Heavy Equipment Operator Occupational Analyses Series

Heavy Equipment Operator Occupational Analyses Series
Occupational
Analyses Series
Heavy Equipment Operator
2012
Trades and Apprenticeship Division
Division des métiers et de l’apprentissage
Labour Market Integration Directorate
Direction de l’intégration au marché du
travail
National Occupational Classification:
7421
Disponible en français sous le titre :
Opérateur/opératrice d’équipement lourd
You can order this publication by contacting:
Trades and Apprenticeship Division
Labour Market Integration Directorate
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
140 Promenade du Portage, Phase IV, 5th Floor
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0J9
Online: www.red-seal.ca
This document is available on demand in alternative formats (Large Print, Braille, Audio
Cassette, Audio CD, e-Text Diskette, e-Text CD, or DAISY), by contacting 1 800 O-Canada
(1 800 622-6232). If you have a hearing or speech impairment and use a teletypewriter (TTY),
call 1 800 926-9105.
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2012
Paper
Cat. No.: HS42-1/47-2012E
ISBN: 978-1-100-20435-2
PDF
Cat. No.: HS42-1/47-2012E-PDF
ISBN: 978-1-100-20436-9
FOREWORD
The Canadian Council of Directors of Apprenticeship (CCDA) recognizes this National
Occupational Analysis (NOA) as the national standard for the occupation of Heavy Equipment
Operator.
Background
The first National Conference on Apprenticeship in Trades and Industries, held in Ottawa in
1952, recommended that the federal government be requested to cooperate with provincial and
territorial apprenticeship committees and officials in preparing analyses of a number of skilled
occupations. To this end, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) sponsors
a program, under the guidance of the CCDA, to develop a series of NOAs.
The NOAs have the following objectives:

to describe and group the tasks performed by skilled workers;

to identify which tasks are performed in every province and territory;

to develop instruments for use in the preparation of Interprovincial Red Seal
Examinations and curricula for training leading to the certification of skilled workers;

to facilitate the mobility of apprentices and skilled workers in Canada; and,

to supply employers, employees, associations, industries, training institutions and
governments with analyses of occupations.
-I-
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The CCDA and HRSDC wish to express sincere appreciation for the contribution of the many
tradespersons, industrial establishments, professional associations, labour organizations,
provincial and territorial government departments and agencies, and all others who contributed
to this publication.
Special acknowledgement is extended by HRSDC and the CCDA to the following
representatives from the trade.
Craig Chapman
Les Gale
Darrell Johanson
Lyndon Kipling
Tim Milne
Curtis Rodgers
Lee Sorken
Daryl Sweetland
Russel Vachon
Patrick Watson
Joe Williams
Prince Edward Island
Newfoundland and Labrador
Saskatchewan
Northwest Territory
Manitoba
New Brunswick
British Columbia
Manitoba
Ontario
Canadian Operating Engineers Joint
Apprenticeship and Training Council
(COEJATC)
Nova Scotia
This analysis was prepared by the Labour Market Integration Directorate of HRSDC. The
coordinating, facilitating and processing of this analysis were undertaken by employees of the
NOA development team of the Trades and Apprenticeship Division. The host jurisdiction of
British Columbia also participated in the development of this NOA.
- II -
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD
I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
II
TABLE OF CONTENTS
III
LIST OF PUBLISHED NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSES
V
STRUCTURE OF ANALYSIS
VII
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYSIS
IX
ANALYSIS
SAFETY
3
SCOPE OF THE HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATOR TRADE
4
OCCUPATIONAL OBSERVATIONS
5
ESSENTIAL SKILLS SUMMARY
6
BLOCK A
BLOCK B
COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
Task 1
Uses and maintains tools and equipment.
9
Task 2
Maintains safe work environment.
12
Task 3
Organizes work.
17
HEAVY EQUIPMENT INSPECTION AND BASIC MAINTENANCE
Task 4
Performs scheduled maintenance.
20
Task 5
Performs inspections.
23
- III -
BLOCK C
BLOCK D
COMMON HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATOR TASKS
Task 6
Performs basic heavy equipment operator
functions.
26
Task 7
Transports equipment.
32
EARTH MOVING OPERATIONS
Task 8
Operates haulage trucks.
36
Task 9
Operates loaders.
38
Task 10
Operates tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB).
42
Task 11
Operates dozers.
47
Task 12
Operates excavators.
53
Task 13
Operates graders.
59
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
65
APPENDIX B
GLOSSARY
68
APPENDIX C
ACRONYMS
71
APPENDIX D
BLOCK AND TASK WEIGHTING
72
APPENDIX E
PIE CHART
75
APPENDIX F
TASK PROFILE CHART
76
- IV -
LIST OF PUBLISHED
NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSES
(Red Seal Trades)
NOC Code
TITLE
Agricultural Equipment Technician (2007)
7312
Appliance Service Technician (2011)
7332
Automotive Painter (2009)
7322
Automotive Service Technician (2011)
7321
Baker (2011)
6252
Boilermaker (2008)
7262
Bricklayer (2011)
7281
Cabinetmaker (2007)
7272
Carpenter (2010)
7271
Concrete Finisher (2006)
7282
Construction Craft Worker (2009)
7611
Construction Electrician (2011)
7241
Cook (2011)
6242
Electrical Rewind Mechanic (1999)
7333
Floorcovering Installer (2012)
7295
Glazier (2008)
7292
Hairstylist (2011)
6271
Heavy Duty Equipment Technician (2009)
7312
Heavy Equipment Operator (2012)
7421
Industrial Electrician (2011)
7242
Industrial Mechanic (Millwright) (2009)
7311
Instrumentation and Control Technician (2010)
2243
Insulator (Heat and Frost) (2007)
7293
Ironworker (Generalist) (2010)
7264
Ironworker (Reinforcing) (2010)
7264
Ironworker (Structural/Ornamental) (2010)
7264
Landscape Horticulturist (2010)
2225
Lather (Interior Systems Mechanic) (2012)
7284

National Occupational Classification
-V-
NOC Code
TITLE
Machinist (2010)
7231
Metal Fabricator (Fitter) (2008)
7263
Mobile Crane Operator (2009)
7371
Mobile Crane Operator (Hydraulic) (2012)
7371
Motorcycle Mechanic (2006)
7334
Motor Vehicle Body Repairer (Metal and Paint) (2010)
7322
Oil Burner Mechanic (2006)
7331
Painter and Decorator (2011)
7294
Partsperson (2010)
1472
Plumber (2010)
7251
Powerline Technician (2009)
7244
Recreation Vehicle Service Technician (2006)
7383
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanic (2009)
7313
Rig Technician (2008)
8232
Roofer (2006)
7291
Sheet Metal Worker (2010)
7261
Sprinkler System Installer (2009)
7252
Steamfitter — Pipefitter (2010)
7252
Tilesetter (2010)
7283
Tool and Die Maker (2010)
7232
Tower Crane Operator (2012)
7371
Transport Trailer Technician (2008)
7321
Truck and Transport Mechanic (2010)
7321
Welder (2009)
7265
Requests for printed copies of NOAs may be forwarded to:
Trades and Apprenticeship Division
Labour Market Integration Directorate
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
140 Promenade du Portage, Phase IV, 5th Floor
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0J9
These publications can be ordered or downloaded online at: www.red-seal.ca. Links to
Essential Skills Profiles for some of these trades are also available on this website.
- VI -
STRUCTURE OF ANALYSIS
To facilitate understanding of the occupation, the work performed by tradespersons is divided
into the following categories:
Blocks
largest division within the analysis that is comprised of a distinct
set of trade activities
Tasks
distinct actions that describe the activities within a block
Sub-Tasks
distinct actions that describe the activities within a task
Key Competencies
activities that a person should be able to do in order to be called
‘competent’ in the trade
The analysis also provides the following information:
Trends
changes identified that impact or will impact the trade including
work practices, technological advances, and new materials and
equipment
Related Components
list of components, items, materials and other elements relevant to
the block
Tools and Equipment
categories of tools and equipment used to perform all tasks in the
block; these tools and equipment are listed in Appendix A
Context
information to clarify the intent and meaning of tasks
Required Knowledge
elements of knowledge that an individual must acquire to
adequately perform a task
- VII -
The appendices located at the end of the analysis are described as follows:
Appendix A —
Tools and Equipment
non-exhaustive list of tools and equipment used in this trade
Appendix B —
Glossary
definitions or explanations of selected technical terms used in the
analysis
Appendix C —
Acronyms
list of acronyms used in the analysis with their full name
Appendix D —
Block and Task
Weighting
block and task percentages submitted by each jurisdiction, and the
national averages of these percentages; these national averages
determine the number of questions for each block and task in the
Interprovincial exam
Appendix E —
Pie Chart
graph which depicts the national percentages of exam questions
assigned to blocks
Appendix F —
Task Profile Chart
chart which outlines graphically the blocks, tasks and sub-tasks of
this analysis
- VIII -
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYSIS
Development of Analysis
A draft analysis is developed by a committee of industry experts in the field led by a team of
facilitators from HRSDC. This draft analysis breaks down all the tasks performed in the
occupation and describes the knowledge and abilities required for a tradesperson to
demonstrate competence in the trade.
Draft Review
The NOA development team then forwards a copy of the analysis and its translation to
provincial and territorial authorities for a review of its content and structure. Their
recommendations are assessed and incorporated into the analysis.
Validation and Weighting
The analysis is sent to all provinces and territories for validation and weighting. Participating
jurisdictions consult with industry to validate and weight the document, examining the blocks,
tasks and sub-tasks of the analysis as follows:
BLOCKS
Each jurisdiction assigns a percentage of questions to each block for an
examination that would cover the entire trade.
TASKS
Each jurisdiction assigns a percentage of exam questions to each task within a
block.
SUB-TASKS
Each jurisdiction indicates, with a YES or a NO, whether or not each sub-task
is performed by skilled workers within the occupation in its jurisdiction.
The results of this exercise are submitted to the NOA development team who then analyzes the
data and incorporates it into the document. The NOA provides the individual jurisdictional
validation results as well as the national averages of all responses. The national averages for
block and task weighting guide the Interprovincial Red Seal Examination plan for the trade.
This method for the validation of the NOA also identifies common core sub-tasks across
Canada for the occupation. If at least 70% of the responding jurisdictions perform a sub-task, it
shall be considered common core. Interprovincial Red Seal Examinations are based on the
common core sub-tasks identified through this validation process.
- IX -
Definitions for Validation and Weighting
YES
sub-task performed by qualified workers in the occupation in a specific
jurisdiction
NO
sub-task not performed by qualified workers in the occupation in a
specific jurisdiction
NV
analysis Not Validated by a province/territory
ND
trade Not Designated in a province/territory
NOT
COMMON
CORE (NCC)
sub-task, task or block performed by less than 70% of responding
jurisdictions; these will not be tested by the Interprovincial Red Seal
Examination for the trade
NATIONAL
AVERAGE %
average percentage of questions assigned to each block and task in
Interprovincial Red Seal Examination for the trade
Provincial/Territorial Abbreviations
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nova Scotia
Prince Edward Island
New Brunswick
Quebec
Ontario
Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Alberta
British Columbia
Northwest Territories
Yukon Territory
Nunavut
-X-
ANALYSIS
SAFETY
Safe working procedures and conditions, accident prevention, and the preservation of health
are of primary importance to industry in Canada. These responsibilities are shared and require
the joint efforts of government, employers and employees. It is imperative that all parties
become aware of circumstances that may lead to injury or harm. Safe learning experiences and
work environments can be created by controlling the variables and behaviours that may
contribute to accidents or injury.
