File 394-2-49 Evaluation Report: Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections

File 394-2-49  Evaluation Report: Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections
File 394-2-49
Evaluation Report:
Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections
Chapter One: Aboriginal Healing Lodges
Evaluation Branch
Policy Sector
February 2011
i
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The evaluation team members would like to express their appreciation to the many individuals
who contributed to this evaluation and provided valuable information on the operations of
Aboriginal Healing Lodges and their impacts.
First, we would like to thank Healing Lodge residents, management, staff members, and
community representatives for participating in interviews and sharing their views and
experiences with the evaluation team. We would like to extend a special thank-you to Debra
Matties, Pamela Okemaysim-Gamble, Lynn Manuel and Shane Cook for their support in coordinating site visits and arranging interviews, and also to Healing Lodge Executive Directors for
providing detailed information about their facilities in the form of Healing Lodge fact sheets.
The evaluation team wishes to thank CSC management and staff members for completing an online questionnaire and contributing their perspectives on the effectiveness and operations of
Aboriginal interventions and services throughout CSC.
The evaluation team sincerely appreciates the input provided by the members of the Aboriginal
Initiative Directorate, particularly Lisa Allgaier, Brigitte Bouchard, Clare McNab and others, in
developing the Terms of Reference for the evaluation of the Strategic Plan for Aboriginal
Corrections and sharing knowledge regarding culturally-appropriate protocols. Separate thanks
go to staff members from Regional Headquarters for facilitating access to relevant documents
and to staff members from National Headquarters for their collaboration in collecting financial
data.
Last but not least, the evaluation team would like to thank Paul Verbrugge for his dedicated work
and diligence in extracting offender data from CSC‟s data warehouse and performing
quantitative analyses.
iii
EVALUATION TEAM
Evaluation report prepared by:
Eugenia Didenko
Bernard Marquis
Evaluation Branch
Policy Sector
Correctional Service Canada
Evaluation Branch
Policy Sector
Correctional Service Canada
Evaluation Team Members:
Bernard Marquis, Director
Eugenia Didenko, A/Senior Evaluator
Paul Verbrugge, Evaluation Officer
Bertha May, Evaluation Officer
Cara Dowden, Evaluation Analyst
Brittany MacDonald, Evaluation Analyst
Additional contributions to the evaluation were provided by other members of the Evaluation
Branch, including Nicole Allegri, Kossi Aziaba, Elizabeth Loree, Hassimiou Ly, Marcie McKay,
Joel Ndayubaha, Lysiane Paquin-Marseille and Christopher Rastin.
iv
Correctional Service of Canada’s
Aboriginal Healing Lodges
SIGNATURES
…………………………………………..
Dr. Pamela M. Yates
Director General
Evaluation Branch
……………………………………………
Date
…………………………………………….
Lisa Hardey
Associate Assistant Commissioner
Policy Sector
……………………………………………..
Date
v
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The present evaluation examined the relevance and performance of Correctional Service of
Canada‟s (CSC) Aboriginal Healing Lodges. Findings concerning the performance of Healing
Lodges covered such areas as Healing Lodge operations, the delivery of Aboriginal services and
interventions, collaboration with Aboriginal communities, correctional results, and costeffectiveness. In summary, Healing Lodges demonstrated their continued relevance and made
progress towards achieving expected outcomes. The extent to which expected outcomes were
achieved varied, with results from Healing Lodges being generally comparable to, or slightly
better than, those from minimum security institutions for men and multi-level security
institutions for women.
The evaluation of Aboriginal Healing Lodges represents the first chapter of the evaluation of the
Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Correction (SPAC). Healing Lodges are part of CSC‟s Aboriginal
Continuum of Care implemented in 2003 to integrate Aboriginal culture and spirituality within
correctional operations and address the specific needs of Aboriginal offenders. The development
of Aboriginal Healing Lodges emanated from Section 81 of the Corrections and Conditional
Release Act (CCRA) that provided the legal framework for the transfer of administration of
correctional services to Aboriginal communities. In the process of implementing the Section 81
provision of the CCRA, two models of collaborative relationships with Aboriginal communities
emerged. First, several Aboriginal communities have signed an agreement for the provision of
community-based custody and care with the full transfer of administration of correctional
services, thereby establishing four Section 81 Healing Lodges. The other model involved
engaging Aboriginal communities in the operation and provision of culturally-appropriate
interventions within four federal institutions, managed as CSC-operated Healing Lodge facilities.
CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges provide living environments that use Aboriginal
traditional healing approaches as a method of intervention. Both are rooted in the spiritual and
cultural activities led by Elders, and supported by dynamic contact with the community through
CSC‟s temporary absence program and pro-social interactions with staff members and
management, many of whom are Aboriginal. Reciprocal and mutually-beneficial relationships
exist between most Healing Lodges and the surrounding communities.
The evaluation found that CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges differed considerably in
terms of their operations and, as a result, faced distinct sets of challenges. For CSC-operated
Healing Lodges, the main issues concerned the incompatibility of some internal policies and
procedures with the vision and operational needs of the Healing Lodge, as well as varying levels
of cultural competency among Healing Lodge staff member groups. For Section 81 Healing
Lodges, additional human resources and improvements in community engagement were
identified as areas of attention. Both types of Healing Lodges experienced management and staff
turnover, which affected the continuity of operations and community relationship building.
Further, the evaluation revealed that there were specific challenges that prevented Healing
Lodges from operating at maximum capacity. These challenges included a small number of
Aboriginal offenders having a minimum security classification, and also limited availability of
Healing Lodges across CSC‟s regions, their geographical isolation and a lack of programming
and services to address specific offender needs. A greater demand for Healing Lodge services
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may be brought about by the projected growth in the Aboriginal incarcerated population
resulting from the amendments to the Criminal Code, as well as increases in CSC‟s Pathways
Units capacity with more offenders potentially choosing to follow the entire Aboriginal
Continuum of Care.
Overall, the evaluation found that Healing Lodges had a strong spiritual and cultural focus. Other
areas, such as educational services, vocational training and physical activities, required
strengthening to further the holistic development of offenders and to increase their potential for
reintegration. According to interviewees, Aboriginal Healing Lodges had positive transformative
effects on offenders. Specifically, Healing Lodge residents, staff members and management
interviewed during the evaluation noted improvements in offenders‟ attitudes and behaviours, as
well as their greater understanding of, and connection to, Aboriginal culture. For example,
offenders showed improvements in the areas of self-confidence, personal responsibility,
motivation and self-discipline. They demonstrated deeper understanding of their lives and
criminal behaviours, greater respect and positive attitudes towards others, and recognized the
importance of seeking help and establishing support networks. These improvements were
supported by lower rates of reported institutional incidents and charges for men and women
offenders in CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges compared to men‟s minimum and
women‟s multi-level security institutions.
These positive changes were also reflected in offender criminogenic need assessment scores,
with Aboriginal men offenders released from Healing Lodges demonstrating greater
improvements in criminogenic need areas than Aboriginal men offenders in the comparison
group. According to Healing Lodge staff members and residents interviewed offender
participation in cultural and spiritual activities, and also in programs offered by Healing Lodges
and the support of surrounding communities, contributed to these gains. The delivery of
correctional programs and other types of intervention, however, differed substantially between
Healing Lodges. The rates of assignment, participation and successful completion of CSC
national correctional programs by Aboriginal offenders in CSC-operated Healing Lodges were
notably higher than those in minimum security institutions for men and multi-level security
institutions for women, suggesting that program delivery in CSC-operated Healing Lodges was
more accessible to Aboriginal offenders and might have better reflected their identified needs.
Furthermore, several Healing Lodges reported developing local programming to address the
needs of offenders and the community.
Improvements observed in offenders‟ knowledge, attitudes and behaviours while at the Healing
Lodge did not, however, materialize in improved community correctional outcomes, since
conditional releases for Aboriginal offenders from Healing Lodges were as likely to be
maintained in the community as conditional releases for Aboriginal offenders from minimum
security institutions for men and multi-level security institutions for women. Qualitatively,
Healing Lodge interviewees identified difficulties establishing and maintaining support networks
in the community, which contributed to returns to federal custody. Also, Aboriginal men and
women offenders released from CSC-operated Healing Lodges were more likely to be granted
discretionary release, compared to Aboriginal offenders in men‟s minimum and women‟s multilevel security institutions. Conversely, Aboriginal men from Section 81 Healing Lodges were
more likely to be released on statutory release than Aboriginal men from minimum security
vii
institutions. Aboriginal offenders from Section 81 Healing Lodges had generally lower rates of
participation in CSC‟s escorted temporary absence program, with higher rates of unescorted
temporary absences, than Aboriginal offenders in CSC-operated Healing Lodges and minimum
security institutions. The latter suggests that resources for offender participation in communitybased reintegration activities in Section 81 Healing Lodges may need strengthening.
The evaluation found that CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges also differed
substantially in operational costs. In 2009/2010, direct expenditures related to CSC-operated
Healing Lodges were $21,555,037, while payments to Section 81 Healing Lodges totalled
$4,819,479. Collectively, these expenditures represented 1.16% of CSC‟s total expenditures
($2,265M) in 2009/2010. When adjusted to exclude internal services, Healing Lodge
expenditures accounted for 1.39% of CSC‟s direct program spending ($1,896M). Section 81
Healing Lodges were found to be a cost-effective option for offenders seeking culturally-focused
reintegration. Opportunities for increasing efficiencies and lowering the cost of maintaining an
offender within Healing Lodges should be considered in light of small economy of scale and the
number of offenders requesting and eligible for transfer to a Healing Lodge.
Finally, taking into consideration that Healing Lodges are a component of the Aboriginal
Continuum of Care and, therefore, are affected by broader issues concerning federal Aboriginal
corrections, the evaluation team did not provide recommendations in this evaluation report. All
recommendations, including those pertaining to Healing Lodges and areas of CSC operations
affecting their implementation and effectiveness, will be formulated in the full evaluation of the
Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections.
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KEY FINDINGS
Evaluation Objective 1: Relevance
FINDING 1: Aboriginal men and women offenders are over-represented in the
correctional system and have unique profiles of need and risk. Aboriginal
over-representation is projected to increase in light of the socio-demographic
characteristics of Aboriginal peoples and legislative amendments to the
Criminal Code.
FINDING 2: Healing Lodges are an integral part of CSC’s Aboriginal Corrections
Continuum of Care implemented to address the specific needs of Aboriginal
offenders that have led to their over-representation in the correctional system.
FINDING 3: The Healing Lodge approach is consistent with correctional and governmentwide priorities and commitments.
FINDING 4: Healing Lodges operating under section 81 of the CCRA respond to CSC’s
legislative mandate to engage Aboriginal communities in providing custody
and care to Aboriginal offenders. CSC-operated Healing Lodges emerged
during the process of implementing section 81 of the CCRA, but are
supported under a different legislative provision.
FINDING 5: Aboriginal-specific interventions and services provided within Healing
Lodges address the criminogenic needs and spiritual well-being of Aboriginal
offenders, thereby contributing to public safety.
Evaluation Objective 2: Performance
Theme One: Healing Lodge Operations
FINDING 6: There are specific challenges that prevent Healing Lodges from operating at
maximum capacity. These challenges include a small number of Aboriginal
offenders classified at the minimum security level, limited availability of
Healing Lodges across CSC regions, their geographical isolation, and limited
programming to address specific offender needs.
FINDING 7: The transfer of men offenders classified at the medium security level to
Healing Lodges was not consistent with the selection criteria outlined in
Healing Lodge agreements.
FINDING 8: In general, offenders admitted to Healing Lodges were committed to following
a healing path. Accepting offenders who did not identify with Aboriginal
traditions was viewed by the interviewees as a divergence from the original
vision of the Healing Lodge.
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FINDING 9: CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges differ considerably in terms of
their operations and, as a result, face different challenges. For CSC-operated
Healing Lodges, the main issues concern varying levels of cultural
competency among staff and the incompatibility of CSC policies with the
Healing Lodge vision and operational needs. For Section 81 Healing Lodges,
additional human resources and improvements in community engagement
were identified as areas for development.
FINDING 10: Turnover in management and front-line staff positions was reported to affect
the continuity of operations in both CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing
Lodges.
Theme Two: Aboriginal Continuum of Care
FINDING 11: Healing Lodges provide offenders with an environment focused on
spirituality and healing, which is supported by Aboriginal-specific services
and activities, and positive interactions between staff members and offenders
and between offenders.
FINDING 12: Elders play a major role in delivering interventions and services to offenders
in Healing Lodges. Providing Elder services to offenders on evenings and
weekends and including Elders in case management teams were identified as
an area of opportunity.
FINDING 13: Aboriginal Healing Lodges have a strong cultural and spiritual focus;
however, educational services, vocational training and physical activities need
strengthening to further holistic development of the offender and increase
their potential for reintegration.
FINDING 14: The delivery of correctional and other programming differed between
Healing Lodges. Some Healing Lodges reported developing local programs to
reflect the needs of offenders and the community. In CSC-operated Healing
Lodges, the rate of assignment, participation and completion of CSC national
correctional programs was higher than in the comparison institutions.
FINDING 15: Offenders and staff members observed positive changes in residents of
Healing Lodges, reporting improvements in offenders’ knowledge of
Aboriginal culture, as well as increases in offenders’ self-awareness, selfcontrol, motivation, personal responsibility, and pro-social attitudes. The rate
of institutional incidents and charges was lower for Aboriginal offenders in
Healing Lodges, compared to Aboriginal offenders in men’s minimum and
women’s multi-level security institutions.
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Theme Three: Collaboration with Aboriginal Communities
FINDING 16: Community awareness of Aboriginal Healing Lodges is generally high.
Collaborative relationships exist between Healing Lodges and the community,
although the amount and nature of collaboration vary. Healing Lodge staff
and management interviewees identified a need to strengthen collaboration
with Aboriginal communities, including developing partnerships that extend
beyond the scope of Healing Lodge agreements.
FINDING 17: Reciprocal relationships between Healing Lodges and the community help
offenders gain valuable skills to prepare for community living and provide the
community with economic and social benefits. The logistics of these
relationships, however, can be challenging, specifically regarding availability
and training of community volunteers and opportunities for temporary
absences for offenders.
Theme Four: Correctional Results
FINDING 18: Aboriginal offenders released from CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing
Lodges demonstrated greater improvements in criminogenic need indicators
than Aboriginal offenders released from comparison institutions. These
results were strongest for Aboriginal men released from CSC-operated
Healing Lodges.
FINDING 19: Aboriginal men and women offenders from CSC-operated Healing Lodges
were more likely to be granted discretionary release than Aboriginal
offenders released from minimum security institutions for men and multilevel security institutions for women. Conversely, offenders from Section 81
Healing Lodges were more likely to be released on statutory release.
FINDING 20: Conditional releases from CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges
were as likely to be maintained in the community as conditional releases from
minimum security institutions for men and multi-level security institutions for
women.
Theme Five: Economy
FINDING 21: Section 81 Healing Lodges are a cost-effective option for offenders seeking
culturally-focused reintegration.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................................... III
EVALUATION TEAM .............................................................................................................. IV
SIGNATURES...............................................................................................................................V
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................ VI
KEY FINDINGS ......................................................................................................................... IX
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................... XIII
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................. XIII
LIST OF ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................... XIV
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................... 1
1.
PROGRAM PROFILE ..................................................................................................... 1
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
Background ............................................................................................................................................... 1
Aboriginal Healing Lodges ...................................................................................................................... 3
Governance Structure .............................................................................................................................. 6
Financial Expenditures ............................................................................................................................ 7
Planned Results ......................................................................................................................................... 8
Evaluation Context and Purpose of the Evaluation............................................................................... 9
EVALUATION METHOD ............................................................................................ 11
Scope of the Evaluation .......................................................................................................................... 11
Evaluation Methodology ........................................................................................................................ 12
Sample Composition and Participant Profiles ..................................................................................... 12
Measures: Procedures and Analyses ..................................................................................................... 18
Limitations .............................................................................................................................................. 22
3.
KEY FINDINGS ............................................................................................................. 25
3.1. Evaluation Objective One: Relevance ........................................................................... 25
3.2. Evaluation Objective Two: Performance ..................................................................... 38
4.
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................ 80
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................. 88
Appendix A:
SPAC Evaluation Matrix ............................................................................... 88
Appendix B: Detailed Sample Composition and Participant Profile ..................................... 95
Appendix C: Proportion of Aboriginal federal offenders in comparison to the regional
distribution of Aboriginal peoples. .......................................................................................... 102
Appendix D: CCRA Sections 79-84. ........................................................................................ 103
Appendix E: Tables for Correctional Outcomes Analyses. .................................................. 105
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Aboriginal Healing Lodges............................................................................................... 5
Table 2. Expenditures Associated with CSC‟s Aboriginal Healing Lodges. ................................. 8
Table 3. Number of Aboriginal Offenders Meeting Healing Lodge Security Classification
Requirements, FY 2009/2010. ...................................................................................................... 40
Table 4. Healing Lodges Occupancy Levels, by Number of Beds Filled Daily. .......................... 41
Table 5. Proportions of non-Aboriginal Offenders in Healing Lodges. ....................................... 45
Table 6. Improvement in Crimininogenic Needs Areas among Aboriginal Men with Needs
Assessed as “Some” or “Considerable” at Pre-test. ...................................................................... 70
Table 7. Improvement in Crimininogenic Needs Areas among Aboriginal Women with Needs
Assessed as “Some” or “Considerable” at Pre-test. ...................................................................... 70
Table 8. First Conditional Releases of Aboriginal Men. .............................................................. 71
Table 9. First Conditional Release of Aboriginal Women. .......................................................... 73
Table 10. Cox Regression Analysis Results for Aboriginal Men. ................................................ 74
Table 11. Cox Regression Analysis Results for Aboriginal Women............................................ 75
Table 12: Synopsis of Cost of Maintaining an Offender, 2009/2010. .......................................... 77
Table 13: Section 81 Healing Lodge Cost per Offender with Adjustment, 2009/2010. ............... 78
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Federal Offender Population: Proportion of Aboriginal Offenders. ............................. 26
Figure 2. Aboriginal Continuum of Care Model. ......................................................................... 31
xiii
LIST OF ACRONYMS
AID
Aboriginal Initiatives Directorate
CCRA
Corrections and Conditional Release Act
CD
Commissioner‟s Directive
CJIL
Criminal Justice Information Library
COMO
Cost of Maintaining an Offender
CPPR
Correctional Plan Progress Report
CRS
Corporate Reporting System
CSC
Correctional Service of Canada
DFAI
Dynamic Factors Identification and Analysis
ETA
Escorted Temporary Absences
FY
Fiscal Year
IFMMS
Integrated Financial and Material Management System
NMC
National Management Committee
OCI
Office of the Correctional Investigator
OMS
Offender Management System
RDC
Regional Deputy Commissioner
SDC
Senior Deputy Commissioner
SPAC
Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections
SPSS
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
TBS
Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat
UTA
Unescorted Temporary Absence
WED
Warrant Expiry Date
xiv
INTRODUCTION
In accordance with its Five-Year Evaluation Plan, the Correctional Service of Canada
(CSC) is conducting an evaluation of the Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections (SPAC). The
objective of the evaluation is to assess the achievement of outcomes and impacts of the Strategic
Plan in order to guide future strategic policy and resource decisions in the area of Aboriginal
corrections. The evaluation will examine the extent to which CSC has been successful in
achieving the three interrelated objectives of SPAC, namely: (1) the implementation of the
Aboriginal Continuum of Care (i.e., culturally-appropriate interventions and services aimed at
addressing the specific criminogenic needs of First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders);
(2) enhanced internal and external collaboration; and (3) identification and removal of systemic
barriers to ensure that Aboriginal offenders are successfully reintegrated into the community at
the earliest possible time in their sentence conducive to public safety. The evaluation will further
assess CSC‟s progress in improving correctional outcomes for Aboriginal offenders and will
make recommendations on ways to enhance the effectiveness and integration of interventions
and services included in SPAC.
As part of the SPAC evaluation, CSC‟s Evaluation Branch will produce two deliverables.
The present evaluation report is the first deliverable. This report examines the relevance and
performance of CSC‟s Healing Lodges, which account for a significant portion of expenditures
associated with SPAC and play an important role in improving correctional results for
Aboriginal offenders. The Healing Lodges evaluation report addresses all core evaluation issues
outlined in the government Policy on Evaluation (Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat [TBS],
2009a).
1.
PROGRAM PROFILE
1.1.
Background
Aboriginal peoples are over-represented in the Canadian correctional system. Factors
contributing to the Aboriginal over-population in corrections and the specific needs and profiles
of Aboriginal offenders have been well-documented in the literature. Aboriginal communities
have raised concerns regarding the efficacy of mainstream correctional services and
1
interventions that do not address the specific needs of Aboriginal offenders. These considerations
were highlighted in various government and independent review reports, such as the Task Force
on Aboriginal Peoples in Federal Corrections (Solicitor General Canada, 1988), the Report of
the Standing Committee on Justice and Solicitor General on Its Review of Sentencing,
Conditional Release, and Related Aspects of Corrections (Daubney, 1988), Creating Choices:
The Report of the Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women (CSC, 1990) and the Report of the
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996). In
response to, and consistent with, sections 79 to 84 of the Corrections and Conditional Release
Act (CCRA; 1992) that present a legislative framework for CSC‟s Aboriginal corrections, CSC
has moved towards incorporating Aboriginal spirituality in correctional operations and providing
Aboriginal-specific interventions to federal offenders. Accordingly, one of CSC‟s key longstanding strategic priorities is to enhance its capacities to provide effective interventions for First
Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders.
In 2006, CSC developed a five-year Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections to improve
correctional results for Aboriginal offenders. The Strategic Plan was implemented between fiscal
years 2006/2007 and 2010/2011. The vision for SPAC was to ensure a federal correctional
system that was responsive to the needs of Aboriginal offenders and that contributed to safe and
healthy communities. This vision is based on the Aboriginal Corrections Continuum of Care
model that reflects the continuum of correctional interventions and services developed to
facilitate Aboriginal offenders‟ healing process and reintegration. In the process of implementing
the Aboriginal Continuum of Care, CSC has made progress in enhancing offender assessment
through healing plans and Elder assessments, in the delivery of Aboriginal-specific correctional
programming, and in expanding living environments that use Aboriginal traditional healing
approaches as a method of intervention for Aboriginal offenders, such as Pathways Units1 or
Healing Lodges.
A Healing Lodge concept was initially proposed by the Native Women‟s Association of
Canada (Press Release, 1990, as cited in Morin, 1993) in response to the Task Force on Federally
1
Pathways Units are located in select medium and multi-level security institutions and serve to provide offenders
with a structured living environment that fosters Aboriginal spirituality and culture. Pathways Units offer
opportunities for offenders to engage in Aboriginal-specific programs, ceremonies and activities in preparation for
transition into a lower security institution or a Healing Lodge. Pathways Transition Units or Transition Houses are
located in minimum security institutions and focus on providing interventions to offenders who have moved from a
Pathways Unit.
2
Sentenced Women‟s recommendation to develop an alternative correctional model that would
respond to the needs of incarcerated Aboriginal women offenders. Following a series of
consultations, CSC implemented this new approach in federal corrections for Aboriginal
offenders in the mid-1990s. A description of the Healing Lodge concept and CSC‟s existing
Healing Lodges is presented below.
1.2.
Aboriginal Healing Lodges
Aboriginal Healing Lodges provide a structured living environment that incorporates
Aboriginal spirituality and traditions in its operations and interventions. In Healing Lodges, the
needs of offenders are addressed through Aboriginal teachings, traditions, and ceremonies, and
contact with Elders and the community. A holistic philosophy governs the Healing Lodge
concept, whereby offender programming is delivered within a context of community interaction,
with a focus on healing, spiritual leadership and preparing for release. Healing Lodges are
developed and operated in close collaboration with Aboriginal communities. The offenders
residing in Healing Lodges are primarily Aboriginal, but non-Aboriginal offenders following a
healing path are also accepted.
CSC presently has two types of Aboriginal Healing Lodges (CSC, 2008a): (1) federal
facilities operated by CSC as Healing Lodges (referred to as “CSC-operated Healing Lodges” in
this report); and (2) facilities operated by Aboriginal communities through an agreement with
CSC, under Section 812 of the CCRA, for the provision of custody and care to offenders with the
full transfer of administration of correctional services (referred to as “Section 81 Healing
Lodges” herein).
At the time of this evaluation, there were four CSC-operated Healing Lodges and four
Section 81 Healing Lodges providing correctional services in the Prairie, Pacific and Quebec
Regions, with a combined capacity of 305 accommodation spaces. CSC-operated Healing
Lodges can provide accommodation for up to 194 federal incarcerated offenders, which includes
44 beds for Aboriginal women offenders. Section 81 Healing Lodges can accommodate to up to
111 men federal offenders under Section 81 agreements, and may also provide services to federal
offenders on conditional release and to provincial offenders. At the time of the evaluation, all
2
The section 81 provision of the CCRA stipulates that the Minister of Public Safety may enter into an agreement
with an Aboriginal community for the provision of correctional services to Aboriginal offenders (CCRA, 1992).
3
Section 81 facilities were for men offenders only. A summary of Healing Lodges operating at the
time of this evaluation3 is presented in Table 1.
3
At the time of the evaluation, the Section 81 Prince Albert Grand Council Spiritual Healing Lodge had temporarily
stopped providing services to offenders due to the restructuring of the Spiritual Lodge (A/Regional Administrator of
Aboriginal Interventions, Prairie Region, Memorandum, February 15, 2011). The Healing Lodge was, nonetheless,
included in the evaluation and analyses.
