through the Incentive Fund. French ed.: La condition
feminine....
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Ontario. Ministry of Education. Management Information Systems Branch. A comparative
analysis of male/female staff in the Ontario education system, 1972 to 1979; updated to 1983.
Toronto: Ministry of Education, 1984. 38 p.
Bibliography.
"Initiated by the Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Unit; prepared by Management
Information Systems Branch." French ed.: Analyze comparative des donnees....
Ontario. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Gender trends in municipal employment: initiatives
and patterns. Toronto: The Ministry, 1986. 1 v. (various p.)
At the request of the Ontario Women's Directorate, basic information was sought about the
participation of women in the municipal employment sector and, as well, an analysis on the
Municipal Affirmative Action Incentive Fund program administered by the Ministry of Municipal
Affairs. Section I of this report describes how this funding program was established in 1984 and
how it provides financial assistance for affirmative action programs at the municipal level.
Section II discusses the progress of the continually updated Survey of Municipal Employment
and Remuneration Paid to Male and Female Employees, a recent pilot project designed to
monitor employment and salary relationship to gender.
Ontario. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Profile of women in the Ontario municipal labour
force. Toronto: Ministry of Municipal Affairs, 1989. iii, 98, iii, 99 p.
Describes the Ministry of Municipal Affairs' Municipal Employment Equity Program and its
participants, and provides background information on this and the previous survey. Also presents
an analysis of the data, together with tables and graphs which represent the data by municipal
population groupings. Bilingual (La situation des femmes...).
Ontario. Ministry of Treasury and Economics. Ontario study of the service sector:
background papers, by Radwanski, George. Toronto: Ministry of Treasury and Economics,
1986. 479 p. Bibliography.
Includes statistical data and summary information regarding prospects for supplementing the
export of Ontario services from Ontario government sources, expertise in the Ontario private
service sector applicable to foreign trade, and export opportunities for the service sector and
industry, as well as demographic profiles.
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Ontario. Pay Equity Commission of Ontario. Pay equity in predominantly female
establishments: manufacturing sector, by Marilyn Evans and Associates. Toronto: Ontario
Pay Equity Commission, 1988. 131 p.
(Pay Equity Commission of Ontario. Research report).
Examines industries in the sector; the number of establishments by industry and by size; the
proportion of female employees and employment within industry divisions by size of
establishment; occupations and compensation paid; human resources policies; employee and
employment characteristics; the historical development, current challenges, and future directions
of industries in the sector; and pay equity issues and options.
Ontario. Pay Equity Commission of Ontario. Pay equity in predominantly female
establishments: retail sector, by Marilyn Evans and Associates. Toronto: Ontario Pay Equity
Commission, 1988. 71 p.
(Pay Equity Commission of Ontario. Research report).
Examines industries in the sector; the number of establishments by industry and by size; the
proportion of female employees and employment within industry divisions by size of
establishment; occupations and compensation paid; human resources policies; employee and
employment characteristics; the historical development, current challenges, and future directions
of industries in the sector; and pay equity issues and options.
Ontario. Task Force on Hours of Work and Overtime. Women and overtime, by Robb, R.
E.; Gunderson, Morley. Toronto: Ontario Task Force on Hours of Work and Overtime,
1987. 55 p. Bibliography.
Analyzes the particular women's issues involved in regulating hours of work and overtime.
Begins with a basic description of gender differences in worktime patterns in Ontario and then
moves to a discussion of the potential job creation impact for women of reducing overtime.
Female attitudes toward overtime are then analyzed, followed by a discussion of differences in
collective bargaining units.
Ontario Women's Directorate. Employment equity for women in the Ontario Public Service,
1986-87. Toronto: The Directorate, 1988. 64 p.
Employment equity refers to a broad range of initiatives designed to improve the economic status
of women and support their participation in the workplace. This report summarizes the advances
made towards the achievement of equity.
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Ontario Women's Directorate. Employment equity for women in the Ontario Public Service,
1985-86. Toronto: The Directorate, 1987. 65 p.
Demonstrates the results that can be attained through an effective employment equity program.
Describes the structure of the Ontario Public Service employment equity program and some of
the strategies that have been implemented. Ministry profiles present a brief summary of each
Ministry's progress towards employment equity for women. Statistical tables provide information
on the areas considered to be the key indicators of program results.
Ontario Women's Directorate. Consultative Services Branch. Public Sector Programs Unit.
Toronto: Ontario Women's
Employment equity programs in the public sector: a survey report.
Directorate, Consultative Services Branch, Public Sector Programs Unit, 1988. ix, 206 p.
Presents an overview of the profiles of all public sector organizations and the content, context
and expectations of employment equity programs (EEPs). Also contains profiles of programs
in operation in each of these six constituent sectors, and examines the trends and patterns
revealed by the survey which were significant in understanding the status of EEPs. Provides
tables related to the fmdings.
Ordre des ingenieurs du Quebec. "L'ingenieure quebecoise." Memoire presente au Comite
canadien des femmes en ingenierie. Montreal: L'Ordre des ingenieurs du Quebec, janvier
1991. 14 p.
This is a profile by the Order of Engineers of Quebec (O.I.Q.) of the female engineers in that
province. Women engineers represented 4.8% of the O.I.Q. membership in 1990 as opposed
to 2.4% in 1985. The average female engineer is 8 years younger and works at a more junior
level than her male counterpart. However, the study reveals that once male and female
engineers in Quebec reach the same age, the female engineer has more years of experience. The
report outlines activities the O.I.Q. has undertaken with respect to improving the employment
status of women and recommends future activities such as conducting studies on the role of
women in engineering to provide sound policy advice on correcting the situation and promoting
scientific excellence among young women in early education and secondary schools. Tables.
Parliament, Jo-Anne. "Women employed outside the home/Les femmes qui travaillent
Pexterieur du foyer." Canadian Social Trends / Tendances sociales canadiennes, no.13,
Summer 1989, pp.2-6. Tables. Graph. Bibliography.
The tables in this article compare workforce characteristics of men and women, working full
time and part time.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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Peitchinis, Stephen G. Women at work: discrimination and response.
and Stewart,1989. 176 p. Bibliography. Tables. Charts. Index.
Toronto: McClelland
This book discusses questions of education and training opportunities, implications of hightechnology office systems, employment security, and occupational distribution. A good basic
text, with historical background.
Penfold, P. Susan. "Women in academic psychiatry in Canada." Canadian Journal of
Psychiatry/Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 32:660-665,1987.
In a 10-year follow-up to a questionnaire survey of policies toward women in 12 departments
of psychiatry in Canadian medical schools, data were collected by questionnaire from 16
departments in 1985. The average % of women faculty had increased from 11.4% to 14.3%,
and of women residents, from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments seemed oblivious to the
special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy in numbers
between faculty and students; only 2 departments were actively recruiting women faculty.
Women remained concentrated in the lower academic ranks. Barriers to recruiting women
faculty included lack of academic role models, advertising not specifically aimed at women, rigid
requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to M corridors of power, cultural
stereotyping of women as lacking ability, F socialization incompatible with taking positions of
authority or leadership, and role strain between career and family activities. 3 Tables, 29
References. Modified HA (Copyright 1988, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Phillips, Paul; Phillips, Erin. Women and work: inequality in the Canadian labour market.
Revised ed. Toronto: James Lorimer, 1993. 186 p. Tables. Charts.
"This revised edition provides an up-to-date analysis of the issue of workplace inequality.
Among the topics discussed are women's participation in the workplace, the continuing disparity
in wages, the impact of new technologies, free trade and economic restructuring, and the
involvedness of women in the labour movement." Tables based on Statistics Canada, Labour
Canada, National Council of Welfare, Manitoba Dept. of Labour, works by Morley Gunderson,
S. Ostry et al.
Poole, Phebe Jane. Women in Banking: the first year of employment equity. Ottawa:
Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1989, 36 p.
This study summarizes the 1988 reports to Parliament of six major Canadian banks under the
Employment Equity Act, describing the representation of women in the workforce, their
distribution by occupation, part-time vs. full-time work and salaries. It includes data compiled
by the author.
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Prince Edward Island. Human Resource Development Division. Research and Analytical
Services Section. Women in the Prince Edward Island labour force: an update.
Charlottetown: The Section, 1986. ii, 69, ii p.
Presents an analysis of the labour market experiences of females within Prince Edward Island
and updates Women in the PEI Labour Force (1983). Trends are discussed under the following
major subject areas: population, participation rates, labour force by industry and occupation,
employment and unemployment, income levels, educational attainment and women
entrepreneurs.
Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada. Brief Presented to The Task Force
Ottawa: PIPSC, October 1989.
on Barriers to Women in the Public Service of Canada.
41 p.
The proportion of women in the scientific and professional category within the federal public
service in 1989 was 24%,(the same as it was in the early 1970s) which is lower than in the rest
of the Canadian labour force. The brief states that the proposition that women do not succeed
in the labour force because they lack the necessary academic training is not valid. Main findings
include: the current recruitment rate of women will never be sufficient to redress the situation;
women occupy nearly half of all temporary positions; more women are subject to lateral
transfers than their male colleagues; women are making little headway outside of their traditional
occupations. Although women occupy less than 25% of jobs in the scientific and professional
category, they resign from the public service at a rate of more than 50%. Women are also laid
off in greater proportion than men in the federal public service. Executive summary and charts.
Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada. Highlights of the Barriers to
Advancement in the Public Service Survey; responses of federal Public Service employees with
engineering and applied science degrees. Ottawa: PIPSC, 1991. 53 p.
The survey was conducted by Statistics Canada on behalf of the Task Force on Barriers to
Women in the Public Service. The study presents fmdings on attitudes, perceptions and views
of 5,400 federal public servants on the bathers they encounter during their careers. The
information covered includes sex, education, salaries, how positions were obtained, promotions,
and attitudes of men and women. Questions used to obtain feedback on attitudes are included.
The survey revealed that women make up 10% of the employees with scientific backgrounds.
They are younger than the current groups of men and earn less money on average than their
male colleagues. They are concentrated in lower classifications and generally believed to be
non-management material and more interested in developmental programs. Charts.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 119
Quebec. Commission consultative sur le travail. Les statuts de travail: une analyze socioinstitutionelle de la population active quebecoise, par Brossard, Michel; Simard, Marcel.
Quebec, La Commission, 1986. 121 p.
Analyses data on the working population, giving figures on full- and part-time workers; selfemployed persons; socio-economic status; and collective agreements.
Quebec. Office des ressources humaines. Programme Egalite en emploi. Presence des
femmes et des hommes dans la Fonction publique du Quebec. Quebec: L'Office, 1984. v,
113 p.
Published annually, 1979-1984, this report presents statistics on the position of women relative
to men in the Quebec public service.
Queen's University. Industrial Relations Centre. Part-time employment: labour market
flexibility and equity issues, by Coates, Mary Lou. Kingston, Ontario: Industrial Relations
Centre, Queen's University, 1988. 110 p. 32 tables.
(Queen's University. Industrial Relations Centre. Research and current issues series, no.50)
This paper examines part-time employment, providing perspectives from employers, unions and
employees and outlining legislation and policy initiatives related to this. This is supported by
statistics on a growing trend of part-time employment and the demographics of it; and the
distribution by industry, occupation and gender. Data refers to employees in Canada between
the years 1953 to 1986.
Queen's University. Industrial Relations Centre. Pay and employment equity, by Coates,
Mary Lou. Kingston, Ont.: Industrial Relations Centre, Queen's University, [1989]. 28 p.
(Queen's University. School of Industrial Relations. Reprint series, no. 84)
Discusses employment equity in relation to pay equity, women's salaries, and government policy
on employment equity.
120 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Robinson, Patricia. "Women's occupational attainment: the effects of work interruptions,
self-selection, and unobserved characteristics."
