2000 First Nations National Child Benefit

2000 First Nations National Child Benefit
First Nations National Child Benefit
Progress Report
Indian and Northern
Affairs Canada
Affaires indiennes
et du Nord Canada
2000
Published under the authority of the
Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Ottawa, 2001
www.inac.gc.ca
QS-7021-000-EE-A1
Catalogue No. R2-111/2000E
ISBN 0-662-29314-2
© Minister of Public Works and Government Service Canada
Cette publication peut aussi être obtenue en français sous le titre :
La Prestation nationale pour enfants chez les Premières nations - Rapport d’étape 2000
INTRODUCTION
It is our pleasure, on behalf of the Social Policy and Programs
Branch, to have collaborated with First Nations across the
country to publish this 1st Annual Progress Report on the
National Child Benefit for First Nations and to re-affirm the
federal government’s commitment to support First Nations’
continued involvement in the National Child Benefit (NCB) initiative.
T
he National Child Benefit initiative was implemented in July 1998 after
First Ministers of Social Services agreed that the federal, provincial and
territorial governments, and First Nations that deliver social assistance
should work together to address the issue of child poverty in Canada.
This joint initiative provides families with the supports and services, outside of social
assistance, they need to provide a better life for themselves and their children.
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To make it easier for families to break the cycle of poverty, the National Child Benefit
aims to ensure that no family has to choose between a job and benefits for their
children. The National Child Benefit initiative helps prevent and reduce the depth of child
poverty, reinforcing that families will always be better off as a result of parents working,
and reduces program overlap and duplication of programs and services.
First Nations play an important role in the design and delivery of the programs and
services funded under the National Child Benefit. Similar to most provinces and
territories, First Nations that deliver social assistance have the flexibility to reinvest
savings in programs and services that fit the needs and priorities of their individual
communities.
First Nations determine their own reinvestment initiatives in ways that meet local
needs and priorities whether it is introducing new programs and services for families
with children, or enhancing the current range of community-based employment
support programs.
As we head into the third year of the National Child Benefit, it is important to reflect
on how the National Child Benefit makes a difference in the lives and communities
of First Nations. This is the goal of the Progress Report, written specifically with First
Nations in mind and to highlight the impact the National Child Benefit has had and
continues to have in First Nations communities.
The Children’s Program Directorate
CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
SEEING THE POSSIBILITIES,
MAKING A DIFFERENCE
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Thank you to all those who participated
and assisted in the National Child Benefit
self- evaluation process of 1999-2000.
- The Children’s Programs Directorate,
Social Policy and Programs, Indian and
Northern Affairs Canada.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Chapter 1 - Purpose of this Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 2 - The National Child Benefit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
•
•
•
•
An Overview
How It Works
Provincial/Territorial Investments in Children
Summary
Chapter 3 - First Nations and the National Child Benefit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
First Nations’ Children in Canada
Recent Successes
First Nations and the National Child Benefit
First Nations Reinvestment Programs
Who Benefits
1998-1999 Data
1999-2000 Data
2000-2001 Data
Summary
Chapter 4 - Sharing the Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Child Care
• Pikangikum First Nation, Ontario - Abinogeesh-Wi-Gamik or "Kid’s Place"
Nutrition
• Brokenhead Ojibway First Nation, Manitoba - Sergeant Tommy Prince
School Breakfast Program
• Poplar River First Nation, Manitoba - Infant Milk Formula Subsidy Program
Early Child Development
• O’Chiese First Nation, Alberta - Early Child Development Program
Employment/Training
• Kanesatake First Nation, Quebec - Men’s Mentor Program
Other
• Carry the Kettle First Nation, Saskatchewan - Emergency Family Support Program
• Kanesatake First Nation, Quebec - Dressed for Winter Program
• Skookum Jim Friendship Centre, Whitehorse, Yukon - Youth Development Programs
• Squamish First Nation, British Columbia - Ayateway Squamish Nation
Cultural Development Camp
Chapter 5 - Monitoring Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
• The Evaluation and Accountability Framework
• Monitoring and Evaluation Activities
• The Self-Evaluation Process
Chapter 6 - Lessons Learned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Chapter 7 - Next Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Appendices
•
•
•
•
Appendix 1 - First Nations Expenditures Data by Program Area . . . .
Appendix 2 - Provincial/Territorial Investments in Children . . . . . . . .
Appendix 3 - First Nation Self-Evaluation Participants . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix 4 - Indian and Northern Affairs Canada Information Contacts
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35
36
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The National Child Benefit (NCB)
• The National Child Benefit is a joint federal/provincial/territorial initiative that
supports children and families1.
• The three objectives of the National Child Benefit are to help prevent and reduce
the depth of child poverty, to promote an attachment to the workforce, and to
reduce program overlap and duplication.
• The National Child Benefit initiative consists of a series of programs and services
across Canada designed to improve benefits and services for low-income families
with children and represents a significant investment in Canada’s children.
National Child Benefit Reinvestment Guidelines
• National Child Benefit reinvestments are an opportunity for First Nations to develop
innovative programs that meet the objectives of the National Child Benefit and the
unique circumstances of First Nations communities.
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• In 1998-1999, First Nations had approximately $30.8 million available for reinvestment
in National Child Benefit programs. This amount increased by approximately
$20 million in 1999-2000, for a total of $48.76 million.
• The types of programs and services for parents and their children fall into five
broad areas: child/day care, child nutrition, early child development, employment
and training opportunities, and other, e.g., cultural and traditional teachings, recreation,
youth development.
Monitoring Progress
• Ongoing monitoring and periodic evaluation by federal/provincial/territorial
governments and First Nations of the National Child Benefit and its impact on
child poverty levels is essential to ensure the goals of the program are being met.
• An evaluation of the National Child Benefit and its effectiveness on First Nations and
First Nations communities will consider the impact the broad range of reinvestment
programs are having on these communities.
• First Nations participation in the evaluation process includes a working relationship
with the Assembly of First Nations, First Nations members participating on the
First Nations National Child Benefit Evaluation Working Group, feedback from
First Nations communities to produce the short- and medium-term program
outcomes, First Nations self-evaluations of the reinvestment projects, and First
Nations interviews and dialogue circles to feed into the interim and final evaluations.
1
The Government of Quebec, although agreeing with the basic principles of the National Child Benefit which
aims to increase the resources available for poor children and promote employment retention and the return
to work, has not taken part in its development because it wishes to assume control of income
support for the children of Quebec. Consequently, any reference to joint federal/provincial/territorial
positions in this report does not include Quebec. The family policy implemented by Quebec is consistent
with the National Child Benefit.
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
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CHAPTER 1 - PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT
The first edition of the First Nations National Child Benefit
Progress Report 2000 is written specifically for First Nations.
It is based on information, both narrative and numerical, that
reflects First Nations’ experience with the National Child
Benefit reinvestment component and reports on the impact it
is having on First Nations and their communities.
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he National Child Benefit reinvestment component aims to provide a
sense of community ownership for the programs designed by
First Nations, to address specifically the diverse and unique needs of
First Nations communities. This may be done in a variety of ways.
For example, some communities have developed "health and
wellness strategies" that reflect a long-term vision and the established goals the
community has developed for its population. Here, the National Child Benefit
reinvestment funds may be used to address one or more aspects of these strategies.
Such that, if a community aimed to teach its young people about nutrition and the
importance of a healthy breakfast to begin the day, nutrition and school breakfast
programs may be established through the National Child Benefit to meet this goal.
In other instances, communities have initiated new programs with National Child
Benefit funds that otherwise would not be available, for example, cultural and
traditional programs.
The primary purpose of this Progress Report is to "tell the story" and to illustrate
examples of how First Nations have implemented the National Child Benefit
reinvestment component which provides flexibility and variability for First Nations
to design and develop innovative community-based programs for their children and
to strengthen their communities for future generations. The range of programs
varies from community to community.
As the Progress Report illustrates, First Nations can be proud of the innovative and
creative programs they build through National Child Benefit reinvestments to help
provide a better lifestyle for families. This Progress Report establishes a forum to
share with First Nations across Canada and with the rest of the Canadian population
how the National Child Benefit reinvestment initiative has been implemented in
First Nations communities.
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COUNCIL HURON-WENDAT NATION, QUEBEC
Has used National Child Benefit reinvestment funds to run Agoshin Counter, a nutrition
and clothing centre that has created jobs for two social assistance recipients and provides
regular services to low-income families with children. These services include provision of
low-cost food and clothing, and the utility of a collective kitchen, a meeting place and a
reference service to assist people in gaining access to the resources they need.