4
Table 1: Aboriginal Healing Lodges
CSC-operated
Okimaw Ohci Healing
Lodge
Pê Sâkâstêw Centre
Opening
Date
Region,
Province
Aboriginal Nations
in agreement
Rural, Urban
or Remote
Bed Capacity
(federal)
Previous use
of facility
1995
Prairie,
Saskatchewan
Prairie, Alberta
Nekaneet First Nation
Remote
44
N/A
Samson First Nation
Ermineskin First Nation
Montana First Nation
Louis Bull First Nation
Chehalis Indian Band
Rural
60
N/A
Remote
50
1997
Kwìkwèxwelhp Healing
Village
2001
Pacific, British
Columbia
Willow Cree Healing Lodge
2003
Prairie,
Saskatchewan
Beardy’s First Nation
Okemasis First Nation
Rural
40
Minimum
Security
Institution
N/A
1995
Prairie,
Saskatchewan
Rural
5
N/A
1999
Prairie, Alberta
Urban
73
Community
Correctional
Centre
1999
Prairie,
Manitoba
Quebec,
Quebec
12 First Nations
members of the Prince
Albert Grand Council
Alexander First Nation
Enoch Cree Nation
Samson Cree Nation
Wesley Nakota First
Nation
Saddle Lake First Nation
O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi
First Nation
N/A
Rural
18
N/A
Rural
15
Community
Residential
Facility
Section 81
Prince Albert Grand
Council Spiritual Healing
Lodge
Stan Daniels Healing
Centre
O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi
Healing Lodge
Waseskun Healing Center
2001
Source: Information provided by Executive Directors of CSC‟s Healing Lodges (2011).
5
1.3.
Governance Structure
The advancement of Aboriginal corrections and accountability for Aboriginal results
within CSC falls under the responsibility of the Senior Deputy Commissioner (SDC). The SDC
is responsible for providing leadership in integrating Aboriginal initiatives within the
government-wide framework for the management of Aboriginal Affairs. The Director General of
the Aboriginal Initiatives Directorate (AID) provides subject matter expertise, in consultation
with the National Elders Working Group, on spiritual and cultural activities within CSC,
including the development of strategies for interventions and services, as well as providing
strategic advice on the development of intergovernmental initiatives. The Regional Deputy
Commissioners (RDCs) are responsible for ensuring that interventions and services included in
SPAC are implemented in their respective regions. The Assistant Deputy Commissioners of
Institutional Operations, who report to the RDCs, provide direct supervision to the institutional
heads of federal penitentiaries, including CSC‟s Healing Lodges.
At the institutional level, Executive Directors of Healing Lodges are responsible for their
operation, management, and security. The Executive Director is the institutional head of the
Healing Lodge facility, within the meaning of the CCRA, and reports to and is accountable to the
Assistant Deputy Commissioner of Institutional Operations. The Executive Directors have key
leadership responsibilities in the continuity of care and the safe transition of Aboriginal offenders
into the community, by ensuring that appropriate intervention strategies are in place within their
facility. The Boards of Directors specific to each Healing Lodge include non-governmental
Aboriginal members and CSC staff members, and have the responsibility to provide guidance,
support and assistance to the Executive Director on the operation of the Healing Lodges as a
correctional facility.
In the specific case of Section 81 agreements, the RDC is responsible for assessing
proposals submitted by Aboriginal communities for the development of Section 81 Healing
Lodges and providing a recommendation to a National Management Committee (NMC). The
NMC is chaired by the SDC and includes the RDC (or his/her designate), the Assistant
Commissioner, Correctional Operations and Programs, the Director General, Aboriginal
Initiatives, representatives from Legal Services and others as deemed necessary. The NMC is
responsible for reviewing, negotiating, and approving proposals under section 81. Final approval
6
is granted when the Minister of Public Safety signs the agreement. The RDC is responsible for
ensuring the management of the Section 81 agreement, including monitoring and reporting on
operations and expenditures as stipulated in each respective agreement. The operations, staffing,
and management of Section 81 Healing Lodges are the responsibility of the Board of Directors,
which comprises elected members of the community that enters in a Section 81 agreement. The
Board of Directors appoints a Director of Operations (also known as the Healing Lodge
Executive Director or Chief Executive Officer) to manage the daily operations of the Healing
Lodge. The Director of Operations has authorities similar to that of an institutional head within
the meaning of the CCRA.
1.4.
Financial Expenditures
Expenditures related to CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges were extracted
from CSC‟s financial database. In fiscal year 2009/2010, direct spending on CSC-operated
Healing Lodges totalled $21,555,037. Funding in the amount of $4,819,479 was provided in
fiscal year 2009/2010 to Section 81 Healing Lodges according to the provisions of respective
contractual agreements. Please refer to for a summary of expenditures associated with CSCoperated and Section 81 Healing Lodges for the period from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010.
7
Table 2. Expenditures Associated with CSC’s Aboriginal Healing Lodges.
a
Expenditures
CSC-operated
Okimaw Ohci
Willow Cree
Pê Sâkâstêw
Kwìkwèxwelhp
Total CSC-operated
Section 81
Waseskun
Prince Albert
Stan Daniels
O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi
b
Total Section 81
Total Healing Lodges
FY 2007/2008
FY 2008/2009
FY 2009/2010
$5,858,647
$4,190,847
$4,642,280
$5,059,948
$19,751,723
$5,995,528
$4,270,780
$5,496,833
$5,364,407
$21,127,548
$6,365,378
$4,491,524
$5,378,716
$5,319,419
$21,555,037
$999,801
$191,327
$2,514,805
$1,092,330
$4,842,082
$24,593,805
$1,142,860
$202,479
$2,477,660
$1,082,183
$4,926,284
$26,053,832
$1,096,359
$211,770
$2,315,524
$1,118,700
$4,819,479
$26,374,516
Notes: a All amounts include both salaries and Operating and Maintenance (O&M) expenditures. b The sub-total of
reported expenditures for Section 81 Healing Lodges is greater than the sum of individual allocations to four
Healing Lodges due to additional expenditures associated with the operations of the Regional Headquarters.
Source: Integrated Financial and Material Management System (IFMMS; 2010).
Overall, 2009/2010 expenditures on Aboriginal Healing Lodges represented 1.16% of
CSC‟s total expenditures ($2,265M) in fiscal year 2009/2010. When adjusted to exclude internal
services, Healing Lodge expenditures accounted for 1.39% of CSC‟s direct program spending
($1,896M) in 2009/2010.
1.5.
Planned Results
There were a number of results expected for Aboriginal Healing Lodges. Immediate
outcomes included the following:
Increased availability of, and increased Aboriginal offender participation in, culturallyappropriate interventions and services;
Development and completion of Aboriginal healing plans;
Increased understanding of, and connection to, Aboriginal culture and spirituality;
Improved attitudes and behaviours;
Active community participation in Healing Lodge operations and offender reintegration
processes; and,
Greater awareness and acceptance of Healing Lodges within Aboriginal communities.
8
Intermediate outcomes included:
Decrease in Aboriginal offenders‟ criminogenic need indicators;
Increase in positive parole decisions for Aboriginal offenders; and,
Enhanced support structures for Aboriginal offenders in the community.
Ultimately, Healing Lodges are expected to contribute to the safe and successful
transition of Aboriginal offenders into the community, as well as the increased capacity of
Aboriginal communities to be engaged in providing and administering correctional services to
offenders.
These expected results were incorporated into the evaluation matrix developed for the
Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections (Appendix A).
1.6.
Evaluation Context and Purpose of the Evaluation
The evaluation of CSC‟s Aboriginal Healing Lodge was summative in nature and was
conducted by the Evaluation Branch in accordance with TBS Evaluation Policy and Standards
(TBS, 2009a; 2009b). Several evaluation and research studies have previously been completed to
examine the effectiveness of individual Healing Lodges (Bell, 2008; Delveaux et al., 2007;
Nafekh, Allegri & Li, 2006; Trevethan, Crutcher, Moore & Mileto, 2007; Trevethan, Crutcher &
Rastin, 2002; Willow Cree Healing Lodge Joint Review Board, 2010). In 2008, CSC undertook
an internal audit of the management of Section 81 agreements (CSC, 2008b). No comprehensive
evaluation of two operational models of Healing Lodges, namely CSC-operated and Section 81,
has been conducted to date.
The purpose of the present evaluation was, therefore, to examine the relevance and
performance of Aboriginal Healing Lodges. Specifically, the present evaluation addressed the
following core evaluation issues: (1) continued relevance of, and need for, Aboriginal Healing
Lodges, including their alignment with departmental and government priorities and federal roles
and responsibilities; (2) assessment of progress towards expected outcomes identified for
Healing Lodges; and (3) demonstration of efficiency and economy of Healing Lodges. As
previously noted, this evaluation report was the first deliverable within the larger evaluation of
SPAC. Consistent with the Terms of Reference developed for the overall SPAC evaluation, the
evaluation of Healing Lodges used a theme-based approach to examining the activities and
9
results of Healing Lodges and, subsequently, to presenting evaluation results. The SPAC themes
were framed as results statements and were modified to reflect the specific objectives of Healing
Lodges. These themes, together with corresponding results statements, are presented in the
following section.
10
2.
EVALUATION METHOD
2.1
Scope of the Evaluation
The current evaluation focused on the relevance and performance of Aboriginal Healing
Lodges. The evaluation used a mixed-method approach, incorporating both qualitative and
quantitative methods and data analysis techniques to strengthen data triangulation and
corroborate findings. A comprehensive evaluation matrix that includes evaluation questions,
expected outcomes, performance indicators, and sources of data was developed for the larger
SPAC evaluation and is provided in Appendix A.
At the outset of the current evaluation, the following expected results were identified
under each evaluation objective:
Evaluation Objective #1: Relevance
Healing Lodges continue to address a demonstrable need within federal corrections and
are responsive to the needs of Aboriginal offenders;
The objectives of Healing Lodges are consistent with federal government priorities and
departmental strategic outcomes; and,
CSC and the government have a legitimate role in the delivery of Healing Lodges.
Evaluation Objective #2: Performance
Theme One: Healing Lodge Operations
o Healing Lodges facilitate culturally-relevant operations within CSC and provide
efficient and effectives services that are responsive to Aboriginal cultures and
aimed at rehabilitation of Aboriginal offenders.
Theme Two: Aboriginal Continuum of Care
o Healing Lodges provide culturally-appropriate interventions and services to
respond to the diverse needs of Aboriginal men and women offenders and
Aboriginal communities.
Theme Three: Collaboration with Aboriginal Communities
11
o CSC enhances horizontal collaboration and coordination with Aboriginal
communities, to contribute to Aboriginal community development and to help
Aboriginal offenders initiate and sustain their healing journeys.
Theme Four: Correctional Results
o Healing Lodges contribute to improving correctional results for Aboriginal
offenders.
Theme Five: Economy
o Healing Lodges are cost-effective and cost-efficient, and demonstrate value for
money.
2.2
Evaluation Methodology
The evaluation utilized a mixed-method research design. Several lines of evidence were
used to address evaluation issues and questions. Specifically, the following evaluation methods
were used:
Literature and documentation review;
Analyses of automated offender data;
Structured interviews with Healing Lodge residents, management, staff members and
community representatives; and,
Electronic questionnaires completed by CSC management and staff members.
Questionnaires and interview protocols developed for the evaluation were
complementary in nature, with the purpose of triangulating information elicited from different
respondent groups. The general profiles of survey respondents and interviewees are presented
below, while more detailed profile information is provided in Appendix B.
2.3
Sample Composition and Participant Profiles
2.3.1 Study Groups for Quantitative Analyses
The sample for quantitative analyses of community correctional outcomes included
Aboriginal offender conditional releases over a ten-year period from 1 April 2000 to 31 March
2010. The comparison groups were defined by the type of institution the offender was released
from. Three comparison groups were constructed or Aboriginal men namely conditional releases
12
from minimum security institutions, CSC-operated Healing Lodges and Section 81 Healing
Lodges. Two comparison groups were constructed for Aboriginal women (i.e., conditional
releases from women‟s multi-level institutions and the CSC-operated Healing Lodge for
women). The following cases were excluded from the analysis: an offender release where the
offender had a prior period of incarceration in a healing lodge of a different type (for example,
where an offender was released from a CSC-operated Healing Lodge, but had a prior period of
incarceration at a Section 81 Healing Lodge). Similarly, where an offender was released from a
minimum security institution, but had been incarcerated in a healing lodge in the past, that
release was excluded.
Note that a single offender may have contributed more than one release in the sample period.
The final sample included 3,921 conditional releases that represented 2,637 Aboriginal
offenders. In most cases, analyses were performed on the full sample, on information related to
offender conditional releases. The unit of analysis was therefore an offender‟s conditional
release, and not an individual offender. Please note that, for ease of presentation, some results are
discussed in terms of “Aboriginal offenders” rather than “Aboriginal offender conditional
releases” below.
Aboriginal men releases
The majority (82%; n = 1,909) of Aboriginal men offenders included in the evaluation
accounted for one conditional release on the same sentence, with the rest accounting for two
observations (15%; n = 350) and three to five observations (3%; n = 61). Two-thirds of
Aboriginal men offenders on conditional release (62%; n = 1,739) had been released from
minimum security institutions, 31% (n = 853) were from CSC-operated Healing Lodges and 7%
(n = 204) had been released from Section 81 Healing Lodges. In general, Aboriginal men
offenders on conditional release from the three comparison groups were comparable in terms of
offender profiles of sentence type (determinate or indeterminate), sentence length, previous
involvement in federal corrections and time spent in their respective comparison institutions.
Aboriginal offenders on conditional release were also comparable on levels of overall risk and
reintegration potential assessed prior to the transfer to the institution. They differed, however, on
13
the types of offence (Schedule I, Schedule II or sexual offence)4 and levels of overall need and
motivation assessed prior to transfer to a releasing institution. Of note, a smaller proportion of
Aboriginal offenders released from minimum security institutions had high need and high
motivation, compared to those released from all Healing Lodges. A detailed comparison of
Aboriginal offenders on conditional release from CSC-operated Healing Lodges, Section 81
Healing Lodges and minimum security institutions is presented in Appendix B.
Aboriginal women releases
One-half (52%; n = 338) of Aboriginal women offenders accounted for a single
conditional release on the same sentence, 29% (n = 189) contributed to two observations, 16 %
(n = 107) contributed to three observations and a small proportion (3%; n = 21) accounted for
four to six observations. The majority of Aboriginal women offenders on conditional release
(79%; n = 892) were from women‟s multi-level security institutions and 21% (n = 233) were
from the CSC-operated Healing Lodge for women. Aboriginal women offenders on conditional
release from the two comparison groups did not differ on sentence-related characteristics, such as
sentence type (determinate or indeterminate), sentence length, offence type (Schedule I or
Schedule II) and time spent in the comparison institutions. There were, however, significant
differences in terms of levels of motivation and reintegration potential assessed at intake (please
refer to the Limitation section). Specifically, a smaller proportion of Aboriginal women
offenders released from the CSC-operated Healing Lodge were high need and high risk,
compared to women offenders on conditional release from women‟s multi-level security
institutions. Similarly, conditionally released Aboriginal women from the CSC-operated Healing
Lodge had greater proportions of high motivation and high reintegration potential and were also
less likely to be repeat federal offenders.
Offender population data
To complement qualitative data and quantitative analyses of community correctional
outcomes, the evaluation team retrieved a series of year-end snapshots of offender population
4
Offence schedules are defined in the CCRA (1992). Schedule I offences are those of a violent nature, including
crimes against a person. Schedule II offences include drug offences. Full text of the CCRA is available at
http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-44.6/FullText.html. Sexual offences are listed under Schedule I offences. For this
evaluation, they were identified through the flag system in the Criminal Justice Information Library (CJIL) that
indicates whether a specific offender was committed or not.
14
data from CSC‟s Offender Management System (OMS), a computerised case file management
database used by CSC, the National Parole Board, and other criminal justice partners, to manage
information on federal offenders throughout their sentences.
Rate-based data
To calculate the rates of Aboriginal offender participation in CSC‟s correctional
programs, temporary absence program, and involvement in institutional incidents during fiscal
years 2007/2008 to 2009/2010, counts of these events were extracted from OMS. The rates were
then calculated based on the common denominator to arrive at the comparable rate (i.e., number
of events per 100 Aboriginal offenders per year) across all comparison groups. Specifically, for
Aboriginal men offenders, the calculated rates were compared between CSC-operated Healing
Lodges, Section 81 Healing Lodges and minimum security institutions. For Aboriginal women
offenders, the calculated rates were compared between the CSC-operated Healing Lodge and
multi-level security institutions.
2.3.2 Healing Lodge Interviews
Healing Lodge staff and management profiles
In total, 36 staff and management representatives from CSC-operated (61%; n = 22) and
Section 81 Healing Lodges (39%; n = 14) were interviewed. Interviewees represented the
following Healing Lodges: Willow Cree Healing Lodge (n = 12), Kwìkwèxwelhp Healing
Village (n = 10), Waseskun Healing Centre (n = 9), and Prince Albert Grand Council Spiritual
Healing Lodge (n = 5). Correspondingly, nearly one-half (47%; n = 17) were from the Prairie
Region, and approximately one-quarter were from the Pacific (28%; n = 10) and Quebec (25%;
n = 9) Regions. Healing Lodge staff and management interviewed held various positions,
including Aboriginal Liaison Officer, Aboriginal Correctional Program Officer, Institutional
Parole Officer, Caseworker/Case Manager, Elder‟s Helper, Correctional Officer, Managers of
Programs and Assessment and Intervention, Correctional Manager, and Healing Lodge
Executive Directors.
15
Healing Lodge resident profiles
A total of 38 men offenders were interviewed. Two-thirds of interviewees (68%; n = 26)
were residing in CSC-operated Healing Lodges, more specifically in Kwìkwèxwelhp Healing
Village (37%; n = 14) and Willow Cree Healing Lodge (32%; n = 12). One-third of interviewees
(32%; n = 12) were residing in Section 81 Healing Lodges, Waseskun Healing Center (21%;
n = 8) and Prince Albert Grand Council Spiritual Healing Lodge (11%; n = 4). The majority
(92%; n = 35) of Healing Lodge residents interviewed self-identified themselves as Aboriginal,
predominantly of First Nations descent (89%; n= 31). Please refer to Appendix B for further
details.
Community representative profiles
The evaluation team interviewed nine (9) community representatives, the majority of
whom were involved in the operations of CSC-operated Healing Lodges and a smaller
percentage representing Section 81 Healing Lodges. Community representatives included
members of the Healing Lodge Board of Directors, Senate Advisory Committee, or Citizenship
Advisory Committee, or served the Healing Lodge in an advisory capacity. Given the small
number of interviewees, the distinct characteristics of this group, and in order to safeguard their
confidentiality, interview responses were integrated in the report without the count of the
responses or the distinction between Healing Lodges.
2.3.3 Electronic Questionnaire
CSC management profiles
CSC‟s institutional, community and regional management were invited to complete an
on-line questionnaire pertaining to Aboriginal corrections. In total, 76 management
representatives responded. The respondents included Wardens (20%; n = 15), Managers of
Assessment and Intervention (15%; n = 11), Program Managers (15%; n = 11) and smaller
numbers of Deputy Wardens, Assistant Wardens, District Directors, Area Directors, and Healing
Lodge Executive Directors. One-third (32%; n = 24) of survey respondents were from the Prairie
Region, 26% (n = 19) were from the Ontario Region, 18% (n = 13) were from the Pacific
Region, 8% (n = 6) were from the Quebec Region, 5% (n = 4) were from the Atlantic Region,
and 11% (n = 8) were from Regional or National Headquarters (refer to Appendix B).
16
CSC staff member profiles
A total of 106 CSC staff members completed an on-line questionnaire pertaining to
Aboriginal corrections. Respondents mostly held the positions of Institutional Parole Officer
(26%; n = 27), Community Parole Officer (20%; n = 21), and Aboriginal Liaison Officer (20%;
n = 21), with smaller numbers of Correctional Program Officers, Aboriginal Correctional
Program Officers, Aboriginal Community Development Officers and other positions. The vast
majority of respondents (91%; n = 95) indicated they directly worked with or supervised
Aboriginal offenders. Close to two-thirds (60%; n = 64) of respondents represented institutional
operations, one-third (36%; n = 38) represented community operations and a small number (4%;
n = 4) was from National and Regional Headquarters. Among respondents involved in
community and institutional operations, approximately one-third were from the regions of
Ontario (32%; n = 34) and Prairies (31%; n = 33); the remaining participants represented the
Pacific (18%; n = 19), Quebec (12%; n = 13) and Atlantic (7%; n = 8) Regions. One-half (52%;
n = 55) of staff respondents indicated that they self-identified as Aboriginal persons, more
specifically of First Nations descent (38%; n = 40).
2.3.4 Document Review
To inform the development of the analytical framework for the evaluation and to provide
context for the findings, the evaluation team conducted a review of pertinent documentation and
academic literature pertaining to Aboriginal corrections. The documents reviewed included:
Internal and external evaluation, research, statistical and audit reports on Aboriginal
Healing Lodges and broader issues concerning Aboriginal corrections and the needs of
Aboriginal offenders;
Healing Lodge fact sheets provided by Executive Directors of eight Healing Lodges;
CSC strategic documents and operational plans related to the issues of Aboriginal
corrections (e.g., Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections, Aboriginal Corrections
Accountability Strategy, National Action Plan on Aboriginal Corrections, Reports on
Plans and Priorities, Departmental Performance Reports and others);
Commissioner‟s Directives and related policy guidelines;
Documents eliciting government-wide priorities and plans; and,
17
Relevant peer-reviewed and grey5 literature.
2.4
Measures: Procedures and Analyses
2.4.1 Semi-Structured Interviews
Interviews were conducted during the months of November and December 2010. The
evaluation team visited four Healing Lodge sites, where face-to-face and telephone interviews
were conducted with Healing Lodge residents, staff members, management and community
representatives in the official language of the interviewee‟s choice. The evaluation team
developed four complementary versions of interview guides.6 All versions included questions
eliciting perspectives on the accomplishments and challenges of Healing Lodge operations,
community engagement, offender progress, and the involvement of Elders. The interviews
included primarily open-ended questions in order to provide respondents with greater flexibility
and opportunities for story-telling that respect Aboriginal oral traditions and communication
styles (Johnston, 2008; Kenny, Faries, Fisk & Voyageur, 2004). A series of closed-ended
questions was also introduced for comparative purposes between respondent groups.
To facilitate access to interviewees, the evaluation team contacted senior management at
each of the four Healing Lodge sites visited. One Healing Lodge representative from each site
assisted with interview arrangements. The list of Healing Lodge residents, staff members,
management and community representatives for interviews was finalized in consultation with the
Healing Lodge representative, based on their availability and willingness to participate in the
evaluation.
In total, 83 individuals were interviewed across four Healing Lodge sites. Data from
interview protocols were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and
Microsoft Word for analysis. Qualitative data were inductively and independently analyzed
across interview questions by two members of the evaluation team to identify relevant themes.
The final list of theme codes was constructed by consensus and is reported in the relevant
5
Grey literature is defined as information produced on all levels of government, academia, business and industry in
electronic and print format not controlled by commercial publishing. Examples of grey literature include technical
reports produced by government agencies, working papers from task groups, etc.
6
To facilitate data analyses, interview protocols developed for Healing Lodge staff members and management were
combined for qualitative data analysis. As a result, most of staff and management interview responses are presented
as combined, with an exception of few questions that were only applicable to staff members.
18
sections of this report.7 Qualitative responses were included in the evaluation report, when the
number of respondents who identified a particular theme was notably high or when,
notwithstanding lower numbers, the theme was raised consistently by all or most interviewee
groups, including Healing Lodge staff members and management, residents and also community
representatives. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis techniques.
Frequencies and percentages were calculated based on the number of valid responses to the
question.
2.4.2 Electronic Questionnaires
Electronic questionnaires for CSC management and staff members were created using
Snap Survey software. The questionnaires were administered through CSC‟s Intranet site
(InfoNet), where they could be completed on-line in the official language of the respondent‟s
choice during the months of November and December 2010. Alternatively, e-mail versions were
also created to accommodate those individuals without Internet access. In an effort to increase
the response rate, targeted reminder follow-up emails were sent at least 10 days prior to
submission deadline. Questionnaire versions for CSC management and staff members were
complementary in nature and included many matching questions. Unlike Healing Lodge
interview protocols that focused primarily on the operations and impacts of Healing Lodges, online questionnaires aimed to elicit a larger-scale perspective on federal Aboriginal corrections
within the context of the Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections and also included several
questions specific to Healing Lodges. Electronic questionnaires were comprised of a
combination of closed-ended and open-ended questions. Closed-ended questions consisted of 4
or 5-point Likert-type scales, as well as dichotomous and categorical items.8 The questionnaires
were piloted within the Evaluation Branch and were approved by the SPAC evaluation
consultative group and reviewed by the AID.
A targeted electronic mail invitation, including a link to the questionnaire, was distributed
in both official languages directly to prospective respondents‟ e-mail addresses. The target
groups for the management survey included Wardens, Deputy Wardens, Assistant Wardens
7
Please note that, for qualitative interview data, results are presented as a percentage of coded responses within a
particular theme. No inferences could be made with regards to generalizing qualitative statements to remaining
interviewees (e.g., that they may have expressed a differing perspective).
8
Please note that quantitative survey data in this report are presented as a percentage of the valid responses to the
question, as some questions were not applicable, or respondents were unable to answer them.
19
(Operations and Interventions), Managers of Operations, Managers of Assessment and
Interventions, Programs Managers, Executive Directors of Healing Lodges and Aboriginal
Community Residential Facilities, District Directors, Area Directors, and Regional
Administrators of Aboriginal Initiatives. For CSC staff members, e-mail invitations were sent to
Aboriginal Liaison Officers, Aboriginal Correctional Program Officers, Correctional Program
Officers, Pathways Unit Coordinators, Aboriginal Community Liaison Officers, Aboriginal
Community Development Officers, Institutional Parole Officers, and Community Parole
Officers. Prospective respondents were identified using CSC‟s internal distribution lists,
distribution lists provided by AID and the Human Resources Business Processes, Systems and
Reporting Directorate, as well as searched by the position title in CSC‟s internal e-mail address
book.
In total, 106 individuals completed the staff questionnaire and 76 individuals completed
the management questionnaire. Data were exported into SPSS. Qualitative and quantitative data
from both questionnaires were analyzed using comparable analyses techniques as for Healing
Lodge interviews described above.
