Let’s The Greying of the Offender Population

Let’s The Greying of the Offender Population
Let’s Talk
VOLUME 24, NO. 3
The Greying of
the Offender
Population
The English Model
Scoring System
CSC prepares for
the Year 2000
Research Forum ‘99
St. Leonard’s House
A dedicated
Residence for Lifers
Canada-Lithuania
Corrections Project
Canada
Let’s Talk
Let’s Talk is published by the
Communications and Consultation
Sector of the Correctional Service of
Canada.
Opinions expressed in the following
articles do not necessarily reflect the
views of the Commissioner.
Assistant Commissioner
Tim Farr
Editor-in-Chief
Pierre Simard
Assistant Editor-in-Chief Martin Bélanger
Editor
Lise Traversy
Editor
Julie Renaud
English Writer
Louisa Coates
English Writer
Graham Chartier
Translation Services Translation Bureau
Graphic Design
Marc Quirouet
Editorial Committee
Millard Beane
Robert Dandurand
Marie-Andrée Drouin
Holly Flowers
Peter Hecht
Dean Jones
Marcel Kabundi
Bob LeDrew
Shereen Miller
France Myre
Fernande Rainville
John Vandoremalen
Lisa Watson
Contributors
Atlantic – Claudine Daigle
Quebec – Sylvie Brunet-Lusignan
Quebec – Céline Laplante
Ontario – Chris Stafford
Ontario – Fiona Jordan
Prairies – Tim Krause
Pacific – Dennis Finlay
Pacific – Mary Lou Siemens
Pacific – Debbie Lemay
Let’s Talk
1999
VOL. 24, NO. 3
FEATURES
COMMISSIONER’S EDITORIAL
1
THE GREYING OF THE OFFENDER POPULATION
2
APPOINTMENTS
5
THE ENGLISH MODEL SCORING SYSTEM
6
CSC PREPARES FOR THE YEAR 2000
8
EMPLOYMENT: AN ESSENTIAL INGREDIENT OF POST-RELEASE SUCCESS
9
FEATURED FACTS
10
ST. LEONARD’S HOUSE
A DEDICATED RESIDENCE FOR LIFERS
11
CSC EMPLOYEES VISIT THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES
12
AGREEMENT BETWEEN CANADA COMMUNICATIONS INC.
AND THE CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
13
GET IT ON THE NET
13
ARTICLES
SECTOR REPORTS
Research Forum ‘99
Sharing correctional Research with Canadian Academics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Canada-Lithuania Corrections Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Assurance on the Infonet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forcible Confinement
A Survivor’s Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Good Health is Good Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National Survey shows Support for Correctional Service of Canada Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recognizing the Value of Values
Respect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conservation of Drinking Water
A neglected Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
18
20
21
22
25
26
27
REGIONAL NEWS
Atlantic Region
Articles may be reprinted in whole or in
part with credit to the Correctional
Service of Canada.
Let’s Talk welcomes letters to the editor,
suggestions for articles and contributions
from readers. Material submitted may be
edited for style and length. Please include
your electronic mail address and a
daytime telephone number. Address all
correspondence to:
Let’s Talk / Entre Nous
Correctional Service of Canada
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0P9
Telephone: (613) 995-5364
Telecopier: (613) 947-0091
Internet:
www.csc-scc.gc.ca
ISSN 0715-285X
© Correctional Service of Canada 1999
Working with Community-based Residential Facilities
Reintegrating Day Parolees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Starting Anew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Correctional Training Program
Sweat Ceremony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Quebec Region
Recognizing and Valuing Diversity in Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Animal Therapy in Correctional Intervention... A First for the Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Millenium Ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Regional Symposium of Employee Assistance Program Counsellors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
32
32
33
Ontario Region
Designated Institutions house Offenders of New Territory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Muskoka Pioneer Village
Institutionally-based Work Release Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Jail Birds fly the Coop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Prairie Region
Regional Psychiatric Centre
Opening of Bow Expansion Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Breaking Barriers Program at Edmonton Institution for Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Pacific Region
Asian and Pacific Conference of Correctional Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
First Aboriginal-focused Institution in the Pacific Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Public Forum on Restorative Justice at William Head Institution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
COMMISSIONER’S EDITORIAL
Something to think about
and be proud of
O
nce again, the Auditor General has
prepared a report on the Correctional
Service of Canada. Its main theme
is the Service’s offender reintegration
activities.
Overall, we have made good progress but
we still need to improve on the timely
delivery of programs and services to
offenders, from intake assessment to the
preparation of inmates for their hearing
before the National Parole Board.
Research clearly indicates that timeliness is
one of the most important elements in the
delivery of services to the public. When
people were asked what frustrated them
the most about service delivery, an
overwhelming number of them said
timeliness. If we were to pose the same
question about services related to correctional processes, I am convinced that we
too would cite timeliness as an issue. At one
time or another, we have all said: "If they
could just get things done on time!"
While there is always room for
improvement, there is no question we are
on the right track. The Auditor General’s
report contains a very clear and encouraging
message that our correctional strategies
are effective. Over the last five fiscal years,
since 1993-94, the number of supervised
offenders that were revoked has decreased
by 37 per cent. This occurred in spite of the
fact that more people are out in the
community. This is very good news. I wish
to thank all of you for making such an
important contribution to public safety.
Ole Ingstrup
Commissioner
Correctional Service Canada
"Good corrections" is the result of many
people working together towards a common goal and doing their jobs to the best of
their ability. It is essential that every
employee involved in the process of
reintegration be committed to the ultimate
goal of reintegrating offenders into the
community. Ask yourselves and your
colleagues whether you are performing at
your maximum capacity as a team. This is a
question that needs to be revisited on a
regular basis.
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
1
FEATURES
Older Offenders within CSC
The Greying of
the Offender
Population
By Mr. Graham Chartier, Communications Sector
C
anada’s population is aging. According
to Statistics Canada, the number of
Canadians between the ages of 55 and
59 is projected to rise to 2,113,800 in
2006, up substantially from the 1996 forecast of 1,333,100 for the same age group.
This rate of increase is well above that for
the total population of Canada. Countries
around the world have recognized that
there will be many social effects and costs to
this demographic shift and, in light of this,
the United Nations has declared 1999 as
the International Year of the Older Person.
In September, the UN will hold an international conference on this topic in Montreal.
The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC)
is carefully examining and preparing for
this shift and plans to participate in panels
or workshops at the UN conference. CSC’s
Research Branch is studying and reporting
on this issue. Innovative programs aimed at
responding to the unique correctional,
social, and health needs of an aging
offender population are being established
across the Service. To consider how this
issue might impact upon CSC policies,
programs, services and facilities, a working
group on aging offenders was established by
the Assistant Commissioner, Correctional
Operations and Programs.
2
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
WHO ARE THE “OLDER
OFFENDERS”?
Placing individuals into arbitrary categories
based solely on any one factor, such as date
of birth, is difficult. In the community,
“older” may realistically refer to a retirement age or 60 to 65. Offenders, on the
other hand, may have had an unhealthy
lifestyle, often associated with substance
abuse, which may bring on the effects of
aging much earlier. In both research and
strategic planning areas, older offenders are
considered to be those over the age of 50, a
term which includes offenders who may be
elderly (65+) or geriatric (70+).
According to Dr. Julius H. E. Uzoaba,
writing in Managing Older Offenders:
Where Do We Stand? May 1998 (Research
Branch – Research Report R-70), most of
the older offenders are serving sentences
for sexual offences or violent crimes against
the person. Dr. Uzoaba writes that older
offenders can be classified into three distinct categories based on their incarceration
history.
The first category includes offenders who
were first incarcerated while young and
have grown old in a correctional institution
The number of
older offenders
either in Correctional
Service of Canada
(CSC) institutions
or under CSC
jurisdiction in
the community is
growing at a much
faster rate than that
of younger offenders.
Older offenders have
different needs from
those of younger
adults and, as the
number of older
offenders grows,
there will be an
increasing need for
programs and
facilities appropriate
to their needs.
as a result of a lengthy or life sentence.
Recent data indicate that, in 1998, 10 per
cent of the older offender population of
1,609 fit into this category. According to
Dr. Uzoaba, most of this group are serving
their first incarceration and tend to be
“model” inmates.
42 per cent fit into this category.
Dr. Uzoaba writes that this group “is likely
to manifest more difficulties adjusting to
the constraints and pressures of institutional environments.”
The second includes offenders who made a
criminal career part of their lifestyle and
have served multiple sentences. Of the
older offenders in 1998, 47 per cent fit into
this category and are serving time mostly
for property offences as well as violence
against the person and, according to Dr.
Uzoaba, are likely to feel that incarceration
is of no benefit to them.
Whatever the reasons for their incarceration,
Dr. Uzoaba writes that these offenders “have
needs that set them apart from the rest of the
prison population”, including health care
services, adjustment to incarceration,
programming, vulnerability to violence,
family relationships and the prospect for
rehabilitation. The Correctional Operations
and Programs sector has summarized the
key considerations that impact on the
management of an increasing population
of older offenders.
The third category includes offenders
who are serving their first sentence late in
life with no substantial prior criminal
history. Of the older offenders in 1998,
Older offenders
may have difficulty
meeting the
conditions for being
granted parole, i.e.
accommodation,
financial or job
support, and
evidence of
program
participation.
others, with victimization and the fear
of victimization being serious problems.
However, results from the 1995 inmate
survey suggest older offenders are actually
less concerned about their safety than
younger offenders.
WHAT ARE THEIR UNIQUE NEEDS?
Health
As a result of the cumulative impacts of
their lifestyle, older offenders typically have
the health problems of someone 10 years
older than they are and they experience a
high incidence of chronic health problems.
They may require special diets, medication,
and equipment such as canes, wheelchairs
and hearing aids. They may also have high
levels of anxiety, social isolation and risk of
suicide.
Accommodation Planning
Study is required to determine if the
existing resource and facility standards,
designed to meet the needs of a younger,
physically active prison population, need to
be revised to meet the needs of an older
population. Older offenders may place
more demands on staff time by requiring
individual support and their physical
impairments may impact on the design of
facilities.
Security
While older offenders do not represent a
security risk themselves, it was believed they
may have a greater need for protection from
Offender Programming
Motivating older offenders to participate
in programs is a problem compounded by
the fact that many programs, such as educational and vocational programs, are designed
to meet the needs of younger offenders.
Training
Staff will require specialized training to
fully understand the social and emotional
needs of older offenders, including the
dynamics of death and dying, procedures
for identifying depression, and a system for
referring older offenders to appropriate
experts.
Community Release
Older offenders may have difficulty
meeting the conditions for being granted
parole, i.e. accommodation, financial or
job support, and evidence of program participation. The combination of medical,
financial and possibly alcohol-related difficulties may overwhelm the capacity of most
community-based agencies.
IS THE OLDER OFFENDER
POPULATION GROWING?
The research report by Dr. Uzoaba contains
statistics on the number of older offenders
incarcerated in each region of CSC and
their age group (50-54, 55-59, 60-64 and
64 and up). The latest information from the
Research Branch indicates that, in 1993,
1,104 offenders over the age of 50 (or
8.4 per cent of the total number of offenders) were incarcerated in CSC facilities. In
1995, that number rose to 1,379 offenders
over the age of 50 (or 9.3 per cent of the
total number of offenders), and had
increased to 1,609 in 1998 (13 per cent).
Growth in CSC institutions of the Offender Population under the age of 50 compared to
the Offender Population aged 50 and older – 1993-1998
Offenders under the age of 50
Offenders aged 50 and older
1993
1995
1998
Total Increase
Change
13, 142
14,828
12,378
– 764
– 6 per cent
1,104
1,379
1,609
+ 505
+ 46 per cent
- Research Report, 1998, No. R-70, Managing Older Offenders: Where Do We Stand, Julius H.E. Uzoaba, Ph.D.
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
3
INNOVATIONS FROM INSTITUTIONS
Whether it involves managing older
offenders in an institutional setting or
under supervision within the community,
staff who deal with the issues associated
with older offenders know first-hand of
the problems unique to older offenders.
Recognizing that CSC’s Mission Statement
calls for “reasonable, safe, secure and
humane control” and the respect for
individuals stated in Core Value 1, staff and
institutional management have sought and
have developed initiatives to improve the
situation for older offenders. Examples of
these initiatives can be found at Mountain
Institution and Sumas Community Correctional Centre (CCC) in the Pacific Region
and at Warkworth Institution in the
Ontario Region.
mates. Sumas CCC is located in the
Fraser Valley and is comprised of 12 selfcontained residential units and administration buildings that also house the Fraser
Valley Area Office and Abbotsford Parole.
Staff and inmates at Mountain Institution
initiated the Caregivers Program, which
rigorously trains inmates to provide care to
inmates who, through illness or incapacity,
cannot fully care for themselves. Most of
those who took part in the training were
long-term offenders. From the discussions
initiated during that luncheon, a plan was
developed to initiate the Reintegration
Effort for Long-term, Infirm, Elderly
Federal Offenders (RELIEF). This included:
• Dedicate one house at Sumas CCC for
the program and ensure it is equipped for
the disabled;
• Identify at least four elderly or disabled
inmates, past their eligibility dates, for
whom there are no other existing release
alternatives;
eligibility that settled on 50 as the appropriate minimum age for membership. This
allowed for a large number of inmates who
met the criterion. It was determined that a
higher age would be too exclusionary. The
overall membership has been maintained at
between 30 and 35 older inmates.
Greg Kerry, a psychologist at Warkworth
Institution and a staff member who worked
on the formation of the group, said that
it was acknowledged that older inmates
have different needs from those of younger
inmates.
The mandate of the group is to:
• Provide a forum for the promotion of
socialization, fellowship and education
among older inmates; and
• Attempt to improve the quality of life of
older inmates both during and subsequent to their incarceration.
• Identify at least two long-term offenders
certified as caregivers who were past eligibility dates, supportable for Work Release
and could earn Day Parole;
In this, the International Year of the Older
Person, CSC is faced with a growing population of offenders who are over 50. There
is a critical need to address the issues that
such growth creates. This need provides an
opportunity to affirm Core Value 1:
• Establish a team of parole officers from
Mountain Institution and the Fraser
Valley to prepare the cases for the NPB or
the warden’s decision on a specific date;
“We respect the dignity of individuals, the rights of members of
society, and the potential for human
growth and development.” ◆
• Request that the NPB convene a panel to
hear the cases on that date;
• Move those who receive positive decisions
together on the same date;
• Repeat as required.
REINTEGRATION EFFORT FOR
LONG-TERM, INFIRM, ELDERLY
FEDERAL OFFENDERS
At a luncheon, Pieter de Vink, Regional
Deputy Commissioner (Pacific) and Willie
Gibbs, Chairperson of the National Parole
Board (NPB) spoke to CSC staff about
reintegration. This led to a discussion about
how to reintegrate elderly and infirm
inmates and how to combine reintegration
with safe, humane, value-added programming in the community.
Mountain Institution houses a large percentage of the older and infirm inmates in
the Pacific Region and there are few release
options in the community for these in-
4
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
As a result of these efforts, five elderly
inmates were transferred to Sumas
CCC from Mountain Institution on
January 18, 1999, to take up residence in
the home that had been prepared for them
by two caregivers. Doug Black, Warden
at Mountain Institution, said the transfer
and the initiation of the RELIEF program,
“illustrated what can be accomplished
when staff are committed to achieving
results, and how results can be achieved by
staff when they know they have support for
working on something new.”
WARKWORTH SENIORS GROUP
In September 1997, Warkworth Institution
formed the Warkworth Seniors Group, the
first of its kind in a Canadian correctional
institution. Its formation followed debate
between older inmates and institutional
management concerning membership
The initiation of
the RELIEF program
illustrated what can
be accomplished
when staff are
committed to
achieving results,
and how results can
be achieved by staff
when they know
they have support
for working on
something new.
FEATURES
Appointments
Appointments
By Ms. Louisa Coates, Communications Sector
D
espite the foul weather and treacherous road conditions, about 75 people
gathered at St. James Church, on
March 4, 1999, in Hull, Quebec, to celebrate the new ministry of the Reverend
Canon Christopher Carr as Director General, Chaplaincy, at the Correctional
Service of Canada (CSC).
The liturgy was organized to include the
Interfaith Committee on Chaplaincy (IFC),
which is made up of representatives from
many religions who work with CSC’s
chaplains. Reverend Sally Boyles, President
of the IFC, and the Right Reverend John
Baycroft, Anglican Bishop of Ottawa,
presided.
Reverend Sally Boyles, President of the Interfaith
Committee on Chaplaincy at CSC, speaking with
Chris Carr.
On behalf of CSC, Reverend Pierre Allard,
former Director General, Chaplaincy, and
Acting Assistant Commissioner, Correctional Operations and Programs, passed the
torch to Chris Carr, whom he described as
“well qualified and … has been prayerfully
and lawfully selected.”
Guests were invited to come forward
for the ‘laying on of hands’ on the head/
shoulders to convey support for the person
being commissioned.
Regional Chaplains at CSC
From left to right: John Tonks, Atlantic Region; Dwight Cuff, Pacific Region; Gabriel Savignac,
Quebec Region; Terry Richardson, Prairie Region; Norm Barton, Acting Associate Director General,
Chaplaincy; Gerry Ayotte, Pacific Region; Rod Carter, Ontario Region; and Reverend Chris Carr.
Abbot Jean André Patry, chaplain at the
Montreal Detention Centre, delivered a
homily based on one of the readings from the
Christian scriptures – Matthew 25:31-45 –
in which he encouraged listeners to look
for and respect the dignity of all people.
Referring to the example set by Jesus
Christ, Abbot Patry emphasized the call
from God to address the needs of the poor
and less fortunate people of the world. The
members of the faith traditions, representatives of the different religions who
have representation on the IFC, presented
Reverend Carr with a primary symbol of
their religion. Representatives of CSC
Chaplaincy, and the criminal justice system
also made presentations to Mr. Carr.
Ole Ingstrup, CSC Commissioner, presented
Mr. Carr with a copy of the Mission
document and encouraged him to “be
among us to uphold the values and respect
it speaks of ”. He expressed his personal
appreciation of the gifts and energy
Mr. Carr brings to his new position and
assured him of the importance of the
witness and work of chaplaincy within
corrections.
An unplanned presentation was made by
a man who participated in the service
because of the “All are Welcome” sign that
hangs outside the main door. He came
forward and handed Canon Carr a silver
chain that belonged to his late wife.
Mr. Carr responded spontaneously and
committed himself to prayer for all who
have lost loved ones. ◆
Reverend Chris Carr and his wife Connie
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
5
FEATURES
Evaluating Institutions
The “English Model”
Scoring System
By Ms. Trish Trainor, A/Audit Manager, Performance Assurance Sector
The Performance Assurance Sector of the Correctional Service of Canada
recently began testing the approach used by the English correctional
system to evaluate their institutions.
I
n 1998, the Correctional Service of
Canada (CSC) and Her Majesty’s Prison
System (HMPS) in England entered into
a Memorandum of Understanding. As a
result of this agreement, the Performance
Assurance Sector of CSC, which carries out
audits, evaluations and investigations to
ensure that CSC legal and policy requirements are being met, began testing the
scoring system used by HMPS to audit
their institutions.
The “English Model” scoring system is
geared towards compliance-oriented audits
and allows for an objective assessment of an
institution’s performance against legal and
policy requirements. Scores are assigned to
different criteria, providing an overall rating of the institution’s level of compliance.
allocated for each site. The team assignments included two team leaders to ensure
as much consistency as possible.
