management and Canadian energy

management and Canadian energy
energy
management
Canadian
food and
beverage
for
industries
IJl,
Agriculture
Canada
Marketing and Economics Branch
630.4
C212
P 5143
1981
OOAg
Publication
5143
3
£
}
*
energy
management
Canadian
food and
beverage
for
industries
I*
Agriculture
Canada
Marketing and Economics Branch
Market Development Directorate
Food Processing and
Distribution Division
in
cooperation with the
Canadian Food and Beverage
Energy Management Task Force
PUBLICATION
5143, available from
Information Services, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa K1
© Minister of Supply and Services Canada
Cat. No.
Printed
A15-5143/1981E
5M-7:81
1981
Aussi disponible en francais
1981
ISBN: 0-662-11509-0
A 0C7
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in
Agriculture
2012 with funding from
and Agri-Food Canada - Agriculture
et
Agroalimentaire
http://www.archive.org/details/energymanagementOOcana
Canada
CANADA/ALBERTA ENERGY PRICE AGREEMENT
On September
1 981
the Governments of Canada and Alberta agreed that the overall average
1
conventional 'old oil' will increase from the present price of $18.75 per barrel, with the
first increase effective on October 1
1981 the second on January 1 1982, and thereafter every 6
months, in accordance with Table 1 These increases, however, are subject to the condition that the
overall average field price of conventional 'old oil', plus transportation costs to Montreal, adjusted for
quality, will not exceed 75% of the actual international price of oil.
,
,
field price of
,
,
,
.
TABLE
FIELD PRICES
1
OF CONVENTIONAL OLD
OIL
(S/bbl)
Oct.
1
Jan.
July
Jan.
July
Jan.
July
Jan.
July
Jan.
July
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Increase
Level
1981
$2.50
$21.25
1982
1982
1983
1983
1984
1984
1985
1985
1986
1986
2.25
2.25
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
23.50
25.75
29.75
33.75
37.75
41.75
45.75
49.75
53.75
57.75
For the purposes of this Agreement, 'old oil' means oil recovered from a pool initially discovered
prior to January 1, 1981.
Natural gas prices will be favorable in relation to oil, rising at a steady 25 cents per Mcf every 6
months. In effect, natural gas will be priced at less than two thirds of the price of heating oil.
This new agreement supercedes the schedule of oil prices contained on page 6 of this manual.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT IDEAS
Increased energy costs are a reality to which the entire Agri-Food industry must
adjust. We can ensure our continued competitiveness both at home and abroad by
responding to this challenge.
The Energy Conservation Task Force, which is comprised of representatives of both
industry and government, was set up to assist the Food and Beverage Industry adjust to
higher energy prices. This practical guide to energy conservation is a direct result of their
efforts. It offers suggestions on how to start an Energy Conservation Program and gives
new blood to programs already under way.
strongly support your individual efforts for energy conservation as well as the
involvement of the Energy Conservation Task Force and my Department in attempting to
reduce energy use in food processing, distribution and retailing. would appreciate your
comments on this publication and on energy issues in general.
I
I
Eugene Whelan
Minister
Agriculture
Canada
PREFACE
This guide is a catalogue of ideas, information, services and material available to those
interested in energy conservation. It is intended to stimulate food and beverage
processor's interest in energy conservation and give information on how to get an energy
management program started. More specific information is available and advice should be
sought from qualified engineering staff before making any alterations to your plant or
production processes.
a cooperative effort of Agriculture Canada, and the Food and Beverage Sector
Energy Conservation Task Force. The material contained within has been contributed
entirely by the Task Force, while the translation, editing and printing have been done by
Agriculture Canada. The Government of Canada and its employees make no warranty,
express or implied, and assumes no legal liability for contents or procedures outlined in
this document. Inclusion of material in this guide is not intended to represent federal
The guide
is
government endorsement.
CONTENTS
6
Introduction
7
Energy Management Program
8
Energy Conservation Action Plan
8
Energy Conservation Opportunities
8
9
10
10
10
Boiler and
Power
Plant Operations
Building Design and Construction
11
Compressed Air
Computers for Energy Management
Electric Power
Load Management
Fuel and Electric Management
12
Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
13
Heat Recovery
13
Insulation
14
Lighting
15
16
Maintenance
Paints and Coatings
Processing Equipment and Operations
Raw Product Handling and Cleaning
17
Refrigeration
18
18
Transportation
19
Water
20
Weekend Shutdown
21
ANNEX A Economic
21
Table
22
Table
II
Boiler Log
24
Table
III
Fuel and Electric Heating Values
24
Table IV
25
Sources of Information and Assistance
25
Part
11
15
16
Steam and Condensate
I
A
Justification Procedures
Project Utility
Demand Form
Minimum Recommended
Lighting Levels by Task
Publications of Interest to an Energy
Management
Committee
28
Part
B
Industry/Government Energy Conservation Task Forces
28
Part
C
Enersave
29
Part
D
The Energy Bus
29
Part E
for Industry
Tax Incentives
and Commerce
INTRODUCTION
1, 1981, the wellhead price for a barrel of conventional Canadian
until the end of 1982. Thereafter, until the end of 1983, price
every
six
months
oil will rise $1
increases will take place at the rate of $2.25 every six months. Commencing in 1986, the
price will be raised at the rate of $3.50 every six months, until it reaches its appropriate
quality-determined level relative to the oil sands "reference price". If by 1990 the conventional oil price is still below that for reference price oil, consideration should be given to a
more rapid rate of escalation." The price of Natural Gas and electricity will also rise
accordingly.
The aim of this publication is to assist food processors adjust to rising energy prices
and to the reality of world energy supply. The publication contains suggestions for energy
conservation, provides information on other publications and on available sources of
assistance. The application of the information contained in this publication will enable the
reader to develop an effective Energy Management Program. It will also help in reviewing
current operation, maintenance and energy use policies, and assist in establishing a set of
energy related "Standard Operating Procedures". Even though your company has probably
already instituted several of these suggestions, it is hoped that this booklet will not only
provide more Energy Conservation ideas, but will be of assistance in the development of a
broad based Energy Conservation Program, and Plan of Action for your plant.
The booklet is divided into two parts. The first part gives suggestions on how to form
an Energy Management Committee and includes a catalogue of Energy Conservation
Opportunities. These provide guidelines on conserving energy at the plant. Opportunities
cited are in areas such as boiler and power plant operations; heating, ventilating and air
conditioning systems; processing equipment operations; and weekend shutdowns. The
second part of the booklet details sources of information and services available to small,
medium and large scale food and beverage processors. Included are: fifteen publications
which should be obtained by your Energy Management Committee; information on the
Industry/Government Energy Conservation Task Force; advice on how to contact the
Energy Bus in your province; and Tax Incentives. The information they can provide will be
extremely useful in developing an Energy Conservation Plan of Action.
"Beginning January
1
.
1
7??e
National Energy Program Energy Mines and Resources Canada, Report EP 80 - 4E, pg 27.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
In recent years energy has become an extremely important and significant cost item
food production. The escalating cost of energy and the possibility of uncertain supply
make it imperative that every food and beverage manufacturer make a conscientious effort
to conserve energy. Every gallon of oil saved through conservation will make it available to
future generations. Therefore, efforts to adapt our facilities to use alternate fuels should
commence and contingency plans should be prepared to cope with interruptions in traditional sources of supply.
An Energy Management (EM) Program is an organized approach aimed at eliminating
energy waste and improving the effective utilization of energy in our food and beverage
facilities. To be successful, the EM Program must not only have complete management
support, but allow each plant to initiate and lead its own conservation efforts.