Social Science Research 15:323-346, 1986.
Past research in women's labour market activity has identified education and first-job status as
major factors in the process of occupational attainment. A consideration of specification
issues-including (1) the need to distinguish recent interruptions from years of experience, (2) the
possibility of errors across equations, and (3) the possibility of sample selection bias-is shown
to affect the understanding of this process. Longitudinal data collected via the Social Change in
Canada Surveys tracked women aged 22-64 in 1981 (N = 1,115) in occupational attainment;
consistency checks on key variables (e.g.: first-job status, parental education and occupation)
and employment equation estimation were performed. No significant effect on current attainment
by education was found. Of major importance was a woman's first-job status; also significant
was whether a recent work interruption had occurred. The correlated error models were found
to be more precise. 5 Tables, 2 Appendixes, 45 References. T. Berke (Copyright 1987,
Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Saint-Pierre, Celine. "Les robots ne sont pas tous d'acier: l'impact de la microilectrique
sur l'organisation du travail dans le secteur tertiaire." Sociologie et societes 16:71-80, 1984.
A study of the socio-economic impact of micro-electronics on employment opportunities in
Canada. At present, it is unclear whether office computers will serve as tools to facilitate the
performance of routine tasks, or become new structural determinants, changing the very nature
of work organization. If automation is a response to the present crisis in capitalism, then it also
represents a rationalization in management techniques, leading to a new type of worker
subjugation. Since 78% of Canadian working women are employed in offices, it is the women
who stand to lose the most through the sizeable projected drop in the number of people
employed over the next several decades. 1 Table. Modified HA (Copyright 1984, Sociological
Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Education. Learning and leadership: women's participation in
education: a discussion paper. Regina: The Ministry, 1988. 39 p. Bibliography. Tables.
Presents statistical information on female enrolment and employment patterns within the
education system; a description of common barriers to women's equal participation and strategies
to promote sex equity in education; an outline of initiatives already undertaken in Saskatchewan;
other options for actions available to educational institutions and Saskatchewan Education; and
the major issues arising from an analysis of the current situation in Saskatchewan.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 121
Seagram, Belinda Crawford; Stark-Adamec, Cannie. "Women in Canadian urban policing:
why are they leaving?" Police Chief: the professional voice of law enforcement. 59:120+,
Oct. 1992. Charts.
Discusses whether female police officers are leaving their jobs for gender-related reasons.
Shea, Catherine. "Changes in women's occupations." Canadian Social Trends 18:21-23,
Autumn 1990. Tables. Graph. Bibliography.
Clerical and other traditional jobs still occupy most women but there are more managers,
administrators and professionals. Few women are in blue collar occupations.
Simard, Carolle. "Les mesures egalitaristes en emploi: le debut ou la fin d'une illusion?"
Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique 16:103-114,
1983.
The effectiveness of equality of employment opportunity in Canada is assessed through an
examination of male-female (M/F) Division of Labour and the structure of the "double standard"
in the public and private sectors. The cultural and organizational context of expanded F
workforce participation is reviewed, stressing the coincidence of this phenomenon with the
growth of state intervention in service provision and economic organization. The actual
stratification of F jobs is documented, citing the circumvention of "equal pay for equal work"
initiatives by the lack of comparability between M- and F-occupied positions. The insidious
effects of tokenism in maintaining the illusion of reform are discussed, and some alternative
strategies for self-organization among women are suggested. The utility of legal measures in
legitimizing job redistribution is stressed, however, given the present economic crisis and
continuing rise in F job seekers. Modified HA (Copyright 1983, Sociological Abstracts, Inc.,
all rights reserved.)
Social Planning and Research Council of Hamilton and District. Social trends in
Hamilton-Wentworth: update, by Badenhorst, R. Hamilton, Ont.: Social Planning and
Research Council of Hamilton and District, 1987. x, 119 p.
Gives a brief history and a statistical analysis of population composition, housing, employment,
women's employment, income, social spending, families, crime, poverty lines, and consumer
price index.
122 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Sugiman, Pamela. "The wall's comin' down: gendered strategies of worker resistance in the
UAW Canadian region, 1963-1970." Canadian Journal of Sociology 17:1-27, 1992.
Bibliography.
A study of the National Automobile Aerospace and Agricultural Workers' Union and women
workers' experience in the industry.
Theberge, Nancy. "Making a career in a man's world: the experiences and orientations of
women in coaching." ARENA Review 12:116-127, 1988.
A critical analysis of the under-representation of women in positions of leadership in sports in
Canada, with particular attention to women's experiences as coaches Analyses of structural
barriers to women's entry and mobility in coaching, and of data from interviews (N = 31) with
women coaches are combined to provide an explanatory model of the processes by which women
make careers in male-dominated professions. Differences in socialization for women in
university-based team sports compared with non-team sports are noted in reference to their
decisions to enter or avoid the world of coaching. Exclusionary devices such as "old boy
networks" and marital and family life constraints are noted as factors contributing to diminished
conditions in which women can obtain intensive professional training, encouragement, and
involvement; aspirations for upward mobility in the coaching profession are significantly
impacted by these factors. 3 References. M. Crowdes (Copyright 1989, Sociological Abstracts,
Inc., all rights reserved.)
Toronto Women in Film and Television. Changing focus: the future of women in the
Canadian film and television industry. Toronto: Toronto Women in Film and Television,
1990. 194 p. Tables.
Examines the involvement of women in the Canadian film and television industry, using as
background material the data collected by Peat Marwick Stevenson and Kellogg, and presented
in its report, A statistical profile of women in the Canadian film and television industry. The
figures show that women are noticeably under-represented in film and television as compared
to the work force as a whole, and that they tend to be clustered in the lower-status and lowerpaid job categories. Commentary on the data, analysis and recommendations for action are
included. The introductory paper, "Understanding the numbers," is by Pat Armstrong. The title
echoes the title of a 1974 book about women film-makers, Women in focus.
Willson, Kay Dieckman. The impact of the economic crisis on women's work in
Saskatchewan. Ph.D thesis, Michigan State University, 1985. 576 P.
This study explores the impact of an economic crisis on women's work in Saskatchewan,
Canada, during the 1981-83 economic recession. The study describes the effects of the recession
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 123
on the nature of women's everyday work experiences in the labour market and in the home.
Open-ended, in-depth interviews were conducted with thirty nine women in order to develop a
qualitative understanding of their daily life experiences on the job, in the search for paid work,
and as unpaid workers in the home. The sample of women interviewed included employed and
unemployed women in clerical, sales, service, and blue collar occupations. Structural changes
in the labour market were explored through an examination of government labour force statistics
which revealed changing patterns of employment, unemployment and labour force participation.
Women's experiences during the recession were found to vary significantly depending upon their
specific relationships to the labour market and within private households. The range of women's
experiences revealed the need to specify the differential impact of recessions on women in
various parts of the reserve army, and in various segments of the employed workforce. Rather
than pushing women back into the home, the economic crisis drew more women into the labour
market. Changes in households' relations to the labour market often generated changes in
domestic workloads or the domestic division of labour. Female unemployment rose during the
recession. However, the actual proportion of the unemployed who were women declined.
Unemployment had a major impact on women's material and emotional well-being. Unemployed
women experienced increased economic dependence, financial hardships, low self-esteem,
depression, and isolation. Female employment increased during the recession, but job
opportunities for women were concentrated in female job ghettos. Increased competition for
jobs, employer strategies to reduce labour costs, and employer efforts to extend control over the
workplace adversely affected women's access to jobs and their conditions of work. Women's
responses to conditions within the labour market involved both compliance and struggle, thus
revealing the need to develop a more dialectical conception of women's conscious activity to
replace the notion of women as manipulable victims. (Dissertation Abstracts International, vol.
46/07-A, p. 2080)
Wilson, S. J. Women, families and work. 3d edition. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1991.
164 p. Bibliography. Tables.
Previous editions (1982, 1986) had title: Women, the family, and the economy. This study of the
socio-economic situation of Canadian women presents data on sex discrimination in the
workplace, its causes, and possible solutions. Two chapters on paid employment deal with
historical trends, and with current patterns of labour force participation. References, p. 137-154.
124 Statistics Canada - Product 89F00293CPE
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"Working hard to place women in the railway yards." This Week In Business, February
4, 1991: pp. 3,7.
CN Railways was the first Canadian company ordered to set up an affirmative action program
and to meet specific quotas. In 1987, Action Travail des Femmes (Montreal, Quebec) won a
court battle against CN accusing the company of systematically discriminating against women
when hiring blue-collar workers. In the St. Lawrence region of CN-(Quebec and parts of the
Maritimes), the court ordered that 25% of all blue-collar workers hired must be women.
Currently, 33% of blue-collar jobs in the region are held by women vs 25% nationally at CN.
Yukon Territory. Bureau of Statistics. Yukon income statistics, 1981 to 1985. Whitehorse:
Yukon Bureau of Statistics, 1987, 22 p.
Profile of labour force income, by sex, includes total income, employment income,
unemployment insurance benefits, self-employment income and labour force income. Data is
presented by community, and by subdivision within Whitehorse, for the period 1981-1985.
Yukon Territory. Women's Directorate. Women in the Yukon economy: a blueprint for the
future: draft discussion paper, prepared for the Yukon Economic Development strategy fall
conference, Yukon 2000, by Yukon Women's Directorate, with the assistance of Monica
Townson Associates Inc. Whitehorse: The Directorate, 1986. 88 p. Bibliography.
Women now account for more than 47 percent of the working age population of the Yukon and
they are more than 42 percent of the labour force. As well, women represent a high percentage
of workers in the service sector and in government employment. This document presents
information on women's participation in the work force; the nature of women's employment;
the financial rewards for women's work; barriers to equal participation in the economy; the
costs and benefits of addressing gender equality; and a strategy for the future.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 125
2.3.5 SOURCES REFERRING TO TWO OR MORE OF THE DESIGNATED GROUPS
Andiappan, Palaniappan; Crestohl, Mark; Singh, Jang. "Racial discrimination in
employment in Canada." Relations industrielles/Industrial Relations 44:827-849, 1989.
Tables.
Document not seen for annotation. Summary in French.
Benimadhu, Prem P.; Wright, Ruth . "Employment equity: impact of the legislation."
Canadian Business Review 18:22-25, Summer 1991. Charts.
Changes in the recruitment and promotion of women and minorities; based on a 1990 survey of
365 federally regulated organizations covered under the Employment Equity Act.
Bolaria, B. Singh; Li, Peter S. Racial oppression in Canada. Toronto: Garamond Press,
1985. 232 p. Bibliography. Tables. Charts. Indexes.
This book re-examines race relations in Canada, with emphasis on labour issues. Racism is
defined as a deliberate plan to support unjust treatment of the minority group in order to obtain
cheap labour. A chapter on each of the following: Native Canadians, tits, Chinese, Japanese,
East Indians, Blacks, and migrant and illegal workers, is included, with a historical perspective
on each group's position in Canadian society.
Bolaria, B. Singh; Li, Peter S. Racial oppression in Canada. 2nd (enlarged) edition.
Toronto: Garamond Press, 1988. 272 p. Bibliography. Tables.
This second edition redefines theoretical arguments on race put forward in the first edition. It
updates material, and discusses redress of Japanese Canadians and Native land claim issues, the
effect of mercantilism on Mous in the 19th century, and brain drain from peripheral countries
to metropolis societies as capitalism expands.
126 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Overview tables of women's socioby Kraft,
economic characteristics for Canada, the provinces and territories, and the regions,
John; Lessard, Christine. Ottawa: Dept. of the Secretary of State, Social Trends Analysis
Directorate, 1990. 1 v. (various pagings) Tables.
This is a summary of statistics from the 1986 Census, comparing women to men by age,
province or country of birth, ethnic origin, labour force activity, occupation, income, level of
schooling. Also includes Aboriginal peoples. Bilingual.
