Evidence base for the development of an enduring DND/CAF Operational Energy

Evidence base for the development of an enduring DND/CAF Operational Energy
Evidence base for the development of an
enduring DND/CAF Operational Energy
Strategy (DOES)
Expressing Canadian values through defence operational energy
stewardship here and abroad
Paul Labbé; Ahmed Ghanmi; Gisele Amow
DRDC
Betty Kan
ADM(IE)
Kamal Jayarathna
ADM(Fin CS)
Raluca Voicu
ADM(Mat)
LCdr Raymond Snook
RCN D Nav Strat 3-2
Defence Research and Development Canada
Scientific Report
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
December 2014
Evidence base for the development of an
enduring DND/CAF Operational Energy
Strategy (DOES)
Expressing Canadian values through defence operational energy
stewardship here and abroad
Paul Labbé; Ahmed Ghanmi; Gisele Amow
DRDC
Betty Kan
ADM(IE)
Kamal Jayarathna
ADM(Fin CS)
Raluca Voicu
ADM(Mat)
LCdr Raymond Snook
RCN D Nav Strat 3-2
Defence Research and Development Canada
Scientific Report
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
December 2014
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National
Defence, 2014
© Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense
nationale, 2014
Abstract ……..
The intent of this document is to consolidate the information, evidences, facts and data
that support and inform the first DND/CAF operational energy strategy (DOES) 1 to
address the need to improve our defence operational capabilities and their sustainability
by decreasing the fully burdened cost of operational energy and reducing our supply
chain vulnerabilities. It captures some of the knowledge that resulted from the DOES
working group discussions and workshops with selected experts and organisations.
Given the complexity of the domain and potential misinterpretation of raw data available
in the various records of transactions, their interpretation for the purpose of developing
the strategy was addressed collectively by selected representatives from concerned
DND/CAF L1s’ personnel.
Such a collective view is necessary to ensure that an appropriate understanding of the
energy challenges ahead permeates our DND/CAF culture and becomes part of our
decision making. Then, how to address them holistically through the sustainability
looking glass will open new avenues to improving our defence operational capabilities for
operations here and abroad.
Analyses of historical data and simulation results were used to develop the DOES energy
baseline. That energy baseline was used to develop credible DOES targets. The baseline
will be used later to assess the level of success of initiatives to achieve DOES targets. An
inflation methodology was used to assess the potential savings of applying the DOES
targets. Moreover, using simulation techniques with scenarios informed by previous
operations, the impacts of DOES targets on expeditionary operations were estimated.
In addition, the report explores the DND/CAF domain of energy, sorts it in four
dimensions and proposed principles to support the selection of effective initiatives in
fulfilling DOES. Selected energy technologies required to power a large variety of
DND/CAF capabilities are reviewed. Then more specific examples addressing DOES
targets for each environment are provided. Fuelled by DND/CAF level of ambition,
DOES targets will be used in developing potential action plans and in measuring
progress resulting from remediation initiatives in achieving the strategy objectives.
1
AKA: Defence Operational Energy Strategy (DOES).
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
i
Significance to defence and security
Contribute to ensure the sustainability of DND/CAF operations here and abroad. All our
defence operational capabilities depend on the right energy availability at the time and
location where it is required here and abroad, including during crisis and extreme
conditions. Not considering energy as a strategic asset weakens our strategic posture 2.
Excerpt from the Deputy Minister’s letter dated Nov 13, 2012 – Defence Operational
Energy Strategy:
“The Department is developing a Defence Operational Energy Strategy (DOES), as
directed by the Defence Management Committee (DMC) in May 2011. The Energy
Strategy aims to improve operational readiness and resilience of the Canadian Forces
and potentially control costs and reduce the defence environmental footprint. Reducing
energy demand and increasing energy efficiencies are key drivers that are anticipated to
enhance the ability of defence to meet the Government's expectations and ensure there is
continued access to adequate, reliable, affordable and sustainable energy supply to
achieve the roles and missions… It is anticipated that energy related initiatives identified
as having a high return on investment will be recommended for consideration in the
Department of National Defence Investment Plan. L1s will develop roll-out plans
intended to meet targets to reduce energy demand and increase energy efficiencies over
the short, medium and long-term. Energy issues will be considered as part of the review
of the Canada First Defence Strategy (CFDS), under the Readiness Pillar. Including the
DOES within the CFDS would raise the visibility and stress the importance of the role of
energy in defence policy and operations.”
DND/CAF operational energy targets (endorsed for the development of DOES by
Defence Capability Board (DCB), Nov. 2013) are as follows:
1. Energy measurement and management: By 2030, to the maximum extent
practicable, bases, platforms and expeditionary power and heating generation
equipment shall employ an automated data acquisition, recording and metering
system that measures the consumption of fuel from all sources;
2. Reduce demand – buildings: By 2030 all CAF Bases and Stations, as whole entities,
will reduce through efficiencies their energy use intensity (EUI) by 20% from 20052006 levels;
3. Critical infrastructure: By 2030, all defence critical equipment, infrastructure and
services will have reliable back-up power systems able to sustain independent (offgrid) operations for a minimum period of 14 days;
2 Boland, R. (2009), War Game Examines Energy as a Disruptive Technology, Signal Online
(electronic journal). http://www.afcea.org/content/?q=node/2100 (Access date: 27 August
2014).
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4. Military platforms and fleet: By 2025, the CAF will have reduced the class fuel
consumption rate by 10% from those detailed in the Fuel Consumption Unit (FCU) 3
tool developed by ADM (Mat) and validated in 2012;
5. Commercial vehicle fleet improved efficiency: By 2025, based on a 2010 baseline,
defence will double the average mileage achieved per litre of petroleum used in its
commercial vehicle fleet 4;
6. Reduce demand – military camps: By 2030, per person, reduce the energy
consumption required to produce main and deployed military camp services
(heating, power generation, sewage treatment, water supply, etc.) during the conduct
of domestic and expeditionary operations by 50%;
7. Increase energy efficiency – soldiers: By 2030, all individual dismounted soldiers will
be independent from the logistics chain for energy resupply for at least 72 hours
without increasing the soldier’s burden;
8. Alternative energy opportunities: By 2016, the CAF will have certified the processes
by which suitable advanced, ‘drop-in’ alternative liquid fuels, that meet Canadian
military specifications, can be used in each of its tactical (non-commercial) platforms
and vehicles;
9. Force planning and requirement: From 2018, tools to account for and analyse energy
consumption and costs are to be incorporated into all strategic modeling and
simulation (M&S) programmes that are used for force planning, options analysis and
requirements development; and
10. Procurement – energy key performance criterion: From 2018, the procurement
process for equipment and infrastructure (capital and O&M) will incorporate energy
usage and fuel economy over the life cycle of the asset as a key performance criterion.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) standardization agreement (STANAG 2115)
provides a method for computing fuel requirements in military operations and a standard
estimation for fuel consumption of a military unit called FCU (fuel consumption unit).
4 This target was not submitted to the Nov. 2013 DCB.
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Résumé ……..
Le présent document vise à regrouper l’information, les preuves, les faits et les données
qui appuient et alimentent la première Stratégie d’énergie opérationnelle de la Défense
(SEOD) 5 du Ministère de la Défense nationale (MDN) et des Forces armées canadiennes
(FAC) afin de répondre au besoin d’améliorer nos capacités opérationnelles de défense et
de les maintenir en puissance en diminuant les coûts en énergie opérationnelle imputés
en totalité, de même que les vulnérabilités de la chaîne d’approvisionnement. Il présente
certaines connaissances découlant de discussions et d’ateliers auxquels a participé le
groupe de travail sur la SEOD, en collaboration avec des organisations et des experts
sélectionnés. Étant donné la complexité du domaine et la possibilité d’une mauvaise
interprétation des données brutes disponibles dans les divers relevés de transaction,
l’analyse de ces connaissances aux fins d’élaboration de la stratégie a été effectuée
collectivement par des représentants sélectionnés du personnel concerné des N1 du
MDN et des FAC.
Une telle vue d’ensemble est nécessaire pour veiller à ce qu’une compréhension
appropriée des défis à venir en matière d’énergie imprègne la culture du MDN et des
FAC et qu’elle fasse partie de notre processus décisionnel. Ainsi, la façon d’y faire face de
manière holistique à travers le maintien en puissance ouvrira d’autres voies pour
améliorer nos capacités opérationnelles de défense en vue d’opérations nationales et
internationales.
L’analyse des données historiques et des résultats de simulations a permis d’établir les
données de référence de la SEOD utilisées pour définir des objectifs crédibles pour la
SEOD. Ces données serviront ultérieurement à évaluer le niveau de réussite des
initiatives visant à atteindre les objectifs. Une méthode de calcul de l’inflation a permis
de déterminer les économies possibles en tenant compte des objectifs de la SEOD. En
outre, les répercussions de ces derniers sur les opérations expéditionnaires ont été
estimées à l’aide de techniques de simulations de scénarios basés sur des opérations
antérieures.
Dans le rapport, on explore également le domaine de l’énergie du MDN et des FAC selon
quatre dimensions et on propose des principes pour orienter la sélection d’initiatives
efficaces dans la mise en œuvre de la SEOD. Les technologies énergétiques sélectionnées
nécessaires pour exploiter un large éventail de capacités du MDN et des FAC sont
examinées. Des exemples plus précis abordant les objectifs de la SEOD pour chaque
environnement sont fournis. Alimentés par le niveau d’ambition du MDN et des FAC, ces
objectifs serviront à élaborer des plans d’action éventuels et à mesurer les progrès
résultant des initiatives de rétablissement par rapport à eux.
Expression utilisée lors des présentations au comité de gestion de la Défense et au comité des
capacités de la Défense. L’expression suivante n’est pas recommandée: Stratégie énergétique
opérationnelle de la Défense.
5
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v
Importance pour la défense et la sécurité
Contribuer à assurer le maintien en puissance des opérations nationales et
internationales du MDN et des FAC. Toutes nos capacités opérationnelles de défense
dépendent de la disponibilité adéquate en énergie au moment et à l’endroit où elle est
requise au pays et à l’étranger, y compris en cas de crise et de conditions extrêmes. Le
fait de ne pas tenir compte de l’énergie dans le plan stratégique affaiblit notre position
stratégique6.
Extrait, traduit en français, de la lettre du sous-ministre du 13 novembre 2012 –
Stratégie d’énergie opérationnelle de la Défense :
« Le Ministère élabore une Stratégie d’énergie opérationnelle de la Défense (SEOD)
comme l’a demandé le comité de gestion de la Défense en mai 2011. Cette stratégie de
l’énergie opérationnelle vise l’amélioration de la disponibilité opérationnelle et de la
résilience des Forces canadiennes et possiblement le contrôle des coûts ainsi que la
réduction de l’empreinte environnementale de la Défense. Réduire la demande
énergétique et accroître l’efficacité énergétique sont des facteurs clés qui devraient
améliorer l’aptitude de la Défense à satisfaire aux attentes du gouvernement et garantir
un accès continu à des approvisionnements énergétiques appropriés, fiables, abordables
et durables permettant de mener à bien les missions et les rôles confiés… Les initiatives
liées à l’énergie désignées comme ayant un niveau de rentabilité élevé devraient faire
l’objet de recommandations afin qu’elles soient prises en considération aux fins
d’inclusion dans le Plan d’investissement du ministère de la Défense nationale. Les N1
élaboreront des plans de mise en œuvre qui devraient permettre d’atteindre les cibles
visant la réduction de la demande énergétique et l’amélioration de l’efficacité énergétique
à court, moyen et long termes. Les enjeux relatifs à l’énergie seront examinés pendant le
renouvellement de la Stratégie de défense Le Canada d'abord (SDCD), dans le cadre du
pilier de la disponibilité opérationnelle. Inclure la SEOD dans la SDCD ferait en sorte
d’accroître la visibilité de la question énergétique et de souligner l’importance du rôle de
l’énergie dans la politique et les opérations de défense. »
Les objectifs du MDN et des FAC en matière d’énergie opérationnelle (endossés pour le
développement de la SEOD en novembre 2013 par le comité des capacités de la Défense,
CCD) sont les suivants :
1. Mesure et gestion de l’énergie : D’ici 2030, les bases, les plateformes et le matériel
expéditionnaire de production d’énergie et de chaleur devront être équipés, dans la
mesure du possible, de systèmes automatisés de saisie, d’enregistrement et de
mesure des données qui calculent la consommation de carburant de toutes les
sources;
2. Diminution de la demande – édifices : D’ici 2030, toutes les bases et les stations des
FAC, à titre d’entités à part entière, réduiront leur intensité énergétique de 20 pour
cent par rapport aux chiffres de 2005-2006 grâce à des gains en efficacité;
Boland, R., « War Game Examines Energy as a Disruptive Technology », Signal Online (revue
électronique), 2009. Sur Internet : URL:http://www.afcea.org/content/?q=node/2100 (Date
d'accès: 27 August 2014).
6
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3. Infrastructure essentielle : D’ici 2030, l’ensemble de l’équipement, des
infrastructures et des services essentiels qui sont déterminants en matière de défense
seront dotés de systèmes d’alimentation de soutien fiables et autonomes qui
permettront de poursuivre des opérations indépendantes (hors réseaux) pour une
période minimale de 14 jours;
4. Plateformes et flottes militaires : D’ici 2025, les FAC réduiront le taux de
consommation de carburant de chaque classe de plateformes de 10 pour cent par
rapport aux taux indiqués dans l’outil de l’unité de consommation de carburant
(FCU) 7 élaborée par le SMA(Mat) et validée en 2012;
5. Efficacité améliorée du parc de véhicules commerciaux : D’ici 2025, par rapport aux
données de référence de 2010, la Défense doublera le kilométrage moyen obtenu
pour chaque litre de pétrole consommé par son parc de véhicules commerciaux 8;
6. Diminution de la demande – camps militaires : D’ici 2030, réduire de 50 pour cent
par personne la consommation d’énergie nécessaire pour produire les services
principaux et ceux dans les camps militaires déployés (chauffage, production
d’électricité, traitement des eaux usées, approvisionnement en eau, etc.) pendant les
opérations au pays et à l’étranger;
7. Augmentation de l’efficacité énergétique – soldats : D’ici 2030, les soldats à pied
seront indépendants de la chaîne logistique en matière de réapprovisionnement
énergétique pendant au moins 72 heures, sans que la charge qu’ils portent
s’alourdisse;
8. Autres options énergétiques : D’ici 2016, les FAC se seront assurées que les processus
— qui servent à vérifier que tous les carburants de remplacement liquides adaptés,
supérieurs et utilisés librement qui répondent aux spécifications militaires
canadiennes — conviennent à chaque plateforme et véhicule tactique (de nature non
commerciale);
9. Planification et exigences de la Force : À partir de 2018, il faudra inclure des outils
pour expliquer et analyser la consommation et les coûts énergétiques dans tous les
programmes stratégiques de modélisation et de simulation qui servent à la
planification de la Force, à l’analyse des options et à l’élaboration des exigences; and
10. Acquisition – principaux critères de rendement énergétique : À partir de 2018, le
processus d’acquisition d’équipement et d’infrastructures (immobilisation et F&E)
inclura comme critère de rendement déterminant la consommation énergétique et
l’économie en carburant pour tout le cycle de vie de la ressource.
L’accord de normalisation de l’Organisation du traité de l’Atlantique Nord (OTAN)
[STANAG 2115] donne une méthode pour évaluer les besoins en carburant des opérations
militaires et offrir une estimation standard de la consommation en carburant d’une unité militaire
appelée « unité de consommation de carburant ».
8 La cible 5 a été exclue des cibles soumises au CCD en novembre 2013.
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Table of contents
Abstract …….. ................................................................................................................................ ii
Significance to defence and security.......................................................................................... ii
Résumé ……................................................................................................................................... v
Importance pour la défense et la sécurité ............................................................................... vi
Table of contents ......................................................................................................................... ix
List of figures ............................................................................................................................... xii
List of tables................................................................................................................................ xiv
Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................... xv
1
2
3
4
Introduction............................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Background...................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Document structure ......................................................................................................... 2
DND/CAF energy demand........................................................................................................ 5
2.1 DND/CAF total domestic energy .................................................................................... 5
2.2 The challenge of computing the DND/CAF total energy used........................................ 7
2.3 Total DND/CAF energy cost trends and global perspective ......................................... 10
2.4 CAF simulated expeditionary energy demand .............................................................. 12
2.5 DND/CAF combined energy demand ........................................................................... 13
2.6 Additional evidences ..................................................................................................... 15
2.6.1 High likelihood of future oil barrel price increase ............................................ 15
2.6.2 Increased electricity demand for C4ISR and new technologies........................ 16
2.6.3 Electricity demand for new weapon technologies............................................. 16
2.6.4 Electricity end use growing faster than fuel direct use ..................................... 17
2.7 Summary of DOES energy demand evidences.............................................................. 17
Candidate targets identified..................................................................................................... 19
3.1 Target 1: Energy measurement and management.......................................................... 19
3.2 Target 2: Reduce demand - Buildings ........................................................................... 20
3.3 Target 3: Critical infrastructure ..................................................................................... 20
3.4 Target 4: Military platforms and fleet ........................................................................... 21
3.5 Target 5: Commercial vehicle fleet improved efficiency .............................................. 22
3.6 Target 6: Reduce demand - Military camps .................................................................. 22
3.7 Target 7: Increase energy efficiency - Soldiers ............................................................. 23
3.8 Target 8: Alternative energy opportunities.................................................................... 23
3.9 Target 9: Force planning and requirement..................................................................... 23
3.10 Target 10: Procurement – Energy key performance criterion ....................................... 24
3.11 Potential cost savings from DOES targets applied to buildings and military
platforms........................................................................................................................ 24
Principles for an enduring DND/CAF energy strategy ........................................................... 27
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ix
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
5
6
Capacity factor............................................................................................................... 28
Energy conversion efficiency ........................................................................................ 30
Power density versus energy density............................................................................. 33
Volumetric versus gravimetric energy or power density............................................... 34
Applying energy principles to DOES............................................................................ 36
Energy cannot be created or destroyed but innovative technologies allow to better
exploit what is available ................................................................................................ 40
Technology wild cards ............................................................................................................ 41
Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 45
6.1 Observations .................................................................................................................. 45
6.2 Discussion...................................................................................................................... 46
6.3 Areas that require further research ................................................................................ 47
6.4 Which future technologies will be available?................................................................ 48
6.5 Epilogue......................................................................................................................... 49
References ..... ............................................................................................................................ 51
Annex A
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
Annex B
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
Annex C
Annex D
D.1
D.2
D.3
D.4
Annex E
E.1
E.2
x
Fully Burdened Cost of Energy (FBCE) methodology framework............................. 59
Justification for FBCE................................................................................................... 59
FBCE defined ................................................................................................................ 60
FBCE Price Taxonomy.................................................................................................. 61
Energy Commodity Price (ECP) ................................................................................... 61
Tactical Delivery Price (TDP)....................................................................................... 61
Infrastructure Operations and Support Price (IOSP) ..................................................... 62
Security Price (SP) ........................................................................................................ 62
Assured Delivery Price (ADP) Computation ................................................................ 62
Methodology.................................................................................................................. 64
Framework..................................................................................................................... 64
Fully Burdened Cost of Energy computation ................................................................ 65
Fuel demand modeling ................................................................................................ 67
Methodology.................................................................................................................. 67
Assumptions .................................................................................................................. 67
Operational scenario...................................................................................................... 68
Fuel consumption prediction model .............................................................................. 69
Motivation of mission continuity depending on critical infrastructure ....................... 73
Crude oil price, energy consumption trends, energy forms and Earth’s reserves........ 75
Crude oil price trend...................................................................................................... 75
World energy consumption trend .................................................................................. 76
Information technology and electricity demand trend................................................... 76
Energy forms, transformation processes and reserves................................................... 78
Estimated potential energy cost savings...................................................................... 83
Methodology.................................................................................................................. 83
E.1.1 Data Sources...................................................................................................... 84
Results from applying the methodology to the available data....................................... 87
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Annex F
Annex G
G.1
G.2
G.3
G.4
G.5
G.6
G.7
G.8
G.9
Annex H
H.1
H.2
H.3
H.4
Annex I
I.1
I.2
I.3
I.4
Annex J
J.1
Case study: Canadian Forces Station Alert ................................................................. 89
New technology trends and system approach.............................................................. 93
Nanotechnologies applied to power and energy challenges .......................................... 93
Batteries......................................................................................................................... 94
Photovoltaics ................................................................................................................. 96
Advances in heat to electricity conversions................................................................... 97
G.4.1 Thermionic converter ........................................................................................ 98
G.4.2 Pyroelectric converter ....................................................................................... 98
G.4.3 Thermoacoustic converter................................................................................. 99
G.4.4 Thermogalvanic effect....................................................................................... 99
Electrical versus thermal energy storage ..................................................................... 100
Material considerations in adopting alternate energy technologies............................. 101
Geothermal energy ...................................................................................................... 102
Atomic batteries........................................................................................................... 103
Value of electric drives and turbo-hybrid transmissions to CAF ................................ 105
Selected findings for the Canadian Army (CA) ............................................................. 107
Forward operating bases (FOBs)................................................................................. 107
H.1.1 Water generation and waste energy generation............................................... 108
Land tactical platforms ................................................................................................ 108
H.2.1 Reducing thermal load to increase fuel efficiency (Leopard) ......................... 109
Dismounted soldiers’ energy challenges ..................................................................... 110
Dismounted combatants .............................................................................................. 113
Selected findings of interest to RCN energy ............................................................. 117
Improved prime mover efficiency ............................................................................... 118
Reduced propulsion power demand ............................................................................ 121
Reduced mission systems and ship systems power demand........................................ 122
Modifying CONOPS ................................................................................................... 123
Selected findings of interest to RCAF energy................................................................ 125
Examples of energy efficiencies and improved capabilities........................................ 125
Annex K Short LENR review ................................................................................................... 129
K.1 Perspective of some LENR trials................................................................................. 130
Bibliography ............................................................................................................................... 133
List of symbols/abbreviations/acronyms/initialisms............................................................. 141
Glossary .................................................................................................................................... 149
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List of figures
Figure 1: DND/CAF buildings energy use trend over 14 years. .................................................... 6
Figure 2: GHG emissions link to DND/CAF buildings energy use. .............................................. 6
Figure 3: Annual DND/CAF buildings energy cost trend over 14 years. ...................................... 7
Figure 4: Average over three years of yearly domestic and expeditionary energy per
environment................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 5: Average yearly consumption over three years of domestic and expeditionary
energy proportion per type. ........................................................................................... 9
Figure 6: Average of yearly domestic and expeditionary energy cost proportion. ...................... 10
Figure 7: Trends of DND/CAF total cost for energy according to the 14-year data and a 20year projection based on these trends.......................................................................... 11
Figure 8: Relative energy consumptions: Canada versus World, the total of all government of
Canada (GoC) versus Canada and DND/CAF versus OGDs within GoC. ................. 12
Figure 9: Simulation results using selected scenarios of operations over three years.................. 13
Figure 10: Combined (23 PJ per year) domestic and expeditionary energy per type and use. ... 15
Figure 11: Typical capacity factors of different power generation technologies. ........................ 29
Figure 12: Average capacity factors for selected electric power sources in the United States. .. 30
Figure 13: Internal combustion engines energy loss. ................................................................... 32
Figure 14: Ragone plot of the balance between gravimetric energy and power densities
(range versus acceleration).......................................................................................... 34
Figure 15: Selected energy sources illustrating size and weight spectrum (weight versus
size). ............................................................................................................................ 35
Figure 16: Volumetric versus gravimetric energy density in energy storage and in fuel............ 36
Figure 17: Ragone chart modified to show selected categories of energy sources. ..................... 42
Figure A.1: FBCE scenario fuel/energy delivery process diagram. ............................................. 64
Figure D.1: Historical and projected price of oil barrel in 2011 $US: Annual average spot
price for Brent crude oil in three cases, 1990-2040, data from (DOE/EIA, 2013a,
Fig. 21). ....................................................................................................................... 75
Figure D.2: Expected energy consumption increase dominated by non-OECD countries
future demands. ........................................................................................................... 76
Figure D.3: Historical and 2011 projected GHG of data centers. ................................................ 77
Figure D.4: Energy breakdown of a server with an energy allocation of 930 W. ........................ 77
Figure D.5: EPA comparison of projected electricity use, all scenarios, 2007 to 2011. .............. 78
Figure D.6: Mapping energy sources and conversion processes.................................................. 79
Figure D.7: Annual world energy consumption, annual renewables and total finite Earth
resources...................................................................................................................... 80
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Figure F.1: Inverse relationship of the electrical energy generated at the main power plant
(2012) and the average external temperatures at Alert, Nunavut (Source: CFS
Alert power plant logs and Environment Canada). ..................................................... 89
Figure F.2: Energy used by building clusters fed by the main power plant at CFS Alert........... 90
Figure G.1: Using silicon-alloy anode material increases the gravimetric energy density trend
over the previous Li-ion technology gravimetric energy density trend. ..................... 95
Figure G.2: Example of technology cost decrease for photovoltaics........................................... 97
Figure G.3: Ragone plot showing the relative performance of thermal storage. ....................... 100
Figure G.4: Ragone plot for various batteries including atomic batteries (or RTGs). ............... 104
Figure G.5: Cost comparison of various energy sources provided by (Kumar, 2011)............... 105
Figure H.1: Effect of solar shield on surface temperature on top of turret inside of tank......... 109
Figure H.2: Example of energy options for three dismounted combatant 72-hour missions.... 112
Figure H.3: Concept of capability delivery for ISSP Cycle 1 and Cycle 2. ............................... 114
Figure I.1: Example of energy flow for a mechanical drive ship from (Doerry, et al., 2010). . 118
Figure I.2: Example of energy flow for an integrated electric ship from (Doerry, et al.,
2010). ........................................................................................................................ 118
Figure I.3: Sankey diagram of the energy flow of a state-of-the-art cruise ship (ABB, 2012,
pp. 20-21). ................................................................................................................. 120
Figure J.1: US Air Force operational outcome oriented approach............................................. 127
Figure K.1: Ragone chart to compare energy sources................................................................ 132
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xiii
List of tables
Table 1: DND/CAF demand of energy in TJ used for generating Figure 10. .............................. 14
Table 2: Estimated annual cost savings by 2030 and thereafter in FY 2010-2011 dollars (not
adjusted for future inflation). ...................................................................................... 25
Table 3: Estimated cost savings in 2030 dollars adjusted for three possible inflation rates........ 25
Table 4: Efficiency of selected energy conversion devices.......................................................... 31
Table A.1: Summary of price elements to apply within each scenario to determine the
assured delivery price (ADP). ..................................................................................... 63
Table E.1: Projected energy consumption savings by 2030......................................................... 85
Table E.2: Data sources and methodologies used in calculating average unit price. ................... 86
Table E.3: Estimated annual cost savings by 2030 and thereafter in FY 2010-2011 dollars
(not adjusted for future inflation). ............................................................................... 87
Table E.4: Estimated cost savings in 2030 dollars adjusted for three possible inflation rates. ... 87
Table F.1: Anticipated annual electricity and fuel savings implementing proposed short-term
and long-term efficiency measures. ............................................................................ 91
Table F.2: Anticipated equivalent fuel load savings delivered by Hercules aircraft;
implementing proposed short-term and long-term efficiency measures. .................... 92
Table F.3: Anticipated real costs to implement energy efficiency measures. .............................. 92
Table G.1: Key properties of batteries for land platforms............................................................ 96
Table G.2: Emerging technologies global demand on raw material. ......................................... 101
xiv
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Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge the leadership and positive spirit that the ADM
(IE) and CFD co-chairs exerted during the three years of the DOES working group (WG).
The DOES WG co-chairs in chronological order for that period were: Maria Booth, LCol
George Boyuk, LCol Roger Lupien, Scott Hamilton, LCol René Therrien, Maj Amy
Ushko. Also they provided the necessary reach to the DMC and DCB for the first ever
DND/CAF Operational Energy Strategy.
The authors want to thank all the intervening personnel who contributed to the DOES
WG deliberations in developing the global information and knowledge required for an
enduring energy strategy.
In addition, the authors acknowledge the advice provided by a panel of experts selected
to review the proposed DOES targets and the defence scientist, Mark Rempel, who
designed the energy targets review process, analyzed the collected data, and supported
the panel's decision-making process. Panel members: RCAF LCol PM Arsenault,
ADM(S&T) LCol VD Cosman, ADM (IM) LCol J Howes, ADM(Fin CS) R Laferrière,
ADM(Mat) PA Ohrt, ADM(IE) DA Paquet, VCDS LCol DA Russel, RCN Cdr S Thompson,
CJOC Maj JL Carter, CANSOFCOM Maj VDM Poirier, and CA Maj CJ Young.
Finally, we appreciate the work done by the DRDC publication personnel and the peer
reviewer for making this report more adapted to the intended audience and up to DRDC
standard. This report could not have been completed without the persistent professional
editing done by France Crochetière.
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1
Introduction
This report summarizes a perspective of the Canadian defence operational energy
domain from historical data, trends and expected future demand, cost and availability,
here and abroad. It has been prepared in support of the development of the Department
of National Defence (DND) operational energy strategy lead by Assistant Deputy
Minister Infrastructure and Environment, ADM (IE). It does not advocate for any
specific solution or Defence Research and Development (DRDC) science and technology
(S&T) activities to conduct under the leadership of ADM (S&T), but identifies state-ofthe-art S&T here and abroad that support the logic of the strategy. The focus is on the
impact of energy on CAF (Canadian Armed Forces) operations and capabilities, i.e., Air,
Maritime, Land and Special Forces, the development of their capabilities, Chief Forces
Development (CFD), as well as our domestic infrastructure under ADM (IE) across
Canada including the Arctic. It also serves as an information base for DRDC, other
Canadian organisations and Industry.
1.1
Purpose
Inform on the DND/CAF operational energy domain, the current state of energy
technologies (at various technology readiness levels (TRLs) and use in defence and
security (D&S):
x DND/CAF domestic energy demand and trend.
x Current demand per selected components.
x Current supply and potential changes due to market and technologies.
x Document the evolution of the first DND/CAF Operational Energy Strategy
(DOES) 9.
x Project the potential gain of DOES targets on DND/CAF energy cost.
x Energy principles, technologies and examples of success stories for each
environment.
x Potential energy strategic shocks.
1.2
Background
Although Canada economy showed some stability over the last decades, the world slower
growth in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 10
countries continues to erode our economy and is driving a spectrum of budget
readjustments that affect all Canadians including federal organizations and DND/CAF.
In addition to the increase in cost of various CAF capability improvements planned,
under such pressure, recurrent cost imposed for energy needs to be examined under the
sustainability looking glass. Energy markets have proven to be more volatile than ever,
Initially DOES was Defence Operational Energy Strategy.
The OECD mission is to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being
of people around the world.
9
10
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1
which increases our vulnerability to stock disruption and price controlled by other
nations as exemplified by the oil barrel price over time. Energy is critical to all DND/CAF
capabilities; it is the broadest and most essential capability enabler.