2.4.3
Correctional Outcomes
In order to assess the impact of Healing Lodges on the successful reintegration of
Aboriginal offenders into the community, the evaluation examined three types of correctional
outcomes: change in criminogenic need indicators, rates of discretionary releases,9 and the
likelihood of failure while on conditional release. Comparison groups were established
to examine correctional outcomes. Specifically, for Aboriginal men, correctional outcomes were
compared between conditional releases from CSC-operated Healing Lodges, Section 81 Healing
Lodges and minimum security institutions. For Aboriginal women, the comparison group
included conditional releases from the CSC-operated Healing Lodge for women and women‟s
multi-level security institutions.
To assess change in offenders‟ criminogenic need areas, criminogenic need scores were
taken from the assessments completed prior to an offender‟s admission to the releasing
9
Discretionary release is the release of an offender under community supervision at the discretion of the Parole
Board of Canada that allows an offender to participate in community-based activities, while living in a communityresidential facility or halfway house (day parole) or in their own accommodation (full parole). Non-discretionary
release or statutory release is granted automatically to most offenders after serving two-thirds of their sentence in an
institution.
20
institution for Aboriginal men offenders and from intake assessment for Aboriginal women
offenders (please refer to the Limitation section), and immediately after their release into the
community in order to capture an offender‟s entire residency in the releasing institution.
Statistical analyses were conducted for each of seven criminogenic need areas, based on the
proportion of need assessment ratings that improved (i.e., decreased) between the two
assessments. The logistic regression procedure10 was used to examine the likelihood of the
decrease in each need area pre-test to post-test.11 Assessments based on the more recent Dynamic
Factors Identification and Analysis (DFIA)-Revised were not included due to incompatibilities
between the pre- and post-test codes as a result of revisions of the assessment tool.12
To examine the likelihood of discretionary release grants, the evaluation team used
multiple logistic regression models.13 This approach was used to examine the effects of the type
of the releasing institution (i.e., Healing Lodges versus minimum and multi-level security
institutions) on the type of conditional release. Offenders released from Healing Lodges and
comparison institutions differed on a number of profile characteristics. Specifically, levels of
overall need and motivation assessed prior to the transfer to the correctional facility were
included as covariates14 in analyses for Aboriginal men offenders. In addition to these two
covariates, analyses concerning Aboriginal women offenders also included levels of overall risk
and reintegration potential assessed at intake. Finally, analyses were restricted to an offender‟s
first release from the correctional facility.
For analyses of conditional release failure outcomes, the evaluation team used the
sequential Cox proportional hazards regression model.15 This approach was used to examine the
effects of Healing Lodges and several covariates, known to be associated with re-offending (see,
10
Logistic regression is a statistical analysis used to examine whether or not one or more variables predict an
outcome under study (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001).
11
Statistical analyses included cases which had a moderate or high need assessment rating at pre-test and excluded
cases which had a low need assessment rating at pre-test, since the latter could not decrease (i.e., improve). Notably,
only an insignificant number of cases showed an increase (i.e., a deterioration) in need assessment ratings from pretest to post-test in the study sample.
12
DFIA is a protocol used by CSC to conduct the dynamic factors assessment. It is comprised of seven dynamic
factors: employment; marital/family; attitudes; substance abuse; community functioning; personal and emotional
orientation; and, associates and social interactions. Offender assessment processes were revised and modernized in
2009 as part of implementing CSC‟s Transformation Agenda priorities.
13
Multiple logistic regression is a method of analysis used to determine statistical probability of an occurrence using
several predictor variables.
14
A covariate is a variable that is not part of the experimental manipulation (i.e., intervention), but that has an effect
on the outcome under study.
15
Cox regression analysis is a statistical analysis used to determine the relationship between the survival rate (the
proportion of a sample that has not experienced the studied event over a period of time) and one or more covariates.
21
for example, Gendreau et al., 1996; Johnson, 2005). Statistical analyses performed for
conditional releases among Aboriginal men and women offenders were fitted so that they only
included covariates that were found to be significantly associated with the outcomes (Tabachnik
& Fidell, 2001). Initially, the following contributing factors were included in all analyses: age at
release; type of conditional release (day parole versus other types of release); levels of overall
need, risk, reintegration potential and motivation assessed prior to release; and, previous federal
sentences.
2.4.4 Economy
Analyses were conducted to examine the cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of
providing correctional services via Aboriginal Healing Lodges. Specifically, conclusions
regarding the cost of maintaining an offender (COMO) in CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing
Lodges were made, and opportunities for maximizing the efficiency of Healing Lodge operations
were explored. Financial and bed utilization records for fiscal year 2009/2010 were included in
the analyses.
2.5
Limitations
The present evaluation focused exclusively on Aboriginal Healing Lodges and did not
examine the effectiveness of alternative models of providing structured living environments that
use Aboriginal traditional healing approaches as a method of intervention. For example, as part
of the Aboriginal Corrections Continuum of Care, Pathways Transition Units or Transition
Houses are offered at five minimum security institutions for men.16 These living units have been
gradually implemented since 2002 and accommodate between 6 and 28 offenders (Jensen &
Nafekh, 2009a). Pathways Transition Units focus on cultural, traditional and ceremonial
practices and are guided by Elders.
Although every Healing Lodge is unique given its history of inauguration and
development, relationships with surrounding Aboriginal communities and differences in
Aboriginal culture, time and resource constraints precluded visits to all eight operating Healing
Lodges. Alternatively, the evaluation team focused on four Healing Lodges, two CSC-operated
16
Minimum security institutions for men that include Pathways Transition Units/Houses are: Westmorland
Institution in the Atlantic Region, Pittsburg Institution in the Ontario Region, and Rockwood and Riverbend
Institutions in the Prairie Region (CSC, 2010j).
22
and two Section 81 facilities, which had not been previously evaluated. Recent evaluation and
research reports were available to the evaluation team for the remaining Healing Lodges and
were perused to draw parallels and conclusions. The evaluation team selected interviewees for
the evaluation in consultation with Healing Lodge management, based on their availability and
interest in participating in the interview process. Considering cultural protocols, the evaluation
team approached the participation of community members through the nominated Healing Lodge
representatives. Based on the interviewee availability and consent to participate in the evaluation,
only nine interviews were completed.
Several limitations deserve acknowledgement with regards to the examination of the
impact of CSC‟s Healing Lodges on community correctional outcomes. First, only Aboriginal
offender releases were included in the evaluation‟s study groups for quantitative analyses. NonAboriginal offenders represent less than one-fifth of Healing Lodge residents; however, the
evaluation team deemed this exclusion to be appropriate taking into consideration the larger
scope and objectives of the SPAC evaluation. Second, only releases concerning Aboriginal
offenders residing in Healing Lodges with incarceration status were examined in outcomes
analyses. This limitation pertained primarily to the release group from Section 81 Healing
Lodges, since these facilities also provide correctional services to offenders under community
supervision. Finally, one offender could have contributed to multiple releases in quantitative
analyses (see subsection 2.3.1: Study Groups for Quantitative Analyses). To address this
limitation, the evaluation included all offender releases, not limited to the first release.
Further, the evaluation team was not able to examine the impact of offender participation
in the entire Aboriginal Continuum of Care that included participation in Pathways Units in
addition to participation in Healing Lodges. At the time of the evaluation, automated data on
offenders residing in Pathways Units were unavailable; new OMS data fields to record entry and
exit dates from a Pathways Unit have been recently implemented in response to the
recommendation from the Pathways Units‟ evaluation (Jensen & Nafekh, 2009a). Once
sufficient data become available, future research should examine the cumulative effect of
exposure to the entire Aboriginal Continuum of Care on community correctional outcomes.
Lack of available information in OMS posed additional challenges for the evaluation. For
example, new data fields were available in OMS to identify offenders following a healing path,
and offenders being informed of and expressing interest in pursuing a transfer to a Section 81
23
Healing Lodge facility. These data fields, however, were incomplete. A number of offender
criminogenic need scores assessed through the Correctional Plan Progress Reports (CPPR) were
also missing due to the change in CSC‟s offender assessment processes. Furthermore, analyses
of offender profiles and change in criminogenic needs concerning Aboriginal men offenders
were based on the DFIA scores assessed prior to transfer to a releasing institution, namely a
CSC-operated Healing Lodge, Section 81 Healing Lodge or minimum security institution, and
immediately after release on community supervision from the releasing institution. These
analyses concerning Aboriginal women offenders, however, were based on the offender
assessments completed at intake and immediately after release on community supervision, given
that women offenders do not transfer to lower levels of security institutions. This resulted in a
longer period of time between pre- and post-assessments.
Finally, information available on the development and operations of Healing Lodges
differed substantially. The evaluation team, therefore, approached eight Healing Lodge
Executive Directors with a request to provide pertinent information in the form of a standardized
Healing Lodge fact sheet. Although fact sheets were prepared by all Healing Lodges, the extent
to which the presented information was comprehensive is not known.
24
3.
KEY FINDINGS
3.1.
Evaluation Objective One: Relevance
The extent to which a program addresses a demonstrable need, is appropriate to the federal
government, and is responsive to the needs of Canadians (TBS, 2009a).
In considering the overall relevance of CSC‟s Healing Lodges, the following areas were
examined: (1) the representation and profiles of Aboriginal offenders in correctional systems;
(2) CSC‟s approach to Aboriginal corrections and Aboriginal offenders‟ healing; (3) consistency
of the Healing Lodge model with government-wide and departmental priorities and federal roles
and responsibilities; and, finally, (4) the relevance and responsiveness of Healing Lodges to the
needs of Aboriginal offenders and public safety. Accordingly, the findings were framed to reflect
the core issues of relevance as per the TBS Evaluation Policy requirements (TBS, 2009b).
FINDING 1: Aboriginal men and women offenders are over-represented in the
correctional system and have unique profiles of need and risk. Aboriginal overrepresentation is projected to increase in light of the socio-demographic characteristics of
Aboriginal peoples and legislative amendments to the Criminal Code.
Aboriginal Offender Representation in Corrections
The over-representation of Aboriginal peoples in Canada‟s federal correctional system is
well-documented, and has been steadily increasing over the past decade (refer to Figure 1). In
2009/2010, Aboriginal offenders represented 17.9% (N = 3,989) of those serving a federal
sentence, although Aboriginal peoples comprise less than 4% of the Canadian population
(Statistics Canada, 2008a). The over-representation of Aboriginal offenders varied across CSC
regions in 2009/2010, ranging from 7.3% in the Quebec Region to 39.2% in the Prairie Region.
Appendix C presents the regional representation of Aboriginal offenders, as well as the
geographical distribution of Aboriginal populations across Canada. As presented in Appendix C,
the percentage of Aboriginal offenders in each CSC region was disproportionately higher than
the regional Aboriginal population.
Notably, the disproportionate representation of Aboriginal offenders has been higher
among the incarcerated offender population compared to the population of offenders under
community supervision. In 2009/2010, of 13,028 incarcerated offenders, one in five (20.2%;
25
N = 2,629) was of Aboriginal ancestry. Among 8,145 of offenders supervised in the community,
one in seven (13.7%; N = 1,097) was an Aboriginal offender. The gap between Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal women offenders was even greater. As seen in Figure 1, incarcerated Aboriginal
women represented the highest increase among federal offender subgroups. The number of
incarcerated Aboriginal women increased 131% between fiscal years 1998/1999 and 2009/2010,
from 71 to 164 women.
Figure 1. Federal Offender Population: Proportion of Aboriginal Offenders.
35
Proportion in %
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Aboriginal Men Incarcerated
Aboriginal Women Incarcerated
Fiscal Year
Aboriginal Men in Community
Aboriginal Women in Community
Source: CSC Corporate Reporting System (2010).
Apart from the federal correctional system, Aboriginal offenders are over-represented in
remand, provincial and territorial custody and community supervision (Perreault, 2009).
Aboriginal youth also have greater involvement with the criminal justice system than their nonAboriginal peers (Brzozowski, Taylor-Butts & Johnson, 2006; Latimer & Foss, 2004).
Moreover, the phenomenon of Aboriginal over-representation in the criminal justice system is
not unique to Canada. The Māori peoples of New Zealand (New Zealand Department of
Corrections, 2007), Indigenous Australians (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009) and Native
Americans in several U.S. States (see, for example, Alaska Department of Corrections, 2009;
Hawai‟i Department of Public Safety, 2008; Montana Department of Corrections, 2010; South
26
Dakota Department of Corrections, 2009) are all over-represented among the incarcerated
population in their respective jurisdictions.
The factors associated with Aboriginal offender over-representation are multi-faceted and
complex. Theory and research suggest that greater social, historical and economic difficulties
and instability experienced by Aboriginal peoples contributed to their over-population in the
correctional system. Such difficulties include lower levels of educational attainment,
employment and income, significant health and substance abuse issues, systemic racism and
stereotyping, the establishment of the reserve system, governments‟ assimilation policies that
resulted in Aboriginal peoples‟ alienation from their land and culture, and, multi-generational
effects of the residential school and child welfare systems (Barlow, 2009; Blagg, Morgan,
Cunneen & Ferrante, 2005; Johnson, 2004; LaPrairie, 1996; Moore, 2003; Perreault, 2009; Royal
Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996; Statistics Canada, 2006; Trevethan et al., 2003;
Weatherburn, 2008; Weatherburn, Snowball & Hunter, 2006).
These unique backgrounds and circumstances of Aboriginal peoples were acknowledged
in the seminal Supreme Court of Canada Gladue case (R. v. Gladue, [1999] 1 S.C.R. 688). In this
case, the appellant claimed that the judge, when sentencing her for manslaughter, did not take
into consideration her Aboriginal status. As such, the judge did not follow the sentencing
principles laid out in s.718.2(e) of the Criminal Code (1985), which called for “all available
sanctions other than imprisonment that are reasonable in the circumstances should be considered
for all offenders, with particular attention to the circumstances of Aboriginal offenders”. The
Supreme Court of Canada concluded that, notwithstanding whether or not an Aboriginal person
lived on a reserve, all cases must consider unique systemic factors and backgrounds of an
Aboriginal person in sentencing and sanctions (R.v.Gladue, 1999). Following the 1999 Supreme
Court decision, CSC defined its Gladue principles to ensure that an Aboriginal offender‟s social
history was also considered at all levels of decision-making in the correctional context (CSC,
2008a).
Profiles of Aboriginal Offenders
According to the 2010 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (Public
Safety Canada, 2010), federal Aboriginal offenders differed from their non-Aboriginal
counterparts on numerous characteristics. Specifically, Aboriginal offenders were found to be
27
younger than non-Aboriginal offenders, with a median age of 29 and 33, respectively. More
Aboriginal offenders (81%) were serving sentences for violent offences compared to nonAboriginal offenders (66.3%) and, correspondingly, were more likely to be classified at the
medium or maximum security levels (85.9%) than non-Aboriginal offenders (78.5%). Once in
the federal correctional system, Aboriginal offenders were found to be more likely incarcerated 17
and have lower parole grant rates for both day and full parole.18 Research has further indicated
that Aboriginal offenders have greater needs in criminogenic need domains than their nonAboriginal counterparts, particularly in the areas of employment and education, family relations,
substance abuse, personal/emotional orientation and social associations (see, for example,
Moore, 2003; Perreault, 2009).
Although comprehensive data on Aboriginal offenders‟ social history are not available,
several CSC and Canada Centre for Justice Statistics studies have underscored the specific
circumstances and distinct profiles of Aboriginal offenders. For example, compared to nonAboriginal offenders, Aboriginal offenders tend to have lower levels of education and
employment (Perreault, 2009); greater engagement in the residential and child welfare systems,
including adoption, foster and group homes (Trevethan, Moore, Auger, MacDonald & Sinclair,
2002), higher rates of spousal, family and community victimization and particularly violent
victimization in adolescence (Brzozowksi, et al., 2006; Perreault, Sauvé & Johnson, 2010),
greater involvement in gang membership (CSC, 2010c), and higher suicides rates (CSC, 2010d).
The differences noted above in the profiles of Aboriginal offenders suggest that they are
at a higher risk to re-offend (Johnson, 2005). In this respect, higher recidivism rates have been
documented in the literature for both Aboriginal men offenders (Bonta, Rugge & Dauvergne,
2003) and Aboriginal women offenders (Gobeil & Robeson-Barrett, 2007) compared to their
non-Aboriginal counterparts. Similarly, CSC‟s Aboriginal Corrections Milestones Reports (CSC,
2006c; 2009b) and the Aboriginal Accountability Year-End Report (CSC, 2010b) found that
Aboriginal offenders were more likely to have conditional releases revoked while on community
supervision and were more frequently re-admitted to federal custody following their Warrant
Expiry Dates (WED) than non-Aboriginal offenders.
17
Seventy per cent of Aboriginal offenders are incarcerated in federal institutions, compared to 58.8% of nonAboriginal offenders.
18
Sixty-one percent of Aboriginal offenders are granted day parole, compared to 67.3% of non-Aboriginal
offenders. Furthermore, 23.7% of Aboriginal offenders are granted full parole, compared to 43.4% of nonAboriginal offenders.
28
Projections of Aboriginal Offender Population Levels
According to projections reported by Statistics Canada, the Aboriginal population is
expected to increase annually at an average rate of 1.8%, which corresponds to more than double
the 0.7% growth rate of the total population in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2005). Of note, the
number of Aboriginal adults in the 20-29 age group – the group with the greatest potential for
criminal activity and incarceration (Statistics Canada, 2008b) – is projected to increase by
41.9%, compared to the 8.7% projected growth of the young adult population in Canada.
Although the demographic profile only partially explains Aboriginal representation in
corrections (Perreault, 2009), Statistics Canada projections suggest that the over-representation
of Aboriginal peoples among Canada‟s offender population is likely to continue to grow,
particularly in the west and north where the Aboriginal population is highest (Statistics Canada,
2005).
In addition to the demographic increase in Aboriginal populations, the number of
Aboriginal offenders in the federal correctional system will be impacted by the Government of
Canada‟s recent criminal justice initiatives. Specifically, The Tackling Violent Crime Act (2008)
and The Truth in Sentencing Act (2009) are expected to result in more offenders receiving a
federal sentence and in longer sentences for federal offenders. CSC projects its inmate
population levels to increase to 18,684 by the end of fiscal year 2014/2015 (CSC, 2010a). The
projected growth includes the usual expected offender population growth of approximately 1%
for men offenders and 2.8% for women offenders, plus an additional 3,828 offenders predicted to
result from the implementation of The Tackling Violent Crime Act and The Truth in Sentencing
Act. Furthermore, the largest increase is expected in the Prairie Region, which houses the
majority of CSC‟s Aboriginal incarcerated offenders. CSC foresees a need of 726 additional
accommodation spaces in the Prairie Region (CSC, 2010a). Expansion plans are underway at the
Willow Cree Healing Lodge for an additional 40 beds, at Edmonton Institutions for 96 beds, and
at Riverbend Institution for 50 beds (CSC, 2011).
FINDING 2: Healing Lodges are an integral part of CSC’s Aboriginal Corrections
Continuum of Care implemented to address the specific needs of Aboriginal offenders that
have led to their over-representation in the correctional system.
29
Over the past two decades, CSC‟s strategic priorities have focused on enhancing its
ability to meet the needs of Aboriginal offenders that have led to their continual overrepresentation in the federal correctional system. CSC has established what is now referred to as
the Aboriginal Initiatives Directorate and has launched a number of strategies and initiatives to
advance Aboriginal issues.
In 2003, CSC adopted the Aboriginal Corrections Continuum of Care (CSC, 2006a). The
Continuum of Care was developed to ensure continuity of services for offenders from intake to
federal custody through to release into the community on conditional release and after sentence
expiration. CSC later developed its Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections (2006a) with the
goal to implement the Aboriginal Continuum of Care and ensure that the federal correctional
system responds to the needs of Aboriginal offenders and communities. Important groundwork
has since been laid in accommodating the practice of Aboriginal spirituality and culture within
federal corrections. Specifically, offender assessment has been enhanced through healing plans,
Aboriginal-specific programming has been delivered in institutional and community settings,
Aboriginal-specific positions (e.g., Elders, Aboriginal Correctional Programs Officers,
Aboriginal Liaison Officers, Aboriginal Community Development Officers) have been created to
work with Aboriginal offenders, and structured cultural living environments for Aboriginal
offenders (i.e., Pathways Units, Aboriginal Healing Lodges) have been expanded.
Aboriginal Healing Lodges constitute a core component of the Aboriginal Corrections
Continuum of Care model, linking institutional interventions and community reintegration (see
Figure 2). The development of Healing Lodges as a means to promote offenders‟ healing was
first identified by the Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women (1990) and was reinforced by
the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996).
CSC policy states that “the purpose of a Healing Lodge/Village is to provide a healing
community that utilizes a culturally-based holistic healing process which contributes directly to
the safe and effective reintegration of Aboriginal offenders” (CSC, 2008a, s.48). A holistic
approach to healing that reflects Aboriginal peoples‟ spirituality and traditions is incorporated
into all operations of the Healing Lodge. Services provided by Healing Lodges include
Aboriginal-specific programming and ceremonies (for example, smudges, sweat lodges, healing
circles, pipe ceremonies, sun dances), contact with Elders and Aboriginal communities, and
interaction with Aboriginal staff members who act as positive role models for offenders. Healing
30
Lodges emphasize individualized interventions for each offender, which are documented in the
offender‟s healing plan, developed by the Healing Lodge case management team and the
offender prior to the transfer to the Healing Lodge.
In addition to providing a holistic healing environment for Aboriginal offenders, Healing
Lodges serve as a means to integrate Aboriginal communities and Bands into correctional
operations and governance. The international community has recognized CSC‟s Healing Lodges
as an innovative healing-based approach to corrections and offender rehabilitation that integrated
Aboriginal values, knowledge and practices in correctional operations (Nielsen, 2003). A scan of
international correctional practices revealed that other jurisdictions also provided cultural
living/therapeutic community intervention models for Aboriginal offenders; however, unlike
Healing Lodges, those were fully operated by state correctional systems (University of
Saskatchewan, 2011).
Figure 2. Aboriginal Continuum of Care Model.
Source: Correctional Service Canada (2006a). Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections: Innovation, Learning and
Adjustment: 2006-07 to 2010-11. Ottawa, ON: Author.
31
FINDING 3: The Healing Lodge approach is consistent with correctional and governmentwide priorities and commitments.
Healing Lodges are directly related to two of CSC‟s long-standing strategic priorities,
namely, “Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis, and
Inuit offenders” and “Safe transition of offenders into the community” (CSC, 2009c), as well as
the most recent priority, “Productive relationships with increasingly diverse partners,
stakeholders, and others involved in public safety” (CSC, 2010e). Healing Lodges provide a
wide spectrum of Aboriginal-specific interventions that aim to improve correctional results for
Aboriginal offenders and to facilitate their reintegration. These interventions include spiritual
services and counselling, group therapy, correctional programming and reintegration support. As
such, Healing Lodges contribute to the attainment of CSC‟s strategic priorities, as well as help
mitigate several of CSC‟s corporate risks (CSC, 2009c). Specifically, providing culturallyappropriate services within Healing Lodges is a part of CSC‟s corporate risk mitigation strategy
to address the gap in correctional results between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders.
Healing Lodges further contribute to CSC‟s achievement of an effective and representative
workforce by employing Aboriginal peoples, including those from reserve communities. Finally,
Healing Lodges continue to actively engage Aboriginal communities and partners in the
provision of services and resources to Aboriginal offenders.
The government‟s independent review panel of federal corrections (CSC Review Panel,
2007) conducted an extensive assessment of CSC‟s priorities and operations and made several
recommendations related specifically to providing correctional services to Aboriginal offenders.
The review panel recognized the need for broader implementation of Aboriginal-specific
interventions and for a longer-term community release strategy for Aboriginal offenders. It
suggested that CSC be responsive to the disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal
offenders through appropriate, Aboriginal-specific measures. Of note, the review panel made
three recommendations specific to Aboriginal Healing Lodges19 and concluded that Healing
19
The Panel recommended that: 1) CSC review the organizational structure and functions of its Healing Lodges in
order to ensure that it can attract qualified Aboriginal staff; 2) CSC review its funding structure to ensure it can fully
respond to the operational requirements of Healing Lodges; and, 3) CSC add job-readiness responsibilities for
Healing Lodges in the context of the recommendations on employability and employment (CSC Review Panel,
2007).
32
Lodges must continue to be an “integral part of the Aboriginal community‟s commitment to safe
reintegration” (p.89).
To address the panel‟s recommendations, and thereby strengthen Aboriginal corrections,
CSC embarked on its Transformation Agenda. Two of CSC‟s Transformation Agenda Priority
Plans - Transformation Priority No. 6: “Increase capacity to address the needs of First Nations,
Métis, and Inuit offenders”, and Priority No.11: “Enhance relationships with partners” (CSC,
2009c) – support the Healing Lodge approach and the Government of Canada‟s commitment to
work with Aboriginal communities to advance Aboriginal issues (Indian Affairs and Northern
Affairs Canada, 2010). Most recently, as part of its Transformation Agenda, CSC has made
investments in the expansion of Pathways Units that will double Pathways capacity (CSC,
2010j). In 2009-2010, there were 715 offenders residing in Pathways Units (CSC, 2010b). A
recent evaluation of the Pathways Units initiative (Jensen & Nafekh, 2009a) underscored the
importance of an Aboriginal continuum of care and made a specific recommendation for CSC to
consider transferring offenders participating in Pathways Units to Healing Lodges or Pathways
Transition Units, where they would be able to further their healing journey. As a result, there
may be an increase in the demand for transfers to Healing Lodges among offenders residing in
Pathways Units who wish to engage in the full Aboriginal Continuum of Care.
FINDING 4: Healing Lodges operating under section 81 of the CCRA respond to CSC’s
legislative mandate to engage Aboriginal communities in providing custody and care to
Aboriginal offenders. CSC-operated Healing Lodges emerged during the process of
implementing section 81 of the CCRA, but are supported under a different legislative
provision.