In addition, based on the experience of the
preliminary test, each institution was
encouraged to identify a staff member who
would be part of the audit team. In most
of the institutions, the Co-ordinator of
Correctional Operations, the Institutional
Preventive Security Officer or the
Correctional Supervisor were identified.
In a few cases, the Unit Manager was
identified. Some institutions requested that
more than one individual be identified
because two audits were being conducted
simultaneously. By directly involving staff
at the local level, the goal was to help
the institutions understand the scoring
system and learn what areas were examined
to evaluate the criteria. The long-term
purpose of this exercise was to assist
institutions for future self-monitoring,
using the same audit tools and determining
whether improvements have been achieved.
Before leaving each site, a debriefing was
held with the institutional management.
The audit teams also met with management
at the regional headquarters (RHQ) at the
conclusion of each region’s site visits. Each
institution and RHQ visited was provided
with their results and a sample copy of the
audit tools for their own use.
THE “ENGLISH MODEL”–
WELL RECEIVED
The audit team found that the approach
was generally well received. Wardens
TESTING THE “ENGLISH MODEL”
Cell searches
It was decided to first try the approach with
two audits on the Performance Assurance
Sector audit schedule for 1998/99: “Search
& Seizure” and “Interception of Communications”. Both were considered suitable
for testing the “English Model”.
6
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
96%
92%
90%
84%
85%
82%
80%
88%
85%
82%
86%
77%
74%
70%
72%
67%
62%
S c o re re c e i v e d
The tools and approach were piloted at an
institution in the Ontario Region, where
they were well received. Following this
preliminary test, the audit team made some
minor adjustments to the audit tools and
prepared for the actual review. In total,
fourteen institutions were visited (one
maximum security and one medium
security institution in each region, and four
of the women’s facilities). Each team
conducted both audits in the three days
100%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Institution
I
J
K
L
M
N
welcomed the summary sheet that provided
specific information as to where their
institution needed to take corrective action.
There was also positive reaction to the
possibility of re-evaluating criteria at the
local level once changes have been made,
and to determine whether scores had
improved over time.
0.50
The audit team is currently in the process
of compiling a national report on each
audit. The results are being compiled in bar
charts to allow for an illustration of
variances between institutions for each
section.
0.00
Each institution was
encouraged to identify
a staff member who
would be part of the
audit team.
0.25
Relatively minor non-compliance
which, if not corrected, could
build into a serious deficiency.
(Not Complied – Advised)
Serious deficiency or noncompliance issue.
(Not Complied – Deficiency)
Unsatisfactory – baseline
requirement is not being met.
(Not Complied – Significant
Finding)
In addition, each criterion was assigned a
fixed and weighted value, based on the
source of the baseline requirement:
10
Corrections and Conditional
Release Act (CCRA)
7 Commissioner’s Directive
5 Security Manual/Case
Management Manual
3 Other
HOW THE “ENGLISH MODEL”
SCORING SYSTEM WORKS
The scoring system developed by HMPS is
one that assesses compliance against all
aspects of the functioning of the institution
and assigns one of six descriptive ratings to
criteria evaluated.
In adapting the English approach to
compliance auditing within CSC, it was
decided that a numerical system would be
the preferred option. As a result, the six
descriptive ratings were translated into six
levels of compliance. CSC audit team
members were therefore required to assess
the criteria and assign a score based on the
following scoring methodology. (The
equivalent HMPS ratings are indicated in
brackets.)
1.1 Full compliance, exceeding
minimum requirements or
exhibiting a best practice.
(Complied – Good Practice)
1.0 Full compliance (Complied)
0.75 Isolated incidents of noncompliance, which are detracting
from otherwise good performance
against the requirement.
(Complied – Housekeeping)
The scores assigned to criteria were then
multiplied by the associated weighted
value, giving the overall result. For example,
if an institution received a rating of 0.75 on
a criterion worth 10 points (CCRA), then
it would receive 7.5 points out of 10. If it
received a rating of 0.50 on a criterion
worth 5 points (Security Manual/Case
Management Manual), it would receive
2.5. A percentage score for each sub-section
was calculated based on the total points
received divided by the total possible
number of points based on the weighted
values. The overall percentage for the
review subject was a cumulation of percentages received for the sub-sections. CSC
uses the overall percentage in place of the
overall descriptive ratings adopted by
HMPS.
PERCEIVED BENEFITS
This new approach has the potential
for many benefits:
• Institutions are able to pinpoint
specific areas that need to be
addressed.
• At a national level, it is possible to
identify trends, issues for clarification or possible changes to policy.
Good practices could also be highlighted and shared with other
institutions.
• Over time, it will be possible to
identify institutions that are either
encountering difficulties in several
areas or are doing consistently well.
• Institutions and regions are able
to use the audit tools for selfmonitoring. The entire audit could
be re-assessed, or only select sections or criteria.
WHERE DO WE GO FROM
HERE?
So far, the “English Model” appears
to be working well with complianceoriented audits. As a result, the
Performance Assurance Sector will be
using it as much as possible in any
future audits.
If you have questions or comments
about this new approach, contact
Steve Wilson (613) 995-7001 or
Trish Trainor (613) 947-3953. ◆
Over time, it will be possible
to identify institutions that are
either encountering difficulties in several
areas or are doing consistently well.
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
7
FEATURES
CSC prepares for the Year 2000
2000
T
2000
By Mr. Pierre Simard, Director, Multimedia Services, Communications Sector
he year 2000, also known as Y2K, may
pose significant challenges for the
Correctional Service of Canada (CSC).
This brief article will give readers an idea of
the preparations CSC has been making.
THE NATIONAL Y2K COMMITTEE
A National Contingency Planning Group
(NCPG) at CSC is working as part of a
federal government team made up of the
Treasury Board, RCMP, the Department
of National Defence and the Department
of Foreign Affairs and International
Development. This team meets regularly to
discuss the implementation of Y2K
preparedness.
CSC’s National Y2K Committee, led by
Lucie McClung, Senior Deputy Commissioner, and overseen by Wayne Scissons,
Principal Coordinator, has undertaken the
task of getting CSC ready for problems that
may be associated with Y2K. Five regional
coordinators have been assigned to the
project, with the support of their Deputy
Commissioners, as well as functional
experts in CORCAN, security, communications, information technology, health
care, human resources and corporate
development.
DEVELOPING THE PLAN
The first step taken by the committee was
the identification of all assets and resources
that are deemed as critical to carrying out
our business as usual. Templates for
contingency plans were then developed,
and pilots of these were conducted at
meetings held in Halifax, at Collins Bay
Institution in Kingston and in the Ottawa
District Parole Office. The Security Branch
at National Headquarters will now use the
results of these meetings to build the Y2K
contingency plan templates.
BUSINESS AS USUAL
CSC will do its best to ensure that the
computers and electronic assets that
support our business functions will be Y2K
compliant. If, however, problems occur due
to utility failures or information technology
failure, on January 1, 2000, all CSC
standard emergency contingency plans
across the country will begin to operate.
CSC staff will be well trained and prepared
on December 31, 1999, to run business as
usual and to ensure staff, offender and
public safety. According to Treasury Board
reports, CSC has taken very seriously the
job of preparing for Y2K. Not only are we
leaders in corrections, but we also lead in
the area of contingency planning. Readers
will be informed of news related to Y2K
through Let’s Talk, Contact and regular
Infonet postings. ◆
QUOTES FROM Y2K REGIONAL COORDINATORS
“As Principal Coordinator of
the Y2K Committee I invite
staff to contact their regional
coordinator for information
concerning Y2K.”
Wayne Scissons, Principal
Coordinator, Y2K Committee,
(613) 530-3087
Assistant-Jackie Prieur,
(613) 328-0422
“By planning and
developing contingency
plans, we are ensuring
that we can continue to
provide high quality
correctional services in
our institutions and
community offices,
given potential
impediments... Staff in the Atlantic Region
are encouraged to become involved and
trained in their local plans and to assist their
communities in their preparedness efforts.”
Alfred Légère,
Atlantic Region,
(902) 597-8651 extension 122
8
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
“Some view this passage to the year 2000
with apprehension but the Quebec Region
sees this preventive exercise as a challenge
that will enable us to
better structure our
emergency preparedness
plans and to remain
leaders in the
correctional field.”
Alain Jacques,
Quebec Region,
(450) 967-3357
“The Ontario Region has checked its
systems at all levels. We have done
everything possible to identify potential
risks and have developed
plans to manage problems
that can’t be avoided.”
Dave Devonshire,
Ontario Region,
(613) 530-3087
“The Y2K project will
result in a comprehensive
plan that will assist each
operational unit to carry
out the mandate of the
Service January 1, 2000.”
Earl Synkiw,
Prairie Region,
(306) 975-5026
“Preparation for the Year
2000 offers the Pacific Region
some unique challenges and
some significant dividends.
All regional facilities are
represented by site
coordinators that will prepare
the sites for any unexpected
service disruptions. The
preparation that occurs in the coming months
will help us in our work long after the year
2000 arrives.”
Norm Gerl,
Pacific Region,
(604) 309-9055
FEATURES
Employment: An Essential
Ingredient of Post-Release Success
By Mr. Denis Boucher, Freelance Reporter
T
he kitchen covers more than an acre,
serves 3,200 meals a day, employs 57
people and has 5 service points. But
we’re not talking about the Queen Mary,
the Ritz or the Congress Centre. This is
Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines Institution, a penitentiary in a suburb north of Montreal.
The main kitchen, the largest of any of
Canada’s correctional institutions, provides
real opportunities for inmates to rehabilitate
themselves while awaiting their release.
Over the years, the Correctional Service of
Canada has designed and introduced many
programs intended to modify attitudes and
beliefs that lead to crime.
Normand Héneault, a correctional officer
at the Regional Reception Centre, which
is part of the Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines
complex, says: “The statistics
speak for themselves. Nine
of every ten inmates released
from a minimum security
institution after completing
vocational training present a
low risk of re-offending.”
guidance counsellors, correctional officers
and parole officers. They have just one goal:
to rehabilitate the offender and see him safely
returned to the community.
The next step, after meeting with the
dispatcher, is to conduct an assessment of
the inmate’s family and community to
determine his employability, skills, lifestyle
and the risk of substance abuse. This is a key
element in any reintegration program.
Two inmates working in the institutional kitchen
Once these data are known, the parole
officer comes into the picture. He (or she)
determines the kind of help that can be
offered to the offender. At this point, the
offender’s correctional plan, which follows
him throughout his term of imprisonment,
will be developed. At the same time, the
guidance counsellor will evaluate the
inmate’s ability to learn a trade
and will direct him to the
appropriate training.
Successful reintegration means
spending no more time than
necessary in a correctional facility,
and incarceration is more than
just a deterrent. Correctional
Studies have shown that
officer Jean-François Monarque
most inmates have little if
has worked with inmates for nine
any work experience outside
years. He asserts emphatically
their employment in prison. “Successful reintegration
that: “if you give an inmate a
The inmates themselves have
means spending no more
chance to explain himself in an
indicated that employment time than necessary in a
correctional facility,” says
intelligent way and makes the
problems had been a factor Jean-François Monarque.
effort to get to the bottom of his
in their committing crimes
criminal ways, he will have a much better
and that preparatory training for employchance of leaving a life of crime. It’s our job
ment was an essential ingredient in their
to help him reorganize his life.”
ability to make a successful transition back
to the community after release.
The kitchen at Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines
Institution operates like any large instituAs soon as an inmate is admitted to the
tional kitchen or restaurant. Teams share the
Regional Reception Centre he is assigned to
jobs in the pastry and meat departments, at
a dispatcher. On the basis of the preliminary
the main meal preparation station and in
information obtained from the inmate, the
the maintenance area.
dispatcher determines his educational background in order to refer him to vocational
Many of the inmates see a real benefit
training.
in taking cooking courses. Jacques Laroche
had worked in the restaurant business
Regardless of the length of the sentence, the
before going to prison. He says: “My trainoffender will be monitored continuously by
Julien Beaudoin (left) and Jacques Laroche
ing in here will help me get a good, steady
job when I get out.”
Steben Gagnon enrolled in the meat
preparation course two days after he arrived
at Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines because he plans
to look for a job in a supermarket when he
gets out. “And that’s not all,” he says, “I’m
also going to take a course in pastry making
because it will be one more skill that will
help me get on in life.”
Offender Peter Maxwell (left) with officer
Mohamed Guitouni in the the meat department.
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
9
After successfully completing their cooking
courses, inmates receive a diploma from the
Quebec department of education, recognizing their professional standing in one of the
following categories: butcher, pastry maker,
salad/vegetable maker, roast cook or sauce
maker.
Kitchen employment for inmates is the logical
extension of the vocational courses designed to
help them resume a useful role in the community.
Georges Flanagan, Assistant Warden,
Management Services at Sainte-Anne-desPlaines, told us that 45 inmates waiting to
be conditionally released and 12 employees
work processing fresh or frozen foods in the
main kitchen. Once the food has been
prepared, it is served in the various institutions that make up the Sainte-Anne-desPlaines complex: the Regional Reception
Centre, Archambault Institution and
Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines Institution.
Gérald Bellerose (left) and Georges Flanagan
“Every year, the
kitchen prepares
1,200,000 meals for
the inmates and
staff. The grocery
bill is $1,800,000
a year. And every
month, we buy
$18,000 worth
of beef.”
Georges Flanagan, Assistant Warden,
Management Services
Gérald Bellerose, Chief of Food Services, is
proud to say that the food is prepared in
accordance with Canada’s Food Guide but
the challenge is greater. “We have to make
the meals tasty, or it won’t be long before we
hear about it,” he says. And the inmates
who work in the kitchen take pride in
preparing food that will be enjoyed by the
10
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
Mr. Héneault commented: “When the
inmates first arrive, their hearts are full of
anger, which is understandable. With time,
the hatred subsides and the inmate realizes
that he is the only person who can give
himself a chance to reintegrate back into
society. It all depends on his motivation.”
Canada has fewer inmates per capita
compared to our neighbours to the South.
Canada has one of the lowest recidivism
rates in the world.
This tends to corroborate the statement
that imprisonment does not solve anything,
neither for the inmate nor for society.
Today, we know that offenders must not be
marginalized upon returning to the community. In order to make a successful
return, inmates must be able to rely on the
various reintegration programs offered in
the institution.
These programs can have a positive impact
on the inmate and on society because a
good work ethic can improve the offender’s
chances of finding a job after his release,
facilitate his reintegration, and reduce his
risk of re-offending.
At the end of the day, the inmate is the only
person who can decide what to do about his
future and most inmates are ready to make
the necessary effort. ◆
eatured Facts
other inmates and by staff who have to eat
in the facility when they are on duty.
Featured
Facts
In 1993, 1,104 offenders
over the age of 50 were
incarcerated in CSC
facilities. In 1995, the
number rose to 1,379
offenders over the age
of 50, and had increased
to 1,609 in 1998.
- The Greying of the
Offender Population
Canadians are generally
more likely to identify
“rehabilitation” as the
primary purpose of
corrections over
“punishment” (by a
margin of 58 per cent
to 42 per cent).
- National Survey shows
Support for CSC Priorities
Spending amounts to about
$3,000 per offender per
year, compared to $50,000
in Canada.
- Canada-Lithuania
Corrections Project
In a study commissioned
last May, of 2,515
Canadians surveyed,
26 per cent had taken time
off work for mental and
emotional stress, compared
to 20 per cent who were
absent because of physical
illness or injury.
- Good Health is Good
Management
FEATURES
St. Leonard’s House
A dedicated Residence for Lifers
By Ms. Marian Costaris, Parole Officer and Ms. Sandra Miller, Residential Program Manager,
St. Leonard’s House, Windsor, Ontario
St. Leonard’s House in Windsor, Ontario – the first halfway house in Canada – recently celebrated
its 35th anniversary. Next year it will celebrate a shorter, but equally groundbreaking milestone – the
6th anniversary of its Life Line service that is dedicated to the safe and effective reintegration of
offenders serving life sentences who have been released on parole.
S
t. Leonard’s House is the only facility
to offer this kind of program in
Canada. In the Ontario Region of the
Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), the
Life Line residential program is invariably
the first step for lifers. For these offenders,
this first step back into the community
follows a period of incarceration ranging
anywhere from seven to as many as 25 years.
Understandably, it is a first step that usually
presents a mix of emotion, excitement and
apprehension.
interviews and then maintains contact with
them. This relationship, which focuses on
developing trust and formalizing release
plans, often endures over many years and
over several different aspects of the sentence.
The process of
preparing a lifer for
release begins as early
as possible in the
sentence.
When a client of St. Leonard’s House has a
Full Parole hearing that is supported by
their staff and the responsible Parole
Officer, Life Line staff accompany him to
Kingston and act as assistants for the
hearing. Following a granting of Full Parole,
staff maintain contact through the aftercare
program and on an informal basis, offering
counselling, advice, referrals and assistance.
THE FACILITY
St. Leonard’s House in Windsor, Ontario, is the
first halfway house in Canada.
BUILDING AND MAINTAINING A
RELATIONSHIP
Building a relationship of trust, mutual
respect and rapport between the offender
and the Life Line staff is essential to successful reintegration. The process of preparing a
lifer for release begins as early as possible in
the sentence, when contact is made with an
offender through the In-reach worker who
assists with planning during the institutional phase of the sentence. The offender is
then referred to Sandra Miller, Residential
Program Manager at St. Leonard’s, who
St. Leonard’s House offers a total of 10 beds
for lifers, six in a group-home environment
for those who have just left the institution
and four one-bedroom apartments for those
who are ready to graduate to a greater
degree of independent living. Lifers can
stay at St. Leonard’s House for up to three
years – a unique, long-term commitment
recognizing that lifers need a gradual,
phased period of reintegration following
years of isolation from society.
ACCESS TO PROGRAMS
While at St. Leonard’s House, lifers have
access to a wide range of programs to help
them reintegrate, including supportive
counselling and need assessment; the
Choices program for relapse prevention;
employment readiness programs; and community resource programs. Participation
in these programs is required and the
lifers must also be employed, studying or
volunteering in order to progress to the
apartment living/training program. In addition, St. Leonard’s House offers an aftercare
program to provide support, life skills
counselling and assistance to ex-residents.
COLLABORATION AND TEAMWORK:
THE KEYS TO SUCCESS
Clearly, intensive programs and a dedicated staff contribute to the success of
St. Leonard’s House Life Line program.
However, equally important is the collaboration and working relationship between
Life Line staff and Marian Costaris, the
CSC Parole Officer in Windsor, responsible
for the supervision of lifers in the Life
Line program. Indeed, the partnership
and constant communication between
Ms. Miller of St. Leonard’s House and Ms.
Costaris, combined with their team efforts
involving other professionals, ensure a
consistent and stable approach to achieving
the goals of safe and effective reintegration
of the lifer.
Since the inception of the Life Line
program in the community, Ms. Miller and
Ms. Costaris have witnessed a number of
successes. Though release violations and
other signs of regression have occurred from
time to time, no incidents have occurred
that placed the community at risk.
To date, seven lifers have “graduated” from
the Life Line program at St. Leonard’s
House and are living independently in the
Windsor community. ◆
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
11
FEATURES
CSC Employees Visit the
Northwest Territories
By Dr. John R. Weekes, Manager, Substance Abuse Programs,
Reintegration Programs Division
O
n January 7-8, 1999, staff from the
Reintegration Programs Division at
the Correctional Service of Canada
(CSC) National Headquarters spent several
very interesting and productive days meeting
with representatives from the Corrections
Division of the Northwest Territories
(NWT) Department of Justice to discuss the
two groups’ use of correctional programs.