It is generally recognized that safety-conscious attitudes and work practices contribute to a
healthy, safe and accident-free work environment.
It is imperative to apply and be familiar with the Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Acts
and Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) Regulations. As well, it is
essential to determine workplace hazards and take measures to protect oneself, co-workers, the
public and the environment.
Safety education is an integral part of training in all jurisdictions. As safety is an imperative part
of all trades, it is assumed and therefore it is not included as a qualifier of any activities.
However, the technical safety tasks and sub-tasks specific to the trade are included in this
analysis
-3-
SCOPE OF THE HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATOR
TRADE
‚Heavy Equipment Operator‛ is this trade’s official Red Seal occupational title approved by the
CCDA. This analysis covers tasks performed by heavy equipment operators whose
occupational title has been identified by some provinces and territories of Canada under the
following names:
NL
Heavy Equipment
Operator
NS
PE
NB
QC



ON MB SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU

Heavy equipment operators operate heavy equipment used in the construction and
maintenance of roads, bridges, airports and utilities, and the construction of gas and oil
pipelines, tunnels, buildings and other structures. They also operate equipment in surface
mining, quarrying, and land clearing activities.
Heavy equipment operators are employed by construction companies, heavy equipment
contractors, public works departments and pipeline, logging, mining, oil, cargo-handling and
other industries.
They operate heavy equipment such as articulated haul trucks, tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB),
excavators, dozers, loaders and graders to excavate, move, load and grade earth, rock, gravel or
other materials during construction and related activities. They operate dozers, excavators,
skidders or other heavy equipment to clear brush and stumps prior to logging activities and to
build roads at logging and surface mining sites. They use heavy equipment to maintain winter
roads and to move, load and unload cargo. Heavy equipment operators are also responsible for
preparing their equipment for transportation, doing a safety check on their equipment before
every job and for cleaning, oiling and refilling their equipment.
Noise from machinery and equipment hinders communication at the work site. Often hand
signals and flags are the only practical forms of communication. Distance between workers, the
need to wear ear protection and the presence of dust and blind spots blocking eye contact with
other workers also make communication difficult.
Key attributes for people entering this trade are good eye-hand coordination, mechanical
aptitude, alertness and safety consciousness. Heavy equipment operators sit in vehicles for
extended periods of time. Adjusting equipment or co-ordinating activities with other workers
may require some walking, lifting and bending.
-4-
OCCUPATIONAL OBSERVATIONS
The computer is increasingly being used for precision control to optimize heavy equipment
operator efficiencies. The use of computerized equipment has raised the level of ability of heavy
equipment operators to perform more precise work resulting in higher productivity and quality
of project. This in turn requires a higher and more complete level of training.
Satellite monitoring and diagnosing of equipment has been introduced and is becoming more
widespread. The use of Global Positioning System (GPS) and wireless technology has been
introduced to improve equipment operation. The use of remote control equipment is increasing
in the industry, which produces more precise control and efficiencies. More training is typical in
the industry which improves operating techniques and increases safety, reduces downtime and
improves efficiency. A wide variety of new attachments are being developed and introduced to
help improve efficiencies.
New ergonomic controls are continually adapted and improved for ease of use and to reduce
heavy equipment operator fatigue and injury, which in turn improves production. New cab
designs featuring more open and improved visibility in heavy equipment operator stations,
increases heavy equipment operator awareness and safety. New technology that is being
introduced with more efficient engines and transmissions such as hydrostatic drive
transmissions and electric powertrains, results in smoother transitions and operations, which
also reduces heavy equipment operator fatigue. Advancements in technology are allowing
heavy equipment operators to work in all environmental conditions, such as extreme
temperature conditions.
More emphasis through due diligence is being placed on safety. Changes to regulations and
standards will have an impact on the duties and the way industry and heavy equipment
operators deal with situations that arise on site. With increased emphasis on eco-friendly
practices, operators are required to practice environmental stewardship.
-5-
ESSENTIAL SKILLS SUMMARY
Essential skills are needed for work, learning and life. They provide the foundation for learning
all other skills and enable people to evolve with their jobs and adapt to workplace change.
Through extensive research, the Government of Canada and other national and international
agencies have identified and validated nine essential skills. These skills are used in nearly every
occupation and throughout daily life in different ways.
A series of CCDA-endorsed tools have been developed to support apprentices in their training
and to be better prepared for a career in the trades. The tools can be used independently or with
the assistance of a tradesperson, trainer, employer, teacher or mentor to:



understand how essential skills are used in the trades;
learn about individual essential skills strengths and areas for improvement; and
improve essential skills and increase success in an apprenticeship program.
The tools are available online or for order at: http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/essentialskills.
The essential skills profile for the heavy equipment operator trade indicates that the most
important essential skills are numeracy and thinking skills, such as problem solving.
The application of these skills may be described throughout this document within the
competency statements which support each subtask of the trade. The following are summaries
of the requirements in each of the essential skills, taken from the essential skills profile. A link to
the complete essential skills profile can be found at www.red-seal.ca.
Reading
Heavy equipment operators use reading skills to refer to manuals on the operation and
maintenance of machinery. They are required to read Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) when
working with products such as cleaners, oils, fuels and other chemicals. Heavy equipment
operators may read pamphlets explaining regulations and codes, bulletins from unions,
employers or other regulatory bodies, and memos or work orders with information on the
nature of the work to be performed.
Document Use
Heavy equipment operators work on a daily basis with documents such as labels on hazardous
materials, signs, lists, operator’s manuals, inspection forms, hazard assessment forms, log books
and time sheets. They may read or mark stakes with station numbers and slope ratios, mark off
caution areas on maps and make sketches or drawings. They may also be required to consult
surveyor charts and blueprints.
-6-
Writing
Heavy equipment operators may record information about work performed, time it took,
materials used and problems encountered. They make entries in daily equipment reports
(logbooks) during pre- and post-operational inspections. They also keep an equipment
maintenance log to note repairs made and service schedules. They may write accident and
incident reports describing details.
Oral Communication
Heavy equipment operators use oral communication skills to give directions to, and listen to
co-workers, interact with fuel suppliers, truck drivers and mechanics, and participate in safety
committees and discussions at the work site concerning how to do a particular job. They may
discuss job assignments, equipment problems and material shortages with supervisors,
contractors or union dispatchers.
Numeracy
A heavy equipment operator’s skills in numeracy are used to calculate, for example, the number
of loads required to remove the sand and the weight distribution of a load being lifted. They
may also measure and calculate the slope and ratio of ditches. Heavy equipment operators
estimate distances between the machine and various obstacles, width of ramps for space on
either side of a machine and how many truck loads of fill are required. They may also be
required to convert between the imperial and metric systems of measurement.
Thinking Skills
Heavy equipment operators use their problem solving skills to deal with machinery
breakdowns, ground conditions and difficult manoeuvring situations where space to move
machinery is tight or objects stand in the way of completing jobs.
Decision making skills are required for determining materials and equipment needed,
appropriate and safe preventative maintenance cycles to be performed on equipment, and when
to make suggestions to supervisors such as about changes to soil cover specified on blueprints.
Heavy equipment operators require job task planning skills to coordinate their work with their
co-workers. They may also be required to determine task sequencing or prioritization of tasks
considering factors such as terrain, schedules of truck drivers and other suppliers, and
unexpected factors such as maintenance emergencies or changing weather conditions.
Heavy equipment operators use thinking skills to understand and assess soil types and how
weather affects soil conditions.
Working with Others
Although heavy equipment operators work alone while operating their machines, on
construction sites they are members of a team. They work to co-ordinate job tasks with others
and must be aware of where other crew members, machines and general public are at all times.
-7-
Computer Use
Heavy equipment operators use computer-controlled equipment such as electronic scales, GPS
and advanced operating systems.
Continuous Learning
Heavy equipment operators are expected to take courses throughout their career to stay up to
date with regulations, health and safety procedures and new technology. These may include
courses such as in hazmat, confined spaces and fall protection. They may be required to obtain
or renew certificates or licenses such as WHMIS certificates, cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) certificates, ground disturbance certificates, and radio operator and driver's
licences. Specific training may also be required to work in areas such as oil field, mining and
forestry industries.
-8-
BLOCK A
COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
Trends
Technology is becoming more complex and being included as part of
new equipment. Heavy equipment operators are required to become
more versatile in their skills and in the kinds of equipment they operate.
Related
Components
All components apply.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 1
Context
Uses and maintains tools and equipment.
This task involves the maintenance of hand tools, power tools, and measuring
and testing equipment. It also includes the use of grade checking and
tracking, rigging and lifting, and safety and personal protective
equipment (PPE).
Required Knowledge
K1
capacity and configuration of rigging materials and hardware
K2
OH&S Acts, WHMIS, local and municipal legislation
K3
company policies and procedures
K4
types of tools and equipment required for specific tasks
K5
hand signals
K6
symbols used to identify potential hazards
K7
manufacturers’ specifications
K8
first aid requirements
-9-
Sub-task
A-1.01
Maintains hand and power tools.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-1.01.01
clean hand tools to ensure optimum operation
A-1.01.02
lubricate tools according to manufacturers’ specifications
A-1.01.03
store tools in designated areas such as tool boxes or cabinets
A-1.01.04
use tools for their intended purpose
A-1.01.05
inspect tools and electrical cords for defects and take remedial action such as
repairing, replacing, tagging and disposing
Sub-task
A-1.02
Maintains measuring and testing equipment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-1.02.01
clean and dry measuring and testing equipment before storing according to
manufacturers’ specifications
A-1.02.02
store measuring and testing equipment in a safe location according to
company policy
A-1.02.03
service measuring instruments according to manufacturers’ specifications
A-1.02.04
verify calibration levels according to manufacturers’ specifications
A-1.02.05
recharge laser levels and batteries at the end of each shift
- 10 -
Sub-task
A-1.03
Uses grade checking and tracking instruments.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-1.03.01
verify calibration of equipment such as electronic equipment and laser levels
before use at the beginning of each shift
A-1.03.02
verify that project data file being used corresponds to the project
A-1.03.03
troubleshoot instruments for failures
A-1.03.04
monitor and verify accuracy of the instruments
A-1.03.05
install mobile signal receiver onto equipment and remove after use
A-1.03.06
interpret measurement data on tracking instruments and make necessary
adjustments or responses
A-1.03.07
use a string line level to maintain grade
Sub-task
A-1.04
Uses rigging and lifting equipment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-1.04.01
inspect lifting equipment for deficiencies or damage such as cuts, tears, wear
and fraying before each use and according to manufacturers’ specifications
A-1.04.02
maintain rigging and lifting equipment according to manufacturers’
specifications
A-1.04.03
determine weight of load to be lifted
A-1.04.04
refer to load chart specifications to determine lifting capacity of the
equipment
A-1.04.05
select rigging materials and configuration suited to the hoisting task
A-1.04.06
check rigging arrangement to ensure secure lifting
A-1.04.07
use tag lines to guide loads
A-1.04.07
respond to directions given by signal person
- 11 -
Sub-task
A-1.05
Uses personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety equipment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-1.05.01
wear PPE such as hard hats, safety boots, eye protection, reflective clothing
and hearing protection according to site and company policies and safety
regulations
A-1.05.02
use spill kits to contain oil and fuel spills
A-1.05.03
inspect and maintain PPE according to manufacturers’ specifications
A-1.05.04
place or store PPE in a safe location when not in use to prevent damage
A-1.05.05
store safety equipment such as fall protection equipment and gas monitors
according to manufacturers’ specifications
A-1.05.06
use safety equipment such as fall protection equipment, fire extinguishers
and first aid kits according to manufacturers’ specifications and jurisdictional
regulations
Task 2
Context
Maintains safe work environment.
