let’s talk Featuring: International Visits Program

let’s talk Featuring: International Visits Program
Volume 22, No. 5
December 1997
International Visits Program
Correctional Service
Service correctionnel
Inmate Art at National Headquarters
International Visits Program
Investigations 6
Process for Applying Section 13 of
the Inquiries Act 7
Cover: CSC’s International Visits Program
- 40 delegations hosted in 1997.
You Can Do It!................................................................................................................9
Accreditation of Correctional Programs...........................................................................11
Edmonton Institution for Women...................................................................................13
The Regional Psychiatric Centre – An Overview.............................................................15
• The Regional Psychiatric Centre’s Transition to Program Management......................15
• Leaders in Forensic Mental Health...........................................................................17
• Aggressive Behaviour Control Program....................................................................18
• Risk Assessment Self Study Manual........................................................................19
• Peers Helping Peers.................................................................................................20
Atlantic Region
Saint John Community Correctional Facility Officially Opened..........................................21
Restorative Justice – Supporting the Offender as a Member of the Community.................22
Quebec Region
La Macaza Institution is 20 years old.............................................................................23
Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Day................................................................................25
A well-deserved Retirement...........................................................................................25
Ontario Region
Board Game Invented for Substance Abuse Programming...............................................27
‘Back on Track’ is Back..................................................................................................28
Prairie Region
Healing Lodge Opens in Prince Albert ............................................................................28
New Federal Minimum Security Annex Opens ..............................................................30
Federal Minimum Security Facility Opens in Edmonton..................................................31
Pacific Region
Cops for Cancer Fund Raising event...............................................................................32
The Pacific Regional Pharmacy......................................................................................32
CHRISTMAS STORIES FROM ACROSS THE COUNTRY...............................................34
UNDERSTANDING CORRECTIONS:...............................................................................35
The Correctional Strategy...............................................................................................35
A Quiz on Ethnocultural Diversity ...............................................................................37
let’stalk is published every two
months by the Communications
Sector of the Cor rectional Service of
Director - Jean-Marc Plouffe
English Writer - Louisa Coates
English Editor - Diane Morin
French Editor - Julie Renaud
Translation Services - Translation
Graphic Design - Phoenix Creative
Articles may be reprinted in whole or
in part with credit to the Correctional
Service of Canada.
Comments or submissions may be
directed to:
let’stalk / entrenous
Correctional Service of Canada
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0P9
Phone: (613) 995-5364
(613) 947-0091
ISSN 0715-285X
© Correctional Service of
Canada 1998
Printed in Canada on
Recycled Paper
Commissioner’s Editorial
Let me suggest a few answers:
We have talked a lot about the law
lately. About the importance of living
by the law as we carry out our duties
as employees of the Correctional
Service of Canada.
Firstly, our duty as public servants is
to implement the laws of the land. If
an Act has passed through Parliament,
it is our duty – not an option – to
ensure that the will of Parliament be
carried out. If we decide to ignore the
law (or other lawful instructions), we
do so at our own peril.
This is not a discussion about the
stupid statement that we hear from
time to time that inmates have more
rights than employees – of course they
do not. As a matter of fact, they have
a lot fewer rights and a lot more
restrictions than anyone else (not difficult to observe at first glance of prison
What I have in mind is the much more
serious discussion of finding ways to
ensure that whatever we do in our line
of duty is in accordance with the
Corrections and Conditional Release
Act and all other national and international laws which govern our Service.
Regulations and CSC’s own policies
(Commissioner’s Directives, Standing
Orders) fall in the same category.
“Why is it suddenly so important that
we do everything according to the
book if I think that some other way of
doing things is better?”– “The old way
worked well for me, so why fix something that isn’t broken?” – “My supervisor doesn’t seem to care, so why
should I?” We have all heard those
and similar questions, especially after
the Arbour Commission’s report. We
even sometimes hear that “the public
would probably be more in favour of
my way of treating the inmates, so...”.
Secondly, our Mission talks about CSC
“...as part of the criminal justice system
and respecting the rule of law...” – I
don’t think it can possibly be said in a
more straightforward way. Respect for
the law because it is the law, and laws
must be respected if one wants to avoid
unpleasant consequences. As a matter
of fact, this is no different from what
we have to do when we are off-duty.
Thirdly, when people ask me why I
find it so important that CSC carries out
its duties in accordance with the laws
and our policies, I usually respond that
CSC has a very special obligation to
respect the law. We must demonstrate
to the offenders under our care that it
is possible to manage our affairs in an
effective and efficient manner without
resorting to criminal values or without
breaking the law. Disregarding the letter of the law is exactly what brought
the offenders into our system. When
the offenders come to us, they should
certainly see that CSC staff is different
from the crowd that breaks the law.
They should experience what it means
to be in the hands of law-abiding professionals. Never should the inmates
be able to argue that we don’t take the
law more seriously than they did.
Finally, working with respect for the
law is part of being a professional. It is
not the only thing, but it is the most
important thing.
We are making considerable progress
in this area thanks to many dedicated
employees and I thank you for that. I
also encourage you to continue to be
vigilant in this area, which is so
important to both our profession and
our integrity.
Ole Ingstrup
Correctional Service Canada
New Year’s wish from the
As we embark on a new year, I
would like to offer all CSC employees and their families my best
wishes for continued success and
happiness. I sincerely thank each
and everyone of you for your continued efforts and great support,
and look forward to another year
working together.
Ole Ingstrup
• CSC’s website is worth a visit. It offers information, publications and speeches, as well as announcements on events and
news at CSC. Have a look for yourself at http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca
• Good News stories from CSC’s five regions and National Headquarters appear weekly in our two-page newsletter titled
CONTACT. It is available weekly on our website.
December 1997
let’ stalk
Inmate Art at National Headquarters
An exciting new venture to showcase
original artwork by federal offenders
has begun at National Headquarters.
Set up last September, with the first
display originating from all five
regions, the rotating art program’s
goal is to establish a permanent presence for inmate art within the
Correctional Service of Canada.
Art from across the Service will be
highlighted in the elegant surroundings of the Commissioner’s corporate
boardroom, located on the fourth floor
of National Headquarters in Ottawa.
Regional staff notify inmates in art
programs, who then decide what they
would like to submit for consideration. Staff choose and send the selected artwork to the Commissioner in
Ottawa. There the collection – composed of paintings, drawings or sculptures – is displayed and each piece
identified with the inmate’s name.
Displays will change every three to
four months so all inmates have a
chance to show their work and a new
exhibit for visitors and staff is in
place to enjoy. “The response was
very positive in Ontario when we
asked for submissions in September,”
said Ms. Connie Cookman, Regional
Advisory Services, Ontario Region.
“We had inmates who were working
late in the hobbycraft rooms to finish
up artwork so it could be considered…and mental health patients
(who) were very anxious to have
someone look at the best drawing
they were capable of.”
This is one in a series of initiatives by
the CSC to give federally sentenced
offenders the proper recognition and
encouragement their often top-quality
artwork deserves. ■
December 1997
In the past decade, the Correctional
Service of Canada (CSC) has
emerged as a high-ranking and
forward-thinking agency.
Based on its Mission document – which believes in
assisting offenders to
become law-abiding citizens while also exercising safe and humane
control – the CSC has
developed a strong
research department and
policy, programs and
case management practices that are the envy of
correctional jurisdictions
around the world.
Canadian Staff Share their
Expertise Around the World
CSC’s 13,000 staff have earned an
international reputation for high quality service. At the recent conference for
directors of prison administration in
Strasbourg, the United Kingdom’s Chief
Inspector of Probation, Mr. Graham
Clark, said Canada was a leader in risk
assessment and programming and a
model on which other nations should
base their correctional systems.
Due to staff’s impressive reputation,
an increasing number of countries
have made requests to visit. In 1997
alone, CSC hosted some 40 delegations from countries including the
United States, England, Scotland, the
Netherlands, Portugal, Denmark,
Finland, Norway, Russia, Czech
Republic, Hungary, Romania, Iran,
South Africa, Ghana, Venezuela, Hong
Kong, China and Australia.
“We have seen an unprecedented
number of visits from foreign dignitaries this past year,” said Director of
International Relations, Mr. Peter
December 1997
return, CSC
officials have travelled abroad this
year to locations including the Slovak
Republic, Lithuania, Cameroon,
France (Strasbourg), Malta and Haiti.
Why International Visits?
“The Mission defined what we wanted
to be and how we would work with
offenders; it put us into a rehabilitation model,” says Mr. Cummings.
Because of this innovative approach,
many countries want to study the
Canadian system firsthand.
The visits fulfil the Mission’s Core
Value 4, to contribute to and benefit
from the development of international
criminal justice policy. International
Relations staff respond to foreign
requests to visit with specialized
itineraries to suit countries’ research
goals. These cover all aspects of CSC’s
work, ranging from offender programs
to staff training, facility management,
the needs of special offenders and
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A delegation due from England
this coming spring illustrates a
somewhat typical visit. The
group will arrive in Ottawa
where it will meet with
the Commissioner and
talk to staff responsible
for policy and program
development. It will
then travel to
Kingston – to observe
institutional programming and operations –
where regional staff
will prepare a training
package based on areas
of interest. “This requires
a lot of planning but we
feel it’s important,” said Mr.
Cummings. When they return
to England, delegates will have
seen firsthand what programs are
given, how correctional officers and
trainers do their job, and how facilities
operate on a daily basis.
Visiting countries pay their own way
but CSC may offer services in kind
such as accommodation at staff colleges and meals in institutions. In the
case of Ghana, whose corrections officials will arrive this spring and are
unable to afford hotel accommodation,
arrangements such as these are the
only way the trip would be possible.
Our Trips Abroad
CSC also travels to countries who
request its expertise. Last fall, Mr.
Fraser McVie, Director General of
Strategic Planning and Policy, visited
Vilnius, Lithuania. The goal was to
assist that country in finding alternatives to incarceration – its rate is double that of Canada’s and its population
five million – and to teach about probation, conditional release and sentencing alternatives.
“This was a one-week trip but it
established an ongoing collaboration
on criminal justice issues. It was a
tremendous experience because it
made me understand what we have in
Canada,” said Mr. McVie. “It shows
we have progressed and developed a
wide variety of programs and alternatives, and that our Corrections Act is a
good one and ranks high in world
Also last fall, an overview of the
Canadian criminal justice system was
delivered to 30 regional prosecutors in
the Slovakian department of Justice.
The three-day seminar was given by
CSC’s Mr. Arden Thurber, Director
General, Offender Reintegration, Mr.
Ian Nicholson, Staff Training and
Development and Mr. Dan Kane,
Senior Investigator, Western Canada.
Senior Crown Attorney Mr. Andrejs
Berzins, Department of Justice’s Mr.
David Daubney and researcher Ms.
Claire Cogin also gave advice. The
seminar discussed conditional sen tences, probation, fine options and
preparing an offender for release.
“It is the staff whom we should congratulate for this fantastic international reputation and the response we
have had,” said Mr. Moe Royer, CSC’s
coordinator of International Visits. “It
is the reason for the positive reactions
we receive from other countries. Just
as the Mission states in Core Value 3,
our staff is our major resource in
achieving our objectives.”
Mr. Moe Royer, CSC’s coordinator of
International Visits
Sharing with Norway
This past fall, CSC hosted
an especially enthusiastic
group of correctional workers visiting from Norway.
Norway’s population of
four million has 2,670
offenders, 80 per cent of
whom are arrested for
drug and alcohol related
The 10 correctional officers
offences; violent crimes
and two government repreare much lower than in
sentatives – Mr. Rune Fjeld
North America. Its correcof the Royal Ministry of
tional philosophy is similar
Justice and Mr. Wilhelm
to Canada’s – a belief in
Norwegian delegation tours Ontario Regional Staff College with Principal
Meek-Hansen, Director of
need to encourage
Julia Hobson
Research at the Norwegian
rehabilitation and the safe
a requirement for a National Parole
correctional staff college – arrived in
reintegration of offenders to society.
Board hearing. It uses real-life situaOttawa where they were whisked into
tions to help offenders develop reaan intense five-day ‘reasoning rehabilThe 12 Norwegians arrived at Bath
soning skills for interpersonal relations
itation’ or ‘cognitive skills’ training
Institution early on November 6 and
– to think before they act – and gain a
session – the second in a series and
were greeted by Ms. Diane Valentino,
better sense of control over their lives.
this time designed to show them how
Regional Project Officer for Living
to train new coaches in Norway – and
then on to minimum-security Bath
Institution in Kingston for a day of
observation and sharing with its cognitive skills staff.
CSC’s cognitive skills program is a 36session course which, if recommended
by a case manager, is then considered
The Norwegian government
approached the CSC several years ago
about cognitive skills programming,
and hired consultants Ms. Liz
Fabiano, formerly of Correctional
Programs at CSC, and Mr. Frank
Porporino, once Director General of
Research at CSC, to teach its staff.
Skills, and Mr. Paul McCarthy,
Program Evaluation Officer. They then
met with their Canadian counterparts,
those who deliver the cognitive skills
program to offenders. Later, Warden
Al Stevenson described his own
career, from inmate classification officer to institution head, and explained
the history of CSC’s current correctional programming. “While it isn’t per-
December 1997
fect, it’s probably the most effective it
has ever been,” he said.
“For a time, we worked as correctional
officers one day a week and then
delivered cognitive skills programming
for the next four, but it was too
much,” said one Norwegian coach
during the coffee break, to the agreement of CSC staff. Information such as
this was shared between Canadians
and Norwegians all morning and is
the reason international visits are so
satisfying and beneficial – to both parties.