At the request of Mr. John Dillon, Director,
NWT Corrections, Mr. Richard Harvey,
Director, Reintegration Programs, Dr. Lynn
Stewart, Manager, Living Skills and Family
Violence Programs, Dr. John Weekes,
Manager, Substance Abuse Programs, and
Ms. Doreen Sterling, Project Officer,
Aboriginal Offender Programs, travelled to
Yellowknife to describe the reintegration
programs model used by CSC and to
examine unique initiatives used by the
NWT in their work with offenders.
NOR RAIN NOR SNOW NOR -36oC
The CSC staff willingly braved daytime
temperatures of -36 0 C to take advantage of
this opportunity. They wanted to share with
another correctional agency the assessment
and intervention program models used by
CSC to successfully reintegrate offenders, as
well as their own experience and expertise in
delivering programs to offenders.
BUSH CAMP VISITED
On the first day, following a tour of
the Yellowknife Correctional Centre, the
CSC representatives, accompanied by Mr.
Don Blaquiere, Warden, Territorial Women’s
12
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
Correctional Centre, Tom Hamilton,
Warden, South Mackenzie Correctional
Centre, and Shirley Kemeys Jones, Deputy
Warden, Correctional Programs, Yellowknife
Correctional Centre, visited a bush camp
located on the shores of Kozo Lake, about
402 kilometres south-east of Yellowknife.
Using a chartered Twin Otter bush plane,
the group flew across the sub-arctic
wilderness over frozen lakes, bedrock, and
bush and landed on the ice-covered lake.
The offender camp, owned and operated by
Charlie Bourque, a Dene and professional
trapper, is designed to accommodate offenders on conditional release from NWT
correctional facilities. The camp consists
primarily of a cookhouse with a dining
room, five to six bunkhouses, a bathhouse, a
generator shed, and a toolshed to repair the
camp’s snowmobiles, chainsaws, and other
small engines. Here, parolees who are
primarily Dene and Inuit learn traditional
hunting, trapping, and fishing skills while
maintaining a trap-line that extends approximately 290 kilometres on either side of the
camp. They are allowed to keep the income
generated by the sale of their pelts, mostly
wolf, lynx, rabbit, and weasel.
Due to the fact that the nearest community – Hay River – is almost 129 kilometres
away, the camp is almost completely selfsupporting. Supplies are brought in by air
and the only contact with the outside world
is the camp’s satellite telephone. A generator
provides electricity and water is drawn to
the camp from the lake by snowmobile
in winter.
EVERYONE HAS RESPONSIBILITIES
Each offender in the camp community has
his own chores and responsibilities and
Charlie, the owner, takes advantage of the
isolation and close community atmosphere
to counsel camp members on Aboriginal
traditions in an individualized manner.
Many of the parolees are single but have
chosen to learn how to cook and maintain
their own living space. In other words, the
program attempts to instill a broad range of
living skills that are consistent with life in
the north for Aboriginal people.
DOING SOMETHING RIGHT
There were a total of 10 men living at the
camp the day CSC representatives visited.
One individual had flown out the previous
day, having successfully completed the
period of supervision required to return to
his home community to re-establish family
and community ties. Although there are
no proven statistics to support the effectiveness of this kind of program, the bush
environment, community atmosphere, and
traditional hunting and trapping activities
are considered critical to assisting offenders
in changing their behaviour and to returning
them to their cultural roots.
CORRECTIONAL PROGRAMS
WORKSHOP
The following day, the CSC team delivered
a full-day workshop describing the Service’s
correctional programs to a group of about
50 NWT corrections staff. According to
Mr. Dillon, this was the largest assembly
of his staff to date, given the restrictions
associated with the vast geographical
distances in the north. The presentation
included a review of CSC corporate
structure, the organization of the
Reintegration Programs Division, the
funding for the Service’s reintegration
programs and a systematic examination
of the major program areas such as living
skills and family violence programs,
substance abuse programs, violence prevention programs, sex offender programs,
education and vocational programs and
programs designed for women and
Aboriginal offenders.
The presentation was received very
positively. NWT staff and management
said the visit helped them to crystallize their
own plan for the further development of
the correctional programs for offenders
under the jurisdiction of the Northwest
Territories Corrections Division.
CSC HAS A LOT TO OFFER
This visit to the Northwest Territories
constitutes the most recent exchange of best
practices between CSC and other correctional agencies. Over the years, delegations
from several domestic and international
correctional jurisdictions have met with
CSC staff and toured its institutions and
parole offices and, as a result, some have
chosen to adopt programs and assessment
technologies developed by CSC. These
include, among others, Her Majesty’s
Prison Service, Volunteers of America, State
of Maine Department of Corrections, and
the Norwegian Ministry of Security and
Police. ◆
FEATURES
Agreement between
Canada Communications
Inc. and the Correctional
Service of Canada
By Ms. Lynn Farrell, A/Director, Support Services, Technical Services,
Corporate Services Sector
T
he Canada Communications Group
(CCG) was sold in March 1997 to
St. Joseph Corporation. The new
privatized CCG is now known as Canada
Communications Inc. (CCI). As part of the
sale agreement, a five-year Privileged
Administrative Arrangement was put in
place for CCI.
Information about
corrections and
correctional issues
currently available
on the Internet
National Institute of
Corrections (NIC)
http://www.nicic.org/inst/
The website of the NIC, a U.S.-based
“center of correctional learning and experience”, contains information sources and
a bulletin board where questions about
specific correctional issues can be posted
for other correctional staff to read.
Action on Smoking and
Health (ASH)
http://www.ash.org/papers/h150.htm
A leaflet on tobacco smoking in U.S.
penitentiaries containing information
about the legal and health issues surrounding second-hand smoke in correctional
institutions.
Crime, Criminal
Justice Efficiency and
Imprisonment in Canada
http://www.fas.umontreal.ca/crim/
cri6002/recherche/resume/c4.htm
A paper by M. Ouimet, published in the
journal Key To Commonwealth Corrections (n.19, Autumn 1994), claiming that
an increase in the volume of criminal
activity will not necessarily lead to a
reduction of the criminal justice system’s
ability to deal with crime.
The Corrections Connection
As a result of this endeavour, CSC and CCI
signed a three-year service agreement on
February 1, 1999, for the management of
printing and photocopier fleet services at
the CSC National Headquarters location in
Ottawa.
CSC will benefit from this agreement in
cost savings to the department in the
amount of approximately $20,000 per year
in photocopier rental fees, standardization
of equipment, improved repair services, and
eventually, on site printing facilities. ◆
Get it
on the Net
From left to right: Krista Kealey, Director of Sales,
CCI, Lynn Farrell, CSC, and Marc Legris, Manager,
Contracting and Materiel Services, CSC
http://www.corrections.com/
Billing itself as the largest on-line resource
for news and information in corrections,
this American web page has up-to-theminute newsflashes, information on correctional issues such as the spreading of
infectious diseases in corrections, innovations in preparing inmates for release,
program profiles and others. Private
sector corporations dealing in corrections
can also be accessed through this site and
it contains many bulletin boards where
experience can be shared on specific
issues, such as elderly offenders, gangs and
alternative programs. ◆
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
13
SECTOR REPORTS
Corporate Development Sector
A Meeting of Minds
Research Forum ‘99
Sharing correctional Research with Canadian Academics
February 15-17, 1999
By Ms. Louisa Coates, Communications Sector
W
hat is research without practical
application? And how can we make
a stronger link between correctional
research and programs for offenders that
work? These questions prompted this year’s
Correctional Service of Canada’s (CSC)
“Corrections Research Forum”, a three-day
conference in Toronto, to share CSC’s
research findings with the academic community, and to engage in discussion with
international experts on the work that is
being done. The overall objective of the
meeting was to improve on a sound system
of research and programs to further assist
offenders to safely reintegrate into society.
According to organizers, such forums will
be held on a regular basis.
“We can only know if we are moving in
the right direction by consulting outside
authorities, and that is what the conference
is all about,” said Michel Roy, CSC’s
Assistant Commissioner of Corporate
Development.
CONFERENCE THEMES
CSC researchers and managers and academic panelists addressed several themes
during the conference, including the need
for additional partnerships and consultations with experts outside CSC, assessing
offenders, preparing them for safe reintegration, safely maintaining them in the
community and good corrections for special groups such as women, Aboriginal and
youth offenders.
“I think the conference really did what we’d
hoped it would do. We brought our
researchers and offender program staff
together with scholars from Canadian and
international universities to discuss more
ways to achieve good corrections,” said
Dr. Larry Motiuk, Director General of
Research at CSC, and conference initiator.
14
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
POLICY MAKERS AND
ACADEMICS SUPPORT PROGRAMS
FOR OFFENDERS OVER PRISONS
Dr. Brian Grant, Director, Operational Research, CSC
“We hoped to reacquaint experts in the
field with our own staff and with each
other, and to build new partnerships,” said
Dr. Brian Grant, Director of Operational
Research, CSC, and conference chair.
Academics from 22 universities across
Canada, the United States and Britain
represented the fields of psychology,
psychiatry, criminology, sociology, and law
and education. Representatives from government agencies included: the Department of
the Solicitor General, CSC, the National
Parole Board, the Department of Justice,
the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons, and the
Ontario Ministry of the Solicitor General
and Correctional Services. CSC’s community partners included members of
Citizens’ Advisory Committees (who work
in federal prisons), St. Leonard’s Society,
and the Canadian Association of Elizabeth
Fry Societies (who work with ex-offenders).
Dr. Don Dutton, University of British Columbia,
Canada
Lucie McClung, CSC’s Senior Deputy
Commissioner, spoke about good corrections, which means encouraging offenders
to become law-abiding citizens while
exercising reasonable, safe, secure and
humane control. The solution to criminal
behaviour and the high rate of incarceration
is to encourage offenders to change.
Because offenders will eventually return to
the community, we need research to show
us what works to promote change and
implement appropriate programs.
“My challenge to you is to explore the
strengths of offenders. How can CSC
support these strengths and the factors that
lead to safe community reintegration?” she
asked.
INTERNATIONAL EXPERT OUTLINES
TRENDS IN RESEARCH AND
PRACTICE
Dr. James McGuire, whose informative
presentation described the major issues in
correctional research and practice today,
delivered the conference’s keynote address.
Dr. McGuire is a professor of forensic
clinical psychology at the University of
Liverpool, England, and has conducted
research in prisons, probation services,
adolescent units and specialized hospitals
on offender rehabilitation. He told the
group that Canada is an exciting place to be
with respect to developments in criminal
justice and the relationship between
research and practice.
Dr. McGuire said researchers in various
countries are concerned with the ineffectiveness of both sentencing and punitive
measures, what works in reducing recid-
ivism, how research and practice interact
and what remains to be learned. “Nothing
is as practical as a good theory, ” he said,
and referred to studies that pointed to these
results, including a large-scale review of
822 research projects which concluded that
interventions, including programs, do
reduce recidivism and promote change in offenders.
The mode, style and monitoring of the delivery of these
programs are vital to their
success, he noted.
require attention from researchers: gender
and ethnicity as factors in crime, the relationships between programs and offences,
whether there is a “best timing” for program delivery, and how to link correctional
institutions with the community setting.
RESEARCH AND
PROGRAMS AT CSC –
RECENT FINDINGS
Directors in CSC’s Research
and Programs areas provided
comprehensive overviews of
Dr. McGuire pointed out
the correctional issues curthat while American psycholrently being studied. The
ogist Jacob Cohen has been
Research Branch, headed by
skeptical about the usefulness
Dr. Larry Motiuk, Director
of studies showing a small
General, is divided into three
Dr. James McGuire,
offender “effect size” that
divisions: Operational Research,
University of Liverpool
benefited from a correctional
Program Research and Research
program, the small offender “effect size” in
Information Services. Dr. Motiuk described
statistical terms could be of practical
recent achievements, including the develsignificance for offenders. Lucie McClung,
opment of offender assessment technolSenior Deputy Commissioner, CSC, noted
ogies such as the community intervention
this could represent savings for taxpayers,
and custody rating scales, the offender
since an early safe release of even a small
intake assessment process, population forenumber of offenders who have successfully
casting and new and innovative programs
completed correctional programs means
such as the one for persistently violent
less expensive community supervision
offenders.
instead of expensive incarceration.
He said the important task of communicating research findings is being done
The current focus of research in Britain, he
through CSC’s research publication, Forum
said, is prison-based programs that include
on Corrections Research, which has 4,500
seven established key performance indicasubscribers from 60 countries. Research
tors, mutual contracts/two-way benefits for
information is also being accessed through
offenders and probation services. He
CSC’s website, which now gets 5,000 visits
concluded by listing key areas that still
per day from the public; almost 90 per cent
of the visits access research publications,
either Forum on Corrections Research or
research reports.
Dr. Gerry Gaes, Director of Research
at the U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons,
described research in a department that
manages 105,000 offenders today and
will care for 196,000 by the year 2006.
He reminded the 200 conference
delegates that their research could
affect public policy and people’s lives.
As a result of an intense six-month
study his group conducted, offenders
who previously received a mandatory
five-year sentence for drug offences
now receive shorter sentences, a policy
which affects 4,000 offenders a year.
Dr. Gaes is currently studying prison
gangs and prison privatization.
Denis Méthé, Director General, Offender
Programs and Reintegration, described 10
years of “intense program development” at
CSC, which has resulted in six program
areas for offenders: Living Skills, Substance
Abuse, Sex Offenders, Aboriginal Offenders,
Women Offenders, and Family Violence.
These are continually refined through
evaluations done by staff, inmates, and an
international accreditation panel. He listed
some of CSC’s new programs, including
high intensity family violence, Aboriginalbased values, women offenders, and segregation, “all of which are firmly based on
research findings.”
Dr. Ralph Serin, Director of Programs
Research, described the importance of
developing programs using operationally
relevant theories and research. He stressed
the need to know when treatment will be
most effective (called an offender’s readiness
to change) and to measure treatment gains,
rather than just program participation.
Dr. Michael Bettman, Manager of CSC’s
Violence Prevention Programs, said that his
programs were developed in response to a
plea from field staff for high-risk offender
programming. His programs attempt to
assist in anger control by delaying responses
and encouraging social problem-solving.
Dr. Denise Preston, Research Manager, said
that CSC’s program for persistently violent
non sex offenders is, as Dr. McGuire noted,
matched carefully with the offenders’ needs
and the type of offence committed. She
works with offenders whose violent behaviour is not based on anger but on their easy
arousal, lack of behavioural control, and
belief the world is a hostile place.
CSC’s Dr. John Weekes, Manager,
Substance Abuse Programs, said that 50 per
cent of criminal behaviour in Canada and
that at least 70 per cent of all federal
offenders have problems with alcohol or
other drugs. Results of a comprehensive
evaluation of the Offender Substance Abuse
Pre-Release Program (OSAPP) indicate it is
having a positive effect on offenders with
reductions in readmission into custody,
new convictions and violent offences.
Operational research has focused on release
opportunities such as temporary absences,
day parole, parole and statutory release.
However, as we better understand the importance of these release options in assisting
Here are some of the topics
CSC has addressed in the area
of correctional research:
• Dynamic factors (that affect criminal
behaviour)
• Corrections and parole
• Offender reintegration
• Violent offenders
• Correctional programming
• Managing sex offenders
• Employing offenders
• The family side of corrections
Here are some issues that will
be examined:
• Successfully reintegrating the offender
into the community
• Gangs
• Segregating the offender
• Accurate screening of potentially
suicidal offenders
• The community reintegration of
women offenders
• Coping skills to improve success in
reintegrating into the community
• Offender population forecasting
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
15
offenders to reintegrate successfully into
communities, new research questions are
being posed, said Dr. Brian Grant, Director
of Operational Research, CSC. For example, Shelley Brown, a Research Manager,
described how work on the coping/relapse
prevention model of re-offending might
help to reduce readmissions to penitentiaries. In addition, a number of research
studies that address employment issues of
offenders were described by Christa Gillis,
Research Manager. Future operational
research will also address staff issues and
special groups such as lifers and older
offenders. In addition to the research,
Janice Russell, Manager, Community
Strategy, described how the Community
Corrections Branch is developing more integrated and relevant community programs.
ACADEMICS RESPOND TO
CORRECTIONAL RESEARCH
AND PROGRAMS
The key issues in corrections today, as
stated by Dr. McGuire at the outset of the
conference, were echoed repeatedly. CSC
staff and academics alike expressed their
concern. A leading topic was the need for
community follow-up once an offender is
released from an institution. “Support is
vital for the success of programs after
release,” said Dr. Marie-Marthe Cousineau
of the University of Montreal. “The next
generation, soon-to-be-parents, relationship skills, family violence education are all
vital areas of research, and communitybased agencies are your partners to gaining
this understanding,” said Dr. Allison
Cunningham of the London Family Court
Clinic.
disorders?” asked Dr. Ed Zamble of Queen’s
University. Dr. Howard Barbaree of the
Clark Institute said many sex offenders
have benefited from substance abuse programs. Are these better for their needs than
sex offender programs?
Dr. Michael Weinrath of the University of
Winnipeg expressed the need to look at
issues of race, class and gender. “We need
the perspective of the offenders, we need
their feedback, we need to talk to those who
did not re-offend and to incorporate their
ideas into our programs,” he said. Dr. Livy
Visano of York University said that
researchers must engage the community,
avoid isolating themselves, and study issues
of race, gender and social class. Dr. Jeffery
Pfeifer of the University of Manitoba, on
assignment in Australia to study police
discretion and Aboriginal offenders, seconded this opinion, saying there is still
work to be done in gender and race issues,
which can then be applied to police and
correctional officer training.
Aboriginal author and professor Dr. Joe
Couture counselled CSC to deal with issues
of identity rather than sex offences when
dealing with Indigenous offenders. “Sexrelated difficulties are identity difficulties,”
he said. He noted speakers avoided engaging in discussion on self-help for offenders,
and emphasized programs as a cure for all.
Dr. James Hackler of the University of
Victoria said: “We focus on people’s heads
but this is a narrow perspective. We also
need to look at the outside world into
which they are returning.
Women Offenders and
Correctional Research
CSC’s Correctional Strategy for Federally
Sentenced Women sets out core programs for women offenders. While
most of the core programs are similar
to those developed for men, they are
implemented based on “women-centred”
principles. The Women Offender Program
Strategy reflects the social realities of
women, emphasizing a connection with
others, self-care and self-respect. (An
example of the strategy’s application is
that education is based on research,
suggesting women learn better in connection with others rather than individually). The core programs for women
offenders are Living Skills, Substance
Abuse, Literacy and Continuous Learning
and,
unique
to
women
offenders,
Survivors of Abuse and Trauma.
Kelley
Blanchette,
a
CSC
research
manager who has evaluated Peer Support programs at three of CSC’s five
women’s facilities to date, has worked
with women offenders to study their
specific needs, determine whether the
programs are meeting these needs and
the positive and negative effects of
programs to date.
“We found that the process of including
the women offenders’ viewpoints was
Dr. Paul Gendreau of the University of
New Brunswick’s Centre for Criminal
Justice Studies said “get tough” programs
do not work but there is a lack of adequate
training in programs for those working in
the community; more study is needed.
“How does CSC evaluate the success of its
programs?” asked Martin Lalumière of the
Clarke Institute, stressing the need for
follow-up in the community. Janice Russell,
CSC’s Manager, Community Strategy, said
many offenders find it difficult to reintegrate due to a rapidly changing world, with
its modern health risks and cutbacks in
social programs.