The CCRA (1992) governs Canada‟s federal corrections and sets forth the legislative
framework for CSC‟s operations. Sections 79 to 84 of the CCRA relate directly to Aboriginal
corrections and cover such aspects as:
Aboriginal-specific programming (section 80);
the role of Aboriginal communities in providing correctional services to Aboriginal
offenders (section 81);
the establishment of Aboriginal advisory committees (section 82);
the implementation of Aboriginal culture and spirituality in the correctional
environment (section 83); and,
33
the release of offenders to Aboriginal communities (section 84; Appendix D).
Section 81 of the CCRA allows the Minister of Public Safety to enter into an agreement
with an Aboriginal community for the provision of correctional services to Aboriginal
offenders20 and for payment in respect to the provision of those services. Offenders may be
transferred to the care and custody of an Aboriginal community, with the consent of the offender
and the Aboriginal community. This legislative provision has been seen as a positive step toward
improving partnerships with Aboriginal communities (Bennet, 2000; Mann, 2009). The first
Healing Lodge for women was established in 1995 (Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge) and for men
in 1997 (Pê Sâkâstêw Centre), both in the Prairie Region. Initially, CSC assumed their operation,
anticipating the eventual transfer of correctional administration to the Aboriginal community.
Since the late 1990s, CSC has been carrying out section 81 discussions with Aboriginal
communities. The 2001 National Action Plan on Aboriginal Corrections (CSC, 2001) placed a
priority on the development of Aboriginal community residential capacity through Healing
Lodges. The action plan included a status report on section 81 discussions that involved a total of
25 Aboriginal communities and groups. The majority of these discussions were in preliminary
stages and did not materialize due to a lack of capacity within Aboriginal communities to engage
in the development and implementation of community-based correctional alternatives or a lack
of community interest in pursuing section 81 (CSC, 2006a).21 In 2005, CSC conducted an
assessment of the capacity of the Nenakeet Band of Indians to enter into a Section 81 agreement
with CSC to manage the Okimaw Ochi Healing Lodge and concluded that the Band did not
possess the required capacity at the time (CSC, 2005). Two of the existing Section 81 facilities
had been temporarily closed to restructure and strengthen their capacities and operational
practices.22 Conversely, Aboriginal communities may not necessarily express interest in the full
20
Subsection (2) of section 81 also allows for the provision of services to non-Aboriginal offenders.
CSC has put in place several initiatives to help increase the capacity of Aboriginal communities to engage in the
provision of correctional services to offenders. The National Aboriginal Contribution Program was initiated in 1999
to help develop capacity in the community for the delivery of correctional care and custody for Aboriginal inmates
and parolees. In 2000, CSC also established a grant program to support an Aboriginal community capacity
assessment that would enable the development of Section 81 proposals. The allowable grant amount totalled
$200,000 per year; however, the grant was not used and was cancelled in 2009/2010 (Marquis & May, 2011).
22
Due to restructuring, the O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi Healing Lodge did not accept offenders during a two-year period
from 2002 to 2004 (Delveaux et al., 2007). Recently, all federal and provincial offenders from the Prince Albert
Grand Council Spiritual Healing Lodge were transferred out to initiate improvements in the physical structure and
management.
21
34
transfer of the administration of correctional services under a Section 81 agreement (Willow
Cree Healing Lodge Joint Review Board, 2010). As a result, CSC-operated Healing Lodge
facilities have not been transferred under the responsibility of an Aboriginal community and
have remained CSC minimum security institutions for men and a multi-level security institution
for women. CSC Healing Lodges and Healing Villages were later defined in Commissioner‟s
Directive (CD) 702: Aboriginal Offenders as “a Healing Lodge operated by CSC in cooperation
with an Aboriginal community. These facilities may or may not be located on First Nations‟
reserve land” (CSC, 2008a, s.47).
Presently, there are eight Aboriginal Healing Lodges across Canada, one of which
provides custody and care to Aboriginal women. Four of these Healing Lodges operate under the
section 81 provision of the CCRA, with a total bed capacity of 111 federal men offenders.23 Each
Section 81 Healing Lodge has an agreement with CSC, signed by the Minister of Public Safety
and the Aboriginal organization or community representatives. The other four Healing Lodges
are CSC-operated facilities with a capacity of 194 beds, 44 of which are for women offenders.
Each of the CSC-operated Healing Lodges has a Memorandum of Agreement/Memorandum of
Understanding between the Aboriginal Band representative(s) and the Minister of Public Safety
or the Commissioner of Correction, and also by the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs for
the use of reserve land, if applicable.
Following a recent internal audit of the management of Section 81 agreements (CSC,
2008b), it was determined that CSC should develop specific policies establishing a management
framework for Section 81 Healing Lodges.24 Furthermore, the performance measurement,
monitoring and financial control mechanisms were found to be in need of strengthening. In
response, CSC developed two policy guidelines specific to Section 81 facilities to supplement
existing Commissioner‟s Directives – Guideline 541-2: Negotiation, Implementation and
Management of CCRA Section 81 Agreements (CSC, 2010f), and Guideline 710-2-1: CCRA
Section 81: Admission and Transfer of Offenders (CSC, 2010g). The latest reports of the Office
of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) highlighted the need to ensure greater Aboriginal
community involvement through section 81 of the CCRA, and recommended that the use of this
23
At the time of the evaluation, no Section 81 Healing Lodge existed for women offenders. AID and the Women
Offender Sectors were in preliminary discussions to advance women‟s Section 81 facilities. The expert committee
formed by CSC‟s Commissioner on women‟s corrections issues recommended that CSC developed a women‟s
healing lodge facility on a priority basis for Eastern Canada (Expert Committee Review, nd).
24
The audit did not include CSC-operated Healing Lodges.
35
provision be increased to its fullest and intended effect (Mann, 2009; Office of the Correctional
Investigator, 2010).
FINDING 5: Aboriginal-specific interventions and services provided within Healing
Lodges address the criminogenic needs and spiritual well-being of Aboriginal offenders,
thereby contributing to public safety.
Results of previous research have consistently demonstrated that correctional
interventions and services are most effective when they target identified criminogenic needs of
offenders (“need” principle), match offenders‟ level of risk to intensity of service (“risk”
principle), and are administered in a manner that is consistent with offenders‟ specific
characteristics, such as learning style and cultural context (“responsivity” principle; Andrews &
Bonta, 2006; Andrews, Bonta & Hoge, 1990; Bonta & Andrews, 2007; Dowden & Andrews,
2004). The “responsivity” principle has been highlighted as being of particular importance in the
context of Aboriginal corrections (Kunic & Varis, 2009; Mason, 2000; Rugge, 2006; Wormith &
Oliver, 2002).
The empirical research base examining the effectiveness of Aboriginal-specific
interventions is evolving. Nonetheless, several studies demonstrated that Aboriginal
programming was equally or more effective for Aboriginal offenders than mainstream types of
correctional interventions that were not Aboriginal-specific (Kunic & Varis, 2009; Nathan,
Wilson & Hillman, 2003; Sioui & Thibault, 2001; Stewart, Hamilton, Wilton, Cousineau &
Varrette, 2009; Trevethan, Moore & Allegri, 2005; Weekes & Millson, 1994). Further, other
studies documented the transformative nature of Aboriginal ceremonies, particularly sweat
lodges practices, in corrections (Brault, 2005; Mason, 2000). For example, Brault (2005) noted
that offenders reported changes in personal healing, gained positive self-perception and a sense
of belonging, as well as self-control and an ability to trust and care for others.
Several analyses have been conducted to specifically examine the impacts of Healing
Lodges on Aboriginal offenders, Aboriginal communities and the public. The following relevant
conclusions could be drawn from these analyses. First, the studies reported high levels of
offender and staff satisfaction with the Healing Lodge and with the reintegration prospects they
presented (Bell, 2008; Trevethan et al., 2007; Trevethan, Crutcher & Rastin, 2002). Second,
Healing Lodges furthered offenders‟ healing journeys and allowed for better self-understanding,
36
anger and emotion management, and improved attitudes and behaviours (Trevethan, Crutcher &
Rastin, 2002). Third, participation in Healing Lodges appeared to have contributed to successful
offender transition into the community. Although CSC research studies reported early in the
initial operation of Healing Lodges that a larger proportion of Healing Lodge residents were readmitted to federal custody upon release than the comparison group (Trevethan, Crutcher &
Rastin, 2002), more recent studies found Healing Lodge reintegration levels to be commensurate
with those of the comparison group (Delveaux et al., 2007; Nafekh et al., 2006; Trevethan et al.,
2007). Finally, Healing Lodges developed important ties to Aboriginal communities that
benefited Healing Lodge residents (Delveaux et al., 2007).
Consistent with these findings, Healing Lodge residents interviewed for this evaluation
almost unanimously (97%; n = 37) agreed that the time spent in the Healing Lodge met their
needs. The majority (74%; n = 17) of Healing Lodge staff and management interviewees
supported offender responses, noting that offender needs have been met well by the cultural and
spiritual activities offered in the Healing Lodge, community contact, and interaction with staff
members who follow Aboriginal traditional teachings. Finally, the majority of CSC managers
(89%; n = 57) and staff members (79%; n = 72) who completed electronic questionnaires
similarly expressed the view that offender participation in Healing Lodges was making
„substantial‟ or „moderate‟ contributions to successful Aboriginal offender reintegration into the
community. Respondents rated Healing Lodges as one of the most important contributions
amidst a series of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal interventions and services available to federal
offenders.
Collectively, these findings suggest that traditional teachings and Aboriginal culture must
be regarded as one of the foundations for interventions and rehabilitation services provided to
Aboriginal offenders, particularly within a Healing Lodge environment. The evaluation found
that Healing Lodges demonstrated their continued relevance by addressing the criminogenic
needs and spiritual well-being of Aboriginal offenders, responding to the needs of Canadians and
public safety, and being consistent with correctional and government-wide priorities and
commitments.
37
3.2.
Evaluation Objective Two: Performance
The extent to which effectiveness, efficiency and economy are achieved by a program (TBS,
2009a).
The evaluation followed a theme-based approach to assessing the performance of CSC‟s
Healing Lodges. As presented in the Evaluation Methodology section, the following five key
themes were addressed in the present evaluation:
Theme 1: Healing Lodge Operations
Theme 2: Aboriginal Continuum of Care
Theme 3: Collaboration with Aboriginal Communities
Theme 4: Correctional Results
Theme 5: Economy
To draw conclusions about the performance of Aboriginal Healing Lodges, the evaluation
examined the extent to which result commitments associated with each of the five themes were
achieved. Relevant findings are presented and discussed below. As per the TBS Policy on
Evaluation (2009b), these findings cover the areas of progress toward expected immediate,
intermediate and long-term outcomes and the assessment of resource utilization in relation to the
production of outputs and outcomes.
3.2.1. Theme One: Healing Lodge Operations
Expected Result: Aboriginal Healing Lodges facilitate culturally-relevant operations within
CSC and provide efficient and effective services that are responsive to Aboriginal cultures and
aimed at rehabilitation of Aboriginal offenders.
FINDING 6: There are specific challenges that prevent Healing Lodges from operating at
maximum capacity. These challenges include a small number of Aboriginal offenders
classified at the minimum security level, limited availability of Healing Lodges across CSC
regions, their geographical isolation, and limited programming to address specific offender
needs.
At the time of the evaluation, CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges had the
combined capacity to provide custody and care to 305 federal incarcerated offenders, via
38
111 accommodation spaces available in Section 81 Healing Lodges and 194 accommodation
spaces in CSC-operated Healing Lodges. The transfer of offenders to CSC-operated Healing
Lodges is defined by CSC policy suites and Healing Lodges‟ Memoranda of Agreement and
Understanding. Admission and transfer to a Section 81 Healing Lodge are specified in Section
81 Healing Lodge agreements and in Guideline 710-2-1: CCRA Section 81: Admission and
Transfer of Offenders (CSC, 2010g). In general, transfer criteria to Healing Lodges are consistent
with the principle that the transfer is primarily aimed at benefiting the rehabilitation gains of an
Aboriginal offender, taking public safety into consideration. Accordingly, offenders must:
be classified at the minimum security level or, in rare cases, at the medium security level,
as well as require a low degree of supervision and present a low probability of escape and
a low risk to public safety in the event of escape; and,
be committed to their healing plans and to following a healing journey.
Importantly, offenders must express interest in being transferred to a Healing Lodge and
be accepted by the Executive Director.
To examine the extent to which CSC presents with a sufficient number of offenders
potentially eligible to transfer to a Healing Lodge, the evaluation examined several areas,
including the number of offenders meeting transfer security classification criteria. Although all
Healing Lodges may provide correctional services to non-Aboriginal offenders, non-Aboriginal
offenders were not included in this analysis.25
First, the evaluation team extracted the profiles of Aboriginal offenders to examine their
security classification and, more specifically, the number of Aboriginal men classified at the
minimum security level26 and Aboriginal women offenders classified at the minimum or medium
security level.27 A 2009/2010 year-end snapshot of all incarcerated federal Aboriginal men and
women offenders was used.
25
Although Section 81 of the CCRA, Section 81 agreements and CSC policies provide an opportunity for nonAboriginal offenders to participate in Healing Lodges, transfers to Healing Lodges are primarily “aimed at
benefiting the rehabilitation gains of an Aboriginal offender” (CSC, 2010g, s.10).
26
Only minimum security men offenders were included in the analysis, since, as discussed in Finding 7, medium
security offenders require a moderate degree of supervision, present a low to moderate risk of escape and a moderate
risk to the public safety in the event of an escape, which was found to be inconsistent with Healing Lodge transfer
criteria.
27
Similar to women‟s institutions that are operating as multi-level facilities, the Healing Lodge for women accepts
both minimum and medium security women offenders.
39
Table 3 presents the number of Aboriginal men offenders classified at the minimum
security level and the number of Aboriginal women offenders classified at either the minimum or
medium security level according to their most recent classification, by region. The table also
includes the number of Healing Lodge beds available across CSC Regions for comparative
purposes.
Table 3. Number of Aboriginal Offenders Meeting Healing Lodge Security Classification
Requirements, FY 2009/2010.
Aboriginal Men
CSC Region
Classified at
Minimum Security
Level
Healing Lodge Beds
N
14
35
27
198
64
338
N
15
196
50
261
Atlantic
Quebec
Ontario
Prairies
Pacific
Total
Aboriginal Women
Classified at
Minimum or
Healing Lodge Beds
Medium Security
Level
N
N
7
10
20
69
44
9
106
44
Source: OMS (2010).
As seen in Table 3, at current capacity levels, the number of beds available in Healing
Lodges could potentially accommodate 77% of 338 incarcerated Aboriginal men offenders
classified at the minimum security level and 42% of 106 incarcerated Aboriginal women
classified at the minimum or medium security level in 2009/2010. However, the number of beds
in the Prairie Region, where the majority of Healing Lodges are concentrated, is almost equal to
the number of potentially eligible Aboriginal offenders based on the security classification
criterion alone.
Furthermore, offenders interested in transferring to a Healing Lodge must follow a
healing path and be committed to their healing plans and to the Healing Lodge‟s philosophy.
Although no comprehensive data were available to the evaluation team to assess offender interest
in potential transfer to a Healing Lodge and their involvement in the healing process, some data
could be used as a proxy indicator. For example, research studies have previously reported that
the majority of, but not all, Aboriginal offenders were engaged in Aboriginal cultural and
40
spiritual activities and followed a healing path. Trevethan and colleagues (2000), for example,
reported that 80% of offenders reported being engaged in cultural activities, while Johnson
(1997) found a rate of 87%. Recently, CSC has begun identifying offenders who follow a healing
path in OMS. According to available data, two-thirds (69%; n = 415) of Aboriginal men
offenders and more than one-half (57%; n = 59) of Aboriginal women offenders were identified
as following a healing path. In a scenario in which 70% of Aboriginal offenders with appropriate
security classification would express interest in a transfer to a Healing Lodge (refer to Table 3),
men‟s Healing Lodges would not have a sufficient number of offenders to operate at maximum
capacity. A women‟s Healing Lodge may have the sufficient number of potentially eligible
offenders; however, only one Healing Lodge for women exists across CSC regions and is located
in a remote area. Healing Lodge occupancy rates across fiscal years 2007/2008 to 2009/2010 are
presented in Table 4.
Table 4. Healing Lodges Occupancy Levels, by Number of Beds Filled Daily.
Healing Lodge
Bed Capacity
CSC Operated
Kwìkwèxwelhp
50
Pê Sâkâstêw
60
Willow Cree
40
Okimaw Ochi
44
Section 81
Prince Albert
5
O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi
18
a
Stan Daniels
73
Wakeskun
15
2007/2008
2008/2009
2009/2010
32.92 (66%)
46.39 (77%)
35.18 (88%)
29.64 (67%)
32.06 (64%)
44.08 (73%)
36.82 (92%)
36.12 (82%)
33.19 (66%)
44.04 (73%)
37.77 (94%)
34.04 (77%)
4.92 (98%)
15.55 (86%)
33.97 (47%)
14.02 (93%)
5.42 (108%)
19.34 (107%)
31.96 (44%)
12.76 (85%)
4.18 (84%)
15.57 (87%)
20.71 (28%)
12.51 (83%)
Note: The numbers presented reflect average daily number of beds filled by incarcerated offenders over the course
of the year and do not include beds occupied by offenders on parole or provincial offenders. Data are based on total
offender time while in the Healing Lodge, not on snapshot data or offender transfers.
a
Pursuant to the Section 81 agreement, the Stan Daniels Healing Centre provides 73 beds for federal offenders that
include beds for federal inmates and also conditionally-released offenders. Based on the information provided by the
Executive Director, the bed capacity of the Centre is distributed as follows: 35 beds for Section 81 inmates and 38
beds for offenders under community supervision. The number presented in the table and used for calculations are
based on the Section 81 agreement.
As presented in Table 4, the evaluation found that, in 2009/2010, the overall Healing
Lodge bed occupancy level was 66%, ranging from 66% to 94% in CSC-operated Healing
Lodges and from 28% to 87% in Section 81 Healing Lodges, excluding offenders on community
supervision.
41
Previous evaluations (Delveaux et al., 2007; Nafekh et al., 2006) also identified that
available bed space in Healing Lodges was not utilized to full capacity. Responses from CSC
staff members through an on-line questionnaire provided some indication regarding potential
issues affecting the transfer of Aboriginal offenders to Healing Lodges. Specifically, CSC staff
members commented on a lack of interest or inquiry from the offenders (39%; n = 21);
insufficient numbers of offenders meeting Healing Lodge transfer criteria due to their security
classification or difficult behaviour (36%; n = 19); unavailability of Healing Lodge facilities in
the region or their remote locations (25%; n = 13); and a lack of specific programming in
Healing Lodges that meets the needs of offenders (25%; n = 13). The latter was also noted in the
study by Delveaux and colleagues (2007).
Considering issues described above, the majority of staff member respondents (47%;
n = 50) indicated they would encourage only some Aboriginal offenders to pursue transfer to a
Healing Lodge, while 12% (n = 13) reported they would not encourage this type of transfer and
17% (n = 18) indicated they would encourage all Aboriginal offenders. Low staff and
management awareness of Healing Lodges was identified as potentially problematic by a smaller
number of CSC staff member respondents (19%; n = 10). Although only several CSC managers
commented on the issues concerning Healing Lodges in their questionnaire, they similarly noted
issues of limited availability of Healing Lodge facilities, a small number of offenders meeting
the minimum security classification requirement, and low awareness of Healing Lodges and their
services.
FINDING 7: The transfer of men offenders classified at the medium security level to
Healing Lodges was not consistent with the selection criteria outlined in Healing Lodge
agreements.
In accordance with offender transfer policies and protocols for CSC-operated and Section
81 Healing Lodges discussed above, offenders admitted to a Healing Lodge must present a low
risk to public safety in the event of an escape and must require a low degree of supervision of
their activities within the Healing Lodge environment. At the same time, Guideline 710-2-1:
CCRA Section 81: Admission and Transfer of Offenders (CSC, 2010g) states that, in rare cases,
Healing Lodges, namely Section 81 facilities, may accept offenders with a medium security
classification. In this evaluation‟s sample extracted from OMS for quantitative analyses,
42
16 Aboriginal men offenders classified at the medium security level were transferred to Section
81 Healing Lodges. This constituted 8% of all transfers to Section 81 facilities. Twenty-five
Aboriginal men offenders classified at the medium security level, or 3% of transfers, were
admitted to men‟s CSC-operated Healing Lodges.
Previous evaluation studies (Delveaux et al., 2007; Nafekh et al., 2006), however,
indicated that the transfer of men offenders assessed at the medium security level to the Healing
Lodge was not consistent with the Healing Lodge selection criteria. Specifically, offenders are
classified as medium security when they are assessed by CSC as: presenting a low to moderate
probability of escape; a moderate risk to the safety of the public in the event of escape; and,
requiring a moderate degree of supervision (CCRA, 1992; CSC, 2010h). As previously
discussed, the number of Aboriginal offenders classified at the minimum security level is
comparatively small.
This issue was noted by one-third (36%; n = 19) of CSC staff members who completed
an Aboriginal corrections questionnaire, who commented that transfers to a Healing Lodge were,
at times, not feasible due to an offender‟s security classification or difficult behaviour. In fact,
inappropriate security classification and poor behavioural and motivational history were
identified as the most commonly cited reasons for not accepting offenders into Healing Lodges
(CSC, 2008b). Furthermore, as one respondent suggested, “Healing lodges are considered
minimum security facilities and, as such, transfer policies provide that the offender meets the
criteria for [a] minimum security rating. The security classification does not seem to take into
account the „Gladue Decision‟ and allow for consideration as it relates to public safety”.
Questions pertaining to the cultural appropriateness of offender security classification assessment
scales and practices and the application of Gladue principles in correctional decisions have
previously been raised by the OCI (Mann, 2009). The overall SPAC evaluation will examine the
issue of offender security classification, specifically in the context of Aboriginal corrections.
FINDING 8: In general, offenders admitted to Healing Lodges were committed to following
a healing path. Accepting offenders who did not identify with Aboriginal traditions was
viewed by the interviewees as a divergence from the original vision of the Healing Lodge.
Although nearly all Healing Lodges staff members interviewed (96%; n = 23) identified
that offenders transferred to the Healing Lodge were, at least, somewhat committed to following
43
their healing plans, one-third (33%; n = 12) of staff members and management commented on
the need to admit appropriate offenders – those who were committed to the Healing Lodge
philosophy and to their healing journeys. These staff members noted that some offenders were
not engaged in the cultural and spiritual activities provided by the Healing Lodge and were
interested in the transfer for other reasons. To address this, staff members reported that they used
various techniques to increase offenders‟ understanding of Aboriginal culture and participation
in cultural activities, for example, formal and informal discussions with the offender, using
healing circles or ceremonial approaches, and connecting the offender with the Elder or Elder‟s
Helper. Several staff members (29%; n = 7) also commented that offenders from Pathways Units
adjusted well to the Healing Lodge environment, given their high levels of interest and
participation in cultural interventions and activities. Among Healing Lodge residents interviewed
by the evaluation team, one-third (34%; n = 13) indicated they had participated in the Pathways
Units initiative. A recent evaluation of Pathways Units (Jensen & Nafekh, 2009a) concluded that
offenders who participated in Pathways would benefit from a continuum of care and
recommended that CSC considered transferring participants in these units to Healing Lodges or
to Pathways Transition Units where they could continue their healing.
Importantly, in the present evaluation, greater communication with institutional case
management teams, including communication between Healing Lodge Elders and institutional
Elders, was identified as an important opportunity for development by interviewed Healing
Lodge staff members (38%; n = 9), as well as being noted in previous evaluations (Trevethan,
Crutcher & Rastin, 2002; Trevethan et al., 2007). Offender selection and communication with
institutions were similarly named by some interviewed community representatives who
underscored the importance of following a full continuum of Aboriginal teachings. Finally, a
small number of Healing Lodge residents also stressed the importance of offender screening, so
that only offenders who were committed to and following Aboriginal teachings would be
accepted.
Further, the evaluation team examined the proportions of non-Aboriginal offenders
residing in Healing Lodges. The proportion of beds occupied by non-Aboriginal offenders with
incarceration status fluctuated considerably from fiscal years 2007/2008 to 2009/2010.
Specifically, the average proportion of non-Aboriginal offenders was 17% during this time
period. However, as much as 47% of non-Aboriginal offenders were residing in a Healing Lodge
44
in a given year (refer to Table 5). On average, the proportion of non-Aboriginal offenders across
three fiscal years in CSC-operated Healing Lodges ranged from 14% to 16%, and the proportion
at Section 81 Healing Lodges was comparable each year, ranging from 15% to 23%. Previous
evaluations (Nafekh et al., 2006; Trethevan et al., 2007) reported similar trends with regards to
the proportions of non-Aboriginal offenders residing in Healing Lodges. It was noted that,
although Section 81 of the CCRA, Section 81 agreements and CSC policies provide an
opportunity for non-Aboriginal offenders to participate in Healing Lodges, transfers to Healing
Lodges were primarily “aimed to benefit the rehabilitation gains of an Aboriginal offender”
(CSC, 2008a) and to provide a holistic healing environment to address their specific needs.
Table 5. Proportions of non-Aboriginal Offenders in Healing Lodges.
Healing Lodge
CSC-operated
Kwìkwèxwelhp
Pê Sâkâstêw
Willow Cree
Okimaw Ochi
Total CSC-Operated
Section 81
Prince Albert
O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi
Stan Daniels
Wakeskun
Total Section 81
Total Healing Lodges
2007/2008
2008/2009
2009/2010
28%
18%
4%
15%
16%
19%
15%
3%
20%
14%
20%
13%
3%
25%
15%
0%
7%
36%
0%
15%
16%
0%
9%
38%
7%
21%
17%
0%
9%
47%
10%
23%
17%
Note: The proportions presented in the table reflect the total number of beds occupied daily by non-Aboriginal
offenders. Data are based on total offender time while in the Healing Lodge, not on snapshot data or offender
transfers.
