Teacher’s Guide PlantWatch www.PlantWatch.ca by Elisabeth Beaubien

Teacher’s Guide PlantWatch www.PlantWatch.ca by Elisabeth Beaubien
www.PlantWatch.ca
PlantWatch
Teacher’s Guide
by Elisabeth Beaubien
PlantWatch Teacher’s Guide
by Elisabeth Beaubien
Alberta PlantWatch Coordinator
Department of Renewable Resources
751 General Services
University of Alberta
Edmonton, AB, Canada
T6G 2H1
© E.G. Beaubien and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2009.
Original version © 2001 E.G. Beaubien.
Editing: R. Edrea Daniel (edited earlier versions), Kim Monaghan, Marlene Doyle and the PlantWatch
Provincial/Territorial Coordinators
Design and Layout: Judy Fushtey, Broken Arrow Solutions Inc.
LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES CANADA CATALOGUING IN PUBLICATION
Beaubien, Elisabeth
PlantWatch teacher’s guide [electronic resource] / by Elisabeth Beaubien.
Electronic monograph in PDF format.
Issued also in French under title: Opération floraison, guide de l’enseignant.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-100-12497-1
Cat. no.: En4-111/1-2009E-PDF
1. Plants, Flowering of--Flowering time--Study and teaching (Elementary)
--Activity programs--Canada. 2. Plant phenology--Study and teaching (Elementary)
--Activity programs--Canada. 3. Plants--Effect of global warming on--Study and
teaching (Elementary)--Activity programs--Canada. 4. PlantWatch (Program).
I. Canada. Environment Canada II. Title.
SB52 C3 B42 2009
581.4’20971
This Teacher Guide is only available electronically (on the Internet).
Web addresses are current as of November 2008.
C2009-980106-X
www.PlantWatch.ca
Acknowledgements
Many thanks to the volunteers who have enthusiastically observed, recorded and reported
flowering dates (some, since 1987!).
Thanks to the following who provided financial
assistance for the original production of this
guide:
Thanks to the following who helped research
and/or write this guide:
PlantWatch assistants: Laura Frost (who helped
complete the first version of this guide), Trevor
Lantz, Anna Radziszewski, and Karla Williamson;
also Beth Cornish, Judy Cornish, Sandra Guilbert,
Trudy Harrold, Jessica Smith, Laureen Snook, Kay
Willson and Marlene Doyle.
Canadian Circumpolar Institute
The following teachers/consultants kindly
provided suggestions/ improvements:
Paul Anderson, Judy Bennett, Peggy Bergmann,
Joanne Cameron, Gloria Cathcart, Bernie Galbraith,
Ed Hecker, Sherry Maitson, Peta Mudie, Pat
Redhead, Dave Turner and Heather Wheeliker.
In-kind assistance was provided by:
Thanks to the University of Alberta Devonian Botanic
Garden which kindly provided space, equipment,
and administrative assistance 1991-2003 for Alberta
PlantWatch.
Environment Canada
Campbell Scientific
Friends of the Devonian Botanic Garden
Friends of the Environmental Education Society of
Alberta (FEESA)
Hole’s Greenhouses and Gardens
International Tundra Experiment (ITEX)
Royal Botanic Garden, Burlington, Ontario
University of Alberta: Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Department
i
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www.PlantWatch.ca
Table of Contents
Introduction to PlantWatch ............................................................................................................... 1
Quick Reference Table to Curriculum Links by Activity and Grade ................................................ 5
Key Activities...................................................................................................................................... 7
Activity 1:
Activity 2:
Activity 3:
Activity 4:
Activity 5:
Activity 6:
Signs of Spring....................................................................................................................... 9
Predicting Seasonal Occurrences .......................................................................................... 11
Locating and Tagging the Plants ........................................................................................... 13
Reporting to the Class.......................................................................................................... 17
Reporting your Data............................................................................................................. 19
Looking Back ....................................................................................................................... 23
PlantWatch Connections and Activity Suggestions....................................................................... 25
SCIENCE ....................................................................................................................................................... 27
Concept 1: Plants ........................................................................................................................................ 27
Activity 1: Plants and Ecology: All My Relations .................................................................................... 31
Activity 2: Weather .............................................................................................................................. 33
Activity 3: Reading About Climate Change ........................................................................................... 35
Concept 2: Trees and Forests ....................................................................................................................... 39
Activity 4: Forests: Discussion and Investigation ...................................................................................... 41
Activity 5: Developing a Phenology Calendar.......................................................................................... 43
MATHEMATICS............................................................................................................................................. 49
Activity 1: Growing Degree Summation ................................................................................................ 51
Activity 2: Calculating Averages ........................................................................................................... 53
Activity 3: Graphing and Mapping........................................................................................................ 55
Activity 4: Latitude and Longitude: How to Calculate Your Global Address .......................................... 59
SOCIAL STUDIES .......................................................................................................................................... 67
Activity 1: Geography and People......................................................................................................... 69
Activity 2: People in History .................................................................................................................. 70
Activity 3: Kids Can Make a Difference ................................................................................................. 71
LANGUAGE ARTS ......................................................................................................................................... 73
Activity 1: Descriptions ......................................................................................................................... 75
Activity 2: Celebrating Spring ............................................................................................................... 77
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Appendices ....................................................................................................................................... 79
Appendix 1: PlantWatch Species ................................................................................................................... 81
Appendix 2: Glossary .................................................................................................................................... 83
Appendix 3: Map Sources for Canada........................................................................................................... 88
Appendix 4: Horticultural Appendix ............................................................................................................. 89
A) Establishing a PlantWatch Garden...................................................................................................... 89
B) How to Grow the PlantWatch Species ................................................................................................ 90
Appendix 4: Curriculum Links for PlantWatch Teachers’ Guide ...................................................................... 95
Using the Curriculum Links Tables .......................................................................................................... 95
Quick Reference Guide to Activity by Grade and Subject ........................................................... 95
Quick Reference Table to Curriculum Links by Activity and Grade .............................................. 96
Quick Reference Table to Curriculum Links by Activity and Subject ............................................ 97
Chart of Provincial/Territorial Curriculum Connections for Science and Math for Grades 6-8 ................... 98
Atlantic Provinces ..................................................................................................................... 99
Quebec .................................................................................................................................. 105
Ontario ................................................................................................................................... 109
Manitoba ............................................................................................................................... 116
Saskatchewan ........................................................................................................................ 123
Alberta ................................................................................................................................... 129
British Columbia/Yukon .......................................................................................................... 136
Northwest Territories/Nunavut................................................................................................. 139
Forms
PlantWatch Observation Form ..................................................................................................................... 22
Figures
1. Flowering time of aspen poplar (Populus tremuloides) 1938-1998 (in the area of Edmonton, AB) ........... 36
2. Change in spring mean temperature for Canada, 1948-2003 ................................................................ 37
3. Growing degree summation: A sample chart of average daily temperatures in a month ......................... 52
4. First and full bloom dates of common purple lilac for western Canada, 1996 ......................................... 56
5. Courses and trends of air temperature (T) and the beginning of flowering of lilac
(Syringa vulgaris) at Suc̆any in the Slovak Republic.................................................................................. 58
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www.PlantWatch.ca
Introduction to PlantWatch
3. register for PlantWatch, and record your observer
number
HOW TO USE THIS TEACHER GUIDE:
1. Read the introduction.
In spring:
2. Select a likely plant species for observation (see list
of indicator plants following).
1. check plants every 2 days once flower buds start
swelling
This will ideally be a plant species that can be found
within a 5-10 minute walk of the school, so that it
can be checked at least every 2 days by students.
3. Read the plant description.
2. become familiar with the definitions of first and
mid bloom (and for some plants, leafing) for your
selected plant
4. See the key activities and the observation form to
get ready for blooming season.
3. optional: do sketches, or take photos of the same
plant or branch before, during and after bloom
5. Check the activities and select which ones may suit
the students’ level/ interests.
4. check your chosen plants: when first bloom
happens, note date, weather for week before
flowering, etc. (see the observation form in
Key Activities, page 22) and report on the web
observation form using your registration number
YEAR AT A GLANCE
(all the following can be done in springtime, but it is
better to spread the stages out)
5. do the same when mid bloom occurs
In the fall:
6. check the web to see your school’s data posted in
tables and maps, as well as other observers’ data
1. select a plant to observe
7. know that your contributions to this environmental
monitoring network are greatly appreciated!
2. select activities to work on with the class
3. print the species’ description and review with
students
WHAT IS PLANTWATCH?
4. locate plants near school and tag up to 5 numbered
individuals (e.g. 5 saskatoon or lilac shrubs, or 5
patches of dandelions)
PlantWatch is a phenology program.
Phenology is the study of the seasonal timing of events
in the lives of plants and animals. This program links
students and the public as “eyes of science,” tracking
the green wave of spring. Observers select one or more
of the key indicator plants and report their bloom times
using the Internet. These flowering dates are posted in
tables and maps on the PlantWatch website.
In late winter:
1. for poplar, test branches in water to ensure trees are
males, not females
2. determine latitude/ longitude for the tagged plants,
and record other environmental details concerning
their position
1
INTRODUCTION TO PLANTWATCH
The purpose of this Teacher Guide is to help
teachers involve their students in the
PlantWatch program. Most of the
contents have been written for
teachers, but can be used directly
in class. This guide provides
information on how to observe
and report flowering dates.
Curriculum connections
for each activity for every
province and territory for
science and math are described in
an appended chart on page 98.
WHY WATCH PLANTS?
The PlantWatch program engages students
and the public as active participants in the
collection of scientific data. By working
in partnership with research scientists,
PlantWatch students and teachers are
able to contribute their observations
to the development of new
scientific knowledge.
The process of scientific
inquiry here is linked to an
important real-life issue: the
effect of climate change on
local plant life. By encouraging
careful observation of plants within
the local environment, the PlantWatch
program helps students develop a lifelong
appreciation of the natural world. It also helps
students use computers in a meaningful way.
ABOUT PLANTWATCH
The PlantWatch program
began in 1995, based at the
Devonian Botanic Garden,
a research and educational
facility of the University of
Alberta. This internet citizen
science program was an
Saskatoon
offshoot of a longer-running
DEVONIAN BOTANIC GARDEN,
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
phenology program, the
Alberta Wildflower Survey,
which began in 1987. The
Alberta survey
has been renamed “Alberta PlantWatch”.
Although 99.9 per cent of all living material on earth
is plants, in Canada there are very few people who
specialize in studying native plants. We need to show
more students the excitement of plant biology to
encourage future work on the challenges facing our
forests, prairies, and tundra!
To be useful as key indicator species for spring
phenology, selected plants must have certain
qualities. These include: perennial growth,
widespread distribution, ease of recognition by the
public, lack of look-alike species and a short spring
bloom period.
The program has expanded rapidly. In 2001,
Environment Canada, Nature Canada, and
E. Beaubien partnered to develop a national
PlantWatch program. Most provinces and territories
now have volunteer coordinators. Common plant
species that are useful indicators across much of
Canada have been identified as well as regionallyrelevant plant species. This teacher guide was
written over the years 1996-2001 for PlantWatch,
then updated to better help classes across Canada in
2009.
1
There are 38 species tracked through the PlantWatch
program. For this teacher guide we have included
information on 16 plant species. Two species below
(lilac and dandelion) are plants introduced to North
America when settlers from Europe arrived. The
others are native1 (or wild) plant species, which
means they were here long before the settlers arrived.
Many terms or words in this guide are defined in the glossary (Appendix 2).
2
INTRODUCTION TO PLANTWATCH
Lilac, Common Purple (Syringa vulgaris)
cultivated shrub, common in gardens
We suggest that a teacher and class begin
PlantWatch by selecting one of the following
plants, or other PlantWatch species, for
observation. Check the map or text on
distribution with each plant description on the
PlantWatch website (www.plantwatch.ca) to
see which indicator plants are observed in your
province or territory. A full list of PlantWatch
species and the provinces/territories in which they
are monitored is shown in Appendix 1.
Prairie Crocus (Anemone patens)
herb, occurs in sandy soils in the west and northwestern
parts of the continent, often in open pasture that has
never been ploughed. It is a harbinger of spring, often
starting bloom the same time as the aspen.
Saskatoon/Serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.)
tall shrub, across North America, often found along the
sunny edges of forest
Saxifrage, purple (Saxifraga oppositifolia)
herb, arctic-alpine, found high in the mountains or
arctic tundra. Purple saxifrage is it is one of the earliest
blooms to appear after the snow.
The Indicator Plants
Aspen poplar (Populus tremuloides)
tree, widespread across Canada. Flowers very early in
spring.
Starflower (Trientalis borealis)
herb, common in Eastern Canada. Found on the
coniferous forest floor.
Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)
low shrub, across Canada, prefers sunny sites on
infertile dry soils. Flowers early.
Strawberry, Wild (Fragaria virginiana/vesca)
herb, across Canada
Trillium, White (Trillium grandiflorum)
herb, deciduous forests in eastern North America
Bunchberry/Crackerberry (Cornus canadensis)
herb, found in boreal or broad-leafed forests. Flowers
later.
Participants can observe those natives plants in their
gardens or wherever they occur.
Cloudberry/Bakeapple (Rubus chamaemorus)
herb, low arctic, moist tundra
HOW IS THE DATA USED?
Cranberry/Partridgeberry/Lingonberry
(Vaccinium vitis-idaea)
herb, distributed across Northern Canada.
The timing of flowering and leafing in spring is largely
in response to how warm the weather has been before
these events. Studies have been started to see how
much warmth (measured in heat units) is needed to
get different plant species to flower. Spring phenology
data for plants is essential to help answer the question,
“With the predicted global warming, is spring arriving
earlier?” Some exciting trends have already been
discovered. In Edmonton, Alberta the flowering of
aspen poplar trees is happening about a month earlier
now than it did a century ago!
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)
introduced herb, common in lawns, disturbed areas
Dryad, white/White mountain avens
(Dryas octopetala/integrifolia)
mat-forming low shrub, arctic and alpine tundra. White
dryad prefers open sunny areas.
Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum,
Ledum groenlandicum)
shrub, grows in damp areas in boreal forest.
By collecting long-term phenology data, we can
track plant responses to changes in climate.
Larch/Tamarack (Larix laricina)
tree, across Canada, common in wet muskegs and
forests. Flowers early, but after aspen.
Phenology can also help farmers more accurately
time their activities. As plants and insects are both
3
INTRODUCTION TO PLANTWATCH
that in the aspen parkland, more deer fawns survive in
years with early springs. In the field of human health,
pollen warnings can help those with allergies prepare
in advance. For tourism and parks departments, these
flowering dates can be used to predict the best times
to photograph flowers, or to predict the behaviour of
bears and other animals whose movements depend on
the growth stage of their plant food. Because plant and
insect development are linked, bloom times can even
provide information on when to go fly-fishing!
developing in response to spring temperatures, it will
be very useful to use bloom times to predict the best
timing for control of pests. By treating weeds or insect
pests at their most vulnerable stage, farmers can be
more effective and boost their profits while minimizing
environmental impacts. Research scientists have begun
to look at the link between flowering times and the
appearance of agricultural pests such as woolly elm
aphids (which infest the roots of saskatoon plants)
and grasshoppers (which consume cereal crops and
rangeland).
PARTICIPATION IS FREE
PlantWatch’s flowering information can also help
ranchers protect rangeland and maintain maximum
plant growth. For example, the best time in southern
Saskatchewan to put cattle on the range is when wild
rose starts to flower, usually 50 days after prairie crocus
appears.
There is no charge to participate in PlantWatch. The
PlantWatch website has all the basic information on
how to participate, register, recognize plants and
flowering stages, and how to report when the plants
bloom. New flowering dates are posted in tables and
maps.
In addition, foresters can use the data to correctly
time seed-collection field trips, or to treat insects with
a biological control. Spring flowering dates can help
wildlife managers by answering such questions as,
“Will the deer population increase this year?” We know
Interested teachers please visit: www.plantwatch.ca
There you will find contact details for your territorial
or provincial coordinator, who can provide more
information.
JOIN US FOR PLANTWATCH! ANYONE IS WELCOME TO PARTICIPATE.
As plants and insects are both
developing in response to
spring temperatures, it will be
very useful to use bloom times
to predict the best timing for
control of pests.
Grasshopper
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www.PlantWatch.ca
Quick Reference Table to Curriculum
Links by Activity and Grade
NWT/
NUNAVUT
BC/YUKON
ALBERTA
Activity
SASK.
MANITOBA
ONTARIO
QUEBEC
ATLANTIC
Grades with Curriculum Links (of Gr. 6, 7, 8)
Key Activity 1
None
None
None
None
6, 7
7
None
6
Key Activity 2
7
None
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7
Key Activity 3
6, 7
7
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 7,
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7
Key Activity 4
6, 7
6
6, 7, 8
6, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I,
Sec. II
6, 7
Key Activity 5
6, 7
8
7
8
None
6.7, 8
Cycle 3, Sec. I,
Sec. II
6, 7, 8
Key Activity 6
7
6
7, 8
6, 8
6, 7
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3
6, 7, 8
Science 1
6, 7
6, 7
7
6, 8
6, 7
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
7, 8
Science 2
6, 7
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7, 8
Science 3
None
None
None
6, 7
None
None
None
None
Science 4
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 8
7
6, 7
None
7
Science 5
6
6, 7, 8
None
Ga
None
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7
Math 1
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7, 8
Math 2
7
7
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3
6, 7, 8
Math 3
6, 7, 8
6, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3, Sec. I,
Sec. II
6, 7, 8
Math 4
7
7, 8
7
6, 7
6, 7
7, 8
Cycle 3
6, 7, 8
Social Studies 1
7
7, 8
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7, 8
Social Studies 2
7
None
7
None
6, 7, 8
6
None
6, 7
Social Studies 3
None
8
6
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
None
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7
Lanuage Arts 1
6, 7
6, 8
6, 7
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7, 8
Lanuage Arts 2
7
None
6, 7
6, 7
6, 7
6
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6
5
INTRODUCTION TO PLANTWATCH
Notes
6
www.PlantWatch.ca
Key Activities
Start here »
7
www.PlantWatch.ca
Key Activities
Activity 1
overview
Signs of Spring and
PlantWatch
The students discuss signs of spring’s arrival and are
introduced to the PlantWatch program. Use Activity 1 in
conjunction with Activity 2 to introduce your students to
the concept of phenology and PlantWatch.
SKILLS
Inferring, communicating
MATERIALS
1. Illustrations of the plants. (see website www.
plantwatch.ca and select ”Plant Descriptions”)
2. Letter to students from research scientist, and
Alberta PlantWatch Coordinator, Elisabeth Beaubien.
(page 10)
Prairie Crocus LINDA KERSHAW
PREPARATION
5. Have the students ask their families and neighbours
if they know where this species can be found locally.
1. Read Introduction to PlantWatch.
2. Assemble the illustrations and letter to students.
(page 10)
6. Give the letter from Elisabeth Beaubien to the
students and ask them to share it with their families.
FOCUS
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
What outdoor signs suggest that spring is coming?
Key Activity 2, Predicting Seasonal Occurrences (page
11)
PROCEDURE
Science Activity 5, Developing a Phenology Calendar
(Connections - Science, page 43)
1. Discuss the signs of spring known by the students.
2. Introduce the PlantWatch program to the students.
Language Arts Activity 2, Celebrating Spring
(Connections - Language Arts, page 77)
3. Review the illustrations.
4. Question: Do you think any of these plants or shrubs
might be found in our community? Select a species
to observe.
9
KEY ACTIVITIES
751 General Services, University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2H1
Dear Student,
I would like to introduce myself and the PlantWatch program to you.
My name is Elisabeth Beaubien. I’ve been keen on plants and animals since I was young, so
it was a simple choice for me to study biology and then botany. My main jobs have been as
a naturalist and environmental educator. I launched PlantWatch in 1995 and now there are
coordinators in most provinces and territories! PlantWatch is part of the national NatureWatch
series of volunteer monitoring programs designed to help identify ecological changes that may
be affecting our environment. NatureWatch is a joint venture between the Nature Canada and
Environment Canada.
If you enjoy being outdoors, using a computer, and want to help society understand the effects
of climate change, this program is for you! There is lots of fun to be had, tracking plant changes
in spring and writing down what you see. It is amazing to see the differences from year to year,
and from place to place! While participating in PlantWatch, you will be acting as the “eyes of
science” by observing the flowering of one or more of the indicator plants. Information on the
PlantWatch species is available on the website: www.plantwatch.ca
On the PlantWatch website, your class will report the calendar dates when your plants start
to bloom and reach mid bloom. They may track when certain trees leaf out. We post the dates
received from all the PlantWatch observers on Internet maps.. Your regional coordinator will be
delighted to see your reports!
This information is useful for many reasons. Because plants flower in response to warmth,
flowering dates can help us track the results of a warm or cold winter and spring. It will help
us learn more about weather’s variability and changes in climate. Did you know that plants
have been flowering earlier in recent decades in western Canada? We can also use your plant
observations to provide farmers with advice about good times to plant their crops, to fertilize
and to control pests. Foresters can use the information to correctly time seed-collection trips, or
to manage insects. In the field of human health, pollen warnings can help those with allergies
prepare in advance.
Thank you for joining the PlantWatch team! Your help and participation are greatly appreciated.
Cheers,
Elisabeth Beaubien,
Phenology researcher
Science Advisor, PlantWatch Canada
10
Key Activities
Activity 2
overview
Predicting
Seasonal Events
Students are introduced to seasonal change and the
concept of phenology by surveying others about the signs
of spring and making their own predictions. Use this activity
in the fall or late winter to introduce phenology to your
students and get them thinking about seasonal change.
SKILLS
PROCEDURE
Predicting, communicating
A. Choose several local signs of spring that can be
easily observed, and have the students predict
when those events will occur. These signs may
involve the arrival of migratory birds, changes in
weather, the appearance of leaves and flowers,
or changes in human behaviour (changes in
clothing, seasonal sports, farming practices, etc.)
For example, some migratory birds may be easily
identified (e.g., Canada geese, mallard ducks,
common loons, swallows, robins), and students can
be asked to predict when the first spring migrants
will be sighted. When will the last snow on the
school grounds melt? When will the first mosquito
appear? When will soccer season begin? When will
farmers plant the first spring crops? When will ice
on lakes and rivers disappear? Record the students’
predictions on a calendar and encourage the
students to report any sightings or observations of
the predicted events.
MATERIALS
Survey questions, survey sheets and pencils.
PREPARATION
Prepare survey sheets.
Read Science Activity 5, Developing a Phenology
Calendar (Connections - Science, page 43)
FOCUS
Introduction to phenology
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
Language Arts Activity 2, Celebrating
Spring (Connections - Language Arts, page
77)
Science Activity 2, Weather
(Connections - Science, page 33)
B. Have the students conduct a survey of their parents,
grandparents or other students to learn about local
signs of spring (see the survey on the following
page).
C. Climate is the general pattern of weather in a
region, based on a minimum of 30 years of records.
Because seasonal weather patterns tend to be
similar over a long period of time, we are able to
Canada Goose
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11
KEY ACTIVITIES
predict, with some accuracy, when certain changes
in nature will take place in different locations.
You may wish to invite a local naturalist to talk
with the class about how people are able to make
predictions about when certain signs of spring will
appear. Have him/her introduce students to local
sources of information on bird migrations and
bloom times. Contact your local naturalists’ club
for names of resource people. As well, look for
First Nations Peoples’ calendars –these often make
reference to the seasonal changes in plants and
animals that occur at different times of year.
SIGNS OF SPRING
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Purpose: To find out how local people identify
the arrival of spring and to discover when local
people expect seasonal events will occur.
1. Please complete this sentence as many times
as you wish.
“I know that winter is over when…”
2. Please complete this sentence as many times
as you wish.
“I know that spring is here when…”
3. What are the signs of spring here in April?
4. What are the signs of spring here in May?
5. What things do you do in the spring, and how
do you know when to do them?
Have students share the results of their survey
with the class. In discussing the results of the
survey, be sure to point out how some events
can be predicted with great accuracy (e.g., the
spring equinox, the next full moon, the last day
of school before summer vacation). The timing of
other events (e.g., bird migrations, frog calling,
flowering dates, planting times) may vary from
year to year, often depending on the weather.
Weather conditions include such things as air
temperature, precipitation and wind.
PHENOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF THE SEASONAL
TIMING OF LIFE CYCLE EVENTS IN PLANTS AND
ANIMALS. HISTORICAL PHENOLOGY RECORDS CAN
PROVIDE EVIDENCE OF THE EFFECTS OF
CLIMATE CHANGES OVER TIME.
Goose family BRIAN KOTAK
12
Key Activities
Activity 3
overview
Locating and
Tagging the Plants
Students go outdoors to identify and mark the plants they
will observe for PlantWatch. Students make qualitative
observations by describing, in words or pictures, the plants and
their habitats. If a woody plant is chosen for this PlantWatch
study, students can bring a branch into the warm classroom in
late winter, to observe the buds developing indoors.
SKILLS
Observing, identifying plants, sketching and map-making
MATERIALS
PlantWatch species information (see www.plantwatch.ca)
Make your own tags to label the trees and shrubs, or ask
a nursery for flexible plastic tags. Embossable aluminum
tags work very well.
Permanent markers (for plastic tags)
PlantWatch Observation Forms (download the form from
the PlantWatch website: www.plantwatch.ca or refer to
page 22).
Strawberries ROWENA HOPKINS
PREPARATION
Language Arts Activity 1, Descriptions (Connections Language Arts, page 75)
Determine which species can be found in your area and
select a species to report on.
PROCEDURE
1. Take the students on a walk to locate PlantWatch
plants in the area of the school. You may want
to ask a local naturalist or gardener to help with
identifying the species or bring a field guide to
local wild plants. Tag up to 5 individuals of your
selected woody plant species (trees or shrubs) or
mark up to 5 patches of your selected smaller
plant. Make a sketch map of the area showing
your tagged plant locations.
Read Background Information on your chosen plant at
www.plantwatch.ca
FOCUS
Where can we find these plants?
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
Science Activity 1, Plants and Ecology: All My Relations
(Connections - Science, page 31)
13
KEY ACTIVITIES
2. Assign a group of students to each tagged
woody plant or patch of plants. These students
will be responsible for checking on their plants
at least every 2 to 3 days when the time for
flowering nears, and reporting any changes
they observe to the class.
Dandelion appears in April or May (make sure you
observe well away from warm building walls, so that
your date reflects the average time for dandelion in that
area)
Labrador tea usually flowers in late May or June.
Larch has small male and female cones that develop
very early: watch for pollen shed and then needles
emerging. In some years no cones may be produced; in
other years: abundant cones.
3. Have your students write descriptions of the
plants’ habitats and/or make sketches of the
plant (e.g. sketch flower buds every few days as
they grow larger) in their logbooks or on their
observation sheets.
Lilac generally starts to bloom in May in most of
Canada, but keep a sharp eye on your bush starting at
the end of April. Here’s one example of relative timing:
in central Alberta, lilac flowering generally starts a few
days after full bloom of saskatoon.
4. You may wish to clip a few short branches of
your selected shrub or tree for observation in
the classroom. Clip branches when the plant is
dormant (i.e., before the leaves/flowers appear,
January to April). Place the clipped branches
in water in the classroom. Change the water
and cut off a small portion of the wet end of
the branches weekly. Students can observe
the early development of leaves and flowers.
For example, aspen poplar will flower quickly;
saskatoon may take a few weeks to flower;
and lilac will probably just produce leaves and
flower buds before withering.
Prairie crocus buds poke through the ground in early
spring. Visits to locations where crocus plants grow
should be scheduled soon after the snow disappears.
The time from first flowering to full flowering usually
lasts 7-10 days, depending on the weather (faster
flowering in hot weather, slower in cold weather).
Purple saxifrage, is a “harbinger of spring” in the
north and in the mountains, flowering soon after the
snow melts.
Saskatoon usually flowers in May (later in the north).
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Starflower begins blooming in May in eastern Canada
When to Observe
Strawberry starts to flower in April in warm parts of
Canada.
Aspen poplar can expand its catkins and release
pollen very soon after snowmelt, if the weather is
warm! Start watching catkins in very early spring.
White dryad/White mountain avens, starts
flowering shortly after purple saxifrage in the arctic or
in mountains.
Bearberry is one of the earliest flowers: look
under leaves to see the ‘hot pink lips’ open on
these small white and pink bells.
White trillium is one of the first forest wildflowers to
bloom.
Bunchberry flowers after all the above flowers: in
May or June.
Where to Observe
1. PlantWatch needs flowering dates of plants that are
somewhat “average” in bloom time for your area.
If your chosen plant flowers much earlier or later
than others in the area, simply note this under the
“Comments” section of the PlantWatch Observation
Cloudberry/bakeapple/salmonberry starts to
bloom in June in most of Canada (later in the
north).
Cranberry/partridgeberry/lingonberry starts to
flower in May (later in the North).
14
KEY ACTIVITIES
Form and tag a different plant (or group of plants)
next year.
How to Tag
Larger woody plants: e.g. lilac, aspen poplar, larch
or saskatoon: Locate up to five plants per class to
observe, and assign a number to each plant. When you
report flowering on the PlantWatch Observation Form,
put this number in the Name of Plant: section.
2. For the native plants, (i.e., any PlantWatch species
except lilac and dandelion) select a natural setting
away from buildings and other heat sources.
For lilac, if possible, select a plant in the open,
preferably away from any wall (with closest branch
tips at least 2 m [6 ft.]
away). For dandelion,
select a patch on a flat
area, if possible, and at
least 10 m from a south
or west-facing wall or
fence.
Make your own tags by
cutting up plastic yogurt/
dairy containers, or by using
masking tape, or find tags
at a plant nursery or forestry
supply store. Mark the tag
with a plant number (see
box below). Wrap the tag
Please note the details
around a solid branch of
of your plants’ habitats
your tree or shrub (at least
on the PlantWatch
2-3 cm or 1 in. diameter). Try
Observation form to help
to put the tag on a branch
Saskatoon flowers E. BEAUBIEN
PlantWatch assess the
where students can find it
possible effects of location on your flowering dates.
easily even when the bush has leaves. If plant or label
vandalism is a potential problem, you may wish to
3. It is important, where possible, to observe plants
select plants away from public view, or place the tag so
growing in a relatively flat area. Why? Plants on hills
it is not visible from a main trail or public area.
will get more or less sun depending on which way
their slope faces. Plants on east, south, and westfacing slopes receive more warmth from the sun and
may flower earlier than the same species on colder
north-facing slopes. If you are limited to watching
plants on slopes or hillsides, please use a compass
to see which way your slope faces, and note this
direction on the Observation Form.