This task involves assessing potential hazards, planning worksite safety
strategies, securing unattended equipment, performing spill and sediment
control procedures, and handling materials.
Communicating with others is vital to maintaining a safe work environment.
Required Knowledge
K1
good housekeeping practices
K2
contact information for local utilities
K3
OH&S Acts, WHMIS
K4
colour codes for utility markings
K5
site and company policies and procedures
K6
procedures to control spills of hazardous materials
K7
environmental regulations
K8
safe handling of hazardous materials
- 12 -
K9
soil types and how they affect the approach to the job
K 10
capabilities and limitations of different types of equipment
Sub-task
A-2.01
Assesses potential hazards.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.01.01
visually inspect the work area on a continual basis to identify potential
hazards such as ground conditions, overhead hazards, proximity to
buildings, pedestrian and vehicle traffic, and manholes
A-2.01.02
request the locate sheet for the location of all utilities
A-2.01.03
identify the location of utilities according to colour code standards
A-2.01.04
identify and mark location of potential hazards such as manholes and water
valves using tools such as cones, ribbons and stakes
A-2.01.05
assess ground and environmental conditions such as rapidly changing
weather to determine adverse effects on work location
A-2.01.06
review demolition plan to become aware of hazards and surroundings
A-2.01.07
inspect structure to avoid injury to co-workers and general public, or to
prevent damage to surrounding property
Sub-task
A-2.02
Plans worksite safety strategies.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
no
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.02.01
provide input into the emergency response plan (ERP)
A-2.02.02
practice good housekeeping by ensuring work area is clear of hazards
A-2.02.03
provide input into the location of garbage receptacles, fuel storage and
temporary buildings
A-2.02.04
provide input into the layout of worksite materials, such as bedding sand,
pipes and excavated fill
- 13 -
A-2.02.05
assess soil, ground and weather conditions to plan daily activities
accordingly
A-2.02.06
remove visual barriers to ensure eye contact with others and to identify
hazards
A-2.02.07
identify hazards related to soil stability such as potential cave in, and report
to supervisor
A-2.02.08
ensure underground utilities will be exposed safely
Sub-task
A-2.03
Secures unattended equipment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.03.01
perform lockout and other procedures such as locking doors, turning off and
locking the master switch
A-2.03.02
park on a level location
A-2.03.03
lower implements and attachments to the ground, apply park brakes, apply
wheel chocks, engage lockouts, lock windows and doors, remove key from
the ignition, and place guards on windows of unattended equipment
A-2.03.04
affix lockout tags to equipment that has been removed from service
A-2.03.05
store equipment and attachments in a designated location such as a building,
compound, and fenced or delineated areas
Sub-task
A-2.04
Communicates with others.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.04.01
participate in the documentation of potential hazards
A-2.04.02
use hand signals to communicate with other personnel
A-2.04.03
use communication equipment such as cell or satellite phones, 2-way radios,
and equipment horns for signalling
- 14 -
A-2.04.04
use common language and signals to communicate with others to prevent
errors on the worksite
A-2.04.05
use equipment to provide instruction to others, such as placing bucket in the
air to indicate position of loading, or parking dozer to indicate dump location
to other heavy equipment operators
A-2.04.06
communicate with truck driver to determine position of equipment and
attachments on trailer, and to establish hand signals when loading equipment
on trucks
A-2.04.07
signal driver that truck is loaded and ready to go
A-2.04.08
mentor and provide instruction to apprentices or new personnel
A-2.04.09
provide input to estimate materials such as aggregate or soil required to
achieve specified elevations
Sub-task
A-2.05
Performs spill control procedures.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.05.01
prioritize spill control measures for factors such as health, environment and
clean up as per the spill control priority approach
A-2.05.02
use spill kits to contain hazardous materials such as oil, fuel and antifreeze
A-2.05.03
dig a trench or dyke to prevent contamination of manholes or waterways
A-2.05.04
use alternate methods or materials to contain spills, such as sawdust, sand,
straw and plastic
A-2.05.05
clean up and dispose of contaminated material according to environmental
regulations
- 15 -
Sub-task
A-2.06
Performs sediment control procedures.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.06.01
assist in installing sediment control materials such as silt fences and blankets
to protect surrounding vegetation and waterways
A-2.06.02
seal up spoil piles to prevent erosion
A-2.06.03
plan work to minimize damage to the environment caused by sedimentation
A-2.06.04
perform operations away from riparian zones to avoid environmental
catastrophes
Sub-task
A-2.07
Handles materials.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-2.07.01
use, store and dispose of materials such as used oil, antifreeze and fuel in
accordance with environmental regulations
A-2.07.02
transport materials such as oil, antifreeze and fuel in accordance with
Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) regulations
A-2.07.03
place construction materials such as excavated fill at a safe distance from
excavation
A-2.07.04
load material onto, and unload material from, barges according to best
practices and regulations
- 16 -
Task 3
Organizes work.
Context
This task includes the use of documentation such as time sheets, inspection
checklists, health and safety forms, reporting forms and log books. It also
includes interpreting survey indicators and data as well as determining
method of approach.
Required Knowledge
K1
metric and imperial measurement systems
K2
basic abbreviations and symbols used in survey markings
K3
construction drawing (blueprint) reading
K4
equipment capabilities and limitations
K5
expressions of slope and grade
Sub-task
A-3.01
Checks grade.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.01.01
use a laser level attached to the equipment to signal that the correct grade is
achieved
A-3.01.02
attach string line to survey stakes from the markings on the survey stakes
and use a line level and measuring tape to check grade
A-3.01.03
create reference points on the equipment to assist in obtaining the desired
grade
A-3.01.04
use levelling devices such as a basic tripod, and carpenter’s, torpedo, digital,
and laser levels, GPS and batter boards
A-3.01.05
express slopes using percent, ratio and degree
- 17 -
Sub-task
A-3.02
Uses documentation.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.02.01
complete forms such as time sheets, pre- and post-operational inspection
checklists, health and safety forms, log books, and injury, illness or incident
reporting forms
A-3.02.02
read and interpret documents such as maps, drawings, memos, charts, labels,
locate sheets and MSDS
A-3.02.03
draw sketches to clarify job tasks
A-3.02.04
identify and record hazards in daily hazard analysis report
Sub-task
A-3.03
Interprets survey indicators and data.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.03.01
clarify abbreviations and symbols by consulting with surveyors or supervisor
A-3.03.02
identify markings on survey indicators such as survey stakes, benchmarks
and hubs
A-3.03.03
set up survey stakes as offsets, excavation lines and gridlines
A-3.03.04
verify survey data such as grade elevation and location to ensure accuracy of
data
A-3.03.05
notify immediate supervisor of inaccuracies or inconsistencies of survey data
- 18 -
Sub-task
A-3.04
Determines method of approach.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
A-3.04.01
use information from drawings and plans to assess method of approach
A-3.04.02
assess underground and overhead obstacles such as building protrusions, roof
overhangs, overhead powerlines, snow, bridges and overpasses, and
determine if an alternate approach is plausible or needed
A-3.04.03
provide assistance with gathering historical or anecdotal information, and
as-built records from local authorities for undocumented conditions
A-3.04.04
adapt operation based on site conditions and environmental information such
as proximity to waterways, soil conditions and weather conditions
A-3.04.05
adapt operation based on equipment capability, limitations and availability
A-3.04.06
adapt operation based on number and types of equipment onsite
A-3.04.07
assess site conditions for manoeuvring haulage equipment
- 19 -
BLOCK B
HEAVY EQUIPMENT INSPECTION AND BASIC
MAINTENANCE
Trends
Documentation of daily operations is becoming increasingly rigorous.
Heavy equipment operator responsibilities for maintenance and
inspection are changing as technology advances. Computerization is
reducing the need for manual checks and maintenance by heavy
equipment operators, and requiring specialized mechanics to perform
the maintenance.
Related
Components
All components apply.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 4
Context
Performs scheduled maintenance.
This task encompasses any maintenance tasks that a heavy equipment
operator must know about or perform to ensure the daily operation of the
machine.
Required Knowledge
K1
good housekeeping practices
K2
gauges and monitoring systems such as computer monitoring systems (CMS),
attachment specific computers and their use
K3
pre-oilers and auto-grease systems
K4
glow plugs, pre-heat and ether start systems
K5
safety equipment such as fire extinguishers, fire suppression systems, seat
belts, warning devices and backup alarms
K6
roll over protective structures (ROPS) and falling objects protective
structures (FOPS)
K7
undercarriage components such as rollers, sprockets and idlers
K8
correct track tension
K9
tire pressure, condition and wear
K 10
manufacturers’ specifications as per operation and maintenance
manuals (OMM)
- 20 -
K 11
re-fuelling and greasing
K 12
TDG certification
Sub-task
B-4.01
Maintains heavy equipment operator station.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-4.01.01
clean cab floor using tools such as hand brooms, rags and cleaners to remove
dust
B-4.01.02
secure loose items to ensure safety
B-4.01.03
clean windows and mirrors to ensure visibility
B-4.01.04
adjust cab components to individual heavy equipment operator’s ergonomics
Sub-task
B-4.02
Maintains undercarriage, tires and rims.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-4.02.01
adjust track tension according to manufacturers’ specifications
B-4.02.02
adjust tire pressure according to manufacturers’ specifications
B-4.02.03
tighten loose wheel nuts according to manufacturers’ specifications
B-4.02.04
tighten undercarriage component mounting bolts
B-4.02.05
clean tracks and rollers of foreign matter such as mud and snow
- 21 -
Sub-task
B-4.03
Performs preventative maintenance.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-4.03.01
top up fluids as needed according to manufacturers’ specifications
B-4.03.02
lubricate all fittings according to manufacturers’ specifications
B-4.03.03
change and clean filters according to manufacturers’ specifications
B-4.03.04
rotate and change teeth on buckets, cutting edges and corner bits
Sub-task
B-4.04
Performs basic maintenance on attachments.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-4.04.01
grease attachments such as hoe pack (hydraulic plate compactor), hydraulic
breaker and thumb, ripper and hydraulic shears according to manufacturers’
specifications
B-4.04.02
change and rotate breaker point to increase longevity of the part
B-4.04.03
adjust belts and stops on attachments according to manufacturers’
specifications
B-4.04.04
ensure hydraulic lines are capped during storage
B-4.04.05
change and rotate cutting edges, teeth and scarifiers as per manufacturers’
specifications
B-4.04.06
unwind winch and visually inspect wire rope for broken strands and wires,
and kinking
B-4.04.07
check winch assembly for unusual wear, secure cable connection and oil
levels
B-4.04.08
visually inspect attachments such as forks, jib booms (stingers), brooms,
brush cutters, rippers and shears, for unusual wear, damage, cracks, oil
leakage and broken welds
B-4.04.09
visually inspect bolts and pins on all attachments for security
- 22 -
Task 5
Performs inspections.