Mental health was a recurring topic of
discussion during the sessions. Dr. Ray
Corrado said we need more information on
multi-disorder offenders and mental
disorders, and on the link between youth
and adult offending. “There is a core group
of young offenders that are becoming
violent offenders and this phenomenon
needs to be studied,” he said. Dr. Chris
Webster of Toronto’s METFORS Clinic
said that programs have not been developed
for the mentally ill because it is so difficult
to do, and his staff has a great deal to learn
from CSC in this area. He said that the
number of mentally ill patients has risen
from 400 to 800 since 1992. We need to
look at plans for these offenders as well.
Academics and CSC staff expressed
concern about the need for more information on the link between substance abuse
and crime. “Where does substance abuse fit
into recidivism, and what is the link
between substance abuse and other
Dr. David Nussbaum, York University
professor and METFORS clinician, is
conducting research on the identification of
the different kinds of aggression in order to
provide specific treatment for offenders,
asked CSC staff if it intends to develop
the institutions but you need to follow
16
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
extremely useful in evaluating the program,” said Ms. Blanchette.
Ms. Blanchette says CSC is interested
in developing assessment tools specifically for women offenders, instead of
tailoring the existing ones for men. “We
recognize the importance of genderspecific considerations at the earliest
stages of tool development,” she said.
Dr.
Kelly
Hannah-Moffat
of
Brock
University said we still need to study
what happens to these women once they
are released. “CSC has good programs in
up in the community and work in partnership with outside agencies such as the
Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry
Societies and provincial partners.”
programs for borderline offenders. He
discussed the success of certain drug treatments with violent offenders and whether
this approach might be applicable in other
situations. Dr. Michael Bettman, Manager
of CSC’s Violence Prevention Programs,
conceded borderline offenders are difficult
to work with and that CSC has begun
research into programs in this area with
women offenders.
Guy Villeneuve, Warden at Archambault
Institution, CSC, pleaded for the organization to share information on current
research so that managers can post it on
institutional bulletin boards to keep staff
informed.
CONCLUSION
Dr. Steve Wormith summarized the themes
that emerged during the three-day conference as risk, need, and responsivity. He
said the area of risk assessment was well
documented in correctional research, needs
have been addressed but additional work is
required and that much more work on
responsivity is needed. He cited examples of
work with women offenders and Aboriginal
offenders as examples where issues of
responsivity are being addressed.
Dr. Wormith argued that maybe we need
to turn corrections on its head, focusing
even more on the community and less on
the use of prison. Rather than moving from
a prison to the community, which was
emphasized during the conference, why not
avoid the prison portion of the sentence
altogether and concentrate on maintaining
offenders safely in the community.
He praised Dr. Don Andrews, his mentor,
for his leadership in the field of correctional
research. He applauded the research forum
noting the high calibre of young researchers
who are moving the correctional agenda
forward.
Dr. James Hackler, University of Victoria, Canada
Small group discussions were held on
the final day of the conference.
Moderators from the academic
community presided over talks
ranging from treating substance
abuse, violent offenders, community
corrections, the role of the family to
special needs offenders. According to
academics, these topics show that CSC
is on the right track for identifying the
issues at hand.
“There is not much research on the
contact and follow-up with offenders’
families, whose relationships may be
more of a problem than a resource for
offenders,” said Chaplain Ken Kuhn of
Stony Mountain Institution. “Gaining
information on families can serve to
plan for a successful release,” added
Dr. Mark Genuis of Calgary’s National
Foundation for Family Research and
Education.
Dr. Wormith noted how the academic
community could strengthen CSC’s
research while contributing to effective
correctional treatment. He said partnerships need to be strengthened and broadened to include provincial governments,
related agencies such as mental health
experts and the voluntary sector.
He stressed the need to continue sharing
information through formal channels such
as reports, conferences and writing in
scientific journals. However, echoing comments made by the Senior Deputy
Commissioner in her opening address, he
stressed the need to explore additional
methods for CSC to share information with
the research and academic communities. ◆
VERBATIM
“I have been very impressed with
the range and scale of research
being done by participants at this
conference, and by the variety of
partnerships that exist, and I hope
these continue and flourish.”
Dr. James McGuire
University of Liverpool, England
“You (correctional program
deliverers) see beyond the
behaviour of individuals and
through your efforts society is
improving.”
Dr. David Nussbaum
York University
“At this conference, we have
moved beyond correlations to
explanations on the theories of
crime.”
Carl Keane
Queen’s University
“It’s important to have these
kinds of links between CSC and
academia. The next step is to
move out of the parlour and into
the kitchen when we talk about
correctional research.”
Dr. Serge Brochu
University of Montreal
“What impressed me most was
the evidence of momentum in the
research effort. CSC seems very
interested in building stronger
relationships with university
researchers, and together we can
build a synergy that will provide
major benefits for both groups;
the greatest beneficiary will be
the public.”
Dr. Ed Zamble
Queen’s University
The Correctional Service of Canada’s
Don Andrews Lecture Series
At a dinner for the conference delegates, CSC Commissioner Ole Ingstrup
announced the creation of the “Don Andrews Lecture Series”. In his tribute to
the distinguished researcher, teacher and public policy advisor, Mr. Ingstrup
said Professor Andrews has contributed greatly to CSC’s work in the field of
offender research, and has helped steer the organization in the right direction
over the past decade. He said the lecture series would comprise one lecture per
year for 10 years, all of which will be compiled into a bound volume. The
annual Don Andrews Lecture will address a current and topical issue in the
field of corrections.
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
17
SECTOR REPORTS
Correctional Operations and Programs Sector
Canada-Lithuania Corrections Project
By Staff of the Intergovernmental Affairs and Strategic Planning and Policy branches, CSC
C
orrectional Services Canada (CSC)
Commissioner Ole Ingstrup traveled
to Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, in
February, for the signing ceremony that
officially launched the Canada-Lithuania
Corrections Project. During his visit, he
met with the Lithuanian Minister of Justice,
Vytautas Pakalniskis, visited the Lukiskes
Prison, and met with the Lithuanian
Prisoner’s Aid Association, which is a
primary partner with the Lithuanian
government on this project.
“I commend Lithuania on the tremendous
progress you have made since your independence and the efforts you are currently
undertaking to modernize and institute a
criminal justice system that is humane and
progressive. We look forward to working with
you to support your efforts in this regard,”
said Commissioner Ingstrup. “I thank you on
behalf of the Canadian government for the
faith you are placing in us by inviting us to
work with you as you embark on the exciting
journey to transform your correctional
system.”
TRANSFORMING LITHUANIA’S
CORRECTIONAL SYSTEM
The goal of the Canada-Lithuania Corrections Project is to support Lithuania in its
objective of reforming its correctional
system. The Lithuanian government wants
to make major changes to its criminal
justice system to provide for the more
humane treatment of offenders, create
alternative options to the use of imprisonment, and enhance the potential for those
who offend to become law-abiding citizens.
It also wants to create a community supervision system and supports the development
of community-based programs.
The incarceration rate in Lithuania is
currently 450 per 100,000 (compared to
129 per 100,000 in Canada, itself one of
the higher incarceration rates among
developed nations) and has been rising each
18
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
year since independence in 1990. Jails are
becoming increasingly overcrowded.
Spending amounts to about $3,000 per
prisoner per year, compared to $50,000 per
prisoner per year in Canada. Some of that
difference can be ascribed to the difference
in the cost of living. But most of it, says
Fraser McVie, CSC’s Director General of
Strategic Planning and Policy, is the gap in
spending on programs – the programs that
can make a difference to an offender’s
successful re-integration into the community upon release.
that projects such as this “allow us to test
our ideas in a different culture, a different
context. It lets you go back to basics,
determine what’s important, given limited
resources.”
CIDA FUNDING A FIRST FOR CSC
Karen Wiseman, Director General Intergovernmental Affairs is pleased to announce
that this project is the first CSC project to
receive multi-year funding from the
Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA). The money will be used to
fund activities and travel between Canada
and Lithuania. In addition, the CSC and
the Lithuanian Ministry of Justice is
donating time from its managers and staff.
“These kinds of relationships will broaden
our own horizons, and will enhance our
own staff ’s skills and abilities,” says McVie.
From left to right: Mr. Jim Siberry, former Executive
Director, National Parole Board; Mr. Maknickas,
Head of Vilnius Strict Regina Imprisonment and
Colony; and Mr. Fraser McVie, CSC’s Director
General of Strategic Planning and Policy.
The project is part of the technical
assistance being undertaken by the
Intergovernmental Affairs Branch. It will be
managed by Ian Nicholson, Intergovernmental Affairs Branch. Other partners
involved in the project include the
Department of Justice, the John Howard
Society of Canada, and the Carleton
University Law Faculty.
In addition, the Lithuanian penal code, a
legacy of the Soviet regime that ended in
1990, makes no provision for either probation or parole, and there was very limited
community support for released offenders.
When the Lithuanian government decided
that it was time to develop a new penal
code, they found that much of the
Canadian model of corrections could be
adapted to their system.
But the benefit of projects such as the
Canada-Lithuania Corrections Project
does not accrue only to the recipient of
the assistance. McVie, who accompanied
Commissioner Ingstrup to Lithuania, and
who will serve as advisor to the project, says
From left to right: Mr. Graham Stewart, Executive
Director, John Howard Society; Mr. Jonas
Stashinskas, Lithuanian Prisoners’ Aid Society;
Mr. Fraser McVie, and Mr. Dru Allen, Director of
Strategic Planning. Mr. Stewart is one of CSC’s
major non-government resources forging the link
between Canada and the Prisoner’s Aid Society
of Lithuania.
“I thank you
on behalf of
the Canadian
government for
the faith you are
placing in us by
inviting us to work
with you as you
embark on the
exciting journey
to transform your
correctional
system.”
Ole Ingstrup
Commissioner
Members of the Lithuanian steering
committee include the Ministry of Justice,
the Prison Department, the Prisoner’s Aid
Association, the Crime Prevention Council,
the Law Institute and the Law Academy.
HISTORY OF THE PROJECT
The launching of the Canada-Lithuania
Corrections Project is the culmination of a
series of interchanges between the two
countries, beginning in November 1997
with a CIDA-sponsored visit to Lithuania
by the CSC, the John Howard Society, and
the Law Faculty at Carleton University.
That was followed by a two-week visit to
Canada by a Lithuanian delegation in
January 1998, followed by another visit in
December 1998. The Intergovernmental
Affairs Branch wishes to thank both Jim
Siberry, former Executive Director,
National Parole Board, and Dru Allen,
Director of Strategic Planning, provided
valuable support during the developmental
stage of the proposal and were critical to the
project’s success. As well, Fraser McVie has
been the CSC senior advisor involved with
the project development since its inception
and was responsible for developing the
project objectives with the Lithuanian and
Canadian partners.
In March 1998, Commissioner Ingstrup
signed a Memorandum of Understanding
with the Lithuanian Justice Minister,
during the international conference,
• Development of non-governmental
resources to support community
education, using the Prisoner’s Aid
Association as the base for a network
that would provide support for the
reintegration of prisoners and released
prisoners; and
Dr. Vytautas Pakalniskis, Lithuania’s Minister of
Justice, signs the Canada-Lithuania Corrections
Project with Commissioner of CSC Dr. Ole Ingstrup.
“Beyond Prisons” hosted by CSC. Since that
signing, Lithuanian and Canadian officials
have been working together to finalize the
terms of reference for the project.
• Demonstration of the benefit of
community supervision by the implementation of a probation services pilot
project by the Prisoner’s Aid Association
that would involve case investigation,
the preparation of pre-sentence reports,
and the supervision of selected offenders
(initially juveniles and female offenders)
sentenced to probation.
SEVEN INITIATIVES
The two countries agreed to a plan incorporating seven specific initiatives:
• Development of a corporate mission
statement to enunciate the values and
principles that should guide the
implementation of its proposed
correctional system;
• Development of a strategic plan based
on this mission statement, to provide for
the orderly implementation of the
revised goals and operational practices;
• Modification of the legal framework,
including the provision of advice on the
content of Lithuania’s draft criminal and
penal codes, with particular reference to
its concordance with the mission
statement, the humane treatment of
offenders, the creation of a broader
range of sanctions, and provisions that
will enable the creation of probation and
post-release supervision;
• Review of the administration of corrections, focusing on organizational
structures and the allocation of
authorities, responsibilities, and
accountabilities, and supporting the
government’s intention to reform the
management of the correctional system
and its transfer to the Ministry of Justice
from the Ministry of the Interior;
• Provision of correctional program
information and training, including
information on the administration,
delivery, and results of correctional
programs such as life skills training, sex
offender programs, and substance abuse
programs, and training materials and
support for training staff in communitybased supervision of juvenile and adult
offenders;
Commissioner Ingstrup presents Dr. Pakalniskis
with Indigenous artwork.
The Lithuanian
government wants to
make major changes
to its criminal justice
system to provide for
the more humane
treatment of
offenders, create
alternative options
to the use of
imprisonment, and
enhance the potential
for those who offend
to become law-abiding
citizens.
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
19
“This is an ambitious project with many
different aspects,” says McVie. “There
are some concrete needs that are being
addressed.”
SECTOR REPORTS
Performance Assurance Sector
Performance
Assurance on the
Infonet
INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT:
A CORE VALUE
CSC’s international work is implemented in the context of Core Value 4
of its Mission:
“We believe that the sharing of
ideas, knowledge, values, and
experience,
nationally
and
internationally, is essential to the
achievement of our Mission.”
By Mr. Martin Devenport, Manager, Executive Information
System, Performance Assurance Sector
CSC is committed to being a world
leader in contributing to improvements
in corrections and criminal justice by
promoting good governance and respect
for human rights; more judicious use of
incarceration; greater use of communitybased alternatives to imprisonment; and
the timely, safe, re-integration of
offenders into the community as lawabiding citizens. ◆
Performance
Assurance is going
on-line with its
own web site on
the Infonet.
F
Double-bunking in Lithuania - a view of the
top bunk in an offenders’ room, which
contains 20 bunk beds and 40 inmates.
Bunk beds fill a room and offer little
privacy for the offender in the
overcrowded Lithuanian correctional
system; the Canada-Lithuania Corrections
Project will address this issue.
20
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
or those who may not be familiar with
the Performance Assurance Sector, its
primary responsibility is for audits,
evaluations and reviews, investigations,
performance measurement, and program
accreditation. The sector focuses on objectively examining the operations of the
Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), and
on reporting the results so that all sectors of
the organization can benefit and learn from
the findings.
Have you ever wondered how an audit or
investigation is conducted? Now you will
be able to read the audit or investigation
reports on the Infonet. Have you ever
wondered how well CSC is performing as it
strives to be the best it can be, guided by
the Mission? The Performance Assurance
web site will allow you to examine the
corporate performance, both the good and
not so good. You can then use the information that relates to you to determine
whether or not you need to pay more attention to some aspect of your operational
area.
Core Value 5 states: “We believe in operating the Service with openness and
integrity.” The sector is taking a leap
forward by making as much corporate
performance information as possible
available to all staff. “By visiting our new
web site, you will be able to access
information that was previously unavailable
to many staff members. Although there will
be restricted access to some information,
every effort is being made to keep the
restrictions to a minimum so that all staff
can access as much information as possible.
Both the good and the bad will be open to
scrutiny and it is our hope that the
organization will learn and grow in new
and positive ways.
The new Performance Assurance web site
will replace the Executive Information
System (EIS) which was implemented in
1991 to provide managers with information to assist them in the decision-making
process. The EIS provided a valuable service
over the years. Technological advances now
enable us to present more specific, more
detailed information, more frequently to
more staff. The site will not simply replace
the EIS but will integrate a great deal of
new information. This will be a new and
improved information system for all!
CSC has always been willing to share
information and has been cited at home
and abroad as an example for other government departments. We will continue to
make every effort to ensure that your
information needs are being met. To visit
our site, follow the ”Regions/Sectors” link
on the Infonet. ◆
SECTOR REPORTS
Correctional Operations and Programs Sector
Film wins Award
Forcible Confinement
A Survivor’s Story
By Dr. Sharon Williams, Special Advisor, Sex Offender Programs
A
lthough taking a staff member
hostage in a correctional setting –
referred to as forcible confinement –
is rare and occurs about four times per year
in the Correctional Service of Canada
(CSC), it has been proven to have a
powerful impact on both survivors and
CSC. Studies by Tanya Nouwens (1995),
Sharon Williams (1995), and Seidman and
Williams (1997), stress the need to improve
the training delivered to staff to allow them
to deal with forcible confinement and its
aftermath. Increased awareness and an
understanding of the personal options
before, during and after confinement need
to be discussed with staff. These issues and
the roles of the front line staff, crisis
manager, negotiator, emergency response
team and Employee Assistance Program
personnel are explored in a dramatic
35-minute film, called Forcible Confinement,
which has been incorporated into the
training session for all staff members.
Ole Ingstrup, CSC Commissioner, with video creators and prize winners at the 1998 NHQ Staff
Awards Ceremony. From left to right: Ole Ingstrup, Sharon Williams, Special Advisor Sex
Offender Programs; Maria Valenti, Project Analyst, Reintegration Programs; Lucille Matte,
former Sex Offender Program Project Officer; and Irving Kulik, former Assistant Commissioner
Correctional Operations and Programs.
Forcible Confinement was produced in both
official languages by Video 30, a production
company in Montreal, under the close
supervision and direction of Correctional
Programs and Reintegration staff members
Sharon Williams, Maria Valenti and Lucille
Matte. It took two years to produce the
film, from developing and obtaining senior
management approval for its concept, revising the script, choosing a film company, to
overseeing the production in its entirety.
Last fall, the film won the prestigious Gold
Palm Corpovision Award for best French
language training film. It has also been
submitted to an international English
language competition.
Staff members who have seen the film
describe it as realistic and disturbing and say
it is an effective element of the training they
receive.
Dr. Sharon Williams, Lucille Matte and
Maria Valenti received the NHQ teamwork
award in 1998 for their “hard work,
creativity, persistence and outstanding
achievement” in producing this film.
If the film can minimize the incidence of
forcible confinement that takes place at
CSC, or lessen its impact on the lives of our
staff members, the time and effort that went
into the production of this film will have
been worthwhile. ◆
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
21
SECTOR REPORTS
Personnel and Training Sector
Good Health is Good Management
By Ms. Faith McIntyre, National Coordinator, Occupational Safety and Health
and Return to Work Programs, Personnel and Training Sector
R
esearch indicates that Canadian
workers are getting sick from work,
with depression and heart disease
being caused by many factors. A report
entitled “Mindsets: Mental Health – the
Ultimate Productivity Weapon”, by
Edgardo Pérez, M.D., and Bill Wilkerson,
sponsored through the Homewood Centre
for Organizational Health at Riverslea,
confirms that new information technology,
lack of job security and the need to do more
work in less time drives up blood pressure
and eats away at job satisfaction. The
report’s authors commissioned a study on
absenteeism in May 1998 and, of 2,515
Canadians surveyed, 26 per cent had taken
time off work for mental and emotional
stress, compared to 20 per cent who were
absent because of physical illness or injury.
HEALTH CONCERNS – MAJOR
FACTOR
Absenteeism in a federal department as
documented by a study conducted through
the University of Ottawa, indicates that
33 per cent of employees were absent due
to stress, 26 per cent required time off for
a mental health day and 23 per cent due
to chronic illness. Furthermore, sick leave
and workers’ compensation costs within
federal government departments were
equivalent to 1 billion dollars in 1994.