Tagging smaller plants:
Search for a good patch of plants, i.e. in spring, one
that has buds or flowers; or in summer, fall, or winter,
one that has evidence of present or past fruit (empty
flower stem, berries, seeds, capsules from the previous
year). If the plants are very abundant, select a square
Permanent Markings on Labels
Because even permanent pen markings can fade after two months’ exposure to spring sunshine, consider a more permanent
marking method. Find a plastic labelmaker to add your plant’s number and name to the plastic tag. Nurseries or forestry
supply stores often sell embossable aluminum tags for shrubs or trees. Be sure to make and keep a sketched map of plant
locations and numbers in case your label is removed, and to help relocate the plant the next spring. It is best to leave the
label on a tree or shrub, and to observe the same plant in subsequent years.
15
KEY ACTIVITIES
patch of 1 m x 1 m (3 ft. x 3 ft.). Mark the corners of
the patch using small rocks or sticks. Adding a yellow
plastic tent peg, or a metal tent peg with orange
flagging tape tied on, will make it simple to relocate
your site. Make sure the patch has a number — use a
plastic or aluminum label.
Create a school PlantWatch garden using the species
that naturally occur in your area. Then students can
easily observe the plants at all stages of their life
cycle! There are a few ethical issues to consider,
however, when obtaining native plants. These plants
should be grown from locally-collected seed, or
purchased from a reputable nursery that propagates
the plants and does not simply dig up plants in the
wild and sell them. For information on collecting and
purchasing native plants and growing native plants
from seed in an ethical manner visit www.anpc.ab.ca/
assets/gardener_guidelines.pdf
How Many to Mark or Tag
Reporting on one shrub or patch is fine, and more is
even better! Please report on a maximum per class of
•
five woody plants of one of the larger plants (e.g.,
lilac, aspen poplar, larch or saskatoon),
or
•
five patches of one of the smaller plants (e.g.,
dandelion, starflower, prairie crocus, bearberry,
trillium, bunchberry, Labrador tea, dryad or
saxifrage).
Put the number on the tag for that plant or patch.
16
Key Activities
Activity 4
overview
Reporting
to the Class
Students report back to the class any changes they
may have observed in their plant(s). Encourage your
students to use a variety of means to communicate their
observations to the rest of the class. This activity can
be used effectively in conjunction with Language Arts
Activity 1 and Mathematics Activities 1 to 3.
SKILLS
PROCEDURE
Observing, recording, communicating
1. Have your students periodically report on their
plants to the class. When the flower buds begin
to swell, students should visit the plants at
least every 2-3 days, and take particular care
to observe the changes in their plants. They
can regularly report these findings. Have the
students sketch the changes they are observing.
MATERIALS
Illustrations and colour photos of PlantWatch species
from the website. (See www.plantwatch.ca, or find
more photos by typing in the plant’s latin name at
‘Google images’ on the web.)
Student logbooks
2. List the bloom dates for each of the observed
plants/patch of plants.
PREPARATION
3. Report the dates to PlantWatch (see next
lesson). Reporting can be done as soon as
the plants start to reach first bloom, and can
continue as more dates are observed.
Read Background Information with its definitions of first
and mid flowering for the PlantWatch species your class
is observing.
4. Have the students make graphs of their results.
FOCUS
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
What is happening to your plant?
Before the students can start to report signs of
flowering on their selected plant, they need to
know how to recognize these flowering stages.
Only then can accurate dates for these phases can
be recorded.
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
Language Arts Activity 1, Descriptions (Connections Language Arts, page 75)
Mathematics Activity 1, Growing Degree Summation
(Connections - Math, page 51)
Mathematics Activity 3, Graphing and Mapping
(Connections - Math, page 55)
17
KEY ACTIVITIES
See www.plantwatch.ca and click on “Plant Descriptions” for growth stage definitions
to observe, and photos:
E. BEAUBIEN
L. KERSHAW
Aspen poplar
(Populus tremuloides)
tree, across Canada (report flowering
and leafing times)
L. KERSHAW
Bearberry
(Arctostaphylos uva-ursi);
low shrub, across Canada
E. BEAUBIEN
Bunchberry, crackerberry
(Cornus canadensis)
herb, boreal zone
Cloudberry/Bakeapple
(Rubus chamaemorus)
herb, low arctic, moist tundra
M. BISHOP
Dandelion
(Taraxacum officinale)
introduced herb, common in lawns,
disturbed areas
R. HOPKINS
Labrador tea
(Rhododendron groenlandicum,
formerly Ledum groenlandicum)
shrub, boreal
L. KERSHAW
Larch, tamarack
(Larix laricina)
tree, across Canada (report flowering
and leafing times)
J. BRANT
R. HOPKINS
R. HOPKINS
Cranberry/Partridgeberry/
Lingonberry
(Vaccinium vitis-idaea)
herb, distributed across Northern
Canada.
M. PRIESNITZ
M. BISHOP
L. KERSHAW
E. BEAUBIEN
E. BEAUBIEN
R. HOPKINS
Flowering times (first bloom, mid bloom) are observed for all the species. Leafing time is noted for only 3
species: lilac, poplar and larch.
18
Lilac, common purple
(Syringa vulgaris)
cultivated shrub, common in gardens
Prairie crocus
(Anemone patens)
herb, prairie and northern North
America
Purple saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
herb, arctic-alpine
Saskatoon, serviceberry
(Amelanchier spp.)
tall shrub, across North America
Starflower
(Trientalis borealis)
herb, common in Eastern Canada.
Found on the coniferous forest floor.
Strawberry, Wild
(Fragaria virginiana/vesca)
herb, across Canada
White dryad, white mountain
avens
(Dryas octopetala/integrifolia)
mat-forming low shrub, arctic and
alpine tundra
White trillium
(Trillium grandiflorum)
herb, eastern deciduous forest
Key Activities
Activity 5
overview
The teacher registers the class and
reports its data to PlantWatch.
Reporting your Data
starflower, prairie crocus, trillium, etc.) observed. Just
press “send” after completing your report on a plant
and a confirmation page will appear. Complete another
observation form if you have a date to report for
another plant. To contact PlantWatch by e-mail: [email protected]
ec.gc.ca
SKILLS
Calculations, completing observation forms
MATERIALS
PlantWatch Observation Forms (page 22)
PREPARATION
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
on the PlantWatch Observation Form
1. Examine the PlantWatch Observer Form or the
PlantWatch website “Submit Observations” section
2. Read Background Information on Observer Form
Filling in the Observation Form
3. Complete Mathematics Activity 4, Latitude and
Longitude: How to Calculate Your Global Address
(Connections - Math, page 59)
A. Observer
Fill out the contact information.
B. Plant Observed
The PlantWatch Observation Form is used to report
observations on one plant (or patch) of one species.
Name the plant species you observed.
PROCEDURE
Send the data to PlantWatch as soon as one of the
tagged plants reaches first flowering. Keep sending
data as the plants all reach first and mid bloom.
Complete one form for each tree (i.e., aspen poplar,
larch), bush (i.e., saskatoon, lilac) or patch (i.e.,
C. Flowering Phase
Fill in the date of one phase, or both phases (i.e.,
first bloom/mid bloom), on the same sheet. If first
bloom for your plant was April 15, 2010, record
04/15/2010; if mid bloom was April 21, 2010,
record 04/21/ 2010. If you are reporting on lilac or
aspen poplar, leafing is the day when, in at least
three places on your observed plant, the first leaves
have unfolded. For larch, the tufts of needles have
just started loosening and spreading.
19
KEY ACTIVITIES
altitude increases, flowering in higher places is often
later than at low altitudes. This effect can often be
seen by hikers on a mountain trail — plants of a
species may be in full bloom at the start of the trail
but only in bud higher up.
D. Plant Location
PlantWatch scientists can use and map students’
flowering observations only if they have accurate
location information for the plants. To determine
plant locations you could use the Latitude/
Longitude exercise (Mathematics Activity 4).
E. Optional Details
Accuracy of latitude and longitude: please provide
decimal degrees with 4 decimal points (eg. 54.9211
minutes latitude, or -115.2166 minutes longitude).
Use the formula given in Activity 4, the “dms”
button on a calculator, or an on-line converter (e.g.
www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/DDDMMSS-decimal.
html) to convert degrees, minutes and seconds to
decimal degrees (e.g., 54° 55’ 16” = 54.9211°),
which are the most useful for mapping. Note that in
Canada longitude is entered as a (-) value.
Information on a plant’s exposure to sun (shading,
angle of slope and aspect of slope — the direction
the slope faces) and weather before flowering helps
us understand how plants may have been affected
by their location or this year’s weather. To find
which direction the slope or forest edge faces, hold
a compass, stand with your back to the plant and
face directly downhill or at 90 degrees to the forest
edge. The direction you are facing is the direction to
record.
The Submit Observation section of the PlantWatch
website has tools which allows you to look up your
latitude and longitude. Google Earth is an excellent
tool to find latitude and longitude (http://earth.
google.com/).
Try this exercise: This is a sketch of a hill with a
single larch tree on one side. In the bottom right
of the sketch is a small inset contour map of the
same hill, with the tree location shown by the “x”. If
north is at the top of the map, which direction does
the hill with the tree, face? (the answer is beneath
the sketch)
A topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000 is
very useful to get accurate locations of plants.
Many people now have a
“GPS” (Global
Map Ordering
Positioning System:
A 1:50,000 scale
a small, hand-held
map is very helpful.
instrument that
calculates your
latitude/longitude using satellite signals)
for geo-caching, hiking, etc. They may be
able to help by giving you the location
of your sites. If you cannot figure out the
latitude/ longitude of your site, then just
report at the bottom of the form under
the Comments section of Optional Details,
the distance and direction of the plants
from the nearest highway or town.
ANSWER: SOUTHEAST
Elevation, taken from a map, is also
useful information for research on plant
flowering times. Because air cools when
20
KEY ACTIVITIES
In the Comments section, students could contribute
• details about the locations of plants
• notes on any interesting insects observed on the
plants (e.g., butterflies, caterpillars, ants, beetles,
etc.)
• weather observations (or the calculated growing
degree days to flowering: see Math Activity 1
[Connections - Math, page 51])
• whether some flower buds were lost to hungry deer
or other animals
• the average flowering times for first or mid flowering
for all the plants of one species (if they are all within
the same area: i.e. within a circle of 100 meters
diameter and within 50 meters of each other in
elevation)
• any other comments or suggestions
Submitting information on the PlantWatch
website
To access the on-line tools for latitude and longitude
click on “Click here to enter latitude and longitude
coordinates”. This will launch a pop-up screen
where you can search for your location either by
(a) entering the latitude and longitude directly, (b)
by searching from a nearest named place or (c) by
zooming in from a map of Canada. Each option
will allow you to visualize the plant location on a
map. Use this to verify your location. Once you are
satisfied you have identified the site, click “Confirm
Location”. This will automatically fill in the latitude
and longitude section of the page. Using Google
Earth, a GPS or other tool will help to identify the
latitude and longitude more specifically.
Once you have saved a location, it will appear as an
option under “Location” for future entries. If you
have made an error in your location information,
you can edit it by clicking “edit location”
C. Submit a PlantWatch Observation
A. Registration
Go to the “Submit Observations” page of the
PlantWatch website. If it is your first time submitting
observations, you first need to register. Fill in all fields
(School name can be entered in Last Name field).
Define an Observer number. Keep track of this number
and use it when sending data and locations for your
observations.
Select from the drop down menus provided all of
the blooming event information about the specific
plant you have monitored. You will need to repeat
this for each individual watched plant.
You can edit your observation after it has been
submitted by clicking “view/edit” under the
“Observations” section. You can also download
all of your data to a spreadsheet by clicking
“download” and following the instructions.
If you registered previously and forgot your Observer
number, just enter your email into the password
retrieval system on-line and it will be automatically
emailed to you.
You can edit your profile information by clicking “edit
profile”.
B. Add a location
Once you have registered, you will need to add a
location for each individual plant observed. Enter
unique latitude and longitudes for each watched plant,
along with as much other data as possible.
Monarch butterfly J. GREALEY
21
KEY ACTIVITIES
Plantwatch Observation Form
Name:
City/Town:
Province/Territory:
Postal Code:
Phone:
E-mail:
5-10
11-15
16-20
21-30
31-55
56 and over
Name of Plant:
See www.plantwatch.ca for details on recognizing these stages.
First Bloom
/
MONTH
Mid Bloom
/
DAY
/
/
DAY
Leafing
/
/
MONTH
DAY
YEAR
YEAR
Plant Location
MONTH
YEAR
Latitude (in decimal form, e.g. 53.6812 degrees):
˚N
Elevation (if known):
(metres)
Habitat Type
Flowering
Phase
Plant
Observed
Age:
Leafing
Observer
Address:
Deciduous forest
Coniferous forest
Mixed forest
Tundra/barren
Grassland
Location Name:
Province/Territory:
Sun Exposure:
Longitude (e.g. -112.9295˚):
sunny and open area
Plant is located on:
Slope faces (select one):
Comments
Marsh, bog, wetland
Farmland
Residential garden/lawn
Schoolyard
Optional
Details
Closest City or Town:
22
flat area
N
˚W
in half shade
gentle slope
NE
E
SE
shaded all day
steep slope
S
SW
W
NW
Key Activities
Activity 6
overview
Students discuss the flowering dates of their plants and
those of other PlantWatch observers. They examine data
and maps provided on the Internet and interpret them in
ways that fit with their other studies.
Looking Back
SKILLS
PREPARATION
Interpreting data, comparing, inferring, communicating
Read Science Activity 2, Weather (Connections Science, page 33)
MATERIALS
PROCEDURE
Student observation sheets or log books; maps of
flowering dates (see website <www.plantwatch.ca>)
1. Depending on the class’ focus while engaged in
the PlantWatch program, consider the following
questions:
FOCUS
What do these flowering times mean?
• Do the data (maps, flowering dates) available
on the PlantWatch website show the northern
movement of a “flowering wave”? Encourage
your students to explain why or why not this
“wave” might be happening. See Science
Activities 2 and 3.
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
Science Activity 2, Weather
(Connections - Science, page 33)
Science Activity 3, Reading About Climate Change
(Connections - Science, page 35)
• How many days difference did the students find
in the flowering dates between their observed
plants? Did the variation differ between species?
For example, say your class observed four
saskatoon plants with first bloom dates May 10,
12, 12, 13. The range in bloom times is May 10
to 13, or four days. But your three observed lilacs
had first bloom on May 20, 24, 26 with a range
of seven days. The lilacs showed more variation in
bloom time than the saskatoons. In this situation
the saskatoons may have all been close to each
Mathematics Activity 1, Growing Degree Summation
(Connections - Math, page 51)
Mathematics Activity 2, Calculating Averages
(Connections - Math, page 53)
Mathematics Activity 3, Graphing and Mapping
(Connections - Math, page 55)
Mathematics Activity 4, Latitude and Longitude: How to
Calculate Your Global Address
(Connections - Math, page 59)
23
KEY ACTIVITIES
other on the top of a hill, sharing a similar
microclimate. The lilacs may have been spread out
over the neighbourhood, in sun or shade, hills or
hollows.
• If you’ve recorded flowering dates in previous
years, how does this year compare — is flowering
earlier or later? Encourage your students to
explain differences or similarities. How could they
test their explanations? (See Science Activities 2
and 3 and Mathematics Activities 1 to 4.)
Encourage your students to try to explain the level
of variation they found. If your class reported on
more than one species, did the variation differ
between species? Why or why not? See Science
Activities 2 and 3 and Mathematics Activities 1 to 4.
• What would we do differently next year? How
could data collection be improved?
2. Log books — A final entry might include a student
description of the PlantWatch Program: “What We
Did and What We Found Out.”
• How does your area differ from others nearby
— is flowering earlier, about the same, or later?
Use the PlantWatch maps and ask your students
to predict flowering times on regions of the map
where there is no data. Ask them to explain their
predictions. (See Science Activity 2.)
3. Students could share their PlantWatch observations
and data with parents, other classes or others.
24
www.PlantWatch.ca
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
PAGE
30
Science
PAGE
42
Mathematics
PAGE
56
Social Studies
PAGE
70
Language Arts
25
www.PlantWatch.ca
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Science
PlantWatch provides opportunities to explore science from elementary school to university
levels. By integrating science activities (such as biology, ecology, weather and climate)
with geography, mathematics, computer skills, language arts, social studies and fine arts,
PlantWatch can form the basis for an integrated thematic study.
Relationships between the indicator plants, people, and wildlife (including herbivores and pollinators) are explored,
as well as the plants’ adaptations to cope with changes in light, water or temperature. As blooming occurs largely in
response to heat, weather calculations can permit predictions of bloom timing. Shifts to earlier bloom in some areas
have been noted, and tracking this spring timing can provide a focus for studies of climate change issues.
SCIENCE CONCEPT ONE
Plants
All words highlighted in blue can be found in the glossary
(Appendix 2).
PlantWatch is complementary to a number of
elementary school science topics. The following
concepts are expanded using some of the PlantWatch
species as examples.
• Saskatoon berries are now used both
commercially and by individuals for pies, jams,
syrups and wines.
• The roots of starflower were used by Aboriginal
hunters to make a smoke mixture to attract deer.
1. Plants are important to humans
• Lilac is a beautiful garden shrub. Of all the
horticultural woody plants, lilac has the most
cultivars.
• Some Aboriginal Peoples used cranberry juice
to dye the porcupine quills often found in their
beadwork; the berries, too, were used as beads
• Aspen poplar bark was used as famine food by
First Nations people and aspen leaves were used
to relieve the itch of insect stings. Canoe paddles
and teepee poles were commonly made from
aspen wood.
2. Plants are an important part of the natural
environment
• Plants make oxygen. All green plants, when
exposed to light, produce oxygen while
consuming carbon dioxide in a process called
• Saskatoon berries were the most important plant
food for the Blackfoot, a prairie First Nations
people.
27
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
(cross-pollination), the stamens (male parts) will
still ripen and release pollen, which can fertilize
another flower. However, if pollination by insects
does not occur, the flower can fertilize itself. In
poplars, the male trees can start to release pollen
before many female trees’ catkins are receptive or
ready for pollination.
photosynthesis. At night when the light is
gone, they use oxygen to respire (see Respiration
in glossary). However, plants produce a lot more
oxygen than they consume, providing all living
things on Earth with the oxygen they need to live.
• Plants play an important role in preventing soil
erosion. Plants such as prairie crocus, saskatoon,
and purple saxifrage have deep roots to ensure
that even in dry years they can find enough
moisture. If a forest or grass fire sweeps through
and kills the part of the plant above the ground,
the roots push up new buds in prairie crocus or
new suckers in saskatoon and aspen poplar.
These roots do a good job of holding the soil
together and absorbing water in times of heavy
rain.
In self-fertilization, no mixing of genes occurs.
Therefore, self-fertilization results in less genetic
variability in the population and a decreased
ability to withstand more extreme conditions
(less hybrid vigour). However, it does ensure
continuation of a species when conditions are not
favourable for cross-pollination.
If you are interested in learning more about
pollinating species and how to track their
diversity, visit Pollination Canada at www.
pollinationcanada.ca.
• Pollination
Plant flowers
are important
to insects such
as bees both
as a source of
nectar (sugar)
and pollen (rich in
protein and fat). In
turn, the insects move pollen to different flowers.
Watch bees and look for yellow or orange balls
of pollen being carried on their legs. This crosspollination is necessary in some plant species for
seeds to develop. Pollination is an example of a
way that plants and insects help each other. How
are the PlantWatch species pollinated? Lilacs are
often visited by swallowtail butterflies. Bees love
dandelions. Small flies likely pollinate bunchberry
(though tiny insects can be damaged by the
explosive pollination!). Wind moves the pollen on
aspen and larch trees.
3. Plants have special parts and adaptations that
help them survive and thrive in certain habitats
• The PlantWatch species have unique
characteristics that students can observe, identify
and discuss. For example, you may wish to ask the
students the following questions:
Why is the bark of aspen poplar green inside?
ANSWER: The thin layer of green tissue just
under the bark allows the tree to convert light to
food or sugar by the process of photosynthesis.
Even before the leaves emerge, the tree can take
advantage of spring warmth and light. To protect
the bark from sun scald, the south-facing side of
the tree often has a white powder on it that acts
as a sunscreen.
Why is the prairie crocus so furry?
ANSWER: The hairs protect the plant from insects
(e.g., caterpillars, beetles) and some larger
herbivores (e.g. deer, elk) that might eat the plant.
The hairs contain a stinging substance that can
be irritating. However, perhaps because prairie
crocus is one of the earliest-appearing plants after
Most flowers have male and female parts. In
at least two of our PlantWatch species, prairie
crocus and purple saxifrage, the female parts
(stigmas) of the flowers are ready for action first.
If the stigmas receive pollen from another flower
28
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
the long winter, some animals
(e.g. elk, ground squirrels) eat
the crocus flower, ignoring the
stinging hairs.
Hairs also provide a heat trap for
rays of sunshine, and provide
protection from moisture loss in
the dry, spring winds. You could
compare the prairie crocus to a
camel-riding, nomadic person who
travels the desert well wrapped in
robes.
Why do prairie crocus and
white dryad flowers turn to
face the sun?
White trillium JOYCE BRANT
ANSWER: The prairie crocus blooms in the early
spring, a cold time of year. White dryad blooms
in mountains and the north where temperatures
are low. The cup shaped flowers resemble satellite
dishes and act as solar collectors, concentrating
the sun’s warm rays on the centre of the flower.
Heat is necessary to help the flower parts
develop (for example, for stamens to grow; for
pollen grains to mature and be released) and for
pollination to occur. Inside a prairie crocus flower
it is often 10°C warmer than outside, making
it a cozy place for spring pollinators (e.g., bees,
flies) to visit. Some insects spend cold nights and
stormy days inside the flower, protected from the
wind and predators.
Why do purple saxifrage and white dryad
plants stay so small?
ANSWER: These plants rarely grow higher than 5
cm (2 in.) above the ground surface. Their small
size allows them to hide from the cold, drying
wind that is so common in arctic and mountain
landscapes.
How does bearberry make the most of the
sun?
ANSWER: Bearberry has small clear windows
around the top of each hanging flower which
function much like the panes of glass in a
greenhouse. Sunshine enters the flower and
strikes the dark purple reproductive organs. The
purple pigments convert the light to heat and
speed up the development of pollen and later,
seeds.
Why do trilliums flower so early?
ANSWER: In eastern North America, trilliums
grow early in the spring before maples, beech,
and other leafy trees unfurl their leaves. They
take advantage of the bright, sunny spring to
put on a spurt of growth, forming leaves and
flowers. Once the leaf canopy above closes, the
forest floor becomes very shady. The fully grown
trilliums persist for a few months, ripening their
fruits and storing nutrients for next year’s growth.
What is so special about the bunchberry?
It has the distinction of being the fastest plant
on earth due to the explosive opening of pollen
sacs within bunchberry flowers, triggered by
insects. In less than half a millisecond, pollen is
ejected with an acceleration 800 times the force
experienced by astronauts during launch!
29
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
4. Plants have essential requirements that need
to be satisfied in order for them to grow and
thrive
5. Plants use different techniques to make sure
their seeds are moved to good growing sites
• Compare the seed dispersal of aspen poplar,
dandelion, prairie crocus or white dryad (seeds
travel on the wind) to that of saskatoon,
bunchberry, bearberry, or trillium (seeds are eaten/
transported by birds, mammals or insects.)
• Plants need space
How close together do you find the individuals
of aspen poplar, prairie crocus, saskatoon,
bunchberry, trillium, etc.?
6. Plants go through different growth stages. A
complete sequence of growth stages is called a
life cycle.
• Each plant has a temperature range in which it
grows best
Spring flowering perennials need a certain
amount of heat to bloom. How does temperature
seem to affect these plants? (Students could
calculate the heat necessary to get their chosen
plants to bloom using the growing degree
summation exercise described in Mathematics
Activity 1, Connections - Math, Page 51).
• Observe and describe (in words and/or drawings)
the growth stages of a PlantWatch plant.
• What are the local conditions (the habitats) where
the plants are growing? (e.g., flat/hilly, sandy/clay
soil, open/ wooded, sunny/shaded?)
• Are the plants like others in the same area? How
are they different?
30
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 1
overview
One of the fundamental principles of ecology is that
everything is connected to everything else. Every plant,
animal and person is connected to other living things and
to other parts of the natural environment. As people, we
depend upon the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the
plants and animals that provide us with food. We use plants
for building materials, medicines and a variety of other useful
products. Our actions have an impact on the environment
and other living things. We are a part of the “web of life.”
Plants and Ecology:
All My Relations
SKILLS/KNOWLEDGE
PROCEDURE
Identifying ecological connections.
1. Create large web diagrams on the chalkboard to
show some of the connections or relationships
between the plants featured in PlantWatch and
other organisms or parts of the natural environment.
The teacher can encourage students to identify
some connections and can provide additional
examples using the following two PlantWatch
species: prairie crocus and saskatoon. See page 32
for Background Information.
MATERIALS
Chalk and chalkboard or flip chart and markers, paper
and pencils
PREPARATION
Review Background Information in this activity.
Review other resources such as plant guides if possible.
2. Have the students look for evidence of these
connections or relationships when they visit their
plants.
Invite an aboriginal elder, ecologist or wildlife officer to
join the class.
3. Have the students create drawings that illustrate
some of the relationships that their PlantWatch
plants have with other parts of the natural
environment (e.g., the soil, air, water, sunlight, other
plants, insects, birds, mammals).
FOCUS
How are we connected to other living and non-living
things?
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
4. Introduce students to local First Nations peoples’
perspectives on nature and traditional uses of
native plants. There are several useful background
resources for teachers on this subject. You might
share some short readings or, if possible, invite
an elder to visit your class to talk about the
relationships that First Nations peoples have with
the land, plants and animals in your area.
Key Activity 3, Locating and Tagging the Plants
(page 13)
Science Activity 5, Developing a Phenology Calendar
(page 43)
Social Studies Activity 2, People and History
(page 70)
31
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Saskatoon
Relationships with Other Parts of the Web of Life
Prairie Crocus
The saskatoon is a member of the rose family. People
often enjoy the fruit of this plant in jams, muffins and
pies. For the Blackfoot First Nation, this fruit was the
most important plant food. Some First Nations peoples
used the wood of this plant to make arrows, pipe stems
and basket rims.
Relationships with Other Parts of the Web of Life
The prairie crocus is a member of the buttercup family
along with other flowers like the Canada anemone or
the prairie buttercup.
Bees and other insects pollinate the flowers of the
prairie crocus.
Mule deer and elk often browse on the twigs of
saskatoon bushes in the winter.
Ground squirrels, deer, elk, pocket gophers and voles
eat the flowers, roots and/or leaves of the prairie
crocus.
Saskatoon bushes often grow alongside clumps of
aspen poplar trees.
The prairie crocus sometimes grows in large patches in
pastures that have been overgrazed by cattle.
Many birds and animals eat Saskatoon berries and
scatter the seeds in their
droppings.
People often enjoy the blossoms of the prairie crocus
as one of the first signs of spring. Some First Nations
peoples used parts of the prairie crocus to stop bleeding
or treat rheumatism. The prairie crocus flower turns
slowly to keep facing the sun as it moves across the sky.
This movement helps the flower capture the most heat
energy possible.
Saskatoon bushes provide
protection for small animals
like rabbits. The bushes
provide places to hide from
predators, as well as shade
in summer and shelter from
the wind in winter.
As moisture levels change, the seed of the prairie
crocus twists and turns its way deeper into the soil, thus
improving its chances of survival.
Bear
GEOFF HOLROYD
The saskatoon plant is pollinated by insects. Saskatoons
bloom when the air turns warm in the spring.
The prairie crocus blooms when the air temperature
becomes warm in the spring.
Definition of Phenology
The study of the seasonal timing of life cycle events.
Phenology was common knowledge for First Nations peoples whose daily activities were closely tied to the natural rhythms
of the land. When Samuel de Champlain landed
at Cape Cod in 1605, he was told by the First
Nations people he met that corn should be
planted when the white oak leaves were the
size of a red squirrel’s footprint.
LAURA FROST
32
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 2
overview
Weather conditions such as temperature, day length, and
precipitation affect the amount of heat available to a plant as
winter gives way to spring. Collecting weather data to track
the progress of spring in a particular location can be useful for
predicting the flowering time of plants in that area and for choosing
which crops will be best suited to that particular location.
Weather
SKILLS
PROCEDURE
Outdoor measurement of temperature and precipitation
1. Weather data measurement, recording and
Interpretation
MATERIALS
Key Activity 6, Looking Back (page 23)
Have students measure and record temperature,
day length and precipitation in order to investigate
how each of these conditions affects flowering
times. Spring plants flower mainly in response
to temperature. If a winter has been milder than
average and the spring warm, then flowering
will happen earlier than usual. The amount of
precipitation does not seem to change the timing
of the beginning of bloom, although the time
between the start of flowering and mid bloom
tends to be shorter in drought periods. Day length
becomes a more important factor after midsummer
in determining when summer flowering plants will
bloom and fruits will ripen, as well as when leaves
turn colour and fall to the ground. Day length also
affects how much of the sun’s warmth a plant is
exposed to during the day.
Mathematics Activity 1: Growing Degree Summation
(page 51)
Time of sunrise and sunset, and daily high and low
temperatures can be found in most newspapers.
Thermometers (maximum/minimum is best type),
compass to determine slope aspect (i.e. direction the
slope faces), daily newspaper.
PREPARATION
Review Mathematics Activity 1, Growing Degree
Summation (Connections - Math, page 51)
FOCUS
What variables affect when plants bloom?
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
Key Activity 2, Predicting Seasonal Occurrences
(page 11)
33
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
in urban areas that east-facing, grassy slopes seem
to green up first. They show earlier plant growth
because they are the first areas to catch the warm
morning sunshine after cold spring nights, and enjoy
high temperatures for more hours than west-facing
slopes. The flowering of plants at the base of valleys
is often several days later than flowering on slopes
or hilltops because cold air drains down the slopes
at night and collects at the valley bottom.
Use the verified temperature records given for the
previous day, rather than the predicted values for
the current day. Weather data submitted under
Comments on the PlantWatch Observation Form
gives a research scientist additional valuable
information about flowering conditions.
2. Predicting the timing of bloom in warmer and
colder locations
PlantWatch scientists request that, if possible,
observers report dates for plants growing in
a relatively flat area. However, comparing the
flowering times of one type of plant growing under
different conditions can provide a concrete example
of the effect of temperature on plant growth. For
a microclimate study, the class could also tag
individual plants of one species (e.g. saskatoon
bushes) in a variety of locations. Locations could
include the top of a hill, a valley bottom and slopes
facing opposite directions such as north and south,
or northwest and southeast.
