2014 ANNUAL REPORT Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

2014 ANNUAL REPORT Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview
2014 ANNUAL REPORT
Corrections and Conditional Release
Statistical Overview
BUILDING A SAFE AND RESILIENT CANADA
Corrections and
Conditional Release
Statistical Overview
2014
This document was produced by the Public Safety Canada Portfolio Corrections Statistics Committee
which is composed of representatives of the
Department of Public Safety Canada, the Correctional Service of Canada,
the Parole Board of Canada, the Office of the Correctional Investigator and
the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada).
Ce rapport est disponible en français sous le titre : Aperçu statistique : Le système correctionnel et la
mise en liberté sous condition.
This report is also available on the Public Safety Canada website: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca
April 2015
Public Works and Government Services Canada
Cat. No.: PS1-3E-PDF
ISSN: 1713-1073
PREFACE
This document provides a statistical overview of corrections and conditional release within a context of
trends in crime and criminal justice. A primary consideration in producing this overview was to present
general statistical information in a “user friendly” way that will facilitate understanding by a broad
audience. Accordingly, there are a number of features of this document that make it different from typical
statistical reports.
■
First, the visual representation of the statistics is simple and uncluttered, and under each chart there
are a few key points that will assist the reader in extracting the information from the chart.
■
Second, for each chart there is a table of numbers corresponding to the visual representation. In
some instances, the table includes additional numbers, e.g., a five-year series, even though the chart
depicts the data for the most recent year (e.g., Figure A2).
■
Third, rather than using the conventional headings for statistics (e.g., “police-reported crime rate by
year by type of crime”) the titles for each chart and table inform the reader about the matter at hand
(e.g., “Police-reported crime rate has decreased since 1998”).
■
Fourth, notes have been kept to a minimum, that is, only where they were judged to be essential for
the reader to understand the statistics.
■
Finally, the source of the statistics is indicated under each chart so that the interested reader can
easily access more information if desired.
This is the 17th issue of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). Readers
are advised that in some instances figures have been revised from earlier publications. Also, the total
number of offenders will vary slightly depending on characteristics of the data set.
It is hoped that this document will serve as a useful source of statistical information on corrections and
conditional release and assist the public in gaining a better understanding of these important components
of the criminal justice system.
PREFACE (CONTINUED)
Regarding police crime data from Statistics Canada, until the late 1980s, the Uniform Crime Reporting
(UCR) survey provided aggregate counts of the number of incidents reported to police and the number of
persons charged by type of offence. With the advent of microdata reporting, the UCR has become an
“incident-based” survey (UCR2), collecting in-depth information about each criminal incident. The update
to this new survey, as well as revisions to the definitions of Violent crime, Property crime, and Other
Criminal Code offences has resulted in data only being available from 1998 to the present. It is worth
noting that the Total Crime Rates presented in the CCRSO differ from those reported by Statistics Canada
in their publications. The Total Crime Rate reported in the CCRSO includes offences (i.e., traffic offences
in the Canadian Criminal Code and offences against federal statutes) that are excluded in rates published
by Statistics Canada.
Correctional Service Canada (CSC) has shifted the focus of its population counts from offenders serving a
federal sentence to offenders under the responsibility of CSC. As such, CSC no longer reports on the
status of only those offenders serving a federal sentence. CSC now focuses on the “in custody” and
“community” populations under the responsibility of CSC. Some of the more significant changes include:
(a) offenders temporarily detained in a CSC facility while their conditional releases are under suspension
are now counted as part of the “in custody” population; (b) offenders serving a provincial sentence incarcerated in a CSC facility are now counted as part of the “in custody” population; and (c) offenders who
have been deported are no longer counted as part of the “community” population. These changes bring
the CSC population figures more in-line with CSC’s financial commitments.
Since 2010 the CCRSO excludes information found in earlier editions on the mental health of federal
offenders. No valid and reliable data are available. The Correctional of Service of Canada is in the process of addressing this issue so as to provide reliable and valid information on the mental health issues of
federal offenders.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998 ........................................................ 01
Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north .......................................................... 03
Canada’s incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries ........................ 05
The rate of adults charged has declined ....................................................................................... 07
Administration of justice cases account for 22% of cases in adult courts ..................................... 09
Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short ..................................................... 11
Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries ............................................... 13
The rate of youth charged has declined over the past seven years .............................................. 15
The most common youth court case is theft ................................................................................. 17
The most common sentence for youth is probation ...................................................................... 19
SECTION B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
9.
10.
11.
CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATION
Federal expenditures on corrections decreased in 2012-13 ......................................................... 21
CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres .................................................................. 23
The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated…………………………………………………….……..25
The number of Parole Board of Canada employees ..................................................................... 27
The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator ...................................... 29
Conditions of confinements the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of
the Correctional Investigator ........................................................................................................ 31
SECTION C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
CONTEXT - CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
OFFENDER POPULATION
Offenders under the responsibility of the Correctional Service of Canada ................................... 33
The number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility has increased in the last five years ........... 35
The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated .................................................. 37
The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction increased in 2013-14 ...... 39
Almost half of offenders under federal jurisdiction are serving a sentence of 5 years or longer ... 41
Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing ..................................................... 43
The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal
offenders…………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
23% of the in custody offender population is aged 50 or over ...................................................... 47
61% of federal offenders are Caucasian ...................................................................................... 49
The religious identification of the offender population is diverse .................................................. 51
The proportion of Aboriginal offenders in custody is higher than for non-Aboriginal offenders ..... 53
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
12. The majority of in custody offenders are classified as medium security risk ................................. 55
13. Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence were stable in 2013-14 .................................... 57
14. Offenders with life or indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population ... 59
15. 68% of federal offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence ......................................... 61
16. The number of Aboriginal offenders has increased ...................................................................... 63
17. The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated .............................. 65
18. Almost half of admissions to administrative segregation stay for less than 30 days……...……….67
19. The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated ................................................... 69
20. The number of escapes has declined .......................................................................................... 71
21. The population of offenders in the community under supervision has decreased in the past five
years ……………………………………………………………………………………………………....73
22. The provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased in 2011-12 ................ …..75
23. The number of offenders on provincial parole has decreased over the past decade .................... 77
SECTION D.
CONDITIONAL RELEASE
1. The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries at statutory release
is increasing……………………………………………………………………………………………....79
2. The percentage of offenders released from federal penitentiaries on day and full parole
is decreasing……………………………………………………………………………………………....81
3. The federal day and full parole grant rates increased in 2013-14……………...…………….………83
4. The federal full parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased
for the fourth consecutive year ..................................................................................................... 85
5. Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor has decreased ........................ 87
6. Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole decreased ............................... 89
7. Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released
on parole…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
8. The majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed ................................................... 93
9. The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed ..................................................... 95
10. Statutory releases have the lowest rates of successful completion .............................................. 97
11. Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under
supervision has declined ............................................................................................................ .99
12. The number of offenders granted temporary absences has been stable
in the last three years…………………………………………………………………………………..101
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
SECTION E.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
STATISTICS ON SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE
The number of detention reviews decreased in 2013-14 .............................................................. 103
78% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility ................................................. 105
The number of dangerous offender designations ....................................................................... 107
Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period........................................................ 109
The number of record suspension applications received has decreased ................................... 111
SECTION F.
VICTIMS OF CRIME
1. Victimization rates for theft of personal property have increased ................................................ 113
2. The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30 .................................................................. 115
3. The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime ........................................ 117
4. The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased................ 119
5. Offences causing death is the most common type of offence that harmed the victim registered
with Correctional Service of Canada .......................................................................................... .121
6. Temporary Absence information is the most common type of information provided during
a notification to registered victims with Correctional Service of Canada .................................... 123
7. Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims have decreased………………………………….….125
CONTRIBUTING PARTNERS
Public Safety Canada
Public Safety Canada is Canada’s lead federal department for public safety, which includes emergency
management, national security and community safety. Its many responsibilities include developing
legislation and policies governing corrections, implementing innovative approaches to community justice,
and providing research expertise and resources to the corrections community.
Correctional Service of Canada
The mandate of the Correctional Service of Canada, as set out in the Corrections and Conditional
Release Act, is to contribute to the maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society by carrying out
sentences imposed by courts through the safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders with
sentences of two years or more, and assisting in the rehabilitation of offenders and their reintegration into
the community as law-abiding citizens through the provision of programs in penitentiaries and in the
community.
Parole Board of Canada
The Parole Board of Canada is an independent administrative tribunal responsible for making decisions
about the timing and conditions of release of offenders to the community on various forms of conditional
release. The Board also makes pardon decisions and recommendations respecting clemency through the
Royal Prerogative of Mercy.
Office of the Correctional Investigator
The Office of the Correctional Investigator is an ombudsman for federal offenders. It conducts
investigations into the problems of offenders related to decisions, recommendations, acts or omissions of
the Correctional Service of Canada that affect offenders individually or as a group.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada)
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) is a division of Statistics Canada. The CCJS is the
focal point of a federal-provincial-territorial partnership, known as the National Justice Statistics Initiative,
for the collection of information on the nature and extent of crime and the administration of civil and
criminal justice in Canada.
SECTION A
CONTEXT - CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL
JUSTICE SYSTEM
1
POLICE-REPORTED CRIME RATE HAS BEEN DECREASING SINCE 1998
Figure A1
Rate per 100,000 population
10,000
9,000
Total*
8,000
7,000
6,000
Property**
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
Violent**
1,000
Other Criminal Code**
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
■
The overall crime rate has decreased 33.1% since 1998, from 8,915 per 100,000 to 5,968 in 2013.
Over the same period, there was a 44.8% decrease in the property crime rate, from a rate of 5,696
per 100,000 to 3,146 in 2013. In contrast, the crime rate for drug offences has increased 31.9% since
1998, from 235 per 100,000 population to 310.
The rate of violent crime has fluctuated over the last fifteen years, peaking in 2000 at 1,494 per
100,000 population. Since 2000, the rate of violent crimes has decreased 26.9% to 1,092 in 2013.
In general, the crime rates for traffic offences and other Criminal Code offences have fluctuated since
1998.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against
federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.
**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the
policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual
crime. See Figure F1 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey), an alternative method of measuring crime.
Public Safety Canada
2014
2
POLICE-REPORTED CRIME RATE HAS BEEN DECREASING SINCE 1998
Table A1
Type of offence
Year
Violent**
Property**
Traffic
Other CCC**
Drugs
Other Fed.
Statutes
Total*
1998
1,345
5,696
469
1,051
235
119
8,915
1999
1,440
5,345
388
910
264
128
8,474
2000
1,494
5,189
370
924
287
113
8,376
2001
1,473
5,124
393
989
288
123
8,390
2002
1,441
5,080
379
991
296
128
8,315
2003
1,435
5,299
373
1,037
274
115
8,532
2004
1,404
5,123
379
1,072
306
107
8,391
2005
1,389
4,884
378
1,052
290
97
8,090
2006
1,387
4,809
376
1,050
295
87
8,004
2007
1,354
4,525
402
1,029
308
90
7,707
2008
1,334
4,258
437
1,039
308
100
7,475
2009
1,322
4,122
435
1,017
291
94
7,281
2010
1,292
3,838
420
1,029
321
96
6,996
2011
1,236
3,536
424
1,008
330
94
6,627
2012
1,197
3,434
406
1,000
317
103
6,458
2013
1,092
3,146
388
952
310
80
5,968
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against
federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.
**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the
policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.
Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.
Public Safety Canada
2014
3
CRIME RATES ARE HIGHER IN THE WEST AND HIGHEST IN THE NORTH
Figure A2
48,669
Northwest Territories
34,354
Nunavut
25,741
Yukon
12,477
Saskatchewan
Manitoba
8,725
British Columbia
8,593
7,870
Alberta
Newfoundland & Labrador
6,677
Prince Edward Island
6,509
Nova Scotia
6,401
5,968
Canada
5,444
New Brunswick
4,699
Quebec
4,189
Ontario
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
Per 100,000 population, 2013
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the Territories. This general pattern has been stable
over time.
The Canadian crime rate* dropped from 7,281 in 2009 to 5,968 in 2013.
Note:
*Rates are based on 100,000 population.
Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal
statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition,
the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing
community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable
to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Public Safety Canada
2014
4
CRIME RATES ARE HIGHER IN THE WEST AND HIGHEST IN THE NORTH
Table A2
Crime Rate*
Province/Territory
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Newfoundland & Labrador
7,263
7,535
7,136
6,838
6,677
Prince Edward Island
7,132
7,141
7,290
7,356
6,509
Nova Scotia
7,749
7,837
7,343
7,141
6,401
New Brunswick
6,397
6,339
6,063
6,275
5,444
Quebec
5,832
5,553
5,295
5,199
4,699
Ontario
5,310
5,073
4,796
4,611
4,189
Manitoba
11,359
10,650
9,866
9,745
8,725
Saskatchewan
14,358
14,309
14,121
13,536
12,477
9,556
9,073
8,372
8,187
7,870
British Columbia
10,295
9,814
9,308
9,068
8,593
Yukon Territory
25,362
23,069
22,544
22,598
25,741
Northwest Territories
46,288
51,585
52,300
51,277
48,669
Nunavut
39,356
41,025
39,443
40,570
34,354
Canada
7,281
6,996
6,627
6,458
5,968
Alberta
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Rates are based on 100,000 population.
Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal
statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition,
the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing
community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable
to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Public Safety Canada
2014
5
CANADA’S INCARCERATION RATE IS HIGH RELATIVE TO MOST WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Figure A3
Number of inmates per 100,000 population
190
New Zealand
149
England & Wales
144
Scotland
143
Australia
118
Canada
102
France
99
Austria
Italy
88
Switzerland
87
81
Germany
75
Norway
67
Denmark
United States
707
57
Sweden
55
Finland
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Source: World Prison Population List online (retrieved December 8, 2014 at http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief)
■
■
Canada’s incarceration rate is higher than the rates in most Western European countries but much
lower than the United States, where the most recent incarceration rate was 707 per 100,000 general
population.
Based on the most up to date information available from the International Centre for Prison Studies,
Canada’s incarceration rate was 118 per 100,000, calculated based on the 2012 population.
Note:
The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population.
Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in
the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Figure A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions
respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2014, the data was retrieved online on December 8,
2014 from http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief which contains the most up-to-date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates
based on the country’s population. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.
Public Safety Canada
2014
6
CANADA’S INCARCERATION RATE IS HIGH RELATIVE TO MOST WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Table A3
2001
2002
2003
2004
20061*
20082*
20113*
20124*
20135*
20146*
United States
700
701
714
723
738
756
743
730
716
707
New Zealand
145
155
168
168
186
185
199
194
192
190
England & Wales
125
141
142
141
148
153
155
154
148
149
Scotland
120
129
132
136
139
152
155
151
147
144
Australia
110
115
117
120
126
129
133
129
130
143
Canada
116
116
108
107
107
116
117
114
118
118
Italy
95
100
98
96
104
92
110
109
106
88
Austria
85
100
106
110
105
95
104
104
98
99
France
80
93
91
91
85
96
102
102
101
102
Germany
95
98
96
98
95
89
87
83
79
81
Switzerland
90
68
81
81
83
76
79
76
82
87
Sweden
65
73
75
81
82
74
78
70
67
57
Denmark
60
64
70
70
77
63
74
74
73
67
Norway
60
59
65
65
66
69
73
73
72
75
Finland
50
70
71
66
75
64
59
59
58
55
Source: International Centre for Prison Studies: 1 World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition); 2 World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition); 3 World Prison
Population List online (retrieved October 7, 2011 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php), 4 World Prison Population List online (retrieved October
15, 2012 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php).5 World Prison Population List online (retrieved November 20, 2013 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/
worldbrief/index.php). 56World Prison Population List online (retrieved December 8, 2014 at http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief).
Note:
*Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in
the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Table A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions
respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2014, the data was retrieved online on December 8,
2014 from http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief which contains the most up to date information available. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures. Rates are based on 100,000 population.
Public Safety Canada
2014
7
THE RATE OF ADULTS CHARGED HAS DECLINED
Figure A4
Rate per 100,000 adult population
2,500
Total charged*
2,000
1,500
1,000
Property**
500
Violent**
Other Criminal Code**
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
Since 1998, the rate of adults charged has decreased from 2,236 adults per 100,000 to 1,889 in 2013, a
decrease of 15.6%.
Over the same period, the rate of adults charged with violent crimes decreased by 11.4%, such that in
2013, 499 adults were charged per 100,000. Whereas the rate of adults charged for property offences has
decreased 39.1% from 677 adults per 100,000 to 412 in 2013.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against
federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.
**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the
policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering
threats and criminal harassment.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.
Public Safety Canada
2014
8
THE RATE OF ADULTS CHARGED HAS DECLINED
Table A4
Type of offence
Year
Violent**
Property**
Traffic
Other CCC**
Drugs
Other Fed.
Statutes
Total
Charged*
1998
563
677
374
430
168
24
2,236
1999
590
632
371
396
185
30
2,203
2000
615
591
349
411
198
26
2,190
2001
641
584
349
451
202
28
2,256
2002
617
569
336
460
199
29
2,211
2003
598
573
326
476
172
23
2,168
2004
584
573
314
490
187
30
2,180
2005
589
550
299
479
185
29
2,131
2006
594
533
300
498
198
27
2,150
2007
577
499
298
521
208
28
2,132
2008
576
487
307
540
207
31
2,149
2009
585
490
311
532
201
34
2,152
2010
576
473
295
545
211
32
2,132
2011
548
441
271
527
213
34
2,034
2012
541
434
268
535
202
37
2,016
2013
499
412
241
514
198
26
1,889
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against
federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.
**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the
policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older.
Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering
threats and criminal harassment.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.
Public Safety Canada
2014
9
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE CASES ACCOUNT FOR 22% OF CASES* IN ADULT COURTS
Figure A5
A dministratio n o f Justice
21.7%
Impaired Driving
10.9%
Theft
10.3%
Co mmo n A ssault
9.6%
M ajo r A ssault
5.3%
Uttering Threats
4.5%
Drug P o ssessio n
4.3%
M ischief
3.7%
Fraud
3.2%
Trafficking
3.2%
P o ssessio n o f Sto len P ro perty
2.9%
B reak & Enter
2.8%
Weapo ns
2.5%
Sexual A ssault
1.0%
Ro bbery
1.0%
Criminal Harassment
0.8%
Other Crimes A gainst P erso ns
0.8%
Other Sexual Offences
0.6%
Ho micide & Related
0.07%
A ttempted M urder
0.04%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
Percentage of all Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges (2011-12)
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
Administration of justice cases (offences related to case proceedings such as failure to appear in court,
failure to comply with a court order, breach of probation, and unlawfully at large) account for more than
one fifth of cases completed in adult criminal courts.
Apart from administration of justice cases, impaired driving and theft are the most frequent case in adult
courts.
Note:
*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of
the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the
same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An
offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence”
rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.
Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements
have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
10
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE CASES ACCOUNT FOR 22% OF CASES* IN ADULT COURTS
Table A5
Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges
Type of Charge
2009-10
#
Crimes Against the Person
%
2010-11
#
%
2011-12
#
%
96,688
23.58
94,720
23.10
91,697
23.73
Homicide and Related
279
0.07
296
0.07
263
0.07
Attempted Murder
197
0.05
156
0.04
153
0.04
Robbery
4,472
1.09
4,223
1.03
3,804
0.98
Sexual Assault
4,092
1.00
4,087
1.00
3,949
1.02
Other Sexual Offences
2,062
0.50
2,338
0.57
2,252
0.58
Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3)
21,909
5.34
21,251
5.18
20,607
5.33
Common Assault (Level 1)
38,609
9.42
37,990
9.27
37,063
9.59
Uttering Threats
18,607
4.54
17,925
4.37
17,427
4.51
Criminal Harassment
3,200
0.78
3,284
0.80
3,242
0.84
Other Crimes Against Persons
3,261
0.80
3,170
0.77
2,937
0.76
98,180
23.94
97,914
23.88
89,869
23.25
Theft
42,472
10.36
43,040
10.50
39,816
10.30
Break and Enter
11,708
2.86
11,497
2.80
10,672
2.76
Fraud
15,196
3.71
14,718
3.59
12,534
3.24
Mischief
14,843
3.62
14,832
3.62
14,193
3.67
Possession of Stolen Property
11,982
2.92
12,014
2.93
11,061
2.86
1,979
0.48
1,813
0.44
1,593
0.41
84,684
20.65
85,947
20.96
83,987
21.73
4,764
1.16
5,112
1.25
4,556
1.18
Breach of Probation
31,583
7.70
31,554
7.70
31,574
8.17
Unlawfully at Large
2,529
0.62
2,563
0.63
2,615
0.68
36,825
8.98
37,781
9.22
36,665
9.49
8,983
2.19
8,937
2.18
8,577
2.22
19,475
4.75
18,999
4.63
16,556
4.28
10,109
2.47
9,984
2.44
9,463
2.45
Prostitution
1,719
0.42
1,584
0.39
1,030
0.27
Disturbing the Peace
1,756
0.43
1,786
0.44
1,406
0.36
Residual Criminal Code
5,891
1.44
5,645
1.38
4,657
1.21
61,244
14.94
61,185
14.92
53,022
13.72
Impaired Driving
49,462
12.06
49,520
12.08
42,053
10.88
Other CC Traffic
11,782
2.87
11,665
2.85
10,969
2.84
49,780
12.14
51,192
12.49
51,320
13.28
Drug Possession
15,442
3.77
16,498
4.02
16,787
4.34
Other Drug Offences
13,124
3.20
12,875
3.14
12,243
3.17
Residual Federal Statutes
21,214
5.17
21,819
5.32
22,290
5.77
Crimes Against Property
Other Property Crimes
Administration of Justice
Fail to Appear
Fail to Comply with Order
Other Admin. Justice
Other Criminal Code
Weapons
Criminal Code Traffic
Other Federal Statutes
Total Offences
410,051
100.00
409,957
100.00
386,451
100.00
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and
Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition,
information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and
territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
11
MOST ADULT CUSTODIAL SENTENCES ORDERED BY THE COURT ARE SHORT
Figure A6
80%
Length of Prison Sentence for Men
Length of Prison Sentence for Women
67.8%
70%
60%
52.9%
50%
40%
33.2%
30%
23.8%
20%
10%
6.5%
4.3%
3.6%
2.1%
3.8%
2.0%
0%
1 Month or Less
> 1 to 6 Months
> 6 to 12 Months
> 1 Year to < 2 Years
2 Years or More
Length of Sentence (2011-12)
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
Over half (54.2%) of all custodial sentences imposed by adult criminal courts are one month or less.
Prison sentences for men tend to be longer than for women. About two-thirds (67.8%) of women and
just over half of men (52.9%) who are incarcerated upon guilty* finding receive a sentence of one
month or less, and 91.6% of women and 86.1% of men receive a sentence of six months or less.
Of all guilty findings that result in custody, only 3.6% result in federal jurisdiction (i.e., a sentence of
two years or more).
Note:
*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This
category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to
editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.
Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on sentence length was not available.
Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information
from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These
improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to
account for these updates.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
12
MOST ADULT CUSTODIAL SENTENCES ORDERED BY THE COURT ARE SHORT
Table A6
Length of Prison Sentence
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
%
%
%
%
%
Women
69.6
67.6
67.7
66.7
67.8
Men
53.5
53.9
53.6
51.4
52.9
Total
55.0
55.1
54.8
52.7
54.2
Women
22.3
24.2
23.3
24.7
23.8
Men
31.6
31.5
31.6
33.9
33.2
Total
30.7
30.8
30.7
32.9
32.2
Women
4.3
4.2
4.4
3.8
4.3
Men
7.0
6.9
6.7
6.8
6.5
Total
6.8
6.8
6.6
6.6
6.4
Women
1.9
1.9
2.2
2.4
2.1
Men
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
Total
3.6
3.6
3.7
3.6
3.5
Women
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.4
2.0
Men
4.2
4.0
4.4
4.4
3.8
Total
4.0
3.8
4.2
4.2
3.6
1 Month or Less
More Than 1 Month to 6 Months
More Than 6 Months to 12 Months
More Than 1 Year to Less Than 2 Years
2 Years or More
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to
editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.
Excludes cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information on both sentence length was not available.
Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s
municipal courts is not collected.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These
improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to
account for these updates.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
13
RELATIVELY FEW CRIMES RESULT IN SENTENCES TO FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
Figure A7
Total Number of Incidents
Reported to Police 2013:
2,098,3021
Cases with guilty* findings in
Adult Criminal Court 2011-12:
246,9841**
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/
Territorial Custody 2011-12:
86,6611
Warrant of Committal Admissions to
Federal Jurisdiction 2013-14:
5,1462
Source: 1 Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics,
Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
There were about 2.1 million incidents reported to police in 2013.
During 2013-14, 5,146 offenders were sentenced to federal jurisdiction (i.e., two years or more).
Note:
*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence.
This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.
**This figure only includes cases in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court
Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be
compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person
or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.
Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).
Public Safety Canada
2014
14
RELATIVELY FEW CRIMES RESULT IN SENTENCES TO FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
Table A7
Total Number of Incidents Reported to
Police1
Cases with guilty* findings in Adult
Criminal Court1**
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/
Territorial Custody1
Warrant of Committal
Admissions to Federal Facilities2
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
2,448,654
2,379,130
2,275,917
2,244,458
2,098,302
266,430
261,325
246,984
Not available
Not available
88,982
87,770
86,661
Not available
Not available
5,220
5,425
5,108
5,111
5,146
Source: 1 Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics,
Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence.
This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.
**This figure only includes cases convicted in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal
Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec’s municipal courts is not collected.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be
compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person
or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.
Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).
Public Safety Canada
2014
15
THE RATE OF YOUTH CHARGED HAS DECLINED OVER THE PAST SEVEN YEARS
Figure A8
Rate of Youth Charged per 100,000 Youth Population
6,000
5,000
Total*
4,000
3,000
Property*
2,000
Violent*
1,000
Other Criminal Code*
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
■
The rate of youth** charged has declined over the past seven years.
In 2003, there was a notable decrease in all major crime categories, in part attributable to the implementation of the
Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) in April 2003, which places greater emphasis on diversion.
The rate of youth charged with property crimes have decreased since 1998 by 71% from 2,500 per 100,00 youth to
725 in 2013.
The rate of youth charged with violent crimes have decreased 40% since reaching its peak in 2001 from 1,157 per
100,000 youth to 697 in 2013.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal
statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the
definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As
a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in
previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
**For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.
Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats
and criminal harassment.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.
Public Safety Canada
2014
16
THE RATE OF YOUTH CHARGED HAS DECLINED OVER THE PAST SEVEN YEARS
Table A8
Type of Offence
Year
Violent*
Property*
Traffic**
Other CCC*
Drugs
Other Fed.
Statutes
Total
Charged*
1998
994
2,500
--
870
226
184
4,775
1999
1,060
2,237
--
728
266
209
4,500
2000
1,136
2,177
--
760
317
198
4,589
2001
1,157
2,119
--
840
343
195
4,656
2002
1,102
2,009
--
793
337
235
4,476
2003
953
1,570
--
726
208
204
3,662
2004
918
1,395
--
691
230
222
3,457
2005
924
1,276
--
660
214
212
3,287
2006
917
1,216
--
680
240
216
3,269
2007
943
1,211
75
732
260
239
3,461
2008
909
1,130
74
730
267
259
3,369
2009
888
1,143
68
698
238
260
3,294
2010
860
1,035
62
669
255
266
3,147
2011
805
903
58
635
263
251
2,915
2012
764
840
58
628
240
235
2,765
2013
697
725
44
555
234
192
2,447
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal
statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the
definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As
a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in
previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
**Data for Youth Charged and Youth Not Charged for Impaired Driving are not available prior to 2007. As a result, comparisons to Total Charged and Other CCC
(including traffic) over time should be made with caution.
For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.
Rates are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats
and criminal harassment.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.
Public Safety Canada
2014
17
THE MOST COMMON YOUTH COURT CASE IS THEFT
Figure A9
13.6%
Theft
11.0%
Yo uth Criminal Justice A ct**
10.9%
A dministratio n o f Justice*
Co mmo n A ssault
8.3%
Drug Offences***
8.3%
7.8%
B reak & Enter
6.9%
M ischief
5.9%
M ajo r A ssault
5.6%
P o ssessio n o f Sto len P ro perty
5.2%
Other Crimes A gainst P erso ns
5.0%
Ro bbery
3.4%
Weapo ns
2.6%
Sexual A ssault/Sexual Offences
Ho micide & Related Offences
0.1%
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
Percentage of Youth Court Cases by Principal Charge (2011-12)
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
■
Following the enactment of the Youth Criminal Justice Act in 2003, fewer youth are in court.
Theft is the most common case in youth court.
Homicides and related offences account for 0.1% of all youth cases.
Females account for 23% of all cases, but they account for 36% of common assaults.
Note:
*“Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.
**Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and
harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.
***“Drug Offences” includes possession and trafficking.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the
Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the
same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An
offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence”
rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements
have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.
Public Safety Canada
2014
18
THE MOST COMMON YOUTH COURT CASE IS THEFT
Table A9
Type of Case
Crimes Against the Person
Homicide and Attempted Murder
Number of Youth Court Cases
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
15,395
15,614
14,823
14,275
13,095
70
76
70
69
53
Robbery
2,637
2,768
2,539
2,605
2,413
Sexual Assault/Other Sexual Offences
1,140
1,283
1,255
1,306
1,252
Major Assault
3,845
3,729
3,561
3,361
2,864
Common Assault
4,696
4,767
4,477
4,208
4,026
Other Crimes Against the Person*
3,007
2,991
2,921
2,726
2,487
22,612
22,219
22,242
20,408
17,240
Theft
8,026
8,262
8,454
7,879
6,577
Break and Enter
Fraud
Mischief
Possession of Stolen Property
Other Crimes Against Property
5,203
852
4,362
3,416
753
4,855
818
4,330
3,258
696
4,835
837
4,253
3,249
614
4,410
641
3,752
3,147
579
3,738
521
3,305
2,679
420
Crimes Against Property
Administration of Justice
6,327
6,353
6,104
5,702
5,233
Failure to comply with order
3,986
4,175
4,045
3,738
3,508
Other Administration of Justice**
2,341
2,178
2,059
1,964
1,725
Other Criminal Code
3,038
3,064
2,967
2,709
2,428
Weapons/Firearms
2,064
2,083
2,016
1,834
1,662
Prostitution
Disturbing the Peace
12
207
17
232
10
187
14
165
4
119
Residual Criminal Code
755
732
754
696
643
Criminal Code Traffic
1,237
1,170
1,118
963
838
Other Federal Statutes
10,101
10,548
9,605
9,437
9,395
Drug Possession
2,725
2,919
2,556
2,560
2,734
Drug Trafficking
1,475
1,459
1,279
1,220
1,246
Youth Criminal Justice Act***
5,649
5,917
5,685
5,603
5,326
252
253
85
54
89
58,710
58,968
56,859
53,494
48,229
Residual Federal Statutes
Total
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*“Other Crimes Against the Person” includes the offences uttering threats and criminal harassment.
**“Other Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.
***Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth
unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and
Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same ti me, and where all of the
charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules.
First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an
offence seriousness scale.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in
minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.
Public Safety Canada
2014
19
THE MOST COMMON SENTENCE FOR YOUTH IS PROBATION
Figure A10
Percentage of Youth Court Sentences
60%
50%
Probation
40%
30%
Other Sentence*
20%
Custody
10%
Community Service Order
0%
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
Consistent with the objectives of the YCJA, fewer youth are sentenced to custody. In 2011-12, about
15% of all guilty cases resulted in the youth being sentenced to custody. This compares to 16% of all
guilty cases in 2007-08.
In 2011-12, 49% of youth found guilty were given probation as the most serious sentence. This rate
has remained relatively stable since the implementation of the YCJA in April 2003.
Of the new YCJA sentences, deferred custody and supervision orders were handed down most
frequently. In 2011-12, 4.3% of all guilty cases received such an order as the most serious sentence.
Note:
*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling
programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This
category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where
sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.
Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more
than one sentence.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared
to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.
Public Safety Canada
2014
20
THE MOST COMMON SENTENCE FOR YOUTH IS PROBATION
Table A10
Year
Type of Sentence
Probation
Custody
Community Service Order
Fine
Deferred Custody and
Supervision
Other Sentence*
Gender
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
%
%
%
%
%
Female
50.4
52.2
50.0
47.5
47.5
Male
50.3
49.3
50.0
47.5
48.4
Total
50.8
50.3
50.3
48.2
48.7
Female
12.9
12.4
12.5
12.6
11.6
Male
17.5
17.0
16.2
17.2
17.0
Total
15.9
15.4
14.8
15.5
15.2
Female
7.9
8.1
9.3
9.4
9.6
Male
7.2
7.5
8.0
8.5
8.7
Total
7.6
7.9
8.9
9.1
8.6
Female
3.9
3.3
2.8
3.2
2.5
Male
4.7
5.2
4.1
3.7
3.3
Total
4.5
4.7
3.7
3.6
3.1
Female
3.2
3.0
4.0
4.3
5.1
Male
3.6
3.8
4.6
4.7
4.5
Total
3.4
3.5
4.3
4.4
4.3
Female
21.7
21.0
21.4
23.0
23.7
Male
16.8
17.3
17.0
18.4
18.2
Total
17.8
18.1
18.0
19.2
19.2
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling
programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This
category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where
sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.
Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more
than one sentence.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared
to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.
Public Safety Canada
2014
SECTION B
CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATION
21
EXPENDITURES ON CORRECTIONS DECREASED IN
2012-13
Figure B1
Dollars ('000)
2,750,000
2,500,000
2,250,000
Federal Costs
Federal Adjusted Costs
Prov incial/Territorial Costs
Prov incial/Territorial Adjusted Costs
2,000,000
1,750,000
1,500,000
1,250,000
1,000,000
750,000
500,000
250,000
0
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.
■
■
■
In 2012-13, expenditures on federal corrections in Canada totaled approximately $2.7 billion a slight
decrease from 2011-12.
Since 2003-04, expenditures on federal corrections has increased 72.5% from $1.56 billion to $2.69
billion. In constant dollars, this represents an increase of 64.7%.
Provincial/territorial expenditures totaled about $1.92 billion in 2010-11 an increase of 50.7% since
2003-04. In constant dollars, this represents an increase of 37.2%.
Note:
Federal expenditures on corrections include spending by the Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC), and the Office of the
Correctional Investigator (OCI). The expenditures for the CSC include both operating and capital costs. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special
Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
Constant dollars (2002) represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation, thus allowing the yearly amounts to be directly
comparable. Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.
Public Safety Canada
2014
22
EXPENDITURES ON CORRECTIONS DECREASED IN
2012-13
Table B1
Year
Current Dollars
Operating
Capital
Total
$’000
2008-09
CSC
PBC
OCI
Constant 2002 Dollars
Per capita
Operating
$
$’000
2,024,839
197,992
2,222,831
66.72
1,816,892
48,600
--
48,600
1.46
43,609
Capital
Total
Per capita
$
177,659
1,994,551
59.86
43,609
1.31
3,854
--
3,854
0.12
3,458
0
3,458
0.10
Total
2,077,293
197,992
2,275,285
68.29
1,863,959
177,659
2,041,618
61.28
2009-10
CSC
2,065,085
200,357
2,265,442
67.17
1,878,961
182,299
2,061,261
61.12
PBC
47,300
--
47,300
1.40
43,037
43,037
1.28
OCI
4,375
--
4,375
0.13
3,981
0
3,981
0.12
Total
2,116,760
200,357
2,317,117
68.70
1,925,979
182,299
2,108,278
62.51
2010-11
CSC
2,156,955
22,849
2,379,803
69.73
1,903,834
20,168
2,100,530
61.55
PBC
46,000
--
46,000
1.35
40,602
40,602
1.19
OCI
4,162
--
4,162
0.12
3,674
0
3,674
0.11
2,207,117
22,849
2,429,965
71.20
1,948,109
20,168
2,144,806
62.85
316,882
2,439,743
70.75
47,900
1.39
Total
2011-12
CSC
2,313,422
345,327
2,658,750
77.10
2,122,860
PBC
52,200
--
52,200
1.51
47,900
OCI
4,936
--
4,936
0.14
4,529
0
4,529
0.13
Total
2,370,558
345,327
2,715,886
78.76
2,175,290
316,882
2,492,172
72.27
2012-13
CSC
2,204,005
437,736
2,641,742
75.74
2,040,412
405,245
2,445,658
70.12
PBC
46,500
--
46,500
1.33
43,049
--
43,049
1.23
OCI
4,801
--
4,801
0.14
4,445
--
4,445
0.13
2,255,306
437,736
2,693,043
77.21
2,087,906
405,245
2,493,152
71.48
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.
Note:
Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add to “Total”.
Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per Canadian for federal
correctional services.
Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable.
Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.
Public Safety Canada
2014
23
CSC EMPLOYEES ARE CONCENTRATED IN CUSTODY CENTRES
Figure B2
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14
Community Supervision
8.2%
(Includes parole officers,
program staff, administrative
support and other staff)
Custody Centres 76.5%
Correctional Officers 42.5%
Administrative Support 10.6%
Headquarters and Central
Services 15.3%
(Includes program staff,
administrative support and
other staff)
Health Care 5.5%
Parole Officers* 3.9%
Program Staff 5.2%
Instructors/Supervisors 2.3%
Other** 6.4%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) has a total staff of about 18,000.***
Approximately 77% of CSC staff work in institutions.
Staff employed in community supervision account for 8% of the total.
Note:
*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.
**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.
***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended
employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months
substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
24
CSC EMPLOYEES ARE CONCENTRATED IN CUSTODY CENTRES
Table B2
Service Area
March 31, 2006
March 31, 2014
#
%
#
%
2,087
14.5
2,752
15.3
1,699
11.8
2,378
13.2
Health Care
111
0.8
96
0.5
Program Staff
120
0.8
71
0.4
Correctional Officers
28
0.2
13
0.1
Instructors/Supervisors
10
0.1
10
0.1
2
<0.1
Headquarters and Central Services
Administration
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors
Other**
119
0.8
182
1.0
11,229
77.8
13,783
76.5
Correctional Officers
5,965
41.3
7,654
42.5
Administration
1,914
13.3
1,918
10.6
Health Care
779
5.4
991
5.5
Program Staff
534
3.7
936
5.2
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors*
648
4.5
705
3.9
Instructors/Supervisors
387
2.7
422
2.3
1,002
6.9
1,157
6.4
1,125
7.8
1,477
8.2
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors
581
4.0
728
4.0
Administration
315
2.2
373
2.1
Program Staff
172
1.2
281
1.6
Health Care
34
0.2
84
0.5
Correctional Officers
22
0.2
10
0.1
1
<0.1
1
<0.1
14,441
100.0
18,012
100.0
Custody Centres
Other**
Community Supervision
Other**
Total***
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.