Context
Performing pre- and post-operational inspections are an important part of
ensuring the machine is prepared and safe for daily operations.
Required Knowledge
K1
machine-mounted laser levels and GPS
K2
fuel, lubrication, electrical, hydraulic, cooling, air intake, suspension, brake
and drive train systems
K3
computer systems
K4
OMM
K5
heavy equipment operator’s daily report
K6
safety features
K7
start-up and shut-down procedures
K8
cold weather starting and operation
K9
attachments
K 10
undercarriages
K 11
safety equipment such as fire extinguishers, fire suppression systems, seat
belts, first aid kits, warning devices and backup alarms
Sub-task
B-5.01
Performs pre-operational inspections.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.01.01
inspect engine compartment for maintenance items such as engine oil level,
belts, hoses, debris build-up, coolant and exhaust system according to
manufacturers’ check list
B-5.01.02
check air intake system components such as air filters, dust bowls and
air-restriction indicators
B-5.01.03
inspect undercarriage components for loose mounting bolts, uneven and
excessive wear such as grooves, flat spots, unusual wear marks, cracks, and
final drives and rollers for oil leakage
- 23 -
B-5.01.04
check tires and rims for secure mounting and damage such as wear, cuts and
cracks
B-5.01.05
perform walk-around inspection of overall machine for damage, unnecessary
wear, leakage and fluid levels such as hydraulic, swing gear and fuel
B-5.01.06
inspect heavy equipment operator’s station for seat belt adjustment,
cleanliness, loose debris and alternate escape routes
B-5.01.07
check to ensure controls such as transmission and hydraulic lockouts are in
locked or neutral position according to manufacturers’ specifications
B-5.01.08
turn on unit, visually inspect gauges for operation, continue start-up
procedures according to manufacturers’ specifications and continue to
monitor gauges
B-5.01.09
cycle controls for operation and conduct warm-up procedures according to
manufacturer’s specifications
B-5.01.10
conduct service and park brake check, check operation of lockout devices,
and check secondary steering and brakes if equipped
B-5.01.11
inspect safety equipment by testing horn, backup alarm and lights for
operation, and checking first aid kits and emergency shutdown and fire
suppression system if equipped
Sub-task
B-5.02
Performs post-operational inspections.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.02.01
park equipment in the service position on level surface to check fluid levels at
next start-up
B-5.02.02
allow equipment to cool down according to manufacturers’ specifications
B-5.02.03
perform walk-around inspection of overall equipment during cool down for
damage such as excessive wear, cracks and leakage
B-5.02.04
clean tracks using track shovels
- 24 -
Sub-task
B-5.03
Completes daily equipment logbook.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
B-5.03.01
fill out daily equipment logbook during pre-operational inspection according
to company policy and jurisdictional regulations, and return logbook to
secure area in heavy equipment operator’s station
B-5.03.02
complete daily equipment logbook during post-operational inspection
according to company policy and jurisdictional regulations, and return
logbook to secure area in heavy equipment operator’s station
B-5.03.03
ensure report is ready to be viewed or signed by foreman according to
company policy and jurisdictional regulations
- 25 -
BLOCK C
COMMON HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATOR TASKS
Trends
Heavy equipment operator functions are becoming more complex and
precise, for example joy sticks which incorporate multiple control
functions, and electrical over hydraulic functions. Steering wheels are
being replaced by joy sticks.
There are more stringent regulations around the spread of
contaminants such as noxious weeds, bugs and other biological
contaminants. These regulations affect what a heavy equipment
operator has to do to the equipment before it can be moved.
Related
Components
All components apply.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 6
Context
Performs basic heavy equipment operator functions.
This task involves smooth operation of equipment controls, effective set-up of
machine for task at hand, the installation and removal of attachments,
monitoring of equipment performance, and compacting operations using
self-propelled equipment or attachments. It also covers troubleshooting and
emergency procedures.
Required Knowledge
K1
function and location of controls and gauges on various equipment such as
parking brakes, shut-offs and throttles
K2
limitations of equipment and attachments
K3
hand signals
K4
content of OMM
K5
significance of warning symbols on equipment
K6
emergency procedures such as fire suppression systems, fire extinguishers
and muster points
K7
contractor and company safety policies, and OH&S Acts
K8
lock-out and tag-out procedures
K9
procedures for installing various attachments
- 26 -
K 10
types of attachments and their uses
K 11
hook up design for various carriers
K 12
compatibility of attachments to carriers
K 13
gear and speed selection based on grade and roughness of terrain
K 14
centre of gravity
K 15
work area
K 16
right-of-way
K 17
compaction and swell factors
K 18
self-propelled compacting equipment such as smooth drums, rubber tires,
sheep’s foots, rollers and packers
K 19
compacting densities
K 20
breakdown, intermediate and finish rolling
K 21
types of soil such as granular aggregates, clay, organic, top soil and rock
K 22
traveling on icy or slippery surfaces with track equipment
K 23
clearing and snow removal procedures
K 24
three-point contact when entering and exiting machine
Sub-task
C-6.01
NL
yes
Maintains control of equipment.
NS
yes
PE
yes
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
ND
BC
yes
NT
yes
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
C-6.01.01
enter and exit machine using three-point contact
C-6.01.02
adjust seat and controls for ease of operation
C-6.01.03
adjust gear, throttle and speed according to grade and roughness of terrain to
meet safety and production requirements
C-6.01.04
maintain centre of gravity while manoeuvring equipment with load
C-6.01.05
manipulate controls for smooth operation of equipment
C-6.01.06
maintain prescribed clearance between equipment, and obstacles and utilities
using features such as mirrors and back-up cameras
- 27 -
Sub-task
C-6.02
Positions equipment for task.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-6.02.01
determine location for set-up taking into consideration factors such as
working in conjunction with other equipment, hazards, obstacles and the
need for access/egress
C-6.02.02
stabilize equipment taking into consideration capabilities and limitations of
equipment and ground conditions of work area
Sub-task
C-6.03
Monitors performance of equipment.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-6.03.01
visually scan gauges such as for temperature and oil pressure to confirm that
they are within safe operating range
C-6.03.02
identify signs of fluid leaks or other equipment problems using senses such
as sight and smell
C-6.03.03
identify signs of equipment or component failure by feeling for vibration or
listening for unusual sounds
- 28 -
Sub-task
C-6.04
Troubleshoots equipment problems.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-6.04.01
identify faulty components in order to explain problem to service personnel
or to order parts
C-6.04.02
interpret fault codes in order to determine course of action such as changes in
operation or removal of debris off the cooling system
C-6.04.03
report extent of problem to supervisor to determine how production will be
affected (major vs. minor shut-down)
Sub-task
C-6.05
Installs attachments.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-6.05.01
select type of attachment needed for job and equipment
C-6.05.02
select tools needed to complete installation
C-6.05.03
follow installation procedures based on type of attachment and equipment on
which it is being installed
C-6.05.04
lubricate attachment according to manufacturers’ specifications and job
conditions
C-6.05.05
inspect attachment for faults such as cracks, missing bolts and loose hoses
before and after installation, and before use
C-6.05.06
test equipment to ensure proper installation of attachment
C-6.05.07
remove and store attachments according to established procedures
- 29 -
Sub-task
C-6.06
Performs emergency procedures.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-6.06.01
stop equipment, lower implement and attachment, lock-out (hydraulics,
transmission, brakes) and perform engine shut-down
C-6.06.02
assess emergency to determine course of action
C-6.06.03
inform supervisor, co-workers and general public of hazards
C-6.06.04
initiate established ERP according to assessed situation
Sub-task
C-6.07
Compacts material using self-propelled compacting equipment or
attachments.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-6.07.01
select rolling pattern such as breakdown, intermediate and finish according
to job type and density to be achieved
C-6.07.02
operate self-propelled compacting equipment such as smooth drum, rubber
tire and sheep’s foot, or attachments such as vibratory plate tampers and pull
type to achieve required densities and rolling pattern
C-6.07.03
coordinate water application with co-workers
C-6.07.04
offset equipment to avoid rutting
C-6.07.05
maintain compaction while manoeuvring around obstacles such as utilities,
manholes and fire hydrants
C-6.07.06
shut off vibratory function while stopping and changing directions to avoid
creating divots in surface
C-6.07.07
operate track or wheel equipment to aid in compaction of material
- 30 -
Sub-task
C-6.08
Performs cut and fill operations.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-6.08.01
identify reference points to delineate the perimeter of the work area
C-6.08.02
adjust operation based on material being shaped and changing ground
conditions
C-6.08.03
visually assess ground elevations for highs and lows
C-6.08.04
select and use ground engaging tools and equipment such as dozers,
excavators, backhoes, graders and loaders
C-6.08.05
use equipment functions such as pitch, angle, side shift or articulation to
obtain correct slope and grade
C-6.08.06
maintain a constant profile
C-6.08.07
determine action to be taken when encountering obstacles such as rocks, logs
and debris
C-6.08.08
remove and disperse excess materials
C-6.08.09
synchronize operation of equipment with other heavy equipment operators
such as two dozers pushing bulk material together
Sub-task
C-6.09
Clears snow and ice.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-6.09.01
use appropriate blade for snow removal such as V-plow and one-way plow
C-6.09.02
prepare equipment for snow and ice conditions such as installing tire chains,
lightings and hazard warnings
C-6.09.03
adjust speed of equipment according to road conditions
C-6.09.04
apply appropriate down pressure on snow removal attachments to prevent
damage to surface being plowed and blade, and to maintain steering and
traction control
- 31 -
C-6.09.05
move snow to designated area in large areas such as a parking lot using slot
method if possible
C-6.09.06
blow snow from area using loaders with blower attachment
C-6.09.07
adjust snow wing position according to obstacles, conditions and
manufacturers’ specifications
C-6.09.08
identify obstacles and take remedial action
C-6.09.09
maintain control of equipment when clearing snow and ice taking into
consideration adverse weather conditions
C-6.09.10
load trucks with snow
Task 7
Context
Transports equipment.
This task involves mobilization and demobilization of equipment. It includes
preparing, loading and securing equipment for transportation as well as
unloading. Driving equipment on public roads is also part of this task.