“This was the most rewarding international visit I have ever had the pleasure of hosting,” said Ms. Valentino
later in a note to Mr. Moe Royer, coordinator of International Visits. “There
was ‘magic’. Coaches openly shared
their implementation and delivery
experiences with great enthusiasm
and passion. Coaches are ‘people-type’
people who love to interact and share
experiences, believe strongly in what
they do and are extremely enthusiastic. It was motivating to see that this
passion knows no international
“Many of the inmates ask for more
courses like this (cognitive skills one)
once it is completed,” said Mr. Rune
Fjeld at a luncheon held for CSC’s
Kingston-area program staff and the
Norwegians later that day. Mr. Fjeld,
who delivers training in Norway, said
it was a joy to share experiences with
staff and proved how much the two
countries have in common. Mr. MeekHansen, a research psychologist at the
staff college, echoed the sentiment,
saying, “This is a very good visit
because we are all on equal terms and
we are talking about the same kind of
The Norwegian visit provided a meaningful experience for all involved: it
gave CSC staff a chance to learn
about another correctional system
which is similar in philosophy to our
own, but has different practical
aspects. It gave staff a chance to share
knowledge it has accumulated in
offender programming, and ask questions about cognitive skills programs’
impact on offender rehabilitation in
Norway. It also promoted a common
goal: the development of good corrections around the world. ■
Here are just a few of the
comments made by our
international visitors:
“My visit to your beautiful country
was one of the most pleasant I have
ever experienced as far as Corrections
is concerned. I certainly have gained
new perspectives that will be relevant
when we develop new policy and redraft our entire Correctional Services’
legislation.” Commissioner H.J. Bruyn,
Pretoria, South Africa.
“(Filipino public servant) Allan Alcala
told us that he had profited a great
deal from his Canadian program, both
professionally and personally. He
spoke highly of staff’s warmth and
kindness during the time he was with
you.” Ms. Beverley Rix, Consultant,
DPA Group (International) Inc.
“We wish to express our warmest
thanks for the great hospitality we
and the delegation received during our
visit to Canada in August 1997. The
visit was in every respect very interesting. In discussions with you and
your colleagues we got a thorough
picture of the correctional system in
Canada and in particular of correctional programs.” Mr. Kari Hakamies,
Minister of Justice, Finland and Mr.
K.J. Lang, Director General of the
Prison Service.
“Once again, I wish to thank you for
your warm welcome on our first meeting. I was impressed by your sincerity
and by your desire to contribute to
improve the conditions in the
Romanian penitentiaries.” Dr.
Gheorghe Florian, Maximum Security
Penitentiary, Bucharest, Romania.
Norwegian delegation and CSC Program staff from Kingston institutions and the Donald
Gordon Centre in Kingston
December 1997
let’ stalk
“I would like to thank you for the
kind cooperation that made possible
the visit of the Chief of Social Services
of the Consulate General and myself.”
Mr. Antonio Montenegro, Consul
General of Portugal. ■
by Mr. Robert Dandurand
Senior Analyst, Investigations Branch
The Investigations Branch of the
Correctional Service of Canada is
responsible for the coordination, quality
control and follow-up process of
national investigations. Investigations
are conducted into incidents that affect
the safety of the public, the staff,
offenders or the operations of the
Service. The purpose of investigations
is to present information that will help
prevent similar incidents in the future.
Investigations do this by uncovering
the facts and analyzing the issues surrounding an incident, thus enabling
management of the Correctional Service
of Canada to make well-informed decisions concerning the need for changes
to policy or procedures.
What is the process for conducting
national investigations into institutional or community incidents?
As soon as an incident in the community or in the institution is reported to
the Duty Officer1 at National
Headquarters and relayed through to
the Investigations Branch, the guidelines found in Annex B of
Commissioner’s Directive 041 are used
to determine whether an investigation
will be a national or regional one.
For community incidents, the Service
advises and invites the National
Parole Board to participate in the
investigation. A memorandum of
understanding has been signed
between the Correctional Service of
Canada and the National Parole Board
for conducting joint investigations.
The process of convening a board
begins with the selection of
Investigation Board members.
In addition to the Correctional Service
of Canada staff members, and the
National Parole Board staff when
appropriate, all national investigations
have a Community Member participating on the Board of Investigation
either as a member or, in some
instances, as a chairperson.
A Convening Order is prepared for the
signature of the Commissioner (and the
Chairperson of the National Parole
Board when a joint investigation is
convened). The Convening Order outlines the mandate of the Board generally and may direct it to examine specific
areas of concern unique to the incident
under investigation. It also outlines the
responsibility of the operational unit
during the conduct of the investigation.
A copy of the signed Convening Order
is distributed to the members of the
Board of Investigation, the appropriate
managers (the Regional Deputy
Commissioner, the operational unit
head, the Manager of Communications
Planning and Media Relations), and
the Correctional Investigator.
Investigation Board Members are provided with a vast and varied amount
of background information, from the
SINTREP2, media clippings and
Housebook cards 3 to information
about the offender(s) involved; information on section 13 of the Inquiries
Act 4; Guidelines for Writing and
Reviewing Investigation Reports;
related investigation reports (into similar incidents and/or at the same site);
related investigation analysis reports
(when appropriate), and much more.
In addition, since currently every
national Board of Investigation is con-
vened under the authority of section
20 of the Corrections and Conditional
Release Act, section 13 of the Inquiries
Act applies (See the ensuing article ).
The Board of Investigation proceeds
with its investigation on-site, interviewing staff and offenders, and
reviewing documents, reports, and
Soon after the on-site investigation is
completed, the Board of Investigation
is required to brief the Commissioner,
the Assistant Commissioner
Performance Assurance, the Manager
of Investigations, and the analyst
assigned to the investigation.
When a report is submitted, it is
reviewed by the analyst to ensure that
all the terms of reference outlined in
the Convening Order have been
addressed, that the Board’s findings
and recommendations are clearly
derived from the analysis of the
issues, and that its messages to the
Service are clear. Thus begins the
quality control process.
A Duty Officer at National Headquarters
ensures that timely, accurate and complete
information relating to major security incidents
happening in both institutional and community
offices, between 4 p.m. and 8 a.m., is dissemi nated to the senior management of CSC.
SINTREP is a daily report (produced by the
Security Division at National Headquarters)
compiling the most important institutional and
community incidents.
A Housebook card is a written briefing to the
Minister on the issue at hand, with suggested
public response for use either in the House of
Commons or in the public forum.
The Inquiries Act is a federal legislation that
sets the legal framework for conducting investi gations.
December 1997
Current Investigations
Incident title
Board of Investigation into the supervision
and release of an offender charged with
murder in Toronto on September 29, 1997.
On the 29th day of September 1997, an offender was charged
with murder by the Toronto Police. The body of the male victim was found behind a residence in Toronto, on June 6, 1997.
Board of Investigation into the emergency,
involuntary transfer of Millhaven
Institution inmates to Special Handling
Units in February 1997.
A series of disturbances and a murder occurred at Millhaven
Institution between January 21 and February 14, 1997 and
emergency, involuntary transfers were prepared and executed
in late February 1997.
Board of Investigation into the release and
supervision of an offender on day parole
who is a suspect in a double murder in
Summerland, British Columbia in
September 1997.
On the 6th day of September 1997, an offender failed to return
to the Seven Steps Halfway House in Calgary. Suspension
Warrants were issued. RCMP in Summerland advised that an
offender is a prime suspect in the murder of his ex-wife and
mother-in-law. The offence is believed to have occurred on
September 7, 1997. The offender remains at large.
Board of Investigation into a major disturbance at Kingston Penitentiary on August
27, 1997.
On the 27th day of August 1997, at approximately 22:00
hours, a major disturbance broke out at Kingston Penitentiary
during which some inmates on Upper “H” range were
involved. Property damage was done, staff members and
inmates were assaulted, and the CSC emergency response team
was deployed.
Board of Investigation into a hostage-taking at Kingston Penitentiary on September
7, 1997.
On the 7th day of September 1997, at approximately 11:13
hours, at Kingston Penitentiary, on upper “H” range, an inmate
grabbed a Food Services Officer and held a razor blade to his
by Mr. Robert Dandurand
Senior Analyst, Investigations Branch
Process for
Section 13
of the
Inquiries Act
to National
December 1997
Section 13 of the Inquiries Act stipulates that “No report shall be made
against any person until reasonable
notice has been given to the person of
the charge of misconduct alleged
against him and the person has been
allowed full opportunity to be heard in
person or by counsel.”
Investigation with answers to the
most frequently asked questions.
The Board members may refer to
the list and use it throughout the
investigation as necessary.
2. During the investigation, the Board
of Investigation informs, via a
standard advisory, all interviewees
of the protection provided to them
by Section 13.
Steps involved:
1. Before the investigation begins, the
Board of Investigation is briefed on
section 13 of the Inquiries Act by
the Investigations Branch. This
includes providing the Board of
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3. The Board of Investigation, in consultation with Legal Services if the
Board considers it necessary, identifies statements in the report that
warrant Section 13 notices. That is,
the Board of Investigation identifies
statements in the report that allege
misconduct on the part of a person
(not only CSC employees), with
“misconduct” defined as:
Any breach of the law and/or
any serious breach of policy
where the breach is relevant and
material to the objective of the
investigation and the person
who committed the breach is
likely to be seriously affected in
terms of his/her reputation.
4. The Board of Investigation determines what persons are implicated
in the statements that have been
5. The chairperson of the Board of
Investigation speaks to these persons to prevent as much as possible any negative reaction that may
result when the Section 13 notice
is received and to set up a supportive environment for the notice
NB: When the recipient of a Section
13 notice is an offender or inmate,
the chairperson of the Board of
Investigation shall speak to the
appropriate Warden/District
Director, who shall speak to all
individuals in the chain of command who have contact with the
offender, to advise them that a
Section 13 notice will be coming to
the offender/inmate.
6. The chairperson of the Board of
Investigation issues Section 13
notices to the persons implicated in
the statements. These are sent in
envelopes marked “personal and
confidential.” Each notice includes
as an attachment the specific portion of the report where the statement alleging misconduct appears.
Boards of Investigation ensure that
they also provide enough context
to the statement that the recipient
will be able to understand the
statement being made. The notice
provides a date, time and place for
when the person may be heard in
person or with counsel. The date
shall be at least two weeks from
the time the notice will be received.
The notice also provides the recipient with the option of responding
in writing by the same date. If
recipients choose to respond in
writing, they must so indicate to
the chairperson.
7. Either a written response is
received, a hearing is held or no
response is received from the recipients. This is the opportunity
offered to a person to protect
his/her reputation and defend
his/her actions. If recipients are
heard in person or by counsel, at
least two members of the Board of
Investigation are present and make
note of the submissions; it is not
necessary for all members of the
Board of Investigation to be present.
8. All members of the Board of
Investigation are briefed on any
representations that have been
made by the Section 13 recipients
(whether they occurred as a result
of a hearing or by written submission). The Board of Investigation
decides as a group what, if any,
revisions are required to the investigation report as a result of the
representations and makes those
revisions to the report.
9. The chairperson of the Board of
Investigation responds in writing to
each notice recipient stating
whether or not the report has been
revised as a result of the recipient’s
representation and sharing any
revisions made.
Once the final step in the Section 13
process has taken place, the finalization of the investigation report then
proceeds with the report being sent to
the heads of the operational units
involved in the investigation for a
review of the report’s factual accuracy.
After the factual accuracy review, the
report is distributed to the
Commissioner and other senior officials with CSC and actions plans
developed in response to the recommendations, if any. ■
1997 NHQ
United Way
Fabulous results! By the end of the
1997 campaign, CSC’s National
Healthpartners/United Way drive
had raised over $40,000 for charity. In the final week Commissioner
Ole Ingstrup and campaign leader
Paul Braun officially thanked organizers, team captains, peer canvassers and volunteers for their
tireless and dedicated efforts in
making the year such a success.
This past year’s total exceeded our
goal by 34 per cent.
December 1997
You Can Do It!
by Ms. Faith McIntyre
National Coordinator, Return to Work
Program (613) 995-2558
A retired Cor rectional Officer II who
returned to work as a casual
Correctional Officer I was required to
take the Cor rectional Officer Physical
Abilities Test (COP AT). This man is
58 years old, a smoker, and has been
moderately active throughout his life.
To prepare to take the COP AT, he
embarked on a fitness regime. He
began with long walks before pr ogressing to jogging. After three
months of preparation, he took the
COPAT and passed on his first tr y
with a time of 2 minutes 34 seconds,
out of the allowable maximum of
A 4 foot 9 inch woman is required to
pass the COP AT to qualify for a posi tion. She did not complete the test at
her first session as she could lift the
weights on the push/pull machine no
more than one inch. The COPAT
assessors provided her with sugges tions as to how she could increase her
upper body strength. She took the
COPAT three weeks later knowing
that if she didn’t pass she would not
qualify for the eligibility list. She was
determined to succeed and after three
tries at the next session, she passed
with a time of 2:29.
A 5 foot 2 inch potential recruit is
required to pass the COP AT to be
accepted into the Cor rectional
Training Program (CTP). Passing the
December 1997
test meant a great deal to her. Her
father retired after 30 years of service
as a Cor rectional Officer and she was
determined to live up to his reputa tion. She found success on her thir d
try and can now begin to follow in
her father ’s footsteps.
A 110-pound woman takes the
COPAT. She attempts three tries with in a four-month period. With much
determination and hard work, she
passes on her third re-test with a
time of 2:35.
2000 implementation of the Bona Fide
Occupational Requirement (BFOR) for
incumbent correctional officers I and
II, emotions are high and many misconceptions are circulating as to the
COPAT itself. These minimal medical
and physical standards are cur rently
in place for recruits to CTP. For the
average person, it won’t take years of
intense and time consuming preparation to get in shape. The COPAT is an
age and gender free occupational test.
The key factor is not how old you are,
or whether you are male or female,
but how well you prepared.
Simple things like trying the push/pull
machine, working with your COPAT
assessor in developing a cardiovascular or weight-training program, or supporting your colleagues in their efforts
will greatly assist you in achieving
your goal.
A 42-year-old woman attempts the
COPAT twice within a two-month
period. She does not complete the first
attempt, but on her second effort, she
passes with a time of 2:36. She said
that she did it for her kids!
A 37-year-old, 5 foot, 90 pound
female Correctional Officer takes the
COPAT to renew her position. Over a
nine-month period, she worked har d
to train for the test and on her thir d
attempt, passes.
The above successes confirm that the
goal of passing the COPAT can be realized within the 2 minute 40 second
time frame. In advance of the April 1,
let’ stalk
The BFOR coordinators in each region
have developed action plans to assist
staff in preparing to take the test. In
the Atlantic Region, institutional management have taken an important step
in helping and supporting staff get fit
by providing workout areas. For
example, at Atlantic Institution, the
push/pull machine has been set up in
the stress lab. This area is a workout
location for staff situated in a building
outside the perimeter. At Westmorland
Institution, management is showing
its support for COPAT by allowing correctional officers to view testing sessions for CTP recruits at the Regional
Training Facility. By attending these
sessions, staff are able to see the layout of the COPAT and, between sessions, are given the opportunity to try
the push/pull machine. The pass rate
among men in the region is 98 percent and 33 percent for women.