3. Students can use their temperature data to
calculate heat units (see Mathematics Activity 1,
page 51).
Growing degree summation (GDS) is very useful
in agriculture to describe how much warmth
(measured in heat units) a particular crop variety
needs to develop. For example, two types of canola
available for seeding on the prairies have different
requirements. The Argentine variety needs 10401100 heat units to grow, and the Polish variety only
needs 860-920 units. Knowing the current spring’s
progress in heat units can potentially assist a farmer
in selecting the right variety of a crop for a certain
location; in predicting planting dates for wheat,
canola, barley and forage crops; in predicting the
rate of water consumption of different crops;
and in predicting the ripening times for crops. For
instance, alfalfa needs 500 heat units before the
first cut. In central Alberta this usually occurs the
last week in June, but the timing varies depending
on the weather conditions. Because plant flowering
happens in response to how much heat the plants
have been exposed to, bloom dates could also be
used for all the above predictions. How many heat
units does it take for your observed plant to flower?
(See Mathematics Activity 1 for calculations.)
Plants located in a warmer site should bloom earlier
than the same species in a colder site. If maximum/
minimum thermometers are available, install one
in each location in the shade (e.g., on the northfacing side of a tree or shrub, about 1 m [3 ft.]
above the ground) and take daily readings. If using
standard thermometers, take temperatures in the
early morning and in the late afternoon during
the two weeks before blooming. In what areas is
the temperature the highest? The lowest? Where
do you expect flowering will be earliest? In the
northern hemisphere, the sun rises in the east,
swings through the southern sky, and sets in the
west. Therefore, south-facing slopes collect the
most intense solar energy and should have the
highest temperatures. North-facing slopes should
be the coolest. But after the winter, you may notice
34
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 3
overview
Reading about
Climate Change
Climate change is a shift in long-term average weather
patterns, which can include changes in temperature and in
precipitation amounts.
Climate change will touch the lives of all Canadians. Changes
in sea levels, storm patterns and average temperatures
may alter the environment that we live in and depend on.
Decisions that are made today will have an impact on the
communities of today and on future generations. Everyone
has a role to play to ensure that the planet is hospitable to
life, and the time for action is now. Early action is similar to
an insurance policy that may protect us from negative effects
in the future. The benefits of responding quickly include
reduced pollution, increased air quality, a more efficient
economy and job creation from the implementation of new
technologies.
Mathematics Activity 2, Calculating Averages
(page 53)
Mathematics Activity 3, Graphing and Mapping
(page 55)
PROCEDURE
1. Read the readings in this activity.
2. Discuss them as a class.
SKILLS
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Reading, comprehension, analysis, critical thinking.
PlantWatch and Climate Change
MATERIALS
In the temperate parts of the world where there are
strong seasonal changes, temperature is the main factor
controlling the timing of spring development. Warmer
temperatures in the winter and spring lead to earlier
spring flowering and leafing of perennial plants. The
plant phenology data for Edmonton, Alberta shows
a dramatic shift towards the earlier development and
flowering of aspen poplar trees over the last 45 years
by about 0.2 days per year. Overall, by 2000, spring was
arriving about a week earlier than it was in the 1950s.
The readings in this activity, and further readings if
desired (see websites at the end of this activity).
PREPARATION
Review this activity.
FOCUS
What is climate change and what are its effects?
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
Key Activity 6: Looking Back (page 23)
Science Activity 2, Weather (page 33)
Mathematics Activity 1, Growing Degree Summation
(page 51)
35
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
Figure 1. Flowering time of aspen poplar (Populus tremuloides) 1938-1998
Later
20
10
Days
Deviation (in days) from mean flowering date (1932-1998)
30
0
-10
Earlier
-20
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
1984
1982
1980
1978
1976
1974
1972
1970
1968
1966
1964
1962
1960
1958
1954
1952
1950
1948
1946
1944
1942
1940
1938
1936
-30
Year
Long term trend towards earlier first flowering of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)
in the area of Edmonton, Alberta (1936-1998).
Figure 1 (based on data from Edmonton, Alberta) shows
that over 60 years, the first bloom of aspen became
earlier. The average bloom date is shown on this graph
as 0 on the y axis or the line running horizontally in the
middle of the graph. The length of the bars indicates
how many days earlier (towards the bottom) or later
(towards the top) flowering has been in a given year.
Recent analysis shows that over the last century, aspen
poplar bloom in Edmonton, Alberta became earlier
by almost a month. Part of this trend may be due
to the ‘heat island’ effect of the city being warmer
than the surrounding rural area. (See Beaubien and
Freeland 2002, http://www.springerlink.com/content/
vl4wtubu49kl575h/fulltext.pdf, see Figure 3.)
Here is something that you and your students can
do to help with the problem of climate change: join
PlantWatch! Have your students track how plants are
responding to the weather and climate. Their data would
be a precious contribution to monitoring environmental
changes.
What is Climate Change?
Over time the Earth has experienced much variation in
climate. There have been extremely hot periods, when
large areas of the planet were like deserts, as well
as ice ages, when much of the globe was covered in
large sheets of ice. When dinosaurs were in their prime
(during the Jurassic) there was very little ice at the north
and south poles, the oceans were much higher, and it
was extremely hot. Less than 20,000 years ago, most
of North America (probably including the area where
your school is today) was covered in a large sheet of ice
called the Laurentide Glacier. These different conditions
are produced by natural cycles in the earth’s climate.
Other phenology surveys also show trends to earlier
flowering. To see more information on these trends
to earliness, look for assessments on the PlantWatch
website and check out other phenological monitoring
network websites at www.usanpn.org/?q=node/3.
36
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
Refrigerators and spray cans both increase the amount
of CFCs in the atmosphere. (However, many uses of
these gases are being phased out). Methane, much of
which comes from decomposing garbage, is also rising
in concentration. Scientists believe that the increase
in these greenhouse gases will magnify the amount
of heat from the sun trapped by the atmosphere. This
additional heat will affect the climate by raising the
Earth’s temperature and, thereby, changing the planet’s
weather patterns. Analyses by Environment Canada
scientists have shown that annual temperatures across
Canada have risen by an average of 1°C since 1950
(see Figure 2).
Scientists refer to these cycles in climate as climate
change.
Today, scientists believe that the planet’s temperature is
rising in response to increased human pollution of the
atmosphere. Such an increase in temperature is called
“global warming.” Scientists believe that this pollution is
causing an increase in the naturally occurring greenhouse
effect (see below). Predictions of global warming worry
many people because of the effects rising temperatures
are having on the natural environment.
What is the Greenhouse Effect?
The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring process
that regulates the Earth’s temperature. The Earth is
warmed by light energy that comes from the sun. When
the energy in the sun’s rays reaches the planet, some of
it is reflected away from the ground. As this energy
(heat) travels
Figure 2. Change in spring mean temperature for
Canada, 1948-2003
back towards space it is absorbed by gases in the
atmosphere and by clouds. This absorption keeps
the planet at an average temperature of around
15°C (59°F). If this energy was all reflected back into
space, the planet would be about 30°C (86°F) colder,
and life would be impossible.
Greenhouse gases (gases in the Earth’s atmosphere
that absorb heat) such as water vapour, carbon
dioxide, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
and nitrous oxide, act something like the insulation
in a house. By absorbing the sun’s reflected energy
as heat, they keep the planet at a temperature that
allows plants to grow.
Courtesy of: Climate Research Division, Science
and Technology Branch, Environment Canada.
Units are ºC. Grid squares with trends statistically significant at 95%
are marked by crosses.
As you have probably heard, we have been increasing
the amount of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere for
about 150 years. For example, burning fossil fuels (in cars,
home furnaces, coal-fired electrical plants and factories)
releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The amount
of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased
substantially, especially since 1900. Scientists measure
the amount of carbon dioxide in the past atmosphere by
examining the amount of carbon dioxide in dated layers
of glacier ice cores. More recently, atmospheric carbon
dioxide levels have been measured directly.
37
Graphs showing changes in Canadian and global
greenhouse gas emissions and temperatures are available
on-line at:
www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/ghg/inventory_report/2006/som-sum_
eng.cfm
www.ec.gc.ca/soer-ree/English/Indicator_series/
www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-spm.
pdf
www.earth-policy.org/Indicators/Temp/2008.htm
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
The Effects of Global Warming
The consequences of a rise in global temperature will
not be fully known at a local or regional level until the
change actually occurs. The overall consequences of global
warming are anticipated to include the following: rising
sea levels, an increase in the severity of extreme weather
events including thunderstorms and tornadoes, changes
in the quantity and quality of available water, etc.2 We
are already seeing in Canada melting of permafrost in
the Arctic and loss of Arctic sea ice leading to a variety of
impacts both on ecosystems and communities. One of the
possibilities is that global warming will be so rapid that
many plant and animal species will not be able to adjust
quickly enough to survive.
weather has been hotter than usual. Studies and
interpretation by the Earth Policy Institute based on
NASA data showed the eight hottest years on record
occurred between 1998 and 2007, with the two hottest
in 2005 and 20073.
Conclusion
As you can see, the current warming trend we are
experiencing has some serious implications for the
future of life on earth. Although there are varying
opinions about the exact effects of this warming, it is
clear that the current warming is real and that it will
have some negative effects on us all. Climate change is
a reality.
Action that is taken today will have a profound impact
on the climate of the future, and acting now is the only
way to begin to slow climate change. PlantWatch (in
addition to activities that can be found at many of the
following websites), is an excellent way to contribute
valuable data to monitor the effects of climate change.
So…Has It Been Warmer Lately?
When they hear about global warming, many people
wonder if a long-term warming trend will affect the
weather they will know in their lifetime. Although there
is a great deal of year to- year variation, recently, the
Websites
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE
NATIONAL ROUND TABLE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE
ECONOMY
www.ipcc.ch/
www.nrtee-trnee.com/eng/issues/climate.php
The IPCC was established to provide the decision-makers and others
interested in climate change with an objective source of information
about climate change.
Research into climate change policy approaches.
ENVIRONMENT CANADA
The Green Line Climate Change Website
Information on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation.
NATURAL RESOURCES CANADA
www.adaptation.nrcan.gc.ca/index_e.php
THE PEMBINA INSTITUTE
www.ec.gc.ca/climate/home-e.html
www.pembina.org
This site offers background on climate change, Canadian scientific
research and information on what governments are doing to address
the climate challenge.
Take Action for the Environment
In addition to climate protection solutions and practical information
on how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this site contains
information on how to obtain the Pembina Institute’s climate change
teaching resource package. This amazing package contains 14 student
activities on climate change in both French and English.
www.ec.gc.ca/education/default.
asp?lang=En&n=050049D2-1
WORLD WILDLIFE FUND CLIMATE CHANGE SITE
This site offers suggestion as to what you can do to reduce Greenhouse
Gas Emissions as well as links to educational resources.
www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/climate_
change/index.cfm
www.ec.gc.ca/education/default.
asp?lang=En&n=D3D10112-1
Climate change issues around the world are discussed on this site.
Other websites to consider:
GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
ecoACTION
www.greenfacts.org
www.davidsuzuki.org
www.environmentalsociety.ca
www.ecoaction.gc.ca/
This site describes efforts by the Government of Canada to reduce
climate emissions and contains information on climate change
activities, grants, programs, resources and events.
2
3
www.ec.gc.ca/climat-climate/default.asp?lang=En&n=4630D154-1
www.earth-policy.org/Indicators/Temp/2008.htm
38
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Science
Trees & Forests: the basics
SCIENCE CONCEPT TWO
• As part of a life-supporting environment
1. Our PlantWatch tree and shrub species are
valuable!
Maintaining biodiversity (total variety of living
things) keeps our planet’s ecological systems
strong and healthy and more able to withstand
the stresses imposed by people and our changing
climate. Forests play a key role in moderating our
climate, regulating our water systems, preventing
erosion, and alleviating air pollution.
• As habitats for a variety of living things
Two thirds of Canada’s estimated 300,000
wildlife species live in the forest. Saskatoons
provide food and shelter for species such as
birds, hares, mice and mushrooms.
Aspen poplar bark and leaves are the preferred
food of beavers, and these animals often use
the branches to construct their dams and
lodges. Aspen poplar winter buds are eaten
by grouse. Young aspen twigs and leaves are
browsed by hoofed animals
such as deer, moose and
elk. These animals can also
use aspen poplar groves as
shelter to hide from wind and
predators.
• For recreation
Beaver
Saskatoon berries are fun
to pick and turn into pies, jams and syrup.
Saskatoon bushes provide a good habitat for
numerous nesting birds, and mixed poplar/
conifer forests are home to more kinds of
nesting birds than any other forest type
in Canada. Birdwatchers know this and
appreciate it!
2. A variety of plants and animals live under, on
and among trees. Trees affect and are affected
by these other living species. Some examples
from PlantWatch species are as follows:
Beavers cut aspen poplar trees down
to get branches to build their dams
and lodges. Aspen bark also is an
important winter food for hoofed
animals such as elk, moose and deer.
Saskatoon provides food (berries) for
birds as well as mammals such as mice
and squirrels. The winter buds are a
ISTOCKPHOTO.COM
preferred food for sharp-tailed grouse,
and deer, elk and moose eat the branches in winter.
Saskatoon also provides a sheltering habitat for
these animals and others, such as the snowshoe
hare. Because saskatoon is a native shrub found
throughout much of temperate North America,
and has been evolving here over thousands of
39
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
years, many insects and fungi have adapted to use
it as a food source. Insects (and fungi) feed on its
roots, stems, leaves, flowers and/or fruit. There
are nineteen species of moths/butterflies whose
caterpillars (larvae) eat saskatoon. The insects in turn
are valuable food for birds!
to fine fungal strands through which plant and
fungus trade nutrients. The plants provide sugars
to the fungi (or mushrooms) and receive water
and minerals in exchange. By greatly increasing the
saskatoon roots’ ability to absorb water, fungi help
the shrub survive drought. The growth and survival
of forest plants is dependent on these fungi, which
protect them from infection and enable them to
absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Without
this partnership, neither green plant nor fungus
would do well, which is why native plants need
undisturbed prairie or forest soils where their fungal
partners live and why some native plants can be
hard to grow in domestic gardens.
A healthy forest depends on complex relationships
Helping Songbirds
Studies show that there
have been significant and
rapid declines in some
forest songbird populations
in the past decade. The
LISA GRBINICEK
main causes of this decline
appear to be forest fragmentation (large areas of forest
becoming small patches of forest) and the loss of
habitat along bird migration routes due to agriculture
and urban development. If we can retain hedgerows
and other areas of native bushes and trees, birds will
have needed shelter and food-rich habitat in their
migration and nesting seasons.
3. Trees play an important role in nutrient cycles
In the fall, aspen poplar leaves turn yellow and
saskatoon leaves turn bright orange, red or purple.
The leaves then fall off and pile up on the ground.
Then an army of decomposers (insects, worms,
bacteria and fungi), all assisted by rain and warmth,
begins to turn the leaves into nourishing soil.
Some leaves don’t go through the decomposition
process, but are directly consumed. For example,
freshly fallen aspen poplar leaves (which look like
gold coins) are a very popular food for deer and
elk. The fallen leaves also provide insulated hiding
places for many overwintering adult insects such as
beetles, as well as butterfly, moth and spider eggs.
between tree species and other organisms. All wild
or native plants have important partnerships with
some soil fungi. For example, fungal partners are
known to give saskatoon shrubs great drought
hardiness. The saskatoon’s roots are connected
Trees are defined as perennial plants with a single woody stem over 5 cm (2 in.) in diameter.
A shrub (or bush) has two or more main woody stems, each less than 5 cm (2 in.) in diameter coming up from the ground.
However, what grows as a shrub in some parts of Canada, grows as a tree in other areas. For example, in rich soil in British
Columbia, a saskatoon can develop a single trunk and grow up to 10 m (30 ft.) tall.
40
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 4
overview
Forests:
Discussion and
Investigation
Forests offer a number of benefits to humans and wildlife.
Canadian forests are dynamic and their characteristics change
over time. Forest fires are an integral part of the life cycle of
Canadian forests. In this activity students will be introduced
to, think critically about, and research the impacts of fires on
our forests.
SKILLS
SUGGESTED CONNECTION
Debating, critical thinking, problem analysis, research
and information gathering
Social Studies Activity 2, People in History (page 70)
PROCEDURE
MATERIALS
1. Begin a class discussion/debate around the following
questions (introduce the information in this activity
as you go along to inform your discussion):
The readings in this activity.
The internet or a library so students can find
supplementary resources to help them answer their
questions.
a) For what are forests used?
b) What is the difference between an old forest and
a young forest? Is one better than the other?
PREPARATION
c) Are forest fires helpful or harmful for forests?
Review this activity.
2. Have your students research the issue further (via
the internet or the school library) to try to answer
the above questions and the following questions:
Would putting out all fires be good or bad for our
forests? Which impact leads to a healthier regrown
forest, a hot forest fire or clear-cutting?
FOCUS
Forest characteristics and the issue of forest fires.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1. Forests are used for
• logging trees for lumber and pulp
• preserving the environment (plants and animals,
biodiversity, ecosystems)
Oak leaves CREDIT VALLEY CONSERVATION
41
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
• Plants, fungi, lichens and insects have adapted
over thousands of years to fire conditions —
seeds can persist and germinate after a fire and
often plant roots survive (e.g. aspen poplar and
Saskatoon sprout vigourously after a fire). The
cones of the jack pine and lodgepole pine trees
require heat from a fire to open the cone scales
and release the seeds. Other benefits are as
follows:
• preserving cultural heritage (the land and culture
of Canada’s First Nations people)
• recreation (camping, hiking, hunting, fishing)
2. Different animal and plant species live in young
forests and in older forests
• In younger forest we see birds such as yellow
warblers and American redstarts, as well as many
shrubs and young trees, including aspen poplar
and saskatoon.
- wood lilies (Lilium philadelphicum) produce
more bulbs, flowers and seeds after a fire, and
the blooms can then turn the forest floor bright
orange
• In older forests we see larger trees; thick carpets
of lichen, mosses and horsetails; cavity-dwelling
birds such as woodpeckers and some ducks;
warblers such as the Blackburnian, Cape May
and blackthroated green; and predators such as
goshawks and barred owls.
- mountain bluebirds prefer to nest in holes in
burned trees or snags
- nighthawks nest on the ground in burned areas
• If all the older forests disappeared, we would
lose the many plants and animals that need this
habitat to survive. As old forests are often fairly
open to walk through, with trees spaced far
apart, a significant recreational resource would be
lost. If all the forest was gone and converted to
agricultural land, then precipitation falling on the
land would no longer be stored by mosses, tree
roots, etc. but would run off causing erosion of
the soil. Heavy rains could easily cause floods.
- woodpeckers become very numerous after a
fire, as they use burnt trees for food and shelter
- some birds that need to perch high above the
ground (flycatchers, hawks, owls) use the dead
trunks left by a fire
• Another benefit is that weedy, invasive,
introduced plants are often eliminated.
• Fires often kill trees but the dead trunks stay
standing for many years, whereas clearcut logging
removes all the tree trunks to a pulp mill or saw
mill. Can you think of any plants or animals that
could live in a recently burned forest but could
not live in a clearcut forest?
3. Fire can be helpful to many forests
Fires have burned our forests for thousands of years,
and they have helped build the healthy, diverse
forests we have today. Would putting out all fires be
good or bad for our forests? How can we find out?
Which impact leads to a healthier regrown forest, a
hot forest fire or clear-cutting?
42
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 5
overview
Developing a
Phenology
Calendar
Students can build on the observation skills developed
through PlantWatch by expanding the focus of observation
to other seasonal events that occur throughout the school
year.
PlantWatch is part of the NatureWatch suite of citizen
science monitoring programs. NatureWatch also includes
IceWatch where participants track the freeze and thaw
dates of local water bodies. The other programs are
FrogWatch, which monitors the abundance and diversity
and call timing of amphibians, and WormWatch, which
monitors the abundance and diversity of worms. Log on to
www.naturewatch.ca to learn more and participate!
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
Key Activity 1, Signs of Spring (page 9)
Key Activity 2, Predicting Seasonal Occurrences
(page 11)
In the following article, reproduced (with
permission) from the Green Teacher,
grade 7 teacher Larry Weber describes
his innovative approach to studying
the environment, exploring the natural
world and fostering respect for native
habitats. By following the seasons
in his area (Minnesota, USA), Larry
Weber has developed a science
curriculum based on local phenology. Eachh month,
h
Larry and his students examine a new topic that explores
what is happening outside the door to their classroom.
Key Activity 3, Locating and Tagging the Plants
(page 13)
Science Activity 1, Plants and Ecology: All My Relations
(page 31)
You may wish to develop a similar list of events for your
area. Consult with a local naturalist to help develop a list
of monthly events. Make a class ‘phenology calendar’ by
filling in the dates when these events occur!
43
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
LARRY WEBER
Teaching with the Seasons
Nature’s daily and seasonal drama provides the textbook for this
grade seven natural science course based on phenology.
majority of the youth we are trying to reach have less
interaction with and awareness of the natural world
than any previous generation. Over my thirty-year
teaching career I have seen a dramatic decline in the
amount of time students spend outdoors exploring
on their own. Pick up an interesting insect, leaf or
seed pod from your schoolyard and chances are that
most of your students — and many of your colleagues
— will be completely unfamiliar with it. “I never saw
that before!” they will exclaim. Ask your students to
name ten animals and most will name animals from
other parts of the world. Given how little many of our
students see or know of the natural world right outside
the window, how can we expect them to care about
by Larry Weber
Those of us involved in environmental education in
the late 20th century face a formidable challenge.
Environmental degradation continues even as we try to
tell the next generation how unwise this is. Preaching
the wrongs of environmental sins does not work. Nor
do environmental scare tactics or blaming the students
for the lifestyle enjoyed by their families. And merely
describing environmental problems and possible
solutions is a boring way to teach and to learn.
Underlying the difficulty of finding ways to foster
concern for the environment is the fact that the
44
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
environmental problems? Is it reasonable to hope that
they will work to protect what they do not see?
Students observe and make notes on some of these
unanticipated finds, as well as on weather and ground
conditions, and the phenology topic of the walk.
While always rewarding, going outdoors weekly is
not without its difficulties. Students do not always
come properly prepared for weather conditions, and
their energy levels outdoors can be very taxing on the
teacher. For these reasons it is important to maintain
a semblance of classroom structure. I have found that
taking students outdoors regularly from the beginning
of the school year helps to establish a routine. And,
as in the indoor classroom, we have a strict code of
conduct involving how we act towards each other and
how we treat organisms that we find. Knowing what to
expect from me and what is expected of them allows us
to build a pleasant working rapport. Most students find
that they enjoy the walks even when the weather may
be undesirable.
I believe that part of our task as environmental
educators is to fill in this gap in students’ education
and awareness, to give students a positive, healthy view
of the planet, starting with the abundance and variety
of nature nearby. For the past 15 years I have been
teaching a Natural Science course to seventh graders
that seeks to do just that. The curriculum I developed is
based on phenology, or as Webster explains, “the study
of natural phenomena that recur periodically, such as
migration or blossoming, and their relation to climate
and changes in season.” The students learn about local
flora and fauna, track the weather, and closely monitor
the progression of the seasons. Through the year, they
develop skills of observation and prediction, experience
the excitement of recognizing trees, wildflowers and
animal tracks, and become attuned to the environment
generally. They come to see that nature is not
“somewhere else” but a dynamic presence in their daily
lives.
Class Procedure
Regular class procedure revolves around the following
five main components of the course:
Design of the Course
Weather: Temperatures and precipitation are recorded
regularly, and each day we plot the high and low
temperatures. Being near Lake Superior, we often
find huge variations in temperature within very short
distances.
The phenology natural science course operates around
three conditions that together make it unique: We do
not use a textbook; we regularly use the outdoors as
a classroom; and we follow the seasons’ phenology
as the curriculum. Instead of using my alloted money
to buy textbooks, I buy classroom sets of reference
books (mostly the Golden Zim guides) which students
use to research the weekly topics of study, to verify
observations and to identify finds. Students bring two
notebooks to class. One stays indoors, while the other
becomes a field journal in which students take copious
notes and make sketches on our outdoor forays.
As a result, we obtain the official weather from a local
weather station, but we also check our instruments. We
compare monthly weather statistics to the norm, and
measure and mark snowfall totals on a “snowboard”
on the wall. For students who are unaccustomed to
noticing or remembering the weather from one day
to the next, this constant weatherwatching fosters an
awareness of the newness of each day, of recurring
patterns, and of links between weather and wildlife.
Recalling the weather during the past week often
enables us to predict what we are likely to find on our
outdoor walks.
We go outdoors on a weekly basis and, with the
exception of two short bus trips, we make use of the
school campus and nearby property for the entire year.
The purpose of the outdoor walks is to find examples
or evidence of the phenology topic we are exploring
that week. However, students are encouraged to
look for other interesting things along the way and
these add an element of spontaneity and excitement.
Months: At the beginning of each month, we list and
discuss what will happen in nature during the coming
month, including the timing of the full moon and other
45
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
astronomical events. We also talk about the names of
the months and try to come up with more meaningful
ones that reflect events in the natural world, such
as The Dark Month (December) or The Crusty Snow
Month (March).
Fall and spring phenology charts: Each year, the
class plots the dates of the last sighting in fall and the
first appearance in the spring of common flora and
fauna. Similar data is kept for weather happenings such
as freezing, thawing, snows, etc. The phenology charts
are extremely valuable in documenting the change of
seasons and the consistency of events from one year to
the next. Kept over a long period time, such charts can
even aid in detecting long-term trends such as global
warming.
LARRY WEBER
Phenology Topics by Month
The following 30 phenology topics are covered during
the course of the school year. Their timing may vary
some years, but this is the desired sequence. Teachers
attempting to use phenology-based methods will
need to become aware of their own local weather and
phenology. This may be challenging, but it is a terrific
learning experience and offers the joy of learning along
with the students.
Students’ discoveries: Students are regularly given
time to share their own findings, either sights (critter
news) or specimens caught and brought to class and
examined. All collected organisms are returned to the
wild within a day of being caught.
Phenology topics: I have developed a sequence of 30
phenology topics, each of which is explored for a week
or two, not more. This means that the current topic is
always pertinent to what is happening in nature at that
time of year.
SEPTEMBER: THE COOLING MONTH
A typical week
Fall migration - raptors: Hawks and other raptors
are the focus of the bird migration in the fall. We visit
Hawk Ridge, about 15 minutes away by bus.
Mushrooms and other fungi: Mushrooms and other
fungi abound nearly every fall near the school, often
on the school lawn. They are easy to find and lead into
good discussions and activities.
Monday: Discussion of present phenology; critter
news, sharing of students’ discoveries; weather news;
introduction to the week’s phenology topic
Tuesday: Discussion of the week’s topic, using
classroom references and other sources as well as 35
mm slides
Fall wildflowers: At this time of year, the meadows
are filled with asters, goldenrods, sunflowers, clovers,
and many other wildflowers. We go among and learn
about these often overlooked plants.
Wednesday: Outdoor walk to look for examples or
evidence of the present phenological topic. Students
take notes and make sketches as we go along.
Deciduous trees: We learn trees by their leaves, fruits
and berries. In our region, deciduous trees spend more
of the year without leaves than with leaves.
Thursday: Go over the findings from the walk and
continue discussion of the topic.
OCTOBER: THE LEAF-DROP MONTH
Insects: During the warm mild days of October, insects
are very common in the meadows. Here we catch,
observe, and release many. We also find galls and leaf
miners.
Friday: Students hand in a written report summarizing
the walk and our findings; students take a quiz on the
topic, often done in cooperative groups.
46
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
The pond in winter: Using ice augers, we drill
through the ice covering the pond and sample the
water beneath, examining it for pond critters. This is a
good time to introduce the use of microscopes.
Spiders: Mild autumn days are excellent for observing
spiders in meadows, lawns, and ballooning in the bare
trees. We catch and release.
The pond in fall: Now before the freezing, a visit to a
nearby pond reveals the diversity of aquatic life. Many
organisms are observed and released.
Conifers: Staying green all winter, the evergreens are
now easy to see. We learn different kinds of conifers
and how they use their leaves and shape to deal with
winter.
Small mammals: With the leaves dropping from trees,
small mammals are getting ready for winter. We look
for signs of nearby residents and live-trap a few.
FEBRUARY: THE DRY MONTH
Humans in winter weather: With a little planning
and understanding of winter conditions, we learn
how to be outside safely. Wind chill, hypothermia,
frostbite, etc. are discussed.
NOVEMBER: THE CLOUDY FREEZE-UP MONTH
Non-flowering plants: Now with the leaves off
trees and before snow, small plants such as mosses,
clubmosses and ferns are easy to see. We learn about
them before they are covered.
Winter wildflowers: Often looking dead and sticklike, the perennial “weeds” persist throughout the
winter. We learn different ones and how they differ in
their methods of seed dispersal.
Animal signs: November is a good time to see nests,
gnawings, caches, droppings, and other indications
of animal presence. This topic can also be done in the
snow.
Animal tracks: In the early light wet snows, many
mammals are active and their stories are left in the
lawns, meadows and woods.
Deciduous trees in winter: The trees are bare,
but can be identified by their shapes, colors and
various twig conditions. We make and use a simple
dichotomous key.
DECEMBER: THE DARK MONTH
MARCH: THE CRUSTY-SNOW MONTH
Large mammals: Introduced to animal signs and tracks
last month, students now take a closer look at large
mammals. We usually do not see many large mammals
but we recognize their signs and tracks.
The sap flow: Quietly, the trees respond to the
warmer and longer days of early March. We tap
sugar maple trees for sap and make syrup enough for
everyone to taste.
Winter birds: With the advent of cold weather and the
snows of December, bird feeders become active. We
observe the birds at the feeders as well as other birds
that winter with us.
Fish and streams in early spring: Streams break
up before ponds and lakes. Several fish are quick to
spawn. We go to a nearby small stream to look for
fish and other stream fauna.
Natural lights: During the darkest week of the year,
in anticipation of the coming solstice, we look more
closely at natural lights around us and discuss the color
of sky, ice, snow, etc.
Early spring things: March is the time of microenvironments. We wander around the school,
searching for the first dandelions, earthworms, flies,
jumping spiders, etc.
Tree flowers: Responding to the longer days, trees
flower early. We see pussy willow and aspen start the
catkin season and several others quick to follow.
JANUARY: THE COLD MONTH
Wildlife in winter weather: In the cold and snow of
January, we take time to look at how wildlife is able to
cope with these conditions and survive.
47
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
diminishing opportunities for interacting with nature.