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F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
CHAPTER 2 - THE NATIONAL CHILD BENEFIT
AN OVERVIEW
Over the last decade, the Government of Canada has undertaken a range of actions to make children and their well-being
a high priority. These actions include policy strategies, new and
enhanced programs, legislative change, and initiatives with the
voluntary and private sectors. Some examples include the
National Child Benefit (NCB) and the National Children’s
Agenda, the core of which is its vision and values for children,
founded on the belief that children’s well-being is a priority for
all Canadians.
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educing poverty, particularly among families with children, has
been an ongoing priority of governments across Canada. In addition
to economic insecurity and hardship, poverty often means lost
opportunities to participate meaningfully in community and public
life. Among the key actions taken to address child and family
poverty has been the creation of the National Child Benefit system, a joint
federal-provincial-territorial-First Nations initiative. It involves simultaneous
actions from all levels of government. The federal, provincial and territorial
governments work together to make investing in children a national priority.
This co-operation between governments on behalf of children is a central element
to the National Child Benefit system.
Prior to its implementation in July 1998, parents working at low wages received
lower child-related benefits than parents relying on social assistance. As a result,
parents often had to choose between staying on social assistance to retain important
benefits for their children or taking a job and risk losing these benefits.
The National Child Benefit has three objectives: prevent and reduce child poverty,
help parents of low-income families participate in the work force and reduce
program overlap and duplication through closer harmonization of programs and
simplified administration.
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
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HOW IT WORKS
The Government of Canada delivers its contribution to the National Child Benefit
through the tax system. In the 1997 and 1998 budgets, it invested $1.7 billion
annually in this national undertaking. This investment continued in the 1999 and
2000 budgets with an additional investment of $850 million each year. As a result,
federal government income support for families with children increased by approximately 40 percent. Most of this additional investment is targeted to low-income
families with children.
The National Child Benefit combines a financial benefit to parents, in the form of
the Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB), with increased availability and access to
programs and supports within their community. The CCTB combines the Canada
Tax Benefit (CTB) and the National Child Benefit Supplement (NCBS) to provide a
monthly payment to families with children under the age of 18.
The National Child Benefit combines new federal investments with provincial,
territorial and First Nations "re-allocations" of resources. The federal government
increased its income support for low-income families through the Canada Child Tax
Benefit and the National Child Benefit Supplement, ensuring that no one received
less money than in previous years. Provinces, territories and First Nations adjust
social assistance for recipients with children by an amount equal to the federal
increase. These adjustments are then "reinvested" into community-based programs
for low-income families.
Children who are well cared for today are more likely to be
healthy, responsible and caring adults.
The National Child Benefit represents a significant new
investment in Canada’s children.
- National Child Benefit Progress Report; 1999
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PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL INVESTMENTS IN CHILDREN
When a province or territory invests more than the value of its adjustments to social
assistance, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) may increase the financial
resources allocated to these provinces and territories to ensure that First Nations
children and families have access to an equivalent level of programming and services
available more broadly in the jurisdiction. This was the case for Saskatchewan and
the Yukon.
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Saskatchewan
In the first phase of the National Child Benefit (1998-1999), Saskatchewan invested a
total of $13.01 million on National Child Benefit initiatives during the nine months
from July 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. The province devoted reinvestment funds to three
new children’s programs: the Saskatchewan Child Benefit (SCB), the Saskatchewan
Employment Supplement (SES), and the Family Health Benefits. Additional federal funds
were required to ensure that comparable income support programs were available on
reserve for First Nations residing in Saskatchewan.
Yukon
In 1999-2000 Yukon committed approximately $600,000 in additional funds to implement
the Yukon Child Benefit (YCB), a benefit that provides additional income support to
low-income families, whether they are low-wage earners or social assistance
recipients. This commitment of funds is over and above the reinvestment funds
freed up through the implementation of the second phase of the National Child
Benefit in 1998-1999, and subsequent offsets to the Yukon government’s social assistance
expenditures. In the Yukon, INAC funds social assistance for all Registered Indians
in the territory, both on and off reserve.
The Yukon Child Benefit is a universal program for all families with children under 18
years of age and is designed to ensure that Yukon families on social assistance and
working families with low incomes receive financial support to help with the costs
of raising children. The benefit is tax free and is not considered as income when
calculating social assistance benefits. The full benefit of $300 per year per child is
available for families with net incomes below $16,700.
SUMMARY
Consistent with the objectives of the National Child Benefit initiative, these
programs aim to prevent and reduce the depth of child poverty, promote an attachment
to the work force, and reduce overlap and duplication.
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MUSKODAY FIRST NATION, SASKATCHEWAN
Using National Child Benefit funds, the community implemented a program that teaches
basic life skills including maintaining commitments to new employment, adjusting to new
working hours, time management, money management, responsibility and leadership.
This program is offered to parents to assist them in acquiring the necessary skills for
participation in the labour market.
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
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CHAPTER
3 - FIRST
NATIONS
AND
THETHE
NATIONAL
CHILD
BENEFIT
(NCB)
CHAPTER
3 - FIRST
NATIONS
AND
NATIONAL
CHILD
BENEFIT
FIRST NATIONS’ CHILDREN IN CANADA
The Government of Canada is working to enhance the
well-being of Aboriginal peoples, including Aboriginal children, to
ensure that all Canadians share in the collective benefits of
Canada’s international success as a desirable place to live.
Under Gathering Strength - Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan,
there exists a focus on strong communities, people and
economies. To this end, the federal government has a responsibility
to ensure that programs exist for First Nations children
on-reserve that are comparable to those available more broadly
for Canadian children, and that promote the development of
First Nations communities.
T
he context for government action for children and families is also
shaped by the country’s changing demographic profile. In particular,
with a higher birth rate than the Canadian average, Aboriginal
children represent the fastest growing population in Canada.
Aboriginal people within Canada represent approximately 4.5 percent
of the total Canadian population, a percentage that has almost doubled across the
country over the last 15 years.
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The differences in socio-economic conditions between Registered Indians2, First
Nations members living on-reserve and the total Canadian population are apparent
both within First Nations communities and throughout the larger population of
Canada. In 1996, the average number of children for the Registered Indian population
on-reserve was 2.1 per family, compared to 1.2 for the entire Canadian population.
The First Nations’ birth rate of 27 births per 1,000 people is twice the Canadian
average. Infant mortality, while improving, is still double that of the non-Aboriginal
population.
In 1996, almost one third of Aboriginal children under 15 years of age lived in a loneparent family, twice the rate within the general population; 40 percent of Aboriginal
children living in urban centres live in lone-parent families. According to the 1996
Census, the prevalence of Registered Indian female lone-parent families (23 percent)
is about twice the rate reported for female lone-parent families in the Canadian
population (12.1 percent). Compared to the Canadian population as a whole, male
lone-parent families were nearly twice as common among Registered Indians living
on-reserve in 1996.
2 The term "Registered Indian" is applied to individuals, both on- and off-reserve, registered under the Indian Act.
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RECENT SUCCESSES
Registered Indians (both on- and off-reserve) are making steady gains in educational
achievement, and more Registered Indians are completing their education.
The post-secondary enrolment rate for the Registered Indian population aged 17 to
34 has remained relatively constant. The number of Registered Indians enrolled in
post-secondary institutions almost doubled between 1988-1989 and 1998-1999, and
the percentage of Registered Indians with university degrees has increased approximately 50 percent since 1996.
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In 1996, of the Registered Indian population 15 years of age and over attending
school, 80.5 percent were attending full time, 10 percent more than the total
Canadian population. A further narrowing of the earnings gap was realized between
1990 and 1995. For Registered Indians living on-reserve, an increase was noted for
those who completed trades or non-university training between 1991 and 1996.
Within the Registered Indian population, women’s employment earnings as a
percentage of men’s rose between 1990 and 1995.
FIRST NATIONS AND THE NATIONAL CHILD BENEFIT
The National Child Benefit for First Nations operates differently than for the
provinces and territories. Although the overall goals and objectives are the same in
all instances, First Nations tend to focus on reducing the depth of child poverty and
promoting an attachment to the labour market. This is accomplished primarily
through the reinvestment component of the National Child Benefit.
First Nations play a significant role in the implementation of the National Child
Benefit as they administer the reinvestment component. Similar to the provinces
and territories, First Nations that deliver social assistance have the flexibility to reinvest
savings from adjustments made through social assistance, in programs and services
tailored to meet their needs and priorities while maintaining the overall goals of the
National Child Benefit.
There are approximately 600 First Nations across the country that participate in the
National Child Benefit program. Each community implements the National Child
Benefit reinvestment programs according to existing guidelines within the province
or territory of residence. Once implemented, First Nations are required by INAC to
report annually on how National Child Benefit monies are used and how many children and families benefit from the program. The information contained in this
Progress Report has been compiled from this information.