Industrial energy demands move in close step with the general state of the economy. The
measure of national economic output is usually reported as gross domestic product
(GDP), and refers to the total economic value of goods and services produced in Canada.
Apart from the recent recession, the Canadian economy has performed remarkably well
for the last 15 years. From the early 1990s until early 2008, we have seen GDP increase,
low unemployment, small but steady population growth, a rise in per capita income,
increased levels of trade and exports, and, predictably, rising energy demands.
Over the last decades several countries, including most of our usual allies such as UK and
USA, have invested substantial efforts in developing their defence and security energy
strategies in order to address concerns about energy cost and availability for sustainable
military operations. This document was prepared along the development of the first
DND/CAF Operational Energy Strategy (DOES) in order to provide evidences to base
such a broad policy which has profound implications (Weiss and Bonvillian, 2009).
1.3
Document structure
In order to be able to inform this first energy strategy there was a need to develop a
common understanding of the nature and magnitude of DND/CAF energy consumption.
A search for the available data on energy and fuel used was initiated. Early results from
the analysis of this data were presented to the Defence Management Committee (DMC)
which supported the decision to pursue this work. Although consolidating it was difficult
to track in such diverse data when considering the variety of energy and situation of use
ranging from domestic to expeditionary operations, a team led by ADM(IE) and
ADM(Mat) managed to produce the total picture of DND/CAF energy, including its
trends as presented in Chapter 2. This is the first time such comprehensive picture of
DND/CAF was produced. It includes information on the persistent energy demand
increase and its cost. In addition, Chapter 2 uses examples from data centers to show the
impact of advanced information technologies on electricity demand in defence and
security.
Chapter 3 presents the DOES targets developed by the working group co-chaired by
ADM (IE) and CFD. They were reviewed by a panel of experts and endorsed by the
Defence Capabilities Board (DCB). Chapter 3 concludes by presenting potential cost
savings of adopting DOES targets.
Chapter 4 provides principles for an enduring DND/CAF energy strategy. It includes four
governance principles and the following four energy principles with illustrative material:
1) capacity factor, 2) energy conversion efficiency, 3) power density versus energy
density, and 4) volumetric versus gravimetric energy and power density. It maps
recommendations informed by the Defence Science Advisory Board (DSAB) report
(DSAB, 2013) to the proposed strategy along the following four dimensions of DND/CAF
energy domain: 1) defence real property and related assets, 2) military camps and
compounds, 3) tactical platforms, and 4) dismounted combatants.
2
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A forward looking at technologies that would change the energy of tomorrow is
introduced in Chapter 5.
Chapter 6 provides some concluding remarks and recommendations.
Annexes document the material presented in the report as follows:
A. Fully burdened cost of energy (FBCE) methodology framework.
B. Fuel demand modelling for expeditionary operations.
C. Why critical infrastructure energy is so important?
D. Oil price, energy demand and electricity demand trends, energy forms and Earth’s
reserves.
E. Methodology for estimating potential cost savings from DOES targets.
F. Canadian Force Station Alert energy audit, proposed solutions and potential cost
savings.
G. New energy technology trends and system views for all CAF environments.
H. Selected findings: Canadian Army (CA).
I. Selected findings: Royal Canadian Navy (RCN).
J. Selected findings: Royal Canadian (RCAF).
K. Novel low radiation nuclear technology trial results.
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2
DND/CAF energy demand
In order to appreciate the quantity (e.g., litre, kWh) and type (e.g., fuel, electricity) of
energy end use (e.g., fleet, buildings) across all DND/CAF activities, this Chapter
provides a summary of DND/CAF energy consumption from the data collected and
analysed for this report. In addition, although there is a distinction between DOD and
DND definitions of operational energy, in some instances in this document DOD
proportional values for energy use and type will be cited to expand our understanding
and accumulate evidences in support of our findings. Here is an example:
According to DOD, currently about 75% of DOD’s energy use is operational energy and
about 25% is installation energy. Operational energy is defined in law as “the energy
required for training, moving, and sustaining military forces and weapons platforms for
military operations.” Installation energy is not defined in law, but in practice refers to
energy used at installations, including non-tactical vehicles, that does not fall under the
definition of operational energy (Schwartz, et al., 2012, p. i).
This ratio of operational energy used (75%) over the total is useful in building confidence
in the DND/CAF energy demand analysis summarized in this Chapter.
The challenge of reporting on the energy used by Canada in military expeditionary
operations was documented in a parliamentary report 11, as follows: “For DND, mission
specific details are not presented to Parliament to assess the detailed yearly cost. For
example, it is impossible to determine how many reservists were deployed for each
year of the mission; how much fuel was consumed; or the level of expenditure on
equipment reset and betterment, for all Afghanistan related operations.”
Consequently for this report the analysis will combine the available domestic data and
fuel transactions with simulation data in order to estimate the proportion of energy used
in expeditionary operations.
2.1
DND/CAF total domestic energy
The total DND/CAF domestic energy used for installations (buildings), excluding
commercial vehicles and fuel used in domestic operations such as training has been fairly
stable around 11 PJ or 11,000 TJ per year over a period of 14 years (Figure 1). Since the
data were collected to fulfill DND commitment regarding GHG emissions, they also
distinguish the types of energy (e.g., electricity from coal, diesel and natural gas) and
their territorial or provincial origin.
http://www.parl.gc.ca/PBODPB/documents/Afghanistan_Fiscal_Impact_FINAL_E_WEB.pdf (Access date: 19 Nov. 2013).
11
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5
Figure 1: DND/CAF buildings energy use trend over 14 years.
Figure 2 provides a magnified scale of the total energy consumption versus its
corresponding GHG counterpart taking in consideration the various factors affecting
such estimates.
Figure 2: GHG emissions link to DND/CAF buildings energy use.
Figure 3 shows that although the total energy is fairly constant over that period with a
small downward trend 12, with a negative slope of 1% per year according to the first order
trend line with a mean square error of about 0.01. However the price or total
expenditures for that energy in buildings follows a continuous increase over time at a
rate of about 4.7% per year (about 65% for the 14-year period).
It seems from this small downward trend of energy used in buildings that the expected
improvements from the investments made in energy building efficiency does not match the
expected return on investment (ROI). It is possible that such expected ROI be observed later once
more of the Federal Building Initiative (FBI) projects result in effective operational changes.
12
6
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Figure 3: Annual DND/CAF buildings energy cost trend over 14 years.
2.2
The challenge of computing the DND/CAF total energy
used
The energy consumption baseline used for DOES is established from two categories of
data: energy consumed in installations and energy used for mobility purposes by the
fleets. This set of data is captured over a period of three fiscal years: FY 2008/09,
2009/10, and 2010/11. The data for installations were collected for DND/CAF
Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS). Fuel/Energy used in buildings includes energy
from electricity, natural gas, heating fuel oils, propane, kerosene, arctic diesel, cooling
water, steam and solar photovoltaic (SPV).
Aviation fuel and ship’s fuel consumption data discussed in this document include both
domestic and international operations. Gasoline and diesel fuel data were not available
for ground fleet above 55° parallel at the time of preparing this report. This should not
have a significant impact on the data presented for the overall fleet energy used.
However for consistency with the subsequent charts, the simulation result for
expeditionary land force of Table 1 is included. Consequently, Figure 4 provides, for the
first time, DND/CAF best estimate of the proportion of energy used by the fleet of each
environment 13 (air, maritime and land) out of a total of 12 PJ per year for both domestic
and expeditionary operations. In reverse order of magnitude of energy used they are as
follows: Canadian Army (CA) 17%, Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) 21% and Royal Canadian
Air Force (RCAF) 62%.
13 The CAF environments are also identified as the CAF services as done for forces of other
countries.
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7
Figure 4: Average over three years of yearly domestic and expeditionary
energy per environment.
The RCAF is the biggest user of energy among the three environments for mobility
purposes. It consumes 62% of the total energy of the CAF fleets.
For the following charts (Figure 5 and Figure 6), in addition to expeditionary energy
used, the total domestic energy includes the fuels used in commercial vehicles and
combat equipment, i.e., the National Safety and Security (NSS) Fleet (militarypatterns/manoeuvers for vehicles, ships and aircraft), the energy used in domestic
operations and the total energy used for buildings. For expeditionary land energy used,
the amount obtained by simulation (Ghanmi, 2013b) is included in the total reported
here. The aggregated total expeditionary and domestic energy, as averaged over three
fiscal years from 08/09 to 10/11, amounts to a yearly average of 23 PJ or 23,000 TJ.
The 23 PJ includes all DND/CAF energy usage, i.e., electricity, natural gas, heating oils,
etc., for domestic buildings, and gasoline, diesel fuel, ship’s fuel and aviation fuel for all
our fleets in domestic and international operations.
8
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DND/CAF Energy Usage (3-Yr Average) (23,000 TJ)
Gasoline
1%
Diesel
8%
Electricity
16%
Ship's Fuel
11%
Natural Gas
25%
Aviation Fuel
32%
Light Fuel Oil
1%
Other Fuels
(Bldgs)
3%
Heavy Fuel Oil
3%
Figure 5: Average yearly consumption over three years of domestic and expeditionary
energy proportion per type.
Out of the total domestic and expeditionary energy average of 23,000 TJ used, about
52% is for the fleets and the remainder for the buildings.
For Figure 6, the Fuel/Energy expenditures recorded under the Defence Resource
Management Information System (DRMIS) for utilities (electricity, natural gas, heating
oils, etc.) are most likely on the domestic front only; while gasoline, diesel, ship’s and
aviation fuels include invoices coming from international operations. So Figure 6 shows
a three-year average of fuel/energy expenditures of the department recorded for fiscal
years 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 which correspond closely to the total of 23 PJ of
Figure 5.
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9
Fuel/Energy Cost 3-Yr Average
($538M)
Gasoline
3%
Diesel
8%
Ship's Fuel
13%
Aviation Fuel
46%
Electricity
16%
Natural Gas
9%
Light Heating
Oil
3%
Heavy
Heating Oil
2%
Figure 6: Average of yearly domestic and expeditionary energy cost proportion.
Figure 6 provides the yearly relative proportion of types of energy for DND/CAF uses as
averaged over three years. From the total cost of 538 million Canadian dollars, about
70% of the cost is for the fleet and 30% for the buildings. The large difference in
percentage between the energy quantities (52%-48%) and costs (70%-30%) is
dominantly driven by the low cost of natural gas in Canada.
The aviation fuel represents about 66% of the total fleet fuel cost which is assumed to be
the sum of the following: gasoline (3%), diesel (8%), ship’s (13%) and aviation (46%), for
a total of 70% for the fleet fuel cost.
2.3
Total DND/CAF energy cost trends and global
perspective
The following trend of the total energy expenditures combine domestic, training and
expeditionary operations with the total for buildings over the 14-year data reported for
energy related GLs (general ledger accounts) in Defence Resource Management
Information System (DRMIS). DRMIS reports all expenditures charged to a given GL
account (domestic and foreign). Based on the information available in the financial
system, we cannot clearly identify whether the payments were related to domestic or
international operations.
If we assume that the fleet energy price will increase at the same rate as for the last 14
years (Figure 7 upward trend in blue), approximately doubling in a decade, then the total
CAF fleet energy spending would have increased from approximately 140 million dollars
in fiscal year 1998/99 to 800 million dollars in 2030/31, about six times as much if no
significant corrective actions are taken. The total DND/CAF energy cost (538 million in
2010-11) follows a similar trend from about 240 million to 1,100 million dollars by 2031,
which is about five times as much.
10
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Figure 7: Trends of DND/CAF total cost for energy according to the 14-year data and
a 20-year projection based on these trends.
Currently no additional cost is included in these figures for an eventual carbon dioxide
(CO2) tax. In the advent that Canada adds a charge or tax for the amount of CO2
emissions, this total DND/CAF energy cost trend might be more significant in such
future.
According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) analysis 14 based on the
International Energy Outlook 2011, IEO2011 Reference Case (DOE/EIA, 2011), the world
energy consumption could increase by 53%, from 505 quadrillion Btu (a533 EJ) in 2008
to 770 quadrillion Btu (a813 exajoule (EJ)) in 2035.
This estimate of world energy use in 2008 of a533 EJ (DOE/EIA, 2011) allows to
appreciate the order of magnitude of the total energy consumption of primary energy
14
http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/world.cfm (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
11
used by Canada in 2008, 12,510 PJ 15 (NRCan, 2012, p. 7) or a13 EJ, i.e., about 2.4%.
According to Statistics Canada, the total energy used by all of Government of Canada
(GoC) is ~60 PJ (2008, 60,134 TJ (Statistics Canada, 2012, p. 5)), which is about ~0.5%.
Using the ratio of all combined floor areas (buildings and platforms), the gross floor
area, we obtain a coarse estimate of ~42% or ~25 PJ for the total energy used by
DND/CAF out of the ~60 PJ for the whole of GoC while remainder for other government
departments (OGDs) is ~58% or ~35 PJ. Figure 8 illustrates the magnitudes of these
energies used from the world perspective up to the DND/CAF total amount of energy
used. This estimate of the total DND/CAF energy used will be compared in Section 2.5
with another method of estimating it that combines the values from the domestic
database and from simulation results of the energy demand of CAF expeditionary
operations over three years.
Figure 8: Relative energy consumptions: Canada versus World, the total of all
government of Canada (GoC) versus Canada and DND/CAF versus OGDs within GoC.
2.4
CAF simulated expeditionary energy demand
In order to provide a more complete picture of the defence operational energy used by
Canada, the following simulation result shows the proportion of energy used per type of
fuel assuming operations and fuel hubs as described in Annex A. This result combines
several thousand point estimates using specific force composition that went through all
phases: deployment, force employment and redeployment.
The simulation results can be summarized as follows: The total demand was 260 million
litres (ML) over three years with the following fuel type distribution, aviation fuel (54%),
ship’s fuel (8%) and diesel (38%) as illustrated in Figure 9.
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/statistics/parliament10-11/chapter1.cfm?attr=0 (Access
date: 17 Sept. 2013).
15
12
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Figure 9: Simulation results using selected scenarios of operations over three years.
In order to use these results in the next analysis step, the following transformations were
made on the total of 260 ML. Using average values of energy per litre, over three years
the 54% in aviation fuel represents 5,251 TJ, the 8% in ship’s fuel becomes 807 TJ and
the 38% of diesel equals 3,784 TJ for a total of 9,842 TJ or 3,281 TJ per year.
2.5
DND/CAF combined energy demand
The objective of using simulated results is to be able to separate domestic operations
energy from expeditionary energy in the total energy previously reported (rounded off to
23 PJ per year using available data collected). Table 1 summarizes the various
information in TJ required to compute such estimates based on the three-year averaged
data of fiscal years 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 provided by the Directorate of Fuels
and Lubricants (DF&L), the GHG database and the simulated results.
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13
Table 1: DND/CAF demand of energy in TJ used for generating Figure 10.
Type
Electricity
Energy used in
buildings
3,620
Natural gas
5,860
Light heating oil
300
Heavy heating oil
800
Other fuels
700
Fleet fuel
Simulated
expeditionary
Gasoline
240
Diesel
540
1,260
Ship’s fuel
2,480
Aviation fuel
7,420
(270 included in
fleet)
(1,750 included in
fleet)
Total energy used = 23 PJ per year
Figure 10 expresses the total DND/CAF energy demand and shows the proportion for the
various types of fuel and energy used. It includes other fuels which represent a small
amount compared to aviation fuel. Other fuels included propane, kerosene, and diesel for
power generation, JP-8 for power and heat generation, steam, cooling water and a small
amount from SPV.
14
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Figure 10: Combined (23 PJ per year) domestic and expeditionary energy
per type and use.
It is important to note that this combined result does not include the energy used by
contracted cargo and commercial transport used in support of operations. However
Figure 10 includes the expeditionary simulated result for diesel used by land since it was
not tracked otherwise.
Given the substantial amount of energy that DND/CAF used for northern facilities, such
as Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert, this 51% (fleets) to 49% (buildings) proportion is
fairly comparable to other countries. The larger proportion reported by DOD with 75%
for operations and 25% for installations could be due to the large size and world
distribution of their fleets. In addition from this figure we note that 62% of domestic and
expeditionary fleet energy is for aviation fuel.
From Section 2.3 the estimate of total DND/CAF energy used was about 25 PJ or 42% of
whole of GoC energy used. Here using a combination of accumulated DND/CAF
domestic data and expeditionary operations data, including the diesel from
expeditionary operations simulation results, we obtain a total energy estimate of about
23 PJ per year. The closeness of these estimates using two distinct methods increases
confidence in the reported estimates.
2.6
Additional evidences
For the purpose of this report some of the material for the following evidences are
presented in the report annexes or referenced to other sources.
2.6.1
High likelihood of future oil barrel price increase
According to the EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (DOE/EIA, 2013a, 2013b) there is a
high likelihood of an increase in the price of oil barrel in the future. If the reference
projection (see Annex D) is right, that would mean a 60% increase in 2011 US dollars by
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
15
2040. If this 60% increase in oil price translates in the overall energy cost of DND/CAF,
that raises an important flag to the sustainability of CAF operations here and abroad.
2.6.2
Increased electricity demand for C4ISR and new technologies
Another important trend to consider is the constant increase in data processing and
exchange required in modern operations. If this is compounded with cyber warfare and
intelligence over telecommunication and Internet, this may translate in substantial
energy cost increases assuming this cost to follow the associated trend of GHG reported
by (Janof, 2012): GHG doubled over a period of five years (see details in Annex D). From
these trends it is reasonable to expect that the energy demand from information
technologies used by DND/CAF to more than double over the next decade if remediation
actions are not initiated soon.
According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) executive summary report
(EPA, 2007), essentially the best practices and state of the art scenarios assumed moving
in a new facilities or major upgrades to existing ones to better match the ‘ENERGY
STAR®’ specifications 16. The improved operation scenario assumed no significant
capital investment but offers electricity cost savings in excess of 20% according to this
report.
Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) 17 reports that a
“data centre is a building space filled with information technology (IT) equipment:
servers, storage, networking equipment, but also cooling equipment and power supplies.
Data centres consume about 1% of Canada's electricity. One square foot of data centre
space can use up to 100 times more electricity than a regular office space. Servers use
only around 40% of a data centre's electricity. Another 40% goes to cooling these servers;
and another 10% goes to power supplies losses. Conservation measures can dramatically
reduce the electricity consumed by data centres.”
A good example of essential capabilities in future combat theaters is persistent
surveillance with sufficient precision for mission effectiveness and force protection.
These capabilities would use extended endurance UAVs and potentially underwater,
surface and land unman versions 18. Such capabilities could be classified as energy hungry
because their power requirements are moderate while their extended time of operation
without the need for logistic support is over a few days. In some operational theaters,
users would like to extend the autonomy period to weeks without re-fueling or
recharging the batteries.
2.6.3
Electricity demand for new weapon technologies
Railgun and directed energy weapon (DEW) technologies (these include technologies
such as: high energy laser (HEL), radio frequency (RF) DEWs, and relativistic particle
16 ENERGY STAR® is the mark of high-efficiency products in Canada. The familiar symbol makes
it easy to identify the best energy performers on the market.
17 http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/equipment/manufacturers/1875 (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
18 For example Tactically Exploited Reconnaissance Node (TERN) in a DARPA program run
jointly with Office of Naval Research (ONR):
http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/TTO/Programs/Tactically_Exploited_Reconnaissance_Node
_(TERN).aspx (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
16
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beams (RPBs) and high power microwave (HPM)) require usually large and heavy high
power sources. Such technologies have improved with higher efficiency DEWs and power
sources. However, they represent a major challenge to accommodate such electricity
demand on legacy platforms. Various types of DEWs are currently in deployment phases
in various formats for air, land and naval platforms. Their electricity energy demands are
fairly large and require very high pulse power depending on type of targets, use and
range. Most of these technologies require in excess of 150 kW. So these technologies are
power hungry while persistent surveillance and C4ISR ones are energy hungry.
2.6.4
Electricity end use growing faster than fuel direct use
According to Richard G. Newell and Stuart Iler as stated in “The Global Energy Outlook”
(Kalicki and Goldwyn, 2013, p. 46) “Electricity is about 40% of the worldwide primary
energy consumption, a role that will be increasing going forward. In terms of end-use
energy consumption, electricity is growing much faster than direct use of fuels.” Advance
information technologies, sensors and weapons as required by future CAF missions and
operations will drive similar increase in electricity demand over the life time of current
and future platforms and capabilities.
2.7
Summary of DOES energy demand evidences
Although the accumulated energy demand evidences cover a large domain of data
developed for DOES and documented in this Chapter, here are some of the points that
need to be retained in the context of supporting strategic thinking:
1. The aggregated total expeditionary and domestic energy, as averaged over three fiscal
years from 08/09 to 10/11, amounts to a yearly average of 23 PJ or 23,000 TJ.
2. The total DND/CAF energy cost (538 million dollars in 2010-11) is a yearly recurring
cost constantly augmenting over the last 14 years.
3. If we assume that the fleet energy price will continue increasing at the same rate as
for the last 14 years, then the total CAF fleet energy spending would increase from
approximately 140 million dollars in fiscal year 1998/99 to 800 million dollars in
2030/31, about six times as much if no significant corrective actions are taken.
4. Similarly, the total DND/CAF energy cost would reach 1,100 million dollars by 2031.
5. Currently no additional cost is included in these figures for an eventual carbon
dioxide (CO2) tax. In the advent that Canada adds a charge or tax for the amount of
CO2 emissions, this total DND/CAF energy cost trend might be more significant in
such future.
6. The demand of electricity from new technologies, such as C4ISR and weapon
systems, will increase at a faster pace than the direct use of fuel. This is the most
critical point that DND/CAF must address to insure sustainable capabilities to fulfill
their mandate here and abroad.
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DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
3
Candidate targets identified
In the development of the first DOES, the strategic imperatives were identified as the
fundamental operational requirements for defence to successfully fulfill its mandate and
roles. “The prime imperative is mission continuity and the capacity to deliver on
enduring operational commitments. Energy considerations ensure mission continuity by
enabling operations to go further, longer, or even faster on the same or reduced fuel
loads and expand tactical reach. Energy must be affordable or risk grounding ships or
aircraft or the inability to make trade-off decisions when faced with higher energy costs.
Other strategic imperatives include the protection and compatibility of critical
infrastructure, the capacity for the interoperability of platforms and energy technology,
particularly with our allies. Mission success requires ensuring the sustainability, integrity
and reliability of energy and the supply lines as well as reducing threats to the
transportation of fuel. Moreover, to the greatest extent possible, defence aims to reduce
its environmental footprint and demonstrate leadership in environmental
sustainability.” Then energy targets were designed in order to meet the strategic
imperatives. The identified energy targets applied across a range of defence assets and
activities including information and data management, infrastructure, tactical platforms,
commercial vehicles, deployed operations, use of renewable and alternative energy
sources, as well as force planning and procurement. The following energy targets
elaborated by the DOES working group were reviewed by an energy panel of experts and
offices of primary interest (OPIs) before being endorsed by the DCB in November 2013
(Rempel, 2014).
3.1
Target 1: Energy measurement and management
By 2030, to the maximum extent practicable, bases, platforms and expeditionary power
and heating generation equipment shall employ an automated data acquisition,
recording and metering system that measures the consumption of fuel from all sources.
The motivation or rationale for developing this target is:
x Automated fuel data and management systems (AFDS) 19 were deployed to United
States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK) and Australia (AU) armed forces.
x In Canada trial AFDS (http://www.coencorp.com/ (Access date: 9 April 2013)) has
been fielded at 10 sites. A business case was raised by DF&L for its CAF-wide
deployment at a cost of 14 million dollars over three years.
x AFDS would also ensure compliance with the Auditable Financial Statement Policy
(AFSP) and address concerns expressed by the Office of the Auditor General (OAG).
x Automation will improve asset visibility and evidence from trial systems indicates
that AFDS could identify system losses unnoted yet which in some instances offer
opportunities for significant improvements at low cost.
x Utility metering, energy audits and systematic upgrading (see CFS Alert case study:
Annex F).
x High-performance building (HPB) designs and micro grids (see Annex G).
19
http://www.varec.com/ (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
19
3.2
Target 2: Reduce demand - Buildings
By 2030 all CAF Bases and Stations, as whole entities, will reduce through efficiencies
their energy use intensity (EUI) by 20% from 2005-2006 levels.
The motivation or rationale for developing this target is:
x Within Canada, energy intensity 20 improved by 21% across the period 1990-2009.
x Global energy intensity decreased by 1.2 % per year between 1990 and 2010 (IEA).
x Possibilities within Federal Building Initiative 21 to be fully explored.
x Federal Sustainable Development Strategy (FSDS) directs the metering of buildings
larger than 1000 m2.
x Utility metering project for RCAF buildings larger than 500 m2.
x Energy audits followed by systematic upgrading of poor performers.
x Adopt HPB designs for new buildings.
x Adoption of microgrid technologies in new buildings and in improving old ones.
x More information in Annex F, Annex G and Annex H.
3.3
Target 3: Critical infrastructure
By 2030, all defence critical equipment, infrastructure and services will have reliable
back-up power systems able to sustain independent (off-grid) operations for a minimum
period of 14 days.
The motivation or rationale for developing this target is:
x Microgrid study: “Energy Security for DOD Installations” (Broekhoven, et al.,
2012).
x Military microgrids. 22
x Renewables or substitute sources of energy should be considered as part of the
solution.
x Additional information in Annex C, Annex F and Annex G.
“Critical infrastructure refers to processes, systems, facilities, technologies, networks,
assets and services essential to the health, safety, security or economic well-being of
Canadians and the effective functioning of government. Critical infrastructure can be
stand-alone or interconnected and interdependent within and across provinces,
territories and national borders. Disruptions of critical infrastructure could result in
“Energy intensity – which measures the efficiency of energy use per unit of economic activity
(gigajoules per gross domestic product [GJ/GDP]) – improved by 21% across the period. Energy
use per capita, however, showed a 1% increase, reflecting lifestyle changes at home and in private
transport.” Ref.: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/statistics/trends11/factsheet/factsheet.pdf
(Access date: 17 Sept. 2013) “Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to 2009”.
21 http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/communities-government/buildings/federal/10696 (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
22 Pike Research - http://www.pikeresearch.com/research/military-microgrids (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
20
20
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
catastrophic loss of life, adverse economic effects, and significant harm to public
confidence.” (PSC, 2009, p. 2)
3.4
Target 4: Military platforms and fleet
By 2025, the CAF will have reduced the class fuel consumption rate by 10% from those
detailed in the fuel consumption unit (FCU) 23 developed by ADM (Mat) and validated in
2012.
The motivation or rationale for developing this target is:
1. Aircraft improvements
x Thermoelectric generators (in 2012 improved by 6%, a trend in progress) US Air
Force (USAF) S&T report “Horizons” (AF/ST, 2012, p. 16) and new highly-efficient
thermoelectronic conversion (Meir, et al., 2013) (more details in Annex J).
x Lightweight materials.
x Travis USAF saved a million $/year by moving from JP-8 to Jet A with additives.
x Wingtip devices (3.5% more efficient - Airbus).
x Behaviour modification, better flight planning and flight profile adjustments.
x Full scale engine replacement, while more expensive, offers as much as a 15-25%
improvement in fuel burn for fighter, bomber, attack and transport aircraft.
x Average annual fuel efficiency improvement of 1.5% to 2020. 24
2. Ship improvements (compare with commercial fleets (ABB, 2012))
x Hull modifications, e.g., stern flap addition (3-4% more efficient - US Navy).
x Underwater anti-fouling coating (9% more efficient - commercial shipping).
x Thermoelectric-based waste heat recovery device.
x More efficient hull designs.
x Improved maintenance practices, e.g., underwater anti-fouling coating.
x Hybrid ship drive.
x All-electric ship (AES).
x Engine efficiency regulations.
x More information in Annex G and Annex I.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) standardization agreement (STANAG 2115)
provides a method for computing fuel requirements in military operations and a standard
estimation for fuel consumption of a military unit called FCU (fuel consumption unit).
24 According to The International Air Cargo Association (TIACA), since the beginning of the jet
age over 40 years ago, technology has advanced the industry to achieve 70% reduction in fuel
consumption: TIACA Carbon emissions (online), TIACA,
http://www.tiaca.org/tiaca/Carbon_Emissions.asp (Access date: 12 Dec. 2013). This
improvement trend will continue with the newest generation of airplanes which will offer an
additional 15-20% improvement.
23
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
21
3. Land tactical vehicle improvements
x Thermoelectric generators (Gibson, 2012, Smith and Thornton, 2009) and other
alternatives in Annex G.
x Optimised tires (up to 8.5% 25 more efficient - US Army).
x Improved fuel injector systems.
x Reduced vehicle mass (up to 23% more efficient - US Department of Energy (DOE)
estimates).
x Eliminating bad driving habits.
x Vehicle thermal insulation and IR signature reduction (Annex H.2).
For all environments, greater use of the synthetic environment for training offers both
improved safety and long-term cost avoidance, i.e., simulators and procedural trainers,
including deployable variants, rather than live flight hours.
3.5
Target 5: Commercial vehicle fleet improved efficiency
Target 5 has been removed from the initial list. An independent review panel
recommended the removal of Target 5 because it was deemed outside the direct control
of either DND or the CAF. It would be achieved naturally through federal regulations and
Public Works procurement.
3.6
Target 6: Reduce demand - Military camps
By 2030, per person, reduce the energy consumption required to produce main and
deployed military camp services (heating, power generation, sewage treatment, water
supply, etc.) during the conduct of domestic and expeditionary operations by 50%.
The motivation or rationale for developing this target is:
x Camp improvements (several initiatives including CFS Alert: Annex F).
x Replace field space and water heaters with higher efficiency variants.
x Upgrade central power distribution systems with power management units to select
and synchronise multiple power sources.
x Adjustable speed generators to match load demand (potential 20% more efficient).
x Insulation and shading of ‘soft walled shelters’ (i.e., tents).
x Portable solar panel system.
x Integrated camp energy technologies (ICE-T) TDP in partnership with NRCan at
Varennes.
x NATO Sustainable Military Compounds (Smart Energy Team (SENT)).
Here we have to be careful because it is usually a function of speed and other factors, if it is
8.5% of the proportion of loss due to tire traction (say 20%) then the resulting effect is only 1.7%
of the FCU. See: Bridgestone (2008), What consumes fuel?, Real Answers Magazine, Special
Edition Four 5.
25
22
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
3.7
Target 7: Increase energy efficiency - Soldiers
By 2030, all individual dismounted soldiers will be independent from the logistics chain
for energy resupply for at least 72 hours without increasing the soldier’s burden.
The motivation or rationale for developing this target is:
x Dismounted infantry improvements (more information from ISSP and Annex H).
x Advanced Soldier Adaptive Power (ASAP): Reduce weight of power systems by a
factor of three and achieve energy sources of no more than 2 kg for 72-h patrol.
Currently soldiers carry 13-15 batteries with total weight of 5 kg.
x Wearable power pack / lightweight power sources (Annex G).
x Self-charging power cell - conversion of mechanical energy into stored energy
(Georgia Tech).