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Region du Quebec. Direction des services
economiques. Profil de collectivite, Centre-vine de Montreal. Montreal: La Direction, 1985.
x, 82 p. Cartes geo.
One of a number of community profiles of different communities in Quebec, with regard to the
work force and socio-economic characteristics. Includes figures on proportion of women, and
numbers of Aboriginal peoples, as well as members of visible minority groups. English title:
Community profile....
Canada. Health and Welfare Canada. Human Resource Management Bureau. Women at
Health and Welfare, 1990. Analysis and report, by Sharon Katz Consulting Inc. Ottawa:
Health and Welfare Canada, 1990. 1 v. (various paging). Tables.
The purpose of this study was to research the status of women employed by Health and Welfare
in terms of the adequacy of their representation in all occupations; in which occupations their
concentration is the highest; and how they are advancing. It also researched the status of women
who are disabled, Aboriginal, or members of a visible minority. Bilingual.
,
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Northern Affairs Program. Changes in the
Norman Wells labour force, 1982-85, by Stewart, D. A.; Bone, R. M. Ottawa:Indian and
Northern Affairs Canada, Northern Affairs Program, 1986. 28 p. Bibliography.
(Canada. Northern Affairs Program. DIAND monitoring reports,
8-85)
This report examines the changes in the labour force at Norman Wells from 1982 to 1985 and
discusses the flow of jobs to northerners. The characteristics of the labour force examined
include: the total number of employees; the number of Native/ non-Native employees; the
percentage of male/female employees; the length of employment and seasonality of the
employees; the occupation of the employees; and the commuters in the labour force.
Bibliographic Employment•Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 127
Canada. Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada. International Convention on the
Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination: 11th report of Canada. Ottawa: Dept. of
Multiculturalism and Citizenship, 1992. 19, 22 p.
Covering the period Jan. 1990 - Dec. 1991, the report describes measures adopted by Canada
and the provinces and territories to combat racial discrimination.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Ethnic diversity in Canada, by White, Pamela M. Ottawa:
Statistics Canada, 1990. 48, 54 p. Tables.
Reviews the changing ethnic profile of Canada's population based on data collected from the
1986 Census, as well as selected earlier censuses dating back to 1901. The data were collected
on a 100% basis and a 20% sample basis for Canada, the provinces and the territories. Census
data for Canada's immigrant and non-immigrant populations are presented in terms of a number
of variables. These include age group, sex, period of immigration, mother tongue, place of birth
and ethnic origin. The concepts of cultural mosaic and melting pot are also examined in this
study in relation to Canada's ethnic profile. 5 tables. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Ethnic origin: the nation. Ottawa:
281 p. Tables.
Statistics Canada, 1993.
One of a collection of 24 reports based on the 1991 Census. This publication contains data taken
from a 20% sample of Canadian households. Tables 1 and 2 present counts for ethnic origins
using different methods of tabulation. Tables lA and 2A present data for Canada, provinces and
territories. Tables 1B and 2B show census metropolitan area data. Table 3 provides data by age
groups. All data are cross-classified by sex. An appendix provides a complete list of the ethnic
origins collected in the 1991 Census, grouped by ethnic categories. Definitions and technical
notes are provided. Bilingual.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Intercensal changes in employment equity; women, Aboriginal
persons, visible minorities; part A: The working age population,
by Moore, Maureen.
Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Labour and Household Surveys Analysis, 1989. 22 p. Tables.
(Employment Equity User File no. 1.5)
Analyzes intercensal changes (from 1981 to 1986) in the population aged 15 years and over for
three of the four employment equity designated groups (women, Aboriginal persons, and visible
minorities). These changes are compared with intercensal population increases for the total
population 15 years and over not covered under the Employment Equity Act. Changes in
questionnaire wording, data capture methods, and response rates are also considered in terms
of their impact on increases in Census counts for Aboriginal persons and visible minorities.
128 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Canada. Statistics Canada. Labour Force Survey economic regions, 1986 Census. Ottawa:
Statistics Canada, Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division, 1989. 79 p. Tables.
(Labour analytic report no.5).
Data from the 1986 Census are presented for 71 economic regions. Variables include labour
force activity by age, income of individuals and family, occupation by sex, ethnic origin,
language, place of birth, educational attainment and field of study.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Occupation: the nation. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1993. 323 p.
Tables.
One of a collection of 24 reports containing basic information from the 1991 Census. This report
contains data collected from a 20% sample of households, with national and provincial figures
on occupation, by sex and occupational category (based on the 1980 Standard Occupational
Classification), showing total counts and percentage distribution. Appendices list Incompletely
enumerated Indian reserves, with population (1981 and 1986), and Standard occupational
Classification groups. French title: Profession: le pays.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Profile of ethnic groups. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1989.
383 p. Tables.
(Dimensions series)
Using data from the 1986 Census, this report features 3 detailed tables profiling 60 selected
ethnic groups and 16 major ethnic categories, including North American Indian. A number of
variables, including demographic, social and economic characteristics are explored. 1986 Census
data are reported for Canada only, but extensive single, multiple and total responses combine
to provide new insights. An appendix lists the composition of the major ethnic categories.
Bilingual: Profil des groupes ethniques.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Ethnic and Visible Minorities Unit. Employment equity: fact
sheets: 1986 Census. Prepared by Ethnic and Visible Minorities Unit, Housing, Family and
Social Statistics Division,Statistics Canada. Ottawa: Employment Equity Program, Statistics
Canada, 1990. 1 v. [var. paging]. Illus. Maps.
Contains sheets for each of the ethnic groups. The 1986 data used in the fact sheets are found
in the 1989 Statistics Canada publication, Profile of ethnic groups.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
129
Canada. Statistics Canada, Household Surveys Division. Labour Market Activity Survey
.
(LMAS). (Data File). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1986-
This survey collects annual information on employment from the Canadian non-institutionalized
population aged 16 to 69, excluding persons living in the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and
persons living on Indian reserves, and full-time members of the Canadian Armed Forces. (Size
of sample: 40,000). It is a supplement to the Labour Force Survey, and is carried out through
interviews. The data produced consists of: 1) measures of the pattern of employment and
unemployment in Canada over a 12, 24 or 36 month period; 2) characteristics of paid jobs held
during this period which are not available from other sources; 3) socio-economic-demographic
profiles for groups which are currently eligible for Employment and Immigration Canada (EIC)
programs. Includes employment and unemployment patterns by ethnic origin, visible minority
status, and language, as well as breakdowns by sex and other demographic characteristics. 6
related publications (StatsCan cat.nos.71-205, 206, 207, 208, 214, 214).
Canada. Statistics Canada. Household Surveys Division. Survey of 1986 Graduates. (Data
File). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1990.
This survey (discontinued) provides data on labour-market experiences of 1986 post-secondary
graduates in the two years since graduation, specifically focusing on employment-occupation and
geographic shifts of a key youth group at a key time. It includes data on graduates from
university, college, trade and vocational programs by level of education and job satisfaction,
work experience since graduation, socio-economic profiles of graduates, details on Aboriginal
Peoples and persons with disabilities. Data were collected across Canada through telephone
interviews of 53,000 graduates, between May and June, 1988.
Canada. Statistics Canada. Interdepartmental Working Group on Employment Equity
Data. Profile of visible minorities and Aboriginal peoples: 1986 Census. Ottawa: Statistics
Canada, 1990. 200 p. Tables.
(Employment Equity user file no. 1.9)
Using 1986 Census data, this report presents a statistical overview of two of the Employment
Equity designated groups: Aboriginal peoples and visible minorities. It includes information
on age, sex, marital status, and mother tongue, as well as more detailed socio-economic
information including language, cultural, schooling, labour force, occupation, industry, and
income characteristics. Data are reported for Canada, the provinces and territories, and the 8
Employment Equity designated Census Metropolitan Areas, and the following visible minority
sub-groups: Black, Indo-Pakistani, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, South East Asians, Filipino,
West Asian and Arab, Pacific Islander, and Latin American, and multiple visible minorities.
These data were collected on a 20% sample basis. Bilingual.
130 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Re-evaluating employment equity: a
brief to the Special House of Commons Committee on the Review of the Employment Equity
Act. Ottawa: Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women, 1992. i, 57 p.
Bibliography.
This document evaluates the impact of the Act in the first four reporting years after its
implementation. It presents a brief overview of the Act and analyzes the current economic
situation of women in the labour force, followed by explanations of their continued labour
market inequality. It examines the progress made by women employed in organizations covered
by the Act, with particular attention paid to Aboriginal women, women with disabilities, and
women of so-called 'visible minorities.' It also presents an analysis of the relatively weak
impact of the Act over the five-year period. It concludes with a series of recommendations
aimed at increasing the Act's effectiveness.
Canadian Human Rights Advocate. "47 contractors pass Equity review". Canadian Human
Rights Advocate 5(6):1, 12-13, July 1989.
Lists names of contractors and number of employees.
Economic Council of Canada. The changing economic status of women, by Boulet, JacquesAndre; Lavallee, Laval. Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada, 1984. ix, 81 p. Tables.
The report examines women who are in the labour force and the factors which affect their
participation, and describes changes in their career profiles, compared to men. It also analyzes
women who remain at home who are Native, single parents or senior citizens. Data are from
the 1971 and 1981 censuses, and other Statistics Canada sources, as well as Employment and
Immigration data files. Also issued in French: L'Evolution de la situation economique des
femmes.
Economic Council of Canada. Innovation and jobs in Canada. Ottawa: The Council, 1987.
x, 189 p. Bibliography. Tables.
Study of the labour market impacts of technological change, involving use of national data sets
such as CANSIM and MESIM with projections to 1995, and a special survey of 1000 Canadian
establishments and detailed study of some innovating organizations. Detailed consideration is
given to technological change at the firm level; industrial relations; women and the new
technologies; special groups such as persons with disabilities, and Aboriginal peoples; and
strategies for a high-tech world. French ed.: Innovations, emplois....
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 131
Hagan, John; Hurter, Marie; Parker, Patricia. "Class structure and legal practice:
inequality and mobility among Toronto lawyers." Law and Society Review 22:9-55, 1988.
Results from a mailed questionnaire survey of Toronto, Ontario, lawyers (N = 1,609-with
65.3% returned) indicate that members of this profession can be usefully located within class
categories operationalized in terms of power relations. The class structure of legal practice in
Toronto is dominated by older, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant males, with degrees from Canada's elite
law schools, who practice corporate and commercial law for predominantly corporate clients.
Notwithstanding evidence of recently and substantially improved mobility prospects, an absence
of Jewish lawyers from the capitalist class and a tendency for women to remain in a legal
working class were found. Also discovered was the emergence of a new working class in the
legal profession that, perhaps unexpectedly, includes young associates in the corporate and
commercial departments of large firms. The exploitation of this "professional proletariat" is
clear, despite their relatively high salaries and promising prospects of sharing in the power
relations that facilitate their domination and limited autonomy. 13 Tables, 69 References.
Modified HA (Copyright 1988, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Jain, Harish C. "Race and sex discrimination in employment in Canada: theories, evidence
and policies." Relations industrielles/ Industrial Relations 37:344-366, 1982.
Reviews theories of employment discrimination, and briefly examines employment equity
legislation. Based on information from Human Rights Commissions and other sources, 74
discrimination cases are analyzed to determine the type and incidence of discrimination.
Manitoba. Bureau of Statistics. Manitoba regional profiles. Winnipeg: The Bureau, 1986.
26 p.
This publication presents socio-economic statistics for Manitoba on a regional basis. Reports on
demographics, giving projections to the year 2006, income profiles and distribution, economic
dependency profiles, unemployment and employment figures, active statistical establishments,
and family allowance beneficiaries.