Required Knowledge
K1
licensing (equipment and driver) and permitting requirements
K2
road regulations
K3
jurisdictional regulations and company policies for loading and unloading of
equipment
K4
lighting requirements such as beacons, flashing lights and head/tail lights
K5
signage requirements such as ‚slow vehicle‛ and ‚over dimension‛ signs
K6
types of trailers and their uses and limitations
K7
loading and unloading techniques according to type of trailer used
K8
weight and size of attachments for safe placement on trailer
K9
height, width and weight restrictions for load
K 10
necessary disassembly of equipment
K 11
positioning of equipment on trailer
K 12
changes to centre of gravity of equipment after removal of attachments
K 13
cleaning requirements of equipment before transport
K 14
tie-down points and procedures
K 15
rigging and lifting techniques
- 32 -
Sub-task
C-7.01
Prepares equipment for transportation.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.01.01
clean equipment to prevent debris from falling during transportation, or to
prevent contamination of next site
C-7.01.02
remove attachments and components such as buckets, counterweights, tracks
and blades as required
C-7.01.03
remove corks or install planking to protect haul unit
C-7.01.04
ensure haul unit is clean (free of mud and snow) and is on stable and level
ground
Sub-task
C-7.02
Loads equipment and attachments for transportation.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.02.01
lift attachments onto haul unit using rigging
C-7.02.02
manoeuvre equipment onto haul unit while maintaining stability
C-7.02.03
position equipment based on the directions of the transport person
C-7.02.04
set parking brakes, lower implements and attachments, and shut down
engine depending on weather conditions and jurisdictional regulations
- 33 -
Sub-task
C-7.03
Assists in securing equipment for transportation.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.03.01
help tie down equipment and attachments as required
C-7.03.02
help block tracks and wheels as required
C-7.03.03
close and cover windows and doors to prevent damage during transport
C-7.03.04
engage steering lock to prevent articulation during transport
C-7.03.05
cover exhaust pipes on stopped engines to prevent turbo damage during
transport
Sub-task
C-7.04
Unloads equipment and attachments.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.04.01
identify hazards such as overhead powerlines, underground utilities,
slippery decks and unlevel ground
C-7.04.02
remove tie-downs, blocks and steering locks
C-7.04.03
remove window, door and exhaust coverings
C-7.04.04
perform a walk-around inspection to identify any potential damage during
transport
C-7.04.05
start-up engine, lift implements and attachments and disengage parking
brakes
C-7.04.06
manoeuvre equipment off of haul unit while maintaining stability and
following directions of transport person
C-7.04.07
lift attachments off haul unit using rigging
- 34 -
Sub-task
C-7.05
Drives equipment on roads.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
C-7.05.01
clean equipment body and tires to prevent traffic hazards and spreading
debris on roads
C-7.05.02
clean and inspect lights/beacons, windows and slow moving signage to
ensure they are visible and functioning
C-7.05.03
test steering and brakes (TLB lock brake pedals together) before accessing
public roads
C-7.05.04
arrange for escort vehicle as required
C-7.05.05
lock rear boom in the transport position on TLB
C-7.05.06
carry bucket low on loaders and TLB
C-7.05.07
tuck in blade and snow wing on grader, and secure wing using safety chain
C-7.05.08
stabilize boom on rubber-tired excavators to correct height to clear overhead
wires or bridges
- 35 -
BLOCK D
EARTH MOVING OPERATIONS
Trends
Advancements in technology are allowing workers to perform their
duties with improved efficiency and safety. New ergonomic controls
and new cab designs not only improve ease of use and heavy
equipment operator awareness, but also reduce their fatigue and injury.
More efficient engines and transmissions, the use of GPS, wireless
technology, and remote control equipment have helped improve
worker efficiency.
Related
Components
All components apply.
Tools and
Equipment
See Appendix A.
Task 8
Context
Operates haulage trucks.
This task encompasses the hauling and dumping of material using haulage
trucks, but does not include commercial transport dump trucks.
Required Knowledge
K1
types of haulage trucks such as articulated and rigid frame trucks
K2
hauling capacity
K3
types of material being hauled such as grubbings and aggregates
K4
haul road conditions such as slopes, rough terrain and softness
K5
dumping and dumpsite procedures at waste and working sites
K6
transmission, brake and retarding systems
K7
communication techniques such as using hand signals, lights and horns
K8
controls and functions of the equipment
K9
pivot points for different equipment
K 10
backing up procedures, techniques and regulations
K 11
overhead obstacles such as powerlines and structures
- 36 -
Sub-task
D-8.01
Hauls materials.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-8.01.01
manoeuvre around objects in limited visibility
D-8.01.02
position truck under loading equipment
D-8.01.03
adjust speed, transmission gear and drivetrain lockups to site conditions
D-8.01.04
use retarding systems according to manufacturers’ specifications to assist in
braking
D-8.01.05
offset hauling patterns on roadway to avoid destruction of roadway
Sub-task
D-8.02
Dumps materials.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-8.02.01
assess dump area to ensure level surface and stability for dumping
D-8.02.02
back up truck into dump site
D-8.02.03
stop and wait for signals such as light indicators or horn, hand and verbal
signals to allow dumping
D-8.02.04
dump load using controls and functions according to manufacturers’
specifications
D-8.02.05
lower the box fully before travelling
- 37 -
Task 9
Context
Operates loaders.
Heavy equipment operators use wheel loaders with various attachments to
accomplish tasks such as loading, dumping, spreading, carrying, stockpiling,
plowing and sweeping materials.
Required Knowledge
K1
wheel loaders
K2
controls and functions
K3
compaction and swell factors, and proctor tests
K4
ground conditions
K5
types of equipment and attachments such as jib booms (stingers), and their
capabilities and limitations
K6
change in centre of gravity and reduction in equipment capacity when using
various attachments
K7
loading trucks and hoppers
K8
spreading and levelling material
K9
stockpiling materials taking into consideration segregation of aggregates
K 10
types and grade of material
K 11
slope ratios for various soil types
K 12
roading procedures
K 13
safety procedures and regulations
K 14
jurisdictional regulations
K 15
lifting procedures and capacity
K 16
rigging requirements for job at hand
K 17
computerized systems
K 18
stability
K 19
pivot points on different machines
K 20
sweeping techniques
K 21
colour coding for locations of underground utilities
K 22
precautions necessary when working around buried or overhead utilities
K 23
effect of weight of machine on loose fill and trench
K 24
cycle time
K 25
control pattern
- 38 -
Sub-task
D-9.01
Loads trucks using loaders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-9.01.01
use V-pattern method during truck loading operation
D-9.01.02
control wheel spin to reduce tire wear and rutting
D-9.01.03
square bucket to face of dig material
D-9.01.04
use lift and curl method to fill bucket from the stockpile
D-9.01.05
shake bucket after filling to remove excess material, keeping the bucket low
while carrying, to prevent spillage and improve stability
D-9.01.06
centre load into dump body
D-9.01.07
spot for trucks to be loaded using signals such as horns and position of
bucket
D-9.01.08
back up and position loader using mirrors taking into consideration pivot
points of loader
D-9.01.09
keep pit floor/running surface of work area clean and level for stability and
efficiency of operation
D-9.01.10
visually check tailgate of truck to make sure it is locked
D-9.01.11
empty material from first bucket gently into the truck to minimize impact
D-9.01.12
balance load to meet axle weight restrictions
Sub-task
D-9.02
Loads hoppers using loaders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-9.02.01
position loaded bucket squarely to hopper
D-9.02.02
dump material evenly into hopper being careful not to overload hopper
D-9.02.03
compensate bucket position when working on inclined ramps
D-9.02.04
empty bucket to avoid cross-contamination between products
- 39 -
Sub-task
D-9.03
Stockpiles material using loaders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-9.03.01
build ramp for access to stockpile
D-9.03.02
place material in lifts taking into consideration segregation of aggregates
D-9.03.03
identify grades of materials and create buffer between stockpiles to prevent
cross-contamination
D-9.03.04
maintain clean and level worksite
Sub-task
D-9.04
Spreads material using loaders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-9.04.01
place material on road shoulder using shoulder box attachment according to
job specifications
D-9.04.02
level area and fix roadways by evenly distributing material using bucket
D-9.04.03
spread and grade material in lifts by adjusting the bucket to achieve a level
and smooth surface
- 40 -
Sub-task
D-9.05
Backfills trenches using loaders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-9.05.01
fill bucket from the stockpile using lift and curl method
D-9.05.02
build ramps for access to trench for backfilling procedures
D-9.05.03
carry material from stockpile to fill trench
D-9.05.04
approach trench squarely, push in (doze) material from spill pile
D-9.05.05
dump in material at even flow using attachments such as a side-dump or
regular bucket
D-9.05.06
prevent trench collapse and utility damage
Sub-task
D-9.06
Performs clean-up operations using loaders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-9.06.01
sweep material using attachments such as power angle or fixed angle broom
according to job specifications
D-9.06.02
pick up small amounts of remaining material using methods such as using
the backstop method, using another piece of equipment, or using a 4-in-1
bucket
- 41 -
Sub-task
D-9.07
Lifts using loaders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-9.07.01
calculate load weight and size according to lifting capacity of equipment
being used
D-9.07.02
secure load using tie-offs such as chains, straps and rope
D-9.07.03
carry load to designated area according to job specifications keeping heavy
end up hill on inclines
D-9.07.04
carry load low to ground while transporting using attachments such as forks
and jib booms (stingers) according to job and manufacturers’ specifications
Task 10
Context
Operates tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB).
This task involves using TLBs to place and stockpile material, to lift, to
excavate and backfill trenches, ditches and excavations, and to load trucks. It
also includes performing clean-up operations.
Required Knowledge
K1
safety regulations relating to trenching, mass excavations, demolitions,
clearing land, lifting, stockpiling and confined space entry
K2
soil types such as top soil, sub soil and granulars
K3
types of equipment and attachments and their capabilities and limitations
(boom reach)
K4
colour coding for locations of underground utilities
K5
slope ratios for various soil types
K6
sorting and recycling procedures such as for demolition materials, asphalt
waste and wood waste
K7
jurisdictional regulations for trenching and excavations
K8
precautions necessary when working around buried or overhead utilities
K9
meaning of grade stakes
K 10
bell hole (service hole) placement
K 11
rigging requirements for job at hand
- 42 -
K 12
water control
K 13
effect of weight of machine on loose fill and trench
K 14
compaction and swell factors, and proctor tests
K 15
cycle time
K 16
hand signals for lifting
K 17
two-pedal brake system
K 18
stabilizers and boom lock feature
K 19
control pattern
K 20
change in centre of gravity and reduction in equipment capacity when using
various attachments such as jib booms (stingers), rock breakers and extended
forks
Sub-task
D-10.01
Places material using tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB).
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.01.01
place granular backfill in lifts
D-10.01.02
place bedding in trench box with due care following directions of signal
person to avoid injury to workers and damage to tools and equipment
D-10.01.03
spread and grade material in lifts by adjusting the bucket to achieve a level
and smooth surface
Sub-task
D-10.02
Excavates trenches and ditches using tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB).
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.02.01
maintain consistent grade according to engineering specifications
D-10.02.02
maintain wall slope based on soil type and conditions, engineer’s
specifications, or jurisdictional regulations
- 43 -
D-10.02.03
smooth off top edges of trenches by eliminating windrowed material
according to jurisdictional regulations to provide a safe work area
D-10.02.04
cut trench to create stable walls that are free of large rocks and other loose
materials
D-10.02.05
create a smooth trench bottom to minimize bedding and provide good
surface for installation of utilities, wires and pipes
D-10.02.06
sort material in preparation for backfilling (frost lumps, rocks, finer
materials)
D-10.02.07
stabilize equipment using outriggers and loader bucket
D-10.02.08
use extend-a-hoe to increase efficiency
Sub-task
D-10.03
Backfills trenches and excavations using tractor-loaderbackhoes (TLB).