(Treasury Board, Statistics Canada,
HRDC–Labour Canada, Health Canada).
Other data available from the Public Service
Management Insurance Plan indicates that,
in 1997, 49 per cent of claims were due
to mental stress. Moreover, a recent survey
of executives, conducted through the
Association of Professional Executives,
demonstrates that health concerns are one
of the major factors facing executives.
AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION
Employees are
increased stresses
also within the
sidering that 70
22
not only experiencing
within the workplace but
social community. Conper cent of all illness is
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
Atlantic Institution Wellness Committee
Left to right: Anthony Coker, Irene Arseneau (EAP representative), Carl Watters, John Aubey, Craig
Murphy, Patsy LeClari, Raymonde Caissie, and Chery Matheson.
preventable, it becomes obvious that the key
to decreasing burgeoning social, personal
and financial costs is prevention. As a result,
more and more companies are developing
wellness programs that offer services
focusing on factors such as fitness, health
and shiftwork strategies. The benefits of
such programs and services are numerous.
Studies show that, for every dollar invested
into a wellness program, the average return
on the investment is five dollars. Companies focus on these programs not only for
financial reasons but also to focus on their
employees. As Core Value 3 of CSC’s
Mission document states: “...employees are
our major resource…” With programs in
place and by focusing on wellness, managers
can enhance their human resource environments; unions can maintain the employability of their members; employees can
continue to make meaningful contributions
both in the workplace and in their communities, and the Service reduces the impact of
stressors and increases the participation of
its workforce.
We need to do away with the “if you can’t
stand the heat get out of the kitchen” adage.
Mounting evidence confirms that the
stresses of modern day life are taking their
toll on people’s health and productivity.
These factors are further compounded by
the environment in which the Correctional
Service of Canada (CSC) employees work,
the nature of the job and the increased
responsibility.
SURVEY SAYS: PROMOTE HEALTH
AND WELLNESS INITIATIVES
The 1996 Staff Survey indicated that
73 per cent of respondents were satisfied
with their job while 58 per cent reported
that their job caused them to be frustrated
or angry. A specific section in the 1996
survey focused on health and lifestyle. Of
the 17 questions posed, 74 per cent of
respondents reported working out or participating in sports at least once a month. The
majority of people worked out on their own
time (83 per cent) while only 3 per cent
worked out in the course of the workday. Of
the people polled, 41 per cent cited time as
the principal barrier to physical activity. The
1994 and 1996 staff surveys confirmed that
CSC had to increase its promotion of health
and wellness initiatives. Only one-third of
respondents felt that CSC offered services
that allowed them to pursue these areas.
Staff also expressed interest in wanting to
lead healthier lifestyles. Stress levels are also
high, especially for institutional staff. They
believe this is due to working conditions,
perceptions of personal security and shiftwork. CSC, as an employer, recognized the
need to support staff in promoting wellness
and healthy habits. All individuals must
take charge of their own personal wellness.
NATIONAL WELLNESS COMMITTEE
The Correctional Service of Canada has
recognized the need to create a physically and
mentally healthier workplace, to improve
workplace and employee productivity to
improve communication and focus on
including health into daily activities. A
National Wellness Committee was created as
a sub-committee of the National Joint
Occupational Safety and Health Committee
(NJOSH). It is a joint labour-management
committee whose mandate includes the
following:
a) act as an advocacy group for wellness
in outlining best practices, research
data, and initiatives;
b) promote wellness as an all
encompassing lifestyle not focusing
solely on physical fitness;
c) empower and encourage CSC
employees to take on the task of
developing wellness initiatives in
their facilities/regions;
d) be proactive in promoting wellness
across CSC as a priority in establishing
healthy and safe work environments
for staff;
e) focus on the preventive benefits of
wellness in resolving safety and health
issues; and
f ) bring to the attention of NJOSH
wellness issues in order to seek
NJOSH’s review and approval,
as required.
All regions are represented on the committee
as are various levels of CSC employees,
Professional Institute for Public Servants
representatives and the Union of Solicitor
General Employees (USGE). Meetings are
held to discuss practices in wellness and to
promote various initiatives. The committee
is working on negotiating a partnership with
the Department of National Defence and
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to use
their fitness facilities. Each regional representative has been in contact with an
individual from each of these agencies to
begin negotiating agreements. Further
information will be available in June. The
regional wellness committee representatives
will ensure that the information is disseminated to staff. Even though the committee
was established in 1998, regions have
focused on wellness initiatives for some time
and the following are examples of such
programs.
PACIFIC REGION
The Pacific Region has a fitness centre for
staff located in the Regional Supply Depot
on the Matsqui complex. The fitness centre
was designed primarily to facilitate the
regional Correctional Staff College
instructors’ administration of the Correctional Officer Physical Assessment Testing
(COPAT) for new recruits. The Staff
College also uses the facility for self-defense
training and other exercises required in
the course of the Correctional Training
Program.
The facility provides space for the indoor
training exercises of the institutional and
regional Emergency Response Teams and
for other approved programs of the
Correctional Service of Canada, and Bona
Fide Operational Requirements (BFOR) of
other federal departments, such as the
Department of Fisheries and Oceans.
In addition to its primary role, the fitness
centre provides a wellness facility where
federal public servants and their immediate
families can improve their physical fitness,
health, and manage stress levels, through
exercise, and recreational and social activities. It also provides equipment storage and
available floor-space for the carpet bowling
activities of the Retired Fraser Valley Federal
Corrections Staff Association.
Kent Institution’s wellness committee has
been focusing on many initiatives over the
past year and a half. The committee’s
mandate reflects that of the National
Wellness Committee and has a broad crosssection of representatives from the
institution, including front line staff and
labour. Mike Hale, AWMS, indicates that
one of the committee’s goals is to improve
communications and responsiveness within
the institution itself. The committee has
taken action to achieve this and other goals.
To recognize exceptional performance, the
institution has put in place an Employee of
the Month program. Individuals are nominated based on contributions they have
made to the facility as a whole, and who are
considered to have gone beyond the call of
duty. The chosen employee is given an
instant award and a prime parking space for
the month. The committee is currently
holding a contest to name a suggestion/
question program. The program would
provide staff with an opportunity to make
suggestions or ask questions and the
responses would be posted both electronically and on a bulletin board. In the area of
recreation, Kent Institution has challenged
its neighbours at Mountain Institution to a
bowlathon with all proceeds going to the
Big Brothers’ Association. This activity will
not only promote fitness, but also
strengthen the social aspect among coworkers. A final area to mention is a laugh
therapy program. The committee has just
begun to pursue the possibility of
developing a laugh therapy program that
hopefully will create more laughter in the
facility.
PRAIRIE REGION
The Prairie Region is piloting a peer
mediation program. Twenty-one staff
members received a week of training and
will assist co-workers as mediators in the
areas of harassment and workplace complaints. The program began in October
1998. Staff will continue to provide other
options such as using an outside agency or
pursuing the legal route.
Stony Mountain Institution has a positive
work environment committee that has been
in existence for nearly two years. Members
focus on organizing social/wellness activities, including a weekly barbecue in the
summer, the formation of a baseball team,
and a winter carnival. The committee is
well supported by management.
ONTARIO REGION
The Regional Joint Occupational Safety
and Health Committee organized a twoday Regional Wellness Conference, in
March, in Kingston, Ontario, that focused
on wellness and quality of life in the
workplace. The effects of shiftwork, critical
incident stress management, ergonomics in
the workplace, and stress motivation were
among the topics discussed. Many attended
and the conference provided an opportunity for employees to take time away from
work for themselves.
QUEBEC REGION
La Macaza Institution organized a wellness
seminar for staff. It focused on communication, innovation, change and the importance of rights. The seminar was attended
by all staff and was very well received.
The social committees within the region are
joining forces for a year 2000 project. This
initiative will consist of a celebration that
will ring in the millennium. The focus will
be on interaction, communication and
social awareness.
This winter, the Quebec Region held a
symposium on leadership and its effects for
Employee Assistance Program counsellors.
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
23
Training modules were developed based on
the themes of psychopathology of work,
post-traumatic stress, suicide and violence
in the home and at work. Louis Fréchette,
Regional Employee Assistance Program
(EAP) Coordinator, said that between
September 1992 and September 1998, the
EAP program received 1,493 requests for
psychological assistance. Over 85 per cent
of these requests were followed up with
counselling. This symposium afforded the
counsellors an opportunity to share their
views on the various perspectives in their
work environment, to acquire a great
deal of information, and make invaluable
contacts.
ATLANTIC REGION
The Atlantic Institution established a
wellness committee in the fall of 1998. Its
mission states: “The Wellness Committee
seeks to enhance the mental, physical and
spiritual wellness of all persons employed at
Atlantic Institution.” The committee meets
on a monthly basis with the objective of
organizing different activities, in order to
promote its mission to the fullest, such as
the Chapel Wellness Resource Centre,
lunchtime activities, physical fitness promotion, health awareness clinics, millennium promotions and shiftwork issues.
The Halifax Area will be piloting a smoking
cessation program for staff who wish to curb
their nicotine habit. The program is fully
funded by the regional headquarters. It is
hoped that many employees will be able to
quit smoking as a result of this project.
The National Wellness Committee is online under the Atlantic Region’s Infonet
site. You will find information on the
committee, RCMP/DND contacts and
other interesting events for the region.
NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS
REGION
CSC's National Headquarters (NHQ)
is promoting activities to revitalize itself.
An NHQ Revitalization Committee has
been working on ways to improve job
satisfaction and make life at work better.
Areas the committee is focusing on include:
brown bag informational lunches, welcome
kits for new employees at NHQ, on-site
shower facilities to facilitate employee
exercise during the day; the NHQ
assignment program; corporate rates at
fitness facilities in the downtown core; and
examine other issues of concern. The
committee is working with employees to
identify new ways and strategies to
revitalize NHQ.
24
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
CSC has stressed the importance of fitness
and health by implementing a BFOR
for recruits through the COPAT. The
Executive Committee confirmed the need
for this minimum standard for recruits at
their December 1998 meeting, in support
of the importance of physical fitness in the
workplace. It is anticipated that many
incumbent correctional officers will voluntarily attempt the COPAT over the next
several months.
Several factors within CSC’s current
structure have a direct impact on the health
and wellness of employees. One of these
factors is shiftwork. The current schedule at
men’s institutional facilities focuses on
working seven days with three days off, and
seven days with four days off. This schedule
involves long working hours and has
resulted in a high rate of absenteeism and
high dollar and human resource costs. The
1996 Staff Survey included seven questions
on shiftwork. The majority of CSC staff
who responded and who work shifts
reported the varying work hours and
schedules had negative impacts on different
aspects of their private life. The Service has
recognized a need to assess and to alter shift
schedules with the ownership of such
changes belonging to front line staff. A
pilot project is ongoing at Matsqui
Institution. The project is driven from the
ground up with an institutional shiftwork
committee driving the process in conjunction with an external consultant. A
needs assessment was conducted as a first
step in the development of the project. The
assessment demonstrated that the average
age of respondents was 38.4 years and the
average number of years working shifts
was 13.1. Furthermore, 11.8 per cent of
respondents moonlight or hold a second
job. The needs assessment demonstrated
employee preferences on the number of
consecutive days worked before off duty
time and that work schedules should be
designed around the needs of workers and
administrative requirements, maintaining
cost neutrality, and total hours of work.
Correctional officers at all levels were
involved in a selection process for proposed
new work schedules. Not only did the selection process result in new schedules, but
also the project incorporated a shiftwork
educational program. The educational
program promoted a better understanding
of shiftwork and the worker and provided
an invitation to correctional officers and
their families to participate on a voluntary
basis.
The Matsqui Pilot Project has created
a desire for future projects. In June 1998,
the Executive Committee approved the
launching of ten additional shiftwork pilot
projects in all regions. Sites have been
chosen through a joint labour-management
consultation process and a contractor
selected. On January 11, 1999, a kick-off
meeting with the contractor, the Assistant
Commissioner, Personnel and Training,
and the USGE was held in Ottawa. The
Matsqui Pilot Project was evaluated in
April 1999, one year following the implementation of the new shift schedules.
Dan Ferguson, National Coordinator of the
Shiftwork Study Projects indicates that
“one of the best predictors of a successful
schedule-related project is the extent to
which correctional officers have input and
subsequent ‘ownership’ of the process.”
This is an important key to the Shiftwork
Project and correctional officers at each
selected site will have a voice.
Wellness is everybody’s business. The
Correctional Service of Canada is addressing several aspects of wellness within
the workplace. For further information,
contact your regional wellness committee
representative and check the National
Wellness Committee sites on pt online or
regional wellness initiatives on your
regional Infonet sites.
We must all work together to achieve a
healthy workplace for all employees. ◆
Wellness committee representatives:
Chairperson
John Rama
(613) 995-8899
Pacific Region
Gerry Ayotte
(604) 853-7474 ext. 246
Prairie Region
Brenda Froese
(780) 472-6052 ext. 415
Ontario Region & PIPS
Carolyn Teeple
(613) 545-6962
Quebec Region
Yvon-Paul Charette
Julie Dubois
Sylvie Cadieux
Céline Girard
(450) 661-9550 ext. 3429
(450) 478-5993 ext. 6641
(819) 275-2315
(418) 285-2455
Atlantic Region
Peter Grandy
(902) 426-1881
USGE
Michel Charbonneau (613) 232-4821
Executive Secretary
Faith McIntyre
(613) 995-2558
SECTOR REPORTS
Corporate Development Sector
National Survey shows Support for
Correctional Service of Canada Priorities
By Ms. Heather Blumenthal, Freelance Writer
A
national survey to measure
Canadians’ perceptions of corrections
and organized crime has found that
Canadians perceive the corrections system
as being more lenient than it is but that
they strongly support the Correctional
Service of Canada’s (CSC) approach to
rehabilitation and reintegration.
The survey also found that similar
misperceptions characterized Canadians’
understanding of organized crime.
The survey was commissioned by the
Solicitor General of Canada, to examine
attitudes and knowledge about these two
priority issues.
CORRECTIONS: CSC ON THE RIGHT
TRACK
In the area of corrections, the survey found
that Canadians are generally more likely to
identify “rehabilitation” as the primary
purpose of corrections over “punishment”
(by a margin of 58 per cent to 42 per cent).
There is also strong support for sentencing
options for non-violent crimes that involve
restitution and community service rather
than imprisonment.
The survey also found that, on three key
measures, Canadians still believe the system
is more lenient than it actually is:
• A significant majority of Canadians
believe Canada’s incarceration rate is
lower than or about the same as comparable Western nations, when, in fact, it
is higher;
• Canadians estimate the parole rate is
considerably higher than it really is; and
When Canadians think
of organized crime,
they overwhelmingly
think of
drugs.
• most Canadians significantly over-estimate
the rate at which offenders commit new
crimes while they are on parole under
supervision in the community.
Despite these findings, Canadians still
express a strong preference for parole,
rather than keeping inmates in prison until
the end of their sentences and then releasing them to the community without
supervision. This preference exists even
among people who feel the primary purpose of corrections should be punishment,
by a margin of two to one. Overall, Canadians strongly support CSC’s risk-based
discretionary release system policy, with
only 16 per cent saying they are somewhat
or strongly opposed to it.
This support for parole increases when
people’s misperceptions about the leniency
of the parole system are corrected. For
instance, support for the parole of a hypothetical break-and-enter offender increased
markedly when participants were given
more information about the offender and
about how parole works.
ORGANIZED CRIME: A SERIOUS
ISSUE
When Canadians think of organized crime,
they overwhelmingly think of drugs –
possibly because of the stereotyped images
of organized crime which appear in the
popular media. Trafficking and importing
drugs are the most commonly identified
organized crimes, and considered the most
serious of organized crimes.
Running an illegal gambling operation,
money laundering, and cigarette or liquor
smuggling were also identified as examples
of organized crime. White-collar or corporate crimes, such as cheating on the stock
market or illegally disposing of dangerous
waste, were least likely to be seen as
examples of organized crime.
A significant number of Canadians have
“participated” in organized crime by buying
smuggled cigarettes or liquor. A third of all
participants in the survey said they had
been approached to buy illegal cigarettes,
liquor or drugs. Of this group, half (and
two-thirds of those under age 30) had
either purchased these products themselves
or knew someone who had. Those who had
purchased smuggled goods tended to see
these offences as less serious than those who
had not.
Quebeckers tend to have more concerns
about organized crime than other
Canadians, due to the high profile the issue
has received in that province over the past
several years.
Overall, Canadians
strongly support
CSC’s risk-based
discretionary release
system policy, with
only 16 per cent
saying they are
somewhat or strongly
opposed to it.
In general, however, Canadians as a whole
want organized crime to be treated more
severely than other forms of crime, and
want governments to spend more money
on fighting organized crime. In fact, when
asked to choose among priorities,
Canadians chose organized crime as a
spending priority for government over all
other proposed options except health care.
NEED FOR PUBLIC EDUCATION
This survey confirms the conclusions of
previous surveys – specifically, that an
informative public education effort is
required to help Canadians gain accurate
perceptions of both corrections and organized crime – the kind of perceptions that
will support informed policy making. ◆
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
25
SECTOR REPORTS
Personnel and Training Sector
Guiding
CSC
Recognizing the Value of Values
Respect
Respect
in
Recruitment
and
Selection
By Ms. Holly Flowers, Project Officer, and Mr. Brent Schwieg,
Senior Project Manager, Personnel and Training Sector
V
eronique was a Correctional Officer II at the institution. She tended to avoid an
offender named Chris. Chris was a high-needs offender who frequently sought help
with even simple tasks. Veronique noticed how quickly she became impatient with
Chris because she regularly had to repeat basic instructions and follow up on Chris because
he neglected or forgot to complete most day-to-day tasks in the living area.
One day, Veronique exploded and told Chris, “I can’t believe you didn’t go to your dental
appointment this morning. I reminded you twice before breakfast. It’s unbelievable! Sometimes I
wonder if anything I say gets through your thick skull.”
Measure your reaction to the above situation by circling the number that most closely
represents your feelings toward the following statements:
RATE YOURSELF
For questions 1,2,3,5,6,8 and 9, give yourself 1 point every time you circled 1 or 2 as
your answer; give yourself 0 points if you
circled 3 as your answer and subtract 1
point for every 4 or 5 you circled as your
answer. For questions 4, 7, and 10, subtract
1 point for every 1 or 2 you circled as your
answer; give yourself 0 points if you circled
3 as your answer and add 1 point for every
4 or 5 you circled as your answer.
INTERPRETATION
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
No
reaction
Agree
Strongly
Agree
1. Veronique’s actions support the
business we’re in.
1
2
3
4
5
2. Veronique respects the differences between herself and Chris.
1
2
3
4
5
3. Veronique respects her
professional obligations as
a correctional officer.
1
2
3
4
5
4. Veronique’s encounter with Chris
likely has a detrimental impact
on Chris’ potential to become a
law-abiding citizen.
1
2
3
4
5
5. Veronique’s behaviour showed
respect for the CSC Mission.
1
2
3
4
5
6. Veronique’s conduct was punitive
in nature.
1
2
3
4
5
7. Veronique is appropriate for work
in CSC as a correctional officer.
1
2
3
4
5
8. Chris will more likely respond
positively to Veronique’s direct
approach, than if Veronique had
used a more sensitive approach.
1
2
3
4
5
9. No corrective action is required in
this situation. This is an encounter
that typically occurs in a
correctional institution.