Your energy conservation program can be successful only if it arouses and maintains
the "participative" interest of your employees. Employees who understand the importance
of energy conservation, who participate in the program, and who feel that they are partners
in the planning and implementation of the details of the program, will have pride in the
program.
The use of a company newsletter, bulletin boards, or posters for pictorializing energy
conservation objectives and accomplishments will help impress employees with the
importance of such matters.
An incentive plan should be set up to instill the desire within the management team
and factory supervisors to promote energy conservation.
The Plant Manager and/or a full-time Energy Coordinator at each operating location
should be responsible for organizing and directing the Energy Management Program. Each
plant should organize a permanent and a complete Energy Management Committee. Since
energy conservation is everyone's business, the Committee should include representatives from all departments in the plant to work as a team. Energy Monitors should be
appointed for each shift and the Committee must obtain the Plant Manager's approval on
all programs.
The functions of the EM Committee and the energy monitors are as follows:
in
(1)
Schedule a complete energy conservation and utility audit at the plant before any
energy conservation program is worked out. Energy logging must correspond to
both common time elements and production factors. At larger manufacturing
installations the manual approach to energy monitoring is very expensive. An alternative is the investigation of an automated energy management system that could
perform a great deal of the work.
(2)
Prepare piping schematics for steam, condensate, water (cold and hot) and refrigeration systems in order to check for energy balance, and to improve overall plant
efficiency.
EM Committee
(3)
The
(4)
The monitors should
and the energy monitors should observe and check the operations, the condition of facilities, the equipment and the processes for energy conservation, and should suggest modifications to conserve energy to the Engineering
Department.
patrol the plants to observe utility waste due to improper
process operations, lack of maintenance, or failure to shut down equipment at the
termination of process or activity. They are to report their findings to the EM
Committee.
(5)
(6)
The EM Committee should immediately try to adopt corrective measures to stop
utility wastage. The EM Committee should produce and issue weekly reports
showing the cost of utilities being misused and wasted, and should initiate and
follow up on corrective measures until problems are solved.
The Committee should meet regularly to update and initiate Energy Conservation
Opportunities, follow-up on recommendations, promote the ethic of conservation
among employees, keep and analyze records, prepare reports and KEEP UP THE
MOMENTUM OF THE PROGRAM.
(7)
utility cost and use data report must be submitted to the Plant Manager and/or
Energy Conservation Coordinator from each operating location at the end of each
monthly accounting period.
A
current and proposed projects to ensure that energy conservation
integral part of the original design. Retrofitting
for energy conservation after project completion is often costly or impractical.
Review
(8)
all
schemes have been applied as an
Prepare an energy guide for future installations. Keep records of past experiences
and write a specification to be followed by builder or contractor prior to putting a
(9)
project
down on
paper.
ENERGY CONSERVATION ACTION PLAN
This Action Plan describes potential short and long term Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECO's) which can be implemented at your plant. All ECO's should be evaluated as
to cost and time taken for implementation. All "no cost" projects should be started first.
An effective energy conservation program must begin with an historical energy audit.
Normally, no technical expertise is required for this, and the results can be extremely
valuable since they point to individual elements within the plant that should be more
closely examined. The historical audit procedure makes use of the already existing
accounting and production figures. Under the guidance of the factory manager, a careful
look should be taken at the total energy consumed per unit of factory output over the last
several years, and a record displaying these figures should then be created.
The audit should include the following on an historical basis:
b.
Energy usage by activity and its cost
Fuel and electric supply purchases.
c.
Heat, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning (HVAC) and
d.
Maintenance procedure and equipment upkeep.
Use of steam, water and refrigeration for processing and raw material handling.
Any other energy consuming process in the plant.
a.
e.
f.
power
plant costs of operation.
With this knowledge, the plant is now able to initiate and conduct more detailed
diagnostic utility audits which look at the Cost/Benefit of specific projects.
In conjunction with the historical audit, the basic philosophy of your operation and
maintenance policy should be examined. The EM committee should determine whether
the policy is preventive, predictive or an emergency only repair policy, and make suggestions as to what it should be.
ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES
These Energy Conservation Opportunities are suggestions that may help maximize
the efficiency of energy use at your plant. Each ECO, however, must be evaluated on a
cost/benefit basis. These guidelines may be used by the EM committee as a place to start
their Conservation Program and to generate additional concepts for energy conservation.
Boiler
and Power Plant Operations
Fuel for boilers is a major and costly energy input within a plant operation. Thus it is
important to keep boiler operations functioning at peak efficiency. Boiler efficiency
should be checked for each operating boiler. The causes of lower efficiency must be determined, and if possible, corrected immediately. A daily operating log of each boiler should
be kept. A sample of a boiler log is shown in Table II.
Given that your steam demand is relatively constant, operate only a minimum number
of boilers. Boiler operation below a 50% capacity is more often than not inefficient,
depending on type of boiler. Minimize use of stand-by boilers or boilers operating at low
load.
The EM committee may also want
use
in
(1)
(2)
8
to evaluate the following boiler related
ECO's
for
the plant:
Shut down boilers, where possible, during holidays and weekends.
Maintain minimum required boiler pressure. Reduce steam pressure during operating and non-operating periods. This is easily done with the installation of a "microprocessor".
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Provide automated boiler blowdown system at each boiler.
Minimize boiler blowdown. Use adequate feedwater treatment to reduce blowdown. This may require large capital investment for certain waters.
Install
flashtank and heat exchanger to recover heat from hot boiler blowdown.
low excess
Install
air
combustion controls, and reduce combustion airflow
to
optimum.
(7)
Examine waste
(8)
Install fuel oil viscosity
(9)
(10)
oil
and other solvents
for possible boiler fuel use.
controls for residual fuel.
Install fuel (natural gas or oil) meters for each boiler, a steam flow meter or boiler
feedwater meter and a condensate flow meter. Use these meters to evaluate steam
use in all steam use areas.
equipment
Install
bustion
to preheat boiler feedwater
and
air
preheaters to preheat com-
air.
(11)
Establish burner maintenance schedule and adjust burners for efficient operation.
Replace inefficient burners. Regular cleaning of a burner's air and fuel passages
will also increase efficiency. Establish tube cleaning and soot blowing procedures.
(12)
Maintain
(13)
Maintain proper fuel
(14)
Clean all boiler heat transfer surfaces frequently. Cleaning should include internal
and external surfaces of drums, furnace walls and tubes. The water side should be
kept clean with feedwater conditioners; and the fire side with soot blowing.
(15)
Repair cracked or loose refractories, especially around burners and fuel passages.
(16)
Check manually
in
(19)
Note:
oil
at boiler burner.
Check
daily.
viscosity at boiler.
method.
Keep
boilers tight to eliminate loss of efficiency
smoke
(18)
atomization
(on a weekly basis) for lag in boiler controls leading to high oxygen
flue gas. Continuous analysis through flue gas analyzers is the most cost effec-
tive
(17)
oil
due
to infiltration.
Have a yearly
test.
Insure the continuous training of boiler operators and be sure that boiler log sheets
are maintained daily.
Feedwater system deaerator pumps and a suitable feedwater monitoring program
should be set up.
As controls and specifications
or
American measuring
for food and beverage processing equipment are generally given in British
units, the SI (metric) units have not been included.
Building Design and Construction
The building design and construction should be tight to minimize heat loss in winter
and heat gain in summer. Use ASHRAE Standard 90-75* (latest edition) for Energy Conservation In New Building Design. The guidelines in the Standard may also be used to retrofit
or upgrade existing buildings. Other ideas to improve a building's use of energy include:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
—
Close holes and openings in your building
e.g., broken windows, unnecessary
louvres and dampers, and cracks around doors and windows.
Eliminate
all
unused
roof
openings and abandoned stacks.
Reduce or eliminate single pane glass windows. Use storm windows
glazed windows where possible.
Make sure
or triple
outside doors are either self-closing, revolving or have vestibules. Establish a door use frequency study.
•Available from:
that
all
American Society
of Heating, Refrigeration
345 East 47th Street,
New
York,
New
York. 10017
and
Air Conditioning Engineers,
(5)
Use weather shields
of
all
outside truck unloading doors and keep doors to dock
areas closed.
Close
(6)
off
checked
all
unused areas
of the building. Insure
systems
in
these areas are
for freezing.
(7)
Study building design methods and materials
(8)
Consider adding insulation to inadequately insulated and uninsulated building
for
improved resistance to heat flow.
areas.
Compressed
Air
(1)
Operate compressed
(2)
A compressor operating
air
systems
at the
lowest
air
pressure required.
100 psig requires approximately 1 horsepower for every
5 cubic feet per minute of air. Make sure all leaks are repaired promptly. A compressed air leak of Va inch diameter at 100 psig wastes 35,500,000 cubic feet of air per
year. With power cost of $0.04/KWH, this amounts to an annual loss of approximately
at
$4,000.
(3)
(4)
Adjust cooling water discharge temperature to maximum permissible level and investigate the feasibility of installing a temperature regulating valve. Also consider conserving water by adding a water regulating valve.
Use heat from the aftercooler
to
supplement water heating or
for
preheating boiler
feedwater.
(5)
Never use compressed
(6)
Shut
(7)
(8)
off
cooling equipment or personal comfort.
compressor(s) whenever
it
is practical.
Survey pneumatic equipment for upgrading and reduced usage of compressed air.
Determine if some equipment might be eliminated or replaced. Are multiple compressors scattered, or headered together? Does present piping lend itself to pressure
segregation?
Compressed
cans
air
should not be used to dry filled cans. A blower can be used for drying
Minimize or eliminate pushing or directing of cans
after they leave the sterilizer.
using compressed
(9)
air for
air force.
Locate compressor intakes
in
a cool place, preferably outside of the building.
(10)
Use smaller compressors for periods of nonproduction and
avoid running large compressors.
(11)
What type
(12)
Separate plant
Computers
The
of air dryer
for
air
is
installed
and instrument
and what are
its
energy
weekend operation
to
utilization characteristics?
air.
Energy Management
computers and/or microprocessors
mechanical and electrical equipment, and
feasibility of applying
controlling energy use
in
for
for
energy accounting,
scheduling product
mix to achieve optimum energy use, should be investigated.
This investigation should start by determining whether major energy consuming
devices within the factory have inadequate instrumentation and/or monitoring equipment.
Electric
(1)
(2)
10
Power
Size electric motors for peak operating efficiency. Overloaded motors waste power
and shorten motor life. Underloaded motors also waste power. Are motors running at
full capacity and can this be changed?
Shut down electric motors not in use. At $0.04/KWH, a 5 horsepower motor running
unnecessarily will incur a cost of approximately $1,300 in one year.
Operate standby equipment only during an emergency and when it
needed. Do not use when primary equipment cannot handle the load.
(3)
Consider using
(4)
ENERGY EFFICIENT ELECTRIC MOTORS
more than 4,000 hours per
is
absolutely
where a motor
is
in
use
Energy savings could offset the increased cost.
year.
Power
factor improvement will save energy by reducing line losses. Power factor
correcting capacitors should be installed with all motors of 100 horsepower and up.
Power factor correction devices are also available. Synchronous motors are also
(5)
worth considering above 100 horsepower.
Consider replacing electric motors with back pressure turbines. Evaluate low
pressure steam usage and steam balance in summer and winter.
(6)
Provide proper maintenance and lubrication of motor-driven equipment. As loose belt
drives waste power, insure proper tension. Use belt dressing if necessary. Consider
cog-belts for better power transfer.
(7)
Consider the use of existing idle generators or the installation of new equipment
low cost in-house power "co-generation".
(8)
for
Load Management
Electric bills for industrial consumers are usually divided into two parts. The first part
a charge for total electricity consumption. The second is a surcharge for the user's peak
energy demand. Load management is any action taken to shift electricity use from periods
of high demand to periods of low demand, so as to minimize the second charge for peak
demand. Three means of achieving load management are:
is
(1)
(2)
(3)
by shifting energy consuming activities from periods of high
demand to off peak periods. The greatest potential for load shifting is in those
processes which:
Load
shifting:
supervision.
(a)
require
(b)
are
(c)
have sufficient short term storage capability to hold your product
next stage of processing.
little
done independently
of other processes.
Load Cycling: by cycling energy consuming
random.
activities
whose operation
Load Control: nonessential or discretionary loads are shut
manually to avoid exceeding a pre-set peak demand level.
is
until
the
normally
off automatically or
Total electricity consumption charges can be reduced by attention to equipment
start-up and vigilance in shutting off idle machines. Are there any block loads which lend
themselves to load shedding or load deferral?
Fuel and Electric
(1)
Management
should have maximum fuel flexibility and be able to burn all grades of
This permits the purchase of various grades of oil depending on price and
availability. This requires automatic control/analysis of flue gas to regulate air fuel
Oil-fired boilers
fuel
oil.
ratio.
(2)
(3)
Prior to the expiration of a natural gas contract, investigate whether a more favourable rate schedule is available. Investigate combining several natural gas meters to a
single meter to attain savings as a result of greater usage at a lower unit cost level.
This also eliminates the minimum charge during non-use in the summer. Companies
should install a demand meter for maximum cost benefits if your current natural gas
contract is both "Demand" and "Interruptable."
Flue gas analyses should be performed daily to maintain proper C0 2 and
2 levels.
oil burners must be kept in correct adjustment to provide proper combustion.
Gas and
(4)
Electrical contracts should be reviewed for better rates and feasibility of combining
multi-meters to a single meter.
11
(5)
Cogeneration using gas turbines or diesel generators, and using their exhaust heat
should be investigated.
Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
(1)
Install key operated thermostats to prevent individual adjustment by unauthorized
personnel, or use a remote sensing device.
clock thermostats or timers to control heating and cooling equipment.
(2)
Install
(3)
Check and
(4)
Reduce temperature
(5)
Consider locking or sealing windows and doors on one side.
(6)
Consider use of carpeting
(7)
Consider installation of humidifiers
(8)
Close drapes
in
in
highly ventilated areas during heating season.
offices at
in
offices to reduce floor heat loss.
sundown
in
to
offices to improve
reduce heat
loss.
employee comfort
in
winter.
Make maximum use
of sun-
both heating and lighting during winter days.
light for
(9)
calibrate thermostats periodically.
Rearrange office furniture so that desks and chairs are close to heating systems
and/or natural sunlight.
(10
Reduce
(11
Maintain warehouses and storerooms to the lowest temperature consistent with
stored product requirements. Intermittently-used warehouses should be heated to no
more than 5°C (40°F) during heating season. Finished product warehouses may be
maintained at 10°C (50°F) during the heating season.
(12
Evaluate
fan
if
speed
to eliminate drafts or redirect air
exhaust and make-up
air
from ducts.
quantities could be lowered.
Check number
of air
changes per hour.
(13
return air instead of outside air when possible; eliminate make-up air as much as
possible during unoccupied periods. Be careful that air does not become stale or too
Use
saturated with moisture and
C0
2.
summer.
(14
Avoid introducing high moisture
(15
winter, make sure that
provide sufficient heat.
(16
Keep outside
(17
Keep doors shut between conditioned and unconditioned spaces.
(18
Be sure
(19
Where
In
no heat
air into
is
air-conditioned areas
in
provided to areas where high internal heat gains
air supply close to exhaust hoods where possible. Consider air purifiers
instead of exhausting to outside.
to shut off both heat
and power to unit heaters not
in
use.
possible, discontinue the use of additional building entrances to reduce air
infiltration.
(20
Segregate and use separate HVAC systems for special operations such as computer
rooms, which require more heating or cooling than surrounding areas.
volume system.
(21
Consider changing zone control reheat system to variable
(22
Shade
(23
Clean or replace air filters regularly. Cleaning frequency should be determined by
experimentation with filter changes in each area of the plant.
(24
Repair faulty louvres and dampers, check and correct outside
leakage.
(25
To avoid large
or use reflective film on
vertical
windows
air
to reduce conditioning load.
air
temperature gradients, use destratification fans
dampers
in
areas with
large ceiling heights.
(26
12
Consider the application of evaporative cooling, especially
in
for
dry climates.
(27)
Clean heat exchange surfaces and fans regularly. Clean water distribution devices on
cooling towers and evaporative condensers regularly.
(28)
Interlock heating and air-conditioning
(29)
Consider
(30)
When
(31)
Evaluate heat
(32)
Investigate the use of well water for cooling
(33)
equipment
to prevent
simultaneous operation.
local spot heating using infrared heaters, instead of heating a large area.
outside temperature
pumps
for
is
low, use outside air for cooling.
space conditioning.
in
the
summer.
temperature control on cooling tower to shut off fans when temperature of
cold water drops to below design level. Can cooling tower coolant temperature be
raised for energy efficiency?
Install
Heat Recovery
Determine whether the heat in waste water from cookers, retorts, scalders, and other
processing equipment can be reclaimed to preheat boiler feedwater, domestic water
or cleaning water. Use plate-type heat exchangers which can be cleaned daily by conventional cleaning methods.
(1)
(2)
Evaluate the feasibility of recovering heat presently rejected at cooling towers.
(3)
Evaluate reuse of heat recovery from machinery cooling water.
Reclaim heat from large exhaust areas (such as offices) to preheat make-up air. This
can be accomplished by heat wheels, heat pipes, or plate-type counterflow heat
exchangers.
(4)
For new chiller installations, consider the use of double bundle condensers, which
provide approximately 38°C (100° F) water.
(5)
Consider the use of heat pumps to raise the temperature of low-grade heat sources.
(6)
Investigate heat recovery from bakery ovens and fryers for space heating, water heating or for preheating cooking oil.
(7)
Whenever new equipment
consider heat recovery as an integral part of
the design. Retrofitting with heat exchangers, economizers and air preheaters is
(8)
is
installed,
often difficult and costly.
Insulation
Adequate insulation conserves energy. The cost to insulate increases with insulation
thickness but the heat loss decreases. Optimum insulation thickness usually minimizes
total annual heating cost. Therefore it is important to keep insulation in good repair.
(1)
(2)
bare steam, condensate, hot and chilled water piping. ASME recommends that uninsulated piping components in existing systems should not be
insulated without first consulting the original engineering design. {Plant Engineering, July 24, 1980, Page 5)
Insulate
all
Insulate float, orifice and impulse type steam traps. All other types of
require some sub-cooling and should therefore not be insulated.
(3)
Insulate hot water and condensate tanks.
(4)
Insulate piping and duct
(5)
Insulate bare above ground fuel storage tanks.
(6)
Insulate
(7)
Upgrade insulation and linings
(8)
On
all
steam traps
work passing through unheated areas.
low temperature refrigeration piping and controls.
in
furnaces, ovens and boilers.
existing buildings, install or upgrade insulation
in
walls and ceilings.
13
Lighting
Lighting should generally conform with the "Minimum Recommended Lighting
Levels by Task" listed in the Table IV. These levels are given in foot candles by task. The
minimum level for inactive areas surrounding the task should be 20 foot candles or onethird of the lighting task level, whichever is greater.
The lamp types and the lumens per watt
Type
of electricity are:
Lamp Wattage
of Fixture
Efficacy*
(lumens/watt)
Sodium
L.P.
Sodium.
L.P.
Sodium
18 watts
180 watts
H.P.
H.P.
Sodium
Sodium
50 watts
1000 watts
50
115
Metal Halide
Metal Halide
175 watts
1500 watts
50
88
P.
Fluorescent (2x34 watt)
Fluorescent (2x40 watt)
Fluorescent (2x215 watts/1500ma)
45 lumens/watt
160 lumens/watt
85
97
480
71
65
63
Mercury Vapour
Mercury Vapour
100 watts
1000 watts
28
45
Incandescent
Incadescent
40 watts
1000 watts
21
'This figure includes ballast
Select lamps for
where applicable and are based on
maximum
efficiency.
are inefficient and should be avoided
(1)
(2)
in
"initial"
11
lumen output.
Mercury and 1500 milliamp fluorescent lamps
new
installations.
Lighting adds to the air conditioning load. In summer, the presence of unnecessary
lighting is even more wasteful and expensive since the air conditioning equipment
must overcome heat generated by lamps.
Eliminate unnecessary lighting
in office,
corridor, cafeteria, ingredient receiving
and warehouse areas.
(3)
Turn off all lights when not in use, except for security and safety lighting. Identify
switches that should be left in the "on" position.
"Lights Out" stickers on room light switches.
(4)
Install
(5)
Use desk lamps only
(6)
Limit higher lighting levels to task areas only.
(7)
(8)
if
overhead lamps are discontinued.
illumination to minimum necessary for safety.
building and ground illumination to minimum safe level.
Reduce general
Use separate switches
for perimeter lighting
Reduce
which can be turned
off
cient natural light is available. Reduce or eliminate general lighting
light provides sufficient illumination.
14
exterior
when
suffi-
where natural
off for short periods since it reduces lamp
removed
reduce lighting level, be sure to remove
lamps
are
to
life. If flourescent
both tubes and ballast. The best method is to remove the entire fixture.
(9)
Avoid turning fluorescent lights on and
(10)
Mark panels and switches so that plant guards can monitor
(11)
Restrict parking to specific lots so that lights can be turned off
(12)
Use photo-cell controls on outdoor
lights.
lighting.
in
unused
lots.
(13)
(14)
Where
practical, lower light fixtures in high ceiling areas.
Replace age-yellowed prismatic panels and iouvres. Up to 15 percent improvement
efficiency may be realized.
in lighting
(15)
(16)
Keep lamps, fixtures and reflecting surfaces clean. Post instructions for operating,
cleaning and maintenance of light fixtures and audit for custodial compliance.
Wash
walls and ceilings periodically and repaint as necessary to obtain
maximum
light reflection.
(17)
Consider group bulb replacement instead of single bulb replacement since lamp
output drops up to 15 percent after two years. This will also save labour costs.
(18)
Consider thermal light switches that sense body temperature. This
lights if no one is in an area.
will
deactivate
Maintenance
Maintenance should not be limited to emergency breakdown. An aggressive effort
should be made to effect energy conservation through proper maintenance.
Electrical, mechanical, process equipment and controls should be operating at peak
efficiency to conserve energy. All such equipment must be properly maintained to benefit
from energy conservation programs. Preventive maintenance should be scheduled to take
place during routine cleaning and repairs. Furthermore, when equipment performance
shows signs of deterioration, the probable cause(s) should be investigated and corrected
to avoid use of excess energy.
The cost of boiler fuels and electricity is substantial in all operations. It is, therefore,
important to maintain boilers and the refrigeration system so that they are operated at
peak efficiency. Equipment such as air filters, liquid strainers, heat transfer surfaces, fans,
ducts, registers, etc. should be checked regularly for cleanliness. All instruments and
controls such as thermostats, recording instruments, flow meters, pressure gauges, control valves, actuators, motor drives, dampers, and linkages should be kept in proper adjustment and calibration.
Leaks in steam, condensate, water and air lines should be repaired whenever they
occur. Losses through leaks are continuous and persist for each of the entire year's 8,760
hours. The following table shows losses through small holes:
Diameter
of Hole
1
/16"
1
/8"
Steam - lb/Hour
100 PSIG 300 PSIG
14
56
126
224
3
/l6"
1 /4"
Water - Gals/Hour
20 PSIG 100 PSIG
20
80
180
320
33
132
297
528
Air S.C.F.M.
80 PSIG
45
180
405
720
4
16
36
64
Paints and Coatings
Select paints and finishes for either absorbing or reflecting heat from storage tanks,
buildings and equipment. Excellent reflectors are poor absorbers of heat and vice versa.
The following table
lists qualities
as reflectors or absorbers of heat:
Excellent Reflectors:
White, bare aluminum, and light pastels
Good
Yellow, orange, bright red,
grey
Reflectors:
Poor Reflectors:
Deep
Very Poor Reflectors:
Black
red,
aluminum
color, light
dark grey, blue green
15
Other paint related ECO's which the
(1)
EM Committee
should also consider
are:
Paint storage tanks with appropriate colours as required to:
temperatures lower and reduce loss through evaporation.
(a)
keep
(b)
keep interior temperatures higher thus making viscous
and handle.
interior
fluids easier to
pump
Tests have proven that temperature differences as much as 20 to 30 degrees can be
achieved through the proper selection of the best finish-coat colour. This same
principle can be used to reduce temperature inside buildings by using appropriate
colours for roofs and walls.
(2)
and coatings for good plants must be of a type approved by one of
several federal agencies. See your local Agriculture Canada representative for the
name of the agency or agencies administering the paint standards for your
Interior paints
(3)
operation.
Processing Equipment and Operations
Adequate venting of air from thermal processing equipment, hydrostatic cookers,
cookers and retorts, and the free flow of steam from bleeders is essential for safe
rotary
DO NOT ATTEMPT STEAM CONSERVATION BY CLOSING OFF OR
DECREASING THIS FLOW. CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THE RECOVERY OF
THIS HEAT AND STEAM. Ways to conserve energy in the equipment used for processing
food processing.
are:
(1)
Steam, condensate water and compressed
(2)
Venting to the floor for rapid heatups should be stopped.
(3)
Eliminate bypass on steam traps where possible.
(4)
Steam
(5)
Steam should be turned
(6)
Insulation should be kept
(7)
(8)
(9)
traps should be
air
leaks should be promptly repaired.
checked periodically and repaired or replaced when needed.
immediately
off
in
good
at the
end
of a production run.
repair.
Preheating and venting of thermal processing equipment before the time indicated
as necessary for each production procedure should be avoided.
Conserve hot water. Collect and recycle heated water or vented steam
tion, plant heating, preheating and other uses.
for regenera-
Investigate mechanical pumps for vacuum production. Mechanical pumps have a
high initial cost but are more economical to operate than steam-jet ejectors.
(10)
Initiate a steam optimization study to determine steam required for each product.
This information should be used to arrange daily production schedules so that a
low steam demand product can be matched with a high steam demand product to
achieve more stable steam demand levels. This will reduce steam generation
peaks at boilers and can result in the use of fewer boilers to meet production
needs.
(11)
Eliminate or reduce use of
(12)
Use
live
multi-effect evaporators
steam
for
thawing of fats and other products.
where possible.
Raw Product Handling and Cleaning
Review product receiving, cold storage, handling and cleaning methods
whether engineering changes are feasible for energy or water conservation.
(1)
Utilize gravity flow
(2)
Schedule
(3)
16
full
to
determine
wherever possible.
and continuous production loads whenever possible.
Minimize water use consistent with proper cleaning and investigate dry cleaning
possibilities. Re-use water by counterflow where possible.
(4)
Determine whether reduction of wash water temperature
(5)
Shut
off
is
possible.
conveyors and other material handling equipment when not
in
use.
Refrigeration
must be properly maintained and kept in peak operating condition to conserve electricity. Prepare a schematic piping diagram for the total refrigeration
system and maintain a daily operating log of compressors, motors, coolers, freezers and
Refrigeration systems
other auxiliary equipment. Deviations from normal operations should be immediately cor-
ECO's
rected. Other
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
are:
compressors and other major equipment with regard
overhauls, breakdowns plus emergency and routine repairs.
Keep a
historical record of
Operate compressors at highest possible suction pressure. Raise suction pressure
during third shift and on holidays and weekends.
Operate compressors
at the
lowest possible condenser pressure
all
year.
Eliminate operating multiple compressors at low loads when fewer compressors
can be used at maximum loading. Recombine and shift loads to stop operation of
unloaded compressors.
(5)
Where
(6)
Check compressor and pump seals and
(7)
Repair or replace valve packings and flange gaskets to eliminate leakage.
(8)
to
possible, use jacket cooling water as make-up water for evaporative condensers. Check feasibility of installing a cooling tower for compressor jacket
cooling water.
repair or replace as required.
Operate purge unit at the lowest possible temperature to remove
tem. This will reduce condenser pressure and reduce refrigerant
air
from the sys-
loss.
(9)
Provide seal caps on
(10
Consider steam turbine drives
(11
Check
(12
Keep
refrigeration heat transfer coils free of frost
or provide no refrigeration.
(13
Adjust defrost cycle to assure complete defrosting of coils.
(14
Keep
(15
All
(16
Caulk or seal
(17
Maintain the effectiveness of blast freezer and cold storage doors. Check for
warped or deformed doors. Maintain door gaskets and adjust door hardware to
assure tight seal at all times. Maintain seals under doors. Make every effort to eliminate air infiltration and leakage.
(18
all
seal
cap valves and controls.
for large centrifugal
compressors.
coolers and freezers daily to ascertain the condition of
fan motors and refrigeration controls. Provide easy access to the air units.
air
handling units
in
and snow. Frosted coils reduce
freezer and cooler insulation in good condition. Repair damaged insulation
immediately, to prevent further deterioration and water logging.
pipe insulation should be periodically inspected, immediately repaired
damaged, and mechanically supported to stay in place.
all
electrical, control, piping
and other penetrations
when
to the freezers.
lift truck damage to the doors.
location of pull cords on automatic doors to allow adequate time for
passage of lift trucks.
Provide strategically located door guards to prevent
Check
(19
Check seals on
all
loading dock doors. Be sure the doors operate, close and seal
properly.
(20
Drain
(21
Check
oil
from
ammonia systems
at least
once per week.
calibration and accuracy of recorders, gauges and other instruments and
controls to assure proper operation. Periodically check and calibrate ammeters on
large electric motors used for centrifugal compressors.
17
(22)
Keep
(23)
Turn
(24)
Apply and maintain freezer and cooler
(25)
Consider an ice storage system to offset peak electrical load.
refrigerator doors closed.
off lights in freezers
when
not needed.
"air curtains".
Steam and Condensate
steam tracing during mild weather. Eliminate steam bleeders where possible.
(1)
Turn
(2)
Consider replacing steam
off
jets
on vacuum systems with electric motor driven vacuum
pumps.
(3)
Optimize performance of steam jets and maintain steam
(4)
Minimize steam venting to atmosphere.
(5)
Disconnect steam lines not
(6)
(7)
in
jets for
vacuum systems.
use.
Periodically check all equipment that requires steam such as blanchers, cookers,
retorts and kettles for operation at the design temperature.
Evaluate use of steam turbine drive versus electric motor drive whenever exhaust
steam can be used. Evaluation should include low pressure steam usage and steam
balance both in summer and in winter. A careful steam balance analysis is necessary
to assure that exhaust steam can be utilized and not wasted at full load and/or at part
load.
(8)
Use low pressure exhaust steam
(9)
Replace barometric condensers with surface condensers.
(10
Maximize condensate return
(11
Install
(12
Establish a steam trap maintenance program and, where necessary, repair or replace
steam
for
absorption water chillers.
to the boiler.
steam traps where needed.
traps.
(13)
Keep
(14)
Keep safety and
(15)
Repair leaks
(16)
Repair valve seats and packing promptly to eliminate leaks.
(17)
Eliminate bypasses on steam traps where possible.
(18)
Investigate steam and condensate piping for excessive
damaged or lack of insulation and take corrective steps.
pressure drops, leaks,
(19)
Flash high pressure steam condensate to lower pressure
produce steam at each step and save use of live steam.
in
all
boiler heat transfer surfaces clean.
in
relief
valves at proper setting to avoid unnecessary opening.
steam, condensate and water
lines.
successive steps to
Transportation
(1)
Set up a record system to check gasoline
mileage performance
falls
economy (L/100 km)
below a predetermined
for
each vehicle. When
point, correct by a tune-up or other
appropriate action.
(2)
Evaluate advantages of diesel versus gasoline.
(3)
Encourage backhauls
(4)
Extend use of
(5)
18
rail
to
reduce
travel
by empty trucks.
and piggy-back services where economically possible.
Emphasize speed limit of 100 km/hr and use of proper shifting speeds. Consider programs for driver evaluation. Investigate use of governors or tachographs to limit
speed to below 100 km.
(6)
Review and update maintenance programs
(7)
Keep abreast
regularly.
of industry related fuel saving ideas
and methods developed by truck
and engine manufacturers.
(8)
Encourage car pool or van pool use by employees. An incentive would be preferential
parking spaces. Use computer facility to assist employees in forming car pools or van
pools. Some Provincial Governments offer assistance to programs to establish van
pools.
(9)
(10)
Check with your
provincial Ministry of Transportation.
Consider a small bus or station wagon to carry employees to public transportation
center and to Company facilities beyond walking distance.
Investigate devices to reduce air resistance on trucks. Wind deflectors or vortex
can reduce air resistance on a typical tractor trailer by about 20 percent.
stabilizers
(11)
Consider installing temperature modulated cooling fans on your vehicles. Typical
cooling fans use about 5 percent of rated engine power.
(12)
Add turbocharging
(13)
Avoid making special deliveries and pickups. Schedule deliveries and receipts to
avoid waiting time. Do not let engine idle for long periods of time. Shut off engine if
idling period exceeds 1 minute (unless stopped for a traffic signal or similar regulated
kits to improve performance, reduce exhaust smoke, lower engine
noise and reduce fuel consumption.
stop).
trucks to volume or weight capacity.
(14)
Fill
(15)
Avoid unneeded or long warm-up periods
(16)
Maintain proper
where
(17)
tire
inflation
for engines.
pressure and true wheel alignment. Use radial
tires
feasible.
Electric fork
lifts
should not be charged during peak electrical demand periods.
Water
(1)
Correct
(2)
Shut
off
all
leaky water lines and faucets.
water lines
left
running unnecessarily or use faucets which turn off automa-
tically.
(3)
(4)
Shut off water to equipment when equipment is not running during lunch and coffee
breaks and at the end of shift. Make this task easy by keeping valves within reach so
that shutting off does not require climbing or some other deterrent.
Make sure water coolers
require cups.
These
are functioning. Consider the use of water coolers which
use less water than the free-running types.
water and steam conserving high pressure, low volume cleaning systems.
(5)
Install
(6)
Make sure
hot water temperature for personal use is not too high. Consider installation of a separate water heater for personal use so that temperature does not exceed
40°C(104°F).
water heaters as close to the points of use as possible.
(7)
Install hot
(8)
Evaluate feasibility of installing a cooling tower to conserve water.
(9)
(10)
High water pressure results in high water usage which is reflected in high energy
usage. Each plant should determine the lowest water (hot and cold) pressure required
for production.
Check reuse
of
once through cooling water. Investigate reusing
this
water for clean
up and preliminary product wash.
(11)
Change
limit
locker room showers to low flow shower heads. Install shower head timers to
shower duration.
19
Weekend Shutdown
Shutting off as much energy as possible on weekends can provide considerable
savings in steam, water and electricity. For employees who work over the weekend, a
separate water heater can be installed for their personal hot water requirements.
Make a weekend shutdown schedule so that nothing is overlooked. The schedule
should include all valves, switches and controls to be turned off together with their
location and function, plus a list of personnel who are to turn them off.
Plants that have hydrostatic cookers to maintain must keep some steam available in
cold weather so that water lines in the cookers will not freeze. The boiler operator must
watch outside air temperature and provide steam for the cooker as required. The installation of electric tracers to prevent these freeze-ups is a possibility.
Product incubation rooms may be kept at proper temperature with electric space
heaters. Because of the close tolerance on temperature in these rooms, an automatic control of the heaters is required.
20
ANNEX A
Economic
Justification Procedures
The Energy Management Committee must justify every proposed investment in
energy conservation equipment in terms of its economic merit.
Methods of evaluating investment alternatives include the Present Value Method, the
Return on Investment Method, Discounted Cash Flow Method, Benefit/Cost Analysis and
the Payback Period Method, the latter of which is described below. For further information
on these methods consult your accountant or a good accounting textbook.
One simple approach to justify a capital expenditure is to estimate the PAYBACK
PERIOD for the piece of equipment in question. Assuming that the annual savings
resulting from the expenditure are used to pay for the equipment, the purchase can be
deemed profitable if the investment is recouped in a period less than the estimated life of
the equipment. Interest charges over the life of the project must also be taken into
account.
The general formula
payback period
for
such a calculation
is:
Tax Credits
Total project investment
including interest charges
_
in
Years
If
this
Net Savings
Payback Period
profitable. This particular
is
less than the
life
of the
new system,
method does not however take
into
the investment would be
account considerations such
as opportunity costs, inflation, taxation schedules, or cash flow.
Table
I
PROJECT UTILITY DEMAND FORM
PLANT
PAGE
DATE
PROJECT NO.
ENGINEER
.OF.
DEMAND
NO.
EQUIPMENT
ITEMS
PRESS.
PSIG
UTILITY
DEMAND
STEAM
FACTOR
%
RATE
TOTAL
#/HR
#/HR
GPM
GPM
COLD WATER
GPM
GPM
HOT
WATER
GPM
GPM
CFM
CFM
CFM
CFM
CFH
CFH
KVA
KVA
TONS
TONS
FILTERED
COLD
WATER
UNFILTERED
COMPRESSED
AIR
VENTILATION
GAS
POWER AND
LIGHTING
REFRIG-
ERATION
NOTE:
Use additional sheets as necessary
to
list all
equipment on
project.
21
*
Table
II
BOILER LOG
DATE
PLANT
STEAM
BOILERS
FLOW
TEMP
PRESS
OIL
°F
PSIG
MTR
ATM
BTM
AUTO
WATER TEST
DUST
BLOW BLOWDOWN COLL
COMP DOWN SETTING
AIR
FLUEGAS
PERCENT
RESIDUAL
2
—
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AMC
GAS
MCF
WATER
GALLONS
CHEMICALS ADDED
CURRENT READING
PREVIOUS READING
LU
S
TOTAL USED
OIL
ON HAND
OUTSIDE AIR TEMP °F
22
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GALLONS
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DEAERATOR
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WELL
FUEL OIL
FUEL OIL
FUEL OIL
PUMP
HEATER
STORAGE
TANK
PRESS
TEMP
PRESS
PSIG
IN. HG.
°F
PSIG
cr
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HARDNESS
GALLONS
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f
ENGINEERS
1st
REMARKS:
SHIF T
2nd SHIF : T
3rd SHIF T
CHIEF
23
Table
FUEL AND ELECTRIC HEATING VALUES
III
Anthracite Coal
Bituminous Coal
Sub-Bituminous Coal
Lignite
No.
No.
No.
No.
2
4
5
6
Used
Fuel
Fuel
Fuel
Fuel
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
U.S.
U.S.
U.S.
U.S.
Oil
Diesel Fuel
Gasoline
Kerosene
Natural
Natural
U.S.
U.S.
U.S.
U.S.
Unit
BTU/Unit
Units/Million
Ton
Ton
Ton
Ton
26,000,000
25,000,000
16,600,000
14,400,000
0.0385
0.0400
0.0602
0.0694
135,000
142,000
148,000
150,000
146,000
135,000
123,800
130,130
7.4074
7.0423
6.7568
6.6667
6.8493
7.4074
8.0775
7.6846
1.020,000
100,000
91,500
102,760
0.9804
10.0000
10.9290
9.7314
3,413
292.9974
Gal.*
Gal.
Gal.
Gal.
Gal.
Gal.
Gal.
Gal.
MCF
THERM
Gas
Gas
Propane
Butane
U.S. Gal.
U.S. Gal.
KWH
Electricity
*To convert to Canadian gallons multiply by
BTU
1.2
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED LIGHTING LEVELS BY TASK
Table IV
FOOT CANDLES
AREA
PLANT
General Production Area
Inspection, rough
Inspection, final
Spice Room
Washrooms
Boiler and Engine Room
Can Storage
Freezer and Coolers
Warehouse
Loading Docks
Storerooms
Machine Shop
Maintenance Shop
Substation
Room
Fan Rooms
65
75
150
100
65
30
30
20
20
20
30
100
80
20
10
OFFICE
Cafeterias
Conference Rooms
Corridors
Drafting
Elevators
IBM Room
Inspection Kitchen
Interviewing Rooms
Kitchens
Laboratory
Locker Rooms
Office Areas
Stairs
Storage
Washrooms
24
30
70
20
150
20
100
As per Government Regulations
30
70
100
30
100
20
10
30
Sources
PART A
Name
of Information
and Assistance
Publications of Interest to an Energy
of Publication
Canadian Industry's
Energy Performance
Manual Level 1
"Energy Conservation
Communications
Kit"
Assistance to Business
by the Ministry of State
Economic
Development
for
Purpose
Management Committee
of Publication
To assist plant personnel whose
job
to collect energy data
report on energy per-
it
is
and
formance.
to obtain
it
Canadian Manufacturers
Assoc,
One Yonge
Street,
Toronto, Ontario.
M5J 1J9
(416) 363-7261
To assist management in encouraging employees to participate in
National Association of
Manufacturers,
your energy conservation program. Also, gives a list of films,
booklets, and brochures directed
to energy conservation, and
where to obtain them.
Resources Technology
A guide
to programs and services
which are available to the business community from the Federal
Government. The publication is
particularly oriented to the small
and medium sized
Technical Information
Service
Where
or processing industries with up to date
technical information on the properties and processing of material,
the efficient operation of manu-
new
Business Center,
Department of Industry,
Trade & Commerce,
1st floor Center Block,
235 Queen Street,
Ottawa, Ontario.
Zenith 0-3200
firm.
To provide secondary
facturing facilities,
Department,
1776 F. Street N.W.,
Washington, D.C.
20006
(202) 331-3700
industrial
National Research
Council of Canada,
Building M55,
Montreal Road,
Ottawa, Ontario.
K1A0S3
developments, and results of
scientific research.
Conservation and
Renewable Energy:
Guide to Sources
of Information
Report E1 80-1
To
government organizations and departments that are
involved with some aspect of
energy and/or conservation.
identify
Information
EMR,
Department of Energy
Mines & Resources,
580 Booth Street,
Ottawa, Ontario.
K1A0E4
(613)995-3065
Index of Selected
Energy Mines and
Resources
Canada Publications
—
1979
A
title and subject index of
general publications on energy,
minerals and earth sciences, and
a broad selection of scientific and
technical reports of public interest published by the Department
Energy Mines and Resources
between 1976 and 1979.
of
Information
EMR,
Department of Energy
Mines & Resources
580 Booth Street,
Ottawa, Ontario.
K1A0E4
(613)995-3065
25
Name
of Publication
The National Energy
Program 1980
Report EP 80-4E
of the
Energy Potential of
Forest Biomass
in
Canada
Report E2
A
78-1
Truckers Guide to
Energy Conservation
to obtain
it
Information EMR,
set of national energy policy
made by
the Government of Canada to set out an
energy program for the people of
Department of Energy
Mines & Resources,
580 Booth Street,
Canada. The aim is to address
Canada's energy problems,
ensure that Canadians share in
the benefits of Canada's energy
strengths and provide Canadians
with energy security.
Ottawa, Ontario
decisions
of the
biomass
K1A0E4
(613) 995-3065
Information
potential contribution of forestry
Canada's energy
requirements to the year 2025,
with discussions of the economic, technical, social, environmental, and institutional uses of
wood
Canadian Truck Fleet
Performance Manual
Where
of Publication
The present estimate
Tree Power
An Assessment
Purpose
to
EMR,
Department of Energy
Mines & Resources,
580 Booth Street,
Ottawa, Ontario.
K1A0E4
as a fuel.
This manual describes for truck
fleet owners and operators, a
Bakery Council
of Canada,
method
P.O.
to
determine
fuel per-
Box
61,
formance of their truck fleets. A
measure of performance allows a
manager to gage the effectiveness of his actions toward
reducing the fuel use of his fleet.
(416) 364-2696
To
Canadian Trucking
briefly
cover several topics of
interest to fleet
in
owners involved
energy conservation.
Toronto Dominion
Center,
Toronto, Ontario.
M5K 1G5
Association
Suite 300,
130 Albert St.,
Ottawa, Ontario.
K1P5G4
(613) 236-9426
Saving Fuel with Truck
Drag Reduction Devices
To inform the fleet operator on
what fuel savings and benefits
Canadian Trucking
Association,
Suite 300,
130 Albert St.,
Ottawa, Ontario.
can be reasonably expected by
use of drag-reduction devices.
K1P5G4
(613) 236-9426
Renewable Energy
Resources
A guide
to the literature
Report E1 77-5
A
brief introduction
and guide
to
the literature describing renewable energy sources, the technol-
ogies that harness them and their
potential.
