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Canada
Perns
of the oltawa district
William J. Cody
Biosystematics Research Institute
Ottawa, Ontario
Research Branch
CANADA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Publication 974
Revised 1978
© Minister of Supply and Services Canada
1978
Available by mail from
Printing and Publishing
Supply and Services Canada
Hull,
Quebec, Canada K1 A 0S9
or through your bookseller
A43-974/1978
Catalogue No.
Canada: $3.25
Other countries: $3.90
ISBN 0-660-01627-3
Price subject to change without notice,
THORN
PRESS LIMITED
03KX 0IA05-8-39060/A
Contract No.
CONVERSION FACTORS
Approximate
conversion
Metric units
Results
factors
in:
LINEAR
(mm)
metre (m)
04
x0.39
x3.28
kilometre (km)
x
millimetre
x
centimetre (cm)
inch
inch
feet
62
mile
15
square inch
square yard
AREA
square centimetre (cm 2
square metre (m 2
x
)
x
)
square kilometre (km 2
1
39
x
)
hectare (ha)
2
square mile
x
2.5
acres
x
06
35 31
cubic inch
cubic feet
cubic yard
VOLUME
cubic centimetre (cm 3
cubic metre (m 3
)
x
)
31
x
1
litre (L)
x
hectolitre (hL)
x
28.3
22
gallons
x
2,5
bushels
x
0.04
oz avdp
CAPACITY
cubic feet
WEIGHT
gram
(g)
kilogram (kg)
tonne (t)
avdp
x 2 2
lb
x
1
short ton
x
0.089
x
357
x
71
pints per acre
x
014
fl
1
AGRICULTURAL
litres
per hectare (L/ha)
milhlitres per hectare
(mL/ha)
tonnes per hectare (t/ha)
kilograms per hectare (kg/ha)
x
grams per hectare (g/ha)
x
plants per hectare (plants/ha)
x
x
0.45
0.89
014
405
gallons per acre
quarts per acre
oz per acre
tons per acre
lb per acre
oz avdp per acre
plants per acre
30° N
PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION
When
the first edition of this book was published in 1956, it was
thought that little would be forthcoming in future years except for a
few more dots on the distribution maps. In recent years, however, a
total of five species have been discovered within the 48 km (30 mi)
radius of the center of Ottawa. These species are Pellaea atropurpurea, which was suggested in the earlier edition as a species that
might be found, and P. glabella, Woodsia obtusa, W. oregana, and
Asplenium platyneuron. All these findings are considerable extensions
from the previously known ranges.
an attempt has been made to update the
dryopteris, Phegopteris connectilis,
and Thelypteris palustris, which were included in the genus Dryopteris, have been segregated, and some descriptions and keys have
been revised. Although most modern authors now separate many of
the genera treated here in the Polypodiaceae into various families,
it was felt
best not to do so here.
In
this
revised
edition,
Gymnocarpium
nomenclature.
The
distribution
records found
Museum
in
maps have been updated by the inclusion of new
the Canada Department of Agriculture and National
herbaria,
Field-Naturalist
and
and recent papers published
Trail and Landscape.
in
The Canadian
Although recent political decisions have brought about the creation
of the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton from Carleton County
and a part of Russell County, for reasons of convenience the old
counties have been retained.
Thanks are expressed
records that
D. Lafontaine,
made
and
to
this
those
who
revision
D. Brunton.
contributed the specimens and
particularly C. Frankton,
possible,
INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION
The
have been under study for over
of species found in the District have been
with keys and descriptions has ever been
ferns of the Ottawa
District
75 years. Several lists
prepared
but no flora
published. An attempt is made here to bring together the known
information on the ferns of this region and to provide a means by
which interested persons may become familiar with them. For the
purposes of this manual the Ottawa District is defined as the circular
area surrounding the City of Ottawa, Ontario, having a radius of
30 miles. Although the area under consideration is limited, the information is applicable to a much wider area of Ontario and Quebec.
1
,
The ferns are
well represented in the Ottawa District. Three families,
comprising 18 genera, 36 species, one hybrid, and several varieties
and forms are treated. Keys, descriptions, and a photograph of each
species are provided so that the species may be easily distinguished.
Notes on habitat, abundance, and economic importance have also
been included, as well as maps showing the localities from which
specimens have been collected. If a species cannot easily be observed throughout the growing season, dates when it may be collected
are given.
Many
of the species treated, such as Botrychium virginianum, Dryopspinulosa, Athyrium filix-femina, and Pteridium aquilinum, are of
wide distribution throughout North America and are extremely comteris
mon and widespread throughout the Ottawa District. Some species
are rather rare and are only occasionally seen. In most cases their
localized distribution may be accounted for by the requirements of a
specialized habitat or suitable climate. A number are probably at the
northern limit of their range. In this group are included such species
as Botrychium simplex var. tenebrosum, Ophioglossum vulgatum var.
pseudopodum, Dryopteris goldiana, Polystichum braunii var. purshii,
Athyrium pycnocarpon, Camptosorus rhizophyllus, Cryptogramma
stelleri, and Woodwardia virginica. Another species which reaches its
northern limit in the Ottawa Valley is Pellaea atropurpurea.
collected at Campbell's Bay in Pontiac County, but is yet
the District.
It
has been
unknown
in
Ten counties are represented
District (Frontispiece).
1
in the 2800 sq miles of the Ottawa
Gatineau and Papineau counties make up most
For a discussion of the more important of these lists see: Boivin, B., and Cody, W. J.
1955. Bibliographic survey of James Fletcher's Flora Ottawaensis. Can. Field-Nat.
69(3):79-82.
situated in Quebec. Only parts of two
County are included. South of the Ottawa River,
Carleton and Russell counties cover most of the area, but on the
periphery are parts of five other counties: Dundas, Grenville, Lanark,
Prescott, and Stormont. The counties from which specimens have
been seen are listed following the notes on habitat. Localities are
of that part of the
townships
District
of Pontiac
given only
when
the species
is
of rare
occurrence.
In recent years various members of the staff of the Botany and Plant
Pathology Division, Canada Department of Agriculture, have carried
out extensive collecting in the Ottawa District with the result that
considerable information on local pteridophytes has been gathered.
Members of the Fern Group of The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club
have also been active in the last few years, both in collecting specimens and in making observations. This group was responsible for
the rediscovery of Athyrium pycnocarpon and Polystichum braunii
var. purshii, both unknown for many years, and for a new record for
the District, Botrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum.
Specimens
in the Herbarium of the Botany and Plant Pathology Division have formed the basis for this manual. Herbarium sheets in the
National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, and the Botanical Institute of
the University of Montreal, Montreal, have also been consulted. In
addition, the Transactions of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, the
Ottawa Naturalist, and The Canadian Field-Naturalist have been
thoroughly searched for references to the occurrence of ferns
in
the Ottawa District.
writer gratefully acknowledges the many helpful suggestions
offered by his associates. Special thanks are also due to the late
Mr. C. A. Weatherby and to Dr. R. T. Clausen for the examination
The
of critical material.
KEY TO THE FAMILIES
A.
Sporangia exposed on
B.
entirely fertile fronds or parts of fronds.
Sporangia borne on a stalked terminal spike or panicle
arises from the base of the vegetative blade
that
OPHIOGLOSSACEAE,
B.
7
p.
26
Sporangia borne on modified segments of the vegetative
fronds or on entirely separate fertile fronds
OSMUNDACEAE,
A.
p.
in
clusters on the back of occasionally
modified fronds or inside berrylike or tube-shaped
POLYPODIACEAE, p. 34
divisions of modified fronds
Sporangia borne
slightly
OPHIOGLOSSACEAE
ADDER'S-TONGUE FAMILY
more or less succulent herbs; sporophyte with a short
rhizome bearing one or more stalked or sessile fronds, and a fertile
spike or panicle; sporangia naked, bivalvate, producing thick-walled
Perennial,
spores; gametophyte subterranean, usually without chlorophyll and
associated with an endophytic mycorrhiza. Two genera are known
to occur in the Ottawa District.
A.
A.
Sporangia separate in a pinnate, a compound, or rarely, a
simple spike; sterile segments of fronds not simple; veins
Botrychium, p.
free
8
Sporangia cohering in a simple spike; fronds simple, entire,
usually one; veins reticulate
Ophioglossum, p. 22
BOTRYCHIUM
Sporophyte bearing one to several fronds from an erect unbranched
rootstock; roots thick and fleshy; sterile segment sessile or stalked,
in our species pinnately or palmately once to many times decompound, venation dichotomous, open; fertile segment stalked, the spike
simple (rarely) to pinnately compound; sporangia naked and distinct,
borne laterally on its branches. Six species are known to occur in
the Ottawa District.
A.
Fronds various (generally less than 20
cm
wide),
more
or less
fleshy, sessile or petioled.
B.
Fronds rather
large,
ternately
compound,
usually
long-
petioled.
C.
Fronds with
all
the
segments the same
size
and shape
1.
C.
Fronds with segments
of different sizes
chief terminal divisions usually elongate
B.
B.
multifidum
and shapes; the
2. B. dissectum
Fronds usually small, pinnately or palmately divided; rather
simple, sessile or short-petioled.
D.
Fronds broadly deltoid, sessile
fertile
the base of the
segment
5. B.
D.
at
Fronds oblong
to
lanceolatum
var.
angustisegmentum
narrowly deltoid, or ovate, sessile
above the middle of the stalk.
or short-petioled, borne
E.
E.
Fronds simple or once pinnate
3. B. simplex
Fronds pinnate
4. B.
A.