The Quebec Region is considering the
construction of a fitness facility for staff
use. Currently, all institutions have
push/pull machines on site for practice
and testing sessions. Mr. Réjean Viola,
BFOR Coordinator for the region, conducted demonstrations on the push/pull
machine at the most recent Senior
Management Meeting. Senior managers were also given the opportunity
to use the machine. Evaluations held
in 1997 confirm that 98 percent of
men and 77 percent of women in the
Quebec Region have passed the COPAT,
out of a total of 72 evaluations. Mr.
Patrice Tremblay, a Correctional Officer
at Port-Cartier Institution, currently
holds the record for the best time of
In the Ontario Region, a push/pull
machine has been set up on a permanent basis in the “Lower Deck” weight
room at the Correctional Staff College.
As well, each institution has COPAT
equipment and assessors. The Region
is taking steps in certifying community colleges as official testing centres
for graduates of their programs and
potential CTP recruits. To achieve this
goal, 33 staff at 12 different colleges
have been trained and certified as
COPAT assessors. Testing has already
begun at five certified sites. As of
December 1997, 453 people have
been tested: 98 percent of men and 69
percent of women have passed. The
oldest woman to pass is 47 and the
oldest man 55.
The Prairie Region has push/pull
machines at each institution for staff
to practice and COPAT assessors are
working in developing individual programs with staff so they will succeed
in passing the COPAT. A great deal of
importance has been placed on the
individual’s overall health and physical fitness. Staff see the test as a challenge. When evaluations are held,
several employees come out to offer
their colleagues encouragement. As of
August 1997, 299 evaluations were
conducted, resulting in a 95 percent
pass rate for men and 51 percent pass
rate for women.
In the Pacific Region, the Regional
Fitness Facility has been officially
opened at the old Regional Supply
Depot. Management in the region
have demonstrated their full support
in promoting health and physical fitness for staff by supporting the construction of this site. The facility will
be the COPAT testing centre and provides staff with the chance to practice
on the push/pull machine. Weights
and cardiovascular equipment are also
available for use on site. As of
December ‘97, out of 182 individuals
tested, 98 percent of men and 61 percent of women have passed the
and 51 percent of women passed.
Most exciting, however, is the fast
improvement in success rates as more
and more people improve their general
fitness level. In February 1997, one
out of every four women was passing
and now one out of every two is successful! The secret seems to be in taking the time to prepare and never giving up!
Incumbent correctional officers I and II
should start preparing as early as possible to take the COPAT. Staff can take
advantage of the fitness facilities in
their region, discuss physical conditioning programs with their COPAT
assessors, and participate in practice
sessions to try out the machines.
The health, safety and future of all
incumbents will be positively impacted
with the implementation of the BFOR.
“You can do it!”
For further information, please contact
your local COPAT assessors or
Regional BFOR Coordinator.
Atlantic Region
Mr. Ed Muise
(506) 758-4804
Quebec Region
Mr. Réjean Viola
(514) 661-9550 ext. 3424
Mr. Jean Pichette
(514) 967-3396
Mr. Dan Ferguson, National Project
Coordinator for the implementation of
the BFOR, has succeeded in passing
the COPAT himself. He says: “I am
concerned about the correctional officer who fails the COPAT. I am particularly concerned if the individual does
nothing to prepare or refuses to take
remedial advice or participate in corrective action to pass the COPAT.” As
of September 1997, 833 COPAT evaluations were completed across the
country. Overall, 96 percent of men
Ontario Region
Mr. Ron Stolz
(613) 545-8094
Prairie Region
Mr. Reg Brecknell
(306) 975-5086
Pacific Region
Mr. Scotty Scodellaro
(604) 864-2513 ■
December 1997
Accreditation of Correctional Programs
This article was prepared in collabo ration with Suzanne St.GeorgesTrépanier, Project Officer, Program
Planning and Management.
After a three-year period, the
Correctional Service of Canada (CSC)
officially restored its Correctional
Programs Branch at National
Headquarters in 1997 to oversee program activities across the country.
In the spring of 1997, a programs
management strategy – which outlines
such areas as the philosophy behind
the branch, the issues at hand and
future projects to be undertaken –
was developed to provide direction in
the area of correctional programs
while addressing issues raised in the
Auditor General’s reports on
Correctional Programs and on
standardize delivery of programs and
resources, to standardize the employment levels for those delivering programs, to initiate regular program
evaluations, and to introduce the concept of program accreditation.
Panel members were chosen for their
expertise in correctional programs and
research or their previous experience with
accreditation. The distinguished participants were: Professor
Beth Grothe-Nielsen,
University of Aarhus,
Denmark; Ms. Maggie
Hodgson, special
advisor, Nechi
From left: Danny Clark, Frank Porporino, Ed Zamble, Lar ry
Institute, Alberta; Dr.
Solomon(seen from back)
Ed Zamble, Queen’s
University; Mr. Ed
Accreditation of Programs – A
Wozniak, Head of Research and
New Concept Here to Stay
Evaluation Services, Scottish Prison
Mr. Danny Clark, Head,
The goals of accreditation are to
Research, Her Majesty’s
ensure that CSC’s programs are
London; Mr. Gerry
research-based, legitimate, credible
and Evaluation,
and meet the objectives of the
Federal Bureau of Prisons,
Corrections and Conditional Release
Washington; and Mr. Larry Solomon,
Act (CCRA). It also aims to ensure
Deputy Director, National Institute of
that programs are officially recognized
Corrections, Washington.
as a valuable element in offender reintegration and related decision-making.
And it seeks to establish program
integrity, which is at the heart of successful offender intervention.
Steve Steurer, Executive Director of the
Correctional Education Association
The newly developed strategy has a
number of goals: to ensure appropriate
resources are allocated to those programs with proven results, to improve
management information, to balance
program capacity with demand, to
December 1997
evaluate the process and criteria for
accreditation within CSC, and to agree
on the program standards to accredit
Program accreditation was initiated in
April 1997 when Commissioner
Ingstrup expressed to Parliament the
view that it would be the most
promising way to address the issues
regarding correctional programming
raised by the Auditor General.
In October, to begin the accreditation
process, an international panel of correctional experts met in Quebec City to
let’ stalk
The Quebec City Meeting on
Accreditation – October 18-24
International Panel Members were
greeted by Mr. Denis Méthé, Director
General, Correctional Programs, on the
eve of their arrival. The next day, Dr.
Frank Porporino made a presentation
on the Development of Effective
Correctional Interventions, and Mr.
Richard Harvey, Director, Program
Planning spoke about CSC’s Program
Management Framework.
Commissioner Ingstrup and Senior
Deputy Commissioner Lucie McClung
welcomed the group at that evening’s
formal dinner.
The Commissioner’s address spoke of
the importance of Program
Accreditation, particularly as it relates
to CSC’s mission. He said the
Accreditation Process is a management tool and a historically proven
technique in such fields as corrections
and health care. The product – successful, offender-oriented programs –
will be outcome-focused, and will provide a way to identify what works in
offender programming. CSC’s accreditation process will be “robust”, able to
adjust to specific populations, such as
women and Aboriginal offenders, and
meet our need for accountability.
The next four days of the meeting
were devoted to discussions on the
proposed criteria for program accreditation and the process required to do
this. National Headquarters program
specialists presented standards and
guidelines currently in place to manage the programs. The panel assessed
these and provided suggestions for
Presentations were made by program
specialists, including Ms. Linda
McLaren, Manager, Program
Development and Implementation; Dr.
Sharon Williams, Manager, Sex
Offender Programs; Dr. John Weekes,
Manager, Substance Abuse Programs;
Ms. Lynn Stewart, Manager, Living
Skills and Personal Development
Programs; Mr. Denis Barbe, Manager,
Education Programs accompanied by
Mr. Steve Steurer, Executive Director
of the Correctional Education
Association. Also presenting were Dr.
Carson Smiley, Director of Psychology
and Research at the Pacific Region’s
Health Centre, and Dr. Ralph Serin,
Acting Director, Program Research,
who provided a presentation on programs for offenders who commit violent offences. Ms. Gina Whiteduck,
Director General, Aboriginal Issues
gave insight into Aboriginal issues in
a correctional environment, and Ms.
Hilda Vanneste, Manager, Women
Offender Sector, told about the development and delivery of Women
Offender programs at CSC.
committed themselves to return as
“guardians” of the Accreditation
Process once programs begin to be
What is Next?
International Panel Members completed their intense, one-week long meeting with a tour of Drummond
Institution, accompanied by Mr. Laval
Marchand, Assistant Deputy
Commissioner, Quebec Region; Mr.
Jacques Labonté, Warden, Drummond;
and Ms. Doris Fortin, Chief, Programs
and Training. The visitors spoke with
inmates enrolled in two of the substance abuse programs, namely Alto
and the Offender Substance Abuse
Prerelease Program.
Panel Members said the meeting had
been a worthwhile and rewarding
experience and that they were returning home with even more valuable
information than that which they had
contributed. Some of the members
The next steps in CSC’s Accreditation
Process involve the refinement of the
criteria for program accreditation and
establishment of the standards to be
used. Criteria of a more generic nature
are being developed to address
resourcing, planning, and program
management issues. A training strategy is also being developed with
respect to the accreditation of the program sites.
After such a successful meeting, it is
clear that the ongoing networking
with international panel members and
other experts is key to the
Accreditation Process and offers
tremendous benefits to program
design and delivery. ■
From left: Ger ry Gaes, Beth Grothe Nielsen, Ole Ingstrup, Maggie Hodgson, Danny Clark, Richard Harvey ,
Lucie McClung, Ed Wozniak, Ed Zamble, Denis Méthé, Lar ry Solomon, Lynn Stewart (seated)
From left: Maria Valenti, Lar ry Solomon, Lucie McClung, Danny
Clark, Bram Deurloo, Denis Méthé
Gina Whiteduck, Director General,
Aboriginal Issues
December 1997
Edmonton Institute for Women
then and now
This article was written by Ms. Lisa
Watson, Senior Project Officer ,
Women Offender Sector, National
Headquarters, in collaboration with
Ms. Jan Fox, Warden, Edmonton
Institution for Women.
Edmonton Institution for Women
(EIFW) had a turbulent beginning.
Construction was not yet completed
when it opened its doors in the fall of
1995; over the course of the next four
months, inmates were quickly moved
from Prison for Women, from the
Regional Psychiatric Centre (where
Prairie women had been housed since
1994), and from Alberta provincial
facilities, who chose to no longer
house federal women inmates.
About half of the women, most of
whom were classified as maximum
security, experienced serious adjustment problems to both the new surroundings and the community living
approach. Incidents of self-injurious
behaviour were numerous, exhaust ing inmates, staff and management.
At the end of February 1996, an
inmate was found dead in her cell, an
apparent suicide. It was three months
later that the police received information indicating that the death was, in
fact, a murder. Seven escapes
(though no crimes were committed,
no one was hurt and the last three
inmates were recaptured within minutes of their escape as they were
never out of the sight of the vigilant
staff members) led to the decision in
May 1996, to transfer the maximum
and medium security inmates to
provincial custody until the static
security system could be upgraded.
December 1997
These events also impacted on all the
regional women’s institutions:
perimeter security was upgraded
everywhere and women classified as
maximum security were no longer
housed in regional institutions (they
are now incarcerated in separately
contained units in men’s institutions
and at Prison for Women). At the
same time, an Intensive Healing
Program began on the women’s unit
at the Regional Psychiatric Centre in
the Prairie Region.
As described below in the open letter
from Primary Worker Susan Jacknife
(a Correctional Officer II) who has
been part of the EIFW team since the
beginning, the staff of EIFW went to
the wall and continued to persevere;
they are now stronger, more sure of
themselves and of their role at CSC
and in the lives of the women they
work with.
EIFW re-opened in September 1996.
It, as the other regional institutions
and the Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge,
houses only minimum and medium
security inmates. EIFW is now
becoming the institution it had
always planned to be.
The CORCAN Graphics shop at EIFW
is a big hit. Eight women work on a
full-time basis in a shop that is continually receiving contracts from the
community and CSC. The creation of
banners for minor hockey and
ringette, specialty pucks with team
logos, t-shirts for community group
fundraising events, and signs for new
office buildings are just a few of the
projects completed by the inmates in
the graphics shop.
let’ stalk
Core programs on substance abuse,
cognitive skills, survivors of abuse
and trauma, parenting skills, anger
management, and school are well
attended and offered year-round. Peer
support program and training is an
integral part of the EIFW approach,
as are several Aboriginal programs.
Innovative programs (for corrections), such as relaxation and stress
management training, healing touch
therapy, music therapy, tai chi and
aikido, skills assessment course,
hobby craft, mentoring programs
(mentors come in from the community) are part of life at EIFW. A team of
trained, qualified, inmate caterers prepares meals for groups of 2 to 200.
The women are developing working
partnerships with the community and
many of their activities are designed
to let them give something back to
the community.
The EIFW Community Reintegration
Centre, developed jointly by staff and
inmates, is assisting women while
incarcerated and in preparing for
release. The specific focus is on the
various challenges of reintegration
into the community and employment.
A full-time social worker helps the
women establish links between the
institution and the community. It also
has a Resource Centre with valuable
information on numerous topics
affecting women’s lives, as well as
providing access to a computer and
printer to produce letters and
résumés. Work release placements for
several residents are just one of the
positive impacts of the Centre to date.
EIFW is showing that it is possible to
bridge the gap between correctional
operations and management and the
philosophy of Creating Choices (the
Report of the 1990 Task Force on
Federally-Sentenced Women, which
recommended the replacement of
Prison for Women with regional facilities and a healing lodge). Staff believe
the evidence is in the growing selfconfidence and belief the women have
in themselves. While it has not been
without its continuing trials and difficulties, staff and inmates have worked
hard towards the shared vision. Below
is an excerpt of Ms. Jacknife’s view of
the history of EIFW:
“For the last two years I have worked
with the most courageous women I
have ever known. The 28 women on
staff were hired out of approximately
556 applications. Talk about the odds!