The National Child Benefit allowed us to
have money and services to do prevention in the community,
and how you do prevention in the communities is
with children and families and particularly prevention starts with
young children and you work your way up.
- Jon Spotted Eagle, Okanagan First Nation
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
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In the first year of the National Child Benefit, First Nations reinvested approximately
$30.3 million in programs to benefit their children and families. In 1999-2000, this
amount increased to approximately $48.26 million, an increase of about $20 million
over 1998-1999. Projections for 2000-2001 are estimated at about $55.19 million.
FIRST NATIONS REINVESTMENT PROGRAMS
The National Child Benefit reinvestment component provides a sense of community
ownership of the programs developed because they are designed by First Nations, to
address the diverse and unique needs of First Nations communities. The
reinvestment component provides flexibility and variability for First Nations to
design and develop innovative community-based programs that are culturally
relevant, respond to the specific and unique needs of the community and support
children and their families living on reserve.
Programs undertaken by First Nations vary from community to community and
tend to cover a wider range of program areas than those of their provincial and
territorial counterparts. The reason for this is twofold: the National Child Benefit
amounts available to First Nations vary according to the size and population of the
community, and First Nations tailor their reinvestments to meet the specific needs of
their individual communities. For example, First Nations living in the same province
or territory may focus on different areas for reinvestment based on the priorities
and the situation within their community, as long as they relate back to the goals of the
National Child Benefit.
National Child Benefit reinvestment programs for First Nations fall into five broad
program areas:
Child/Day Care - Programs directed toward the development and enhancement of
day care facilities and the provision of child-care services which allow more
families with low incomes to gain access to day care spaces, or to have their share
of child-care costs reduced. Child/day care programs include enhancements to
existing day care centres, increasing the number of day care spaces, and child care
for children of parents on employment/training programs.
Child Nutrition - Programs directed at improving the health and well-being of children
by providing school meal programs as well as education to parents on family
nutrition and meal preparation. Some examples include: educational programs
aimed at nutrition, food hampers, and meal programs (hot lunches, breakfasts and
snacks) provided in school.
Early Child Development - Programs directed at early intervention for parents to help
their children with a healthy start in life. Some examples include parenting skills
programs and drop-in centres for parents.
Employment Opportunities/Training Programs - These programs are directed at increasing
the skill level of individuals and thereby increasing their chances of obtaining work.
Examples include employment and skills development, youth summer work
programs and personal development workshops.
Other - National Child Benefit programs that fall into the category of "other"
represent a broad range of areas (e.g., cultural awareness or traditional teachings,
recreation activities, and income supplements for low-income families).
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WHO BENEFITS
Although difficult to assess the number of children and families specifically benefiting
under the National Child Benefit, it is evident that a significant number of First
Nations are involved in reinvestment programs. While the figures that follow were
submitted by First Nations, there may be more children benefiting than are represented
in the numbers. In some instances, First Nations combined resources with existing
resources allocated for a current program (e.g., Aboriginal Head Start, First Nation
and Inuit Child Care). The data includes only those First Nations for which NCB has
funding responsibility and excludes self-governing First Nations in the regions of the
Atlantic, Quebec, British Columbia and Yukon.
NATIONAL CHILD BENEFIT INITIATIVES BENEFICIARIES
Approximate number of Families
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322
307
Yukon
4,174
British Columbia
11,680
3,638
2,578
Alberta
918
Saskatchewan
4,204
2,437
1,960
Manitoba
2,122
Ontario
2,886
3,799
Quebec
6
28
Atlantic
16,503
Total
24,556
0
10
20
30
40
in thousands of famillies
Approximate number of Children
554
617
Yukon
6,823
British Columbia
22,236
9,648
8,529
Alberta
2,280
Saskatchewan
7,381
6,263
4,279
Manitoba
4,901
Ontario
6,969
Quebec
11,457
30
17
Atlantic
37,468
Total
0
10
20
30
40
54,516
50
60
in thousands of children
1998-1999
1999-2000
Note:
1998-1999
1999-2000
Yukon, the number of reporting First Nations was revised to reflect the 8 First Nations who submitted their data.
Ontario, the information was not available.
Atlantic, the information is incomplete.
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
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1998-1999 Data
FUNDS AVAILABLE TO FIRST NATIONS FOR NATIONAL CHILD BENEFIT INITIATIVES
Region
Yukon
British Columbia
Alberta
Saskatchewan
Manitoba
Ontario 4
Quebec 5
Atlantic 6
Total
Additional Reinvestment Envelope 7
Final Total
3
4
5
6
7
Projected Funds Available
for NCB Initiatives ($ M) 3
$ 0.2
$ 2.3
$ 1.7
$ 4.4
$ 4.3
$ 2.7
$ 7.5
$ 1.0
$ 24.1
$ 6.7
$ 30.8
Bands funded under multi-year agreements (e.g., Alternative Funding Arrangements, Financial Transfer
Agreements and Canada/First Nation Funding Agreements) are excluded from the totals in British Columbia,
Alberta, Ontario and the Atlantic. Funding for social assistance and National Child Benefit-related initiatives in the
Northwest Territories and Nunavut are provided by the territorial governments. As well, self-governing bands in Yukon
are excluded.
These amounts do not include the sole support cases remaining with the Ministry of Community Social Services,
that may have been transferred before March 31, 2000 for the region of Ontario.
For the Quebec region, the amount includes savings from the New Family Allowance and the National Child Benefit
Supplement. The total includes financial transfer agreements estimated savings for eight communities.
Figures for the Atlantic regions do not include New Brunswick.
The Additional Reinvestment Envelope is based on additional monies received by provinces/territories to the extent
that they further invest in National Child Benefit-related income support and benefit programs beyond the level
of their federal National Child Benefit reinvested savings. When a province or territory reinvests more than the
value of its reimbursements in income support programs, INAC may be required to increase resources to enable
First Nations living on-reserve to access an equivalent level of programming and services. For example, in
1998-1999, Saskatchewan implemented the Saskatchewan Child Benefit. An additional $8.1 million was available for
reinvestment.
When I started looking at the criteria and the funding that was
available through the National Child Benefit, we found out
that there was a lot that we could do.
- Lorna Joseph, Squamish First Nation
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FIRST NATIONS REINVESTMENTS BY PROGRAM AREA
In order of priority, the following areas were the focus of reinvestment in 1998-1999
by First Nations:
Child/Day Care
8%
Nutrition
20%
Other
48%
Early Child
Development
6%
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Employment/Training
18%
For First Nation communities across Canada,
the National Child Benefit is making a difference.
- Adam Beach, First Nations Actor,
“Seeing the Possibilities, Making a Difference” video
The breakdown of First Nations expenditures by program area are as follows:
ACTUAL EXPENDITURES IN 1998-1999 ON NATIONAL CHILD BENEFIT INITIATIVES 8
NCB Initiatives by Program Type
Actual Total Expenditures
on NCB Initiatives ($M)
Child/Day Care
Child Nutrition
Early Child Development
Employment Opportunities/Training
Other
Sub-Total9
Additional Reinvestment Envelope
Additional Regional Reinvestment10
Additional Expenditures by First Nations with Multi-year agreements
and Comprehensive Funding agreements11
Total Reported Expenditures
8
9
10
11
$
810,589.00
$ 4,029,434.04
$
389,238.00
$ 4,066,230.00
$ 5,776,075.91
$ 15,471,566.95
$ 6,700,000.00
$
174,690.95
$ 8,693,431.00
$ 31,039,688.90
These figures were compiled from data reported to INAC by First Nations.
Includes amount of $400,000 in Ontario which was not broken down by program area.
The region of Alberta expended an additional amount beyond its projected stated total of $1.7 million for 1998-1999.
In some cases, First Nations were unable to deliver the reinvestment program in 1998-1999, but will do so in 1999-2000.
In the case of First Nations under multi-year agreements, we are not able to provide program results and expenditures
due to the specific conditions of this type of agreement. The National Child Benefit monies are included in their
core budget for which they already have management flexibility. They have developed their own approach to the
National Child Benefit, which can be verified through a federal transfer agreement regional management assessment. In
the case of First Nations under reimbursable funding agreements, not all First Nations that received National Child
Benefit funding submitted a formal report to INAC. This is due, in part, because the money was received by the First
Nation late in the fiscal year which did not enable time to develop and implement National Child Benefit-specific
initiatives. Therefore some First Nations subsidized existing programs that benefited children on-reserve
(e.g., First Nation and Inuit Child Care, Aboriginal Head Start).