2
Figures
in
tenebrosum
to pinnate-pinnatifid
matricariaefolium var. matricariaefolium
cm wide, thin, memvirginianum var. virginianum
Fronds broadly deltoid (5)-14-25-(32) 2
branous, sessile
var.
6. B.
brackets represent extremes of size not often found.
PA
Fig.
1.
Botrychium multifidum
sV
var.
multifidum (Leathery Grape Fern)
BOTRYCHIUM MULTIFIDUM
LEATHERY GRAPE FERN
1.
(Gmel
)
Rupr
(Fig
1,2)
Plant 10-35 cm high with coriaceous stem and blade; blade evergreen, long-petioled, attached near the base of the plant, ternate,
the ultimate divisions somewhat imbricated, more or less the same
size and shape, obtuse.
Two
varieties are present
in
the District.
Var. multifidum (Fig. 1), plant 10-14 cm high; blade 2.3-5.6
2.3-4.0 cm long; rare, only two collections in the District.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, 1.6 km west
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Merivale.
of
cm
wide,
Old Chelsea.
intermedium (D. C. Eat.) Farw. (8. silaifolium Presl) (Fig. 2),
(18)-23-31-(35) cm high; blade (8.5)-10.0-15.0-(19.0) cm
wide, (6.5)-8.0-13.0-(15.0) cm long; fairly frequent, found in sandy
places, along borders of woods, on dry hillsides, and in open fields
and pastures throughout the District.
Var.
plant
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Botrychium multifidum
10
incl. var.
intermedium
Fig.
2.
Botrychium multifidum
var.
intermedium (Leathery Grape Fern)
11
BOTRYCHIUM DISSECTUM
CUT-LEAVED GRAPE FERN
2.
Plant
(Fig
3,4)
8-27 cm high with stem and blade
less coriaceous than B. mulblades long-petioled, triangular, attached at or near the base
tifidum;
of the
(17.0)
Spreng
ternate, (2.2)-4.0-7.0-(1 1.0) cm long, (2.3)-4.6-1 1 .3wide, the ultimate divisions of varying sizes and shapes.
plant,
cm
Three varieties based on leaf form are found in the District. These
varieties pass freely from one to another so that
is sometimes
difficult to decide to which variety a particular specimen should be
it
assigned.
dissectum (Fig. 3), ultimate divisions of the blade cut in linear
segments, the segments more or less notched at the apex.
Var.
This variety
habitats,
is
sterile
grassy banks. The
and October
the District, but it occurs in a number of
dry pastures, dry woodlands, and
collections seen were made between August 6
very rare
such as
in
hilltops,
13.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, Ironsides.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Constance Bay and Kenmore;
LANARK and RUSSELL COUNTIES (Clausen, R. T. 1938.
Monograph of the Ophioglossaceae. Mem. Tor. Bot. Club
19:57).
Botrychium dissectum
12
var.
dissectum
Fig.
3.
Botrychium dissectum
var.
dissectum (Cut-leaved Grape Fern)
13
obliquum (Muhl.) Clute (S. dissectum forma obliquum (Muhl.)
Fern., B. obliquum Muhl.) (Fig. 4), ultimate divisions of the blade not
dissected, but variously and unevenly cut; divisions of the pinnae
oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, more or less acute.
Var.
more frequent than
var. dissectum, but still rare; it is
the District it is known on the Ontario side
of the Ottawa River from only one locality, but additional localities
are to be expected. The collections seen were made between August
This variety
found
in
is
similar habitats.
In
10 and October 20.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: LANARK COUNTY.
Var.
oneidense
(Gilbert) Farw. {B.
dissectum forma oneidense
(Gilbert)
Clute), ultimate divisions of the blade not dissected, but variously
unevenly
cut; divisions of the
and
pinnae broadly ovate and obtuse.
This variety is very rare and occurs in moist rich woodland
it is usually found
late in the season.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY,
soil,
where
Cantley and Kirks Ferry.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Kenmore.
Botrychium dissectum
14
var.
obliquum
Botrychium dissectum
var.
oneidense
Fig.
4.
Botrychium dissectum
var.
obliquum (Cut-leaved Grape Fern)
15
3.
BOTRYCHIUM SIMPLEX
(A. A. Eat.)
Clausen
E Hitchc var.
TENEBROSUM
(Fig. 5)
SMALL GRAPE FERN
5-14 cm high; blade oblong, simple
near the summit; blade and petiole 0.7-3.5
Plant
to
once pinnate, attached
cm
long.
This fern is rare and is found in damp, usually heavily shaded
and at the edges of deep swamps.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY,
Pink
Lake;
woods
PAPINEAU COUNTY,
McGregor Lake.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Britannia, South March, and
Grove; LANARK COUNTY.
Botrychium lunaria
is
recorded
in Ott.
Wright's
Nat. 12:188, 1899, as "found by
Macoun to be locally abundant on the railway embankment
near Stittsville." No specimens authenticating this record have been
Mr.
J.
M.
found, and because there have been no other collections of this
species in the Ottawa District, either before or since, this record is
here referred to B. simplex. Plants with a sterile blade attached near
the base, which were observed and photographed south of Bell's
Corners (Trail and Landscape 8(4):102. 1974), may have represented
B. simplex var. simplex. A collection by C. and E. Frankton from 3.2
km southwest
of Bell's
Corners
in
1972 approaches
Botrychium simplex
16
var.
that variety.
tenebrosum
Fig.
5.
Botrychium simplex
var.
tenebrosum (Small Grape Fern)
17
BOTRYCHIUM MATRICARIAEFOLIUM A
TRICARIAEFOLIUM (Fig 6)
BRANCHING GRAPE FERN
4.
Br var.
MA-
Plant 10-28 cm high; blade narrowly deltoid to ovate, short-stalked,
1.4-8.0 cm long, 1.1-2.7 cm wide, pinnatifid to bipinnate-pinnatifid,
the
segments
blunt
and usually toothed.
This fern is rare in the District but is found in a variety of habitats,
such as old sandy and sterile fields, dry wooded slopes, rocky woods,
moist cedar woods, and rich swamps.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, GRENVILLE, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Botrychium matricariaelolium
var.
matricariaefolium
Fig.
6.
Bolrychium matricariaefolium
var.
matricariaefolium
(Branching Grape Fern)
19
BOTRYCHIUM LANCEOLATUM (Gmel
ANGUSTISEGMENTUM Pease & Moore
LANCE-LEAVED GRAPE FERN
5.
Angstr.
)
(Fig.
var.
7)
cm high; blade broadly deltoid, sessile at the base of
segment, 0.7-2.3 cm long, 0.5-2.5 cm wide; pinnae lanceo-
Plant 6.5-12.0
the
fertile
late, pinnatifid.
This fern
rare
is
in
the District.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, Meach
Lake, Penguin
Kingsmere and Old Chelsea, and Kingsmere.
Trail
between
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Kanata.
In
addition, there
outside the
is
District,
a record of B. lanceolatum from Casselman, just
by Macoun, Whyte, and Fletcher (Trans. Ott.
Field-Nat. Club 5:123.
record could be found
1884),
in
any
but no
specimens authenticating
of the herbaria
Botrychium lanceolatum
20
examined.
var.
angustisegmenlum
this
Fig.
7.
Botrychium lanceolatum
var.
angustisegmentum (Lance-leaved Grape Fern)
21
6.
BOTRYCHIUM VIRGINIANUM
NUM
(L
)
Sw
var.
VIRGINIA-
(Fig. 8)
RATTLESNAKE FERN
Plant (20)-25-35-(50) cm high; blades broadly deltoid, sessile, attached above the middle, (5)-14-25-(32) cm wide, (4)-1 0-1 8-(23)
cm long, bipinnate to tripinnate, the ultimate segments oblong-
lanceolate, toothed,
membranous
or slightly fleshy.
frequent and is the most common of all the Botryin dry or somewhat moist deciduous woodlands, but occasionally it occurs in wet cedar woods and boggy areas.
Our collections were made before the end of July.
This fern
chiums.
is fairly
It
is
usually found
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, GRENVILLE, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Botrychium virginianum
var.
virginianum
OPHIOGLOSSUM
Sporophyte bearing usually one frond from an erect rootstock;
segment
sessile,
spike bearing two rows of
found
22
in
the Ottawa District.
sterile
segment a simple stalked
Only one species is
sporangia.
cohering
glabrous, entire;
fertile
Fig.
8.
Botrychium virginianum
var.
virginianum (Rattlesnake Fern)
23
1.
OPHIOGLOSSUM VULGATUM
L var.
PSEUDOPODUM
(Blake) Farw. (Fig. 9)
ADDER'S-TONGUE
Plant 13-25 cm high; blade attached near the middle, varying in shape
from broadly lanceolate to ovate to oblanceolate, 4.0-9.5 cm long,
1
.5-3.0
cm
wide.
is
it
is usually hidden among other vegetation, this fern
perhaps often overlooked. A mass occurrence was discovered near
Ramsayville in 1966 (Can. Field-Nat. 81:186-188. 1967), and since
1956, has been found at a number of other localities. It occurs in
bogs, moist humus-rich depressions, wet meadows, and sometimes
on grassy hillsides and high dry sunny locations.
Because
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, Beaver Meadow, Hull, and Pink Lake;
PAPINEAU COUNTY, Lac la Blanche; PONTIAC COUNTY,
Pontiac Bay.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, GRENVILLE, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
The highest chromosome number known to occur in a North American
plant, 2r? = ca 960, was counted from spore mother cells collected
from a stand near Ramsayville (Can. Field-Nat. 83:277-278. 1969).
Ophioglossum vulgatum
24
var.
pseudopodum
Fig.
9.
Ophioglossum vulgatum
var.
pseudopodum (Adder's-tongue)
25
OSMUNDACEAE
FLOWERING FERN FAMILY
perennial ferns of marshy places, frequently in large clumps;
fronds surrounded by sterile ones; rootstocks creeping or suberect; fronds with stipes winged at the base; blades with free, usually
forked veins extending to the margins; sporangia naked, large, globose, bivalved, borne on modified, contracted pinnae. One genus is
found in the Ottawa District.
Tall
fertile
OSMUNDA
Description as for the family. Three species occur
the Ottawa
in
District.
A.
Fronds bipinnate, some
finely
A.
of
them
toothed
fertile
1.
Fronds pinnate, the
sterile
the
at
pinnules
tip,
0. regalis var. spectabilis
pinnae deeply
pinnatifid,
lobes
usually entire.
fronds with
Fertile
B.
wool
B.
and
Fertile
with a
1.
fertile
pinnae near the middle; no
the base of the pinnae
at
sterile
tuft of
wool
2.
tufts of
0. claytoniana
fronds separate; pinnae of sterile fronds
in
the axils
OSMUNDA REGALIS
L var
3.
O.
SPECTABILIS
cinnamomea
(Willd.)
Gray
(Fig. 10)
ROYAL FERN
1
m long and 25 cm wide, bipinnate; pinnules
lance-oblong, up to 6 cm long, rounded to the base, sesfinely toothed; fertile pinnules contracted, borne at the tip of the
Plant with fronds up to
oblong
sile,
to
frond.
It
is
lying
26
found
in
moist habitats throughout the
woods, wet marshy meadows, and even
District:
in
swamps, low-
cedar bogs.
Fig. 10.
Osmunda
regalis var. spectabilis (Royal Fern)
27
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, GRENVILLE, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Forma anomala
(Farw.) Harris has the normally fertile part of the frond
some of the normally sterile pinnae
intermixed with sterile pinnae and
more
It
or less
fertile.
has been collected only once
in
the District.
ONTARIO: RUSSELL COUNTY.
Osmunda
2.
regalis var. spectabilis
OSMUNDA CLAYTONIANA
L (Fig
11)
INTERRUPTED FERN
15-25-(30) cm wide, pinnate1 .2 m long and
pinnules elliptic-oblong to oblong-oval, blunt, the lower
1.3-1.8 cm long; young pinnae and rachis with a rusty wool, promptly
glabrous; 3-5 pairs of dark brown contracted fertile pinnae situated
about the middle of the fertile frond.
Plant with fronds up to
pinnatifid;
This species
and
28
in
open
is
found on moist wooded slopes,
thickets throughout the District.
at
swamp
margins,
m-m
:
!;
sM
Fig. 11.
Osmunda
w
.:
'
.
'
1?
claytoniana (Interrupted Fern)
29
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, PRESCOTT, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Osmunda
3.
claytoniana
OSMUNDA CINNAMOMEA
L (Figs 12,13)
CINNAMON FERN
m
15-20-(25) cm wide, similar to
base of each pinna; fertile
fronds shorter than the sterile, the dark brown pinnae contracted,
withering after the spores are cast; immature sterile and fertile fronds
covered with a thick rusty wool, which is still partly present on the
fertile fronds even at maturity.
Plant with sterile fronds 1.2
0. claytoniana, but with a
It
occurs
in
tuft of
low ground and
long,
wool
in
at the
wet marshy woods throughout the
District.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, GRENVILLE, PRESCOTT, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
30
Fig. 12.
Osmunda cinnamomea (Cinnamon Fern-Young
Stalks)
31
Forma frondosa
fertile
and
sterile
&
has the fertile frond partly
pinnae variously intermixed.
(T.
G.)
Britt.
ONTARIO: RUSSELL COUNTY.
Osmunda cinnamomea
32
leafy, the
m
%
Fig. 13.
Osmunda cinnamomea (Cinnamon
Fern)
33
POLYPODIACEAE
FERN FAMILY
Perennial leafy plants (ours herbaceous) with creeping rhizomes;
sporangia borne on the underside of the usually only slightly modified
vegetative fronds, stalked, and partly surrounded by a ring of
thickened cells, the annulus, which tears open transversely by contraction at maturity, thus releasing the spores; sporangia usually
covered by a protective membrane, the indusium; spores on germination forming thin, green, heart-shaped prothalli.
This
is
a large family, which
families. Nineteen
A.
some
occur
to
in
the Ottawa District.
fertile ones with divisions
brown when fully mature.
Fronds conspicuously dimorphic;
greatly contracted or berrylike,
A.
authors treat as several distinct
genera are known
Matteuccia,p. 35
B. Sterile
fronds bipinnatifid, the veins free
B. Sterile
fronds pinnatifid, the veins netted
Fronds not conspicuously dimorphic,
all
Onoclea,
p.
38
green.
C.Sori marginal.
D.
Lower surface
of
cent; sori minute
D.
fronds minutely glandular and pubesDennstaedtia, p. 77
and dotlike
fronds not minutely glandular and
pubescent; sori elongate.
Lower surface
E.
of
Stipes stout, 0.2-0.4
cm
in
diam,
commonly
solitary
Pteridium, p.103
E.
Stipes less than 0.2
F.
cm
in
diam,
commonly
Indusia of pinnules continuous.
G. Stipes herbaceous, green
F.
G. Stipes wiry, dark
brown
Indusia
interrupted;
definitely
branched
at the
I.
more
Cryptogramma,
p.
99
Pellaea,
p.
92
fronds
delicate,
Adiantum,
summit
C.Sori dorsal, not marginal (except
H.Sori
clustered.
in
p. 101
Dryopteris marginalis).
or less circular, or reniform.
Indusium present.
J.
Indusium segmented
J.
Indusium not segmented.
Woodsia,
p.
40
p.
72
K.Rachis densely covered with scales; indusium
umbrella-shaped, without a notch
Polystichum,
K.Rachis lacking or with only a few scales.
34
L.
Indusium attached by its base on the side
toward the midrib, hood-shaped
Cystopteris,
L.
Indusium
round-reniform,
attached
in
p.
46
the
center.
M. Fronds scattered along a thin cordlike
rhizome; stipes slender and fragile, naked
or with chaffy scales 0.1-0.6 cm long near
Thelypteris, p. 55
the base
M. Fronds tufted at the end of a stout rhizome;
stipes relatively stout with numerous scales
0.5-3.5
cm
long near the base
Dryopteris,
I.
p.
59
Indusium lacking.
N.
N.
Blades deeply
the base
Blades
pinnatifid, the divisions confluent at
Poly podium,
p. 106
at least pinnate-pinnatifid.
0. Fronds ternate
Gymnocarpium,
p.
50
Phegopteris,
p.
53
O. Fronds pinnate-pinnatifid
H.Sori elongated, oblong to linear, often curved.
rows parallel to the midribs of the pinnae and
Woodwardia, p. 96
along the midveins of the segments
P. Sori in
P. Sori
not disposed as above.
Q. Blades
of
fronds
simple,
at
the
Camptosorus,
apex
Q. Blades
long-attenuate
once
to several
p.
86
times divided.
R.Sori straight or slightly curved; fronds mostly
Asplenium, p. 88
10-20 cm long
R.Sori often curved over the ends of the veins;
Athynum, p. 79
fronds mostly 35-90 cm long
MATTEUCCIA
Rhizome ascending, with a crowded crown of large sterile fronds
surrounding the upright fertile fronds, which appear later; sori borne
on the inside of tube-shaped pinnae; veins free, not forked. One
species occurs in the District.
35
1.
MATTEUCCIA STRUTHIOPTERIS (L Todaro
SYLVANICA (Willd.) Morton (Fig. 14)
)
var.
PEN-
Pleretis pensylvanica (Willd.) Fern.
P.
nodulosa (Michx.) Nieuwl.
OSTRICH FERN
Sterile fronds
up
to
1
.2
m
long and
1
2-24 cm wide, abruptly narrowed
gradually narrowed to the base, pinnate-pinnatifid, the
linear, acuminate, the pinnules oblong, bluntish; fertile
fronds much shorter than the sterile, persistent over winter, the pinnae
greenish, becoming dark brown at maturity; sori borne on the margins
of the shallowly lobed, tightly inrolled, podiike pinnae.
at
the
tip,
pinnae broadly
This fern is very common throughout the District; it is found in
shady places, especially along streams and roadside ditches.
damp
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, GRENVILLE, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
The young fiddleheads
of this fern are
the Maritime Provinces. They
served by either freezing or canning.
larly in
used as a vegetable, particu-
may be prepared
Matteucia struthiopteris
36
var.
fresh, or pre-
pensylvanica
Fig. 14.
Matteuccia struthiopteris
var.
pensylvanica (Ostrich Fern)
37
ONOCLEA
Fronds of two kinds, borne singly or several together on slender,
creeping rootstocks, the fertile hardened; pinnules of the fertile fronds
modified and inrolled to form berrylike structures, the sori borne on
the inside; veins free on the fertile and netted on the sterile fronds.
This
1.
is
a monotypic genus.
ONOCLEA
SENSIBILIS
L (Fig 15)
SENSITIVE FERN
Sterile fronds
up
to
80
cm
high, the blades
12-30 cm
long,
15-30 cm
at the base, pinnate at the base, pinnatifid above, the
wide, broadest
rachis winged, the wing becoming broader toward the tip, the pinnae
wavy-margined or coarsely toothed; fertile fronds shorter than the
sterile, persistent over winter, the pinnules greenish, becoming blackish at maturity; sori borne within the tightly inrolled, berrylike pinnules.
This species
low places
In
in
is
very
common
throughout the District and is found in
wet meadows, and in roadside ditches.
often reaches the proportions of an undesirable
woodland,
the latter habitats
it
in
weed.
Onoclea
38
sensibilis
Fig. 15.
Onoclea
sensibilis (Sensitive Fern)
39
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Forma obtusilobata (Schkuhr)
Gilbert has fronds intermediate
between
the normal fertile and the normal sterile phases.
It
occurs with the typical form and may be the result of damage
fronds. Several collections have been made in the District.
to
young
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY.
The
sterile
fronds of this fern blacken with the
frost,
hence the name
Sensitive Fern.
WOODSIA
Small tufted ferns with free veins, arising from compact rootstocks;
indusium of threadlike or platelike segments, attached below, and
more or less arched over the round sori. Three species occur in the
District.
A. Stipes jointed at the
base
1.
W. ilvensis
A. Stipes not jointed.
B. Pinnules
broadly
rounded;
indusium
of
segments
B.
a
few
2.
broad
W. obtusa
Pinnules slightly lobed or finely toothed; indusium of narrow
3. W. oregana
and threadlike segments
WOODSIA ILVENSIS
RUSTY WOODSIA
1.
2-3 cm wide, oblong-lanceolate, pinnatepinnae oblong-lanceolate, the margins of
the segments crenate and usually somewhat inrolled; stipes jointed,
the old stipe-bases persistent; rachis and under surface of the blade
usually brown-chaffy, sori round, numerous and close together on the
under surface.
Fronds 5-25
cm
(L) R Br (Fig 16)
long,
pinnatifid to bipinnate, the
40
w
Ji0f
**%
5
£
,
><
Fig. 16.
Woodsia
***-
ilvensis (Rusty
Wood sia)
41
This species occurs sporadically in shallow soil on steep rocky hillsides in the Laurentian area. On the Ontario side of the Ottawa River
it
was formerly known only at Rockcliffe Park where it clings to the
rocky cliff above the river, and at Pakenham where the Laurentian
Shield just enters the western limit of the District. Extensive stands
have, however, recently been discovered on rock exposures near
South March.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, and LANARK COUNTIES.
Woodsia
ilvensis
WOODSIA OBTUSA (Spreng.)
BLUNT-LOBED WOODSIA
2.
Torr. (Fig.
1
7)
Fronds 10-30 cm long, 2-10 cm wide, the blades broadly lanceolate,
pinnate, the pinnae mostly remote, the lower triangular, the median
and upper ovate-lanceolate to oblong, pinnatifid or pinnate at the
base, the pinnules oblong, obtuse, crenate-dentate; stipes not jointed:
rachis straw-colored, glandular pubescent: sori round, near the margins; indusium covering the sorus, later splitting into several jagged
lobes.
42
Fig. 17.
Woodsia obtusa (Blunt-lobed Woodsia)
43
This species
is
found
in
the District only near the top of the Gatineau
Escarpment southeast of King Mountain and northwest of Champlain
Lookout overlooking the Ottawa River, where
is found on a steep
rock slope in the open shade of deciduous trees. The only other
it
known localities
Quebec and near
for
this
species
in
Canada
are
southwestern
in
Kingston, Ont.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, southwest
of
King Mountain.
Woodsia obtusa
WOODSIA OREGANA
OREGON WOODSIA
3.
D C
Eat (Fig
1
8)
Fronds 10-30 cm long, 1.0-3.5 cm wide, the blades linear-lanceolate,
the pinnae opposite, remote, triangular-oblong, the pinnules oblong,
marginal crenulate-serrate teeth often inrolled; stipes not
dark brown at the base, becoming straw-colored
above, glabrous or glandular, usually without scales; sori round,
medial; indusium of narrow and threadlike segments.
blunt, the
jointed;
rachis
This species is very rare
igneous rocky exposure
Buckingham Township.
44
found
a crevice of an
a cliff face in
in
the District.
in
Nepean Township and on
It
is
in
Fig. 18.
Woodsia oregana (Oregon Woodsia)
45
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, north of Val-Paquin.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, west of Kanata.
Woodsia oregana
CYSTOPTERIS
Delicate
medium-sized
ferns
with
bipinnate
to
tripinnate
fronds
from short creeping rhizomes; veins free; indusium hoodshaped, thin and withering, attached at one side and arching over the
rounded sori. Two species occur in the District.
arising
A.
Fronds lanceolate and usually long-attenuate, often bearing
bulblets beneath; veins of pinnules mostly ending in a notch
1.
A.
Fronds lanceolate only, without bulblets; veins of the pinnules
2. C. fragilis
mostly ending in a tooth or on the unnotched margin
CYSTOPTERIS BULBIFERA
BULBLET FERN
1.
Fronds 30-60
46
C. bulbifera
cm
(L
long, the blades 6—1
)
Bernh
5— (1
8)
(Fig
cm wide
19)
near the base,
Fig. 19.
Cystopteris bulbifera (Bulblet Fern)
47
lanceolate and long attenuate, the sterile usually shorter, bipinnate,
the pinnules oblong, obtuse, pinnatifid to lobed; veins mostly ending
in a notch or sinus; dark green bulblets often borne on the underside
of the rachis and pinnules.
fairly common fern, which is found chiefly on calcareous rocks
shaded ravines and moist woods. In some woods
forms a large
part of the ground cover.
This a
in
it
QUEBEC: GATINEAU and PAPINEAU COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, GRENVILLE, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Cystopteris bulbifera
CYSTOPTERIS FRAGILIS
FRAGILE FERN
2.
(L
)
Bernh
(Fig
20)
cm long, the blades 3-8-(10) cm wide near the
base, lanceolate, bipinnate, the pinnae pinnatifid to lobed; veins
mostly ending in a tooth or on the unnotched margin.
Fronds 10-35-(40)
Two
Var.
varieties are
fragilis,
triangular,
at
found
least the
rounded
to the
or less cleft at the apex.
48
in
the District.
basal pinnules varying from orbicular to
long and more
base; indusium up to 1
mm
J
**w
Fig. 20.
Cystopteris fragilis var. mackayii (Fragile Fern)
49
It
is
found
in
sheltered crevices
in
cliffs,
moist banks, and
wooded
talus slopes.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY.
ONTARIO: CARLETON and LANARK COUNTIES.
Lawson (Fig. 20), pinnules oblong to nearly lanceolate,
evenly wedge-shaped at the base; indusium about 0.5 mm long and
shallowly or not at all toothed at the apex.
Var. mackayii
This is a
occurring
fairly
in
common
fern,
particularly
in
the
Laurentian area,
habitats similar to those of the typical variety.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Cystopteris fragilis
incl. var.
mackayii
GYMNOCARPIUM
Small ferns with delicate, glabrous fronds arising singly from a slender
rootstock; sori small, round; indusium absent; veins free, simple or
forking. One species occurs in the District.
50
1.GYMN0CARPIUM DRYOPTERIS
(L
)
Newm
(Fig
21)
Dryopteris disjuncta (Ledeb.) C. V. Morton
Thelypteris dryopteris (L.) Slosson
OAK FERN
Fronds 15-30-(35) cm long, arising from a slender rhizome; blades
8-17-(22) cm wide, 8-17 cm long, ternate, the three divi-
triangular,
sions pinnate-pinnatifid, the pinnules oblong, blunt; sori small, situated
near the margin.
This species
woods,
in
is
frequent in the District and is found
margins, and on shaded slopes.
in
cool rocky
swamp
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, GRENVILLE, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Forma glandulosa (Tryon) Soper has the rachis and sometimes the
pinnules minutely glandular.
It
has been collected only once
in
the District.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Gloucester Twp., Cone.
4,
lots
19-20.
Gymnocarpium
dryopteris
51
-,
Jgpfe
"k
Fig. 21
52
.
Gymnocarpium
dryopteris (Oak Fern)
,v<
,
PHEGOPTERIS
Small to
medium -sized
ferns with
more
pubescent fronds
round; indusium
One species occurs in the
or
less
arising singly from a slender rootstock; sori small,
absent; veins free,
simple or forking.
District.
1.
PHEGOPTERIS CONNECTILIS
(Michx.) Watt (Fig. 22)
Phegopteris polypodioides Fee
Dryopteris phegopteris (L.) Christens.
Thelypteris phegopteris (L.) Slosson
LONG BEECH FERN
Fronds 15-35-(42)
cm
long, arising from a slender rhizome; blades
triangular, longer than broad,
8-20 cm
long,
6-16 cm wide, tapering
but the lower pair connected by a
wing, the pinnules oblong, rounded at the tip, more or less hairy on
to the tip,
pinnate-pinnatifid,
all
both faces and on the rachis; rachis usually with a brownish chaff;
sori small, situated near the margin.
Phegopteris connectilis
53
Fig. 22.
54
Phegopteris connectilis (Long Beech Fern)
This species
where.
It
is
is
fairly
found
in
frequent
in
woods, wet
the Laurentian area but rare elseand moist rock crevices.
thickets,
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, PRESCOTT, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
THELYPTERIS
Small to medium-sized ferns with more or less pubescent fronds
arising from a slender rootstock; sori small, round; indusium present;
veins free, simple or forking.
A.
Two species occur
Lower pinnae gradually decreasing
in
size,
much decreased
A.
1.
Lower pinnae only
ments rolled back
if
at all
(L.)
.
T.
noveboracensis
smaller; margins of seg2. T. palustris var. pubescens
THELYPTERIS NOVEBORACENSIS
Dryopteris noveboracensis
the District.
the lowest very
1
slightly
in
(L
)
Nieuwl (Fig 23)
Gray
NEW YORK FERN
Fronds 25-55
cm
long, arising from a slender rhizome; blades elliptic
to elliptic-lanceolate,
9-15 cm wide, the lower pinnae very reduced,
pinnate-pinnatifid, the pinnae oblong to oblong-lanceolate,
somewhat
rachis and veins, the pinnules oblong; bluntish;
round, situated near the margin; indusia glandular-ciliate.
hairy on the
sori
This species is infrequent in the District and most records are from
the Gatineau Park and the Gatineau River area. It occurs in moist
woods, thickets, and swamps, chiefly in moderately acid soil.
55
i
v*
Fig. 23.
56
Thelypteris noveboracensis
(New York
Fern)
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY; PAPINEAU COUNTY,
3
km
south of
McGregor Lake.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Ottawa; GRENVILLE and PRESCOTT COUNTIES; RUSSELL COUNTY, Cumberland and
13 km northeast of Clarence Creek.
Thelypteris noveboracensis
2.
THELYPTERIS PALUSTRIS
(Lawson) Fern.
Schott var.
PUBESCENS
(Fig. 24)
Dryopteris thelypteris
(L.)
Gray
var.
pubescens (Lawson) Nakai
MARSH FERN
Fronds 20-60-(70) cm long, arising from an elongate rhizome; blades
7-15 cm wide, pinnate-pinnatifid, the pinnae linear-
lanceolate,
pinnules oblong, blunt, dimorphic; fertile fronds
usually longer than the sterile with pinnules somewhat thicker and
inrolled; rachis and blade minutely pubescent and sometimes glandular; sori round, situated about halfway between the margin and
midvein, at maturity partly covered by the inrolled margin.
lanceolate,
the
57
mutm*
.T%««^*"'*5.
5
1
'^
*7**v
Fig. 24.
58
Thelypteris palustris var.
pubescens (Marsh Fern)
This fern
thickets,
is fairly frequent and is found in marshes, swamps, wet
bog margins, and ditches throughout the District.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, GRENVILLE, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Thelypteris palustris var.
pubescens
DRYOPTERIS
Large or small ferns with fronds arising
in
clusters from stout, creeping
or erect rootstocks; stipes continuous with the rootstock, not jointed;
blades bipinnatifid or pinnate
to nearly bipinnate,
glabrous or some-
what pubescent; indusium roundish reniform, attached in the center,
covering the rounded sori; veins usually free, simple or forked. Four
species and one hybrid are recognized for the District.
A. Leaf
blades pinnate or
B. Sori
if
bipinnate, with the
segments toothed.
marginal
1.
D. marginalis
B. Sori not marginal.
C. Leaf
blades
triangular
in
be
tending
to
outline;
basal
short
and
scales firm,
broad,
oval-
deep brown
2.
D. goldiana
59
C. Leaf blades narrowly oval
membranous,
light
in
outline; basal scales thin,
brown.
D. Indusia glandular
D.
5.
D. Indusia not glandular
3.
xboottii
D. cristata
var. cristata
A. Leaf
blades tripinnate or
if
bipinnate, with the
segments
natifid
var.
1.
DRYOPTERIS MARGINALIS
Thelypteris marginalis
pin-
4. D. spinulosa
(L.)
(L
)
Gray
spinulosa
(Fig 25)
Nieuwl.
MARGINAL SHIELD FERN
Fronds 25-60-(70) cm long, crowded to form a crown on the stout
ascending rhizome, the lower part of the stipe covered with thin, light
brown, lance-linear scales; blades 9-20-(25) cm wide, dark green
above, gray green below, leathery, lanceolate to oblong-ovate, bipinnate, the pinnae lanceolate, the pinnules oblong, entire to deeply
lobed; sori situated near the margin; indusia whitish, becoming light
brown at maturity.
Dryopteris marginalis
60
*"
'
*/**/ .
V» «
.*
*
*"
*
K \\\
,
*.
V!
«i .:
^I
4 *«
•
-
vv *
**>:".>., *'K"'
\'s'£'/»i(\}
ihititt'^ZsM'
ri'i--.:
Fig. 25.
Dryopteris marginalis (Marginal Shield Fern)
61
very common in the Laurentian area but
throughout most of the District where the habitat is suitable.
on shaded ledges and in rocky woods.
This species
is
is
It
found
occurs
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, GRENVILLE, LANARK, RUSSELL, and STOR-
MONT COUNTIES.
2.
DRYOPTERIS GOLDIANA
(Hook.) Gray (Fig. 26)
Thelyp'teris goldiana (Hook.) Nieuwl.
GOLDIE'SFERN
cm long, crowded at the top of the stout ascending
rhizome, the lower part of the stipe covered with dark brown to blackish lance-acuminate scales; blades ovate-lanceolate, 20-40 cm broad,
pinnate-pinnatifid, the pinnae broadly oblong-lanceolate, the pinnules
linear-oblong, usually crenulate or serrated on the margins; sori
round, situated near the midrib.
Fronds 50-100
Dryopteris goldiana
62
*
/
'':
-
Fig. 26.
Dryopteris goldiana (Goldie's Fern)
63
This species is rare in the District and occurs on shaded rocky slopes
in cool moist woods. For many years it was known from only
three localities: Ottawa (Fletcher 1880); Beechwood in Ottawa
(Fletcher 1882); and Chelsea (Macoun 1903). Intensive collecting,
particularly by members of the Fern Group of the Ottawa FieldNaturalists' Club, has shown that it is still present at Beechwood,
and
and has revealed several stands in the Chelsea area. Additional
locations have been found at Pakenham in Lanark County, and near
South March in Carleton County.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY.
ONTARIO: CARLETON and LANARK COUNTIES.
3.
DRYOPTERIS CRISTATA
(L
)
Gray
var.
CRISTATA
(Fig. 27)
Thelypteris cristata
(L.)
Nieuwl.
CRESTED WOOD FERN
Fronds 25-90 cm long, forming a crown at the top of the stout
ascending rhizome, the fertile longer than the sterile; stipes with
pale brown ovate-lanceolate scales; blades linear-oblong to narrowly lance-oblong, 6-15 cm wide, pinnate-pinnatifid, the basal
pinnae short triangular; pinnae of fertile fronds turned at right angles
to the rachis;
pinnules oblong, obtuse, serrate; sori round, situated
the margin and midvein.
midway between
This variety
and swamps
infrequent to rare in the District and occurs
and on springy wooded slopes.
is
in
marshes
QUEBEC: GATINEAU and PAPINEAU COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON and GRENVILLE COUNTIES.
Var. clintoniana (D. C. Eat.) Underw. {Thelypteris cristata
wide, the basal pinnae
as the rachis.
64
little
(L.)
Nieuwl.
blades lance-oblong, 11-20 cm
reduced; fertile pinnae in the same plane
var. clintoniana (D. C. Eat.) Weath.),
Fig. 27.
Dryopteris cristata
var. cr/stata
(Crested
Wood
Fern)
65
Less frequent than the typical variety, this variety occurs
wet woods, and thickets on stream banks.
in
swamps,
QUEBEC: GATINEAU and PAPINEAU COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, GRENVILLE, and LANARK COUNTIES.
Dryopteris cristata
4.
DRYOPTERIS SPINULOSA
NULOSA
clintoniana
(0 F Muell.) Watt var SPI-
(Fig. 28, 29)
Thelypteris spinulosa (O.
SPINULOSE
incl. var.
WOOD
F.
Muell.) Nieuwl.
FERN, FLORIST'S FERN
cm long, forming a crown at the top of a stout ascendrhizome; stipes with ovate brown scales, particularly near the
base; blades lanceolate, 10-20 cm wide, bipinnate or bipinnatepinnatifid, the pinnules oblong, with spine-tipped teeth; blade and
rachis not glandular; inner lower pinnule of basal pinnae usually
longer than the next one to it; sori round; indusia not glandular.
Fronds 30-80
ing
is found throughout most of the District and occurs
swamps, wet woods, springy banks, and on moist rocky slopes.
This variety
66
in
-^MV
^w
i\ftK
n*
,"
m
>*•
Fig. 28.
Dryopteris spinulosa var. spinulosa (Spinulose
Wood
Fern, Florist's Fern)
67
QUEBEC: GATINEAU and PAPINEAU COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, GRENVILLE, LANARK, RUSSELL, and STOR-
MONT COUNTIES.
Dryopteris spinulosa var. spinulosa
Underw. (Fig. 29), rachis and blade usually
glandular; blades bipinnate-pinnatifid; inner lower pinnule of basal
pinnae usually shorter than the next one to it; indusia glandular.
Var. intermedia (Muhl.)
Dryopteris spinulosa var. intermedia
68
'
'*> \\-:: :
Fig. 29.
Dryopteris spinulosa var. intermedia (Spinulose
Wood
Fern, Florist's Fern)
69
This variety
is fairly
and
common
in
the District, particularly
in
the Lauren-
woods and on shaded rocky slopes.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, GRENVILLE, LANARK, PRESCOTT, RUSSELL, and STORMONT COUNTIES.
tian area,
is
found
in
rich
Occasional specimens with large glandular indusia and pinnae approaching the shape of var. spinulosa have been called var. fructuosa
(Gilbert) Trudell. They are reputed to be hybrids between var. spinulosa and var. intermedia.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU and PAPINEAU COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Dryopteris spinulosa var. fructuosa
DRYOPTERIS X BOOTTII
BOOTT'S WOOD FERN
5.
A
(Tuckerm.) Underw.
hybrid between D. spinulosa var. intermedia and D.
narrower and less divided than those of D. spinulosa
70
(Fig. 30)
cristata;
blades
var. intermedia,
/
Fig. 30.
Dryopteris Xboottii (Boott's
Wood
Fern)
71
thus approaching D. cristata; pinnules retaining the spinulose teeth
of var. intermedia, but the teeth much less conspicuous than those
of that parent; indusia glandular.
This fern has been collected only six times in the District. It may,
however, be expected anywhere that the ranges of the parent species
coincide.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, Wakefield and near Wilson's Corners.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Dow's Swamp and White's Bridge,
Ottawa;
GRENVILLE COUNTY, Kemptville; LANARK
COUNTY.
Dryopteris Xboottii
POLYSTICHUM
Rather large, tufted, evergreen, leathery-textured ferns with scaly
stipes arising from short stout rhizomes; sori round, covered by round
indusia, which are attached at the center. Two species occur in the
District.
A.
Fronds simply pinnate
A.
Fronds bipinnate
72
1.
2. P.
P.
acrostichoides
braunii var. purshii
1.P0LYSTICHUM ACROSTICHOIDES
(Fig.
(Michx
)
Schott
31)
CHRISTMAS FERN
Fronds 35-65 cm long; stipes and rachis chaffy; blades lanceolate,
7—1 2— (16) cm wide, simply pinnate, the pinnae oblong to lanceolate,
acute or sometimes bluntish at the tip, auricled at the base on the
upper side, the margins serrulate-bristly; sori borne on reduced upper
pinnae, distinct or more often confluent.
This species
where. Most
is fairly
of the
River valley and
in
in
frequent
in
the Laurentian region but rare else-
specimens seen were collected
Gatineau Park.
It
is
found
in
in the Gatineau
humus-rich crevices
rocks and open thickets.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU and PAPINEAU COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, GRENVILLE, LANARK, RUSSELL,
and
STORMONT COUNTIES.
Forma incisum (Gray)
Gilbert,
pinnae coarsely toothed;
less reduced, the sori usually less confluent,
at
It
some
fertile
sori
pinnae
often found
the tips of the unreduced pinnae.
is
found throughout the range of the species but has been collected
only twice
in
the District.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY.
Polystichum acrostichoides
73
Fig. 31.
74
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas Fern)
2.
POLYSTICHUM BRAUNII
Fern.
(Fig.
(Spenner) Fee
var.
PURSHII
32)
EASTERN HOLLY FERN
Fronds 30-50 cm long; stipes, rachis, and under surface of pinnules
blades elliptic-lanceolate, 8-12 cm wide, tapering at both
ends, bipinnate, the lower pinnae oblong, the median pinnae oblong
to lanceolate; pinnules with incurved bristle-tipped teeth, blunt, oblong
to ovate with a small auricle on the upper side at the base; sori
distinct, situated near the midrib.
chaffy;
known only from the Burnet - Chelsea Old Chelsea - Kingsmere area, where
is found in deep woods in
sheltered ravines. Until recently this plant was thought to be extinct
in the District.
was first discovered by James Fletcher in 1891, and
until
was rediscovered in 1952 by a member of the Fern Group of
This fern
is
very rare, and
is
it
It
it
the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, it had not been seen since John
Macoun collected it in 1911. The most recent discovery was described
in
Trail
and Landscape 4(5):152-153. 1970.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, between Old Chelsea and Kingsmere.
Polystichum braunii
var. purshii
75
Fig. 32.
76
Polystichum braunii
var. purshii (Eastern Holly Fern)
DENNSTAEDTIA
Fairly large ferns with fronds clustered or in colonies arising from
slender creeping rootstocks; rachis and under surface of the fronds
minutely glandular-pubescent; sori round, covered by cup-shaped
indusia. One species occurs in the District.
1.
DENNSTAEDTIA PUNCTILOBULA
(Fig.
(Michx
)
Moore
33)
HAY-SCENTED FERN
Fronds 30-75
cm
long; stipes pale brown,
lustrous,
naked; blades
lanceolate, bipinnate, the pinnae lanceolate, the pinnules pinnatifid
with toothed lobes; sori minute, situated on the upper margin of the
lobes.
Dennstaedtia punctilobula
77
fife*
.#
Fig. 33.
78
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Hay-scented Fern)
This species is seemingly rare, but perhaps it is overlooked. It was
previously known in the District only from the southern hills of Gatineau Park, Wakefield, Ottawa, Russell, and Casselman but was
recently discovered a
and near
and particularly
number
Bell's Corners.
in
It
sandy terrain east of Ottawa
dry open woods, rocky slopes,
of times in
occurs
in
sterile pastures.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, PRESCOTT, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
ATHYRIUM
Rather large ferns with large rootstocks; veins either simple or some-
what forked; sori curved or straight, borne along the veins; indusium
attached on one side of the sorus. Three species are found in the
District.
A.
A.
Fronds pinnate or
bipinnatifid.
B.
Fronds pinnate
B.
Fronds deeply bipinnatifid
Fronds bipinnate
1.
to tripinnatifid
2. A.
3.
pycnocarpon
thelypterioides
A. filix-femina var. michauxii
ATHYRIUM PYCNOCARPON (Spreng.)
NARROW-LEAVED SPLEENWORT
1.
A.
Tidestr. (Fig. 34)
Fronds 60-125 cm long, forming a crown at the end of a stout horizontal rhizome; sterile blades lanceolate, 8-16 cm wide, simply pinnate, the pinnae long-acuminate, rounded to truncate at the base,
membranous; sori linear, situated on the veins in crowded rows between the midrib and the margin; indusium opening along one side.
The species has been collected in the immediate vicinity of Ottawa,
but not since 1903. In 1952
was rediscovered by members of the
Fern Group of The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club near Chelsea, where
it
79
J\
Fig. 34.
80
Athyrium pycnocarpon (Narrow-leaved Spleenwort)
it had remained hidden since 1911. Three new sites have been found
recently on the Ontario side of the Ottawa River and several in the
Gatineau area. The Rideau Park location has probably been obliterated by the advances of the city of Ottawa, but it may still be
possible to relocate the Beechwood stand. This fern
rich woods and moist ravines.
is
found
in
deep
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, between Old Chelsea and Kingsmere.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, in Rideau Park and near Beechwood Cemetery in Ottawa.
Athyrium pycnocarpon
2.
ATHYRIUM THELYPTERIOIDES
(Michx
)
Desv
(Fig 35)
SILVERY SPLEENWORT
Fronds 45-80 cm long, forming a crown at the end of the horizontal
rhizome; blades lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, 8-22 cm wide, pinnate-pinnatifid, the pinnae long-tapering, its segments oblong, blunt,
finely toothed; sori straight or slightly curved, situated on the veins
between the midrib and margin; indusia becoming silvery at maturity,
opening on one side, or if double, opening on both sides.
Fig. 35.
82
Athyrium thelypterioides (Silvery Spleenwort)
Infrequent to rare, this species occurs in rich woods,
banks, on shaded slopes, and rarely in open thickets.
on stream
QUEBEC: GATINEAU and PAPINEAU COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Rideau Park, Ottawa; GRENVILLE,
LANARK, and PRESCOTT COUNTIES; RUSSELL COUNTY,
Casselman.
Athyrium thelypterioides
3.
ATHYRIUM FILIX-FEMINA
(Spreng.) Farw.
A.
angustum
(Fig.
(L.)
Roth
var.
MICHAUXII
36)
(Willd.) Pres!
LADY FERN
Fronds 30-1 00-(1 1 0) cm long, forming a crown on the stout, ascending
rhizome; blades lanceolate, 12-24-(28) cm wide, bipinnate to tripinnatifid, the pinnae lanceolate, the pinnules somewhat lobed to deeply
toothed, blunt, or acute at the
tip.
83
This is an extremely variable fern. On the basis of differences in the
frond the following forms might be recognized, but in all cases they
gradate from one to the other:
Forma michauxii, fronds dimorphic,
5-12 cm
the
fertile
contracted;
pinnae
7-12 mm long, rounded and only shallowly
usually becoming confluent at maturity.
long; pinnules
lobed; sori
Forma elatius (Link) Clute, fronds dimorphic, the fertile contracted;
pinnae 10-20 cm long; pinnules 12-25 mm long, pinnatifid, acutish;
lower sori often strongly curved or horseshoe-shaped; sori usually
becoming confluent
at
maturity.
Forma rubellum (Gilbert) Farw., fronds not dimorphic, larger than the
two preceding forms; pinnules strongly toothed or pinnatifid; sori
separate at maturity.
The lady
in
many
fern
is
of very frequent
habitats, from
meadows
occurrence
to
open
in
the District.
thickets, moist
It
is
found
woods, and
even swamps.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, GRENVILLE, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Athyrium filix-femina
84
var.
michauxii forms
w/mmw
ill
'•*>
tk
Fig. 36.
-'
Athyrium filix-femina
var.
michauxii (Lady Fern)
85
CAMPTOSORUS
Slender plants with erect or ascending scaly rootstocks; veins reticulate; sori elongate; indusium attached on one side of the sorus.
One species is found in the District.
1.
CAMPTOSORUS RHIZOPHYLLUS
(L
)
Link (Fig 37)
WALKING FERN
Fronds 5-30-(35) cm long, approximately clustered at the end of the
rhizome; blades evergreen, entire, 1-3 cm wide at the cordate or
auriculate base, usually tapering to a long caudate tip; sori elongate,
scattered along the veins; tips of the arching blades often rooting
to form new plants, hence the name, Walking Fern.
This species is rare in the District because of its habitat restrictions,
but recent observations have shown that it is quite frequent in the
Pink Lake region of southern Gatineau Park. A review of recent
Camptosorus rhizophyllus
86
Fig. 37.
Camptosorus rhizophyllus (Walking Fern)
87
collections in the District
114-115. 1974. It is found
is
presented
in
Trail
and Landscape
sheltered places on damp, often
rocks and stony banks, preferring limestone.
in
8(4):
mossy
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, Old Chelsea and near King Mountain; PAPINEAU COUNTY.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Beechwood (Ottawa), Corkery,
Constance Lake, and Fallowfield; LANARK COUNTY.
ASPLENIUM
Small plants from small compact rootstocks; veins free; sori linear
and straight; indusium attached along one side of the sorus. Two
species are found in the District.
A. Sterile
and
fertile
fronds similar; pinnae ovate
1.
A. Sterile
and
fertile
fronds different;
triangular
ASPLENIUM TRICHOMANES
MAIDENHAIR SPLEENWORT
1.
A.
trichomanes
pinnae linear-oblong to
2. A. platyneuron
L (Fig 38)
Fronds 6-20-(27) cm long, forming a dense tuft from a compact
rhizome; stipes and rachises purple brown, the old rachises persistent; blades linear, pinnate, the pinnae usually opposite or subopposite, oval, rounded to cuneate at the inequilateral base, slightly
toothed on the sides and at the blunt apex; sori linear, situated on
the veins between the midrib and margin.
This is a rather rare fern in the District. Most of our collections are
from the Laurentian region, particularly from the southern part of
Gatineau Park. Recent collections on rock exposures near South
88
Fig. 38.
Asplenium trichomanes (Maidenhair Spleenwort)
89
March indicate
that
additional
sites
situations on the Ontario side of the
sheltered crevices
in
may
still
Ottawa
be found in similar
It is found
in moist
River.
rocky places.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU and PAPINEAU COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Rockcliffe Park,
LANARK COUNTY.
South
March;
Asplenium trichomanes
2.
ASPLENIUM PLATYNEURON
(L
)
Oakes
(Fig 39)
EBONY SPLEENWORT
Fronds tufted from a short rootstock, the
fertile stiff
and
upright,
20-40
cm long, 2.5-4.0 cm wide, gradually tapering to the base, the pinnae
linear-oblong or the basal triangular, auricled, widely separated and
alternate; rachis lustrous, chestnut purple; sterile fronds shorter,
spreading and prostrate, with oblong approximate pinnae; sori linearoblong, situated on the veins, nearer the midvein than the margin.
This is a very rare fern in the District. It has been found in moss and
in very shallow soil on almost buried rocks in cleared and grownover areas or in partial shade.
90
Fig. 39.
Asplenium platyneuron (Ebony Spleenwort)
91
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, Wilson's Corners and near
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, south of Bell's Corners.
Pink Lake.
Asplenium platyneuron
PELLAEA
Small tufted plants from compact rootstocks; veins free;
and confluent under the inrolled and altered margin
pinnules.
A.
Two species
are found
Rachis dark purple-brown,
appressed hairs
in
dull,
marginal
the
fertile
the District.
pubescent with more or less
1. P.
A. Rachis dark reddish-brown, smooth, lustrous
PELLAEA ATROPURPUREA
PURPLE CLIFF-BRAKE
1.
sori
of
(L
)
atropurpurea
2. P.
glabella
Link (Fig 40)
Fronds dimorphic, the fertile 10-35 cm long, longer than the sterile,
3.5-8 cm wide; stipes and rachis dark purple-brown, dull, pubescent
92
Fig. 40.
Pellaea atropurpurea (Purple Cliff-Brake)
93
more or less appressed hairs; pinnae rigid, evergreen, bluishgreen, simple above, bipinnate below, the fertile, linear to oblong or
narrowly ovate, and the lower pinnules stalked; the sterile ovateoblong; sori situated around the margins of the fertile pinnules, the
inrolled margin forming the indusium.
with
This fern is restricted to ledges and rubble below marble cliff faces
of the Gatineau Escarpment overlooking the Ottawa River valley, and
in the Riviere Blanche drainage.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY,
near King
Mountain and north
of
Val-Paquin.
Pellaea atropurpurea
2.
PELLAEA GLABELLA
Mett. (Fig. 41)
SMOOTH CLIFF-BRAKE
Fronds similar, usually shorter than P. atropurpurea; stipes and rachis
dark reddish-brown, smooth and lustrous; pinnae rigid, evergreen,
bluish-green, simple above, pinnate below, the pinnules sessile or
nearly so, oblong-lanceolate; sori situated around the margins of
the fertile pinnules, the inrolled margin forming the indusium.
94
Fig. 41
.
Pellaea glabella (Smooth Cliff-Brake)
95
This species is rare
face where it grows
in
the District and
in
tufts
is
known only from one
cliff
from crevices.
QUEBEC: PAPINEAU COUNTY,
east of Poltimore.
Pellaea glabella
WOODWARDIA
Coarse ferns from horizontal or creeping rootstocks; veins united
to
form a single series of areolae next to the midrib of both the pinnae
and the pinnules, elsewhere free; sori elongate, borne along the veins,
which form the outer side of the areolae; indusium persistent, opening
on the side away from the midrib. One species occurs in the District.
1.
WOODWARDIA VIRGINICA
(L
)
Sm
(Fig 42)
VIRGINIAN CHAIN FERN
Fronds 60-100
cm
oblong-lanceolate,
96
long, scattered along the creeping rhizome; blades
10-30 cm wide,
pinnate-pinnatifid,
the
pinnae
Fig. 42.
Woodwardia
virginica (Virginian
Chain Fern)
97
linear-lanceolate, the pinnules oblong, obtuse, with finely serrulate
margins; sori oblong, one to each areole, usually becoming confluent
at maturity.
was known only from the Mer Bleu,
peat bog, southeast of Ottawa, where it is of quite common occurrence. In 1894 John Macoun collected this species "in the swamp
at the race course west of Bank St. Road, Ottawa." This area, which
is in that part of Ottawa known as the Glebe, is completely built over
and the habitat has been obliterated. In 1959 the species was found
in a small bog in Pontiac County.
Until recently this interesting fern
QUEBEC: PONTIAC COUNTY, north of Ramsay Lake.
ONTARIO: CARLETON and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Woodwardia
98
virginica
CRYPTOGRAMMA
Small ferns from slender creeping rootstocks; veins free; sori marginal,
covered by a continuous indusium formed by the reflexed margin. One
species is found in the District.
1.
CRYPTOGRAMMA STELLERI
(Gmel.) Prantl (Fig. 43)
SLENDER CLIFF-BRAKE
Fronds dimorphic, scattered along the horizontal rhizome; sterile
fronds almost flaccid, 3-10 cm long, the blades ovate to ovatedeltoid, bipinnate, the pinnules oblong, ovate or obovate flabelliform;
fertile fronds stiffer, 9-21 cm long, the pinnules lanceolate to oblong;
around the margins of the
margin forming the indusium.
sori situated
fertile
pinnules, the inrolled
This species is rare and restricted in distribution because of
special habitat requirements, but is more frequent than indicated
1956. It occurs in moist shaded crevices of cliff faces.
its
in
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, west of King Mountain; PAPINEAU
COUNTY, north of Lac la Blanche.
ONTARIO: CARLETON COUNTY, Rockcliffe Park, March.
Cryptogramma
stelleri
99
1
Fig. 43.
100
Cryptogramma
4
stelleri
^
(Slender
Cliff
Brake)
ADIANTUM
Delicate ferns from creeping rootstocks; veins free-forking; sori
oblong, borne along the upper margin of the pinnules, each covered
by an indusium, which arises from the inrolled margin. One species
is
found
in
the District.
ADIANTUM PEDATUM
MAIDENHAIR FERN
1.
Fronds 30-55
cm
long,
in
L
var.
PEDATUM
(Fig
44)
colonies arising from horizontal rhizomes;
summit into two arching
stipes lustrous purple-brown, forking at the
rachises, each of which divides several times into spreading divisions,
thus forming a circular, or semicircular blade 15-35 cm wide; pinnules short-stalked, obliquely triangular oblong, the terminal one fanshaped; main vein along the lower entire margin, the upper margin
cleft, the lobes thus formed, blunt; sori elongate, borne on the upper
margins of the lobes of the pinnules; indusium formed by the inrolled
margin.
Adiantum pedatum
incl. var.
aleuticum
101
Fig. 44.
102
Adiantum pedatum
var.
pedatum (Maidenhair Fern)
This peculiar fern
where
area,
humus-rich
it
soil.
is
It
occurrence in the Laurentian
sometimes rocky, slopes in
on
wooded,
found
is not common elsewhere in the District.
is
of quite frequent
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Var. aleuticum Rupr.,
branches
of the stipe straight or only slightly
reflexed; pinnae strongly ascending.
Two specimens
lected
in
that
seem
to
belong
to this variety
have been col-
the Laurentian region.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU COUNTY, Hull Twp., Gatineau Park, Lake Trail;
PAPINEAU COUNTY, Templeton Twp., McGregor Lake.
PTERIDIUM
Coarse plants from creeping rootstocks; veins forking, ending in a
which the indusium arises; sori marginal,
veinlike receptacle, from
continuous.
1.
One species occurs
PTERIDIUM AQUILINUM
in
the District.
(L
)
Kuhn var
LATIUSCULUM
(Desv.) Underw. (Fig. 45)
P.
latiusculum (Desv.) Hieron.
BRACKEN
Fronds 30-70 cm or more long, in extensive colonies from creeping
and forking underground rhizomes; blades triangular, usually ternate,
30-50 cm wide, bipinnate-pinnatifid to tripinnate-pinnatifid, the lower
pinnules more or less pinnatifid, the upper entire; margin of the pinnules inrolled to form a secondary indusium over the continuous
marginal
sori.
probably the most common of all our ferns. It occurs as a
pastures, on grassy slopes in abandoned fields, in burnt-over
areas, in damp or more often dry, usually sterile soil, as well as on
This
weed
is
in
open slopes, and
in
open woods and
thickets.
103
Fig. 45.
104
Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum (Bracken)
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, DUNDAS, GRENVILLE, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
In early spring the young fronds of Pteridium have been highly valued
as a green vegetable, particularly in New Zealand and Japan. Recent
studies have shown that this species is carcinogenic in rats, is responsible for enzootic bovine haemituria in cattle, and causes vitamin
B, avitaminosis in horses arid other nonruminants (Can. J. Plant Sci.
55:1059-1072. 1975).
consumption.
It
is
therefore not
recommended
for
human
Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum
#
specimens/O
field
observations
105
POLYPODIUM
Small ferns from slender, branched, creeping rootstocks; veins free:
sori round; indusium absent. One species occurs in the District.
POLYPODIUM VIRGINIANUM
COMMON POLYPODY
1.
L (Fig 46)
Fronds 10-30-(35) cm long, scattered along the creeping, scaly
blades evergreen, oblong-lanceolate, 3-6-(8) cm wide,
deeply pinnatifid, the segments linear-oblong, entire to remotely
dentate, blunt or acutish; sori large, orbicular, naked, borne midway
between the midvein and margin.
rhizome;
is a fairly common fern in the Laurentian region.
It
is found
frequently
few
less
on the
rocky outcrops south of the Ottawa River
and is almost unknown in the lowland area. It occurs in shallow
humus on rocks, in crevices, and sometimes on woodland banks.
This
Very rarely
it
is
found on mossy stumps and
in
crotches of trees.
QUEBEC: GATINEAU, PAPINEAU, and PONTIAC COUNTIES.
ONTARIO: CARLETON, LANARK, and RUSSELL COUNTIES.
Polypodium virginianum
106
Fig. 46.
Polypodium virginianum (Common Polypody)
107
GLOSSARY
acuminate Tapering at the end to a gradual point.
areole A small space marked out upon or beneath a surface.
attenuate Slenderly tapering.
auricle
An ear-shaped appendage or lobe.
Doubly or twice pinnate.
bipinnate
The expanded
blade
caudate
ciliate
part of a frond.
Having a slender tail-like appendage.
Marginally fringed with hairs.
Running together.
cordate Heart-shaped.
coriaceous Leathery in texture.
crenate Dentate with teeth much rounded.
cuneate Wedge-shaped.
confluent
Shaped like the Greek letter A.
dichotomous Forking regularly in pairs.
dimorphic Having two forms.
deltoid
Capable of producing fruit.
flabelliform
Fan-shaped or broadly wedge-shaped.
fertile
Without
flaccid
frond
The
rigidity.
leaf of a fern, including stipe, rachis,
gametophyte
In the life cycle, the generation
are produced.
glabrous Smooth, without hairs.
glandular Bearing glands.
globose Spherical.
herbaceous
Having the characters
of
in
an herb;
and pinnae.
which sexual organs
leaflike in color
and
texture.
imbricated
indusium
Overlapping.
The covering of the sorus.
Shaped like a lance head, several times longer than wide,
broadest toward the base and narrowed to the apex.
Long and narrow, with parallel margins.
lanceolate
linear
oblanceolate
oblong Two
Lanceolate with the broadest part toward the apex.
times longer than broad and with nearly parallel
to three
sides.
obtuse
Blunt or rounded at the end.
orbicular
ovate
108
Circular.
Egg-shaped; having an outline
broader end basal.
like that of
an egg, with the
palmate Radiately lobed or divided.
pinna One of the primary divisions
pound frond.
Compound,
pinnate
common
pinnatifid
of a pinnate or pinnately
with the leaflets arranged on
each side
comof a
axis.
Pinnately
cleft.
pinnule A secondary pinna.
prothallus A cellular, usually flat, thalluslike growth, resulting from
the germination of a spore, upon which are developed
sexual organs or new plants.
pubescent
Covered with
hairs.
part of the petiole, bearing the pinnae and continuous with the stipe.
reflexed
Bent abruptly downward.
The upper
rachis
reniform
reticulate
rhizome
Kidney-shaped.
In the form of a network.
The rootstock or underground stem.
serrate
Having sharp teeth pointing forward.
serrulate
Finely serrate.
sessile
Without stalk of any kind.
sorus A heap or cluster of sporangia bearing the spores.
sporangium The globular organ in which the spores are produced.
spore An asexual reproductive cell that germinates into a prothallus,
which in turn gives rise to the sexual reproduction.
sporophyte In the life cycle, the generation in which spores are
produced.
stipe
The lower
part of the petiole, not bearing pinnae.
ternate
In threes.
tripinnate
Three times pinnate.
truncate
Ending abruptly.
109
INDEX
(Synonyms are
in italics.
Principal references are
Adder's-tongue 24
Adder's-tongue family 7
Adiantum 34, 101
pedatum
pedatum
Asplenium
35,
Purple 92
Slender 99
Smooth 94
Common polypody 106
Crested wood fern 64
aleuticum 103
var.
bold face.)
Cliff-brake
pedatum 101
var.
in
88
Cryptogramma
phatyneuron 4, 88, 90
trichomanes 88
Athynum 35, 79
angustum 83
stelleri
5,
34,
99
99
Cystopteris 35, 46
bulbifera 46
48
filix-femina 5
fragilis
filix-femina
fragilis var. fragilis
var.
f.
f.
f.
michauxii 79, 83
elatius
84
5, 6,
Dennstaedtia 34, 77
punctilobula 77
Dryopteris
79
Xboottii
thelypterioides 79, 81
Boott's
wood
fern
angustisegmentum
110
64
6, 8,
72
disjunct a 51
goldiana 5, 59, 62
marginalis 34, 59, 60
noveboracensis 55
phegopteris 53
spinulosa var. spinulosa 5, 60, 66, 70
spinulosa var. fructuosa 70
spinulosa var. intermedia 68, 70, 72
20
16
matricariaefolium
var. matricariaefolium 8, 18
multifidum 8, 10, 12
multifidum var. intermedium 10
multifidum var. multifidum 10
obliquum 14
silaifolium 10
simplex 16
simplex var. simplex 16
simplex var. tenebrosum 5, 8, 16
virginianum
var. virginianum 5, 8, 22
Bracken 103
Bulblet fern 46
Camptosorus 35, 86
rhizophyllus 5, 86
Christmas fern 73
Cinnamon fern 30
59
70
cristata var. cristata 60, 64, 70,
Botrychium 7, 8
dissectum 8, 12
dissectum var. dissectum 12
dissectum var. obliquum 14
f. obliquum
14
dissectum var. oneidense 14
f. oneidense
14
lanceolatum
var.
35,
4,
60,
cristata var. clintoniana
70
lunaria
48
mackayii 50
fragilis var.
michauxii 84
rubellum 84
pycnocarpon
46,
thelypteris
var.
pubescens 57
Eastern holly fern 75
Fern family 34
Florist's fern
66
Flowering fern family 26
Fragile fern 48
Goldie's fern 62
Grape
fern
Branching 18
Cut-leaved 12
Lance-leaved 20
Leathery 10
Small 16
Gymnocarpium
dryopteris
4,
35,
50
51
f. glandulosa
51
Hay-scented fern 77
Interrupted fern 28
Lady fern 83
Long beech fern 53
Maidenhair fern 101
Pteretis
Marginal shield fern 60
Pteridium 34, 103, 105
aquilinum '5
aquilinum var. latiusculum 103
latiusculum 103
Marsh
fern
nodulosa 36
pensylvanica 36
57
Matteuccia 34, 35
sfruthiopfens
New
Oak
var.
Rattlesnake fern 22
fern
Sensitive fern 38
pensylvanica 36
York fern 55
Onoclea
Royal fern 26
51
Spinulose wood fern 66
Spleenwort
Ebony 90
Maidenhair 88
Narrow-leaved 79
38
sensibilis 38
f.
34,
obtusilobata 38
Ophioglossaceae 7
Ophioglossum 7, 22
vulgatum
Silvery 81
var. pseudopodum
Osmunda 26
cinnamomea
f.
5,
Thelypteris 55
24
cristata var. clintoniana
30
frondosa 30
26,
f.
go-idiana 62
marginalis 60
26
noveboracensis 55
anomala 28
Osmundaceae
7,
palustris var.
26
Pellaea 34, 92
4, 5,
92, 94
94
Phegopteris 35, 53
connectilis 4, 53
polypodioides 53
Polypodiaceae 4, 7, 34
Polypodium 35, 106
virginianum 106
Polystichum 34, 72
acrostichoides 72, 73
f. incisum
73
glabella
4, 92,
braunii var. purshii
5, 6,
pubescens
4, 55,
57
phegopteris 53
spinulosa 66
Virginian chain fern 96
Walking fern 86
Ostrich fern 36
atropurpurea
64
dryopteris 51
clayfoniana 26, 28, 30
regalis var. spectabilis
64
cristata
Woodsia
40
34,
Blunt-lobed 42
40
ilvensis
obtusa
40,
4,
oregana
4,
42
44
40,
Oregon 44
Rusty 40
Woodwardia
virginica
72,
5,
35,
96
96
75
111
BLADE
SORI
PINNA
PINNULE
RACHIS
STIPE
SCALES
RHIZOME
Fig. 47.
112
Illustration of fern parts
LIBRARY
BIBLIOTHEQUE
AGRICULTURE CANADA OTTAWA K1A 0C5
3
630. k
TD73 000£0H5fl
C212
Canada.
Dept
P97I1
.
Publications
MAY
MA
1
1
2 1995
rev
.
1
'78 c. o
of Agriculture
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