The phenology-based approach to Natural Science
helps to counter this trend. By putting students in
touch with nature on a daily basis, by familiarizing
them with local flora and fauna, and by teaching and
reinforcing the skills of observation, we can help them
build the foundation of a lifelong appreciation of the
richness of the natural world around them. Only then
can we expect young people to care enough about the
environment to make the effort that will be needed
to save it from the demise that may now appear
inevitable.
APRIL: THE THAWING MONTH
Spring migration - waterbirds: Rivers now hold
many early migrants, the waterbirds. We learn common
waterfowl and visit the St. Louis River to see them, a
twenty minute trip off campus.
Frogs and other amphibians: With the thaw, ponds
are the location of calling and mating frogs. We listen
and look for common species. No egg collecting is
done.
The pond in spring: The water is still cold, but the
spring pond is filled with life. The eggs and larvae of
many organisms are different from the adults we saw
on earlier visits.
Selected Bibliography
Borland, Hal. Sundial of the Seasons. New York, NY: J.B.
Lippincott Co., 1964.
MAY: THE GREENING MONTH
Spring wildflowers: Since the leaves are still not on
the trees, sunlight penetrates to the forest floor. We
seek out and learn many of the ephemeral wildflowers.
—. Book of Days. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976.
—. Twelve Moons of the Year. New York, NY: Alfred A.
Knopf, 1979.
Spring and summer songbirds: Spring migration is at
its peak in May. Warmer weather brings myriad insects,
and the songbirds, many of which nest here, return. We
listen and look for them.
Gilbert, Jim. Jim Gilbert’s Nature Notebook.
Chanhassen, MN: Minnesota Landscape Arboretum,
1979.
—. Through Minnesota’s Seasons with Jim Gilbert.
Chanhassen, MN: Minnesota Landscape Arboretum,
1987.
Lesser-loved critters: As the school year comes to an
end, we go outside more often and are more likely to
come in contact with wood ticks, mosquitoes, black
flies, etc. We learn about these.
Serrao, John. Nature’s Events. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole
Books, 1992.
The phenology-based Natural Science course has been
very successful and has been adapted by colleagues
for use with elementary, middle and secondary classes.
Both students and parents have shared with me how
observant they have become as a result of this class.
They report that family outings are now enriched with
comments about local plants and animals, and most
remark that they never knew so much was so close by.
Teale, Edwin Way. Circle of the Seasons. New York, NY:
Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1987.
—. A Walk Through the Year. New York, NY: Dodd,
Mead, and Co., 1987.
Weber, Larry A. Backyard Almanac. Duluth, MN:
Pfeiffer-Hamilton, 1996.
Wilber, Jerry. Wit and Wisdom of the Great Outdoors.
Duluth, MN: Pfeiffer- Hamilton, 1993.
As we leave the 20th century, we and our students
are living in a world of shrinking natural habitat and
Larry Weber teaches science at The Marshall School in Duluth, Minnesota, and is the author of Backyard Almanac: A
365- day guide to the plants and critters that live in your backyard.
Reprinted with permission from Green Teacher 54: (Winter 1997-1998). One year (4 issue) subscriptions cost $32 for print or $26 for digital form:
Green Teacher, 95 Robert Street, Toronto, ON M5S 2K5, 888-804-1486, www.greenteacher.com.
48
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Mathematics
The PlantWatch program engages students as active participants in the collection and
analysis of scientific data. It provides an opportunity for students to practice using their
observation skills and to make accurate records, as well as to report findings in a scientific
manner. Scientists must be able to portray their information in graphs that are easy for
others to understand. The skills listed below all involve mathematics and are transferrable
to other fields of study.
SKILLS USED IN PLANTWATCH:
measuring temperature
addition
subtraction
division
graphing
calculating averages
linear measurement
data management
latitude and longitude calculations
49
Mathematics
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 1
overview
After being exposed to a certain amount of heat, a spring
wildflower will bloom. The concept of growing degree
summation (GDS) provides a way to add up how much warmth,
or how many heat units, a plant has been exposed to as winter
changes to spring and temperatures increase. Some people refer
to these units as “growing degree-days.” Although growth in
Canada’s wild plants probably begins as soon as temperatures are
above zero, we will use 5°C as a base temperature (the minimum
temperature at which growth starts)4. This temperature is the
standard used in agriculture.
Growing Degree
Summation (GDS)
SKILLS
PREPARATION
Addition, division, graphing, use of Centigrade
temperature scale
Review this activity (Mathematics Activity 1, Growing
Degree Summation, page 51)
MATERIALS
PROCEDURE
daily newspaper with temperature records, if available
1. Calculate the growing degree summation (GDS)
for a spring day. This can be done using temperatures
published in a local newspaper, and some simple
math. Graph average daily temperatures to see how
temperatures fluctuate over a short period of time (i.e.
week, month). See Background Information.
graph paper
calculator (optional)
FOCUS
How much heat does it take for plants to begin to
bloom?
2. Calculate the accumulated GDS for the first bloom of
your observed plants. Use your daily GDS calculations
from #1 above, to determine accumulated GDS.
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS:
See Background Information.
Key Activity 2, Predicting Seasonal Occurrences
(page 11)
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Key Activity 4, Reporting to the Class (page 17)
How to calculate GDS for a spring day
Key Activity 6, Looking Back (page 23)
In your area, determine in which spring month the daily
high temperatures generally start to go above 10°C.
Start your daily calculations on the first of that month.
Science Activity 2, Weather (page 33)
4
Note: The calculation is done using Centigrade degrees.
51
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
If you are observing plants in a city, the daily high
and low temperatures are generally published in daily
newspapers. Use the confirmed temperatures listed for
the previous day.
The daily average temperatures can be graphed as in
the example shown below. Note that on May 9 and
May 21 the average temperature was below zero.
Calculate the accumulated GDS for first bloom of your
observed plant(s):
Determine the daily average (mean) temperature in a
location by adding the daytime high (usually occurs in
day) and the daytime low temperature (occurs at night)
and dividing by 2. Then subtract 5 degrees to determine
the GDS (heat units) for that day. If the weather was
cool and the average temperature was less than 5°C,
then that day had no GDS and does not count in your
GDS calculations. (Do not add a negative GDS in your
calculations; simply count these as zero GDS.)
The accumulated GDS will tell students how much heat
it takes that year for a particular plant to flower.
Example
If there were 70 GDS for the location charted below up
to May 1, and the plant first flowered on the evening of
May 3, what was the total GDS (heat units) needed for
first flowering?
GDS
ANSWER:
Example
High or maximum temperature
15°C
Low or minimum temperature
3°C
Average temperature
15°C + 3°C =
18°C ÷ 2 = 9°C
Degree summation above 5°C
9°C- 5°C =
4 GDS on this date
heat units from days before May 1 (i.e., April):
70
plus GDS above 5°C on May 1:
5
plus GDS above 5°C on May 2:
4
plus GDS above 5°C on May 3:
7
Total GDS:
86
QUESTION: The plant was in full bloom late on May
7th. What was the total GDS needed to reach full
flowering?
Growing degree days for the month of May
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 3. A sample
chart of average daily
temperatures in a
month
20
15
10
5
0
1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
MAY
52
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 2
overview
To get a good idea of this year’s bloom times in your area,
it is best to observe several plants of your selected species.
Bloom times vary between individual plants, and it is most
accurate to report an average or mean of these flowering
dates. In this exercise you can create a Julian calendar and
use the Julian dates to easily average your dates. Report this
average to PlantWatch!
Calculating
Averages
3. Report your calculations when you send PlantWatch
your results! When reporting bloom dates,
students should put the average date of the same
plant species under the Comments section on
the Observation form (e.g., “The average date of
flowering for our five lilacs was May 31.”)
SKILLS
Addition, Division
MATERIALS
Paper/pencils or computer with a spreadsheet program
PREPARATION:
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Review the Background Information for this activity.
Calculate an average flowering date…
FOCUS
1. For plants that all flower during one month
Key Activity 6, Looking Back (page 23)
If the observed plants all flower during one month,
your students can find an average using the days of
the month. For example, supposing there are five
“first flowering” dates in May. The calculation is
done as follows:
Science Activity 2, Weather (page 33)
May (15+16+16+17+19) / 5 = 16.6.
Mathematics Activity 3, Graphing and Mapping
(page 55)
This number is rounded off and May 17 is reported
as the average first flowering date.
What is the average flowering date for your PlantWatch
species?
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
2. Using a Julian calendar
PROCEDURE
1. Calculate an average first flowering date for plants
that all flowered during one month.
To easily calculate the average date of a flowering
stage (for example, first flowering) for plants, the
Julian calendar is often used.
2. Calculate the average date of a flowering stage (for
example, first flowering) for plants, using a Julian
calendar.
Have your students create their own Julian calendar
for this year.
53
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
In the Julian calendar, each day of the year has a
number, starting as follows:
January 1
= Julian day 1
February 1
= day 32
March 1
= day 60
Example: If the class observed five common purple
lilacs in the year 2000 (a leap year), with first
flowering dates of May 28, 30 and 31, and June 2,
then the Julian day calculation would be as follows:
May 28 = Julian day 149
December 31 = day 365
May 30 = Julian day 151
This way of calculating dates is very useful when the
dates to be averaged span two months.
May 31 = Julian day 152
June 2
= Julian day 154
For example, April 29, May 2 and May 3
converted to Julian dates make averaging a simple
mathematical problem. In a leap year (e.g. 2004,
2008, 2012), when we have an extra day, February
29, you need to alter the calendar so that March 1=
day 61, and so on, up to December 31= day 366.
June 2
= Julian day 154
Total of Julian dates: (149 + 151 + 152 + 154 +
154) = 760 divided by 5 days = day 152.
Therefore, May 31 is the average first flowering date
for these five common purple lilac shrubs.
Determine the Julian day for each of your plants’
first flowering date that you recorded. Find the
average of these numbers by adding them together
and dividing by the number of dates added.
Refer back to your Julian calendar to determine the
month and day of this average Julian date.
54
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 3
overview
Graphing
and Mapping
Use your own data or PlantWatch data posted on the
Internet to produce graphs and maps of temperatures and
bloom dates. Interpret graphs of bloom data from Nova
Scotia, Canada and Sucany, Slovakia.
SKILLS
PROCEDURE
• Data management (students find PlantWatch and
weather data on the web, and organize and map
data)
1. Make your own graphs and maps (see page 56)
2. Interpret graphs (see page 57)
3. Read graphs (see page 58)
• Graphing (students interpret provided graphs, or
graphs and maps on the web)
MATERIALS
graph paper or computer, Internet acces
PREPARATION
Review this activity and Mathematics Activity 1.
FOCUS
How to create, read and interpret graphs.
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS:
Key Activity 4, Reporting to the Class (page 17)
Science Activity 2: Weather (page 33)
Mathematics Activity 1: Growing Degree Summation
(page 51)
55
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
MAKE YOUR OWN GRAPHS AND MAPS
Exercise (ii) — Using the archived data from
previous years, map all available data for your
selected plant for your area, making a separate map
for each year. Make a prediction of bloom times for
next spring.
A. Growing degree summation — See Mathematics
Activity 1 (page 51) which includes graphing
average daily temperatures.
B. Flowering dates — For each PlantWatch species
that your students observed create a graph with
calendar date and Julian date (see Mathematics
Activity 2, page 53) on the x axis and plant number
on the y axis. You can graph both first and full
bloom on the same graph by using different
symbols.
The following is an example of how flowering
dates can be graphed from north to south to see
the influence of latitude. This data is from the
PlantWatch program in western Canada, 1996, for
common purple lilac. If many dates were received
for some areas, a mean date was calculated for
graphing. Why do you think these British Columbia
dates are so much earlier? Why might it be that
northern areas (like Edmonton) sometimes have
earlier first bloom than areas farther south (like
Calgary)? (Consider the effects of altitude/weather
patterns.)
C. Temperatures — Chart the daily high and low
temperatures and calculate the mean temperature.
D. Use data on the PlantWatch website —
Have students look up the PlantWatch website
(www.plantwatch.ca). Log on under “Submit
Observations” To download data click on the purple
floppy disk icon on the top right hand side of the
screen. Select a province or territory. The data table
lists location, species name, stage (first or mid
bloom, or leafing), date, notes, etc.
Compare temperature records by seeing the 1971- 2000 Canadian climate normals [www.
climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climate_normals/
index_e.html] for two cities in your province or
territory. (Normals are the average temperatures and
precipitation over a 30 year period)
Have your students do the following exercises:
Exercise (i) — Select a plant species, and a growth
stage (e.g. first, or mid bloom) and using the
location information, plot the most recent year’s
observations as dots on a map.
May 4
9
14
19
24
29
Jun 3
8
13
18
23
28
July 3
Fort Smith, NT
Figure 4. First and full
bloom dates of Common
Purple Lilac (Syringa vulgaris)
for western Canada.
Based on 1996 PlantWatch
data (Feb 4, 1997) University
of Alberta
Grande Praire, AB
first bloom
Smith, AB
full bloom
Flin Flon, MB
Phantom Lake, SK
N
Edmonton, AB
Benalto, AB
S
Saskatoon, SK
Calgary, AB
Lethbridge, AB
Surrey, BC
Sardis, BC
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
Julian Day
56
165
170
175
180
185
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
INTERPRET GRAPHS
demonstrating a small amount of variability in first
bloom dates from the various schools participating in
the survey.
Nova Scotia student phenology reports,
1910-1923 (an Internet activity)
The Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History has posted
a fascinating database of phenology information from
eastern Canada in the first quarter of this century.
Alexander H. MacKay was secretary for the Botanical
Club of Canada, as well as superintendent of Education
for Nova Scotia. He coordinated a phenology survey for
that province from 1891-1927. Students and teachers
recorded the dates when the flowers of many native and
cultivated plants were first seen and becoming common.
Many of the plants that were surveyed in this early Nova
Scotia study are now also used by PlantWatch!
Exercise (ii)
This exercise shows users “first bloom” for key
PlantWatch species.
• Go back to https://thousandeyes.ca/english_en/
graphing.php
• Under “Interspecies plots”, select “Indian pear” as
Subject 1. Select “Dandelion” as Subject 2. Select
“Lunenburg” as the county, and press “Show me”.
• Change the belt to “Coast”. It is important the belt
is listed as “Coast”. The default is “Low Inlands” and
will show a different graph.
Find the website:
https://thousandeyes.ca/english_en/graphing.php for the
following exercises.
Use the graph to answer the following questions.
Exercise (i)
A. Which graphs shows more variability in flowering
time (the difference between the earliest and latest
flowering date recorded) between different years,
Indian pear or dandelion?
• Under “Time series” select Trembling Aspen (Populus
tremuloides). Select the county “Annapolis”. Select the
belt: “Low inlands”. Click “Show me”. Scroll over the
top left hand corner of the graph image. A pop up will
allow you to save or print the image or, right click on
the image and click “Save picture as” and select where
you would like to save the image to your computer.
ANSWER: The Julian Day of first flowering for Indian
pear ranges from Julian Day 121 in 1901 to 144
in 1917 (23 days difference), whereas dandelion
ranges from 108 in 1914 to 135 in 1923, (27 days
difference). Therefore, the dandelion shows more
variability in flowering time between years than the
wild pear.
- Change the subject to Common purple lilac (Syringa
vulgaris). Follow the instructions to save or print the
image.
B. Which of these 2 species blooms earliest?
(ANSWER; dandelion) Is the trend similar between
years for the 2 species? (ANSWER; yes, their lines
follow each other).
- Repeat for Indian Pear (Amelanchier spp.), which is
the Nova Scotia name for saskatoon or serviceberry.
• Use the graphs to answer the following question:
Which graphs show more variability in flowering time
reported within a single year (ie which shows the most
large blue bars)?
ANSWER: Trembling aspen has the least years of data,
and the largest bars (most variability between minimum
and maximum flowering dates reported that year).
In some cases the error bars are small because there
is only one site for that date. Lilac dates have short
and large error bars. Indian pear has very short bars
57
For which year is the trend very different between
these 2 species? (ANSWER; from 1916 to 1917,
dandelion bloom earlier in 1917, but Indian pear
later) Knowing that plants bloom in response to
how warm the weather is, what weather event
might have happened in 1917, after dandelion
bloomed and before Indian pear bloomed?
(ANSWER; snowstorm or cold snap)
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
READING A GRAPH
Lilac flowering dates in Slovakia
30.5.
35
20.5.
30
10.5.
25
30.4.
20
20.4.
15
10.4.
10
31.3.
20
25
30
Lilac
35
40
45
50
55
Year
Sum of mean March and April air temperature
60
65
70
75
80
T [ºC]
Figure 5. Courses
and trends of the air
temperature at Bystri ka
and the beginning of
flowering of Lilac (Syringa
vulgaris) at Su any in
Slovak Republic.
Date
Flowering in shrubs and trees occurs in response to the air temperatures at the height of their branches. Many
countries in Europe have a long history of recording the timing of plant development, with several centuries of data.
The following graph of lilac flowering times and temperature was kindly provided by Dr. Olga Braslavska, former
phenologist for the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. (In Canada, we have several phenology data sets going back
to the 1890s.)
5
85
Polynomial trendlines of 2nd order
Explanation of the Graph
Questions to ask students:
• The x axis (horizontal axis at bottom) shows the years
from 1920 to 1985.
1. What were the two earliest flowering years?
• The y axis (vertical line on left of graph) shows the
flowering date for common purple lilac (note that
20.4 means the 20th day of the 4th month = April
20th, and 10.5 means May 10th).
3. In these years were the temperatures unusually low
or high?
2. What was the latest flowering year?
4. How much variation is there between the earliest
flowering date and the latest, on this graph?
• The y axis on the right shows the temperature, in
degrees Centigrade.
5. How much does the temperature vary? (Notice that
there are fewer years of temperature data.)
• The dotted line shows the annual date when first
flowering occurred for common purple lilac in the
town of Su any in Slovakia.
6. Does there appear to be a trend over time in the
flowering data?
7. Is flowering getting earlier or later? Why might this
change be occurring?
• The solid line shows the temperature in degrees
Centigrade, calculated as the sum of the mean March
and April temperatures.
NOTE: If answers are not to appear on student handouts, please cover Answer area before photocopying.
Answers:
1. 1934 and 1961 are the two earliest
flowering years.
2. 1954 is the latest flowering year.
3. Warmer temperatures match earlier
flowering dates.
4. About 34 days.
5. The spring temperature (sum of the mean air
temperatures for March and April) varies by
about 13°C.
6. There is a slight trend to earlier bloom since the
1950s. A temperature trend is not so evident.
58
7. Flowering of lilac in Su any is getting earlier.
This change is most likely due to an increase
over time in the air temperature before
flowering. There is also a global trend to
higher temperatures.
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 4
overview
In order to use your students’ flowering dates, PlantWatch research
scientists need to know the location of all the PlantWatch plants in
latitude and longitude. If all the plants are within 100 m and 50 m
elevation of one another, one location can be reported for all your
students’ observations. Using a GPS (Global Positioning System)
instrument to determine the location of the plants is a quick method
of getting a location.
The following introductory exercise will help your students use a
map to determine the precise location of their plants and convert
their location in degrees and minutes to decimal form, the form most
useful to PlantWatch scientists. This straightforward exercise, which
takes 15-30 minutes to complete, is an excellent way to introduce the
concepts of latitude and longitude to your students.
Latitude and
Longitude: How
to Calgulate our
Global Address
Access to a website where students can double
check their locations. (See ‘To Check Calculations’
in this activity for more details).
PREPARATION
Review this activity.
The latitude of point * is A degrees
North. The longitude is B degrees West.
Order maps if necessary.
FOCUS
What is the global address of your observed plants?
SKILLS
Addition, division, using decimals, finding points on a
map using grid co-ordinates, identifiying latitude and
longitude
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS
MATERIALS
Key Activity 4, Reporting to the Class (page 17)
Photocopies of the figure and tables from this activity
for your class.
Key Activity 6, Looking Back (page 23)
Key Activity 3, Locating and Tagging the Plants
(page 13)
Mathematics Activity 3, Graphing and Mapping
(page 55)
Detailed map of your PlantWatch area with both
latitude and longitude and degrees and minutes (see
‘Finding the Latitude and Longitude of a Particular
Place’ in this activity for more details on maps and
where to get them).
Social Studies Activity 1, Geography and People
(page 69)
59
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
surface of earth, one degree of latitude is about 110
kilometers (68 miles). However, because the earth is not
quite a perfect sphere, the distances get slightly greater
toward the poles, where there is a slight flattening.
PROCEDURE
1. Find the Latitude and Longitude of a particular
place.
2. Using the figure and instructions in this activity, have
your students complete the latitude and longitude
exercise.
LONGITUDE
Longitude lines
run north and
south along the
surface of the
earth. The earth
is divided into
two parts, or
hemispheres, of
east and west
longitude. Each
hemisphere has
180 degrees.
The Universal standard is to start counting longitude
east and west from an imaginary line running through
Greenwich (pronounced “gren-itch”), a suburb of
London, which is assigned a longitude of 0 degrees.
Mapmakers think of the earth as a huge globe that is
divided into 360 equal slices (180 west and 180 east of
Greenwich). The lines of longitude between the slices
on the outside of the globe are called meridians.
3. Check Calculations.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
What is Latitude and Longitude?
A simple activity, using an orange to represent the
Earth, is available at Orange Globe <http://octopus.
gma.org/space1/orange.html>. In the same way that a
street and an avenue specify a particular intersection in
a city or town, latitude and longitude can be used as
grid coordinates to locate any point on Earth. By using
degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude, your
students can describe the location of their plants within
about 1.5 kilometres, or about 1 mile.
LATITUDE
Latitude is the
distance north
or south of the
equator. Latitude
lines run east and
west along the
surface of the earth.
So, meridians are the main lines of longitude on maps.
North, South and Central America have longitudes
described as west of Greenwich, whereas most of
Europe, Russia, India and China are east of Greenwich.
The space between two meridians is greatest at the
equator — about 110 kilometers (68 miles). This space
narrows as the meridians approach the North and
South poles. For example, a degree of longitude at New
Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., is about 97 kilometers (60
miles) wide, whereas at Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada,
which lies nearer the North Pole, a degree of longitude
is less than 72 kilometers (45 miles) wide.
The latitude
of a location is
expressed as a
degree of the angle
(A) formed at the
centre of the earth
by two lines, one drawn from the equator to the earth’s
centre, and the other drawn from the location to the
earth’s centre. Thus any point on the equator has a
latitude of 0°, and the Poles are at 90 degrees north
and south. Each degree of latitude (also longitude) is
divided into 60 equal parts called minutes, and each
minute can be further divided into 60 seconds. On the
Finding the Latitude and Longitude of a Particular
Place
To complete this part of the exercise, your students will
need to obtain a detailed map that has latitude and
60
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
N
longitude in both degrees and minutes. On a
small-scale map (like those found in many atlases,
where the scale may be 1:1,000,000), which
covers a large area of the Northern Hemisphere,
too much detail is lost to provide enough
accuracy for this work. 1:50,000 maps are
available from provincial or federal map offices
and private map retailers. See Appendix 3 for the
website to locate these offices and businesses.
Most universities also maintain an extensive map
library.
1. Have your students see what is already
marked on their maps:
W
E
S
114˚ 00
55
50
45
GE D
40
53˚ 30
113˚ 35
53˚ 30
25
25
F
C
B
F
C
B
A
*
20
20
53˚ 15
53˚ 15
114˚ 00
• On many maps you will find the latitude
and longitude in the margin at each corner (see
below).
55
50
45
GE D
40
113˚ 35
across your map – if not, have your students put
a straight edge across the map and lightly pencil
straight lines between the matching border marks
(see dotted line within figure on page 62).
• These grid coordinates are marked in degrees (°),
minutes ('), and seconds ("). For instance, a corner
may be marked 115° 30' 30" and 51° 15' 00"
• Please remember that
1 degree = 60 minutes
• The figures at the top of the map corner represent
longitude (115° 30' 30").
1 minute = 60 seconds
2. Photocopy the following three pages
for students. Then, using the figure and
instructions on the following pages, have your
students complete the latitude and longitude
exercise.
• The figures below the longitude give the latitude
(51°15' 00")
• If you have a 1:50,000 scale map, your students
will probably find points along the border marked
in minutes, as illustrated here.
In the right hand column of the instructions page
have your students input the measurements from
their own maps. Using a 1:50,000 scale map is
recommended – on a map of this scale, students will
be able to locate their plants precisely.
• The border of the map may look like the map
shown below.
• Latitude and longitude lines might not exist
61
62
114˚ 00
53˚ 15
20
F
C
B
25
53˚ 30
114˚ 00
55
55
50
50
45
45
GE D
*
A
GE D
40
40
W
S
N
E
113˚ 35
53˚ 15
20
F
C
B
25
53˚ 30
113˚ 35
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
Note; This exercise looks scary, but it’s really easy!
IDENTIFYING LATITUDE FOR NORTHERN AND WESTERN HEMISPHERES
EXAMPLE
INPUT YOUR VALUES
HERE
Locate your plant’s position on your map and mark it with an
asterisk (* — point A on the example map). Draw a horizontal
line through this point, parallel to the nearest line of latitude
(line C C' on the example map).
Point A
Line C C'
Find the nearest latitude point above (north) or below (south)
of point C (= point B on the example map)
Point B
Join B to the same latitude point on the other side of the
map (line B-B' on the example map) by drawing a straight line
between. On a large map, use a metre stick or a straight edge.
Read the latitude of this line in degrees and minutes and note
it in the box to the right. Note: (N) means latitude north of the
equator. Please remember to tell us if you are North or South
of the equator by specifying N or S (all North America is N).
Line B’–B is
53° 21' N
_______° ______'N
Convert the latitude in degrees and minutes to decimal form
(see next page). Put the exact latitude of POINT A in decimal
form to the nearest minute in the box to the right.
53° 21'= 53 + 21/60
= 53 + 0.35
= 53.35
_______°
IDENTIFYING LONGITUDE FOR NORTHERN AND WESTERN HEMISPHERES
EXAMPLE
INPUT YOUR VALUES
HERE
Find your plant’s position on the map and mark it with an
asterisk (* — point A on the example map). Draw a vertical
line through A and parallel to the nearest line of longitude
(line E E' on the example map).
Point A
Line E E'
Find the nearest longitude point to the right (east) or to the
left (west) of your line (E-E' on the example map). On this
map, G or D at the bottom of the map are equally close so we
select D.
Point D
Join D to the same longitude point D' on the other side of the
map. Read this longitude in degrees and minutes and note it
in the box to the right. Please remember to tell us if you are in
the Western or Eastern hemisphere by specifying W or E (all
North America is W).
Line D'-D is
113° 41' W
_______°
______'W
Convert the longitude in degrees and minutes to decimal
form (see next page). Put the exact longitude of POINT A, in
decimal form, in the box to the right.
113° 41' = 113 + 41/60
= 113 + 0.6833
= 113.68°
_______°
63
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
TO CONVERT DEGREES AND MINUTES TO THE DECIMAL FORM
PlantWatch can most easily use your latitude and longitude if it is in decimal form (to at least two decimal places). To
obtain a decimal version of degrees and minutes, you have to convert the minutes, which are normally expressed as
a fraction of one degree, into a decimal, and add this figure to the number of degrees. In one degree there are 60
minutes.
Example (using latitude only):
1. Start with degrees and minutes
53° 21'
2. Divide the minutes by 60
21 / 60 = 0.35
3. Add decimal minutes to degrees
53 + 0.35 = 53.35 degrees N latitude
Example
The University of Alberta Devonian Botanic Garden is located about 30 km southwest of the city of Edmonton,
Alberta, Canada at 53° 21' N latitude.
LATITUDE
1. Start with
2. Convert to decimal form
53 degrees
21 minutes
= 21 minutes ÷ 60 minutes
N latitude
=
53.00 degrees
+
0.35 degrees
=
53.35 degrees N latitude
Now, lets do the same for your location
LATITUDE
1. Start with
2. Convert to decimal form
degrees
minutes
=
minutes ÷ 60 minutes
*
latitude
=
degrees
+
degrees
=
degrees
=
degrees
+
degrees
=
degrees
latitude
LONGITUDE
1. Start with
2. Convert to decimal form
degrees
minutes
=
minutes ÷ 60 minutes
**
longitude
*
longitude
Please specify, for the latitude: N, if the location is north of the Equator (Canada); S, if the location is south of the Equator.
Please specify, for the longitude: E, if the location is within 180° east of Greenwich; W, if the location is within 180° west of Greenwich
(Canada).
**
64
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
3. To Check Calculations
USING A GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
There are many references and websites where
students may be able to find their locations. If
possible find the locations using degrees, minutes
and seconds, or decimal degrees with 2-4 decimal
places.
A description of GPS and how they work can
be found at www.ec.gc.ca/geocache/default.
asp?lang=en&n=1BC7DC7B. This is an excellent site on
Geocaching which invites schools to participate. High
schools throughout Canada are encouraged to research
their watershed and develop reports or stories to
build geocaches. The students then hide these for the
“geocacher" community to discover – passing along
their knowledge for others to find.
Try some of the following websites to check your
students’ calculations.
• Google Earth: http://earth.google.com/
• Lat/long look up tool in PlantWatch “submit
observations page” (see instructions in Key
Activity 5)
• Query Canadian Geographical Names — search
tool provided by Natural Resources Canada to
identify lat/longs for Canadian towns and cities
http://geonames.nrcan.gc.ca/index_e.php
When you get the results of the search, click on
“info” to see more information including latitude
and longitude.
CONGRATULATIONS!
Students now can send PlantWatch research scientists their plant locations. They can use the location form
(see ‘register a new location’ once logged in) on the webpage www.plantwatch.ca.
65
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
Notes
66
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Social Studies
TOPICS AND IDEAS:
Geography and People
People in History
Kids Can Make a Difference
67
Social Studies
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 1
Geography and People
• Interpret the geographical features which could affect
the flowering dates. For example, mountains and
higher altitudes are cooler and, thus, flowering is
later in these areas. Large lakes warm slowly in spring
and keep local areas cool, leading to later flowering.
Large towns produce a “heat island” effect: the sun’s
heat absorbed by roofs, asphalt roads and concrete
sidewalks and the furnace heat or air conditioning
exhaust from buildings, produce an environment
warmer than the surrounding countryside.
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS:
Key Activity 4, Reporting your Data (page 19)
Mathematics Activity 4, Latitude and Longitude
(page 59)
CONCEPTS AND SKILLS DEVELOPED
THROUGH PLANTWATCH:
• Use latitude and longitude to calculate the Global
Address of your community (see Mathematics Activity
4, Latitude and Longitude: How to Calculate Your
Global Address, Connections - Math, page 59).