National Council of Welfare. Poverty profile, 1988: a report.
124 p.
Ottawa: The Council, 1988.
Explores the phenomenon of poverty in Canada during the 1980s and presents statistics on
impoverished population, with analysis by province, sex, age, educational attainment, major
source of income, single parents and couples with children, the link to the labour force,
immigrants and native-born, and home-owners and renters. Examines the feminization of
poverty, the working poor, and child poverty.
132 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
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National Employment Equity Network. Employment equity data package on designated
groups in the private and public sector. National Employment Equity Network, 1990. 130 p.
Tables.
This study analyzes the degree of equality of employment in the private and public sectors for
employment equity designated group members for 1988 and 1989. It samples 9 federally
regulated employers in the private sector and 15 federal government departments. The study
includes a section for each group. women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and
visible minorities. It looks at their representation in managerial, professional, middle-level, and
one other grouping which includes clerical, skilled crafts and trades, semi-skilled manual and
other manual. Data provided from the Employment Equity Annual Reports from 1988 and
1989. Available: Canadian Ethnocultural Centre, 251 Laurier Ave W. Suite 1100, Ottawa.
New Brunswick. Equal Employment Opportunity Program. EEO annual report: Equal
Employment Opportunity Program for natives, persons with disabilities and visible minority
persons. Fredericton, N.B.: Equal Employment Opportunity Program, 1993. Tables.
The report outlines the equal employment opportunity program in New Brunswick which
includes one year term placements, job creation, summer employment for Aboriginal people,
persons with disabilities, and visible minorities, using statistics to describe the results.
Northwest Territories. Bureau of Statistics. NWT labour force survey: winter 1989: labor
force activity, education and language.. Yellowknife: Bureau of Statistics, 1990. vii, 78 p.
(Northwest Territories.Bureau of Statistics. Report no. 2)
Annotation not available.
Northwest Territories. Bureau of Statistics. NWT labour force survey, winter 1989: wage
employment and traditional activities. Yellowknife: Dept. of Culture and Communications,
Bureau of Statistics, 1990. viii, 124 p. thus.
(Northwest Territories. Bureau of Statistics. Report no.3).
Examines patterns of employment in NWT during 1988; involvement in traditional activities
such as hunting and fishing, trapping and northern crafts; and the relationship between traditional
activities and employment in the wage economy. It presents information by region, ethnicity,
sex, and age.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 133
Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship. Working Group on Employment Equity. Target group
demographics: selected data for Aboriginals, people with disabilities, francophones, visible
minorities and women. Toronto: Working Group on Employment Equity, Ministry of
Citizenship, 1989. 1 v. (various pagings). Tables.
Tables for each target group show education, labour force characteristics and participation by
sex and geographic distribution.
Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship and Culture. A profile of immigrant women in Ontario,
1981: a study based on data from the 1981 census; commissioned from the Housing, Family
and Social Statistics Division, Statistics Canada. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Citizenship
and Culture, 1986. ii, 56 p. Bibliography.
(Ethnocultural data base materials, series III: special report ;
no. 4).
This report analyses data from the 1981 Census to create a profile of socio-economic
characteristics of immigrant women in Ontario.
Poole, Phebe Jane. Employment equity and the banks: Year H report.
Ottawa: Canadian
Centre for Policy Alternatives and National Action Committee on the Status of Women,
1990. 4 v.
The four volumes are entitled: 1) Aboriginal Persons, 2) Disabled Persons, 3) Visible
Minorities, and 4) Women. The numerous tables combine data from the banks' reports under
the Employment Equity Act with some original data and analysis on the progress of employment
of the four groups in the banks.
Poole, Phebe Jane. Reporting on employment equity in the first year: an examination of
by
Phebe-Jane Poole, for the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives and the National Action
Committee on the Status of Women. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives,
1989. 48 [43] p. Bibliography. Tables.
aboriginal persons, persons with disabilities and visible minorities in the banking industry,
This study summarizes the 1988 reports to Parliament of six major Canadian banks under the
Employment Equity Act, describing the representation of persons with disabilities, visible
minorities and Aboriginal People in the workforce, their distribution by occupation, part-time
vs. full-time work and salaries. It includes data compiled by the author. The report on women
is listed in the Section on Women.
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Quebec. Ministere de la main-d'oeuvre, de la securite du revenu et de la formation
professionelle. Perspectives sectorielles du marche du travail au Quebec et dans ses regions,
1990, 1991, et 1994. Quebec: Le Ministere, 1991. 141 p. Tables.
This report presents forecasts for employment by sector for the years 1990, 1991, and 1994, in
the Province of Quebec and its regions. These forecasts were developed mainly between
November 1989 and May 1990. The methodology is summarized at the end of the report.
Chapter 1 describes the external environment, and summarizes the economic situation of Quebec.
Chapter 2 presents a brief account of the Quebec labour market in 1989, together with short and
long term forecasts for the province. Chapter 3 covers sectoral forecasts, as well as some
historical statistics. Forecasts for the major labour market indicators for each of the regions are
presented in Chapter 4. The data are from the Ministry's Research Directorate. 18 tables Earlier
forecasts had title: Perspectives du tnarche du travail: previsions.
Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles at de l'Immigration. Affirmative action
programs for cultural communities: milestone to an harmonious society. Quebec: Ministere
des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration, 1988. 15 p.
The term "cultural communities" has a broad meaning in Quebec, including virtually all ethnic
groups including Aboriginal peoples and visible minority groups. This publication contains
advice adopted by the Conseil des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration, and presented
to the Minister. It describes the legal context and presents considerations, recommendations,
supplementary measures and priorities.
Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration. Origine ethnique:
premieres donnees du recensement de 1986, par Benjamin, C. Quebec: Gouvernement du
Quebec, Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration, Direction de la
planification et de revaluation, 1988. 20 p.
This study contains warnings about the use of 1986 Census data on ethnic origin; an overview
of the ethnic composition of Quebec; an analysis of data on the different ethnic origins, based
on single and multiple responses; and separate tables for the Greater Montreal region. Includes
data on Aboriginal peoples.
Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration. Profit des
communautes culturelles du Quebec. Montreal: Gouvernement du Quebec, Ministere des
Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration, 1991. 2 vols.
These two large looseleaf binders are divided into sections, one for each cultural community by
country of origin. For each group data are given, including: size of group; date of immigration;
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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135
education; language; type of employment; employment by sex, city of residence. Includes
references for Aboriginal Peoples as well as visible minority groups.
Queen's University. Industrial Relations Centre. The seniority principle: is it discriminatory?
by MacLeod, Kathryn. Kingston, Industrial Relations Centre, 1987. 98 p. Bibliography.
Tables.
(School of Industrial Relations, Research essay series, no. 11).
Discusses effect on women and minorities in Canada, chiefly. Partial contents: Discrimination
challenged by affirmative action; Legal forums for processing discrimination claims; The
Canadian jurisprudence; The United States experience.
Renaud, Jean; Bernard, Paul. "Places et agents: les divisions ethniques et sexuelles du
travail au Quebec de 1931 a 1981." Cahiers guebecois de demographie 13(1):87-100, 1984.
Tables.
The socio-professional distribution of Quebec's total labour force has change during the twentieth
century, as one can observe from the 1931 to 1981 Canadian censuses that provide comparative
occupation codes. As well, the sexual and ethnic composition of the labour force has changed
substantially during this period. The authors analyze the manner in which these sexual and
ethnic cleavages, are used to fulfil the lower functions of the work hierarchy. The use of
complex models of the linear log type, makes it possible to distinguish, on the one hand, crude
effects relating the reality experienced by sexual and ethnic groups in the labour force; and on
the other hand, the net effects corresponding to the more or less permanent, but less evident,
rules which govern these groups' access to the various jobs. Summaries in English and Spanish.
Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto. Racial and ethnic discrimination in
employment, by Muszynski, Leon; Reitz, Jeffrey. Toronto: Social Planning Council of
Metropolitan Toronto, 1982. vi, 76 p. Bibliography. Tables.
(Working papers for full employment,
no.5)
The 5th in a series of occasional papers researching problems of employment and unemployment
in Metropolitan Toronto, this paper explores racial and ethnic discrimination in employment,
analysing recruitment, selection and promotion practices as a possible source of such
discrimination, and outlines possible policies for dealing with these problems. Reference period:
1951 to 1979.
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Toronto. Management Services Dept. Equal Opportunity Division. Equality in employment:
rights for today's workplace. Equal opportunity corporate review, 1986-1990.
Toronto: City
of Toronto, 1991. 120 p. Tables.
The report outlines employment equity issues and programs for each of the four employment
equity designated groups. Using statistics from 1986 to 1990 from the corporate data base, the
following indicators are illustrated: corporate and departmental representation; occupational
distribution; occupational representation; job security and benefits; promotions to positions at
higher wage levels; participation in training and development; salary differences; and exits from
the corporation. Related publication: Equal opportunity 1982 83 review.
-
Toronto. Equal opportunity review, 1980-1981: City of Toronto.
1982. ix, 256 p.
Toronto: City of Toronto,
Document not seen for annotation.
Vancouver. Equal Opportunity Program. Progress report, August 1982. Vancouver: Equal
Opportunity Program, 1982. 44 p. Tables.
Tables show employment figures for males vs females in various types of job within the City,
with salaries; length of employment; number of "racial minorities" salaried full time as of April
1982. Total workforce (1982) = 5144. Compares 1982 and 1977 figures.
Winnipeg Free Press(Newspaper). "Employment inequity: racism a perennial problem in
tackling systemic barriers." Winnipeg Free Press, March 21, 1993, p. A9. Tables.
Reports on the work of Winnipeg-based Cross Cultural Communications International, which
gives workshops to help companies deal with discrimination; discusses the effects of lawsuits by
Aboriginal Chiefs against federal departments and Crown corporations; and compares
employment figures for Aboriginal peoples and visible minorities in the City of Winnipeg and
in the federal government.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 137
Yukon Territory. Bureau of Statistics. Yukon statistical profile.
Executive Council Office, Bureau of Statistics, 1987. 620 p.
Whitehorse: Yukon
Comprehensive review of Yukon's geography, population, economics and government. Presents
information on population, migration, vital statistics, and ethnic origin of the population.
Economic analysis includes a review of prices, employment, income, finance, energy and mines,
manufacturing, construction and housing, forestry, agriculture and livestock, fishing, hunting
and trapping, transportation and communications, travel, tourism and recreation, accommodation
and food services, and business services and retail trade. Government analysis includes a review
of finances, employment, education, health, justice and social services. Most data are given at
least a 10-year historical perspective.
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2.3.6 IMMIGRATION AND EMPLOYMENT EQUITY
Boyd, Monica. "At a disadvantage: the occupational attainments of foreign born women in
Canada." International Migration Review 18:1091-1119, Winter 1984. Bibliography, tables.
Based on conference paper. Comparison with the occupational status of native born women and
native and foreign born men in 1973.
Caribbean Immigrants: a demo-economic analysis,
Canada. Statistics Canada.
Richmond, Anthony H. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1989. 85 p. Tables.
by
Including immigrants from Guyana and Bermuda, the Caribbean population enumerated in the
1981 Census numbered 211,205, of whom the largest groups were the Jamaicans (78,000) and
the Haitians (27,000). They were a diverse population in terms of ethnicity, reflecting British,
French, Afro-Caribbean and Asian ancestry. The publication compares the characteristics of this
population with respect to age, sex, education and ethnic origin with that of the Canadian
population, and other immigrants, and measures their economic success. Bilingual.
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Immigrant women in Canada: a policy
perspective, by Seward, S. B.; McDade, K. Ottawa: Canadian Advisory Council on the
Status of Women, 1988. ii, 75 p. Bibliography.
(Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. Background paper BP1988-1E)
Reviews the situation facing immigrant women with regard to legislated immigration policy and
studies the socio-demographic characteristics of immigrant women in order to make
recommendations for policy changes. Addresses issues of universal access to fully subsidized,
government-sponsored language training courses; reform of the Canadian Jobs Strategy to
facilitate increased participation by immigrant women in employment training programs; the
requirement for greater sensitivity to the problems faced by immigrant women in recognizing
their out-of-country credentials; and the development of culturally sensitive child-care options.
Also includes an analysis of the concerns of foreign domestic workers in reference to potential
changes in current immigration policy that may restrict women from entering Canada.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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139
Carleton University. Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology. Gender, visible minority and
immigrant earnings inequality: reassessing an employment equity premise,
by Boyd, Monica.
Ottawa: Carleton University, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, 1991. 43, [1111. Tables.
(Carleton University. Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology. Departmental working paper,
91-6)
Using 1986 Census data, this paper compares the wages and salaries received by women and
men, distinguished by Canadian-born/foreign-born status and by visible minority status. Earlier
studies fmd little support for a pattern of consistent disadvantage by gender, race and immigrant
status. The failure to fmd large income differentials arises largely because the socio-economic
characteristics of visible minority groups and the foreign born mask the earnings disparities.
Groups which live in large census metropolitan areas, in wealthier provinces, or which have
higher levels of education can be expected to have higher levels of earnings than other groups.
Given these characteristics, similarity of earnings between the foreign born minorities and other
groups is not surprising. Such similarity can occur in situations of disadvantage if characteristics
such as higher education and/or more favourable geographic location (vis-a-vis wages) mask
earnings inequalities. In fact, this paper shows that if all native and visible minority status
groups had the same socio-economic profile, a strong pattern of visible minority income
disadvantage would emerge, especially for the foreign born, and particularly for foreign born
women. These results indicate that labour market policies are essential, rather than superfluous,
in eradicating gender, racial and immigrant inequities. Tables include data on workforce
participation, full- or part-time status, and education, by sex and geographical region.
Centre pour femmes immigrantes. Ce qu'exige Pequite en emploi a Pegard des femmes
immigrantes et de celles qui appartiennent a une minorite visible au Canada, by Bassaletti,
Teresa; Sobolewski, Christine. Sherbrooke, Quebec, 1993. vi,95 p. Bibliography. Tables.
This study outlines the problems facing immigrant women in Quebec, focusing on visible
minorities. It makes recommendations for changes so that barriers can be removed.
Conference on Canada 2000: Race Relations and Public Policy (1987: Carleton University,
Ottawa). Canada 2000: race relations and public policy, edited by Dwivedi, 0. P.; D'Costa,
Ronald; Stanford, C. Lloyd; Tepper, Elliot. Guelph: University of Guelph, Dept. of
Political Studies, 1989. 378 p. Tables.
Includes papers on race relations and immigration in Canada and in Australia, descriptions and
analysis of government policies, historical comparisons, and data.
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Denis, Ann B. "Adaptation to multiple subordination? Women in the vertical mosaic."
Canadian Ethnic Studies / Etudes ethniques au Canada 18(3):61-74, 1986.
Patterns of paid labour force participation of native-born and foreign-born Canadian females of
selected ethnic origins and immigration status are examined as bases for status group formation
in twentieth-century Canada. The relations of domination and subordination among such groups
are considered together with their possible impact on paid employment. Census data from 1931
and 1971 are used to test the hypothesis that, because of closure exercised by more dominant
status groups, foreign-born Fs of non-British origin were obliged to adapt to a situation of
multiple subordination. The hypothesis is only partially supported, suggesting that the influence
of gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status on female labour force participation be re-evaluated.
2 Tables, 24 References. Modified HA (Copyright 1988, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights
reserved.)
Institute for Research on Public Policy. Challenges of labour adjustment: the case of
immigrant women in the clothing industry, by Seward, S. B. Rev.ed. Ottawa: Institute for
Research on Public Policy, 1990. xi, 39 p. Bibliography. Tables.
(Institute for Research on Public Policy. Studies in Social Policy Program. Discussion paper
90.B.1)
The clothing industry is a classic example of a sector that faces severe import competition. This
paper, presented at the National Symposium on Demography of Immigrant Racial and Ethnic
Groups in Canada (Winnipeg, 1988), describes past and current adjustment programs aimed at
the textile and clothing sector. It focuses on a description and evaluation of the labour adjustment
component of these programs, and on a description of the demographic characteristics of the
labour force in the clothing industry, based on 1986 Census data. The emphasis is on a
description of the characteristics of immigrant women workers. It also examines the relationship
between demographic characteristics of workers and their capacity to adjust Finally it discusses
the need for more effective labour adjustment policies and programs which are designed to meet
the needs of the labour force of the clothing industry, including those of immigrant women.
Tables relate country of origin with employment sector and province of employment, and other
variables.
Labelle, Micheline. Histoires d'irnmigries: itineraires d'ouvrieres colombiennes, grecques,
htiftiennes et portugaises de Montreal. Montreal: Boreal, 1987. 275 p. Bibliography.
Tables.
Based on a survey of 76 women immigrants, June-Nov. 1981. Includes discussion of reasons for
emigrating, economic conditions, family situation, and employment.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 141
Ng, Roxana. Immigrant women and the state: a study of the social organization of knowledge.
Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, 1984.
This dissertation analyses the accomplishment of class rule and class relations in Canadian
society. The focal point of the inquiry is a grassroots community employment agency which
provided job counselling and placement services for non-English speaking and black immigrant
women. The agency began as an advocacy group whose goal was to work on behalf of
immigrant women in their job search. By examining the work process of the agency in terms
of state and labour market relations, the inquiry reveals that (a) the agency's operation
underwent certain transformations since its inception so that (b) it came to work on behalf of the
state apparatus in organizing and producing immigrant women as a distinctive kind of labour in
the labour market. The inquiry further shows that the articulation of the agency to the state and
the production of immigrant women as a distinctive kind of labour: as "commodities" were
accomplished through a "documentary mode of action" (Smith, 1974). This dissertation argues
that the work of employment counsellors vis-a-vis immigrant women is part of the process
through which immigrant women, as a visible social entity, are constituted. This process is at
the same time the constitution and reproduction of class relations in Canada. This inquiry is
based on three kinds of data. One, participant observation at the employment agency. Two,
documentary materials including historical documents, statistical and case records kept by the
agency, funding proposals, etc. Third, interviews conducted with members of the agency and
with bureaucrats from the funding body. Fieldwork, which took ten months, was conducted at
the employment agency during the summer and fall of 1981. The research approach adapted was
an "institutional ethnography" (Smith, 1981c). That is, the employment agency was taken to be
one component of a larger work process in a highly complex division of labour characteristic
of an advanced capitalist social formation. The aim of the inquiry was to situate the employment
agency in its organizational context: in relation to state and market processes. It is when we take
this strategy that the class character of the agency's work vis-a-vis immigrant women (i.e. how
the agency played a part in organizing and producing immigrant women as a distinctive labour)
comes fully into view. (Dissertation Abstracts International, vol.46.05-A, p.1421)
Ornstein, Michael D. The work experience of immigrants to Canada: 1969-1976. Downsview,
Ont.:Institute for Behavioral Research, Social Science Research, York University, 1983.
48 1. Tables.
This report was submitted to the Employment and Immigration Canada in January 1982, and
released in January 1983. Compares the first year work experience of 1969-71 and 1976 cohorts,
men and women, and immigrants from different countries and with different characteristics.
Finds large differences between men and women, among national groups, and due to differences
in education and work experience. Gives figures for persons from various places of origin ( e.g.
China, the Caribbean).
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Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration. Les autres quebecoises:
2e ed.
etude sur les femmes immigrees et leur integration au marche de travail quebecois.
Montreal: Le Ministere, 1985. 110 p. Bilingue.
A study on the integration of immigrant women into the Quebec workforce.
Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration. Les caracteristiques
socio-economiques de la population immigree au Quebec au recensement de 1981, par Audet,
B. Montreal: Le Ministere, 1987. xvi, 124 p.
(Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration. Direction de la
planification et de l'evaluation. Cahier, no.4)
This study examines the socio-economic status of the immigrant population at the 1981 Census,
compares it with the non-immigrant population, and from these data makes predictions
concerning the immigrants' integration into Quebec society. The analysis of the Quebec
population born outside Canada integrates information regarding the date of immigration and
country of origin, as well as such variables as sex and place of residence in Quebec. Five
categories of variables have been used to draw up this profile of the different groups studied:
labour force activity, occupation, education, employment sector, and income.
Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration. L'immigration au
Quebec: bulletin statistique annuelle, vol. 15, 1989 et 1990. Quebec: Gouvernement du
Quebec, Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration, 1992. 103 p.
(Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration. Direction des etudes
et de la recherche. Statistiques et indicateurs, no.1)
This annual report on the characteristics of migrants and of migration patterns in Quebec
provides data on region of destination; age, sex and marital status; country of previous
residence; knowledge of French and English; mother tongue; immigrant category; education;
characteristics of workers admitted; proposed field of employment. Cover tide: Ensemble
botissons l'avenir.
Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration. L'immigration au
Quebec: bulletin statistique annuel, vol.14, 1988. Quebec: Communautes culturelles et
Immigration, 1988. 57 p.
See vol 15, 1989 and 1990 for annotation.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration. Profil de la population
immigree et recensie au Quebec en 1986. Quebec: Gouvernement du Quebec, Ministere des
Communautes culturelles et de l'Immigration, 1990. 84 p. Bibliographie. Mts.
Using data from the 1986 Census, this publication provides an overview of the immigrant
population of Quebec in 1986, through presentation of key indicators and through graphics
illustrating the socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics of this population. A
statistical appendix is also included. The report contains some previously unpublished
information, as well as selected information from various other published reports or articles on
the various ethnic groups surveyed in Quebec in 1986.
Queen's University. Industrial Relations Centre. Is there a double-negative effect on the
earnings of immigrant women?, by Worswick, Christopher; Beach, Charles M. Kingston,
Ont.: Industrial Relations Centre, Queen's University, 1990. 21 p. Tables.
Using 1973 Job Mobility Survey as basis for data, this study compares earnings of immigrant
women and Canadian born women in the labour market, as well immigrant women and
immigrant men. One fmding was that the amount of time spent at home rather than in the labour
market affected earnings more than discrimination. And immigrant women had more work
experience, and fewer children than native born women, therefore higher earnings.
Richmond, A.H. "Caribbean immigrants in Britain and Canada: socio-economic
adjustment." International Migration/Migrations internationaks/ Migracio nes internacionales
26:365-386, 1988.
The experiences of Caribbean immigrants in GB and Canada are compared with regard to
demographic trends, occupations, unemployment, and incomes. Differences between men and
women are also noted, along with the situation of the second generation in GB. Residual
disadvantages are found that cannot be explained by age, education, period of immigration, or
structural changes in the economy. Caribbean immigrants in Canada are better off than those in
GB, but still experience some disadvantages that may be due to racism. 11 Tables, 20
References. AA (Copyright 1990, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Samuel, T.J.; Woloski, B. "The labour market experiences of Canadian immigrants."
International Migration/Migrations internationales/Migraciones internacionales 23:225-250,
1985.