1
2
3
4
5
10. Because of this incident, any
respect that Chris had for
Veronique, or perhaps for other
correctional staff, may have been
seriously eroded.
1
2
3
4
5
26
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
0-3 points total
Inclined to be very disrespectful towards
others. Extremely likely to compromise the
business we're in.
4-6 points total
Generally respectful towards others. Orientation would likely result in open, fair, and
humane encounters with others.
7-10 points total
Strong respect orientation. Committed to
upholding respectful relationships as the
critical element in preparing offenders for
release.
Within the Correctional Service of Canada
(CSC) environment, employees regularly
encounter situations where their values
differ from those of other individuals and
groups. It is vital that employees possess
and demonstrate values that are aligned
with the principles stated in the Mission.
In the case study above, Veronique did not
demonstrate an appropriate level of respect
towards Chris and this omission needs to be
brought to her attention. Whether this was an
isolated incident or a reflection of the pattern
of Veronique’s disrespectful behaviour towards
others is not clear. Certainly, all respectful
persons have had encounters from time
to time where they have been less than totally
respectful. Alternately, some people regularly
treat others with disrespect. This probably
made it very difficult for you to respond to
questions 7 and 9.
When differences exist, the employee
must be capable of respecting them and
fulfill his or her professional obligations.
Furthermore, how he or she behaves in
response to other people’s perspectives,
beliefs, or ideas will have a significant
impact on how effective the employee will
be in encouraging and assisting the
offender and in working with other
members of the correctional team.
In the case study above, Veronique was
disrespectful towards Chris; however, her
behaviour may not necessarily be punitive in
nature without knowing more about the
context of the situation. This may have made
it difficult to answer question 7. A deliberate
and malicious act of disrespect can be
punitive in nature. This is an extreme
example of an individual's value system
clashing with the values and Mission of the
organization.
It is imperative that employees respect
Canadian law, authority, the philosophy of
social justice, and the CSC Mission. They
will experience differences in values and
beliefs in the diverse groups of offenders,
staff, and other criminal justice system
partners. Their ability to be empathetic
while upholding their value system is
essential.
One very important underlying value
found in CSC's Mission is respect.
Respect is the most critical of the five
values areas that will be assessed in
recruitment and selection processes for
Correctional Officer I, II and Correctional
Supervisor positions.
Respect encompasses the ability to abide
by rules, acknowledge and accept corporate norms and boundaries. Respect
signifies the acceptance of direction, support for leaders and authority figures.
Respect provides for differences in opinion
and explores and recognizes the needs of
others. Respect means the ability to interact with others in an appropriate fashion,
to defer judgement, and to seek to understand other points of view. Respect
endorses the rule of law, and supports the
rights of others.
Respect refers to the way you would like
others to treat you. Treating all individuals,
regardless of status, race, religion, sex, or
other difference, with respect is the most
fundamental element of not only the
Service but of Canada. ◆
SECTOR REPORTS
Corporate Services Sector
Conservation of Drinking Water
A neglected
Activity
By Mr. Paul Provost, Environmental Services Officer
E
ach year, technological developments
lead to an even longer list of equipment
available for reducing the use of
drinking water. The tips set out below will
reduce the demand for this precious natural
resource.
is fairly similar (excluding losses due to
leakages in the water distribution system,
and certain industrial uses such as in
laundries and the use of water as a coolant
for machinery). It’s up to you to target the
uses where the potential savings on water
consumption will be the greatest.
WHY SAVE DRINKING WATER?
Use of water in the home
Basically, the answer to this question is that
for every litre of water consumed, the treatment required to make it drinkable introduces contaminants into the environment
(chlorine, sludges for filtering, atmospheric
emissions as a result of the energy used in
the purification process). In addition, overconsumption of water inevitably brings
with it additional costs for pumping and
treatment (most notably for equipment,
hydro power and chemicals), not to mention the huge capital costs involved for
bigger treatment plants, conduits, reservoirs
and filters and for premature replacement of
pumps, and these costs in turn have
environmental impacts.
Many UN experts are fearful of drinking
water shortages during the 21st century.1
Depletion of water resources – which often
leads to crises, wars or conflicts between
countries – arises mainly from demographic
growth, pollution, urbanization, irrigation,
and changes in consumer habits. Now that
we have this warning from the international
scientific community, it is hard to justify
wasting water, even in a country like
Canada where the “blue gold” is so
abundant.
USES OF WATER
The chart shows the percentages of water
used for various domestic purposes. The
distribution of uses in institutional settings
1
35%
Baths and
showers
30%
Toilet
10%
Drinking and
kitchen
5%
Cleaning
20%
Laundry
WHAT CAN BE DONE IN AN
INSTITUTIONAL SETTING?
• Develop and implement an
institutional water conservation plan.
• Look for leaks in toilet tanks, taps and
pipes and adopt an ongoing monitoring
and repair program.
• Use water-saving devices, especially in
washrooms (faucet aerators, waterconserving showerheads, low-flush
toilets [6 litres per flush], etc).
• Avoid equipment which uses water as a
coolant (air conditioners, compressors).
• Install water meters at strategic locations,
check consumption regularly and report
performance to those responsible.
• Set up a water conservation awareness
program for the staff. ◆
Government of Quebec. L’eau potable une ressource précieuse pour tous [drinking water: a precious resource for all].
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
27
REGIONAL NEWS
Atlantic Region
Working in Partnership with Community-based Residential Facilities
Reintegrating Day Parolees
By Ms. Jennifer Rose, Parole Officer, Kentville Parole Office
T
he three Community-based Residential Facilities (CBRF) operating in
Rural Nova Scotia District are vital
members of the District and key players in
the achievement of CSC’s Mission. They
are the Salvation Army’s Howard House, in
Sydney; Dismas Society’s Lavers House, in
Truro; and St. Leonard’s Society’s TAPS, in
New Minas. The District has challenged
them to help reduce recidivism rates while
managing the offenders with fewer special
conditions. The CBRFs have suggested
creative alternatives and have improved
communications between the facilities.
and will go to great lengths to ensure the
residents continue to progress towards full
parole and eventually successful completion
of their sentences.
The day’s discussions led to a renewed
awareness that day parole is a critical period
for the offender. It is during the conditional
release phase that parolees are actively
encouraged to understand and address the
dynamic factors involved in their criminal
behaviour, learn new behaviours, develop a
pro-social support network, and acquire
stability in the community in order to
progress towards full parole. Many people
who work in corrections recognize day
parole as the first real opportunity for these
individuals to test their newfound skills and
abilities acquired through institutional
programming.
David Cail, Rural Nova Scotia District Director, addresses representatives from the CBRFs and CSC.
Day parole has often been described by
offenders as the most difficult form of
release, but also the most rewarding because
it is the best preparation for full parole.
From an offender’s perspective, it can be
very intimidating to have someone watch
every move and comment you make and
ask why, for example, you overlooked a
Narcotics Anonymous meeting to go visit
your girlfriend. This simple question, that
calls for judgement skills on the part of the
parolee, is a source of anxiety and shows
how easily technical violations can occur
and lead to the suspension or revocation of
that privilege. With the exception of
accelerated parole review cases, offenders
who are identified as suitable candidates for
day parole are usually higher-need individuals who do not have a lengthy history of
living a stable lifestyle on the street.
Recently, representatives from the CBRFs,
along with their respective Correctional
Service of Canada (CSC) liaison officers,
spent a day discussing new challenges
facing community correctional workers and
how all agencies can work together to better
assist the clients. They focused on developing new ways to manage difficult cases in
the community with the objective of
reducing recidivism.
Community-based Residential Facilities
provide the appropriate environment for
day parolees to reintegrate into society.
These facilities address the security aspect
of public protection in two ways. First, they
provide static security by monitoring the
resident 24 hours a day. Second, they work
with these high-need individuals to
improve their reintegration potential by
targeting the critical risk factors.
The group adopted a “back to basics”
approach. A comparison of the mission
statements of the Correctional Service of
Canada, the National Parole Board (NPB),
and those of the three CBRFs revealed that
all agencies involved shared similar
objectives. While the wording may vary in
their respective documents, each stakeholder stated its commitment to help
offenders in their reintegration efforts and
to protect society. The community partners
remain committed to assisting offenders
28
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
Larry Knowles and Tasha Bigelow, St. Leonard’s
Society representatives
From left to right: Mike Kilburn, CSC, Truro, Nova Scotia;
Denna Matheson, CSC, Sydney, Nova Scotia; and Marjorie
Peck, Howard House.
A solid working relationship between
CSC and the CBRFs is crucial for
parolees to successfully reintegrate
into the community while ensuring
the protection of society. This
relationship must be maintained and
enhanced through an ongoing
exchange of information, ideas and
practices. Sustained mutual respect
and recognition of each agency’s role
and efforts is mandatory. Together,
we can make a difference! ◆
REGIONAL NEWS
Atlantic Region
Starting Anew
Starting Anew
By Mr. Bill Mabey, Freelance Writer
S
oloman Semigak is on the loose! Well,
sort of. The 30-year old Inuit was
paroled from Springhill Institution
to a halfway house in Halifax, Nova Scotia,
in January 1999. Now he is free to spend
his days any way he chooses. His selfdiscipline, with help of new friends and
Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) staff,
will keep him from returning to prison.
pass and was granted an extended curfew to
attend the Sweat Lodge ceremonies at the
Millbrook Reserve, in Truro, N.S., about
100 kilometres from Halifax.
break their conditions of release, by filling
in the void with undesirable affiliations and
dealings. “This is why a lot of them end up
back inside.”
He credits his initial success of being able to
cope on the outside to his one-on-one
sessions with Sarah Anala, the Inuit Native
Liaison Officer for the Atlantic Region,
while he was serving his sentence at
Springhill Institution. Soloman also
acknowledged the Challenge to Change
program and the help of Ramona O'Brien,
a facilitator.
Clara Prosper, Director of Kjipuktuk
Aboriginal College, indicated that Soloman
is a good candidate for their extensive list
of programs but first “he requires a prelearning program.”
Soloman Semigak overlooks Halifax harbour.
“The most difficult part was that I had
never been to the city before I was released.
It was quite intimidating and somewhat
scary,” he recalls. “Looking back, I think it
would have helped a lot if I had been taken
on some escorted temporary absences to
familiarize myself a little prior to coming to
the city.”
Soloman is originally from Makkovik,
Labrador, an isolated community of 300
people. Even though he has no close ties in
the city, he has made some good contacts
and looks for ways on how to improve his
current situation. He participates in different programs and stays out trouble. His
strong connection to Native spirituality has
also kept him on the straight and narrow
path that leads to his future. “A friend has
given me an eagle feather from which I
draw strength, and another friend has given
me Sweet Grass with which I can smudge
to stay free of and eliminate bad feelings
and spirits.”
Nearing the end of his first two weeks at the
halfway house, ‘Sol’ had impressed the staff
with his progress that he earned a travel
Soloman spends time surfing the Internet at the
MT&T Sho & Tel Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
In spite of the culture shock he faced in
Halifax, Soloman shifted his attention to
his future. He made contact with the
Mi’kmaq Native Friendship Centre where
he found a place to occupy both his time
and his mind. “I have been accepted at
the Kjipuktuk Aboriginal College at the
Friendship Centre but I have to wait a
month for a new course to begin.” He
admitted that this was an unexpected
difficulty with which he had to learn to
cope. “This is another drawback in the
process of release where having a month to
myself without programs in place has
created stress for me.” ‘Sol’ indicated that
future parolees could benefit from having
programs in place at the time of release.
“All this free time to occupy is difficult for
someone who has come from a prison
environment where all your time has been
planned for you. You just don’t know what
is the best thing to do.” He acknowledges
that this is the stage where some parolees
“We take a holistic approach to education
which includes individual needs assessment, resource identification, barriers to
education/employment, goal-setting, and
support.” Ms. Prosper said people like
Soloman are part of the reason the College
is committed to providing academic access
and support that empowers Aboriginal
people to achieve their goals.
The goal for Soloman Semigak is Dalhousie
University and a degree in linguistics. “Back
home, I taught Inuktituk, my native
language, to young students. I’d like to do
that again, and earning a degree in
linguistics would be great. I’m going to
work towards getting that degree.”
Clara Prosper, director of Kjipuktuk Aboriginal
College, discusses programs with Soloman as he
plans for his future.
In the meantime, he spends time visiting
the local city library, relaxes by playing
pool, visits the Friendship Centre, and
works at building the support systems he
needs to keep him on the path to rebuild
his life. “I know things are slowly getting
better, so I just have to keep working at it
and be patient with the challenges I face
each day.” ◆
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
29
REGIONAL NEWS
Atlantic Region
Correctional Training Program
Sweat Ceremony
Sweat Ceremony
November 1998
By Mr. Bill Crossman, Mr. Richard Allen, Ms. Kelly Rivard, CTP 2000, Training Facilitators; Ms. Yolande Sear,
Regional Training Facility, Ms. Karen Mathews, Performance Assurance, Regional Headquarters and Mr. Robert
Babineau, Assistant Deputy Commissioner, Atlantic Region.
“Spirituality”…there are many different ways a person
can experience it, and these experiences stem from
different cultures and beliefs, from Christianity to
Aboriginal, but the reason for spirituality is universal.
I
n November 1998, participants of the
Correctional Training Program 2000
and staff members involved in the
Correctional Training Program offered at
the Atlantic Regional Training Facility,
located in Memramcook, New Brunswick,
were given the opportunity to experience a
new type of Spirituality, an Aboriginal
Sweat. This opportunity was provided
thanks to the lead by Ted Baker, Coordinator Aboriginal Issues for the Atlantic
Region, who invited us to receive firsthand awareness training that will remain
with us throughout our career with CSC.
The sweats were held on the First Nations
Reserve in Boutouche, New Brunswick,
over a three-week period, with only three
or four recruits or staff members per
Sweat. The attendance was restricted to
allow us to experience first-hand awareness
training, and to share the experience with
members of the local Aboriginal community, and with those from other reserves,
thereby creating a good cultural balance.
The ceremonies were separate for men and
women as part of the culture, and were
conducted by Elders John and Carol
Peters. After the Sweat, all participants
attended a traditional feast and social at
the couple’s home. All who participated in
the many sweats had experiences that were
similar in many respects, yet unique in
others.
With the emphasis placed on the values
and ethics of today’s CSC staff, the value
of such a program is priceless. It has given
us an opportunity to understand, in a
small yet important way, a culture other
than our own, and to apply this experience
to our daily activities.
Participants had difficulty trying to
explain the emotional experience encountered. Being unfamiliar with the
Aboriginal cultures in our region, from the
time we arrived on the reserve and entered
the Sweat Lodge, we learned new things
and left with a greater understanding of
the Aboriginal way. ◆
QUOTES FROM PARTICIPANTS
“I have a renewed respect for the strength
that a person must possess to be able to give
themselves to the earth like they do. If you
decide to partake in an Aboriginal Sweat, do it
for the right reasons. Do it selflessly and with
an open mind and heart.”
Tayna Hitz
“This new experience broadened my
knowledge of other cultures and ways. I would
recommend this to anyone with an open mind.”
Steven MacNeil
“It was an eye-opening experience and it
helped me to understand a little of the
Aboriginal culture. I recommend this experience
to everyone who wants to learn. It was great!”
Josh Strickland
“It was a new and wonderful experience;
one which I will always remember as an
eye-opening chance of a lifetime. Thank you
for everything.”
Shane Ranahan
“A chance to learn and understand! Was a
great eye-opening experience! Helps us as
officers to become culturally aware! You can
always try to explain something to someone,
but there’s nothing like living it!”
Jeff Curtis
“Excellent and powerful experience.
Should be available to all new recruits.”
Brooke Mitchell
“The Sweat gave me a renewed sense of self.
It gives you an opportunity to see Spirituality
in a way that differs from your own. If given
the chance, take it. Your own experience will
give you a greater understanding.”
Jill Faulkner
“A spiritual journey well worth taking.
It leads to a new place that makes you
eager to visit the lodge again and again.”
Jody MacLennan
“It was an experience that I am unable to
describe. But I knew that things were different;
my perspective was changed after the
experience.”
Alison Gus Loder
“An experience to which words could not do
justice. For myself, a memory was created that
will not fade. I encourage anyone presented
with the opportunity not to pass on such a
valuable chance to grow and learn. ”
Todd Ross
From left to right:
Front row: Emile Belliveau, Greg Allen, Lori Smith, Allison Loder, Kenzie Cook, Jeff Curtis, Tony Dickie.
Second row: Jennifer Fillmore, Lynn McMillan, Jill Faulkner, Andrea Atwell.
Third row: Jody MacLennan, Brooke Mitchell, Tayna Hitz.
Fourth row: Steven MacNeil, Yolande Sears, Josh Strickland, Keith King, Kelly Rivard, Kevin Singleton, Todd Ross.
Back row: Bill Crossman, Richard Allen.
30
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
“It was a great honour to be invited to
participate in a Sweat. This was an
excellent chance to experience a small
form of cultural diversity.”
Kenzie Cook
REGIONAL NEWS
Quebec Region
Recognizing and Valuing
Diversity in Corrections
By Mr. Philip Godin, Deputy Warden, Resources and Systems, Cowansville Institution
F
or many years, it has been the mission
of Cowansville Institution to welcome
inmates from many different social and
ethnic backgrounds. In the late 80s, the
institution offered a range of correctional
activities and programs to meet the specific
needs of inmates who experienced
linguistic, ethnic, religious, social or physical
barriers that prevented them from benefiting
from the institutional activities.
Under the direction of Warden Jean-Paul
Lupien, the first Alcoholics Anonymous
and Narcotics Anonymous meetings were
held, the facility was retrofitted to
accommodate wheelchairs, and the first
spiritual gatherings for Aboriginal and Inuit
inmates took place. In 1992, the institution
held its first multiculturalism day, under
the theme “no borders”. More than 300
visitors representing 11 countries worked
together on that occasion to help staff and
inmates learn more about the many facets
of their country through song, food, dance,
and art.
In 1997, Marc-Arthur Hyppolite was
appointed warden and he made it clear that
the institution would continue to pursue
the same mission. [TRANSLATION:] “I
saw that there was interest and untapped
potential in my staff to address serious
challenges that were directly related to
racial or ethnic tension among the inmates.
The entire staff, senior management
included, responded to this challenge.”
In order to more effectively organize effort
and commitment on the part of all sectors,
the new management specified an objective
that set the direction in which the
institution was to move. In this objective,
the institution was identified as a place for
people from all corners of the world,
whether they were newcomers to Canada,
Left to right: Cowansville Warden Marc-Arthur Hyppolite, Suleikha Ali Yusuf of the Black Community
Resource Centre; Tod Drummond, representative of the minorities in the institution; Joseph Augustin,
cultural attaché with the Haitian consulate; Reverend Daryl Grey of the United Church and Abdi I. Yunis,
of the Somali Canadian teachers’ association.
Canadians by birth, members of visible
minorities, Aboriginals or anglophones.
Representatives of visible and language
minority groups were elected by the
inmates concerned, who had been given a
mandate by management, to express the
expectations of their respective communities. Members of the anglophone, visible
minority and Aboriginal communities were
actively recruited to sit on the Inmate
Committee and the Citizens’ Advisory
Committee. In addition, volunteers were
recruited from the community to facilitate
correctional programs for the anglophones,
and the first Living Skills program for
visible minorities in the Quebec Region
was adapted and improved.