FINDING 9: CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges differ considerably in terms of
their operations and, as a result, face different challenges. For CSC-operated Healing
Lodges, the main issues concern varying levels of cultural competency among staff and the
incompatibility of CSC policies with the Healing Lodge vision and operational needs. For
Section 81 Healing Lodges, additional human resources and improvements in community
engagement were identified as areas for development.
CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges operate under different legislative
frameworks and, thus, differ in operational practices. CSC-operated Healing Lodges are CSC
institutional facilities for federally incarcerated offenders, of which three are classified as
45
minimum security facilities for men and one as a multi-level (medium and minimum) security
facility for women. As such, CSC-operated Healing Lodges follow policies and procedures
pertaining to the operation of CSC institutions and offender management. These include security
procedures, offender case management and reporting, correctional and other programming,
staffing and personnel training, and participation in regional and national groups and committees,
among others. CSC-operated Healing Lodges are also guided by agreements signed with
Aboriginal communities and may include provisions outside those set forth for other CSC
institutions, such as a requirement for the employment of members from the Aboriginal
community.
Conversely, the operations of Section 81 Healing Lodges are defined primarily by
Section 81 agreements between the Government of Canada and the Aboriginal community that is
involved in the provision of correctional services. Following an audit of the management of
Section 81 agreements (CSC, 2008b), CSC developed a set of specific policy guidelines for
negotiating and managing these agreements (CSC, 2010f), as well as offender transfers to and
from Section 81 facilities (CSC, 2010g). In general, Section 81 Healing Lodges provide a more
dynamic security environment than CSC-operated Healing Lodges. Offender case management
and interventions are primarily delivered by caseworkers/case managers and Elder‟s Helpers.
Residents in Section 81 Healing Lodges may take on a number of roles to support the operations
of the facility apart from cultural and spiritual activities, such as cooking or assisting with
maintenance. A notable distinction of Section 81 Healing Lodges is that they also accept
offenders on conditional release, including those on release to Aboriginal communities under
Section 84 of the CCRA, as well as provincial offenders.
For the purposes of this evaluation, Healing Lodge staff members and management
interviewed from CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges were asked to identify areas of
Healing Lodge operations they considered contributed most to offenders‟ healing and
reintegration, as well as areas of operations that required strengthening. The beneficial aspects of
the Healing Lodge identified by staff and management interviewees were comparable between
the two types of Healing Lodges and included the following: a focus on healing and access to
Aboriginal interventions and services in Healing Lodges (50%; n = 16); pro-social interactions
between staff members and offenders (50%; n = 16); the presence of a positive environment
46
(47%; n = 15); culturally-sensitive team-based approaches to case management (34%; n = 11);
and, opportunities to engage with the community (28%; n = 9).
Staff and management‟s perspectives regarding challenges and areas of improvement
were, however, more reflective of whether the Healing Lodge was CSC-operated or Section 81.
Fifty-two percent (n = 12) of Healing Lodge staff and management interviewees from CSCoperated Healing Lodges noted discrepancies between CSC institutional policies and procedures
and the operational needs of a traditional Healing Lodge. Specifically, these interviewees
commented that CSC policies did not provide sufficient flexibility for the inclusion of Aboriginal
culture, such as the use of tobacco and ceremonial protocols, hospitality expenses, or the work of
Elders, into Healing Lodge operations. Some interviewees noted that CSC policies were not
followed and applied consistently in the Healing Lodge. Of note, responses shared by
community representatives also emphasised the importance of maintaining the cultural integrity
of CSC-operated Healing Lodges and the security of the community, while balancing the needs
of CSC policy.
The second issue raised by interviewees from CSC-operated Healing Lodges pertained to
levels of cultural competency among its staff. Specifically, 39% (n = 9) of staff and management
interviewees underscored that not all staff members understood the history and the vision behind
Healing Lodges and/or followed Aboriginal traditions. This perspective was shared by Healing
Lodge resident interviewees, one-third of whom (34%; n = 9) noted that some staff members
were not supportive of the traditional healing methods used in the Healing Lodge due to a limited
understanding of, and connection to, Aboriginal culture. As a response, some staff members and
managers interviewed suggested an increase in the availability of Aboriginal awareness training
for staff to enhance the level of cultural competency among Healing Lodge personnel. The
suggestion was also made to develop staffing procedures that assessed cultural awareness and
competency. A previous evaluation on CSC-operated Healing Lodges (Trevethan et al., 2007)
similarly identified a lack of involvement in cultural and spiritual activities by some Healing
Lodge staff members and the need to provide training on Aboriginal culture to all staff.
Section 81 Healing Lodges staff and management interviewees expressed a need for the
enhancement of Section 81 human resource capacity, both in terms of the number of staff
members required to facilitate offender programming and case management (38%; n = 5), and
increased opportunities for training regarding Healing Lodge procedures, CSC policies and
47
culturally-sensitive approaches to dealing with Aboriginal offenders (38%; n = 5). Community
involvement in Section 81 Healing Lodge operations was also identified as a potential area for
enhancement, as more than half (54%; n = 7) of staff members and management interviewed
emphasised the need for Healing Lodges to improve community outreach activities and work
towards connecting offenders with community resources. Almost two-thirds of interviewees
(62%; n = 8) noted that awareness and acceptance of the Healing Lodge is high in the
community; however, nearly half of interviewees (46%; n = 6) observed a need for enhanced
community collaborative relationships. These relationships are discussed further in Theme
Three: Community Collaboration.
FINDING 10: Turnover in management and front-line staff positions was reported to affect
the continuity of operations in both CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges.
Since commencing their operations in mid-1990s and early 2000s, CSC-operated Healing
Lodges and Section 81 Healing Lodges have experienced high rates of staff turnover, particularly
at the Executive Director level. Several reviews have previously highlighted a need for improved
stability in the management of CSC-operated Healing Lodges (Trevethan et al., 2007; Willow
Cree Healing Lodge Joint Review Board, 2010). These reviews also identified the impacts of
leadership turnover as it affected the continuity of community relationship building, consistency
of protocols and procedures, loss of corporate memory, and impacted staff morale.
Similarly, one-fourth (25%; n = 9) of Healing Lodge management and staff members
interviewed for this evaluation identified turnover in management and front-line positions as an
area for development. A few interviewees expressed the view that stability in leadership could be
improved by establishing long-term, permanent staffing practices for senior management
positions, thereby creating a foundation of continued leadership in the Healing Lodge. Several
staff and management interviewees from CSC-operated Healing Lodges suggested that turnover
in Healing Lodge management may be a result of the lower classification of the management
positions in the CSC-operated Healing Lodges compared to those in other federal correctional
institutions. That is, Wardens in minimum security institutions for men and multi-level security
institutions for women are classified as executive positions, whereas the position of Executive
Director of a CSC-operated Healing Lodge fall under the government‟s administrative services
group. Compensation for Executive Director positions within Section 81 Healing Lodges is
48
defined according to the provisions of Section 81 agreements. The level of compensation is
similar to that in the non-profit sector and is considerably lower than in CSC-operated Healing
Lodges.
In addition to management turnover, front-line staff turnover was also identified by
several interviewees (19%; n = 7) as a source of instability affecting Healing Lodge operations,
particularly in Section 81 Healing Lodges. Staff and management interviewees from Section 81
Healing Lodges identified a lack of job security and benefits as contributing factors to staff
turnover, which was consistent with previous evaluation findings (Delveaux et al., 2007).
3.2.2. Theme Two: Aboriginal Continuum of Care
Expected Result: Healing Lodges provide culturally-appropriate interventions and services to
respond to the diverse needs of Aboriginal men and women offenders and Aboriginal
communities.
FINDING 11: Healing Lodges provide offenders with an environment focused on
spirituality and healing, which is supported by Aboriginal-specific services and activities,
and positive interactions between staff members and offenders and between offenders.
Aboriginal Healing Lodges were intended to address the specific needs and the spiritual
well-being of Aboriginal offenders in federal corrections. As such, the environment of the
Healing Lodge differs from mainstream correctional institutions in several key aspects,
specifically the focus on spirituality and healing, relationships between staff members and
offenders and between offenders, and the availability of Aboriginal-specific services and
activities.
One of the most prominent differences between Healing Lodges and other federal
correctional institutions was related to the interactions between Healing Lodge staff members
and offenders. The large majority of offender interviewees reported improved interactions and
positive relationships between staff members and offenders (84%; n = 31), as well as among
offenders residing in the Healing Lodge (81%; n = 29). These differences were further supported
by qualitative responses, in which more than three-quarters (76%; n = 29) of offenders
interviewed identified positive relationships between Healing Lodge staff and residents, with
“everyone working toward the same goal and [being] sincere about it”. Offenders stated that
they felt particularly supported by staff members and managers who attended ceremonies with
49
the residents and encouraged their healing journeys. Offender interviewees also identified
positive relationships between residents, who viewed each other as “brothers” with whom they
could openly communicate.
Similarly, one-half (50%; n = 16) of staff and management interviewees named positive
and pro-social interactions between Healing Lodge staff members and offenders as an important
element of Healing Lodges. They noted that offenders were treated with respect and that staff
members and management were sensitive to the needs of offenders and regularly participated in
cultural and spiritual activities. All staff member interviewees who had previously worked in
another CSC institution (100%; n = 9) identified positive interactions between staff and
offenders and an improvement in staff cultural competency at the Healing Lodge, as compared
their previous institution, which may explain the increased staff member participation in cultural
and spiritual activities noted by offender interviewees. A previous evaluation (Trevethan,
Crutcher & Rastin, 2002) demonstrated the positive impact of pro-social relationships between
the staff members and residents of the Healing Lodge, namely an atmosphere of reduced tension
and greater trust.
Overall, positive relationships in the Healing Lodge helped create a relaxed and peaceful
atmosphere, which many interviewees addressed in their comments. In fact, two-thirds (61%;
n = 23) of offender interviewees stated that one of the most beneficial aspects of the Healing
Lodge was the freedom that the residents were given. Specifically, Healing Lodges provided
residents with the ability to move around the institution, while providing access to the natural
environment. This was an important factor for offender interviewees, who noted that connection
with the land was an important part of their culture, specifically the ability to “go out into the
woods when [they] need to gain inner peace and feel comfortable to reflect.” Many (47%;
n = 15) staff and management interviewees also recognized that the peaceful and positive
atmosphere of the Healing Lodge with fewer restrictions and physical barriers and access to the
natural environment contributed to offenders‟ healing.
Of all the beneficial aspects of the Healing Lodge that offenders identified in their
qualitative responses, the most prominent (87%; n = 33) was the availability of cultural support,
particularly through the guidance and teachings of the Elders, as well as through ceremonies and
cultural activities. Compared to previous institutions in which they had resided, offenders noted
improvements in the focus on offender healing (87%; n = 33), access to healing tools and
50
resources (86%; n = 31), time spent with the Elder in the Healing Lodge (81%; n = 30) and the
availability of Aboriginal programs and services (74%; n = 26).
Comparable responses were received from staff members who had previously worked in
a CSC institution. Of those who had previously been employed in a mainstream CSC institution,
all (100%; n = 9) staff member interviewees noted improvements in the availability of
Aboriginal programs, availability of Elders, the emphasis on offender healing, and access to
healing resources. Overall, one-half (50%; n = 16) of all staff members and management
interviewed specifically commented on the accessibility of cultural interventions at the Healing
Lodge, particularly the availability of Elders and Elders‟ Helpers (25%; n = 9), ceremonies and
spiritual activities (22%; n = 8), and Aboriginal-specific programs (25%; n = 9). 28
One-third (34%; n = 11) of staff and management interviewees also identified a
culturally-sensitive collaboration among the case management team as a unique characteristic of
Healing Lodges. Specifically, some Healing Lodge case management teams included Elders and
correctional officers, and used resolution circles, community and family circles, and mentorship
to assist in offender rehabilitation.
The number of Elders working in a Healing Lodges varied, however, according to
information provided by the Healing Lodge Executive Directors, the average ratio of Elders to
residents was approximately one Elder for every 10 to 15 residents. It was important to note that
the availability of Elders varied between Healing Lodges, with some Elders having a fixed (i.e.,
Monday to Friday) availability, whereas for others, the Elder‟s schedule was variable.
Overall, nearly all (97%; n = 37) offenders interviewed either “somewhat” or “strongly”
agreed that the Healing Lodge met their overall needs. Staff, management, and offender
interviewees all identified a number of aspects of the Healing Lodge that assisted offenders in
their healing journey. Positive relationships among the staff and residents fostered an
environment of support and trust, allowing for a more relaxed and positive atmosphere. Finally,
the focus on healing encouraged offenders to explore Aboriginal culture through the availability
of programming and cultural interventions, which included access to Elders and Elder‟s Helpers,
ceremonies and other spiritual activities.
28
Offender assignment to, and participation in, CSC‟s national correctional programs will be discussed in the
concluding finding to Theme Two.
51
FINDING 12: Elders play a major role in delivering interventions and services to offenders
in Healing Lodges. Providing Elder services to offenders on evenings and weekends and
including Elders in case management teams were identified as an area of opportunity.
Elders play the role of the spiritual head of the Healing Lodge. They share cultural
knowledge and teachings and act as keepers of Aboriginal traditions. Elders were identified as
the single most important aspect of the Healing Lodge by the majority of interviewed staff
members and management (83%; n = 30), offenders (68%; n = 26), as well as the majority of
community representatives. Elders were viewed by these interviewees as instrumental to
addressing Aboriginal offenders‟ specific needs through cultural and spiritual interventions,
individual counselling and also by facilitating correctional programs with program staff.
Nearly all staff members interviewed (96%; n = 23) identified specific needs of
Aboriginal offenders, including access to Aboriginal spirituality and cultural activities (n = 13),
counselling for past trauma and abuses (n = 12) and others. More than one-half (58%; n =17) of
staff members further observed that these specific needs were addressed well in the Healing
Lodge by the cultural and spiritual interventions provided primarily by the Elders, and also by
Elders‟ Helpers. According to the majority (71%; n =17) of staff interviewees, many Aboriginal
offenders trusted and could only relate to Elders, which helped them open up about past traumas
and abuses in their lives. This trust and communication created an environment which enabled
offenders to improve their attitudes and behaviours. One staff member summarized this
relationship, stating that “[Elders and Elders‟ Helpers] can relate to [Aboriginal] offenders‟
culture, share same backgrounds and know how to work with [the offenders]. [It is] important
for the Healing Lodge to be run by spirituality”.
As previously mentioned in the report, the average ratio of Elders to Healing Lodge
residents, one to 10-15 offenders, was a contributing factor in these improvements. Nearly
two-thirds (63%; n = 24) of offenders positively commented on Elder availability and services,
while over one-quarter (28%; n = 9) indicated they would like to have more contact with the
Elder, particularly on evenings, weekends and holidays. As noted in the Willow Cree Healing
Lodge Joint Review (2010) report, offenders often required specialized Elder services during
evenings and weekends. This report suggested that it would be preferable to expand Elder
coverage to provide such opportunity.
52
The majority (79%; n = 19) of Healing Lodge staff members interviewed stated they had
positive relationships with the Elders working in the Healing Lodge. They noted that these
relationships were reciprocal and there was respect between both parties. Furthermore, many
staff member interviewees (58%; n = 14) reported that they regularly consulted Elders to
exchange information about offenders and share expertise about cultural and spiritual practices.
Healing Lodge staff and management interviewees highlighted the importance of reciprocal
information sharing between staff and Elders, particularly regarding offender behaviour, and
almost one-third (31%; n = 11) indicated that improvements could be made with regards to Elder
engagement. Also, many staff members interviewed (42%; n = 10) reported that they did not
have Elder reviews available to be used in their work, possibly due to Elders not being familiar
with computers, report writing practices or because of language barriers.
As an alternative practice for engaging Elders in case management, one-third (34%;
n = 11) of Healing Lodge staff members and management interviewed identified best practices in
the form of culturally-relevant, team-based approaches to case management. These approaches
included involving Elders in scheduled case conferences, or the use of healing and resolution
circles with the Healing Lodge resident, Elder and staff members present.
FINDING 13: Aboriginal Healing Lodges have a strong cultural and spiritual focus;
however, educational services, vocational training and physical activities need
strengthening to further holistic development of the offender and increase their potential
for reintegration.
Prior to an offender‟s transfer to a Healing Lodge, the Healing Lodge case management
team works with the offender to develop a healing plan that outlines interventions and activities
to be undertaken while at the Healing Lodge to address the offender‟s spiritual, emotional,
physical and mental well-being. Once residing in the Healing Lodge, an offender‟s healing is
facilitated primarily through cultural and spiritual interventions provided by the Elders, Elders‟
Helpers, Healing Lodge staff and also community members. Aboriginal culture, tradition and
spirituality were reported to be central to Healing Lodge operations (Bell, 2008; Trevethan,
Crutcher & Rastin, 2002; Trevethan et al., 2007).
The present evaluation similarly found that Healing Lodge residents, staff members and
management, as well as community representatives, considered spirituality and cultural
53
interventions as one of the most beneficial aspects of the Healing Lodge. All three interviewee
groups named the cultural environment as one of the top three most important aspects of the
Healing Lodge. Furthermore, the majority (82%; n = 31) of offenders and one-half (50%; n = 16)
of staff members and management interviewed qualitatively commented on the importance of
access to cultural interventions and activities, and placed a priority on offender healing in the
Healing Lodge.
Healing Lodge residents indicated that they routinely participated in a variety of
traditional activities, such as sweat lodges (92%; n = 33), smudges (89%; n = 32), sharing/talking
circles (69%; n = 25), individual counselling with the Elder (61%; n = 22), cultural teachings
(58%; n = 21), artisan activities (58%; n = 21), as well as pipe ceremonies (38%; n = 11),
sun/horse/round dances (31%; n = 9) and other cultural activities that furthered their healing. The
majority of staff member interviewees (74%; n = 17) supported this perspective, noting that
offender cultural and spiritual needs were met well through the Elders and Elder's Helpers.
Although interviews confirmed the need for a strong focus on healing and cultural
interventions within the Healing Lodge, they also identified areas that could be enhanced to
support offender reintegration and healing. For example, approximately one-third (31%; n = 11)
of staff members and management interviewed commented on the need to facilitate additional
vocational training, employment and employability skill development for offenders, while other
interviewees (28%; n = 10) spoke about the need to introduce structural changes to the Healing
Lodges to enhance reintegration prospects by adding recreational space or a classroom facility.
The majority of community representatives interviewed identified similar areas of opportunity
for Healing Lodges, namely with regards to improvements in offender access to vocational and
employment training, educational and living skills development, as well as structured leisure
activities. As one community representative observed, the “focus should also be on living, life
skills, social skills. [The Healing Lodge] also needs more space, an activity room … [It is]
important to keep offenders busy and teach them skills”. Healing Lodge residents shared similar
views. For instance, one-fifth (22%; n = 7) of offenders identified a need for more opportunities
for vocational, employment skills and living skills development, as well as education and
language. Another fifth (22%; n = 7) of offenders emphasised a need for a greater variety of
activities.
54
The interviewee observations were consistent with findings reported in previous
evaluations of Healing Lodges. For example, the Willow Cree Healing Lodge Joint Review
(2010) identified a lack of structured leisure activities available for Healing Lodge residents, as
well as a lack of vocational training and work release opportunities. The review team proposed a
number of vocational training opportunities, such as fire fighting, construction, development of
greenhouse and cultural teachings (e.g., hide-tanning, or drying meat and berries). Similarly,
another evaluation (Trevethan et al., 2007) suggested that interventions targeting employment
and vocational skills would be beneficial for offenders, given that a large proportion of Healing
Lodge residents were unemployed at the time of their arrest and had low levels of education.
Finally, the CSC Review Panel (2007) recognized a lack of focus in preparing Aboriginal
offenders for employment upon release and specifically recommended the addition of jobreadiness responsibilities in Healing Lodges in the context of the panel‟s recommendations on
employability and employment. Complementing cultural interventions with relevant educational,
vocational and physical activities could further enhance the holistic healing of the offender and
support their eventual reintegration into the community. Of note, several Healing Lodges took
initiative in establishing contacts with local community schools and colleges to provide these
opportunities to their residents. Previous evaluations found that offenders who participated in
CSC employment and employability programs were more likely to obtain employment upon
release into the community and less likely to re-offend than offenders who did not participate in
these programs (Brews, Luong & Nafekh, 2010; Didenko, Luong & Carré, 2010; Taylor et al.,
2008).
FINDING 14: The delivery of correctional and other programming differed between
Healing Lodges. Some Healing Lodges reported developing local programs to reflect the
needs of offenders and the community. In CSC-operated Healing Lodges, the rate of
assignment, participation and completion of CSC national correctional programs was
higher than in the comparison institutions.
The majority (74%; n = 17) of Healing Lodge staff members interviewed indicated that
the needs of Aboriginal offenders were met well through the spiritual and cultural activities
provided in the Healing Lodge and particularly through interaction and counselling with the
Elder. Approximately one-half (48%; n = 11) of staff interviewees also reported that Aboriginal
offender needs were met well by correctional programs, namely by Aboriginal-specific programs
55
such as Aboriginal Substance Abuse Program, In Search of Your Warrior and others. One-third
(35%; n = 8) of staff members further commented on the need to ensure that Aboriginal-specific
programming was available to Healing Lodge residents. Correctional programs were named as
the third, following the Elders and the cultural environment, important aspects of Healing
Lodges by staff and management interviewees (33%; n = 12). Half of interviewed community
representatives were similarly in support of the importance of correctional programming for
offender healing and reintegration. Of note, the majority (65%; n = 22) of Healing Lodge
residents reported that their involvement in programs had somewhat or significantly improved
following their transfer to the Healing Lodge.
As part of the evaluation, an assessment of correctional program delivery was performed.
This examination was limited to CSC-operated Healing Lodges and comparison institutions
(minimum security for men and multi-level security for women).29 Combined program data from
three fiscal years 2007/2008 to 2009/2010 were used in analyses for Aboriginal men and women
offenders to eliminate possible variation in program delivery across years.
Over the course of three years, a greater proportion (81%) of Aboriginal men offenders
from CSC-operated Healing Lodges who had been assigned to a national correctional program
commenced the program, compared to 65% of Aboriginal men offenders in minimum security
institutions. Subsequently, 88% of Aboriginal men from CSC-operated Healing Lodges
successfully completed the program versus 81% of Aboriginal men in minimum security
institutions. Program participation and completion by Aboriginal women offenders revealed
similar patterns. Specifically, 91% of assigned Aboriginal women started a national correctional
program in the CSC-operated Healing Lodge, compared to 76% of Aboriginal women in multilevel security institutions. In terms of program completion, 85% of Aboriginal women in the
CSC-operated Healing Lodge and 64% of Aboriginal women in multi-level security institutions
successfully completed the program.
To compare the rates of assignment, participation and completion of national correctional
programs for Aboriginal offenders between CSC-operated Healing Lodges and comparison
institutions, a rate-based analysis was performed. The evaluation team calculated the number of
Aboriginal offenders who were assigned to, participated in, and successfully completed a
29
With an exception of one Section 81 Healing Lodge that delivers CSC correctional programs through an adjacent
CSC facility, the numbers of Aboriginal offenders assigned to, and participating in, a national correctional program
in other Section 81 facilities were very small.
56
national correctional program for every 100 Aboriginal offenders in CSC-operated Healing
Lodges, minimum security institutions for men, and multi-level security institutions for women.
Analyses both for Aboriginal men and women offenders demonstrated greater rates of program
engagement for CSC-operated Healing Lodges over the course of three fiscal years, compared to
their counterparts in minimum and multi-level security institutions.
Over the course of three years, from 2007/2008 to 2009/2010, of every 100 Aboriginal
men offenders, 82 were assigned to a national correctional program in CSC-operated Healing
Lodges and 65 were assigned to a national correctional program in minimum security
institutions. Notably, of every 100 Aboriginal men, 60 offenders started and 52 offenders
successfully completed the program in CSC-operated Healing Lodges, whereas only
41 offenders started and 33 offenders successfully completed the program in minimum security
institutions. That is, the rate of program assignment for Aboriginal men offenders was 1.3 times
higher, and the rate of successful program completion 1.6 times higher, in CSC-operated Healing
Lodges than in minimum security institutions.
Rate-based program analyses concerning Aboriginal women revealed a similar pattern of
results, suggesting that program delivery in CSC-operated Healing Lodges was more accessible
to Aboriginal offenders and was likely to match their identified needs. The rate of program
assignment for Aboriginal women offenders was 1.2 times greater and the rate of successful
program completion by Aboriginal women offenders was twice the rate in the CSC-operated
Healing Lodge compared to women‟s multi-level security institutions. Specifically, of every
100 Aboriginal women offenders, 100 women were assigned to a national correctional program
in the CSC-operated Healing Lodge and 82 were assigned to a national correctional program in
women‟s multi-level security institutions. Importantly, of every 100 Aboriginal women,
78 offenders started and 64 offenders successfully completed the program in the CSC-operated
Healing Lodge, while only 52 offenders started and 32 offenders successfully completed the
program in multi-level security institutions.
The types of national correctional programs varied substantially between CSC-operated
Healing Lodges. Most, however, delivered correctional maintenance programs, such as substance
abuse maintenance, family violence maintenance, sex offender program maintenance, and
violence prevention maintenance, and also Aboriginal-specific correctional interventions that
included In Search of Your Warrior, Spirit of A Warrior, Aboriginal Offender Substance Abuse
57
Program, Aboriginal Basic Healing Program, Circles of Change, as well as the Aboriginal
women maintenance program and the Integrated Correctional Program Modules (Aboriginal).
Some low and moderate intensity national correctional programs were also delivered across
fiscal years, as well as were programs developed locally to reflect the specific cultural traditions
and teachings of local Aboriginal communities and to address offender needs.
Programming in Section 81 facilities also differed. Some Section 81 Healing Lodges
developed local programs, such as orientation to healing and spirituality, parenting or anger
management programs, taken by all or most offenders in the facility. Many of these locallydeveloped programs are Elder-facilitated and support cultural and ceremonial activities provided
to offenders while at the Healing Lodge. According to the information provided by Healing
Lodge Executive Directors, the latter included a variety of cultural interventions, such as tee-pee
teachings, morning purification and prayers, sacred medicines, sweat lodge, feast preparations
and feasts, pipe ceremonies, horse program, turtle ceremonies, drum teachings, medicine
picking, wilderness teachings, and medicine wheel teachings among others. The description of
the positive transformative effects these correctional and cultural interventions have had on
Healing Lodge residents is provided below.