A comparison of adaptation processes into the Canadian labour force during 1980, 1981, and
1982, using a sample (N = 3,687) of 1979 immigrants and a Canadian cohort (N = 2,796),
both randomly selected from social security record files. Data derived from the Longitudinal
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Labour Force Data Base (Employment and Immigration Canada) and the Landed Immigrant Data
Base. Includes comparison of immigrants from different world areas, for income, weeks on
unemployment, education, and sex. After allowing for the serious economic crisis at the time,
the data suggest that immigrants were adapting satisfactorily. Nevertheless, a considerable
discrepancy in earnings favoured Canadians over immigrants, and men over women in both
samples. Immigrants without families generally held steadier jobs and were better remunerated
than those with families. Educational level and knowledge of English were relevant to better
employment and salary; immigrants who knew only French were at a disadvantage. 14 Tables,
20 References. Modified HA (Copyright 1986, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Satzewich, Victor; Li, Peter S. "Immigrant labour in Canada: the cost and benefit of ethnic
origin in the job market." Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers canadiens de sociologie
12:229-241, 1987.
Recently, John Porter's "ethnically blocked mobility" thesis, regarding Canadian society (The
Vertical Mosaic, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965) has been revised by A. Gordon
Darroch on the ground that ethnic occupational dissimilarity tends to diminish over the census
years 1931-1971. Here the effect of ethnic origin on occupational status and income are
examined, using longitudinal questionnaire survey data for 4,584 immigrants entering Canada
between 1969 and 1971. The findings suggest that despite a reduction of occupational status
differentials over a 3-year period, income inequality increases. Since the rankings by
occupational status and income are largely along racial lines, the evidence indicates income
discrimination despite occupational mobility for non-white immigrants. 3 Tables, 26 References.
HA (Copyright 1988, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Trovato, Frank; Grindstaff, Carl F. "Economic status: a Census analysis of thirty-year-old
immigrant women in Canada." Revue canadienne de sociologie et d'anthropologie / Canadian
Review of Sociology and Anthropology 23:569-587, 1986.
Census data (1981) are used to examine the economic position of females aged 30 in Canada,
comparing immigrants (N = 37,000) to the native-born population (N = 160,000) with respect
to educational, occupational, and income attainment. Variables controlled individually are marital
status, period of immigration, ethnic origin, and family size. The fmdings show that immigrant
Fs who came to Canada as children (aged 10 or under) are more likely to have an advantaged
socio-economic standing at age 30, while immigrant Fs who entered the country as adolescents
(aged 10-20) have the lowest levels of socio-economic achievement. However, there are several
exceptions to these overall findings. The results are discussed in the context of the "assimilation"
hypothesis. It is concluded that a more comprehensive theoretical framework is needed to explain
differences in status attainment among foreign-born Fs in Canada. 6 Tables, 24 References. HA
(Copyright 1987, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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2.3.7 INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
Adams, Bert N.; Jesudason, Victor. "The employment of Ugandan Asian refugees in
Britain, Canada, and India." Ethnic and Racial Studies 7(4):462-477, 1984.
The employment experiences of Ugandan Asian refugees in Canada, GB, and India are
compared, using data on about 1,500 refugees in the 3 countries, including extensive interview
data from 1,000 M heads of household. Most of the refugees had been expelled from Uganda
in 1973, along with approximately 50,000 other Asians; over 80% of Ugandan refugees were
accepted by Canada, GB, or India. Research concerns included the following: (1) why some
refugees did not seek employment; (2) why some seekers did not find work; (3) how much time
passed before the first job was found; and (4) what type of work was found. Variables
contributing to non-participation in the labour force included age, resources or means of support
from relatives or friends, poor health, language difficulties, or involvement in education. While
unemployment was less of a problem in Canada than in the other two countries, employment
often entailed substantial downward mobility for professionals, business people, and skilled
manual workers. India presented the tightest job market. 9 tables, 17 references. (Copyright
1985, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Colloque: Relations industrielles, 19e, Universite de Montreal, 1988. Equite en =here de
salaire et d'emploi. Brossard, Michel, redacteur. Montreal: Ecole de relations industrielles,
Universite de Montreal, 1989. 224 p. Tables.
Includes papers on job evaluation and employment equity, in Quebec, Canada, Western Europe,
and the United States.
Hartman, Harriet; Hartman, Moshe. "The effect of immigration on women's roles in
various countries." International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 3(3):86-103, 1983.
A discussion on the labour force adjustment of female immigrants to Canada, the US, and Israel
(sources of data not detailed). The gross differences found in the labour force participation rates
of immigrants and native-born women in all three countries can be explained by controlling for
age, education, number of children, and country of origin. However, immigrant women have
lower occupational status than native women, and these differences persist even after some years
in the country. The particular difficulties faced by immigrant women are discussed, and possible
policies to ameliorate them suggested. 9 Tables, 1 Appendix, 46 References. Modified AA
(Copyright 1984, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
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Jab, Harish C.; Sloane, Peter J. "The impact of recession on equal opportunities for
minorities and women in the United States, Canada and Britain." Columbia Journal of
World Business 18:16-27, Summer 1983. Tables.
Examines evidence of gross earnings differentials, unemployment, and use of equal employment
opportunity legislation; based on conference paper. Tables give figures on employment and
discrimination complaints, totals and by province.
Oxford,
Jenson, Jane. Feminization of the labour force: paradoxes and promises.
BlackweWOxford University Press, 1988. xii, 295 p. Bibliographies. Tables. Index.
Based on a conference held at the Center for European Studies, Harvard University, Mar. 1986.
Status of women in the labour markets of seven countries (Great Britain, France, West
Germany, Sweden, Italy, Canada, and the US), policy responses of major social actors to the
phenomena of feminization, and the consequences of these social and economic changes in the
ways that women construct their lives.
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
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3. INDEX
3.1 SUBJECT INDEX
Abella Group
8, 14, 113
Accountants
109
Affirmative action . . . . 8, 12, 14, 23, 24, 27, 32, 38, 39, 56, 64, 72, 91, 101, 105, 111,
113-115, 125, 135, 136
Agglomerations (Census)
38
Alberta
8, 14, 17, 30, 44, 69, 73, 100
Alberta-N.W.T.
8
Arbitration
74
Availability data
7-10, 62, 63, 80, 84, 85
Banks and Banking
42, 66, 68, 118, 134
Bell Canada
59
Blue-collar
77, 122, 124, 125
Britain
144, 146, 147
British Columbia
29, 41, 48, 78, 79, 103
British Columbia-Yukon
8
Business cycle
76, 80
Canada Pension Plan
82
Canada-Manitoba Northern Development Agreement
38, 39
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
79
Canadian Jobs Strategy
139
Canadian Mobility Study
91
Career breaks
89, 91, 105, 106, 121
Cases and case studies
19, 20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 55, 70, 79, 91, 106, 132
CBC
47
Child care
47, 73, 79, 95, 113, 139
Children
19, 22, 37, 40, 47, 49-51, 55, 73, 79, 87, 89, 90,
95, 97, 98, 109, 113, 132, 139, 144-146
Clerical workers
91, 97, 103, 122, 124, 13
Clothing and textile industry
60, 141
CN
109, 110, 125
Coaches and coaching
123
Computers
121
Contracting out and contracts
27, 94
Contractors
7-10, 131
Court challenges
13, 20, 23, 49, 96, 125, 137
Crime
37, 122
Crown corporations
11, 13, 14, 25, 65, 137
Decentralization
29
Dual labour market
100
Engineers
80, 82, 97, 103, 108, 109, 112, 113, 117
Executives
77, 93, 104
148 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
87-89, 106
Family History Survey
100
Farm workers
7-10
Federal Contractors Program
7, 14, 17, 64, 65, 126, 133
Federally regulated services
16 110, 123
Film industry
147
France
93, 94, 98, 118
Free trade
10, 15, 75, 110, 134, 139, 145
French and francophone workers
36, 39, 70, 80, 81, 82, 102, 108, 110, 130
Graduates
19, 40, 53, 56, 78, 82, 83, 138, 146
Health
92, 118, 131
High technology
17, 23, 24, 27, 37, 38, 40, 51, 53, 55, 63, 71, 78, 122, 138
Housing
56, 58, 69, 74, 79
Human rights
16, 108
Hydro-Quebec
25, 67, 69, 128, 132, 134, 139-146
Immigrants
17
Individual's Rights Protection Act
81
Interprovincial migration
27, 40, 116, 133
Job creation
12, 145
Job changes
42
Kativik
51, 54, 81, 86-89, 92, 111, 112, 129, 130
Labour Force Survey
11, 12, 52, 54, 63, 89, 121, 130
Labour Market Activity Survey
22, 23, 37
Labrador
Language and languages . . . 18, 29, 30, 38, 52, 61, 69, 102, 129, 130, 133, 136, 139, 146
15, 19, 23, 37, 40, 73, 96, 122, 138
Law and justice
73, 96, 132
Legal profession
Limestone Project
19
34, 47, 62, 64, 65, 74, 77, 84, 97, 104, 110, 122, 133
Managerial work
8, 19, 20, 38, 39, 42, 106-108, 118, 132
Manitoba
19, 106
Manitoba Jobs Fund
77, 94, 98, 99, 103, 104, 116, 138
Manufacturing Sector
17, 27, 38, 50-52, 57, 73, 74, 87-90,
Marital status
108, 110, 113, 130, 143, 145
68, 125
Maritimes
82, 112
Mathematics (profession)
70
MBA
Media and communications (profession)
66, 68 102, 138
75, 82, 112, 118
Medical professions
37, 38, 50, 52, 60, 62, 70, 87, 128, 130, 140
Metropolitan areas (Census)
Migration
81, 138, 143
36
Mining
Mobility
12, 38, 45, 73, 78, 91, 108, 123, 132, 144-146
115
Municipal workers
National Automobile Aerospace and Agricultural Workers
123
National Film Board
16, 110
New Brunswick
8, 20-22, 43, 68, 110-112, 133
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 149
8, 9, 22, 23, 112
127
23, 34, 127
17, 23, 24, 37, 43, 44, 46, 47, 50, 54, 130, 133
8, 22, 24, 25, 41, 70, 112
24, 47, 67, 92, 118, 137
145
8-9, 15, 25, 32, 44, 45, 56, 57, 59, 69, 70,
73, 74, 81, 82, 96, 103, 112-117, 132, 134
Ontario Home Renewal Program
25
103
Ontario Hydro
74, 131, 132, 146
Parenting
12, 73, 79, 81, 83, 85, 88, 94, 95, 99,
Part-time work
111, 118, 120, 134, 140
Pensions
82
37, 68, 71, 98, 122
Police
38, 104, 108, 113, 130
Post-secondary education
79, 83, 95, 122, 132
Poverty
22, 119
Prince Edward Island
74, 92, 133
Private sector
Promotions (worker)
66, 97, 108, 126, 136, 137
118
Psychiatry (profession)
10, 12, 13, 15, 18, 21-23, 24, 29, 34-36, 41, 42, 62, 64-66,
Public/civil service
79, 83-85, 91-93, 105-107, 111, 116, 117, 119, 120, 133
Quebec
8, 9, 15, 16, 26, 27, 37, 42, 45, 46, 72, 75, 98, 108, 117,
120, 125, 127, 135,136, 140, 143, 144, 146
Refugees
63, 69, 146
Regional differences
78
Relocation
38, 40, 91
73, 100, 124
Reserve army theory
Retail/Sales Sector
82, 116, 124, 138
40
Rotation (worker)
Royal Commissions
11, 14
48
Safety
Saskatchewan
8, 27, 121, 123
113, 114
School boards
Science (profession)
82, 83, 97, 102, 109, 112, 119