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.03.01
place bedding to specifications to support utilities
D-10.03.02
confirm installation is complete and safe for backfilling by checking workers
and tools are out of the trench, joints are completed and service connections
are completed
D-10.03.03
protect piping or utilities by covering with finer material (shading)
D-10.03.04
manage piles of imported aggregates (sand, rock and pit run) using
attachments such as 4-in-1 front bucket to minimize waste and avoid
contamination with other materials
D-10.03.05
return excavated material to point of origin, as required
D-10.03.06
place material in lifts with appropriate thickness to obtain required
compaction
- 44 -
Sub-task
D-10.04
Loads trucks using tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB).
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.04.01
use V-pattern method during truck loading operation to optimize cycle time
D-10.04.02
control wheel spin to reduce tire wear and rutting
D-10.04.03
square bucket to face of dig material
D-10.04.04
shake bucket after filling to remove excess material, keeping the bucket low
while carrying to prevent spillage and improve stability
D-10.04.05
centre load into dump body to avoid spillage
D-10.04.06
spot for trucks to be loaded using signals such as horns and position of
bucket
D-10.04.07
visually check tailgate of truck to make sure it is locked
D-10.04.08
empty material from first bucket gently into the truck to minimize impact
D-10.04.09
balance load to meet axle weight restrictions
D-10.04.10
signal driver that truck is loaded and ready to go
D-10.04.11
position equipment to avoid contact with truck (hitting sideboards,
counterweights against wheels)
Sub-task
D-10.05
Lifts using tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB).
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.05.01
lift and place shoring without disturbing installed utilities
D-10.05.02
determine weight of load to be lifted to ensure machine is capable of
handling the load
D-10.05.03
select rigging, including taglines, for task at hand to avoid failure during
lifting
D-10.05.04
rig load, or ensure load is rigged correctly
D-10.05.05
test load to confirm lift capability and reposition equipment if necessary
- 45 -
D-10.05.06
secure load using tie-offs such as chains, straps and rope
D-10.05.07
carry load to designated area according to job specifications keeping front
end of equipment up hill on steep inclines for traction when braking
D-10.05.08
carry load low to ground while transporting
Sub-task
D-10.06
Stockpiles material using tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB).
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.06.01
load front bucket to optimal capacity while minimizing wheel spin
D-10.06.02
shake bucket after filling to remove excess material, keeping the bucket low
while carrying, to prevent spillage and improve stability
D-10.06.03
build ramp to access stockpile
D-10.06.04
place material in lifts taking into consideration segregation of aggregates
D-10.06.05
identify grades of materials and create buffer between stockpiles to prevent
cross-contamination
D-10.06.06
maintain clean and level worksite to avoid tire damage and increase
efficiency
- 46 -
Sub-task
D-10.07
Performs clean-up operations using tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB).
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-10.07.01
clean up excavation area using attachments such as sweepers, 4-in-1 buckets
and pallet forks
D-10.07.02
sweep material using attachments such as power angle or fixed angle broom
according to job specifications
D-10.07.03
pick up small amounts of remaining material using methods such as using
the backstop method, using another piece of equipment, or using a 4-in-1
bucket
Task 11
Context
Operates dozers.
This task involves using dozers to move mass material, strip surface
materials, and spread materials. It also includes backfilling trenches and
excavations, and creating slopes and ditches as well as clearing land, levelling
demolition materials, pushing scrapers, and maintaining dumpsite areas.
Required Knowledge
K1
limitations and capabilities of dozers and attachments to ensure equipment
suitability for existing site and soil conditions
K2
grade stakes and plans
K3
soil types
K4
slope ratios for various soil types
K5
effects of environmental conditions on materials
K6
operational functions of equipment and attachments
K7
basic preventative maintenance practices
K8
jurisdictional and environmental regulations and policies
K9
safety regulations
K 10
methods to prevent segregation of aggregates
K 11
dozer attachments such as rippers, mulchers, discs, winches, brushcutters
(hydro-axes), root rakes and side booms
- 47 -
K 12
heavy equipment operator station components such as gauges, levers and
switches
K 13
effects of external and operational factors on the centre of gravity of the dozer
K 14
change in centre of gravity and reduction in equipment capacity when using
various attachments
K 15
effect of weight of machine on loose fill and trench
K 16
multiple operations being performed at the same time in various locations
and levels at dumpsite
K 17
colour coding for locations of underground utilities
K 18
precautions necessary when working around buried or overhead utilities
K 19
rigging requirements for job at hand
K 20
compaction and swell factors, and proctor tests
K 21
cycle time
K 22
control pattern
Sub-task
D-11.01
Moves mass material using dozers.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.01.01
identify the volume of material to move and the site conditions
D-11.01.02
identify the type of material to move such as snow, rock and topsoil
D-11.01.03
estimate distance the material is to be moved to determine the type of
method such as stockpile, slot method and short push
D-11.01.04
perform ongoing visual inspection to ensure minimal disturbance to
underlying soils and surfaces
D-11.01.05
determine the depth of blade cut required to operate the dozer in a fluid
manner to obtain optimum productivity
D-11.01.06
adjust pitch and angle of blade to support an optimum blade cut
D-11.01.07
synchronize operation of equipment with other heavy equipment operators
such as two dozers pushing bulk material together
- 48 -
Sub-task
D-11.02
Strips surface material using dozers.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.02.01
determine the depth of blade cut required to operate the dozer in a fluid
manner to obtain optimum productivity
D-11.02.02
move stripped material to final location based on established method of
approach, for example using slot/dozing method
D-11.02.03
adjust pitch and angle of blade to support an optimum blade cut
D-11.02.04
perform ongoing visual inspection to ensure minimal disturbance to
underlying soils
Sub-task
D-11.03
Creates slopes and ditches using dozers.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.03.01
use dozer functions to obtain correct slope and grade, such as pitch and angle
D-11.03.02
adjust operation or technique based on type of material being shaped
D-11.03.03
maintain a constant profile
D-11.03.04
determine action to be taken when encountering obstacles such as rocks, logs
and debris
D-11.03.05
remove and disperse excess materials
- 49 -
Sub-task
D-11.04
NL
yes
Spreads material using dozers.
NS
yes
PE
yes
NB
yes
QC
yes
ON
yes
MB
yes
SK
yes
AB
ND
BC
yes
NT
yes
YT
ND
NU
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.04.01
determine the depth of blade cut required to operate the dozer in a fluid
manner to obtain optimum productivity
D-11.04.02
adjust pitch and angle of blade to support an optimum blade cut and fill to
obtain specified elevation
D-11.04.03
synchronize operation of equipment with other heavy equipment operators
such as two dozers pushing bulk material together
Sub-task
D-11.05
Clears land using dozers.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.05.01
remove materials such as trees, stumps and brush using attachments such as
stump splitters, root rakes and rippers depending on size of material
D-11.05.02
fall trees in an orderly manner, keeping trees and soils separate, to facilitate
clean-up and increase operator safety
D-11.05.03
remove designated material taking precautions to prevent damage to wildlife
or plant life
D-11.05.04
check the site for existence of utilities and get locates
D-11.05.05
move cleared material to final location based on established method of
approach
D-11.05.06
adjust pitch and angle of rake or blade to support an optimum push
D-11.05.07
perform ongoing visual inspection to ensure awareness of potential hazards
D-11.05.08
pile up debris (plant matter, rocks) using attachments such as rakes and
stump splitters to prevent dirt contamination
- 50 -
Sub-task
D-11.06
Pushes scrapers using dozers.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
no
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.06.01
use attachments such as push blades and cushion blades required to perform
tasks
D-11.06.02
align the dozer to position the scraper for subsequent cuts
D-11.06.03
synchronize operation of equipment with other heavy equipment operators
such as dozers pushing bulk material together and other scrapers to keep
level cutting/excavation area
Sub-task
D-11.07
Backfills trenches and excavations using dozers.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.07.01
perform preventative actions such as diverting water or re-sloping to prevent
cave-ins, trench collapse and utility damage
D-11.07.02
determine the blade pitch, angle and depth of cut required to operate the
dozer in a fluid manner to obtain optimum productivity and to establish lift
size of engineered fill
D-11.07.03
synchronize operation of equipment with other heavy equipment operators
such as two dozers pushing bulk material together
D-11.07.04
confirm installation is complete and safe for backfilling by checking that
workers and tools are out of the trench, joints are completed and service
connections are completed
D-11.07.05
return excavated material to point of origin as required
- 51 -
Sub-task
D-11.08
Levels demolition materials using dozers.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.08.01
perform preventative actions to prevent hazards while moving materials
such as airborne metals, wood flip-ups and protruding rebar
D-11.08.02
determine the blade pitch, angle and depth of cut required to operate the
dozer in a fluid manner to obtain optimum productivity and to establish lift
size and desired compaction of fill
D-11.08.03
maintain a firm and level materials receiving pad
Sub-task
D-11.09
Maintains dumpsite area using dozers.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-11.09.01
determine the blade pitch, angle and depth of cut required to operate the
dozer in a fluid manner to obtain optimum productivity and to establish lift
size and desired compaction of fill or debris
D-11.09.02
maintain a firm and level materials receiving pad
D-11.09.03
maintain berms according to jurisdictional regulations
- 52 -
Task 12
Context
Operates excavators.
This task involves the use of excavators to excavate and backfill trenches, to
create mass excavations and slopes, to clear land and to lift loads, as well as
to perform demolitions. Stripping, stockpiling and placing of material are
also covered in this task.