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
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1999-2000 Data
The year 1999-2000 marked the beginning of the second phase of the National Child
Benefit. At this time, the federal government invested an additional $850 million in the
National Child Benefit system. This translated into a reinvestment by First Nations
in programs and services for families with children of approximately $48 million.
Based on reinvestment trends established in the first year of the National Child
Benefit, it is anticipated that First Nations will continue to support similar
programs, although community priorities may shift from year to year.
PROJECTED NATIONAL CHILD BENEFIT REINVESTMENT FUNDS
Region
Projected Funds Available for NCB Initiatives ($M) 12
Yukon
British Columbia
Alberta
Saskatchewan
Manitoba
Ontario
Quebec
Atlantic 14
Total
Additional Reinvestment Envelope
Final Total
$ 0.36
$ 3.40
$ 3.50
$ 8.60
$ 8.40
$ 5.30
$ 8.50
$ 2.10
$ 40.16
$ 8.60
$ 48.76
13
12
13
14
In calculating the figures for subsequent years, the preceding footnotes for 1998-1999 figures apply for both
1999-2000 and 2000-2001 projections.
Could be subject to change if a First Nation signs a self-government agreement.
This number is based on INAC headquarter’s estimates.
FIRST NATIONS REINVESTMENTS BY PROGRAM AREA
In order of priority, the following areas were the focus of National Child
Reinvestment funds for 1999-2000 15 :
Employment 11%
Other
10%
Child/Day
Care
8%
Early Child
Development
36%
15
Nutrition
35%
This information was compiled based on a "snapshot" in time and reflects 31.3 percent of total data received
from First Nations.
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2000-2001 Data
PROJECTED NATIONAL CHILD BENEFIT REINVESTMENT FUNDS
Region
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Projected Funds Available for NCB Initiatives ($M)
Yukon
British Columbia
Alberta
Saskatchewan
Manitoba
Ontario
Quebec
Atlantic 16
Total
Additional Reinvestment Envelope 17
Saskatchewan
Yukon
Total
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17
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
0.95
4.20
4.20
11.50
8.40
6.30
8.50
3.00
46.85
$ 8.10
$ 0.24
$ 55.19
This number is based on INAC headquarter’s estimates.
In 1999, $240,000 was secured for Yukon to implement the Yukon Child Benefit in First Nation communities.
SUMMARY
Reinvestments by First Nations tend to cover a wider range of program areas than those
of their provincial and territorial counterparts; First Nations tailor their reinvestments
to meet the specific needs of their individual communities. For example, First Nations
living in the same province or territory may focus on different areas for reinvestment
based on the priorities and the situation within their community. The uniqueness can
be appreciated through the examples of current operational programs in the next chapter.
It’s important to bring back a lot of the teachings.
A lot of us have missed that.
- Language Teacher, Chehalis First Nation
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YELLOWQUILL FIRST NATION, SASKATCHEWAN
To provide youth with an opportunity to participate and practice traditional craftsmanship in
a variety of trades, band elders established a program with activities ranging from
storytelling to recreational sports. The youth involved in this program worked with a variety
of band departments and were exposed to a variety of activities (e.g., home care renovation,
clerical work, etc.). The benefits to be gained by this program were to encourage a positive
social interaction and to provide motivation for youth to learn new skills that will allow them
to participate in the labour market.
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CHAPTER
CHAPTER
1 - THE
4 - PURPOSE
SHARING THE
OF THE
STORY
REPORT
R
einvestment is an opportunity for First Nations to
develop innovative programs. Each region uses its
provincial or territorial model and the National NCB
Reinvestment Framework to guide reinvestment
initiatives and to develop a region-specific framework
for National Child Benefit reinvestment. The onus
is on First Nations to ensure that reinvestment initiatives meet
the objectives of the National Child Benefit. Activities not eligible
for reinvestment funds include construction or financing of
new houses, capital investments including recreational facilities
or playgrounds, or the provision of a shelter allowance.
Abinogeesh-Wi-Gamik or “Kid’s Place,”
Pikangikun First Nation, Northern Ontario
CHILD CARE
PIKANGIKUM FIRST NATION, ONTARIO
ABINOGEESH-WI-GAMIK OR "KID’S PLACE"
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Pikangikum community, located north of Sioux Lookout in Northern Ontario, had
limited activities for its children and youth. This led to other social problems such
as vandalism. In response, Pikangikum created Abinogeesh-Wi-Gamik, a children’s
drop-in centre, to provide an opportunity for the children and youth of the community
to use their minds in a learning environment. The program, which began in July 1999,
is available to children aged 6 to 13.
The program is held throughout the summer months in an old Mennonite church.
It runs weekdays from 11 a.m. until 10 p.m. It is also available during holidays and
professional development days throughout the school year. Abinogeesh-Wi-Gamik is
co-ordinated by a full-time employee who has a staff of 11 to assist in the operation
of the program.
By providing a learning environment with a focus on crafts and recreation, the program
enhances the health, well-being and fitness levels of the community’s children and
fosters self-esteem, teamwork, leadership and interpersonal skills. Some typical
activities available for the children include indoor and outdoor games, reading,
sharing circles, mural painting, movies and tae-bo. Activities vary daily according to
attendance.
The future of Abinogeesh-Wi-Gamik is promising, as the staff is innovative and
dynamic and supported in its efforts by the Band Council. The staff plan to incorporate educational ventures, such as science camps in future years. It also hopes to
involve the parents and the rest of the community in Abinogeesh-Wi-Gamik by organizing a dinner for the community using food grown by the children in a garden
planted as part of the program.
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CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
Abinogeesh-Wi-Gamik is an excellent example of a community combining the National
Child Benefit reinvestments funds with financial resources available through other federal
programs to develop an initiative that responds to the community’s individual needs.
The majority of the staff are participants of the Youth Employment Strategy Work
Placement Program, and the snacks and meals throughout the day are provided through
the Head Start Program.
This program helps provide a place for the kids. It is something to keep them occupied.
Co-ordinator, Abinogeesh-Wi-Gamik
NUTRITION
Abitibiwinni First Nation-Art Class,
Pikogan, Quebec
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BROKENHEAD OJIBWAY FIRST NATION, MANITOBA
SERGEANT TOMMY PRINCE SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM
The rural community of Brokenhead is named for the Brokenhead River, which passes
through the municipality located northeast of Winnipeg. The community consists of
approximately 1,300 individuals; however, the actual population registered on-reserve
numbers only 600.
In an effort to promote a healthy lifestyle and good nutritional habits in school-aged children,
and contribute to better school performance, the community initiated the Sergeant Tommy
Prince Breakfast Program. This program ensures that the nutritional needs of the on-reserve
daycare children are met. This program enhanced an existing breakfast program offered at
the day care that now reaches approximately 60 nursery to grade 6 students at Sergeant
Tommy Prince School.
The program provides each child attending the Brokenhead Ojibway Nation Day Care
with breakfast and two snacks per day. The day care plans, prepares and provides these
meals to the children throughout the day. When possible, the children assist in the
preparation and the planning of their meals as well as snacks.
By combining efforts with the existing day care centre, and through the additional
financial resources provided by the National Child Benefit, the community is able to
employ a community member to oversee the planning and the preparation of the meals
and snacks. This has allowed for an expansion of the previous menu, to include items
such as milk, cereal, fruit, toast, hot breakfast items and juice. The community has also
been able to facilitate the preparation of these meals with the purchase of toasters and
other cooking items. The community plans to continue the program.
POPLAR RIVER FIRST NATION, MANITOBA
INFANT MILK FORMULA SUBSIDY PROGRAM
Located north of Winnipeg, in a remote fly-in area, lies the small Ojibway community of
Poplar River. To assist young parents in becoming self-sufficient, the community has
implemented a wide range of initiatives under the National Child Benefit.
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CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
One initiative is the Infant Milk Formula Program. In March 1999, social services assessed the
needs of infants, specifically those who required formula. This assessment uncovered a
concern related to the high cost of infant formula and its unavailability due to the
community’s remoteness. In an attempt to alleviate this problem, arrangements were
made with the local Northern Store to have a special order flown in. Because it was a bulk
order, the community received a 20 to 25 percent discount on the overall cost of the
formula. Approximately 36 families with infants benefited.
EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT
O’CHIESE FIRST NATION, ALBERTA
EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
The O’Chiese First Nation, located northwest of Rocky Mountain House in central Alberta,
is a relatively small community with a total registered population of 687 people.
The O’Chiese community has limited employment opportunities within the reserve
community. Members often seek employment off the reserve.
Eagle’s Nest Day Care Centre,
O’Chiese First Nation, Alberta
In 1998, under the National Child Benefit, the O’Chiese First Nation initiated the customized
Early Childhood Development Program, in conjunction with Red Deer College. It is designed to
educate participants using a holistic approach to early childhood development and has led to
the establishment of a day care centre at the O’Chiese First Nation.
The goals are to enhance parental skills and to qualify participants for college programs or
for employment at the O’Chiese Day Care Centre. The program involves an early childhood
development course offered at a daycare facility where 10 participants are presented with
practical situations for an integrated and sustainable learning experience. They also learn and
are able to practise day care licensing policies and procedures. An instructor from Red Deer
College was hired for the first year to provide the training. She is the administrator for the
O’Chiese day care and provides hands-on training within the day care.
The program aims to establish community networks with other potential work placements
and to implement an evaluative system to measure the program’s effectiveness in addressing
needs. As the training progresses, the long-term goal is to implement a home-based
Aboriginal Head Start-type program as well as other parental programs.
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OPASKWAYAK CREE NATION (OCN), MANITOBA
Situated on the shores of the Saskatchewan River approximately 620 km north of Winnipeg,
OCN is continually creating new and innovative ways to serve its members. Utilizing a
combination of reinvestment funds and existing band resources, OCN has implemented a
variety of reinvestment programs, including the Breakfast for Kids Program, Children’s
Clothing Program, High School Summer School Program, College Preparation Program and
the High School Child Care Centre Subsidy Program. These programs focus on the development of youth through education and work skills programs.
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CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
The Early Childhood Development Program is available to low-income parents who have
experienced difficulties in sustaining long-term employment. At the end of the first year of
the program, 90 percent of the participants were employed while the other 10 percent were
attending college full time. Peripheral achievements included overwhelming
community support and heightened self-esteem for the participants and their families.
This Early Childhood Development Program reinforces the community’s future. It is part of
an ongoing cycle of empowerment designed by the community. All the community’s
programs are interconnected and interdependent of each other.
The Early Child Development Program has become a catalyst for community development
and program planning.
EMPLOYMENT/TRAINING
KANESATAKE FIRST NATION, QUEBEC
MEN’S MENTOR PROGRAM
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Under the National Child Benefit initiative, the community of Kanesatake undertook the
Men’s Mentor Program, designed to provide work-related experience on a part-time basis to
men with families to assist them in finding permanent employment. There are five
participants in the program hired for a variety of community tasks, for example, the general
maintenance of community sites.
The relationship that has developed between the employees and the full time co-ordinator
has proven to be positive. The employees enjoy the program and work with the co-ordinator
to ensure its success, not only for themselves and their family but for the community as a
whole.
We would like to keep on working because there is a lot to do [within the community] in the
winter time. - Derek, an employee.
OTHER
CARRY THE KETTLE FIRST NATION, SASKATCHEWAN
EMERGENCY FAMILY SUPPORT PROGRAM
In the community of Carry the Kettle, located near Regina, Saskatchewan, the high suicide
rate was dealt with through a program that provided emergency family support.
The program was developed to assist one family within the community that had been
greatly affected by this issue.
In this particular instance, four children were left without a legal guardian. The community,
having the desire and the capacity to intervene on the children’s behalf, provided financial
assistance, food and emotional support until such time as their situation could be resolved
by Family Services.
As a result, the issues of family violence and suicide were dealt with in a variety of ways.
For example, multi-family counselling services were made available to the community at
large. Using National Child Benefit funds, the community hired four individuals to develop
activities that support families that have experienced suicide and family violence.
These activities ranged from individual family counselling to activities for children of all
ages and youth programs.
Men’s Mentor Program,
Kanesatake First Nation, Quebec
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CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
In addition, NCB funds were used to hire a liaison to address the community’s concern for
youth returning to the reserve from the Youth Rehabilitation Centre. The liaison arranged
meetings and provided the necessary support for the youth and families to assist them with
re-orientation to the community.
The Emergency Family Support Program was a benefit to the entire community and as such,
continues to be funded under the National Child Benefit reinvestment component.
KANESATAKE FIRST NATION, QUEBEC
DRESSED FOR WINTER PROGRAM
Kanesatake is located on the north shore of the Ottawa River, west of Montréal. There are
about 1,285 registered members living on the reserve and 602 living outside of the reserve
but within the area. To meet the growing need for sufficient clothing for children during the
winter months, the community established the Dressed for Winter Program in 1998.
The program provides parents with the means to obtain adequate winter clothing for their
children. Each participating family received a gift certificate for approximately $225 per
child, to purchase boots, a snowsuit, hat, gloves and scarf. In its first year, an age limit
(infant to 12 years of age) was set.
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The program was later expanded to include children up to the age of 17. With this expanded limit, the allowance was readjusted to $140 per child. The items purchased were then distributed to the community members at the annual Christmas banquet.
This program also benefits children in future years, given that many families in the
community consist of four or more people with more than one child. Therefore, winter
clothing can be passed along from older children to younger siblings. To supplement the
program, a regular clothing drive may be held to ensure there is enough clothing for all
eligible children in the community.
SKOOKUM JIM FRIENDSHIP CENTRE, WHITEHORSE, YUKON
YOUTH DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
The National Child Benefit reinvestment program provided funds for program service
delivery to the Skookum Jim Friendship Centre for three specific programs: work-life job
skills 2000, drum making and traditional songs, and youth empowerment. The needs to
address the lack of cultural programs and organized activities and teachings were
determined through citizen feedback. The three program areas involved a select group of
youth, 10 years of age and older, including young teenage mothers.
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SAMSON CREE NATION, ALBERTA
Located South of Edmonton in Alberta, has implemented the Healthy Families Project, a
voluntary intensive home-visiting program to assist families with the preparation, and care
of, newborns. The goal is to provide positive parenting and healthy child development
skills, thereby improving the outcomes for children. The project works with families to
identify their strengths and supports them in accessing existing services within the
community. This initiative works to inform the mother-to-be about her pregnancy, to identify
abuse or neglect, to develop different activities aimed at stimulating children after they are
born and to develop a nutrition program.
21
Kwanlin Dun First Nation, Yukon Territory
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
Worklife Job Skills 2000
The Worklife Job Skills 2000 program provides pre-employment, computer and Internet skills
training to youth suited to individualized learning. The program has a self-pacing model to
ensure that individuals can maximize learning opportunities leading to employment, but at
their own pace. This program led to the development and production of a facilitator’s guide,
complete with an electronic resource centre and a web site with e-programs.
Participants are encouraged to continue with occupational goals and objectives with active
job searches. Each has the opportunity to increase self-confidence with the acquisition of
new skills, such as drafting résumés and cover letters, and is actively encouraged to pursue
employment opportunities.
Kwanlin Dun First Nation,
Yukon Territory
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Light of the North Drum Making Program
This program consists of delivering drum making and traditional songs to the youth and
participants working with a mentor and an elder in eight workshops. The overall impacts of
this program are youth empowerment and cultural enrichment, including acquiring
traditional skills, and working in a team and with a cultural peer group. The youth were
all highly motivated to learn more about their culture and identity, and to seek knowledge
and understanding of others within the group from an oral history perspective.
Youth Self-Empowerment Program
This program involved working with families (both parents and youth) to increase awareness
about the challenges facing young children in an urban environment. This was accomplished
through sessions and family support consultations that build self-confidence, enable youth
and families to be more assertive and deal with anger and aggression in family situations.
This program has had direct benefits for all the participants. Specifically, two youth have
taken major steps toward sobriety and have assumed the responsibility to develop a more
positive lifestyle free from addictive substances.
SQUAMISH FIRST NATION, BRITISH COLUMBIA
AYATEWAY SQUAMISH NATION CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT CAMP
The name "Ayateway" comes from the Squamish language which is a dialect of the Coast
Salish language family. It can be translated as "supporting one another, unity, teamwork."
The Ayateway Cultural Development Camp has set a precedent in immersing children into the
Squamish heritage. By focussing on fun, inclusive, diverse activities, the children have
witnessed and participated in cultural activities that promote skills development, lifelong
learning, hope and encouragement, and respect.
Culture is a way of life and recognizing the diverse needs of the community is important.
Cultural integrity is an ongoing learning process which fosters a sense of belonging and
develops self-esteem and confidence. The Ayateway Cultural Development Camp uses this
focus to provide traditional Squamish activities that are designed to strengthen the pride
and identity of each participant.
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The Squamish concept of cultural development is a lifelong process; it takes time
to comprehend the rich, diverse and distinct identity of the Squamish people. The camp
provides an opportunity to emphasize the concept of rites of passage in pre-adolescence
and on making healthy choices. The camp allows each participant to increase awareness in
the following areas:
• All life is sacred and interconnected.
• A connection to Mother Earth is vital to our process of growth and healing.
• The traditional teachings of ancestors are vital for the well-being of the children, families
and communities.
• Language, ceremonies, spirituality, history, values, art, songs/dances, stories and lifestyles
are all part of the values that teach who you are and where you are from.
• Native values and teachings have great significance in the modern world in regard to
global, environmental and social issues.
• Each individual is special and can provide significant contributions.
• Make a commitment to yourself to do your absolute best.
• Try to be supportive of one another and have fun.
The rich oral tradition of the Skwxwumesh has evolved in the territory of British Columbia
for thousands of years. It is this evolution which enables children to possess a strong
foundation, sense of belonging and identity. Participation in cultural activities provides a
safe environment for Skwxwumesh smenhems (Squamish descendants), to explore their
heritage and to develop a sense of pride, self-esteem, respect and confidence in themselves,
their family and communities.
The Ayas Men cultural workers initiated the camp concept and further developed plans by
hiring a co-ordinator, five assistants and an elder. By using strong role models and resource
people, the children see healthy adults contributing to the betterment of the community.
Twenty-five children, between grades 5 and 7, from upper Squamish communities and
North Vancouver communities participated in this program.
ii
LITTLE RED RIVER CREE NATION, ALBERTA
The Little Red River Cree Nation includes three remote communities in northern Alberta.
Using the National Child Benefit reinvestment funds, the Nation was able to support and
develop four programs, including a hot lunch program at the three community schools,
supplementing the Head Start Program, and developing a clothing program. In addition,
the community implemented a recreation program to build self-esteem and team
participation skills in the youth of the community. The program made it possible for
children to participate in various activities by providing necessary safe equipment in a safe
facility in which to play.
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CHAPTER
1-5
THE
PURPOSE OF
THE REPORT
CHAPTER
- MONITORING
PROGRESS
Ongoing monitoring and periodic evaluation of the National
Child Benefit reflects the need for the program to meet departmental and Treasury Board accountability requirements. As well
as for First Nations to have access to information to determine
program performance. As the National Child Benefit reinvestment
is administered separately from the federal-provincial-territorial
program, a separate evaluation framework was developed to
monitor and evaluate the First Nations National Child Benefit
reinvestment component.
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he approach taken in the evaluation process emphasizes a working
relationship between INAC and First Nations. First Nations participation
in the evaluation process includes working together with the
Assembly of First Nations; First Nations members participating on the
First Nations National Child Benefit Evaluation Working Group;
First Nations communities developing projects that reflect their
priorities and how they measure "success" through self-evaluation workshops;
First Nations self-evaluations of their reinvestment projects; and First Nation members
conducting interviews and facilitating dialogue circles for the interim and final
evaluations.
THE EVALUATION AND ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK
The evaluation framework for the NCB for First Nations is made up of both ongoing
performance measures and evaluation issues:
EVALUATION ISSUES
Ongoing Performance
Measurement
Context for Program
Program Impacts
Relevance
Activities
Resources
Effectiveness / Efficiency
Program Implementation
Outputs
Outcomes
Program Alternatives
ii
TYPES OF OUTCOMES
INDICATORS
Short-term outcomes include:
• improved day care facilities
• increased school attendance
• increased level of support for parents
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
Medium-term outcomes include:
• improved child well-being
• improved parenting/life skills
• increased employment opportunities
Long-term outcomes include:
• reduction in the depth of child poverty
• increased attachment to the labour
market for First Nations
24
CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
Performance measurement is the ongoing process of measuring how well a particular
program is achieving its goals. Ongoing performance measures serve community,
regional and departmental needs for continuous data about program activities, outputs
and outcomes.
Evaluation issues provide information about program rationale, objective achievement,
impacts and effects, and program alternatives. Evaluation indicators are derived from
evaluation issues and questions, and are intended to complement ongoing performance
measures.
MONITORING AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES
Information on the effectiveness of the National Child Benefit will be derived from four
primary sources:
Ongoing monitoring - a continuous activity to provide information on program activities
and outcomes;
First Nations Progress Report - produced annually to share information with First Nation
communities and the general public on the progress of the National Child Benefit;
Interim evaluation - to be completed May 31, 2001 to assess how well the program has
been implemented, satisfaction with the program among participants and the short-term
impacts; and
Summative evaluation - to be completed March 31, 2003 to assess the effectiveness and
impacts of the program and to contribute to future policy recommendations.
The following table summarizes which data collection methodology corresponds to
each activity. These common data collection methodologies for program evaluation are
combined with culturally appropriate methods, such as dialogue circles and self-evaluations:
DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY BY MONITORING
AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES
Data Collection Methodology
• Departmental First Nation reporting data
Activity
Ongoing Monitoring
• Self-Evaluations
Progress Report
• File Review
• Secondary Research
• Statistical Review
Interim Evaluation
• Interviews
• Dialogue Circles
Summative Evaluation
These programs are...like seed money and we’re not too sure where
its going to go, but I know one thing for sure, that without it
we won’t see them [children] blossom.
- Chief Victor York, Lower Nicola First Nation
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CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
THE SELF-EVALUATION PROCESS
Self-evaluations enable communities to evaluate their own projects using their own success
criteria. The benefit of self-evaluations is that they measure the ongoing impact of the
programs. They can also be used as a governance tool within communities and provide
feedback into the policy process at INAC.
A process and guide for self-evaluating NCB reinvestment projects within First Nations
communities was developed in 1999. This was presented in self-evaluation workshops with
18 participating First Nations communities representing all regions (except the Atlantic)
in March 2000. In September 2000, all participating First Nations came together in
Wanuskewin Heritage Park, Saskatchewan to feed into the self-evaluation process what worked what didn’t.
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In order to ensure ongoing First Nations feedback on the implementation of the NCB
reinvestment component, in future years, the self-evaluation process will feed into the
overall reporting procedure for the National Child Benefit. It is anticipated that the
process will be implemented as a type of "rolling" evaluation, whereby First Nations
from each region will be selected at different intervals to undertake a self-evaluation,
use the information at the community level and submit the report to the Department
to be included in the annual First Nations Progress Report.
The following First Nations communities contributed to the self-evaluation process during
the last year:
OPASKWAYAK CREE NATION (OCN), MANITOBA
The OCN has established a number of programs to encourage youth in their educational
endeavours. By developing work-related skills in dependent children of families on social
assistance, the High School Summer Student Program provides summer work experience to
children between the ages of 14 and 17 attending or returning to high school. Providing
financial sponsorship and incentives, the College Preparation Program offers formal training
opportunities to families with children seeking to upgrade their skills before entering
post-secondary institutions.
LIARD FIRST NATION, YUKON
To address the lack of Kaska history in school text books, the Elder Teachers in Elementary
School Program was initiated to provide a level of cultural awareness with the children and
to bridge the gap between parents and the school system. The program brought an elder
into the classroom to teach the children history and crafts and to become a positive role
model. The children in the community look forward to the elder’s teachings, and the
community is looking to continue the program.
TSARTLIP FIRST NATION, BRITISH COLUMBIA
The development of the Senćoten Language Program addressed the importance of
reinforcing the Senćoten culture. There are approximately 5,000 Senćoten people living in
Saanich First Nations, with only 70 people fluent in the language. Recently, there has been
a resurgence of pride in the culture and a desire to speak the language again. The program
was developed and offered to all surrounding communities and has provided an opportunity
for community members to achieve a new awareness of the Senćoten culture.
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
26
CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
CARCROSS/TAGISH FIRST NATION, YUKON
The community used its National Child Benefit reinvestment funds to assist families with
child care costs and to provide supplemental services to ensure quality care is provided.
Services included the hiring of additional staff to improve the staff-to-child ratios for all age
groups. The existing ratios are four infants, or six toddlers or six preschool age or eight
school-aged children to one adult. The increased staff provides an increase in available
services for children in a structured setting to prepare them for their entry into kindergarten.
KWANLIN DUN FIRST NATION, YUKON
Using reinvestment funds, the community set out to develop and implement seasonal
recreational programming for the children and youth of Kwanlin Dun that were
community-based and community driven. These programs were to be affordable, accessible
to everyone, and culturally appropriate to the families within the community. This program
was part of a larger strategy to support a community-based recreation council and to
support opportunities for recreation and leadership training for youth and adults with
children in the community. Resulting activities include a youth drop-in centre, an alternative
kindergarten program, a summer recreation and youth leadership project, and other
generally seasonally based recreational activities (e.g., education, cultural, community
development).
TIMISKAMING FIRST NATION, QUEBEC
Reinvestment strategies for this community include Youth Social Dinners, Social and
Vocational Training, Pidaban Child Care Centre and Life-skills and Language activities.
Each program was implemented to address a specific need within the community.
For example, a large number of parents involved with training initiatives or going back to
school led to a need for quality child care services. This resulted in the establishment of the
Pidaban Child Care Centre. Another example of how the community used its
reinvestment funds is through the development of life skills and language enrichment
activities, to address a lack of stimulation in language development and early
learning experiences. This program involves teachers using the parents in the assessment
process to inform them of the individual education plan for the child at school. It also
provides parents with the tools they need at home to assist their children in speech and
language development.
ABITIBIWINNI FIRST NATION, QUEBEC
To enable children of low-income families to benefit from extracurricular activities, the
community developed an art program that taught children new skills in painting. This
program involved 35 children, who after its completion, showcased their works for parents
and other community members in their own forum. The children also received a certificate of
achievement for their accomplishments. In order to gauge the satisfaction of the participants
and their parents, a survey was conducted. The results from this survey will impact on how
the course is developed for the following year. This program was considered to be a success
based on the positive responses from those who participated in the program and from those
who attended the art show.
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F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
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STURGEON LAKE FIRST NATION, ALBERTA
The Sturgeon Lake First Nation implemented four programs using National Child Benefit
reinvestment funds including a hot lunch program at the local school and a recreation
program that focussed on participation in minor hockey. NCB funds were also used to
support the local training facility and single parents.
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SADDLE LAKE FIRST NATION, ALBERTA
The Saddle Lake First Nation developed several programs which supported employment
opportunities for social assistance recipients with children. For example, some members of
the community received training and were subsequently hired in the fields of security,
social development, communications (Osakdo Radio), water trucking services and home
improvement. Other training opportunities, in the form of apprenticeships, were provided for
carpentry, plumbing and electrical trades. These training opportunities built on the
existing community’s Capital Housing Program, which provides housing units for members
living on-reserve. In addition to focussing on training and employment opportunities, the
community developed and supported a Christmas hamper program and a local food bank,
and provided recreation programs for children and youth (e.g., hockey, swimming, out-door
wilderness, etc.).
MOHAWK COUNCIL OF AKWESASNE, ONTARIO
ii
Developed a program to address a specific group within the community that council members
feel is under represented, young males with children, aged 18 to 24. The program is
known as Nuts and Bolts and seeks to motivate participants to become involved in a variety
of trades. Academic activities, ranging from computer skills and mathematics to English
courses, are provided in the mornings, while the afternoons are spent working at various
trades (e.g., auto care, electrical training, welding and woodworking). In each session
participants learn how to use the tools of the trade and job safety techniques. The program
has given participants the opportunity to improve academic skills including, in some cases,
basic literacy skills, while also allowing them to gain work-related expertise.
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
28
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
1 - THE
6 -PURPOSE
LESSONSOF
LEARNED
THE REPORT
Although early in the history of the National Child Benefit
initiative, the stories contained in this Progress Report illustrate
how the National Child Benefit reinvestment is having a positive
impact on children. As the medium- and long-term effects
begin to emerge through the evaluation of the initiative, it will
become possible to measure the impact of the program.
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hat is known at this point is that the reinvestment programs the
National Child Benefit program supports significantly affect First
Nations children, families and communities. The programs and
activities represent a wide range of areas relating to children and
families, and each has been designed with a specific purpose that
corresponds with the needs and priorities of First Nations. The beneficiaries of these
programs are primarily First Nations members on social assistance who, as a result
of this initiative, have access to programs and services for themselves and their
children, so they need not choose between employment and benefits for their
children. As a result of the National Child Benefit reinvestment component, recipients
of social assistance maintained their levels of income while having access to
additional community-based programs geared to children and making links to the
labour market.
As part of the broader federal-provincial-territorial process, First Nations contribute
the lessons they have learned from delivering the reinvestment programs of the
National Child Benefit and provide information on the impact the program has had
on their communities through a separate but co-ordinated evaluation process.
Future progress reports will document the progress made in assessing the long-term
impacts of the National Child Benefit on the lives of First Nations children and their
families.
ii
CHIPPEWAS OF KETTLE AND STONY POINT FIRST NATION,
ONTARIO
Nutritionists have said that breakfast is an important part of a child’s development and
learning ability at school. The Kettle Point School Breakfast and Lunch Program, which
involves approximately 150 children, has resulted in great improvement in the participating
children. More children are arriving on time and have marked improvement in their
overall attitude. Based on the success of the program, the community is looking into the
feasibility of providing light lunches for the children. This program has created vital links
between the child, the school and the parents.
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F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
Acknowledgment of challenges faced and external factors are important to include in
any assessment of the National Child Benefit. For example, the relative isolation of
many First Nations communities constrains economic opportunities. For this
reason it is important that policies aim to improve income security within the
community and provide additional opportunities.
These lessons can be achieved by working in partnership with First Nations communities.
This ensures that steps can be taken toward improving the health and social
outcomes and public safety of First Nations children. This partnership also makes
possible the development of appropriate solutions to address the specific and pressing
needs of First Nations children.
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I think it’s important that when we, in the community, create
programs that it comes from the community, that way everyone can
take ownership of it and it is more successful that way.
- Linda George, Supervisor Child and Family Services Program,
Squamish First Nation
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
30
CHAPTER 7 - NEXT STEPS
The following outlines the next steps pertaining to the implementation of the NCB
reinvestment component:
• Release of British Columbia NCB Progress Report
Winter 2001
• Release of the First Nation NCB Reinvestment Video; "Seeing the Possibilities,
Making a Difference", poster and web site
Spring 2001
• Release of federal-provincial-territorial NCB Progress Report: 2000
Spring 2001
• Next Round of NCB Self-evaluation Workshops
Spring 2001
• First Nation NCB Interim Evaluation
May 2001
• First Nation NCB Progress Report: 2001
Spring 2002
• First Nation Summative Evaluation
March 2003
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As a parent, I believe that the National Child Benefit is an
ideal program. The positive influences the services contribute
will have lasting effects on generations to come.
The National Child Benefit is making a difference.
- Adam Beach, First Nation Actorn
I’m very grateful that there is a program here for the children because
I wanted to join a program and without the day care facilities
I would have had to put it off again.
- Willette, Parent, Sto:Lo First Nation
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F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
$
$
Yukon
British Columbia
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
32
$
Manitoba
Ontario
Quebec
Atlantic
Total
$
$ 450,698
–
$
Saskatchewan
$ 810,589
30,000
47,031
74,100
$ 113,617
Alberta
91,143
4,000
Child/Day
Care $
–
921,663.00
847,469.00
920,050.00
370,300.00
620,554.04
315,568.00
33,830.00
$ 4,029, 434.04
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Nutrition $
–
66,620
80,378
3,000
–
20,770
88,970
29,500
$ 389,238
$
$
$
$
$
$
Early Child
Development $
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Region
432,602
101,092
–
692,821
85,717
$ 4,066,230
$
$
$ 1,420,098
$ 1,333,900
$
$
–
Employment/
Training $
132,670.00
347,300.00
587,147.91
666,152.00
6,569.00
$ 5,777,075.91
$
$ 1,048,203.00
$
$ 1,627,827.00
$
$
$ 1,360,207.00
$
Other $
APPENDIX 1 - FIRST NATIONS EXPENDITURES DATA BY PROGRAM AREA
APPENDIX 2 CHAPTER
- PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL
1 - THE PURPOSE OF
INVESTMENTS
THE REPORTIN CHILDREN
SASKATCHEWAN
The Saskatchewan Child Benefit (SCB) is a payment to low-income parents to help with the
costs of raising a child. The program replaced the welfare portion for children with a
new child benefit directed to all low-income families whether they are low wage earners or
social assistance recipients. The program is integrated with the Canada Child Tax
Benefit and the benefits are combined with the National Child Benefit Supplement into
a single monthly payment to reduce duplication and to simplify administration.
This new provincial benefit is also delivered to First Nations families living on reserve.
The Saskatchewan Employment Supplement (SES), delivered provincially, was not to be
delivered on-reserve; however First Nations in consultation with INAC will design and
deliver a comparable program for First Nation families living on-reserve.
The Family Health Benefits Program provides extended health benefits to low-income
families with children. A full range of benefits is provided for children and partial benefits
for adults. With this program, low-income families are assured of retaining health
benefits when they leave social assistance for work opportunities.
In their first year of operation, Saskatchewan’s programs benefited approximately
40 percent of the province’s children, or 100,000 children in 50,000 families.
This includes Saskatchewan Child Benefit payments received by 8,800 First Nations
families living on-reserve.
Saskatchewan’s National Child Benefit Initiatives
Average Number of Children
Benefiting per Month
1998-1999
Actual
1999-2000
Estimated
2000-2001
Estimated
Child Benefit/Earned Income Supplements
Saskatchewan Child Benefit
- Provincial
- On-reserve*
Saskatchewan Employment Supplement
79,300
20,200
12,700
71,240
20,200
14,310
63,930
20,200
23,160
Health Benefits
Family Health Benefits
42,810
57,080
60,000
* On-reserve Saskatchewan Child Benefit paid by INAC.
Actual Number of Families and Children Benefiting under National Child Benefit Initiatives by Program
Name in 1998-1999
National Child Benefit Initiatives
by Program Name
Saskatchewan Child Benefit
- Provincial
- On-reserve
Saskatchewan Employment Supplement
Family Health Benefits
Actual Number
of Families Benefiting
Actual Number
of Children Benefiting
38,820
8,800
5,150
22,670
79,300
22,200
12,700
42,810
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YUKON
The Children’s Drug and Optical Program was designed to assist low-income families with
the cost of prescription drugs and eye care for children up to 18 years of age. Families
must pay a deductible based on income and the number of family members. There is no
deductible for low-income families. Benefits include prescription drugs, some medical
supplies, eye examinations and glasses.
The Yukon government has estimated that approximately 291 children benefited from
this program during 1998-1999. Approximately 333 children were estimated to benefit
during 1990-2000, and 350 children will benefit in 2000-2001.
The above initiatives were put in place to support the territorial government’s
Antipoverty Strategy and its emphasis on supporting healthy children, families and communities, and in recognizing the long-term benefits of early childhood interventions.
They also represent an integration of health and social services programming.
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Yukon’s National Child Benefit Initiatives
Yukon Child Benefit
Children’s Drug and Optical
Children’s Recreation
Healthy Families*
Estimated Territorial Investment Funds 1998-1999
1998-1999 1999-2000
2000-2001
Actual
Estimated
Estimated
N/A
N/A
N/A
$ 180,000
$ 328,000
$ 42,000
$ 3,000
$ 73,000
$ 328,000
$ 62,000
$ 3,000
$ 253,000
* When Healthy Families began in 1999-2000, it fell under an existing program, Family Support Worker Program, to develop it. This explains the low
expenditure in its first year. In the second year, salary dollars were moved from Family Support to Healthy Families and new money was added.
Additional funds will be made available in 2000-2001.
Actual Number of Families and Children Benefiting under National Child Benefit Initiatives by Program
Name in 1999-2000
National Child Benefit Initiatives by Program Name
Yukon Child Benefit
Children’s Drug and Optical
Food for Learning
Children’s Recreation
Healthy Families
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
34
Estimated Number
of Families Benefiting
Estimated Number
of Children Benefiting
1,357
–
–
180
22
2,500
333
250
335
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APPENDIX 3 - FIRST NATIONS SELF-EVALUATION PARTICIPANTS
BRITISH COLUMBIA
TSARTLIP FIRST NATION
800 Stelly’s X-Road
P.O. Box 70
Brentwood Bay,
British Columbia
V8M 1R3
Tel: (250) 652-3988
Fax: (250) 652-3788
ALBERTA
BLOOD TRIBE
Box 30
Standoff, Alberta
T0L 1Y0
Tel: (403) 737-3974
Fax: (403) 737-2469
PEIGAN FIRST NATION
Peigan Child and Family
Services
Box 3129
Brocket, Alberta
T0K 0H0
Tel: (403) 965-2564
Fax: (403) 965-2444
TREATY 8 FIRST NATIONS
OF ALBERTA
18178-102 Ave.
Edmonton, Alberta
T5S 1S7
Tel: (780) 444-9366
Fax: (780) 484-1465
STURGEON LAKE
FIRST NATION
Box 757
Valleyview, Alberta
T0H 3N0
Tel: (780) 524-3307
Fax: (780) 524-5888
SADDLE LAKE FIRST NATION
Box 100
Saddle Lake, Alberta
T0A 3T0
Tel: (780) 726-3827
Fax: (780) 726-4020
SASKATCHEWAN
CARRY THE KETTLE FIRST
NATION
Box 57
Sintaluta, Saskatchewan
S0G 4N0
Tel: (306) 727-2135
Fax: (306) 727-2149
RED PHEASANT FIRST
NATION
Box 70
Cando, Saskatchewan
S0K 0V0
Tel: (306) 937-7717
Fax: (306) 937-7727
SAULTEAUX FIRST NATION
Box 159
Cochin, Saskatchewan
F0M 0L0
Tel: (306) 386-2424
Fax: (306) 386-2444
MANITOBA
POPLAR RIVER FIRST NATION
Via Negginan, Manitoba
R0B 0Z0
Tel: (204) 244-2267
Fax: (204) 244-2690
OPASKWAYAK FIRST NATION
P.O. Box 1000
Otineka Mall, The Pas, Manitoba
R9A 1L1
Tel: (204) 627-7100 or
1-888-763-1566
Fax: (204) 623-5263
ONTARIO
MOHAWKS OF AKWESASNE
FIRST NATION
P.O. Box 579
Cornwall, Ontario
K6H 5T3
Tel: (613) 575-2250
Fax: (613) 575-2884
WIKWEMIKONG FIRST
NATION
P.L. Box 112
Wikwemikong, Ontario
P0P 2J0
Tel: (705) 859-3122
Fax: (705) 859-3851
QUEBEC
ABITIBIWINNI FIRST NATION
45 Migwan Street
Pikogan, Quebec
J9T 3A3
Tel: (819) 732-6591
Fax: (819) 732-1569
TIMMISKAMING FIRST
NATION
Box 336
18 Algonquin Ave.
Notre Dame du Nord, Quebec
J0Z 3B0
Tel: (819) 723-2335
Fax: (819) 723-2353
YUKON
CARCROSS/TAGISH FIRST
NATION
Box 130
Carcross, Yukon
Y0B 1B0
Tel: (867) 821-4251
Fax: (867) 821-4802
SKOOKUM JIM FRIENDSHIP
CENTRE
3159 Third Ave.
Whitehorse, Yukon
Y1A 1E2
Tel: (867) 633-7680
Fax: (867) 668-4460
LIARD FIRST NATION
Box 328
Watson Lake, Yukon
Y0A 1C0
Tel: (867) 536-2131
Fax: (867) 536-2332
CHIPPEWAS OF KETTLE AND
STONY POINT FIRST NATION
R.R. #2
Forest, Ontario
N0N 1J0
Tel: (519) 786-2125
Fax: (519) 786-2108
35
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
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APPENDIX 4 - INDIAN AND NORTHERN AFFAIRS CANADA
CHAPTER 1 - THE PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
INFORMATION CONTACTS
For more information on the National Child Benefit programs highlighted in this Report,
please contact Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) or one of its regional offices.
INAC
Children’s Programs
Social Policy and Programs
Branch
10 Wellington Street,
Room 1101
Hull, Quebec
K1A 0H4
Telephone: (819) 953-8146
Fax: (819) 953-9139
Internet: www.inac.gc.ca
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YUKON REGION
INAC
345-300 Main St.
Whitehorse, Yukon
Y1A 2B5
Telephone: (867) 667-3100
Fax: (867) 667-3196
BRITISH COLUMBIA REGION
INAC
600 - 1138 Melville Street
Vancouver, B.C.
V6E 4S3
Telephone: (604) 775-5100
Fax: (604) 775-7149
F i r s t N a t i o n s N a t i o n a l C h i l d B e n e f i t P r o g r e s s R e p o r t 2000
36
ALBERTA REGION
INAC
630 Canada Place
P.O. Box 9700 Jasper Avenue
Edmonton, Alberta
T5J 4G2
Telephone: (780) 495-2773
Fax: (780) 495-2201
QUEBEC REGION
INAC
320 St. Joseph St. East
P.O. Box 51127, PO G Roy
Québec City, Quebec
G1K 8Z7
Telephone: (418) 648-7551
Fax: (418) 648-7347
SASKATCHEWAN REGION
INAC
301-2221 Cornwall St.
Regina, Saskatchewan
S4P 4M2
Telephone: (306) 780-5995
Fax: (306) 780-6540
ATLANTIC REGION
INAC
40 Havelock St.
P.O. Box 160
Amherst, Nova Scotia
B4H 3Z3
Telephone: (902) 661-6200
Fax: (902) 661-6237
MANITOBA REGION
INAC
275 Portage Ave.
Room 1100
Winnipeg, Manitoba
R3B 3A3
Telephone: (204) 984-5801
Fax: (204) 983-6500
ONTARIO REGION
INAC
25 St. Clair Ave. East
P.O. Box, 5th Floor
Toronto, Ontario
M4T 1M2
Telephone: (416) 973-5282
Fax: (416) 954-4326
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