For interesting maps of phenology data, see www.
naturescalendar.org.uk/map/ from the ‘Nature’s
Calendar’ program in Britain.
• Select a native plant from the PlantWatch species,
and list all the provinces/states where it is found,
using the plant distribution maps found by entering
the plant’s latin name at this website: http://plants.
usda.gov
Also see www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/phenology.html;
under “other sources” click “map of the first leaf
date”, to see a map of modelled first leaf timing for
common purple lilac across North America.
• From which areas in Canada has flowering been
reported? Log on to www.plantwatch.ca under
“Submit Observations” and download data by
clicking on the purple floppy disk icon on the top
right hand side of the screen.)
Journey North is a student program in North America
that tracks blooming time of tulips, leaf out on trees,
etc. Learn more about their phenology program and see
click on maps at www.learner.org/jnorth/pde/News.html
• Locate other PlantWatch sites for your chosen plant
species on a large map.
• Make an outline map for the above use. Make an
overhead transparency of the map of your students’
choice. Project the map onto a large sheet of paper.
Have the students trace the outline of the map and
any other desired features onto the paper.
69
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 2
People in History
Have students research plants that were or are
important to the First Nations People.
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS:
Key Activity 3, Locating and Tagging the Plants
(page 13)
2. Early settlers made use of native plants. Many
settlers became “root and herb doctors” who used
First Nations Peoples’ remedies to cure ailments.
They wrote out their medicine mixes in recipe
books and passed them on to their children and
grandchildren. Settlers also used many native plants
as food sources, such as saskatoon berries. The
berries were collected and made into jams, pies, and
other foods, or were eaten straight from the bushes.
Labrador tea leaves were brewed into a relaxing
beverage. In the east, early boat builders used the
wood from Larch trees to make the keel, as it was
strong and resisted rot. Early settlers introduced
dandelion as a spring vegetable, and protected
the plants from hares and ground squirrels with
chicken wire. In Ontario, some settlers showed local
First Nations People how to make a tasty ‘coffee’
beverage from dandelion roots.
Science Activity 1, Plants and Ecology: All my Relations
(page 31)
Science Activity 4, Forests: Discussion and Investigation
(page 41)
CONCEPTS AND SKILLS DEVELOPED
THROUGH PLANTWATCH:
1. First Nations People made extensive use of native
plants. Plants supplied these people with food, fuel,
fiber, clothing, shelter, utensils, transportation and
medicine. First Nations People knew a lot about the
plants in their environment. They knew which plants
were safe to eat and which were toxic, what part of
a plant could be used as medicine, and what part
could be used as food. They crushed plant parts
and made dyes to decorate personal articles. Seeds
were sewn onto clothes or made into necklaces,
and perfumes and oils were made from plants. They
used all the edible fruits, and cloudberries were said
to be the ‘best fruit’ of all! In the north, white dryad
was used to recognize the correct time for hunting
expeditions: when the seeds started to untwist, it
was time to get caribou skins for summer clothing.
3. Native plants are still used today by many people.
Saskatoon berries are used in a variety of recipes
and wild strawberries continue to be popular
across Canada. The wood from poplar trees is now
being used by forestry companies to make pulp,
waferboard and chopsticks.
70
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 3
Kids Can Make a Difference
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS:
• Information on what the Canadian government
is doing to regulate and reduce emissions can be
found on the website www.ecoaction.gc.ca/indexeng.cfm. Information on what students can do
to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and combat
global warming are available from the Environment
Canada website www.ec.gc.ca/education/default.
asp?lang=En&n=050049D2-1
Science Activity 3, Reading About Climate Change
(page 35)
CONCEPTS AND SKILLS DEVELOPED
THROUGH PLANTWATCH:
• If you are using the PlantWatch program in
conjunction with a study of Climate Change (see
Science Activity 3, Reading About Climate Change,
Connections - Science, page 35), provide students
with information about government policies that will
help control the level of emissions of the greenhouse
gases that are contributing to climate change.
Have students discuss what they can do at their
homes and schools to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions.
There are many websites available to teachers
to address the subject of climate change. (see
Science Activity 3, Reading About Climate Change,
Connections - Science, page 35 for a list of websites)
• Scientists agree that even if all greenhouse gas
emissions were greatly reduced, some additional
degree of climate change is unavoidable. We will all
need to adapt to these changes.
Describe the concept of adaptation to climate change
to students. Ask students what kinds of adaptation
might be necessary where they live. Ask students
what kinds of adaptation might be necessary for
communities in the Far North or in tropical areas.
Discuss possible positive and negative impacts in
those areas.
The adaptation 101 section of this website has some
useful background. www.adaptation.nrcan.gc.ca/101/
index_e.php
71
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
Notes
72
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Language Arts
TOPICS AND IDEAS:
Descriptions
Celebrating Spring
73
Language Arts
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 1
Descriptions
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS:
Key Activity 3, Locating and Tagging the Plants
(page 13)
Key Activity 4, Reporting to the Class (page 17)
Science Activity 1, Plants and Ecology: All My Relations
(page 31)
Science Activity 2, Weather (page 33)
Mathematics Activity 3, Graphing and Mapping
(page 55)
Social Studies Activity 2, People in History (page 70)
CONCEPTS AND SKILLS DEVELOPED
THROUGH PLANTWATCH:
While engaged in the PlantWatch program, you could
have students:
• Write poetry about the plant or flower they are
observing, or about its environment.
• Research information about uses of native plants by
First Nations peoples, and write a paragraph or essay
on the topic.
• Write exact descriptions of the habitats of their plants
in order to help research scientists understand local
growing conditions.
• Create, read and interpret non-prose forms of
communicating information (e.g. graphs, maps, charts)
related to PlantWatch data. (For example, students
could write paragraphs to explain the information
contained on a graph.)
• Report orally to other classes the purpose and results of
their PlantWatch project.
• Write an account of the weather just prior to and
during flowering. Both exact and figurative language
could be encouraged.
Read the native legend of the prairie crocus “How the
Prairie Anemone got its Fur Coat” (located on the web
page <http://plantwatch.fanweb.ca/plant-information/
• Suggestion: Find sketches of your chosen plant in field
prairie-crocus/prairie-crocus-information#a-blackfootguides or on the web, to provide ideas for covers for
legend>). According to this legend the furry coat was
student observations/projects.
given to the flower to protect it on chilly spring nights.
• Use the following field observation sheet to record
The Blackfoot First Nations word "Napi," the "old man"
information on each plant, for each visit to the plants.
central to the Blackfoot creation story, also refers to the
The form is only a model; you may wish to use only the
grayish seed heads of prairie crocus, which appear in early
column headings and expand the space provided for
summer.
sketches, for example.
The class could also read other legends, and students
could then write their own legends to
NUMBER
GROWTH
FLOWER/
PLANT SPECIES
explain natural phenomena.
LEAVES
OTHER COMMENTS
OR
STAGE
LEAF SKETCHES
NAME
Saskatoon
#4
75
FLOWERS
Buds now have
some white
showing
Just starting to
unfurl
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
Plantwatch Observation Sheet
Date:
Observer's Name:
Location:
Description of Habitat:
PLANT SPECIES
NUMBER
OR
NAME
GROWTH
STAGE
FLOWERS
LEAVES
76
FLOWER/
LEAF SKETCHES
OTHER COMMENTS
Connections and
Activity Suggestions
Activity 2
Celebrating Spring
Science Activity 5, Developing a Phenology Calendar
(page 43)
Provide students with an opportunity to immerse
themselves in a natural environment and observe the
sights, sounds and smells around them. Ask them
to describe the land, the air, the water and the sun.
Encourage them to pay close attention to the colours
and shapes of plants. Give them quiet time to reflect
and record their observations, thoughts and feelings in
a personal journal.
CONCEPTS AND SKILLS DEVELOPED
THROUGH PLANTWATCH:
Encourage students to create their own poems, songs,
photographs or artwork based on the signs of spring
that they have observed in their natural environment.
SUGGESTED CONNECTIONS:
Key Activity 1, Signs of Spring (page 9)
Key Activity 2, Predicting Seasonal Occurrences
(page 11)
Science Activity 2, Weather (page 33)
Encourage them to create their own word combinations
(like e.e. Cummings’ “mudluscious”) or express their
feelings about signs of spring (like Langston Hughes’
“I love the rain.”) Invite a class of younger students to
participate in a Celebration of Spring, by having your
students accompany them on a “spring flower” nature
walk and share with the younger students the poems,
songs and artwork created by your students.
Engage the students with a recording of “Spring
on the Prairies” from Connie Kaldor’s Wood River
album. Read aloud the poems “In Just- Spring” by e.e.
Cummings and “April Rain Song” by Langston Hughes.
Invite your students to help create a Celebration of
Spring that recognizes and incorporates images and
experiences from their local environment. Introduce
them to seasonal celebrations of various cultures by
encouraging them to research their own, or others’
cultural traditions.
Share other examples of music, poetry, photography,
and painting that celebrate the arrival of spring.
77
CONNECTIONS AND ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS
Notes
78
www.PlantWatch.ca
Appendices
79
www.PlantWatch.ca
Appendices
Appendix 1
PlantWatch Species
Latin name
Common name
Populus tremuloides
Aspen Poplar
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Bearberry
Galium boreale
Bedstraw, northern
Betula papyrifera/neoalaskana
Birch, paper
Houstonia caerulea
Bluets
Cornus canadensis
Bunchberry
Ranunculus glaberrimus
Buttercup, sagebrush
Prunus virginiana
Choke cherry
Clintonia borealis
Clintonia, blue-bead lily
Rubus chamaemorus
Cloudberry, bakeapple
Tussilago farfara
Coltsfoot
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Cranberry (partridge berry,
lingonberry)
Taraxacum officinale
Dandelion
Forsythia suspensa
Forsythia, weeping
Thermopsis rhombifolia
Golden bean
Ledum/Rhododendron
groenlandicum/decumbens
Labrador Tea
Syringa vulgaris
Lilac, Common Purple
Lupinus arcticus
Lupine, arctic
Acer rubrum
Maple, red
Epigaea repens
Mayflower
Pinus contorta
Pine, lodgepole
Anemone patens
Prairie Crocus
Clintonia uniflora
Queen’s cup
Rhododendron canadense
Rhodora
NL
NS
PEI
81
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
YK
NWT NU
APPENDICES
Latin name
Common name
Amelanchier
Saskatoon, serviceberry
Saxifaga tricuspidata
Saxifrage, prickly
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Saxifrage, purple
Maianthemum stellatum
Solomon’s seal, starflowered
Trientalis borealis
Star-flower
Fragaria virginiana/vesca
Strawberry, wild
Myrica gale
Sweetgale
Larix Iaricina
Tamarack/Larch
Trillium grandiflorum
Trillium, white
Linnaea borealis
Twinflower
Viola adunca
Violet, early blue
Nymphaea odorata
Water lily
Dryas integrifolia/octopetala
White Dryad, Mountain
avens
Elaeagnus commutata
Wolf willow
Achillea millefolium
Yarrow
NL
NS
82
PEI
NB
QC
ON
MB
SK
AB
BC
YK
NWT NU
Appendices
Appendix 2
Glossary
Adaptation (to climate change) – Adaptation
to climate change is any activity that reduces the
negative impacts of climate change and/or takes
advantage of new opportunities that may be
presented
Catkin – A highly condensed cluster of
(usually) unisexual flowers that lack
petals
Circumpolar – A large region around
either the North or South Pole; can refer
to a plant that is distributed around the globe in
northern regions
Alpine – High mountain regions, above the tree line
Alternate – Arrangement of leaves in
which successive leaves arise at
different levels on opposite sides of
the stem (see also: “Opposite”)
Clone – A stand or group of plants of one type (all have
identical genetic material)
Cluster – A tightly packed group of flowers
Ament – See “Catkin”
Colony – A group of plants that all have the same
genetic material
Anther – The pollen-producing structures, borne at the
tip of a filament in male flower parts (stamens) (See
flower diagram on page 87.)
Beaked – Ending in a prolonged tip that resembles a
beak
Conifer – Belonging to the order Coniferales, these
plants are mostly evergreen with cones and narrow,
pointed, often needle-like leaves. Pine, larch, spruce,
fir and cedar are all conifers. Larch is the only one
which is not evergreen; it sheds its needles annually.
Blade – The whole green leaf, without the petiole or
leaf stalk
Creeping – Growing along or near the surface of the
ground
Boreal Forest – The mainly coniferous or evergreen
forest that covers much of Canada’s northern regions
Cross-pollination – The process by which pollen
is carried from the stamens of one plant to the
stigmatic surface of another plant (compare with Selffertilization)
Basal – Located at the base of a plant or plant organ
Bract – A small leaf beneath a flower or
another plant organ
Crown Division – Propagation technique where the
base of a plant is divided into sections
Bud Scale – A small, modified leaf that
covers the bud
Cultivar – A uniform group of cultivated plants
obtained by breeding or selection, and propagated as
a pure line
Capsule – A dry fruit that
releases seed through
slits or pores
Day Neutral – When a plant’s seasonal changes do
not depend on how many hours of sunlight the plant
receives
Carpel – The leaf-like organ of a flower that encloses
one or more ovules (see “Pistil”)
83
APPENDICES
Deciduous – Falling off at the end of the growing season
Dormancy – Lack of plant growth during unfavourable
environmental conditions
Genetic Mutations – Changes in the hereditary
information carried by an organism
Genetic Variation – The genetic differences between
individuals of the same species
Dormant – For cells, buds, seeds, etc., the period before
growth begins
Germination – The first stage in the growth of a seed
into a seedling
Ecology – The science of the interrelationship of
organisms and their environment
Glandular – A plant organ (e.g. leaf, stem) that possess
specialized cells that secrete chemical substances
Elaiosome – Oily appendage of a seed (can be an “antsnack”)
Graft(ed) – The joining of two separate plant parts,
like root and stem, or a branch from one plant to a
branch from another, so that they can regenerate and
grow as one plant
Ethnobotany – The study of the relationships between
plants and people
Evergreen – Plants whose leaves remain green
throughout the winter
Growing Degree Summation (GDS) – A way to
measure the warmth to which a plant has been
exposed. The GDS is calculated by summing average
daily temperatures for a given time period.
Female Tree – Trees that produce only female flowers
(these flowers are imperfect since they have one sex
only; pistillate)
Filament – The stalk on which anthers are borne; anthers
plus filament forms a stamen, the male part of a flower
(See flower diagram on page 87.)
Habitat – The natural home of an organism
Hair – Hair-like structures, also known as trichomes,
that are attached to many plant parts
Hardwood Cuttings – Cuttings taken from older
woody tissues of hardwood trees, used for plant
propagation. Cuttings are usually taken in the winter
from dormant plant parts (see “Dormant”).
Fire-successional – Plants that are adapted to the
environments present after wildfire
Floret – Individual flower in a cluster
Flower Bud – Undeveloped flower
Flower Stem – The stalk by which a flower is attached to
the rest of the plant (also called a peduncle)
Flowering Sac – See “Pollen Sac”
Foliage – Leaves
Forb – A term used in botany to refer to plants – many
wildflowers, for example – that do not fit into other
classes like trees, shrubs or grasses. Generally, a forb is
a broad-leaved, non-woody plant that dies back to the
ground at the end of every growing season.
Hardy – Plants adapted to cold or otherwise adverse
conditions
Heat Unit – Temperature affects the rate of plant
growth. The amount of accumulated temperature
a plant has been exposed to in spring time can
be measured in heat units. It is measured through
growing degree summation.
Hermaphroditic – Plants that have flowers with male
and female parts (see “Perfect Flowers”)
Horticulture – The science of garden cultivation
Fungi – A group of non-photosynthetic organisms with
chitinous walls that feed on organic matter (includes
mushrooms)
Hybrid Vigour – The condition of a hybrid that is fitter
than either of its parents
Hybridize – The process by which two plants with
different genetic material produce offspring
Fungal Partners – Many plants have an important
underground relationship with fungi; these organisms
are known as fungal partners (symbionts)
Hydratode – Pore in the surface of a leaf through
which minerals are extruded
84
APPENDICES
Ovary – Part of the female flower parts, located at the
base of the pistil and containing ovules which can
become seeds (See flower diagram on page 87.)
Indicator Plant – In phenology studies, a plant useful
as a “biological measuring stick,” i.e. its growth
occurs in response to a combination of weather and
environmental factors, and certain growth phases are
easily defined and recognized
Ovule – Structure within the ovary containing an egg
cell
ITEX – International Tundra Experiment
Parkland – In the Canadian Prairie Provinces, Parkland
is a transitional natural region between the prairies to
the south and the boreal forest to the north. Patches
of open meadows alternate with forest of largely
poplar trees, with spruce trees on cool, north-facing
slopes.
Julian Calendar – Calendar that marks the days from
January 1st onwards; i.e. January 30 = day 30 and
February 28 = day 59
Leaf Pore – Small opening on the leaf surface
Lenticel – Small dot or spot on the bark of a young
twig that allows gas exchange between the stem and
the atmosphere
Perennial – Plants which grow and reproduce for
many years, from the same roots. Perennial plants are
usually woody.
Life Cycle -The entire sequence of phases in the
growth and development of any organism from birth
to reproduction, maturity and death
Perfect Flowers – Flowers with male and female
reproductive organs
Petals – Modified leaves, usually the conspicuous,
brightly coloured structures above the sepals in a
flower (See flower diagram on page 87.)
Loam – Soil that has about equal proportions of sand,
silt and clay
Male Tree – Trees that bear only male flowers
Petiole – Stalk of a leaf
Matted – Plants that grow in a very dense and flat
cluster, or mat
Phenology – Study of the seasonal timing of life cycle
events, i.e. growth stages or changes in plants and
animals
Microclimate – The climate of a small or limited space,
e.g. the surface of the soil, or under the canopy of a
small patch of forest.
Photoperiod – the number of hours of light that a
plant receives in a day.
Native plant – A plant that occurred in a particular
area before the arrival of European settlers in North
America (i.e. not introduced by settlers)
Photosynthetic – An organism that uses light energy
to produce food
Photosynthesis – The process by which plants, algae
and some bacteria convert light energy into the
chemical energy stored in sugars
Nectar – A sugary liquid secreted by a flower’s nectaries
Node – The point on a stem from which a leaf grows;
nodes are spaced along stems with internodes
between them
Phyllody – Process in which petals and sepals
revert to leaves
Nodules (of a root) – Swollen areas of the root that
contain a bacterial symbiont
Pistil – A collective term for all the female
flower parts: stigma, style and ovary (See
flower diagram on page 87.)
Open Pollination – Pollination in which the source of
pollen is unknown
Pollen – Powdery contents of the anthers; a single
pollen grain produces a pollen tube and sperm, and
fertilizes ovules contained in a plant’s ovary
Opposite – Arrangement of leaves in
which each pair is at right angles to
the pair above and below (see also
“Alternate)
85
APPENDICES
Pollen Sac – The pollen-containing sac of the anthers
Stigma – The receptive area of the pistil (top of the
female flower part) where pollen lands or is deposited
(See flower diagram on page 87.)
Pollination – Process by which pollen is transferred
from the male parts (stamen) to the female parts
(stigma) of a flower
Stratification – Process in which seed is placed in
moist, cool soil to break dormancy
Polyploid – An organism with three or more sets of
chromosomes
Stratification Period – The amount of time required to
break seed dormancy and start germination
Ramets – A large number of clonal shoots
Style – Central, tube-like region of the female flower
parts (See flower diagram on page 87.)
Respiration – Physiological process in plants and
animals in which oxygen is consumed in the final step
of metabolizing sugars
Subalpine – Area in the higher mountain slopes just
below the tree line and the alpine region
Rhizome – A stem which grows horizontally in the soil,
bearing buds from which shoots grow
Rootstock – Plant roots onto which shoots are grafted,
in propagation
Succession – The process of development of vegetation
involving changes of species and communities with
time
Root Cutting – Cutting taken from the roots, used in
plant propagation
Suckers – Shoots that arise from underground plant
parts
Runner – A long, slender branch that runs along the
ground rooting at the nodes or tip (see “Node”)
Symbiont – An organism living in a relationship with
another organism, where these two organisms live
closely together for much or all of their lives, e.g. the
fungi and algae in lichens
Scale – Any small, thin flat structure of a plant; a small
outgrowth
Tap Root – A large, vertical root arising from the main
axis of the plant
Scree Slope – Mountain slope of small loose stones
Seed Capsule – Dry fruit that releases seed by way of
pores or slits
Terminal – Applies to position of a structure borne at
the tip of a plant stalk, leaf, etc.
Seed Head – A cluster of fruit or seeds
Tundra – A treeless region of the Arctic or subarctic
Seed Pod – General term for any dry fruit that opens to
release seeds
Variety – A taxonomic group within a species or
subspecies, i.e., a uniform group of plants that differs
slightly from another group within the same species
Self-fertilize – Fertilization in which the pollen (sperm)
and the ovary (egg) belong to the same individual.
Compare with Cross-pollination.
Vegetative Reproduction – Process through which
plants increase in number without fertilization
Sepals – Modified petal-like leaves, below the petals
in a flower, often green and leaf-like (See flower
diagram on page 87.)
Whorl – A group of three or more plant parts arising
from the same region (node) of the stem
Winged – Structure with a membranous expansion
Softwood Cutting – Cutting taken from emerging
woody plant parts of softwood trees, used for
propagation
Winter Buds – Buds present in winter
Stamen – Collective term for male flower
parts; includes filaments and anthers (See
flower diagram on page 87.)
86
APPENDICES
PARTS OF A TYPICAL FLOWER
Reprinted with permission from Wildflowers of the Canadian Rockies by G.W. Scotter and H. Flygare ©1986
87
Appendices
Appendix 3
Map Sources for Canada
For a regularly updated list of map sources for your territory or province, check the federal
website:
maps.nrcan.gc.ca
and select Canadian topographic maps, map distributors, and then, regional distribution centres.
88
Appendices
Appendix 4
Horticultural
All words highlighted in blue can be found in the glossary (Appendix 2).
The benefits of such a project go far beyond the
project itself, as communities become involved with
the land, its rhythms and its diversity. Natural areas
offer a rich learning environment that can lead directly
to a stronger environmental ethic for all who become
involved.
ESTABLISHING A PLANTWATCH GARDEN
Introduction
This guide will serve as a resource to teachers in the
Plantwatch Program who are interested in learning
more about the cultivation and growth requirements of
these key indicator plants. Some participants may find
that their access to the plants in the wild state is limited
(e.g., urban classrooms may find it hard to find white
trilliums (eastern Canada) or prairie crocus (western
Canada). One solution is for schools to create their
own garden areas, using plants from the Plantwatch
program and others that are native to their area. This
approach not only provides special places in which to
observe and record the timing of natural phenomenon
such as plant flowering, but also gives opportunities for
creating wildlife habitat (for birds, butterflies, etc.) and
increasing local biodiversity.
Creating Garden Spaces
Individuals, communities or schools considering
the creation of school garden spaces need to ask
themselves some important questions. Assistance in
answering these questions can be obtained from many
sources individuals, organizations and printed materials.
1. What is the purpose of the garden space? Are
you going to just plant certain Plantwatch species
for observation, or are you going to expand your
garden area to include other native plant species?
2. Is there a plan in place? Does the plan include a
budget, a realistic time line, use of the expertise of
other people who have initiated such garden spaces,
and opportunities for learning about the plants and
their requirements?
Students are able to observe daily the changes in the
Plantwatch species and accurately report the flowering
stages. They will see first hand the effect of weather
events such as spring snow storms or frosts on their
plants. Temperature records from the site or nearby will
provide highly useful information on the amount of
heat needed for flowering. If students have access to
the school grounds over the summer, they will see all
stages of growth — from first buds, to flowers, to ripe
fruit, as well as leaf colouring, and discover some of the
insect partners that these plants attract.
3. Has an appropriate site been located, taking
into account the soils, topography and present
condition of the land, along with the requirements
of the plant communities you’d like to establish? If
possible, sites should be located at least 3 m-5 m
(10 - 15 ft.) away from buildings (to avoid hot
microclimates that will affect bloom timing), and
away from sidewalks or roads. Consideration
Creating garden spaces in communities need not be
an overwhelming task, if all the factors are considered.
89
APPENDICES
similar projects include The Evergreen Foundation
and Shell (see resource list for addresses).
should also be given to ease of watering, and ways
in which the site can be protected from students’
outdoor play activities.
HOW TO GROW SOME OF THE
PLANTWATCH SPECIES
4. What kind of site preparation considerations are
there? Proper cultivation of an area, to control
weed growth, is necessary prior to the planting
of a garden. The soil should be well packed with
rollers before seeding, and have appropriate soil
amendments added before planting live plants.
Because native plants are well adapted to low
fertility, they do not require heavy fertilization
(which may only encourage the growth of weedy,
non-native species). Avoid using herbicides as they
pose a threat to valuable soil organisms and also
threaten the health of children, pets, and living
things in nearby rivers and lakes.
(lilac, prairie crocus, saskatoon, white dryad, and
white trillium)
Common Purple Lilac
For those who want to plant new lilacs to observe,
a recommended cultivar for Plantwatch observers
is the early-flowering and popular Syringa vulgaris
“Charles Joly”, originally developed in 1896 in France
by Lemoine. The flowers of this species are reddishpurple, slightly redder in colour than most common
purple lilacs, but suitable for Plantwatch because they
are early blooming and many nurseries have them for
sale. Make sure your lilac is growing on its own roots,
not rootstocks.
5. What species are you going to plant? For certain
Plantwatch species, see section B following: “How
to Grow the Plantwatch Species.”
Common purple lilac (Syringa vulgaris) can be planted
individually or in a line to form an unclipped hedge.
Lilacs should be grown in fertile, moisture-retentive soil
that is neutral to alkaline, not acidic. They will thrive in
sun or partial shade but grow best in full sun. In a new
garden be careful not to plant any trees in the vicinity
of your lilacs. Over the years these trees will grow and
eventually shade the lilacs, which then will produce
fewer and fewer flowers. If your lilacs do get shaded,
transplant them to a sunnier site. During dry spells,
lilacs benefit from regular watering, particularly young
or recently transplanted plants. This shrub is relatively
free from major pests, but watch out for leaf miner and
lilac borer.
6. What planting methods are you going to use? The
methods will vary, depending on whether you are
working with seeds or live plant material. Things to
consider would include best dates for planting and
any special techniques for specific plants.
7. What kinds of long-term management strategies do
you need to consider? Young shrubs of saskatoon
and lilac may take three to four years before they
begin flowering. How will you maintain weed
control – by hand or mowing? Keep in mind that
drought-adapted species such as saskatoon, prairie
crocus, or white dryad should not be overwatered
once established. How will the garden space be
protected from unwanted intrusions?
Pruning
8. How will you achieve public involvement and
support? Can you involve a variety of people
(principal, school staff, grounds crew, local business
people, local gardeners for summer weeding and
watering)? How will you educate others about
your project? Finding funding for school gardens
is relatively simple because these projects have so
many benefits. Sources that we know have funded
Lilacs should be pruned every five to ten years to
maintain a good shape. Lilacs flower on the previous
year’s growth, so they should not be pruned in any way
until after the flowers have died. The spent blossoms
should be removed every year, to prevent wasting
energy on seed formation and to stimulate flower bud
formation. Prune immediately after flowering occurs
90
APPENDICES
in spring because next year’s buds will form on the
new wood that grows after flowering. Don’t prune in
autumn as it will remove next year’s flower buds. One
or more of the older main stems at the base of a plant
may be removed in pruning and some of the remaining
stems trimmed back to maintain the size and shape
desired. Remember, never remove more than one third
of a lilac bush at any one time. Cut a branch back
only to the first node, where new buds can be seen.
If branches are cut back beyond this point, next year’s
flowers will be lost. After being transplanted, it may
take several years for some lilacs to produce flowers.
Prairie Crocus
This welcome little sign of spring is sometimes difficult
to grow in a garden. It can be started from seed
collected from the wild, or purchased from nurseries
specializing in native plants and seeds. Please do not
attempt to transplant plants from the wild to the
garden. This usually fails, and it contributes to loss of
biodiversity in our remaining natural habitats! Growing
prairie crocus from seed requires patience because not
all the seeds will germinate the first year and because
the plants are deep-rooted and slow to mature. Native
plant seeds usually require stratification before
planting, to break their natural dormancy; that is, they
must be exposed to a cold and damp period prior to
planting. To stratify prairie crocus seed, place the seed
in a clean zip-loc bag or film container with a little
sterilized dampened sand and refrigerate it from one
to three weeks. Then plant the seeds in flats — they do
not compete very well with other plants. Ideally, these
plants should be grown in nursery conditions for the
first year or two, and then transplanted to a garden in
late fall or early spring.
Occasionally, a lilac may bloom the first year after being
transplanted because the buds were set up in the
nursery before the plant was bought. Usually, such a
plant will not flower again for about three or four years,
assuming the plant is growing in the full sun, and has
a good supply of nutrients and moisture. Once a plant
does begin to flower, it will continue to do so for many
years.
The ultimate size of a mature lilac is one factor limiting
the number of lilacs that any garden can satisfactorily
hold. Because under ideal conditions common purple
lilacs can reach a height of 2.5 m to 4 m (8-13 ft.), and
have a spread of 6 m to 7 m (20-23 ft.), one has to
be careful not to plant too many lilacs in a small, city
garden.
Habitat Requirements
Prairie crocus likes a sandy soil that is never wet for
more than a few hours. Once the plant has a wellestablished root system, do not water it during the
summer unless the soil becomes very dry.
Growing lilacs from seed
This plant needs to be planted in an open area with
full sun. After a year or two, like other wild plants, it
becomes dependent on fungal partners in the soil.
Seedlings will flower in three or four years.
Lilacs can be grown from seed. If open pollinated
seed is used there is no way of knowing if the new
plant will be similar or quite different from the parent
plant. Seed can be collected in the autumn, then dried,
and the seed stored in a cool, dry place until February.
Lilac seed requires a wet/cold stratification period
to break the seed’s natural dormancy. Seed may also
be sown directly in the garden in the autumn. After
the first freeze, the bed should be covered with a light
mulch. In the spring, this mulch should be removed,
and the bed should be shaded as the seedlings appear
because these seedlings scorch very easily in direct sun.
Note: In central Alberta, seed is best collected from the
wild in June, when it is ripe.