Some have left and taken other paths
now, but they will never be forgotten.
All began this journey by getting to
know one another; these are memories I will always cherish.
Even though we passed the test and
the interview, we still had challenges
ahead of us (more than we imagined!).
There was the extreme physical testing,
the exams, and on-the-job training. We
all had to pass...if not, we could not
continue with the rest of the group.
Victory after victory came as we
passed each test. Cheers of joy and
happiness filled the classroom. We
were a team of women sharing our
happiness with one another, growing
stronger together.
After our victories, we were finally
able to begin our mission. I thank God
for all of us – we all carried our own
special gifts. Our dreams of being able
to help other women who came across
misfortune was finally a dream come
true. Little did we know or even
expect that slowly, this dream would
begin to crumble. We came across
trouble some of us never experienced
before. The women we wanted to help
turned on us and themselves. We
were faced with blood spill after blood
spill, threat after threat. Sadly, we
were faced with the death of one of
our women. Some of our women ran;
day by day, week by week, it only got
Our families grew scared and worried
for us. Some of us were advised not to
go back to work. We were the “talk”
of the media. Family and friends
watched us on television nightly.
People laughed at us, called us inca-
It was as though this strong group of
women were told, “Okay, you had
your chance, you failed!” How could
they ask us to quit? We were believers,
we had faith, we still had strength to
carry on, we all had wanted this dream
to work. Nonetheless, we closed. I
remember looking at our dream: it was
as though we were in a ghost town, I
could literally see the tumble weeds roll
by. Tears rolled down my cheeks as I
looked upon the broken dream. We
had to continue as though we were still
functioning. As we went in the
women’s houses, you could feel the
bare, empty, coldness of each room.
Items were left as they were...popcorn
on the table, dirty dishes in the sink,
unfolded laundry. Everywhere we
turned there was nothing left but an
empty sad memory.
When we talked to one another, tears
swelled in our eyes and many fell. We
would continuously ask ourselves and
one another: What went wrong? Why
did this happen? Did we honestly fail?
We told each other to continue having
the faith, the hope, the dreams. We
had to hang on to all we had
left...each other. We shared the worst
of the worst. We overcame the hurdles
and the challenges together. It was
our strength, our gifts we had to offer
that kept us going.
Today we are a functioning dream.
The prayers are slowly being
answered. There are women who were
once called misfortunate, leaving here
feeling more fortunate. Dreams and
hopes fill this place daily. We see the
smiles of strong women everyday
now; the only tears we see are tears
of happiness. Not all of it is perfect
nor do we ever expect it to be. I know
and pray that all of us will continue to
shine together…” ■
Aerial view
pable! There were jokes... Meanwhile,
others prayed for all of us, hoping for
better things to come. Finally, the
news came...we were told we had to
shut down.
December 1997
The Regional Psychiatric Centre –
An Overview
The Regional
Transition to
by Mr. Marcel Chiasson, Executive
The Regional Psychiatric Centre (RPC)
in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan has been
in operation since November 14,
1978. The RPC was established to
respond to needs identified by the
Chalke Report (1972) in regard to the
treatment of offenders with a mental
illness. The early years were filled
with challenges which emerged from
the dual custodial and mental heath
mandate of the Centre. However, by
1984, the RPC had solidified relationships with the University of
Saskatchewan and received its first
accreditation as a hospital. Subsequent
to this, RPC consolidated these gains
through stabilizing staffing levels, program delivery and the organizational
The RPC has traditionally used a functional matrix management model to
contain its many processes. This
model is characterized by several professional departments which provide
service to clients. At RPC this comprised social work, psychology, psychiatry, adjunctive therapies (occupa tional therapy, school, recreation therapy, aboriginal programs) and patient
care (nursing and correctional operations).
We found that in a team-based organization which requires accountability
for team performance, the matrix
model distributes accountability across
too many departments, thus confounding true accountability. Other
symptoms were noticed as well:
too many Department Heads
involved in program outputs;
absent leadership due to unit line
manager deployment on 24-hour
difficulty assigning accountability
for program unit results;
inter-disciplinary staff relations
marginalization of the
Correctional Group, who ensures
that correctional objectives are
a Quality Improvement Structur e
that was spinning its wheels; and
lack of Unit/Program identity.
focus on accountability. The organizational structure engendered the development of individual disciplines that
would contribute work to units and
unit staff, but they had no team/program alliance. Informal alliances did
exist but did not contribute to a clear
accountability structure.
Looking within CSC, we first reviewed
Unit Management and thought it had
much to offer as a model and would
address some of the problems. Unit
Management was team-oriented,
placed accountability on one manager
for a unit’s performance, and asked
different disciplines to work together.
We also reviewed hospital administration literature which spoke of both
Matrix Management and Program
Management. Program Management
was attractive in that it embodied all
of the principles of Unit Management,
but went further by incorporating
more departments and disciplines than
unit management did.
Program Management
The concept of Program Management
arose with General Electric’s product
groups and was adapted to Health
Services by the John Hopkins hospital
in Boston, in 1973. The following
principles are generic to Program
Management, yet are applicable to an
operation like RPC:
This article outlines a change of organizational approach from functional
matrix management to program management.
December 1997
It became clear that the structure RPC
was using to manage was not congruent with the Unit Management team
philosophy of Correctional Service
Canada (CSC) nor with the Service’s
let’ stalk
The organization should be
designed around client needs
rather than provider interests.
Therefore, the clients of the organization should be categorized
according to the nature of their
therapeutic needs and programs
to meet them.
Programs should be definable.
They can be defined by client
needs, disease category, or population group. The mission of the
organization should set the
framework around the complete
set of programs and establish the
boundaries as limits to curb professional empire builders.
Decision-making should be made
by program managers who have
full authority and accountability
for fiscal and human resources
assigned to their program activities.
The focus should be on outcomes,
that is the extent to which program activities, services and interventions have influenced the
rehabilitation of clients.
Decisions should be data-driven
or research findings should guide
program activity decisions.
RPC wanted to clarify program focus
for each unit and wanted to establish
single-point accountability for program
results. We concluded that program
management would deliver this, while
being completely consistent with Unit
Management, and with current, effective hospital management practices.
A Steering Committee was created in
November 1995 to develop terms of
reference for change. By January
1996, a cross-functional working
committee was given 90 days to meet
and determine the best way for RPC to
make the transition to program management; their report was submitted
on April 12. The report was reviewed
by the Health Care Administration
Department at the University of
Saskatchewan and further verified by
site tours to four hospitals in Ontario,
three of which successfully used program management. By June 1996,
RPC’s Board of Governors approved a
program management structure.
communication-by-doing approach
and enabled staff to experience the
change rather than conceptualize it.
We chose to ensure the Program
Director positions were classified and
staffed as clinical professionals to
reflect the clinical mandate of the
Centre. These included: psychologists,
psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, occu pational therapists, and social workers. Delays in the classification process
provided an excellent opportunity to
try the model using secondments,
which entailed placing directors and
assigning departmental staff to specific
program units. By October 1996, the
departments of social work, psychology, psychiatry, and adjunctive therapies were closed with their respective
staff reporting to specific program
units. The model was successful in all
but the attempt to have clinical leadership from a variety of disciplines. Due
to rules of classification, we were led
to choose three clinical disciplines
from the many available: Psychiatry,
Psychology and Psychiatric Nursing.
We will continue to work on including
other clinical leadership positions to
contribute to future flexibility and
leadership diversity.
By September 1996, Correctional
Supervisors were reinstated at RPC
and the staffing itself was finalized by
November. This step aligned the new
structure with CSC’s Unit Management
and brought the cor rectional officer
group back into the therapeutic milieu.
The involvement of staff in a working
group from all departments assisted in
communicating the initiative. As well,
weekly drop-in sessions with the
Executive Director and managers
enabled staff to express concerns and
make suggestions which could be
addressed quickly. The rapid change to
the program management model in
the fall of 1996 contributed to the
Single point accountability for
resource utilization and
program/operational results.
Reduction of departments, department heads and inter-disciplinary
Clear unit identity for each program. They are called DiagnosticRelated Groups:
Acute/Chronic Mental Illness
Intensive Healing Unit for
Women Offenders
Sex Offender Treatment Unit
Aggressive Behaviour Control
Reinsertion of Correctional Group
into case management and programs.
Flexibility of model enables RPC
to adjust programs to changes in
client demographics and to incorporate the 100-bed expansion
within a solid organizational
The move to program management
places the key resources under the
direction of a clinical Program Director.
There are still programs available to
all units (school, recreation) but core
programs for each diagnostic-related
group belong to the unit and the
clients of the unit receive their programs on the unit. This change has
occurred within a backdrop of RPC’s
reassessment of its Vision,
Fundamental Beliefs, Mission and
Strategic Objectives. This has enabled
the program units themselves to specify their respective objectives, which
will be subject to measures and evaluation.
As we move forward with this model,
the position of Director, Programs and
December 1997
Operations (Deputy Warden equivalent) will be responsible for all program outcomes via the Program
Directors for each Program. The
Clinical Director, a medical position,
will work with the Research Team and
with Clinical Discipline Councils to
ensure that all program interventions
remain state-of-the-art and bear the
scrutiny of evaluation.
Leaders in
by Mr. William Shrubsole
Director, Management Services
Performance measurement has been a
consistent challenge for management
and staff of the Regional Psychiatric
Centre (RPC) in Saskatoon over the
years. Not only have there been the
Correctional Service of Canada’s objectives, financial performance indicators
and various accountability goals to
measure and report upon, the same
was also required of the Canadian
Council on Health Services
Accreditation standards.
Yes, we do a lot of measuring. In fact,
we became concerned that we were
generating too many measures to
make sense of. Secondly, the measures were narrow in focus, such that
it seemed that we could not see the
forest for the trees. In other words, the
measures did not seem to add up to
the bigger picture, to a more corporate
focus. We needed a good measurement system that would be compre-
December 1997
This graphic depicts the vision and mission of the Regional Psychiatric Centre. Both the
correctional and health objectives must be addressed at all hours of the day. The dark side
of the rings reflects which objectives take precedence at particular times of the day .
hensive enough to meet the needs of
both corrections and health care, and
also user-friendly enough to highlight
for us the critical few measures to help
us meet our mission.
In December 1995, we made a presentation to our Board of Governors,
who approved the concept of improving our measurement of performance.
In March 1996, the Board gave us the
specific approval to use Zenger-Miller’s
“TrackStar Performance Measurement”
(Zenger-Miller is the same company
that provides us with Frontline
Leadership and Team Leadership).
The first phase involved the management group and Zenger-Miller. It is no
surprise to most folks that you do not
measure until you know where you
want to go and until you know what
you want to be. Otherwise, you are
only measuring for the sake of measuring. What relationship these measures may have to your organization
are happenstance at best! Thus, management group moved to developing
our vision and fundamental beliefs,
let’ stalk
reworking our mission, and creating
strategic goals – all aligned and consistent with CSC’s mission and corporate objectives.
It was only after we determined how
we wanted to be perceived, came to
an agreement on those fundamental
beliefs that guide us, and simplified
our mission on what we are going to
do that we could examine ways to target and track progress.
The second phase started after the
Management Committee agreed on
five strategic objectives that are driven
by and aligned with RPC’s vision and
mission. A small working group was
established with representation from
each sector to develop quantifiable
measures that would address the
Centre’s critical business issues. They
developed some 47 potential measures
from which the Management
Committee selected 16 for the corporate dashboard (it is analogous to an
automobile dashboard with various
indicators like speed, oil, and temperature that give you performance mea-
surements). Some were already established, some were refinements of current measures, and some were new.
This journey into performance measurement is not complete. Work is
proceeding with our research group in
automating the corporate dashboard
and maximizing the potential of our
local area network for both updating
and sharing our performance information. Work has started on the second
level dashboards for those who report
directly to the first level. Some measures will be the same as those on the
corporate dashboard, and some will be
unique to individual program units or
work groups. As with the management group, those reporting directly to
them had to work through their vision
and mission, and ensure that they are
aligned with the Centre and CSC. The
importance of vision and mission at
all levels of any organization cannot
be overstated; you must know what
you want to be and what you are
going to do to get there before you
can design effective measures.
We have made considerable progress
over the last two years, but the journey continues with the challenge of
aligning and operationalizing performance measurement in a forensic
mental hospital within the Correctional
Service of Canada.
To improve the mental health
of people in conflict with the law,
thus contributing to the protection
of society.
We will accomplish this by:
contributing to the missions of
our key customers;
providing clinical assessments
and treatment programs/services
for mentally disordered individuals referred within the criminal
justice system;
assisting patients to optimize their
mental health;
providing learning opportunities
for students, the public and personnel associated with the health
care and criminal justice systems;
Our vision challenges us to be
leading in:
research-based models of
forensic assessment and treatment;
clinical and correctional risk
training forensic professionals;
innovation in management;
sharing knowledge nationally
and internationally.
To provide each customer with
the best possible service
To show respect for all people
and partnerships
To pursue excellence and continuously improve in everything
we do.
facilitating, promoting and conducting research in the area of:
a) understanding criminal
b) the management of forensic
mental health programs/services
c) the treatment of individuals who
come into conflict with the law
d) the impact of crime on society.
by Dr. Steve Wong, Director, Research
The Aggressive Behaviour Control
(ABC) program was established in
1993 at the Regional Psychiatric
Centre in the Prairie Region. It provides treatment to male offenders who
have an extensive history of violence,
anger control problems, and/or serious
institutional misconduct. The program
is based on social learning principles
and uses a cognitive-behavioural
approach. Among other things, a careful analysis of the offender’s crime
cycle(s) is used to identify his high
risk areas for reoffending.
Interventions are offered in both group
and individual sessions. Program
goals include assisting offenders in
changing their attitudes and
behaviours, and helping them put
together an individualized comprehensive relapse prevention plan at the end
of the program, which takes six
months to complete.
A program workbook was developed to
help provide structure and consistency
in program delivery, as well as to provide program participants with a stepby-step guide to the ABC treatment
program. With program personnel in
mind, the workbook was developed to
help provide the program deliverer with
a more structured and consistent
approach to program delivery, thereby
increasing program integrity. For the
benefit of program participants, the
workbook explains the different aspects
December 1997
of the program in a language that is
meaningful and understandable to the
average offender.