3.8
Target 8: Alternative energy opportunities
By 2016, the CAF will have certified the processes by which suitable advanced, ‘drop-in’ 26
alternative liquid fuels, that meet Canadian military specifications, can be used in each of
its tactical (non-commercial) platforms and vehicles.
The motivation or rationale for developing this target is:
x CF-18 and CC-130 aircraft have already had their engines certified and in
collaboration with USAF and United States Navy (USN) have successfully flown
utilising synthetic fuel.
x Maintains compatibility and interoperability with closest ally, i.e., US Armed
Forces.
x Offers flexibility of several types of fuel to CAF during operations.
x Travis USAF savedonemillion $/year by moving from JP-8 to Jet A with additives.
3.9
Target 9: Force planning and requirement
From 2018, tools to account for and analyse energy consumption and costs are to be
incorporated into all strategic modeling and simulation (M&S) programmes that are
used for force planning, options analysis and requirements development.
The motivation or rationale for developing this target is:
x Decrease strategic and operational surprise due to lack of energy or its cost.
x Provide improved and more accurate critical logistic data.
Modeling and Analysis of Canadian Forces Operational Energy Demand (Ghanmi DRDC CORA - 2012).
26 Drop-in fuels take many forms, but their commonality is the ability to use existing engines and
infrastructure.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
23
3.10 Target 10: Procurement – Energy key performance
criterion
From 2018, the procurement process for equipment and infrastructure (capital and
operations and maintenance (O&M)) will incorporate energy usage and fuel economy
over the life cycle of the asset as a key performance criterion.
The motivation or rationale for developing this target is:
x Reduce uncertainties in budgeting for a capability.
x Provide necessary information required for major project auditing.
See ”Military Operational Energy - A Fully Burdened Cost Model” (Ghanmi,
2012) and “DOD Defense Acquisition Guidebook”, Chapter 3, Para 3.1.6
(https://acc.dau.mil/CommunityBrowser.aspx?id=488333#3.1.6 (Access date: 9
April 2013)).
3.11 Potential cost savings from DOES targets applied to
buildings and military platforms
Details of the methodology, hypothesis, inflation scenarios and energy data used are in
Annex E. The findings are summarized as follows.
Using DOES Target 2 (20% energy reduction) for real property and Target 4 (10% energy
reduction) for military platforms and fleet with the domestic data for the cost of each
type of energy (e.g., jet fuel and electricity) the energy savings translated into the cost
savings presented in Table 2. Due to the lack of available accurate data for energy in
expeditionary operations the fully burdened cost of energy (FBCE) methodology
framework was not applied. Consequently the cost savings reported by Table 2 are lesser
than if the FBCE had been estimated.
24
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Table 2: Estimated annual cost savings by 2030 and thereafter in FY 2010-2011
dollars (not adjusted for future inflation).
TOTAL
Estimated cost
savings in
million dollars,
$M
16.0
8.3
1.2
2.9
0.4
2.5
5.5
15.8
53.6
Total real property (buildings)
Total fleet
28.4
25.2
Energy type
Real Property
Fleet
Electricity
Natural Gas
Light Fuel Oil
Heavy Fuel Oil
Gasoline
Diesel Fuel
Ship’s Fuel
Jet Fuel
The proposed energy targets are estimated to save DND/CAF approximately $54 million,
in FY 2010-11 dollars, by 2030. These savings represent approximately 9% of total
energy-related expenditures in FY 2010-11.
In conclusion from this methodology, it is estimated that the selected DOES targets
could translate into savings ranging from $93 million to $134 million in 2030 dollars
depending on the three inflation scenarios of Table 3. Again, if the FBCE had been
applied in making these estimates, much large cost savings would have been found.
Table 3: Estimated cost savings in 2030 dollars adjusted for
three possible inflation rates.
Long-term inflation
scenario
Most likely
Low
High
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Annual inflation
rate
2.8%
2.0%
4.7%
Estimated cost savings in
million dollars, $M
93
80
134
25
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26
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
4
Principles for an enduring DND/CAF energy
strategy
From the DND/CAF energy domain, the DND/CAF energy spectrum view point, four
dimensions or views were identified as follows:
1. Defence Real Property and Related Assets (i.e., land and its permanently affixed
buildings or structures connected to the grid, vehicles and other ancillary energy
demanding assets).
2. Military Camps and Compounds (including forward operating bases (FOBs) and any
off-grid encampments).
3. Tactical Platforms (i.e., independent, military vehicles incorporating sensor,
communications and weapon systems used by nations in the conduct of operations,
e.g., ship, aircraft, armoured vehicle, satellite).
4. Dismounted Combatants, e.g., infantry and combat aircraft pilot off platform.
These four dimensions of the DND/CAF energy domain relate to the DOES targets as
follows:
1. Defence Real Property and Related Assets: Targets 1, 2, 3 and 10.
2. Military Camps and Compounds: Targets 1, 6, 9 and 10.
3. Tactical Platforms: Targets 1, 4, 8, 9 and 10.
4. Dismounted Combatants: Targets 1, 7, 9 and 10.
In a DRDC report (Neill, 2009) on DND/CAF alternative energy options, four strategic
principles were identified to orient research and eventual adoption of energy options:
1. Operational Principle: an alternative energy option must maintain or enhance the
Department’s ability to carry out its fundamental operational missions.
2. Cost Principle: subject to the Operational Principle, an alternative energy option
must provide power at a proportional cost equivalent to or lower than existing energy
sources (taking into consideration the recovery of installation costs through lower
operating and maintenance costs over the life cycle of the equipment). Business case
analysis must take into account the fully-burdened costs of any proposed new
technology. DND should exercise extreme caution when considering any alternative
energy technology that has not proven competitive in the broader civilian economy.
3. Environmental Principle: subject to the Cost Principle, an alternative energy option
should have a net environmental impact no greater than existing energy sources.
4. Political-legal Principle: an alternative energy option must conform to legal,
regulatory and policy constraints. Where these would preclude exploitation of an
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
27
alternative energy option that meets the operational, cost and environmental 27
principles, DND should be willing to seek changes to legislation, regulations or
policy, as appropriate.
In addition to these strategic principles some energy fundamental principles need to be
given primordial precedence to ensure energy fitting to DND/CAF capabilities, especially
when they drive operational effectiveness, provide CAF advantage over opposing forces
and reduce risk to our combatants:
1. Capacity factor, i.e., actual energy output over a period of time against generation
potential.
2. Energy conversion efficiency, i.e., the ability to convert the maximum amount of
source energy toward the desired work, function or amenity.
3. Power density versus energy density (acceleration versus range), i.e., the ability to
achieve varying load profiles (demands) over time (power = energy/time and viceversa, energy = power x time).
4. Volumetric versus gravimetric energy density or power density (size versus weight),
i.e., the ability to meet the physical constraints imposed by the intended application
(size or form factor, and weight).
These four fundamental energy principles inform all DOES Targets and encompass the
entire DND/CAF energy domain and its four dimensions.
Other considerations such as operating and shelf temperature ranges, air consumption
and pollution, or reliability under operational conditions will be also discussed but since
they are particular to each application they will only be mentioned when addressing a
specific capability or platform.
Another great principle is that “The cheapest energy is the energy you don’t have to
produce in the first place” said ACEEE Executive Director Steven Nadel 28. It is
sometimes identified as energy efficiency of a system, building, platform or piece of
equipment and relates to energy wasted due to lack of isolation and energy efficient way
of applying energy toward a desired work, effect or end use. For example, it costs less
(requires less heat) to heat a well-designed and appropriately insulated and ventilated
building (including correct use of doors, windows and openings/vents).
4.1
Capacity factor
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) defines capacity factor (net) as
the ratio of the net electricity generated, for the time considered, to the energy that could
27 The source document used the word “green” which has been replaced here by a more enduring
term “environmental”.
28 The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), a non-profit organization,
acts as a catalyst to advance energy efficiency policies, programs, technologies, investments, and
behaviors. http://www.aceee.org/press/2014/03/new-report-finds-energy-efficiency-a (Access
date: 17 Sept. 2014).
28
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
have been generated at continuous full-power operation during the same period 29. A
similar definition could be applied for thermal systems and electrical-thermal systems
(6NRZURĔVNL ). Here is a simple chart of typical capacity factors that was used by
NRCan (Grasby, et al., 2011) to show the advantages of geothermal and enhanced
geothermal technologies for electricity generation and district heating in Canada.
In addition the following chart computed with the data from two sources confirms the
order of magnitude of Figure 11 average capacity factors with those for selected electric
power sources in the United States.
Legend: PV = photovoltaics, CPV = concentrated photovoltaics, CCGT = combined-cycle gas turbine.
Figure 11: Typical capacity factors of different power generation technologies. 30
The capacity factors given in Figure 12 represent averages for a range of recent years. For
the fossil fuels and nuclear power sources, the data were from (EIA, 2009, p. 102). For
the renewables the data were from DOE, National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
(Aabakken, 2006, p. 201).
http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/glossary/capacity-factor-net.html (Access date: 17
Sept. 2013).
30 Source: Emerging Energy Research (2009).
29
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
29
Capacity Factors
100%
Fossil Fuels and Nuclear
Renewables
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Figure 12: Average capacity factors for selected electric power sources
in the United States.
4.2
Energy conversion efficiency
Energy conversion efficiency needs to be maximised in order to reduce undesirable loss
and expenses while providing energy for a capability or a desired work. Most of the time
an energy conversion or transformation is required to accomplish the desired work, e.g.,
using the energy of a fuel and convert it in mechanical energy to the wheels of a vehicle
using an internal combustion engine. Energy transformation or energy conversion is the
process of changing one form of energy into another. “In physics, the term energy
describes the capacity to produce certain changes within a system, without regard to
limitations in transformation imposed by entropy. Changes in total energy of systems
can only be accomplished by adding or removing energy from them, as energy is a
quantity which is conserved (unchanging), as stated by the first law of
thermodynamics.” 31
Energy conversion efILFLHQF\ dž LV WKH UDWLR EHWZHHQ WKH XVHIXO RXWSXW RI DQ HQHUJ\
conversion device and the input, in energy terms. The useful output could be electric
power, mechanical work, or heat.
K
31
Ein
Eout
(1)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_transformation (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
30
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
For example, in (da Silva, et al., 2013) the energy efficiency of fix-speed diesel and
biodiesel generator sets were found to be about 10% at 25% of nominal power and 20%
at nominal power. In Table 4 typical energy conversion efficiency of selected energy
conversion devices captures the order of magnitude of what is currently achievable.
Table 4: Efficiency of selected energy conversion devices.
Energy conversion device
Energy conversion
Typical efficiency32
Electric heater
Electricity/thermal
a100% 33
High-efficiency natural gas furnace
Chemical/thermal
a98%
Large electric generator
Mechanical/electricity
>95%
High-efficiency and large electric
motor
Electricity/mechanical
>90%
Battery
Chemical/electricity
>90%
Water turbine
Potentialkinetic/mechanical
>90%
Permanent-magnet alternator
Mechanical/electricity
60-90%
Fuel cell
Chemical/electricity
Up to 85%
Thermal/electricity
•
Diesel engine (car/truck/ship)
Thermal/mechanical
30-50%
Gas turbine, jet engine
Thermal/mechanical
Up to 40% 36
Low-pressure sodium lamp
Electricity/light
15-40%
Solar cell (advance)
Solar radiation/electricity
Most at 15%, (up to 40%)
Light-emitting diode (LED)
Electricity/light
Up to 35%
Thermophotovoltaic (TPV)
Heat-infrared/electricity
8-30%
Firearm (.300 Hawk ammunition)
Potential/kinetic
~30%
Gasoline engine (car/truck)
Thermal/mechanical
10-30%
4 kWe diesel & biodiesel engine
generator
Thermal/electricity
a10% at 1 kW to a20% at
4 kW
Fluorescent lamp
Electricity/light
20%
Incandescent lamp
Electricity/light
5%
kWe 34
200-500
generator 35
diesel engine
It is worth noting the high efficiency of electric motors and generators compared to
internal combustion (IC) engines. Also worth observing is the energy conversion
32 From various information sources including
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_conversion_efficiency (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
33 Using a thermo pump this could be increased by a factor of three using a ground-water loop.
34 Kilowatt electric as opposed to kilowatt thermal (kWt).
35 http://arpa-e.energy.gov/?q=arpa-e-events/small-scale-distributed-generation-workshop
(Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
36 This needs to be adjusted by the propulsive efficiency dž for specific jet parameters.
p
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
31
FRPELQDWLRQ dž | 63%) of fuel cell devices with electric motors and batteries which
VXUSDVVHV WKH WUDGLWLRQDO JDVROLQH FRPEXVWLRQ HQJLQH dž d 30%) or the more energy
HIILFLHQW GLHVHO HQJLQH dž d 50%). Electric car energy conversion efficiency depends on
the source of electricity used but when looking at the car system itself, electric car could
achieve efficiency close to the product of electric motors and battery technology used,
i.e., between about 70% to 95%.
However for off-grid operations the traditional IC engine has the advantage of a
transportable and storable fuel. In the case of newer technologies, fuel cell cars could
offer similar advantages, with the addition of being more energy efficient than using IC
engines, as long as they could be made reliable and affordable for a variety of fuels.
In general unless the end energy use is for heating, due to the nature of transforming
heat from burning a fuel into useful work, the maximum energy efficiency of such
transformation is limited by a thermodynamic law expressed by the Carnot equation:
ߟ஼௔௥௡௢௧ = 1 െ
݈‫݊݅ݒ݈݁ܭ ݊݅ ݁ݎݑݐܽݎ݁݌݉݁ݐ ݓ݋‬
݄݄݅݃ ‫݊݅ݒ݈݁ܭ ݊݅ ݁ݎݑݐܽݎ݁݌݉݁ݐ‬
(2)
For example, this Carnot equation shows that the useful energy (e.g., electricity or
mechanical work) that could be extracted from boiling water (373 K) 37 with respect to
room temperature (291 K) is limited to 0.22 or 22%. However, electricity energy could be
transformed into heat or mechanical work at almost 100% efficiency, but once into heat
it will suffer large energy loss to transform it back to electricity as per the Carnot
efficiency equation. So electricity is very useful and could be transformed into other
useful energy more efficiently than heat from a fuel. Electricity is the noble energy that
powers a large variety of advanced technologies and capabilities, and propels civilization
into new horizons.
Figure 13 shows internal combustion engines with typical additional energy loss. The
UHVXOWLQJHQHUJ\FRQYHUVLRQHIILFLHQF\džEHWZHHQWKHHQHUJ\RIWKHIXHOWRXVHIXORXWSXW
either electric power or mechanical work could be as low as 10%.
E iinn
Energy
g
in
100%
%
Eooutt
Internal combustion
engines and like …
jet engines, turbines
Energy
g loss:
heat + friction
n
+…
As much energy loss as 90%
Typical gasoline cars 83%
Energy
gy out:
mechanical +
electrical …
As little as 10% to the wheels
Typical gasoline cars 17%
Figure 13: Internal combustion engines energy loss.
37
>ƒ&@ >.@í.
32
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Here is an excerpt from a report (Rissman and Kennan, 2013) on diesel motor previous
and projected improvements:
“As a result of government-supported research, heavy-duty diesel trucks went from 37%
efficiency in 1981 to 42% efficiency in 2007. Truck fuel economy increased almost 20%,
from a low of 5.4 miles per gallon in 1981 to 6.4 miles per gallon in 2010. From 1990 to
2009, per-mile emissions of harmful nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and
particulate matter from the US heavy truck fleet declined 67-81%, dramatically reducing
adverse health impacts from diesel engines. Today, diesel engines use an array of
technologies developed through the CRF 38 and ACE 39 R&D programs. Government-led
diesel research is ongoing; the ACE R&D program’s 2015 goals include improving overall
efficiency of diesel passenger vehicles to 45% and commercial vehicles to 50%.”
4.3
Power density versus energy density
To better appreciate the suitability of various energy sources and technologies to match
the varying energy and power demand of an application, tools like the Ragone plots have
been used. A Ragone plot helps visualizing the energy-power density of candidate
sources for a specific application energy and power demand profile. For an electric power
load over a period of time, Figure 14 compares selected batteries chemistry with other
technologies. It shows that most batteries deliver more energy when operating at low
power over longer period of time, while due to their chemistry and heat loss they deliver
less energy at high power over shorter period of time. In addition, Figure 14 shows the
relation of energy with vehicle range and power with vehicle acceleration compared to
some electric vehicle goals.
38
39
Combustion Research Facility.
Advanced Combustion Engine R&D program.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
33
Legend: solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), internal combustion (IC) engine, nickel–metal hydride battery (NiMH), hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV), and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV).
Figure 14: Ragone plot of the balance between gravimetric energy and power
densities (range versus acceleration). 40
It is worth noting that in some scientific documents the gravimetric energy density is
identified as the specific energy and sometimes the gravimetric power density is labelled
as the specific power. Similarly, the expression energy density is used for the volumetric
energy density and so on. Consequently, in this document we adopted a less confusing
language for these quantities, e.g., gravimetric energy density, volumetric energy density,
gravimetric power density, and volumetric power density as for Figure 14 and Figure 15.
4.4
Volumetric versus gravimetric energy or power density
An important aspect of energy sources is their suitability to an application in terms of
volume and weight. Volumetric versus gravimetric energy or power density is critical to
applications such as dismounted combatant systems and air platforms where there are
requirements to meet the physical constraints imposed by the intended application (size
or form factor, and weight). Figure 15, adapted from (Wachsman and Lee, 2011), shows
that an increase in gravimetric power density could result in a lighter device, while an
increase in volumetric power density could result in a smaller device.
This illustration is based on various sources including product data sheets as reported in
http://bestar.lbl.gov/venkat/files/batteries-for-vehicles.pdf (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013) by Dr
Venkat Srinivasan of the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. It includes various electric vehicles
goals and technologies compared with internal combustion (IC) engine: nickel–metal hydride
battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni-MH, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV), and
plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). Note that the diagonal lines indicate time to discharge.
Then the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was added in the file provided by Dr Eric Wachsman
(www.energy.umd.edu). Finally it was further updated here for the purpose of this report with the
selected axis labels.
40
34
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Legend: proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).
Figure 15: Selected energy sources illustrating size and weight
spectrum (weight versus size). 41
In addition it is important to keep in mind the energy densities of a variety of energy
sources, materials, storages and carriers as reported in Wikipedia. 42 Figure 16 reveals
several important factors to consider when estimating the suitability of a fuel or an
energy storage technology. The most obvious here is the challenge that hydrogen
represents when one desires to use it to power vehicles by using hydrogen as an energy
carrier to replace traditional fuels such as gasoline or diesel. The hydrogen gravimetric
energy density is exceptional but its low volumetric energy density represents challenges
for its commercialization at competitive life-cycle price in comparison with gasoline,
diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) butane and liquid natural gas.
Figure 15 is based on the material provided by Dr Eric Wachsman (www.energy.umd.edu) and
also published in Wachsman, E.D. and Lee, K.T. (2011), Lowering the Temperature of Solid Oxide
Fuel Cells, Science, 334, 935-939. Authorization to use the material confirmed by email:
Wachsman-Labbé 18 July 2013.
42 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
41
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
35
Figure 16: Volumetric versus gravimetric energy density in energy
storage and in fuel.
4.5
Applying energy principles to DOES
Increasing dependability on technologies tailored to extend defence and security
capabilities here and abroad requires assessing them from relevant aspects ranging from
availability and transportability to cost sustainability over various time horizons. From
the energy perspective, there are no doubts that technologies in development worldwide
will try to address the threat caused by the observed trend of fuel cost increase that
affects nations’ capabilities to further sustain high operations tempo or ensure domestic
operations in face of disasters.
In the context of the DND/CAF energy strategy, here are examples of how the energy
fundamental principles (beside maturity and short-term cost) could be applied in
selecting among a plethora of emerging technologies:
1. Capacity factor (actual output versus generation potential): to compare technologies
and various source mixes to fulfill the energy requirement and persistence profile of a
capability, for example critical infrastructures of a CAF base to ensure mission
continuity requires a high capacity factor from a main source or a complex
technology mix using a microgrid to meet that requirement.
2. Gravimetric power versus energy density (acceleration versus range): to assess
technologies that best fit expected fast and slow load variation or profile, for example
to accelerate or climb a hill, a loaded truck needs a lot of power but over time to
36
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
climb a long hill or travel long distances it needs enough energy (energy = power x
time).
3. Volumetric versus gravimetric energy density (size versus weight): to match the
physical constraints imposed by the intended application, for example jet fuel offers a
good balance between volume and weight for the amount of energy required to fly.
However, hydrogen offers higher gravimetric energy but requires large volume if not
liquefied as found in some hydrogen fuel cell power packs for land equipment and
transport.
4. Energy conversion efficiency: how much of the source energy is converted toward the
desired work, for example the available thermal energy from gasoline using typical
internal combustion engines for cars may deliver as little as only 10% energy to the
wheels, the remainder being wasted in heat (about 70-75% is rejected as heat without
being turned into useful work) and other functions such as powering a water pump to
cool the engine. Alternatively, a hydrogen fuel cell may deliver more than 80% of the
input energy through a direct current motor to the wheels.
Here are selected examples of technologies discussed in the Defence Science Advisory
Board (DSAB) report (DSAB, 2013), with a few more that resonate with the DND/CAF
energy strategy. For any of these technological options to effectively increase CAF
capabilities and operations sustainability, sufficient training will have to be provided
across military personnel at all ranks:
1. Smart grid using local energy sources such as solar and geothermal to reduce the
demand on fuel. Saved fuel offers high-energy density storage.
2. Smart grid metering contributes to efficient use of energy.
3. Overall energy metering, appropriate data collection and analysis contribute to
DND/CAF energy auditing and reporting to Parliament.
4. Simulation tools to anticipate energy demand and plan cost effective logistic support
over the evolving realities of an operation.
5. Software tools to better design smart energy sources for off-grid applications.
6. Advanced technology batteries that offer safe, convenient and sufficient power (as
from ultra-capacitors) and energy properties (as from efficient micro turbines) to
cost efficiently and operationally match the expected loads and extend endurance.
7. Electrical and hybrid land vehicles for domestic, on base and expeditionary
operations, integrating their storage capabilities to the local microgrid.
8. Use thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to recuperate energy of heat waste from
combustion engines (all types from trucks to combat aircraft and submarines).
9. Extend operational range of operations through energy efficiency and improved
sources such as hybrid energy storage power packs and frugal engines.
10. Low-voltage direct current (DC) distribution to high efficiency DC loads such as LED,
electronic devices and DC motors contribute to reduce energy consumption and
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
37
extend mission endurance (savings range between 30 to 70%). Also feeding DC
equipment with DC supplies reduces cost, volume and weight of systems.
11. Technologies to make domestic bases capable of sustaining self-sufficient energy
resources independent of damaged civilian infrastructures.
12. Technology insertions by phase in order to timely and more cost effectively benefit
from technologies in “a state of acceleration”.
13. Depending on the characteristic of missions where the duration and cost of
conventional energy sources such as diesel-based generators become prohibitive,
dispatchable generation alternatives such as gas turbines and small nuclear
generators and renewable sources (e.g., energy from waste) should be considered.
14. Small nuclear reactors like the Hyperion can be attractive for domestic bases or
stations like in the Canadian Arctic.
15. Geothermal power stations are suitable if the mission is expected to last more than a
year. Canada may consider giving such dependable energy source as a legacy for
humanitarian aid and development of the communities during and after a mission.
16. Self-refuelling by generating fuel from nuclear and abundant sea water and CO2. For
Canada it could be done by using solar direct generation of hydrogen, and
additionally in a second stage using solar energy again and H2 to convert CO2 to
methanol using emerging nanotechnologies.
In terms of mission effectiveness the DSAB report suggests: “Development of alternative
energy technologies and smart grids around military bases abroad can achieve a
humanitarian mission in addition to the military objective. Many military deployments
in remote areas (e.g., Afghanistan) occur in local communities with a relatively low level
of energy development. The introduction of alternative energy technologies in these
areas can leave a legacy of humanitarian aid for the further development of these
communities during and after the military mission has been accomplished.”
If we sort these 16 technologies along the four dimensions of DND/CAF energy domain
identified at the beginning of this chapter, Chapter 4, the above list of 16 selected
examples of technologies could be assigned to these four dimensions as follows:
1. Defence real property and related assets:
a. 1. Using local energy sources.
b. 2. Smart grid metering.
c. 3. DND/CAF energy auditing.
d. 6. Advanced safe and cost-effective batteries.
e. 7. Electrical and hybrid land vehicles.
f.
38
8. Use thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to recuperate energy of heat waste.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
g. 10. Direct current (DC) to high-efficiency DC loads such as LED and motors.
h. 11. Domestic bases capable of sustaining self-sufficient energy.
i.
12. Technology insertions by phases in “a state of acceleration”.
j.
13. Depending on missions use dispatchable power generation alternatives.
k. 14. Small-nuclear reactors.
l.
15. Geothermal power generation.
m. 16. Self-refuelling by generating fuel, e.g., H2 to convert CO2 to methanol.
2. Military camps and compounds (including FOBs and any off-grid encampments):
a. 1. Using local energy sources.
b. 2. Smart grid metering.
c. 3. DND/CAF energy auditing.
d. 4. Simulation tools for energy demand and cost of operations.
e. 5. Software tools to design smart-energy sources for off-grid applications.
f.
8. Use thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to recuperate energy of heat waste.
g. 10. Direct current (DC) to high-efficiency DC loads such as LED and motors.
h. 13. Depending on missions use dispatchable power generation alternatives.
i.
14. Small nuclear reactors.
j.
15. Geothermal power generation.
k. 16. Self-refuelling by generating fuel, e.g., H2 to convert CO2 to methanol.
3. Tactical platforms:
a. 1. Using local energy sources.
b. 4. Simulation tools for energy demand and cost of operations.
c. 6. Advanced safe and cost-effective batteries.
d. 7. Electrical and hybrid land vehicles.
e. 8. Use thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to recuperate energy of heat waste.
f.
9. Extend operational range of operations through energy efficiency.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
39
g. 10. Direct current (DC) to high-efficiency DC loads such as LED and motors.
h. 12. Technology insertions by phases in “a state of acceleration”.
i.
16. Self-refuelling by generating fuel, e.g., H2 to convert CO2 to methanol.
4. Dismounted combatants, e.g., infantry and combat aircraft pilot off platform:
a. 1. Using local energy sources.
b. 5. Software tools to design smart-energy sources for off-grid applications.
c. 6. Advanced safe and cost-effective batteries.
d. 9. Extend operational range of operations through energy efficiency.
e. 12. Technology insertions by phases in “a state of acceleration”.
f.
4.6
16. Self-refuelling by generating fuel, e.g., H2 to convert CO2 to methanol.
Energy cannot be created or destroyed but innovative
technologies allow to better exploit what is available
We cannot create new energy that is not already present in our universe. But we extract
materials in which energy is stored, change their state, and harness the energy that can
be captured from the state change, e.g., energy harnessed from fuels.
Energy must be captured, concentrated, transported, and converted to do useful work.
Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton both stated that energy cannot be created or destroyed
but simply changed into other forms.
The largest amount of energy available on Earth is the mass of its material and from the
Sun radiation. The Sun is our largest fuel source that created fossil fuels used today.
Einstein’s original statement is “If a body releases the energy L in the form of radiation,
its mass is decreased by L/V2” which is known as E = mc2 (where c is the speed of light).
Because the speed of light is very large, a tiny bit of mass can generate a lot of energy.
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5
Technology wild cards
A ‘wild card’ is an unpredictable or unforeseeable factor that occurs outside of the
normal rules and expectations. Examples of technology wild cards may include
a) progress in technologies to produce new hydrocarbons with less GHG impacts at lower
price than $50 a barrel, b) technologies to produce mechanical work and electricity with
much less fuel, and c) others with substantial paradigm changes with much higher
energy and power density with minimal waste and environmental impacts, such as a new
nuclear technology with minimal harmful radiation, no dangerous wastes and little
undesirable environmental impact.
Several classes of disruptive technologies (see references such as (Brimley, et al., 2013,
Closson, 2013, CSIS, 2014, Medina, et al., 2014, Nathwani, et al., 2014, Weiss and
Bonvillian, 2014)) are not discussed here but are part of the normal evolutionary
technologies as per the preceding references and most of the relevant ones to the CAF are
already included in the technologies recommended in this report under the DOES targets
and in the Annexes supporting the examples provided. According to (Brimley, et al.,
2013) ”What makes a technology ‘game changing’, ‘revolutionary’, ‘disruptive’ or a ‘killer
application’ is that it both offers capabilities that were not available – and were in many
ways unimaginable – a generation earlier and in so doing provokes deep questions
whose answers are not readily available. These kinds of institutional, organizational and
even individual soul-searching questions encompass not only what is possible, but also
what is proper, in everything from doctrine and staffing to law and ethics. Such
technologies – be they fire, the printing press, gunpowder, the steam engine or the
computer – are rare but truly consequential.”
A possible wild card could be the discovery of an environment-friendly and cost-effective
technology to extract methane hydrate which according to Laszlo Varro of the
International Energy Agency (IEA) could be a game charger for countries such as Japan.
“Potentially commercially exploitable methane hydrate (3000 billion tons of carbon)
represents about three times as much of all commercially exploitable natural gas (96
billion tons of carbon), oil (160 billion tons of carbon) and coal (675 billion tons of
carbon) combined 43.” However, this means emitting more GHG.
Another example is the possibility for a significant improvement in jet propulsion
making an important game changing: “SABRE engine technology can enable aircraft to
cruise within the atmosphere at speeds of up to five times the speed of sound with a
range of as much as 20,000 km (half way around the world). 44” This is probable since Air
Force Research Laboratory's Aerospace Systems Directorate (AFRL/RQ), European
Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency made major investments in such
technologies. An opposing force nation with such propulsion advantage for their military
platforms may create an undesirable situation.
The third example is related to a variety of emerging energy technologies claimed by
several organizations and individuals to be able to produce at very low cost, high volume,
high energy density and power density with no major environmental negative impacts.
Such technologies claim energy densities illustrated in Figure 17 under the label of ‘new
43
44
https://www.wou.edu/las/physci/Energy/Gas_Hydrates.html (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
http://www.reactionengines.co.uk/mach5cruise.html (Access date: 23 Sept. 2014).
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
41
nuclear technologies’ since the energy densities claimed were much above what is
currently known.
New nuclear technologies
Old nuclear technologies
In situ fuel generation, e.g., SHT?
Internal combustion
turbine and jet engines
Fuel cells
Batteries
Capacitors
Figure 17: Ragone chart modified to show selected categories of energy sources. 45
Such emerging technology is considered disruptive. According to a United Kingdom
MOD report, “Global Strategic Trends - Out to 2040” (MOD, 2010), not only trends drive
the future situation but shocks like:
x The 2007-8 financial crisis.
x The 9/11 terrorist attacks.
x The collapse of the Berlin Wall.