FINDING 15: Offenders and staff members observed positive changes in residents of
Healing Lodges, reporting improvements in offenders’ knowledge of Aboriginal culture, as
well as increases in offenders’ self-awareness, self-control, motivation, personal
responsibility, and pro-social attitudes. The rate of institutional incidents and charges was
lower for Aboriginal offenders in Healing Lodges, compared to Aboriginal offenders in
men’s minimum and women’s multi-level security institutions.
Offender interviewees (39%; n = 15) indicated that the primary reason they chose to
transfer to the Healing Lodge was to connect with their Aboriginal culture and to be in an
environment that was supportive of their healing path. The evaluation, therefore, examined
improvements in offender knowledge of Aboriginal culture, as well as the major contributing
factors to these improvements.
The evaluation found the most significant increase in familiarity in the area of Aboriginal
teachings and traditions. Although one-third (32%; n = 13) of offenders indicated that they were
“moderately familiar” or “very familiar” with teachings and traditions prior to their
incarceration, this number increased to two-thirds (66%; n = 25) when asked about their current
58
familiarity. Offender interviewees also reported moderate improvements in their familiarity with
Aboriginal history (“moderately familiar” to “very familiar” rose from one-quarter [24%; n = 9]
to one-half [50%; n = 19]) and Aboriginal language (“moderately familiar” to “very familiar”
rose from almost one-quarter [24%; n = 9] to over one-third [34%; n = 13]). The above changes
were found to be statistically significant. Offenders specified that these improvements were
largely attributed to individuals within the Healing Lodge and also in previous institutions,
mostly as a result of conversations with the Elders. Overall, these changes were supported by
qualitative responses, in which two-thirds (66%; n = 25) of offenders indicated that they had
experienced an increased understanding and knowledge of Aboriginal culture while at the
Healing Lodge.
In addition to the knowledge gains described above, the majority of offenders
interviewed noted that various aspects of their personal behaviour and attitudes had improved
following their arrival to the Healing Lodge. Specifically, offender interviewees noted
improvements in their interest in learning and being connected to Aboriginal culture (81%;
n = 30), involvement in cultural or spiritual activities (76%; n = 28), comfort level participating
in Aboriginal activities (74%; n = 28), and involvement in programs (65%; n = 22). Although
there were some interviewees who noted no change in the above areas,30 they reported that their
involvement and comfort levels in these areas had already been high at their previous
institutions.
The above-noted changes in personal behaviours and attitudes were consistent with
qualitative responses, in which the majority (82%; n = 31) of offender interviewees identified at
least one area of personal growth that they had experienced during their time at the Healing
Lodge. One of the most prominent areas included increased understanding of their own lives,
offences, or circumstances (55%; n = 21). Interviewees also identified an increased sense of
responsibility or accountability (47%; n = 18), increased ability or comfort communicating with
others (32%; n = 12), and increased self-control or self-discipline (29%; n = 11), particularly
with regards to dealing with emotions or emotional situations, as well as seeking help when it
was needed. Comparable improvements in self-control and emotion management were found in
previous evaluations of Healing Lodges (Trevethan, Crutcher & Rastin, 2002; Trevethan et al.,
30
Offender interviewees reported no change in involvement in programs (32%; n = 11) and comfort level with
participating in Aboriginal activities (26%; n = 10).
59
2007). Other areas that were identified by a smaller number of offender interviewees were an
increase in self-respect, a more positive mindset, and a more positive attitude toward others.
Improvements were also identified in the motivation levels and self-confidence of
offenders who were interviewed. Almost all offender interviewees (92%; n = 35) responded that
their self-confidence had increased, and the large majority (84%; n = 31) noted that their
motivation levels had improved since arriving at the Healing Lodge. Increased self-confidence
was an important factor in offender healing and reintegration, as described in a report of the
Waseskun Healing Center (Bell, 2008).
These changes were also acknowledged by Healing Lodge staff member interviewees.
Specifically, all (100%; n = 24) staff interviewees noted that offenders‟ motivation had improved
since their arrival in the Healing Lodge. In addition, almost all staff member interviewees
acknowledged improvement in offenders‟ participation in programs (96%; n = 22) and
participation in cultural and spiritual activities (91%; n = 21). Almost two-thirds (63%; n = 20)
of staff member and management interviewees identified positive changes in the following
offender attitudes and behaviours following their arrival at the Healing Lodge:
Increased accountability and responsibility for themselves and their actions (42%;
n = 15);
Increased co-operation and increased respect and positive attitude toward others (28%;
n = 10);
Increased self-esteem and self-confidence (25%; n = 9); and,
Greater engagement in cultural activities and increased understanding of Aboriginal
culture (25%; n = 9).
Overall, results suggested that Healing Lodges had a positive impact on offenders‟
knowledge of, and connection, to Aboriginal culture, which was identified as an important factor
in offenders‟ initial decisions to transfer to the Healing Lodge. In addition, both staff and
offenders similarly reported that participation in Healing Lodges had a positive impact on
offenders‟ behaviours, particularly with regards to their engagement in programs and cultural
activities, as well as their attitudes, such as self-confidence, motivation, and responsibility.
Identified improvements are also supported by quantitative data, such as positive changes noted
in offenders‟ criminogenic need levels (discussed in Theme Four: Correctional Results) and the
60
rates of reported institutional incidents and charges. Specifically, the rate-based analysis of
incidents and person charges31 related to Aboriginal men offenders revealed that, compared with
minimum security institutions, the rate of institutional incidents was 2.5 times lower in CSCoperated Healing Lodges and 10.5 times lower in Section 81 Healing Lodges. The rate of person
charges for Aboriginal men was 1.3 times lower in CSC-operated Healing Lodges than in
minimum security institutions.32 With respect to Aboriginal women offenders, the rates of
institutional incidents and person charges were also notably lower in the CSC-operated Healing
Lodge, compared to women‟s multi-level security institutions.33
3.2.3. Theme Three: Enhanced Collaboration
Expected Result: CSC enhances horizontal collaboration and coordination within Aboriginal
communities, to contribute to Aboriginal community development and to help Aboriginal
offenders initiate and sustain their healing journeys. 34
FINDING 16: Community awareness of Aboriginal Healing Lodges is generally high.
Collaborative relationships exist between Healing Lodges and the community, although the
amount and nature of collaboration vary. Healing Lodge staff and management
interviewees identified a need to strengthen collaboration with Aboriginal communities,
including developing partnerships that extend beyond the scope of Healing Lodge
agreements.
Aboriginal Healing Lodges place a strong emphasis on community involvement to
support offender reintegration. The surrounding Aboriginal communities should, therefore, be
viewed as an integral part of Healing Lodges. This evaluation examined the extent and the nature
of community engagement in Healing Lodge operations, along with the benefits that
collaborative relationships bring to offenders and the communities.
31
Person charges are incident charges associated with an individual inmate rather than those involving a group of
inmates.
32
No person charges were reported for Section 81 Healing Lodges, possibly due to the differences in procedures and
protocols.
33
Compared to women‟s multi-level security institutions, the rate of reported institutional incidents in the CSCoperated Healing Lodge was 20 times lower and the rate of person charges was 3.8 times lower.
34
Please note that the present evaluation report examines collaboration between Healing Lodges and Aboriginal
communities. Intergovernmental partnerships and collaboration with community partners, including those in the
context of Healing Lodges, will be covered in the overall SPAC evaluation.
61
Community awareness and acceptance
According to interview responses from key informants, community awareness of Healing
Lodges is high and has improved over time. This was reported by the majority (61%; n = 22) of
Healing Lodge staff and management interviewees and the majority of community
representatives interviewed. Importantly, interviewees noted that improvements in public
awareness occurred as a result of continued and increased efforts to educate community
members on the role and operations of Healing Lodges, particularly through regular dialogue
between Executive Directors and local band members and by providing opportunities for the
community to participate in open houses, ceremonies and other activities in the Healing Lodge.
High community awareness was similarly reported by interviewees from both Section 81 and
CSC-operated Healing Lodges.
Staff and management interviewee responses also suggested that community members
valued the opportunity to be informed about, and be engaged in, Healing Lodge activities, which
facilitated the acceptance of Healing Lodge residents within the community. Of note, all
community representatives and all Healing Lodge management interviewees agreed that
acceptance of offenders in the community had somewhat or significantly improved since the
establishment of the Healing Lodge. Offenders‟ active participation in community-based
activities was viewed as a contributing factor to this increase. Many interviewees, including most
community representatives, one-half (50%; n = 19) of offenders and one-fourth (25%; n = 9) of
Healing Lodge staff and management, provided positive examples of offender participation and
involvement in the provision of community services.
Community collaboration
Although interviewees suggested that there were high levels of community awareness
and acceptance as described above, the amount and nature of collaboration between Healing
Lodges and the surrounding communities appeared to vary significantly. Relationships were
notably different between surrounding communities and CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing
Lodges visited by the evaluation team for the purpose of this evaluation.35
35
Taking into consideration the unique operational environments of each Healing Lodges, conclusions drawn in this
section could not be generalized to the four Healing Lodges that were not visited by the evaluation team.
62
All community representatives and the majority (83%; n = 19) of staff members and
management interviewed from CSC-operated Healing Lodges identified positive collaboration
with the surrounding communities, describing these relationships as reciprocal and mutuallybeneficial. Interviewees particularly emphasised the significance of community involvement in
CSC-operated Healing Lodge governance and management, for example, through the Board of
Directors, Senate Advisory Committee or Citizenship Advisory Committee. These community
governance mechanisms were viewed as central to providing guidance and advice to Healing
Lodge management on the vision, operational issues and community interests related to the
Healing Lodge.
For Section 81 Healing Lodges, a smaller percentage of staff and management
interviewees from Section 81 Healing Lodges reported that positive, reciprocal collaboration
existed with the community. On the contrary, close to one-half (46%; n = 6) of staff and
management interviewees from Section 81 Healing Lodges reported limited community
collaboration and identified a need to enhance opportunities for community engagement to
support Healing Lodge operations and offender reintegration. It appears, therefore, that there
may be considerable differences in the extent to which each Healing Lodge has established
collaborative relationships with its surrounding community.
Despite the differences described above in the levels of collaboration between the
communities and Healing Lodges, the need to strengthen community contact and collaboration
was consistently expressed by the majority of community representatives and two-thirds (66%;
n = 23) of Healing Lodge staff members and management interviewed. Specifically, more than
half of interviewees from both Section 81 Healing Lodges (62%; n = 8) and CSC-operated
Healing Lodges (57%; n = 13) identified community engagement as an area of opportunity.
One method of strengthening community collaboration, identified by approximately onethird (32%; n = 7) of Healing Lodge staff members interviewed, included establishing diverse
partnerships by reaching out to surrounding communities, Aboriginal Bands, and community
groups (e.g., Association of Halfway Houses), other than those included in Healing Lodge
agreements. This perspective was supported by some Healing Lodge residents (18%; n = 7), who
commented on the need to access different Aboriginal communities and Elders to address their
specific cultural and ceremonial needs given their distinct Aboriginal backgrounds.
63
FINDING 17: Reciprocal relationships between Healing Lodges and the community help
offenders gain valuable skills to prepare for community living and provide the community
with economic and social benefits. The logistics of these relationships, however, can be
challenging, specifically regarding availability and training of community volunteers and
opportunities for temporary absences for offenders.
Aboriginal Healing Lodges are transitional facilities, designed to assist offenders in their
reintegration and to prepare them to return to the community in a manner consistent with public
safety. As such, the involvement of, and collaboration with, the surrounding community is a
valuable asset to Healing Lodge operations. As described below, both offenders and the
community appear to benefit from this collaboration.
Benefits for offenders
Previous reports highlighted the significance of reciprocal relationships to maintaining
positive collaboration between Healing Lodges and the community, wherein both the community
and the Healing Lodges benefited through an exchange of services (Delveaux et al., 2007;
Nafekh et al., 2006; Willow Cree Healing Lodge Joint Review Board, 2010). In the present
evaluation, Healing Lodge residents, staff members and management supported the importance
of community participation in their interview responses by rating it highly on a scale from 1 to
10. Specifically, average ratings for community involvement, proximity to an Aboriginal
community and community volunteers ranged between 7.7 and 8.7 across all Healing Lodge
interviewee groups. Community involvement, interest, and proximity to the Healing Lodge were
aspects deemed important for the healing process and for offender reintegration.
Similarly, Healing Lodge residents commented the importance of community contact
through CSC‟s temporary absence program. That is, more than one-half (55%; n = 21) of
offenders interviewed named the temporary absence program as one of the most important
aspects of the Healing Lodge. Of note, the rate-based analysis examining the rates of escorted
and unescorted temporary absences (ETAs/UTAs)36 for offenders in Healing Lodges and
comparison institutions revealed that Aboriginal men and women offenders in CSC-operated
Healing Lodges participated in CSC‟s temporary absence program more often than their
36
The following categories of temporary absences were included in the analyses: regular; community service;
family contact; parental; personal development; and, socialization. Medical, compassionate and administrative were
excluded from the analyses.
64
counterparts in minimum and multi-level security institutions.37 In contrast, Aboriginal men
offenders from Section 81 Healing Lodges were less likely than offenders in minimum and
multi-level security institutions to receive escorted temporary absences; however, were more
often provided with opportunities for unescorted temporary absences.
According to the information provided by Healing Lodge Executive Directors, residents,
staff members and community representatives, the majority of temporary absences fell into two
categories: namely, community service work and cultural activities. Community services not
only included maintenance of public areas and participation in community events, but also
educational community work, such as speaking engagements in schools, through which
offenders shared their life experiences with students. Offenders also had the opportunity to
participate in cultural community-based activities, such as picking medicines (e.g., sweet grass,
sage, etc.), maintaining ceremonial fires, and participating in pow-wows, round dances, sun
dances, and sweat ceremonies, as well as feasts, festivals, and various other community events.
To a lesser extent, offenders also participated in educational or personal leave in the community,
for example, to attend substance abuse management meetings or to use community recreational
facilities. Interviewed offenders specified the benefits that they received from interactions with
the community through the temporary absence program, citing connection with community
resources and establishing support networks, as well as reducing anxiety associated with
accessing the community following release.
In addition to providing access to community-based services to offenders, community
members also offered assistance within Healing Lodges. Information provided by Healing Lodge
Executive Directors indicated that local communities participated in Healing Lodge operations
by providing volunteers for escorts, as well as interacting with offenders on-site, such as through
cultural ceremonies and activities. Offenders indicated they valued the assistance provided by
community members.
Work releases in all Healing Lodges were lower than in minimum security institutions,
with the exception of the Healing Lodge for women. Minimum security facilities had a yearly
37
For Aboriginal men offenders, the rate of ETAs was 1.3 times greater and the rate of UTAs was 3.7 times greater
in CSC-operated Healing Lodges than minimum security institutions. For Aboriginal women offenders, the rate of
ETAs was 6.9 times greater and the rate of UTAs was 9.5 lower than in the CSC-operated Healing Lodge than in
women‟s multi-level security institutions, possibly due to the remote location of the Healing Lodge facility. Finally,
the rate of ETAs for offenders in Section 81 Healing Lodges was 1.5 times lower, whereas the rate of UTAs was 5.4
greater than in minimum security facilities for men
65
work release rate that was approximately eight times (8.3) that of CSC-operated Healing Lodges
and almost four times (3.6) that of Section 81 Healing Lodges. The CSC-operated Healing Lodge
for women, however, had a rate of work release that was over two times (2.2) that of minimum
security facilities for men. A high rate of work releases in the women‟s Healing Lodge was due
to a work release program in place to encourage employability and skills development. 38 Women
who were classified as minimum security with overall low risk were given an opportunity to
work at the local Salvation Army three days a week for 90 days. At any given time, there were
three to five women participating in the program.
Benefits for community
In addition to the benefits for Healing Lodge residents, the majority of community
representatives interviewed shared some of the ways in which the community benefited from
relationships with Healing Lodges. For example, offenders from the Healing Lodges perform
maintenance in the community, tending to cemeteries and preparing sites for funerals, as well as
helping with ceremonial fires and pow-wows. Interviewees also noted that some offenders
provide motivational speaking at local schools and to at-risk youths to share their stories and
experiences, which not only benefits the students, but the entire community. Healing Lodges also
provide valuable volunteer opportunities for community members interested in criminal justice
matters.
Apart from providing volunteer opportunities within Healing Lodges, the majority (83%;
n = 10) of Healing Lodge management and also the majority of community representatives
interviewed indicated that the Healing Lodge provided important employment opportunities for
local community members, employing individuals from the surrounding reserve communities to
assist in Healing Lodge operations. The proportion of Healing Lodge staff members reported to
be employed from surrounding reserve communities ranged from 5% to 65% in CSC-operated
Healing Lodges, and from 35% to 100% in Section 81 Healing Lodges.39
Finally, there are also potential benefits for communities in the long-term, as many
offenders aspire to eventually return to, and to become contributing members of, their
38
Telephone conversation with Veronica Sinclair, Ochimaw Ochi Healing Lodge, February 18, 2011.
At the time of this evaluation, Healing Lodge Executive Directors reported that Healing Lodges employed a total
of 102 members of reserve communities. CSC-operated Healing Lodges employed 67 members of surrounding
reserves, and Section 81 Healing Lodges employed 35 members.
39
66
communities. Of the offenders who were interviewed, more than one-third (39%; n = 15) shared
aspirations for the future. These aspirations often included sharing the knowledge they gained
from their experiences in a Healing Lodge, for example, through passing on Elder teachings or
teaching Aboriginal language classes. Also indicated was a desire to help others in their healing.
If realised, the potential contributions of successfully reintegrated offenders from Healing
Lodges could serve as a long-term benefit for Aboriginal communities.
Areas for Improvement
Some concerns arose from the interviews with regards to the logistics of establishing and
sustaining reciprocal relationships between Healing Lodges and the community. For example,
nearly one-half (42%; n = 16) of offenders cited a need for a greater utilization of the temporary
absence program. Offenders commented that there was instability with temporary absences, as
staff or volunteer escorts might not be available for scheduled absences, resulting in
cancellations or postponement of scheduled community-based activities. Offenders also noted
that the availability of escorts was higher on weekends and lower on weekdays when the
absences were more likely to take place. Similarly, transportation for temporary absences was
viewed as a challenge, in part due to the remote locations of several Healing Lodges. The ability
to provide a stable schedule of reintegration-focused temporary absences appeared to be linked
to the resources available to the Healing Lodge to bring in staff and community members to
escort offenders. This issue was discussed by over one-half (53%; n = 19) of Healing Lodge staff
members and management interviewed, who indicated that additional financial, staff, and
volunteer resources were required to facilitate the temporary absence program, and also to ensure
offender participation in community-based activities benefiting their healing and reintegration.
Previous Healing Lodge evaluation reports similarly highlighted the importance of offender
access to community resources, and documented a need for increased community-based
reintegration activities for offenders (e.g., Delveaux et al., 2007).
The security protocols for bringing members of the community into Healing Lodges were
also identified as a potential area for development by different interviewees groups. This was
predominantly associated with the length of time required to complete the security clearance
process. Training in escort procedures was also identified by few staff interviews as requiring
strengthening.
67
3.2.4. THEME FOUR: Correctional Results
Expected Result: Aboriginal Healing Lodges contribute to improving correctional results for
Aboriginal offenders.
Aboriginal Healing Lodges provide interventions and services that aim to enhance
offenders‟ potential for reintegration into the community. To ascertain the contributions of
Healing Lodges to the successful transition of Aboriginal offenders into the community, the
evaluation examined three categories of correctional outcomes, namely change in criminogenic
need indicators, rates of discretionary releases, and the likelihood of conditional release failure
(i.e., first return to federal custody after release and before sentence expiration). Relevant finding
are presented below and detailed statistical analyses and results are provided in Appendix E.
FINDING 18: Aboriginal offenders released from CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing
Lodges demonstrated greater improvements in criminogenic need indicators than
Aboriginal offenders released from comparison institutions. These results were strongest
for Aboriginal men released from CSC-operated Healing Lodges.
Previous research indicates that the number of criminogenic need areas with which
Aboriginal offenders present was found to be predictive of recidivism (Dowden & Serin, 2000;
Johnson, 2005; Sioui & Thibault, 2002). 40 Specifically, the greater the number of needs assessed
as some or considerable need, the more likely the offender is to return to custody. For example, a
Statistics Canada study (Johnson, 2005), using data from the Integrated Correctional Services
Survey for Saskatchewan, found that 39% of Aboriginal offenders assessed as having either no
needs or one need returned to correctional custody within a four-year follow-up period compared
to 51% of offenders with two to three needs, 66% of offenders with four needs and 75% of those
with five to six needs. The number of needs assessed also emerged as the best predictor of
recidivism in Sioui and Thibault‟s (2002) analysis of CSC‟s federal offenders, including for
40
Criminogenic needs are problem factors presented by individuals that are known to be related to criminal
behaviour. There are seven dynamic need areas included within the varies assessment tools used by CSC, including
employment, marital/family relationship, associated/social interactions, substance abuse, community functioning,
personal/emotional orientation, and attitudes.
68
Aboriginal offenders. Taken together, such findings suggest that addressing, and thereby
reducing, offenders‟ criminogenic needs can have a positive impact on their reintegration
outcomes.
In order to assess the impact of Healing Lodges, the evaluation included an assessment of
change in offenders‟ criminogenic need areas. Criminogenic need scores were taken from
assessments completed prior to an offender‟s admission to the releasing institution for Aboriginal
men and from intake assessments for Aboriginal women (refer to the Limitations section), and
immediately after their release into the community. Analyses were conducted for each of seven
criminogenic need areas, based on change, namely decrease, in each area of need between
assessments. Detailed distributions of need scores at pre- and post- assessments for Aboriginal
men and women offenders from Healing Lodges and comparison institutions are presented in
Appendix E. As discussed in the Methodology section, for statistical analyses examining the prepost difference on need assessment scores, the sample was limited to the cases that had their
needs assessed as “some” or “considerable” at pre-test.
Statistical analyses examining the proportion of need assessment ratings that improved
between the two assessments released that Aboriginal offenders released from Healing Lodges
generally demonstrated greater improvements in the areas of need than Aboriginal offenders
released from men‟s minimum and women‟s multi-level security institutions. The greatest
improvements were observed among Aboriginal men released from CSC-operated Healing
Lodges (refer to Table 6). More specifically, Aboriginal men released from CSC-operated
Healing Lodges demonstrated statistically significant improvements in six criminogenic need
areas, compared to Aboriginal men released from minimum security institutions. Aboriginal men
released from Section 81 Healing Lodges also demonstrated improvements in several need areas
compared to offenders released from minimum security institutions; however, these
improvements did not achieve statistical significance, possibly due to smaller sample sizes.
69
Table 6. Improvement in Crimininogenic Needs Areas among Aboriginal Men with Needs
Assessed as “Some” or “Considerable” at Pre-test.
Need Areas
Employment
Marital/Family
Social interactions
Substance abuse
Community functioning
Personal/Emotional
Attitude
CSC-operated Healing
Lodges
23%*** (n = 113)
22%* (n = 100)
24%*** (n = 118)
37%*** (n = 223)
20% (n = 57)
26%* (n = 158)
34%** (n = 110)
Section 81 Healing
Lodges
16% (n = 16)
22% (n = 23)
22% (n = 24)
31% (n = 45)
22% (n = 11)
25% (n = 39)
36% (n = 18)
Minimum Security
Institutions
14% (n = 117)
18% (n = 124)
15% (n = 123)
25% (n = 280)
15% (n = 59)
20% (n = 238)
25% (n = 130)
Source: OMS (2010).
Note: *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.
Similarly, Aboriginal women offenders released from the CSC-operated Healing Lodge
demonstrated some improvements in need areas, which reached statistical significance in the
personal/emotional need area, compared to Aboriginal women released from multi-level security
institutions (Table 7).
Table 7. Improvement in Crimininogenic Needs Areas among Aboriginal Women with
Needs Assessed as “Some” or “Considerable” at Pre-test.
Need Areas
Employment
Marital/Family
Social interactions
Substance abuse
Community functioning
Personal/Emotional
Attitude
CSC-operated Healing Lodge
15% (n = 24)
20% (n = 28)
19% (n = 27)
28% (n = 49)
12% (n = 6)
29%* (n = 48)
35% (n = 18)
Multi-level Security Institutions
15% (n = 81)
16% (n = 71)
19% (n = 89)
23% (n = 126)
10% (n = 27)
20% (n = 107)
25% (n = 55)
Source: OMS (2010).
Note: *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.
Overall, some level of improvement was found in criminogenic need areas for Aboriginal
men and women released from CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges, compared to
Aboriginal men released from minimum security institutions and Aboriginal women released
from multi-level security institutions. Similar improvements were reported in an examination of
the CSC-operated Pê Sâkâstêw Centre (Trevethan et al., 2007). This examination found that the
residents of the Centre showed significant improvements in several criminogenic areas, namely
70
substance abuse, personal/ emotional, marital/family interaction, and associates/social
interactions.
FINDING 19: Aboriginal men and women offenders from CSC-operated Healing Lodges
were more likely to be granted discretionary release than Aboriginal offenders released
from minimum security institutions for men and multi-level security institutions for
women. Conversely, offenders from Section 81 Healing Lodges were more likely to be
released on statutory release.
Previous studies have found that the type of conditional release was in general associated
with recidivism risk for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders (Didenko et al., 2010; Sioui &
Thibault, 2002). Specifically, offenders who were granted discretionary release (day or full
parole) were significantly less likely to return to federal custody compared to offenders released
on statutory release. This evaluation examined the number and type of conditional releases
granted to residents of Healing Lodges and comparison institutions.41 The pattern of results,
however, varied between different comparison groups.