Saskatoon/Serviceberry
Saskatoon is an excellent ornamental shrub for the
garden. It is hardy, that is, it can withstand cold
winters and drought, and is easily propagated, with
fragrant showy flowers, edible fruit and attractive fall
foliage. It also attracts birds! Many different varieties
have been produced by horticulturalists for commercial
91
APPENDICES
to avoid breaking growing tips. Alternatively, cleaned
seed can be sown in the fall and pots placed outside to
take advantage of natural stratification. Germination
will occur the following spring.
and garden use. If you’d like one in your own garden,
saskatoon plants are available from many plant
nurseries, in several different sizes and varieties. Plants
that are old enough to produce flowers are, of course,
more useful for the Plantwatch project.
White Dryad, (White Mountain Avens, or
Arctic and Alpine Dryad)
Saskatoons can be started in several different ways
including from seed, suckers, root cuttings,
softwood cuttings, hardwood cuttings, and crown
division. Saskatoon twigs can also be grafted onto
other trees like apples and pears. When seeds are used,
some of the plants grown from a batch of seed will be
different from the parent stock.
White dryads are attractive as garden plants because
of the neat, trim leaves, abundant and long-lasting
flowers and interesting seed heads. Several different
commercial varieties are available. To minimize human
impact on natural habitats, please do not attempt to
move plants from the wild. Adult plants are hard to
transplant anyway because of their large branching
taproot system.
When choosing a saskatoon for your garden,
Plantwatch recommends the cultivar, “Smoky”, as
this variety blooms early. Choose plants that are not
grafted. When plants arrive, remove them from the
root trainer, and completely cover the root plug with
soil. Firm soil around roots. Water as soon as possible,
making sure that roots do not become exposed in the
process. It usually takes the first year for the plants
to establish their roots, so good care (e.g. occasional
watering, effective weeding) at this time will ensure
healthy plants for the future. Shallow cultivation is
important, to protect the fragile roots, and to keep
competing weeds from gaining a foothold.
Growing White Dryad From Seed
For most success, sow ripe seed in seed pans filled
with sandy, well-drained soil. If you have older seed,
this seed will need to be stratified. Put the seed in
sealable plastic bags, and put them in a refrigerator for
two months at 4°C. After germination, transfer the
seedlings to individual pots. Because white dryad has
a long tap root, letting the plants grow a while in pots
will reduce the amount of damage that can occur when
the plant is being transplanted into a garden. Plants
grown from seed take many years to flower.
Growing Saskatoons From Seed
Habitat Requirements
Saskatoons can also be grown from seed. For guidelines
on plant collection for the horiticultural use of native
plants visit http://www.anpc.ab.ca/assets/gardener_
guidelines.pdf. Collect the fruit when it is ripe and
freeze it. In the fall, or when you are ready, extract
the seed from the fruit pulp (add the fruit to water
in blender, use a few brief pulses to avoid damaging
the seed, then pass the liquid through a sieve). Don’t
allow seed to dry as deep dormancy may result. Soak
the seed 24 hours, then place it in small zip-lock bags
with moist sand (four parts sand to one part seed) and
place the bags in a refrigerator for four to five months.
Occasionally examine the bags for germinating seeds.
Plant when a seed germinates and the first root is seen.
When potting new plants handle the plant very gently
The dryad grows in alpine and in northern regions,
so it is adapted to cool, dry places. It can tolerate
moderate drought, and alkaline soils. If you want to
grow white dryad in more southern, warmer places you
must try to duplicate its favoured growing conditions as
much as possible.
First, you need to ensure that your soil is quite coarse in
texture so it has adequate drainage. Dryads like to be
slightly dry, which can be facilitated if you add pebbles
with a little peat moss to your soil. Or, you can plant
white dryad in a rock garden among pebbles where
there is good drainage but enough moisture to keep
the soil from becoming too dry.
Second, your plants need to be protected from the
92
APPENDICES
and a constantly moist soil will produce a healthier
plant.
hot afternoon sun, so pick a spot that is shaded in
the afternoon but will expose the plants to sun in the
evening and/or morning.
For more information on native plants
and seed sources, visit the following
websites.
Third, these plants do not thrive in conditions of shade
or competition with other plants. These plants have a
long branching tap root.
NATIONAL
White Trillium
Evergreen Native Plant Database
www.evergreen.ca/nativeplants/index.php
Trilliums can be grown in your garden; the problem is to
get them started in the first place.
Canadian Botanical Conservation Network
c/o Royal Botanical Gardens
Attention: David Galbraith
P.O. Box 399
Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3H8
www.rbg.ca/cbcn/en/index.html
Do not try to transplant trilliums from the forest to the
garden. It is very important to protect these species in
the wild!
Forest wildflowers can take up to 15 years to flower
and therefore are not economical for commercial
greenhouses to grow from seeds or cuttings. For this
reason some nurseries dig plants from the wild for
resale, a practice that is a great threat to the biodiversity
and health of our forests. FloraQuebeca, a Quebec
conservation group, therefore recommends no selling or
buying of forest flowers such as trillium, ladies’ slipper
orchid, dog-tooth violet, or spring beauty.
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Native Plant Society of British Columbia
2012 William Street
Vancouver, British Columbia V5L 2X6
Tel: 604.255.5719
Fax: 604.258.0201
www.npsbc.org
Growing Trilliums From Seed
ALBERTA
If you still wish to grow trilliums and are very patient,
they can be started from seed. Seeds should be
harvested as soon as the capsules are ripe, and
immediately planted. Germination is more likely if the
seeds have experienced a frost, so it is better to sow in
the fall. For germination to be successful, it is important
that the seed be kept damp. Trilliums can take 15 years
to flower after the seed germinates. Seedlings survive
best in open soil away from plant competition, and
away from heavy leaf mould.
Alberta Native Plant Council Native Plant Source
List.
www.anpc.ab.ca/assets/2007SourceList.pdf
SASKATCHEWAN
Saskatchewan Native Plant Society list of native
plant sources.
www.npss.sk.ca/nps.php
MANITOBA
Habitat Requirements
Prairie Habitats
www.prairiehabitats.com/
This plant is suitable for the shade garden, planted with
other species that like cool damp conditions, such as
primroses. Trilliums require a semi-shady location with
good drainage, in neutral to slightly acid soils with
some well rotted leaf mould (avoid heavy clay or sandy
soils). The protection provided by nearby trees or shrubs
Manitoba Naturalists Society
401 - 63 Albert Street
Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 1G4
www.manitobanature.ca
93
APPENDICES
ONTARIO
YUKON
Native Plant Resource Guide for Ontario
www.serontario.org/publications.htm
Environment Yukon
www.environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca/
wildlifebiodiversity/plants.php
Acorus Restoration
722 6th Concession Road, R.R. #1
Walsingham, Ontario N0E 1X0
Phone: 519.586.2603
Fax: 519.586.2447
Email: [email protected]
www.ecologyart.com
Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative
www.y2y.net/
QUEBEC
Montréal Botanical Garden
4101 Sherbrooke East
Montréal, Quebec H1X 2B2
www2.ville.montreal.qc.ca/jardin/en/menu.htm
NEW BRUNSWICK
New Brunswick Botany Club
www.macbe.com/botanyclub/home.html
Save a Plant
16 Fletcher Court, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3A 4T4
Tel.: 506.474.0801
Email: [email protected]
NOVA SCOTIA
Harriet Irving Botanical Gardens - Acadia University
Acadia University
Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6
http://botanicalgardens.acadiau.ca
Nova Scotia Wild Flora Society
c/o Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History
1747 Summer Street
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3A6
www.nswildflora.ca/
NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR
Dr. K. Wilf Nicholls
Garden Director
MUN Botanical Garden
Memorial University
St. John’s, NL A1C 5S7
709-737-3326
709-737-8596 (fax)
[email protected]
94
Appendices
Appendix 5
Canadian Curriculum Links
For the PlantWatch Teachers’ Guide
Grade 6
USING THE CURRICULUM LINKS
TABLES
Appendix 4 identifies the specific curriculum
connection for science and math for each activity
in the PlantWatch Teacher’s Guide. The table is
organized by province/territory. The following table
will help you to find the pages where you can
locate the specific curriculum connections for each
activity by code.
Grade7
Grade 8
Atlantic
pages 99
pages 101
pages 103
Quebec
pages 105
pages 107
pages 108
Ontario
pages 109
pages 112
pages 114
Manitoba
pages 116
pages 118
pages 122
Saskatchewan
pages 123
pages 125
pages 126
Alberta
pages 129
pages 131
pages 134
BC/Yukon
pages 136
pages 137
pages 138
NT/NU
pages 139
pages 141
pages 145
The following Quick Reference Tables have been developed to help you locate the appropriate curriculum connections
by grade or by subject.
Quick Reference Guide to Activity by Grade and Subject
K = Key Activity
S = Science
NWT/NUN.
Grade
6
(Cycle 3 in
Quebec)
Math
Science
Math
8 (Section
II in
Quebec)
BC/YUKON
So = Social Studies
ALBERTA
SASK.
Subject
Science
7 (Section
I in
Quebec)
M = Math
L = Language Arts
MANITOBA
ONTARIO
QUEBEC
ATLANTIC
Activities
K3, K4, K5,
S1, S5
K2, K6, S1,
S4, S5
S4, So3, L1,
L2
S1, S3, S4, S5,
M3, So1, So3
K1, K3, S1,
M3, So2, So3,
L1, L2
K3, K4, K5, K6,
S1, S2, S4, S5,
M3, So1, So2,
L1, L2
K2, K3, K4, K5,
K6, S1, S2, S5,
M2, M3, MSo3,
L1, L2
K1, K2, K3, K4,
K5, K6, S2, S5,
M3, So1, So2,
So3, L1, L2
K4, K5, S2, S5,
M1, M3, L1
K2, K4, S2, S5,
M1, M3, L1
K4, S2, M1,
M3, L1
K2, K3, K4,
K6, S2, M1,
M2, M3, M4,
So1, L1
K2, K4, K6, S2,
M1, M3, M4,
So1, L1
K2, K4, K6,
S2, M1, M2,
M3, L1
K2, K4, S2, S5,
M1, M4, So1
K4, K5, K6, S2,
M1, M2, M4,
So1
K2, K3, K4, K5,
K6, S1, S2, S4,
M1, M3, So1,
So2, L1, L2
K3, S1, S4, S5
K2, K3, K4, K5,
K6, S1, S2, S4,
M1, M3, So1,
So2, L1, L2
K2, K3, S3, M1,
So3, L1
K1, K2, K3,
K4, K6, S1, S4,
M3, So2, So3,
L1, L2
K1, K3, K4, K5,
K6, S1, S4, S5,
M3, L1
K2, K3, S1, S2,
S5, M3, So1,
So3, L1, L2
K2, K3, K4, K5,
K6, S1, S2, S4,
S5, M3, So2,
So3, L1
S2, M1, M2,
M4
S2, M1, M2,
M4, S2, M1
K4, S2, M1,
M2, M4, So1
M1, M2, M4,
So1
K4, S2, M1,
M2, M4, So1
K2, K4, K6, S2,
M1, M2, M3,
M4, So1, L1
K2, K4, K5, S2,
M1, M3, L1
K4, K5, K6,
S2, M1, M2,
M4MSo1
M3
K5, S2, S4, S5,
M3, So3, L1
M3
K3, K5, K6, S1,
S4, S5, M3,
So1, So3, L1
M3, So2, So3,
L1
M3
None
K3, K4, K5, K6,
S1, M3
S2.M1
S2, M1
K4, K6, S2, M1
K2, K5, K6,
S2, M1, M2,
M3, L1
K4, S2, M1
K2, K4, K5,
K6, M2, M3,
M4, L1
K4, K5, M3
K4, K5, K6, S2,
M1, M2, M3,
M4, So1, L1
Science
Math
95
APPENDICES
Quick Reference Table to Curriculum Links by Activity and Grade
NWT/
NUNAVUT
BC/YUKON
ALBERTA
Activity
SASK.
MANITOBA
ONTARIO
QUEBEC
ATLANTIC
Grades with Curriculum Links (of Gr. 6, 7, 8)
Key Activity 1
None
None
None
None
6, 7
7
None
6
Key Activity 2
7
None
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7
Key Activity 3
6, 7
7
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 7,
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7
Key Activity 4
6, 7
6
6, 7, 8
6, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I,
Sec. II
6, 7
Key Activity 5
6, 7
8
7
8
None
6.7, 8
Cycle 3, Sec. I,
Sec. II
6, 7, 8
Key Activity 6
7
6
7, 8
6, 8
6, 7
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3
6, 7, 8
Science 1
6, 7
6, 7
7
6, 8
6, 7
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
7, 8
Science 2
6, 7
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7, 8
Science 3
None
None
None
6, 7
None
None
None
None
Science 4
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 8
7
6, 7
None
7
Science 5
6
6, 7, 8
None
Ga
None
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7
Math 1
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7, 8
Math 2
7
7
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3
6, 7, 8
Math 3
6, 7, 8
6, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3, Sec. I,
Sec. II
6, 7, 8
Math 4
7
7, 8
7
6, 7
6, 7
7, 8
Cycle 3
6, 7, 8
Social Studies 1
7
7, 8
7
6, 7, 8
6, 7
6, 7
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7, 8
Social Studies 2
7
None
7
None
6, 7, 8
6
None
6, 7
Social Studies 3
None
8
6
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
None
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7
Lanuage Arts 1
6, 7
6, 8
6, 7
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
6, 7, 8
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6, 7, 8
Lanuage Arts 2
7
None
6, 7
6, 7
6, 7
6
Cycle 3, Sec. I
6
96
APPENDICES
Quick Reference Table to Curriculum Links by Activity and Subject
NWT/
NUNAVUT
BC/YUKON
Activity
ALBERTA
SASK.
MANITOBA
ONTARIO
QUEBEC
ATLANTIC
Subjects with Curriculum Links for Grades 6, 7 and 8 (of Science and Math)
Key Activity 1
Science
Science
Science
Science
Key Activity 2
Science
Science, Math
Science
Key Activity 3
Science, Math
Science
Key Activity 4
Science, Math
Key Activity 5
Science, Math
Science, Math
Math
Science, Math
Science
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science
Science
Science
Science
Math
Science, Math
Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science
Science
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Key Activity 6
Science
Science
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science
Science, Math
Science 1
Science
Science, Math
Science
Science
Science
Science
Science
Science
Science 2
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Math
Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science
Science
Science 3
Science
Science
Science 4
Science
Science
Science 5
Science, Math
Science, Math
Math 1
Science, Math
Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Math 2
Math
Math
Math
Math 3
Science, Math
Science, Math
Math 4
Math
Social Studies 1
Science, Math
Social Studies 2
Science
Social Studies 3
Lanuage Arts 1
Science, Math
Lanuage Arts 2
Science, Math
Science
Science
Science
Science
Science
Science, Math
Science
Math
Math
Math
Math
Math
Math
Math
Science
Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Math
Math
Math
Math
Math
Science, Math
Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Math
Science, Math
Math
Science, Math
Science
Science
Science
Science
Science
Science
Science
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science
Science
97
Science
Science
Science
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science, Math
Science
Science
Science
APPENDICES
CHART OF PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL CURRICULUM CONNECTIONS FOR
SCIENCE AND MATH FOR GRADES 6-8
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ATLANTIC PROVINCES
NOTE: The math and science curriculum for the Atlantic Provinces is a result of a collaborative effort of the education
departments of the four provinces, coordinated through the Atlantic Provinces Education Foundation/Council of
Atlantic Ministers of Education and Training. Please refer to any of the Atlantic Provinces as a reference to the detailed
curriculum learning outcomes. The following documents were used:
• Atlantic Canada Elementary Science Curriculum Guide (2002)
• Atlantic Canada Intermediate Science Curriculum Guide
• Grade 6 Mathematics Curriculum Guide (Interim Edition 2005)
• Grade 7 Mathematics Curriculum Guide (Interim Edition 2008)
• Grade 8 Mathematics Curriculum Guide (Interim Edition 2002)
NEWFOUNDLAND
www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/sp/pcdbs.htm
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
www.gov.pe.ca/educ/index.php3?number=74897&lang=E
NOVA SCOTIA
https://sapps.ednet.ns.ca/Cart/index.php?UID=2009011516322024.222.131.202
NEW BRUNSWICK
www.gnb.ca/0000/anglophone-e.asp#cd
98
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ATLANTIC PROVINCES (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
104-8 demonstrate the importance of using the languages of science and
technology to compare and communicate ideas, processes, and results
N/A
K2
204-1 propose questions to investigate and practical problems to solve
N/A
207-2 communicate procedures and results, using lists, notes in point form,
sentences, charts, graphs, drawing, and oral language
K3
104-8 demonstrate the importance of using the languages of science and
technology to compare and communicate ideas, processes, and results
N/A
205-7 record observations using a single work, notes in point form,
sentences and simple diagrams and charts
K4
205-7 record observations using a single work, notes in point form,
sentences and simple diagrams and chart
207-2 communicate procedures and results, using lists, notes in point form,
sentences, charts, graphs, drawing, and oral language
GCO F
KSCO:
iii) represent mathematical patterns and relationships
in a variety of ways (including rules, tables and one- and
two-dimensional graphs)
SCO F4
use bar graphs, double bar graphs and stem-and-leaf plots
to display data
K5
205-7 record observations using a single work, notes in point form,
sentences and simple diagrams and chart
207-2 communicate procedures and results, using lists, notes in point form,
sentences, charts, graphs, drawing, and oral language
GCO F: Students will solve problems involving the
collection, display and analysis of data.
SCO
F1 choose and evaluate appropriate samples for data
collection
F2 identify various types of data sources
KSCO: ii) construct a variety of data displays (including
tables, charts and graphs) and consider their relative
appropriateness
K6
206-9 identify new questions or problems that arise from what was learned
GCO F
SCO: F9 explore relevant issues for which data collection
assists in reaching conclusions
Other Activity
S1
N/A
N/A
S2
204-8 identify appropriate tools, instruments, and materials to complete
their investigations
SCO:
A6 demonstrate an understanding of the meaning of a
negative integer
205-7 record observations using a single work, notes in point form,
sentences and simple diagrams
and chart
207-2 communicate procedures and results, using lists, notes in point form,
sentences, charts, graphs, drawing, and oral language
B7 solve and create relevant addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division problems involving whole
numbers
B11 calculate sums and differences in relevant contexts by
using the most appropriate method
KSCO: By the end of grade 6, students will have achieved
the outcomes for entry-grade 3 and will also be expected
to develop and apply measures of central tendency (mean,
[median and mode])
99
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ATLANTIC PROVINCES (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
205-7 record observations using a single work, notes in point form,
sentences and simple diagrams and chart
N/A
207-2 communicate procedures and results, using lists, notes in point form,
sentences, charts, graphs, drawing, and oral language
M1
N/A
SCO:
A6 demonstrate an understanding of the meaning of a
negative integer
B7 solve and create relevant addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division problems involving whole
numbers
B11 calculate sums and differences in relevant contexts by
using the most appropriate method
KSCO: By the end of grade 6, students will have achieved
the outcomes for entry-grade 3 and will also be expected
to develop and apply measures of central tendency (mean,
[median and mode])
M2
N/A
KSCO: By the end of grade 6, students will have achieved
the outcomes for entry-grade 3 and will also be expected
to develop and apply measures of central tendency (mean,
[median and mode])
M3
Communication and Teamwork
207-2 communicate procedures and results, using lists, notes in point form,
sentences, charts, graphs, drawing, and oral language
N/A
M4
N/A
B3 compute quotients of whole numbers and decimals
using up to 2- digit whole number divisors
So1
Life Science: Diversity of Life: Adaptations and Natural Selection
propose questions about the relationship between the structural features
of organisms and their environment, and use a variety of sources to gather
information about this relationship (204-1, 205-8)
Refer to M4
So2
STSE: Nature of Science and Technology
105-5 identify examples of scientific knowledge that have developed as a
result of the gradual accumulation of evidence
N/A
So3
Life Science: Diversity of Life: Adaptations and Natural Selection
propose questions about the relationship between the structural features
of organisms and their environment, and use a variety of sources to gather
information about this relationship (204-1, 205-8)
N/A
Relationships Between Science and Technology
205-8 identify and use a variety of sources and technologies to gather
pertinent information
STSE
108-5 describe how personal actions help conserve natural resources and
protect the environment in their region
Refer to S3
100
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
ATLANTIC PROVINCES (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
L1
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Performing and Recording
205-7 record observations using a single work, notes in point form,
sentences and simple diagrams and charts
Communication and Teamwork
207-2 communicate procedures and results, using lists, notes in point form,
sentences, charts, graphs, drawing, and oral language
L2
Performing and Recording
205-7 record observations using a single work, notes in point form,
sentences and simple diagrams and charts
N/A
ATLANTIC PROVINCES (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
208-5 state a prediction and a hypothesis based on background
information or an observed pattern
N/A
1.04 List examples of organisms that live in each ecosystem
Organize and record information collected in an investigation of
an ecosystem using instruments effectively and accurately. (209-3,
209-4)
K3
210-2 compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety
of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line
graphs, and scatter plots.
N/A
K4
210-2 compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety
of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line
graphs, and scatter plots.
Strand: Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
210-2 compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety
of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line
graphs, and scatter plots.
Strand: Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
211-2 communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results,
using lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables, graphs,
drawings, oral language, and other means.
Strand: Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
K5
K6
General Outcome:
Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems.
General Outcome:
Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems.
General Outcome:
Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems.
Other Activity
S1
Unit 1: Interactions within Ecosystems
N/A
306-3 describe interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in
an ecosystem.
101
L - Language Arts
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ATLANTIC PROVINCES (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
S2
Science
Mathematics
209-3 use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting
data.
208-5 state a prediction and a hypothesis based on background
information or an observed pattern
General Outcome: Use patterns to describe the world and to solve
patterns.
Specific Outcome
7PR2 Create a table of values from a linear relation, graph the
table of values, and analyze the graph to draw conclusions and
solve problems.
7N6. Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction
of integers, [concretely, pictorially and] symbolically.
7SP1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and
range by:
• determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range data with a single meaningful number.
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
113-9 make informed decisions about applications of science
and technology, taking into account environmental and social
advantages and disadvantages.
N/A
1.56 Make informed decisions about forest harvesting techniques
taking into account the environmental advantages and
disadvantages. (113-9)
S5
209-3 use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting
data.
N/A
210-2 compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety
of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line
graphs, and scatter plots.
M1
N/A
7N6. Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction
of integers, [concretely, pictorially and ] symbolically.
7SP1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and
range by:
• determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range data with a single meaningful number.
M2
N/A
7SP1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and
range by:
• determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range data with a single meaningful number.
M3
210-2 compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety
of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line
graphs, and scatter plots.
N/A
M4
N/A
7SS3. Perform geometric constructions, including parallel line
segments
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
102
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ATLANTIC PROVINCES (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
So2
304-3 describe conditions essential to the growth and
reproduction of plants [and microorganisms] in an ecosystem
and relate these conditions to various aspects of the human food
supply.
N/A
So3
Social and Environmental Contexts of Science and Technology
113-11 propose a course of action on social issues related to
science and technology, taking into account personal needs.
N/A
Refer to S3
L1
Performing and Recording
209-4 organize data using a format that is appropriate to the task
or experiment.
N/A
Analyzing and Interpreting
210-2 compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety
of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line
graphs, and scatter plots.
Communication and Teamwork
211-2 communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results,
using lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables, graphs,
drawings, oral language, and other means.
L2
N/A
N/A
ATLANTIC PROVINCES (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
N/A
K3
209-4 organize data using a format that is appropriate to the task
or experiment
N/A
K4
209-4 organize data using a format that is appropriate to the task
or experiment
GCO (C): Students will explore, recognize, represent, and apply
patterns and relationships, both informally and formally.
SCO:
C1 represent patterns and relationships in a variety of
formats and use these representations to predict unknown values
K5
209-4 organize data using a format that is appropriate to the task
or experiment climates
GCO (C): Students will explore, recognize, represent, and apply
patterns and relationships, both informally and formally.
SCO:
C1 represent patterns and relationships in a variety of
formats and use these representations to predict unknown values
K6
N/A
GCO (C): Students will explore, recognize, represent, and apply
patterns and relationships, both informally and formally.
SCO:
C1 represent patterns and relationships in a variety of
formats and use these representations to predict unknown values
C2 interpret graphs that represent linear and non-linear data
103
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ATLANTIC PROVINCES (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Other Activity
S1
306-3 describe interactions between biotic and abiotic factors in
an ecosystem
N/A
S2
N/A
B12 add, subtract, multiply, and divide positive and negative
decimal numbers with and without the calculator
B13 solve and create problems involving addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of positive and negative decimal
numbers
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
N/A
B12 add, subtract, multiply, and divide positive and negative
decimal numbers with and without the calculator
B13 solve and create problems involving addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of positive and negative decimal
numbers
M2
N/A
B12 add, subtract, multiply, and divide positive and negative
decimal numbers with and without the calculator
B13 solve and create problems involving addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of positive and negative decimal
numbers
M3
Performing and Recording
209-4 organize data using a format that is appropriate to the task
or experiment
C1 represent patterns and relationships in a variety of
formats and use these representations to predict
unknown values
Analyzing and Interpreting
210-2 compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety
of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line
graphs, and scatter plots
C2 interpret graphs that represent linear and non-linear data
F4 construct and interpret scatter plots [and determine a line of
best fit by inspection]
210-6 interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer and explain
relationships among the variables
M4
N/A
B12 add, subtract, multiply, and divide positive and negative
decimal numbers with and without the calculator
B13 solve and create problems involving addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of positive and negative decimal
numbers
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
N/A
C2 interpret graphs that represent linear and non-linear data
L2
N/A
N/A
104
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
QUÉBEC (CYCLE 3) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
Strategies: Exploration Strategies
Putting forward hypothesis
Anticipating the results of his or her approach
Measurement: Probability
Predicting the likelihood of an event (certainty, possibility or
impossibility)
K3
Living Things: Appropriate Language
Drawings, sketches
N/A
Strategies: Strategies for recording, using and interpreting
information
Using a variety of observational techniques and tools
K4
Measurement: Statistics
Collecting, describing and organizing data using tables
Living Things: Matter
Reproduction of Plants and Animals
Living Things: Appropriate Language
Graphs
Strategies: Communication Strategies
Using tools to display information in tables and graphs or to draw
a diagram
K5
Strategies: Strategies for recording, using and interpreting
information
Using a variety of observational techniques and tools
K6
Strategies: Exploration Strategies
Studying a problem or phenomena from different points of view
Formulating questions
Putting forward hypothesis
Exploring various ways of solving the problem
N/A
Other Activity
S1
Living Things: Energy
• Transformation of energy in living things (ecological pyramids)
N/A
Appropriate Language
• Drawings, sketches
S2
Integers: reading, writing, comparison, order, representation
Energy: Techniques and instrumentation
Use of simple measuring instruments
Natural numbers: -operation sense
Strategies: Exploration Strategies
Putting forward hypothesis
Anticipating the results of his or her approach
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
Energy: Techniques and instrumentation
Use of simple measuring instruments
Measurement: Temperatures, estimating and measuring
Conventional units (C)
Strategies: Exploration Strategies
Formulating questions
Putting forward hypothesis
Measurement: Probability
Predicting the likelihood of an event (certainty, possibility or
impossibility
Living Things: Appropriate Language
Terminology related to an understanding of living things
Tables
Drawings, sketches
Measurement: Statistics
Collecting, describing and organizing data using tables
105
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
QUÉBEC (CYCLE 3) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
M1
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Integers: reading, writing, comparison, order, representation
Natural numbers: -operation sense
M2
Living Things: Matter: Characteristics of Living Things
• reproduction of plants and animals
N/A
M3
Living Things: Appropriate Language:
Graphs
N/A
Strategies
Using different tools for recording information
Using tools to display information in tables and graphs or to draw
a diagram
M4
N/A
Geometry: Geometric figures and spatial sense
constructing parallel
Measurement: Lengths: estimating and measuring
• relationships between units of measure
So1
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
So3
Living Things: Systems and Interaction
Interaction between living organisms and their environment
• adaptation
N/A
Refer to S3
L1
N/A
Earth and Space Science: Systems and Interaction
Meteorological systems and climates
Living Things: Systems and Interaction
Interaction between living organisms and their environment
• living things and their habitats
Living Things: Appropriate Language:
• Terminology related to an understanding of living things
Graphs
Strategies
Using different tools for recording information
Using tools to display information in tables and graphs or to draw
a diagram
L2
N/A
Living Things: Appropriate Language:
Terminology related to an understanding of living things
Strategies
Using different tools for recording information
Using a variety of observational techniques and tools
Québec Education Program Chapter 6.2: Mathematics, Science and Technology. www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/DGFJ/dp/programme_de_formation/primaire/
pdf/educprg2001/educprg2001-062.pdf
106
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
QUÉBEC (SEC I) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES (CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES)
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
Physical and behavioural adaptations
Taxonomy
Statistics and Probability: Random Experiment: Event
Certain, probable and impossible events
Processing data from statistical reports
Conducting a survey or a census
Determining the population of a sample
Gathering data
K3
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
Habitat
Species
Physical and behavioural adaptations
Taxonomy
N/A
K4
N/A
Statistics and Probability:Processing data from statistical report
Organizing and choosing certain tools to present data
constructing tables
‘constructing graphs: bar graphs, broken line graphs, circle graphs
highlighting some of the information that can be derived from a
table or graphs
K5
N/A
Statistics and Probability:Processing data from statistical reports
Conducting a survey or a census
determining the population of a sample
gathering data
K6
N/A
N/A
Other Activity
S1
N/A
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
Habitat
Ecological niche
Species
Physical and behavioural adaptations
Taxonomy
Ecology
T.O. 0.3 To identify the members of the living part of the
environment.
T.O. 1.1 To distinguish the different types of interactions that occur
in the environment.
T.O. 1.5 To identify, from examples, phenomena of living/living
relationships.
T.O. 1.6 To identify, from examples, phenomena of nonliving/living
relationships.
T.O. 1.7 To identify, from examples, phenomena of living/nonliving
relationships.
S2
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
Physical and behavioural adaptations
Taxonomy
IO 2.2 To perform the following operations on integers: addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation (exponents
should be limited to the positive integers).
S3
N/A
N/A
107
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
QUÉBEC (SEC I) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES (CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES)…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
Habitat
Ecological niche
Species
Physical and behavioural adaptations
Taxonomy
N/A
M1
N/A
Arithmetic and Algebra
• Inverse operations: addition and subtraction, multiplication and
division
M2
N/A
N/A
M3
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
• Habitat
Arithmetic and Algebra (Processes): Different Ways of Writing and
Representing Numbers
• Using a variety of representations (e.g. Numerical, graphic)
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
• Habitat
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
• Adaptation
• Habitat
N/A
Refer to S3
L1
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
• Habitat
Arithmetic and Algebra (Processes): Different Ways of Writing and
Representing Numbers
• Using a variety of representations (e.g. Numerical, graphic)
L2
The Living World: Diversity of Life Forms
• Habitat
N/A
Secondary Education: Ecology. www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/DGFJ/dp/programmes_etudes/secondaire/ecology.htm
Mathematics 116, Secondary I www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/GR-PUB/menu-curricu-a.htm
QUÉBEC (SEC II) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES (CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES)
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
N/A
K3
N/A
N/A
K4
N/A
1.1 Intermediate Objectives
To give a comprehensive description of a situation
represented by a graph.
K5
N/A
1.1 Intermediate Objectives
To give a comprehensive description of a situation represented by
a table of values.
K6
N/A
N/A
108
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
QUÉBEC (SEC II) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES (CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES)…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Other Activity
S1
N/A
N/A
S2
N/A
N/A
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
N/A
N/A
M2
N/A
N/A
M3
N/A
TO 1.1 To translate one representation of a situation into another
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
N/A
N/A
L2
N/A
N/A
Mathematics 216, Secondary II http://www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/GR-PUB/menu-curricu-a.htm/science/programs.aspx
ONTARIO (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
Data Management and Probability
collect data by conducting a survey (e.g., use an Internet survey
tool) or an experiment to do with themselves,their environment,
issues in their school or community, or content from another
subject, and record observations or measurements;
K3
Understanding Life Systems: Biodiversity 1.2 assess the benefits
that human societies derive from biodiversity (e.g., thousands
of products such as food, clothing, medicine, and building use
a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia) to
communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., use a graphic organizer to show comparisons
between organisms in various communities)
N/A
K4
2.5 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., use a graphic organizer to show comparisons
between organisms in various communities)
Data Management and Probability
collect and organize discrete or continuous primary data and
secondary data (e.g., electronic data from websites such as E-Stat
or Census At Schools) and display the data in charts, tables, and
graphs (including continuous line graphs) that have appropriate
titles, labels (e.g., appropriate units marked on the axes), and
scales (e.g., with appropriate increments)
that suit the range and distribution of the data, using a variety of
tools (e.g., graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic statistical software)
109
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ONTARIO (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
K5
Science
Mathematics
2.5 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., use a graphic organizer to show comparisons
between organisms in various communities)
N/A
(Optional activity complements one additional outcome)
3.1 identify and describe the distinguishing characteristics of
different groups of plants and animals
K6
2.5use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., use a graphic organizer to show comparisons
between organisms in various communities)
Data Management and Probability
Read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data (e.g.,
survey results, measurements, observations) and from secondary
data (e.g., sports data in the newspaper, data from the Internet
about movies), presented in charts, tables, and graphs (including
continuous line graphs);
Other Activity
S1
3.5 describe interrelationships within species, between species
within each species of plant and between species [and explain
how these interrelationships sustain biodiversity.]
N/A
S2
2.5 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., use a graphic organizer to show comparisons
between organisms in various communities)
Data management and Probability:
Data Relationships demonstrate an understanding of mean, and
use the mean to compare two sets of related data, with and
without the use of technology
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
1.1 analyse a local issue related to biodiversity (e.g., the effects
of human activities on urban biodiversity, flooding of traditional
Aboriginal hunting and gathering areas as a result of dam
construction), taking different points of view into consideration
(e.g., the points of view of members of the local community,
business owners, people concerned about the environment, mine
owners, local First Nations, Métis, Inuit), propose action that can
be taken to preserve biodiversity, and act on the proposal.
N/A
S5
2.5 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., use a graphic organizer to show comparisons
between organisms in various communities)
N/A
M1
N/A
Data management and Probability:
Data Relationships demonstrate an understanding of mean, and
use the mean to compare two sets of related data, with and
without the use of technology
M2
N/A
Data management and Probability:
Data Relationships demonstrate an understanding of mean,
and use the mean to compare two sets of related data, with and
without the use of technology
110
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ONTARIO (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
M3
Science
Mathematics
Developing Investigation and Communication Skills
2.5 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., use a graphic organizer to show comparisons
between organisms in various communities)
Data management and Probability:
Collection and Organization of Data - collect and organize discrete
or continuous primary data and secondary data (e.g., electronic
data from websites such as E-Stat or Census At Schools) and
display the data in charts, tables, and graphs (including continuous
line graphs) that have appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate
units marked on the axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate
increments) that suit the range and distribution of the data,
using a variety of tools (e.g., graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic
statistical software);
Data Relationships –read, interpret, and draw conclusions from
primary data (e.g., survey results, measurements, observations)
and from secondary data (e.g., sports data in the newspaper, data
from the Internet about movies), presented in charts, tables, and
graphs (including continuous line graphs);
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
3.2 demonstrate an understanding of biodiversity as the variety
of life on earth, including variety within each species of plant and
animal, among species of plants and animals in communities, and
among communities and the physical landscapes that support
them
Refer to M4
So2
Relating Science and Technology to Society and the Environment
1.2 assess the benefits that human societies derive from
biodiversity audiences and for a variety of purposes
N/A
3.6 identify everyday products that come from a diversity of
organisms (e.g., traditional pain relievers are derived from the
bark of the white willow tree; tofu is made from soybeans; silk is
made from silkworm cocoons; nutritional supplements, shampoos,
toothpastes, and deodorants contain pollen collected by bees)
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
Relating Science and Technology to Society and the Environment
1.2 assess the benefits that human societies derive from
biodiversity audiences and for a variety of purposes
Data management and Probability:
Collection and Organization of Data - collect and organize discrete
or continuous primary data and secondary data (e.g., electronic
data from websites such as E-Stat or Census At Schools) and
display the data in charts, tables, and graphs (including continuous
line graphs) that have appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate
units marked on the axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate
increments) that suit the range and distribution of the data,
using a variety of tools (e.g., graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic
statistical software);
Developing Investigation and Communication Skills
2.5 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., use a graphic organizer to show comparisons
between organisms in various communities)
Data Relationships – read, interpret, and draw conclusions from
primary data (e.g., survey results, measurements, observations)
and from secondary data (e.g., sports data in the newspaper, data
from the Internet about movies), presented in charts, tables, and
graphs (including continuous line graphs);
L2
3.2 demonstrate an understanding of biodiversity as the variety
of life on earth, including variety within each species of plant and
animal, among species of plants and animals in communities, and
among communities and the physical landscapes that support
them
N/A
The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Science and Technology, 2007 www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/scientec.html
The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Mathematics, 2005 www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/math18curr.pdf
111
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ONTARIO (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
Understanding Life Systems, Interactions in the Environment
N/A
3.2 identify biotic and abiotic elements in an ecosystem, and
describe the interactions between them (e.g., between hours of
sunlight and the growth of plants in a pond; between a termite
colony and a decaying log; between the soil, plants, and animals
in a forest)
K2
N/A
Data Management and Probability – collect data by conducting a
survey or an experiment to do with themselves their environment,
issues in their school or content from another subject and record
observations or measurements;
K3
2.5 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., design a multimedia presentation explaining the
interrelationships between biotic and abiotic components in a
specific ecosystem)
N/A
K4
2.5 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., design a multimedia presentation explaining the
interrelationships between biotic and abiotic components in a
specific ecosystem)
Data Management and Probability – collect and organize
categorical, discrete, or continuous primary data and secondary
data (e.g., electronic data from websites
such as E-Stat or Census At Schools) and display the data in
charts, tables, and graphs (including relative frequency tables and
circle graphs) that have appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate
units marked on the axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate
increments) that suit the range and distribution of the data,
using a variety of tools (e.g., graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic
statistical software)
K5
2.5 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia)
to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of
purposes (e.g., design a multimedia presentation explaining the
interrelationships between biotic and abiotic components in a
specific ecosystem)
N/A
K6
3.2 identify biotic and abiotic elements in an ecosystem, and
describe the interactions between them (e.g., between hours of
sunlight and the growth of plants in a pond; between a termite
colony and a decaying log; between the soil, plants, and animals
in a forest)
Data Management and Probability – read, interpret, and draw
conclusions from primary data (e.g., survey results, measurements,
observations) and from secondary data (e.g., temperature data or
community data in the newspaper, data from the Internet about
populations) presented in charts, tables, and graphs (including
relative frequency tables and circle graphs);
Other Activity
S1
3.1 demonstrate an understanding of an ecosystem (e.g., a
log, a pond, a forest) as a system of interactions between living
organisms and their environment
N/A
3.2 [identify biotic and abiotic elements in an Ecosystem, and]
describe the interactions between them
3.9 describe Aboriginal perspectives on sustainability and
describe ways in which they can be used in habitat and wildlife
management
S2
N/A
Number Sense and Numeration–identify and compare integers
found in real-life contexts (e.g.,–10°C is much colder than +5°C);
S3
N/A
N/A
112
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ONTARIO (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
S4
3.2 identify biotic and abiotic elements in an ecosystem, and
describe the interactions between them (e.g., between hours of
sunlight and the growth of plants in a pond; between a termite
colony and a decaying log; between the soil, plants, and animals
in a forest)
N/A
S5
3.8 describe ways in which human activities and technologies alter N/A
balances and interactions in the environment (e.g., clear-cutting a
forest, overusing motorized water vehicles, managing wolf-killings
in Yukon
M1
N/A
Number Sense and Numeration–identify and compare integers
found in real-life contexts (e.g.,–10°C is much colder than +5°C);
M2
N/A
Operational Sense–solve multi-step problems arising from real-life
contexts and involving whole numbers and decimals, using a
variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, drawings, calculators) and
strategies (e.g., estimation, algorithms);
M3
Developing Investigation and Communication Skills
Collection and Organization of Data–collect and organize
2.7 use a variety of forms to communicate with different audiences categorical, discrete, or continuous primary data and secondary
and for a variety of purposes
data (e.g., electronic data from websites such as E-Stat or Census
At Schools) and display the data in charts, tables, and graphs
(including relative frequency tables and circle graphs) that have
appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate units marked on the
axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate increments) that suit the
range and distribution of the data, using a variety of tools (e.g.,
graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic
statistical software); in charts, tables, and graphs (including
relative frequency tables and circle graphs);
Data Relationships
–read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data (e.g.,
survey results, measurements, observations) and from secondary
data (e.g., temperature data or community data in the newspaper,
data from the Internet about populations) presented in charts,
tables, and graphs (including relative frequency tables and circle
graphs);
–identify and describe trends, based on the distribution of the data
presented in tables and graphs, using informal language;
–make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on the
analysis of charts, tables, and graphs
M4
N/A
Operational Sense
–solve multi-step problems arising from real-life contexts and
involving whole numbers and decimals, using a variety of tools
(e.g., concrete materials, drawings, calculators) and strategies
(e.g., estimation, algorithms);
Geometric Properties
–construct related lines (i.e., parallel; [perpendicular; intersecting
at 30º,45º,and 60º]),using angle properties and a variety of tools
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
113
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ONTARIO (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
L1
Science
Mathematics
Collection and Organization of Data
–collect and organize categorical, discrete, or continuous primary
data and secondary data (e.g., electronic data from websites such
as E-Stat or Census At Schools) and display the data in charts,
tables, and graphs (including relative frequency tables and circle
2.7 use a variety of forms to communicate with different audiences graphs) that have appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate
units marked on the axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate
and for a variety of purposes
increments) that suit the range and distribution of the data, using
a variety of tools (e.g., graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic
statistical software); in charts, tables, and graphs (including
relative frequency tables and circle graphs);
Developing Investigation and Communication Skills
2.4 use appropriate science and technology vocabulary, [including
sustainability, biotic, ecosystem, community, population, and
producer] in oral and written communication
Data Relationships
–read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data (e.g.,
survey results, measurements, observations) and from secondary
data (e.g., temperature data or community data in the newspaper,
data from the Internet about populations) presented in charts,
tables, and graphs (including relative frequency tables and circle
graphs);
–identify and describe trends, based on the distribution of the data
presented in tables and graphs, using informal language;
–make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on the
analysis of charts, tables, and graphs
L2
N/A
N/A
The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Science and Technology, 2007 www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/scientec.html
The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Mathematics, 2005 www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/math18curr.pdf
ONTARIO (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
K2
N/A
Data Management and Probability
collect data by conducting a survey or an experiment to do with
themselves, their environment, issues in their school or community,
or content from another subject, and record observations or
measurements;
K3
N/A
N/A
K4
N/A
Data Management and Probability
select an appropriate type of graph to represent a set of data,
graph the data using technology, and justify the choice of graph
(i.e., from types of graphs already studied, including histograms
and scatter plots)
K5
N/A
Operational Sense
–solve multi-step problems arising from real-life on texts and
involving whole numbers and decimals, using a variety of
tools (e.g., graphs, calculators) and strategies (e.g., estimation,
algorithms);
114
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ONTARIO (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
K6
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Data Management and Probability
read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data (e.g.,
survey results, measurements, observations) and from secondary
data (e.g., election data or temperature data from the newspaper,
data from the Internet about lifestyles), presented in charts, tables,
and graphs (including frequency tables with intervals, histograms,
and scatter plots);
Other Activity
S1
N/A
N/A
S2
N/A
N/A
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
N/A
N/A
M2
N/A
Operational Sense
–solve multi-step problems arising from real-life contexts and
involving whole numbers and decimals, using a variety of
tools (e.g., graphs, calculators) and strategies (e.g., estimation,
algorithms);
M3
Developing Investigation and Communication Skills
Data Management and Probability
2.6 use a variety of forms to communicate with different audiences Data Relationships
and for a variety of purposes
–collect and organize categorical, discrete, or continuous primary
data and secondary data (e.g., electronic data from websites such
as E-Stat or Census At Schools), and display the data in charts,
tables, and graphs (including histograms and scatter plots) that
have appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate units marked on
the axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate increments) that suit
the range and distribution of the data, using a variety of tools
(e.g., graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic statistical software);
charts, tables, and graphs (including frequency tables with
intervals, histograms, and scatter plots);
–read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data (e.g.,
survey results, measurements, observations) and from secondary
data (e.g., election data or temperature data from the newspaper,
data from the Internet about lifestyles), presented in charts, tables,
and graphs (including frequency tables with intervals, histograms,
and scatter plots);
–make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on the
analysis of charts, tables, and graphs
M4
N/A
Operational Sense
–solve multi-step problems arising from real-life contexts and
involving whole numbers and decimals, using a variety of
tools (e.g., graphs, calculators) and strategies (e.g., estimation,
algorithms);
So1
N/A
N/A
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
N/A
N/A
115
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ONTARIO (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
L1
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Data Management and Probability
Data Relationships
–collect and organize categorical, discrete, or continuous primary
data and secondary data (e.g., electronic data from websites such
as E-Stat or Census At Schools), and display the data in charts,
tables, and graphs (including histograms and scatter plots) that
have appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate units marked on
the axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate increments) that suit
the range and distribution of the data, using a variety of tools
(e.g., graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic statistical software);
charts, tables, and graphs (including frequency tables with
intervals, histograms, and scatter plots);
–read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data (e.g.,
survey results, measurements, observations) and from secondary
data (e.g., election data or temperature data from the newspaper,
data from the Internet about lifestyles), presented in charts, tables,
and graphs (including frequency tables with intervals, histograms,
and scatter plots);
–make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on the
analysis of charts, tables, and graphs
L2
N/A
N/A
The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Science and Technology, 2007 www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/scientec.html
The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Mathematics, 2005 www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/math18curr.pdf
MANITOBA (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
6-1-08 Observe and describe the diversity of living things
within the local environment. GLO: A1, C2, D1, E1
N/A
K2
N/A
6.SP.2
Select, justify and use appropriate methods of collecting data
including questionnaires, experiments, databases, electronic media.
[C, PS, T]
K3
6-1-08 Observe and describe the diversity of living things
within the local environment. GLO: A1, C2, D1, E1
N/A
K4
N/A
6.SP.3
Graph collected data and analyze the graph to solve problems.[C,
CN, PS]
K5
N/A
N/A
K6
N/A
6.SP.3
Graph collected data and analyze the graph to solve problems.[C,
CN, PS]
116
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
MANITOBA (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Other Activity
S1
6-1-08 Observe and describe the diversity of living things
within the local environment. GLO: A1, C2, D1, E1
N/A
S2
N/A
Number
6.N.7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers, concretely,
pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V]
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
N/A
Number
6.N.7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers, concretely,
pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V]
M2
N/A
N/A
M3
Analysing and interpreting
6-0-6A. Construct graphs to display data, and interpret and
evaluate these and other graphs.
Patterns and Relations
6.PR.2. Represent and describe patterns and relationships using
graphs and tables.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
6-0-6C. Identify and suggest explanations for patterns and
discrepancies in data.
Scientific and Technological Skills and Attitudes
C6. employ effective communication skills and utilize information
technology to gather and share scientific and technological ideas
and data
Statistics and Probability
6.SP.1. Create, label, and interpret line graphs to draw conclusions.
[C, CN, PS, R, V]
6.SP.3. Graph collected data and analyze the graph to
solve problems. [C, CN, PS]
M4
N/A
Number
6.N.8. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and
division of decimals involving 1-digit whole-number multipliers
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
Nature of Science and Technology (General Learning Outcomes)
A4. identify and appreciate contributions made by women and
men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards
increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about
technological innovations
N/A
Science, Technology, Society and the Environment (General
Learning Outcomes)
B2. recognize that scientific and technological endeavors have
been and continue to be influenced by human needs and the
societal context of the time
Diversity of Living Things
6-1-15
Identify and describe the contributions of scientists and naturalists
who have increased our understanding of the diversity of living
things.
117
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
MANITOBA (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
So3
Science
Mathematics
Science, Technology, Society and the Environment
(General Learning Outcomes)
B5. identify and demonstrate actions that promote a sustainable
environment, society and economy, both locally and globally
N/A
Scientific and Technological Skills and Attitudes
(General Learning Outcomes)
C6. employ effective communication skills and utilize information
technology to gather and share scientific and technological ideas
and data
Researching
6-0-2A. Access information using a variety of sources.
6-0-2C. Make notes on a topic, combining information from more
than one source and reference sources appropriately.
6-0-9F. Frequently and thoughtfully evaluate the potential
consequences of their actions.
Refer to S3
L1
Nature of Science and Technology (General Learning Outcomes)
A4. identify and appreciate contributions made by women and
men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards
increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about
technological innovations
Patterns and Relations
6.PR.2. Represent and describe patterns and relationships using
graphs and tables.
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
Observing, Measuring, Recording
6-0-5A. Make observations that are relevant to a specific question.
6-0-5F. Record and organize observations in a variety of ways.
L2
N/A
Observing, Measuring, Recording
6-0-5A. Make observations that are relevant to a specific question.
6-0-5F. Record and organize observations in a variety of ways.
Diversity of Living Things
6-1-08 Observe and describe the diversity of living things within
the local environment.
K-8 Mathematics Manitoba Curriculum Framework of Outcomes. 2008. www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/math/framework_k-8/index.html
Grades 5 to 8 Science: Manitoba Curriculum Framework of Outcomes www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/science/scicurr.html
MANITOBA (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
7-1-01 Use appropriate vocabulary related to their investigations N/A
of interactions within ecosystems.
Include: ecosystem, biosphere, abiotic, biotic, organisms, ecological
succession, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, ecological pyramid,
bioaccumulation, scavengers, decomposers, micro-organisms
GLO: C6, D2
118
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
MANITOBA (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
K2
N/A
7-1-01 Use appropriate vocabulary related to their
investigations of interactions within ecosystems.
Include: ecosystem, biosphere, abiotic, biotic, organisms, ecological
succession, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, ecological pyramid,
bioaccumulation, scavengers, decomposers, micro-organisms
GLO: C6, D2
K3
7-1-01 Use appropriate vocabulary related to their investigations N/A
of interactions within ecosystems.
Include: ecosystem, biosphere, abiotic, biotic, organisms, ecological
succession, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, ecological pyramid,
bioaccumulation, scavengers, decomposers, micro-organisms
GLO: C6, D2
1-03 Identify abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems that
allow particular organisms to survive. GLO: D1, D2, E2
K4
7-1-01 Use appropriate vocabulary related to their investigations General Outcome
Collect, display, and analyze data to solve problems
of interactions within ecosystems.
Include: ecosystem, biosphere, abiotic, biotic, organisms, ecological
succession, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, ecological pyramid,
bioaccumulation, scavengers, decomposers, micro-organisms
GLO: C6, D2
K5
N/A
K6
7-1-01 Use appropriate vocabulary related to their investigations N/A
of interactions within ecosystems.
Include: ecosystem, biosphere, abiotic, biotic, organisms, ecological
succession, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, ecological pyramid,
bioaccumulation, scavengers, decomposers, micro-organisms
GLO: C6, D2
N/A
Other Activity
S1
-1-03 Identify abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems that
allow particular organisms to survive. GLO: D1, D2, E2
N/A
S2
N/A
Number
7.N.2. Demonstrate an understanding of the addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of decimals to solve problems (for
more than 1-digit divisors or 2-digit multipliers, the use of
technology is expected).
[ME, PS, T]
7.N.6. Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction
of integers, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability
7.SP.1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and
range by determining the measures of central tendency (mean,
median, mode) and range
[C, PS, R, T]
S3
N/A
N/A
119
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
MANITOBA (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
S4
Science
Mathematics
7-1-05
Identify and describe positive and negative examples of human
interventions that have an impact on ecological succession or the
makeup of ecosystems.
Examples: positive - protecting habitats, reintroducing species;
negative - preventing natural fires, introducing non-indigenous
species, draining wetlands for agriculture or housing
GLO: B5, D2, E2, E3
N/A
7-1-06
Identify environmental, social, and economic factors that should
be considered in the management and preservation of ecosystems.
Examples: habitat preservation, recreation, employment, industrial
growth, resource development
GLO: B1, B5, D2, E2
7-1-12 Provide examples of scavengers and decomposers, and
describe their role in cycling matter in an ecosystem.
Include: micro-organism GLO: D2, E1, E2, E3
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
N/A
Number
7.N.2. Demonstrate an understanding of the addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of decimals to solve problems (for
more than 1-digit divisors or 2-digit multipliers, the use of
technology is expected).
[ME, PS, T]
7.N.6. Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction
of integers, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability
7.SP.1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and
range by determining the measures of central tendency (mean,
median, mode) and range
[C, PS, R, T]
M2
N/A
Statistics and Probability
7.SP.1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and
range by determining the measures of central tendency (mean,
median, mode) and range
[C, PS, R, T]
M3
Analysing and Interpreting
7-0-6A. Construct graphs to display data, and interpret and
evaluate these and other graphs.
N/A
M4
N/A
Space and Shape
7.SS.3. Perform geometric constructions, including parallel line
segments [CN, R, V] .
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
120
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
MANITOBA (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
So2
Science
Mathematics
Nature of Science and Technology (General Learning Outcomes)
A4. identify and appreciate contributions made by women and
men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards
increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about
technological innovations
N/A
Science, Technology, Society and the Environment (General
Learning Outcomes)
B2. recognize that scientific and technological endeavors have
been and continue to be influenced by human needs and the
societal context of the time
Demonstrating Scientific and Technological Attitudes
7-0-9A. Appreciate and respect that science has evolved from
different views held by women and men from a variety of societies
and cultural backgrounds.
So3
Science, Technology, Society and the Environment
(General Learning Outcomes)
B5. identify and demonstrate actions that promote a sustainable
environment, society and economy, both locally and globally
N/A
Scientific and Technological Skills and Attitudes
(General Learning Outcomes)
C6. employ effective communication skills and utilize information
technology to gather and share scientific and technological ideas
and data
Researching
7-0-2A. Access information using a variety of sources.
Reflecting on Science and Technology
7-0-8G. Discuss societal, environmental, and economic impacts of
scientific and technological endeavours.
L1
Nature of Science and Technology (General Learning Outcomes)
A4. identify and appreciate contributions made by women and
men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards
increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about
technological innovations
N/A
Observing, Measuring, Recording
7-0-5A. Make observations that are relevant to a specific question.
Analysing and Interpreting
7-0-6A. Construct graphs to display data, and interpret and
evaluate these and other graphs.
Demonstrating Scientific and Technological Attitudes
7-0-9A. Appreciate and respect that science has evolved from
different views held by women and men from a variety of societies
and cultural backgrounds.
L2
Observing, Measuring, Recording
N/A
7-0-5A. Make observations that are relevant to a specific question.
K-8 Mathematics Manitoba Curriculum Framework of Outcomes. 2008. www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/math/framework_k-8/index.html
Grades 5 to 8 Science: Manitoba Curriculum Framework of Outcomes www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/science/scicurr.html
121
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
MANITOBA (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
N/A
K3
N/A
N/A
K4
N/A
General Outcome: Collect and analyze data to solve problems
K5
N/A
N/A
K6
N/A
N/A
Other Activity
S1
N/A
N/A
S2
N/A
Number
8.N.7. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication
and division of integers, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C,
CN, PS, R, V]
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
N/A
Number
8.N.7. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication
and division of integers, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C,
CN, PS, R, V]
M2
N/A
N/A
M3
8-0-6A. Construct graphs to display data, and interpret and
evaluate these and other graphs.
N/A
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
Nature of Science and Technology (General Learning Outcomes)
A4. identify and appreciate contributions made by women and
men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards
increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about
technological innovations
N/A
Science, Technology, Society and the Environment (General
Learning Outcomes)
B2. recognize that scientific and technological endeavors have
been and continue to be influenced by human needs and the
societal context of the time
So3
Science, Technology, Society and the Environment
(General Learning Outcomes)
B5. identify and demonstrate actions that promote a sustainable
environment, society and economy, both locally and globally
Scientific and Technological Skills and Attitudes
(General Learning Outcomes)
C6. employ effective communication skills and utilize information
technology to gather and share scientific and technological ideas
and data
Also: Refer to S3
122
N/A
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
MANITOBA (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
L1
Nature of Science and Technology (General Learning Outcomes)
A4. identify and appreciate contributions made by women and
men from many societies and cultural backgrounds towards
increasing our understanding of the world and in bringing about
technological innovations
N/A
L2
N/A
N/A
K-8 Mathematics Manitoba Curriculum Framework of Outcomes. 2008. http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/math/framework_k-8/index.html
SASKATCHEWAN (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
K2
N/A
Data Management: Collecting
D-1 acquire data through
a. surveys, questionnaires
b. experiments
c. observation
d. published information
K3
N/A
Data Management: Collecting
D-1 acquire data through
a. surveys, questionnaires
b. experiments
c. observation
d. published information
K4
N/A
Data Management: Collecting
D-1 acquire data through
a. surveys, questionnaires
b. experiments
c. observation
d. published information
Organizing and Displaying
D-9 display data using
a. histograms, line graphs (broken)
b. frequency diagrams, tally
c. circle graphs (fractional)
K5
N/A
K6
N/A
Data Management: Summarizing and Interpreting
D-14
discuss, interpret, and ascribe meaning to the organized data
Other Activity
S1
Ecosystems
1.2 Identify interrelationships among the biotic and abiotic
components of an ecosystem
1.4 Appreciate the importance of food webs in conveying
information about interrelationships in the local community
2.4 Explain how living organisms cooperatively share an
environment.
123
N/A
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
SASKATCHEWAN (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
S2
N/A
To be filled in with M1
S3
Earth’s Climate
3.1 Recognize that climatic change can take place over prolonged
periods of time
3.3 Evaluate theories of climatic change.
N/A
S4
Inquire into the effects of change in an ecosystem.
1. Identify some events that cause change.
2. Examine an ecosystem that has experienced change.
3. Appreciate the fragile nature of ecosystems.
4. Explain how living organisms cooperatively share an
environment.
N/A
S5
N/A
1.Investigate factors which influence an ecosystem .
1.Recognize abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem .
2.Identify interrelationships among the biotic and abiotic
components of an ecosystem.
3.Acquire skills in estimating the population of an area.
4.Appreciate the importance of food webs in conveying
information about interrelationships in the local community.
2.Inquire into the effects of change in an ecosystem.
1.Identify some events that cause change.
2.Examine an ecosystem that has experienced change.
3.Appreciate the fragile nature of ecosystems.
4.Explain how living oganisms cooperatively share an
environment.
5.Illustrate ways that change cascades through an
ecosystem.
6.Identify changes that have global implications.
7.Assess pressures on various populations.
3.Develop a sense of responsibility for the preservation of the
ecosphere.
1.Identify direct personal links to the local ecosystem.
2.Investigate the impact that humans have on ecosystems.
3.Recognize the role that humans play in protecting or
destroying ecosystems.
4.Demonstrate actions that will ensure the health of the
local ecosystem.
M1
N/A
Problem Solving: Understanding
P-1 establish and/or demonstrate an understanding of a problem
by b: interpreting tables, charts, and graphs
Numbers and Operations Analysis: Whole Numbers
N-16 recognize and solve a variety of problems involving
a. addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division
more than one operation
Numbers and Operations Analysis: Integers:
N-33 represent integers by using objects, pictures, words, and
symbols
N-34 recognize uses of integers in the real world
Numbers and Operations Analysis: Rational Numbers: Decimal
Numbers
N-59 recognize and solve problems involving operations with
decimal numbers
124
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
SASKATCHEWAN (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
M2
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Numbers and Operations Analysis: N-16
recognize and solve a variety of problems involving
a. addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division
more than one operation
Numbers and Operations Analysis: Rational Numbers: Decimal
Numbers
N-59 recognize and solve problems involving operations with
decimal numbers
M3
Earth’s Climate
1. Describe the Saskatchewan climate
Recognize long-term climatic patterns.
Develop a positive disposition towards lifelong learning.
Problem Solving: Reflecting:
P-11 display the results using a variety of means such as graphs,
charts, or statements
M4
N/A
Geometry/Measurement : Angles, Lines and Line Segments
G/M-1 recognize, draw, name, and describe or define
a. parallel lines, perpendicular lines
So1
Earth’s Climate
1. Describe the Saskatchewan climate.
Recognize long-term climatic patterns.
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Earth’s Climate
1. Describe the Saskatchewan climate
Recognize long-term climatic patterns.
Develop a positive disposition towards lifelong learning.
N/A
L1
N/A
Problem Solving: Reflecting:
P-11 display the results using a variety of means such as graphs,
charts, or statements
L2
N/A
N/A
Science: A Curriculum Guide for the Middle Level www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/midlsci/midlsci.html September 1993
Mathematics: A Curriculum Guide for the Middle Level www.sasklearning.gov.sk.ca/docs/midlmath/midmath.html 1996
SASKATCHEWAN (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
Basics of Life
1.4 Observe and describe attributes of life in macro-organisms,
both those kept in captivity and those in their natural habitats.
N/A
K3
Basics of Life
2.3 Observe and describe the reactions of organisms in their
natural environment.
N/A
K4
N/A
N/A
K5
N/A
N/A
K6
N/A
N/A
Other Activity
S1
N/A
N/A
S2
N/A
N/A
125
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
SASKATCHEWAN (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
S3
Basics of Life
2.4 Examine how natural and human-related alterations to the
local environments during the past two hundred years have
changed the ability of organisms to survive.
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
3. Temperature and Heat
Recognize differences between heat and temperature.
N7.6. Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction
of integers, [concretely, pictorially and ] symbolically.
SP7.1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and
range for sets of data.
M2
N/A
N7.2 Expand and demonstrate understanding of the addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division of decimals to greater
numbers of decimal places, and the order of operations.
SP7.1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and
range for sets of data.
M3
N/A
N/A
M4
N/A
SS7.3 Demonstrate an understanding of 2-D relationships
involving lines and angles.
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
Saskatchewan: The Land
N/A
Understand and use the vocabulary and forms of expression which
ecologists and geographers use to describe the environment.
L2
N/A
N/A
Grade 7 Mathematics Curriculum (2007) www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/math_curricula/g7_math_curr_2007.pdf
Science: A Curriculum Guide for the Middle Level www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/midlsci/midlsci.html September 1993
SASKATCHEWAN (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
K2
N/A
N/A
N/A
Data Management: Collecting
D-1 acquire data through
a.surveys, questionnaires
b.research
c.interviews
D-2 recognize that the data collected are affected by
a.the nature of the sample
b.the method of collection
c.the sample size
d.biases
126
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
SASKATCHEWAN (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
K3
Science
Mathematics
Optional Unit: Plant Growth
1.1 Identify factors important for plant growth.
N/A
K4
N/A
K5
Adaptation and Succession
1.6 Examine the behaviours and mechanisms by which organisms
make use of and coexist with the abiotic components of the
ecosystem.
Data Management: Collecting
D-14 discuss, interpret, and ascribe meaning to the organized data
K6
Optional Unit: Plant Growth
1.1 Identify factors important for plant growth.
Data Management: Collecting
D-14 discuss, interpret, and ascribe meaning to the organized data
Other Activity
S1
Adaptation and Succession
1.4 Recognize energy sources and energy flows in the ecosystem.
1.6 Examine the behaviours and mechanisms by which organisms
make use of and coexist with the abiotic components of the
ecosystem.
1.7 Explore the behaviours and mechanisms by which organisms
make use of and coexist with other biotic components of the
ecosystem.
N/A
S2
N/A
Math Activity 1
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
Adaptation and Succession
2 Examine how living things alter their environment.
2.1. Find examples of succession in the ecosystems of your area.
2.2 . Observe and describe the rate of environmental change.
2.3. Assess how living organisms contribute to environmental
change.
2.4 .Evaluate the effect of succession on ecosystems.
N/A
S5
Adaptation and Succession
1.5 Appreciate how abiotic factors influence how populations
which develop.
1.6. Examine the behaviours and mechanisms by which organisms
make use of, and coexist with, the abiotic components of the
ecosystem.
1.7. Explore the behaviours and mechanisms by which organisms
make use of and coexist with other biotic components of the
ecosystem.
2.0 Examine how living things alter their environment.
2.1.Find examples of succession in the ecosystems of your area.
2.2 Observe and describe the rate of environmental change.
2.3. Assess how living organisms contribute to environmental
change.
N/A
Optional Unit: Plant Growth
1.1 Identify factors important for plant growth.
127
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
SASKATCHEWAN (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
M1
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Numbers and Operations: Place Value:
N-1 read, write the symbols for, read words for, and express orally
any decimal number
Numbers and Operations and Analysis: Whole Numbers
N-16 recognize and solve a variety of problems involving a. more
than one operation
Numbers and Operations and Analysis: Integers
N-32 recognize and solve a variety of problems involving positive
and negative integers
Numbers and Operations and Analysis: Decimal Numbers
N-59 recognize and solve problems involving operations with
decimal numbers
M2
N/A
Numbers and Operations: Place Value:
N-1 read, write the symbols for, read words for, and express orally
any decimal number
N-5 round a number to the nearest
a.
hundred or tenth
M3
Plant Growth
1. Explore the factors which influence plant growth.
Problem Solving: Reflecting:
P-11 display the results using a variety of means such as graphs,
charts, or statements
Data Management: Summarizing and Interpreting
D18 read various charts and schedules and use the information
gained to solve problems
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
Plant Growth
1. Explore the factors which influence plant growth.
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Adaptation and Succession
1. Recognize how abiotic components of an ecosystem support
and influence life
N/A
Plant Growth
1. Explore the factors which influence plant growth.
Refer to S3
L1
Plant Growth
1. Explore the factors which influence plant growth.
Problem Solving: Reflecting:
P-11 display the results using a variety of means such as graphs,
charts, or statements
Data Management: Summarizing and Interpreting
D18 read various charts and schedules and use the information
gained to solve problems
L2
N/A
N/A
Science: A Curriculum Guide for the Middle Level www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/midlsci/midlsci.html September 1993
Mathematics: A Curriculum Guide for the Middle Level www.sasklearning.gov.sk.ca/docs/midlmath/midmath.html 1996
128
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ALBERTA (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
N/A
K3
N/A
N/A
K4
N/A
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
General Outcome Collect, display and analyze data to solve
problems. Specific Outcomes
1. Create, label and interpret line graphs to draw
conclusions.
[C, CN, PS, R, V]
K5
N/A
N/A
K6
N/A
N/A
Other Activity
S1
N/A
N/A
S2
N/A
Number
2. Solve problems involving whole numbers and
decimal numbers. [ME, PS, T] [ICT: C6–2.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically.
[C, CN, R, V]
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
General Learner Expectations
Students will:
6–10 Describe characteristics of trees and the interaction of trees
with other living things in the local environment.
N/A
Identify reasons why trees and forests are valued. Students
meeting this expectation should be aware that forests serve as
habitat for a variety of living things and are important to human
needs for recreation, for raw materials and for a life-supporting
environment.
Describe kinds of plants and animals found living on, under and
among trees; and identify how trees affect and are affected by
those living things.
Identify human actions that enhance or threaten the existence of
forests.
Identify an issue regarding forest use, identify different
perspectives on that issue, and identify actions that might be
taken.
S5
N/A
N/A
129
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ALBERTA (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
M1
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Number
2. Solve problems involving whole numbers and
decimal numbers. [ME, PS, T] [ICT: C6–2.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically.
[C, CN, R, V]
M2
N/A
N/A
M3
N/A
Patterns and Relations
1. Represent and describe patterns and relationships, using graphs
and tables. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
[ICT: C6–2.3]
Statistics and Probability
1. Create, label and interpret line graphs to draw
conclusions. [C, CN, PS, R, V]
3. Graph collected data, and analyze the graph to
solve problems. [C, CN, PS, R, T]
[ICT: C6–2.5, C7–2.1, P2–2.1, P2–2.2]
7. Read and interpret graphs that are provided.
[C, E, PS, R]
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
So3
N/A
Science Inquiry: Explore and Investigate
identify sources of information and ideas and demonstrate skill
in accessing them. Sources may include library, classroom,
community and computer-based resources
N/A
Attitudes
a sense of personal and shared responsibility for actions taken
Refer to S3
L1
Science Inquiry: Reflect and Interpret
• record observations and measurements accurately, using a chart
format where appropriate. Computer resources may be used
for record keeping and for display and interpretation of data
progress
Patterns and Relations
1. Represent and describe patterns and relationships, using graphs
and tables. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
[ICT: C6–2.3]
Statistics and Probability
7. Read and interpret graphs that are provided.
[C, E, PS, R]
L2
Science Inquiry: Reflect and Interpret
• record observations and measurements accurately, using a chart
format where appropriate. Computer resources may be used
for record keeping and for display and interpretation of data
progress
N/A
Mathematics Kindergarten to Grade 9 Program of Studies (2007) http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/math/programs.aspx
Elementary Science. 1996 http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/science/programs.aspx
Junior High Science 7–8–9. 2003 http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/science/programs.aspx
130
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
ALBERTA (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
Interactions and Ecosystems,
STSE
investigate and interpret evidence of interaction and change (e.g.,
population fluctuations, changes in weather, availability of food or
introduction of new species into an ecosystem)
N/A
Skills Outcome:
state a prediction and a hypothesis based on back ground
information or an observed pattern of
events
K3
Interactions and Ecosystems,
STSE
investigate a variety of habitats, and describe and interpret
distribution patterns of living things found in those habitats (e.g.,
describe and compare two areas within the school grounds—a
relatively undisturbed site and a site that has been affected by
heavy use; describe and compare a wetland and a dry land area
in a local parkland)
N/A
K4
Interactions and Ecosystems
Analyzing and interpreting compile and display data, by hand or
computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts,
tables, bar graphs and line graphs (e.g., illustrate a food web,
based on observations made within a given environment)
Statistics and Probability
General Outcome
Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems.
K5
Interactions and Ecosystems, Performing and Recording
use tools and apparatus effectively and accurately for collecting
data (e.g., measure factors, such as temperature, moisture, light,
shelter and potential sources of food, that might affect the
survival and distribution of different organisms within a local
environment)
N/A
K6
Interactions and Ecosystems,
Analyzing and Interpreting identify strengths and weaknesses of
different methods of collecting and displaying data (e.g., compare
two different approaches to measuring the amount of moisture in
an environment; analyze information presented by proponents on
two sides of an environmental issue)
N/A
Other Activity
S1
Interactions and Ecosystems,
STSE
investigate and interpret evidence of interaction and change (e.g.,
population fluctuations, changes in weather, availability of food or
introduction of new species into an ecosystem)
131
N/A
L - Language Arts
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ALBERTA (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
S2
Science
Mathematics
Performing and Recording:
use tools and apparatus effectively and accurately for collecting
data (e.g., measure factors, such as temperature, moisture, light,
shelter and potential sources of food, that might affect the
survival and distribution of different organisms within a local
environment)
Number
2. Solve problems involving whole numbers and decimal numbers.
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: C6–2.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V]
8. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division
of decimals (1-digit whole number multipliers and 1-digit natural
number divisors).
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency
and range by:
• determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
Interactions and Ecosystems,
STSE
describe human uses of plants as sources of food and raw
materials, and give examples of other
uses (e.g., identify uses of plants as herbs or medicines; describe
plant products, and identify
plant sources on which they depend)
• investigate the extent of natural and managed living resources
in agricultural, horticultural, forest and grassland environments;
and identify examples of local and global change (e.g., describe
changes in the size of forested areas; describe changes in the
characteristics of forested areas)
• investigate practical problems and issues in maintaining
productive plants within sustainable environments, and identify
questions for further study (e.g., investigate the long-term
effects of irrigation practices or fertilizer use)
N/A
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
2. Investigate life processes and structures of plants, and interpret
related characteristics and needs of
plants in a local environment
Number
2. Solve problems involving whole numbers and decimal numbers.
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: C6–2.4]
• investigate and interpret variations in plant structure, and
relate these to different ways that plants are adapted to their
environment (e.g., distinguish between plants with shallow
spreading roots and those with deep taproots; describe and
interpret differences in flower form and in the timing of flower
production)
7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V]
8. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division
of decimals (1-digit whole number multipliers and 1-digit natural
number divisors).
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency
and range by:
• determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range
132
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ALBERTA (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
M2
N/A
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency
and range by:
• determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range
M3
Analyzing and Interpreting
Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess
possible explanations
N/A
Compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of
formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs and
line graphs
Communication and Teamwork
Communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results,
using [lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables,] graphs,
[drawings], oral language and other means
Plants for Food and Fibre
• investigate and interpret variations in plant structure, and
relate these to different ways that plants are adapted to their
environment (e.g., distinguish between plants with shallow
spreading roots and those with deep taproots; describe and
interpret differences in flower form and in the timing of flower
production)
M4
N/A
Shape and Space
3. Perform geometric constructions, including:
• perpendicular line segments
• parallel line segments
• perpendicular bisectors
• angle bisectors.
[CN, R, V]
So1
Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess
possible explanations
Refer to M4
So2
Plants for Food and Fibre: STS and Knowledge
• describe human uses of plants as sources of food and raw
materials, and give examples of other uses (e.g., identify uses
of plants as herbs or medicines; describe plant products, and
identify plant sources on which they depend)
N/A
Mutual Respect
Appreciate that scientific understanding evolves from the
interaction of ideas involving people with different views and
backgrounds
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
133
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
ALBERTA (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
L1
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Analyzing and Interpreting
Compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of
formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs and
line graphs
Communication and Teamwork
Communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results,
using [lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables,] graphs,
[drawings], oral language and other means
Plants for Food and Fibre: STS and Knowledge
• describe human uses of plants as sources of food and raw
materials, and give examples of other uses (e.g., identify uses
of plants as herbs or medicines; describe plant products, and
identify plant sources on which they depend)
Performing and Recording
• observe and record data, [and create simple line drawings]
Mutual Respect
Appreciate that scientific understanding evolves from the
interaction of ideas involving people with different views and
backgrounds
L2
Performing and Recording
• observe and record data, [and create simple line drawings]
N/A
Mathematics Kindergarten to Grade 9 Program of Studies (2007) http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/math/programs.aspx
Elementary Science. 1996 http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/science/programs.aspx
Junior High Science 7–8–9. 2003 http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/science/programs.aspx
ALBERTA (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
N/A
K3
N/A
N/A
K4
N/A
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
General Outcome
Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems.
K5
N/A
N/A
K6
N/A
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
General Outcome
Collect, display and analyze data to solve problems.
N/A
N/A
Other Activity
S1
134
L - Language Arts
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
ALBERTA (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
S2
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Number
2. Demonstrate an understanding of the addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division of decimals to solve problems (for more
than 1-digit divisors or 2-digit multipliers, the use of technology is
expected).
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: P2–3.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication
and division of integers, concretely, pictorially and
symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
N/A
Number
2. Demonstrate an understanding of the addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division of decimals to solve problems (for more
than 1-digit divisors or 2-digit multipliers, the use of technology is
expected).
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: P2–3.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication
and division of integers, concretely, pictorially and
symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]
M2
N/A
N/A
M3
Communication and Teamwork
Communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results,
using [lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables,] graphs,
[drawings], oral language and other means
N/A
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
N/A
N/A
L2
N/A
N/A
Mathematics Kindergarten to Grade 9 Program of Studies (2007) http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/math/programs.aspx
Elementary Science. 1996 http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/science/programs.aspx
Junior High Science 7–8–9. 2003 http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/science/programs.aspx
135
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
BRITISH COLUMBIA / YUKON (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
Life Science: Diversity of Life
analyse how different organisms adapt to their environments
Statistics and Probability: Data Analysis
D2 select, justify, and use appropriate methods of collecting data,
including questionnaires experiments
databases electronic media [C, PS, T]
K3
N/A
N/A
K4
N/A
Statistics and Probability: Data Analysis
D3 graph collected data and analyze the graph to solve problems
[C, CN, PS]
K5
N/A
N/A
K6
Life Science: Diversity of Life
analyse how different organisms adapt to their environments N/A
N/A
Other Activity
S1
Life Science: Diversity of Life
analyse how different organisms adapt to their environments
N/A
S2
N/A
Number
A7 demonstrate an understanding of integers, concretely,
pictorially, and symbolically [C, CN, R, V]
A8 demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division of
decimals (1-digit whole number
multipliers and 1-digit natural number divisors) [C, CN, ME ,PS, R,
V]
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
Life Science: Diversity of Life
analyse how different organisms adapt to their environments
N/A
S5
Life Science: Diversity of Life
analyse how different organisms adapt to their environments
Statistics and Probability: Data Analysis
D2 select, justify, and use appropriate methods of collecting data,
including questionnaires experiments
databases electronic media [C, PS, T]
M1
N/A
Number
A7 demonstrate an understanding of integers, concretely,
pictorially, and symbolically [C, CN, R, V]
A8 demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division of
decimals (1-digit whole number
multipliers and 1-digit natural number divisors) [C, CN, ME ,PS, R,
V]
M2
N/A
N/A
M3
N/A
Patterns and Relations
B2 represent and describe patterns and relationships using graphs
and tables [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
D1 create, label, and interpret line graphs to draw conclusions [C,
CN, PS, R, V]
D3 graph collected data and analyze the graph to solve problems
[C, CN, PS]
136
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
BRITISH COLUMBIA / YUKON (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
N/A
Patterns and Relations
B2 represent and describe patterns and relationships using graphs
and tables [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
D1 create, label, and interpret line graphs to draw conclusions [C,
CN, PS, R, V]
L2
N/A
N/A
Mathematics K to 7 (2007) - Mathematics Integrated Resource Packages www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/irp_math.htm
Sciences Integrated Resource Packages Science K to 7 (2005) www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/irp_sci.htm
Sciences Integrated Resource Packages Science 8 (2006) www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/irp_sci.htm
BRITISH COLUMBIA / YUKON (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
N/A
K3
Life Science: Ecosystems
Analyze the roles of organisms as part of interconnected food
webs, communities and ecosystems
N/A
K4
N/A
N/A
K5
N/A
N/A
K6
N/A
N/A
Other Activity
S1
Life Science: Ecosystems
Assess survival needs and interactions between organisms and the
environment
N/A
Assess the requirements for sustaining healthy local ecosystems
S2
N/A
Number
A2 demonstrate an understanding of the addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of decimals
(for more than 1-digit divisors or 2-digit multipliers, the use of
technology is expected) to solve problems [ME, PS, T]
A6 demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction of
integers, concretely, pictorially, and
symbolically [C, CN, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
D1 demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and range
by determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range
137
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
BRITISH COLUMBIA / YUKON (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
Life Science: Ecosystems
evaluate human impacts on local ecosystems
N/A
S5
Life Science: Ecosystems
Assess survival needs and interactions between organisms and the
environment
N/A
Assess the requirements for sustaining healthy local ecosystems
M1
N/A
Number
A2 demonstrate an understanding of the addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division of decimals
(for more than 1-digit divisors or 2-digit multipliers, the use of
technology is expected) to solve problems [ME, PS, T]
A6 demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction of
integers, concretely, pictorially, and
symbolically [C, CN, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
D1 demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and range
by determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range
M2
N/A
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
D1 demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and range
by determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range
M3
N/A
N/A
M4
N/A
3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes
C3 perform geometric constructions, including parallel line
segments
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
N/A
N/A
L2
N/A
N/A
Mathematics K to 7 (2007) - Mathematics Integrated Resource Packages www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/irp_math.htm
BRITISH COLUMBIA / YUKON (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
N/A
K3
N/A
N/A
K4
N/A
N/A
K5
Processes of Science
A8 demonstrate competence in the use of technologies specific to
investigative procedures and research
N/A
K6
N/A
N/A
138
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
BRITISH COLUMBIA / YUKON (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Other Activity
S1
N/A
N/A
S2
Processes of Science
A8 demonstrate competence in the use of technologies specific to
investigative procedures and research
A7 demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division of
integers, concretely, pictorially, and
symbolically [C, CN, PS, R, V]
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
Processes of Science
A3 represent and interpret information in graphic form
N/A
S5
Processes of Science
A3 represent and interpret information in graphic form
A8 demonstrate competence in the use of technologies specific to
investigative procedures and research
N/A
M1
N/A
A7 demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division of
integers, concretely, pictorially, and
symbolically [C, CN, PS, R, V]
M2
N/A
N/A
M3
Processes of Science
A3 represent and interpret information in graphic form
A8 demonstrate competence in the use of technologies specific to
investigative procedures and research
N/A
M4
A8 demonstrate competence in the use of technologies specific to
investigative procedures and research
N/A
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
A8 demonstrate competence in the use of technologies specific to
investigative procedures and research
N/A
Refer to S3
L1
Processes of Science
A3 represent and interpret information in graphic form
N/A
L2
N/A
N/A
Mathematics 8 and 9 (2008) - Mathematics Integrated Resource Packages www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/irp_math.htm
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES / NUNAVUT (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
N/A
K3
Diversity of Living Things
Compile data gathered through investigation in order to record
and present results, using charts, tables and labeled graphs
produced by hand or with a computer (e.g., make an inventory of
animals found in a specific location)
N/A
139
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES / NUNAVUT (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
K4
Diversity of Living Things
Compile data gathered through investigation in order to record
and present results, using charts, tables and labeled graphs
produced by hand or with a computer (e.g., make an inventory of
animals found in a specific location)
Graph collected data and analyze the graph to solve problems.
[C, CN, PS]
K5
Diversity of Living Things
Communicate the procedures and results of investigations for
specific purposes and to specific audiences, using electronic media,
oral presentations, written notes and descriptions, charts, graphs,
and drawings (e.g., create a clearly labeled chart of
organisms observed and identified during a pond study).
Statistics and Probability: Data Analysis
Select, justify and use appropriate methods of collecting data,
including:
• questionnaires
• experiments
• databases
• electronic media.
[C, PS, T]
K6
N/A
N/A
Other Activity
S1
N/A
Diversity of Living Things
Communicate the procedures and results of investigations for
specific purposes and to specific audiences, using electronic media,
oral presentations, written notes and descriptions, charts, graphs,
and drawings (e.g., create a clearly labeled chart of organisms
observed and identified during a pond study)
S2
N/A
Number
2. Solve problems involving whole numbers and decimal numbers.
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: C6–2.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically.
[C, CN, R, V]
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
Diversity of Living Things
Compile data gathered through investigation in order to record
and present results, using charts, tables and labeled graphs
produced by hand or with a computer (e.g., make an inventory of
animals found in a specific location)
Statistics and Probability: Data Analysis
Select, justify and use appropriate methods of collecting data,
including:
• questionnaires
• experiments
• databases
• electronic media.
[C, PS, T]
M1
N/A
Number
2. Solve problems involving whole numbers and decimal numbers.
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: C6–2.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers, concretely, pictorially
and symbolically.
[C, CN, R, V]
M2
N/A
N/A
140
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES / NUNAVUT (GRADE 6) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
M3
Science
Mathematics
N/A
Patterns and Relations
1. Represent and describe patterns and relationships, using graphs
and tables. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
[ICT: C6–2.3]
Statistics and Probability
1. Create, label and interpret line graphs to draw conclusions. [C,
CN, PS, R, V]
3. Graph collected data, and analyze the graph to solve problems.
[C, CN, PS, R, T]
[ICT: C6–2.5, C7–2.1, P2–2.1, P2–2.2]
7. Read and interpret graphs that are provided.
[C, E, PS, R]
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
N/A
Patterns and Relations
1. Represent and describe patterns and relationships, using graphs
and tables. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
[ICT: C6–2.3]
Statistics and Probability
7. Read and interpret graphs that are provided.
[C, E, PS, R]
L2
N/A
N/A
The Northwest Territories and Nunavut use the Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) Mathematics, Kindergarten to Grade 12 - Lead: Alberta: The
Common Curriculum Framework for K–9 Mathematics, May 2006 www.wncp.ca/english/subjectarea/mathematics/ccf.aspx
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES / NUNAVUT (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
Interactions and Ecosystems,
STSE
investigate and interpret evidence of interaction and change (e.g.,
population fluctuations, changes in weather, availability of food or
introduction of new species into an ecosystem)
N/A
Skills Outcome:
state a prediction and a hypothesis based on back ground
information or an observed pattern of events
K3
Interactions and Ecosystems,
STSE
investigate a variety of habitats, and describe and interpret
distribution patterns of living things found in those habitats (e.g.,
describe and compare two areas within the school grounds—a
relatively undisturbed site and a site that has been affected by
heavy use; describe and compare a wetland and a dry land area
in a local parkland)
141
N/A
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES / NUNAVUT (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
N/A
K4
Interactions and Ecosystems
Analyzing and Interpreting
compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of
formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs and
line graphs (e.g., illustrate a food web, based on observations
made within a given environment)
K5
Interactions and Ecosystems, Performing and Recording
N/A
use tools and apparatus effectively and accurately for collecting
data (e.g., measure factors, such as temperature, moisture, light,
shelter and potential sources of food, that might affect the survival
and distribution of different organisms within a local environment)
K6
N/A
Interactions and Ecosystems,
Analyzing and Interpreting
identify strengths and weaknesses of different methods of
collecting and displaying data (e.g., compare two different
approaches to measuring the amount of moisture in an
environment; analyze information presented by proponents on two
sides of an environmental issue)
Other Activity
S1
Interactions and Ecosystems,
STSE
investigate and interpret evidence of interaction and change (e.g.,
population fluctuations, changes in weather, availability of food or
introduction of new species into an ecosystem)
N/A
S2
Performing and Recording:
use tools and apparatus effectively and accurately for collecting
data (e.g., measure factors, such as temperature, moisture, light,
shelter and potential sources of food, that might affect the survival
and distribution of different organisms within a local environment)
Number
2. Solve problems involving whole numbers and decimal numbers.
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: C6–2.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers, concretely, pictorially
and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V]
8. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division
of decimals (1-digit whole number multipliers and 1-digit natural
number divisors).
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency and range
by:
• determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
Interactions and Ecosystems,
STSE
describe human uses of plants as sources of food and raw
materials, and give examples of other uses (e.g., identify uses of
plants as herbs or medicines; describe plant products, and identify
plant sources on which they depend)
• investigate the extent of natural and managed living resources
in agricultural, horticultural, forest and grassland environments;
and identify examples of local and global change (e.g., describe
changes in the size of forested areas; describe changes in the
characteristics of forested areas)
• investigate practical problems and issues in maintaining
productive plants within sustainable environments, and identify
questions for further study (e.g., investigate the long-term
effects of irrigation practices or fertilizer use)
N/A
142
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES / NUNAVUT (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
Science
Mathematics
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
2. Investigate life processes and structures of plants, and interpret
related characteristics and needs of
plants in a local environment
Number
2. Solve problems involving whole numbers and decimal numbers.
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: C6–2.4]
• investigate and interpret variations in plant structure, and
relate these to different ways that plants are adapted to their
environment (e.g., distinguish between plants with shallow
spreading roots and those with deep taproots; describe and
interpret differences in flower form and in the timing of flower
production)
7. Demonstrate an understanding of integers,
concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V]
8. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division
of decimals (1-digit whole number multipliers and 1-digit natural
number divisors).
[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency
and range by:
• determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range
M2
N/A
Statistics and Probability (Data Analysis)
1. Demonstrate an understanding of central tendency
and range by:
• determining the measures of central tendency (mean, median,
mode) and range
M3
Analyzing and Interpreting
Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess
possible explanations
N/A
Compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of
formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs and
line graphs
Communication and Teamwork
Communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results,
using [lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables,] graphs,
[drawings], oral language and other means
Plants for Food and Fibre
• investigate and interpret variations in plant structure, and
relate these to different ways that plants are adapted to their
environment (e.g., distinguish between plants with shallow
spreading roots and those with deep taproots; describe and
interpret differences in flower form and in the timing of flower
production)
M4
N/A
Shape and Space
3. Perform geometric constructions, including:
• perpendicular line segments
• parallel line segments
• perpendicular bisectors
• angle bisectors.
[CN, R, V]
So1
Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess
possible explanations
143
Refer to M4
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES / NUNAVUT (GRADE 7) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES…CONTINUED
Activity
So2
Science
Mathematics
Plants for Food and Fibre: STS and Knowledge
• describe human uses of plants as sources of food and raw
materials, and give examples of other uses (e.g., identify uses
of plants as herbs or medicines; describe plant products, and
identify plant sources on which they depend)
N/A
Mutual Respect
Appreciate that scientific understanding evolves from the
interaction of ideas involving people with different views and
backgrounds
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
Analyzing and Interpreting
N/A
Compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of
formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs and
line graphs
Communication and Teamwork
Communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results,
using [lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables,] graphs,
[drawings], oral language and other means
Plants for Food and Fibre: STS and Knowledge
• describe human uses of plants as sources of food and raw
materials, and give examples of other uses (e.g., identify uses
of plants as herbs or medicines; describe plant products, and
identify plant sources on which they depend)
Performing and Recording
• observe and record data, [and create simple line drawings]
Mutual Respect
Appreciate that scientific understanding evolves from the
interaction of ideas involving people with different views and
backgrounds
L2
Performing and Recording
• observe and record data, [and create simple line drawings]
N/A
The Northwest Territories and Nunavut use the Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) Mathematics, Kindergarten to Grade 12 - Lead: Alberta: The
Common Curriculum Framework for K–9 Mathematics, May 2006 www.wncp.ca/english/subjectarea/mathematics/ccf.aspx
Alberta Junior High Science 7–8–9. 2003 http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/science/programs.aspx
144
APPENDICES
LEGEND:
K - Key activity
SUBJECT-SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
S - Science M - Math So - Social Studies
L - Language Arts
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES / NUNAVUT (GRADE 8) PROVINCIAL CURRICULUM OUTCOMES
Activity
Science
Mathematics
Key Activity
K1
N/A
N/A
K2
N/A
N/A
K3
N/A
N/A
K4
N/A
N/A
K5
N/A
N/A
K6
N/A
N/A
Other Activity
S1
N/A
N/A
S2
N/A
Number
2. Demonstrate an understanding of the addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division of decimals to solve problems (for more
than 1-digit divisors or 2-digit multipliers, the use of technology is
expected).
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: P2–3.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication
and division of integers, concretely, pictorially and
symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]
S3
N/A
N/A
S4
N/A
N/A
S5
N/A
N/A
M1
N/A
Number
2. Demonstrate an understanding of the addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division of decimals to solve problems (for more
than 1-digit divisors or 2-digit multipliers, the use of technology is
expected).
[ME, PS, T] [ICT: P2–3.4]
7. Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication
and division of integers, concretely, pictorially and
symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]
M2
N/A
N/A
M3
Communication and Teamwork
Communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans and results,
using [lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables,] graphs,
[drawings], oral language and other means
N/A
M4
N/A
N/A
So1
N/A
Refer to M4
So2
N/A
N/A
So3
Refer to S3
N/A
L1
N/A
N/A
L2
N/A
N/A
The Northwest Territories and Nunavut use the Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) Mathematics, Kindergarten to Grade 12 - Lead: Alberta: The
Common Curriculum Framework for K–9 Mathematics, May 2006 www.wncp.ca/english/subjectarea/mathematics/ccf.aspx
Alberta Junior High Science 7–8–9. 2003 http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/science/programs.aspx
145
APPENDICES
Notes
146
APPENDICES
Notes
147
PlantWatch
Teacher’s Guide
www.PlantWatch.ca
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