Energy Mines
& Resources,
Conservation &
Renewable Energy
Branch,
Energy Communications
Division
580 Booth Street,
Ottawa, Ontario.
K1A0E4
1-800-267-9563 (toll free)
OR (613) 995-1801
26
Name
of Publication
Renewable Energy
Resources
A guide
to the
Bureaucracy
Purpose
A guide
Where
of Publication
for individuals
wishing to
seek federal financial help in
projects related to renewable
energy technologies.
Report E1 77-18
to obtain
it
Energy Mines
& Resources,
Conservation &
Renewable Energy
Branch,
Energy Communications
Division
580 Booth Street,
Ottawa, Ontario.
K1A0E4
1-800-267-9563 (toll free)
OR (613) 995-1801
New Energy —
New Opportunities;
Programs to Develop
Renewable Energy and
Contains information on government research and development
programs for products or services
related to renewable energy.
Conservation
Report E1 79-1
Energy Mines
& Resources,
Conservation &
Renewable Energy
Branch,
Energy Communications
Division
580 Booth Street,
Ottawa, Ontario.
K1A0E4
1-800-267-9563 (toll free)
OR (613) 995-1801
Energy Management in
the Food and Beverage
Industry
This publication
is
comprised
of
and visual material from
seminars on Energy Management
in the Food and Beverage Sector,
presented by Ontario Hydro.
text
Energy Conservation
Division,
Ontario Hydro,
620 University Ave.,
Toronto, Ontario.
M5G
1X6
(416) 592-3815
27
PART B
Industry/Government Energy Conservation Task Forces
Organized
1975, the task forces work
in
in
close conjunction with industry associa-
tion's to:
exchange information and increase awareness on opportunities
achieving more efficient energy use.
(a)
and report on targets
for
for
and means
of
energy conservation.
(b)
set
(c)
serve as a focal point for government/industry discussions on the energy situation and barriers to energy conservation.
To find out more, contact one
Mines and Resources Canada.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
of the
member
associations listed below, or Energy
Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada
Canadian Food Processors Association
Canadian Meat Council
National Dairy Council
Bakery Council of Canada
Fisheries Council of Canada
Canadian Wine Institute
Brewers Association of Canada
Association of Canadian Distillers
The Canadian Starch Industry
Canadian National Millers Association
Canadian Soft Drink Association
Association of Canadian Biscuit Manufacturers
Pet Food Manufacturers Association
PART C
Enersave for Industry and
Commerce
a set of ten industrial conservation manuals published by Energy, Mines and
Resources Canada. Titles of the ten manuals are:
This
is
MANUAL
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
of
TITLE
Guidebook/Index
Saving
Saving
Saving
Saving
Saving
Saving
Money
Money
Money
Money
Money
Money
Efficient
in
Heating, Cooling and Lighting
Through
Through
Through
Through
in
Process Design and Heat Recovery
Product Optimization
Combustion Control
Steam and Compressed
Management
Transportation and Delivery
People Moving
Saving Money in Office Practices
Saving Money Through Employee Motivation and Participation
These manuals provide an excellent source of detailed information on specific parts
your energy conservation program. They are available from:
Publication Distribution Centre
Information EMR
Energy, Mines and Resources Canada
580 Booth Street
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A0E4
28
Air
PART D The Energy Bus
The Federal Government, in cooperation with participating provinces, has provided
industry with a number of computer equiped vehicles that perform on site energy audits.
The purpose is to assist industry identify potential energy savings and to help initiate an
energy conservation and management program. For more information on this service
contact the office closest to you.
NEWFOUNDLAND
ONTARIO
Department of Mines and Energy
Government of Newfoundland and Labrador
95 Bonaventure Ave.,
St. John's, Newfoundland.
Government
900 Bay Street,
Hearst Block,
A1C5T7
Toronto, Ontario.
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
Enersave for Industry and Commerce
SASKATCHEWAN
P.O.
Box 937,
Ministry of Industry and Tourism,
Office of Energy Conservation
1935 Scarth
Charlottetown,
P.E.I.
of Ontario
St.,
Regina, Sask.
C1A8M4
S4P2H1
NOVA SCOTIA
ALBERTA
Nova Scotia Energy Council
P.O. Box 1087,
Department of Energy and
National Resources
Energy Conservation Branch
Industrial Energy Conservation
Program
Petroleum Plaza, North Tower
Halifax, N.S.
B3J 2X1
11th Floor
991 5-1 08th Street
Edmonton, Alberta
T5K 2C9
QUEBEC
Government du Quebec
BRITISH COLUMBIA
British Columbia Energy Commission
Direction Generale de I'Energie,
21st floor,
360 Ouest
1177 West Hastings
Vancouver, B.C.
V6E 2L7
St.
Jacques,
Montreal, P.Q.
H2Y 1P5
PART E
St.,
Tax Incentives
Various tax incentives exist to stimulate energy conservation. For example, federal
sales tax has been removed on items such as heat pumps, some forms of insulation, heat
recovery units, etc.
More information on all such tax incentives can be obtained from your Local Revenue
Canada Excise Field office or:
.
Revenue Canada
Excise Tax Administration,
191 Laurier Ave. W,
Ottawa, Ontario.
K1A0L5
29
CONVERSION FACTORS FOR METRIC SYSTEM
Approximate
Imperial units
conversion factor
Results
in:
LINEAR
inch
x25
millimetre
(mm)
foot
yard
mile
x 30
centimetre
metre
kilometre
(cm)
(m)
(km)
square centimetre
square metre
hectare
(cm
(m 2 )
x0.9
x 1.6
AREA
square inch
square foot
x 6.5
x 0.09
acre
x 0.40
2
)
(ha)
VOLUME
cubic inch
cubic foot
cubic yard
16
28
quart
x
x
x
x
x
x
1.1
litre
(L)
gallon
x4.5
litre
(L)
gram
(g)
ounce
fluid
pint
cubic centimetre
cubic decimetre
cubic metre
0.8
28
millilitre
0.57
(cm
3
)
(dm 3
(m 3
)
)
(mL)
litre
(L)
WEIGHT
ounce
pound
x 28
x 0.45
short ton (20001b)
x 0.9
kilogram
tonne
(kg)
(t)
TEMPERATURE
degrees Fahrenheit
(°F-32) x 0.56
or
(°F-32)x5/9
degrees Celsius
(°C)
PRESSURE
pounds per square inch x 6.9
kilopascal
(kPa)
watt
(W)
(kW)
POWER
horsepower
x 746
x 0.75
kilowatt
x 0.30
x 1.6
metres per second
metre;
kilometi
SPEED
feet per second
miles per hour
(m/s)
AGRICULTURE
gallons per acre
quarts per acre
pints per acre
fluid
litres
litres
x 1.4
litres
ounces per acre x 70
tons per acre
pounds per acre
ounces per acre
plants per acre
30
x 11.23
x2.8
x2.24
x 1.12
70
x2.47
x
mitlilitres
tonnes
kilograms
grams
plants
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
hectare
hectare
hectare
hectare
hectare
hectare
hectare
hectare
(L/ha)
(L/ha)
(L/ha)
(mL/ha)
(t/ha)
(kg/ha)
(g/ha)
(plants/ha)
630.4
C212
P 5143
E 2' 9 y mana 9 e ™ent for
Canadian
rr beverage
u
fonH and
tood
industries
1981
OOAg
LIBRARY
BIBUOTHEQUE
AGRICLHTURE CANADA OTTAWA K1A 0C5
3
1073 00021620
fl
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