Required Knowledge
K1
safety regulations relating to trenching, mass excavations, demolitions,
clearing land, lifting, stockpiling and confined space entry
K2
soil types such as top soil, sub soil and granulars
K3
types of equipment and attachments and their capabilities and limitations
(load charts, boom reach)
K4
change in centre of gravity and reduction in equipment capacity when using
various attachments
K5
colour coding for locations of underground utilities
K6
slope ratios for various soil types
K7
sorting and recycling procedures such as for demolition materials, asphalt
waste and wood waste
K8
jurisdictional requirements for trenching
K9
precautions necessary when working around buried or overhead utilities
K 10
meaning of grade stakes
K 11
bell hole (service hole) placement
K 12
rigging requirements for job at hand
K 13
confined spaces
K 14
water control
K 15
effect of weight of machine on loose fill and trench
K 16
compaction and swell factors, and proctor tests
K 17
cycle time
K 18
hand signals for lifting
K 19
stabilizers (rubber-tired excavator)
K 20
use of floatation mats to create a stable work platform
K 21
proper handling and installation of floatation mats
K 22
control pattern
- 53 -
Sub-task
D-12.01
Excavates trenches.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.01.01
maintain a consistent grade according to engineering specifications
D-12.01.02
maintain wall slope based on soil type and conditions, engineer’s
specifications, or jurisdictional regulations
D-12.01.03
smooth off top edges of trenches by eliminating windrowed material
according to jurisdictional regulations to provide a safe work area
D-12.01.04
cut trench to create stable walls that are free of large rocks and other loose
materials
D-12.01.05
create a smooth trench bottom to minimize bedding and provide good
surface for installation of utilities, wires and pipes
D-12.01.06
pull trench box while keeping box on line and on grade, without disturbing
installed utilities
D-12.01.07
sort material in preparation for backfilling (frost lumps, rocks, finer
materials)
Sub-task
D-12.02
Backfills trenches using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.02.01
place bedding to specifications to support utilities
D-12.02.02
confirm installation is complete and safe for backfilling by checking that
workers and tools are out of the trench, joints are completed and service
connections are completed
D-12.02.03
protect piping or utilities by covering with finer material (shading)
D-12.02.04
manage piles of imported aggregates such as sand, rock and pit run to
minimize waste and avoid contamination with other materials
- 54 -
D-12.02.05
return excavated material to point of origin, as required
D-12.02.06
place material in lifts with appropriate thickness to obtain required
compaction
Sub-task
D-12.03
Creates slopes using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.03.01
excavate soil between survey cut stakes to achieve required grade
D-12.03.02
cut slope while avoiding filling tracks with soil
D-12.03.03
keep tracks parallel to the slope while grading to maintain required angle
D-12.03.04
verify slope using grade checking instruments
D-12.03.05
scale rock slopes to prevent any loose material from falling into the work area
Sub-task
D-12.04
Creates mass excavations using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.04.01
dig perimeter while keeping straight edges and stable slopes according to
specifications and type of soil being excavated
D-12.04.02
hold grade over entire area (correct elevation)
D-12.04.03
place and level floatation mats to create a stable work platform
D-12.04.04
create steps or ramps to allow access to excavation area according to
regulations
- 55 -
Sub-task
D-12.05
Clears land using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.05.01
remove stumps and roots using attachments such as digging buckets,
brushcutters (hydro-axes), thumbs, rippers and rakes
D-12.05.02
pile up logs to preserve them and allow easy access for removal
D-12.05.03
pile up debris (plant matter, rocks) using attachments such as rakes and
thumbs to prevent dirt contamination
D-12.05.04
consolidate piles for optimal production
Sub-task
D-12.06
Strips surface material using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.06.01
remove surface material one layer at a time to avoid contaminating end
product and for optimal production using attachments such as clean-up
buckets, digging buckets and chuck blades
D-12.06.02
use full reach of equipment when stripping and dumping to increase
productivity
- 56 -
Sub-task
D-12.07
Stockpiles material using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.07.01
create piles with maximum volume and height without exceeding boundaries
D-12.07.02
smooth off and slope piles to promote the shedding of water
Sub-task
D-12.08
Places material using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.08.01
place riprap using attachments such as digging buckets and thumbs to
prevent erosion and provide stability of underlying material
D-12.08.02
place sheet piling using vibratory plate tamper attachment to provide shoring
D-12.08.03
place bedding in trench box with due care following directions of signal
person to avoid injury to workers and damage to tools and equipment
Sub-task
D-12.09
Lifts using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.09.01
determine weight of load to be lifted to ensure machine is capable of
handling the load
D-12.09.02
refer to load charts to determine safe working load of machine
- 57 -
D-12.09.03
rig load, or ensure load is rigged for task at hand to avoid failure during
lifting
D-12.09.04
test load to confirm lift capability and reposition equipment if necessary
Sub-task
D-12.10
Loads trucks using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.10.01
position equipment for level, stability and shortest cycle time
D-12.10.02
visually check tailgate of truck to make sure it is locked
D-12.10.03
empty material from first bucket gently into the truck to minimize impact
D-12.10.04
load material considering seasonal conditions such as material freezing
D-12.10.05
centre load to avoid spillage
D-12.10.06
balance load to meet axle weight restrictions
D-12.10.07
spot for trucks to be loaded using signals such as horns and position of
bucket
D-12.10.08
signal driver that truck is loaded and ready to go
Sub-task
D-12.11
Performs demolitions using excavators.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-12.11.01
knock down structure using attachments such as thumbs, shears and concrete
pulverizers according to task at hand
D-12.11.02
knock down structure keeping recyclable materials (asphalt, concrete, metal,
clean wood and roofing material) separate from waste materials (mixed
garbage, toxic or contaminated material)
- 58 -
Task 13
Context
Operates graders.
This task covers the use of graders for stripping surface material, maintaining
access and public roads, creating slopes and ditches, forming road base
(sub-grade) and performing shouldering operations. It also covers the use of
grader attachments. Graders are largely used for removing snow in the
winter.
Required Knowledge
K1
limitations and capabilities of grader and attachments to ensure equipment
suitability for existing site and soil conditions
K2
grade stakes and plans
K3
soil types
K4
slope ratios for various soil types
K5
effects of environmental conditions on materials
K6
operational functions of equipment and attachments
K7
basic preventative maintenance practices
K8
jurisdictional regulations and policies governing items such as service
vehicles on public roads
K9
safety regulations
K 10
methods to prevent segregation of aggregates
K 11
grader attachments such as scarifiers, rippers, wings, straight blades,
v-plows, one-way plows, asphalt cutters, mowers, discs, shoulder slopers and
wobble wheel compactors, and their capabilities and limitations
K 12
precautions such as railway crossings and bridge expansion joints
K 13
colour coding for location of underground utilities
K 14
precautions necessary when working around buried or overhead utilities
K 15
rigging requirements for job at hand
K 16
effect of weight of machine on loose fill and trench
K 17
compaction and swell factors, and proctor tests
K 18
cycle time
K 19
control pattern
K 20
change in centre of gravity and reduction in equipment capacity when using
various attachments
- 59 -
Sub-task
D-13.01
Strips surface material using graders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-13.01.01
determine the depth of blade cut required to operate the grader in a fluid
manner to obtain optimum productivity
D-13.01.02
move stripped material to final location based on established method of
approach, for example windrowing to the middle or edges
D-13.01.03
adjust pitch and angle of blade to support an optimum blade cut, creating a
manageable windrow
D-13.01.04
perform ongoing visual inspection to ensure minimal disturbance to
underlying soils
Sub-task
D-13.02
Maintains access and public roads using graders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-13.02.01
determine sequence of operation to maintain roads
D-13.02.02
operate grader in adverse weather conditions
D-13.02.03
operate grader on roads with varied traffic conditions while maintaining a
safe pathway for traffic
D-13.02.04
determine depth of cut to shape road to desired cross slope (crown of the
road)
D-13.02.05
determine action to be taken when encountering obstacles such as curves,
road signs and access roads
D-13.02.06
operate at the designated speed for the task being performed, such as
dragging or plowing
D-13.02.07
pick up windrow in a safe place such as a straight section of a highway
D-13.02.08
maintain a constant windrow to ensure consistent coverage
D-13.02.09
manipulate windrow to maintain desired gradation of material
D-13.02.10
control spin to reduce tire wear and rutting
- 60 -
Sub-task
D-13.03
Creates slopes and ditches using graders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-13.03.01
use grader functions to obtain slope and grade such as pitch, angle, side shift,
articulation and wheel lean
D-13.03.02
maintain a constant profile
D-13.03.03
determine action to be taken when encountering obstacles such as rocks, logs
and debris
D-13.03.04
remove and disperse excess materials
Sub-task
D-13.04
Forms road base (sub-grade) using graders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-13.04.01
cut or fill sub-grade to specified elevation or cross slope to prepare for
aggregate
D-13.04.02
manage windrow to perform cut and fill operation to obtain specified
elevations and cross slope
D-13.04.03
manipulate the windrow to maintain desired gradation of material
- 61 -
Sub-task
D-13.05
Performs shouldering operations using graders.
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
NT
YT
NU
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
ND
yes
yes
ND
ND
Key Competencies
D-13.05.01
pull material using conventional blade or attachments such as sloper blades
or shoulder spreader boxes
D-13.05.02
pull material to the edge of asphalt and re-grade the shoulder using a second
pass or second grader
D-13.05.03
synchronize operation of equipment with other heavy equipment operators
- 62 -
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Hand and Power Tools and Accessories
adjustable wrenches
air compressors
battery chargers
booster cables
brooms
chain saws
circular saws
cold chisels
combination wrenches
cutting torches
drills (electric and cordless)
extension cords
fuel transfer pump
generator
grease guns (manual, electric and cordless)
grinders (electric and cordless)
hack saws
hammers (ball peen, claw, sledge)
hydraulic jacks
load binders and chains
oil cans
oil filter wrenches
pliers
pneumatic impact wrenches
pressure washers
pry bars
pumps (water, discharge, fire)
punches
ratchet straps
scrapers
screwdrivers
skid tanks
socket sets
squeegees
tiger torch
tire inflation tools
tire pressure gauges
tool boxes
torque wrenches
track shovels
trouble lights
welder
wire brushes
wisk brooms
wood blockings
Measuring, Testing and Diagnostic Equipment
anti freeze testers
battery testers
digital hand levels
electronic and laser levels
eye levels
global positioning system (GPS)
grade stakes
line levels
measuring tapes
oil sample kits
slope meters
string boxes
string levels
test lights
transit levels and rods
Rigging and Lifting Equipment
come-alongs
hold down chains
shackles
slings (synthetic, chain, wire rope)
tag lines
- 65 -
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Safety Equipment
coveralls
ear plugs and muffs
eye wash stations
face shields
fall arrest systems
fire axes and shovels
fire backpack
fire blankets