80, 88, 127
Seasonality
43,
67,
74,
77,
92,
101,
107, 112
Segregation
13, 31, 32, 36, 38, 61, 64
Self-identification
Seniority
108, 136
Service industries
77, 81, 94, 98, 99, 111, 115, 125
31, 45, 82, 99, 104, 109
Skills
66, 70
Small businesses
121
Social Change in Canada survey
76, 123
Sport
Newfoundland
Norman Wells
Northerners
Northwest Territories
Nova Scotia
Occupational distribution
Occupational mobility
Ontario
150 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
7, 10, 80, 129
Standard Occupational Classification
38, 125
Subdivisions (Census)
33, 49, 94, 107
Taxes
113,
114, 118, 119
75, 87,
Teachers and faculty
80, 93, 99, 131
Technological change
123
Television
84, 119
Temporary work
81, 133
Trades
7, 10, 15, 18, 27, 31-33, 43, 47, 57, 58, 64, 71, 78, 79, 82, 83,
Training
92, 93, 96, 97, 108, 110, 111, 112, 118, 119, 123, 137, 139
7, 16, 58, 94, 95, 108, 116, 120, 123
Unions
94, 136, 146, 147
United States
19, 83
Violence
63
Visitors Immigration Data Systems
80, 93-95, 103, 124
Working conditions
27, 38, 45, 99, 130
Youth
8, 17, 37, 39, 50, 54, 125, 130, 138
Yukon
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 151
3,2
AUTHOR INDEX
3.2.1
CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX
Alberta. Human Rights Commission
17
Alberta. Legislature Library
73
Association of Canadian Medical Colleges
75
British Columbia. Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs
29
British Columbia. Ministry of Government Management Services
78
British Columbia. Ministry of Labour
78
British Columbia. Premier's Advisory Council for Persons with Disabilities
48
British Columbia. Task Force on Employment and Training
78
British Columbia. Women's Secretariat
79
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Research Division
55
Canada. Aboriginal Employment Equity Consultation Group
29
Canada. Canadian Aboriginal Economic Development Strategy
29
Canada. Consultation Group on Employment Equity for Women
79
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada
30, 48, 49, 60, 79, 80, 127
Canada. Dept. of the Secretary of State of Canada. Social Trends Analysis Directorate 30, 49
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada
7-10, 17, 30-32, 60, 61, 80, 81, 127
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Affirmative Action Directorate
8
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Employment Equity Branch . . . . 8-10, 31,
60, 61
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Public Affairs Branch
31, 32
Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada. Strategic Policy and Planning
81
Canada. Health and Welfare Canada
10, 32, 82, 127
Canada. Indian Affairs and Northern Development
32, 33
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
17, 18, 33-36, 127
Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Northern Affairs Program
127
Canada. Industry, Science and Technology Canada
82
Canada. Intergovernmental Working Group on the Mineral Industry
36
Canada. Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada
128
Canada. Multiculturalism Canada
62
Canada. Parliament. Library. Research Branch
49, 83
Canada. Public Service Commission of Canada
10, 18, 36, 62, 83-85
Canada. Royal Commission on Equality in Employment
11
Canada. Statistics Canada
12, 37, 38, 50-55, 62, 63, 85-90, 128-130, 138
Canada. Statistics Canada Analytical Studies Branch
88
Canada. Statistics Canada. Employment Equity Data Program
52, 63
37, 129
Canada. Statistics Canada. Ethnic and Visible Minorities Unit
Canada. Statistics Canada. Health Division
53
Canada. Statistics Canada. Household Surveys Division
88, 89, 130
Canada. Statistics Canada. Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division . . 12, 38, 63, 89
54
Canada. Statistics Canada. Institutions and Social Statistics Branch
Canada. Statistics Canada. Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division
54, 89
152 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
38, 55
Canada. Statistics Canada. Post-Censal Surveys Program
90
Canada. Statistics Canada. Target Groups Project
90
Canada. Status of Women Canada
91
Canada. Task Force on Bathers to Women in the Public Service
55
Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre
13, 64
Canada. Treasury Board
13, 64
Canada. Treasury Board. Personnel Policy Branch
64
Canada. Treasury Board. Personnel Policy Branch. Affirmative Action Group
64
Canada. Visible Minority Consultation Group on Employment Equity
91-93
Canada. Women's Bureau
38,
39
Canada-Manitoba Northern Development Agreement
93-95, 131, 139
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women
Canadian Bar Association. Task Force on Gender Equality in the Legal Profession . . . . 96
96, 97
Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities for Women
64-66
Canadian Ethnocultural Council
65
Canadian Ethnocultural Council. Employment Equity Committee
66
Canadian Ethnocultural Council. Race Relations Committee
13, 18, 19
Canadian Human Rights Commission
98,
140, 146
Carleton University
140
Centre pour femmes immigrantes
98-100,
131
Economic Council of Canada
14, 91, 101
Fraser Institute
40, 41, 87, 103, 104, 140
Institute for Research on Public Policy
42
Kativik Regional Government (Quebec)
42
Malcivik Corporation
19, 106
Manitoba Advisory Council on the Status of Women
19, 20
Manitoba Human Rights Commission
20
Manitoba Labour Board
42
Manitoba. Aboriginal Advisory Committee
107, 132
Manitoba. Bureau of Statistics
107
Manitoba. Civil Service Commission
108
Manitoba. Manitoba Education. Planning and Research
Manitoba. Manitoba Employment Services and Economic Security
108
National Action Committee on the Status of Women
110, 134
118, 132
National Council of Welfare
42, 133
National Employment Equity Network
110
National Film Board of Canada
Native People of Thunder Bay Development Corp
43
New Brunswick Advisory Council on the Status of Women
112
New Brunswick Human Rights Commission
20, 21, 43
New Brunswick. Equal Employment Opportunity Program
133
New Brunswick. Dept. of Advanced Education and Training. Planning Services . 110, 111
New Brunswick. Dept. of Education
43
New Brunswick. Dept. of Labour
20, 21
New Brunswick. Labour Market Analysis Branch
111
New Brunswick. Women's Directorate
21, 22, 111
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 153
112
Newfoundland Statistics Agency
22, 23
Newfoundland. Dept. of Health. Division of Research and Statistics
133,
148
17,
23,
24,
37,
43,
44,
46,
47,
50,
54,
130,
Northwest Territories
43, 133
Northwest Territories. Bureau of Statistics
23, 24
Northwest Territories. Equal Employment Directorate
24, 25
Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission
24
Nova Scotia. Civil Service Commission
112
Nova Scotia. Women's Directorate
25
Ontario Advisory Council for Disabled Persons
112
Ontario Advisory Council on Women's Issues
70
Ontario Human Rights Commission
113
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
25, 44, 45, 115-117
Ontario Women's Directorate
56
Ontario. Handicapped Employment Program
15
Ontario. Human Resources Secretariat
56
Ontario. Manpower Commission
25, 44, 57, 70, 113, 134
Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship
134
Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship and Culture
Ontario. Ministry of Citizenship. Working Group on Employment Equity . . . . 44, 57, 113
113
Ontario. Ministry of Colleges and Universities
113-115
Ontario. Ministry of Education
115
Ontario. Ministry of Education. Management Information Systems Branch
57
Ontario. Ministry of Health
115
Ontario. Ministry of Municipal Affairs
115
Ontario. Ministry of Treasury and Economics
57
Ontario. Office for Disabled Persons
116
Ontario. Pay Equity Commission of Ontario
116
Ontario. Task Force on Hours of Work and Overtime
25
Ontario. Women Crown Employees Office
117
Ordre des ingenieurs du Quebec
119
Prince Edward Island. Human Resource Development Division
119
Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada
120
Quebec. Commission consultative sur le travail
15, 26
Quebec. Commission des droits de la personne du Quebec
26
Quebec. Conseil des Coromunautes culturelles et de 'Immigration du Quebec
135, 143
Quebec. Ministere des Communautes culturelles et de ''Immigration
120
Quebec. Office des ressources humaines. Programme Egalite en emploi
45
Quebec. Secretariat aux affaires autochtones
120, 136, 143
Queen's University. Industrial Relations Centre
27
Saskatchewan Employment Development Agency
27
Saskatchewan Human Rights Commission
121
Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Education
122
Social Planning and Research Council of Hamilton and District
70, 136
Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto
71
Toronto Board of Education. Research Services
123
Toronto Women in Film and Television
154 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Toronto. Management Services Dept. Equal Opportunity Division
Toronto. Planning and Development Dept
Toronto. Race Relations and Policing Task Force
Universite de Montreal
Universite du Quebec a Montreal
University of Toronto, Centre for Urban and Community Studies
University of Western Ontario
University of Winnipeg. Institute of Urban Studies
Vancouver. Equal Opportunity Program
York University
Yukon Territory. Bureau of Statistics
Yukon Territory. Women's Directorate
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
137
58
71
105, 146
15
72
97
46, 47
137
101, 142
125, 137
125
Statistics ranada - Product 89F0029XPE
155
3.2.2 PERSONAL AUTHORS
Abbott, Ruth K.
Adam, Barry D.
Adams, Bert N.
Agocs, Carol
Ahamad, B
Andiappan, Palaniappan
Andrew, Caroline
Armstrong, Hugh
Armstrong, Pat
Armstrong, Robin
Atwell, K.
Audet, B.
Baar, Ellen
Badenhorst, R.
Baer, Douglas E.
Baker, David
Baker, M
Barrett, Tammy D.
Bassaletti, Teresa
Beach, Charles M.
Beauchamp, R. S.
Beaujot, Roderic
Boland, Francois
Bell, Ruth Elizabeth
Benimadhu, Prem P.
Benjamin, C.
Bernard, Paul
Blakely, John H
Block, Walter
Bolaria, B. Singh
Bone, R. M.
Boothby, Daniel
Boulet, Jacques-Andre
Boyd, Monica
Breton, Raymond
Britton, C. J
Brossard, Michel
Burnaby, Barbara
Burr, Catherine
Cameron, B.
Cannings, Kathy
Cardillo, Brenda
Cassidy, Frank
156
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
73
73
146
7
81
74, 126
74
74, 95
74, 75, 95
36
34
143
75
122
73
48
83
48
140
144
112
30
75
76
7, 126
135
136
76
14, 101
126
127
12
131
77, 139, 140
40
108
120, 146
30
7
94
97
12
40
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Chadney, James G.
Chambers, Edward J
Chawla, Raj K.
Cheng, M. L
Cheung, Ken
Chicha-Pontbriand, Marie-Therese
Clatworthy, Stewart J.
Coates, K.S.
Coates, Mary Lou
Cohen, Gary L.
Cohen, M. G
Cohen, Marjorie Griffin
Collin, Johanne
Comeau, Joseph Lawrence
Connelly, M. Patricia
Coombs, John
Cosper, Ronald L.
Cote, Michel G.
Crestohl, Mark
Cullen, Dallas M.
Cutt, James
D'Costa, Ronald
Daenzer, Patricia
Denis, Ann B.
Denton, F. T
Denton, Margaret A.
DeSeve, Michel
Desrosiers, Helene
Dowler, Judith M.
Driedger, L
Duchesne, Doreen
Dwivedi, 0 P
Edwards, R. Gary
Ellis, Dormer
Fast, Janet
Feldberg, G.
Ferguson, Theresa A
Fillmore, Catherine J.
Finlayson, Judith
Fox, Bonnie J.
Fox, John
Franks, C.E S
Furrie, Adele
Gadacz, Rene R
Gagne, M. A.
Gauvin, R. P
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
66
97
98
71
11
15
46
39
120
54
94
98
98
98
87
51
68
67
126
97
99
67, 140
67
141
103
91
75
105
56
67
99
140
69
113
100
112
30
100
70
101
101
39
51
14
34
33
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
157
Geehan, R. R.
Geehan, T. E.
Ghalam, Nancy Zukewich
Gower, David
Gower, David E.
Grainger, Pat
Grant, Gail
Grignon, Julie
Grindstaff, Carl F.
Gunderson, Morley
Guppy, Neil
Hacker, Pat
Hagan, John
Hagey, N. J.
Hamilton, W. D
Hanson, Wendy
Harder, S.
Hartman, Harriet
Hartman, Moshe
Harvey, Edward B.
Hawkes, David C
Henderson, Heather
Henderson, Rick
Herberg, Edward N.