Offenders also benefit from having a
workbook that allows them to follow
the material being taught in the program sessions. By including homework assignments, exercises, worksheets and additional reading material
in the workbook, the offender can
review the material after the sessions
are over. At the end of the program,
each participant will have a copy of
the workbook, which is personalized
by the efforts and struggles that he
has experienced in working through
the program. Through this process,
the offender can take on a more active
role in the treatment process, and
develop a stronger sense of ownership, responsibility and pride in his
personal achievements.
The project was initiated and completed by unit nursing staff with the support of the entire ABC multi-disciplinary treatment team. The project
began in the spring of 1995 and took
about nine months to complete. The
original product of this endeavor was
an ABC Workbook consisting of 25
functional or criminal cycles of
behaviour. Chapters 23 to 25 help the
offender put together the idea of a
cycle of criminal behaviour with various intervention strategies that he has
learned, in order to formulate a workable relapse prevention plan.
In an effort to improve the workbook,
chapters on substance abuse and attitude change were added. These are two
major criminogenic areas where most
offenders require additional assistance.
The workbook is partly based on the
work of Laren Bays, Robert FreemanLongo, Diane Hildebran and Murray
Cullen, to whom the ABC treatment
team is most grateful for their permission to reproduce some of their original material in the workbook.
Copyright clearance was obtained from
various publishers to reproduce a limited number of copies of the workbook
for staff and participants of the ABC
program. The workbook is in the process of being published so that it can
be available to all those interested in
using it. Additional information can be
obtained by contacting Diane Neufeld,
Program Director, at (306) 975-5229.
Chapters 1 to 4 explain what the
treatment process is, why the offender
is in treatment, how to get involved in
the treatment process, and includes
the “do’s and don’ts” of being in treatment. Chapters 5 and 6 cover how
things that happened in the past could
have lead to patterns of criminal
behaviours. Chapters 7, 8, 13 and 14
are on stress management. Chapters
9, 10, 11 and 12 explain what anger
is and how to monitor and manage it.
Chapters 15 and 17 cover assertiveness training and negotiation skills.
Chapters 16 and 22 explain personal
rights and responsibilities, values,
criminal attitudes, beliefs, and defence
mechanisms. Chapters 18 to 21 examine the perception, thinking, feeling
and behaviour components of the dys-
December 1997
by Dr. Steve Wong, Director, Research
In 1994, Correctional Service Canada
(CSC) implemented a Risk Assessment
course to provide the necessary training in risk assessment and management to CSC personnel. The course
consists of seven modules:
Explanation of Criminality;
Prediction and Classification;
Dangerousness Issues in Risk
Assessment; Management and
Treatment of Offenders with
Mental Health Problems;
Management and Treatment of Sex
Offenders; Impact of Incarceration
vs. Intervention; and SupervisionManagement Aspects on
Conditional Release. The course was
designed to be delivered in a workshop format by a panel of specialists.
A number of CSC staff were trained in
the workshops, which were well
received. Since then, many new staff
have joined the service and require
training in risk assessment.
The Regional Psychiatric Centre (RPC)
has offered a number of additional
training workshops to both new and
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current staff who have not yet
received the training. However, it is
not always possible to offer the
required training in a timely manner.
As well, many staff find two days of
full-time training in risk assessment
can cause information overload. Quite
often, they have to be relieved from
their regular responsibilities in order to
attend the training workshop, thus
incurring additional costs to the institution, such as traveling expenses.
In order to provide risk assessment
training to CSC personnel in a timely
and cost efficient manner, staff at the
RPC, in collaboration with the
Extension Division at the University
of Saskatchewan, have redesigned the
method of delivery of the Risk
Assessment course. The end product is
the Risk Assessment Self Study
Manual, which uses the latest instructional design technology to present
the content of the course to learners in
a format that is both easy to read and
comprehend. Staff can study the
material on their own and at their
own pace without having to attend a
formal workshop. Where appropriate,
the Self Study Manual also incorporates relevant sections of the
Corrections and Conditional Release
Act and Commissioner’s Directives in
order to highlight the need to comply
with the rule of law and CSC policies
on risk assessment. Self test questions
with answers are included to prompt
learners to attend to key material and
issues. Multiple-choice questions for
each module have also been developed. With further development and
validation, the questions could be
used for evaluation purposes.
The Peers Helping Peers program
aims to increase socially acceptable
behaviour in low functioning or men tally-ill patients from the inmate pop ulation, while assisting them with
their employment within a cor rectional facility .
Mr. Yvon Ng-How-Tseung, Patient
Employment Coordinator at the
Regional Psychiatric Centre observed,
during his first week on the job, that a
number of patients required constant
supervision while at their job site
(grounds/horticulture, facilities and
material management, maintenance
service departments), which could not
be provided by their supervisors for a
number of reasons.
A suggestion he made to the
Treatment Teams led to the implementation of this pilot project on May 27,
1997. The program consists of pairing
To be eligible to participate in this program, patients referred from the treatment programs must show motivation
and be willing and able to work closely with low-functioning individuals by
assisting with directions, motivation
and encouragement. The initial feedback received from this group indicates the program is very beneficial in
that it allows them to better understand challenged individuals, it helps
put one’s problems into perspective,
and it gives them the confidence necessary to open up to another individual. These patients also stated they
would like to spend more time with
their charge to form a more meaningful relationship, and they requested
more social activities as a group to
stimulate and practice social skills. A
total of 24 patients have so far benefited from the program.
An evaluation of
the program will be
conducted in the
spring; if proven
successful, the program will be imple mented when the
new 100-bed unit
expansion at the
Psychiatric Centre
is completed in
August 1998. ■
The RPC hopes that this initiative will
enable staff who require risk assessment training to receive that training
in a timely and cost efficient manner.
Additional information can be
obtained from Dr. Steve Wong at
(306) 975-4156.
up an eligible patient undergoing
treatment in the Aggressive Behaviour
Control Program or in Sex Offender
programs with an inmate who is disabled due to short- or long-term mental illness. The pair engages in social
or recreational activities together, or
the “buddy” assists his “protégé” with
his job-related duties. These activities
are conducted in a positive, low stress,
supportive environment. The program
aims to help all participants increase
their sense of self-esteem and personal
empowerment, reduce their stress
level, and prevent relapses.
December 1997
Saint John
by Ms. Claudine Daigle
Regional Administrator
Communications and Executive
It was a community celebration! On
October 14, about 70 neighbourhood
residents and community leaders
joined criminal justice partners and
employees from the Cor rectional
Service of Canada (CSC) and Public
Works and Government Services
Canada to officially open the new
facility which houses the Parrtown
Community Correctional Centre and
the Saint John Parole Office in Saint
John, New Brunswick.
In her opening remarks, the Mayor of
the city, Ms. Shirley McAlary, welcomed this opportunity to officially
mark the cooperation between the
community and the Correctional
Service in assisting offenders reintegrate into society. The District Director
responsible for the management of the
facility, Mr. Marc Brideau, applauded
the Citizens’ Advisory Committee’s
invaluable contribution in promoting
community acceptance of the Centre.
“The success of the project is largely
thanks to the Citizens’ Advisory
Committee that worked tirelessly as a
liaison between the federal govern-
From left: Nancy Porter, Commissioning Officer for the project and Supervisor of the
Par rtown Community Correctional Centre; the Honourable Andy Scott, Solicitor General of
Canada; Your Worship Shirley McAlar y, Mayor of Saint John; Marc Brideau, District
Director, New Brunswick West
December 1997
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ment representatives, the community,
and the city,” he said. The committee
Chairperson, Ms. Dorothy Dawson,
opened the door for even more community involvement in rehabilitating
offenders through the formation of circles of support, which would bring
together offenders, their victims and
community representatives.
Solicitor General Andy Scott presided
over the event. He also acknowledged
the importance of community participation in the correctional process.
“Community support and involvement
is critically important to the achievement of the Correctional Service’s mission and mandate,” said the Solicitor
General. “And I am very encouraged
by the assistance and support we
have received from the community
leaders, volunteer organizations, criminal justice partners, the clergy, private
citizens and the people who live near
this new facility.” Also in attendance
were CSC’s Commissioner, Mr. Ole
Ingstrup and Deputy Commissioner for
the Atlantic Region, Mr. Alphonse
The three-story-L-shaped building,
located at 23 Carleton Street in Saint
John, accommodates up to 26 federal
offenders on conditional release as
well as office space for 15 employees
who work in the parole office. The
new facility is also expected to
strengthen the long-standing partnership between corrections and the community in Saint John. Allowing for a
more efficient and effective delivery of
correctional services, the co-location of
the operations has expanded the
available program space, which is
accessible to community groups.
The Restorative Justice Concept –
An Alternative
Justice –
Supporting the
Offender as a
Member of the
by Ms. Claudine Daigle
Regional Administrator
Communications and Executive
Members of the Citizens’ Advisory
Committee (CAC) in the Atlantic
Region meet each year to share their
ideas and accomplishments, and to
reflect on a common theme. This year,
the new Community Corrections
Complex (Parrtown CCC/Saint John
Parole Office) provided the setting, on
June 21, and the theme, an old concept making its way anew in the criminal justice community: restorative
Ms. Joanne Goodrich, CAC Chairperson
at Westmorland Institution and
Moncton Parole Office, shared insights
gained at the conference on restorative
justice held in March in Vancouver.
Describing restorative justice as a
promising alternative to our traditional
retributive system, she focused on the
principle that the community should
strive to keep the offender as one of
its members, while including victims
in the process of restoring order after a
crime has been committed. “The traditional system does not provide a
chance for the offender to remain
acquainted with the community, and
upon release the offender is very often
isolated. This too often leads to recidivism, and it gives little peace to the
victim,” she said.
in conflict with the law. Incarceration
gave him a second chance. He
believes, though, that restorative justice is required for complete restoration
after victimization occurs. “Restoration
for me occurred when I was able to
forgive my father on his death bed,”
affirms the Reverend. He talked about
the work of Cons for Christ in assisting offenders to remain members of
the community. They engage in very
practical activities to help individuals
break the cycle of violence and crime
– the Ministry operates a camp for
children, welcomes offenders back to
the community, provides counseling,
assists offenders with job search,
speaks to youth groups, helps offenders and their families, or simply lends
a caring hand.
Three Perspectives on Restorative
Reverend Montey Lewis was described
as a “restored” individual. He is the
founder of Cons for Christ, a prison
Ministry based in Fredericton, New
Brunswick, which reaches out to
inmates during their incarceration and
helps them bridge the gap between
institutional life and freedom in the
community. After a turbulent childhood shattered by abuse, he ended up
Mr. Walter Brown, who was CAC
Regional Chairperson at the time,
talked about the emotions involved for
him and his family after being victims
of several acts of vandalism. There is
Constable Ray Coleman, Saint John City
Walter Brown, former CAC Regional
Three key players in the criminal justice system – a victim, an offender,
and a police officer – gave their views
on restorative justice.
December 1997
the feeling of loss – material, of course
– but also a sense of mourning for
having been robbed of things that are
irreplaceable, such as a coin collection,
souvenirs from deceased relatives, and
other valuables. There is the frustration of having the insurance company
cancel your insurance because you
have become a bad risk. There is
anger at the system; there is sympathy for those who steal; there is fear,
almost paranoia, that it will happen
again. And there is a feeling of personal violation. The traditional system
leaves the victim empty-handed and
provides for no closure. The restorative justice system allows for restitution and gives an opportunity for closure.
The offender, who eight years ago
was declared a dangerous offender,
has cascaded through the system –
from maximum security incarceration
to day parole in a Community
Residential Centre. He described his
frame of mind at the time of his
offences: “I did not care about the victims and about how they felt – I only
cared about what I wanted,” he said.
Eight years of incarceration has
brought him in touch with his feelings, with the assistance of Cons for
Christ. “I have gained an awareness of
the impact I had on these people; I
think a lot about them, especially the
last one who sustained 50 stitches in
a bar room brawl,” he continued. But
for him, the healing remains incomplete until he has a chance to meet
with his victim. “Although the traditional system provides opportunities
for growth and change, I believe that
restorative justice only can promote
real healing,” he concluded.
Constable Ray Coleman, from Saint
John City Police, sees daily the frustrations of many people who are violated
and are losing faith in the criminal
justice system. He sees restorative justice as a promising alternative.
“Community policing presents some
December 1997
facets of this philosophy, in that it
attempts to involve communities in
the maintenance of law and order.
Most police officers have difficulty
developing empathy for the offender,
though, because of the victims,” he
said. His experience – as a correctional
officer, in parole work and as a CAC
member – leads him to see victimoffender mediation as an option to
promote healing and to restore faith in
the system for police, victims and the
community at large.
Saint John Mayor, Ms. Shirley
McAlary, welcomed CAC members to
the city and commended them for
engaging, on behalf of their communities, in activities that assist and
encourage offenders to reintegrate into
A strong advocate of alternatives to
incarceration, New Brunswick Solicitor
General Jane Barry indicated that the
Province is shifting one third of its
corrections resources to the community in order to maintain in society
those offenders who do not pose any
undue risk, with provisions for the
delivery of community-based programs. The Province’s five corrections
regions have developed community
councils which are encouraged to
liaise with groups such as Citizens’
Advisory Committees. “As part of its
renewal in the area of corrections, the
Province is very interested in the concept of restorative justice, and welcomes cooperation to bring the community on side – there is still much a
feeling of ‘lock them up and throw
away the key’,” she said.
CACs in the Atlantic want to find
ways to cooperate with the police, the
court system, corrections and the
communities to find solutions that will
enable the offender to remain a member of the community. ■
let’ stalk
La Macaza
Institution is 20
years old
by Ms. Ninon Paquette
Assistant Warden, Management
Services, La Macaza Institution
On September 26, La Macaza
Institution in Quebec celebrated its
20th birthday. The day began with a
tour of the Institution. A number of
former employees, including retired
staff, attended the event. The
Institution, a former military base,
has seen major changes in recent
years; indeed, those who had not
been there in a long time wondered if
they were in the right place!
After the tour, Warden Odette GravelDunberry addressed employees and
guests. She paid tribute to all those
who had worked at the Institution
over the past 20 years and issued a
challenge to current staff for the
years to come.