“Strategic shocks have a cascade effect, leading to multiple, apparently unconnected and
unforeseen changes. They transform the strategic context, changing behaviour and
activity across the board. For example, the 2007 financial crisis began with US sub-prime
debt… the future cannot be predicted in detail or with certainty. However, they will
inevitably influence defence and security in some way, providing a strong argument for
versatile and adaptable defence institutions, equipment and personnel to deal with the
unexpected challenges they will present.”
More details about the data and methods used in developing this Ragone chart are available at:
http://www.lenrftw.net/comparing_energy_sources.html (Access date: 14 May 2014).
45
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This MOD report selected five credible strategic shocks and the third one is about a new
energy source, more efficient than anything available currently. 46
“New Energy Source. A novel, efficient form of energy generation could be developed
that rapidly lowers demand for hydrocarbons. For example, the development of
commercially available cold fusion reactors could result in the rapid economic
marginalisation of oil-rich states. This loss of status and income in undiversified
economies could lead to state-failure and provide opportunities for extremist groups to
rise in influence.”
The remainder of this Chapter will be covering such new energy source which was given
different names over the years from the coined label ‘cold fusion’ then to Low Energy
Nuclear Reactions (LENR), Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR), Lattice
Assisted Nuclear Reactions (LANR), Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS) and
Lattice Enabled Nuclear Reactions. For this report the term LENR has been selected due
to its support by a variety of organisations and its documentation (references such as
(Storms, 2007) provide a good overview of this emerging disruptive technology).
Recently LENR has been identified as one of the technology to be considered by the
technology watch of TTCP MAR TP-8 Power and Energy, Materials and Systems.
Another important aspect beside the fact that the MOD recognized cold fusion (or other
high-efficiency energy source technologies) as a credible strategic shock is the likelihood
that China will be fast at massively producing it.
Figure 17 provides the order of magnitudes of what new nuclear technologies may bring
to our spectrum of options for future energy sources. It includes LENR and another
possibility reported under ‘in situ fuel production’ as follows: The high rates of hydrogen
production as claimed by Solar Hydrogen Trends (SHT) 47 were confirmed by third party
measurements (209 kL/h for 415 Wh, that generating hydrogen at an equivalent of
626 kWh, or a COP of 1500). The size and weight of tested devices were small, similar to
LENR ones. So both LENR and SHT devices are in the bubble labelled ‘New nuclear
technologies’ in Figure 17. This is enough energy to power large aircraft such as a 747 or
C17 when the technology becomes commercially viable. Another contender of high
energy density source is the compact fusion reactor (CFR) by Lockheed Martin which
targets prototypes in five years and commercialisation in ten years 48.
NASA considers such options for their LENR aircraft. 49
As shown in Figure 17, LENR and SHT stacks up against electrochemical devices,
chemical reactions, nuclear fission plants, fusion and renewables.
Most recent results from the third party independent E-Cat trials 50 showed exceptional
energy densities. When including internal plus external components the volumetric
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/dcdc-global-strategic-trends-programmeglobal-strategic-trends-out-to-2040 (Access date: 14 May 2014).
47 http://www.solarhydrogentrends.com/ (Access date: 13 May 2014).
48 http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/news/press-releases/2014/october/141015ae_lockheedmartin-pursuing-compact-nuclear-fusion.html (Access date: 16 Oct. 2014).
49 http://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/17WELLS_ABSTRACT.pdf (Access
date: 27 Jan. 2014).
46
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43
energy density observed was (3.6 104 ± 12%) MJ/L and the gravimetric energy density
was (1.3 104 ± 10%) MJ/kg. The energy densities of gasoline are 32.4 MJ/L and
44.4 MJ/kg respectively. So the E-Cat is thousand times more volumetric energy dense
and 293 times more gravimetric energy dense than gasoline.
The conservative E-Cat gravimetric power density was (4.7 103 ± 10%) W/kg. Jet engines
of Boeing 747 and Airbus A300 offer a power density 5.67 kw/kg. So the E-Cat is almost
as gravimetric power dense as these jet engines. Wärtsilä RTA96-C 14-cylinder twostroke turbo diesel engines display 0.03 kW/kg. So the E-Cat is 100 times more
gravimetric power dense than these ship engines.
The E-Cat fuel weight of the charge was 1 g. It delivered the following thermal energy
density and power density: (1.6 106 ± 10%) Wh/kg or (5.8 106 ± 1 0%) MJ/kg, and
(2.1 106 ± 10%) W/kg. These results place the E-Cat beyond any conventional source of
energy. It is close to the energy densities of nuclear sources, such as U235, but it is lower
than the latter by at least one order of magnitude.
http://www.sifferkoll.se/sifferkoll/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/LuganoReportSubmit.pdf
(Access date: 15 Oct. 2014).
50
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6
Conclusion
Energy drives all activities of DND/CAF from those executed by a single soldier to the
most complex and advanced defence and security capability which may exploit assets
such as tactical platforms, forward operating bases, cyber warfare, C4ISR and directed
energy weapons. Planning and strategic decisions from National Defence Headquarters
(NDHQ) cannot be sustained and executed effectively without the appropriate level of
power and energy. Energy is the unique enabler powering all military systems, it makes
all military systems function.
Due to its pervasive impact, energy security in a defence context could be defined as
follows: The condition that exists whereby defence infrastructure and tactical forces, in
both domestic and expeditionary scenarios, have assured access to reliable, sufficient,
affordable and safe supplies of energy necessary to conduct operations, thereby ensuring
mission continuity. As stated in (Johnston, 2011) “A more fundamental problem that
stems from nationalization of oil and gas operations is the ability it provides
governments to disrupt energy supplies for purely political objectives — the so-called
‘Energy Weapon’. Supply disruption of this type can be carried out by the producing
states or by the transit states that control pipelines or transportation corridors. Their
intent in doing so is to force a consumer state, or group of consumer states, to change
their behaviour in a way that the antagonist desires.”
Based on the findings and facts presented in this report and several of the referenced
material, a review of the evidences and the identification of the most important
observations will be presented here. Recommendations for addressing the targets were
suggested. In addition to this, selected areas for future analyses will be identified.
6.1
Observations
Given the nature of each DND/CAF capability, infrastructure and platform, their
particular energy demands and power requirements are a function of operational
constraints and uncertainties at play. In order to project such energy demands in future
operations and missions, logistics planning analysts used recommendations based on
past experiences, agreed set of scenarios and expected operational conditions. However,
analysts will add some contingency planning in order to reduce risk associated with the
uncertainty about future threats.
Lack of sufficient energy at a given time and location could place units in undesirable
and disadvantageous posture. On the other hand, abusive excess of energy resource at a
given time and location may create a similar effect, unduly increasing the fully burden
cost of energy for a mission, and depriving other units at other locations to access
required energy at a critical time. So energy must be managed strategically and
logistically as a function of the evolving operations and threats.
Enduring energy strategies must include an increased level of energy value awareness
and understanding of energy value to mission success at all levels of decisions, from
lower rank soldiers to higher command rank positions.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
45
Evidences provided in this report are only examples of what can be done to benefit from
the first DND/CAF operational energy strategy (DOES) in terms of increased capabilities
for the amount of resource invested in achieving specific energy targets. It is critical to
use cost-benefit analyses and life cycle cost when considering opting for a new form of
operational energy and its delivery. In most cases observed, traditional methods of
energy delivery use existing infrastructure and delivery asset while alternative energy
means and delivery asset require some capital investments. So the immediate cost is
higher than status quo energy forms and delivery. On the other hand once assessed over
a sufficient period to amortize the initial capital investment, alternative energy forms
and delivery methods suggested in this report and applied by Allied forces offer clear
advantages such as reducing cost per year, reducing logistic tail burden while increasing
platforms and force capabilities.
In addition to increase CAF capabilities, solutions aligned with DOES targets offer a
substantial reduction in fossil fuel demand, GHGs and environmental impact.
To gain such advantages, each environment (CA, RCN and RCAF) and DND L1s having
an impact on energy usage and projects related to the DOES Targets will have to
establish how they will contribute in achieving the agreed objectives timely. That will
require ensuring that energy awareness and responsibility get understood by all
DND/CAF, at all levels.
For example during the process of force development and capability acquisition,
decisions need to be informed by an understanding of the evolving respective energy
requirements, e.g., assuming a persistently increasing FBCE of fossil fuel. Given the long
life cycles of military equipment, analysts and decision makers need to realistically assess
the FBCE required by a new platform to ensure its affordability over its life time.
The trend of the DND/CAF energy cost reported in Section 2.3, assuming that the fleet
energy price will increase at the same rate as for the last 14 years, showed that cost
approximately double in a decade. So the total CAF fleet energy spending would have
increased from approximately 140 million dollars in fiscal year 1998/99 to 800 million
dollars in 2030/31, about six times as much if no significant corrective actions are taken.
The total DND/CAF energy cost (538 million in 2010-11) follows a similar trend from
about 240 million to 1,100 million dollars by 2031, which is about five times as much.
6.2
Discussion
Over the realm of possible initiatives and technologies to curb the observed persistent
cost increase of DND/CAF energy before it reaches an unsustainable level for Canada,
there are strategic decisions that need to be made such as: when deploying or not forces
and for how long, mission planning that includes FBCE, adoption of an energy
conservative attitude, selecting more energy efficient amenities and capabilities,
adopting energy source diversification and selecting improved energy conversion
technologies for the desired end uses.
There are accumulated evidences that more energy technologies will move us away from
fossil fuels.
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6.3
Areas that require further research
In the context of ensuring a timely return of energy improvement projects in terms of
defence operational capabilities delivered, the following activities were identified.
Cost-benefit analyses and operational research:
x Ensure that planned and future DND/CAF facilities and renovation programmes of
existing facilities meet DOES targets: life-cycle cost for example by investing in
higher efficiency devices and higher energy density sources at lower cost over the
total useful life time, e.g., heat pump with ground loop, solar production of fuel to
use in SOFC when energy demand is high and renewables are not suitable for the
intended end use, or the use of micro-nuclear power source.
x Quantify the FBCE of energy for off-grid stations and forward operating bases for
traditional energy sources and fuels to compare the operational advantages of
alternative delivery such as in-situ fuel production and other locally produced
energy such as solar with associate microgrid and storage.
x Examine the options, costs, feasibility and challenges of upgrading legacy surface
and sub-surface platforms to electric drive using technology such as SOFC or adding
heat loss recovery systems to produce electricity for C4ISR, weapon systems,
amenities and hotel load.
x Estimate the increase in capabilities of legacy air platforms from the technology
options presented in this report and its references for new technologies options as
they reach the required level of maturity for such platform (same for CA and RCN
platforms).
x Similar estimates must be developed for the acquisition of new air platforms (same
for CA and RCN platforms).
x Examine the US military experience in exploiting alternative energy sources.
Strategic analyses:
x Quantify the potential impact of advanced energy technologies used by opposing
forces and terrorist groups on DND/CAF vulnerability at home and abroad.
x Quantify the potential advantage of DND/CAF of adopting advanced energy
technologies early, e.g., lower volume and lower weight devices with more
capabilities replacing existing inefficient devices to increase legacy platform
performance and capabilities.
x Estimate the net advantage of using advance energy technologies and efficient
infrastructure
and
equipment
at
locations
such
as
CFS
Alert.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
47
S&T and R&D unique to DND/CAF energy domain 51:
x Technology demonstrations and unique basic research activities to ensure that
DND/CAF exploit advanced material and intelligent devices such as the use of
nanotechnologies, self-healing structures and networks.
x Exploit data and energy management made possible out of the application of
Target 1 especially for expeditionary operations: “Energy measurement and
management: By 2030, to the maximum extent practicable, bases, platforms and
expeditionary power and heating generation equipment shall employ an automated
data acquisition, recording and metering system that measures the consumption of
fuel from all sources.”
x Appropriate experimentation will be required in order to reduce risk of deploying
CAF with new technologies (Labbé, et al., 2006).
6.4
Which future technologies will be available?
As often proven in the past, it is difficult to predict what technology has in reserve for us
in 5, 10 or 20 years from now in the domain of energy, its transformation and use for a
variety of amenities and end uses. Advances in material driven by our abilities to produce
nanomaterial never seen before with unexpected properties bring a large spectrum of
possibilities. Nanotechnology findings have already changed batteries and capacitors to a
point where one could replace the other, or better, deliver with the advantages of both
with higher gravimetric and volumetric power and energy densities. 52 The same is
observed for magnetic material and superconductors.
51 Here are high-level examples based on discussed DRDC S&T Outcomes: a) ideas and
technologies for first generation non-conventional effectors, including maritime directed energy
and non-kinetic effectors to support force application (by 2025), b) scientific advice to develop
energy initiatives and technologies with the specific goal of increasing the energy efficiency while
decreasing the energy use intensity of RCN platforms (specific goals and an appropriate metric
defined by 2015, and initial technology enablers established by 2020), c) improved self-sufficiency
(without re-supplying for the mission duration) through increased energy efficiency within
acceptable added weight by demonstrating an advanced wearable power system that augments a
dismounted soldier's performance, autonomy, sustainability and effectiveness in dispersed
operations (by 2015), d) increased understanding of threats and opportunities from high energy
lasers for defence applications as well as measure for force protection and laser safety
recommendations for the employment of high powers lasers in the field (by 2016), e) improved
tactical logistics through reduced demand on fossil fuel and better information management by
the provision of camp power and transition to sustainable (reduction of petroleum use) and
economical (no increase in cost) supplies of power and energy in support of Canada’s Army (by
2015), e) ensure that the Air Agile Program also includes all the aspects of system sustainment,
Human performance, Power and Energy and Expeditionary Support, f) Power and Energy –
Efficiency of engines, structures, lighting, etc., will be improved, alternate sources of energy
sought, and interoperability with our Allies who are also seeking and migrating to alternate power
and energy sources must be maintained.
52 This is exemplified by the following recent advances:
a) Maruyama, H., Nakano, H., Nakamoto, M. and Sekiguchi, A. (2014), High-Power
Electrochemical Energy Storage System Employing Stable Radical Pseudocapacitors,
Angewandte Chemie, 126 (5), 1348-1352.
b) http://powerjapanplus.com/news/power-japan-plus-reveals-new-dual-carbon-battery/
(Access date: 14 May 2014).
48
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Consequently, programs must be informed of such advances in order to balance the risk
of a low TRL with high value performance versus a high TRL option providing no
significant advantages.
6.5
Epilogue
If fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel) proved to be of high strategic value since WWI,
what would replace it when its fully burdened cost becomes prohibitive?
New technologies are waiting at the corners of our futures to offer higher energy density
with less adverse environmental impact and at a lower fully burdened cost of energy.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
49
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50
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Annex A
Fully Burdened Cost of Energy (FBCE)
methodology framework
The NATO Fully Burdened Cost of Energy (FBCE) methodology framework 53
(NATO SAS-083, 2013) was developed in order to obtain more realistic estimates of the
total fully burdened cost of delivered energy. FBCE estimates the energy related costs to
operate specific pieces of equipment, including procurement of energy, the logistics
needed to deliver it where and when needed, the related infrastructure, and the force
protection for those logistics forces directly involved in energy delivery. FBCE can be
applied in trade-off analyses for the delivery of energy in the battlespace. It is an analysis
designed to identify the difference in total energy-related costs among competing
options. FBCE estimates can be made and used for the appropriate apportionment of
energy related costs to using countries or other entities.
The FBCE framework was developed primarily from the US FBCE (produced by the
Office of the Secretary of Defense and officially published in Defense Acquisition
Guidebook) and from other nations' FBCE methodologies. Canada and the UK have
developed similar FBCE approaches and this report provides a common NATO
framework with a common taxonomy. This NATO FBCE framework must not be
construed as a change in any way to the US FBCE approved for US activities as stated in
the US Defense Acquisition Guidebook. The NATO FBCE framework has been adapted
here for the purpose of supporting the first DND/CAF Operational Energy Strategy.
A.1
Justification for FBCE
The cost of energy is not simply the commodity cost. Energy requires both personnel and
equipment for such things as transportation, storage, handling and protection from the
point and time of sale. The cost of the personnel and equipment must be added to the
commodity cost to produce an equitable price of energy to the energy end user. The
proper apportionment of energy and energy supply related costs to end users can be
achieved through the calculation of the FBCE.
FBCE can also be used as a comparative measure in the area of operational energy
related processes and equipment choices. The energy required to field and sustain forces
poses significant operating costs and imposes several operational constraints on the
larger force structure. Growing logistics footprints can impede force mobility, flexibility,
timing and staging, especially for anti-access and irregular conflicts. Reducing the need
for energy can have significant benefits for force deployability and the timeline of
operations. Also, this logistics footprint presents a target for conventional, irregular, and
catastrophic threats, creating demand for force protection and transportation forces. In
the conflicts of the past decade, for example, adversaries have targeted fuel resupply
convoys, putting forces and their missions at risk and redirecting combat power and
dollars to fuel delivery.
Conversely, reducing system energy demand can make operational forces more agile and
lethal by extending their range and reducing their dependence on logistics lines. These
53
Paul Labbé led the FBCE contribution to the NATO SAS-083 report.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
59
reductions can be achieved through different, better informed trade space choices,
design alternatives, technologies and force structure concepts.
A.2
FBCE defined
The FBCE is a scenario dependent methodology used to quantify the cost of energy. The
FBCE estimate includes apportioned costs of the combined energy related logistics
(personnel and equipment) needed to store, deliver and protect the energy in a scenario.
Therefore, the FBCE can be used as a basis for apportioning cost among users,
depending upon the scenario and the end users’ demand. Also, calculating the FBCE
gives decision makers a way to more accurately consider the apportioned cost of a user’s
energy logistics footprint for planning purposes. It has the added benefit of informing
decisions on the size and focus of investments in science and technology programs that
affect the energy demands of the force such as engines and propulsion, light-weight
structural and armor materials, power efficiency in electronics, mobile power production
and distribution, and more innovative system design approaches. Also it contributes to
assess more accurately the real return on investment (ROI) of advanced energy sources
and fuels.
The FBCE is the method by which costs to energy end users can be estimated. The FBCE
provides a basis for determination of the appropriate price to charge end users for energy
sustainment.
The FBCE includes the cost of the energy commodity itself and the apportioned cost of
all of the energy logistics and related force protection required beyond the initial point of
the energy commodity acquisition. Contractor logistics and protection should be
considered where appropriate. The cost estimation methods are similar, though the data
sources required may vary. As a decision tool, the FBCE is meant to inform technological
and design choices as applied in requirements development, acquisition trades and
technology investments. Successful implementation will, over time, help manage larger
enterprise risks such as high and volatile fuel prices.
The FBCE can be applied in trade-off analyses conducted for all deployable systems with
end items that create a demand for energy in the battlespace.
The FBCE does not include any energy related disposal considerations. Disposal of such
energy related items (e.g., spent batteries) is up to the consumer and will be directly
disposed of with the disposal costs paid for via the consumer’s process.
Assumptions: In order to estimate operationally realistic costs, all scenarios will have to
be of sufficient duration to account for demanded logistics and force protection. In
addition, the calculation requires participation from force planning and analytic
organizations to appropriately calculate FBCE estimates. The appropriate organizations
vary by service and country.
There is no definitive, ‘correct’ answer for a given system’s FBCE estimate, however,
NATO countries should develop standard, realistic, accepted and analytically defensible
scenarios and cost elements. The scenario assumptions for energy logistics must be
consistent with operational plans and Concepts of Operation. Consistency enables NATO
nations to evaluate their assumptions relative to strategy and doctrine, and make better
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DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
informed risk decisions. All participating countries should use existing analytic tools,
planning data, and costing methodologies where possible to develop FBCE values.
A.3
FBCE Price Taxonomy
Energy Commodity Price (ECP)
The first price element for consideration is the energy commodity itself. This is the rate
that is charged to military customers by a vendor. The actual contracted delivery price
should be used where available.
Tactical Delivery Price (TDP)
The second price element captures the burdens associated with the tactical delivery
assets used by NATO countries to deliver the energy commodity from the point of
acquisition (contract delivery point) to the system that will consume it. It includes: a) the
Operating and Support (O&S) costs and b) the cost of depreciation of the actual delivery
assets. Once NATO takes possession of the energy commodity at the point of sale, it must
employ its own or contracted delivery assets. For the purposes of estimates, the ”energy
commodity delivery assets” mean major items of energy delivery equipment, such as
naval ships, aerial refueling aircraft for fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft, and tanker
trucks and trailers for ground vehicles as well as transportation trucks for energy
commodities other than liquid. It also includes planes that airdrop palletized energy
commodities and rotary-wing aircraft carrying energy commodities for delivery.
a) The O&S cost for the energy commodity delivery assets consists of the costs of
operations and maintenance (O&M) of the vehicles and equipment and the costs for
military and civilian manpower dedicated to specific volumetric and gravimetric
amounts of energy commodity delivered by a mission. This cost is expressed in dollars
per joule ($/J) price or normalized energy price (e.g., $/L of JP-8 that could be
normalized to $/J). If the planning scenarios/missions being used for this calculation
require another country’s assets to deliver energy in the battlespace, involved countries
are expected to share data to facilitate this estimation.
b) The cost of depreciation of the primary energy delivery assets is also part of the second
price element. Depreciation provides a measure of the decline in capital value of the
energy delivery assets over time from use. The standard method is to use straight line
depreciation over the anticipated service life of the primary energy delivery asset. For
example, for a calculation for an aerial system that requires air-to-air refueling as part of
its mission profile/duty cycle, this step would require inclusion of a depreciation value
for the system’s air refueling tanker.
An additional part of the cost of depreciation is the potential loss of delivery assets due to
hostile attack or other attrition. Based on the scenario selected, there is a definable
probability that the associated logistics platforms will be interdicted and destroyed. If
destroyed, the entire remaining value of the platform is immediately amortized and this
cost is added to this price element. Depending on the quantity of energy commodity
being carried by the delivery asset, an adjustment to the amount of energy commodity
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
61
obtained from the point of sale will be required to account for this potential loss, if
appropriate.
Infrastructure Operations and Support Price (IOSP)
The third price element is infrastructure, which may include the price of O&S and
recapitalization for the facilities (such as fueling facilities and energy commodity storage
sites and recharging stations) and related ground system equipment (such as pumps, fuel
storage bladders, hose lines, and other refueling equipment to include maintenance and
parts for refueling vehicles and other related ground refueling equipment as well as
energy related material handling equipment, energy commodity storage facilities and
energy recharging stations). The costs to deploy the delivery assets may also be included,
if the assets need to be transported to the theater of interest. This applies only to
infrastructure that is operated by NATO and member countries in the theaters of
interest.
Security Price (SP)
The fourth and final price element includes the costs of escort protection of the energy
supply chain in hostile environments. In the case of NATO force protection assets
allocated to the energy commodity delivery forces, the operational and sustainment
costs, direct commodity costs and the depreciation costs will also have to be estimated
and included in the overall calculation. In essence, all of the costs considered in the
second price element should also be considered for security assets. This includes the
possibility that some security assets will be destroyed due to hostile activity while
protecting the energy supply chain. In some high-risk scenarios, force protection costs
may be the largest factor in the FBCE estimate.
Assured Delivery Price (ADP) Computation
The Assured Delivery Price (ADP) is needed as an interim value to compute the FBCE. It
is a measure of the burdened cost of the energy, in $/J, with all the tactical delivery
assets and force protection needed to assure that the energy commodity is safely
delivered to a given location. The price elements described in Table A.1 provide a
framework for determining the ADP of energy within a given scenario.
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DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Table A.1: Summary of price elements to apply within each scenario to determine the
assured delivery price (ADP).
Element
Price Element
1
Energy Commodity Price (ECP)
2
Tactical Delivery Price (TDP)
Burden Description
Acquisition price of energy
a) Energy Delivery Operation and Support
Price
Energy unit price of operating
energy delivery assets
including the cost of military
and civilian personnel
dedicated to the energy
mission
b) Depreciation Price of Energy Delivery
Assets
Decline in value of energy
delivery assets using straightline depreciation over total
service life. Combat losses due
to attack or other loss (terrain,
accident, etc.) should be
captured as a fully depreciated
vehicle (vehicle includes land,
air and sea).
3
Infrastructure Operations and Support
Price (IOSP) :Infrastructure,
Environmental, and other miscellaneous
costs over/above and distinct from the
energy commodity cost
Energy unit price of energy
infrastructure, regulatory
compliance, tactical terminal
operations and other expenses
as appropriate.
4
Security Price (SP)
Potential energy unit price
associated with delivering
energy such as convoy escort
and force protection. Includes
the manpower, O&S, asset
depreciation costs, and losses
associated with force
protection.
This is based on the NATO FBCE model.
The ADP can be expressed by the following equation:
$'3 ™(&3™7'3™,263™63
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
(A.1)
63
A.4
Methodology
Framework
The basic framework to calculate the FBCE extends to all forms of energy demands (e.g.,
liquid fuel, fuel cells, batteries, hybrid-electric engines, nuclear and solar energy
sources). Figure A.1 shows the demand driven fuel/energy delivery process within a
scenario. The associated costs depicted are the costs that comprise the FBCE.
Costs: Contract
and/or IOSP & SP
Costs: ECP
Energy
Commodity
Acquisition
Point
Costs: IOSP & SP
Distribution
to End Users
Area Assured
Delivery
Price (ADP,
$/J, $/gal)
Costs: Contract
and/or TDP & SP
Transportation to
NATO Storage
Point (via
contract or not)
In Theater
NATO
Storage &
Handling
Facilities
Costs: Contract
and/or TDP & SP
Deliver to
NATO/Country
including force
protection
FBCE = Sum of All Costs Incurred Per
Scenario Phase (time) in $/day
=
FBCE is the
total
energy
related
costs for a
unit of time
such as
scenario
duration or
per day.
System Energy
Demand by End
User/Consumer
FBCE ($/day)
Figure A.1: FBCE scenario fuel/energy delivery process diagram.
There are two key analytical components essential to developing a FBCE value:
1. Scenarios. Countries decide upon a representative set of future operational
scenarios or vignettes. For purposes of computing the FBCE, scenarios must be of
sufficient duration to require logistical re-supply of energy. Once the FBCE is
calculated for the selected scenarios, a simple mean average of the results can be
computed if desired.
2. Apportionment. Countries determine what proportion of the energy logistics
footprint identified in the selected scenarios is attributable to the forces (soldier
systems), platform or system in question. Is it drawing 5% of the energy from the
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DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
energy logistics units in the scenario, or 20%, or 50%? Because no single system in
any operation takes 100% of the energy, it would be inappropriate to attribute 100%
of the logistics tail cost to one system when calculating FBCE. The apportioned
percentage of demand should equal the total energy distributed.
Fully Burdened Cost of Energy computation
FBCE is the total energy related costs for a unit of time such as scenario duration or per
day. The FBCE is computed dependent upon the scenario being considered.
In relation to this definition of FBCE, in a post-war reconstruction environment based on
the Iraq and Afghanistan data, (Fiala, 2009) expands the methodology to quantify the
fully burdened cost of electricity generation.
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Annex B
Fuel demand modeling
This annex discusses the methodology and assumptions for modeling and analysis of fuel
requirements for CAF expeditionary operations. More details are provided in the
following DRDC Report (Ghanmi, 2013b).
B.1
Methodology
A Monte Carlo simulation framework was developed to study the expected fuel demand
of potential future CAF expeditionary operations. The framework establishes a common
set of parameters describing a typical 3-year period; within this framework, individual
parameters such as locations of deployments, frequency of sustainment flights, operating
hours of power generator systems, travel distances of ground vehicles, etc., are then
generated stochastically. To allow for meaningful statistical evaluation, fuel consumption
data are simulated and collected for a large number of randomly generated 3-year
intervals.
In the simulation framework, a generic baseline scenario was constructed based on
historical CAF deployment packages. The scenario considered a light mechanized task
force based on Operation ATHENACanada’s contribution to the International Security
Assistance Forces in Afghanistan. Potential deployment destinations of the task force
were determined through the use of 2012 Failed States Index, a combination of 12 social,
economic and political/military indicators developed in Fund for Peace (2012). Within
the simulation framework, probabilities of occurrence were assigned to each country
based on the ranking of the failed and failing states. The mapping of the probabilities of
occurrence to the indexes of failed and failing states was performed using a simple affine
transformation of the index subject to a normalization constraint. To simplify the
problem, only the top 60 failed and failing states are considered in the analysis. The
impact of adding more failed and failing states on the expected results would be minimal.
Each randomly generated 3-year time period within the simulation framework follows a
common pattern. At the beginning of the simulation, an Operation ATHENA-like task
force is deployed in a country randomly selected from the set of failed and failing states.
This task force will then redeploy to Canada at the end of the operation. Deployed forces
will be re-supplied via sustainment flights at a rate consistent with historical experience
data.
B.2
Assumptions
There are several important assumptions that underlie the analysis of the operational
energy demand using the simulation framework. Foremost among these, this study was
restricted to the analysis of fuel consumption and did not consider other types of energy
such as electricity (which could be generated using fuel) and recharging batteries. In
military operations, fuel is a critical logistics enabler for mission effectiveness and
represents the most important form of energy consumed in theatre, particularly for
mobility and power generation activities. While operational energy involves both
domestic and international operations, this study focused on the energy demand for
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
67
expeditionary operations as historical energy consumption data for domestic operations
can be found in the CAF fuel and lubricants management system.
Historically, the CAF used a combination of chartered and native assets for deployment,
sustainment and redeployment lift operations. This includes strategic airlift and sealift as
well as ground movement. For the purpose of this study, only fuel consumption by native
airlift assets (the CAF has no native sealift strategic assets) was simulated and calculated.
A ratio of native to chartered airlift sorties consistent with historical experience was used
in the analysis. Airlift flying times were determined using the great circle distance
method, neglecting diplomatic over-flight clearances or weather conditions.
Different types of fuels and lubricants are used in military operations, notably aviation
fuel for aircraft and helicopters, diesel for ground vehicles, marine fuel for ships,
gasoline, etc., For simplicity, it is assumed that operational fuel requirements are
grouped into three main categories, namely aviation fuel, diesel for ground systems, and
ship’s fuel. Note that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been
developing standards of a single fuel concept for air and ground assets. Lubricant
requirements were not considered in the analysis.
Finally, in order to avoid issues with classified information, the conditional probabilities
that Canada would respond to crises in a given failed or failing state were deliberately
neglected. Inclusion of these effects would tend to place greater weight on areas of
strategic importance to Canada while reducing the importance of being capable of rapid
deployment to other areas.
B.3
Operational scenario
The initial deployment of vehicles and equipment during Operation ATHENA was
conducted by sealift from Montréal, Canada to Derince, Turkey and then by airlift into
Kabul, Afghanistan using a fleet of chartered lift assets. Another set of vehicles was later
moved to the theatre of operations using contracted lift and the CAF strategic air lift
aircraft (CC-177). The total number of vehicles deployed to Afghanistan was about 800.
To maintain a close parallel with historical movements, a two-phase deployment
consisting of an initial sealift from Montréal to an intermediate Seaport of
Disembarkation (SPOD) followed by an airlift to the final Airport of Disembarkation
(APOD) at a given failed and failing state was considered in the framework. However, for
the purpose of this analysis the airlift was conducted using both chartered aircraft and
CC-177. Note that the CC-177 aircraft was not available at the time of the initial
deployment of Operation ATHENA but was later used for the sustainment and
redeployment lift operations. A number of CC-177 sorties, consistent with the historical
Operation ATHENA redeployment lift, were assumed for the deployment. Six SPODs
located at different strategic regions, known as Operational Support Hubs (OSH), are
considered for the deployment: Spangdahlem, Germany; Dakar, Senegal; Mombasa,
Kenya; Kuwait, Kuwait; Singapore, Singapore; and Kingston, Jamaica.
The Operation ATHENA redeployment was conducted in three phases. High priority
items, representing about 25 to 35 CC-177 sorties, were redeployed directly from
Afghanistan to Trenton, Canada. Some equipment (e.g., high value items) were moved to
an OSH using chartered airlift and CC-177 (about 150 to 200 sorties) and then by
chartered sealift to Canada. The remaining equipment and cargo were moved by land to
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DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Karachi, Pakistan and then by sea to Montréal. In the simulation framework, it is
assumed that the task force redeployed by sea for failed and failing states in the littorals
and used the same lines of communication as the Operation ATHENA redeployment for
failed and failing states in land-locked countries.
Operation ATHENA personnel were deployed from Trenton to an intermediate staging
base (e.g., operational support hub) using the CC-150 strategic lift aircraft, and then to
the theatre of operations using the CC-130 tactical lift aircraft. Troop rotations were
conducted every six months using the same transportation approach. At the end of the
mission, troop redeployed through an intermediate staging base (for decompression)
using CC-150 aircraft. During the employment phase, the task force was supported with
sustainment flights from Trenton at the historical rate.
For the purpose of this analysis, the baseline scenario also considered the deployment of
an Air Force component and a naval task force. For the Air Force component, in addition
to the strategic and tactical lift assets (CC-177, CC-150, CC-130) that were used for the
deployment, sustainment and redeployment of the task force, a number of tactical
helicopters (6 CH-147 Chinook and 8 CH-146 Griffon) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
(UAVs) were also deployed with Operation ATHENA. The helicopters played several
operational roles such as tactical logistics transport, medical evacuation, and rescue
operations whereas UAVs were used to support surveillance and reconnaissance
missions. For the naval task force, it is assumed that a number of CAF frigates were
deployed at various locations in support of international activities (e.g., anti-piracy
missions). For planning purposes, each ship deploys for a six-month period. Historical
CAF ship deployments were used as proxies upon which simulated deployments were
based.
B.4
Fuel consumption prediction model
In the framework, fuel requirements are modeled and simulated for land, air, and
maritime operations independently. For land operations, fuel requirements are mainly
determined by the daily consumption of ground vehicles and power generation systems
of the task forces. NATO has developed a standardization agreement (STANAG) for
computing fuel requirements for an operational base, STANAG 2115. The STANAG
determines a standard estimation for fuel consumption of a military unit called Fuel
Consumption Unit (FCU). The FCU represents the quantity of fuel (in litre) required per
day for the operation of a given unit under assumed average operating conditions for a
given standard performance. The FCU can be calculated using the average consumption
rates of all equipment of the unit as follows (assuming a single fuel):
FCU
V
¦ cv d v v 1
G
¦r h
g
g
(B.1)
g 1
where:
V
G
v
g
number of vehicles in the unit;
number of power generators in the unit;
index of vehicles;
index of generators;
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
69
cv
rg
dv
hg
average fuel consumption rate of vehicle v (L/km);
average fuel consumption rate of generator g (L/h);
average daily distance traveled by vehicle v (km/day);
average daily operating hours of generator g (h/day).
For units involved in combat operations or for special terrains or weather conditions
other than normal, a series of operational factors affecting the fuel consumption are
derived in the STANAG for use in modifying the standard day to fit the combat day.
These operational factors are grouped into three categories, namely: combat intensity,
terrain and weather factors. To calculate the fuel requirement per day of land systems, all
FCUs are multiplied by the appropriate operational factors. The total fuel demand of the
land task force (FLand) is calculated by multiplying the daily fuel requirements by the
mission duration D (in days):
FLand
U
D ¦ Bm Tm Wm FCU m
(B.2)
m 1
where:
U
m
Bm
Tm
Wm
number of units in the operation;
index of units;
combat intensity factor for unit m;
terrain factor for unit m;
weather factor for unit m.
For the Air Force component, fuel requirements are mainly determined by the
consumption of assets during the deployment, sustainment and redeployment airlift
operations as well as the tactical helicopter and UAV operations in theatre. Currently, the
CAF would use three types of aircraft (CC-177, CC-150, and CC-130) for airlift operations,
in addition to chartered assets. The lines of communication between Trenton and the
APOD in failed or failing states would have various nodes and airlift legs, depending on
the type of lift (tactical, strategic) and the kind of move (cargo, personnel). An airlift leg
is a distance between two nodes in the lines of communication. For example, the airlift
leg between a given OSH and the APOD at destination would be used for tactical lift. For
the 3-year scenario, the total fuel demand of the airlift operations (FAirlift) can be
calculated as follows:
FAirlift
N
M
¦¦ 2 n
ij
i 1 j 1
ci
dj
(B.3)
vi
where:
N
M
i
j
ci
vi
dj
70
number of aircraft types;
number of airlift legs;
index of aircraft types;
index of airlift legs;
average fuel consumption rate of aircraft type i (L/h);
average speed of aircraft type i (km/h);
distance of leg j (km);
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
nij
number of sorties of aircraft i on leg j.
For tactical air operations using helicopters and UAVs, the fuel consumption (FTactical) is
calculated as follows:
FTactical
P
D ¦ np xp t p
(B.4)
p 1
where:
P
p
np
xp
tp
number of asset types (Griffon, Chinook, UAV);
index of asset types;
number of asset of type p;
average fuel consumption rate of asset type p (L/h);
average flying hours per day for asset type p (h/day).
For maritime operations, fuel consumptions for a 3-year scenario (FMarine) can be
calculated as follows (there are six periods of six months each in the scenario):
FMarine
S
6 ¦ y k qk
(B.5)
k 1
where:
S
k
yk
qk
number of ships;
index of ships;
average fuel consumption rate of ship k (L/day);
average number of days per period for ship k (days/period).
The fuel consumption rate per day (yk) depends on the ship class and its cruising speed
(in-harbour, in-transit, and high intensity). In the model, the percentage of time spent by
a ship at a given speed in operations is represented by a probability distribution function.
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Annex C
Motivation of mission continuity depending
on critical infrastructure
Under identified circumstances DND has the mandate to coordinate efforts with
Canadian civilian organizations, departments and agencies. In order to project the
Canadian government influence here and abroad, DND command centers, CAF bases
and stations must be able to respond timely and proportionally to the level of effort
requested. With the request to deploy CAF abroad comes an incremental budget that
could be revised as the situation dealt with evolves. So the flow of incremental budget is
proportional to the DND effort at stake. In case of expeditionary operations, it is more
obvious in terms of involved force asset and personnel deployed but the same is required
for operations within Canada. With any of these operations here and abroad, there is a
flow of asset and personnel to be sustained. The incremental budget must include all the
supplementary cost such as “additional cost to deploy troops and equipment and to
provide ongoing maintenance and support during the applicable operation”. In addition
to all the personnel and equipment required for any of these operations, energy due to its
market volatility evolved into a difficult to predict budget line item, one that constantly
increased over the last decades. For deployed forces, we developed an agreed FBCE
model to be applied among nations participating jointly in such international missions.
To deliver the required D&S capabilities here and abroad, DND command centers, bases
and stations must maintain a state of readiness and being able to sustain the expected
tempo of operations as per its mandate. So support to CAF personnel placed in harm’s
way depends on the supply essential to ensure the desired operational effectiveness
which includes best training, equipment and resources. In some circumstances, as for
deployment within Canada, the sustainability logical path is less understood but still
necessary. For deployed forces it is obvious that all the required resources flow through
the incremental budget. It starts from Canada command centers and bases and it reaches
the operational deployed forces. Operational asset and personnel include all involved
and that includes the energy required. When our forces are deployed abroad, we
assumed that our command centers and bases are fully operational. As observed during
major electricity black out here and in other countries, since most of our command
centers and bases depend on regional and provincial utilities and services, these critical
operational components become too rapidly vulnerable and unsuited to deliver the
expected command and services at the level and persistence required under their
mandates. Fuel reserves for such operational Canadian defence facilities and their fleets
are limited. In case of energy (fuel and electricity) disruption in a geographical area of
Canada, DND current energy emergency reserves are quite limited. In order to reduce
this vulnerability, ADM (Mat) DF&L is working on an analysis for the department
Strategic Fuel Reserve that will provide suggestions for stocks of refined ready to use fuel
by DND/CAF. OCDE nations including our neighbour, the USA, have devised plans for
extended operations independently from the civilian utility services for fuel and
electricity. They plan for command centers and bases to be able to operate over much
longer period than our current sustainable capabilities. Given the increase of
uncertainties driven by climate change, rate and magnitude of disasters, and market
volatility of energy (both fuel and electricity), Canada must be prepared to respond to
such events here as well as to be able to deploy sustainably abroad.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
73
Excerpts
from
http://www.vcds.forces.gc.ca/sites/internet-eng.aspx?page=14661
(Access date: 9 April 2013):
1. "Full DND Cost" is the sum of incremental cost plus the salaries of Regular Force
personnel, equipment depreciation, command and support cost, as well as the
operating cost of some major equipment, such as aircraft, that are within normal
planned activity rates and, therefore, had not been included in incremental cost.
2. "Incremental DND Cost" is the additional costs for personnel and equipment that are
directly attributable to the Canadian Forces operation. More specifically, incremental
costs include the additional cost to deploy troops and equipment and to provide
ongoing maintenance and support during the applicable operation, in addition to any
specialized training required for the operation. DND does not include the full capital
acquisition cost of major equipment in incremental cost, unless procured specifically
for the mission with no life expectancy post operation, as this equipment will not be
used in other CAF operations. However, the full cost includes depreciation of major
equipment.
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Annex D Crude oil price, energy consumption
trends, energy forms and Earth’s reserves
D.1
Crude oil price trend
Models developed for forecasting crude oil price rely on a variety of facts and other
expected trends such as: past data, expected future demands, level of available sources of
petrol, economic stability of the countries providing the main sources of crude, expected
demand from emerging economies, availability of alternate energy sources and policies.
In addition to such factors if the price of jet fuel is of interest, other factors include
refinery capacity and availability as function of time, import and export constraints, and
distribution and transport to hubs that serve specific services. As for most products,
price is affected by offer and demand.
For the purpose of this report, Brent Crude was selected given it is applied to price two
thirds of the world’s international trading of crude oil. “The other well-known
classifications (also called references or benchmarks) are the Organization of the
Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Reference Basket, Dubai Crude, Oman Crude,
and West Texas Intermediate. Brent is the leading global price benchmark for Atlantic
basin crude oils. It is used to price two thirds of the world's internationally traded crude
oil supplies.” 54
The following chart, Figure D.1, is derived from the data provided in the US Energy
Information Administration (EIA) | Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (DOE/EIA, 2013a,
2013b). It shows the high likelihood of an increase in the price of oil barrel in the future.
If the reference projection is right that would mean a 60% increase in 2011 US dollars by
2040.
Figure D.1: Historical and projected price of oil barrel in 2011 $US: Annual
average spot price for Brent crude oil in three cases, 1990-2040,
data from (DOE/EIA, 2013a, Fig. 21).
54
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brent_Crude (Access date: 18 Feb. 2014)
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
75
If this 60% increase in oil price translates in the overall energy cost of DND/CAF that
raises an important flag to the sustainability of CAF operations here and abroad.
D.2
World energy consumption trend
Figure D.2 illustrates the expected world total primary energy consumption trend to
2035, (DOE/EIA, 2011). This figure shows that much of the growth in energy
consumption occurs in countries outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (non-OECD). This certainly expresses a significant pressure point for
future conflicts if not taken into account in our strategic plans.
In quad = quadrillion Btu = 1.055 EJ
World total primary energy consumption
800
700
600
500
400
Non-OECD
300
OECD
200
100
0
1990
1997
2004
2011
2018
2025
2032
Data source: DOE/EIA-0484(2011)
Figure D.2: Expected energy consumption increase dominated by non-OECD
countries future demands.
D.3
Information technology and electricity demand trend
Also another important trend to consider is the constant increase in data processing and
exchange required in modern operations. If this is compounded with cyber warfare and
intelligence over telecommunication and Internet, this may translate in substantial
energy cost increases illustrated by Figure D.3 where the GHG doubled over a period of
five years (Janof, 2012). From these trends it is reasonable to expect that the energy
demand from information technologies used by DND/CAF to more than double over the
next decade if remediation actions are not initiated soon.
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DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Mt CO2 eq.
Figure D.3: Historical and 2011 projected GHG of data centers 55.
The chart of Figure D.4 provides an example of the energy breakdown of a server where
only 37% of the energy is for the server itself (Rasmussen, 2010). It is important to
observe that a large part of the energy directed to information technologies is essentially
for cooling.
Figure D.4: Energy breakdown of a server with an energy allocation of 930 W.
The scenarios for Figure D.5 are described in the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) executive summary report (EPA, 2007). Essentially the best practices and state of
the art scenarios assumed moving in a new facilities or major upgrades to existing ones
to better match the ‘ENERGY STAR®’ specifications. The improved operation scenario
assumed no significant capital investment but offers electricity cost savings in excess of
20% according to this report. The current efficiency trends scenario represents the effect
http://www.djc.com/news/en/12038213.html (Access date: 14 May 2014) “High costs are
spurring companies like Amazon and Microsoft to make their data centers more energy
efficient…ultra-high-efficiency mode…increases a UPS’s efficiency to up to 99 percent.”
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77
of updating the server technologies compared to the status quo which is labelled as
‘historical trends scenario’. Then the report concluded that improving beyond the
‘current efficiency trends’ could reduce the US annual electricity cost in 2011 by $1.6
billion to $5.1 billion.
Figure D.5: EPA comparison of projected electricity use, all scenarios, 2007 to 2011.
According to Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) 56 a
“data centre is a building space filled with information technology (IT) equipment:
servers, storage, networking equipment, but also cooling equipment and power supplies.
Data centres consume about 1% of Canada's electricity. One square foot of data centre
space can use up to a hundred (100) times more electricity than a regular office space.
Servers use only around 40% of a data centre's electricity. Another 40% goes to cooling
these servers; and another 10% goes to power supplies losses. Conservation measures
can dramatically reduce the electricity consumed by data centres.”
D.4
Energy forms, transformation processes and reserves
When it comes to taxonomy of energy types, forms and transformation processes
numerous essays have been published (Falk, et al., 1983). For its easy access and clarity
of its explanations a Wikibook 57 was selected. It defines energy as “a measure of the
amount of change taking place within a system, or the potential for change to take place
within the system”. Energy can be divided in two forms, kinetic and potential. In a closed
system a falling book has kinetic energy because its position in the closed system
changes. A book resting on shelf has no potential energy relative to the shelf given its
relative height to the shelf is zero. But if the book is at some height over the shelf it has
potential energy proportional to the height and local gravity. In this example the book
potential energy decreases as it falls toward the shelf while its kinetic energy increases
proportionally, following the energy conservation law. Work is another concept which is
defined as “a measure of the amount of change brought about in a system, by the
56
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/equipment/manufacturers/1875 (Access date: 20 Sept. 2013).
57
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Physics_with_Calculus/Mechanics/Energy_and_Conservation_of
_Energy (Access date: 20 Sept. 2013).
78
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
application of energy”. Then the following could be stated: “In all physical processes
taking place in closed systems, the amount of change in kinetic energy is equal to the
amount of change in potential energy. If the kinetic energy increases, the potential
energy decreases, and vice-versa”. “The total energy of a system (kinetic plus potential)
increases by the amount of work done on the system, and decreases by the amount of
work the system does.”
In physics 58, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated
system cannot change—it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can be neither
created nor destroyed, but can change form; for instance, chemical energy can be
converted to kinetic energy. A consequence of the law of conservation of energy is that a
perpetual motion machine of the first kind cannot exist. That is to say, no system without
an external energy supply can deliver an unlimited amount of energy to its surroundings.
Here are some energy sources, storage devices and conversion processes (Aricò, et al.,
2005) that need to be considered for efficiency and cost considerations (Geidl and
Andersson, 2007) in developing an enduring DND/CAF operational energy strategy.
Figure D.6 captures the main energy sources and conversion processes that need to be
considered in exploring potential candidates for powering legacy and future DND/CAF
amenities, functions, services and capabilities.
Main energy sources and conversion processes
solar
photosynthesis
ocean
thermal
wind, hydro,
wave, tidal
biomass
synthetic
fuels
geothermal
fossil:
gas, oil, coal
chemical
fission,
fusion
nuclear
*
thermoelectric
heat
aneutronic fusion not achieved yet
energy forms
fuel cell,
battery
mechanical
work
electricity
aneutronic*
end uses (amenities): defence capabilities…
domestic, industrial, transportation…
Figure D.6: Mapping energy sources and conversion processes.
Furthermore, in considering the availability, suitability and sustainability of energy from
a strategic view point, Figure D.7 compares the finite and renewable planetary energy
reserves in terawatt-years. Figure D.7 sizes of spheres express the relative amount of
58
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_of_energy (Access date: 20 Sept. 2013).
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
79
energy as follows: for the finite resources the sizes express the total recoverable reserves,
for renewables the size is proportional to early potential amounts, and for the world
consumption the sphere sizes express yearly total consumption for 2009 and its
projected value for 2050 (Perez and Perez, 2009, Perez, et al., 2011). The authorization
for using this material was provided by the author Dr Richard R. Perez, University at
Albany-SUNY who pointed out that the addition of thorium and advanced nuclear power
generation may increase the nuclear sphere in the 1000’s, i.e., much larger than the total
coal reserve (emails Perez-Labbé 17/11/2012 to 04/02/2013).
Figure D.7: Annual world energy consumption, annual renewables and total finite
Earth resources. 59
As reported under the capacity factor some renewable such as geothermal or ocean
thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technologies could produce energy reliably with no
interruptions for years. On the other hand renewables such as wind and solar require
special attention due to their low capacity factors driven by daily and seasonal variations.
59 SOLAR10: Solar energy received by emerged continents only, assuming 65% losses by
atmosphere and clouds. More indications on the source of data for Figure D.7 are available at
Perez, R. and Perez, M. (2009), A fundamental look at energy reserves for the planet, The IEA
SHC Solar Update (electronic journal) 50.
http://www.iea-shc.org/data/sites/1/publications/2009-04-SolarUpdate.pdf (Access date: 18
Sept. 2013)
80
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
In Annex F on CFS Alert, Figure F.1 illustrates the effects of northern seasonal variation
and associated energy demand for that station.
Transport depends mainly on petroleum but is expected to be curbed over the next
decades. According to Richard G. Newell and Stuart Iler as stated in “The Global Energy
Outlook” (Kalicki and Goldwyn, 2013, p. 46) “Electricity is about 40% of the worldwide
primary energy consumption, a role that will be increasing going forward. In terms of
end-use energy consumption, electricity is growing much faster than direct use of fuels.”
Advance information technologies and sensors as required by future CAF missions and
operations will drive similar increase in electricity demand over the life time of current
and future platforms and capabilities.
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Annex E
Estimated potential energy cost savings
The aim of this Annex is to estimate the annual cost savings likely to be realized by 2030
and thereafter as a result of the proposed energy consumption targets outlined in the
DOES for military operations. It should be noted that the energy reductions associated
with deployed operations are included this analysis but without considering the fully
burdened cost of energy (FBCE) methodology framework because accurate data
separating expeditionary energy from domestic energy and types (i.e., jet fuel, diesel,
electricity, etc.) were not available at the time of this calculation. The cost savings are
based on domestic prices and consequently the estimated cost savings would have been
much larger if the FBCE methodology could have been used (see CFS Alert case study,
Annex F).
E.1
Methodology
The savings were estimated in two stages. In the first stage, the estimated savings were
calculated in FY 2010-11 dollars. FY 2010-11 is the latest fiscal year for which energy
consumption data were available. In the second stage, the estimated savings are brought
to 2030 dollars. The impact of energy inflation since FY 2010-11 on estimated savings is
assessed using three long-term inflation scenarios.
It should be noted that this analysis only examines the cost impact of the reduction in
DND/CAF energy consumption levels as presented in Section 2.2 Figure 5, Table E.1 and
as outlined in Section 2.5 Table 1.
Stage 1: Estimated savings in FY 2010-11 Dollars.
Seven types of energy were included in this analysis: electricity, natural gas, heating fuel
(light and heavy heating fuels being combined as one), gasoline, diesel, ship’s fuel and jet
fuel. The estimated savings (in Canadian currency) for each type was calculated by
multiplying the target energy saving, expected to be realized by 2030, by its average unit
price in FY 2010-11. The aggregate estimated savings are calculated by summing across
energy types. This approach is summarized below:
¦ ES ¦ (TCS AUP )
i
i
i
(E.1)
where:
ESi is the estimated saving for each energy type (i.e., Electricity, Natural Gas, Gasoline,
etc.),
TCSi is the target consumption saving (in volume) for energy type i,
AUPi is the average unit price in FY 2010-11 for energy type i,
i is the index for the seven energy types included in this estimate, i.e., electricity, natural
gas, heating fuel (light and heavy combined), gasoline, diesel, ship’s fuel (F-76), and jet
fuel.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
83
Stage 2: Estimated savings in 2030 Dollars
The calculation to bring aggregate estimated savings from FY 2010-11 dollars to 2030
dollars is done by using appropriate historical and forecasted energy inflation rates. In
FY 2011-12, energy inflation was 19.1%. 60 For the time frame beyond FY 2011-12, three
long-term inflation scenarios were considered:
a. The most likely inflation scenario in which a rate of 2.8% per year was used. This is
the forecasted inflation rate for Standard Object 7 - Fuel and Electricity in the most
current DND Economic Model. 61
b. The low-inflation scenario in which a rate of 2% per year was used. This corresponds
to the target consumer price index (CPI) inflation rate used by the Bank of Canada.
c. The high-inflation scenario in which a rate of 4.7% per year was used. This is based
on average annual inflation for Standard Object 7 - Fuel and Electricity over the past
25 years. 62
E.1.1
Data Sources
Target consumption savings: The DOES Baseline Working Group proposed target
domestic consumption savings on a volume basis (except when otherwise specified). So
our assumptions are based on the volumetric energy targets contained in DOES that are
projected to be achieved by 2030. For real property (buildings), it was based on 20%
reduction in energy consumption (DOES Target 2). For fleet, it was based on 10%
reduction in fuel consumption (DOES Target 4). They were transformed into energy unit,
terajoule (TJ). The projected savings in TJ are presented in Table E.1.
60 DND Historical Economic Model FY 2012-13 (Directorate of Costing Services/ADM(Fin CS),
http://admfincs.mil.ca/Publications_e.asp (Access date: 9 April 2013).
61 Based on forecasted long-term inflation rate of the Standard object - Fuel and Electricity
according to DND Economic Model FY 2012-13, http://admfincs.mil.ca/Publications_e.asp
(Access date: 9 April 2013).
62 Based on last 25-year historical average inflation rate of the Standard object - Fuel and
Electricity according to DND Historical Economic Model 2012-13,
http://admfincs.mil.ca/Publications_e.asp (Access date: 9 April 2013).
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Table E.1: Projected energy consumption savings by 2030.
Category
Real
property
Fleet
Energy
type
Electricity
Natural gas
Light fuel oil
Heavy fuel
oil
Other fuels
Gasoline
Diesel fuel
Ship’s fuel
Aviation fuel
TOTAL
Energy quantity
per year in TJ
(3-yr average)¸
3,600
5,900
300
800
700
200
1,800
2,500
7,400
23,200
Projected
reduction
percentage
20%
10%
Real
property
Fleet
¸
Projected
energy
reduction by
2030
in TJ
720
1,180
60
160
20
180
250
740
3,310
2,120
1,190
Data from the Energy Consumption baseline: Chapter 2.
Average Unit Price: The historical energy unit prices paid by DND in various regions,
and the quantity of energy procured at various prices, are not readily available.
Departmental financial systems track total payments/expenditures associated with
energy but do not report information on unit prices and consumption levels. As such, a
research was conducted to obtain historical unit price data from various sources. The
average unit price for each energy type was calculated using these price data.
Currently there is no clear way to separate energy expenses between expeditionary and
domestic operations. The FBCE method was not applicable because of lack of accurate
data on energy used during expeditionary operations. Table E.2 summarizes the data
sources and methodologies used to calculate average unit energy prices. Given that the
prices are obtained from various sources, the estimated average unit prices are only an
approximation of the actual unit prices and may not be directly comparable among
various fuel types. Consequently, the resulting energy saving estimates dependent of the
average domestic unit energy prices used and could not account for the more expensive
cost of energy observed in several expeditionary theaters. Savings are expected to be
much larger for most expeditionary operations. The estimated cost savings are based on
the domestic unit price of each fuel/energy type and the estimated savings of each
fuel/energy type.
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
85
Table E.2: Data sources and methodologies used in calculating average unit price.
Energy
type
Electricity
Average unit
price FY 2010-11
(excluding taxes)
$0.08 per kWh
Data sources
x
x
Natural
gas
$0.27 per m3
x
x
Heating
fuel
Gasoline
fuel
Diesel fuel
$0.77 per L
x
$0.69 per L
$0.74 per L
x
Ship’s fuel
$0.83 per L
x
Jet fuel
$0.82 per L
x
x
Implied Unit Price FY 2010- x
2011
Comparison of Electricity
x
Rates in Major North
American Cities, April 2011,
Hydro Quebec
Implied Unit Price FY 2010- x
2011
Energy Facts: Canadian
x
Energy Pricing Trends
2000-2010, National Energy
Board (NEB), October 2011
Standing Offer Agreement
x
(SOA) weekly prices for first
quarter of calendar year
x
2011 from Public Works and
Government Services
Canada (PWGSC) (previous
quarters were not readily
available)
Bi-weekly prices for diesel,
gasoline and heating fuel for
FY 2010-2011 (cents/L)
NRCan website 63.
FY 2010-2011 ship’s fuel
x
price data provided by
MARLANT and MARPAC
SOA weekly prices for first
x
quarter of calendar year
2011 from PWGSC (previous x
quarters were not readily
available).
Statistics Canada Industry
Price Index for Canada
Aviation Fuel Price 64
Estimation methodology
Calculation implied unit price by
dividing expenditures by
consumption volume.
This implied unit price was then
compared to the Hydro Quebec
electricity rates to assess the
reasonableness of the implied unit
price. The average price for Canadian
cities ranges from $0.07/KWh (large
power users) to $0.12/KWh
(residential users). The implied unit
price falls within this range.
Calculation implied unit price by
dividing expenditures by
consumption volume.
Implied unit price was then
compared to prices contained in NEB
report to assess the reasonableness of
the implied unit price. The Canadian
average natural gas price in 2010 was
approximately $0.38 per m3
(including taxes) so the implied unit
price appears reasonable.
Average price was calculated based
on SOA rates.
Applied the price trend as per
Nirvana data for FY 2010-2011 to
first quarter 2011 SOA rate to
estimate the DND average annual
price for FY 2010-2011.
Calculated the average ship’s fuel
price FY 2010-2011 based on the data
provided by MARLANT and
MARPAC
Average price was calculated based
on SOA rates.
Applied the price trend in FY 20102011 as per Statistics Canada price
index to first quarter 2011 SOA rate
to estimate the DND average annual
price for FY 2010-11.
http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/1374 (Access date: 9 April 2013).
v53434389 - 329-0065 Industry price indexes for electrical and communication products, nonmetallic mineral products, petroleum and coal products; Canada; Aviation, turbo fuel and
gasoline.
63
64
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E.2
Results from applying the methodology to the
available data
The results of stages one and two are presented in Table E.3 and Table E.4 respectively.
Table E.3: Estimated annual cost savings by 2030 and thereafter in FY 2010-2011
dollars (not adjusted for future inflation).
TOTAL
Estimated cost
savings in
million dollars,
$M
16.0
8.3
1.2
2.9
0.4
2.5
5.5
15.8
53.6
Total real property (buildings)
Total fleet
28.4
25.2
Energy type
Real property
Fleet
Electricity
Natural gas
Light fuel oil
Heavy fuel oil
Gasoline
Diesel fuel
Ship’s fuel
Jet fuel
The proposed energy targets are estimated to save DND/CAF approximately $54 million,
in FY 2010-11 dollars, by 2030. These savings represent approximately 9% of total
energy-related expenditures in FY 2010-11.
Table E.4: Estimated cost savings in 2030 dollars adjusted for three
possible inflation rates.
Long-term inflation
scenario
Most likely
Low
High
Annual inflation
rate
2.8%
2.0%
4.7%
Estimated cost savings in
million dollars, $M
93
80
134
In conclusion from this methodology, it is estimated that the selected DOES targets
could translate into savings ranging from $93 million to $134 million in 2030 dollars
depending on the three inflation scenarios of Table E.4.
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Annex F
Case study: Canadian Forces Station Alert
Established in the 1950's as a signals intelligence unit and weather station, CFS Alert is
now a unit of the RCAF, and it supports many tasks as a sovereign Canadian outpost in
the high Arctic. Located on the north-eastern tip of Ellesmere Island (82°28'N,
62°30'W), extremely cold temperatures are experienced throughout the majority of the
year. Consequently, a significant energy budget is required to sustain this community
and operational activities this far north, which is largely driven by electrical and thermal
demands. Four 850-kW nominally-rated cogeneration generator setups (gensets) at the
main power plant are used primarily to provide electricity and thermal energy to many
buildings of the core complex via an electrical and thermal grid. Secondary boilers and
furnaces are also used to provide additional heating where needed or to buildings that
are not on the thermal grid. In addition to the main power plant, there are also two
backup 1.2-MW nominally-rated gensets in an adjacent auxiliary power plant. JP-8 fuel
is used in all of the generators onsite, which is delivered by airlift out of Thule, Greenland
via Operation BOXTOP.
CFS Alert is one of the two most energy-intensive infrastructure assets across all of DND;
the other being the North Warning System. For example, in 2010, the energy use
intensity (EUI) of CFS Alert has been reported as 4,301 MJ/m2 in FY2010/11 (Kan,
2012). By comparison, the energy-use intensity of Canadian Forces Base (CFB)
Winnipeg, which is much larger in size, was reported as 1,371 MJ/m2 in the same fiscal
year. Figure F.1 shows the seasonal variation of the amount of electricity generated in
hundreds of MWh being used monthly compared with the inverse seasonal variation of
the average external temperature per month over a year.
Figure F.1: Inverse relationship of the electrical energy generated at the main power
plant (2012) and the average external temperatures at Alert, Nunavut (Source: CFS
Alert power plant logs and Environment Canada).
On average, from 2007 to 2010, approximately 1.8 million litres of JP-8 fuel have been
reported to be consumed at the main and auxiliary power plants. With an average annual
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
89
cost 65 during this period of $5.45/L, it is highly desirable to identify alternative power
and energy options. Energy options should include alternative technologies and
strategies based on a comprehensive energy audit to understand baseline energy usage
and the identification of energy saving measures that could be performed readily (Kegel,
Wilkens, et al., 2012).
The 2012 energy audit is the most comprehensive done to date, for the first time, as it
relies on sufficient collected empirical data on CFS Alert to capture its particular energy
related characteristics. They were obtained from the installation of electrical sub-meters
for demand side electrical load monitoring, blower door tests, measured lighting and
occupancy schedules, existing fuel records, interviews with onsite personnel as well as
the development of extensive and detailed building energy models to provide further
refinement of energy consumption at the station. In total, 73 buildings, all of which are
on the electrical grid of the main power plant, were investigated. Of the 73 buildings, 50
buildings were identified as being heated either through the district heating system, fuelfired boilers/furnaces or electric heaters. The electrical load breakdown of each of the
seven building clusters fed by the main power plant has been obtained for the very first
time with Station Centre, operations (OPS) building and Station East accounting for
approximately 65% of total station energy used as shown by Figure F.2.
Figure F.2: Energy used by building clusters fed by the main
power plant at CFS Alert.
With the validated energy models developed in this study, further analyses were carried
out to identify short-term simple energy savings measures and their impact on fuel and
cost savings. In addition, an analysis of more long-term capital-intensive improvements
is also provided. The results of implementing these short and long-term measures are
summarized in Table F.1, Table F.2 and Table F.3 below.
65
This cost includes the raw fuel cost, the cost of delivery and logistics (Source: G. Stewart, 8
Wing Alert Management Office). Fully-burdened costs of energy are estimated to be higher
(Source: Ghanmi, A. (2013a), Fully Burdened Cost of Energy in Military Operations, Journal of
Energy and Power Engineering, 7 (4), 501-513).
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DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
The short-term measures include:
a) Repairing and sealing holes in the building envelope.
b) Adding or replacing weather-stripping garage doors and man doors.
c) Replacing incandescent light fixtures with compact fluorescent fixtures.
d) Controlling light fixtures with occupancy control sensors.
e) Incorporating a boiler control strategy to prevent overheating.
f) Replacing the secondary heat recovery loop pump motors with correctly sized units.
Longer-term efficiency measures include:
a) Upgrading building envelopes to increase thermal resistance and lower air leakage.
b) Replacing high-bay light fixtures with induction lights offering lower power
consumption, longer service life and improved control.
Table F.1: Anticipated annual electricity and fuel savings implementing proposed
short-term and long-term efficiency measures.
Efficiency measureª
Short-term measure
Electricity
savings
(kWh)
Heating
fuel
savings66
(L)
Cost
savings67
(thousand
$)
650,000
93,000
540
1,000,000
274,000
1,100
Longer-term high-bay light fixture
upgrade
1,150,000
76,000
770
All measures
1,500,000
257,000
1,330
Longer-term building envelope upgrade
ªLong-term measures assume short-term measures have been implemented.
66
The reported savings for the ‘Long-Term’ measures take into account initial savings attained by
implementing the ‘Short-Term’ measures. It is important to recognize that compensatory heating
from the respective installed space heating equipment for buildings used in the analysis (e.g.,
furnaces, boilers, cogeneration thermal grid) has been accounted for on the implementation of
high-bay lighting fixture upgrades. Thus, when more efficient lighting is implemented into the
long-term envelope (i.e. ‘All Measures’), the impact on the additional heating load will be different
than implementation on its own.
67The cost analyses of the measures are based on real costs and not fully burdened costs. The cost
to implement any measure is only an estimate for budgetary purposes and should be verified prior
to implementation.
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91
Table F.2: Anticipated equivalent fuel load savings delivered by Hercules aircraft;
implementing proposed short-term and long-term efficiency measures.
Efficiency measurea
Global fuel savingsb (L)
Short-term measure
Longer-term building
envelope upgrade
Longer-term high-bay light
fixture upgrade
All measures
268,000
15
544,000
30
386,000
21
662,000
37
Equivalent fuel loadsc
ª Long-term measures assume short-term measures have been implemented
b Global fuel savings also include the fuel required to produce electricity assuming a constant generator
efficiency
c Based on an ~18,000 L fuel load carrying capacity of a Hercules aircraft in the fuel bladders
Table F.3: Anticipated real costs to implement energy efficiency measures.
Efficiency measureª
Short-term measure
Longer-term building
envelope upgrade
Longer-term high-bay light
fixture upgrade
All measures
Real cost ($, CDN)
Payback period (Month)
77,500
2
7,065,000
78
240,000
4
7,382,500
66
ª Long-term measures assume short-term measures have been implemented
Table F.1, Table F.2 and Table F.3 show that the short-term measures result in an 11.2%
and 19.3% reduction in electricity and fuel savings respectively with a relatively short
payback period of less than two months. In addition, the long-term measures result in a
25.3% and 53.3% reduction in electricity and fuel savings with a longer-payback period
of 5.5 years.
This energy audit lays the foundation for an energy strategy to reduce the fuel
consumption and fuel logistical delivery burden to meet electrical and thermal energy
demands at CFS Alert. Based on this energy audit, significant reductions in fuel
consumption, and therefore fuel delivery, can be realized with low technology options
that are readily available today. Human behaviour and culture will have a role to play in
reducing fuel consumption and further study to quantify the impact of changing
behaviours should be investigated, as it is not addressed in this study. Reducing the
energy demand through the implementation of the proposed energy saving measures can
then lead the way to the potential use of alternative power and energy options (i.e.,
renewable energy). The use of renewable energy and alternative options is the focus of an
ongoing in-depth study “Alternative Power and Energy Options for Reduced-Diesel
Arctic Infrastructure” underway since 2010 (see the scoping report for more information
(Amow, 2010)).
Additional remediation measures like adding seawater to air heat pump may add
additional fuel saving if the required capital investment is made. The potential coefficient
of performance (COP) at CFS Alert was found to be in excess of three all year around for
indoor temperature between 15 to 21 °C (Kegel, et al., 2012).
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DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Annex G New technology trends and system
approach
For most practical applications, especially when low capacity factor sources such as wind
and solar energies are part of the mix, the trend is to use a smart grid system or some
microgrid approaches. The energy is locally transported and stored in order to obtain a
system capacity factor approaching 100% most of the time, i.e., offering continuous
energy at the designed power level reliably for the extent of time specified by the
application requirements. This requires special attention to the microgrid design,
including components and connectivity redundancy to make it more failure resilient with
plenty of energy storage geographically distributed for a military base or distributed
across a military platform. Such systems require a variety of technologies, design
techniques and analyses but only the battery and solar aspects will be discussed here
given their relevance to military operational energy. The smart grid or microgrid detailed
system aspects are beyond the scope of this report but the essential is as follows.
Several ongoing studies 68 and projects (Mitra and Vallem, 2012, Romankiewicz, et al.,
2013, Skowronska-Kurec, et al., 2012, Van Broekhoven, et al., 2013) already demonstrate
that although these microgrid and hybrid energy systems increase system complexity, if
done appropriately, they drastically improve the overall system performance and reduce
the overall capability life cost. Usually an energy management system (EMS) offers to a
local microgrid (Olivares, et al., 2011) the opportunity to optimize the energy as function
of the policy selected providing fair priority to specified functions based on real-time
user demands (thermal, mechanical or electrical).
Microgrid value proposition (Dohn, 2011):
x Efficiency: Lower energy intensity and distribution system loss.
x Reliability: Near 100% uptime for critical loads.
x Security: Enable cyber security and physical security.
x Quality: Stable power to meet exact consumer energy requirements.
x Sustainability: Expand generation to renewables and cleaner fuel sources.
G.1
Nanotechnologies applied to power and energy
challenges
There are several references (Aricò, et al., 2005, Engström and Bergman, 2013b, Luther
and Hessen-Agentur, 2008, Wen, et al., 2013, Zhang, et al., 2013) in the energy domain
which reports the positive impact of nanotechnologies on energy saving, storing and
generation. Insulations, improved conductors, batteries, fuel cells, desalination systems
and synthetic fuel production technologies have already benefited from
68
http://w3.usa.siemens.com/smartgrid/us/en/microgrid/Documents/The%20business%20case%
20for%20microgrids_Siemens%20white%20paper.pdf (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
93
nanotechnologies as exemplified by direct use of solar energy to split water into
hydrogen and oxygen. 69
Another interesting impact is on the design and low-cost mass production of silicon
capacitors with 10 times the previous energy density which may allow to use them as
batteries in some applications (Oakes, et al., 2013).
G.2
Batteries
Lead acid and alkaline batteries have a long history of use and have proven their
predictability for a variety of applications. However their power densities are not
comparable to advanced batteries as required for new applications such as in the era of
smart phones and information age military operations. In addition, although lead acid
batteries have proven their usefulness for a variety of applications over decades, their use
in military operations cause a serious environmental challenge in terms of recycling
them.
Here is an example of battery requirements for a specific CAF application. The updated
key findings from DRDC reports in support of DND/CAF on battery requirements for
dismounted infantry (Dobias, 2013, Dobias and Po, 2009) where two alternatives to
alkaline batteries are considered, rechargeable nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) and
disposable lithium iron sulphide – LiFeS (LFS) are as follows.
x The alkaline batteries remain the cheapest option for a single mission under normal
temperatures; in cases of operations in extremely cold temperatures the disposable
LFS or rechargeable NiMH batteries outperform alkaline batteries.
x For repeated missions and extended deployments the rechargeable NiMH batteries
are a viable alternative to the currently used alkaline AA batteries.
x The key requirement to make the NiMH batteries a best option is an ability to
recharge them during missions (e.g., during rest periods), or at the minimum at the
end of every mission.
x Further research focused on the recharging mechanism could possibly improve the
feasibility and acceptability of rechargeable batteries. Some focus areas that could
be considered include the ability to recharge batteries without removing them from
respective systems, and the use of alternative power sources (such as solar cells or
harnessing motion) to recharge the batteries.
Currently a dominant battery technology for energy grumpy phones is the Li-ion 70
batteries. However, although they have evolved to reduce the risk of fire and explosion
(high temperature fire and toxic fume), they are still more prone to explode or burn than
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoelectrochemical_cell (Access date: 14 May 2014).
From Wikipedia: A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB) is a member of a
family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the
positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated
lithium compound as the electrode material, compared to the metallic lithium used in nonrechargeable lithium battery…Handheld electronics mostly use LIBs based on lithium cobalt
oxide (LiCoO2), which offers high energy density, but presents safety risks, especially when
damaged. Lithium iron phosphate (LFP), lithium manganese oxide (LMO) and lithium nickel
manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) offer lower energy density, but longer lives and inherent safety.
69
70
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the older technologies but offer about twice as much gravimetric and volumetric energy
density. Battery energy density improvement trend used to be about doubling energy
density every 10 years. As technology advances over time other alternatives to current
batteries will be made available with the desired safety and capacity sought for a variety
of CAF applications and operational theater conditions. As illustrated in Figure G.1 (a
courtesy of Panasonic) in maximum ampere hour (Ah) for a small 18650-size Li-ion
rechargeable battery, the use of silicon-alloy anode material changes the established
trend line of 11% improvement annually to 18% (Frank, 2012).
Figure G.1: Using silicon-alloy anode material increases the gravimetric energy
density trend over the previous Li-ion technology gravimetric energy density trend. 71
Experimental advanced batteries, such as Li-Air, are reported with energy density in the
order of 3,000 Wh/kg (more energy dense by one order of magnitude than Li-ion) but
they are not commercialized yet. As reported (Silberglitt, et al., 2014) they may exhibit
dangerous reaction and thermal run unacceptable for dismounted combatant and
currently too fragile for most military applications.
In order to better appreciate the characteristics of batteries for transport applications,
which are relevant to CAF mobility, Table G.1 compares six battery chemistries across a
dozen properties.
71
http://electronicdesign.com/power/here-comes-electric-propulsion (Access date: 17 Sept.
2013).
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95
Table G.1: Key properties of batteries for land platforms. 72
In selecting battery chemistries for an application, special attention must be given to
safety and toxicity. It is worth noting that lithium-ion batteries are especially prone to
thermal runaway. However, advances in their design, chemistry and system integration
have proven to reduce such risk to a point that high energy density batteries could be
used safely even in extreme environments. 73
G.3
Photovoltaics
The advent of cheaper and higher efficiency solar photovoltaic cells and kits that could be
adapted to various military operational theaters makes then the most suitable renewable
energy source for several DND/CAF capabilities. Some kits are designed with flexible
panels that can be rolled for transport and storage. The basic kits come with appropriate
connections, microgrid controllers and batteries for applications such as dismounted
soldiers in a reconnaissance operation. The soldiers could use that energy to maintain
their battery-operated equipment fully charged without having to use a noisy generator
or using the energy from a motorized vehicle. Other kits are designed for adding capacity
Alternate link for this table: http://www.homepower.com/articles/solar-electricity/equipmentproducts/lithium-ion-batteries-grid-systems (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
73 See Brecher, A. (2010), Assessment of Needs and Research Roadmaps for Rechargeable Energy
Storage System Onboard Electric Drive Buses, 115. and Lithium Ion Phosphate Batteries for
improved safety and thermal stability in
http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/FTA_Report_No._0024.pdf (Access date: 3 Oct. 2013).
72
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to camps or forward operating bases while contributing to reduce the noise from
generators and reducing the diesel fuel demand.
Figure G.2 shows the plummeting price trend of solar energy in US$/watt over the last
decades. It is worth noting that this trend indicates that the price is not decreasing fast
anymore but as the efficiency increases for the same price the size of the photovoltaic per
watt will continue to decrease somewhat.
Figure G.2: Example of technology cost decrease for photovoltaics. 74
The National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) 75 at National Renewable Energy
Laboratory (NREL) of US DOE provides continuous updated data on the progress in
photovoltaic cell efficiency over a similar time frame. Currently average commercial cell
efficiency is about 17% (10% to 22%). Some advanced photovoltaic 76 could almost reach
50% of efficiency in transforming the input solar energy into electricity, but the cost for
such advanced technology was prohibitive when this report was prepared.
G.4
Advances in heat to electricity conversions
Piezoelectric and thermoelectric devices and generators are well documented in the
following report: Technology Trends, Threats, Requirements, and Opportunities
(T3R&O) Study on Advanced Power Sources for the Canadian Forces in 2020
(Andrukaitis, et al., 2001). Thermoelectric generators (also called Seebeck generators)
Graphics from http://www.thegreenage.co.uk/solar-prices-crashing-great-for-consumers/
(Access date: 14 May 2014). The rule of thumb for this decrease is that the cost to generate the
photovoltaic cells falls by 20% with each doubling of global manufacturing capability. It has been
often called the Swanson's law or effect for photovoltaics (named after Richard Swanson, the
founder of SunPower Corporation, a solar panel manufacturer) in relation to More’s law for the
number of transistors on integrated circuits that doubles approximately every two years.
75 http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/ (Access date: 14 May 2014).
76 http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart.jpg (Access date: 14 May 2014).
74
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97
are devices that convert heat (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy,
using a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (a form of thermoelectric effect) 77. Their
typical efficiencies are around 5–8%. Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices are
semiconductor diodes that directly convert photons from a black body radiating source
at temperatures typically below ~2000ºC into electricity. In this they are similar to solar
photovoltaic (SPV) devices. At the time of the T3R&O report, the highest overall
efficiency that was achieved in a TPV system was 7.2% and expected potential
improvement rising to 15-20% in the long term.
New technologies that could benefit from solid-state manufacturing advances includes
thermionic or thermoelectronic and pyroelectric, others exploit alternative means to
convert low heat difference into electricity.
G.4.1
Thermionic converter
A thermionic converter consists of a hot electrode which thermionically emits electrons
over a potential energy barrier to a cooler electrode, producing a useful electric power
output 78. “Practical thermionic generators have reached efficiencies of about 10%. The
theoretical predictions for our thermoelectronic generators reach about 40%, although
this is theory only,” noted Mannhart. 79
G.4.2
Pyroelectric converter
A new type of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) high-efficiency heat energy
converter, or scavenger, has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
inventors 80. The device is based on temperature-cycled cantilever pyroelectric capacitors.
The device converts thermal waste heat to electricity while simultaneously reducing
cooling requirements 81. “Unlike thermoelectric devices, which use a constant
temperature difference to generate a constant voltage, pyroelectrics only generate that
voltage for a short amount of time, for as long as the electrons in the crystalline material
leak from one end to the other.” Until this advance, pyroelectrics efficiency was limited to
about 5%. The new technology, MEMS pyroelectrics, can generate electrical energy from
thermal waste streams with temperature gradients of just a few degrees up to several
hundred degrees. “Scott Hunter, working at the ORNL hopes his new heat-recovering
invention will scavenge lost heat with an efficiency of up to 30%”. 82
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoelectric_generator (Access date: 24 Sept. 2013).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermionic_converter (Access date: 24 Sept. 2013).
79 http://phys.org/news/2013-12-highly-efficient-thermoelectronic.html#jCp (Access date: 24
Sept. 2013).
80 http://www.techconnectworld.com/Cleantech2013/a.html?i=4540 (Access date: 24 Sept.
2013).
81 https://techportal.eere.energy.gov/techpdfs/2285%20Final%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf (Access
date: 24 Sept. 2013). MEMS-based Pyroelectric Thermal Energy Scavenger by D. Sims, Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, US.
82 http://www.greenoptimistic.com/2011/05/17/scott-hunter-pyroelectri/ (Access date: 24 Sept.
2013).
77
78
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G.4.3
Thermoacoustic converter
Thermoacoustic converters use heat to stimulate a resonating mode of a cavity or similar
component. The oscillating part of the resonating cavity is attached to an electrical
transducer to generate electricity.
One such device is the NASA’s thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines (TASHE) which
converts heat into acoustic power with very high efficiencies (up to 49% of Carnot's
limit). It has moving parts that require no bearings and lubrication of components. It is
claimed to exhibit low manufacturing and maintenance costs. The generated acoustic
power is typically directed towards a resonator where it can be harvested with an
appropriate acoustic load. It was designed for radioisotope/nuclear-fission power
systems for deep-space travel but more recent applications for TASHE include household
energy systems and industrial refrigeration (achieved by reversing the thermo-acoustic
cycle). One example is a cogeneration of heating and electricity with a claimed system
efficiency of 90% 83. From a system view it is known as thermoacousticmagnetohydrodynamic (TA-MHD) converter of heat to electricity.
Another example, the Thermal Acoustic Converter (TAC) 84, was designed by Etalim Inc.
to convert any fuel or heat source to electricity using thermoacoustic physics. This device
has virtually no moving parts and is inherently simple and reliable. It is straightforward
to manufacture using inexpensive traditional materials and processes. They consider it
as a next-generation piston-less Stirling engine. The thermoacoustic design employs heat
to control the intensity of sound waves within a sealed cavity. They claimed to have
achieved a high efficiency (a40%) of almost twice the efficiency of other small engines,
but with zero mechanical friction, wear, lubricants, valves or dynamic seals, and extreme
reliability and zero maintenance over an operating life of many decades. Their objective
is to reach markets in 2015.
“Encased within the core of Etalim’s engine is a plate of metal that replaces the function
of a piston in a conventional Stirling engine. When pressurized helium on the top side of
the metal plate is heated, sound waves traveling through the gas are amplified, causing
the plate to vibrate, and a metal diaphragm below (separated by a cooler layer of helium)
to push down on a shaft. All mechanical friction is eliminated. The shaft is attached to an
alternator that produces electricity.” 85
G.4.4
Thermogalvanic effect
As reported by Stanford, MIT scientists developed a new way to harness waste heat
energy, the low grade heat, i.e., cases where temperature differences are less than 100
degrees Celsius. Their method allows converting this heat into electricity stored in a
battery. They exploit the well-known thermogalvanic effect inherent to battery
technology. It is a four-stage process that uses waste heat to charge a battery. “First, an
uncharged battery is heated by waste heat. Then, while the battery is still warm, a voltage
is applied. When fully charged, the battery is allowed to cool, which increases the voltage.
http://www.nirvana-es.com/news_pr120913.html (Access date: 24 Sept. 2013).
http://www.etalim.com/solutions.html (Access date: 24 Sept. 2013).
85 http://www.technologyreview.com/news/422611/an-engine-that-harnesses-sound-waves/
(Access date: 24 Sept. 2013).
83
84
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99
Once the battery has cooled, it actually delivers more electricity than was used to charge
it.” 86
G.5
Electrical versus thermal energy storage
In some circumstances it could be advantageous to use thermal-energy storage due to its
high efficiency especially when the end-use energy is thermal such as heating and
cooling. To ensure high efficiency in thermal energy storage several considerations need
to be accounted for: how the energy will be transported, distance, amount and shelf
storage time. Usually by selecting an appropriate phase-change material (PCM) one
could outperform the average transformation efficiency of photovoltaic in generating
electricity, i.e., dž| 15%. The conversion of solar energy to heat could be as efficient as dž|
70% to 80%. Then this heat could be transformed to electricity with efficiency around
30%. Figure G.3 provides an example of a high energy density thermal storage compared
with batteries and other technologies (Vancompernolle, et al., 2012). However when lowcost photovoltaics reach an average transformation efficiency in generating electricity
above 25%, the advantage of thermal-energy storage may become less attractive
depending on related technology advances and target applications.
Figure G.3: Ragone plot showing the relative performance of thermal storage.
According to the 2013 McKinsey Global Institute report on disruptive technologies
“Advances that will transform life, business, and the global economy” (Manyika, et al.,
2013), the potential economic impact of improved energy storage could be 90 to 635
http://news.stanford.edu/pr/2014/pr-waste-heat-battery-052114.html (Access date: 24 Sept.
2013).
86
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billion dollars per year by 2025 for all applications which includes 20 to 415 billion
dollars per year by 2025 for electric and hybrid vehicles alone.
G.6
Material considerations in adopting alternate energy
technologies
When considering alternate or advance energy solutions, it is critical to consider what
such emerging technologies require in terms of material to manufacture them. Table G.2
uses the data from a study conducted under the chairmanship of the European Union
(EU) on critical raw materials (EU Ad-hoc WG, 2010) (see also (Angerer, et al., 2009))
required for selected emerging technologies. 87
Table G.2: Emerging technologies global demand on raw material.
Raw
material
Selected
Production ETRD Indicator ETRD Indicator
2030
emerging
2006
2030
2006 (t)
2006
technologies
(t)
(t)
Gallium
152
28
0.18
603
3.97
Thin layer
photovoltaic,
ic, LED
Indium
581
234
0.40
1,911
3.29
Thin layer
photovoltaic,
display
Scandium
(RE)
1.3
2
0
03
2.31
Solid oxide fuel
cell
Germanium
100
28
0.28
220
2.20
Fiber optic
cable, infrared
optic
Neodymium
(RE)
16,800
4,000
0.23
27,900
1.66
Permanent
magnets, laser
technology
Platinum
(PGM)
255
Very
small
0
345
1.35
Fuel cell,
catalyst
Tantalum
1,384
551
0.40
1,410
1.02
Microcapacitor
medical
technology
Silver
19,051
5,342
0.28
15,823
0.83
RFID tag, lead
free soft solder
http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Renewable-Energy/Nine-Challenges-Facing-TheAlternative-Energy-Industry.html (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
87
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101
Raw
material
Selected
Production ETRD Indicator ETRD Indicator
2030
emerging
2006
2030
2006 (t)
2006
technologies
(t)
(t)
Cobalt
62,279
12,820
0.21
26,860
0.43
Lithium-ion
battery,
synthetic fuel
Palladium
(PGM)
267
23
0.09
77
0.29
Catalyst, sea
water
desalination
Titanium
7,211,000
15,397
0.08
58,148
0.29
Implant, sea
water
desalination
Copper
15,093,000
1,410,
000
0.09
3,696,
070
0.24
Efficient
electric motor,
RFID tag
Niobium
44,531
288
0.01
1,410
0.03
Microcapacitor
ferroalloy
t = metric tonne (1,000 kilograms or 2,204.6 pounds)
ETRD = emerging technologies raw material demand
RE = rare earth
PGM = platinum group metals
ic = integrated circuit
LED = light-emitting diode
RFID = radio-frequency identification
The indicator column is simply the ratio of the demand over the reference production.
The larger is the 2030 projected ratio, the more critical a material is expected to become
in the future. This is important to DND/CAF since some of these critical materials,
especially the rare earths, are mainly produced by a single country, China. Currently
Natural Resources Canada through the Canadian Rare Earth Elements Network is
publishing a series of progress reports to better understand the situation and potential
risk to the Canadian economy. There are other related initiatives such one led by the UK
Natural Environment Research Council’s (NERC) Security of Supply of Mineral
Resources.
G.7
Geothermal energy
Although geothermal energy exhibits a very high capacity factor (see Figure 11 and
Figure 12) and low GHG emissions, it is worth noting that geothermal may induce minor
tremors (NRC, 2013, p. 169), findings include:
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1. The induced seismic responses to injection differ in cause and magnitude with each
of the three different forms of geothermal resources. At the vapor-dominated Geysers
field hundreds of earthquakes of M 2 or greater are produced annually with one or
two of M 4, all apparently caused principally by cooling and contraction of the
reservoir rocks. The liquid-dominated field developments generally cause little if any
induced seismicity because the water injection typically replaces similar quantities of
fluid extracted at similar pressures and temperatures. The high-pressure hydraulic
fracturing into generally impermeable rock associated with the stimulation
operations at enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) projects can cause hundreds of
small microseismic events and an occasional earthquake of up to M 3 due mainly to
the imposed increased fluid pressures.
2. The mitigation of the effects of induced seismicity is, in some instances, clearly
necessary to maintain or to restore public acceptance of the geothermal power
generation activities. The early use of a ‘best practices’ protocol and a ‘traffic light’
control system indicates that such measures can provide an effective means to
control operations so that the intensity of the induced seismicity is within acceptable
levels (recommended protocol).
G.8
Atomic batteries
Here we use the term ‘atomic battery’ to include a variety of technologies 88 known by the
source of heat, radioisotope, and the energy conversion technology used either thermal
to electricity or direct conversion via a diode. Atomic batteries are well known for their
space applications and remote sensors installed in difficult to access locations such as the
Arctic. For these applications expensive radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs,
RITEGs) and Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) have been designed. RTGs have
been successfully deployed and proved to be highly reliable except that the power
measured over time showed to be slightly lower than specified, forcing operators to redo
power budgets of missions.
Depending on their design, selected fuel and energy conversion technology efficiency,
atomic batteries are still the most attractive option for long missions that require no
maintenance as in space projects and difficult to access locations underwater or under
extreme temperature and environment. In such environments, a thermoacousticmagnetohydrodynamic (TA-MHD) converter that uses thermoacoustic coupled with
magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) offers a system free of moving parts 89 that could run
unattended for decades.
Note that Plutonium-238, the isotope that fuels Curiosity, is expensive. Less expensive
isotopes have disadvantages. Strontium-90 produces gamma radiation which requires
more shielding, it delivers lower heat temperature which affects the conversion efficiency
but with its 28.8 year half-life Sr-90 offers more gravimetric power density as illustrated
in Figure G.490. Americium-241 has a half-life of 432 years but only 1/4 of energy density
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_battery (Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
http://www.stfc.ac.uk/resources/pdf/esapb-hme(2008)43rev1progproposalcorecomponen.pdf
(Access date: 17 Sept. 2013).
90 This figure was reproduced with permission from Kumar, S. (2011), Energy from radioactivity.
http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph240/kumar2/, personal communication Kumar-Labbé
31 October 2013.
88
89
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103
of Pu-238 and requires at least 18 mm lead shielding to screen the penetrating radiation
it produces. More radiation shielding reduces the gravimetric energy density advantage
of an atomic battery.
Figure G.4: Ragone plot for various batteries including atomic batteries (or RTGs).
Figure G.5 shows that although the cost of atomic battery fuel is high and represents a
large part of the total cost of such battery, once considered in terms of the cost per unit
energy ($/kJ) it becomes more competitive. It is worth noting that some of the atomic
batteries, especially those of Sr-90 and Cesium-137 (Cs-137) are comparable in power
density to chemical batteries, but atomic batteries are lower in cost per kilojoule ($/kJ)
due to their very-high gravimetric energy density. So when considering such alternatives,
one must look at the total life cycle cost using the FBCE paradigm.
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Gravimetric Power Density (W/kg)
Figure G.5: Cost comparison of various energy sources provided by (Kumar, 2011).
G.9
Value of electric drives and turbo-hybrid transmissions
to CAF
Turbo-electric transmission has been used in ships and trains in hybrid versions for
almost a century, e.g., the battleship USS New Mexico, launched in 1917, was the world's
first turbo-electric steamship. Numerous hybrids today use this technology with different
electric energy generation systems using diesel, gas and nuclear fuel. The efficacy of this
technology relies mainly on the high efficiency of electric motors to convert electricity to
mechanical work at varying loads. This allows the energy generation component of the
hybrid to work closer to their respective optimal operating points by storing energy in
batteries and other storage means. This avoids using generators that match the
maximum power demand but only the maximum steady state expected over a period of
time beyond the energy stored.
Alternatively, NASA turbo-electric aircraft propulsion (Masson, et al., 2013) explores
turbo-electric distributed propulsion using super conductors in order to increase energy
efficiency. Another approach is to power the electric motors by fuel cells and batteries
according to a NASA study (Bradley and Droney, 2012, p. 91) on ultra-green aircraft.
This later approach offers higher maximum energy efficiency and reduces noise level.
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Annex H Selected findings for the Canadian Army (CA)
Several aspects of interest to the CA energy were discussed in Chapter 3. Here are some
specific aspects regarding bases, especially the forward operating bases, then the
platforms and the dismounted soldiers.
H.1
Forward operating bases (FOBs)
During peacetime the fuel consumption of the US Army is dominated by its air platforms
while during wartime the FOB generators become the largest single fuel consumers of
the battlefield (DOD, 2008). Similar fuel consumption could be observed for the
Canadian Army (CA).
When considering the FBCE for batteries, one can conclude that dismounted combatants
need higher energy efficiency of their electronics which would reduce the demand of fuel
for batteries transport or for batteries recharging on the FOB power grid which mostly
depends on generators that use fuel in a combustion engine. But adding demand for fuel
when it’s fully burden cost is significant creates serious challenges in several operational
theaters abroad.
On the other hand using alternate energy sources, such as solar, curbs the FOB fuel
demand. For FOBs expected to be operated more than a year at a given place, waterground loop cooling is advantageous and is cost efficiently available at most sites within
less than 30 meters underground. A large percentage of FOB energy consumption is for
heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC). Heat pumps with a ground loop
represent a net cost advantage in face of FBCE at a FOB and could contribute to noise
reduction and FOB security.
Another value of on-site resources is for fresh-water supply which could represent a
substantial portion of a FOB energy cost. Purifying water from municipal supplies at
some distance from the FOB and transporting it requires additional military protection
and fuel. Checking the availability of subsurface water at each FOB location, and if
confirmed, could represent a substantial advantage in autonomy, evaporative cooling,
security and fuel cost demand reduction.
As more reliable and higher efficiency generators are made available, such as those with
variable speed, the replacement of less efficient and noisy ones could be paid off in a
shorter period of time when considering the FBCE in most expeditionary theaters.
“Theater infrastructure and sustainment operations involve tremendous amounts of
material and personnel. The vast majority of supplies travel by sea and land, which
require establishment of ports and other intermodal nodes and staging areas. Lines of
communication must be protected as supplies spend days or weeks in transit. In theater,
base camps provide space and security for maintenance, resupply, housing and a life
support functions – each of which is energy-intensive.” Quoted from (ARCIC, 2010).
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H.1.1
Water generation and waste energy generation
Bringing drinkable water to isolated military bases could be very energy intense and
represents a high risk on personnel in most operational theaters. Instead of transporting
all the drinkable water to forward operating bases, alternatives were sought to make it
more cost effective and less demanding on personnel by using some recycling and water
purifying techniques.
For example DARPA 91 developed a Lightweight Water Purifier (LWP) that offers
desalination and could produce approximately 75 gallons of potable water per hour (gph)
from seawater. “This capacity, however, comes at a cost in energy, weight and size. A
three-kilowatt generator supplies energy, and the entire 2,000-pound (907 kg) LWP
system must be transported on the back of a Humvee.”
Bioenergy is a renewable energy that plays an indispensable role in meeting today’s ever
increasing energy needs. Unlike biofuels, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert energy
harvested from redox reactions directly into bioelectricity. MFCs can utilize low-grade
organic carbons (fuels) in waste streams. The oxidation of the fuel molecules requires
biofilm catalysis. In recent years, MFCs have also been used in the electrolysis mode to
produce bioproducts in laboratory tests. MFCs research has intensified in the past
decade and the maximum MFCs power density output has been increased greatly and
many types of waste streams have been tested. However, new breakthroughs are needed
for MFCs to be practical in wastewater treatment and power generation beyond
powering small sensor devices. To reduce capital and operational costs, simple and
robust membrane-less MFCs reactors are desired, but these reactors require highly
efficient biofilms. This review is an update on the recent advances on MFCs designs and
operations (Huggins, et al., 2013).
However for deployed forces such systems need to be improved in order to provide an
advantage over current techniques to reduce sewage treatment cost in terms of burden
and total energy used.
H.2
Land tactical platforms
In Chapter 0 on the energy principles Figure 14 and Figure 15 provided several examples
of the relation between power and energy to acceleration and range which are associated
to the platform manoeuvrability and autonomy of a tactical land vehicle in an
operational theater.
Advanced military land platforms are likely to take advantage of direct electric drive
distributed to tractions components, avoiding the extra weight of transmissions and
complex differential components. It circumvents several single point of failures observed
during recent operations. Such platforms will have the advantage of larger electrical
capacity to power sensors and weapons of tomorrow.
The following is a success story about energy efficiency for an armour vehicle deployed in
Afghanistan which needs to be presented separately here.
91
http://www.darpa.mil/NewsEvents/Releases/2013/06/25.aspx (Access date: 24 Sept. 2013).
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H.2.1
Reducing thermal load to increase fuel efficiency (Leopard)
Most of the military legacy platforms when exposed under sunny conditions exhibit a
substantial thermal signature due to solar absorption and energy loss in the form of heat
loss associated with the internal combustion engine. Most of these platforms use some
form of air conditioning and air cooling (A/C) system to ensure operability of onboard
systems and acceptable operator health conditions and alertness. For example studies
(Hendricks, 2001, Rugh, 2002) showed that the “impact of the A/C system over a range
of light-duty vehicles was to increase 1) fuel consumption by 28%, 2) carbon monoxide
emissions by 71%, 3) nitrogen oxide emissions by 81%, and 4) non-methane
hydrocarbons by 30%.” Due to overall environmental impacts and significant increase in
operating cost (fuel cost to generate cooling), nations are developing strategies and
technologies to reduce these extraneous and undesirable life cycle cost in times of budget
pressure to reduce government expenses.
In the following example (Figure H.1), instead of increasing the A/C system cooling
capacity to cool an armoured vehicle, a more cost-effective approach was used to address
the problem at its sources. By doing so the alternate technology reduces the demand on
the A/C cooling capacity by using a novel heat shield that prevents the sun radiation to
build up heat on the tank surface which transfers easily inside the tank turret and other
operators’ areas.
NCVU = No Cooling Vehicle Unshielded
ACVU = Active Cooling Vehicle Unshielded
NCVS = No Cooling Vehicle Shielded
ACVS = Active Cooling Vehicle Shielded 35°C
Figure H.1: Effect of solar shield on surface temperature on top
of turret inside of tank.
The solar heat shield was developed for three Leopard versions and deployed in
Afghanistan. Tests showed a 25°C temperature decrease for the patented advance heat
shield. More information could be found in the patents of the heat shield for Leopard
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tanks (Dumas, 2010, 2011). So based on the example studies (Hendricks, 2001, Rugh,
2002) mentioned, using a heat shield for decreasing the temperature of a military vehicle
offers a substantial reduction of additional fuel demand that would have been required if
the tank cooling system capacity had been increased to get the turret temperature
decreased by 25°C. This may represent a potential fuel consumption saving of up to 28%.
In addition the heat shield was designed to act as a camouflage which provides a
substantial decrease of the thermal signature.
H.3
Dismounted soldiers’ energy challenges
The increase reliance in recent deployments on tactical small units (TSUs) imposed
expanding responsibilities of ground forces beyond traditional combat which add to
dismounted soldiers capability requirements such as more Command, Control,
Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR),
blue-forces tracking and controlled robotic capabilities that add to other energy hungry
electronics of modern battlefields, see (NAP, 2013). In this report the shortcoming of
current batteries were identified as follows (similar to those identified by the CAF):
1. Too many battery types;
2. Not energetic enough;
3. Too many batteries needed for long missions;
4. Too heavy and bulky; and
5. Evolution of capabilities adds to energy requirements.
The ISSP Soldier System Roadmap (DND, 2013, p. 48) identifies nine technical domain
drivers including ‘reduced weight’ which is a common driver across all ISSP’s technical
domains:
x reduced weight;
x energy density, power density;
x safety (human and of information);
x voltage, current;
x wide temperature performance;
x wearability;
x mobility/transportability;
x usability; and
x ruggedness.
As stated in the SSTRM, in addition to essential soldier’s combat supplies such as food,
water and ammunition, power and energy became a fundamental element driven by the
recent digitization effort. Electrical power must be provided to all involved electronic
equipment in order to function synergistically. In face of operations diversities, soldier
systems evolved to include new capabilities and increased the dependence on electrical
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power. The introduction of enhanced C4I and sensing capabilities at the soldier level
allows the soldier to be more aware of his or her surroundings and to collaborate
effectively with other soldiers. This generates more data that need to be processed and
shared, requiring even more electrical power. As stated in the SSTRM, the generation,
storage, distribution, management and use of greater electrical power must be provided
and integrated in such a way as to minimize the overall weight and bulk of the soldier’s
equipment. These aspects of power provide the foundation for the four power and energy
technical domain themes identified below (DND, 2013, p. 47) with their associated
technical domain deficiencies.
Theme 1: Power Generation (Fuel Cells and Energy Harvesting)
Theme 2: Power Sources (Storage)
Theme 3: Power and Data Distribution
Theme 4: Distributed Power Management
So the challenge is to provide enough energy and power to the dismounted combatant
while trying to reduce the volume and weight for an extended period of time. In order to
illustrate this challenge, an example with missions extending up to 72 hours without
adding burden on the combatant and associated logistic was developed as follows. In
Figure H.2 a comparison of four energy options used three lines representing the
thresholds of energy requirements for 72-hour missions with average power demands of
12, 20 and 30 watts, that is 0.86, 1.44 and 2.16 kWh of energy respectively.
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4
3.5
Energy (kWh)
3
2.5
2.16 kWh (30 W 72-h mission)
Li-ion rechargeable
2
Li-ion primary
1.44 kWh (20 W 72-h mission)
1.5
(non rechargeable)
DMFC 22% efficient
1
0.86 kWh (12 W 72-h mission)
0.5
SOFC 50% efficient
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Mass (kg)
Figure H.2: Example of energy options for three dismounted
combatant 72-hour missions. 92
For shorter missions and lower nominal power demands, batteries can support the
operations with minimal additional burden on the combatants and the logistic support.
For longer missions and higher nominal power demands, the fuel cells offer a net
advantage over the selected batteries.
With the advance in technologies that makes microgrids and hybrid-power systems more
cost effective, the optimal options will include appropriate energy management in
various hybrid forms in order to increase mission capabilities and reduce overall burden
on the soldier and required logistic support. Such future microgrids or hybrid power
systems will include energy management software and hardware, high energy sources
such as fuel cells, high-performance batteries and supercapacitors to shave the peak
power demands.
However one needs to consider other aspects such as the additional cost of advanced
energy sources and training required for the best use in deployed theater. Consequently a
mission planning aid to assist in balancing manoeuvrability, military effects and
survivability of small units must be developed and used in training (either simulated or
training field exercises), and subsequently used during operations by the soldiers, their
leaders and higher echelons.
92 The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) selected are based on the
data provided for Figure 4-3, page 124 of NAP (2013), Making the Soldier Decisive on Future
Battlefields, The National Academies Press. It refers to data adapted from Energy-Efficient
Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier (NRC, 1997). Currently the CommunicationsElectronics Research Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) considers hybrid-power
systems which integrate high-power rechargeable battery with a fuel cell and packaged fuel to
enable longer runtimes with less overall mission weight
(https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/Bui_Part_1.pdf) (Access date: 24 Sept. 2013).
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H.4
Dismounted combatants
The energy demand for dismounted combatants is highly dependent on the function,
type of operations and environmental conditions (e.g., from very cold to very hot
weather, from very humid to extremely dry conditions). During our recent operations,
the dismounted combatant relied essentially on batteries for most of the energy
requirements for equipment ranging from laser aiming devices to personal radios. The
current autonomy for one day needs to be extended to three days. The following
information has been extracted and modified from the draft of the Soldier Systems
Technology Roadmap (SSTRM) 2011-2025 Capstone Report and Action Plan (DRDC
Draft Version March 2012) and from the DND published report (DND, 2013), Soldier
Systems Technology Roadmap; Capstone Report and Action Plan.
The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Capstone Report and Action Plan captures
and summarizes the findings of the Development Phase of the SSTRM initiative. The
SSTRM is a groundbreaking industry-government collaboration focused on enhancing
the operational effectiveness of the future Canadian soldier and the competitiveness of
Canadian industry through open innovation. Led by the Department of National Defence
(DND)—with participation from Army and Materiel branches and DRDC—and Industry
Canada, the initiative enjoys the strong support of the Canadian Association of Defence
and Security Industries (CADSI) and of Technopôle Defence and Security (TDS).
Applying roadmapping principles and processes to Canadian Forces soldier
modernization efforts, the initiative involves industry and academia collaboratively in a
comprehensive knowledge-sharing platform to articulate future needs and identify
capability gaps, related challenges and potential technology solutions for the Canadian
soldier of the future. The report includes an Action Plan that highlights the key R&D
priorities identified by the soldier systems community of interest and makes
recommendations for next steps in the initiative to encourage industry, academia and
government collaboration in bringing innovative solutions forward for use by the future
Canadian soldier. Figure H.3 illustrates some of the technologies requiring energy that
are considered in Cycle I and II of the Integrated Soldier Systems Program (ISSP), such
as combat computer, tactical display, local communication, Global Positioning System
(GPS), Battlefield Combat Identification (BCID), digital magnetic compass, and night
vision/target acquisition.
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Figure H.3: Concept of capability delivery for ISSP Cycle 1 and Cycle 2.
Power and energy on the dismounted soldier is a key technical domain with many
associated challenges. It is a fundamental element of the recent digitization effort, which
has become as essential as traditional soldier commodities such as food, water and
ammunition. Electrical power must be provided for any of the electronic equipment to
function. As soldier systems evolve to include new capabilities, the dependence on
electricity will continue to grow. The SSTRM vision for the Power and Energy technical
domain in 2025 is to provide the future networked soldier with self-sufficiency—without
re-supplying for the mission duration—through increased energy efficiency, with the
lowest acceptable added weight.
Overall system goals for:
1. 2015–2020—soldier systems with sufficient energy storage capacity to operate
through a 24-hour mission, and with the recharging or fuel re-supply to operate
through a 72-hour mission.
2. 2020–2025—soldier systems capable of energy autonomy.
Here are some updates (Dobias, 2013, Dobias and Po, 2009), the key findings, on
rechargeable nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) and primary (i.e., disposable) lithium/iron
sulphide (LFS) as evaluated for their current suitability to the dismounted soldier:
1. The alkaline batteries remain the cheapest option for a single mission under normal
temperatures; in cases of operations in extremely cold temperatures the disposable
LFS or rechargeable NiMH batteries outperform alkaline batteries.
2. For repeated missions and extended deployments, the rechargeable NiMH batteries
are a viable alternative to the currently used alkaline AA batteries.
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3. The key requirement to make the NiMH batteries a best option is an ability to
recharge them during missions (e.g., during rest periods), or at the minimum at the
end of every mission.
4. Further research focused on the recharging mechanism could possibly improve the
feasibility and acceptability of rechargeable batteries. Some focus areas that could be
considered include the ability to recharge batteries without removing them from
respective systems, and the use of alternative power sources (such as solar cells or
harnessing motion) to recharge the batteries (Andrukaitis, et al., 2001, Dobias, 2013,
Dobias and Po, 2009).
However, when considering the trends of batteries (as presented later in this report) one
can expect that safe Li-ion or other new batteries technologies will be available by the
time some procurement actions will be initiated with requirements based on capabilities
to fulfill the energy density, form factor and safety requirements.
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Annex I
Selected findings of interest to RCN energy
According to (Doerry, et al., 2010) the US Navy is pursuing a number of energy efficiency
initiatives to reduce fossil fuel consumption across its non-nuclear powered fleet. These
efforts are grouped into the following categories:
1. Improved prime mover efficiency.
2. Reduced propulsion power demand.
3. Reduced mission systems and ship systems power demand.
4. Modifying the concept of operations (CONOPS) to achieve mission objectives with
less fuel consumption.
Findings reported include the facts that most of the energy losses occur in internal
combustion engines (either diesel or gas turbine), i.e., in converting fossil fuel energy
into mechanical work for propulsion or electricity. The second most significant loss is
due to the inefficiency of turning mechanical power input to the propellers into ship
movement. Studies are related to DDG51 class modernization program (FLT III) with
direct contribution from Carderock. Several factors need to be considered in projecting
the potential cost effectiveness of a proposed ship energy improvement. One such factor
is to develop a speed-time profile based on current and projected operational data for a
given ship (ship class) instead of lock-in speed-time profiles based on obsolete
assumptions (Anderson, 2013).
To better visualise the overall energy picture of typical war ships, two diagrams are
presented in Figures I.1 and I.2 (Doerry, et al., 2010). One shows the losses for a
mechanical drive ship and another one for an electrical drive or integrated electric ship.
These diagrams are similar to a Sankey diagram 93 of a ship energy flow but without the
modulation of the arrows’ widths as function of the percentage of energy at play, i.e., the
losses and uses or outputs.
From Wikipedia: Sankey diagrams are a specific type of flow diagram, in which the width of the
arrows is shown proportionally to the flow quantity. They are typically used to visualize energy or
material or cost transfers between processes.
93
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117
Figure I.1: Example of energy flow for a mechanical drive
ship from (Doerry, et al., 2010).
G
Figure I.2: Example of energy flow for an integrated electric
ship from (Doerry, et al., 2010).
I.1
Improved prime mover efficiency
Maintenance to the main engine and potential engine improvements can make a big
difference. For legacy platforms significant changes to the main engines could be
expensive. Appropriate payoff time studies must be conducted in order to secure
meaningful return on investment.
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For new platforms considering high efficiency engines and hybrid electric drive has
already shown considerable advantages in terms of total life-cycle-cost. For example,
Figure I.3 displays a detailed Sankey diagram of new generation of cruise ships which
was reported in the Generations magazine (ABB, 2012) by ABB Marine and Cranes. It
shows the net advantage of using a high-efficiency engine as the first step in converting
the fuel energy to mechanical power. It also shows that some of the heat could be
recuperated to increase the overall energy efficiency of the ship. In addition the early
conversion of the prime mover mechanical energy into electricity offers a range of
capabilities that could easily be upgraded as technologies evolved or become available
allowing low cost modifications to keep a ship up to date. Changes to the hull or
mechanical drive of a ship could be very expensive compared to changes to electrical and
combat systems, communications, sensors and other ship amenities electrically powered.
As shown in Figure 14 and Figure 15, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) 94 outperform the
energy transformation efficiency of best internal combustion engines 95 proposed for
most advanced ships and submarines (when excluding nuclear power). In addition they
are silent and require less maintenance. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is currently
using fuel cell technologies in some pilot tests such as for UAVs 96 (Aguiar, et al., 2008)
and planned UUVs 97. SOFCs have been used for several years currently and have proven
to be highly reliable and capable of high power capacities. 98
In addition the current efficiency of SOFCs could be increased when processing the
excess heat with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) or using it for heating water,
desalinisation or fuel generation.
http://energy.gov/fe/why-sofc-technology (Access date: 24 Sept. 2013). They are not subject to
Carnot cycle limitations because they are not heat engines. SOFCs are fuel-flexible – they can
reform methane internally, use carbon monoxide as a fuel, and tolerate some degree of common
fossil fuel impurities, such as ammonia and chlorides. Planar SOFCs using a thin ceramic (yttriastabilized zirconia, or YSZ) electrolyte could operate at lower temperatures (<800°C) than
predecessor SOFC topologies, allowing the use of lower-cost stainless steel interconnects, rather
than a costly and difficult-to-process ceramic interconnects required of higher-temperature
SOFCs.
95 From Wikipedia: The energy efficiency of a fuel cell is generally between 40–60%, or up to 85%
efficient in cogeneration if waste heat is captured for use. The largest internal combustion engines
in the world are two-stroke diesels, used in some locomotives and large ships. … an example of
this type of motor is the Wärtsilä-Sulzer turbocharged two-stroke diesel as used in large container
ships. It is the most efficient and powerful internal combustion engine in the world with over 50%
thermal efficiency. For comparison, the most efficient small four-stroke motors are around 43%
thermal efficiency (SAE 900648); size is an advantage for efficiency due to the increase in the
ratio of volume to surface area.
96 ONR Ion Tiger 26hr flight Nov 2009, low cost UAVs for long endurance missions,
http://www.onr.navy.mil/Media-Center/Fact-Sheets/Ion-Tiger.aspx (Access date: 24 Sept.
2013).
97 Unman underwater vehicles: ONR Long Endurance Undersea Vehicle Propulsion.
98 http://www.onr.navy.mil/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2013/Solid-Oxide-Fuel-CellGenerator.aspx (Access date: 24 Sept. 2013).
94
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Figure I.3: Sankey diagram of the energy flow of a state-of-the-art
cruise ship (ABB, 2012, pp. 20-21).
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I.2
Reduced propulsion power demand
Years of experience in designing ships and measuring their performance in various sea
conditions provides a rich source of trustable information about what could be a cost
effective technique to transfer more power to effectively propel a ship. Tests conducted at
the Naval Warfare Center, Carderock Division (Cusanelli and Karafiath, 2012, Karafiath
and Cusanelli, 2006) and implementations done by the US Navy (Naval Sea Systems
Command, NAVSEA) (Doerry, et al., 2010) are good examples from which one can draw
practical design improvements.
Some of these studies and trial results could be summarized 99 and expanded as
suggested by Dr Barkyoumb, Director of Strategic Relations, at Naval Surface Warfare
Center Carderock Division, NSWC:
1. Stern flap additions and optimizations for a given ship configuration have proven to
be cost effective and easy to do, and work well at most speed and sea conditions.
Computational fluid dynamics calculations need to be done right to get the benefit as
full-scale results may not be seen in scale-model testing due to Reynolds number
effects.
2. Stern bulb modifications (Karafiath, 2012, Karafiath and Cusanelli, 2006) seem to
work for some ships but it is hard to overcome the drag induced by the added surface.
This is a potential modification on ships where a stern flap cannot be installed. Stern
bulbs may make ship track better and that can be some gain.
3. Contra-rotating propeller installations are the most efficient as demonstrated for a
high-speed sea lift study and numerous other studies. There are novel ways to attach
counter-rotating props and keep the mechanical complexity down. In (Doerry, et al.,
2010) they report an example of what a contra-rotating pod hull mounted drive can
offer for two ferries built by the Nagasaki Shipyard of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
(MHI) in 2004. “When placed into service, they consumed 17% less fuel than the twin
shaft mechanical drive ships they replaced.”
4. Hull and propeller cleaning / anti-fouling coatings — Carderock lab has been in the
lead for these coatings. There is a version of silicone coating, of which a commercial
off-the-shelf (COTS) trade name is ‘Intersleek’. Industry had good data that this
coating kept barnacles off the hull. The US Navy found that ships spent too much
time in port for this to have a big effect. The commercial ships transit most of the
time and get better results. It seems that applying this coating to the propellers may
prove to be a more cost-effective approach for war ships. One has to do the
operational analyses for naval vessels to know if there is any benefit. Assuming that
the results from Commercial vessels will apply to Navy ships is insufficient.
99
Private communications Barkyoumb-Labbé 11-14 March 2014.
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Another option mentioned in (DOD, 2008, p. 49) is the use of biomimetic propellers
which are believed to reduce energy consumption on the order of 25% while reducing
noise. Biomimetic design mimics natural design characteristics that minimize energy
usage through reduced friction and drag.
I.3
Reduced mission systems and ship systems power
demand
In the areas of ship systems power demand, also known as the hotel loads, replacing the
following by high efficiency versions could represent a substantial energy saving that
could be turned into combat power capabilities: light, electric motors (e.g., variable
speed drive for HVAC, chilled water pump, and fire pumps, see (Doerry, 2013) for details
on improvement and payback periods from immediate to a few years). In order to
estimate the return on investment for specific ship load system energy improvement
initiative or modification, appropriate measures of the demand (power load) for the
under evaluation function or amenity need to be done at the necessary level of spatial
and temporal granularity to be meaningful (Doerry, 2013). For example it could be the
following factors: the cost of the fuel used by a ship during a given event, the efficiency of
transforming this fuel in electricity and the amount of electricity used by a function or
amenity over the monitored period of time over which that function or amenity was used
(its duty cycle should also be recorded). Then, the aggregation of such data could be used
to project the amount of energy saved and its cost saving advantage. In addition other
costs such as the total cost of inserting a new technology or modification becomes part of
the procedure to evaluate the return on investment and the time to pay it off (the
breakeven point, BEP).
The cost of generating electricity on ships that used diesel engines to power generators is
about three times as much as our domestic average price of electricity in Canada which is
about 10¢/kWh 100. For domestic price of electricity of 10¢/kWh, LED lighting has a BEP
of abouttwoyears now (lower price of LED and high price of electricity could reduce this
BEP). Depending on RCN fuel price paid and generator efficiency, the electricity cost on
a ship could be around 30¢/kWh (excluding the equipment depreciation) which may
result in a BEP of less than eight months.
An appropriate auditing of platform energy with sufficient granularity is highly
recommended in order to identify the best opportunities for energy improvements that
would be cost effective and make a good return on investment over the remaining
platform life cycle. All forms of energy at play must be considered including the expected
fully burdened cost of energy at play such as the ship’s fuel.
However future operations are likely to require even more advanced sensors, electronics,
combat systems and eventually directed energy weapons. A special attention must be
According to
http://www.hydroquebec.com/publications/en/comparison_prices/pdf/comp_2013_en.pdf
(Access date: 24 Sept. 2013) (page 20) the average electricity prices for major cities in Canada on
1 April 2013 was between 6.9¢/kWh and 15.5¢/kWh. In Table E.2 for 2011 the estimated average
value used was 8¢/kWh.
100
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given to such eventuality in designing ship upgrades and future ship designs. Designing
with in mind a much higher capacity in electricity generations and storage, including an
appropriate microgrid to match both the energy and power demands of modern warfare,
is essential.
I.4
Modifying CONOPS
Another cost-effective means of optimizing ship’s fuel consumption is by modifying the
CONOPS while achieving the same mission objectives with less fuel consumption. Fuel
consumption decreases up to 6% were reported by some vendors. Examples of ship’s fuel
optimization software for the US Navy listed by (Doerry, 2013) include: “The US Navy is
investigating the use of a Smart Voyage Planning (SVP) capability software module that
would extend the vessel’s Electronic Chart Display and Information System – Navy
(ECDIS-N). This module will use available capabilities from the Naval Meteorology and
Oceanography Command (METOC) and also include the abilities to include training
excursions within the planned voyage and to optimize the transit of battle groups. With
this capability the US Navy hopes to take advantage of optimized route planning
whenever mission allows.”
Another approach is via incentives: “…Incentivized Energy Conservation (i-ENCON)
program that routinely travels to US Naval Bases around the world to meet with ship
operators to review operational / procedural modifications strategies and techniques for
reducing energy consumption. The i-ENCON program offers monetary and several
prestigious recognition awards to those ships with the most fuel-efficient operations.”
Here is a summary of operational changes that likely provides significant fuel
consumption avoidance that could be translated at opportune times in combat
capabilities advantages:
1. Drift Operations (Ops) or Anchoring at Sea. When ships are not required to maintain
station keeping, they can realize up to a 70 percent fuel savings by merely drifting
while at sea.
2. Trail Shaft Ops at Sea. Like Drift Ops at Sea, when the mission allows, substantial
fuel savings can be achieved by trailing a shaft. Up to a 50 percent savings can be
obtained through this procedure.
3. Clean Hull/Propeller. Marine growth that accumulates on a ship's hull which
increases drag or resistance through the water. Keeping the hull clean can realize up
to a 12 percent fuel savings, depending on the time between hull cleanings. Likewise,
a clean propeller can reap an additional six percent in savings.
4. Smart Navigation. While the mission always comes first, there are times when ships
can take advantage of local currents or avoiding bad weather to save fuel.
5. Planned Maintenance System. Judiciously following prescribed preventative
maintenance enables systems and equipment to operate efficiently and save fuel.
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Annex J
Selected findings of interest to RCAF energy
There are several ongoing US programs worth mentioning when addressing technologies
that could improve energy efficacy of air platforms. For example the “Versatile
Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine” (VAATE) is to deliver aircraft fuel efficiency
technologies applicable to legacy platforms such as the C-17 and to new platforms that
could improve specific fuel consumption by as much as 25% (DOD, 2008) compared to a
2000 state-of-the-art (STOA) engine. This is related to the Highly Efficient Embedded
Turbine Engine (HEETE) program which expects to reduce substantially the engine
weight and increase its thrust-to-weight ratio by 60% compared to a STOA design. They
expect a 25% in fuel efficiency which represents doubling loiter time and recuperates
from 100-400 kW to power onboard additional advanced electronics.
For air platform propulsion system there are two main components: the engine and
some means to generate thrust, such as a propeller or a propulsive nozzle. The thrust
from the propulsion system must balance the drag of the platform when it is cruising. In
order to accelerate the thrust must exceed the drag of the platform. So for large
platforms such as C-17 the propulsion system efficiency is critical. For a jet fighter
aircraft acceleration is critical.
According to the US Air Force Chief Scientist “Energy Horizons” report (AF/ST, 2012), a
unifying method to simultaneously measure energy efficiency progress, related energy
use, and aircraft capabilities is the well-established Breguet range equation:
ܴܽ݊݃݁ =
ܹ௙௨௘௟
ܸ ‫ܮ‬
ln ቆ1 +
ቇ
ܹ௣௟ + ܹ଴
ܵ‫ܦ ܥܨ‬
(J.1)
This equation shows that improvements to airframe efficiency can be measured as an
increase to the lift to drag (L/D) ratio and a decrease of the total weight, i.e., the addition
of ܹ௣௟ (weight of the payload) plus ܹ଴ (total weight of the aircraft without the payload).
ܹ௙௨௘௟ is the fuel weight. Equation J.1 expresses propulsion efficiency gains as the ratio of
the airframe speed (V) over the specific fuel consumption (SFC). “Linking energy to
range across these factors establishes a relationship between war-fighter capability and
energy efficiency attributes.” 101
J.1
Examples of energy efficiencies and improved
capabilities
For legacy air platforms, as well as for new air platforms, the Breguet range equation
means that replacing low gravimetric energy density batteries by much better ones could
result in reaching a BEP within a short time or over a small number of sorties compared
This concept was identified in the 2006 Air Force Scientific Advisory Report Technology
Options for Improved Air Vehicle Fuel Efficiency (SAB-TR-06-04) critically linking energy and
warfighter capability.
101
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125
to the available life span left of a given air platform. Similarly transforming the engine
energy heat loss into useful energy such as electricity can result in substantial range
extension or fuel consumption reduction. As for other environments, software to
optimize flight route and manoeuvers could significantly increase air operations cost
effectiveness.
For new airframes more technology options are available including improved
aerodynamic technologies and designs, the use of new advanced composite materials
(DOD, 2008) (most important single factor in achieving fuel savings of 20% in Boeing
787 compared to STOA), manufacturing methods and airframe optimisations for the
targeted applications.
Newer engines have shown improved performance and fuel efficiency over the last
decades for applications where it makes a big difference in life-cycle-cost.
Efficacy of onboard power sources such as generators could offer dramatic advantage by
curbing their weight and increasing their gravimetric power density (DOD, 2008). For
example, the Multi-megawatt Electric Power System (MEPS) trims 100 lbs (45 kg) and
thermal load while offering four to eight times the kW/lb compared to STOA by using
cryogenic cooling and high RPM generator technology in view of driving more powerful
weaponry.
An interesting view of the ensemble of possibilities is the map presented in the “Energy
Horizons” report (AF/ST, 2012) which is displayed in Figure J.1. In addition to these
possibilities it is worth mentioning the cost effectiveness of using flight simulator to
increase readiness and decrease fuel usage.
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Figure J.1: US Air Force operational outcome oriented approach. 102
If we assumed that reduce demand, increase supply, and change culture are the targeted
RCAF energy goals, then the following examples reported for the US Air Force would
apply. “Demand reduction can arise from improved platform efficiency through more
efficient engines and structures (e.g., winglets, hybrid wings) as well as more efficient
operations (e.g., engine washing, formation flying, optimized mission planning).
Efficiencies vary widely. For example, whereas winglets or engine washing may
inexpensively achieve 1% fuel savings, formation flying promises 7-10% fuel savings in
early assessments with C-17s, and hybrid wings promise 15-20% fuel savings (although
this requires capital investment in new airframes). Demand reduction also can arise
from increased use of renewables (solar, wind, thermal, geothermal and biomass), wasteto-energy, and the use of modeling and simulation to substitute for some live training.”
“In addition, more efficient air/space/cyber platforms or operations can increase loiter
or range which in turn can diminish energy, basing, or refueling requirements, thus
increasing robustness.” “Finally, a change in culture can drive behavior to reduce energy
consumption and can be achieved through a range of activities including education and
awareness, engaged leadership, and incentives. Importantly, each of these Energy
Horizons outcomes generates not only environmental and economic benefits but can also
lead to operational benefits such as increased readiness (e.g., increased simulator
training), robustness or strength (e.g., more persistent operations from increased loiter),
and resiliency (e.g., supply diversity) to mitigate vulnerabilities.”
For legacy and future platforms, advanced high-energy efficiency, smaller and
lightweight electronics would reduce the platform weight while increasing the combat
capabilities especially in combat aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
F-T (The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture
of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.).
102
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Other improvements to legacy platforms and new designs include adapted fairings which
enhance airframe smoothness and reduce drag. These structures cover gaps and spaces
between parts of an aircraft.
For legacy and future platforms, multi-functional materials offer advanced energy
harvesting to reduce energy lost (heat and noise). For example, the energy dissipated as
heat generated by IC engines can be tapped on by using thermoelectric or pyroelectrics
to generate electricity. Pyroelectrics offer the advantage of high stability at high
temperatures (1200°C). Using thermoelectric for cooling engines allows generating
electricity which combined with super-capacitors and advanced batteries in a microgrid
could allow to replace an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU), thus saving fuel and
eventually increase its combat capability (more range, cargo or agility).
A summary of the US Air Force report (AF/ST, 2012, p. 18) findings and
recommendations can be captured under a few common air domain themes as follows:
x The use of remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs) as test platforms can greatly accelerate
development and acquisition of new technologies across domain fleets. Developing
and testing new technologies for fighter or large aircraft platforms can be timeconsuming and costly. Particularly where the concept is scalable, it makes sense to
test it on smaller, acquisition-agile platforms such as RPAs. One attractive area is in
the development of novel antennas for sensors and communications.
x A single combat fuel makes sense in the near-term, but power systems in the future
will gain resilience from consumption of a diversity of fuels. As scientists and
engineers explore and embrace new thermodynamic cycles for engines, others are
actively looking at new fuel feedstocks which could come with different properties
and parameters. Future air systems will likely be omnivorous when it comes to
fuels.
x Harvesting of energy and advanced engine cycles have the potential to be gamechangers in the Air Domain. Flight, essentially, converts the chemical energy of fuel
into heat, churned up air, thrust, and noise—there is a tremendous opportunity to
capture some of this waste and reuse it. Many engine manufacturers are exploring
potentially revolutionary engine cycles.
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Annex K Short LENR review
Following the presentation by Dr Dennis Bushnell of NASA at NRCan 103, NRCan and
DRDC asked AECL to prepare a literature review of the subject. In response, a
comprehensive report on LENR publications was completed. Although not much was
published in mainstream journals, the report included an impressive number of
references, an executive summary and useful comments on this subject (Bromley and
Roubtsov, 2013): “Compendium of Information on International Activities Pertaining to
the Topic of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)”, February 2013, 150 pages.
Then after that AECL literature review, significant progress in patenting 104 methods and
devices, as well as efforts in testing devices 105 and developing commercial products based
on this technology were noted. For example, Andrea Rossi’s energy catalyzer (E-cat) for a
high temperature version of his technology, the E-cat HT, had this technology tested by a
third party over several months. Then a third party testing 106 was completed and the Ecat HT trial report was published in June 2013 (Levi, et al., 2013). Later, in a 24 January
2014 press release, Industrial Heat LLC announced that it has acquired Rossi’s E-cat
LENR technology rights for 11 million US$ 107.
Examples of publications after the AECL’s literature review include a few papers on
LENR published in main stream journals and funding from DOE and industry were
confirmed. Google Scholar (access date: 15 May 2014) reported 119 publications since
2013. Here are some of the LENR papers published in 2014 reported by Google Scholar
on 15 May 2014 (Calleja, et al., 2014, Evans, et al., 2014, Hosseinimotlagh, et al., 2014,
Klimov, et al., 2014, Kozima, 2014, Maiani, et al., 2014, Mayer and Reitz, 2014,
McDonald, et al., 2014, Osouf, 2014, Ratis, 2014, Sapogin and Ryabov, 2014). Several
theories have been published that try to explain LENR such as (Sarg, 2013) but there are
no well accepted theory yet.
A review of the progress in LENR has been done by Swedish energy R&D institute
(Engström and Bergman, 2013a, 2013b) which confirms that several of the related
experiments succeeded in producing a net energy output with significant gravimetric and
volumetric energy density.
During the E-CAT third party trial, IR camera images and data were compared against
the thermocouple data. The experts saw that the temperatures achieved were real. It was
as hot as stated, within a few degrees. However it was noted that at earlier demos the
first E-CAT did not start, the second melted down and the third one worked well. One
Natural Resources Canada: Office of Energy Research and Development (OERD) Speaker
Series, 19 December 2011, Dennis Bushnell, Chief Scientist at NASA Langley Research Centre;
“Where is it ALL going?”
104 http://www.st.com/web/en/home.html (Access date: 9 April 2013).
105 http://www.e-catworld.com/companies-and-organizations-researching-in-lenr/ (Access date:
9 April 2013).
106 http://arxiv.org/pdf/1305.3913v3 (Access date: 9 April 2013).
107 http://coldfusion3.com/blog/it%E2%80%99s-official-us-startup-admits-to-purchasingrossi%E2%80%99s-e-cat-lenr-technology (Access date: 9 April 2013).
103
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129
can make the inference that not many of the units built worked to specification, but from
the Elforsk-backed report 108 we can see that one at least started and ran well (Engström
and Bergman, 2013a). So the E-CAT technology is not mature enough yet to consider it
manufacturable (Lewan, 2014). Also it may take more time before a satisfying theory is
verified.
Several other experiments from mW to kW range show that the excess of energy
produced cannot be explained by known chemical processes. There is the MIT course on
LENR which has been taught with demonstration since 2012 by Mitch Swartz and Peter
Hagelstein. Based on such accumulated evidences it is unreasonable to deny that LENR
is real and to say that it can't happen because there is no theory to explain it.
Other efforts were oriented toward what can be done if the LENR technology delivers as
much energy as estimated. One of them is about the LENR car 109 and many other
potential applications including LENR aircraft propulsion as reported by NASA. Doug
Wells of NASA Langley Research Center has a project titled “Low Energy Nuclear
Reaction Aircraft” with the purpose of investigating the potential vehicle performance
impact of applying the LENR technology to aircraft propulsion systems 110. It assumes
that LENR has over 4,000 times the density of chemical energy with zero greenhouse gas
or hydrocarbon emissions. The objectives of this project are to gather as many
perspectives as possible on how and where to use a very high density energy source for
aircraft including the benefits arising from its application, explore the performance
impacts to aircraft, and evaluate potential propulsion system concepts. 111
K.1
Perspective of some LENR trials
LENR is assumed to be a type of nuclear energy that is expected to be clean, safe,
portable, scalable, and abundant. Some LENR devices were reported to generate heat in
a catalyst process that combines nickel metal (Ni) with hydrogen gas (H). The initial
testing and theory show that radiation and radioisotopes are extremely short lived and
can be easily shielded.
An experimental investigation (Levi, et al., 2013) of possible anomalous heat production
in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT was carried out. The reactor tube was
charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The
reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube.
Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging
cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of
electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power
http://www.elforsk.se/Rapporter/?rid=13_90_ (Access date: 9 April 2014) Report: 15
November 2013.
109 http://www.lenr-cars.com/ (Access date: 9 April 2013).
110 http://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/17WELLS_ABSTRACT.pdf (Access
date: 13 May 2014).
111 http://newenergytreasure.com/2014/02/25/nasa-lenr-aircraft/ (Access date: 13 May 2014).
NASA LENR Aircraft, Posted on February 25, 2014 by Amos Chinoz. NASA Aeronautics Research
Institute is currently showcasing some of their innovative concepts developed by NASA
researchers, primarily featuring work from the Seedling Phase 2 and Seedling Phase 1.
108
130
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analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours,
respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments.
The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without
the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated
beyond the expected heat from the electric input.
Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those
of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the
errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than
conventional energy sources.
Using the information from the E-cat HT test results (Levi, et al., 2013), Defkalion's
Hyperion prototype specifications 112 and data about known energy technologies a
Ragone chart was produced and published on the web 113. Figure K.1 is an adaptation of
this Ragone chart for this report. It shows the tremendous advantage of LENR like
devices (dark green: actual data points, light green: extrapolated values) over any other
known energy technologies (orange: electrochemical storage, black: chemical sources,
red: nuclear, blue: expected hot fusion, light blue: renewable when assuming a device life
cycle). More details about the data and method used to generate this chart are available
at the referenced web page.
As shown in Figure K.1, LENR stacks up against electrochemical devices, chemical
reactions, nuclear fission plants, fusion and renewables.
http://fusion-fria.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/2012-08-13-ICCF17__Paper_DGTG.pdf (Access date: 9 April 2014).
113 http://www.lenrftw.net/comparing_energy_sources.html#chart-usage (Access date: 8 May
2014).
112
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
131
Figure K.1: Ragone chart to compare energy sources. 114
Most recent results from the third party independent E-Cat trials 115 showed exceptional
energy densities. When including internal plus external components, the volumetric
energy density observed was (3.6 104 ± 12%) MJ/L and the gravimetric energy density
was (1.3 104 ± 10%) MJ/kg. The energy densities of gasoline are 32.4 MJ/L and
44.4 MJ/kg respectively. So the E-Cat is thousand times more volumetric energy dense
and 29 times more gravimetric energy dense than gasoline.
The conservative E-Cat gravimetric power density was (4.7 103 ± 10%) W/kg. Jet engines
of Boeing 747 and Airbus A300 offer a power density 5.67 kw/kg. So the E-Cat is almost
as gravimetric power dense as these jet engines. Wärtsilä RTA96-C 14-cylinder twostroke turbo diesel engines display 0.03 kW/kg. So the E-Cat is 100 times more
gravimetric power dense than these ship engines.
The E-Cat fuel weight of the charge was 1 g. It delivered the following thermal energy
density and power density: (1.6 109 ± 10%) Wh/kg or (5.8 106 ± 1 0%) MJ/kg, and
(2.1 106 ± 10%) W/kg. These results place the E-Cat beyond any conventional source of
energy. It is close to the energy densities of nuclear sources, such as U235, but it is lower
than the latter by at least one order of magnitude.
114 More details about the data and methods used in developing this Ragone chart are available at:
http://www.lenrftw.net/comparing_energy_sources.html (Access date: 8 May 2014).
115 http://www.sifferkoll.se/sifferkoll/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/LuganoReportSubmit.pdf
(Access date: 5 Oct. 2014).
132
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List of symbols/abbreviations/acronyms/initialisms
A/C
air conditioning and air cooling system
ADM
(Fin CS)
Assistant Deputy Minister (Finance and Corporate Services)
ADM(IE)
Assistant Deputy Minister (Infrastructure and Environment)
ADM(Mat)
Assistant Deputy Minister (Materiel)
ADM(S&T) Assistant Deputy Minister (Science and Technology)
ADP
assured delivery price
AES
all-electric ship
AFA
Alternative Fuels Act of 1995
AFB
Air Force Base (US designation)
AFDS
automated fuel data and management system
AFRL/RQ
US Air Force Research Laboratory, RQ for rocket
AFSP
auditable financial statement policy
AFUE
annual fuel utilization efficiency
AGW
anthropogenic global warming
Ah
ampere hour
APC
armoured personnel carrier
APOD
airport of disembarkation
APU
auxiliary power unit
ASAP
advanced soldier adaptive power
ATEG
automotive thermoelectric generator (converts waste heat to electricity)
ATF
alternative transportation fuels (as defined in the AFA)
AU
Australia
BCID
Battlefield Combat Identification
BEP
breakeven point
C4ISR
Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence,
Surveillance and Reconnaissance
CA
Canadian Army
CADSI
Canadian Association of Defence and Security Industries
CAF
Canadian Armed Forces
CANR
chemically assisted nuclear reactions
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141
CCD
comité des capacités de la Défense
CCGT
combined-cycle gas turbine
CERDEC
Communications-Electronics Research Development and Engineering
Center
CFB
Canadian Forces Base
CFD
Canadian Forces Development
CFDS
Canada First Defence Strategy
CFR
compact fusion reactor by Lockheed Martin [NYSE: LMT] Skunk Works®
CFS
Canadian Forces Station
CMNS
condensed matter nuclear science
CO
carbon monoxide
CO2
carbon dioxide
CONOPS
concept of operations
COP
coefficient of performance
COTS
commercial off-the-shelf
CPI
consumer price index
CPV
concentrated photovoltaics
CSA
Canadian Standards Association
D&S
defence and security
DC
direct current
DCB
Defence Capabilities Board
DEW
directed energy weapon
DF&L
Directorate of Fuels and Lubricants at ADM(Mat)
DMC
Defence Management Committee
DMFC
direct methanol fuel cell
DND
Department of National Defence
DOD
Department of Defense (US)
DOE
Department of Energy (US)
DOES
first ‘DND/CAF Operational Energy Strategy’
was introduced as the ‘Defence Operational Energy Strategy’ by the DOES
working group.
DRDC
Defence Research and Development Canada
DRMIS
Defence Resource Management Information System
DSAB
Defence Science Advisory Board
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DSTKIM
Director Science and Technology Knowledge and Information Management
E85
an alternative gasoline consisting of 85% denatured ethanol by volume
ECDIS-N
Electronic Chart Display and Information System – Navy
ECP
energy commodity price
ECS
environmental chief(s) of staff
EIA
Energy Information Administration (Official Energy Statistics from the US
Government)
EJ
exajoule (1x1018 joules)
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency
ESA
European Space Agency
ETRD
emerging technologies raw material demand
EUI
energy use intensity
EV
electric vehicle (see PHEV)
F&E
fonctionnement et d'entretien
FAC
Forces armées canadiennes
FBCE
fully burdened cost of energy
FBI
Federal Building Initiative
FCU
fuel consumption unit
FMAS
Financial Management and Accounting System (progressively moving into
DRMIS)
FOB
forward operating base
FSDS
Federal Sustainable Development Strategy
FY
fiscal year
GDP
gross domestic product
gensets
generator setups
GHG
greenhouse gas
GJ
gigajoule (1x109 joules)
GL
general ledger
GoC
Government of Canada
GPS
Global Positioning System
GSHP
ground-source heat pump
GW
gigawatt (1x109 watt)
GWh
gigawatt-hour
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GWP
global warming potential
HEETE
Highly Efficient Embedded Turbine Engine
HEL
high energy laser
HPB
high-performance building
HPM
high power microwave
HVAC
heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
IC
internal combustion engine
ic
integrated circuit
IEA
International Energy Agency, http://www.iea.org/ (Access date: 9 April
2013)
IOSP
infrastructure operations and support price
IPCC
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ISSP
Integrated Soldier Systems Program
IT
information technology
JP-8, or
JP8
jet propellant 8 is a jet fuel
kJ
kilojoule (1x103 joules)
KPP
key performance parameter
kt CO2 eq.
kilo tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent
kW
kilowatt
kWh
kilowatt hour
L1
level 1 manager
LANR
lattice assisted nuclear reactions
LED
light-emitting diode
LENR
low energy nuclear reactions
LFP
lithium iron phosphate
LFS
lithium/iron sulphide batteries (primary, i.e., disposable)
LIB
Li-ion battery, lithium-ion battery
LiCoO2
lithium cobalt oxide
LMO
lithium manganese oxide
LPG
liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas
LWP
Lightweight Water Purifier
MDN
Ministère de la Défense nationale
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MEPS
Multimegawatt Electric Power System
METOC
Meteorology and Oceanography Command (US Navy)
MFC
microbial fuel cells
MHD
magnetohydrodynamic
MJ
megajoule (1x106 joules)
ML
million litres
MOD
Ministry of defence (UK)
Mt CO2 eq.
million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent
Mtoe
million tonnes of oil equivalent
MW
megawatt
MWh
megawatt hour
N1
niveau un du MDN
NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVSEA
Naval Sea Systems Command
NCPV
National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL (US)
NDHQ
National Defence Headquarters
NEB
National Energy Board
NERC
Natural Environment Research Council (UK)
NiMH
nickel-metal-hydride batteries (rechargeable)
NMC
lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide
NOx
nitrogen oxides
NRC
National Research Council Canada
NRC
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission also listed as US NRC
NRCan
Natural Resources Canada
NREL
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US)
NSS
National Safety and Security
NSWC
Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division (US)
O&M
operations and maintenance
O&S
operations and support
OAG
Office of the Auditor General
OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OEE
Office of Energy Efficiency
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OEM
original equipment manufacturer
OERD
NRCan’s Office of Energy Research and Development
OGDs
other government departments
ONR
Office of Naval Research
OPEC
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
OPI
office of primary interest
OPS
operations
ORNL
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
OSH
Operational Support Hubs
OTAN
Organisation du traité de l’Atlantique Nord
OTEC
ocean thermal energy conversion technologies
PCM
phase-change material
PEM
PEMFC
proton exchange membrane fuel cell
PGM
platinum group metals
PHEV
plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (see EV)
PJ
petajoule (1x1015 joules)
PSC
Public Safety Canada
PWGSC
Public Works and Government Services Canada
R&D
research and development
RCAF
Royal Canadian Air Force
RCN
Royal Canadian Navy
RCN D
Nav Strat
RCN Director Naval Strategy
RE
rare earth
RH
radio frequency
RFID
radio-frequency identification
ROI
return on investment
RPA
remotely piloted aircraft
RPB
relativistic particle beam
RTG or
RITEG
radioisotope thermoelectric generator
S&T
science and technology
SC
strategic commitment (within the SDS)
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SDCD
Stratégie de défense Le Canada d'abord
SDS
Sustainable Development Strategy
SEGS
Solar Electric Generating System
SENT
Smart Energy Team (NATO)
SEOD
Stratégie d’énergie opérationnelle de la Défense
SFC
specific fuel consumption
SMP
standard military pattern (vehicle)
SOA
standing offer agreement
SOFC
solid oxide fuel cell
SOR
statement of requirements
SP
security price
SPOD
seaport of disembarkation
SPV or SP
solar photovoltaic
SRG
Stirling radioisotope generator
SSTRM
Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap
STANAG
NATO standardization agreement
STG
solar thermal generation
STOA
state-of-the-art
SVP
Smart Voyage Planning
t CO2 eq.
tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent
T3R&O
Technology Trends, Threats, Requirements, and Opportunities
TAC
Thermal Acoustic Converter designed by Etalim Inc.
TA-MHD
thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic converter of heat to electricity
(NASA)
TASHE
NASA’s thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines
TDP
Technology Demonstration Program
TDP
tactical delivery price of the FBCE framework
TDS
Technopôle Defence and Security
TEG
thermoelectric generator
TJ
terajoule (1x1012 joules)
TPES
total primary energy supply
TPV
thermophotovoltaic
TRIGA
Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics – a reactor design
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TRL
technology readiness level
TSU
tactical small unit
TWh
terawatt-hour
UAV
unmanned aerial vehicles
UK
United Kingdom
US Armed
Forces
United States Armed Forces
US Army
United States Army
US NRC
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission
USA
United States of America
USAF
US Air Force
USN
United States Navy
VAATE
Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine
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Glossary .....
Term
Definition
alternative energy
The energy derived from non-fossil fuel sources. Typically used
interchangeably for renewable energy. Examples include: wind,
solar, biomass, wave and tidal energy.
biofuel
Fuel produced from renewable biomass material, commonly used
as an alternative, cleaner fuel source.
black swan
The ‘black swan’ theory is a metaphor that describes a high-profile,
hard-to-predict, and unprecedented event that comes as a surprise
and has a major effect.
capacity factor
The actual energy output over a period of time against generation
potential. Typical capacity factors of nuclear power plant about
90%, hydroelectricity about 50%, solar and wind about 30% (in
the northern hemisphere, solar is much lower during winter and
larger during summer).
disruptive
technology
Disruptive technologies are technological innovations that disrupt
the status quo and improve a product or service in an unexpected
manner. They may displace existing technology, or introduce an
entirely novel concept to society that will transform the way we
operate.
energy commodity
price (ECP)
The FBCE first price element for consideration is the energy
commodity itself. This is the rate that is charged to military
customers by a vendor. The actual contracted delivery price should
be used where available.
energy conversion
efficiency
The ability to convert the maximum amount of source energy
toward the desired work, function or amenity. For examples, fuel
energy conversion to mechanical work of a gasoline engine is
about 20% and diesel engine is about 30%.
energy intensity
A measure of the energy efficiency of a nation's economy. It is
calculated as units of energy per unit of GDP. High energy
intensities indicate a high price or cost of converting energy into
GDP.
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149
Term
Definition
energy security
In the defence context, the condition that exists whereby the CAF
enjoys reliable access 116 to sufficient energy required to sustain
operational readiness and where affordability 117 and integrity of
supply lines are not limiting factors that affect mission 118
continuity.
energy use intensity The energy consumption per unit area of building space per year
(EUI) 119
calculated as follows: total energy consumed in one year (GJ) /
total floor space of the building (m2), usually expressed in
GJ/m2/yr.
full DND cost
It “is the sum of incremental cost plus the salaries of Regular Force
personnel, equipment depreciation, command and support cost, as
well as the operating cost of some major equipment, such as
aircraft, that are within normal planned activity rates and,
therefore, had not been included in incremental cost.” 120
fully burdened cost
of energy (FBCE)
The commodity price for fuel plus the total cost of all personnel
and assets required to move and, when necessary, protect the fuel
from the point at which the fuel is received from the commercial
supplier to the point of use.
gross domestic
product (GDP)
The market value of all officially recognized final goods and
services produced within a country in a given period of time. GDP
per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard
of living which equals to the gross domestic income (GDI) per
capita.
116Reliable access infers energy that is protected from, or invulnerable to, physical and cyber
threats for an extended period regardless of the operating environment.
117Affordability implies the ability to buy energy, energy sources (fuel) and equipment that utilises
energy without compromising either current or through-life budgetary limits.
118Mission refers to any of the CFDS missions, which are both domestic and expeditionary in
nature.
119 “Energy intensity – which measures the efficiency of energy use per unit of economic activity
(gigajoules per gross domestic product [GJ/GDP]) – improved by 21% across the period. Energy
use per capita, however, showed a 1% increase, reflecting lifestyle changes at home and in private
transport.” Ref.: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/statistics/trends11/factsheet/factsheet.pdf
(Access date: 8 May 2013) “Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to 2009”.
120 http://www.vcds.forces.gc.ca/sites/internet-eng.aspx?page=14661 (Access date: 9 April 2014).
150
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
Term
Definition
incremental DND
cost
It “is the additional costs for personnel and equipment that are
directly attributable to the Canadian Forces operation. More
specifically, incremental costs include the additional cost to deploy
troops and equipment and to provide ongoing maintenance and
support during the applicable operation, in addition to any
specialized training required for the operation. DND does not
include the full capital acquisition cost of major equipment in
incremental cost, unless procured specifically for the mission with
no life expectancy post operation, as this equipment will not be
used in other CAF operations. However, the full cost includes
depreciation of major equipment.” 121
infrastructure
operations and
support price
(IOSP)
The third FBCE price element is infrastructure, which may include
the price of O&S and recapitalization for the facilities (such as
fuelling facilities and energy commodity storage sites and
recharging stations) and related ground system equipment (such
as pumps, fuel storage bladders, hose lines, and other refuelling
equipment to include maintenance and parts for refuelling
vehicles and other related ground refuelling equipment, as well as
energy related material handling equipment, energy commodity
storage facilities and energy recharging stations). The costs to
deploy the delivery assets may also be included, if the assets need
to be transported to the theatre of interest. This applies only to
infrastructure that is operated by NATO and member countries in
the theatres of interest.
operational energy
The energy utilised for accommodating, training, moving and
sustaining military forces for operations, including the energy used
to operate weapon, communications and ISR systems.
renewable energy
The energy derived from resources that are replaced rapidly by
natural processes.
121
http://www.vcds.forces.gc.ca/sites/internet-eng.aspx?page=14661 (Access date: 9 April 2013).
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151
Term
Definition
security price (SP)
The fourth FBCE price element includes the costs of escort
protection of the energy supply chain in hostile environments. In
the case of NATO force protection assets allocated to the energy
commodity delivery forces, the operational and sustainment costs,
direct commodity costs and the depreciation costs will also have to
be estimated and included in the overall calculation. In essence, all
of the costs considered in the second price element should also be
considered for security assets. This includes the possibility that
some security assets will be destroyed due to hostile activity while
protecting the energy supply chain. In some high-risk scenarios,
force protection costs may be the largest factor in the FBCE
estimate.
tactical delivery
price (TDP)
The second FBCE price element captures the burdens associated
with the tactical delivery assets used by NATO countries to deliver
the energy commodity from the point of acquisition (contract
delivery point) to the system that will consume it. It includes: a)
the Operating and Support (O&S) costs and b) the cost of
depreciation of the actual delivery assets. Once NATO takes
possession of the energy commodity at the point of sale, it must
employ its own or contracted delivery assets. For the purposes of
estimates, the ”energy commodity delivery assets” mean major
items of energy delivery equipment, such as naval ships, aerial
refueling aircraft for fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft, and
tanker trucks and trailers for ground vehicles as well as
transportation trucks for energy commodities other than liquid. It
also includes planes that airdrop palletized energy commodities
and rotary-wing aircraft carrying energy commodities for delivery.
wild card
A ‘wild card’ is an unpredictable or unforeseeable factor that
occurs outside of normal rules and expectations.
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DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA
(Security markings for the title, abstract and indexing annotation must be entered when the document is Classified or Designated)
1.
ORIGINATOR (The name and address of the organization preparing the document.
Organizations for whom the document was prepared, e.g., Centre sponsoring a
contractor's report, or tasking agency, are entered in Section 8.)
(Overall security marking of the document including
special supplemental markings if applicable.)
UNCLASSIFIED
Defence Research and Development Canada
305 Rideau Street
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K2
3.
2a. SECURITY MARKING
2b. CONTROLLED GOODS
(NON-CONTROLLED GOODS)
DMC A
REVIEW: GCEC DECEMBER 2012
TITLE (The complete document title as indicated on the title page. Its classification should be indicated by the appropriate abbreviation (S,
C or U) in parentheses after the title.)
Evidence base for the development of an enduring DND/CAF Operational Energy Strategy
(DOES) :
Expressing Canadian values through defence operational energy stewardship here and abroad
4.
AUTHORS (last name, followed by initials – ranks, titles, etc., not to be used)
Labbé, P.; Ghanmi, A.; Amow, G.; Kan, B.; Jayarathna, K.; Voicu, R.; Snook, R.
5.
DATE OF PUBLICATION
(Month and year of publication of document.)
6a. NO. OF PAGES
6b. NO. OF REFS
(Total containing information,
(Total cited in document.)
including Annexes,
Appendices, etc.)
December 2014
7.
174
113
DESCRIPTIVE NOTES (The category of the document, e.g., technical report, technical note or memorandum. If appropriate, enter the type
of report, e.g., interim, progress, summary, annual or final. Give the inclusive dates when a specific reporting period is covered.)
Scientific Report
8.
SPONSORING ACTIVITY (The name of the department project office or laboratory sponsoring the research and development – include address.)
Defence Research and Development Canada
305 Rideau Street
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K2
9a. PROJECT OR GRANT NO. (If appropriate, the applicable research
and development project or grant number under which the document
was written. Please specify whether project or grant.)
10a. ORIGINATOR’S DOCUMENT NUMBER (The official document
number by which the document is identified by the originating
activity. This number must be unique to this document.)
9b. CONTRACT NO. (If appropriate, the applicable number under
which the document was written.)
10b.
OTHER DOCUMENT NO(s). (Any other numbers which
may be assigned this document either by the originator or by the
sponsor.)
DRDC-RDDC-2014-R65
11. DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY (Any limitations on further dissemination of the document, other than those imposed by security
classification.)
Unlimited
12. DOCUMENT ANNOUNCEMENT (Any limitation to the bibliographic announcement of this document. This will normally correspond to the
Document Availability (11). However, where further distribution (beyond the audience specified in (11) is possible, a wider announcement
audience may be selected.))
Unlimited
13. ABSTRACT (A brief and factual summary of the document. It may also appear elsewhere in the body of the document itself. It is highly
desirable that the abstract of classified documents be unclassified. Each paragraph of the abstract shall begin with an indication of the
security classification of the information in the paragraph (unless the document itself is unclassified) represented as (S), (C), (R), or (U). It is
not necessary to include here abstracts in both official languages unless the text is bilingual.)
The intent of this document is to consolidate the information, evidences, facts and data that
support and inform the first DND/CAF operational energy strategy (DOES) to address the need to
improve our defence operational capabilities and their sustainability by decreasing the fully
burdened cost of operational energy and reducing our supply chain vulnerabilities. It captures
some of the knowledge that resulted from the DOES working group discussions and workshops
with selected experts and organisations. Given the complexity of the domain and potential
misinterpretation of raw data available in the various records of transactions, their interpretation
for the purpose of developing the strategy was addressed collectively by selected representatives
from concerned DND/CAF L1s’ personnel.
Such a collective view is necessary to ensure that an appropriate understanding of the energy
challenges ahead permeates our DND/CAF culture and becomes part of our decision making.
Then, how to address them holistically through the sustainability looking glass will open new
avenues to improving our defence operational capabilities for operations here and abroad.
Analyses of historical data and simulation results were used to develop the DOES energy baseline.
That energy baseline was used to develop credible DOES targets. The baseline will be used later to
assess the level of success of initiatives to achieve DOES targets. An inflation methodology was
used to assess the potential savings of applying the DOES targets. Moreover, using simulation
techniques with scenarios informed by previous operations, the impacts of DOES targets on
expeditionary operations were estimated.
In addition, the report explores the DND/CAF domain of energy, sorts it in four dimensions and
proposed principles to support the selection of effective initiatives in fulfilling DOES. Selected
energy technologies required to power a large variety of DND/CAF capabilities are reviewed.
Then more specific examples addressing DOES targets for each environment are provided.
Fuelled by DND/CAF level of ambition, DOES targets will be used in developing potential action
plans and in measuring progress resulting from remediation initiatives in achieving the strategy
objectives.
14. KEYWORDS, DESCRIPTORS or IDENTIFIERS (Technically meaningful terms or short phrases that characterize a document and could be
helpful in cataloguing the document. They should be selected so that no security classification is required. Identifiers, such as equipment
model designation, trade name, military project code name, geographic location may also be included. If possible keywords should be
selected from a published thesaurus, e.g., Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms (TEST) and that thesaurus identified. If it is not
possible to select indexing terms which are Unclassified, the classification of each should be indicated as with the title.)
energy, power, operational, fuel, density, cost, CAF, RCAF, Royal Canadian Air Force, CA, army,
RCN, Royal Canadian Navy, DND, defence, demand, engine, batteries, storage, audit, electricity,
analysis, impact, strategy, capability, capacity
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