**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.
***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended
employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term equal to, or more than 3 months
substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
25
THE COST OF KEEPING AN INMATE INCARCERATED
Figure B3
Federal Average Daily Inmate Cost (current $)
Women
Men
Both
700
600
$587
$578
$556
$579
$577
500
400
300
$292 $300
$303 $312
$304
$313
$313 $322
$297 $307
200
100
0
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
The federal average daily inmate cost has increased from $300 in 2008-09 to $307 in 2012-13.
In 2012-13, the annual average cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated was $112,197 per year, up
from $109,699 per year in 2008-09. In 2012-13, the annual average cost of keeping a men inmate
incarcerated was $108,376 per year, whereas the annual average cost for incarcerating a women
inmate was $210,695.
The cost associated with maintaining an offender in the community is 70% less than what it costs to
maintain an offender in custody ($33,799 per year versus $112,197 per year).
Note:
The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions,
but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
In 2001-02, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the cost of keeping a woman
incarcerated includes the cost of maximum security units for women co-located within institutions for men.
Public Safety Canada
2014
26
THE COST OF KEEPING AN INMATE INCARCERATED
Table B3
Annual Average Costs per Offender (current $)
Categories
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
147,135
150,808
147,418
151,484
148,330
Medium Security (men only)
93,782
98,219
99,519
104,889
99,207
Minimum Security (men only)
93,492
95,038
95,034
91,959
83,910
203,061
211,093
214,614
211,618
210,695
87,866
89,800
90,712
97,545
104,828
109,699
113,974
114,364
117,788
112,197
Offenders in the Community
29,476
29,537
31,148
35,101
33,799
Total Incarcerated and Community
91,498
93,916
96,412
100,622
95,504
Incarcerated Offenders
Maximum Security (men only)
Women’s Facilities
Exchange of Services Agreements
Incarcerated Average
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions,
but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
In 2001-02, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the cost of keeping a woman
incarcerated includes the cost of maximum security units for women co-located within institutions for men.
Public Safety Canada
2014
27
THE NUMBER OF PAROLE BOARD OF CANADA EMPLOYEES
Figure B4
Full-Time Equivalents
600
505
500
400
385
404
416
416
2006-07
2007-08
428
442
438
2009-10
2010-11
461
468
2011-12
2012-13
300
200
100
0
2004-05
2005-06
2008-09
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
The total number of full-time equivalents used by the Parole Board of Canada has increased by
31.2% since 2004-05.
Public Safety Canada
2014
28
THE NUMBER OF PAROLE BOARD OF CANADA EMPLOYEES
Table B4
Full-Time Equivalents
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
299
297
310
311
325
Conditional Release Openness and
Accountability
64
57
60
56
53
Record Suspension and Clemency
Recommendations
40
38
37
58
79
Internal Services
39
46
54
43
48
442
438
461
468
505
Full-time Board Members
40
40
43
44
42
Part-time Board Members
25
21
21
20
20
Staff
377
377
397
404
443
Total
442
438
461
468
505
Strategic Outcome*
Conditional Release Decisions
Total
Type of Employees
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*As of 2006-07, the Receiver General and Treasury Board Secretariat reporting requirements have been changed from Business Line to Strategic Outcome.
Consequently, data regarding Conditional Release Openness and Accountability is unavailable prior to 2006-07.
Public Safety Canada
2014
29
THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE OFFICE OF THE CORRECTIONAL INVESTIGATOR
Figure B5
Full-Time Equivalents
40
35
36
36
2012-13
2013-14
32
30
30
25
28
23
23
23
23
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
24
20
15
10
5
0
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.
■
■
The total number of full-time equivalents at the Office of the Correctional Investigator was stable over
the last two years.
In 2013-14, 5,434 complaints/inquires* were received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator.
Note:
*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own
initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in
response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by
the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry
or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of
scope, complexity, duration and resources required.
Public Safety Canada
2014
30
THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE OFFICE OF THE CORRECTIONAL INVESTIGATOR
Table B5
Full-Time Equivalents
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Correctional Investigator
1
1
1
1
1
Senior Management and
Legal Counsel/Advisor
5
5
5
5
5
Investigative Services
20
20
21
25
25
Administrative Services
2
4
5
5
5
28
30
32
36
36
Type of Employees
Total
Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.
Public Safety Canada
2014
31
CONDITIONS OF CONFINEMENT IS THE MOST COMMON AREA OF OFFENDER COMPLAINT
RECEIVED BY THE OFFICE OF THE CORRECTIONAL INVESTIGATOR
Figure B6
Ten Most Common Complaints* in 2013-14
628
Co nditio ns o f Co nfinement
613
Health Care
412
Staff P erfo rmance
403
Institutio nal Transfers
363
A dministrative Segregatio n
327
Cell P ro perty
Telepho ne
227
Visits
225
161
Grievance P ro cedures
140
File Info rmatio n
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Number of Complaints
Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.
■
■
■
There were 5,434 complaints/inquires* received at the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) in
2013-14.
Conditions of confinement (11.6%), health care (11.3%), and staff performance (7.6%) accounted for
30.4% of all complaints.
The number of individual complaints processed by the OCI has decreased in recent years because
the OCI has reallocated resources to sharpen its focus on systemic issues and death in custody
investigations.
Note:
*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own
initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in
response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by
the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry
or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of
scope, complexity, duration and resources required.
Public Safety Canada
2014
32
CONDITIONS OF CONFINEMENT IS THE MOST COMMON AREA OF OFFENDER COMPLAINT
RECEIVED BY THE OFFICE OF THE CORRECTIONAL INVESTIGATOR
Table B6
Category of Complaint
Number of Complaints*
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
#
#
#
#
#
Conditions of Confinement
-- **
469
483
509
628
Health Care (including Dental)
821
797
730
577
613
370
393
390
388
165
277
236
152
-- ***
163
102
-- ***
-- ***
137
-- ***
-- ***
1,357
347
369
346
407
168
205
284
202
78
188
135
129
115
90
112
88
1,087
310
408
428
386
141
253
255
166
108
122
92
227
127
87
54
119
1,061
368
376
424
399
135
213
163
162
109
101
115
372
84
412
403
363
327
227
225
161
140
138
107
98
93
85
56
50
42
957
174
187
232
235
309
5,282
5,914
5,789
5,477
5,434
Staff Performance
Institutional Transfers
Administrative Segregation
Cell Property
Telephone
Visits (includes Private Family Visits)
Grievance Procedures
File Information
Financial Matters
Programs/Services
Security Classification
Decisions (General) - Implementation
Correspondence
Safety/Security of Offender
Mental Health
Harassment
Other****
Outside OCI’s Terms of Reference
Total
74
64
Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.
Note:
*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are
made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of
internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a
review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to
address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.
OCI has updated the categories of complaints to better reflect their corporate priorities and the changing nature of the complaints that they received in the 2010-11 fiscal year. As a
result, some categories reported in previous years have been changed or removed.
■ **As of 2009-10, the “Conditions of Confinement” category was eliminated to better capture the specific nature of the complaint filed. Therefore, no data are available for
2009-10.
■ ***Previously, Decisions (General) - Implementation, Correspondence, and Mental Health were reported in “Other”, therefore, numbers previous to 2010-11 are not reported.
■ ****“Other” refers to other types of complaints not specified in the table and includes: Cell Placement, Claims Against the Crown, Community Programs/Supervision,
Conditional Release, Death or Serious Injury, Diets, Discipline, Discrimination, Double Bunking, Employment, Financial Matters, Food Services, Health and Safety - Inmate
Worksites/Programs, Hunger Strike, Inmate Requests, Ion Scan/Drug Dog, Methadone, OCI, Official Languages, Operation/Decisions of the OCI, Release Procedures, Religious/Spiritual, Safety/Security - Incompatibles/Worksite, Search and Seizure, Sentence Administration, Temporary Absence, Temporary Absence Decision, Uncategorized,
Urinalysis and Use of Force. In 2010-11, Cell Placement, Conditional Release, Employment, Inmate Requests, OCI, Religious/Spiritual, Safety/Security - Incompatibles/
Worksite, and Temporary Absence were added to the “Other” category, and Correspondence, General Decision/Implementation, and Mental Health were removed.
The number of individual complaints processed by the OCI has decreased in recent years because the OCI has reallocated resources to sharpen its focus on systemic issues and
death in custody investigations.
Public Safety Canada
2014
SECTION C
OFFENDER POPULATION
33
OFFENDERS UNDER THE RESPONSIBILITY OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Figure C1
Total Offender Population*
Temporarily Detained 3.4%
Actively Supervised 33.2%
Day Parole 5.1%
Full Parole 14.0%
Statutory Release 12.7%
Long-Term Supervision
Orders 1.5%
Incarcerated 63.4%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Definitions:
Total Offender Population includes all active offenders, who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders
who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily
detained in a CSC facility.
Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a CSC facility or a non-CSC facility after being suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.
Actively Supervised includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the community on long-term supervision orders.
CSC Facilities include all federal institutions and federally funded healing lodges.
In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, or statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term
supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
In addition to that Total Offender Population, there are excluded groups such as:
Federal jurisdiction offenders incarcerated in a Community Correctional Centre or in a non-CSC facility. Federal jurisdiction offenders
deported/extradited including offenders for whom a deportation order has been enforced by Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Federal
offenders on bail which includes offenders on judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released
to await results of a new trial. Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary
absence and whose whereabouts are unknown. Unlawfully at Large for 90 days or more. This includes offenders who have been released to
the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or a long-term supervision order for whom a warrant of suspension has been
issued at least 90 day but has not yet been executed.
Note:
*The definition of “Offender Population” changed in the 2014 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such,
comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2014 should be done with caution.
Public Safety Canada
2014
34
OFFENDERS UNDER THE RESPONSIBILITY OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Table C1
Status
Offenders under the responsibility of Correctional Service of Canada
#
In Custody Population (CSC Facility)
#
#
%
%
15,327
Incarcerated in CSC Facility
14,674
63.4
Temporarily Detained in CSC Facility
653
2.8
In Community under Supervision
7,827
Temporarily Detained in non-CSC Facility
33.8
133
Actively Supervised
7,694
33.2
Day Parole
1,191
5.1
Full Parole
3,231
14.0
Statutory Release
2,929
12.7
343
1.5
Long Term Supervision Order
Total
%
66.2
23,154*
100.0
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*In addition to this total offender population, 137 offenders were on bail, 119 offenders had escaped, 172 offenders were under federal jurisdiction serving their
sentence in a non-CSC facility, 313 offenders were unlawfully at large for 90 days or more, and 405 offenders were deported or on immigration hold.
The definition of “Offender Population” changed in the 2014 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such,
comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to 2014 should be done with caution.
Public Safety Canada
2014
35
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS IN CUSTODY IN A CSC FACILITY
HAS INCREASED IN THE LAST FIVE YEARS
Figure C2
Number of In Custody Offenders in a CSC Facility at Fiscal Year* End
16,000
15,500
15,000
14,500
14,000
13,500
13,000
12,500
12,000
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
Following consecutive increases in the number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility from 2004-05
to 2007-08, there was a decrease in 2008-09, followed by consecutive increases thereafter (an increase of 8.1% for the past five fiscal years).
The provincial/territorial sentenced offender population in custody increased 13.4% from 2004-05 to
2011-12 from 9,823 to 11,138 and the remand population increased by 38.4% from 9,656 to 13,369
during this period. Since 2005-06, the number of remanded inmates has exceeded the number of
sentenced inmates in provincial/territorial custody.**
Note:
*The data reflect the number of offenders in custody in a CSC facility at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following
year.
The term “In Custody Offenders” includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders
who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.
**Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
Public Safety Canada
2014
36
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS IN CUSTODY IN A CSC FACILITY
HAS INCREASED IN THE LAST FIVE YEARS
Table C2
In Custody Offenders
Provincial/Territorial2
Year
In Custody in a
CSC Facility*1
Total
Sentenced
Remand
Other/
Temporary
Detention
Total
2004-05
13,378
9,823
9,656
331
19,810
33,188
2005-06**
13,488
9,609
10,908
292
20,809
34,297
2006-07
13,960
10,032
12,169
300
22,500
36,460
2007-08
14,362
9,799
12,973
335
23,107
37,469
2008-09
13,950
9,931
13,548
331
23,810
37,760
2009-10
14,185
10,045
13,739
322
24,106
38,291
2010-11
14,824
10,922
13,086
436
24,443
39,267
2011-12
15,136
11,138
13,369
315
24,822
39,958
2012-13
15,313
--
--
--
--
--
2013-14
15,327
--
--
--
--
--
Source: 1Correctional Service Canada.; 2Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
Note:
* Data reflects the number of offenders in custody at the end of each fiscal year . A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
The term “In Custody in a CSC Facility” includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and
offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC facility.
**Data is unavailable from Prince Edward Island in 2005-06.
The figures for provincial and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts.
-- Data not available.
Public Safety Canada
2014
37
THE NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION HAS FLUCTUATED
Figure C3
Other*
Number of Admissions
Revocations
10,000
Warrant of Committal
9,000
8,000
124
167
162
7,000
6,000
3,240
3,282
167
171
3,373
3,382
5,109
5,002
4,828
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
3,262
101
133
142
129
2,681
2,969
2,830
133
3,040
2,783
5,220
5,425
5,108
5,111
5,146
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
4,554
4,786
2004-05
2005-06
1,000
0
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
After peaking at 8,606 in 2006-07, the number of admissions has decreased by 5.8% to 8,105 in
2013-14.
The number of warrant of committal admissions has fluctuated over the past decade but has been
fairly stable over the last three years.
The number of women admitted to federal jurisdiction under warrants of committal increased 4.8%
from 312 in 2009-10 to 327 in 2013-14.
Note:
*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is
interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.
These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an
individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
38
THE NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION HAS FLUCTUATED
Table C3
2009-10
Women
2010-11
Men
Women
Men
2011-12
Women
Men
2012-13
Women
Men
2013-14
Women
Men
Warrant of Committal
1st Federal Sentence
281 3,562
294
3,703
303
3,494
229
3,535
287
3,582
All Others
31 1,346
39
1,389
43
1,268
45
1,302
40
1,237
Subtotal
312 4,908
333
5,092
346
4,762
274
4,837
327
4,819
Total
5,220
Revocations
178 2,862
Total
3,040
Other*
Total
5
5,425
96
8
101
8,361
2,630
2,783
495 7,866
Total Admissions
153
5,108
135
125
7,847
8,341
2,546
2,681
17
133
494
5,111
140
116
7,424
7,922
2,829
2,969
15
133
498
5,146
121
2,830
127
6
142
429
7,793
8,222
2,709
123
129
454
7,651
8,105
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is
interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.
These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an
individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
39
THE NUMBER OF WOMEN ADMITTED FROM THE COURTS TO FEDERAL
JURISDICTION INCREASED IN 2013-14
Figure C4
Number of Warrant of Committal Admissions for Women
346
350
333
318
300
250
309
315
327
312
274
274
236
200
150
100
50
0
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
In the last ten years, the number of women admitted to federal jurisdiction increased 38.6% from 236
in 2004-05 to 327 in 2013-14. During the same time period, there was an increase of 11.6% in the
number of men admitted to federal jurisdiction.
Overall, women continue to represent a small proportion of the total number of admissions (i.e., 6.4%
in 2013-14).
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14, there were 631 women incarcerated within Correctional Services
Canada facilities.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety Canada
2014
40
THE NUMBER OF WOMEN ADMITTED FROM THE COURTS TO FEDERAL
JURISDICTION INCREASED IN 2013-14
Table C4
Warrant of Committal Admissions
Year
Total
Women
Men
#
%
#
%
2004-05
236
5.2
4,318
94.8
4,554
2005-06
274
5.7
4,512
94.3
4,786
2006-07
318
6.2
4,791
93.8
5,109
2007-08
309
6.2
4,693
93.8
5,002
2008-09
315
6.5
4,513
93.5
4,828
2009-10
312
6.0
4,908
94.0
5,220
2010-11
333
6.1
5,092
93.9
5,425
2011-12
346
6.8
4,762
93.2
5,108
2012-13
274
5.4
4,837
94.6
5,111
2013-14
327
6.4
4,819
93.6
5,146
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety Canada
2014
41
OVER HALF OF TOTAL OFFENDER POPULATION IN CSC FACILITIES
ARE SERVING A SENTENCE OF LESS THAN 5 YEARS
Figure C5
Sentence length of Total Offender Population*
6000
5,298
5,258
5000
3,767
4000
3000
2,447
2000
1,790
1,635
1,099
955
1000
611
294
ina
te
In
de
ter
m
ye
ar
so
rm
or
e
15
ye
ar
s
to
10
7
to
<1
0
<1
5
ye
ar
s
ye
ar
s
6
to
<7
ye
ar
s
5
to
<6
ye
ar
s
4
to
<5
ye
ar
s
<4
3
to
<3
to
2
<
tha
n
2y
ye
ar
s
ea
rs
0
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
In 2013-14, over half (51.0%) of the total offender population* were serving sentences of less than 5
years with 22.9% serving a sentence between two years and less than three years.
Almost one quarter (22.7%) of the total offender population* were serving indeterminate sentences.
The total number of offenders with indeterminate sentences has increased 7.4% since 2009-10 from
4,897 to 5,258 in 2013-14.
Note:
*Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders
who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who
received a new sentence of less than 2 years.
Public Safety Canada
2014
42
OVER HALF OF TOTAL OFFENDER POPULATION IN CSC FACILITIES
ARE SERVING A SENTENCE OF LESS THAN 5 YEARS
Table C5
2009-10
Sentence Length
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
309
1.4
277
1.2
262
1.1
280
1.2
294
1.3
2 years to < 3 years
5,713
25.9
5,927
26.2
5,785
25.3
5,467
23.8
5,298
22.9
3 years to < 4 years
3,338
15.1
3,519
15.5
3,626
15.8
3,729
16.2
3,767
16.3
4 years to < 5 years
2,133
9.7
2,202
9.7
2,290
10.0
2,363
10.3
2,447
10.6
5 years to < 6 years
1,490
6.7
1,516
6.7
1,577
6.9
1,598
7.0
1,635
7.1
6 years to < 7 years
951
4.3
996
4.4
999
4.4
1,083
4.7
1,099
4.7
7 years to < 10 years
1,525
6.9
1,580
7.0
1,656
7.2
1,722
7.5
1,790
7.7
10 years to < 15 years
1,003
4.5
988
4.4
978
4.3
961
4.2
955
4.1
721
3.3
674
3.0
630
2.8
608
2.6
611
2.6
4,897
22.2
4,984
22.0
5,098
22.3
5,167
22.5
5,258
22.7
22,080
100
22,663
100
22,901
100
22,978
100
23,154
100
< than 2 years
15 years and more
Indeterminate
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders
who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who
received a new sentence of less than 2 years.
Public Safety Canada
2014
43
OFFENDER AGE AT ADMISSION TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION IS INCREASING
Figure C6
Percentage of Warrant of Committal Admissions
2004-05
25%
2013-14
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Under 18
18-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-59
60-69
70 +
Age of Offender at Admission
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
In 2013-14, 36.1% of offenders admitted to federal jurisdiction were between the ages of 20 and 29,
and 26.9% were between 30 and 39 years of age.
The distribution of age upon admission is similar for both men and women.
The median age of the population upon admission is the same in 2013-14 as it was in 2004-05, 33
years of age.
The number of offenders between the ages of 40 and 49 at admission increased from 927 in 2004-05
to 993 in 2013-14, representing a 7.1% increase.
The number of offenders between the ages of 30 and 34 at admission increased from 716 in 2004-05
to 789 in 2013-14. However, as a proportion of the total warrant of committal admissions it was about
the same in 2004-05 and 2013-14, 15.7% in 2004-05 and 15.3% in 2013-14.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
44
OFFENDER AGE AT ADMISSION TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION IS INCREASING
Table C6
2004-05
Age at
Admission
Women
#
%
Under 18
0
18 and 19
2013-14
Men
#
%
0.0
5*
0.1
9
3.8
194
20 to 24
30
12.7
25 to 29
41
30 to 34
Total
%
#
%
5
0.1
0
4.5
203
4.5
842
19.5
872
17.4
727
16.8
42
17.8
674
35 to 39
37
15.7
40 to 44
35
45 to 49
Men
Total
#
%
0.0
6**
0.1
6
0.1
6
1.8
112
2.3
118
2.3
19.1
61
18.7
849
17.6
910
17.7
768
16.9
58
17.7
890
18.5
948
18.4
15.6
716
15.7
53
16.2
736
15.3
789
15.3
624
14.5
661
14.5
41
12.5
552
11.5
593
11.5
14.8
571
13.2
606
13.3
45
13.8
495
10.3
540
10.5
21
8.9
300
6.9
321
7.0
24
7.3
429
8.9
453
8.8
50 to 59
18
7.6
263
6.1
281
6.2
25
7.6
514
10.7
539
10.5
60 to 69
3
1.3
100
2.3
103
2.3
10
3.1
177
3.7
187
3.6
70 and over
0
0.0
18
0.4
18
0.4
4
1.2
59
1.2
63
1.2
Total
236
4,318
#
Women
4,554
327
4,819
#
%
5,146
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*These five offenders include two offenders in a youth custody centre and three offenders who at 17 years of age, were at the Regional Reception Centre
sentenced and admitted to federal jurisdiction by the courts.
**These six offenders were admitted to a youth correctional centre.
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
45
THE AVERAGE AGE AT ADMISSION IS LOWER FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Figure C7
Percentage of Warrant of Committal Admissions
Aboriginal Offenders
70 +
0.4%
60-69
4.2%
1.3%
50-59
7.2%
45-49
7.0%
40-44
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
1.4%
11.3%
9.2%
9.9%
10.6%
Age
35-39
11.8%
10.3%
15.2%
30-34
15.4%
20.7%
25-29
20-24
17.9%
23.7%
16.2%
18-19
3.9%
Under 18
1.9%
0.4%
30%
20%
10%
0.0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
Percentage of Admissions (2013-14)
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
Of those offenders admitted to federal jurisdiction in 2013-14, 48.8% of Aboriginal offenders were
under the age of 30, compared to 36.0% of non-Aboriginal offenders.
The median age of Aboriginal offenders at admission is 30, compared to a median age of 34 for
non-Aboriginal offenders.
The median age of Aboriginal women offenders at admission is 31, compared to a median age of 34
for non-Aboriginal women offenders.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
46
THE AVERAGE AGE AT ADMISSION IS LOWER FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Table C7
2004-05
Age at
Admission
Aboriginal
2013-14
NonAboriginal
#
%
Under 18
2
0.2
3
0.1
18 and 19
61
7.0
142
20 to 24
191
22.0
25 to 29
177
30 to 34
5
0.1
4
0.4
2
0.0
6
0.1
3.9
203
4.5
40
3.9
78
1.9
118
2.3
681
18.5
872
19.1
240
23.7
670
16.2
910
17.7
20.4
591
16.0
768
16.9
210
20.7
738
17.9
948
18.4
147
17.0
569
15.4
716
15.7
154
15.2
635
15.4
789
15.3
35 to 39
115
13.3
546
14.8
661
14.5
104
10.3
489
11.8
593
11.5
40 to 44
96
11.1
510
13.8
606
13.3
100
9.9
440
10.6
540
10.5
45 to 49
40
4.6
281
7.6
321
7.0
71
7.0
382
9.2
453
8.8
50 to 59
25
2.9
256
6.9
281
6.2
73
7.2
466
11.3
539
10.5
60 to 69
10
1.2
93
2.5
103
2.3
13
1.3
174
4.2
187
3.6
3
0.3
15
0.4
18
0.4
4
0.4
59
1.4
63
1.2
3,687
4,554
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
1,013
#
4,133
%
Total
%
867
#
NonAboriginal
#
Total
%
Aboriginal
%
70 and over
#
Total
#
5,146
%
47
23% OF THE IN CUSTODY OFFENDER POPULATION IS AGED 50 OR OVER
Figure C8
Percentage of In Custody Offender Population*
2013-14 In Custody Population*
20%
Canadian Adult Population**
15.7%
15.3%
15%
12.9%
12.1%
11.2%
10%
8.7%
8.5%
8.6%
8.2%
11.5%
11.0%
8.4%
9.8%
9.1% 8.9%
8.9%
7.5%
6.2%
6.1%
5%
3.8%
3.3%
2.3%
1.6%
0.4%
0%
18-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 +
Age
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
In 2013-14, 54.7% of in custody offenders were under the age of 40.
In 2013-14, 22.7% of the in custody offender population was aged 50 and over.
The community offender population was older than the in custody population; 35.5% of offenders in
the community were aged 50 and over, compared to 22.7% of the in custody offenders in this age
group.
Note:
*In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are
temporarily detained in a CSC facility.
**2013 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.
In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long
term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
48
23% OF THE IN CUSTODY OFFENDER POPULATION IS AGED 50 OR OVER
Table C8
Age
In Custody
In Community Under
Supervision
Total
% of Canadian
Adult Population*
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
Under 18
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0.0
18 and 19
62
0.4
4
0.1
66
0.3
3.3
20 to 24
1,718
11.2
561
7.2
2,279
9.8
8.7
25 to 29
2,407
15.7
968
12.4
3,375
14.6
8.5
30 to 34
2,340
15.3
970
12.4
3,310
14.3
8.6
35 to 39
1,861
12.1
865
11.1
2,726
11.8
8.2
40 to 44
1,770
11.5
838
10.7
2,608
11.3
8.4
45 to 49
1,689
11.0
844
10.8
2,533
10.9
9.1
50 to 54
1,359
8.9
839
10.7
2,198
9.5
9.8
55 to 59
932
6.1
663
8.5
1,595
6.9
8.9
60 to 64
588
3.8
482
6.2
1,070
4.6
7.5
65 to 69
350
2.3
370
4.7
720
3.1
6.2
70 and over
251
1.6
423
5.4
674
2.9
12.9
15,327
100.0
7,827
100.0
23,154
100.0
100.0
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.
Note:
*2013 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada and include only those age 18 and older.
In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are
temporarily detained in a CSC facility.
In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long
term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
49
61% OF OFFENDERS ARE CAUCASIAN
Figure C9
Percentage of Total Offender Population
Hispanic 1.1%
Other/Unknow n 2.7%
Aboriginal 21.0%
Caucasian 60.8%
Asian 5.8%
Black 8.6%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
The offender population is becoming more diverse as evidenced by the decrease in the proportion of
Caucasian offenders from 65.9% in 2009-10 to 60.8% in 2013-14.
Between 2009-10 and 2013-14, the Aboriginal population has increased by 20.9% from 4,019 to
4,860.
Note:
The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed; therefore, the
comparisons between 2009-10 and 2013-14 should be done with caution.
“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.
“Asian” includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South
East Asian and South Asian.
“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.
“Black” includes offenders who are Black, British Isles, Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa.
“Other/Unknown” includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania,
offenders unable to identify to one race, Other, and unknown.
The data reflects the total offender population, which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and
offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
50
61% OF OFFENDERS ARE CAUCASIAN
Table C9
Total Offender Population
2009-10
2013-14
#
%
#
%
Aboriginal
Inuit
4,019
187
18.2
0.8
4,860
219
21.0
0.9
Métis
1,017
4.6
1,316
5.7
North American Indian
2,815
12.7
3,325
14.4
1,041
233
4.7
1.1
1,348
350
5.8
1.5
Asiatic*
57
0.3
197
0.9
Chinese
120
0.5
143
0.6
East Indian
23
0.1
15
0.1
Filipino
58
0.3
66
0.3
3
0.0
6
0.0
12
0.1
19
0.1
South East Asian
352
1.6
327
1.4
South Asian
183
0.8
225
1.0
1,641
7.4
1,988
8.6
14,561
65.9
14,076
60.8
187
9
0.8
0.0
251
7
1.1
0.0
178
0.8
244
1.1
631
2.9
631
2.7
22,080
100.0
23,154
100.0
Asian
Arab/West Asian
Japanese
Korean
Black
Caucasian
Hispanic
Hispanic
Latin American
Other/Unknown
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*Due to changes in categorization of races, 2013-14 Asiatic” category includes Asian-East and Southeast/Asian South/Asian West/Asiatic.
The offenders themselves identify to which race they belong. The list of categories may not fully account for all races and the race groupings information has changed; therefore, the
comparisons between 2009-10 and 2013-14 should be done with caution.
“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.
“Asian” includes offenders who are Arab, Arab/West Asian, Asian-East and Southeast, Asian-South, Asian West, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South
East Asian and South Asian.
“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.
“Black” includes offenders who are Black, British Isles, Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa.
“Other/Unknown” includes offenders who are European French, European-Eastern, European-Northern, European-Southern, European-Western, Multiracial/Ethnic, Oceania, offenders unable to identify to one race, Other, and unknown.
The data reflects the total offender population, which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and
offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
51
THE RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFENDER POPULATION IS DIVERSE
Figure C10
Percentage of Total Offender Population
No ne 15.3%
Ortho do x 0.4%
Unkno wn 9.0%
P ro testant 13.5%
Other 11.7%
Catho lic 36.2%
Native Spirituality 5.1%
M uslim 5.3%
B uddhist 2.1%
Sikh 0.8% Jewish 0.8%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
The religious identification of the offender population was diverse. While the proportion of offenders
who identify as Catholic and Protestant still represented the majority, their proportions have
decreased since 2009-10 from 58.2% to 49.7% in 2013-14.
Religious identification was unknown for 9.0% of offenders, whereas 15.3% stated they had no
religion.
Note:
Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these
data with caution.
“Catholic” includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.
“Orthodox” includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.
“Protestant” includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Church of Science, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native
Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist,
Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.
Buddhist includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist and Theravadan Buddhist.
“Other” includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Asatruar Pagan, Atheist, Baha’i, Christian non specified, Christian Science, Church of Christ Scientist,
Druidry Pagan, Hindu, Independent Spirit, Jehovah’s Witness, Krishna, Mormon, Pagan, Quaker (Society of Friends), Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Sufiism,
Taoism, Unitarian, Wicca, and Zoroastrian.
The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC
facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
52
THE RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFENDER POPULATION IS DIVERSE
Table C10
Total Offender Population
2009-10
2013-14
#
%
#
%
Catholic
8,472
38.4
8,378
36.2
Protestant
4,369
19.8
3,129
13.5
Muslim
909
4.1
1,228
5.3
Native Spirituality
835
3.8
1,176
5.1
Buddhist
439
2.0
475
2.1
Jewish
151
0.7
177
0.8
Orthodox
105
0.5
85
0.4
Sikh
120
0.5
180
0.8
Other
1,460
6.6
2,712
11.7
None
3,465
15.7
3,534
15.3
Unknown
1,755
7.9
2,080
9.0
22,080
00.0
23,154
100.0
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these
data with caution.
“Catholic” includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.
“Orthodox” includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.
“Protestant” includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Church of Science, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native
Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist,
Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.
Buddhist includes offenders who are Buddhist, Mahayana Buddhist and Theravadan Buddhist.
“Other” includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Asatruar Pagan, Atheist, Baha’i, Christian non specified, Christian Science, Church of Christ Scientist,
Druidry Pagan, Hindu, Independent Spirit, Jehovah’s Witness, Krishna, Mormon, Pagan, Quaker (Society of Friends), Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Sufiism,
Taoism, Unitarian, Wicca, and Zoroastrian.
The data reflect the total offender population which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC
facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
53
THE PROPORTION OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS IN CUSTODY
IS HIGHER THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Figure C11
Percentage of In Custody Offender Population
Aboriginal Offenders
80%
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14, the proportion of offenders in custody was about 8.5% greater for
Aboriginal offenders (72.9%) than for non-Aboriginal offenders (64.4%).
Aboriginal women in custody represent 34.5% of all in custody women while Aboriginal men in
custody represent 22.6% of all in custody men.
In 2013-14, Aboriginal offenders represented 21.0% of the total offender population while Aboriginal
adults represent 3.0% of the Canadian adult population*.
Aboriginal offenders accounted for 23.1% of the in custody population and 16.8% of the community
population in 2013-14.
Note:
*2006 Census, Statistics Canada.
Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily
detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC
facility.
In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders
who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
54
THE PROPORTION OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS IN CUSTODY
IS HIGHER THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Table C11
In Custody Population
#
%
In Community Under
Supervision
#
%
Total
Men
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Aboriginal
2,998
75.1
993
24.9
3,991
Non-Aboriginal
11,238
63.9
6,339
36.1
17,577
Total
14,236
66.0
7,332
34.0
21,568
Aboriginal
3,163
75.9
1,006
24.1
4,169
Non-Aboriginal
11,344
64.5
6,247
35.5
17,591
Total
14,507
66.7
7,253
33.3
21,760
3,361
74.8
1,135
25.2
4,496
Non-Aboriginal
11,336
65.2
6,046
34.8
17,382
Total
14,697
67.2
7,181
32.8
21,878
3,324
73.5
1,200
26.5
4,524
Non-Aboriginal
11,372
65.0
6,135
35.0
17,507
Total
14,696
66.7
7,335
33.3
22,031
Aboriginal
196
66.7
98
33.3
294
Non-Aboriginal
392
48.9
409
51.1
801
Total
588
53.7
507
46.3
1,095
Aboriginal
216
67.7
103
32.3
319
Non-Aboriginal
413
50.2
409
49.8
822
Total
629
55.1
512
44.9
1,141
Aboriginal
205
66.3
104
33.7
309
Non-Aboriginal
Total
411
616
52.0
56.0
380
484
48.0
44.0
791
1,100
Aboriginal
218
64.9
118
35.1
336
Non-Aboriginal
413
52.5
374
47.5
787
Total
631
56.2
492
43.8
1,123
Aboriginal
Aboriginal
Women
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Total Offender Population includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily
detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
In Custody includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are temporarily detained in a CSC
facility.
In Community Under Supervision includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, offenders
who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
55
THE MAJORITY OF IN CUSTODY OFFENDERS
ARE CLASSIFIED AS MEDIUM SECURITY RISK
Figure C12
Percentage of Classified In Custody Offenders
Aboriginal Offenders
80%
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
All Offenders
68.1%
70%
63.2%
64.3%
60%
50%
40%
30%
23.5%
20%
21.6%
16.4%
15.4%
13.3%
14.1%
10%
0%
Minimum
Medium
Max imum
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
Approximately two-thirds (64.3%) of offenders are classified as medium security risk.
Aboriginal offenders are more likely to be classified to a medium or high security institution compared
to non-Aboriginal offenders (84.5% compared to 76.5%)
Compared to non-Aboriginal offenders, a lower percentage of Aboriginal offenders are classified as
minimum security risk (15.4% vs. 23.5%) and a higher percentage are classified as medium (68.1%
vs. 63.2%) and maximum (16.4% vs. 13.3%) security risk.
Note:
The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.
In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are
temporarily detained in a CSC facility.
Public Safety Canada
2014
56
THE MAJORITY OF IN CUSTODY OFFENDERS
ARE CLASSIFIED AS MEDIUM SECURITY RISK
Table C12
Security Risk Level
Minimum
Medium
Maximum
Total
Not Yet Determined*
Total
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
520
15.4
2,569
23.5
3,089
21.6
2,294
68.1
6,907
63.2
9,201
64.3
554
16.4
1,458
13.3
2,012
14.1
3,368
100.0
10,934
100.0
14,302
100.0
174
851
1,025
3,542
11,785
15,327
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*The “Not Yet Determined” category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.
The data represent the offender security level decision as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.
In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on a temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are
temporarily detained in a CSC facility.
Public Safety Canada
2014
57
ADMISSIONS WITH A LIFE OR INDETERMINATE SENTENCE WERE STABLE IN 2013-14
Figure C13
Number of Warrant of Committal Admissions
250
193
200
176
168
175
171
175
177
2010-11
2011-12
172
174
2012-13
2013-14
149
150
100
50
0
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
From 2004-05 to 2013-14, the number of admissions to federal jurisdiction with a life/indeterminate*
sentence was relatively stable, ranging from 149 to 193.
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14, there were a total of 3,536 offenders in custody with a life/
indeterminate sentence. Of these, 3,414 (96.5%) were men and 122 (3.5%) were women; 811
(22.9%) were Aboriginal and 2,725 (77.1%) were non-Aboriginal.
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14, 22.7% of the total offender population was serving a life/
indeterminate sentence. Of these offenders, 67.2% were in custody and 32.8% were in the
community under supervision.
Note:
*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life
imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an
application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate
period. This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety Canada
2014
58
ADMISSIONS WITH A LIFE OR INDETERMINATE SENTENCE WERE STABLE IN 2013-14
Table C13
Aboriginal Offenders
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
Total
Year
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
2004-05
1
30
31
5
113
118
6
143
149
2005-06
4
41
45
9
122
131
13
163
176
2006-07
4
32
36
10
122
132
14
154
168
2007-08
4
34
38
4
133
137
8
167
175
2008-09
4
34
38
2
131
133
6
165
171
2009-10
6
44
50
7
136
143
13
180
193
2010-11
3
35
38
6
131
137
9
166
175
2011-12
8
41
49
9
119
128
17
160
177
2012-13
6
46
52
1
119
120
7
165
172
2013-14
7
36
43
7
124
131
14
160
174
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.
Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life
imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an
application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate
period. A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety Canada
2014
59
OFFENDERS WITH LIFE OR INDETERMINATE SENTENCES REPRESENT 23% OF THE TOTAL
OFFENDER POPULATION
Figure C14
Sentence Imposed for the Total Offender Population
Determinate Sentences
77.3%
Life and/or Indeterminate Sentences*
22.7%
Life 20.3%
Indeterminate 2.3%
Life and Indeterminate 0.1%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14, there were 5,258 offenders serving a life sentence and/or an
indeterminate sentence. This represents 22.7% of the total offender population. The majority (67.2%)
of these offenders were in custody. Of the 1,722 offenders who were in the community under
supervision, the majority (82.2%) were serving a life sentence for 2nd Degree Murder.
There were 21 offenders who were serving both a life sentence and an indeterminate sentence*.
There were 528 offenders who were serving an indeterminate sentence as a result of a special
designation. The remaining 4,709 offenders have not received a special designation, but were serving
a life sentence.
96.8% of the 503 Dangerous Offenders with indeterminate sentences were in custody and 3.2% were
in the community under supervision. In contrast, 50.0% of the 22 Dangerous Sexual Offenders were
in custody and all (three) Habitual Offenders were in the community under supervision. There is one
Habitual Offender included in the Life and Indeterminate group, this offender was in the community
under supervision as well.
Note:
*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences may both result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life
imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an
application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate
period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender Legislation in 1977.
Public Safety Canada
2014
60
OFFENDERS WITH LIFE OR INDETERMINATE SENTENCES REPRESENT 23% OF THE TOTAL
OFFENDER POPULATION
Table C14
Current Status
Total Offender
Population
In Custody
In Community Under Supervision
in a CSC Facility
Incarcerated
Day Parole
Full Parole
Other***
#
%
1st Degree Murder
1,114
4.8
920
40
154
0
2nd Degree Murder
3,385
14.6
1,969
190
1,226
0
210
0.9
130
6
74
0
4,709
20.3
3,019
236
1,454
0
Offenders with a life sentence for:
Other Offences*
Total
Offenders with indeterminate sentences resulting from the special designation of:
Dangerous Offender
Dangerous Sexual Offender
Habitual Offenders
Total
503
2.2
487
7
9
0
22
0.1
11
0
11
0
3
0.0
0
0
3
0
528
2.3
498
7
23
0
Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence):
21
0.1
19
0
2
0
5,258
22.7
3,536
243
1,479
0
Offenders Serving
Determinate sentences**
17,896
77.3
11,791
968
1,760
3,377
Total
23,154
100.0
15,327
1,211
3,239
3,377
Total offenders with Life and/or
Indeterminate sentence
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*“Other offences” include Schedule 1, Schedule 2 and Non-Schedule types of offences.
**This includes 50 offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders who were serving determinate sentences.
***“Other” in the Community Under Supervision includes offenders on statutory release or on a long term supervision order.
Among the 21 offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence), there was one Habitual
Offender.
Public Safety Canada
2014
61
68% OF OFFENDERS ARE SERVING A SENTENCE FOR A VIOLENT OFFENCE*
Figure C15
Percentage of Total Offender Population (2013-14)
Aboriginal Offenders
70%
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
60.1%
60%
50%
45.9%
40%
30%
19.1%
20%
13.9%
14.9%
13.1%
15.0%
8.8%
10%
4.1%
5.1%
0%
Murder I
Murder II
Schedule I
Schedule II
Non-Schedule
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
■
As of end fiscal year 2013-14, Aboriginal offenders were more likely to be serving a sentence for a
violent offence (78.1%) than non-Aboriginal offenders (65.9%).
74.7% of Aboriginal women offenders were serving a sentence for a violent offence compared to
50.2% of non-Aboriginal women offenders.
Of those offenders serving a sentence for Murder, 4.5% were women and 19.3% were Aboriginal.
A greater proportion of Aboriginal offenders than non-Aboriginal offenders were serving a sentence for
a Schedule I offence (60.1% versus 45.9%, respectively).
8.8% of Aboriginal offenders were serving a sentence for a Schedule II offence compared to 19.1% of
non-Aboriginal offenders.
25.4% of women were serving a sentence for a Schedule II offence compared to 16.5% for men.
Note:
*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.
Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release
Act).
Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
62
68% OF OFFENDERS ARE SERVING A SENTENCE FOR A VIOLENT OFFENCE*
Table C15
Offence
Category
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
Total
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
9
192
201
33
898
931
42
1,090
1,132
2.7
4.2
4.1
4.2
5.1
5.1
3.7
4.9
4.9
55
620
675
107
2,623
2,730
162
3,243
3,405
Percent
16.4
13.7
13.9
13.6
15.0
14.9
14.4
14.7
14.7
Schedule I
187
2,734
2,921
255
8,147
8,402
442
10,881
11,323
Percent
55.7
60.4
60.1
32.4
46.5
45.9
39.4
49.4
48.9
Schedule II
46
381
427
239
3,257
3,496
285
3,638
3,923
Percent
13.7
8.4
8.8
30.4
18.6
19.1
25.4
16.5
16.9
39
597
636
153
2,582
2,735
192
3,179
3,371
11.6
13.2
13.1
19.4
14.7
15.0
17.1
14.4
14.6
336
4,524
787
17,507
1,123
22,031
Murder I
Percent
Murder II
Non-Schedule
Percent
Total
4,860
18,294
23,154
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.
Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release
Act).
Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes all active offenders who are incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a
CSC facility, offenders who are temporarily detained, offenders who are actively supervised, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
These figures are based on the Total Offender Population as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.
Public Safety Canada
2014
63
THE NUMBER OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS HAS INCREASED
Figure C16
Aboriginal Offender Population
6,000
5,000
Total Aboriginal offender population
4,000
3,000
Aboriginal in custody population*
2,000
Aboriginal in community under supervision population**
1,000
0
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
From 2004-05 to 2013-14, the in custody Aboriginal offender population increased by 45.6%, while
the total Aboriginal offender population increased 40.9% over the same time period.
The number of in custody Aboriginal women increased steadily from 115 in 2004-05 to 218 in 201314, an increase of 89.6% in the last ten years. The increase for in custody Aboriginal men was 43.5%
for the same period, increasing from 2,317 to 3,324.
From 2004-05 to 2013-14, the number of Aboriginal offenders on community supervision increased
29.6%, from 1,017 to 1,318. The Aboriginal community population accounted for 16.8% of the total
community population in 2013-14.
Note:
In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are
temporarily detained in a CSC facility.
In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long
term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
Public Safety Canada
2014
64
THE NUMBER OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS HAS INCREASED
Table C16
Fiscal Year
Aboriginal Offenders
In Custody
Atlantic Region
Quebec Region
Ontario Region
Prairie Region
Pacific Region
National Total
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Men
Women
114
9
116
10
131
17
153
15
181
14
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
282
12
415
25
1,475
330
11
438
41
1,633
375
12
488
37
1,665
382
11
495
36
1,778
420
15
440
36
1,682
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
105
463
19
2,749
170
104
481
30
2,998
196
118
504
32
3,163
216
110
553
33
3,361
205
114
601
39
3,324
218
Total
2,919
3,194
3,379
3,566
3,542
49
44
32
42
50
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
6
85
1
148
17
9
88
5
153
20
8
116
2
138
24
12
121
2
157
20
11
134
7
181
20
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
500
52
224
18
1.006
502
50
206
14
993
492
52
228
17
1,006
582
55
233
15
1,135
584
63
251
17
1,200
Women
Total
94
1,100
98
1,091
103
1,109
104
1,239
118
1,318
4,019
4,285
4,488
4,805
4,860
In Community Under Supervision
Atlantic Region
Men
Quebec Region
Ontario Region
Prairie Region
Pacific Region
National Total
Total In Custody & In Community Under
Supervision
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
In Custody Population includes all active offenders incarcerated in a CSC facility, offenders on temporary absence from a CSC facility, and offenders who are
temporarily detained in a CSC facility.
In Community Under Supervision Population includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long
term supervision order, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
Regional statistics for the Correctional Service of Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are
reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the
Pacific Region.
Public Safety Canada
2014
65
THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS TO ADMINISTRATIVE SEGREGATION HAS FLUCTUATED
Figure C17
Number of Admissions to Administrative Segregation
9,000
8,000
Men - Voluntary Segregation
Men - Involuntary Segregation
1,358
1,402
Women - Voluntary Segregation
Women - Involuntary Segregation
1,483
1,541
6,322
6,249
1,272
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
6,548
6,293
5,885
2,000
1,000
0
18
12
24
26
16
333
384
393
390
331
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
Over the past five years, the total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated between
7,508 and 8,323. In 2013-14, 95.7% of the total admissions were men, and admissions of Aboriginal offenders
accounted for 29.2%.
On April 1, 2014, there were 749 offenders in administrative segregation. Of these, 740 were men and 9 were
women. A total of 228 Aboriginal offenders were in administrative segregation.
Note:
These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated
under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.
Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other
than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.
Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable
grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable
alternative to placement in administrative segregation.
Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and
the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.
Public Safety Canada
2014
66
THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS TO ADMINISTRATIVE SEGREGATION HAS FLUCTUATED
Table C17
Year and Type of
Administrative Segregation
By Gender
Women
By Race
Men
Total
Aboriginal
NonAboriginal
Total
2009-10
Involuntary
333
5,885
6,218
1,592
4,626
6,218
Voluntary
18
1,272
1,290
379
911
1,290
351
7,157
7,508
1,971
5,537
7,508
Involuntary
384
6,293
6,677
1,816
4,861
6,677
Voluntary
12
1,402
1,414
450
964
1,414
396
7,695
8,091
2,266
5,825
8,091
Involuntary
393
6,548
6,941
1,832
5,109
6,941
Voluntary
24
1,358
1,382
436
946
1,382
417
7,906
8,323
2,268
6,055
8,323
Involuntary
390
6,322
6,712
1,929
4,783
6,712
Voluntary
26
1,483
1,509
513
996
1,509
416
7,805
8,221
2,442
5,779
8,221
Involuntary
331
6,249
6,580
1,839
4,741
6,580
Voluntary
16
1,541
1,557
536
1,021
1,557
347
7,790
8,137
2,375
5,762
8,137
Total
2010-11
Total
2011-12
Total
2012-13
Total
2013-14
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated
under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.
Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other
than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.
Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable
grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable
alternative to placement in administrative segregation.
Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and
the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.
Public Safety Canada
2014
67
ALMOST HALF OF ADMISSIONS TO ADMINISTRATIVE SEGREGATION STAY FOR LESS THAN 30 DAYS
Figure C18
Length of Stay in Administrative Segregation
Women
Men
Non-Aboriginal
Aboriginal
100%
92.9%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
46.6%
48.4%
46.9%
40%
30%
22.8%
19.8%
18.7%
20%
18.2%
15.6%
15.2%
10.0%
10%
0.0%
0%
<30 Days
30-60 Days
8.4%
0.0%
61-90 Days
10.5%
6.6%
5.2%
7.1%
7.1%
0.0%
91-120 Days
>120 Days
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
Just under half (47.4%) of offenders stayed in administrative segregation for 30 days or less, and 18.3% stayed
between 30 and 60 days. 18.0% of offenders in administrative segregation stayed more than 120 days.
92.9% of women stayed in administrative segregation for less than 30 days.
The number of offenders who stayed more than 120 days in administrative segregation is higher for Aboriginal
(22.8%) than for non-Aboriginal offenders (15.6%).
Note:
These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated
under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.
Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other
than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.
Public Safety Canada
2014
68
ALMOST HALF OF ADMISSIONS TO ADMINISTRATIVE SEGREGATION STAY FOR LESS THAN 30 DAYS
Table C18
Length of Stay in
Administrative
Segregation
By Gender
Women
By Race
Men
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
< 30 days
13
92.9
354
46.6
121
48.4
246
46.9
367
47.4
30-60 days
0
0
142
18.7
38
15.2
104
19.8
142
18.3
61-90 days
0
0
76
10.0
21
8.4
55
10.5
76
9.8
91-120 days
0
0
50
6.6
13
5.2
37
7.1
50
6.5
> 120 days
1
7.1
138
18.2
57
22.8
82
15.6
139
18.0
14
100.0
760
100.0
250
100.0
524
100.0
774
100.0
2013-14
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated
under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.
Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other
than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.
Public Safety Canada
2014
69
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDER DEATHS WHILE IN CUSTODY HAS FLUCTUATED
Figure C19
Number of Offender Deaths
120
100
Total
80
Other Causes*
60
40
Suicide
20
Homicide
0
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
■
■
■
In the ten-year period from 2001-02 to 2010-11, 530 federal offenders and 328 provincial offenders
have died while in custody.
During this time period, suicides accounted for 17.4% of federal offender deaths and 28.1% of
provincial offender deaths. The suicide rate was approximately 70 per 100,000 for incarcerated
federal offenders, and approximately 43 per 100,000 for incarcerated provincial offenders**. These
rates are significantly higher than Canada’s 2007 rate of 10.2 suicides per 100,000 people.
Between 2001-02 and 2010-11, 5.5% of the federal offender deaths were due to homicide, whereas
homicide accounted for 1.5% of provincial offender deaths. The homicide rate for incarcerated federal
offenders was approximately 22 per 100,000 and 2.3 per 100,000 for incarcerated provincial
offenders**. These rates are significantly higher than the national homicide rate of 1.6 per 100,000
people in 2007.
Note:
*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death
was not stated.
**For the calculation of rates, the total actual in-count numbers between 2001-02 and 2010-11 was used as the denominator.
The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented
were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause
of death.
Public Safety Canada
2014
70
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDER DEATHS WHILE IN CUSTODY HAS FLUCTUATED
Table C19
Type of Death
Year
Homicide
Suicide
Other*
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
2001-02
1
2.0
13
25.5
37
72.5
51
2002-03
2
4.1
12
24.5
35
71.4
49
2003-04
8
11.9
11
16.4
48
71.6
67
2004-05
3
6.1
9
18.4
37
75.5
49
2005-06
3
6.1
10
20.4
36
73.5
49
2006-07
2007-08
3
1
4.9
2.5
10
5
16.4
12.5
48
34
78.7
85.0
61
40
2008-09
2
3.1
9
13.8
54
83.1
65
2009-10
1
2.0
9
18.4
39
79.6
49
2010-11
5
10.0
4
8.0
41
82.0
50
29
5.5
92
17.4
409
77.2
530
2001-02
0
0.0
17
41.5
24
58.5
41
2002-03
2
7.1
14
50.0
12
42.9
28
2003-04
0
0.0
7
38.9
11
61.1
18
2004-05
0
0.0
12
25.0
36
75.0
48
2005-06
2
4.0
20
40.0
28
56.0
50
2006-07
0
0.0
8
23.5
26
76.5
34
2007-08
0
0.0
6
20.7
23
79.3
29
2008-09
1
3.0
7
21.2
25
75.8
33
2009-10
0
0.0
0
0.0
24
100.0
24
2010-11
0
0.0
1
4.3
22
95.7
23
Total
5
1.5
92
28.1
231
70.3
328
34
4.0
184
21.5
640
74.6
858
Federal
Total
Provincial
Total Federal
and Provincial
Offender Deaths
Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
Note:
*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death
was not stated.
Percent calculation include deaths where the cause was unknown. Between 1999-00 and 2010-11, there were 29 deaths in federal custody and 83 deaths in
provincial custody where the cause was unknown.
The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented
were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause
of death.
Public Safety Canada
2014
71
THE NUMBER OF ESCAPES HAS DECLINED
Figure C20
Number of Escapees from Federal Institutions
40
35
37
33
33
31
30
26
24
25
24
20
17
16
15
13
10
5
0
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
In 2013-14, there were 11 escape incidents involving a total of 13 offenders. All of the 13 offenders
were recaptured. This represents the lowest number of escape incidents in the past 10 years.
In 2013-14, one of the escapees was from a medium security facility, and all other escapees were
from minimum security facilities.
Offenders who escaped from federal institutions in 2013-14 represented less than 0.1% of the in custody population.
Note:
The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following
year.
An escape incident can involve more than one offender.
Public Safety Canada
2014
72
THE NUMBER OF ESCAPES HAS DECLINED
Table C20
Type of Escapes
Escapes from Multi-level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Escapes from Maximum Security Level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Escapes from Medium Security Level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Escapes from Minimum Security Level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Total Number of Escape Incidents
Total Number of Escapees
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
28
14
15
18
10
30
17
16
24
12
29
14
15
18
11
31
17
16
24
13
Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following
year.
An escape incident can involve more than one offender.
Public Safety Canada
2014
73
THE POPULATION OF OFFENDERS IN THE COMMUNITY UNDER SUPERVISION
HAS DECREASED IN THE PAST 5 YEARS
Figure C21
In the Community Under Supervision Population at Fiscal Year* End
9,000
8,000
Total In Community Under Supervision Population
7,000
6,000
5,000
Full Parole
4,000
3,000
Statutory Release
2,000
1,000
Day Parole
0
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
Over the past five years, there has been a decrease of 2.7% for the total offender population in the
community. For the same time period, there has been a 13.6% decrease in offenders on full parole
and an increase of 11.9% in offenders on statutory release.
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14, there were 6,993 men and 484 women on active community
supervision.
Note:
*A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
The data presented above reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole,
statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada .
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
74
THE POPULATION OF OFFENDERS IN THE COMMUNITY UNDER SUPERVISION
HAS DECREASED IN THE PAST 5 YEARS
Table C21
Supervision Type of Offenders
Year
Day Parole
Women
Men
2004-05
105
969
2005-06
85
2006-07
Full Parole
Women
Statutory Release
%
change*
Totals
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Both
Both
284
3,488
83
2,313
472
6,770
7,242
-4.4
1,096
306
3,407
79
2,298
470
6,801
7,271
0.4
108
1,071
319
3,493
80
2,426
507
6,990
7,497
3.1
2007-08
114
1,062
326
3,477
112
2,395
552
6,934
7,486
-0.1
2008-09
106
1,017
343
3,421
113
2,682
562
7,120
7,682
2.6
2009-10
108
1,084
329
3,419
94
2,612
531
7,115
7,646
-0.5
2010-11
79
1,017
314
3,443
109
2,601
502
7,061
7,563
-1.1
2011-12
123
1,123
257
3,155
127
2,668
507
6,946
7,453
-1.5
2012-13
116
1,108
225
2,932
137
2,805
478
6,845
7,323
-1.7
2013-14
106
1,105
225
3,014
153
2,874
484
6,993
7,477
2.1
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*Percent change is measured from the previous year.
A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
The data presented above reflect the offender population in the community under supervision which includes all active offenders on day parole, full parole,
statutory release, offenders who are temporarily detained in a non-CSC facility, and offenders who are unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada .
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
75
PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS POPULATION DECREASED IN 2011-12
Figure C22
Average Monthly Offender Counts
Conditional Sentences
Probation
140,000
120,000
110,968
107,212
105,309
105,063
105,741
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
107,314
109,060
2007-08
2008-09
112,790
112,894
2009-10
2010-11
109,215
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
2002-03
2003-04
2011-12
Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
The provincial/territorial community corrections population decreased 3.3% in 2011-12 from 2010-11
from 112,894 to 109,215.
Since the introduction of the conditional sentence as a sentencing option in September 1996, the
number of offenders serving a conditional sentence had increased steadily until 2002-03. In the years
since, the number of offenders serving a conditional sentence has fluctuated.
In 2011-12, the total number of offenders on probation was 96,643.
Note:
A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of
sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and
territorial sentencing option since September 1996.
To allow for comparisons, the numbers exclude information from Newfoundland & Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, and
Nunavut, as complete statistics for these jurisdictions were not available. As a result of these changes, the data presented in this year’s report may not be
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Public Safety Canada
2014
76
PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS POPULATION DECREASED IN 2011-12
Table C22
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Probation
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Conditional Sentence
Total
2002-03
98,280
12,688
110,968
2003-04
94,162
13,050
107,212
2004-05
91,991
13,319
105,309
2005-06
91,663
13,401
105,063
2006-07
92,835
12,907
105,741
2007-08
94,709
12,605
107,314
2008-09
95,874
13,186
109,060
2009-10
99,427
13,363
112,790
2010-11
99,907
12,987
112,894
2011-12
96,643
12,572
109,215
Year
Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of
sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and
territorial sentencing option since September 1996.
To allow for comparisons, the numbers exclude information from Newfoundland & Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, and
Nunavut, as complete statistics for these jurisdictions were not available. As a result of these changes, the data presented in this year’s report may not be
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Public Safety Canada
2014
77
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS ON PROVINCIAL PAROLE HAS DECREASED OVER THE PAST DECADE
Figure C23
Number of Offenders on Provincial Parole (Average Monthly Counts)
1,400
1,209
1,200
1,089
1,075
991
986
1,000
1,022
940
868
804
790
2010-11
2011-12
800
600
400
200
0
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
■
Over the past ten years, there has been a 34.7% decrease in the number of offenders on provincial
parole, from 1,209 in 2002-03 to 790 in 2011-12.
Note:
Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to
offenders serving sentences in British Columbia’s provincial correctional facilities. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to
provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.
Public Safety Canada
2014
78
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS ON PROVINCIAL PAROLE HAS DECREASED OVER THE PAST DECADE
Table C23
Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole
Provincial Boards
Year
Quebec
Ontario
British
Columbia*
Total
Parole
Board of
Canada**
2002-03
581
210
223
1,014
195
1,209
-25.1
2003-04
550
146
189
885
190
1,075
-11.1
2004-05
517
127
166
810
176
986
-8.3
2005-06
628
152
147
926
163
1,089
10.4
2006-07
593
142
120
855
136
991
-9.0
2007-08
581
205
n/a
785
237
1,022
3.1
2008-09
533
217
n/a
750
190
940
-8.0
2009-10
506
194
n/a
700
168
868
-7.7
2010-11
482
171
n/a
653
151
804
-7.4
2011-12
481
179
n/a
660
130
790
-1.8
Total
Percent
Change
Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia’s
provincial correctional facilities.
**The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the Parole Board of Canada and supervised by the
Correctional Service of Canada.
Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic
and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.
Public Safety Canada
2014
SECTION D
CONDITIONAL RELEASE
79
THE PERCENTAGE OF OFFENDERS RELEASED FROM FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
AT STATUTORY RELEASE IS INCREASING
Figure D1
Percentage of offenders released on statutory release
80%
75%
70%
65%
60%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service of Canada.
■
■
■
In fiscal year 2013-14, 73.1% of all releases from federal institutions were at statutory release.
In fiscal year 2013-14, 84.6% of releases for Aboriginal offenders were at statutory release compared
to 69.3% of releases for Non-Aboriginal offenders.
Over the past ten years, the percentage of releases at statutory release increased from 67.8% to
73.1%.
Note:
The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody
LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in
cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention , or interruption.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.
A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
80
THE PERCENTAGE OF OFFENDERS RELEASED FROM FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
AT STATUTORY RELEASE IS INCREASING
Table D1
Aboriginal
Year
Statutory
Release
Non-Aboriginal
Total
Percent*
Releases
Statutory
Release
Total Offender Population
Total
Percent*
Releases
Statutory
Total
Release Releases
Percent*
2004-05
1,121
1,486
75.4%
3,971
6,029
65.9%
5,092
7,515
67.8%
2005-06
1,196
1,589
75.3%
4,021
6,245
64.4%
5,217
7,834
66.6%
2006-07
1,203
1,540
78.1%
4,047
6,165
65.6%
5,250
7,705
68.1%
2007-08
1,362
1,696
80.3%
4,124
6,283
65.6%
5,486
7,979
68.8%
2008-09
1,419
1,698
83.6%
4,346
6,441
67.5%
5,765
8,139
70.8%
2009-10
1,362
1,671
81.5%
4,190
6,196
67.6%
5,552
7,867
70.6%
2010-11
1,268
1,526
83.1%
3,826
5,777
66.2%
5,094
7,303
69.8%
2011-12
1,387
1,678
82.7%
3,940
5,626
70.0%
5,327
7,304
72.9%
2012-13
1,520
1,838
82.7%
4,033
5,688
70.9%
5,553
7,526
73.8%
2013-14
1,620
1,916
84.6%
4,015
5,795
69.3%
5,635
7,711
73.1%
Source: Correctional Service of Canada.
Note:
*Percentage is calculated based on the number of statutory releases compared to the total releases for each offender group.
The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody
LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in
cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention , or interruption.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.
A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
81
THE PERCENTAGE OF OFFENDERS RELEASED FROM FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
ON DAY AND FULL PAROLE IS DECREASING
Figure D2
Percentage of offenders released
35%
30%
Day Parole
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
Full Parole
0%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service of Canada.
■
■
■
In fiscal year 2013-14, 24.8% of all releases from federal institutions were on day parole and 2.1%
were on full parole.
In fiscal year 2013-14, 14.6% of all releases of Aboriginal offenders were on day parole and 0.9%
were on full parole compared to 28.2% and 2.5% respectively for Non-Aboriginal offenders.
Over the past ten years, the percentage of releases on day parole decreased rom 29.2% to 24.8%
and the percentage of releases on full parole decreased from 3.1% to 2.1%.
Note:
Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.
The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody
LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in
cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention , or interruption.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community.
A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
82
THE PERCENTAGE OF OFFENDERS RELEASED FROM FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
ON DAY AND FULL PAROLE IS DECREASING
Table D2
Aboriginal
Year
2004-05
Full
Parole
Total
Releases
Day
Parole
Full
Parole
Total
Releases
Day
Parole
Full
Parole
Total
Releases
335
30
1,486
1,858
200
6,029
2,193
230
7,515
30.8%
3.3%
29.2%
3.1%
1,990
234
2,360
257
31.9%
3.7%
30.1%
3.3%
1,937
181
2,259
196
31.4%
2.9%
29.3%
2.5%
1,984
175
2,300
193
31.6%
2.8%
28.8%
2.4%
1,877
218
2,140
234
29.1%
3.4%
26.3%
2.9%
1,842
164
2,138
177
29.7%
2.6%
27.2%
2.2%
1,812
139
2,059
150
31.4%
2.4%
28.2%
2.1%
1,570
116
1,848
129
27.9%
2.1%
25.3%
1.8%
1,545
110
1,854
119
27.2%
1.9%
24.6%
1.6%
1,633
147
1,912
164
28.2%
2.5%
24.8%
2.1%
#
#
370
% 23.3%
2006-07
#
322
% 20.9%
2007-08
#
316
% 18.6%
2008-09
#
263
% 15.5%
2009-10
#
296
% 17.7%
2010-11
#
247
% 16.2%
2011-12
#
278
% 16.6%
2012-13
#
#
2.0%
23
279
% 14.6%
1,589
1.4%
15
1,540
1.0%
18
1,696
1.1%
16
1,698
0.9%
13
1,671
0.8%
11
1,526
0.7%
13
1,678
0.8%
309
% 16.8%
2013-14
Total Offender Population
Day
Parole
% 22.5%
2005-06
Non-Aboriginal
9
1,838
0.5%
17
0.9%
1,916
6,245
6,165
6,283
6,441
6,196
5,777
5,626
5,688
5,795
7,834
7,705
7,979
8,139
7,867
7,303
7,304
7,526
7,711
Source: Correctional Service of Canada.
Note:
Percentage is calculated based on the number of day and full paroles compared to the total releases for each offender group.
The data includes all releases from federal penitentiaries in a given fiscal year excluding offenders with quashed sentences, offenders who died in custody
LTSO releases, offenders released at warrant expiry and offenders transferred to foreign countries. An offender may be released more than once a year in
cases where a previous release was subject to revocation, suspension, temporary detention , or interruption.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community.
A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
83
THE FEDERAL DAY AND FULL PAROLE GRANT RATES INCREASED IN 2013-14
Figure D3
Federal Parole Grant Rate (%)
100%
90%
80%
Day Parole
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
Full Parole
20%
10%
0%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
Compared to the grant rates in 2010-11, the lowest in the last decade, the federal day and full parole
grant rates increased (7.3% and 13.4% respectively) in 2013-14.
Over the last 10 years, women offenders were more likely to be granted day and full parole than men
offenders.
When compared with the rates in 2004-05, the grant rate for federal day parole decreased to 69.9%
(-5.1%), while the grant rate for federal full parole increased to 30.0% (+4.9%).
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises
the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.
On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders
serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed
on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical
trends, APR decisions were excluded.
Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2013-14. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal
day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.
Public Safety Canada
2014
84
THE FEDERAL DAY AND FULL PAROLE GRANT RATES INCREASED IN 2013-14
Table D3
Granted
Denied
APR*
Grant Rate (%)
Type of
Release
Year
Day Parole
2004-05
169
2,062
23
723
88.0
74.0
74.9
846
1,152
2005-06
128
2,111
25
719
83.7
74.6
75.1
970
1,345
2006-07
143
2,039
31
876
82.2
69.9
70.6
984
1,428
2007-08
162
2,001
22
776
88.0
72.1
73.0
977
1,482
2008-09
135
1,908
24
825
84.9
69.8
70.6
1,000
1,525
2009-10
151
1,959
40
967
79.1
67.0
67.7
947
1,491
2010-11
134
1,856
40
1,151
77.0
61.7
62.6
970
1,591
2011-12
248
2,492
64
1,443
79.5
63.3
64.5
0
0
2012-13
287
2,823
71
1,416
80.2
66.6
67.7
14
21
2013-14
244
2,828
52
1,272
82.4
69.0
69.9
39
47
2004-05
56
545
71
1,724
44.1
24.0
25.1
916
920
2005-06
38
533
67
1,924
36.2
21.7
22.3
1,057
1,066
2006-07
41
523
81
2,035
33.6
20.4
21.0
1,038
1,042
2007-08
40
490
70
1,990
36.4
19.8
20.5
1,030
1,036
2008-09
43
495
61
2,017
41.3
19.7
20.6
1,097
1,100
2009-10
32
459
89
2,077
26.4
18.1
18.5
1,004
1,010
2010-11
20
435
85
2,206
19.0
16.5
16.6
1,046
1,059
2011-12
76
643
126
2,317
37.6
21.7
22.7
0
0
2012-13
90
913
141
2,328
39.0
28.2
28.9
26
26
2013-14
84
901
103
2,200
44.9
29.1
30.0
126
142
Full Parole
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Total
Directed
Total
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full
parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all
offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the community. The Parole
Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/
she does not wish to be considered for full parole.
*On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for
schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the
APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions were excluded from grant rates. However
information on APR (those who were directed and total eligible) is included separately in the table for the reader. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons
were made between federal regular day parole and full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2013-14. A sufficiently large
proportion of APR-affected population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.
Public Safety Canada
2014
85
THE FEDERAL FULL PAROLE GRANT RATE FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
INCREASED FOR THE FOURTH CONSECUTIVE YEAR
Figure D4
Federal Parole Grant Rate (%)
Aboriginal Offenders
100%
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
90%
Day Parole
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
Full Parole
20%
10%
0%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
In 2013-14, the federal day and full parole grant rates increased for both Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal offenders.
In 2013-14, the federal full parole grant rates for non-Aboriginal offenders slightly increased by 0.2%
compared to 6.7% in 2012-13.
In 2013-14, the grant rates for Aboriginal offenders were lower compared to non-Aboriginal offenders
for federal day parole (64.5% versus 71.0%, respectively) and full parole (22.7% versus 31.3%,
respectively).
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises
the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.
On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders
serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed
on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical
trends, APR decisions were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and
full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2013-14. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected
population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.
Public Safety Canada
2014
86
THE FEDERAL FULL PAROLE GRANT RATE FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
INCREASED FOR THE FOURTH CONSECUTIVE YEAR
Table D4
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
Total
Number
Granted/
Denied
Type of
Release
Year
Day Parole
2004-05
429
101
80.9
1,802
645
73.6
2,977
2005-06
488
120
80.3
1,751
624
73.7
2,983
2006-07
444
169
72.4
1,738
738
70.2
3,089
2007-08
403
126
76.2
1,760
672
72.4
2,961
2008-09
377
156
70.7
1,666
693
70.6
2,892
2009-10
395
196
66.8
1,715
811
67.9
3,117
2010-11
361
276
56.7
1,629
915
64.0
3,181
2011-12
447
326
57.8
2,293
1,181
66.0
4,247
2012-13
544
314
63.4
2,566
1,173
68.6
4,597
2013-14
504
277
64.5
2,568
1,047
71.0
4,396
2004-05
114
305
27.2
487
1,490
24.6
2,396
2005-06
105
383
21.5
466
1,608
22.5
2,562
2006-07
76
394
16.2
488
1,722
22.1
2,680
2007-08
81
348
18.9
449
1,712
20.8
2,590
2008-09
73
378
16.2
465
1,700
21.5
2,616
2009-10
50
386
11.5
441
1,780
19.9
2,657
2010-11
70
458
13.3
385
1,833
17.4
2,746
2011-12
74
445
14.3
645
1,998
24.4
3,162
2012-13
98
468
17.3
905
2,001
31.1
3,472
2013-14
117
398
22.7
868
1,905
31.3
3,288
Full Parole
Number
Granted
Number
Denied
Grant
Rate (%)
Number
Granted
Number
Grant
Denied Rate (%)
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community. The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises
the Parole Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.
On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders
serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed
on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment, which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. To better illustrate historical
trends, APR decisions were excluded. Grant rates should be read with caution. Even though comparisons were made between federal regular day parole and
full parole grant rates only, they nevertheless contain an APR residual effect between 2011-12 and 2013-14. A sufficiently large proportion of APR-affected
population were granted regular federal day parole and full parole, perhaps inflating the grant rates.
Public Safety Canada
2014
87
FEDERAL PAROLE HEARINGS INVOLVING AN ABORIGINAL CULTURAL ADVISOR DECREASED
Figure D5
Number of Federal Parole Hearings Held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
800
Aboriginal Offenders
100
98
79
600
50
52
53
400
47
45
59
35
614
642
606
471
200
437
425
423
424
361
340
0
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
In 2013-14, the number of federal hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor decreased to 375
(-20%) compared to 2012-13, and was the lowest of the last 10 years.
In 2013-14, 38.7% (340) of all federal hearings for Aboriginal offenders were held with an Aboriginal
Cultural Advisor.
In 2013-14, 0.9% (35) of all federal hearings for offenders who did not self-identify as Aboriginal were
held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor.
Note:
The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada
to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal offenders.
Public Safety Canada
2014
88
FEDERAL PAROLE HEARINGS INVOLVING AN ABORIGINAL CULTURAL ADVISOR DECREASED
Table D5
Hearings held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor
Aboriginal Offenders
Year
Total
Hearings
#
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
With Cultural
Advisor
#
%
Total
Hearings
#
All Offenders
With Cultural
Advisor
#
%
Total
Hearings
#
With Cultural
Advisor
#
%
2004-05
1,355
614
45.3
5,025
98
2.0
6,380
712
11.2
2005-06
1,410
642
45.5
5,169
100
1.9
6,579
742
11.3
2006-07
1,367
606
44.3
5,269
79
1.5
6,636
685
10.3
2007-08
1,252
471
37.6
4,749
50
1.1
6,001
521
8.7
2008-09
1,204
425
35.3
4,416
53
1.2
5,620
478
8.5
2009-10
1,160
361
31.1
4,520
59
1.3
5,680
420
7.4
2010-11
1,193
437
36.6
4,387
52
1.2
5,580
489
8.8
2011-12
1,209
423
35.0
4,702
47
1.0
5,911
470
8.0
2012-13
1,275
424
33.3
4,685
45
1.0
5,960
469
7.9
2013-14
878
340
38.7
3,724
35
0.9
4,602
375
8.1
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada
to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal offenders.
Public Safety Canada
2014
89
PROPORTION OF SENTENCE SERVED PRIOR TO BEING RELEASED
ON PAROLE DECREASED
Figure D6
Timing of First Parole Supervision in the Sentence (%)
First Day Parole
50%
First Full Parole
45%
40%
35%
Full Parole Eligibility
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
■
In 2013-14, the average proportion of sentence served before the first parole release for offenders serving determinate sentences decreased to 37.9% (-0.5%) for day parole and to 46.4% (-0.3%) for full parole, as compared to the previous year.
Since 2004-05, women offenders have served less of their sentences before the first federal day parole release
than men offenders. However, in 2012-13, women offenders served an average of 0.5% more of their
sentences before the first federal day parole than men offenders (38.9% versus 38.3%, respectively).
In 2013-14, women offenders served an average of 2.6% less of their sentences before the first federal full
parole supervision than men offenders compared to 1.4% in 2012-13.
In 2013-14, women offenders and men offenders served an average of 6.0% and 4.9% more of their sentence
before first federal day parole supervision and 6.8% and 7.0% more of their sentence before the first federal full
parole supervision compared to 2004-05.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving
sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).
Public Safety Canada
2014
90
PROPORTION OF SENTENCE SERVED PRIOR TO BEING RELEASED
ON PAROLE DECREASED
Table D6
Type of Supervision
First Day Parole
Year
Women
Men
First Full Parole
Total
Women
Men
Total
Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2004-05
28.8
33.3
32.9
37.2
39.6
39.4
2005-06
28.5
32.9
32.5
36.1
39.3
38.9
2006-07
27.4
33.2
32.6
37.2
39.3
39.1
2007-08
30.3
32.3
32.1
37.9
38.4
38.4
2008-09
28.2
32.4
31.9
36.6
38.7
38.4
2009-10
29.5
33.2
32.8
36.1
38.5
38.2
2010-11
29.2
31.8
31.6
36.6
38.0
37.9
2011-12
35.0
38.1
37.8
40.3
41.7
41.6
2012-13
38.9
38.3
38.4
45.4
46.8
46.7
2013-14
34.8
38.2
37.9
44.0
46.6
46.4
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving
sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).
Public Safety Canada
2014
91
ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS SERVE A HIGHER PROPORTION OF
THEIR SENTENCES BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Figure D7
Timing of First Parole Supervision in the Sentence (%)
50%
45%
40%
35%
Full Parole Eligibility
30%
25%
20%
15%
Day Parole for Aboriginal Offenders
Day Parole for Non-Aboriginal Offenders
Full Parole for Aboriginal Offenders
Full Parole for Non-Aboriginal Offenders
10%
5%
0%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
In 2013-14, the average proportion of time served before the first federal day parole supervision
period and the first federal full parole supervision period was lower for non-Aboriginal offenders than
for Aboriginal offenders (37.2% versus 42.8%, and 46.0% versus 49.2%, respectively).
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving
sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).
Public Safety Canada
2014
92
ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS SERVE A HIGHER PROPORTION OF
THEIR SENTENCES BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Table D7
Type of Supervision
First Day Parole
Year
Aboriginal
NonAboriginal
First Full Parole
Total
Aboriginal
NonAboriginal
Total
Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2004-05
37.2
32.1
32.9
42.2
39.0
39.4
2005-06
36.5
31.8
32.5
42.2
38.5
38.9
2006-07
37.4
31.9
32.6
41.1
38.9
39.1
2007-08
38.4
31.1
32.1
41.1
38.1
38.4
2008-09
38.2
31.0
31.9
41.1
38.2
38.4
2009-10
38.7
31.9
32.8
41.2
37.9
38.2
2010-11
37.2
30.8
31.6
41.3
37.5
37.9
2011-12
41.8
37.1
37.8
44.0
41.3
41.6
2012-13
42.1
37.7
38.4
48.7
46.5
46.7
2013-14
42.8
37.2
37.9
49.2
46.0
46.4
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
The increases in the average proportion of time served after 2010-11 are in part due to the effect of Bill C-59 and were driven primarily by offenders serving
sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences (some of whom were former APR-eligible offenders).
Public Safety Canada
2014
93
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL DAY PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Figure D8
Day Parole Outcomes
100%
90%
Successful Completion
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
10%
Revocation with Offence
0%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
Since 2004-05, over 80% of federal day paroles have been successfully completed.
In 2013-14, the successful completion rate of federal day parole was 89.6%, the highest of the last ten
years.
During the five-year period between 2009-10 and 2013-14, the successful completion rate for
offenders released on APR day parole was slightly higher (88.7%) than for offenders released on
regular day parole (87.9%).
In 2013-14, 1.0% of federal day paroles ended with a non-violent offence and 0.2% with a violent offence.
In 2013-14, for the second consecutive year, the successful completion rate was higher for women offenders
than for men offenders (91.4% versus 89.5%, respectively).
Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
94
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL DAY PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Table D8
Federal Day Parole
Outcomes
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
1,720
86.0
1,750
86.8
1,911
87.4
2,737
88.6
2,759
89.5
808
86.4
871
90.2
364
89.2
21
95.5
27
100.0
2,528
86.1
2,621
87.9
2,275
87.7
2,758
88.7
2,786
89.6
285
9.3
Successful Completion
Regular
Accelerated
Total
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
Regular
223
11.2
215
10.7
232
10.6
287
9.3
Accelerated
102
10.9
72
7.5
35
8.6
1
4.5
Total
325
11.1
287
9.6
267
10.3
288
9.3
285
9.2
0.0
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular
42
2.1
40
2.0
37
1.7
58
1.9
32
1.0
Accelerated
23
2.5
23
2.4
8
2.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
Total
65
2.2
63
2.1
45
1.7
58
1.9
32
1.0
15
0.8
10
0.5
7
0.3
6
0.2
5
0.2
2
0.2
0
0.0
1
0.2
0
0.0
17
0.6
10
0.3
8
0.3
6
0.2
5
0.2
2,000
68.1
2,015
67.6
2,187
84.3
3,088
99.3
3,081
99.1
935
31.9
966
32.4
408
15.7
22
0.7
27
0.9
2,935
100.0
2,981
100.0
2,595
100.0
3,110
100.0
3,108
100.0
Revocation with Violent Offence**
Regular
Accelerated
Total
0.0
Total
Regular
Accelerated
Total
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
95
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL FULL PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Figure D9
Full Parole Outcomes *
100%
90%
80%
Successful Completion
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**
20%
10%
Revocation with Offence
0%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
■
In 2013-14, the successful completion rates of federal full parole was 85%, the same as the previous year, and
an increase of 9.8% compared to 2009-10.
In the last five years, the successful completion rate on APR full parole was on average 2% lower (78.8% compared to 80.8%) than the rate on regular full parole.
In 2013-14, 2.9% of federal full paroles ended with a non-violent offence and 0.3% with a violent offence. That
represents a decrease of 0.8% and 0.3% compared to 2012-13.
In 2013-14, the successful completion rate of federal full paroles was higher for women offenders than for men
offenders (92.2% versus 84.1%, respectively).
Note:
*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon
[their] death.
**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
96
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL FULL PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Table D9
Federal Full Parole
Outcomes*
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
Regular
351
79.1
360
80.2
335
82.5
425
80.0
576
81.9
Accelerated
625
73.2
663
74.4
688
76.9
589
89.0
245
93.2
Total
976
75.2
1,023
76.3
1,023
78.6
1,014
85.0
821
85.0
53
11.9
55
12.2
54
13.3
78
14.7
99
14.1
Accelerated
162
19.0
168
18.9
145
16.2
50
7.6
15
5.7
Total
215
16.6
223
16.6
199
15.3
128
10.7
114
11.8
Successful Completion
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**
Regular
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular
33
7.4
26
5.8
15
3.7
22
4.1
25
3.6
Accelerated
63
7.4
54
6.1
57
6.4
22
3.3
3
1.1
Total
96
7.4
80
6.0
72
5.5
44
3.7
28
2.9
Regular
7
1.6
8
1.8
2
0.5
6
1.1
3
0.4
Accelerated
4
0.5
6
0.7
5
0.6
1
0.2
0
0.0
11
0.8
14
1.0
7
0.5
7
0.6
3
0.3
Regular
444
34.2
449
33.5
406
31.2
531
44.5
703
72.8
Accelerated
854
65.8
891
66.5
895
68.8
662
55.5
263
27.2
1,298
100.0
1,340
100.0
1,301
100.0
1,193
100.0
966
100.0
Revocation with Violent Offence***
Total
Total
Total
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and can only successfully complete full parole upon
[their] death.
**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
97
STATUTORY RELEASES HAVE THE LOWEST RATES OF SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION
Figure D10
Statutory Release Outcomes
100%
90%
80%
70%
Successful Completion
60%
50%
40%
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
30%
20%
10%
Revocation with Offence
0%
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
Over the past ten years, the successful completion rate for offenders on statutory release increased from
56.3% to 62.1%.
In 2013-14, 7.4% of statutory releases ended with a non-violent offence and 1.1% ended with a violent offence.
That represents a decrease of 2.1% and 1.3% compared to 2009-10.
Over the last five years, the successful completion rate of statutory releases was higher for women offenders
than for men offenders. In 2013-14, women offenders had a successful rate 8.8% higher (70.5% versus 61.7%)
than men offenders. When compared with the year 2009-10, the successful completion rate of statutory
releases increased for both women offenders and men offenders (+1.3% and +1.4%, respectively).
Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on
full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
98
STATUTORY RELEASES HAVE THE LOWEST RATES OF SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION
Table D10
Statutory Release
Outcomes
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
Successful
Completion
3,706
60.8
3,454
61.8
3,429
61.3
3,745
60.2
3,816
62.1
Revocation for Breach of
Conditions*
1,663
27.3
1,479
26.5
1,554
27.8
1,849
29.7
1,800
29.3
Revocation with
Non-Violent Offence
579
9.5
530
9.5
486
8.7
501
8.1
454
7.4
Revocation with Violent
Offence**
149
2.4
122
2.2
122
2.2
123
2.0
70
1.1
6,097
100
5,585
100
5,591
100
6,218
100
6,140
100
Total
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
An offender serving a determinate sentence, if he/she is not detained, will be subject to statutory release after serving 2/3 of his/her sentence if he/she is not on
full parole at that time. On statutory release, an offender is subject to supervision until the end of his/her sentence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
99
OVER THE PAST DECADE, THE RATE OF VIOLENT CONVICTION FOR OFFENDERS
WHILE UNDER SUPERVISION HAS DECLINED
Figure D11
Rate of Conviction for Violent Offences per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
100
90
80
70
60
Statutory Release
50
40
30
20
Day Parole
10
Full Parole
0
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
The rate of conviction for violent offences** in 2012-13 decreased by 21% for day parole, by 6% for
full parole, and by 32% for statutory release, compared to 2004-05.
Those offenders under discretionary release (day and full parole) are less likely to be convicted of a
violent offence while under supervision than those on statutory release.
Note:
*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at
large.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.
The dotted line between 2012-13 and 2013-14 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, these numbers under-represent the actual number
of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.
Public Safety Canada
2014
100
OVER THE PAST DECADE, THE RATE OF VIOLENT CONVICTION FOR OFFENDERS
WHILE UNDER SUPERVISION HAS DECLINED
Table D11
# of Offenders Convicted for Violent Offences
Year
Day Parole
Statutory
Release
Full Parole
Rate per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
Total
Day Parole
Statutory
Release
Full Parole
2004-05
32
36
201
269
26
9
67
2005-06
16
28
178
222
12
7
58
2006-07
25
21
213
259
19
6
67
2007-08
18
22
213
253
14
6
68
2008-09
22
17
152
191
18
4
45
2009-10
17
16
149
182
13
4
46
2010-11
10
19
122
151
8
5
38
2011-12
8
10
122
140
6
3
35
2012-13
6
11
123
140
5
3
35
2013-14**
5
3
70
78
4
1
20
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at
large.
**Due to delays in the court processes, the numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.
Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.
Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
Public Safety Canada
2014
101
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS GRANTED TEMPORARY ABSENCES
HAS BEEN STABLE IN THE LAST THREE YEARS
Figure D12
Number of Offenders
4,000
3,500
3,000
Escorted Temporary Absences
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
Unescorted Temporary Absences
500
Work Releases
0
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
The number of offenders receiving escorted and unescorted temporary absences has been stable in
the last three years.
The number of offenders receiving work releases has decreased by 25.0%, from 424 in 2012-13 to
318 in 2013-14.
For the past 10 years, the average successful completion rates for escorted and unescorted
temporary absences was 99% and 95% for work releases.
Note:
A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community
service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.
A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff
member or other authorized person or organization.
These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one
work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.
Public Safety Canada
2014
102
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS GRANTED TEMPORARY ABSENCES
HAS BEEN STABLE IN THE LAST THREE YEARS
Table D12
Temporary Absences
Year
Work Releases
Escorted
# of Offenders
Unescorted
# of Permits
# of Offenders
# of Permits
# of Offenders
# of Permits
2004-05
2,502
35,082
519
3,500
333
769
2005-06
2,558
36,959
498
2,939
355
997
2006-07
2,519
39,421
499
4,122
340
727
2007-08
2,500
41,473
464
3,679
301
615
2008-09
2,321
36,116
431
3,649
239
654
2009-10
2,207
35,769
386
3,280
250
1,051
2010-11
2,288
40,031
351
3,095
321
1,303
2011-12
2,686
44,366
414
3,851
406
816
2012-13
2,745
47,794
441
3,677
424
752
2013-14
2,711
49,141
446
3,930
318
476
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community
service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.
A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff
member or other authorized person or organization.
These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one
work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.
Public Safety Canada
2014
SECTION E
STATISTICS ON SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF
CRIMINAL JUSTICE
103
THE NUMBER OF INITIAL DETENTION REVIEWS DECREASED IN 2013-14
Figure E1
Number of Initial Detention Reviews
Not Detained
350
Detained
303
300
272
284
261
247
250
222
265
267
278
253
250
236
229
214
208
200
150
100
50
0
1999-00
2001-02
2003-04
2005-06
2007-08
2009-10
2011-12
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
The annual number of initial detention reviews has been fluctuating since 1999-00.
Out of 3,789 initial detention reviews since 1999-00, 93.1% have resulted in a decision to detain.
In 2013-14, the initial detention rate was 96.2%, a decrease of 2.1% compared to 2012-13.
Since 1999-00, men accounted for 98.4% of all referrals for detention. During the same period, 60 women were
referred for detention and 54 were detained
In 2013-14, Aboriginal offenders accounted for 23.2% of the Total In Custody Population serving determinate
sentences while they accounted for 42.3% of offenders referred for detention and 42.0% of offenders detained.
Note:
According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in
custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious
harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.
Public Safety Canada
2014
104
THE NUMBER OF INITIAL DETENTION REVIEWS DECREASED IN 2013-14
Table E1
Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews
Detained
Year
Abor.
Non Abor.
Statutory Release
Total
%
Abor.
Non Abor.
Total
Total
%
Abor.
Non Abor.
Total
1999-00
82
126
208
93.7
3
11
14
6.3
85
137
222
2000-01
69
146
215
93.9
6
8
14
6.1
75
154
229
2001-02
75
182
257
94.5
2
13
15
5.5
77
195
272
2002-03
82
163
245
86.3
14
25
39
13.7
96
188
284
2003-04
72
207
279
92.1
8
16
24
7.9
80
223
303
2004-05
69
156
225
91.1
6
16
22
8.9
75
172
247
2005-06
75
158
233
89.3
11
17
28
10.7
86
175
261
2006-07
64
158
222
88.8
4
24
28
11.2
68
182
250
2007-08
85
162
247
93.2
7
11
18
6.8
92
173
265
2008-09
104
152
256
95.9
5
6
11
4.1
109
158
267
2009-10
95
166
261
93.9
2
15
17
6.1
97
181
278
2010-11
112
127
239
94.5
4
10
14
5.5
116
137
253
2011-12
88
119
207
96.7
3
4
7
3.3
91
123
214
2012-13
90
142
232
98.3
4
0
4
1.7
94
142
236
2013-14
84
116
200
96.2
4
4
8
3.8
88
120
208
1,246
2,280
3,526
93.1
83
180
263
6.9
1,329
2,460
3,789
Total
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in
custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of his/her sentence, an offence causing death or serious
harm, a serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.
Public Safety Canada
2014
105
78% OF JUDICIAL REVIEW HEARINGS RESULT IN EARLIER PAROLE ELIGIBILITY
Figure E2
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14
Total Number of Offenders with Cases Applicable for Judicial Review
1,672
Total Number of Offenders Eligible Now or In the Future for a Judicial Review Hearing
813
Total Number of Court Decisions
207
Earlier Eligibility
162
Released on
Parole
145
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
Since the first judicial review hearing in 1987, there have been a total of 207 court decisions.
Of these cases, 78.3% of the court decisions resulted in a reduction of the period that must be served before
parole eligibility.
Of the 813 offenders eligible to apply for a judicial review, 292 have already served 15 years of their sentence
whereas 521 have not.
Of the 162 offenders who have had their parole eligibility date moved closer, 157 have reached their revised
Day Parole eligibility date. Of these offenders, 145 have been released on parole, and 95 were being actively
supervised in the community*.
A higher percentage of second degree (87.0%) than first degree (77.2%) murder cases have resulted in a
reduction of the period required to be served before parole eligibility.
Note:
*Of the 50 offenders no longer under active supervision, 19 were in custody, 26 were deceased, four were deported, and one was unlawfully at large.
Judicial review is an application to the court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Judicial review procedures apply to
offenders who have been sentenced to imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole until more than fifteen years of their sentence has been served.
Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence.
Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.
Public Safety Canada
2014
106
78% OF JUDICIAL REVIEW HEARINGS RESULT IN EARLIER PAROLE ELIGIBILITY
Table E2
Province/Territory
of Judicial Review
Parole Ineligibility
Reduced by Court
Reduction Denied
by Court
Total
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
Northwest Territories
0
0
0
0
0
0
Nunavut
0
0
0
0
0
0
Yukon
0
0
0
0
0
0
Newfoundland & Labrador
0
0
0
0
0
0
Prince Edward Island
0
0
0
0
0
0
Nova Scotia
1
1
1
0
2
1
New Brunswick
1
0
0
0
1
0
Quebec
65
15
4
2
69
17
Ontario
22
0
20
1
42
1
Manitoba
8
3
1
0
9
3
Saskatchewan
6
0
3
0
9
0
Alberta
19
0
7
0
26
0
British Columbia
20
1
6
0
26
1
142
20
42
3
184
23
Sub-total
Total
162
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These numbers represent total decisions as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.
Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.
Public Safety Canada
2014
45
207
107
THE NUMBER OF DANGEROUS OFFENDER DESIGNATIONS
Figure E3
Number of Dangerous Offenders Designated per Year*
50
45
45
44
41
40
34
35
30
30
28
27
26
24
25
22
19
20
16
23
30
28
23
20 20
18
16
18
16
15
11
11
9
10
7
6
5
8
6
9
8
10
9
8
5
3
0
1978-79
1984-85
1990-91
1996-97
2002-03
2008-09
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14, there have been 678 offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders
(DOs) since 1978. 72% have at least one current conviction for a sexual offence.
As of end of fiscal year 2013-14, there were 573 DOs under the responsibility of Correctional Service
Canada, and of those 91.3% had indeterminate sentences.
Of these 573 DOs, 548 were in custody (representing 3.6% of the In Custody Population) and 25 were
in the community under supervision.
There were four women with a Dangerous Offender designation.
Aboriginal offenders accounted for 29.7% of DOs and 21.0% of the Total Offender Population.
Note:
*The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.
Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts
the total number of offenders ‘”designated”.
Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions
that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate or determinate sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or
pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender’s behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see
section 753 of the Criminal Code of Canada). Determinate sentences for Dangerous Offenders must be a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of
two years and have an order that the offender be subject to a long-term supervision period that does not exceed 10 years.
In addition to the DOs, there were 22 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and four Habitual Offenders.
Public Safety Canada
2014
108
THE NUMBER OF DANGEROUS OFFENDER DESIGNATIONS
Table E3
Province/Territory
of Designation
All Designations
(# designated
since 1978)
Active Dangerous Offenders
# of Indeterminate
Offenders
# of Determinate
Offenders
Total
Newfoundland & Labrador
11
8
0
8
Nova Scotia
19
16
0
16
Prince Edward Island
0
0
0
0
New Brunswick
8
7
0
7
Quebec
84
66
12
78
Ontario
280
212
22
234
Manitoba
20
18
1
19
Saskatchewan
63
46
9
55
Alberta
55
45
2
47
125
94
3
97
Yukon
2
1
1
2
Northwest Territories
9
9
0
9
Nunavut
2
1
0
1
678
523
50
573
British Columbia
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Numbers presented are as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.
The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.
Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders
“designated”.
Public Safety Canada
2014
109
MOST LONG TERM SUPERVISION ORDERS ARE FOR A 10-YEAR PERIOD
Figure E4
Number of Long Term Supervision Orders Imposed
700
634
600
500
400
300
200
105
100
35
1
2
4
8
1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years
61
47
2
0
5 years
6 years
7 years
8 years
9 years
10 years
Length of Supervision Order
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
As of end fiscal year 2013-14, the courts have imposed 899 long term supervision orders. Of these,
70.5% were for a period of 10 years.
There were 737 offenders with long term supervision orders, and of these, 486 (65.9%) had at least
one current conviction for a sexual offence.
There were 14 women with long term supervision orders.
There were 382 offenders being supervised in the community on their long term supervision order at
the end of fiscal year 2013-14. Of these, 341 offenders were supervised in the community, 40 offenders were temporarily detained, and one offender was unlawfully at large for less than 90 days.
Note:
Long Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or
more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.
Forty-four offenders under these provisions have died and 91 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.
Public Safety Canada
2014
110
MOST LONG TERM SUPERVISION ORDERS ARE FOR A 10-YEAR PERIOD
Table E4
Length of Supervision Order (years)
Province or Territory
of Order
Current Status
Incarcerated
DP, FP
or SR*
LTSO
period
LTSO**
interrupted
Total
7
0
1
4
0
5
12
18
3
1
10
0
14
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
10
4
0
4
0
8
12 27 10
1 187
297
98
14
128
5
245
8 16 17
0 191
248
65
15
112
13
205
1
1
2
1
0
28
33
6
2
18
0
26
1
11
9
8
9
1
40
80
37
11
14
7
69
0
0
7
1
0
1
0
55
64
19
4
29
1
53
0
0
1
10
4
5
6
0
93
119
31
11
51
3
96
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
0
0
8
12
2
0
7
1
10
Northwest Territories
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
3
1
0
1
0
2
Nunavut
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
0
3
6
0
0
4
0
4
Total
1
2
4
8 105
2 634
899
266
59
382
30
737
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Newfoundland &
Labrador
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
Nova Scotia
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
1
0
Prince Edward Island
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
New Brunswick
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
Quebec
1
1
3
2
53
Ontario
0
0
0
4
12
Manitoba
0
0
0
0
Saskatchewan
0
1
0
Alberta
0
0
British Columbia
0
Yukon
35 61 47
10 Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole (DP), full parole (FP) or statutory release (SR).
**This category includes offenders convicted of a new offence while on the supervision portion of an LTSO. When this occurs, the LTSO supervision period is
interrupted until the offender has served the new sentence to its warrant expiry date. At that time, the LTSO supervision period resumes where it left off.
These numbers are as of end of fiscal year 2013-14.
Forty-four offenders under these provisions have died and 91 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.
Public Safety Canada
2014
111
THE NUMBER OF RECORD SUSPENSION APPLICATIONS RECEIVED HAS DECREASED
Figure E5
Total Number of Record Suspension Applications
25,000
Accepted
Refused
19,523
20,000
14,253
15,000
10,000
5,000
1,039
0
2011-12*
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
The number of record suspension applications received decreased from 19,523 in 2012-13 to
14,253 in 2013-14. Of these 14,253 applications, 67.6% were accepted, an increase of 9.7% compared to 2012-13.
Approximately 3.8 million Canadians have a criminal record**, but less than 11.0% of people
convicted have received a pardon/record suspension. Since 1970, when the pardon process began,
480,035 pardons/record suspensions have been granted/issued or ordered.
Note:
*Refers to record suspension applications received between March 13 and March 31, 2012.
The number of record suspension applications received and accepted in 2012-13 should be considered with caution as the Record Suspension program,
formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010-11 and 2012-13.
**Source: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Criminal Records Division, 2009.
On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term “pardon” with the term “record suspension”. The Record Suspension and Clemency
program involves the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The
amendments to the CRA increased the waiting periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable
offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable
offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.
Public Safety Canada
2014
112
THE NUMBER OF RECORD SUSPENSION APPLICATIONS RECEIVED HAS DECREASED
Table E5
Applications Processed
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Applications Received
1,039*
19,523
14,253
Applications Accepted
793
11,291
9,632
Percentage Accepted
76.3
57.8
67.6
Ordered
6,030
8,515
Refused
208
777
6,238
9,292
96.7
91.6
Type of Record Suspension Decision
Total Record Suspension Applications Ordered/Refused
Percentage Ordered
Type of Pardon Decision
Granted
16,250
9,393
3,270
612
8,278
Issued
7,889
2,693
-
-
-
Denied
437
293
276
130
588
24,576
12,379
3,546
742**
8,866**
98.2
97.6
92.2
82.5
93.4
Revocations***
194
71
1,132
991
669
Cessations
727
1,055
907
706
588
Total Revocations/Cessations
921
1,126
2,039
1,697
1,257
441,244
453,330
456,600
463,242
480,035
16,213
17,339
19,378
21,075
22,332
Total Pardon Applications Granted/Issued/Denied
Percentage Granted/Issued
Total Pardon/Record Suspension Revocations/Cessations
Cumulative Granted/Issued****
Cumulative Revocations/Cessations****
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Refers to record suspension applications received between March 13 and March 31, 2012.
**Refers to pardon applications received on or before March 12, 2012.
The number of record suspension applications received and accepted in 2012-13 should be considered with caution as the Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010-11 and 2012-13. The grant/issued rate for pardon applications processed in 2012/13 should be considered with caution. The
Record Suspension program, formerly the Pardon Program, underwent substantial changes between 2010/11 and 2012/13.
***Revocations fluctuate due to resource re-allocation to deal with backlogs.
On June 29, 2010, Bill C-23A amended the CRA by extending the ineligibility periods for certain applications for pardon. Additionally, the bill resulted in significant changes to program
operations. The process was modified to include additional inquiries and new, more exhaustive investigations by staff for some applications and required additional review time by
Board members. New concepts of merit and disrepute to the administration of justice form part of the statute. As a result of these new changes, application processing time increased. On March 13, 2012, Bill C-10 amended the CRA by replacing the term “pardon” with the term “record suspension”. The Record Suspension and Clemency program involves
the review of record suspension applications, the ordering of record suspensions and the making of clemency recommendations. The amendments to the CRA increased the waiting
periods for a record suspension to five years for all summary convictions and to ten years for all indictable offences. Individuals convicted of sexual offences against minors (with
certain exceptions) and those who have been convicted of more than three indictable offences, each with a sentence of two or more years, became ineligible for a record suspension.
****Cumulative data reflects activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act.
Public Safety Canada
2014
SECTION F
VICTIMS OF CRIME
113
VICTIMIZATION RATES FOR THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY HAVE INCREASED
Figure F1
Rate of Victimization per 1,000 Population
120
1999
2004
2009
108
100
93
81
80
75
80
75
60
40
21
21
24
20
9
11
13
0
Theft of Personal Property
Sex ual Assault
Robbery
Assault*
Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004 and 2009.
■
■
Victimization rates for theft of personal property were higher in 2009 than in 1999.
Since 1999, the rates of victimization for assault have remained stable.
Note:
*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.
Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.
Public Safety Canada
2014
114
VICTIMIZATION RATES FOR THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY HAVE INCREASED
Table F1
Year
Type of Incident
1999
2004
2009
Theft of Personal Property
75
93
108
Sexual Assault
21
21
24
Robbery
9
11
13
Assault*
81
75
80
Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004 and 2009.
Note:
*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.
Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.
Public Safety Canada
2014
115
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME ARE UNDER 30
Figure F2
16%
14.6%
15.0%
14%
12.5%
12%
10.3%
10%
8.9%
8.3%
7.4%
8%
6.6%
5.5%
6%
3.4%
4%
2.1%
2%
1.9%
1.1%
1.1%
0.6%
0.8%
0%
0 to 4
5 to 9
10 to 14
15 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34
35 to 39
40 to 44
45 to 49
50 to 54
55 to 59
60 to 64
65 to 69
70 to 74
75+
Age of Victim (2012)
Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
More than half (51.9%) of all victims of violent crime reported in 2012 were under the age of 30,
whereas 36.9% of the Canadian population is under the age of 30*.
Women aged 15 to 39 years were more likely than men of that age to be victims of crime.
Canadians aged 65 and older, who account for 14.1% of the general population*, represent 2.4% of
victims of crime.
Note:
*Population estimates are as of July 1, 2010.
The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
116
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME ARE UNDER 30
Table F2 (2012)
Age of Victim
Men
Women
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
0 to 4 years
1,761
1.0
2,053
1.1
3,814
1.1
5 to 9 years
3,803
2.2
3,724
2.0
7,527
2.1
10 to 14 years
11,716
6.7
12,109
6.5
23,825
6.6
15 to 19 years
25,294
14.4
27,674
14.9
52,968
14.6
20 to 24 years
24,712
14.1
29,380
15.8
54,092
15.0
25 to 29 years
21,477
12.2
23,897
12.9
45,374
12.5
30 to 34 years
17,282
9.8
20,001
10.8
37,283
10.3
35 to 39 years
14,829
8.4
17,403
9.4
32,232
8.9
40 to 44 years
14,607
8.3
15,456
8.3
30,063
8.3
45 to 49 years
13,568
7.7
13,038
7.0
26,606
7.4
50 to 54 years
10,965
6.2
9,051
4.9
20,016
5.5
55 to 59 years
6,983
4.0
5,149
2.8
12,132
3.4
60 to 64 years
4,081
2.3
2,792
1.5
6,873
1.9
65 to 69 years
2,321
1.3
1,605
0.9
3,926
1.1
70 to 74 years
1,128
0.6
977
0.5
2,105
0.6
75 and over
1,228
0.7
1,507
0.8
2,735
0.8
175,755
100.0
185,816
100.0
361,571
100.0
Total
Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
The data excludes traffic violations, victims whose age is above 89, victims whose age is unknown and victims whose gender is unknown.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
2014
117
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS RECEIVING SERVICES ARE VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME
Figure F3
Number of victims receiving formal assistance on May 24, 2012
5,000
Not reported
Men
179
Women
4,500
1103
4,000
3,500
3,000
37
2,500
356
2,000
3,461
1,500
66
500
0
636
2,105
1,000
3
126
179
Ho micide
507
220
0
47
90
Other o ffences
causing death
34
676
Sexual assault
Other vio lent
o ffences
Other criminal
o ffences
448
81
310
Other incidents
Unkno wn
Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
■
On May 24, 2012, the Victim Services Survey snapshot day, 10,664 victims received formal
assistance from a victim service office. This represents an increase of 12.7% from 9,462 on May 27,
2010. Of the 9,637 where the crime was known, the majority, 79.8% were victims of a violent crime.
Of the 9,709 cases in which gender of the victim was noted, women accounted for 74.9% of the
victims who received formal assistance from a victim service office, and men represented 25.1%.
Of the 6,959 women who received formal assistance where the type of crime was known, 83.8% were
victims of violent crime. A total of 2,105 women (30.2%) were victims of sexual assault.
Of the 2,359 men who received formal assistance where the type of crime was known, 69.2% were
victims of violent crime. A total of 356 men (15.1%) were victims of sexual assault.
Note:
Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a
ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.
Public Safety Canada
2014
118
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS RECEIVING SERVICES ARE VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME
Table F3
Gender of Victim
Type of Crime
Women
Men
Not Reported
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
154
2.4
70
3.3
3
0.5
227
2.5
95
1.5
77
3.7
8
1.4
180
2.0
Sexual assault
1,922
30.0
379
18.1
160
28.3
2,461
27.1
Other violent offences
3,323
51.8
917
43.8
262
46.4
4,502
49.6
Other criminal offences*
496
7.7
357
17.0
73
12.9
926
10.2
Other Incidents**
421
6.6
295
14.1
59
10.4
775
8.5
6,411
100.0
2,095
100.0
565
100.0
9,071
100.0
197
—
81
—
113
—
391
—
Snapshot on May 27, 2010
Homicide
Other offences causing death
Total without unknown
Unknown type of crime
Total
6,608
2,176
678
9,462
Snapshot on May 24, 2012
Homicide
179
2.6
126
5.3
3
0.9
308
3.2
90
1.3
47
2.0
0
0.0
137
1.4
Sexual assault
2,105
30.2
356
15.1
37
11.6
2,498
25.9
Other violent offences
3,461
49.7
1,103
46.8
179
56.1
4,743
49.2
Other criminal offences*
676
9.7
507
21.5
66
20.7
1,249
13.0
Other Incidents**
448
6.4
220
9.3
34
10.7
702
7.3
6,959
100.0
2,359
100.0
319
100.0
9,637
100.0
310
—
81
—
636
—
1,027
—
Other offences causing death
Total without unknown
Unknown type of crime
Total
7,269
2,440
955
10,664
Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2009/2010; Victim Services in Canada 2011/2012; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Other criminal offences include arson, property crimes, traffic offences, and other Criminal Code offences.
**Other incidents include those of a non-criminal nature as well as those that are still under investigation to determine if they are criminal offences.
Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a
ministry responsible for justice matters. Survey respondents included 684 victim service providers.
Public Safety Canada
2014
119
THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS REGISTERED WITH THE
FEDERAL CORRECTIONAL SYSTEM HAS INCREASED
Figure F4
Number of Registered Victims*
8,000
7,322
7,838
7,585
6,940
7,000
6,366
5,816
6,000
5,294
4,979
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Source: Data Warehouse, Performance Management. Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
Since 2006-07, there has been a 57.4% increase in the number of victims registered with the
Correctional Service of Canada and the Parole Board of Canada combined, from 4,979 to 7,838.
Of the 23,154 offenders under the responsibility of the Correctional Service Canada in 2013-14,
17.3% (4,017) have registered victims.
In 2013-14, the Correctional Service of Canada provided 51,697 notifications** to registered victims.
Note:
*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional
Release Act entitles them.
Data is reported by CSC’s data warehouse using a snapshot of data as of April of each year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
120
THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS REGISTERED WITH THE
FEDERAL CORRECTIONAL SYSTEM HAS INCREASED
Table F4
Number of Offenders with
Registered Victims
Number of Registered
Victims*
Number of Notifications**
to Registered Victims
2006-07
3,147
4,979
13,829
2007-08
3,295
5,294
16,281
2008-09
3,412
5,816
28,069
2009-10
3,509
6,366
37,471
2010-11
3,726
6,940
41,987
2011-12
3,824
7,322
46,787
2012-13
3,935
7,585
51,344
2013-14
4,017
7,838
51,697
Year
Source: Data Warehouse, Performance Management. Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional
Release Act entitles them.
Data is reported by CSC’s data warehouse using a snapshot of data as of April of each year.
Public Safety Canada
2014
121
OFFENCES CAUSING DEATH ARE THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF OFFENCE** THAT HARMED
THE VICTIMS REGISTERED* WITH CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Figure F5
Offences of Victimization** 2013-14
Offences Causing Death
57.8%
Sex ual Offences
28.5%
Assaults
12.0%
Inv olv ing Violence or Threats
9.2%
Property Crimes
6.9%
Other Offences
6.1%
Depriv ation of Freedom
3.6%
Attempts to Cause Death
3.2%
Driv ing Offences
Not Recorded
2.0%
0.1%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
Source: Data Warehouse, Performance Management. Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
Of the 7,838 registered victims*, 57.8% (4,533) were victims of an offence that caused death.
Victims of sexual offences (2,237) accounted for 28.5% of the registered victims*.
Victims of assault (941) and victims of offences involving violence or threats (720) accounted for
12.0% and 9.2% of the registered victims.
Note:
*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence; therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the actual number of Registered
Victims. The percentages represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence.
Public Safety Canada
2014
122
OFFENCES CAUSING DEATH ARE THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF OFFENCE THAT HARMED
THE VICTIMS REGISTERED* WITH CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Table F5
Type of Offence**
That Harmed Victim*
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
Offences Causing Death
2,936
46.1
3,804
54.8
4,056
55.4
4,292
56.6
4,533
57.8
Sexual Offences
1,579
24.8
2,098
30.2
2,114
28.9
2,169
28.6
2,237
28.5
Assaults
879
13.8
998
14.4
998
13.6
965
12.7
941
12.0
Involving Violence or Threats
525
8.2
680
9.8
707
9.7
710
9.4
720
9.2
Property Crimes
417
6.6
509
7.3
534
7.3
551
7.3
541
6.9
Other Offences
217
3.4
396
5.7
452
6.2
441
5.8
475
6.1
Attempts to Cause Death
182
2.9
233
3.4
241
3.3
246
3.2
283
3.6
Deprivation of Freedom
215
3.4
251
2.6
272
3.7
281
3.7
249
3.2
Driving Offences
100
1.6
123
1.8
125
1.7
152
2.0
153
2.0
Offence Not Recorded
192
3.0
55
0.8
6
0.1
4
0.1
9
0.1
Total Number of Victims**
6,366
6,940
7,322
7,585
7,838
Source: Data Warehouse, Performance Management. Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence, therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the number of Registered Victims.
The percentages in the table represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence and do not add up to 100%.
Public Safety Canada
2014
123
TEMPORARY ABSENCE INFORMATION IS THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF INFORMATION PROVIDED
DURING A NOTIFICATION TO REGISTERED VICTIMS* WITH CORRECIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Figure F6
Temporary Absences
100,945
Trav el Permits
34,296
17,546
Institutional Location
Program and Disciplinary Offence**
14,780
Conditional Release
12,313
Sentencing
10,336
2,476
Custody
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
Frequency of Type of Information Disclosed
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
In 2013-14, information on Temporary Absences (52.4%), Travel Permits (17.8%), and Institutional
Location (9.1%) were the most frequent pieces of information about offenders that was provided
during a notification to registered victims*.
There has been over a twofold increase in the number of pieces of information provided to registered
victims* during notifications from 81,139 in 2009-10 to 192,692 in 2013-14.
Note:
Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information
includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender’s sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.
Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.
As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply
for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the
data.
*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
***New type of information now released to victims as of June 13, 2012 as per Bill C10.
Public Safety Canada
2014
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TEMPORARY ABSENCE INFORMATION IS THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF INFORMATION PROVIDED
DURING A NOTIFICATION TO REGISTERED VICTIMS* WITH CORRECIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Table F6
Information
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
49,614
62,702
75,848
93,609
100,945
Travel Permits
9,345
10,136
10,877
28,763
34,296
Institutional Location
5,616
6,993
6,859
14,434
17,546
11,208
14,780
Temporary Absences
Program & Disciplinary Offence Information**
Conditional Release
6,944
10,353
10,870
11,803
12,313
Sentencing Information
7,758
13,770
16,268
12,813
10,336
Custody
1,862
2,192
2,414
2,569
2,476
TOTAL
81,139
106,146
123,136
175,199
192,692
Source: Data Warehouse, Performance Management: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Temporary Absence information includes information on unescorted and escorted temporary absences and work release. Conditional Release information
includes information regarding day and full parole, statutory release, suspensions, detention, and long-term supervision orders. Sentencing information includes information on the offender’s sentence, offender information, warrant expiry date, judicial review, and public domain.
Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.
As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply
for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the
data.
*In order to register to receive information under section 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**New type of information now released to victims as of June 13, 2012 as per Bill C10.
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125
PAROLE BOARD OF CANADA CONTACTS WITH VICTIMS HAVE DECREASED
Figure F7
25,000
21,434
20,457
22,181
22,483
2009-10
2010-11
22,475
22,323
2012-13
2013-14
21,449
20,039
20,000
16,711
15,479
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
■
In 2013-14, the Parole Board of Canada (PBC) had 22,323 contacts* with victims**, a slight decrease
of 0.7% (152 fewer contacts) compared to 2012-13. Since 1999-00, there has been a 99.7% increase
in the number of contacts with victims by the PBC.
Most of the contacts were with victims of violence, such as victims of sexual assault, or the family
members of murdered victims.
The majority of victims surveyed in 2003 and 2009 expressed satisfaction with the quality and
timeliness of the information provided by PBC staff.
In 2013-14, victims made 264 presentations at 142 hearings, 10 more presentations than the previous
year.
Note:
*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.
**Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act) , which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2
of the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a
relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the
person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender’s act, whether or not the offender is
prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26
(3) and 142(3).
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2014
126
PAROLE BOARD OF CANADA CONTACTS WITH VICTIMS HAVE DECREASED
Table F7
Year
Total Number of Contacts*
2004-05
15,479
2005-06
16,711
2006-07
21,434
2007-08
20,457
2008-09
20,039
2009-10
22,181
2010-11
22,483
2011-12
21,449
2012-13
22,475
2013-14
22,323
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.
Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act) , which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2 of
the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a
relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the
person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender’s act, whether or not the offender is
prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26
(3) and 142(3).
Public Safety Canada
2014
127
QUESTIONNAIRE
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Public Safety Canada
2014
Please return completed questionnaires to:
Dr. Guy Bourgon
Chair
Portfolio Corrections Statistics Committee
Public Safety Canada
340 Laurier Avenue West, 10th Floor
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P8
Telephone: 613-991-2033
Fax: 613-990-8295
E-mail: [email protected]
For further information, please visit:
Correctional Service Canada: www.csc-scc.gc.ca
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada: www.statcan.gc.ca
Parole Board of Canada: www.pbc-clcc.gc.ca
Office of the Correctional Investigator: www.oci-bec.gc.ca
Public Safety Canada: www.publicsafety.gc.ca
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