A party, jointly organized by the 20th
anniversary celebrations organizing
committee and the social committee
followed. Everything had been done
to bring back good memories of the
past 20 years. The walls of the hall
were papered with photographs and
Administration Building
employees performed humorous skits.
It was a wonderful reunion and the
evening was a success from every
point of view.
History of La Macaza Institution
La Macaza is a former military base
that was used by National Defence in
the ‘60s. It was abandoned in 1970
and subsequently turned into a college for Aboriginal students.
On August 22, 1977, the decision
was made to turn it into a federal
medium-security penitentiary. It was
to house 165 inmates and staff was
to be gradually increased to 170
But one year later, belt-tightening put
the very existence of La Macaza
Institution in peril. At the time,
employees had to work in an atmosphere of uncertainty. They did such
a good job that on November 8,
1978, then Commissioner Yeomans
confirmed, during a visit to the
Institution, that the penitentiary
would remain open and would
become a low-medium security institution.
Today, La Macaza Institution has
become a medium security institution
which houses more than 300 inmates
and is staffed at 173 person-years.
Like other medium security institutions, La Macaza will get a main
communications control post next
December. Increasingly, the old military facilities are being replaced by
new construction which is more suitable from both the security and operational points of view.
Opening and maintaining an institution like this one is quite a feat. It is
thanks to the people who have
worked here over all these years that
the Institution has become what it is
Hats off to one and all for a job well
December 1997
Awareness Day
M. Michel Cantin, Instructor
Ms. Carole Taillon, Program Officer
An Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Day
was held at La Macaza Institution in
Quebec on October 31. The event provided an opportunity for a large number of participants from both the community and institution to discuss
Aboriginal cultural realities and issues
in a correctional environment.
Members of the National Parole Board
and decision-makers and stakeholders
from Aboriginal, correctional and edu-
Traditional Chants
cational settings saw the importance
of implementing programs which can
meet the needs of Aboriginal residents.
The prominent involvement of residents in organizing the event and visits by residents’ family members created an atmosphere conducive to reflection and discussion.
and progressively moved through the
ranks of the NPB and CSC until finally
reaching his current position in 1985.
A WellDeserved
Mr. Jean-Claude Perron, Deputy
Commissioner for the Quebec Region,
will be retiring from the Correctional
Service of Canada (CSC) on February
13. Mr. Perron started his career in
June 1967 as a Parole Officer at the
National Parole Board (NPB) in Laval
December 1997
Throughout the years, he had a great
impact on correctional services around
the world, hosting foreign delegations
which lead to staff interchange among
countries. Mr. Perron is a member of
the American Correctional Association;
over the years, he served as president
of the Federal Regional Council in
Quebec and also held the position of
First Vice-president of the American
Probation and Parole Association.
Mr. Perron gracefully agreed to the
following interview with Mr. Jacques
Bélanger, Senior Communications
Officer at National Headquarters, in
which he shares his valuable experi-
let’ stalk
A Sharing Circle and Teachings of the
Elders helped give participants a better
understanding of the richness of
Aboriginal traditions and suggested
new approaches. A visit to a sweat
lodge, Aboriginal chants and a generous traditional community feast prepared by volunteers from the surrounding community contributed to
the event’s success.
ence and views of Canadian corrections.
Q: What advice would you give to
graduate students who wish to work
in corrections?
A: I'd tell them that if they feel like
doing missionary work, they should
come to CSC. However, they should
not expect gratitude from the population at large. The salary is good but
the work is difficult. We are criticized
internally and externally, however,
you must still be able to make enlightened decisions on each individual
Q: Is there a discrepancy between
what is taught in universities and
Deputy Commissioner that you
are proudest of?
A: Foremost, I was the first
Deputy Commissioner with a
community rather than an institutional background. Wardens
gradually altered their philosophy
to adopt a community orientation, setting the stage for more
conditional releases. We also successfully implemented a strong
community network, such as
community residential facilities
and social agencies.
Jean-Claude Per ron
A: There's a huge discrepancy. It's
astounding to realize that more than 70
percent of teachers and students in
Quebec are in favour of the death
penalty. It's inadmissible, considering
those students might end up working
with inmates. This was brought to my
attention by university teachers.
Q: Was the climate less conservative
when you joined the criminal justice
system in 1967?
A: The recommendations made by probation officers at the time were more
open. The prevailing philosophy was to
get as many people out as possible,
without jeopardizing the public's safety.
Their job is more difficult now, as their
caseload has tripled and there is much
more paperwork involved. Regulations
were also less stringent, we were
allowed to take more risks. Not that
failure was acceptable, but people were
less likely to be banned from the public
service for misjudging a case.
Q: What have you accomplished in the
past 12 years that you have been
I'm very proud of the change of
philosophy within CSC's institutions. It wasn't easy for some
wardens to go from a "lock them
up" attitude to embracing rehabilitation. It's quite a cultural
change that took place at that
I'm also happy with maximum-security Archambault Institution becoming a
medium-security facility, as well as
the Federal Training Centre going from
medium-security to minimum-security.
I don't think highly institutionalized
facilities are a solution, so I like the
direction we're taking. We are one of
the countries with the highest incarceration rate, after Russia, the United
States, and South Africa, and CSC is
working at changing that.
Q: What would you have liked to
accomplish in the past 12 years that
you were unable to?
A: I would have liked to see a lower
incarceration rate prior to leaving the
Service, as well as a higher rate of
offenders on conditional release.
Quebec has the highest rate of conditional releases in Canada, but I would
like it to be higher still.
Another regret concerns the Federal
Training Centre. When it was transformed into a minimum-security facility, the fence surrounding the perimeter of the institution remained. Public
pressure stopped us from removing it,
which alters its role as a minimumsecurity facility.
Q: When discussing management
issues with your colleagues in other
regions, have you ever felt your
region had unique characteristics?
A: The regulations are the same
throughout the country; we are all
guided by CSC's Mission document. If
there is one area that might be different in the Quebec Region, it's that the
control mechanism I've implemented
is more stringent than in other regions
– I get enough complaints from the
wardens to attest to that.
Q: What does the future hold for you?
A: I gained a lot of experience working for the public service and would
like to put it to good use by working
for non-profit organizations such as
the Canadian Executive Service
Organization (CESO), the Oxford
Committee for Famine Relief
(OXFAM), or the International Red
Cross. I still have the missionary calling, so I would like to assist developing countries in matters of correctional
services, management or training.
Q: Mr. Perron, you'll be missed at CSC;
we hope you'll enjoy your retirement
and wish you great success in your
future endeavours.
A: Thank you. I would like to point
out, in closing, that the Quebec
Region owes its success to the
extraordinary management team that
I've been able to rely on. We also
have a good succession plan in place
and boast of the highest number of
female wardens of all regions. Hence,
I'm very optimistic of the future of the
Service, and I know the hard work of
these past years will soon result in an
increase of offender reintegration into
the community and in a decrease of
federal institutions in Canada. ■
December 1997
Board Game
Invented for
social learning theory and incorporates
the New Roads technique to behaviour
change, using the ABC model:
antecedents, behaviour, and consequences.
Antecedents – Refers to having participants recognize what triggers are and
how they may affect one’s sobriety;
participants also learn about relapses
and slips, and the impact they have.
Behaviour – Focus is on questions
derived from the teaching manual that
incorporates the use of social skills,
dealing with negative thinking and
the benefits of applying social skills in
relation to substance use.
Two Ontario Program Officers at
Kingston Penitentiar y, Ms. Janice
Carson and Ms. Merri MacDonald,
recently created a board game that
allows inmates participating in
Substance Abuse Programming to
practice their skills.
Consequences – Questions focus on
the knowledge of the positive and
negative effects of the five different
classifications of psychoactive drugs
as well as stimulating alternatives to
deal with situations other than relying
on drugs.
SKILLPAC originated as a practical and
interesting method to provide a comprehensive review of the program
material taught in the Offender
Substance Abuse Prerelease Program
(OSAPP). The game includes and recognizes the different learning styles
and the educational limitations of its
participants. It is based on the OSAPP
The game consists of three packs of
cards, one for each of these components, with questions printed on the
reverse. The questions cover all the
material presented throughout the program and provided on handouts for
the participants. Specially marked
cards focus on high-risk situations
presented by a participant; the answer
A facilitator assists to the game, handing out chips for correct answers and
acting as a mediator when necessary.
The idea is to include the participants
at all times throughout the game, not
just when it is their turn. By conforming to the guided learning process, it is
creating an interactive process involv ing the entire group by shifting the
responsibility of self-discovery to the
participants through guided questioning. It also allows the participants to
contribute their own knowledge, ideas,
opinions and experiences, which is
reassuring because they can see that
others share similar problems and
views. Everyone in the group can
become involved. Because it is a selfdiscovery process, a deeper understanding of oneself is achieved while
increasing the participants’ knowledge
of the methods that help change attitudes, build other skills and develop
social perspective taking.
The game can be played at different
stages of the program simply by
removing the questions that have not
been taught yet. The game is perfect
for maintenance and relapse prevention groups. As the same substance
abuse programs are delivered in other
correctional facilities across Canada,
the game becomes universal to all
sites, in conjunction with the Core
Programs mandate.
In its initial stage, the board game was
constructed of plywood, with graphics
hand-drawn in oil paint. The question
cards were made from discarded business cards, donated from a Kingston
area printer. The box used to carry the
game was made by an offender at
Kingston Penitentiary, in the carpentr y
shop, and was supervised by Mr.
Gerry Haycock.
December 1997
is decided by the group to determine
appropriateness, feasible realism and
use of the skill. This process allows
them to analyze a given situation and
to offer constructive criticism that is
often better accepted from one’s peers.
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The game is now being produced by a
local design studio. Ms. Janice Carson
worked closely with the designer to
ensure that the visual design was
compatible with the program concept.
The box shows a compass signifying
new directions, new changes, that life
is a journey and along that journey
people have to make choices, find
alternatives, assess consequences in
order to develop effective strategies to
deal with substance use as well as
Distribution of the game is underway
at various correctional facilities across
Canada. A copy can be obtained by
calling Ms. Carson at (613) 536-4304.
Ms. Janice Carson was working at the
Kingston Penitentiary when the game
was created. She has since trans ferred to Collins Bay Institution,
where she works as a Substance
Abuse Program Officer.
‘Back On Track’
Is Back
Ms. Lise Caron was a Registrar at the
Regional Correctional Staff College
when she wrote this article. She is
now a Case Management Officer at
Bath Institution.
The Back On Track program began as
a pilot project in February 1997 and
finished in June, at the end of the
school year. It is an alternative school
program for “at-risk” adolescents. This
program is the first joint effort
between the Separate and Public
School Boards, involving curriculum
planning and delivery at the classroom level. The Regional Correctional
Staff College had a unique opportunity
of becoming a partner in this program
by providing classroom space for these
students. Other resources available to
them included the gym, library, computer rooms, and the Resource Center.
The program began its first full year
on September 15. It has the benefit of
beginning with the new school year
and is once again using the facilities
at the Regional Correctional Staff
College. The teachers and their assistants assigned to this project from
both the Separate and Public School
Boards were busy last summer preparing and planning the schedule for the
new school year. The aim is to help
“at-risk” adolescents who are not
doing well in the traditional system.
Back On Track is not intended to
replace the traditional class setting,
but as a means of intervention to help
adolescents stay in school, with the
aim of returning to a traditional high
school after a few weeks or months to
complete their secondary school education. As a continuous intake program, students may enter throughout
the school year. This enables the program to assist a greater number of
students, as the seating is limited.
This program is to be commended for
taking a lead as a preventive initiative
involving youngsters under 16. The
pilot project was a success in many
ways. The attendance of the students
improved dramatically, they earned
more credits, and the majority have
been integrated into their local high
The Back On Track program is not a
means of punishment, but an opportunity to learn responsibility – for their
actions, attendance and school work.
The environment and atmosphere of
the Correctional Staff College is conducive to learning. The college staff,
as well as other staff from the Ontario
Region who attend training at the college, provide positive role models for
these students. ■
Healing Lodge
in Prince Albert
by Mr. Tim Krause
Regional Communications Officer
Nestled among the pines in northern
Saskatchewan, the Prince Albert Grand
Council Spiritual Healing Lodge officially opened its doors in September
among prayers, songs, and salutations.
The Lodge, located on the Wahpeton
Reserve, North of Prince Albert, will
house 30 male aboriginal offenders,
and be run by 10 staff and one fulltime Elder, with the assistance of a
number of visiting Elders.
The Healing Lodge is the result of a
partnership between the Prince Albert
Grand Council (PAGC), the provincial
government of Saskatchewan and the
federal government. Under terms of the
agreement, the PAGC will operate the
culturally-based Healing Lodge for 25
provincial and up to five federal
inmates. A five-year agreement provides for an annual operating budget of
$814,000 with the province committing $678,000 in funding and the
Correctional Service of Canada (CSC)
providing a payment of up to $136,000
based on the actual number of federal
offenders the facility will house.
The agreement was the first of its kind
signed by CSC under Section 81 of the
Corrections and Conditional Release
Act, which allows CSC to enter into
agreements with Aboriginal communities for the provision of correctional
December 1997
Participants in the Grand
Entry file in to begin the
opening ceremony for the
Prince Albert Grand Council
Spiritual Healing Lodge
From left to right: Paul
Oleniuk,CSC; PAGC Vice
Chief Hardlot; Carla Omani;
Chief Omani, Wahpeton First
Nation; Elder Rita
Parenteau; Justice Minister
John Nilson; Elder Nellie
Kingfisher; PAGC Grand
Chief Alphonse Bird;
Federation of Saskatchewan
Indian Nations Chief Blaine
Favel; Chief Terry Sanderson,
James Smith First Nation
Little Nations Singers per forming at the opening cer emony
CSC Regional Elder John
Stonechild presenting a star blanket and plaque at the
opening ceremony
December 1997
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services to Aboriginal offenders.
The PAGC built the facility, relying
heavily on their own suppliers and artisans. In addition, inmate work crews
on work release programs from
Saskatchewan Penitentiary provided a
substantial amount of labour to assist
in the construction over the course of
the project from May to August, 1997.
PAGC Grand Chief Alphonse Bird said
the Lodge is part of a process for First
Nations to look at taking control of
their courts, corrections and policing.
“The people who come here want healing. The people who want to walk out
can walk, but they won’t be welcome
back. I hope to see this initiative taken
up by other tribal councils in
Saskatchewan,” Chief Bird said at the
opening ceremony.
Prairie Region Assistant Deputy
Commissioner Paul Oleniuk, who represented CSC at the opening ceremony,
echoed the Chief’s comments. “We
hope this is only a beginning, and
that the future will present similar
opportunities elsewhere,” Mr. Oleniuk
said at the opening.
Also participating in the opening ceremony was Saskatchewan Justice
Minister John Nilson. “It’s significant
we use the term ‘relative’ to describe
the people who live here,” said Mr.
Nilson. “A relative is a person of our
family who needs help and sometimes
we are not careful to think of those
caught in the criminal justice system
as members of family.”
The facility currently houses 17
offenders, four of which are federal
inmates. Offenders are selected
through a rigorous screening process
involving Elders, staff and the sponsoring correctional service. There are
no fences around the facility, and only
minimum security offenders will be
considered for placement at the
Healing Lodge.
New Federal
Security Annex
Opens at the
by Mr. Tim Krauseb
by Mr. Tim Krause
Regional Communications Officer
A new federal minimum security institution was officially opened October
29 in Drumheller, Alberta. The 56-bed
Minimum Security Annex is located
on a hill above and just outside the
perimeter fence which sur rounds the
main medium security Drumheller
Institution. Presiding over the official
opening were Correctional Service of
Canada (CSC) officials Prairie Region
Deputy Commissioner Rémi Gobeil
and Drumheller Institution Warden
Tim Fullerton.
The Minimum Security Annex was
built to address a lack of minimum
security beds in the Prairie Region. The
new Annex is comprised of seven
apartment-style units, each unit housing eight offenders. There is also an
administration building and a private
family visiting unit, which is still under
About 100 guests participated in the
opening ceremony which was held in
the sprung structure at the Annex,
also known as “the dome”. The
sprung structure is a temporary structure resembling a large tent, with
walls being made of a tough plastic
skin. The sprung structure is expected
to have a life of 15 years and will be
used for program space.
“There are some sound reasons for
building minimum security facilities
such as this, adjacent to medium security institutions,” said Mr. Gobeil. “The
two facilities will benefit from shared
programming and staff resources and
will be able to work closely together at
identifying candidates from the higher
security institution who have shown
they are ready for a minimum security
environment,” he explained.
Mr. Fullerton, the Warden of
Drumheller Institution, noted: “The
Annex will become a valuable tool for
the CSC to manage offenders and provide a more controlled environment to
ensure a gradual and supervised return
back into the community.”
Following the speeches, the guests were
ushered outside where they witnessed a
ribbon-cutting in front of the ceremonial
white spruce tree which had been planted earlier in the fall to commemorate the
completion of the project.
Ms. Dorothy Bergos, Deputy Mayor for
the town of Drumheller, said the town
is squarely behind the facility. “This
Annex is of great interest to our city
council and of course we can’t deny
our enthusiasm at the increased (tax)
assessment and look forward to working this into our next budget,” Ms.
Bergos said jokingly at the opening.
One unique aspect about the Annex
was that CORCAN was the main contractor for the project, and most of the
labour was provided by inmates. The
inmates lived in “the dome” while the
permanent buildings were being constructed, and judging by the appearance of the end product, took great
pride in their work.
From left to right: Ribbon cutting by Tim Fullerton, Warden of Drumheller Institution,
Dorothy Bergos, Deputy Mayor for the town of Drumheller and Rémi Gobeil, Deputy
Commissioner, Prairie Region
The $2.2 million facility will have an
annual operating budget of approximately $1 million. Inmates have
already moved into the new facility
and it is currently at full capacity.
December 1997
Facility Opens
in Edmonton,
by Mr. Tim Krause
Regional Communications Of ficer
About 100 invited guests attended the
official opening for the Grierson Centre
on October 30 in Edmonton, Alberta.
The 30-bed Grierson Centre is part of
the Grierson Complex located at 9530 –
101 Avenue in downtown Edmonton.
The Grierson Complex also accommodates the District Parole Office for
Northern Alberta and Northwest
Territories, the Edmonton Area Parole
Office, the sub-office to the Prairie
Region National Parole Board and the
Stan Daniels Centre, a community correctional centre operated by Native
Counseling Services of Alberta.
Presiding over the opening ceremony
were Prairie Region Assistant Deputy
Commissioner Paul Oleniuk and
Northern Alberta/N.W.T. District
Director Don Kynoch.
In addition to the opening, the occasion marked the 25th anniversary of
CSC involvement at the Grierson
“The Grierson Complex has served a
number of purposes over the course of
the last 25 years,” said Mr. Oleniuk at
the opening. “Today, part of the complex is being officially designated as a
minimum security facility which will
accommodate 30 offenders who have
not yet been granted any form of conditional release, but have demonstrated they are capable of exercising
responsible behaviour within this type
of environment,” he added.
Mr. Kynoch, the District Parole
Director for Northern Alberta and
N.W.T. also spoke at the opening and
noted: “With the opening of this minimum security facility, we will be able
to offer offenders a wide variety of
programs and services within the
same complex. The Stan Daniels
Centre will accommodate those who
are on day parole or full parole, and
with the parole supervision offices all
located here as well, we will be able to
use our resources more effectively to
ensure the protection of the Edmonton
The event was an occasion for many
former staff who worked at the
Grierson Complex at some time in
their careers to get together and reminisce about old times. The renovation
looked impressive with bright-faced
staff waiting eagerly on hand to
proudly escort visitors on tours of the
facility. Following the official ceremonies, lunch was served at the Stan
Daniels Community Correctional
The Edmonton community appears to
be supportive of the initiative, with little expression of concern about having
the Centre in operation. The target
group of offenders to be transferred to
the Centre includes those eligible for
accelerated day parole who are first
time federal offenders serving sentences for non-violent crimes.
From left to right: Ribbon cutting ceremony involved Ter ry Olenick, Director of Grierson
Centre, Don Kynoch, District Director, Northern Alberta/N.W.T. Parole District, Paul
Oleniuk, Assistant Deputy Commissioner, Prairie Region, and Allen Benson, Executive
Director, Native Counseling Services of Alberta
December 1997
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The Grierson Centre renovation cost
$400,000 and will have an annual
operating budget of $820,000. The
first inmates arrived in early
January. ■
WHI Inmate Committee Chairman Tim
Whitwell lost both his parents to cancer and cut his shoulder-length hair,
raising over $400 from fellow inmates
and staff.
Cops for Cancer
Fund Raising
by Mr. Randie Scott, Assistant
There are a lot of shiny heads around
William Head Institution (WHI) these
days. Over $5,000 was raised for the
Canadian Cancer Society last October
25 when 16 staff members rose to the
challenge from the local RCMP detachment in Colwood, B.C., which organized the ‘Cops for Cancer’ fundraising
event. Financial pledges were made for
every hair on participants’ heads, with
all money directed to helping send kids
with cancer to a special camp. The
actual head shaving was a well-attended spectacle in a local shopping mall
and involved about 50 protective services personnel. There were also several spontaneous auctions for moustaches and beards which raised more cash
during the barbering spree, as cameras
rolled and flashes lit up.
Correctional Officer Hali Jo Shular (seat ed) being presented with customized CSC
cap by Assistant Warden Randie Scott. T o
their left is a volunteer hairdresser and
Constable Paula Raymond.
WHI Correctional Officer Hali Jo Shular
joined several other ladies for the
cause. Ms. Shular, who had expressed
concerns about her bare head being
cold, was presented with a customized
version of the CSC baseball style cap,
complete with a woven pony tail!
Top money earner was Genno Pereira,
who netted over $1,000 from family,
friends and colleagues. Warden
Michael Gallagher mirrored the
thoughts of many when he said that
the event was ‘a perfectly ridiculous
thing to do…for a wonderful cause’.
The final tally for money raised by
participating criminal justice and protective custody service agencies was
almost $20,000! The event was hailed
as a resounding success by the Cancer
Society. Many young cancer patients
will now be able to go to camp due to
the efforts of so many willing and
generous supporters.
The Pacific
The Pacific Regional Pharmacy was
established in 1993 under the guidance
of Dr. Réal Préfontaine, then senior
medical advisor for the region. Today it
is run by coordinator Jason Wong, staff
pharmacist John Evans and pharmacy
technicians Lorena Matthiesen and
Melena Brookes.
The Pacific Regional Pharmacy is an
accredited hospital pharmacy providing
pharmaceutical and hospital supply services to approximately 2,400 inmates
at seven federal correctional institutions
in the Pacific Region. The pharmacy
attends to the needs of a range of facilities including minimum, medium, and
maximum security institutions, the
Regional Health Centre and six parole
Back row, from left: Cor rectional Officer Iqbal Sangha; Cor rectional Supervisors Ross Reid
and Rob Higgins; Supplies and Institutional Services Ron Baird; Assistant Warden Randie
Scott; Chief Finance Genno Pereira; Cor rectional Officer Hali Jo Shular .
Front row: Cor rectional Officers Chris Grangeaud, Bernie Dovell and Michael Black;
Correctional Supervisor Steve Phillips (with 11-month old son Jethan); Acting Institutional
Preventive Security Officer Dave Hamer
Prior to the creation of the Pacific
Regional Pharmacy, located at the
Matsqui Corrections Complex in
Abbotsford, British Columbia, correctional facilities got their pharmaceutical
services from community pharmacies.
However, a number of factors – rising
December 1997
drug costs, expensive professional fees
and services, the lack of centralized
patient drug records and little uniformity from facility to facility – prompted an
in-depth review of how Correctional
Service Canada could obtain inmate
medications in the future. The dilemma
was resolved by establishing a centralized “in-house” regional pharmacy. As
a result, over the counter drug costs for
federal inmates and health care staff
have declined by well over 20 per cent
per year, or $100,000 each year in the
past four years.
Reducing Costs
With the development of the Pacific
Regional Pharmacy, a number of associated changes began to occur. A
regional Drug Formulary – a group of
drugs used to treat a particular illness
that is agreed upon by health care staff
treating the patient – was created, with
the input of all regional doctors, psychiatrists, dentists, nursing staff and pharmacists, and reduced the need to keep
rarely prescribed drugs on hand.
Limiting the amount of drugs to be dispensed at a time also reduced costs.
Since the potential for drug abuse by
inmates is high, medications such as
neuroleptics, antidepressants, sedatives
and hypnotics are now packaged in
weekly, versus three-month, supplies.
Narcotics and other controlled drugs are
avoided, except in extreme cases, and
other drugs are acquired through the
governmental federal-provincial-territorial group purchasing contracts, the
least expensive drug source.
Quality Care and Service
As well as reducing drug expenses, the
Pacific Regional Pharmacy offers services not associated with a community
pharmacy. It established a Regional
Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
to address pharmacy and inmate health
care issues, and provides medicine and
drug-related information to inmates.
The pharmacy takes on special reports
and projects, including a review of
December 1997
changes in HIV drug regimens in the
corrections setting, toxicology reports of
common drugs used by inmates, and
drug research projects and cost comparison reports.
The staff at the Regional Pharmacy also
serve as a drug information resource
centre for health care and corrections
staff. They prepare the monthly
Psychotherapeutic Drug Bulletin whose
target is psychiatrists and psychologists
in the Pacific Region, and the bimonthly Pharmagram for nursing staff and
Regional physicians. Correctional security staff can also contact the pharmacy
for clarification on lab findings, such as
an explanation about why certain
metabolites were detected in an
inmate’s urinalysis lab report. Written
drug information – how to properly
take medication, what to do about
missed doses, side effects to watch for –
is also supplied to the inmates.
Practising pharmacy in such a unique
setting is challenging and fascinating at
the same time. Due to the patients’ situation, precautions not in place in the
general public are in effect. No prescription products for inmate use can contain any alcohol. This is difficult at
times, since topical preparations such as
acne lotion and mouthrince contain a
small amount of alcohol. Another precaution is not using glass containers,
for obvious safety reasons. These special requirements result in a very
labour-intensive work setting for pharmacy staff.
Being a public entity, assistance to the
community is a primary goal of the
Regional Pharmacy. Pharmacy technician students have work practicums at
the pharmacy, and an agreement has
been made with the University of
British Columbia’s Faculty of
Pharmaceutical Sciences to have fourthyear pharmacist students perform their
apprenticeship at the Regional
Pharmacy. Currently, there is only one
other such Regional Pharmacy for the
Correctional Service of Canada and it is
let’ stalk
located in Kingston, Ontario.
For further information on the Pacific
Regional Pharmacy, please contact Mr.
Jason Wong, Coordinator of Pharmacy
Services, Pacific Region at (604) 8642521 or by fax at (604) 864-2523.
Regional Pharmacy
staff have been able
to receive orders and
dispense drugs
with the click of
a button, thanks to
a unique
new software package
At each correctional institution’s
inmate health care centre, there are
both nursing staff and the services of
a visiting contract physician, who is
on site at least once a week. After an
inmate has been seen, a prescription is
entered into the CHART computer system, which is connected to the
Regional Pharmacy. CHART allows for
the on-time transmission and receiving of information. Physicians enter
their orders using a confidential, electronic password which is then picked
up at the Regional Pharmacy for dispensing. Regardless of the location of
the facility, the CHART software allows
for the speedy and confidential sharing
of prescription information between
physicians and pharmacy staff.
“Besides pharmacy and drug information, this system has the ability to
provide nursing-related and diagnostic
information for our physicians. I don’t
know how we managed without it the
first few years I was here,” said
Regional Pharmacy Coordinator Mr.
Jason Wong. ■
Christmas Stories from Across the Country
The following is a rundown of just what generosity means – A host of Christmas events took place in all institutions
At Dorchester Institution, 28
inmates got into the holiday spirit by
making gifts for needy children. In this
8th year of operation, offenders in the
Basic Skills Shop have produced nearly
13,000 toys. Inmates with special talents are dubbed ‘tutors’ and help those
with special needs. Atlantic Regional
Headquarters’ staff made up special
Christmas hampers, filled to the brim
with helpful and delectable goods, for
four families and the two children of
inmates at Nova Institution for
Women. Each family also received a
Christmas dinner. Sainte-Anne-desPlaines Institution staff and offenders
raised money for the Knights of
Columbus charity. They earned a total
of $2,143 and 10 food baskets destined for needy families. And at the
Federal Training Centre, over
$3,000 was garnered along with 20
food baskets. At Cowansville
Institution, 80 inmates and 200 family members celebrated Christmas, with
Santa appearing to give presents to
children who might not have otherwise
been so lucky. New toys and food were
also handed out for community distribution. Drummond Institution decorated a tree for 35 handicapped children, while La Macaza Institution’s
choir raised $500 for local families in
need. Eighty inmates at Leclerc
Institution celebrated with 30 handicapped children by presenting them
with a Santa, clowns and toys.
Montée Saint-François Institution
made up close to 4,000 Christmas baskets for a charity, wrapped presents
and gave out meals at a community
centre. Port-Cartier Institution held a
day for 35 handicapped persons with
50 inmates participating. They made a
crèche, trimmed the tree and shared a
meal together. The Regional
Reception Centre, together with the
Knights of Columbus, gave out
Christmas food baskets, and
Donnacona Institution put together
eight full boxes of non-perishable food
and raised $200 for needy families.
Eight inmates of Frontenac
Institution who volunteer throughout
the year at the Salvation Army Food
Bank, turned their talents to unloading,
sorting and distributing Christmas baskets to the needy. Inmates also contribute their skills to renovating a children’s receiving home in Newberry.
Ontario Regional Headquarters
raised $600 and gave it to ‘Clothes for
Kids’ which provides warm winter
clothing for children. Pittsburgh
Institution offenders again offered
their services to erect and dismantle
much of the props needed for the
‘Festival of Trees’ which raises money
for hospitals. They also helped the
Salvation Army with dinners and gift
hampers, and assisted with a program
to find presents for incarcerated offenders’ children. And residents and staff at
St. Leonard’s Peel community-based
residential facility threw their 20th
annual Christmas party for underprivileged children, with 60 youngsters and
30 parents in attendance this year.
Stony Mountain Institution’s Don
Kamins, his immediate family and
even in-laws have given their time and
energy for the past 16 years to organize a Christmas celebration for staff’s
children. The inmate population at that
facility has also been very generous,
raising $5,000 throughout the year for
charitable causes including Loonies for
Lorrie, Ross Brook House, the
Winnipeg Children’s Hospital and the
flood relief. And two inmates collaborated on a gingerbread house that was
entered in the Winnipeg Convention
Centre’s festival of Trees and Lights.
Prairie Regional Headquarters par-
ticipated in a local program called
‘Adopt a Family’ which gives money
and gifts to underprivileged families.
More than 300 cards and envelopes
designed by mentally disordered
patients in the Regional Health
Centre’s occupational therapy studio
club were delivered to the Christmas
Bureau Food Bank in Abbotsford.
Pottery items were also donated by the
patients for use as Christmas gifts.
Pacific Regional Headquarters
adopted a family with nine children
that had been separated – the father
works far away and cannot afford
financial support and the mother is on
social assistance, while the children
were removed and placed in foster
homes. The children were brought
home for the holidays and resumed
residence there in January. At Kent
Institution, the Protective Custody
Native Brotherhood baked gingerbread
houses and carved a paddle for the
community. At Ferndale Institution,
inmates found $300 to donate to those
in need, and baked goodies to raise
funds for the John Howard Society. At
William Head Institution, staff’s regular contribution to the Western
Communities Christmas hamper was
maintained, and this year food was
offered to a single mother with four
children. At Elbow Lake Institution,
inmates baked 150 gingerbread men to
give to community services, and
Mission Institution lifers gave $200
to a food bank and $200 to an
orphan’s fund. They also bought toys
for the children of offenders. Staff participated in the Christmas Tree gift project and gave presents to children in
need. A Matsqui Institution offender
made large gingerbread houses and
distributed them to children away from
home in hospitals or transition houses,
at Christmas. ■
December 1997
The Correctional Strategy
The Correctional Service of Canada
(CSC) is responsible for about 24,000
offenders on any given day. Because
this responsibility relates directly to
important aspects of the lives of these
offenders, the Service must discharge
its responsibility in accordance with
the law, the Mission of the Service,
and the social and cultural traditions
of our country. The Service must
respond to the needs of the offenders
within its jurisdiction. These needs
should be considered on two levels:
• the Service must meet basic needs of
offenders, including housing, food,
clothing, health care and safety;
• the Service must also assist the
individual offender in addressing
factors relating specifically to his or
her criminal behaviour so that the
likelihood of recidivism is reduced.
Often, Service activities can address
both levels of needs simultaneously.
While the Service is responsible for
ensuring the availability of programs
and services, as well as providing an
environment which supports change,
each offender is responsible for changing his or her own behaviour through
addressing specific needs as identified
in the correctional planning process.
Good corrections is, in effect, the successful reduction of the risk of recidivism. It is the belief of the CSC that
good programming is an essential element in reducing recidivism, while at
the same time providing better control
and stability in institutions and the
community. The Service must therefore invest further in programming
and provide incentives for offenders to
participate in programs designed to
correct their criminal behaviour.
An overall, commonly accepted correctional strategy guides operations in
determining the relationships and priorities among the components of programming directed at groups presenting
different needs. It will thus ensure that
the programming effectively meets the
needs of the offenders, that the programming components are integrated
with one another, and that they are
compatible with recognized Canadian
community standards.
The Service must, as any other organization, set priorities with efficiency
in mind. All functions should be
reviewed in light of the correctional
strategy to determine what resources
should be reallocated.
The following principles have, therefore, been adopted by the Service to:
Offender needs should drive programs and service delivery in CSC,
and programs should primarily focus
on successful reintegration. While
helping the offender cope with incarceration, the primary efforts have to
be directed towards the ultimate goal
of successfully reintegrating the
offender into the community.
Changing values, specifically those
relating to reducing criminal
behaviour and, thus, recidivism,
should direct the management of
offenders. The Service must create
an environment which is conducive
to changing beliefs, attitudes and
behaviour, and to reinforcing the
desired changes both in the institutional and community settings.
3. THE
• guide the establishment of program
• identify programs that should be
either altered or eliminated; and
• identify where resource reallocations are possible, and to what programs the resources should be reallocated.
December 1997
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CSC staff, in the community and
institutions, must be provided with
the appropriate training to develop
effective skills in assessment, mon itoring, and intervention techniques. This will allow them to
assist offenders in developing spe -
cific strategies for coping with risk
situations, thereby enhancing the
likelihood of their success in the
community. All staff, when working with offenders, must contribute
to furthering the changes in attitudes and behaviour. What they do
should ensure a consistent
approach to the offender and
should complement the activities of
their colleagues.
4. AN
agement, must be addressed with
offenders who manifest these needs
through substance abuse, sexual
deviancy or violence.
A majority of needs are common to all
offenders, including women, aboriginals
and other ethnocultural groups. What is
needed for these gender-specific or cultural groups is different only in the
approach taken or the context in which
the needs are addressed. This concept
of sociocultural contexts may have to
be expanded as the cultural profile of
the offender population changes.
The cognitive, social learning
approach to programming teaches
offenders the skills and abilities to
think and plan logically and provides them with alternatives
designed to change socially unacceptable behaviour. Programming
in the community must build upon
and be consistent with institutional
program offerings so that offenders
maintain the positive gains
achieved during incarceration.
Correctional programming must be
focused on developing and reinforcing lifestyles that maintain lawabiding behaviours.
Offender Needs
Prominent offender needs are related
to cognitive deficiencies, substance
abuse, illiteracy, mental illness, sexual
deviancy and antisocial attitudes, values and behaviours. These groups are
not mutually exclusive and many
offenders display a number of these
needs. As a result, integration of program interventions is necessary.
In order to address the real needs and
not just the symptoms, basic cognitive
deficits, which are underlying needs
such as impulse control or anger man-
A clear distinction must be made and
recognized between offender needs
and the Service’s needs. An activity
required to support the Service’s oper ations may not be complementary or
consistent with the needs of offenders.
Implementation of the Program
Planning Model will assist in identifying offender needs as distinct from
organizational needs, as well as the
program modalities and resources
required to meet the need.
Programming must be directly linked
to meeting offenders’ needs, and
particularly those needs which, if
addressed, will result in pro-social
behaviour. It should be directed at
changing behaviour, beliefs and attitudes to make the behavioural
changes more durable. All programs
should have a cor rectional orientation and correctional goals. All existing programs should be examined
regularly to determine whether they
meet this orientation, these goals
and these results.
The Service must be able to effectively identify needs and to match
levels of programming to these
needs. The assumption that existing
programs will meet the offenders’
needs must be avoided. Needs
should not be identified on the basis
of program availability. Each offend-
er’s needs must be addressed in a
timely and appropriate manner, with
consideration for the release potential of the offender and the nature of
programming to be delivered in the
It must be recognized that for some
offenders, a significant portion of programming is no more than management or control (these are offenders
with a strong criminal orientation who
present a high risk of escape, and/or
those with a violent orientation).
It must be determined how the offender’s needs can best be met, in the institution and in the community. The
Service should be oriented to management of the offender in the community,
when that environment is assessed as
being appropriate to meet the offender’s
needs, and when the offender’s risk of
reoffending is assumable.
The overall general programming
strategy is to be oriented towards
behaviour change. More specific core
programming strategies must be
developed to address substance abuse,
family violence and mental health
(including sexual deviancy). Finally,
for a smaller number of offenders displaying more serious or chronic substance abuse and mental health difficulties, specialized clinical interventions may be required.
To maximize the effectiveness of interventions addressing the priority areas,
it is important that all programs, activities and employment be carefully
integrated to permit the offender to
obtain the greatest benefit from these
interventions. Skills taught, or
behaviours acquired, need reinforcement by providing opportunity to
apply them. This means that staff
must be trained to effectively provide
these opportunities. ■
December 1997
A Quiz
on Ethnocultural Diversity
with prizes to be won!
Eligibility: Open to all indeterminate and term employees of the Correctional Service of Canada.
Exclusion: Employees working in the Communications Sector and Correctional Programs and Operations Sector, at NHQ.
Prizes: One prize – a book on some aspect of culture – will be awarded to National Headquarters and to each of CSC’s
regions. To be eligible, 75 per cent of questions must be answered correctly. The winner is the person with the most correct answers of all eligible winners. A draw will be held if there is a tie.
Deadline for responses: All responses should be forwarded to Mr. Marcel Kabundi, Project Manager, Ethnocultural
Programs, Section 3B, Correctional Service of Canada, 340 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A OP9.
Please indicate your name and address clearly on the answer sheet. Entries must be received on or before the closing date
of February 27, 1998.
1. What is the official language of
the People’s Republic of China?
a) Han
b) Mandarin
c) Chinese
d) Tibetan
2. When was the People’s Republic
of China founded?
a) 1846
b) 1867
c) 1949
d) 1952
3. How many ethnic groups are
there in the People’s Republic of
a) 1,000
b) 25,000
c) 56
d) 198
December 1997
4. The Pygmies were the first
inhabitants of the African continent.
a) True
b) False
5. African marriages are generally
alliances between two families.
a) True
b) False
8. Who invented the gas mask and
the traffic light?
a) Elijah McCoy
b) Garnett Challenger
c) Granville Woods
d) Garrett A. Morgan
9. All Muslims must abide by the
seven pillars that constitute the
basis of Islam.
a) True
b) False
6. The Hottentots live in Tunisia.
a) True
b) False
7. What is the name of the Black
man who founded the first blood
a) Dr. Charles Drew
b) Benjamin Banneker
c) George Washington
d) Richard Tremblay
let’ stalk
10. What does the word “Islam”
a) Submission
b) Charity
c) Berber
d) Commander
11. In Thailand, people greet one
another by clasping their hands at
chest level and bowing deeply.
a) True
b) False
18. In France, the woman is the
first to offer her hand when a man
and a woman greet one another.
a) True
b) False
12. In Nepal, according to both the
Hindu and Buddhist traditions,
women are seen as the earthly
manifestation of the gods and are
venerated as goddesses.
a) True
b) False
19. Henry Membertou was the first
aboriginal chief to be baptized.
When was this?
a) June 24, 1610
b) March 15, 1579
c) October 26, 1899
d) February 12, 1726
13. The national bird of Nepal is
a) Peacock
b) Kinglet
c) Monal
d) Stork
14. Name the four countries with
which Canada shares a border.
15. How many Indian reserves are
there in Canada?
a) 1,000
b) 3,350
c) 2,283
d) 769
16. According to recorded history,
who was the first white woman to
arrive in Canada?
a) Marguerite De Roberval
b) Catherine Young
c) Mary Henrickson
d) Jacqueline Bourgeois
17. Three of the following can be
considered as common foundations of, or reasons for, racial prejudice. Which one is not?
a) Personal advantage or material profit
b) Ignorance of cultural differences
c) Social, religious and political tensions
d) Dislike of different foods
20. Canada’s policy on multiculturalism includes Aboriginal people.
a) True
b) False
21. Multiculturalism is not economically beneficial to Canada
a) True
b) False
22. Évangéline was the first
Canadian feature film.
a) True
b) False
23. How many Canadian provinces
have official mottoes?
a) Nine
b) Six
c) Eight
d) None
24. In which continent is the city
of Kinshasa located?
a) Europe
b) Africa
c) America
d) Asia
25. What was the original name of
the Kingdom of Thailand?
a) Siam
b) Mekong
c) Salween
d) Malay
26. Buddhism is the state religion
of Thailand.
a) True
b) False
27. Thais did not traditionally give
precedence to matrilineal (tracing
ancestral descent through the
maternal line) links.
a) True
b) False
28. Which one of the following
ethnic groups is located in
a) Amhara
b) Wolof
c) Kikuyu
d) Ibo
29. Who were the native inhabitants of Uruguay before the
arrival of the Europeans?
a) Charruas
b) Mestizos
c) Cherokees
d) Montagnais
30. How many islands are there in
a) 13,700
b) 8,000
c) 11,456
d) 789
31. Harambee was a guiding slogan which helped Kenya achieve
its independence in 1963.
a) True
b) False
December 1997
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