End-Use Energy Data Handbook 1990 to 2000 June 2002

End-Use Energy Data Handbook 1990 to 2000 June 2002
End-Use Energy
Data Handbook
1990 to 2000
June 2002
C A N A D A’ S N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E S :
NOW AND FOR THE FUTURE
w w w. n r c a n . g c . c a
Handbook 1990–2000
Natural Resources
Canada
Ressources naturelles
Canada
End-Use Energy Data Handbook 1990 to 2000
Also published in French under the title: Guide de données sur
la consommation d'énergie des utilisations finales 1990 à 2000
Cat. no. M92-245/2000E
ISBN 0-662-32138-3
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2002
To obtain additional copies of this publication, please write to:
Energy Publications
Office of Energy Efficiency
Natural Resources Canada
c/o DLS
Ottawa ON K1A 0S9
Fax: (819) 779-2833
You can also view or order most of the Office of Energy Efficiency publications on-line.
Visit our Virtual Library at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/infosource.
The Office of Energy Efficiency’s Web site is at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca.
R
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Recycled Paper
D IN CAN
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Printed in Canada
Preface
This is the first edition of the End-Use Energy Data Handbook 1990 to 2000.
The mandate of the Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) of Natural
Resources Canada is to renew, strengthen and expand Canada’s
commitment to energy efficiency; therefore, this handbook fulfils part
of this mandate.
The main objective of this handbook is to provide an overview of Canada’s
sectoral end-use energy markets. For further analysis of the data
contained in this publication, refer to the handbook’s companion document
entitled Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to 2000.
The End-Use Energy Data Handbook 1990 to 2000 covers the five sectors
that the OEE analyses — i.e., the residential, commercial/institutional,
industrial, transportation and agriculture sectors — at a rather aggregate
level. The period 1990 to 2000 was chosen because 1990 is the
reference year for the Kyoto Protocol, and 2000 is the most recent
year for which actual data is available.
This handbook provides data on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions, as well as activity information and relevant indicators. Such
data form the foundation for OEE analysis and of publications such as
Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to 2000. The latter assesses
the influence of several factors over changes in energy use by sector (and
the related changes in GHGs) over the last decade.
You can access a comprehensive database, including most of the historical
energy use and GHG emissions data used by the OEE for its analysis,
at the following Web site:
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/neud/dpa/data_e/databases.cfm.
If you require more information on this publication or the services that the
OEE offers, contact us by e-mail at [email protected]
Preface
i
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
This handbook was prepared by Naima Behidj, Johanne Bernier,
Samuel Blais, Alexandre Dumas, Mohamed Nouhi and Nathalie Trudeau,
who are staff of the Demand Policy and Analysis Division of the OEE,
which is part of Natural Resources Canada. The project leader was
Nathalie Trudeau, and Michel Francoeur provided overall direction.
For more information, contact
Nathalie Trudeau
Economist
Office of Energy Efficiency
Natural Resources Canada
580 Booth Street, 18th Floor
Ottawa ON K1A 0E4
E-mail: [email protected]
ii
Preface
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Chapter 1 – Economy Wide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Canada’s Energy Use by Sector, End-Use and Sub-Sector . . . . . . 2
Canada’s GHG Emissions – Including Electricity-Related
Emissions by Sector, End-Use and Sub-Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Canada’s GHG Emissions – Excluding Electricity-Related
Emissions by Sector, End-Use and Sub-Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 2 – Residential Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The Data Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Residential Energy Use by Fuel Type and End-Use . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Residential GHG Emissions by Fuel Type and End-Use . . . . . . . . 20
Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Residential Lighting and Space Cooling Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Residential Appliances Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Residential Space Heating Energy Use
and System Stock Share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Residential Water Heating Energy Use
and Water Heater Stock Share . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Chapter 3 – Commercial/Institutional Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
The Data Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Commercial Energy Use by Fuel Type,
End-Use and Building Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Commercial Energy Use by Building Type
and Fuel Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Commercial GHG Emissions by Fuel Type,
End-Use and Building Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Contents
iii
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Chapter 4 – Industrial Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
The Data Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Industrial Energy Use and GHG Emissions by Fuel Type . . . . . . . 56
Industrial Energy Use by Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Industrial GHG Emissions by Industry – Including
Electricity-Related Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Industrial GHG Emissions by Industry – Excluding
Electricity-Related Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Industrial Activity Index by Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Chapter 5 – Transportation Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Data Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation Energy Use by Fuel Type
and Transportation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation GHG Emissions by Fuel Type
and Transportation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Passenger Transportation Energy Use by Fuel Type
and Transportation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Passenger Transportation GHG Emissions by Fuel Type
and Transportation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Freight Transportation Energy Use by Fuel Type
and Transportation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Freight Transportation GHG Emissions by Fuel Type
and Transportation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Passenger and Freight Road Transportation Energy Use
and GHG Emissions by Fuel Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transportation Explanatory Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 75
. . . . 75
. . . . 76
. . . . 78
. . . . 80
. . . . 82
. . . . 84
. . . . 86
. . . . 88
. . . . 90
Chapter 6 – Agriculture Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
The Data Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Agriculture Energy Use and GHG Emissions
by Fuel Type and End-Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
iv
Contents
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Appendix A – Reconciliation of Data on Energy Use Found in
This Report With Data in Statistics Canada’s Quarterly
Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada — 2000 . . . . 98
Appendix B – Reconciliation of Definition of Estimated
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Found in This Report
With Environment Canada’s Canada’s Greenhouse
Gas Inventory: 1990–1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Appendix C – Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Contents
v
Chapter 1
Economy Wide
The aggregate energy use data presented in this report are based on
Statistics Canada’s Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in
Canada (QRESD) (Cat. No. 57-003). The QRESD is Canada’s official
energy supply and demand balance in Canada. With regards to the greenhouse gases, particularly the data on carbon dioxide, they are estimated
using emissions factors developed by Environment Canada.
The Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) developed energy models for each
sector of the economy that are presented in this report – i.e., the residential, commercial/institutional, industrial, transportation and agriculture
– to assess trends in energy use in the Canadian economy.
The OEE is continually improving the quality of information used to understand
the evolution of energy use in Canada.
Economy Wide
Chapter 1
1
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Canada’s Energy Use by Sector, End-Use and Sub-Sector (petajoules)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,299.8
1,277.9
1,307.3
1,356.1
1,385.7
Space Heating
784.7
770.2
801.3
837.1
849.8
Water Heating
279.4
275.6
276.9
283.5
295.3
Space Cooling
6.9
9.5
3.5
7.0
7.2
176.8
171.1
173.0
176.6
179.6
129.2
125.1
125.2
122.0
122.3
47.6
46.0
47.7
54.6
57.4
Lighting
52.0
51.4
52.7
52.0
53.9
Commercial a,c,d
Residential a,b
Appliances
Major Appliances
Other
867.0
888.9
901.2
933.1
927.6
Space Heating
428.1
434.4
465.6
482.0
469.4
Water Heating
93.3
94.5
94.3
95.5
96.2
Space Cooling
39.8
49.8
29.1
40.4
44.1
68.6
Auxiliary Equipment
65.5
67.3
67.2
67.8
Auxiliary Motors
103.8
105.2
106.2
107.3
108
Lighting
127.4
129.0
130.3
131.8
133.2
8.9
8.7
8.4
8.3
8.0
Street Lighting
Industrial a
2,754.7
2,701.0
2,723.0
2,748.0
2,911.5
Mining
343.4
327.1
338.6
406.8
415.8
Pulp and Paper
784.7
779.2
780.1
782.7
866.1
Iron and Steel
219.4
235.0
244.9
241.9
250.3
Smelting and Refining
183.3
188.4
198.0
210.8
222.7
59.3
50.8
50.8
51.1
59.2
Chemicals
223.2
232.6
222.5
211.2
242.1
Petroleum Refining
334.9
314.0
321.5
325.0
317.3
Other Manufacturing
531.8
509.5
501.5
460.0
476.5
7.7
6.5
7.4
7.9
7.5
66.9
57.9
57.6
50.7
54.0
Cement
Forestry
Construction
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001 (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
d) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1999, Ottawa,
July 2001, (Cat. No. 57-202). Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
e) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998, February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
f) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
g) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
h) Transport Canada, Surface and Marine Statistics and Forecasts Division, December 1999.
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
2
Chapter 1
Economy Wide
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1,354.7
1,451.1
1,404.5
1,272.7
1,323.3
1,388.1
Total Growth 1990–2000
6.8%
824.3
904.5
860.4
729.8
769.8
830.7
5.9%
290.7
302.5
299.0
293.8
298.1
302.4
8.2%
9.4
7.9
7.6
11.8
13.0
8.6
24.6%
176.6
180.6
181.7
180.5
183.7
186.0
5.2%
118.6
120.1
119.1
116.6
116.7
116.5
-9.8%
58.0
60.6
62.6
63.9
66.9
69.6
46.2%
53.7
55.6
55.9
56.7
58.7
60.3
16.0%
960.9
981.5
998.5
944.1
979.2
1,058.8
22.1%
499.6
522.5
532.9
455.3
481.0
550.8
28.7%
96.2
96.2
97.1
97.9
99.3
104.1
11.6%
47.5
44.7
44.4
61.0
62.3
46.1
15.8%
68.4
68.4
70.2
71.4
73.5
78.5
19.8%
108.3
108.5
110
112
114
120.8
16.4%
133.3
133.7
136.4
139.0
141.7
151.2
18.7%
7.8
7.5
7.4
7.5
7.4
7.3
-18.0%
2,973.6
3,057.5
3,057.2
3,004.0
3,098.5
3,203.5
16.3%
443.7
472.7
474.2
455.1
458.3
490.3
42.8%
871.4
874.4
882.8
884.2
958.9
961.2
22.5%
247.9
252.1
251.2
254.7
259.8
257.7
17.5%
219.9
233.3
231.0
239.7
236.4
226.1
23.3%
61.3
58.5
57.9
63.6
66.8
66.5
12.1%
253.1
255.3
245.9
241.2
240.4
239.4
7.3%
308.4
329.5
320.9
294.6
289.3
296.6
-11.4%
510.9
521.6
532.8
510.4
523.5
599.6
12.7%
7.9
9.6
11.1
12.3
14.8
16.2
110.4%
48.9
50.5
49.5
48.0
50.4
49.9
-25.4%
continued
Economy Wide
Chapter 1
3
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Canada’s Energy Use by Sector, End-Use and Sub-Sector (petajoules) continued
Total Transportation a
Passenger Transportation a,e,f,g
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,877.9
1,807.3
1,850.1
1,873.2
1,967.8
1,149.0
1,094.9
1,125.2
1,143.6
1,193.8
Cars
680.4
659.2
660.6
660.3
659.9
Light Trucks
216.5
206.3
225.5
250.7
284.4
Motorcycles
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0
57.9
57.0
61.6
61.9
70.1
Bus
Rail
Air
Freight Transportation a,f,g,h
5.1
3.3
3.2
3.4
2.9
187.4
167.5
172.8
165.4
174.5
675.3
655.9
666.3
669.9
713.6
Light Trucks
134.9
139.0
144.8
140.1
137.5
Medium Trucks
101.3
98.4
103.4
107.5
114.9
Heavy Trucks
248.2
228.3
225.0
242.5
270.9
84.4
79.6
83.5
83.0
86.4
Marine
106.5
110.6
109.7
96.8
103.9
Off-Road g
53.6
56.5
58.6
59.7
60.4
199.2
195.2
196.9
198.8
195.8
6,998.6
6,870.3
6,978.5
7,109.2
7,388.4
Rail
Agriculture a
Total Energy Use
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001 (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
d) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1999, Ottawa,
July 2001, (Cat. No. 57-202). Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
e) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998, February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
f) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
g) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
h) Transport Canada, Surface and Marine Statistics and Forecasts Division, December 1999.
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
4
Chapter 1
Economy Wide
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2,004.9
2,043.0
2,117.2
2,194.5
2,252.8
2,282.1
1,207.8
1,226.4
1,245.2
1,285.1
1,301.1
1,294.3
12.6%
638.1
623.7
614.5
603.7
595.8
575.8
-15.4%
304.9
320.1
341.3
377.7
394.5
401.0
85.2%
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.3
35.3%
73.3
68.8
70.5
72.9
68.6
73.2
26.4%
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.5
2.5
-51.0%
187.3
209.4
214.6
226.7
237.5
239.5
27.8%
734.7
752.9
805.1
839.3
876.3
905.5
34.1%
136.4
141.9
148.2
161.4
165.6
163.8
21.4%
119.8
126.0
135.0
136.6
149.7
158.1
56.1%
298.3
308.5
344.0
347.8
371.0
389.0
56.7%
78.5
76.6
77.9
74.4
78.6
80.5
-4.6%
101.7
99.9
100.1
119.2
111.5
114.0
7.0%
62.4
63.7
66.9
70.1
75.5
82.3
53.5%
209.2
222.9
230.0
224.7
229.9
231.9
16.4%
7,503.3
7,756.0
7,807.4
7,640.0
7,883.7
8,164.4
16.7%
Economy Wide
Chapter 1
Total Growth 1990–2000
21.5%
5
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Canada’s GHG Emissions — Including Electricity-Related Emissions by Sector,
End-Use and Sub-Sector (megatonnes)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
69.6
66.9
71.9
68.9
69.1
Space Heating
41.3
39.8
42.6
42.6
42.5
Water Heating
15.2
14.6
15.4
14.5
14.9
Space Cooling
0.4
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.3
Appliances
9.9
9.2
10.5
8.8
8.7
Major Appliances
7.2
6.8
7.6
6.1
5.8
Other
2.7
2.5
2.9
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.8
3.2
2.6
2.6
Commercial a,c,d,i
47.8
47.9
51.2
48.5
47.4
Space Heating
23.4
23.5
25.5
25.6
24.7
Water Heating
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
Space Cooling
2.2
2.7
1.7
2.0
2.1
Auxiliary Equipment
3.7
3.7
4.0
3.5
3.4
Auxiliary Motors
5.8
5.7
6.4
5.4
5.3
Lighting
7.1
6.9
7.9
6.6
6.5
Street Lighting
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
Residential a,b,i
Lighting
Industrial a,i
141.1
136.0
141.2
135.5
138.1
Mining
21.2
20.1
21.3
23.7
24.3
Pulp and Paper
24.1
23.2
23.4
21.7
21.5
Iron and Steel
15.9
17.0
17.7
17.0
17.2
Smelting and Refining
10.7
10.6
12.3
11.1
11.6
Cement
4.2
3.6
3.6
3.5
4.0
Chemicals
10.8
10.9
11.2
10.3
11.5
Petroleum Refining
20.7
19.5
20.1
20.3
19.5
Other Manufacturing
28.5
26.9
27.4
24.0
24.4
Forestry
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
Construction
4.4
3.8
3.7
3.3
3.5
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001 (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
d) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1999, Ottawa,
July 2001, (Cat. No. 57-202). Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
e) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998. February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
f) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
g) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
h) Transport Canada, Surface and Marine Statistics and Forecast Division, December 1999.
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
i) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
6
Chapter 1
Economy Wide
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
68.5
73.0
72.4
69.2
70.7
74.7
7.3%
41.4
45.7
43.4
37.8
39.6
42.8
3.6%
14.9
15.3
15.7
16.2
16.1
16.6
9.2%
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.7
0.8
0.5
25.0%
13.1%
8.9
8.8
9.8
11.0
10.8
11.2
6.0
5.9
6.4
7.0
6.8
6.9
-4.2%
2.9
3.0
3.4
3.9
3.9
4.2
55.6%
2.7
2.7
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.6
24.1%
50.4
50.5
53.8
53.9
54.6
59.9
25.3%
26.7
27.7
28.6
24.8
26.0
30.1
28.6%
5.1
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.6
12.0%
2.4
2.2
2.4
3.7
3.6
2.7
22.7%
3.5
3.4
3.9
4.4
4.3
4.7
27.0%
5.5
5.3
6.0
6.9
6.7
7.3
25.9%
6.7
6.5
7.4
8.5
8.3
9.1
28.2%
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4
-20.0%
143.2
146.8
150.8
152.3
152.1
159.3
12.9%
26.3
27.7
28.5
28.3
28.2
30.3
42.9%
22.1
22.1
23.5
23.7
24.1
24.6
2.1%
17.2
17.3
17.3
17.7
18.1
18.0
13.2%
11.8
12.2
13.0
14.8
14.1
13.7
28.0%
4.1
3.9
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.3
2.4%
12.0
12.1
12.4
12.7
12.6
12.6
16.7%
19.4
20.6
20.1
19.2
18.3
18.9
-8.7%
26.5
26.8
27.9
27.6
27.9
32.3
13.3%
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.2
100.0%
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.3
-25.0%
continued
Economy Wide
Chapter 1
7
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Canada’s GHG Emissions — Including Electricity-Related Emissions by Sector,
End-Use and Sub-Sector (megatonnes) continued
Total Transportation a,i
Passenger Transportation a,e,f,g,i
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
135.0
129.8
132.9
134.6
141.5
81.9
77.9
80.1
81.5
85.1
Cars
48.1
46.6
46.7
46.7
46.7
Light Trucks
15.7
14.9
16.3
18.1
20.6
Motorcycles
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Bus
4.0
4.0
4.3
4.3
4.9
Rail
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
Air
13.6
12.1
12.5
12.0
12.6
52.1
Freight Transportation a,f,g,h,i
49.4
47.9
48.7
49.0
Light Trucks
9.5
9.8
10.2
9.9
9.7
Medium Trucks
7.3
7.1
7.5
7.8
8.3
19.3
Heavy Trucks
17.7
16.3
16.0
17.3
Rail
6.7
6.3
6.6
6.6
6.9
Marine
8.1
8.4
8.4
7.4
7.9
3.8
4.0
4.1
4.2
4.2
13.7
13.3
13.6
13.3
13.3
407.2
393.9
410.8
400.8
409.4
Off-Road g,i
Agriculture a,i
Total GHG Emissions
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001 (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
d) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1999, Ottawa,
July 2001, (Cat. No. 57-202). Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
e) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998. February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
f) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
g) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
h) Transport Canada, Surface and Marine Statistics and Forecast Division, December 1999.
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
i) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
8
Chapter 1
Economy Wide
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
144.1
146.8
152.2
156.9
161.1
163.4
21.0%
86.1
87.5
88.9
90.7
91.9
91.5
11.7%
45.1
44.1
43.4
42.3
41.8
40.4
-16.0%
22.0
23.1
24.7
27.1
28.3
28.7
82.8%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
100.0%
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.1
4.8
5.2
30.0%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
-50.0%
13.5
15.1
15.5
15.9
16.7
16.8
23.5%
53.6
54.8
58.6
61.2
64.0
66.1
33.8%
9.6
10.0
10.5
11.4
11.7
11.6
22.1%
8.6
9.1
9.7
9.8
10.8
11.4
56.2%
21.3
22.0
24.5
25.0
26.7
28.0
58.2%
6.2
6.1
6.2
6.0
6.3
6.5
-3.0%
7.8
7.6
7.7
9.0
8.5
8.6
6.2%
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.7
50.0%
14.4
15.2
15.9
15.9
16.2
16.4
19.7%
420.6
432.3
445.1
448.2
454.7
473.7
16.3%
Economy Wide
Chapter 1
9
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Canada’s GHG Emissions — Excluding Electricity-Related Emissions by Sector,
End-Use and Sub-Sector (megatonnes)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
43.4
41.8
43.0
45.1
45.8
Space Heating
34.4
32.9
34.0
35.6
35.9
Water Heating
8.8
8.7
8.7
9.2
9.8
Space Cooling
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Residential a,b,i
Appliances
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
Major Appliances
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
Other
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lighting
Commercial a,c,d,i
25.9
26.5
27.1
28.1
27.5
Space Heating
20.5
20.8
21.6
22.6
21.9
Water Heating
4.7
4.8
4.7
4.8
4.8
Space Cooling
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
Auxiliary Equipment
0.6
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
Auxiliary Motors
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lighting
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Street Lighting
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Industrial a,i
104.2
100.1
100.3
100.8
103.4
Mining
15.4
14.6
15.1
18.5
19.3
Pulp and Paper
14.2
13.5
12.5
12.4
12.2
Iron and Steel
14.2
15.5
15.9
15.5
15.7
Smelting and Refining
3.3
2.6
2.9
2.7
3.3
Cement
3.8
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.6
Chemicals
7.1
7.5
7.5
7.3
8.6
Petroleum Refining
19.6
18.4
18.8
19.2
18.4
Other Manufacturing
21.6
20.5
20.1
18.0
18.3
Forestry
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
Construction
4.4
3.8
3.7
3.3
3.5
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001 (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
d) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1999, Ottawa,
July 2001, (Cat. No. 57-202). Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
e) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998. February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
f) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
g) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
h) Transport Canada, Surface and Marine Statistics and Forecast Division, December 1999.