fire extinguishers
fire-retardant clothing
first aid kits
gas monitors
gloves
hard hats
life jackets
reflectors
respirators
safety boots
safety glasses
safety pants
safety vests
self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
spill kits
travel alarms
trench boxes
truck under guard (lateral) protection
Attachments
angle brooms (power angle and fixed angle)
asphalt cutters
blades (chuck, dozer, ice)
brushcutters (hydro-axes) and mulchers
bucket sweepers
buckets (general, excavation, trenching,
ditching, clean-up, frost, vee, 4-in-1, grapple)
bulldozers
buncher heads
chippers
dumping hoppers
forks
graders
hydraulic breakers, thumbs, knuckles and
spreaders
jib booms (stingers)
landscape rakes
packer wheels
planers (cold, high flow, standard flow,
surface)
post hole augers
power box rakes
pulverizers
rippers
rock hounds
scarifiers (forestry and earth moving)
shears
shoulder boxes
sloper blades
snow blowers
snow plows and wings
stump splitters
tillers
tracks
tree spades
trench compactors
vibratory plate tampers
vibratory rollers
winches
Heavy Equipment Machinery
backhoes
boom trucks
cold planers
compact rollers
compactors
concrete pavers
concrete pump
crawler-tractor (dozer)
directional drill
dragline
- 66 -
Heavy Equipment Machinery (cont’d)
forklift
front end loaders
front shovels (conventional and hydraulic)
graders
hydraulic excavators
industrial tractors
loaders (knuckleboom, log, track, rubber-tired)
material handlers
paving equipment (asphalt pavers, shuttle
buggies)
pipelayers
road reclaimers
scrapers (pull-type, self-propelled)
screeds
skid steer loaders
soil stabilizers
tandem dump trucks
telehandlers
track loaders
track-type tractors
trenchers
wheel dozers
wheel loaders
motor graders
multi-terrain loaders
off highway tractors
off highway trucks (articulated and rigid
framed)
- 67 -
APPENDIX B
GLOSSARY
4-in-1 front bucket
multi-purpose attachment, mainly to a TLB, used for dozing, grading,
loading and grabbing material
attachment
an accessory attached or designed to be attached to a machine
aggregates
broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction,
including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and
geosynthetic aggregates
articulated body
tractor body that flexes in the middle to provide a tighter turning
radius
bedding
material placed under and around pipe for support and protection
bell hole (service
hole)
expanded work area in a ditch
chuck blades
blade attachment on the end of an excavator boom
corks
steel lugs that are welded, offset from each other, onto the grouser bar
of a track pad to assist in traction
cross slope
the percentage grade from the centerline (high point) to the edge of
the road (low point)
cycle time
time it takes to accomplish a task such as moving bucket out of a ditch
and back again
Falling Objects
Protective
Structure (FOPS)
heavy duty structure for protection of the machine operator from
falling objects. Usually has four posts and a strong roof
floatation mats
device, usually made of wood, used to help machinery travel over soft
ground
grubbings
organic materials removed from subsoil
hoppers
storage bin or a funnel that is loaded from the top, and discharges
through a door or chute in the bottom
landing
cleared area within a timber harvest where harvested logs are
processed, piled, and loaded for transport to a sawmill or other facility
lifts
materials placed in layers
- 68 -
loaders
four-wheeled articulated vehicle with a bucket for picking up and
moving material; many attachments are available to do specific jobs
locate sheet
document from utility authorities which provides the location of
underground utilities such as gas, sewer and electrical
logbook
book of documented history of maintenance and inspections done on
a piece of equipment
mass excavation
large cavity formed by removing material by cutting, digging or
scooping
pile
small assemblage of material
proctor test
test to measure density of compacted soils
riparian zone
areas that surround water bodies in the watershed that are composed
of moist to saturated soils, water-loving plant species and their
associated ecosystems
roading
travelling mobile equipment onto public roadways
Roll Over Protective
Structure (ROPS)
roll bar or similar device to help protect the driver in case the machine
tips over
segregation
when fine and coarse materials separate
spill pile
pile where the material from the ditch (or any excavation) is placed
stockpile
supply of materials such as aggregates, wood or other materials,
gathered and held in reserve for use
swell factors
increase of bulk in soil or rock when it is dug or blasted
thumbs
device on an excavator stick to assist in holding material in bucket
such as rocks, wood, brush and stumps
trench box
engineered steel or aluminum structures that are used to help protect
workers who work inside trenches
vibratory plate
tamper
device used to compact soil
V-method
procedure for loading dump trucks efficiently
- 69 -
weights
ballast added to the tractor or implement to improve balance, traction,
stability or digging force
windrow
ridge of material created as it falls off the blade
- 70 -
APPENDIX C
ACRONYMS
CMS
computer monitoring system
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
ERP
emergency response plan
FOPS
falling objects protective structure
GPS
Global Positioning System
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet
OH&S
Occupational Health and Safety
OMM
operation and maintenance manual
PPE
personal protective equipment
ROPS
roll over protective structure
SCBA
self-contained breathing apparatus
TDG
Transportation of Dangerous Goods
TLB
tractor-loader-backhoe
VHF
very high frequency
WHMIS
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
WLL
working load limit
- 71 -
APPENDIX D
BLOCK A
%
NL
10
BLOCK AND TASK WEIGHTING
COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS
NS
15
Task 1
PE
15
NB
15
QC
15
ON
10
MB
10
SK
25
AB
ND
BC
35
NT
19
YT
ND
NU
ND
National
Average
17%
Uses and maintains tools and equipment.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 30 39 20 30 20 20 15 30 ND 35 31 ND ND
Task 2
27%
Maintains safe work environment.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 60 41 40 30 30 50 40 30 ND 45 40 ND ND
Task 3
41%
Organizes work.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 10 20 40 40 50 30 45 40 ND 20 29 ND ND
BLOCK B
%
NL
20
32%
HEAVY EQUIPMENT INSPECTION AND BASIC MAINTENANCE
NS
17
Task 4
PE
25
NB
25
QC
15
ON
20
MB
20
SK
25
AB
ND
BC
25
NT
15
YT
ND
National
Average
21%
Performs scheduled maintenance.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 40 30 50 50 40 45 60 50 ND 50 50 ND ND
Task 5
NU
ND
47%
Performs inspections.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 60 70 50 50 60 55 40 50 ND 50 50 ND ND
- 72 -
53%
BLOCK C
%
NL
10
COMMON HEAVY EQUIPMENT OPERATOR TASKS
NS
33
Task 6
PE
30
NB
25
QC
25
ON
35
MB
35
SK
25
AB
ND
BC
5
NT
23
YT
ND
NU
ND
Task 7
75%
Transports equipment.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 20 25 30 15 50 20 15 20 ND 15 37 ND ND
BLOCK D
%
24%
Performs basic heavy equipment operator functions.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 80 75 70 85 50 80 85 80 ND 85 63 ND ND
NL
60
National
Average
25%
EARTH MOVING OPERATIONS
NS
35
Task 8
PE
30
NB
35
QC
45
ON
35
MB
35
SK
25
AB
ND
BC
35
NT
43
YT
ND
14%
18%
Operates tractor-loader-backhoes (TLB).
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 15 16 10 20 20 15 18 2 ND 10 12 ND ND
Task 11
38%
Operates loaders.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 15 16 20 20 20 15 18 17 ND 20 17 ND ND
Task 10
National
Average
Operates haulage trucks.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 20 17 10 10 25 15 10 15 ND 10 10 ND ND
Task 9
NU
ND
14%
Operates dozers.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 15 16 20 20 20 15 18 23 ND 15 21 ND ND
- 73 -
18%
Task 12
Operates excavators.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 20 25 20 20 0 15 18 23 ND 30 23 ND ND
Task 13
19%
Operates graders.
NL NS PE NB QC ON MB SK AB BC NT YT NU
% 15 10 20 10 15 25 18 20 ND 15 17 ND ND
- 74 -
17%
APPENDIX E
PIE CHART*
A
17%
D
38%
B
21%
C
24%
TITLES OF BLOCKS
BLOCK A
Common Occupational
Skills
BLOCK C
Common Heavy Equipment
Operator Tasks
BLOCK B
Heavy Equipment
Inspection and Basic
Maintenance
BLOCK D
Earth Moving Operations
*Average percentage of the total number of questions on an interprovincial examination,
assigned to assess each block of the analysis, as derived from the collective input from workers
within the occupation from all areas of Canada. Interprovincial examinations typically have
from 100 to 150 multiple-choice questions.
- 75 -
APPENDIX F
BLOCKS
A - COMMON
OCCUPATIONAL
SKILLS
B - HEAVY
EQUIPMENT
INSPECTION
AND BASIC
MAINTENANCE
C - COMMON
HEAVY
EQUIPMENT
OPERATOR
TASKS
TASK PROFILE CHART —
Heavy Equipment Operator
TASKS
SUB-TASKS
1. Uses and
maintains tools
and equipment.
1.01 Maintains
hand and power
tools.
1.02 Maintains
measuring and
testing equipment.
1.03 Uses grade
checking and
tracking
instruments.
1.04 Uses
rigging and
lifting
equipment.
1.05 Uses personal
protective
equipment (PPE)
and safety
equipment.
2. Maintains safe
work
environment.
2.01 Assesses
potential hazards.
2.02 Plans worksite
safety strategies.
2.03 Secures
unattended
equipment.
2.04 Communicates with
others.
2.05 Performs spill
control
procedures.
2.06 Performs
sediment control
procedures.
2.07 Handles
material.
3. Organizes
work.
3.01 Checks grade.
3.02 Uses
documentation.
3.03 Interprets
survey indicators
and data.
3.04 Determines
method of
approach.
4. Performs
scheduled
maintenance.
4.01 Maintains
heavy equipment
operator station.
4.02 Maintains
undercarriage, tires
and rims.
4.03 Performs
preventative
maintenance.
4.04 Performs
basic
maintenance on
attachments.
5. Performs
inspections.
5.01 Performs
pre-operational
inspections.
5.02 Performs postoperational
inspections.
5.03 Completes
daily equipment
logbook.
6. Performs basic
heavy equipment
operator
functions.
6.01 Maintains
control of
equipment.
6.02 Positions
equipment for task.
6.03 Monitors
performance of
equipment.
- 76 -
6.04 Troubleshoots
equipment
problems.
6.05 Installs
attachments.
BLOCKS
D - EARTH
MOVING
OPERATIONS
TASKS
SUB-TASKS
6.06 Performs
emergency
procedures.
6.07 Compacts
material using selfpropelled
compacting
equipment or
attachments.
6.08 Performs cut
and fill
operations.
6.09 Clears snow
and ice.
7. Transports
equipment.
7.01 Prepares
equipment for
transportation.
7.02 Loads
equipment and
attachments for
transportation.
7.03 Assists in
securing
equipment for
transportation.
7.04 Unloads
equipment and
attachments.
7.05 Drives
equipment on
roads.
8. Operates
haulage trucks.
8.01 Hauls
materials.
8.02 Dumps
materials.
9. Operates
loaders.
9.01 Loads trucks
using loaders.
9.02 Loads hoppers
using loaders.
9.03 Stockpiles
material using
loaders.
9.04 Spreads
material using
loaders.
9.05 Backfills
trenches using
loaders.
9.06 Performs
clean-up operations
using loaders.
9.07 Lifts using
loaders.
10.01 Places
material using
tractor-loaderbackhoes (TLB).
10.02 Excavates
trenches and
ditches using
tractor-loaderbackhoes (TLB).
10.03 Backfills
trenches and
excavations using
tractor-loaderbackhoes (TLB).
10.04 Loads
trucks using
tractor-loaderbackhoes (TLB).
10.05 Lifts using
tractor-loaderbackhoes (TLB).
10.06 Stockpiles
material using
tractor-loaderbackhoes (TLB).
10.07 Performs
clean-up
operations using
tractor-loaderbackhoes (TLB).
11.01 Moves mass
material using
dozers.
11.02 Strips surface
material using
dozers.
11.03 Creates
slopes and
ditches using
dozers.
11.04 Spreads
material using
dozers.
11.05 Clears land
using dozers.
10. Operates
tractor-loaderbackhoes (TLB).
11. Operates
dozers.
- 77 -
BLOCKS
TASKS
12. Operates
excavators.
SUB-TASKS
11.06 Pushes
scrapers using
dozers.
11.07 Backfills
trenches and
excavations using
dozers.
11.08 Levels
demolition
materials using
dozers.
11.09 Maintains
dumpsite area
using dozers.
12.01 Excavates
trenches.
12.02 Backfills
trenches using
excavators.
12.03 Creates
slopes using
excavators.
12.04 Creates
mass
excavations
using
excavators.
12.05 Clears land
using excavators.
12.06 Strips surface
material using
excavators.
12.07 Stockpiles
material using
excavators.
12.08 Places
material using
excavators.
12.09 Lifts using
excavators.
12.10 Loads trucks
using excavators.
13.02 Maintains
access and public
roads using
graders.
13.03 Creates
slopes and
ditches using
graders.
13.04 Forms
road base (subgrade) using
graders.
13.05 Performs
shouldering
operations using
graders.
12.11 Performs
demolitions using
excavators.
13. Operates
graders.
13.01 Strips surface
material using
graders.
- 78 -
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