Hersom, Naomi
Hiscott, Robert
Hobart, Charles W.
Hodgkinson, Christopher
Howe, Eric C.
Hughes, K.D.
Hull, Jeremy
Hum, Derek
Hunter, Alfred A.
Hinter, Marie
Jabbra, Nancy W.
Jain, Harish C
Jasmin, G
Jenson, Jane
Jesudason, Victor
Jones, J.C.H
Jordan-Simpson, Deborah A.
Kalwa, Richard
Kariya, Paul Hideo
Karnig, Albert K.
Kealey, Linda
Keck, Jennifer
158
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
55
55
89
56
54
12
40
102
145
14, 78, 92, 95, 116
69
102
132
35
43
82
83
146
146
52, 76, 102
37
96
12
67
103
70
40
99
46
103
47
52
91
132
68
68, 132, 147
80
147
146
104
56
102
41
55
104
95
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Kempeneers, Marianne
Kennedy, Jeff
Kraft, John
Kuruvilla, P. K.
Labelle, Micheline
Larocque, G. Y
Lautard, E. Hugh
LavaHee, Laval
Le Bourdais, Celine
Leblanc, Rene
Leck, Joanne D.
Leckie, N.
Lessard, Christine
Lewis, C.
Li, Peter S.
MacBride-King, J. L
MacDonald, Martha
MacLeod, Kathryn
MacMillan, K.
Marchis-Mouren, Marie-Frangoise
Marshall, Katherine
Martin, Mireille
Maslove, Allan M.
McBride, C.
McClain, Paula D.
McDade, K.
McDermott, Peter
McDonald, Joanne
McDowell, R.
McKeen, Carol A.
Michalowski, Margaret
Mohan, M.
Montgomery, R
Moore, Maureen
Morgan, N
Morrow, Jeff
Mukutmoni, Rumlci
Mulvihill, Mary Ann
Munro, Brenda
Muszynski, Leon
Myles, John
Naeyaert, Kathleen
Naidoo, Josephine C.
Ng, Roxana
Nicholson, J. Phillip
Nodwell, Evelyn
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
105
36
127
105
141
33 35
43
11, 131
105
62
14, 106
99
127
71
106, 126, 145
91
87
136
93
108
109
83
37
34 35
55
139
47
85
80
109
63
63
69
128
93
42
109
77
100
95, 136
77
50
69
142
44
69
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 159
Oberle, Peter R
Oishi, Mitsuko
Ornstein, Michael D.
Parekh, Nevin M.
Parker, Patricia
Parliament, Jo-Anne
Patterson, M. E
Peitchinis, Stephen G.
Penfold, P. Susan
Peters, E.
Phillips, Erin
Phillips, Paul
Pineo, P. C
Panting, J. Rick
Poole, Phebe Jane
Porter, A
Postner, H. H.
Priest, G.E
Prudhomme, Marc
Publow, R.
Radwanski, George
Reitz, Jeffrey
Renaud, Jean
Richardson, Alan J.
Richmond, A.H
Riddell, W. C.
Robb, R. E
Robinson, Patricia
Rosenberg, M. W.
Roslin, A
Ross, David P
Rostum, H.
Rostum, Hussein
Rowley, R.
Ryten, E.
Saint-Pierre, Celine
Samuel, T.J.
Satzewich, Victor
Saunders, David M
Schein, Jerome D
Schwartzenberger, J.
Seagram, Belinda Crawford
Seward, S. B
Seward, Shirley B.
Shadd, Adrienne L.
Shea, Catherine
160 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
36
44
142
15
132
117
110
118
118
35
118
118
103
45
118, 134
94
100
45
11
36
115
72, 136
136
109
144
78
116
89, 121
35
58
49
55
60
81
75
121
144
145
14, 106
51
73
122
139, 141
40
70
122
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Shepherd, Robert
Shillington, E. Richard
Silver, Irving
Simard, Carolle
Simard, Marcel
Simpson, Wayne
Singh, Jong
Sloane, Peter J.
Smith, Dorothy E
Smith, T. N.
Sobolewski, Christine
Somerset, Felicity
Spencer, B. G
Stabler, Jack C.
Stanford, C. Lloyd
Stanton, Patrick
Stark-Adamec, Cannie
Stewart, D. A.
Sugiman, Pamela
Suriya, Senaka K.
Suschnigg, Carole
Tahon, Marie-Blanche
Tepper, Elliot
Tepperman, Lome
Theberge, Nancy
Thonney, E.
Thonney, Eliane
Townson, M
Townson, Monica
Trovato, Frank
Turner, N. T
Vaillancourt, Francois
Wagg, Dana
Walker, Cathy
Walker, Michael
Walsh, William D.
Wesa, L. M.
White, Julie
White, Pamela M
Wien, Fred
Williams, Dorothy W.
Wilson, Kay Dieckman
Wilson, S. J.
Winn, Conrad
Wismer, Susan
Woloski, B
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
12
49
11, 87
16, 122
120
52
126
147
103
55
140
7
103
46
140
78
122
127
123
71
101
16
140
52
123
55
60
104
8
145
71
102
47
58
14, 101
104
100
95
30, 128
41
72
123
124
72
97
144
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 161
Worswick, Christopher
Wright, Ruth
Young, R. A
Young, W. R.
Zureik, Elia
162 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
144
7, 126
47, 73
49
70
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
APPENDIX A
LIST OF SOURCES
Given below, in alphabetical order, are the databases (CD-Rom) and libraries searched in
compiling this Bibliographic Employment Equity Database.
Electronic Databases
Microlog
1982 1993
-
P.A.I.S.
International
1982 1993
-
Sociofile
1982 1993
-
Lists publications of Canadian and Federal and Provincial
Government-related agencies, from 1982 to-date. (All documents
are available on microfiche at selected libraries.)
Public Affairs Information Service International
Lists books, government documents and periodical articles in
English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. 1982 to-date.
Computerized version of Sociological Abstracts. Worldwide
coverage of sociological research publications
Statistics Masterfile:
Index of International Statistics
Indexes Canadian periodicals general-interest, popular
and academic (non-scientific)
Canadian Periodical Index:
1988 1993
-
Canadian Business and
Current Affairs
Covers Canadian newspapers and business periodicals
1986-1993
Statistics Canada Clean Data File
As of December 1993
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 163
Printed Indexes
Index of Industrial Relations Literature: (Queen's University, Industrial Relations Centre)
1980-1989 (ceased publication in 1989)
Directory of Statistics in Canada: 1982 to 1993
Annotated Bibliography of Canadian Demography 1983-1989
Sociology of Work: A Critical Annotated Bibliography 1990
(Mainly U.S. references)
Specialized Federal Government Libraries
Human Resources Development - (Employment Equity Branch)
Public Service Commission of Canada
Treasury Board
Secretary of State of Canada
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
National Library of Canada
Statistics Canada
Health and Welfare Canada
Advisory Council on the Status of Women
Status of Women Canada
Canadian Human Rights Commission
Ontario Government Libraries
Access Ontario
Ontario Government Library
164 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Other Libraries
Canadian Ethnocultural Council
National Organization of Immigrant and Visible Minority Women of Canada
Women's Place
Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women
Carleton University
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 165
APPENDIX B
LIST OF SEARCH TERMS
To permit the reader to more effectively use the BEED, the search terms used in accessing the
sources given in Appendix A are given below:
■ Aboriginal People
■ AffirmativeAction
■ Canada - visible minorities
■ Congresses
■ Cross cultural studies
■ Education
■ Education - provinces
■ Employment
■ Government employees
■ Government policy
■ Law and legislation
■ Target groups: disabled, handicapped,
Indian, Indigenous, Inuit, Native
people, Minorities, Visible minorities,
women
■ Age
■ discrimination
■ employment
■ income
■ Basic Rights
■ Civil Liberties
■ Civil Rights
■ Employment
■ Employment - provinces
■ Income
■ Target Groups
■ Civil Servants
■ employment - equity
166 Statistics Canada Product 89F0029XPE
-
■ Civil Service
■ employment - equity
■ intergovernmental personnel programs
■ target groups
■ Disabled
■ developmental
■ employment
■ learning
■ mental
■ physical
■ psychiatric
■ sensory
■ Discrimination
in ■ employment - Canada
■ employment - laws
■ employment - legislation
■ employment - provinces
■ government - policy
■ human rights - employment
■ law and legislation
■ race - education
■ race - employment
■ racial - employment
■ reverse
■ sex - education
■ sex - employment
■ target groups
■ Doubly disadvantaged
■ Employee
■ management - relations
■ professionals in government
■ recruiting
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
■ Employee Rights
■ Employment
■ civil service
■ fair practice
■ mentally challenged
■ mentally handicapped or disabled
■mentally ill
■physically handicapped or disabled
■psychiatric
■ quotas
■ re-entry
■ re-entering - workforce
■ special needs
■ target groups
■ Government Employees
■ employment - equity
■ Handicapped
■ developmental
■ employment
■ learning
■mental
■physical
■psychiatric
■ sensory
■ Human rights
■ employment
■ Employment Equity
■Crown corporations
■ income
■policy
■programs
■ statistics
■ Income
■employment
■employment - target groups
■ Equal Employment Opportunity
■ Inuit
■ employment
■ Equal Opportunity
■ employment
■ economic policy
■ social policy
■ Job
■bias
■ discrimination
■ Equal pay and equal work
■ Crown corporations
■ law
■ law - provinces
■ Equality
■workplace
■ Equity
■ employment
■ Ethnic
■employment
■ Indians
■ employment
■ Labour
■ employment - equity
■ force - employment
participation
■ market
■ market - policy
■ market - target groups
■ target groups
■ evaluation
equity
■ Labour laws
■ employment - equity
■ target groups
■ First Nations
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 167
■ Labour policy
■ employment and equity
■ target groups
■ Labour statistics
■ employment - equity
■ target groups
■ Manpower
■ planning
■ policy
■statistics
- employment - equity
- organizational change
-personnel
management
- utilization
- employment
- human resource
development
- target groups
- target groups
■ Minorities
■ economic conditions
■ employment (equity)
- income
- statistics
- target groups
- women executives
- women in profession
■ socioeconomic status
■ Native People
■ economic conditions
■ employment
■ employment - equity
- income
- provinces
- statistics
168 Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE
■ Occupations
■ civil service positions
■ employment - equity
■ professions
■ target groups
■ Pay
■ equity
■ equity - statistics
■ equity - employment - statistics
■ Persons
■ disabilities - statistics
■ handicapped - statistics
■ disabled - employment - statistics
■ handicapped - employment - statistics
■ Public Service
■ employment - equity
■ Race
■discrimination - education
- employment
- employment - equity
■ Racism
■ Government of Canada
■ Sex discrimination
■ education
■ employment
■ Special needs
■ employment
■ Wages
■ employment - equity
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
■ Women
■ advancement
■ advancement - human rights
- feminism
- social change
- social policy
- women's rights
- women's status
■ business
■ business ownership
■ career
■ career development
■ child care
■ civil service
■ economic condition
■ economic development
■ education
■ employment
■ employment - equity
- provinces
■ entrepreneurship
■ executive
■ family responsibilities
■ female manpower
■ immigrant
■ labour
■ labour market
■ legal status
■ maternity leave
■ middle management
■ occupations
■ personnel development
■ personnel planning
■ re-entry
■ research
■ rights - cultural
- economic
- human
- social
■ science
■ social development
■ target groups
■ technology
■ workers
■ workforce
■ working
Bibliographic Employment Equity Database
Statistics Canada - Product 89F0029XPE 169
A ST CS CANADA LIBRARY
NU 0TH OU 5 AILS IOU CANADA
11 Il 11111
1111 iltil n1111
1
DATE DUE
1 6 1995
SBN 0-660 15562 1
II MU
9 780660 155-23
89F0029XPE95000
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