Aboriginal Men
The majority of Aboriginal offenders released from CSC-operated Healing Lodges (70%;
n = 422) and minimum security institutions (69%; n = 834) were released on day parole (see
Table 8). By contrast, nearly one-half (48%; n = 71) of conditional releases from Section 81
Healing Lodges were statutory releases.
Table 8. First Conditional Releases of Aboriginal Men.
Day Parole
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
N
422
69
834
%
70%
46%
69%
Full Parole
N
30
9
42
%
5%
6%
3%
Statutory Release
N
148
71
339
%
25%
48%
28%
Source: OMS (2010).
41
All analyses in this section were restricted to an offender‟s first release from a Healing Lodge or a comparison
institution.
71
Statistical analyses revealed that, after accounting for differences in offender profiles of
overall need and motivation levels assessed prior to the offender‟s transfer, Aboriginal offenders
from CSC-operated Healing Lodges were 0.7 times less likely to be released on statutory release
than Aboriginal offenders from minimum security institutions. Furthermore, Aboriginal
offenders from Section 81 Healing Lodges were 2.2 times more likely to be released on statutory
release than Aboriginal offenders from minimum security institutions. Although no conclusion
could be drawn as to the reasons for a significantly higher proportion of non-discretionary
releases from Section 81 facilities, one-half (54%; n = 7) of staff and management interviewees
from Section 81 Healing Lodges noted a need to improve communication with institutional and
community case management teams. Some Section 81 Healing Lodge residents similarly pointed
to the difficulties they had experienced with release planning and irregular contacts with CSC
parole officers.
In the specific case of releases to Aboriginal communities under section 84 of the CCRA,
a CSC evaluation (Jensen & Nafekh, 2009b) identified that, although Parole Officers were
required to undertake activities involved in the development of the section 84 release plan and
application, these activities were not performed. Further, the evaluation noted specific barriers to
a successful section 84 release planning process, such as completing section 84 release
applications and the community not supporting an offender‟s release. Previous evaluation of
Section 81 Healing Lodges, namely Stan Daniels Healing Centre (Nafekh et al., 2006) and
O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi Healing Lodge (Delveaux et al., 2007), also highlighted the importance of
the temporary release program for the release planning process, while one-half (54%; n = 7) of
Section 81 staff and management interviewees commented on the difficulties they experienced
providing these opportunities and one-half (50%; n = 6) of Section 81 residents interviewed
would like to see improvements in this area. Rate-based analyses of CSC‟s temporary absence
program discussed in Theme Three revealed that Aboriginal men offenders from Section 81
Healing Lodges were granted notably fewer escorted temporary absences than Aboriginal
offenders in CSC-operated Healing Lodges or minimum security institutions.
72
Aboriginal Women
The majority (84%; n = 128) of Aboriginal women offenders from the CSC-operated
Healing Lodge for women were released on day parole, compared to 65% (n = 288) of
Aboriginal women released on day parole from multi-level security institutions (see Table 9).
Table 9. First Conditional Release of Aboriginal Women.
Day Parole
Full Parole
Statutory Release
CSC Healing Lodge
N
128
%
84%
N
10
%
7%
N
15
%
10%
Multi-level Security Institution
288
65%
20
5%
133
30%
Source: OMS (2010).
Aboriginal women released from the CSC-operated Healing Lodge exhibited higher
levels of motivation and reintegration potential as assessed at intake than women from multilevel security institutions. Statistical analyses revealed that, after accounting for these
differences, the likelihood of receiving a discretionary release was still greater for women from
the Healing Lodge. Specifically, Aboriginal women were over 0.3 times less likely to be released
on statutory release than Aboriginal women from multi-level security institutions.
FINDING 20: Conditional releases from CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges
were as likely to be maintained in the community as conditional releases from minimum
security institutions for men and multi-level security institutions for women.
As part of the evaluation, the impact of Healing Lodges on conditional release failure
outcomes (i.e., return to federal custody after release prior to sentence expiration) was examined
for Aboriginal offenders. The evaluation included two measures of conditional release failure
outcomes for Aboriginal men and women offenders - general returns to federal custody and
returns to federal custody with a new offence. More specifically, analyses examined the effect of
the type of correctional facility, namely Healing Lodges, men‟s minimum security and women‟s
multi-level security institutions, on conditional release failure after having determined and
accounted for the impact of other influential factors known to be associated with offenders
returning to custodial supervision (see for example, Gendreau et al., 1996; Johnson, 2005 or refer
to the Methodology section).
73
Aboriginal Men
Statistical analyses confirmed that the type of correctional facility from which offenders
were released was not associated with the risk of conditional release failure for Aboriginal men.
Conditional releases from CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges were as likely to be
maintained in the community as conditional release from minimum security institutions (refer to
Table 10). Of note, other factors, such as a man‟s age at release, type of release (discretionary
versus non-discretionary), previous involvement with the federal correctional system, and levels
of overall need and reintegration potential assessed prior to release, were found to be
significantly associated with the likelihood of returning to federal custody. Specifically,
conditional releases among Aboriginal offenders who were granted discretionary release and had
higher levels of reintegration potential were less likely to fail (i.e., offender returned to federal
custody) than conditional releases among Aboriginal offenders on statutory release or those who
had lower levels of reintegration potential. Conditional releases among Aboriginal offenders who
had previous federal sentences and higher need levels were more likely to fail than conditional
releases among Aboriginal offenders without a previous federal sentence and with lower levels
of overall need.
Table 10. Cox Regression Analysis Results for Aboriginal Men.
χ
Block 1
Age at Release
Type of Release
Previous Offending
Reintegration Potential
Need Level
Block 2
CSC-operated Healing
Lodge
Section 81 Healing Lodge
2
Any Return
Hazard Ratio
χ
2
New Offence
Hazard Ratio
148.27***
45.13***
63.82***
48.93***
5.40*
0.959
0.650
1.253
0.653
1.133
86.47***
19.31***
38.63***
56.58***
a
-
0.946
0.631
1.326
0.514
2.75
1.112
0.39
1.068
3.07
0.813
1.56
0.786
Note: Block 1 and Block 2 models were statistically reliable and predicted risk of general conditional release failure
and conditional release failure with a new offence better than the null model (see Appendix E for details). Model 2
parameters are presented in the table. a the variable was removed from the statistical model as it did not contribute
significantly to the analysis.
*p < .05, ***p < .001.
74
Aboriginal Women
Conditional releases concerning Aboriginal women were contrasted between releases
from CSC‟s only Healing Lodge for women offenders and women‟s multi-level security
institutions. Similar to the analyses for Aboriginal men, statistical analyses determined that the
type of correctional facility from which offenders were released was not associated with the risk
of conditional release failure for Aboriginal women (Table 11). Conditional releases from the
CSC-operated Healing Lodge for women were as likely to be maintained in the community as
conditional releases from women‟s multi-level security institutions. As shown in Table 11,
factors such as a woman‟s age at release, type of release, previous involvement with the federal
correctional system, and levels of reintegration potential, motivation and overall need assessed
prior to release were associated with the likelihood of returning to federal custody. That is,
conditional releases among Aboriginal women offenders released on day or full parole and with
higher levels of motivation and reintegration potential were less likely to fail than conditional
releases among Aboriginal women on statutory release and those with lower levels of motivation
and reintegration potential. Conversely, conditional releases among Aboriginal women offenders
who had previously had a federal sentence and had higher levels of overall need were more
likely to fail than conditional releases among Aboriginal women without a previous federal
sentence and lower levels of need.
Table 11. Cox Regression Analysis Results for Aboriginal Women.
χ
Block 1
Age at Release
Type of Release
Previous Offending
Reintegration Potential
Motivation
Need Level
Block 2
CSC Healing Lodge
2
Any Return
Hazard Ratio
χ
2
New Offence
Hazard Ratio
22.54***
17.47***
6.05*
4.67*
12.12***
11.64***
0.971
0.650
1.213
0.823
0.758
1.423
10.60**
a
a
18.24***
a
a
-
0.958
2.04
0.850
0.00
0.991
0.537
Note: Block 1 and Block 2 models were statistically reliable and predicted risk of general conditional release failure
and conditional release failure with a new offence better than the null model (see Appendix E for details). Model 2
parameters are presented in the table.
a
the variable was removed from the statistical model as it did not contribute significantly to the analysis.
*p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001
75
Summary
Analyses of correctional outcomes indicated that Aboriginal men and women offenders
released from CSC-operated Healing Lodges demonstrated improvements in criminogenic needs
areas and were predominantly granted discretionary releases. Aboriginal men offenders released
from Section 81 Healing Lodges also demonstrated improvements in some criminogenic need
areas; however, were more likely to be release on statutory release than Aboriginal offenders
from minimum security institutions. Importantly, neither type of Healing Lodge was found to
contribute to reducing the likelihood of failure while on conditional release in the community for
Aboriginal offenders, when compared to men‟s minimum security institutions and women‟s
multi-level security institutions. Similar results were previously reported for a CSC-operated
Healing Lodge by Trevethan and colleagues (2007) and for Section 81 Healing Lodges by
Nafekh and colleagues (2006). This could in part be attributed to the lack of community supports
available to released offenders to facilitate their reintegration, particularly within Aboriginal
communities. For example, 58% (n = 21) of Healing Lodge staff and management interviewees
suggested that community engagement should be enhanced. As previously discussed, a greater
focus on life and employment skills, and increased opportunities for employment in the
community were necessary to support the successful and safe transition of Aboriginal offenders
back into the community.
3.2.5. THEME FIVE: Economy
Expected Result: Healing Lodges are cost-effective and cost-efficient, and demonstrate value for
money.
CSC directly operates four Aboriginal Healing Lodges, including one for women, and
provides funding to four Section 81 Healing Lodges managed by Aboriginal communities
according to their agreements. Of note, Section 81 Healing Lodges may also house provincial
offenders and federal offenders on community supervision, including under section 84 of the
CCRA; however, only the costs related to incarcerated federal offenders were included in the
cost analyses presented below. Information for fiscal year 2009/2010 was used for cost analyses.
FINDING 21: Section 81 Healing Lodges are a cost-effective option for offenders seeking
culturally-focused reintegration.
76
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
To analyze the cost-effectiveness of Healing Lodges, CSC-operated and Section 81
Healing Lodges were compared to CSC minimum security facilities for men and to multi-level
security facilities for women in terms of COMO. COMO provides the estimated cost of
maintaining an offender within the federal correctional system, which was used to calculate
program effectiveness.
The average COMO in CSC-operated Healing Lodges in 2009/2010 was $167,800 for
men‟s facilities and $218,545 for the women‟s Healing Lodge facility. While the cost per bed in
CSC-operated Healing Lodges for men was significantly higher than the annual cost of $95,038
per bed for CSC minimum security facilities for men, it was less than the cost of $211,093 per
bed for CSC multi-level security facilities for women (Table 12). The higher costs of CSCoperated Healing Lodges may be attributable in part to the considerably smaller bed capacity,
compared to CSC minimum security facilities for men. Healing Lodges also offered cultural and
spiritual services that required additional resources, thereby increasing the overall cost of
operating a Healing Lodge.
Table 12: Synopsis of Cost of Maintaining an Offender, 2009/2010.
CSC-operated Healing Lodges (men only)
Minimum security Institution (men only)
CSC-operated Healing Lodge for Women
Multi-level Security Institution (women only)
FY 2009/2010
$167,800
$95,038
$218,545
$211,093
Source: IFMMS (2010) and Public Safety Canada (2010).
The average annual cost per bed in Section 81 Healing Lodges in 2009/2010 was
$99,446. This was calculated using the annual cost per bed based on the average cost per bed
stipulated in Section 81 agreements, which was then adjusted to reflect the average bed
occupancy level of 48% in Section 81 facilities (Table 13).
77
Table 13: Section 81 Healing Lodge Cost per Offender with Adjustment, 2009/2010.
FY 2009/2010
Average Cost for Section 81 Healing Lodges as per Agreement
Average Bed Occupancy for Section 81 Healing Lodges
Average Cost for Section 81 Healing Lodges (adjusted as a function of occupancy
rates)
Source: Section 81 agreements, OMS (2010) and IFMMS (2010).
$47,734
48%
$99,446
As reported in Theme Four, the evaluation found community correctional outcomes for
offenders who resided in CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing Lodges to be commensurate with
outcomes for offenders in minimum security institutions for men and multi-level security
institutions for women. Specifically, the evaluation found no difference in the likelihood of
returning to federal custody for offenders residing in Healing Lodges, minimum security
institutions for men and multi-level security institutions for women. When proceeding to a costeffectiveness analysis for a program, a ratio is typically created, using costs and effects in
producing outcomes in comparison to one or many alternative(s). However, given that in the
present case all alternatives had comparable effectiveness, the ratios were not calculated and the
comparisons were based on annual costs of maintaining an offender in these facilities.
Overall, based on the occupancy costs adjusted for occupancy levels and the analysis of
community correctional outcomes, Section 81 Healing Lodges were found to be a cost-effective
alternative for offenders seeking Aboriginal-focused reintegration.
Cost-Efficiency Analysis
According to the TBS Policy on Evaluation (2009), cost-efficiency is the extent to which
resources are used such that a greater level of output is produced with the same level of input, or
a lower level of input is used to produce the same level of output. For the purpose of this
evaluation, efficiency is measured using bed occupancy rates as well as financial information
obtained from COMO and the signed agreements.
Section 81 Healing Lodges were found to be comparable to minimum security
institutions in terms of cost per offender and a more cost-effective option when compared to
CSC-operated Healing Lodges and multi-level security institutions for women. Notably, the
actual bed occupancy levels in both Section 81 and CSC-operated Healing Lodges were not at
78
full capacity. Additional calculations were performed to examine opportunities for increasing
cost-efficiency of Healing Lodges by increasing the bed occupancy rate and maintaining the
same level of operating expenditures.
There is potential to improve the cost-efficiency of CSC-operated and Section 81 Healing
Lodges if the bed occupancy levels were increased to maximum capacity; however, opportunities
for increasing efficiencies and lowering the cost of maintaining an offender within Healing
Lodges should be considered in light of the small economy of scale (i.e., the number of beds
available in Healing Lodges) and also the number of Aboriginal offenders requesting and eligible
for transfer to a Healing Lodge.
Conclusion
The present evaluation revealed several important considerations regarding the operations
and the impact of CSC‟s Healing Lodges. First, results from Healing Lodges are generally
comparable to, or slightly better than, those achieved by minimum security institutions for men
and multi-level security institutions for women. Second, there are several challenges that prevent
Healing Lodges from operating at maximum capacity; one of the most prominent such area is the
small number of Aboriginal offenders assessed at minimum security level. Finally, Section 81
Healing Lodges were found to be a cost-effective option for offenders seeking culturally-focused
reintegration; however, areas of release planning, collaboration with Aboriginal communities and
offender participation in community-based activities through CSC‟s temporary absence program
require strengthening. The full evaluation of the Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections will
further examine issues that concern, or have an impact on, Aboriginal Healing Lodges. Some of
these areas will include Aboriginal offender security classification, the application of Gladue
principles in correctional decision-making, the complementarity and interrelatedness of all
initiatives and services included in the Aboriginal Continuum of Care, collaboration with
multiple partners in the context of Aboriginal corrections, and correctional results pertaining to
the gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders.
79
4.
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APPENDICES
Appendix A: SPAC Evaluation Matrix
Evaluation Core Issue: Relevance
Key Results
Expected Outcomes
Issue 1:
Continued need
for interventions
and services
offered as part of
SPAC
Interventions and services
offered as part of SPAC
continue to address a
demonstrable need within
federal corrections and are
responsive to the needs of
Aboriginal offenders
Issue 2:
Alignment with
government
priorities
The objectives of SPAC are
consistent with federal
government priorities and
departmental strategic
outcomes
Issue 3:
Alignment with
federal roles and
responsibilities
CSC and the government
have a legitimate role in the
delivery of interventions and
services offered as part of
SPAC
Performance Indicators
Representation/profile of
Aboriginal offenders under
CSC‟s jurisdiction (#s and
proportions, trends over
time)
% of Aboriginal offenders
compared to % of Aboriginal
peoples in Canada (over
time)
Stakeholder perceptions of
the need and rationale for
SPAC interventions and
services
Results reflected in the
literature with regards to the
effectiveness of Aboriginalspecific interventions
Congruency between SPAC
and federal government
priorities
Congruency between SPAC
and CSC strategic priorities
& Transformation Agenda
Stakeholder perceptions as
to the consistency between
government priorities, CSC
strategic outcomes & SPAC
objectives
Link between SPAC
objectives and CSC
mandate/ legislation
Link between SPAC and
Government of Canada‟s
priorities
Stakeholder perceptions
regarding the role of federal
gov‟t and CSC in providing
services for Aboriginal
offenders
Environmental scan of
existing services available to
Aboriginal offenders
managed by other
organizations/ jurisdictions
in Canada and
internationally, and potential
links to SPAC interventions
Information Sources
Offender Management
System (OMS)
Document and Literature
Reviews
Key Informant
Interviews/Survey
CSC projections
Environmental scan of
Aboriginal corrections
services
Review of SPAC
documentation
Review of CSC strategic
outcomes
Review of Government of
Canada priorities and
documents (e.g., budget,
Speech from the Throne,
Aboriginal Horizontal
Framework)
Key informant
interviews/survey
Review of SPAC
documentation
Review of CSC
mandate/legislation
Review of Government of
Canada documents
Environmental Scan of
Aboriginal Corrections
Services
Key informant
interviews/survey
88
& services
Evaluation Core Issue: Performance (Effectiveness, Efficiency and Economy)
Key Results
Issue 4:
Achievement of
expected
outcomes
Expected Outcomes
Performance Indicators
Information Sources
Theme 1: Continuum of Care
Aboriginal offender
assessments completed and
healing plans developed
Increased availability of
Aboriginal-specific
interventions and services at
CSC (in the institution and
the community)
Aboriginal offenders are
appropriately
assigned/enrolled in CSC
interventions
Aboriginal intake
questionnaire, Aboriginal social
history and Elder reviews
(progress reports) are completed
Aboriginal offenders are
aware of their rights under
CCRA
Healing plans are developed
and integrated in correctional
plans, in accordance with CSC
policies
Aboriginal offenders are
committed to their healing plans
and follow their paths to healing
# of Elders (Elder/ offender
ratio per Region, institution)
Change in Elders‟ and
Aboriginal staff‟ roles &
responsibilities
# and type of Aboriginalspecific interventions developed
and implemented in institution
& community
# of CSC staff (i.e., ACPOs)
trained and delivering
Aboriginal-specific
interventions
# of offenders
assigned/waitlisted in
Aboriginal-specific
interventions
# of Aboriginal-specific
positions created and filled (e.g.,
ACDO, ALO); job profiles &
funding formulas
# of Elders on contract
(Elder/offender ratio)
Type and scope of services
provided by Elders
Healing Lodges and
Pathways Units occupancy rates
Assessment of the extent to
which Aboriginal offenders are
appropriately assigned to
interventions (e.g., match of
correctional interventions with
criminogenic needs; assignment
to Aboriginal-specific vs
Document/file review
OMS
Review of audit (incl.
intake assessment) and
evaluation reports
Key informant
interviews/survey
OPI data
OMS
HRMS
OPI data
Key informant
interviews/survey
Focus group
OMS
Key informant
interviews/survey
File Review
Review of previous
evaluation and research
reports
89
Aboriginal offender
criminogenic needs are
addressed through
appropriate Aboriginalspecific interventions and
services
Increase in the transfers to
lower security levels and
healing lodges (CSC-run and
s.81 agreements ) for
Aboriginal offenders
Increase in conditional
release applications
presented to NPB (including
preparation of s.84 release
plans) and in positive parole
decisions
mainstream programming)
CSC staff, Elder and
offender perspectives of the
appropriateness of assignments
# of offenders enrolled/
completing Aboriginal-specific
interventions (completion and
drop-out rates)
Comparison of correctional
outcomes for Aboriginal
offenders participating in
Aboriginal-specific and
mainstream interventions and
services (e.g., successful parole
applications, % of sentence
served in the community under
supervision, conditional release
failure)
Offender, Elder and CSC
staff perspectives of the extent
to which Aboriginal-specific
interventions (including
correctional programs, cultural
living environments, cultural
and spiritual interventions)
address Aboriginal offender
criminogenic needs
Offender, Elder and CSC
staff perspectives of the extent
to Aboriginal offender spiritual
well-being are supported
through Aboriginal-specific
interventions and services
# and % of Aboriginal
offenders transferred to lower
security levels and healing
lodges
# of placements and waitlists
to s.81 facilities
Healing lodge bed utilization
rates
Comparison of conditional
release failure rates among
Aboriginal offenders released
from Healing Lodges and
minimum security institutions
Stakeholder perspectives of
the effectiveness of s.81
facilities
# of s.84 release plans
initiated, completed and
presented to NBP
# of Aboriginal communities
participating in s.84 release
planning (e.g., letters of
OMS
Review of CSC
documentation, particularly
past evaluation and research
studies relating to
interventions/services
subsumed under SPAC
Key informant
interviews/survey
Focus group
Review of CSC
documentation
OMS
Review of previous
evaluation reports
Key informant
interviews/survey
OMS
Review of CSC
documentation, including
letters of agreement
Review of previous
evaluation reports
90
Community support
mechanisms to sustain
offender progress
(before/after WED)
established
agreements)
# and % of positive parole
decisions, including those on
s.84 release plans (i.e., # of
offenders released to Aboriginal
communities)
Comparison of conditional
release failure rates among
Aboriginal offenders released to
Aboriginal communities (s.84)
vs other types of release and
successful completion of
# of Escorted Temporary
Absences for reintegration
purposes (e.g., community
service, personal development,
such as medicine picking,
festivals/ceremonies)
Type and nature of support
mechanisms established in
Aboriginal communities to
sustain offender progress
Stakeholder perceptions of
the effectiveness of existing
community supports and
potential ways to improve them
OPI records
OMS
Review of previous
evaluation reports
Key informant interviews/
survey
Theme 2: Collaboration
A coordinated approach
to Aboriginal corrections
exists within CSC
A coordinated approach
to Aboriginal corrections
exists government-wide
Inclusion and implementation of
Aboriginal-specific strategies and
targets in Sector/Branch
work/action plans
CSC stakeholder perceptions of
the degree of coordination /
governance regarding the
implementation of SPAC within
CSC
AID inclusion and
representation on committees and
contributions to the work of CSC
sectors
Evidence of links/ cooperation/
joint initiatives/ actions
interdepartmentally (e.g., with
NPB, Public Safety, Justice,
Service Canada, Heads of
Corrections, non-government
organizations)
Stakeholder perceptions on the
need for and effectiveness of
partnerships
AID representation on
committees and contributions to
the work of CSC partners
Review of National
Actions Plans on Aboriginal
Corrections (NAPAC),
Aboriginal Corrections
Accountability Framework
Templates (1st round of
implementation to be available
in the Fall of 2010)
Review of SPAC
documentation
Key informant interviews/
survey
OPI data
Document review
Key informant interviews/
survey
OPI
91
Aboriginal stakeholders
are engaged in Aboriginal
corrections (Note:
involvement at the system
level, not service
delivery/community level)
# and type of links/ partnerships
established between CSC and
Aboriginal organizations in the
context of Aboriginal corrections
(excl. s.81 and 84 of the CCRA)
Role of Aboriginal Advisory
Committees
Stakeholder perceptions of the
degree of inclusion / integration of
Aboriginal stakeholders in
Aboriginal corrections and areas of
potential collaboration
Stakeholder perceptions of the
degree of Aboriginal stakeholders‟
capacity to be involved in
Aboriginal corrections
Number and types of contacts
initiated and maintained by RAAI
with Aboriginal stakeholders
Review of CSC
documentations (e.g., minutes
from RAAC and NAAC
meetings, previous
evaluations, etc.)
OPI data
Key informant interviews /
survey
Focus group
Theme 3: CSC Corporate Services (Systemic Barriers)
CSC‟s governance
structure of Aboriginal
corrections enhanced
Policies to support SPAC
established to ensure
Aboriginal offenders are
released at the earliest
possible time in their
sentences
Planning, reporting and
accountability
Approval of SPAC and
establishment of clear governance
structure for Aboriginal corrections
Stakeholder perceptions on the
effectiveness of established
governance structures
Policies and procedures are in
place and followed by staff
members (e.g., case management
policies: completion of Social
History; offenders informed and
interest established in ss.81, 84 OMS)
Regional guides are developed
to operationalize policies as per CD
requirements, approved by AID
DG
References are made to needs/
requirements for Aboriginal
offender & Gladue principles s in
CSC policies/procedures
# of Elder- and communityassisted hearings
Issues/grievances / complaints
raised by Aboriginal offenders (#
and nature of grievances)
# of parole waivers for
Aboriginal offenders
# and % of Aboriginal offenders
released at Statutory Release
Planning and reporting
requirements for SPAC established
OMS
OPI data
OCI reports and
recommendations
Key informant
interviews/survey
Document review (incl.
Commissioner‟s Directives)
Review of relevant
evaluation and audit reports
OMS (incl. NPB data)
OPI data
Document review
92
mechanisms identified
Aboriginal human
resources increased
Cultural competency
throughout CSC
increased
Performance reporting is
ongoing
Specific performance
requirements and targets are
included in EX performance
agreements [RDC, SDC, Excom
members]
Results reported in DPRs
Degree to which Aboriginalspecific issues are discussed and
considered at executive levels
HR policies/plans are in place
CSC employment equity
commitments
# and % of Aboriginal staff
recruited at all levels
# of Aboriginal-specific
positions created and filled
Retention/turnover rates of
Aboriginal employees and in
Aboriginal-specific positions
Work loads (ACDOs, ALOs,
etc.)
Case management policies
(changes in roles and
responsibilities, e.g., Elders,
ACDOs)
Expectations for cultural
competency outlined in hiring
plans/practices
# and % of CSC staff
participating in cultural sensitivity
training/activities (e.g., Aboriginal
Perceptions Training; Aboriginal
Day activities)
Training evaluation forms
# and type of CSC
communications/ awareness
campaigns on Aboriginal culture
and issues
Review of the Aboriginal
Corrections Accountability
Framework and Template
(incl. results reported in the 1st
year of implementation)
Review of previous
evaluation and audit reports
EXCOM & CMT minutes
Key informant interviews/
survey
HRMS data
Document review (incl.