[TRANSLATION:] “Just as Cowansville
Institution recognizes the importance of
celebrating St-Jean Baptiste Day and Canada
Day, I believe it is just as important to commemorate cultural events that are meaningful
to inmates of other cultural expressions in
Quebec. For me, ‘Black History Month’ is
important for the reintegration of the entire
penitentiary population, not just for Black
people but for everyone who cherishes the
noble ideals of racial harmony and equal
opportunity for all. ‘Aboriginal Awareness
Week’ is crucial in order to give
us a better understanding of the origins
of our country and its first peoples.”
Marc-Arthur Hyppolite
Mr. Hyppolite believes that regardless of
the vehicle used – social, cultural, arts,
sports, correctional or spiritual events – it is
the duty of every institution to ensure that
all inmates have the opportunity to benefit
from all the services offered to the majority.
And that is exactly the kind of thinking that
spurred program staff to offer simultaneous
translation of a substance abuse intervention program for a hard of hearing
inmate. ◆
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
31
REGIONAL NEWS
Quebec Region
Animal Therapy in Correctional
Intervention… A First for the Region
By Regional Mental Health Unit staff
S
ince September 1998, the inmates in
the Regional Mental Health Unit
(RMHU) have a new friend. His name
is Boomer, and he’s a 70kg Bullmastiff. The
dog is the star of “ANIBOOM”, an animal
therapy activity that gives the inmates a
chance to learn the responsibility of taking
care of a pet. Contact with a dog also
teaches human values like respect, education, accountability, patience, health and
hygiene. Animal therapy is a technique that
encourages the inmates to break out of their
isolation, learn to be interested in others,
and become more social. Also, it is great fun
to watch Boomer do his tricks. Animal
therapy is especially pleasing for some of
the inmates who have not had the chance to
handle a pet for more than 25 years. It is
more enjoyable because Boomer is a very
obedient, lovable dog, thanks to the care
and patience lavished on him by Raymond
Bertrand, a social development officer at
Archambault Institution. It is important to
Group of RMHU residents with Raymond Bertrand, Boomer and Louise Lamarre, instructor
point out that this program would never
have seen the light of day had it not been
for the generosity of Mr. Bertrand.
ANIBOOM is offered once a week to all
residents of the RMHU who are interested.
Since the activity was first introduced, more
than 45 inmates have participated. Inmates
and staff are unanimous in saying: “Hurray
for animal therapy!”
Management supports this initiative, which
is targeted specifically at a socially
disadvantaged clientele. ANIBOOM is
intended to complement the RMHU’s
other intervention activities. ◆
REGIONAL NEWS
Millennium
Ball
Millennium
By Quebec Region Organizing Committee staff
L
ike so many other organizations
around the world that want to hold a
special event to mark the arrival of the
new millennium, the Quebec Region’s
operational unit social committees are
organizing a big party. A millennium ball is
going to be held at the Queen Elizabeth
Hotel, on Saturday, December 18, 1999.
Quebec Region
Ball
meeting, an organizing committee representing various operational units was
formed.
All current and retired members of all
operational units in the Quebec Region are
invited.
Since that time, the organizing committee
has been working on many tasks, including
soliciting sponsors, printing and distributing tickets and selling promotional articles.
The organizing committee is proud of this
unique achievement. This will be the first
meeting of all employees and retirees from
all operational units in Quebec. ◆
Every year, the social committees plan
parties around the holiday season. Because
we are living in the age of partnership, the
members of one social committee decided
to plan an activity so that all their coworkers in the region could celebrate the
new millennium together.
The idea dates back to September 1998,
when representatives of different social
committees in the region met to establish
ground rules for this major project. At that
32
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
Members of the organizing committee
REGIONAL NEWS
Quebec Region
Regional Symposium of Employee
Assistance Program Counsellors
By Mr. Louis Fréchette, Regional Employee Assistance Program Coordinator, Staff College
D
uring the winter of 1998, the
Quebec Region held a symposium on
The Impact of Leadership for its
Employee Assistance Program (EAP)
counsellors. This was the first meeting since
the implementation of the EAP promotion
plan in June 1992.
union’s position on the current round of
bargaining talks, making it clear that the
EAP will not be targeted for job action. In
the Quebec Region, the union has always
supported the EAP. In fact, many locals
have contributed financially to the development of the program.
During the symposium, the counsellors
discussed issues such as their commitment
to the program, the role of the local EAP
committee, and the EAP’s contribution to
promoting a healthy physical and psychological environment for our co-workers and
their families.
TRAINING MODULES
Opening address by Louis Fréchette, Regional EAP
Coordinator
The counsellors had an opportunity to
share their views on the various perspectives
in their work environment, to acquire a
great deal of information, and make
invaluable contacts. The symposium was
opened by Richard Watkins, Regional
Deputy Commissioner, and François
Gaudreau, Regional Vice-President of the
Union of Solicitor General Employees.
Speech by Richard Watkins, Regional Deputy
Commissioner
UNION SUPPORTS PROGRAM
Mr. Watkins reminded the counsellors how
the Employee Assistance Program came
into being. Mr. Gaudreau explained the
Training modules have been made available
to the counsellors to give them an opportunity to acquire more information that they
will be able to apply in their workplace,
should the need arise.
The modules cover the following topics:
• The psychopathology of work:
From theory to prevention, with
Dr. Michelle Cousineau;
• Post-traumatic stress, with Pierre Belzile,
M.A. in Psychology, and Geneviève
Derome, M.A. in Psychology;
• Suicide, with Le Faubourg crisis centre;
• Brief psychotherapy, with
Francine Boucher;
• How to cure stress and how to prevent
it, with Ginette Martin, a psychologist
with the firm Longpré & associés;
• The impact on victims of family and
workplace violence, with Francine Doré;
• Managing employee cases in critical
incidents, with Jean Pichette and a
representative of the Quebec workers’
compensation board, the CSST;
• Coping skills, with Christine Perreault,
chief of the regional debriefing team;
and
• Aging in men, with author Hubert de
Ravinel.
Poster welcoming participants to
the EAP symposium
A PRESENT
To wrap up the second day, we decided on
an early Christmas present: a presentation
by two guest speakers, Pierre Harvey and
Pierrette Bergeron, a dietitian.
Fully living up to their reputation, Mr.
Harvey and Ms. Bergeron literally captivated their audience. They conveyed their
enthusiasm and their passion for their
subject matter. They also autographed
copies of their book, La mise en forme [in
English: ‘fitness’--Tr.] for their fans and
were very approachable. Some people had a
different kind of dinner than usual that
evening, while others went out for a walk…
THREE GUEST SPEAKERS
Three guest speakers had been invited for
the last day of the symposium. The first,
Yvon Dallaire, had a topic that was a real
attention-grabber: Are men and women
made to live together? Mr. Dallaire holds an
M.A. in Psychology from Laval University
and training in the psychology of sex from
the Collège international des sexothérapeutes [in English: ‘international college of
sex therapists’ –Tr.]. For him, conjugal life
is the meeting of two people who
sometimes have trouble talking to one
another. The participants were all delighted
with Mr. Dallaire’s presentation. Some
thought they recognized in it the premise
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
33
SOME OF THE EAP’S
ACHIEVEMENTS:
• a play about family violence, ‘Les
Bleus amoureux’ [English: ‘the
love blues’ (or ‘love bruises’)– Tr.].
This play has helped many
employees to gain a better
understanding of their family
dynamics.
• a play, ‘Arrête Mharcel!’ [English:
‘Stop it, Mharcel!’--Tr.] on
workplace harassment. Our
employees’ own experiences
were used as script material.
A group of happy participants
behind a popular Quebec TV show, Un
gars, une fille [unofficial English translation:
‘a boy and a girl’—Tr.].
The next speaker was Julie Pelletier, a sex
therapist and psychotherapist. Her presentation focused on the need to achieve
harmony in all aspects of our lives: fulfilment at work, in one’s personal life, and
in bed. Work takes up a large part of our
lives, and we often have little free time.
The problems associated with conjugal life
and family responsibilities can raise barriers
to intimacy and sexual expression. Ms.
Pelletier writes a column on sexuality for
the Journal de Montréal. She shared with
her audience some tips on how to reconcile
work with our love life and sex life.
The last speakers were Julien Mercure and
Micheline Hones, authors of Les saisons du
couple [English: ‘seasons in the life of a
couple’—Tr.]. There was much give-andtake between the speakers and the audience
on the ‘seasons’ referred to in their book.
For Mercure and Hones, a couple is a
living, breathing, growing organism. By
combining their public speaking skills and
their knowledge of their topic with respect
for the subject and for their audience, they
took the audience on a journey to the heart
of conjugal intimacy. Problems that, at first
glance, seemed to have no solution took on
a new meaning and even turned out to
provide a special opportunity for growth.
CERTIFICATES AWARDED
The symposium closed with a ceremony
in which certificates were awarded by
Laval Marchand, Assistant Deputy Commissioner and by the regional vicepresident of the union. Mr. Marchand has
been a key player in the development of
the EAP.
The certificates, signed by employer and
union representatives, were awarded to
honour ‘people who make a difference’.
Winners included EAP counsellors or
34
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
Presentation of clocks to François Gaudreau,
regional vice-president of the union and to
Laval Marchand, Assistant Deputy Commissioner.
committee members who had made an
outstanding contribution. Certificates were
presented to the EAP committees of the
following units: La Macaza, Ste-Anne-desPlaines, Cowansville, Archambault and
regional headquarters. In addition, the
following EAP counsellors received certificates: Estelle Savaria (Regional Reception
Centre), Micheline Burelle (East-West
District), Lise Thibeault (Cowansville
Institution), Céline Girard (Donnacona
Institution), Nicole Bonds (Montreal
Metropolitan District), Jean-Jacques Plante
(Drummond Institution), and Félix Nadeau
(Leclerc Institution).
The management and union representatives were presented with a clock as a token
of thanks for finding common ground so
that the EAP counsellors could do their job
and to make sure they would always know
the correct time for their next discussions
about the EAP.
PIONEERS
I would also like to praise the work of the
pioneers who developed the CSC’s EAP in
the Quebec Region. Thanks to their hard
work and generosity, they have taken the
program to new heights. A warm ‘thank
you’ goes out to Ginette Gendron, Diane
Ouellet, Lise Beaupré, Richard Mondoux,
Serge Rathier, Denis Paradis and Gratien
Tremblay. ◆
•hundreds of health and wellness
promotional activities which the
EAP had only been dreaming of
putting on. Activities have been
held on many different themes,
including workplace stress,
relations between parents and
children, conjugal life, health, and
social activism. The EAP has also
held blood pressure clinics and
talks on the emotional impact of
a caseload, both during and after
working hours. There have been
health fairs, campaigns to
educate employees about the
need for social activism through
participation in ‘Opération nezrouge’ [Quebec’s designateddriver program – Tr.], and
workshops on family relations.
• help for victims of violence, and
gradually building expertise on
how to support employees and
their families when unfortunate
incidents occur at work.
• EAP’s last – and best –
achievement is its reason for
existing. This achievement is
proof of the trust the employees
have learned to place in their EAP
counsellors. Through their work
and their respect for human
dignity, these people, namely the
employees and their families,
have done us, their counsellors,
the honour of allowing us to
assist them. Between September
1992 and September 1998, the
EAP has received 1,493 requests
for psychological assistance. More
than 85 per cent of these have
been followed up with
counselling.
REGIONAL NEWS
Ontario Region
Designated Institutions house
Offenders of New Territory
travelled to Bowden Institution and to
Iqaluit. The trip to Bowden Institution was
to meet the Nunavut offenders, to explore
the Inuit-specific programming, and to determine how these ideas could be incorporated into the programs at Fenbrook and
Beaver Creek institutions. In Iqaluit, the
team wanted to get a better understanding
of the services provided there, an understanding of the cultural differences, and to
establish contacts.
By Mr. David Raithby, Project
Administrator, Fenbrook Institution
S
ince April 1, 1999, Fenbrook and
Beaver Creek institutions have been
responsible for housing Inuit federal
offenders from the new Nunavut territory.
The new territory, which came into existence April 1, 1999, is the result of the
division of the Northwest Territories.
Nunavut encompasses the eastern Arctic,
and its capital Iqaluit is located at the
southern end of Baffin Island.
Following sentencing, Nunavut federal
offenders will be transferred to Fenbrook
Institution for the intake assessment process. Offenders from Nunavut, currently
housed at other institutions, such as
Bowden Institution, in Alberta, may apply
for transfer to Fenbrook and Beaver Creek
institutions.
In order to establish an Inuit community
prior to April 1, 1999, a parole office was
established in Iqaluit and administered by
both Fenbrook and Beaver Creek institutions. The first transfer from Bowden to
Fenbrook occurred in March.
For several months, a Nunavut project team
prepared for the impact of the transfers of
Inuit offenders to Fenbrook and Beaver
Creek institutions. Team members have
The team consisted of Jim Murdoch,
Project Manager, RHQ Ontario; David
Raithby, Project Administrator, Fenbrook
Institution; Mark Otto, Parole Officer,
Fenbrook Institution; Dorie Adamson,
Correctional Supervisor, Fenbrook Institution; Ian Burns, Correctional Officer,
Fenbrook Institution; Robert Kinsman,
Senior Teacher, Beaver Creek Institution;
and Cindy Jamieson, Administrative
Assistant, Fenbrook Institution. ◆
REGIONAL NEWS
Ontario Region
Muskoka Pioneer Village
Institutionally-based Work
Release Project
By Ms. Gail Cosgrove, Parole Officer, Beaver Creek Institution
F
our inmates from Beaver Creek Institution (BCI), located in Gravenhurst,
Ontario, took part of in exciting new
Work Release Project in Huntsville,
Ontario. The project involves restoration of
a steam train and a steam-driven ferry,
building a railway station and train storage
station, and laying of track for the steam
locomotive to move from the storage unit to
the mouth of Fairy Lake, approximately two
kilometres from downtown Huntsville,
where the Bigwin Ferry will be located.
FULL SPEED AHEAD
This “Steam Era Project” is a twoyear endeavour with an anticipated
completion date of July 1, 2000. Phase II of
the project has been underway since
September 21, 1998, and was completed
on November 20, 1998. The BCI inmates
were transported daily to the project site to
work on the construction of the turntables,
rail beds, and track from the Muskoka
Pioneer Village (soon to be known as
Muskoka Heritage Place) to Fairy Lake.
The project is on schedule, thanks to
the ongoing efforts of John Finlay,
Marketing Director of Muskoka
Heritage Place, the Muskoka Parole
Office and the Huntsville Town
Council.
Mayor Len Clarke of Huntsville
presented the inmate workers with a
token of appreciation at a brief ceremony at BCI on December 18, 1998.
The next phase of the project resumed
this spring.
This is a unique partnership between the
community and Beaver Creek Institution
which will soon allow visitors to the
Muskoka area to experience first-hand the
romance of the steam era at the Muskoka
Heritage Place. ◆
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
35
REGIONAL NEWS
Ontario Region
Jail Birds fly the Coop
By Mr. Tim R. Jamieson, Acting Assistant Warden, Management Services, Bath Institution
O
n December 10, 1998, Frank and
Edna “Crane” arrived unexpectedly at
Bath Institution. Not only were they
unexpected, they arrived by flying over the
perimeter fence instead of using the main
the entrance. Frank and Edna are Greater
Sand Hill cranes on their yearly migration
to Virginia.
When they arrived, they took up residence
outside the houses of Unit 3. Because Frank
and Edna were quite tame, inmates were
able to approach them and noticed that
their legs were tagged with a 1-800 phone
number. A telephone call was made and the
inmates learned that they belonged to a
flock of cranes raised by Bill Lishman,
more commonly known as “Father Goose”.
Mr. Lishman is the founder of “Operation
Migration” at Blackstock, Ontario, and was
the subject of the Hollywood movie “Fly
Away Home”. This time, instead of raising
geese, Bill is raising cranes in an effort to
reintroduce them to natural migration. In
the fall of 1997, Bill and his partner flew an
ultra light aircraft from Blackstock (near
Port Perry) to Virginia to escort Frank,
Edna and the rest of the flock on their first
southerly migration. In the spring of 1998,
the flock returned to Blackstock on their
own. Bill hoped the cranes would make the
journey south unassisted, when the time
came. In early December 1998, the cranes
left Lishman’s home and headed south
(supposedly). Since their departure, they
had made stopovers in Peterborough,
Grafton and Picton. According to Bill, they
probably stopped at Bath Institution
because it reminded them of home – an
enclosed compound surrounded by chain
link fence.
autographed postcards, and gave the
institution an autographed copy of his
book, “Father Goose”.
Although Frank and Edna seemed to have
enjoyed their stay at Bath Institution, their
visit was short-lived because the “jail birds
had flown the coop”.
For further information on
“Operation Migration”, visit the
“Operation Migration” web site at
http://fathergoose.durham.net. ◆
Bill arrived at the institution on
December 20 and rounded up Frank and
Edna, placed them in the back of his pickup truck, and drove north of Kingston to
re-release them. With the onset of cold
weather, he was hopeful that they would
continue their journey south.
To show his appreciation for the kind
treatment shown to Frank and Edna,
Mr. Lishman presented some staff with
Bill “Father Goose” Lishman with Frank and Edna
outside one of the houses of Unit 3
REGIONAL NEWS
Regional Psychiatric Centre
Prairie Region
Opening of Bow Expansion Unit
By Ms. Deborah Podurgiel, Freelance Writer/Editor
n September 18, 1998, the Regional
Psychiatric Centre (RPC) and
Correctional Service of Canada
(CSC) lauded and celebrated the opening
of the new Bow Psychiatric Rehabilitation
Unit expansion. The 100-bed medium
security extension is another first in forensic
mental health care in the Prairies, and built
to provide an increasing number of acute
and chronic mental care patients with a full
complement of psychiatric services.
O
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Program. “Patients
will be enrolled, two to three hours a day,
five days a week, in anger management,
social skills, independent life skills management and employment programs within the
Centre. The program will take 18 months
to complete, and it will focus on preparing
patients to successfully reintegrate into
society.” Prior to the unit expansion, a
patient could expect an average stay of three
months in the Bow Rehabilitation Program.
The new unit can accommodate 30 new
clients per month, says Adele MacinnisMeagher, Program Director of the Bow
Citizen’s Advisory Committee chairperson, Sean Taylor, and vice-chairperson,
Bev Dubois, were on hand as the event’s
36
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
Masters of Ceremonies. After welcoming
everyone to the unit’s grand opening,
Ms. Dubois and Mr. Taylor outlined their
roles with the CSC as CAC representatives,
acting as both independent observers for
the community and impartial advisors to
the Centre. “We serve by being a communication link with the community to the
institution and act as the community’s eyes
and ears into the prison system. We also
provide consultation and impartial advice
in the areas of changing or developing
programs and policies through meetings
with the institution’s Executive Director
and staff,” said Ms. Dubois.
The CAC’s role in the new expansion will
be to continue monitoring the progress of
the new programming and to become
actively involved in “developing programs
that will not only benefit the patient and
the institution but also the community
these people will eventually become part of
again,” said Mr. Taylor.
Mr. Taylor invited the event’s keynote
speaker, CSC Commissioner Ole Instrup,
to the podium. Commissioner Instrup
thanked everyone for their participation in
the event and noted that “it is an inspiration to me to see the leadership of the CAC
at a function of this significance. The spirit
of community participation and shared
ownership is nowhere more evident than
at the Regional Psychiatric Centre in
Saskatoon.”