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
i) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
10
Chapter 1
Economy Wide
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
44.5
49.2
46.2
40.6
42.5
44.7
Total Growth 1990–2000
3.0%
34.7
38.8
35.9
30.4
32.2
34.2
-0.6%
9.6
10.2
10.1
10.0
10.1
10.2
15.9%
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
–
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.0%
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
–
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
–
29.0
29.7
30.1
27.4
28.9
32.6
25.9%
23.3
24.0
24.3
21.5
22.9
26.3
28.3%
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.9
5.2
10.6%
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.4
300.0%
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.7
16.7%
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
–
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
–
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
–
105.8
110.4
109.7
105.1
105.9
110.4
6.0%
20.6
22.0
22.1
20.8
21.4
23.0
49.4%
11.9
12.4
12.4
11.4
11.4
11.2
-21.1%
15.6
15.7
15.5
15.5
15.9
15.8
11.3%
3.1
3.5
3.3
3.6
3.3
2.8
-15.2%
3.8
3.6
3.6
3.7
4.0
3.9
2.6%
8.5
8.8
8.9
8.6
8.5
8.3
16.9%
18.5
19.7
19.1
18.1
17.2
17.8
-9.2%
20.0
20.5
20.7
19.3
19.9
23.1
6.9%
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.2
100.0%
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.3
-25.0%
continued
Economy Wide
Chapter 1
11
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Canada’s GHG Emissions — Excluding Electricity-Related Emissions by Sector,
End-Use and Sub-Sector (megatonnes) continued
Total Transportation a,i
Passenger Transportation a,e,f,g,i
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
134.8
129.7
132.7
134.5
141.3
81.7
77.8
79.9
81.3
84.9
Cars
48.1
46.6
46.7
46.7
46.7
Light Trucks
15.7
14.9
16.3
18.1
20.6
Motorcycles
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Bus
3.9
3.8
4.1
4.1
4.7
Rail
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
Air
13.6
12.1
12.5
12.0
12.6
52.1
Freight Transportation a,f,g,h,i
49.4
47.9
48.7
49
Light Trucks
9.5
9.8
10.2
9.9
9.7
Medium Trucks
7.3
7.1
7.5
7.8
8.3
19.3
Heavy Trucks
17.7
16.3
16.0
17.3
Rail
6.7
6.3
6.6
6.6
6.9
Marine
8.1
8.4
8.4
7.4
7.9
3.8
4
4.1
4.2
4.2
12
11.5
11.5
11.6
11.6
320.3
309.6
314.6
320.1
329.6
Off-Road g,i
Agriculture a,i
Total GHG Emissions
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001 (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
d) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1999, Ottawa,
July 2001, (Cat. No. 57-202). Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
e) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998. February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
f) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
g) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
h) Transport Canada, Surface and Marine Statistics and Forecast Division, December 1999.
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
i) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
12
Chapter 1
Economy Wide
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
143.9
146.7
152
156.7
161
163.2
21.1%
86
87.3
88.7
90.6
91.7
91.3
11.8%
45.1
44.1
43.5
42.3
41.8
40.4
-16.0%
22.0
23.1
24.7
27.1
28.3
28.7
82.8%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
100.0%
5.0
4.6
4.8
5.0
4.7
5.0
28.2%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
-50.0%
13.5
15.1
15.5
15.9
16.7
16.8
23.5%
53.6
54.8
58.6
61.2
64
66.1
33.8%
9.6
10.0
10.5
11.4
11.7
11.6
22.1%
8.6
9.1
9.7
9.8
10.8
11.4
56.2%
21.3
22.0
24.5
25.0
26.7
28.0
58.2%
6.2
6.1
6.2
6.0
6.3
6.5
-3.0%
7.8
7.6
7.7
9.0
8.5
8.6
6.2%
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.7
50.0%
12.6
13.5
14
13.8
14.2
14.3
19.2%
335.8
349.5
352.0
343.6
352.5
365.2
14.0%
Economy Wide
Chapter 1
13
Chapter 2
Residential Sector
The Data Situation
Aggregate data on residential energy use are reported on a quarterly basis
in Statistics Canada’s Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in
Canada (QRESD) (Cat. No. 57-003). Additional data on the characteristics
of residential equipment and housing stock are collected in Statistics
Canada’s Survey of Household Spending, which replaced the previous
Household Facilities and Equipment Survey.
Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) has also collected additional information
through two types of surveys sponsored by the National Energy Use
Database (NEUD): stock surveys and flow surveys. Stock surveys have
two main goals. First, they aim to collect information on the characteristics
of energy-using appliances and equipment, the state of dwellings and the
building stock, and the profile of consumers (including consumption
habits). Their second goal is to collect data on the annual energy
consumption of households. Flow surveys, however, gather information on
variables affecting the housing stock, such as the characteristics
of new equipment and new housing, and retrofit activities. For more
information on the surveys conducted by the NEUD, visit its Web site at:
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/neud/dpa/data_e/neud_publications.cfm.
Furthermore, the Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) developed the Residential
Energy Use Model (REUM). This stock accounting model assesses trends
in energy use in the Canadian residential sector. It is disaggregated at the
provincial level and includes five end uses (space heating, water heating,
appliances, lighting and space cooling).
Using data on the characteristics of the stock of residential buildings and
equipment, the REUM allocates the energy use reported by Statistics
Canada in its QRESD to five end uses. To estimate the end-use energy
use, the model uses annual stock and sales data and couples them with
demand loads and unit energy consumption of the equipment stock.
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
15
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
The model estimates the household stock data by building type and vintage,
using data found in the Household Facilities and Equipment Survey for the
pre-1997 period and in the Survey of Household Spending for 1997
onward. The OEE estimated the floor space data found in the model by
using results from those two surveys, as well as the Building Permits
Survey also conducted by Statistics Canada and from the 1993 and 1997
Survey of Household Energy Use, conducted by Statistics Canada on
behalf of NRCan. The data on residential equipment stock comes
from Statistics Canada’s Survey of Household Spending, as well as other
industry surveys. The data on demand load and unit energy consumption
comes from various studies, some conducted at the request of NRCan.
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
17
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Residential Energy Use by Fuel Type and End-Use
Total Energy Use (PJ) a,d
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,299.8
1,277.9
1,307.3
1,356.1
1,385.7
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) a,d
Electricity
467.4
465.8
476.0
476.7
478.4
Natural Gas
528.4
531.8
553.3
593.5
631.5
Heating Oil
186.4
162.3
166.5
172.5
163.0
Wood
95.8
94.8
91.1
99.5
99.0
Propane
19.9
21.2
18.4
12.1
12.3
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.8
1.5
Space Heating
784.7
770.2
801.3
837.1
849.8
Water Heating
279.4
275.6
276.9
283.5
295.3
Appliances
176.8
171.1
173.0
176.6
179.6
52.0
51.4
52.7
52.0
53.9
6.9
9.5
3.5
7.0
7.2
1,253.5
1,300.0
1,326.6
1,359.4
1,393.0
9,966
10,255
10,437
10,633
10,793
Coal and Other
Energy Use by End-Use (PJ) d
Lighting
Space Cooling
Activity
Total Floor Space (million m2) d
Total Households (thousands) b,c,d
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) a,d
Energy Intensity (GJ/household) a,b,c,d
1.04
0.98
0.99
1.00
0.99
130.4
124.6
125.3
127.5
128.4
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Statistics Canada, Survey of Household Spending in 1997–2000, Ottawa, October 2001, (Cat. No. 62F0041).
c) Statistics Canada, Household Facilities and Equipment,1990–1997, Ottawa, October 1990 – October 1997, (Cat. No. 64-202).
d) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
18
Chapter 2
Residential Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1,354.7
1,451.1
1,404.5
1,272.7
1,323.3
1,388.1
Total Growth 1990–2000
473.8
486.9
484.2
465.6
479.8
497.6
6.5%
630.5
696.0
648.1
577.8
609.3
644.8
22.0%
138.0
158.9
147.1
126.1
131.0
132.4
-29.0%
95.5
93.0
109.4
89.2
91.0
100.3
4.7%
14.5
14.2
13.8
12.4
10.5
11.4
-42.7%
2.3
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.7
1.6
-20.0%
824.3
904.5
860.4
729.8
769.8
830.7
5.9%
290.7
302.5
299.0
293.8
298.1
302.4
8.2%
176.6
180.6
181.7
180.5
183.7
186.0
5.2%
53.7
55.6
55.9
56.7
58.7
60.3
16.0%
9.4
7.9
7.6
11.8
13.0
8.6
24.6%
1,420.1
1,433.5
1,431.6
1,448.4
1,458.7
1,484.4
18.4%
10,977
11,148
11,224
11,385
11,553
11,728
17.7%
6.8%
0.95
1.01
0.98
0.88
0.91
0.94
-9.6%
123.4
130.2
125.1
111.8
114.5
118.4
-9.2%
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
19
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Residential GHG Emissions by Fuel Type and End-Use
Total GHG Emissions Including Electricity (Mt) a,d,i
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
69.6
66.9
71.9
68.9
69.1
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type (Mt) a,d,i
Electricity
26.2
25.0
28.9
23.8
23.3
Natural Gas
26.6
26.7
27.8
29.7
31.2
Heating Oil
13.7
11.9
12.2
12.7
12.0
Wood
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8
Propane
1.2
1.2
1.1
0.7
0.7
Coal and Other
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
Space Heating
41.3
39.8
42.6
42.6
42.5
Water Heating
15.2
14.6
15.4
14.5
14.9
Appliances
9.9
9.2
10.5
8.8
8.7
Lighting
2.9
2.8
3.2
2.6
2.6
Space Cooling
0.4
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.3
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,d,i
53.6
52.3
55.0
50.8
49.8
Total GHG Emissions Excluding Electricity (Mt) a,d,i
43.4
41.8
43.0
45.1
45.8
Space Heating
34.4
32.9
34.0
35.6
35.9
Water Heating
8.8
8.7
8.7
9.2
9.8
Appliances
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
GHG Emissions by End-Use (Mt) d,i
GHG Emissions by End-Use (Mt) d,i
Lighting
0
0
0
0
0
Space Cooling
0
0
0
0
0
33.4
32.7
32.9
33.2
33.1
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,d,i
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
d) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
i) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
20
Chapter 2
Residential Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
68.5
73.0
72.4
69.2
70.7
74.7
7.3%
24.0
23.8
26.3
28.6
28.2
30.0
14.5%
31.5
34.8
32.3
28.8
30.4
32.3
21.4%
10.1
11.7
10.8
9.2
9.6
9.7
-29.2%
1.8
1.7
2.0
1.6
1.7
1.8
0.0%
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.7
-41.7%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
41.4
45.7
43.4
37.8
39.6
42.8
3.6%
14.9
15.3
15.7
16.2
16.1
16.6
9.2%
8.9
8.8
9.8
11.0
10.8
11.2
13.1%
2.7
2.7
3.0
3.5
3.5
3.6
24.1%
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.7
0.8
0.5
25.0%
50.5
50.3
51.6
54.4
53.4
53.8
0.4%
44.5
49.2
46.2
40.6
42.5
44.7
3.0%
34.7
38.8
35.9
30.4
32.2
34.2
-0.6%
9.6
10.2
10.1
10.0
10.1
10.2
15.9%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
32.8
33.9
32.9
31.9
32.1
32.2
-3.6%
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
21
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space
Total Housing Stock (thousands) d
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
11,026
11,365
11,583
11,813
12,047
Housing Stock by Building Type (thousands) d
Single Detached
5,997
6,219
6,267
6,405
6,575
Single Attached
1,014
1,044
1,140
1,179
1,235
Apartments
3,722
3,785
3,840
3,892
3,904
293
317
336
338
333
Mobile Homes
Housing Stock by Vintage (thousands) d
before 1946
2,089
2,082
2,072
2,061
2,049
1946–1960
2,098
2,093
2,088
2,081
2,077
1961–1977
3,194
3,190
3,181
3,165
3,155
1978–1983
1,263
1,200
1,190
1,181
1,174
1984–1995
2,382
2,800
3,051
3,325
3,591
1996–2000
0
0
0
0
0
1,254
1,300
1,327
1,359
1,393
Total Floor Space (million m2) d
Floor Space by Building Type (million m2) d
Single Detached
794
829
837
861
887
Single Attached
115
118
129
134
140
Apartments
317
322
327
332
333
28
30
33
33
33
Mobile Homes
Floor Space by Vintage (million m2) d
before 1946
239
238
237
236
235
1946–1960
214
213
213
212
212
1961–1977
347
346
345
344
343
1978–1983
154
146
145
144
144
1984–1995
300
356
386
423
460
1996–2000
0
0
0
0
0
113.7
114.4
114.5
115.1
115.6
Average Size of Housing Unit (m2/house) d
By House Type (m2/house) d
Single Detached
132.4
133.3
133.6
134.4
135
Single Attached
113.2
113.2
113.4
113.3
113.1
85
85.1
85.2
85.3
85.4
95.2
96.2
97
97.7
97.9
Apartments
Mobile Homes
By Vintage (m2/house) d
before 1946
114.4
114.5
114.5
114.6
114.6
1946–1960
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
1961–1977
108.6
108.6
108.6
108.7
108.7
1978–1983
121.8
122
122.1
122.4
122.4
1984–1995
126
127.1
126.4
127.1
128
1996–2000
0
0
0
0
0
Sources:
d) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
22
Chapter 2
Residential Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
12,278
12,330
12,257
12,324
12,374
12,552
13.8%
6,638
6,696
6,735
6,827
6,856
6,949
15.9%
1,344
1,353
1,321
1,320
1,348
1,355
33.6%
3,972
3,998
3,911
3,876
3,891
3,949
6.1%
324
283
290
301
279
298
1.7%
2,038
2,021
1,998
1,975
1,946
1,935
-7.4%
2,069
2,055
2,029
1,996
1,950
1,933
-7.9%
3,142
3,131
3,080
3,023
2,983
2,973
-6.9%
1,167
1,159
1,132
1,109
1,096
1,090
-13.7%
3,862
3,537
3,373
3,259
3,201
3,161
32.7%
0
428
645
961
1,198
1,460
–
1,420
1,433
1,432
1,448
1,459
1,484
18.3%
897
910
918
936
943
960
20.9%
151
154
151
152
155
157
36.5%
340
342
334
331
333
338
6.6%
32
28
29
30
27
29
3.6%
234
232
229
227
224
222
-7.1%
211
209
207
204
199
197
-7.9%
342
340
335
329
325
324
-6.6%
143
142
139
136
135
134
-13.0%
491
451
432
418
411
407
35.7%
0
59
89
134
165
200
–
115.7
116.3
116.8
117.5
117.9
118.3
4.0%
135.2
136
136.3
137.1
137.6
138.1
4.3%
112.6
113.5
114.3
115
115.3
115.9
2.4%
85.5
85.5
85.4
85.3
85.5
85.6
0.7%
98.2
98
98.2
98.5
98.5
98.7
3.7%
114.7
114.6
114.8
114.8
114.9
114.9
0.4%
101.9
101.9
102
102
102.1
102.1
0.2%
108.7
108.7
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
0.3%
122.5
122.6
122.8
122.9
122.9
123
1.0%
127.1
127.6
128
128.4
128.5
128.7
2.1%
0
137.1
137.9
139.4
138
136.9
–
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
Total Growth 1990–2000
23
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Residential Lighting and Space Cooling Details
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
52
51.4
52.7
52
53.9
1,253.5
1,300.0
1,326.6
1,359.4
1,393.0
Energy Intensity (MJ/m2) d
41.5
39.6
39.7
38.3
38.7
Heat Loss (PJ) d
21.3
21.3
23.1
23.3
23.5
6.9
9.5
3.5
7
7.2
Room
1.4
1.7
0.6
1.1
1.1
Central
5.5
7.8
2.9
5.8
6
318
342.1
356.9
377.5
394.9
Energy Intensity (MJ/m2) d
21.7
27.8
9.8
18.4
18.1
Cooling Degree-Days Index g
1.05
1.35
0.54
0.99
0.98
2,466
2,619
2,721
2,860
2,968
Total Lighting Energy Use (PJ)* d
Activity
Total Floor Space (million m2) d
Total Space Cooling Energy Use (PJ)* d
Energy Use by Cooling-System Type (PJ) d
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) d
Total Cooling System Stock (thousands) b,c,d
System Stock by Cooling-System Type (thousands) b,c,d
Room
1,090
1,091
1,079
1,095
1,104
Central
1,376
1,528
1,642
1,765
1,864
Room (EER)1
7.1
7.2
8.4
8.4
9.1
Central (SEER)2
9.1
9.3
9.6
9.7
10.2
Room (EER)1
6.8
6.9
6.9
7
7.2
Central (SEER)2
8.5
8.7
8.8
8.9
9.1
Cooling Systems New Units Efficiencies d
Cooling Systems Stock Efficiencies d
* Lighting and space cooling consume only electricity.
1) Energy Efficiency Ratio.
2) Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio.
Sources:
b) Statistics Canada, Survey of Household Spending in 1997–2000, Ottawa, October 2001, (Cat. No. 62F0041).
c) Statistics Canada, Household Facilities and Equipment,1990–1997, Ottawa, October 1990 – October 1997, (Cat. No. 64-202).
d) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
g) Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Monthly Summary of Degree-Days above 18.0°C,
Toronto, 1990–2000.
24
Chapter 2
Residential Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
53.7
55.6
55.9
56.7
58.7
60.3
16.0%
1,420.1
1,433.5
1,431.6
1,448.4
1,458.7
1,484.4
18.4%
37.8
38.8
39
39.2
40.3
40.6
-2.2%
23.4
25.3
24.4
21.2
23.1
25.8
21.1%
9.4
7.9
7.6
11.8
13
8.6
24.6%
1.4
1.2
1.2
1.7
1.9
1.2
-14.3%
8
6.7
6.4
10.1
11.1
7.4
34.5%
415.9
440.4
463.2
488.7
501.4
514.9
61.9%
22.7
18
16.3
24.1
25.9
16.7
-23.0%
1.14
0.96
0.89
1.26
1.42
0.86
-18.1%
3,121
3,319
3,516
3,708
3,854
3,941
59.8%
1,158
1,257
1,353
1,405
1,448
1,451
33.1%
1,963
2,061
2,163
2,304
2,406
2,490
81.0%
9.2
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
32.4%
10.2
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
13.2%
7.4
7.6
7.8
7.9
8.1
8.3
22.1%
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
14.1%
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
25
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Residential Appliances Details
Total Appliances Energy Use (PJ) d
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
176.8
171.1
173
176.6
179.6
173.1
167.5
169.6
172.7
175.9
3.6
3.6
3.4
3.8
3.7
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) d
Electricity
Natural Gas
Energy Use by Appliance Type (PJ) d
Refrigerator
51.8
49.7
49.3
47.2
46.3
Freezer
21
20.3
20
19.3
19.3
Dishwasher1
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
Clothes Washer1
2.3
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.3
Clothes Dryer
28.1
27.3
27.5
27
27.4
Range
24.2
23.8
24.3
24.4
25.2
Other*
47.6
46
47.7
54.6
57.4
Total Households (thousands) b,c,d
9,966
10,255
10,437
10,633
10,793
Energy Intensity (GJ/household) b,c,d
17.7
16.7
16.6
16.6
16.6
Activity
Heat Loss by Appliance Type (PJ) d
Refrigerator
21.5
20.9
21.9
21.4
20.5
Freezer
8.8
8.6
8.9
8.8
8.6
Dishwasher
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
1
0.9
1
1
1
3.3
3.2
3.4
3.4
3.4
Clothes Washer
Clothes Dryer
Range
10
10
10.8
11.1
11.1
Other*
19.7
19.3
21.2
24.8
25.4
Penetration Rate by Appliance Type (appliances per household) b,c,d
Refrigerator
1.18
1.18
1.18
1.19
1.18
Freezer
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.58
0.58
Dishwasher
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.46
Clothes Washer
0.75
0.74
0.75
0.76
0.76
Clothes Dryer
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.74
0.74
Range
0.98
0.98
0.99
0.99
0.98
* “Other” includes televisions, video cassette recorders, digital video disc players, radios, computers, toasters, etc.
1) Excludes hot water requirements.
Sources:
b) Statistics Canada, Survey of Household Spending in 1997–2000, Ottawa, October 2001, (Cat. No. 62F0041).
c) Statistics Canada, Household Facilities and Equipment,1990–1997, Ottawa, October 1990 – October 1997, (Cat. No. 64-202).
d) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
e) Special tabulations from Energy Consumption of Major Household Appliances Marketed in Canada
—Trends for 1990–2000, Ottawa.
26
Chapter 2
Residential Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
176.6
180.6
181.7
180.5
183.7
186
5.2%
172.9
176.2
177.4
176.3
179.5
181.7
5.0%
3.7
4.4
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.3
19.4%
43.9
43.9
42.6
40.8
40.8
39.6
-23.6%
18.2
18
17.7
16.7
15.9
15.5
-26.2%
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.8
0.0%
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
0.0%
27.2
27.7
28.3
28.4
28.5
29
3.2%
25.2
26.4
26.4
26.6
27.5
28.3
16.9%
58
60.6
62.6
63.9
66.9
69.6
46.2%
10,977
11,148
11,224
11,385
11,553
11,728
17.7%
16.1
16.2
16.2
15.9
15.9
15.9
-10.2%
19.4
20.2
18.8
15.4
16.2
17.1
-20.5%
8.1
8.4
7.9
6.4
6.4
6.8
-22.7%
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.0%
1
1.1
1
0.9
0.9
1
0.0%
3.4
3.6
3.5
3
3.2
3.5
6.1%
11.1
12.1
11.6
10
10.9
12.2
22.0%
25.7
27.8
27.7
24.2
26.5
30.1
52.8%
1.18
1.20
1.22
1.22
1.24
1.22
3.4%
0.57
0.57
0.59
0.59
0.58
0.58
1.8%
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.51
0.49
0.51
21.4%
0.78
0.78
0.81
0.81
0.80
0.81
8.0%
0.76
0.76
0.80
0.81
0.80
0.81
11.0%
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
1.0%
continued
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
27
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Residential Appliances Details continued
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
UEC2 for New Electric Appliances (kWh/year) e
Refrigerator
956
931
902
720
650
Freezer
714
445
449
402
389
Dishwasher1
123
115
109
110
93
97
96
94
88
79
1,103
1,109
983
928
910
772
778
779
782
774
Clothes Washer1
Clothes Dryer
Range
UEC2 for New Natural Gas Appliances (kWh/year) d
Clothes Dryer
925
912
906
903
896
1,357
1,294
1,283
1,267
1,251
Refrigerator
1,525
1,478
1,427
1,363
1,294
Freezer
1,291
1,250
1,206
1,157
1,108
Dishwasher1
153
149
144
139
133
Clothes Washer1
106
105
103
101
99
1,314
1,293
1,265
1,233
1,200
802
800
798
796
793
Clothes Dryer
1,468
1,398
1,314
1,228
1,156
Range
1,534
1,521
1,505
1,481
1,456
Range
UEC2 for Stock of Electric Appliances (kWh/year) d
Clothes Dryer
Range
UEC2 for Stock of Natural Gas Appliances (kWh/year) d
* “Other” includes televisions, video cassette recorders, digital video disc players, radios, computers, toasters, etc.
1) Excludes hot water requirements.
2) Unit energy consumption based on rated efficiency.
Sources:
b) Statistics Canada, Survey of Household Spending in 1997–2000, Ottawa, October 2001, (Cat. No. 62F0041).
c) Statistics Canada, Household Facilities and Equipment,1990–1997, Ottawa, October 1990 – October 1997, (Cat. No. 64-202).
d) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
e) Special tabulations from Energy Consumption of Major Household Appliances Marketed in Canada
—Trends for 1990–2000, Ottawa.
28
Chapter 2
Residential Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
642
640
657
651
645
640
-33.1%
382
377
376
381
383
391
-45.2%
81
80
78
78
77
76
-38.2%
77
76
74
72
69
67
-30.9%
909
887
887
900
908
910
-17.5%
771
774
772
771
759
760
-1.6%
889
880
880
880
880
880
-4.9%
1,236
1,226
1,226
1,226
1,226
1,226
-9.7%
1,230
1,166
1,105
1,047
993
945
-38.0%
1,057
1,005
949
893
836
782
-39.4%
127
122
116
111
106
101
-34.0%
97
94
92
89
87
84
-20.8%
1,171
1,141
1,112
1,087
1,063
1,042
-20.7%
791
789
787
785
782
780
-2.7%
1,100
1,050
1,010
979
955
938
-36.1%
1,432
1,410
1,387
1,364
1,344
1,326
-13.6%
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
29
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Residential Space Heating Energy Use and System Stock Share
Total Space Heating Energy Use (PJ) d
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
784.7
770.2
801.3
837.1
849.8
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) d
Electricity
122.5
127.4
140.1
138.7
136.4
Natural Gas
380.4
382.9
401.1
430.6
455.6
Heating Oil
167.5
146.2
151.9
156.7
147.3
Wood
95.5
94.5
90.8
99.1
98.7
Propane
16.9
17.3
15.5
10.3
10.5
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.4
Coal and Other
Energy Use by Vintage (PJ) d
before 1946
226.8
216.4
224.8
230.5
228.4
1946–1960
154.7
147.4
151.4
155.5
154.8
1961–1977
196.7
188.4
191.5
196.7
196.6
1978–1983
85
77.5
78.5
80.4
80.3
1984–1995
121.4
140.5
155.1
174
189.8
1996–2000
0
0
0
0
0
1,253.5
1,300.0
1,326.6
1,359.4
1,393.0
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) d
0.63
0.59
0.6
0.62
0.61
Heat Gains (PJ) d
91.3
90
96.4
100.1
100
Heating Degree-Days Index f
0.92
0.93
0.99
1.01
0.99
Heating Oil – Normal Efficiency
14
12.8
12
10.6
10.6
Heating Oil – Medium Efficiency
0.2
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.3
0
0
0
0
0
40.4
39.8
39.2
38.6
38
Activity
Total Floor Space (million m2) d
Heating System Stock Share by System Type (%) d
Heating Oil – High Efficiency
Natural Gas – Normal Efficiency
Natural Gas – Medium Efficiency
1.1
1.3
2.5
3.6
4.6
Natural Gas – High Efficiency
2.3
2.5
2.9
3.2
3.7
Electric
28
28.6
29
29.1
27.8
Heat Pump
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.8
Propane
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.8
1
Wood
1.6
1.6
1.1
1.7
1.9
Coal and Other
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
Duals
Wood/Electric
5.5
5.2
4.9
4.7
4.6
Wood/Heating Oil
2.6
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.2
Gas/Electric
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
Heating Oil/Electric
0.9
0.9
1
1
1
Sources:
d) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
f) Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Monthly Summary of Degree-Days below 18.0°C,
Toronto, 1990–2000.
30
Chapter 2
Residential Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
824.3
904.5
860.4
729.8
769.8
830.7
5.9%
133.6
142
139.4
120
125.6
141.9
15.8%
455.6
509.8
467.2
399.8
428.1
461
21.2%
125.3
145.3
132.2
111.2
116.1
117.9
-29.6%
95.3
92.7
108.5
87.8
90.3
99.3
4.0%
12.3
12.5
11.1
9.5
8.1
9
-46.7%
2.2
2.1
1.9
1.6
1.6
1.5
-21.1%
216.9
234.7
222.5
179.4
188.4
201.6
-11.1%
148.3
160.9
151
125.1
129.1
136.4
-11.8%
189.2
207.1
192.5
162.7
167.8
178.2
-9.4%
77
84.2
77.7
65.5
67.6
71.9
-15.4%
193
190.8
176.5
145.7
150.7
157.7
29.9%
0
26.9
40.2
51.5
66.2
84.9
–
1,420.1
1,433.5
1,431.6
1,448.4
1,458.7
1,484.4
18.4%
0.58
0.63
0.6
0.5
0.53
0.56
-11.1%
98.5
105.4
101.5
86.7
93
103.1
12.9%
0.99
1.03
0.98
0.85
0.89
0.96
4.3%
9.8
9.2
8.3
8
7.4
7
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.5
3.5
2.8
0
0
0
0
0
0
36.6
35.2
33.1
31.6
30.6
28.4
5.4
6.1
7.1
8.3
8.9
10.5
4.1
4.7
5.3
6.2
6.5
7.1
28.5
29.5
29.4
29.2
28.6
29.5
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
1
0.9
1.1
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.6
2.2
2.2
2.3
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.4
0.3
5
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.5
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
1
1
1
1
1
1
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
31
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Residential Water Heating Energy Use and Water Heater Stock Share
Total Water Heating Energy Use (PJ) d
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
279.4
275.6
276.9
283.5
295.3
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) d
Electricity
112.8
109.9
110.1
106.3
105.1
Natural Gas
144.4
145.3
148.8
159.1
172.2
Heating Oil
18.8
16
14.7
15.8
15.8
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
3
4
2.9
1.8
1.8
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
Total Households (thousands) b,c,d
9,966
10,255
10,437
10,633
10,793
Energy Intensity (GJ/household) b,c,d
28
26.9
26.5
26.7
27.4
Wood
Propane
Coal and Other
Activity
Water Heater Stock Market Shares (%) d
Electricity
55.7
55.8
55
53.9
52.5
Natural Gas
39.1
39.2
40.5
41.7
42.7
Heating Oil
4.7
4.4
4
3.8
4.1
Wood
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Propane
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0
0.1
0
0
0.1
5
4.9
5.2
5.5
5.6
Coal and Other
Heat Loss (PJ) d
Sources:
b) Statistics Canada, Survey of Household Spending in 1997–2000, Ottawa, October 2001, (Cat. No. 62F0041).
c) Statistics Canada, Household Facilities and Equipment,1990–1997, Ottawa, October 1990–October 1997, (Cat. No. 64-202).
d) Natural Resources Canada, Residential End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
32
Chapter 2
Residential Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
290.7
302.5
299
293.8
298.1
302.4
8.2%
104.3
105.2
103.9
100.8
103
105.1
-6.8%
171.1
181.8
176.5
173.7
177
179.5
24.3%
12.8
13.6
14.8
14.9
14.8
14.5
-22.9%
0.2
0.2
0.9
1.4
0.8
0.9
200.0%
2.1
1.6
2.7
2.9
2.4
2.3
-23.3%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0%
10,977
11,148
11,224
11,385
11,553
11,728
17.7%
26.5
27.1
26.6
25.8
25.8
25.8
-7.9%
52.7
52.8
52.3
51.1
51.1
51.1
42.7
42.9
42.7
43.4
43.7
43.6
3.9
3.7
3.9
4.3
4.1
4.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0
0
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
5.5
6.1
5.7
4.9
5.2
5.8
Residential Sector
Chapter 2
16.0%
33
Chapter 3
Commercial/
Institutional Sector
The Data Situation
Of the five sectors of the economy reviewed in this report, the commercial/
institutional sector has the most significant data limitations.
Statistics Canada published the data on aggregate commercial/institutional
energy use under the “commercial and other institutional” and “public
administration” categories in its Quarterly Report on Energy SupplyDemand in Canada (QRESD) (Cat. No. 57-003). As well, energy use data
in the commercial/institutional sector is not quantified through a
data collection exercise – it is essentially the residual of energy use not
accounted for in the residential, industrial, transportation and agriculture
sectors. Another key variable in this sector is floor space, which is used
as an approximation for commercial/institutional activity. Since reliable
national data on commercial/institutional floor space is non-existent,
estimates are based on investment flows and average new construction
costs per floor area. In 1997, floor space estimates were benchmarked
against provincial data from surveys and audits.
To address the problem of data limitation in the commercial/institutional sector,
the Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE), through the National Energy Use
Database, funded the Commercial and Institutional Building Energy
Use Survey. This survey will be the first to provide national data on
commercial/institutional floor space and energy use. It is being conducted
by Statistics Canada on behalf of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan).
Results are expected for summer 2002.
Commercial/Institutional Sector
Chapter 3
35
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
The OEE developed the Commercial Energy Use Model (CEUM) to assess
trends in energy use in the Canadian commercial/institutional sector. It
uses floor space estimates by region and building type (from Informetrica
Limited) and energy intensity estimates by region, building type and
end-use (from NRCan) to allocate the energy use reported by Statistics
Canada in the QRESD to nine building types and six end-uses.
The model also takes into account the influence of weather in commercial/
institutional energy demand. To do so, it uses the number of heating
degree-days in Monthly Summary of Degree-Days below 18.0°C and
the number of cooling degree-days in Monthly Summary of Degree-Days
above 18.0°C, two reports from Environment Canada.
Commercial/Institutional Sector
Chapter 3
37
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Commercial Energy Use by Fuel Type, End-Use and Building Type
Total Energy Use (PJ) a
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
867
888.9
901.2
933.1
927.6
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) a
Electricity
390.1
398
397.6
408
409.5
Natural Gas
387.1
403.4
416.6
433.1
420.2
Propane
16.1
18.3
18.6
22.8
33.1
62
58.1
56.9
57.7
52.4
11.4
11
11.5
11.2
11.9
0.4
0.2
0
0.3
0.5
127.4
129
130.3
131.8
133.2
39.8
49.8
29.1
40.4
44.1
103.8
105.2
106.2
107.3
108
65.5
67.3
67.2
67.8
68.6
Space Heating
428.1
434.4
465.6
482
469.4
Water Heating
93.3
94.5
94.3
95.5
96.2
Street Lighting
8.9
8.7
8.4
8.3
8.0
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
Heavy Fuel Oil
Other
Energy Use by End-Use (PJ) c,f
Lighting
Space Cooling
Auxiliary Motors
Auxiliary Equipment
Energy Use by Building Type (PJ)* c
Schools
119
121.3
125.6
130
127.6
106.1
107.3
110.3
113.2
112.1
Religious Institutions
11.6
11.5
11.8
11.9
11.6
Other Institutions
33.6
35.3
36
38.2
38.1
Offices
189.8
197.5
203.2
210.7
212.6
Retail Organizations
220.6
224.3
221.6
229
226.3
76.8
80.9
79
83
83.8
49
50.6
53.6
56.2
56.6
51.7
51.5
51.8
52.7
50.9
Health Care Institutions
Hotels and Restaurants
Recreational Facilities
Warehouses
*Excludes street lighting.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and Historical Estimates of Commercial Floor Space,
1998 Database Update, Ottawa, January 2001.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
d) Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Monthly Summary of Degree-Days below 18.0°C,
Toronto, 1990–2000.
e) Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Monthly Summary of Degree-Days above 18.0°C,
Toronto, 1990–2000.
f) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1999, Ottawa, July 2001, (Cat. No. 57-202).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
38
Chapter 3
Commercial/Institutional Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
960.9
981.5
998.5
944.1
979.2
1,058.8
Total Growth 1990–2000
22.1%
421.2
426.9
436.6
431.3
436.8
453.1
16.1%
427.6
451.2
452.7
418.5
443.8
488.5
26.2%
41.8
34.3
39.3
29.5
34.3
36.1
124.2%
61.2
59.7
57.5
47.6
47
60.4
-2.6%
8.6
9
11.8
16.8
17
19.8
73.7%
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.3
1
150.0%
133.3
133.7
136.4
139
141.7
151.2
18.7%
47.5
44.7
44.4
61
62.3
46.1
15.8%
108.3
108.5
110
112
114
120.8
16.4%
68.4
68.4
70.2
71.4
73.5
78.5
19.8%
499.6
522.5
532.9
455.3
481
550.8
28.7%
96.2
96.2
97.1
97.9
99.3
104.1
11.6%
7.8
7.5
7.4
7.5
7.4
7.3
-18.0%
133.2
139
140.1
126.6
132.2
147.8
24.2%
115.9
119.2
120.9
113.3
117.7
124.8
17.6%
11.8
12.1
12
10.9
11.4
12
3.4%
40.5
42.5
42.9
39.4
41.4
44
31.0%
222.6
229.8
239.7
224.7
234.6
261.2
37.6%
230.7
229.7
231.9
227.7
234.1
254.4
15.3%
85.5
86.1
87.7
86.3
88.6
90.2
17.4%
60.9
63.5
64.4
59.4
61.3
64.5
31.6%
52.1
52.3
51.4
48.4
50.5
52.6
1.7%
continued
Commercial/Institutional Sector
Chapter 3
39
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Commercial Energy Use by Fuel Type, End-Use and Building Type continued
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
465.9
480.4
491
498.8
503.9
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2)* a,b
1.84
1.83
1.82
1.85
1.83
Heating Degree-Days Index d
0.92
0.93
0.99
1.01
0.99
Cooling Degree-Days Index e
1.05
1.35
0.54
0.99
0.98
Activity
Total Floor Space (million m2) b
*Excludes street lighting.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and Historical Estimates of Commercial Floor Space, 1998 Database Update,
Ottawa, January 2001.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
d) Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Monthly Summary of Degree-Days below 18.0°C,
Toronto, 1990–2000.
e) Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Monthly Summary of Degree-Days above 18.0°C,
Toronto, 1990–2000.
f) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Annual Statistics, 1999, Ottawa, July 2001; (Cat. 57-202).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
40
Chapter 3
Commercial/Institutional Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
508.8
513.5
520.5
529.4
545.8
578.1
24.1%
1.87
1.9
1.9
1.77
1.78
1.82
-1.1%
0.99
1.03
0.98
0.85
0.89
0.96
4.3%
1.14
0.96
0.89
1.26
1.42
0.86
-18.1%
Commercial/Institutional Sector
Chapter 3
41
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Commercial Energy Use by Building Type and Fuel Type
Total Energy Use by Schools (PJ) c
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
119
121.3
125.6
130
127.6
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) c
Electricity
31.2
31.6
33.5
33.6
33.4
Natural Gas
70.7
73.2
75.5
79.1
75.2
Propane
2.5
2.8
3
3.7
6.1
12.2
11.5
11.2
11.3
10.2
Heavy Fuel Oil
2.3
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.5
Other
0.1
0
0
0.1
0.1
66.88
69.16
70.71
71.97
73.06
1.78
1.75
1.78
1.81
1.75
106.1
107.3
110.3
113.2
112.1
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) b
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) b,c
Total Energy Use by Health Care Institutions (PJ) c
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) c
Electricity
33.4
33.4
34.6
34.6
34.6
Natural Gas
57.5
59.8
61.6
63.9
62.1
Propane
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
Heavy Fuel Oil
Other
1.6
1.7
1.9
2.2
3.5
11.4
10.5
10.2
10.3
9.4
2.1
1.8
2.1
2.1
2.4
0
0
0
0
0.1
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) b
32.75
33.15
33.98
34.25
34.83
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) b,c
3.24
3.24
3.25
3.3
3.22
Total Energy Use by Religious Institutions (PJ) c
11.6
11.5
11.8
11.9
11.6
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) c
Electricity
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.1
3
Natural Gas
6.6
6.6
6.8
7
6.8
Propane
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.1
Heavy Fuel Oil
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
8.85
8.87
8.87
8.83
8.89
1.32
1.3
1.33
1.34
1.31
Other
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) b
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) b,c
Sources:
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and Historical Estimates of Commercial Floor Space,1998 Database Update,
Ottawa, January 2001.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
42
Chapter 3
Commercial/Institutional Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
133.2
139
140.1
126.6
132.2
147.8
24.2%
34.8
36.2
37.6
34
34.3
36.5
17.0%
74.9
81.6
79.8
73.8
77.5
87.5
23.8%
9.1
7.2
8.4
6
7.4
7.6
204.0%
12.6
12.1
11.8
9.4
9.6
12.2
0.0%
1.6
1.8
2.4
3.3
3.3
3.8
65.2%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0%
74.32
75.86
77.27
78.16
80.59
85.73
28.2%
1.79
1.83
1.81
1.62
1.64
1.72
-3.4%
115.9
119.2
120.9
113.3
117.7
124.8
17.6%
36.1
36.9
38
36.3
36.7
37.6
12.6%
62.1
66.6
66.1
62.2
65.7
68.5
19.1%
4.8
3.7
4.3
3.1
3.5
3.6
125.0%
11.1
9.9
9.8
8
8.1
11
-3.5%
1.8
2
2.6
3.6
3.7
3.9
85.7%
0
0
0.1
0
0
0.1
–
35.25
35.71
36.35
36.68
37.82
39.15
19.5%
3.29
3.34
3.32
3.09
3.11
3.19
-1.5%
11.8
12.1
12
10.9
11.4
12
3.4%
3.1
3.2
3.3
3
3
3.1
-3.1%
6.8
7.1
6.9
6.2
6.7
7
6.1%
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.4
100.0%
1.2
1.2
1.2
1
1
1.2
-14.3%
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
100.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
8.9
8.9
8.88
8.95
9.23
9.31
5.2%
1.32
1.36
1.35
1.22
1.24
1.29
-2.3%
continued
Commercial/Institutional Sector
Chapter 3
43
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Commercial Energy Use by Building Type and Fuel Type continued
Total Energy Use by Other Institutions (PJ) c
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
33.6
35.3
36
38.2
38.1
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) c
Electricity
Natural Gas
Propane
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
Heavy Fuel Oil
Other
9.8
10.4
10.5
10.9
11.1
19.7
20.9
21.4
22.9
22.4
0.6
0.7
0.8
1
1.5
3
2.8
2.8
2.9
2.6
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
19.8
20.81
21.52
21.95
22.7
1.7
1.69
1.68
1.74
1.68
189.8
197.5
203.2
210.7
212.6
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) b
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) b,c
Total Energy Use by Offices (PJ) c
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) c
Electricity
89.1
93.4
93.6
97.4
99.1
Natural Gas
81.8
85.8
90.8
93.1
92.2
Propane
3.5
3.9
4.2
5.2
7
12.8
12
12.1
12.5
11.6
Heavy Fuel Oil
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.6
Other
0.1
0
0
0.1
0.1
121.11
128.12
133.34
137.13
139.07
1.57
1.54
1.52
1.54
1.53
220.6
224.3
221.6
229
226.3
128.7
130.5
126.2
129.8
129.5
77.6
79.6
81.4
84.5
80.3
3
3.4
3.5
4.4
7
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
9.3
8.7
8.5
8.4
7.5
Heavy Fuel Oil
1.9
2
2
1.9
1.8
Other
0.1
0
0
0.1
0.1
110.31
111.95
112.94
113.73
113.65
2
2
1.96
2.01
1.99
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) b
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) b,c
Total Energy Use by Retail Organizations (PJ) c
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) c
Electricity
Natural Gas
Propane
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) b
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) b,c
Sources:
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and Historical Estimates of Commercial Floor Space,1998 Database Update,
Ottawa, January 2001.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
44
Chapter 3
Commercial/Institutional Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
40.5
42.5
42.9
39.4
41.4
44
31.0%
29.6%
12
12.4
12.9
12.5
12.5
12.7
23.2
25
24.9
22.3
24.1
25.8
31.0%
1.7
1.4
1.5
1.2
1.3
1.4
133.3%
3.1
3.2
3
2.4
2.5
3
0.0%
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.9
1
1
100.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
–
23.59
24.27
24.93
25.2
25.98
26.89
35.8%
1.71
1.75
1.72
1.56
1.59
1.64
-3.5%
222.6
229.8
239.7
224.7
234.6
261.2
37.6%
103.5
106
110.1
108.2
110.3
117.8
32.2%
95.7
100.8
104.8
95.2
102.1
116.9
42.9%
8.8
7.9
9.2
7.2
8.5
9
157.1%
12.5
13.2
12.9
10.6
10.3
13
1.6%
1.9
1.8
2.4
3.4
3.3
4.3
72.0%
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.3
200.0%
140.38
141.8
145.31
148.08
152.66
165.87
37.0%
1.59
1.62
1.65
1.52
1.54
1.57
0.0%
230.7
229.7
231.9
227.7
234.1
254.4
15.3%
130.3
129.5
130.9
133.7
135.4
141.6
10.0%
81.3
84.2
84.4
79.1
83.3
93.9
21.0%
8.5
6.7
7.7
6
6.8
7.2
140.0%
9.2
8
7.2
6.3
6
8.2
-11.8%
1.3
1.2
1.6
2.6
2.5
3.2
68.4%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
100.0%
112.86
112.43
113.12
115.96
119.56
129.34
17.3%
2.04
2.04
2.05
1.96
1.96
1.97
-1.5%
continued
Commercial/Institutional Sector
Chapter 3
45
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Commercial Energy Use by Building Type and Fuel Type continued
Total Energy Use by Hotels and Restaurants (PJ) c
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
76.8
80.9
79
83
83.8
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) c
Electricity
40.5
41.3
40.6
43.1
43.5
Natural Gas
28.5
30.8
30.7
31.8
31.6
Propane
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
Heavy Fuel Oil
Other
3.1
4
3.2
3.7
4.4
4
4
3.7
3.7
3.4
0.7
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0
0
0
0
0
26.14
27.13
27.57
28.28
28.61
2.94
2.98
2.86
2.94
2.93
49
50.6
53.6
56.2
56.6
23.6
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) b
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) b,c
Total Energy Use by Recreational Facilities (PJ) c
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) c
Electricity
20.8
21.4
22.9
23.3
Natural Gas
22.9
24.2
25.5
27.1
27
Propane
0.7
0.7
0.8
1.1
1.6
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
4.1
3.8
3.9
4.2
3.8
Heavy Fuel Oil
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
Other
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) b
25.91
27.11
28.31
29.37
30.21
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) b,c
1.89
1.87
1.89
1.91
1.87
Total Energy Use by Warehouses (PJ) c
51.7
51.5
51.8
52.7
50.9
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) c
Electricity
24.5
24.1
24.1
23.8
23.4
Natural Gas
21.9
22.5
22.7
23.7
22.5
Propane
0.8
0.8
0.9
1.2
1.5
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
3.8
3.4
3.3
3.3
2.9
Heavy Fuel Oil
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6
0
0
0
0
0
54.14
54.1
53.79
53.28
52.84
0.95
0.95
0.96
0.99
0.96
Other
Activity
Floor Space (million m2) b
Energy Intensity (GJ/m2) b,c
Sources:
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and Historical Estimates of Commercial Floor Space,1998 Database Update,
Ottawa, January 2001.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
46
Chapter 3
Commercial/Institutional Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
85.5
86.1
87.7
86.3
88.6
90.2
17.4%
44.3
45.2
45.7
47.4
47.8
46.5
14.8%
32.1
32.5
32.9
31.4
33
34.8
22.1%
4.8
3.9
4.4
3.1
3.5
3.6
16.1%
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.3
3.1
3.9
-2.5%
0.6
0.6
0.8
1.1
1.1
1.4
100.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
–
28.78
29.14
29.46
29.82
30.74
31.78
21.6%
2.97
2.95
2.98
2.9
2.88
2.84
-3.4%
60.9
63.5
64.4
59.4
61.3
64.5
31.6%
25.4
26.3
27.2
25.9
26.3
26.8
28.8%
28.6
30
30
27.3
28.6
30.3
32.3%
1.9
1.6
1.8
1.4
1.6
1.7
142.9%
4.7
5.1
4.9
4.1
4.1
4.8
17.1%
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.8
60.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
–
31.86
32.95
33.52
33.79
34.83
35.16
35.7%
1.91
1.93
1.92
1.76
1.76
1.83
-3.2%
52.1
52.3
51.4
48.4
50.5
52.6
1.7%
23.9
23.7
23.5
22.8
23
23.3
-4.9%
22.9
23.5
22.8
21
22.7
23.8
8.7%
1.7
1.4
1.5
1.2
1.3
1.5
87.5%
3.1
3.2
2.9
2.4
2.4
3
-21.1%
0.5
0.5
0.7
1
1
1
42.9%
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
–
52.85
52.41
51.61
52.78
54.41
54.91
1.4%
0.99
1
1
0.92
0.93
0.96
1.1%
Commercial/Institutional Sector
Chapter 3
47
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Commercial GHG Emissions by Fuel Type, End-Use and Building Type
Total GHG Emissions Including Electricity (Mt) a,g
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
47.8
47.9
51.2
48.5
47.4
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type (Mt) a,g
Electricity
21.9
21.4
24.1
20.4
19.9
Natural Gas
19.5
20.3
20.9
21.7
20.7
Propane
1
1.1
1.1
1.4
2
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
4.6
4.3
4.2
4.2
3.9
Heavy Fuel Oil
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.8
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
Other
GHG Emissions by End-Use (Mt) c,f,g
Lighting
7.1
6.9
7.9
6.6
6.5
Space Cooling
2.2
2.7
1.7
2
2.1
Auxiliary Motors
5.8
5.7
6.4
5.4
5.3
Auxiliary Equipment
3.7
3.7
4
3.5
3.4
Space Heating
23.4
23.5
25.5
25.6
24.7
Water Heating
5
5
5
5
5
Street Lighting
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
GHG Emissions by Building Type (Mt)* c,g
Schools
6.5
6.6
7
6.9
6.6
Health Care Institutions
5.9
5.8
6.2
6
5.8
Religious Institutions
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.6
Other Institutions
1.8
1.9
2
2
2
Offices
10.5
10.6
11.6
10.9
10.8
Retail Organizations
12.1
12
12.7
11.7
11.4
Hotels and Restaurants
4.2
4.4
4.5
4.3
4.3
Recreational Facilities
2.7
2.7
3
2.9
2.9
Warehouses
2.9
2.8
3
2.7
2.6
55.09
53.87
56.84
51.96
51.09
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,g
* Excludes street lighting.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions, Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
f) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1999, Ottawa, July 2001, (Cat. No. 57-202).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
g) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999, Ottawa, April 2001,
(Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
48
Chapter 3
Commercial/Institutional Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
50.4
50.5
53.8
53.9
54.6
59.9
25.3%
21.3
20.9
23.7
26.5
25.7
27.3
24.7%
21.4
22.5
22.6
20.9
22.1
24.5
25.6%
2.5
2.1
2.4
1.8
2.1
2.2
120.0%
4.5
4.4
4.2
3.5
3.5
4.4
-4.3%
0.6
0.7
0.9
1.2
1.2
1.4
75.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
–
6.7
6.5
7.4
8.5
8.3
9.1
28.2%
2.4
2.2
2.4
3.7
3.6
2.7
22.7%
5.5
5.3
6
6.9
6.7
7.3
25.9%
3.5
3.4
3.9
4.4
4.3
4.7
27.0%
26.7
27.7
28.6
24.8
26
30.1
28.6%
5.1
5
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.6
12.0%
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4
-20.0%
7.1
7.3
7.6
7.1
7.3
8.2
26.2%
6.2
6.2
6.5
6.4
6.5
7
18.6%
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.7
16.7%
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.2
2.3
2.4
33.3%
11.6
11.8
12.9
12.9
13.1
14.8
41.0%
11.9
11.6
12.4
13.2
13.2
14.5
19.8%
4.5
4.4
4.7
5
5
5.2
23.8%
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.4
3.4
3.7
37.0%
2.7
2.7
2.8
2.8
2.8
3
3.4%
52.41
51.47
53.85
57.09
55.78
56.58
2.7%
continued
Commercial/Institutional Sector
Chapter 3
49
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Commercial GHG Emissions by Fuel Type, End-Use and Building Type continued
Total GHG Emissions Excluding Electricity (Mt) a,g
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
25.9
26.5
27.1
28.1
27.5
GHG Emissions by End-Use (Mt) c,f,g
Lighting
Space Cooling
Auxiliary Motors
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0.6
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
Space Heating
20.5
20.8
21.6
22.6
21.9
Water Heating
4.7
4.8
4.7
4.8
4.8
Street Lighting
0
0
0
0
0
4.8
4.9
5
5.2
5
4
4
4.1
4.2
4.1
Religious Institutions
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
Other Institutions
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.4
Offices
5.5
5.6
5.9
6.1
6
Retail Organizations
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.1
Auxiliary Equipment
GHG Emissions by Building Type (Mt)* c,g
Schools
Health Care Institutions
Hotels and Restaurants
2
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
Recreational Facilities
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.7
Warehouses
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
29.86
29.81
30.06
30.15
29.63
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,g
* Excludes street lighting.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions, Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Natural Resources Canada, Commercial End-Use Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
f) Statistics Canada, Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1999, Ottawa, July 2001, (Cat. No. 57-202).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
g) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999, Ottawa, April 2001,
(Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
50
Chapter 3
Commercial/Institutional Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
29
29.7
30.1
27.4
28.9
32.6
25.9%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.4
300.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.7
16.7%
23.3
24
24.3
21.5
22.9
26.3
28.3%
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.9
5.2
10.6%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
5.3
5.5
5.5
5
5.3
6
25.0%
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.1
4.4
4.8
20.0%
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.0%
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.5
1.7
30.8%
6.4
6.6
6.9
6.2
6.6
7.7
40.0%
5.4
5.3
5.3
5
5.2
6
22.4%
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.4
20.0%
1.9
2
2
1.8
1.9
2
33.3%
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.5
1.6
6.7%
30.22
30.22
30.11
29
29.53
30.77
3.0%
Commercial/Institutional Sector
Chapter 3
51
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
The Data Situation
The aggregate energy use data presented in this report are taken from
Statistics Canada’s Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in
Canada (QRESD) (Cat. No. 57-003). The QRESD is Canada’s official
energy supply and demand balance. It is also the basis of Canada’s
inventory of greenhouse gases that is produced by Environment Canada.
Traditionally, QRESD data were estimated from a suite of Statistics Canada
surveys of energy distributors and end-users. Up to 1993, most of the data
were estimated from supply sources. As of 1994, the Industrial
Consumption of Energy (ICE) Survey, one of the sources of end-use data
for the QRESD, has been greatly expanded. The 1995 survey included
some 2000 respondents, up from 230 respondents in 1993.
As a result of expending the ICE survey, data are now available for
24 industries at the two-digit level (Standard Industrial Classification code)
and for 31 sub-industries at the three- and four-digit levels, rather than the
previous 10 industries. Environment Canada is now using these data to
produce supplementary emissions estimates for these industries.
Natural Resources Canada’s (NRCan’s) understanding of how energy is
used in Canadian industry has improved, as more information from the
ICE survey becomes available. As a result of better data and discussions
with Statistics Canada, NRCan has changed the industrial energy use
data. For example, own use consumption, which had been reported under
the petroleum refining industry, is now reported under both the mining
industry and the petroleum refining industry. Changes were
made to better reflect demand and non-energy feedstock in the chemical
industry between 1990 and 1998. Industrial petroleum coke demand in
1996 also needed a correction.
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
53
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
The expanded ICE survey was also used to derive a more disaggregated set
of industrial energy use data for the 1990 to 1994 period. The Canadian
Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC), at
Simon Fraser University, has developed a database to track the energy
efficiency progress of various industry groups involved in the Canadian
Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC). Because CIPEC
required disaggregated data going back to 1990, and the expanded
ICE survey is available only since 1994, CIEEDAC has to use a combination of the ICE survey, the Annual Survey of Manufacturers data
and extensive consultation/work with industries. This database allows
NRCan to develop physical measures of activity, when appropriate, and an
economic measure of output for the entire 1990 to 2000 period.
The CIEEDAC database contains energy use data by industry and fuel, as well
as physical unit of output for some industries. This allows the OEE
to expand its database to 53 industries. CIEEDAC energy use data are
calibrated to the QRESD energy use data, in NRCan’s database.
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
55
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Industrial Energy Use and GHG Emissions by Fuel Type
Total Energy Use (PJ) a
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
2,754.7
2,701.0
2,723.0
2,748.0
2,911.5
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) a
Electricity
658.4
667.6
673.4
694.7
712.7
Natural Gas
837.2
820.7
825.5
824.6
865.6
27
28.4
31.9
33.7
30
176.3
183
181.9
172.1
174.2
LPG and Gas Plant NGL
Coal, Coke and Coke Oven Gas
Heavy Fuel Oil
201.1
179.5
160.7
162.2
160.4
Light Fuel Oil, Diesel Fuel Oil and Kerosene
126.7
118.7
107.8
114.6
127.4
352.1
Still Gas and Petroleum Coke
321.7
297.7
331.9
344.5
Wood Waste and Pulping Liquor
378.3
374.2
385.9
383
462
27.9
31.4
24
18.5
27.1
GDP (million $86) b
148,193
139,281
139,142
143,878
153,047
Gross Output (million $86) b
416,145
394,006
396,682
414,252
440,819
Energy Intensity (MJ/$86 – GDP) a,b
18.6
19.4
19.6
19.1
19
Energy Intensity (MJ/$86 – GO) a,b
6.6
6.9
6.9
6.6
6.6
141.1
136
141.2
135.5
138.1
Other
Activity
Total GHG Emissions Including Electricity (Mt) a,c
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type (Mt) a,c
Electricity
36.9
35.9
40.9
34.7
34.6
Natural Gas
42.1
41.3
41.4
41.3
42.7
LPG and Gas Plant NGL
1.6
1.7
1.9
2
1.8
15.1
15.7
15.5
14.7
14.9
Heavy Fuel Oil
15
13.4
12
12.1
12
Light Fuel Oil, Diesel Fuel Oil and Kerosene
9.4
8.8
8
8.5
9.4
Coal, Coke and Coke Oven Gas
Still Gas and Petroleum Coke
20.9
19.3
21.5
22.3
22.7
Wood Waste and Pulping Liquor
0
0
0
0
0
Other
0
0
0
0
0
51.2
50.3
51.9
49.3
47.4
104.2
100.1
100.3
100.8
103.4
37.8
37.1
36.8
36.7
35.5
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,c
Total GHG Emissions Excluding Electricity (Mt) a,c
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,c
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and National Reference Forecast, Ottawa, November 2001.
c) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
56
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2,973.6
3,057.5
3,057.2
3,004.0
3,098.5
3,203.5
Total Growth 1990–2000
16.3%
738.4
745.2
757.6
768.7
783.8
810.8
23.1%
898.9
948.2
953.1
897.3
907.3
966.9
15.5%
34.7
31.3
31.4
31.6
30.2
39.4
45.9%
175.9
177.1
176.8
175.8
180.7
187.1
6.1%
147
154.2
154.4
149.4
140.8
142.9
-28.9%
128.7
148.1
148.2
134.2
136.5
145
14.4%
357.1
363.9
350.5
335.6
349.5
341.6
6.2%
460
457.8
459.1
477.3
531.1
530.9
40.3%
32.9
31.6
26.1
34.2
38.6
38.9
39.4%
156,389
157,836
166,424
171,332
180,944
193,886
30.8%
452,217
459,884
472,930
505,466
541,080
572,084
37.5%
19
19.4
18.4
17.5
17.1
16.5
-11.3%
6.6
6.6
6.5
5.9
5.7
5.6
-15.2%
143.2
146.8
150.8
152.3
152.1
159.3
12.9%
37.4
36.4
41.1
47.3
46.1
48.9
32.5%
44.9
47.3
47.6
44.7
45.3
48.4
15.0%
2
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.8
2.3
43.8%
15
15.1
15.1
15
15.4
15.8
4.6%
11
11.5
11.5
10.9
10.3
10.5
-30.0%
9.5
10.9
10.9
10
10.2
10.8
14.9%
23.4
23.7
22.7
22.6
23
22.6
8.1%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
48.2
48
49.3
50.7
49.1
49.7
-2.9%
105.8
110.4
109.7
105.1
105.9
110.4
6.0%
35.6
36.1
35.9
35
34.2
34.5
-8.7%
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
57
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Industrial Energy Use by Industry
Total Energy Use (PJ) a
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
2,754.7
2,701.0
2,723.0
2,748.0
2,911.5
11.3
Energy Use by Industry (PJ) a,d
Gold Mines
13.1
13.1
11.7
11.4
Copper, Copper-Zinc and Nickel-Copper Mines
27.6
27.4
24.5
23
21
7.6
7.1
8.1
5
4.6
Silver-Lead-Zinc Mines
Iron Mines
36.3
32.6
29.3
28.9
35
Other Metal Mines
9.1
6.5
5.2
4.5
5.3
Peat Industry
0.7
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.7
Gypsum Mines
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
Potash Mines
27.4
27.4
25.8
25.7
31
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.5
4.2
Salt Mines
Other Non-Metal Mines
7.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.5
210.4
201.3
223.3
297
295.6
66.9
57.9
57.6
50.7
54
7.7
6.5
7.4
7.9
7.5
Pulp Industry
357.2
370.3
373.8
376.6
420.3
Newsprint Industry
263.8
259.9
261.3
253.6
291.6
Paperboard Industry
58
59.2
58.3
60.7
64.8
Building Board Industry
2.5
2.6
3.2
3.3
4.2
Other Paper Industries
103.2
87.2
83.4
88.4
85.2
Primary Production of Aluminum
113.8
133
140.2
156.7
153.3
69.5
55.5
57.8
54.1
69.4
334.9
314
321.5
325
317.3
Cement Industry
59.3
50.8
50.8
51.1
59.2
Industrial Inorganic Chemicals Industries
74.1
77
71.9
72.5
72.4
115.6
117.8
111.7
88.3
119.8
33.5
37.7
38.9
50.4
49.9
219.4
235
244.9
241.9
250.3
Upstream Mining
Construction
Forestry
Other Non-Ferrous Smelting and Refining
Petroleum Refining
Industrial Organic Chemicals Industries
Chemical Fertilizers and Fertilizer Materials Industries
Iron and Steel
Meat and Poultry Products Industries
15.4
15.5
13.3
14.6
17.9
Fruit and Vegetable Industries
9.5
9.6
8.1
9.4
10.5
Bakery Products Industries
5.7
5.7
5.4
5.6
6.3
Other Food Industries
43.1
40.2
37.7
40.1
47.4
Dairy Products Industries
11.9
11.4
10.8
10.3
12.1
9
7.4
5.3
7
7
Beverage Industries (excluding breweries)
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions, Ottawa,
January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions, Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and National Reference Forecast, Ottawa, November 2001.
d) Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Center, Development of Energy Intensity Indicators for
Canadian Industry 1990 to 2000, Simon Fraser University, January 2002.
58
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2,973.6
3,057.5
3,057.2
3,004.0
3,098.5
3,203.5
Total Growth 1990–2000
12.5
15.1
14.6
11.4
13.2
12
-8.4%
23.2
22.4
21.1
20.3
16.4
19
-31.2%
16.3%
5.5
6.5
5.8
5.3
4.8
4.4
-42.1%
36.2
36.3
39.5
36
28.8
32.5
-10.5%
5.5
5.5
4.9
4.3
4.2
4.9
-46.2%
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
28.6%
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.0%
31.8
31.4
32.6
31.6
32.5
22.7
-17.2%
3.4
2.9
2.9
2.7
2.6
2.6
-10.3%
6.2
6.2
6.9
5.8
6.8
6.4
-19.0%
318.2
345.1
344.4
336.4
347.5
384.3
82.7%
48.9
50.5
49.5
48
50.4
49.9
-25.4%
7.9
9.6
11.1
12.3
14.8
16.2
110.4%
443.2
376.7
396.4
393.5
421.1
429.1
20.1%
289
288.3
276.4
262.2
282.8
271.5
2.9%
72.4
73.8
76.3
78.7
81.3
71.6
23.4%
3.4
4.7
5.1
6.2
6.8
8
220.0%
63.4
130.9
128.6
143.7
166.8
181
75.4%
143
151.8
156.8
159.8
166.5
147.7
29.8%
76.9
81.5
74.2
79.9
69.9
78.5
12.9%
308.4
329.5
320.9
294.6
289.3
296.6
-11.4%
61.3
58.5
57.9
63.6
66.8
66.5
12.1%
89.5
85.7
79.9
85
84.8
81.6
10.1%
105.7
113
108.3
91.2
95.4
99.5
-13.9%
58
56.5
57.7
65
60.2
58.3
74.0%
247.9
252.1
251.2
254.7
259.8
257.7
17.5%
13.7
16
15.5
15.8
17.3
18.8
22.1%
9.9
12.1
12.6
13.1
12.5
13.1
37.9%
6.5
6.8
6.2
7
6.7
6.9
21.1%
43
41.6
46.6
39
38.7
42.2
-2.1%
10.8
11.9
11.6
12.2
13.2
11.8
-0.8%
5.4
5.4
5.9
6.7
7.4
6.8
-24.4%
continued
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
59
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Industrial Energy Use by Industry continued
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
Energy Use by Industry (PJ) a,d (continued)
Brewery Products Industries
7.1
6.5
6.8
6.3
6.6
Tobacco Products Industries
1.3
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.2
Rubber Products Industries
9.1
8.7
9.2
9.1
8
Plastic Products Industries
12
11.2
12.8
13.5
14.8
Leather and Allied Products Industries
Primary Textile Industries
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
14.3
15.5
15.7
14.7
22.7
Textile Products Industries
6.7
8.6
8.5
8.9
9.1
Clothing Industries
5.2
4.8
5.5
5.4
5.5
Sawmill and Planing Mill Products Industry
21.1
21.2
23.3
28.2
34.4
Other Wood Industries
16.2
13.2
15
18.4
21.6
Furniture and Fixture Industries
5.2
4.2
5.5
6
6.3
Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries
8.6
8.4
10.1
10.5
11.2
Fabricated Metal Products Industries
27.5
25
29.1
31.7
35.7
Machinery Industries
12.6
11.6
13.6
12.1
12.4
Motor Vehicle Industry
23.5
23.7
26.6
30.5
29.3
29
26.7
25.5
27.3
29.9
Electrical and Electronic Products Industries
18.3
15.5
18
16.8
16.9
Glass and Glass Products Industries
12.5
11.3
13.9
14.4
15.4
Lime Industry
14.4
12.5
12.9
13.4
14.7
Plastic and Synthetic Resin Industry
16.1
15.7
14.2
26.5
15.8
175.2
173.4
152.3
76.7
62.1
GDP (million $86) b
148,193
139,281
139,142
143,878
153,047
Gross Output (million $86) b
416,145
394,006
396,682
414,252
440,819
Energy Intensity (MJ/$86 – GDP) a,b
18.6
19.4
19.6
19.1
19
Energy Intensity (MJ/$86 – GO) a,b
6.6
6.9
6.9
6.6
6.6
Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories Industries
Other Manufacturing n.e.c.
Activity
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions, Ottawa,
January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions, Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and National Reference Forecast, Ottawa, November 2001.
d) Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Center, Development of Energy Intensity Indicators for
Canadian Industry 1990 to 2000, Simon Fraser University, January 2002.
60
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
6.2
1
Total Growth 1990–2000
5.7
5.9
5.6
5.8
5.8
-18.3%
1.2
1.1
1
1
1
-23.1%
9.1
10.7
10.1
10.8
11.2
11.6
27.5%
13.8
14.5
15.6
16.9
15
16.6
38.3%
1
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
-8.3%
18.2
12.8
14
13.1
13.7
13.7
-4.2%
9.6
9.5
9.1
8.1
8.1
9
34.3%
5.5
4.8
5
5.3
4.8
5.4
3.8%
38
40.2
40.2
40.6
38.9
40.2
90.5%
20.9
21.5
26.2
28.2
29.2
29.1
79.6%
6.6
6
6.3
5.9
6.1
6.8
30.8%
10.9
8.4
9.5
10.5
10.9
11.7
36.0%
38.2
38.9
41.4
39.1
33.8
38.3
39.3%
12.4
13.8
15.2
14.6
13
13.1
4.0%
29.7
31.9
32
28.6
33
33.5
42.6%
30
32.2
31.7
29.2
32.1
35.5
22.4%
15.4
16.7
15.5
15.3
17.3
18.1
-1.1%
13.8
13.4
11
10.4
12
11.5
-8.0%
15.7
15.6
16.1
15.8
16.8
16.2
12.5%
30.7
18.9
20.4
22.3
23.3
26.1
62.1%
95.1
109.9
106.9
93.8
100.5
155.8
-11.1%
156,389
157,836
166,424
171,332
180,944
193,886
30.8%
452,217
459,884
472,930
505,466
541,080
572,084
37.5%
19
19.4
18.4
17.5
17.1
16.5
-11.3%
6.6
6.6
6.5
5.9
5.7
5.6
-15.2%
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
61
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Industrial GHG Emissions by Industry — Including
Electricity-Related Emissions*
Total GHG Emissions Including Electricity (Mt) a,c
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
141.1
136
141.2
135.5
138.1
GHG Emissions by Industry (Mt) a,c,d
Gold Mines
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
Copper, Copper-Zinc and Nickel-Copper Mines
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.1
Silver-Lead-Zinc Mines
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.3
0.3
Iron Mines
2.5
2.2
2.1
1.9
2.3
Other Metal Mines
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
Peat Industry
0
0
0
0
0
Gypsum Mines
0
0
0
0
0
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.6
Potash Mines
Salt Mines
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
Other Non-Metal Mines
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
Upstream Mining
13
12.5
14
17.3
17.4
Construction
4.4
3.8
3.7
3.3
3.5
Forestry
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
Pulp Industry
Newsprint Industry
Paperboard Industry
Building Board Industry
Other Paper Industries
Primary Production of Aluminum
Other Non-Ferrous Smelting and Refining
Petroleum Refining
6.4
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.5
11.5
10.7
10.9
9.3
10.4
2
2
2
2.1
2.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
4
4
3.9
3.9
2.3
6.4
7.2
8.5
7.9
7.6
4.3
3.4
3.8
3.2
4
20.7
19.5
20.1
20.3
19.5
Cement Industry
4.2
3.6
3.6
3.5
4
Industrial Inorganic Chemicals Industries
3.8
3.7
3.9
3.5
3.5
Industrial Organic Chemicals Industries
5.3
5.2
5.3
4.2
5.6
Chemical Fertilizers and Fertilizer Materials Industries
1.7
1.9
2
2.5
2.5
15.9
17
17.7
17
17.2
Meat and Poultry Products Industries
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.9
Fruit and Vegetable Industries
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.6
Bakery Products Industries
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
Other Food Industries
2.3
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.4
Iron and Steel
Dairy Products Industries
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6
Beverage Industries (excluding breweries)
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.4
*Includes only end-use energy-related GHG emissions.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
c) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
d) Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Center, Development of Energy Intensity Indicators for
Canadian Industry 1990 to 2000, Simon Fraser University, January 2002.
62
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
143.2
146.8
150.8
152.3
152.1
159.3
12.9%
0.7
0.9
0.9
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.0%
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.3
1
1.2
-25.0%
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
-40.0%
2.4
2.4
2.7
2.6
2
2.3
-8.0%
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
-40.0%
–
0
0
0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.2
-14.3%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
-50.0%
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
-20.0%
19
20.2
20.6
20.8
21.4
23.6
81.5%
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.3
-25.0%
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.2
100.0%
6.9
6.1
6.7
6.6
6.8
7.7
20.3%
10.7
10.5
11
11.4
11.5
11
-4.3%
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.6
2.6
2.3
15.0%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
200.0%
2.1
2.9
3.1
2.9
2.9
3.3
-17.5%
7.3
7.5
8.5
9.7
9.7
8.9
39.1%
4.5
4.7
4.5
5.1
4.3
4.9
14.0%
19.4
20.6
20.1
19.2
18.3
18.9
-8.7%
4.1
3.9
4
4.2
4.4
4.3
2.4%
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.7
4.6
4.6
21.1%
4.8
5.5
5.4
4.7
4.9
5
-5.7%
2.9
2.8
2.9
3.3
3
2.9
70.6%
17.2
17.3
17.3
17.7
18.1
18
13.2%
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
1
25.0%
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.7
40.0%
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
33.3%
2.2
2
2.4
2
2
2.2
-4.3%
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.0%
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
-20.0%
continued
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
63
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Industrial GHG Emissions by Industry — Including
Electricity-Related Emissions* continued
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
GHG Emissions by Industry (Mt) a,c,d (continued)
Brewery Products Industries
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3
Tobacco Products Industries
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Rubber Products Industries
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
Plastic Products Industries
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
Leather and Allied Products Industries
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Primary Textile Industries
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.8
1.1
Textile Products Industries
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
Clothing Industries
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
Sawmill and Planing Mill Products Industry
1.2
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
Other Wood Industries
0.9
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
Furniture and Fixture Industries
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.6
Fabricated Metal Products Industries
1.5
1.3
1.6
1.6
1.8
Machinery Industries
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.6
Motor Vehicle Industry
1.3
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.5
Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories Industries
1.6
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1
0.8
1
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.8
1
0.8
0.9
0.9
1
0.9
0.8
0.8
1.3
0.8
9
8.8
8
4.1
3.3
51.2
50.3
51.9
49.3
47.4
Electrical and Electronic Products Industries
Glass and Glass Products Industries
Lime Industry
Plastic and Synthetic Resin Industry
Other Manufacturing n.e.c.
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,c,d
*Includes only end-use energy-related GHG emissions.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
c) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
d) Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Center, Development of Energy Intensity Indicators for
Canadian Industry 1990 to 2000, Simon Fraser University, January 2002.
64
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0%
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.7
40.0%
0.7
0.7
0.8
1
0.8
0.9
50.0%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0%
0.9
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.7
-12.5%
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
25.0%
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.0%
2
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.2
2.3
91.7%
1.1
1.1
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.6
77.8%
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
33.3%
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
20.0%
1.9
1.9
2.1
2.1
1.8
2.1
40.0%
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.0%
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.7
1.7
30.8%
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.9
18.8%
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
1
0.0%
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.0%
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.1
10.0%
1.4
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.1
22.2%
5.1
5.8
5.6
4.9
5.3
8.2
-8.9%
48.2
48
49.3
50.7
49.1
49.7
-2.9%
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
Total Growth 1990–2000
-25.0%
65
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Industrial GHG Emissions by Industry — Excluding
Electricity-Related Emissions*
Total GHG Emissions Excluding Electricity (Mt) a,c
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
104.2
100.1
100.3
100.8
103.4
GHG Emissions by Industry (Mt) a,c,d
Gold Mines
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
Copper, Copper-Zinc and Nickel-Copper Mines
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
Silver-Lead-Zinc Mines
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.2
Iron Mines
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.7
Other Metal Mines
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
Peat Industry
0
0
0
0
0
Gypsum Mines
0
0
0
0
0
1.1
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.3
Potash Mines
Salt Mines
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
Other Non-Metal Mines
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
14.6
Upstream Mining
10.3
9.9
10.9
14.5
Construction
4.4
3.8
3.7
3.3
3.5
Forestry
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
Pulp Industry
4.9
4.9
4.5
4.7
4.4
Newsprint Industry
5.9
5.5
4.9
4.7
4.8
Paperboard Industry
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
Building Board Industry
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Other Paper Industries
1.8
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.2
Primary Production of Aluminum
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
Other Non-Ferrous Smelting and Refining
Petroleum Refining
2.5
1.8
2
1.9
2.4
19.6
18.4
18.8
19.2
18.4
Cement Industry
3.8
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.6
Industrial Inorganic Chemicals Industries
1.2
1.4
1.3
1.4
1.2
Industrial Organic Chemicals Industries
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.6
5.1
Chemical Fertilizers and Fertilizer Materials Industries
1.5
1.7
1.8
2.3
2.2
14.2
15.5
15.9
15.5
15.7
Meat and Poultry Products Industries
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.7
Fruit and Vegetable Industries
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
Bakery Products Industries
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
Other Food Industries
1.6
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.9
Iron and Steel
Dairy Products Industries
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
Beverage Industries (excluding breweries)
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
*Includes only end-use energy-related GHG emissions.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
c) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
d) Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Center, Development of Energy Intensity Indicators for
Canadian Industry 1990 to 2000, Simon Fraser University, January 2002.
66
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
105.8
110.4
109.7
105.1
105.9
110.4
6.0%
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.3
-25.0%
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
-16.7%
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
-33.3%
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.7
1.3
1.5
-16.7%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
-33.3%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.3
1.3
0.9
-18.2%
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0%
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
-25.0%
15.7
17
16.9
16.1
17.1
18.9
83.5%
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.3
-25.0%
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.2
100.0%
4.5
3.8
4
3.7
3.6
3.9
-20.4%
4.7
4.7
4.6
3.9
3.9
3.8
-35.6%
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.6
6.7%
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
100.0%
0.9
2
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
0.0%
0.7
0.8
0.8
1
1
0.3
-62.5%
2.5
2.7
2.5
2.6
2.4
2.5
0.0%
18.5
19.7
19.1
18.1
17.2
17.8
-9.2%
3.8
3.6
3.6
3.7
4
3.9
2.6%
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.6
1.5
1.6
33.3%
4.3
4.9
4.9
4.1
4.2
4.2
-4.5%
2.6
2.5
2.6
2.9
2.7
2.5
66.7%
15.6
15.7
15.5
15.5
15.9
15.8
11.3%
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.0%
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6
20.0%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
1.7
1.5
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.4
-12.5%
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.0%
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
-25.0%
continued
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
67
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Industrial GHG Emissions by Industry — Excluding
Electricity-Related Emissions* continued
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
Brewery Products Industries
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
Tobacco Products Industries
0
0
0
0
0
Rubber Products Industries
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.3
Plastic Products Industries
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0
0
0
0
0
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.9
GHG Emissions by Industry (Mt) a,c,d (continued)
Leather and Allied Products Industries
Primary Textile Industries
Textile Products Industries
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
Clothing Industries
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
Sawmill and Planing Mill Products Industry
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.8
1
Other Wood Industries
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
Furniture and Fixture Industries
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
Fabricated Metal Products Industries
1
0.9
1
1.1
1.3
Machinery Industries
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
Motor Vehicle Industry
0.9
0.9
1
1.1
1.1
Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories Industries
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.9
0.9
Electrical and Electronic Products Industries
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
Glass and Glass Products Industries
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.7
1
0.8
0.8
0.9
1
Plastic and Synthetic Resin Industry
0.6
0.6
0.5
1
0.5
Other Manufacturing n.e.c.
8.3
8.3
7.8
4.1
3.3
37.8
37.1
36.8
36.7
35.5
Lime Industry
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,c,d
*Includes only end-use energy-related GHG emissions.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
c) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
d) Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Center, Development of Energy Intensity Indicators for
Canadian Industry 1990 to 2000, Simon Fraser University, January 2002.
68
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.0%
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.4
-20.0%
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.0%
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
-50.0%
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.1
120.0%
0.7
0.9
0.9
0.9
1
1
66.7%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
50.0%
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.4
1.2
1.4
40.0%
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.4
-20.0%
1.2
1.3
1.2
1
1.2
1.2
33.3%
0.9
1
1
0.9
1
1
11.1%
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.0%
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
-16.7%
1
1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
10.0%
1
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.0%
5.1
5.8
5.6
4.9
5.3
8.2
-1.2%
35.6
36.1
35.9
35
34.2
34.5
-8.7%
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
Total Growth 1990–2000
-33.3%
69
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Industrial Activity Index by Industry (1990 = 1.0) b,d
1990
1991
1992
1993
Gold Mines*
1
0.97
0.87
0.84
1994
0.94
Copper, Copper-Zinc and Nickel-Copper Mines*
1
0.93
0.89
0.82
0.71
Silver-Lead-Zinc Mines*
1
1.01
1.05
0.63
0.59
Iron Mines*
1
1.03
0.90
0.83
1.00
Other Metal Mines*
1
0.84
0.69
0.65
0.64
Peat Industry*
1
1.16
1.04
1.13
1.38
Gypsum Mines*
1
0.78
0.85
0.90
1.05
Potash Mines*
1
1.06
1.04
0.98
1.17
Salt Mines*
1
1.13
1.04
1.04
1.21
Other Non-Metal Mines*
1
0.91
0.89
0.87
0.92
Upstream Mining
1
1.01
1.04
1.14
1.23
Construction
1
0.93
0.88
0.86
0.88
Forestry
1
0.88
0.88
0.94
0.96
Pulp Industry*
1
1.07
1.02
0.96
1.10
Newsprint Industry*
1
0.99
0.98
1.04
1.07
Paperboard Industry*
1
1.06
1.09
1.11
1.23
Building Board Industry*
1
0.85
1.05
1.34
1.44
Other Paper Industries*
1
1.01
1.03
1.13
1.18
Primary Production of Aluminum*
1
1.16
1.26
1.47
1.44
Other Non-Ferrous Smelting and Refining
1
1.01
1.04
1.04
0.96
Petroleum Refining*
1
0.97
0.95
0.97
0.99
Cement Industry*
1
0.82
0.82
0.84
0.99
Industrial Inorganic Chemicals Industries*
1
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.99
Industrial Organic Chemicals Industries**
1
0.85
0.88
0.81
0.89
Chemical Fertilizers and Fertilizer Materials Industries*
1
1.00
1.02
0.96
0.98
Iron and Steel*
1
0.97
1.06
1.15
1.16
Meat and Poultry Products Industries*
1
0.98
1.03
1.03
1.09
Fruit and Vegetable Industries**
1
1.00
0.98
1.06
1.06
Bakery Products Industries**
1
1.00
1.03
1.04
1.10
Other Food Industries**
1
1.02
1.05
1.05
1.10
Dairy Products Industries*
1
0.99
0.94
0.92
0.96
Beverage Industries (excluding breweries)**
1
0.94
1.09
1.11
0.99
* Physical units of production is used as the measure of activity for these sub-sectors.
** Gross output (in 1986 dollars) is used as the measure of activity for these sub-sectors.
For the remaining sub-sectors, gross domestic product (in 1986 dollars) is used.
Sources:
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and National Reference Forecast, Ottawa, November 2001.
d) Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Center, Development of Energy Intensity Indicators for
Canadian Industry 1990 to 2000, Simon Fraser University, January 2002.
70
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1.06
1.26
1.32
1.47
1.84
1.74
0.90
0.74
0.70
0.78
0.54
0.68
0.76
0.94
0.75
0.69
0.61
0.55
1.02
1.00
1.01
1.04
0.91
1.07
0.66
0.60
0.55
0.57
0.50
0.54
1.55
1.27
1.47
1.67
2.04
1.80
0.97
0.97
1.04
1.02
1.12
1.03
1.30
1.14
1.29
1.32
1.19
1.35
1.00
1.18
1.35
1.34
1.25
1.16
0.91
0.88
0.89
0.69
2.08
2.13
1.27
1.32
1.37
1.34
1.30
1.39
0.84
0.82
0.86
0.86
0.90
0.90
0.98
0.95
0.96
0.94
1.03
1.04
1.14
1.07
1.09
0.99
1.06
1.13
1.09
1.05
1.09
1.05
1.15
1.19
1.22
1.27
1.30
1.35
1.43
1.40
1.70
2.13
2.53
2.74
3.21
3.28
1.27
1.30
1.33
1.35
1.41
1.47
1.39
1.46
1.48
1.51
1.52
1.51
1.18
1.14
1.09
1.20
1.16
1.27
0.99
1.04
1.07
1.07
1.08
1.11
1.12
1.06
1.14
1.15
1.20
1.24
1.04
1.04
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.00
0.93
0.92
0.99
1.02
1.04
1.12
1.05
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.09
1.10
1.15
1.22
1.25
1.22
1.29
1.29
1.12
1.14
1.19
1.29
1.40
1.44
1.07
1.08
1.16
1.22
1.25
1.23
1.03
1.08
1.09
1.12
1.13
1.19
1.13
1.18
1.17
1.22
1.23
1.28
0.98
0.98
1.01
1.01
1.02
1.01
1.09
1.09
1.14
1.20
1.27
1.29
continued
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
71
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Industrial Activity Index by Industry (1990 = 1.0) b,d continued
1990
1991
1992
1993
Brewery Products Industries*
1
0.95
0.92
0.98
1994
1.02
Tobacco Products Industries**
1
0.98
0.94
0.95
1.09
Rubber Products Industries*
1
0.83
0.97
1.12
1.25
Plastic Products Industries**
1
0.95
1.00
1.07
1.19
Leather and Allied Products Industries**
1
0.81
0.78
0.81
0.83
Primary Textile Industries**
1
0.96
0.96
0.99
1.10
Textile Products Industries**
1
0.89
0.83
0.85
0.93
Clothing Industries**
1
0.89
0.85
0.86
0.88
Sawmill and Planing Mill Products Industry*
1
1.03
1.12
1.16
1.19
Other Wood Industries**
1
0.86
0.90
0.96
1.00
Furniture and Fixture Industries**
1
0.84
0.83
0.86
0.97
Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries**
1
0.92
0.87
0.84
0.83
Fabricated Metal Products Industries**
1
0.89
0.85
0.86
0.96
Machinery Industries**
1
0.83
0.80
0.90
1.02
Motor Vehicle Industry*
1
0.96
1.03
1.15
1.20
Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories Industries**
1
0.92
0.99
1.17
1.33
Electrical and Electronic Products Industries**
1
1.02
1.09
1.12
1.40
Glass and Glass Products Industries**
1
0.91
0.95
1.04
1.09
Lime Industry*
1
0.99
1.00
1.02
1.06
Plastic and Synthetic Resin Industry*
1
1.01
1.09
1.12
1.20
Other Manufacturing n.e.c.
1
0.92
0.90
0.91
0.95
* Physical units of production is used as the measure of activity for these sub-sectors.
** Gross output (in 1986 dollars) is used as the measure of activity for these sub-sectors.
For the remaining sub-sectors, gross domestic product (in 1986 dollars) is used.
Sources:
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and National Reference Forecast, Ottawa, November 2001.
d) Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Center, Development of Energy Intensity Indicators for
Canadian Industry 1990 to 2000, Simon Fraser University, January 2002.
72
Chapter 4
Industrial Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1.03
1.00
0.99
1.02
1.03
1.02
1.01
1.00
0.98
1.01
0.97
0.94
1.36
1.83
2.05
2.23
2.17
2.17
1.18
1.29
1.38
1.45
1.65
1.66
0.83
0.73
0.73
0.67
0.60
0.49
1.08
1.13
1.23
1.24
1.23
1.21
0.95
0.92
1.00
1.01
1.02
1.02
0.89
0.83
0.89
0.89
0.87
0.88
1.15
1.21
1.24
1.25
1.36
1.39
0.99
1.05
1.24
1.26
1.36
1.29
1.06
1.13
1.31
1.56
1.70
1.88
0.79
0.78
0.80
0.80
0.77
0.79
0.99
1.01
1.05
1.08
1.14
1.18
1.12
1.11
1.23
1.19
1.10
1.14
1.23
1.25
1.38
1.35
1.57
1.53
1.39
1.43
1.65
1.72
1.96
2.01
1.68
1.63
1.89
2.35
2.82
4.14
1.06
1.13
1.23
1.50
1.67
1.88
1.19
1.18
1.25
1.25
1.29
1.28
1.30
1.38
1.37
1.43
1.57
1.66
0.97
1.02
1.04
1.16
1.25
1.45
Industrial Sector
Chapter 4
73
Chapter 5
Transportation Sector
The Data Situation
The aggregate transportation energy use data presented in this report are
published in Statistics Canada’s Quarterly Report on Energy SupplyDemand in Canada (QRESD) (Cat. No. 57-003). Additional information
needed to perform analysis on the transportation sector, such as the stock,
the efficiencies and the distance travelled, comes from various sources.
Previously, the vehicle stock data were based on Statistics Canada’s
Road Motor Vehicles Registrations (Cat. No. 53-219), which provided data
by vehicle type and provinces. The Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) is
now using the vehicle stock data and the new vehicle registrations data
from the Canadian Vehicles in Operation Census (CVIOC) produced by
DesRosiers Automotive Consultants and the Truck Industry Profile (TIP)
from R.L. Polk & Co. These data, disaggregated by weight class, fuel type
and model year, have greatly improved the OEE’s analytical capacity. The
stock of buses and motorcycles are based on several Statistics Canada
publications, such as Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics and the
Canadian Vehicle Survey.
Other sources, such as Statistics Canada’s National Private Vehicle Use
Survey and the Transport Canada database Vehicle Fuel Economy
Information System (VFEIS), are used to assess the fuel efficiency
and distance travelled for some vehicles.
The Transportation Energy Demand Model is an energy demand model
developed by the OEE. This model estimates the annual fuel use for each
province and vehicle category, using vehicle stock characteristics and
usages, the average distance travelled by vehicle age and the
vehicle fuel economy. The annual fuel use estimates are calibrated to
the energy demand data reported in Statistics Canada’s QRESD.
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
75
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Transportation Energy Use by Fuel Type and Transportation Mode
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,877.9
1,807.3
1,850.1
1,873.2
1,967.8
1,149.0
1,094.9
1,125.2
1,143.6
1,193.8
675.3
655.9
666.3
669.9
713.6
53.6
56.5
58.6
59.7
60.4
1,120.4
1,089.2
1,112.8
1,143.3
1,179.2
35.4
36.7
42.5
31.6
29.7
Natural Gas
1.7
2.1
2.3
2.4
2.5
Aviation Gasoline
5.5
4.2
3.8
3.7
3.7
Aviation Turbo Fuel
181.9
163.3
169
161.7
170.8
Diesel Fuel Oil
469.8
442.4
451
471.8
519.1
Heavy Fuel Oil
60.1
66.4
65.8
55.8
59.9
0
0
0
0
0
3.1
3.1
2.9
2.9
2.9
0
0
0
0
0
Total Energy Use (PJ) a
Total Passenger Transportation d
Total Freight Transportation d
Off-Road d
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) a
Motor Gasoline
Propane
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
Electricity
Coal
Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ) a,b,c,d
Small Cars
352.8
347.4
352.8
359.1
362.1
Large Cars
327.5
311.8
307.9
301.2
297.8
Light Trucks
351.5
345.4
370.2
390.9
421.9
Medium Trucks
101.3
98.4
103.4
107.5
114.9
Heavy Trucks
248.2
228.3
225
242.5
270.9
Motorcycles
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.8
2
School Bus
13
12.8
12.5
12.7
16.8
Urban Transit
35.9
35.6
40
41.3
45.1
Inter-City Bus
9
8.6
9
7.9
8.3
187.4
167.5
172.8
165.4
174.5
Air
Rail
89.5
82.9
86.7
86.4
89.3
106.5
110.6
109.7
96.8
103.9
53.6
56.5
58.6
59.7
60.4
Passenger-Kilometres (million) d
508,722
493,841
516,634
521,707
547,266
Tonne-Kilometres (million) d
540,500
532,683
511,294
530,073
591,942
Passenger Transportation Energy Intensity
(MJ/passenger-kilometre)* a,d
2.18
2.15
2.12
2.14
2.13
Freight Transportation Energy Intensity
(MJ/tonne-kilometre) a,d
1.25
1.23
1.3
1.26
1.21
Marine
Off-Road
Activity
*Passenger transportation energy intensity excludes non-commercial aviation.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions, Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions, Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998, February 1993–December 1999, (Cat. No. 53-215).
Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
c) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
d) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
76
Chapter 5
Transportation Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2,004.9
2,043.0
2,117.2
2,194.5
2,252.8
2,282.1
21.5%
1,207.8
1,226.4
1,245.2
1,285.1
1,301.1
1,294.3
12.6%
734.7
752.9
805.1
839.3
876.3
905.5
34.1%
62.4
63.7
66.9
70.1
75.5
82.3
53.5%
1,174.6
1,186.6
1,213.1
1,261.4
1,293.4
1,295.1
15.6%
32.8
30.9
28.3
27
22.6
15.9
-55.1%
2.4
2.2
2.6
2.5
2.2
2.4
41.2%
4.1
3.9
3.7
3.9
3.6
3.6
-34.5%
183.2
205.5
210.9
222.8
233.9
235.9
29.7%
548.4
556
599
599.1
628.2
658.3
40.1%
56.6
54.9
56.7
74.8
65.9
67.8
12.8%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
3
3
3
2.9
3
3.1
0.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
351.5
345.8
342.5
338
334.5
324.3
-8.1%
286.6
277.9
272
265.7
261.4
251.5
-23.2%
441.3
462
489.4
539
560.1
564.8
60.7%
119.8
126
135
136.6
149.7
158.1
56.1%
298.3
308.5
344
347.8
371
389
56.7%
1.8
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.3
35.3%
16.8
14.2
13.2
16
14.8
15.1
16.2%
49
47.1
50.5
48.9
46.5
50.3
40.1%
7.5
7.4
6.9
8
7.4
7.8
-13.3%
187.3
209.4
214.6
226.7
237.5
239.5
27.8%
80.9
79.1
80.2
76.5
81.1
83.1
-7.2%
101.7
99.9
100.1
119.2
111.5
114
7.0%
62.4
63.7
66.9
70.1
75.5
82.3
53.5%
548,561
557,953
570,956
582,022
584,428
583,326
14.7%
610,109
625,689
667,174
672,525
719,953
741,188
37.1%
2.14
2.14
2.13
2.15
2.18
2.17
-0.5%
1.2
1.2
1.21
1.25
1.22
1.22
-2.4%
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
Total Growth 1990–2000
77
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Transportation GHG Emissions by Fuel Type and Transportation Mode
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
135
129.8
132.9
134.6
141.5
Total Passenger Transportation d,k
81.9
77.9
80.1
81.5
85.1
Total Freight Transportation d,k
49.4
47.9
48.7
49
52.1
3.8
4
4.1
4.2
4.2
Motor Gasoline
80
77.8
79.5
81.7
84.3
Propane
2.1
2.2
2.5
1.9
1.8
Natural Gas
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Aviation Gasoline
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
Aviation Turbo Fuel
13.2
11.8
12.2
11.7
12.3
Diesel Fuel Oil
34.6
32.5
33.2
34.7
38.1
Heavy Fuel Oil
4.5
5
4.9
4.2
4.5
0
0
0
0
0
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0
0
0
0
0
Small Cars
25
24.6
25
25.5
25.7
Large Cars
23.1
22
21.7
21.2
21
Light Trucks
25.2
24.7
26.5
28
30.3
Total GHG Emissions (Mt) a,k
Off-Road d,k
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type (Mt) a,k
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
Electricity
Coal
GHG Emissions by Transportation Mode (Mt) a,b,c,d,k
Medium Trucks
7.3
7.1
7.5
7.8
8.3
17.7
16.3
16
17.3
19.3
Motorcycles
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
School Bus
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.9
1.1
Urban Transit
2.5
2.5
2.8
2.9
3.1
Heavy Trucks
Inter-City Bus
Air
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
13.6
12.1
12.5
12
12.6
Rail
7.1
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.1
Marine
8.1
8.4
8.4
7.4
7.9
Off-Road
3.8
4
4.1
4.2
4.2
71.9
71.8
71.8
71.9
71.9
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,k
GHG Emissions related to Electricity (Mt) a,k
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998, February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
c) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
d) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
k) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
78
Chapter 5
Transportation Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
144.1
146.8
152.2
156.9
161.1
163.4
21.0%
86.1
87.5
88.9
90.7
91.9
91.5
11.7%
53.6
54.8
58.6
61.2
64
66.1
33.8%
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.7
50.0%
84
84.9
86.8
89.4
91.7
91.8
14.8%
2
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.4
1
-52.4%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0%
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
-25.0%
13.2
14.9
15.2
15.7
16.4
16.6
25.8%
40.1
40.6
43.7
44.1
46.2
48.4
39.9%
4.2
4.1
4.2
5.5
4.8
5
11.1%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
24.9
24.5
24.3
23.7
23.5
22.8
-8.8%
20.2
19.6
19.2
18.6
18.3
17.6
-23.8%
31.7
33.2
35.2
38.4
40
40.4
60.3%
8.6
9.1
9.7
9.8
10.8
11.4
56.2%
21.3
22
24.5
25
26.7
28
58.2%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
100.0%
1.2
1
0.9
1.1
1
1
11.1%
3.4
3.3
3.5
3.5
3.3
3.6
44.0%
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.0%
13.5
15.1
15.5
15.9
16.7
16.8
23.5%
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.1
6.5
6.7
-5.6%
7.8
7.6
7.7
9
8.5
8.6
6.2%
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.7
50.0%
71.9
71.9
71.9
71.5
71.5
71.6
-0.4%
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
79
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Passenger Transportation Energy Use by Fuel Type and Transportation Mode
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,149.0
1,094.9
1,125.2
1,143.6
1,193.8
Motor Gasoline
884
849.6
866.9
895
929.9
Propane
15.5
16.7
18.5
14.6
13.8
Natural Gas
1.6
2
2.2
2.3
2.4
Aviation Gasoline
5.5
4.2
3.8
3.7
3.7
181.9
163.3
169
161.7
170.8
57.4
56.1
61.9
63.4
70.2
3.1
3.1
2.9
2.9
2.9
Passenger Transportation Energy Use (PJ) d
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) d
Aviation Turbo Fuel
Diesel Fuel Oil
Electricity
Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ) a,b,c,d
Small Cars
352.8
347.4
352.8
359.1
362.1
Large Cars
327.5
311.8
307.9
301.2
297.8
Light Trucks
216.5
206.3
225.5
250.7
284.4
Motorcycles
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.8
2
School Bus
13
12.8
12.5
12.7
16.8
Urban Transit
35.9
35.6
40
41.3
45.1
Inter-City Bus
9
8.6
9
7.9
8.3
187.4
167.5
172.8
165.4
174.5
5.1
3.3
3.2
3.4
2.9
508,722
493,841
516,634
521,707
547,266
Small Cars d
202,688
200,707
207,616
209,239
210,992
Large Cars d
132,833
130,749
134,007
131,995
132,111
Light Trucks d
64,800
62,798
69,270
76,147
85,525
Motorcycles d
985
960
990
1,037
1,111
School Bus b
10,245
11,839
12,579
10,440
15,523
Urban Transit b
18,183
17,776
19,001
20,448
22,239
Inter-City Bus b
10,208
9,580
9,549
9,891
12,586
Air g,h
66,776
58,007
62,183
61,098
65,739
Rail c
2,004
1,426
1,439
1,413
1,440
2.18
2.15
2.12
2.14
2.13
Air
Rail
Activity
Total Passenger-Kilometres (million) d
Passenger-Kilometres by
Transportation Mode (million)
Energy Intensity (MJ/passenger-kilometre)* d
*Passenger transportation energy intensity excludes non-commercial aviation.
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998, February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
c) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
d) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
g) Statistics Canada. Aviation Statistics Centre: Service Bulletin, Ottawa, 1990–1996; 22(1) –28(12), (Cat. No. 51-004).
h) Statistics Canada, Canadian Civil Aviation 1995–1998, Ottawa, 1996–2000, (Cat. No. 51-206).
Data for 1999–2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
80
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End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1,207.8
1,226.4
1,245.2
1,285.1
1,301.1
1,294.3
926.9
927.6
939.3
966.8
977.3
966.1
9.3%
14.7
13.2
12.6
12.3
10.3
7.9
-49.0%
2.3
2.1
2.5
2.5
2.2
2.3
43.8%
4.1
3.9
3.7
3.9
3.6
3.6
-34.5%
183.2
205.5
210.9
222.8
233.9
235.9
29.7%
73.7
70.9
73.3
73.9
70.8
75.3
31.2%
3
3
3
2.9
3
3.1
0.0%
351.5
345.8
342.5
338
334.5
324.3
-8.1%
286.6
277.9
272
265.7
261.4
251.5
-23.2%
304.9
320.1
341.3
377.7
394.5
401
85.2%
1.8
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.3
35.3%
16.8
14.2
13.2
16
14.8
15.1
16.2%
49
47.1
50.5
48.9
46.5
50.3
40.1%
7.5
7.4
6.9
8
7.4
7.8
-13.3%
187.3
209.4
214.6
226.7
237.5
239.5
27.8%
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.5
2.5
-51.0%
548,561
557,953
570,956
582,022
584,428
583,326
14.7%
204,121
203,452
201,182
200,301
198,308
195,456
-3.6%
127,962
126,084
124,002
122,664
121,020
118,682
-10.7%
90,717
96,010
101,161
111,435
115,381
117,886
81.9%
1,011
1,023
1,065
1,126
1,154
1,313
33.3%
15,367
14,368
15,418
16,949
15,899
15,739
53.6%
23,066
23,070
24,308
22,971
21,832
22,657
24.6%
11,346
10,311
10,448
10,651
10,309
10,220
0.1%
73,499
82,120
91,859
94,467
98,983
99,790
49.4%
1,473
1,513
1,515
1,458
1,544
1,582
-21.1%
2.14
2.14
2.13
2.15
2.18
2.17
-0.5%
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
Total Growth 1990–2000
12.6%
81
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Passenger Transportation GHG Emissions by Fuel Type and Transportation Mode
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
81.9
77.9
80.1
81.5
85.1
Motor Gasoline
63
60.5
61.8
63.8
66.3
Propane
0.9
1
1.1
0.9
0.8
Natural Gas
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Aviation Gasoline
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
Passenger Transportation GHG Emissions (Mt) a,d,k
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type (Mt) a,d,k
Aviation Turbo Fuel
13.2
11.8
12.2
11.7
12.3
Diesel Fuel Oil
4.1
4.0
4.4
4.6
5.0
Electricity
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
Small Cars
25
24.6
25
25.5
25.7
Large Cars
23.1
22
21.7
21.2
21
Light Trucks
15.7
14.9
16.3
18.1
20.6
Motorcycles
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
School Bus
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.9
1.1
Urban Transit
2.5
2.5
2.8
2.9
3.1
GHG Emissions by Transportation Mode (Mt) a,b,c,d,k
Inter-City Bus
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
Air
13.6
12.1
12.5
12
12.6
Rail
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
71.2
71.2
71.2
71.2
71.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) d,k
GHG Emissions related to Electricity (Mt) d,k
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998, February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
c) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
d) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
k) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
82
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End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
86.1
87.5
88.9
90.7
91.9
91.5
11.7%
66.2
66.2
67.1
68.4
69.2
68.4
8.6%
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.5
-44.4%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0%
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
-25.0%
13.2
14.9
15.2
15.7
16.4
16.6
25.8%
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.1
5.4
31.7%
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
24.9
24.5
24.3
23.7
23.5
22.8
-8.8%
20.2
19.6
19.2
18.6
18.3
17.6
-23.8%
22
23.1
24.7
27.1
28.3
28.7
82.8%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
100.0%
1.2
1
0.9
1.1
1
1
11.1%
3.4
3.3
3.5
3.5
3.3
3.6
44.0%
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.0%
13.5
15.1
15.5
15.9
16.7
16.8
23.5%
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
-50.0%
71.3
71.3
71.4
70.6
70.6
70.7
-0.7%
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
83
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Freight Transportation Energy Use by Fuel Type and Transportation Mode
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
675.3
655.9
666.3
669.9
713.6
182.8
183.2
187.3
188.5
188.9
19.9
20.1
24
17
15.9
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Diesel Fuel Oil
412.4
386.2
389.1
408.4
448.8
Heavy Fuel Oil
Freight Transportation Energy Use (PJ) a,d
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) a,d
Motor Gasoline
Propane
Natural Gas
60.1
66.4
65.8
55.8
59.9
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
0
0
0
0
0
Coal
0
0
0
0
0
Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ) a,c,d,i
Light Trucks
134.9
139
144.8
140.1
137.5
Medium Trucks
101.3
98.4
103.4
107.5
114.9
Heavy Trucks
248.2
228.3
225
242.5
270.9
84.4
79.6
83.5
83
86.4
106.5
110.6
109.7
96.8
103.9
540,500
532,683
511,294
530,073
591,942
Light Trucks d
13,281
13,821
14,347
13,940
13,556
Medium Trucks d,e,j
13,468
13,215
14,040
14,811
15,996
Heavy Trucks d,e,j
77,800
70,600
72,900
84,600
102,000
Rail c
248,371
260,537
250,607
256,338
288,432
Marine i
187,580
174,510
159,400
160,384
171,958
1.25
1.23
1.30
1.26
1.21
Rail
Marine
Activity
Total Tonne-Kilometres (million) d
Tonne-Kilometres by
Transportation Mode (million)
Energy Intensity (MJ/tonne-kilometre) d
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
d) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
e) Royal Commission on National Passenger Transportation, Direction: The Final Report of the Royal Commission
on National Passenger Transportation, Ottawa, 1992; 2.
i) Transport Canada, Surface and Marine Statistics and Forecasts Division, December 1999.
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
j) Statistics Canada, Trucking in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, February 2001, (Cat. No. 53-222).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
84
Chapter 5
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End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
734.7
752.9
805.1
839.3
876.3
905.5
34.1%
185.3
195.2
206.9
224.5
240.6
246.6
34.9%
18.1
17.6
15.7
14.7
12.3
8
-59.8%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0%
474.7
485
525.7
525.2
557.4
583
41.4%
56.6
54.9
56.7
74.8
65.9
67.8
12.8%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
136.4
141.9
148.2
161.4
165.6
163.8
21.4%
119.8
126
135
136.6
149.7
158.1
56.1%
298.3
308.5
344
347.8
371
389
56.7%
78.5
76.6
77.9
74.4
78.6
80.5
-4.6%
101.7
99.9
100.1
119.2
111.5
114
7.0%
610,109
625,689
667,174
672,525
719,953
741,188
37.1%
13,321
13,813
14,309
15,447
15,789
15,627
17.7%
16,886
17,883
19,287
19,607
21,532
22,829
69.5%
110,000
120,000
130,141
137,552
158,104
164,720
111.7%
280,474
282,482
306,943
299,508
317,146
325,049
30.9%
189,428
191,511
196,494
200,411
207,382
212,963
13.5%
1.20
1.20
1.21
1.25
1.22
1.22
-2.4%
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
85
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Freight Transportation GHG Emissions by Fuel Type and Transportation Mode
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
49.4
47.9
48.7
49
52.1
13.2
13.3
13.6
13.7
13.7
1.2
1.2
1.4
1
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
Diesel Fuel Oil
30.4
28.5
28.7
30.1
33
Heavy Fuel Oil
Freight Transportation GHG Emissions (Mt) a,d,k
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type (Mt) a,d,k
Motor Gasoline
Propane
Natural Gas
4.5
5
4.9
4.2
4.5
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene
0
0
0
0
0
Coal
0
0
0
0
0
GHG Emissions by Transportation Mode (Mt) a,c,d,i,k
Light Trucks
9.5
9.8
10.2
9.9
9.7
Medium Trucks
7.3
7.1
7.5
7.8
8.3
19.3
Heavy Trucks
17.7
16.3
16
17.3
Rail
6.7
6.3
6.6
6.6
6.9
Marine
8.1
8.4
8.4
7.4
7.9
73.1
73.1
73
73.1
73.1
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) d,k
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
c) Statistics Canada, Rail in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, July 1992–April 2000, (Cat. No. 52-216).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
d) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
i) Transport Canada, Surface and Marine Statistics and Forecasts Division, December 1999.
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
k) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
86
Chapter 5
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End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
53.6
54.8
58.6
61.2
64
66.1
33.8%
13.4
14.1
15
16.1
17.3
17.7
34.1%
1.1
1.1
0.9
0.9
0.7
0.5
-58.3%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
34.8
35.5
38.4
38.8
41.1
43
41.4%
4.2
4.1
4.2
5.5
4.8
5
11.1%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
9.6
10
10.5
11.4
11.7
11.6
22.1%
8.6
9.1
9.7
9.8
10.8
11.4
56.2%
21.3
22
24.5
25
26.7
28
58.2%
6.2
6.1
6.2
6
6.3
6.5
-3.0%
7.8
7.6
7.7
9
8.5
8.6
6.2%
72.9
72.8
72.8
73
73
73
-0.1%
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
87
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Passenger and Freight Road Transportation Energy Use and
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type
Passenger Road Transportation Energy Use (PJ) d
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
956.5
924.1
949.3
974.8
1,016.4
884.0
849.6
866.9
895.0
929.9
15.5
16.7
18.5
14.6
13.8
1.6
2
2.2
2.3
2.4
52.3
52.8
58.7
60
67.3
3.1
3.1
2.9
2.9
2.9
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) d
Motor Gasoline
Propane
Natural Gas
Diesel Fuel Oil
Electricity
Activity
Passenger-Kilometres (million) d
439,942
434,408
453,012
459,196
480,087
Energy Intensity (MJ/passenger-kilometre) d
2.17
2.13
2.10
2.12
2.12
Passenger Road Transportation GHG Emissions (Mt) d,k
67.9
65.6
67.4
69.2
72.2
Motor Gasoline
63
60.5
61.8
63.8
66.3
Propane
0.9
1
1.1
0.9
0.8
Natural Gas
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Diesel Fuel Oil
3.7
3.8
4.2
4.3
4.8
Electricity
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
71
70.9
71
71
71.1
484.4
465.8
473.1
490.1
523.3
182.8
183.2
187.3
188.5
188.9
19.9
20.1
24
17
15.9
0
0
0
0
0
281.7
262.4
261.7
284.5
318.3
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type (Mt) d,k
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) d,k
Freight Road Transportation Energy Use (PJ) d
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) d
Motor Gasoline
Propane
Natural Gas
Diesel Fuel Oil
Activity
Tonne-Kilometres (million) d
104,549
97,636
101,287
113,351
131,552
Energy Intensity (MJ/tonne-kilometre) d
4.63
4.77
4.67
4.32
3.98
Freight Road Transportation GHG Emissions (Mt) d,k
34.5
33.2
33.7
35
37.3
13.2
13.3
13.6
13.7
13.7
1.2
1.2
1.4
1
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
Diesel Fuel Oil
20.1
18.7
18.7
20.3
22.7
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) d,k
71.2
71.2
71.1
71.3
71.3
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type (Mt) d,k
Motor Gasoline
Propane
Natural Gas
Sources:
d) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
k) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
88
Chapter 5
Transportation Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
1,018.0
1,014.4
1,028.2
1,056.2
1,061.1
1,052.3
Total Growth 1990–2000
926.9
927.6
939.3
966.8
977.3
966.1
9.3%
14.7
13.2
12.6
12.3
10.3
7.9
-49.0%
10.0%
2.3
2.1
2.5
2.5
2.2
2.3
43.8%
71.3
68.4
70.9
71.8
68.3
72.8
39.2%
3
3
3
2.9
3
3.1
0.0%
473,589
474,319
477,583
486,097
483,902
481,954
9.5%
2.15
2.14
2.15
2.17
2.19
2.18
0.5%
72.4
72.2
73.2
74.6
75
74.4
9.6%
66.2
66.2
67.1
68.4
69.2
68.4
8.6%
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.5
-44.4%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0%
5.1
4.9
5.1
5.2
4.9
5.2
40.5%
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0%
71.1
71.1
71.2
70.7
70.7
70.7
-0.4%
554.5
576.3
627.1
645.7
686.2
711
46.8%
185.3
195.2
206.9
224.5
240.6
246.6
34.9%
18.1
17.6
15.7
14.7
12.3
8
-59.8%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0%
351
363.4
404.4
406.5
433.2
456.3
62.0%
140,207
151,696
163,737
172,606
195,425
203,176
94.3%
3.96
3.8
3.83
3.74
3.51
3.5
-24.4%
39.5
41.1
44.8
46.3
49.2
51
47.8%
13.4
14.1
15
16.1
17.3
17.7
34.1%
1.1
1.1
0.9
0.9
0.7
0.5
-58.3%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
25
25.9
28.8
29.3
31.2
32.9
63.7%
71.3
71.3
71.4
71.6
71.7
71.8
0.8%
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
89
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Transportation Explanatory Variables
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
Cars
Car Sales (thousands) d
Small Cars
584
530
497
461
463
Large Cars
300
343
301
278
285
Car Stock (thousands) d
Small Cars
6,652
6,772
6,759
6,802
6,759
Large Cars
4,449
4,450
4,340
4,323
4,270
Average Car Distance Travelled Per Year (km) d
Small Cars
16,215
16,035
15,921
15,714
15,567
Large Cars
15,875
15,786
15,788
15,575
15,452
9.4
9.1
9.4
9.6
9.8
13.2
12.6
12.6
12.7
12.9
Average Small Car Fuel Consumption (L/100 km) d
Motor Gasoline
Average Large Car Fuel Consumption (L/100 km) d
Motor Gasoline
Motorcycles
Motorcycle Stock (thousands) i
285
278
269
268
264
3,661
3,553
3,893
4,165
4,646
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
School Bus
36
36
36
36
40
Urban Transit
40
40
41
42
42
Inter-City Bus
5
5
5
4
5
School Bus
17,094
19,612
20,752
17,101
23,114
Urban Transit
43,625
41,817
44,218
46,192
50,048
Inter-City Bus
106,708
98,059
96,282
108,337
124,114
Average Motorcycle Distance Travelled Per Year (km) d
Average Motorcycle Fuel Consumption (L/100 km) d
Buses
Bus Stock (thousands) d
Average Bus Distance Travelled Per Year (km) b,d
Sources:
b) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998, February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
d) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
j) Statistics Canada, Trucking in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, February 2001, (Cat. No. 53-222).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
l) Statistics Canada, Road Motor Vehicles Registrations 1976–1998, (Cat. No. 53-219).
Statistics Canada, Cansim II, Statistics Canada’s online statistical database, table 405–4004, 1999–2000.
90
Chapter 5
Transportation Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
409
417
466
468
508
534
-8.6%
261
243
272
273
299
315
4.8%
6,726
6,621
6,625
6,462
6,473
6,425
-3.4%
4,210
4,131
4,115
4,002
3,991
3,938
-11.5%
15,393
15,244
15,131
15,134
15,114
15,138
-6.6%
15,354
15,161
15,012
15,004
14,982
15,012
-5.4%
9.7
9.8
9.8
9.9
9.8
9.5
1.1%
12.6
12.6
12.5
12.6
12.4
12.1
-8.3%
258
253
259
271
274
311
9.2%
4,283
4,496
4,535
4,638
4,662
4,622
26.2%
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
0.0%
40
40
40
42
39
40
11.1%
43
43
43
44
41
43
8.9%
4
4
4
4
4
4
-12.6%
22,977
21,431
23,108
24,062
24,457
23,528
37.6%
51,326
50,433
53,042
49,763
50,617
49,698
13.9%
126,861
127,319
121,597
122,588
126,370
121,602
14.0%
continued
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
91
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Transportation Explanatory Variables continued
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
Trucks
Truck Sales (thousands) d
Light Trucks
388
377
348
365
400
Medium Trucks
44
37
58
66
74
Heavy Trucks
15
9
12
19
24
Truck Stock (thousands) d,j
Light Trucks
3,444
3,494
3,623
3,923
4,186
Medium Trucks
619
625
640
645
650
Heavy Trucks
257
256
259
258
260
Light Trucks
19,004
18,936
18,663
18,326
17,949
Medium Trucks
18,953
18,776
18,837
18,927
19,216
Heavy Trucks
74,023
70,767
67,652
67,105
68,498
Motor Gasoline
15.4
15.1
15
15
15
Diesel Fuel Oil
16.9
16.1
15.8
15.6
15.5
Motor Gasoline
28.1
27.9
27.6
27.3
26.9
Diesel Fuel Oil
23.5
23.3
23.1
22.9
22.6
46.8
46.6
46.4
46.1
45.6
Average Truck Distance Travelled Per Year (km) d,j
Average Light Truck Fuel Consumption (L/100 km) d
Average Medium Truck Fuel Consumption (L/100 km) d
Average Large Truck Fuel Consumption (L/100 km) d
Diesel Fuel Oil
Sources:
b) Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit Statistics 1990–1998, February 1993–December 1999,
(Cat. No. 53-215). Data for 1999 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
Statistics Canada, Canadian Vehicle Survey 2000, June 2001, (Cat. No. 53F0004XIE).
d) Natural Resources Canada, Transportation Energy Demand Model, Ottawa, February 2002.
j) Statistics Canada, Trucking in Canada 1990–1999, Ottawa, February 2001, (Cat. No. 53-222).
Data for 2000 estimated by Natural Resources Canada.
l) Statistics Canada, Road Motor Vehicles Registrations 1976–1998, (Cat. No. 53-219).
Statistics Canada, Cansim II, Statistics Canada’s online statistical database, table 405–4004, 1999–2000.
92
Chapter 5
Transportation Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
continued
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
372
426
549
563
572
585
50.8%
79
85
88
102
116
114
158.2%
25
22
28
28
33
29
96.2%
4,476
4,730
4,984
5,422
5,636
5,779
67.8%
657
692
728
722
803
839
35.5%
265
284
303
304
330
329
27.9%
17,453
17,141
17,183
17,013
17,085
17,150
-9.8%
19,676
19,916
20,135
20,737
20,620
20,864
10.1%
71,311
71,326
72,516
75,429
76,199
78,036
5.4%
15.2
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.5
0.6%
15.5
15.6
15.5
15.5
15.5
15.6
-7.7%
26.6
26.3
26.1
25.8
25.7
25.6
-8.9%
22.4
22.2
22.1
21.9
21.8
21.7
-7.7%
45.1
44.7
44.1
43.3
42.8
42.2
-9.8%
Transportation Sector
Chapter 5
Total Growth 1990–2000
93
Chapter 6
Agriculture Sector
The Data Situation
The energy use data used in this sector come from Statistics Canada’s
Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada (QRESD)
(Cat. No. 57-003). Informetrica Limited provided the gross domestic
product (GDP) data.
The Farm Energy Use Survey, conducted in 1997 by Statistics Canada,
also provides aggregate energy use data. Prior to this survey, however,
a 16-year gap existed because Statistics Canada had conducted its
previous survey of farm energy use in Canada in 1981. As a result, Natural
Resources Canada, along with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and
Environment Canada, co-sponsored the 1997 Farm Energy Use Survey.
Information on the energy-using activities on Canadian farms is available
only at an aggregate level. The agricultural GDP reported by Statistics
Canada incorporates all agricultural activities, including both livestock and
field crop productions, in its measure.
Agriculture Sector
Chapter 6
95
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Agriculture Energy Use and GHG Emissions by Fuel Type and End-Use
Total Energy Use (PJ) a
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
199.2
195.2
196.9
198.8
195.8
Energy Use by End-Use (PJ) a
Non-Motive Energy Use
Motive Energy Use
71.6
79.7
87.6
86.3
77.9
127.6
115.6
109.2
112.5
117.9
Energy Use by Fuel Type (PJ) a
Natural Gas
23.2
23.3
25.1
31.2
23.6
Propane
5
5.3
9
6.7
6.5
Kerosene
1
1.7
2.5
1.6
1.5
10.8
14.7
16.6
11.9
10.8
Light Fuel Oil
Heavy Fuel Oil
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.8
Motor Gasoline
56.1
48.4
40.7
35.9
33.4
Diesel Fuel Oil
71.5
67.2
68.5
76.6
84.5
Electricity
31.1
34
33.7
33.9
34.5
0
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
Steam
Activity
GDP (million $86) b
10,838
10,712
10,030
10,726
11,195
Energy Intensity (MJ/$86) a,b
18.4
18.2
19.6
18.5
17.5
Total GHG Emissions Including Electricity (Mt) a,c
13.7
13.3
13.6
13.3
13.3
Non-Motive GHG Emissions
4.1
4.6
5.3
4.7
4.2
Motive GHG Emissions
9.6
8.7
8.3
8.6
9.1
GHG Emissions by End-Use (Mt) a,c
GHG Emissions by Fuel Type (Mt) a,c
Natural Gas
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.2
Propane
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.4
Kerosene
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
Light Fuel Oil
0.8
1.1
1.2
0.9
0.8
0.1
Heavy Fuel Oil
0
0
0.1
0.1
Motor Gasoline
3.9
3.4
2.9
2.5
2.3
Diesel Fuel Oil
5.7
5.3
5.4
6.1
6.7
Electricity
1.7
1.8
2
1.7
1.7
0
0
0
0
0
68.9
68.1
69
66.9
67.7
12
11.5
11.5
11.6
11.6
Non-Motive GHG Emissions
2.4
2.7
3.2
3
2.5
Motive GHG Emissions
9.6
8.7
8.3
8.6
9.1
60.2
58.7
58.7
58.4
59.1
Steam
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,c
Total GHG Emissions Excluding Electricity (Mt) a,c
GHG Emissions by End-Use (Mt) a,c
GHG Intensity (tonne/TJ) a,c
Sources:
a) Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1990–1998 revisions,
Ottawa, January 2001, (CANSIM).
Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada, 1999–2000 revisions,
Ottawa, February 2002.
b) Informetrica Limited, TIM/RIM Database and National Reference Forecast, Ottawa, November 2001.
c) GHG emissions factors from Environment Canada, Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1999,
Ottawa, April 2001, (Cat. No. EN49-5/5-9-1-1999E).
96
Chapter 6
Agriculture Sector
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total Growth 1990–2000
209.2
222.9
230
224.7
229.9
231.9
16.4%
80.2
84.6
84.7
78.4
79.9
78.3
9.4%
129
138.3
145.3
146.3
150
153.6
20.4%
22.9
26.9
26.3
23.7
24.1
27.3
17.7%
7.4
6.4
7
4.9
5.4
5.4
8.0%
1.5
1.7
1.5
1.2
1.1
0.6
-40.0%
-12.0%
14
13.8
13.8
13
13.5
9.5
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.5
1
66.7%
40.4
43.7
44.9
46.4
47.3
46.8
-16.6%
88.7
94.6
100.5
99.9
102.7
106.8
49.4%
33.8
35.4
35.7
35.1
35.2
34.6
11.3%
0.1
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
0
–
11,441
11,878
11,318
11,947
12,922
12,511
15.4%
18.3
18.8
20.3
18.8
17.8
18.5
0.5%
14.4
15.2
15.9
15.9
16.2
16.4
19.7%
4.5
4.6
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.6
12.2%
9.9
10.6
11.1
11.2
11.5
11.8
22.9%
1.1
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.4
16.7%
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.0%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
–
1
1
1
0.9
1
0.7
-12.5%
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
–
2.8
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.3
-15.4%
7
7.5
8
8
8.2
8.6
50.9%
1.7
1.7
1.9
2.2
2.1
2.1
23.5%
0
0
0
0
0
0
–
68.6
68.2
69.3
70.9
70.6
70.7
2.6%
12.6
13.5
14
13.8
14.2
14.3
19.2%
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.5
2.6
2.5
4.2%
9.9
10.6
11.1
11.2
11.5
11.8
22.9%
60.4
60.5
60.9
61.3
61.6
61.7
2.5%
Agriculture Sector
Chapter 6
97
Appendix A
Reconciliation of Data
Reconciliation of Data on Energy Use Found in This Report With Data in
Statistics Canada’s Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada — 2000
Revised
QRESD
data
Fuel Wood
Commercial &
Public Admin.
Diesel
Commercial &
Public Admin.
Aviation Fuels
Residential
1,288
100
Commercial/Institutional
1,294
(141)
(29)
Industrial
2,282
Transportation
2,280
141
29
100
0
0
100
0
0
100
0
0
Sector
Agriculture
232
Final Demand
7,376
Non Energy
789
Producer Consumption
Net Supply
1,259
9,423
Conversion losses *
1,696
Total primary
11,119
Notes on sources of energy use data for five end-use sectors:
Residential: Base data taken from revised QRESD (Table 1B, line 44) plus fuel wood use (estimated from NRCan’s
Residential End-use Model).
Commercial/institutional: Base data taken from revised QRESD (line 45 plus line 46) less commercial and public
administration motor gasoline (Table 1D, motor gasoline column, line 45 plus line 46) less commercial and public
admistration diesel (Table 1D, diesel column, line 45 plus line 46) less commercial and public administration aviation
gasoline (Table 1D, aviation gasoline column, line 45 plus line 46) less commercial and public administration aviation
turbo fuel (Table 1D, aviation turbo fuel column, line 45 plus line 46).
Industrial: Base data taken from revised QRESD (Table 1B, line 31) plus solid wood waste and pulping liquor (Table 20)
plus producer consumption by refinery and mining industries of still gas, diesel, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil, kerosene,
petroleum coke and refinery LPG (Table 1D, still gas, diesel, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil, kerosene, petroleum coke and
refinery LPG columns, line 16) plus waste fuels (Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Center).
Transportation: Base data taken from revised QRESD (Table 1B, line 42) less pipeline fuels (Table 1B, line 39) plus
commercial and public administration motor gasoline (Table 1D, motor gasoline column, line 45 plus line 46) plus
commercial diesel (Table 1D, diesel column, line 45 plus line 46) plus commercial and public administration aviation
gasoline (Table 1D, aviation gasoline column, line 45 plus line 46) plus commercial and public administration aviation
turbo fuel (Table 1D, aviation turbo fuel column, line 45 plus line 46).
Agriculture: Base data taken from revised QRESD (Table 1B, line 43).
* Electricity conversion rates: Hydro-electricity converted at a rate of 3.6 megajoules per kilowatt-hour;
nuclear electricity converted at a rate of 11.564 megajoules per kilowatt-hour.
98
Appendix A
Reconciliation of Data
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Commercial
& Public Admin.
Motor Gasoline
Pipeline Fuels
Wood Waste &
Pulping Liquor
Waste Fuels
Used in
Cement Industry
Re-allocation
of Producer
Consumption by
Refining and
Mining Industries
Data
Presented
in this
Report
1,388
(65)
1,059
531
65
6
384
(233)
3,204
2,282
232
0
(233)
531
6
384
8,164
(384)
1,107
0
10,060
789
233
0
0
531
6
1,696
0
0
531
Reconciliation of Data
6
Appendix A
0
11,756
99
Appendix B
Reconciliation of Definition
Reconciliation of Definition of Estimated Greenhouse
Gas Emissions Found in This Report With Environment
Canada’s Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory:
1990–1999
Introduction
In this report, the data on greenhouse gases, particularly the data on carbon
dioxide emissions, are estimated using emissions factors developed by
Environment Canada (EC). The emissions estimates provided herein
mirror the sectoral definitions used to calculate the estimates presented in
Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990–1999 (CGGI-1999).
Both Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and EC use the energy demand
data from Statistics Canada’s Quarterly Report on Energy SupplyDemand in Canada (QRESD) as a base. However, the two organizations
use different sectoral mappings. EC prepares its emissions inventory
according to the specifications of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change. NRCan, meanwhile, has developed a mapping that is most
suited to energy end-use analysis.
The objective of this appendix is to help you understand the similarities
and differences between CGGI-1999 and NRCan sectoral emissions
estimates for the five end-use sectors covered in this report.
Reconciliation of Definition
Appendix B
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Residential Sector
NRCan and CGGI-1999 differ in their definitions of residential emissions.
• First, NRCan residential emissions include end-use electricity-related
emissions, which are reported under power generation in CGGI-1999.
• Second, the wood energy use differs (EC’s estimate is larger than
NRCan’s). Hence the GHG emissions related to wood energy use that
are presented here are smaller than those in CGGI-1999.
Commercial/Institutional Sector
There is only one difference between the NRCan and CGGI-1999 definitions
of commercial/institutional emissions.
• NRCan commercial emissions include end-use electricity-related
emissions, which CGGI-1999 includes under power generation.
Industrial Sector
The industrial sector contains many differences between the definitions
described in CGGI-1999 and in this report.
• First, CGGI-1999 reallocates industrial diesel fuel use from the industrial
sector to the transportation sector.
• Second, this report reallocates producer consumption of petroleum
products by the petroleum refining and upstream mining industry from the
producer consumption sector to petroleum refining and upstream mining
within the industrial sector. CGGI-1999 reports this consumption under
fossil fuels.
• Third, CGGI-1999 reallocates industrial coke use from energy use in the
industrial sector to non-energy use in industrial processes.
• Fourth, NRCan industrial emissions include end-use electricity-related
emissions. CGGI-1999 reports them under power generation.
• Fifth, CGGI-1999 includes producers’ consumption of non-fossil fuels
in the fossil fuel categories. NRCan does not report this consumption.
CGGI-1999 also reallocates estimates of emissions from upstream oil and
gas flaring to the fugitive emissions from the fossil fuel sector.
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Appendix B
Reconciliation of Definition
End-Use Energy Data Handbook — 1 9 9 0 t o 2 0 0 0
Transportation Sector
Differences to the boundary of the transportation sector relate to CGGI-1999
reallocating or excluding QRESD data from its inventory, while NRCan
allocates end-use electricity-related emissions to the end-use sectors.
• First, CGGI-1999 reallocates industrial diesel, farm diesel and motor
gasoline to the transportation sector
• Second, EC’s inventory excludes emissions resulting from the use of
energy in the foreign aviation sub-sectors.
• Third, NRCan transportation emissions include end-use electricity-related
emissions, which are reported under power generation in CGGI-1999.
Agriculture Sector
There are differences in the agriculture sector.
• CGGI-1999 reclassifies all farm diesel and motor gasoline in the
transportation sector, while NRCan leaves this consumption in
agriculture (as does the QRESD).
• NRCan includes end-use electricity-related emissions in agriculture, while
CGGI-1999 reports them under power generation.
Reconciliation of Definition
Appendix B
103
Appendix C
Glossary of Terms
Activity: Term used to characterize major drivers of energy use in a sector
(e.g., number of households in the residential sector).
Apartment: This type of dwelling includes dwelling units in apartment blocks
or apartment hotels; flats in duplexes or triplexes (i.e., where the division
between dwelling units is horizontal); suites in structurally converted
houses; living quarters located above or in the rear of stores, restaurants,
garages or other business premises; janitors’ quarters in schools,
churches, warehouses, etc.; and private quarters for employees in
hospitals or other types of institutions.
Appliances: Energy-consuming equipment used in the home for purposes
other than air conditioning, centralized water heating and lighting. Includes
cooking appliances (gas stoves, gas ovens, electric stoves, electric ovens,
microwave ovens and propane or gas grills); cooling appliances (evaporative coolers, attic fans, window or ceiling fans, portable or table fans);
and refrigerator, freezers, clothes washers, dishwashers, clothes dryers,
outdoor gas lights, dehumidifiers, personal computers, pumps for
well water, televisions, water-bed heaters, swimming pool heaters,
hot tubs and spas.
Carbon Dioxide: A compound of carbon and oxygen formed whenever
carbon is burned. Chemical formula: CO2. Carbon dioxide is a colourless
gas that absorbs infrared radiation, mostly at wavelengths between
12 and 18 microns. It behaves as a one-way filter, allowing incoming,
visible light to pass through in one direction, while preventing outgoing
infrared radiation from passing in the opposite direction. The one-way
filtering effect of carbon dioxide causes an excess of the infrared
radiation to be trapped in the atmosphere; thus it acts as a greenhouse
and has the potential to increase the surface temperature of the planet.
Glossary of Terms
Appendix C
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Cooling Degree-Days (CDDs): A measure of how hot a location was over
a period of time, relative to a base temperature. In this report, the base
temperature is 18.0°C; the period of time is one year. The cooling degreedays for a single day is the difference between that day’s average temperature and 18.0°C, if the daily average exceeds the base temperature. It
is zero if the daily average is less than, or equal to, the base temperature.
The cooling degree-days for a longer period of time is the sum of the daily
cooling degree-days from the days in the period.
Dwelling: A dwelling is defined as a structurally separate set of living
premises with a private entrance from outside the building or from a
common hallway or stairway inside. A private dwelling is one in which one
person, a family or other small group of individuals may reside, such as a
single house, apartment, etc.
End-Use: Any specific activity that requires energy (e.g., refrigeration, space
heating, water heating, manufacturing process, feedstock).
Energy Intensity: The amount of energy use per unit of activity (examples of
activity measures in this report are households, floor space, passengerkilometres, tonne-kilometres, physical units of production or constant
dollar value of gross domestic product by industry).
Energy Source: Any substance that supplies heat or power (e.g., petroleum,
natural gas, coal, renewable energy and electricity, including the use
of a fuel as a non-energy feedstock).
Floor Area (space): The area enclosed by exterior walls of a building. In the
residential sector, it excludes parking areas, basements or other floors
below ground level, while they are included in the commercial sector.
It is measured in square metres.
Fossil Fuel: Any naturally occurring organic fuel, such as petroleum, coal
and natural gas.
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Glossary of Terms
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Furnace: Space-heating equipment consisting of an enclosed chamber where
fuel is burned or electrical resistance is used to heat air directly, without
using steam or hot water. The warm air is for heating and is distributed
throughout the house, typically by air ducts.
Gigajoule (GJ): One gigajoule equals 1 x 109 joules. A joule is the
international unit of measure of energy — the energy produced by a power
of one watt flowing for a second. There are 3.6 million joules
in one kilowatt-hour (see Kilowatt-hour).
Greenhouse Gas (GHG): A greenhouse gas absorbs and radiates heat
in the lower atmosphere that otherwise would be lost in space. The greenhouse effect is essential for life on this planet, since it keeps average
global temperatures high enough to support plant and animal growth. The
main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4),
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrous oxide (N2O). By far the most abundant greenhouse gas is CO2, accounting for 70 percent of the greenhouse
gas effect (see Carbon dioxide).
Greenhouse Gas Intensity of Energy: The amount of greenhouse gas
per unit of energy.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total value of goods and services
produced by the nation’s economy before the deduction of depreciation
charges and other allowances for capital consumption, labour and
property located in Canada. It includes the total output of goods and
services by private consumers and governments, gross private domestic
capital investment and net foreign trade. GDP figures are reported in
real 1986 dollars.
Gross Output: The total value of goods and services produced by an
industry. A sum of the industry’s shipments plus the change in value
due to labour and capital investment.
Gross Vehicle Weight: The weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum
anticipated load weight.
Glossary of Terms
Appendix C
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Heat Gains: Heat gained by a building from the operation of appliances. These
heat gains reduce the space-heating load in the winter and increase the
space-cooling load in the summer.
Heat Loss: Represents the amount of energy released as heat by an
appliance or piece of equipment while it is in operation.
Heating Degree-Days (HDDs): A measure of how cold a location was over
a period of time relative to a base temperature. In this report, the
base temperature is 18.0°C; the period of time is one year. The heating
degree-days for a single day is the difference between that day’s
average temperature and 18.0°C, if the daily average is below the base temperature. It is zero if the daily average exceeds or equals the
base temperature. The heating degree-days for a longer period of time
is the sum of the daily heating degree-days for the days in that period.
Heavy Trucks: Trucks with a gross vehicle weight that is more than, or equal
to, 14,970 kg (33,001 lb.).
Household: A person or a group of people occupying one dwelling unit
is defined as a household. The number of households will, therefore,
be equal to the number of occupied dwellings. The person or people
occupying a private dwelling form a private household.
Household Size: The number of persons per household.
Kilowatt-Hour (kWh): The commercial unit of electricity energy equivalent
to 1000 watt-hours. A kilowatt-hour can best be visualized as the amount
of electricity consumed by ten 100-watt bulbs burning for an hour.
One kilowatt-hour equals 3.6 million joules (see Watt).
Large Cars: Cars weighing 1,182 kg (2,601 lb.) or more.
Light Trucks: Trucks of up to 3,855 kg (8,500 lb.) of gross vehicle weight.
Medium Trucks: Trucks with a gross weight ranging from 3,856 to 14,969 kg
(8,501 to 33,000 lb.).
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Glossary of Terms
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Megajoule (MJ): One megajoule equals 1 x 106 joules (see Gigajoule).
Mobile Home: A moveable dwelling designed and constructed to be
transported by road on its own chassis to a site and placed on a
temporary foundation (such as blocks, posts or a prepared pad).
It should be capable of being moved to a new location.
Passenger-Kilometre: The transport of one passenger over a distance
of one kilometre.
Penetration Rate: The rate at which a technology infiltrated the stock of
buildings (e.g., number of refrigerators per household at a specified time).
Petajoule (PJ): One petajoule equals 1 x 1015 joules (see Gigajoule).
Sector: The broadest category for which energy consumption and intensity are
considered within the Canadian economy (e.g., residential, commercial,
industrial, transportation and agriculture).
Single Attached Dwelling: Each half of a semi-detached (double) house
and each section of a row or terrace are defined as single attached
dwellings. A single dwelling attached to a non-residential structure
also belongs to this category.
Single Detached Dwelling: This type of dwelling is commonly called a
single house (i.e., a house containing one dwelling unit and completely
separated on all sides from any other building or structure).
Small Cars: Cars weighing up to 1,181 kg (2,600 lb.).
Space Cooling: Conditioning of room air for human comfort by a
refrigeration unit (e.g., air conditioner or heat pump) or by circulating
chilled water through a central- or district-cooling system.
Space Heating: The use of mechanical equipment to heat all or part
of a building. Includes both the principal space heating and the
supplementary equipment.
Glossary of Terms
Appendix C
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Tonne-Kilometre: The transport of one tonne over a distance of one kilometre.
Vintage: The year of origin or age since the construction of a unit of capital
stock (e.g., a building, a car).
Water Heater: An automatically controlled vessel designed for heating water
and storing heated water.
Water Heating: The use of energy to heat water for hot running water,
as well as the use of energy to heat water on stoves and in auxiliary
water-heating equipment for bathing, cleaning and other non-cooking
applications.
Watt (W): A measure of power; for example, a 40-watt light bulb uses
40 watts of electricity (see Kilowatt-hour).
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Appendix C
Glossary of Terms
Leading Canadians to Energy Efficiency
at Home, at Work and on the Road
The Office of Energy Efficiency
of Natural Resources Canada strengthens and expands
Canada’s commitment to energy efficiency in order
to help address the challenges of climate change.
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