Strategic Plan for Aboriginal
Human Resource
Management, CDs)
OPI data
Key informant interviews/
survey
Analysis of job profiles
changes for CSC staff and
contracted service providers
HRMS data
Corporate communications
OPI data
Review of CDs and CSC
documentation
Key informant interviews /
survey
Theme 4: Gap in Correctional Results
The gaps in correctional
results between
Aboriginal and nonAboriginal offenders
have been decreased and
correctional results
improved
% of Aboriginal offenders
under CSC‟s jurisdiction over time
% of Aboriginal offenders
incarcerated vs in the community
Aboriginal offenders‟ initial
security classification (maximum,
medium and minimum)
Transfers to lower security
levels
NPB parole grant rates; types of
conditional release
OMS
Review of past evaluation
and research reports
93
Rates of parole waivers
Rates of return to custody
during periods of conditional
release – pre-WED (with/without a
new offence)
Rates of recidivism post-WED
Evaluation Core Issue: Performance
Key Results
Issue 5:
Demonstration of
Efficiency and
Economy
Expected Outcomes
SPAC demonstrates
value-for-money
Performance Indicators
Outputs/outcomes effectively
achieved within available resources
Comparison of benefits/costs of
specific initiatives to benefits/costs
if they did not exist
Stakeholder perceptions of
potential changes that might lead to
greater efficiencies or potential
alternative delivery approaches
Review of costing options, if
feasible
Information Sources
OMS
Review of financial data
related to SPAC
Cost-analyses
Review of costeffectiveness results from
previous studies
Environmental scan of
Aboriginal services
Key informant
survey/interviews
94
Appendix B: Detailed Sample Composition and Participant Profile
1. Study Groups for Quantitative Analyses
Table B1. Ratings for First Assessment of Risk, Need, Motivation and Reintegration
Potential before Transfer to Facility (for men release group)
Low
Risk
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
Need
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
Motivation
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
Reintegration
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
Moderate
%
n
%
n
82
18
224
10%
10%
14%
387
94
739
62
18
149
7%
9%
9%
40
6
56
113
24
197
High
n
%
46%
48%
45%
365
84
679
44%
43%
41%
380
99
875
46%
50%
53%
392
79
618
47%
40%
37%
5%
3%
3%
377
76
802
46%
39%
50%
2411
113
752
50%
58%
47%
14%
12%
12%
478
111
859
58%
57%
53%
237
60
554
29%
31%
34%
Risk χ2 (4, N = 2796) = 9.40, ns.
Need χ2 (4, N =2796 ) = 20.26, p < .001.
Motivation χ2 (4, N =2796 ) = 13.25 , p < .01.
Reintegration Potential χ2 (4, N =2796 ) = 8.75, ns.
95
Table B2. Ratings for First Assessment of Risk, Need, Motivation and Reintegration
Potential at Intake (for women release group)
Low
Moderate
n
%
Risk
CSC Healing Lodge
54
23%
Multi-level security
146
17%
institutions
Need
CSC Healing Lodge
12
5%
Multi-level security
28
3%
institutions
Motivation
CSC Healing Lodge
8
3%
Multi-level security
75
9%
institutions
Reintegration
CSC Healing Lodge
54
23%
Multi-level security
271
31%
institutions
Risk χ2 (2, N = 1115) = 5.50, ns.
Need χ2 (2, N =1115) = 2.19, ns.
Motivation χ2 (2, N =1115) = 28.82, p < .001.
Reintegration Potential χ2 (2, N =1115) = 6.15, p < .05.
High
n
%
n
%
102
422
44%
48%
77
314
33%
36%
90
337
39%
38%
131
517
56%
59%
78
420
33%
48%
147
387
63%
44%
80
299
34%
34%
99
312
42%
35%
Men Release Group: Characteristics and Proportion of Aboriginal Men Offenders
Table B3. Sentence Type (Determinate or Indeterminate)
Determinate
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
n
790
193
1,610
Indeterminate
%
93%
95%
93%
n
63
11
129
%
7%
5%
7%
χ2 (2, N = 2796) = 0.57, ns.
Table B4. Aboriginal Ethnicity
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
North American
n
%
678
79%
147
72%
1,139
66%
χ2 (2, N = 2796) = 60.55, p < .001.
96
Table B5. Offender Sentence Length (in Days) and Time in Releasing Institution
Sentence Length
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
Time in Releasing Institution
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
n
Mean
Std
Median
790
193
1,610
1457.39
1602.23
1564.63
1823.41
1312.88
1293.26
1096
1125
1096
845
196
1,715
212.14
198.60
271.50
193.72
244.91
284.10
173
153
189
Sentence Length ANOVA F(2, 2692) = 1.62, ns.
Time in releasing institution ANOVA F(2, 2753) = 19.03, ns.
Women Release Group: Characteristics and Proportion of Aboriginal Women Offenders
Table B6. Sentence Type (Determinate or Indeterminate)
Determinate
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level Security Institutions
n
227
880
Indeterminate
%
97%
99%
n
6
12
%
3%
1%
χ2 (2, N = 1.77) = 1.77, ns.
Table B7. Aboriginal Ethnicity
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security institutions
North American
n
%
168
72%
604
68%
χ2 (2, N = 2796) = 60.55, p < .001.
Table B8. Offender Sentence Length and Time in Releasing Institution
Sentence Length
CSC Healing Lodges
Multi-level security institutions
Time in Releasing Institution
CSC Healing Lodges
Multi-level security institutions
n
Mean
Std
Median
227
880
1187.22
1137.25
682.66
721.86
915
912
223
857
254.68
260.90
207.12
224.97
218
186
Sentence Length ANOVA F (1, 1105) = .88, ns.
Time in releasing institution ANOVA F (1, 1078) = .14, ns.
97
2. Healing Lodge Interviews
Healing Lodge Staff and Management Profiles
In total, 36 staff and management representatives from CSC and Section 81 Healing
Lodges were interviewed (Willow Cree Healing Lodge, n = 12; Kwìkwèxwelhp Healing Lodge,
n=10; Waseskun Healing Centre, n = 9; Prince Albert Grand Council Spiritual Healing Lodge,
n = 5). Interviewees were from the Prairie (47%, n = 17), Pacific (28%, n = 10) and Quebec
(25%, n = 9) Regions. The majority of staff and management interviewees represented CSCoperated Healing Lodges (61%, n = 22), whereas 39% (n = 14) of respondents were from Section
81 Healing Lodges. On average, staff and management interviewees reported working at the
Healing Lodges for approximately six years. Of all management and staff respondents, 25%
(n = 9) indicated that they had previously worked in a CSC institution prior to working at a
Healing Lodge.
Interviewees from CSC-operated Healing Lodges included Aboriginal Liaison Officers,
Aboriginal Correctional Program Officers, Institutional Parole Officers, Caseworkers,
Correctional Officers, Managers of Assessment and Intervention, Program Managers,
Correctional Managers, Executive Directors and Wardens. Positions reported by Section 81
Healing Lodges included Aboriginal Liaison Officers, Case Managers and Elders‟ Helpers.
Fifty-eight percent of staff interviewees (n = 14) indicated that they identified as
Aboriginal, where 57% (n = 8) represented CSC-operated Healing Lodges and 43% (n = 6)
represented Section 81 Healing Lodges. The majority of staff members were of First Nations
descent (86%, n = 12).
Healing Lodge Residents Profiles
In total, 38 men offenders were interviewed. The majority (92%, n = 35) self-identified as
Aboriginal, and more specifically, as First Nations (89%; n = 31). Participants had resided in
either of four Healing Lodges: Kwìkwèxwelhp (37%; n = 14), Willow Cree (32%; n = 12),
Prince Albert Grand Council Spiritual Healing Lodge (11%; n = 4), and Waseskun Healing
Centre (21%, n = 8).
The interviewed offenders had served a determinate sentence in 58% (n = 22) of cases,
whereas 42% (n = 16) were life sentenced. The average sentence length, when removing
indeterminate sentences, was 5 years (1823.73 days; SD = 892.07). The average length of stay in
98
a Healing Lodge was 1.4 years (SD = 1.6) and the average length of time incarcerated before
being transferred to a Healing Lodge was 6.9 years (SD = 8.3). Offenders were, on average,
42.2 years of age (SD = 11.76).
The security levels of institutions in which offenders were incarcerated at admission were
as follows: maximum (24%; n = 9), medium (47%; n = 18), and minimum or multi-level (29%;
n = 11).
Frequencies of assessments for offenders‟ motivation, need, risk, and reintegration levels
completed on a 3 point scale (level 1 [low], level 2 [moderate], and level 3 [high]) showed that at
their last assessment, 39% (n = 15) of the interviewed offenders scored moderate levels and 61%
(n = 23) high levels on the motivation scale; 11% (n = 4) scored low levels, 58% (n = 22)
moderate levels, and 32% (n = 12) high levels on the need scale; 13% (n = 5) scored low levels,
34% (n = 13) moderate levels, and 53% (n = 20) high levels on the risk scale; and 3% (n = 1)
scored low levels, 79% (n = 30) moderate levels, and 18% (n = 7) high levels on the
reintegration potential scale.
99
3. Electronic Questionnaires
CSC Management Profiles
In total, 76 management representatives from CSC Aboriginal corrections completed the
survey. Of these, 92% (n = 70) were completed in English and 8% (n = 6) in French. Eighteen
percent of participants were from the Pacific Region (n = 13), 32% from Prairies (n = 24), 26%
from Ontario (n = 19), 8% from Quebec (n = 6), 5% from Atlantic Region (n = 4), and 11% from
Regional and National Headquarters (n = 8).
Twenty-one percent (n = 16) of respondents indicated that their institution/district/office
provided offenders with the service of a Healing Lodge and 7% (n = 5) indicated that they
worked within a Healing Lodge.
A high proportion of respondents consisted of Wardens (20%; n=15), Assessment and
Intervention Managers (15%; n = 11), or Program Managers (15%; n = 11). Other various
positions included, but were not limited to, Deputy Warden, Assistant Warden (operations or
intervention), District Director, Area Director, Regional Administrator of Aboriginal Initiatives,
as well as one Healing Lodge Director.
The majority of management members (51%; n = 39) indicated that the supervision area
of their institution/district/office was mainly urban, whereas 43% (n = 33) indicated that it was
mostly rural and remote. Twenty percent (n = 15) of respondents‟ institution/district/office was
located on a reserve.
CSC Staff Member Profiles
A total of 106 CSC Aboriginal corrections staff members completed the staff survey. Of
these, 92% (n = 97) were completed in English and 9% (n = 9) in French. Eighteen percent of
participants were from the Pacific Region (n = 19), 31% from Prairies (n = 33), 32% from
Ontario (n = 34), 14% from Quebec (n = 15), 8% from Atlantic (n = 8), and 3% from Regional
and National Headquarters (n = 3).42
The majority of respondents (96%; n = 102) were involved in field operations, either in
the institution (n = 64) or in the community (n = 38). Of all the staff members working in
institutions, 22% worked at maximum level security, 41% (n = 26) at medium, and 14% (n = 9)
42
The cumulative percentage for the regional distribution exceeds 100% due to multiple responses given by a single
respondent, leaving a total of 112 responses for 106 respondents (with 2 missing).
100
at a minimum security facility. Another 22% (n = 14) of staff respondents worked in multi-level
facilities either for women, at a reception center, or in a regional psychiatric treatment centre.
Only one respondent was from a Healing Lodge.
Approximately 90% (n = 95) of staff respondents indicated that they directly worked or
supervised Aboriginal offenders. Respondents mostly held positions as Institutional Parole
Officers (26%, n = 27), Aboriginal Liaison Officers (20%; n = 21), or Community Parole
Officers (20%; n = 21). Other positions included Correctional Program Officers (12%; n = 13),
Aboriginal Correctional Program Officers (9%; n = 9), Aboriginal Community Development
Officer (5%; n = 5), or other (10%; n = 11).
Of all staff respondents, 52% (n = 55) indicated that they self-identified as an Aboriginal
person. This information was missing for one respondent. The majority of self-declared
Aboriginal staff were First Nations (73%, n = 40) and approximately 27% (n = 15) were Métis or
Inuit. Staff members of the First Nations were Cree (20%; n = 7), Ojibway (17%; n = 6), or of
other various descent such as Mohawk and Mi'kmaq. Some respondents indicated identification
to more than one group.
101
Appendix C: Proportion of Aboriginal federal offenders in comparison to the regional
distribution of Aboriginal peoples.
Provinces included in region
Atlantic
(ATL)
Quebec
(QUE)
Ontario
(ONT)
Prairie
(PRA)
Pacific
(PAC)
National
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia,
Prince Edward Island,
Newfoundland and Labrador
Quebec
Ontario (as far west as
Thunder Bay) and Nunavut
Alberta, Saskatchewan,
Manitoba, Ontario (west of
Thunder Bay) and the
Northwest Territories
British Columbia and Yukon
Territory
All provinces
Aboriginal Federal Offender
Population
%
#
7.9
177
a
Regional Aboriginal
Population
%
#
3
67,010
7.3
389
1.5
108,425
9.8
605
2.2
b
267,410
39.2
2,104
9.8
b
526,285
22.9
714
5
203,655
17.9
3,989
3.8
1,172,785
a
Notes: The total Aboriginal identity population includes the Aboriginal groups (North American Indian, Métis and
Inuit), multiple Aboriginal responses and Aboriginal responses not included elsewhere.
b
The regional Aboriginal population percentages were calculated using Aboriginal population data from each of the
provinces from the 2006 census. As such, the percentages for the Ontario Region include the province of Ontario as
a whole, and percentages for the Prairie Region do not include Western Ontario.
Sources: Statistics Canada, census of population, 2006; CSC Corporate Reporting System (retrieved January 17,
2011); Statistics Canada. 2008; Aboriginal identity population by age groups, median age, and sex 2006 counts for
both sexes for Canada provinces and territories - 20% sample data (table).
102
Appendix D: CCRA Sections 79-84.
Definitions
79. In sections 80 to 84,
“Aboriginal” means Indian, Inuit or Métis;
“Aboriginal Community” means a first nation, tribal council, band, community,
organization or other group with a predominantly aboriginal leadership;
“Correctional Services” means services or programs for offenders, including their care
and custody.
Programs
80. Without limiting the generality of section 76, the Service shall provide programs designed
particularly to address the needs of aboriginal offenders.
Agreements
81. (1) The Minister, or a person authorized by the Minister, may enter into an agreement
with an aboriginal community for the provision of correctional services to aboriginal offenders
and for payment by the Minister, or by a person authorized by the Minister, in respect of the
provision of those services.
Scope of agreement
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), an agreement entered into under that subsection may
provide for the provision of correctional services to a non-aboriginal offender.
Placement of offender
(3) In accordance with any agreement entered into under subsection (1), the
Commissioner may transfer an offender to the care and custody of an aboriginal community,
with the consent of the offender and of the aboriginal community.
1992, c. 20, s. 81; 1995, c. 42, s. 21(F).
Advisory committees
82. (1) The Service shall establish a National Aboriginal Advisory Committee, and may
establish regional and local aboriginal advisory committees, which shall provide advice to the
Service on the provision of correctional services to aboriginal offenders.
103
Committees to consult
(2) For the purpose of carrying out their function under subsection (1), all committees
shall consult regularly with aboriginal communities and other appropriate persons with
knowledge of aboriginal matters.
Spiritual leaders and elders
83. (1) For greater certainty, aboriginal spirituality and aboriginal spiritual leaders and elders
have the same status as other religions and other religious leaders.
Idem
(2) The Service shall take all reasonable steps to make available to aboriginal inmates the
services of an aboriginal spiritual leader or elder after consultation with
(a) the National Aboriginal Advisory Committee mentioned in section 82; and
(b) the appropriate regional and local aboriginal advisory committees, if such committees have
been established pursuant to that section.
Parole plans
84. Where an inmate who is applying for parole has expressed an interest in being released to
an aboriginal community, the Service shall, if the inmate consents, give the aboriginal
community
(a) adequate notice of the inmate‟s parole application; and
(b) an opportunity to propose a plan for the inmate‟s release to, and integration into, the
aboriginal community.
Plans with respect to long-term supervision
84.1 Where an offender who is required to be supervised by a long-term supervision order
has expressed an interest in being supervised in an aboriginal community, the Service shall, if the
offender consents, give the aboriginal community
(a) adequate notice of the order; and
(b) an opportunity to propose a plan for the offender‟s release on supervision, and integration,
into the aboriginal community.
1997, c. 17, s. 15.
104
Appendix E: Tables for Correctional Outcomes Analyses.
1. Analyses for Time Spent in Releasing Institution
Table E1. Time Spent in Releasing Institution by Aboriginal Men’s Sentence Term
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
Mean Time
(days)
212.14
198.60
271.50
Standard deviation
Median
193.72
244.91
284.10
173
152
189
ANOVA F(2, 2753) = 19.03, ns.
Table E2. Time Spent in Releasing Institution by Aboriginal Women’s Sentence Term
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level Security Institutions
Mean Time
(days)
254.68
260.90
Standard deviation
Median
207.12
218
224.97
186
ANOVA F (1, 1078) = .14, ns.
2. Analyses for Time Difference between Criminogenic Need Score Assessments
Table E3. Time Difference between Pre-Post Assessments of Criminogenic Need Scores Aboriginal Men.
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security Institutions
Mean Time
(days)
391.04
345.81
469.95
Standard deviation
Median
296.04
345.81
469.95
318
274
363
ANOVA F (2, 2258) = 15.49, p < .001.
Table E4. Time Difference between Pre-Post Assessments of Criminogenic Need Scores Aboriginal Women.
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level Security Institutions
Mean Time
(days)
661.77
711.48
Standard deviation
Median
609.75
619.94
474.5
560
ANOVA F (1, 787) = 0.91, ns.
105
3. Aboriginal Men Offender Needs Assessments.
Table E5. Assessment Ratings At Pre-Test.
Asset/No
Attitude
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Community functioning
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Employment
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Marital/Family
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Personal/Emotional
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Social Interactions
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Substance Abuse
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Some
Considerable
n
%
n
%
n
%
357
120
821
53%
71%
61%
248
48
380
36%
28%
28%
75
2
145
11%
1%
11%
398
116
909
59%
70%
71%
236
47
336
34%
28%
25%
51
4
58
7%
2%
4%
192
63
502
28%
38%
38%
388
82
718
56%
50%
53%
111
20
124
16%
12%
9%
237
61
640
34%
36%
48%
312
79
530
46%
48%
39%
135
26
172
20%
16%
13%
74
13
180
11%
8%
13%
380
94
674
55%
56%
50%
237
60
494
34%
36%
37%
191
60
545
28%
35%
40%
387
93
622
56%
55%
46%
112
17
187
16%
10%
14%
67
17
194
10%
10%
15%
243
78
554
36%
48%
42%
364
67
579
54%
41%
44%
106
Table E6. Assessment Ratings At Post-Test.
Asset/No
Attitude
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Community functioning
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Employment
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Marital/Family
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Personal/Emotional
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Social Interactions
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Substance Abuse
CSC Healing Lodges
Section 81 Healing Lodges
Minimum Security
Some
Considerable
n
%
n
%
n
%
437
137
909
64%
81%
67%
210
32
347
31%
19%
26%
33
1
90
5%
1%
7%
437
125
986
64%
75%
73%
220
40
319
32%
24%
24%
28
2
39
4%
1%
3%
275
73
581
40%
44%
43%
344
77
674
50%
47%
50%
72
15
89
10%
9%
7%
298
72
696
44%
43%
52%
304
79
549
44%
48%
41%
82
15
97
12%
9%
7%
132
25
228
19%
15%
17%
439
111
825
64%
66%
61%
120
31
295
17%
19%
22%
271
76
609
39%
46%
45%
363
88
624
53%
52%
46%
56
6
121
8%
4%
9%
137
33
280
20%
20%
21%
361
98
693
54%
61%
52%
176
31
354
26%
19%
27%
107
4. Aboriginal Women Offender Needs Assessments.
Table E7. Assessment Ratings At Pre-Test.
Asset/No
Attitude
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Community functioning
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Employment
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Marital/Family
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Personal/Emotional
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Social Interactions
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Substance Abuse
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Some
Considerable
n
%
n
%
n
%
130
380
71%
63%
41
142
23%
24%
11
77
6%
13%
132
336
73%
56%
46
212
25%
35%
4
51
2%
9%
24
69
13%
12%
90
330
49%
55%
70
200
38%
33%
45
156
25%
26%
67
248
37%
41%
70
195
38%
33%
19
61
10%
10%
51
193
28%
32%
114
345
62%
58%
40
129
22%
22%
90
247
49%
41%
53
223
29%
37%
9
42
5%
7%
11
52
6%
9%
164
505
89%
84%
108
Table E8. Assessment Ratings At Post-Test.
Asset/No
Attitude
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Community functioning
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Employment
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Marital/Family
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Personal/Emotional
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Social Interactions
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Substance Abuse
CSC Healing Lodge
Multi-level security
Some
Considerable
n
%
n
%
n
%
139
390
76%
65%
34
160
19%
27%
9
49
5%
8%
134
327
74%
54%
44
227
24%
38%
4
45
2%
8%
33
99
18%
17%
98
355
53%
59%
53
145
29%
24%
49
164
27%
27%
85
281
47%
47%
48
154
26%
26%
19
70
10%
12%
93
266
51%
44%
72
263
39%
44%
48
152
26%
25%
100
281
55%
47%
35
166
19%
28%
15
64
8%
11%
53
139
29%
23%
116
396
63%
66%
109
5. Analyses Tables for Conditional Release Failure
Table E9. Cox Regression Results for Aboriginal Men for Any Return to Custody
Block 1
Age at Release
Type of Release
Previous Offending
Reintegration Potential
Need Level
Block 2
CSC-operated Healing Lodge
Section 81 Healing Lodge
df
Sig.
Hazard
ratio
148.270
45.127
63.822
48.934
5.403
1
1
1
1
1
.000
.000
.000
.000
.020
0.959
0.650
1.253
0.653
1.133
2.748
3.072
1
1
.097
.080
1.112
0.813
ß
SE
χ
-.042
-.431
.226
-.426
.125
.003
.064
.028
.061
.054
.106
-.207
.064
.118
2
Note: The first model (variables in Block 1) was statistically reliable (-2 log likelihood: 16836.318, χ2 (7) = 357.200,
p < .0001) and predicted the risk of conditional release failure better than the null model. Similarly, Model 2
(variables in Block 1 plus the variables in Block 2) was also statistically reliable (-2 log likelihood: 16831.659; χ2
(7) =361.859, p < .0001). The difference between the first and the second models was not statistically significant (χ2
(7) =7.33, ns). Model 2 parameters are presented in the table.
Table E10. Cox Regression Results for Aboriginal Men for Return with a New Offence
Block 1
Age at Release
Type of Release
Previous Offending
Reintegration Potential
Block 2
CSC-operated Healing Lodge
Section 81 Healing Lodge
df
Sig.
Hazard
ratio
86.466
19.310
38.632
56.579
1
1
1
1
.000
.000
.000
.000
0.946
0.631
1.326
0.514
.392
1.558
1
1
.532
.212
1.068
0.786
ß
SE
χ
-.055
-.461
.282
-.666
.006
.105
.045
.089
.066
-.240
.105
.193
2
Note: The first model (variables in Block 1) was statistically reliable (-2 log likelihood: 6186.710, χ2 (7) = 207.319,
p < .0001) and predicted the risk of conditional release failure better than the null model. Similarly, Model 2
(variables in Block 1 plus the variables in Block 2) was also statistically reliable (-2 log likelihood: 6190.638; χ2 (6)
=203.391, p < .0001). The difference between the first and the second models was not statistically significant (χ2 (7)
=-3.928, ns). Model 2 parameters are presented in the table.
110
Table E11. Cox Regression Results for Aboriginal Women for Any Return to Custody
Block 1
Age at Release
Type of Release
Previous Offending
Reintegration Potential
Motivation
Need Level
Block 2
CSC-operated Healing Lodge
df
Sig.
Hazard
ratio
22.538
17.471
6.051
4.666
12.117
11.635
1
1
1
1
1
1
.000
.000
.014
.031
.001
.001
0.971
0.650
1.213
0.823
0.758
1.423
2.035
1
.154
ß
SE
χ
-.029
-.430
.193
-.195
-.277
.353
.006
.103
.078
.090
.079
.103
-.163
.114
2
0.850
2
Note: The first model (variables in Block 1) was statistically reliable (-2 log likelihood: 5987.759, χ (7) = 174.033,
p < .0001) and predicted the risk of conditional release failure better than the null model. Similarly, Model 2
(variables in Block 1 plus the variable in Block 2) was also statistically reliable (-2 log likelihood: 5987.764; χ2 (7) =
174.028, p < .0001). The difference between the first and the second models was not statistically significant (χ2 (7)
=-.005, ns). Model 2 parameters are presented in the table.
Table E12. Cox Regression Results for Aboriginal Women for Return with a New Offence
Block 1
Age at Release
Reintegration Potential
Block 2
CSC-operated Healing Lodge
df
Sig.
Hazard
ratio
10.598
18.241
1
1
.001
.000
0.958
0.537
.002
1
.968
ß
SE
χ
-.043
-.621
.013
.145
-.009
.227
2
0.991
2
Note: The first model (variables in Block 1) was statistically reliable (-2 log likelihood: 1267.004, χ (7) = 37.423, p
< .0001) and predicted the risk of conditional release failure better than the null model. Similarly, Model 2 (variables
in Block 1 plus the variable in Block 2) was also statistically reliable (-2 log likelihood: 1271.886; χ2 (3) =32.541, p
< .0001). The difference between the first and the second models was not statistically significant (χ 2 (7) =-4.882, ns).
Model 2 parameters are presented in the table.
111
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