Commissioner Instrup praised the RPC for
its commitment to world-class leadership in
mental health and spoke about CSC’s
commitment to public safety, also noting
that CSC’s ultimate contribution would be
“a balance between the ongoing incarceration of those offenders who are not
suitable to return to society on one hand,
and the supervised gradual release of those
who show motivation and progress in their
ability to productively contribute to society
in a safe manner on the other hand.”
Indicating that the RPC plays a crucial role
in the process of offering specialized
treatment services to patients with the
highest needs, the Commissioner noted
that there were good reasons to believe the
treatment program is working. “Evaluations of the outcomes of treatment programs at this institution have demonstrated
very impressive results which are actually
somewhat better than what we see from
other institutions that claim they are similar
to this one.”
The Commissioner was also impressed by
the Sacred Grounds used for the healing of
the Centre’s Aboriginal population and, in
closing, expressed a ‘special thanks’ and his
support to the Elders and program staff for
their work. To all RPC staff, he said that it
was evident they had the right values and
skills to get the job done. “There is no
doubt that you can feel this as you walk
through the institution.”
ment within the context of excellence in
correctional operations and case management. And, in closing, I would like to
thank all the people involved in the
planning and organization of today –
you’ve clearly gone the extra mile.”
Ed McLean and Andy McGrath, both
patients, took part in the official ribboncutting ceremony. While they held the
wide, blue ribbon, Commissioner
Instrup made the cut. The
Commissioner also unveiled a
plaque commemorating both the
opening of the unit and the
significance of the day.
Heather Peden, Regional Director
General, Public Works and
Government Services Canada,
presented two courtyard benches
From left to right: Tim Leis, incoming Executive Director,
on behalf of the department and
Rémi Gobeil, Regional Deputy Commissioner, and Marcel
Chiasson, outgoing Executive Director, signing the official
thanked everyone involved in the
change of command certificate.
project, with special thanks to the
project’s Commissioning Officer, William
Shrubsole, and RPC staff.
Yvonne Brown, Dean of the College of
Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, and
Commissioner Instrup, Executive Director
member of the Board of Governors, also
Leis, Dean Brown, and PWGS Regional
congratulated the RPC and acknowledged
Director General, Peden, also had ample
all the hard work that went into the new
cake to cut when the honour guard brought
unit. Dean Brown affirmed the unique relain the huge ceremonial cake, proudly
tionship and partnership the university has
decorated with the CSC emblem. After the
with the Centre and the research, learning
ceremonies, cake and coffee, RPC staff
opportunities, as well as institutional pride
conducted tours of the new unit. ◆
the university has enjoyed and shared with
the Centre.
Tim Leis, RPC Executive Director, thanked
all partners and participants for sharing in
the day’s events, and all those involved in
the design and construction of the new
unit. He acknowledged that without their
help and continued support, the expansion
of the unit would not have been possible. “I
very much appreciate your commitment to
delivering the best assessment and treat-
CHANGE OF COMMAND
August 19, 1998, marked the
Tree Planting Ceremony and
Change of Command between
outgoing Executive Director,
Marcel Chiasson and the Centre’s
current Executive Director,
Tim Leis.
Dr. Kevin Kok, Clinical Director,
welcomed everyone to the
ceremony and CSC Regional
Deputy Commissioner, Rémi
Gobeil, thanked everyone for
attending and recalled some
of the challenges both Executive
Directors faced and of their successes as well as those of the
Centre.
The ceremony was held in the
outside central courtyard,
followed by a barbecue steak
dinner with all the trimmings,
hosted by the kitchen staff at
the RPC.
From left to right: Andy McGrath, patient/inmate, Ole Ingstrup, CSC Commissioner, and Ed McLean,
patient/inmate, participating in the ribbon-cutting ceremony.
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
37
REGIONAL NEWS
Prairie Region
Breaking Barriers Program at
Edmonton Institution for Women
By Mr. Ash Mall, Team Leader Correctional Operations, Edmonton Institution for Women
A
s the Edmonton Institution for
Women (EIFW) forges ahead, new
and innovative ways are constantly
being introduced to meet the spirit and
objectives of the Correctional Service of
Canada’s (CSC) Mission and its reintegration efforts.
The intake assessment unit at the EIFW
processed 80 inmates between March 1997
and March 1998. Several inmates expressed
the need to have some form of activity to
occupy the sizeable amount of downtime
that is incurred during the six-week intake
process while they are housed in the unit.
Ash Mall, Team Leader Correctional
Operations, was asked to identify some
type of activity that would keep the inmates
occupied and would allow them to benefit
from the activity.
The Breaking Barriers program was
developed as such an activity. The content
of this program is based on the belief that
there is a wealth of information in cognitive
psychology which, when effectively taught,
allows people to break an inhibiting cycle of
conditioned habits and become happier,
more fulfilled human beings.
facilitators. Chuck Andrews,
Chief of Education at Edmonton
Maximum Institution, who shared
his experience and expertise as a
master facilitator of this program,
provided the training.
From left to right: Lyn Lowe, A/Deputy Warden, EIFW, with
Primary Workers Rita Chiasson, Kelly Hartle, Valerie Gow, Adele
Boychuk, and Chuck Andrews, Chief of Education at Edmonton
Maximum Institution.
The Breaking Barriers program skillfully
guides the participants towards an understanding and acceptance of three educational values:
1. A deeper awareness, understanding, and
appreciation of potential;
2. A strong belief in their own ability to
create a common vision;
3. An expanded vision of the many
possibilities, opportunities, and
options that they may be overlooking.
To accomplish this goal, four primary
workers were chosen to be the initial
On February 5, 1999, all four
primary workers successfully completed the facilitators training. A
graduation ceremony was held and
Lyn Lowe, Acting Deputy Warden,
EIFW, awarded certificates of
completion to the four women.
The EIFW is very proud for having initiated this program and foresees great benefits
from it. The warden recognizes all staff
who were instrumental in the success of
the project.
The facilitators will provide the management team and all primary workers with an
information session prior to delivering the
first program.
For additional information, contact
Mr. Ash Mall, Team Leader
Correctional Operations at
(780) 495-3905. ◆
REGIONAL NEWS
Pacific Region
Asian and Pacific Conference
of Correctional Administrators
October 18-23, 1998
By Ms. Mary Lou Siemens, Communications Manager, Pacific Region
T
he Correctional Service of Canada
(CSC) hosted the 18th Asian and
Pacific Conference of Correctional
Administrators (APCCA), October 18-23,
in Vancouver, B.C. The Commissioner
delivered the opening address and Pieter de
Vink, Deputy Commissioner, Pacific
Region, chaired the conference. Five representatives from CSC also attended.
38
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
The 1998 conference was originally
planned to be held in Jakarta, Indonesia,
but due to unrest in that country, the
offer was withdrawn. CSC received a
request from Professor David Biles,
International Coordinator of the APCCA,
to host the conference and accepted. The
Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner,
Pacific Region, confirmed the conference
would be held in Vancouver and hosted by
the Pacific Region. Normally, a year of
preparation is required but due to the
circumstances, the Pacific Region had only
three months to prepare for this
International Conference. A regional organizing committee was established under the
direction of Bob Lusk, Special Advisor,
Human Resources, Regional Headquarters,
Pacific. In addition to the eight committee
members, valuable support was provided
by National Headquarters, Regional
Headquarters, regional staff and volunteers.
The conference included representatives of
the correctional departments of 20 nations
and territories in the Asian and Pacific
regions and a number of observers and
invited guests.
The opening ceremony was chaired by Mr.
Lusk and commenced with a short prayer
led by Elder Bob George of the Burrard
Band of the First Nations People of
Canada. At the conclusion of the prayer,
Commissioner Ole Ingstrup presented
Mr. George with a traditional blanket and
some tobacco and thanked him for his
participation in the ceremony. The
conference symbols were ceremoniously
marched into the ballroom by an honour
guard led by a piper, consisting of CSC
officers and two members of the RCMP.
The first symbol, a Fijian war club
symbolizing the end of conflict and
representing peace and harmony, was
presented to the Commissioner by the host
of the 17th Asian and Pacific Conference,
Datuk Omar of Malaysia. The second
symbol, a brass Fijian lamp, symbolizing
learning and knowledge, was ceremoniously placed on a low table with the war
club and remained there for the duration of
the conference.
The logo of the conference, a hummingbird, drawn by Sheldon Williams, an
inmate in the Pacific Region, was used
on a variety of conference material.
Mr. Williams attended the opening ceremonies wearing a blanket that displayed the logo.
The first meeting of the APCCA was held
in Hong Kong in 1980. Since then, the
conference has been held annually, except
for 1990, when political events in the
prospective host country forced cancellation of the conference. Until 1993,
activities related to the administration of
the conference were coordinated by the
Australian Institute of Criminology. Since
that time, Professor David Biles has provided this support as a private citizen.
ethnic gangs as being a major management
challenge. Other nations, such as China,
referred to significant improvements in the
area of staff training with the development
of staff with a variety of specialized skills in
the operation of facilities and the management of inmates.
The conference has since met in Bangkok,
Tokyo, New Zealand, Tonga, Fiji, the
Republic of Korea, Australia, India, China,
Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand and
Malaysia.
Although the conference has no formal
constitution or rules of procedure, informal
traditions and practices have developed
over the years. For example, the host
country selects which countries will be
invited but all participants are responsible
for their own transportation and accommodation expenses. The host country,
however, provides hospitality, programs,
and visits to facilities.
During the week of activities, delegates
focused on four themes. Each designated
representative of all the nations and territories would present a report on each theme
as invited by the Chair. With the exception
of the national reports, a limited number of
interested nations and territories were
invited by Pieter de Vink, conference chair,
to address the remaining agenda items.
The first topic discussed was “National
Reports on Contemporary Issues” in corrections and included discussions about
prison overcrowding, composition of
prison populations, organizational restructuring, new drug addiction treatment
approaches, and maintaining the prisoners’
health. Australia and Canada referred
specifically to the presence of indigenous or
Sheldon Williams, a Pacific Region inmate, attends
the opening ceremonies wearing a blanket that
displays the hummingbird logo he designed.
The second agenda item was “Best Practices
in the Treatment of Offenders”. Delegates
from Australia, Brunei, Darussalam,
Canada, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea,
Philippines and Thailand offered to discuss
their relevant issues. The discussion
included discipline and work and specific
programs such as counselling, anger
management etc. Without exception, delegates urged that offenders should be treated
in a manner that facilitated their reform
and reintegration into the community. The
delegates from Mongolia, attending the
conference for the first time, stressed the
commitment of their country to a program
of correctional reform based on the
Group photo of all delegates
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
39
principles of respect and fairness in the
administration of their correctional system.
“Creating and Sustaining the Interest of
the Community and Government in
Corrections” was addressed by Fiji, Hong
Kong, China, the Philippines, Singapore
and Vietnam. All delegates agreed that
considerable lack of knowledge about
correctional programs and facilities was
prevalent within the community of each
country or jurisdiction and that this lack of
information was due to the fact that prisons
were viewed as “mysterious” places which
were hidden to a large extent from the
public. The delegates recognized that
corrections are accountable to the community to provide openness. Discussions on
rehabilitation-based programs, engaging the
media, and marketing took place. Of note,
one issue was raised that suggested
governments be made aware that resource
increases for police impact on prison
numbers.
During the discussion on “The Application
of Technology in Prison Design and
Management”, delegates exhibited mixed
reactions towards the application of technology to prison design and prison management. Some nations were enthusiastic
advocates and others were decidedly
cautious of the gains that might be made
with technology. The physical aspects of
prison design and construction, physical
security, management of offenders, costs,
and benefits of technology were also among
the topics discussed. In conclusion, it was
agreed that with careful planning and
appropriate training of staff, technology
had a great deal to offer corrections, both in
relation to design and management issues. It
was also important to ensure that technology
did not hinder interpersonal contact between
staff and inmates but facilitated such
interaction.
During the week, delegates toured the
Museum of Anthropology, the University of
British Columbia, the B.C. Law Courts,
Vancouver, William Head Institution, the
Regional Health Centre, and Sumas
Community Correctional Centre. Many
delegates were unfamiliar with the concept of
a community correctional centre and found
this tour and discussions with Sumas staff of
considerable interest. The visits to William
Head Institution and the Regional Health
Centre provided very different perspectives
of correctional facilities. Staff at all facilities
volunteered to assist the tours and provided
excellent information and support to the
delegates, which was extremely appreciated.
In addition, volunteers organized activities to
support a program to occupy companions
who accompanied the delegates to Canada.
In his closing remarks, Pieter de Vink,
conference chair, acknowledged a successful
conference that was both productive and
useful. He thanked Professor Biles, the
delegates, Bob Lusk, and the committee as
well as the contributors of its success. He also
extended his best wishes to the delegates
from China for the 1999 conference that will
be held in Shanghai. In closing, Professor
Biles invited a few delegates to give brief
closing remarks. The representatives from
Samoa, Singapore, Malaysia, New Zealand,
India, and the People's Republic of China
expressed sincere appreciation for the
organization, friendship and hospitality
demonstrated. Mr. Raymond Lai of
Hong Kong, China, made presentations of
mementos to Mr. de Vink and Professor
Biles. The Chair then invited the CSC
correctional officers to solemnly remove the
symbols that will be stored securely by CSC
until they are sent to Shanghai, China, for
the 1999 conference. ◆
REGIONAL NEWS
Pacific Region
First Aboriginal-focused Institution
in the Pacific Region
By Ms. Shannon Whitewolf John, Elder, Elbow Lake Institution
E
lbow Lake Institution took a major
step towards the goal of becoming
an Aboriginal-focused institution. On
February 3 and 12, 1999, all staff participated in Aboriginal Sensitivity Training at
the Chehalis Pioneer Camp, located near
Harrison, B.C.
In her opening remarks, Ms. Jill
Hummerstone, Institutional Parole Officer
and Coordinator of Aboriginal Programs
at Elbow Lake Institution, encouraged
staff to participate fully in the training,
to ask questions and to speak freely and
openly about their concerns and issues.
During the morning session, she presented
the history of the Correctional Service
40
Let’s Talk / VOL. 24, NO. 3
Canada’s involvement in Aboriginal
programming. She reviewed the Commissioner’s Directives and the Institutional
Standing Orders that pertain to Aboriginal
issues.
In the afternoon, Ms. Shannon Whitewolf
John, Elder and Aboriginal Program
facilitator, reviewed the new Spirituality
Guide that was written for Elbow Lake
Institution. She spoke of the Prairie
Spirituality that is practiced in most of
the federal institutions in the Pacific
Region, and explained the differences
between First Nations and how they
practice their culture. A display of Pipe
Bundles, Sacred Bundles, and pictures were
available for the staff to examine and ask
questions about the contents and meaning
of each item.
This training was fully supported by Ron
Wiebe, Warden, and Janet-Sue Hamilton,
Deputy Warden, who also took part in the
sensitivity training.
This is the initial step in the process of
becoming the first Aboriginal-focused
institution in the Pacific Region. Elbow
Lake Institution has already instituted a
Resolution Circle to deal with disciplinary
matters. Aboriginal Programming in areas
such as Medicine Wheel teachings,
Substance Abuse, Living Skills, Relationships, Childhood Trauma, Family Violence,
Education and Employment are planned
for this year. ◆
REGIONAL NEWS
Pacific Region
Public Forum on Restorative Justice
at William Head Institution
By David Hough, Chair of the William Head Citizens’ Advisory Committee, and member of the study circle group
A
core group of about 20 inmates and
eight people from the community
have been busy at William Head
Institution discussing restorative justice
concepts. From July 1998 until February
1999, the group met 23 times for about 2.5
hours each time. On January 22-23, 1999,
a public forum entitled “Restorative Justice
and Serious Crime” was held at the
institution, thanks to the efforts of the
group. Approximately 100 people from the
community attended. The event was by
invitation and acceptance and was so
popular that not everyone who wished to
attend could because space was limited.
EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION
This group continues to meet on a weekly
rather than on a bi-weekly basis. The
meetings are in the form of a study circle
that is considered vital to the process.
Private citizens frequently bring articles and
books on restorative justice topics. Copies
are made for the inmate library and
distributed to all circle members and
anyone interested in reading them. Minutes
of all the meetings have been kept. They are
records of what has been discussed and the
future direction the group sees for itself.
VICTIM-OFFENDER
RECONCILIATION
The public forum was made possible
thanks to the combined efforts of the
inmate committee and the forum subcommittee, the William Head Citizens’
Advisory Committee, the Restorative
Justice and Dispute Resolution Unit of
the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC),
the Consultation Branch, Correctional
Programs and Operations, CSC, the
National Parole Board (Pacific Region),
the Centre for Studies in Religion and
Society at the University of Victoria, and
the management and correctional staff of
William Head Institution. The forum
lasted four hours and food and refreshments were served. The program began
with the viewing the National Film Board’s
documentary entitled Glimmer of Hope,
for Studies in Religion and
Society at the University of
Victoria. During the forum,
participants broke into small
groups to discuss specific
topics. Also, there was ample
opportunity for one-on-one
discussions over lunch and
during the health breaks. The
presence of a drug detection
dog at the principal entrance
From left to right: Dr. Michael Hadley, Robert Smith, John Lamoureux,
and the tour of an inmate
and Gordon Alcorn, inmates, and David Hough.
residence gave many people a
which discusses the issue of victim-offender
sample of what it is like to be in prison.
reconciliation. Following the viewing,
Emily Streufert, who appeared in the video,
Restorative justice at William Head
and whose sister was brutally raped and
Institution faces many challenges and
murdered, provided a first-hand account of
creates many opportunities. Some of the
having participated in the process of
challenges include: how to reconcile shortvictim-offender reconciliation. Her presenterm offender perspectives with long-term
tation and her participation in the forum
offender perspectives; how to involve
inspired many. Wilma Derksen, one of the
correctional staff; how to involve the
principals of the organization known as
community; how to involve the offender’s
Victim’s Voice, also addressed the particifamily; how to involve victims and their
pants. She also was very inspirational.
families; and, most importantly, how to do
Many inmates had an opportunity to meet
this with the utmost respect for one another.
with both Emily and Wilma.
In his book, The Expanding Prison: The
LISTEN AND LEARN
Crisis in Crime and Punishment and the
Search for Alternatives, David Cayley quotes
The second day was just as exciting as the
Judge Barry Stuart, one of the people he has
previous one. In the auditorium, inmate
interviewed on crime and social justice:
A. J. spoke of the differences between the
“good news in criminal justice rarely travels
retributive justice system and the aborifar” and
ginal-inspired community circle model that
“five myths see to this:
is sometimes used to deal with deviance.
1- all criminals are the same and
John, another inmate, spoke passionately
demand the same treatment;
about the need for the community to get
2- only punitive sanctions work;
involved with inmates and of the need to
explore jointly the avenues of forgiveness,
3- the public demands harsh punishment;
even in cases involving serious crime. An
4- only professionals can deal with crime;
inmate named Steven documented his life
5- there is nothing citizens can do.”
to help the people better understand why
he is now serving a life sentence. Dave
Local radio and press gave positive
Gustafson, Co-Director of Fraser Region
coverage to the forum and inmate articles
Community Justice Initiatives Association,
are now appearing in Out of Bounds, an
in Langley, B.C., gave a presentation about
inmate magazine produced at William
his efforts (along with many others) to proHead Institution, and other publications.
mote healing dialogue in communities and
The public forum helped to shatter these
across our country. The forum concluded
myths for the people who attended. More
with a summation by Dr. Michael Hadley of
forums of this type will help spread the
the Restorative Justice Project at the Centre
good news. ◆
VOL. 24, NO. 3 /
Let’s Talk
41
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement