AN ANALYSIS OF CANADIAN AND OTHER WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES AND INITIATIVES

AN ANALYSIS OF CANADIAN AND OTHER WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES AND INITIATIVES
AN ANALYSIS OF CANADIAN AND OTHER
WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES AND
INITIATIVES
ISSUES, OPPORTUNITIES AND SUGGESTED DIRECTIONS
Prepared for the
Water Conservation and Economics Task Group
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
By
J. Kinkead Consulting
Mississauga, ON, L5M 2K8
In Association With
A. Boardley and M. Kinkead
PN 1359
Disclaimer
This report was prepared by J. Kinkead Consulting in association with A. Boardley
and M. Kinkead for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME)
and is a working paper only. It contains information which has been prepared for,
but not approved by, CCME. CCME is not responsible for the accuracy of the data
contained in the publication and does not warrant or necessarily share or affirm, in
any way, any opinions expressed therein.
© Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment 2006
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1
1.0
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Background
1.2
Definitions
1.3
Conservation Benefits
1.4
Conservation Toolkit
1.5
Challenges
12
12
12
13
13
13
2.0
STUDY DEVELOPMENT
2.1
Scope and Assumptions
2.2
Selection of Study Jurisdictions
2.3
Research and Analysis
2.4
Development of Conclusions and Recommendations
15
15
15
15
16
3.0
WATER AVAILABILITY AND DEMAND IN CANADA
3.1
Water Conservation and Efficiency: Why Should Canadians Care?
3.2
Water Availability
3.3
Water Withdrawal and Usage
3.4
Sustainability: Balancing Demand and Availability
3.5
Cross-Country Look at Issues and Concerns
17
17
18
19
21
21
4.0
COMPARISON OF JURISDICTIONAL APPROACHES
4.1
Introduction
4.2
Water Governance Frameworks
4.3
Canada
4.4
Australia
4.5
United States
4.6
Europe
4.7
Drought Planning and Response
4.8
Cross-Jurisdictional Highlights
27
27
27
29
53
58
66
72
73
5.0
MUNICIPAL SECTOR CONSERVATION PRACTICES
5.1
Introduction
5.2
Practices with Broad Applicability
5.3
Northern Community Perspectives
5.4
Conservation Practices within the ICI Sector
5.5
Synthesis of Municipal Practices
78
78
80
95
96
99
6.0
CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE THERMAL POWER PRODUCTION,
RESOURCE EXTRACTION AND MANUFACTURING SECTORS
6.1
Introduction
6.2
Thermal Power Generation
6.3
Resource Extraction
6.4
Manufacturing
100
100
100
101
104
AGRICULTURAL SECTOR CONSERVATION PRACTICES
7.1
Canadian Agricultural Production and Water Usage
114
114
7.0
i
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
Crop Irrigation Fundamentals
Canadian Crop Irrigation Practices
Crop Irrigation Practices in Other Countries
Synthesis of Conservation Opportunities in Crop Irrigation
Livestock Production and Water Management
115
119
127
139
140
8.0
RECREATIONAL SECTOR CONSERVATION PRACTICES
8.1
Introduction
8.2
Golf Courses
8.3
Ski Resorts
143
143
143
145
9.0
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
9.1
Acknowledging the Current / Preparing for the Future
9.2
Sectoral Opportunities and Approaches
9.3
Strategic Principles and Directions
9.4
Roles and Responsibilities
147
147
147
149
152
Glossary
155
Explanation of Common Units
158
References
159
APPENDICES
166
A:
Jurisdictional Overviews
167
A.1
A.2
A.3
168
224
235
Canada
United States
Other Countries
B:
Best Practices Guides and Manuals
261
C:
Additional Internet Resources
266
ii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Background and Objectives
This report has been prepared for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
(CCME) Water Conservation and Economics Task Group (WCETG). It is intended to document
relevant strategies and actions that Canadian governments, communities, businesses and households
can pursue to ensure that water is used in an efficient, productive and sustainable manner.
Advancement of water conservation goals and initiatives across the country continues to be
identified as a priority by the Council’s member governments. Ten years have passed since CCME
released its ‘National Action Plan for Encouraging Municipal Water-Use Efficiency’ and progress has
been made on a number of fronts. Notwithstanding this progress, there is mounting evidence that a
more coordinated, comprehensive and multi-sectoral approach to managing water use and demand is
needed to ensure the long-term sustainability of Canadian communities, businesses and individual
livelihoods and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. Rapid urbanization, intensification of
agricultural operations, growth in the energy-production sector, industrial expansion, and increasing
recreational water demands are heightening local and regional concern over the sustainable use of
water resources and sparking debate over priorities of use. Adding to these concerns are the
increasingly apparent water resource impacts of climate change and variability.
Scope and Methodology
The analysis examines water conservation approaches in use across Canada and in several
other countries. It focuses on how freshwater resources are used and managed in the dual contexts of
geographic areas and water use sectors. Major sectors include municipal supply, agriculture, thermal
power generation, resource extraction, manufacturing, and recreation. These are further subdivided
where necessary to get at distinct water-use characteristics and associated conservation aspects.
Jurisdictions selected for study encompassed Canada with all of its provinces and territories,
Australia and a couple of its member states, the United States and the states of Arizona, California,
Florida and New Mexico, and the European Union including England, Wales and France. Reference
is also made to a number of other jurisdictions where certain approaches and practices were felt to be
of particular interest and benefit.
Research stressed compilation and analysis of web-based information (covering legislation,
policies, reports, manuals, fact sheets and case studies) found within state/provincial, municipal,
industry association, individual company, resource and environmental NGO, professional
organization and university/college websites. Phone interviews and draft materials circulation helped
ensure the currency, accuracy and completeness of the information and analysis. WCETG members
assisted in this task.
Conservation Needs and Drivers from a Canadian Perspective
Canada is widely seen as a nation rich in water resources. A comparison of total annual water
renewal rates vs. total annual demands puts Canada in the top tier of countries whose renewable
supplies far exceed its current water-use demands.
This view of abundance masks other realities regarding the ready availability of these
resources for human use. It also discounts the significance of the growing list of situations where
resource and investment sustainability concerns exist or are emerging at the local and regional levels.
1
It also fails to account for the substantial economic costs and foregone opportunities associated with
inefficient and less productive uses of water.
•
•
•
•
•
Sixty percent of Canada’s water resources flow north while more than 85% of the population
and the vast majority of the country’s economic activity are located in more southern regions.
Many agriculturally important areas have semi-arid climates and face growing competition
for limited water supplies. Crop and livestock production and many local communities have
become dependent on water diversions and constructed storages to meet their needs.
Many other areas exhibit seasonal and more-prolonged patterns where cumulative demand for
water results in competition over supplies and threatens aquatic ecosystems.
Climate change predictions show that many parts of the country are likely to experience
increasing risks from reduced water availability and increased demand.
Inefficient and non-productive uses of water continue to drive avoidable expenditures and
debt accumulation for the construction, expansion, operation and rehabilitation of both
municipal and private water and wastewater infrastructure. They also result in excessive
energy consumption and contribute to the inefficient use of other resources.
Conservation Benefits
Using water more efficiently and productively has been shown to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Prevent or reduce conflicts among water users who share a common resource;
Contribute to the protection of environmental flows and to the health of aquatic ecosystems;
Make water resources available for further growth and development;
Avoid or defer the need to expand the capacity of water and wastewater infrastructure;
Eliminate the need to augment water supplies through potentially harmful or undesirable
diversions from other watersheds;
Free-up public funding for investment in other priorities including the renewal of outdated
water and sewage infrastructure;
Increase the ability of water users to withstand the impacts of low-water conditions resulting
from inherent weather variability and climate change;
Conserve energy, other resources and raw materials and improve business profitability;
Enhance wastewater treatment efficiency and reduce environmental emissions; and
Enhance leverage with other jurisdictions on issues relating to shared waters.
Sectoral Opportunities and Approaches
The review of conservation measures being applied within individual sectors indicates that
many globally recognized ‘best practices’ are already in use within some Canadian communities and
businesses. What distinguishes Canada from most other study jurisdictions is the lack of more
comprehensive and uniform uptake or application of these measures. The following is a sector by
sector overview of more apparent water efficiency opportunities, of the rationale for their broader
adoption and of key considerations that need to be addressed in their implementation.
Municipal
Sustainability issues in the municipal water supply sector transcend the question of balancing
availability and demand. This is especially so in the case of growth communities where water
efficiency improvements can be the key to avoiding or limiting expensive investments in water and
wastewater infrastructure.
2
Strong pressures to implement full cost accounting and cost recovery in the municipal sector
favour implementation of universal metering and conservation-oriented rate structures. The first is
fundamental in making all users aware of the scope of their demands and in achieving greater equity
in the distribution of costs. The latter offers an incentive to use water wisely. The case can also be
made for minimizing distribution system losses and for capitalizing on the mutual benefits (to
community and consumer) of moving toward the mandatory use of water efficient plumbing fixtures,
appliances and other devices in new construction as well as in retrofit and replacement.
Higher per-capita servicing costs faced by many small communities (<1000 residents) and
northern communities may warrant more direct senior government involvement in helping to fund
upfront implementation costs. Government intervention in seeking an appropriate level of water
pricing harmonization among municipalities may also be warranted to restrict the destabilizing use of
subsidies as a tool in attracting business development.
Agriculture
Irrigated-crop production is recognized as a contributor to water sustainability concerns and
user conflicts across Canada and in other countries. Production activities tend to be concentrated
within contiguous areas; water demands are intensive, cumulative and overlapping; and these
demands typically coincide with periods of lowest water availability. Overall demands are expected
to grow as a result of pressures to expand production, to irrigate crop types not currently irrigated, and
to make up for a predicted increase in the incidence and severity of drought like conditions.
Solving or preventing serious water management problems will almost certainly involve both
demand management and supply management approaches. Demand management opportunities exist
to minimize water losses in conveyance systems, to better coordinate the scheduling of irrigation use
by individual farmers and groups of producers, to use more efficient application technologies, and to
more carefully determine the net economic return in irrigating certain lower-value crops. The
substantial investments required pose tough issues for producers and governments in determining
appropriate rates of return and in arriving at a workable division of funding responsibilities. The basic
issues of mandatory water-use monitoring and reporting, full-cost accounting and cost recovery need
to be dealt with in these deliberations.
Thermal Power Generation and Cooling
In Canada more water is withdrawn for cooling, condensing and steam generation purposes
than for any other purpose. The majority of these withdrawals are used in thermal power generation
but also constitute a key component of water usage within the resource extraction, primary processing
and manufacturing sectors.
The dominance of cooling-related withdrawals within Canada’s overall water use picture is
made even more pronounced by the long-standing practice of once-through cooling. While use of
closed-loop systems and air cooling has been growing in popularity, Canada has not as aggressively
followed the regulatory lead of many other countries that clearly favour their use in new and retrofit
applications. A country-wide examination of environmental and financial arguments for and against
continued use of once-through-cooling appears warranted in light of what is happening elsewhere.
Such a review is also timely in view of the ongoing restructuring within the industry.
Industrial
The breadth of the industrial or manufacturing sector adds to the complexity and diversity of
water quantity management issues and opportunities. The interests and practices of self-supply water
3
users are also often quite distinct from those who draw from municipal systems, i.e. self-supply users
have a less obvious cost-driven incentive to conserve.
Many Canadian companies within all manufacturing sectors have reduced water withdrawals
as an adjunct to other objectives such as reducing energy consumption or assisting with the
management and reduction of wastewater emissions. Levels of achievement appear to be highly
variable perhaps reflecting inconsistencies in pressures and/or incentives for dealing with these
multiple objectives.
Beyond taking more obvious steps to reduce waste through repairing leakages and to increase
water recycling and reuse, companies within every sector can ready access to documentation
involving same-sector companies who have successfully reengineered processes, replaced equipment
or implemented other measures to directly or indirectly reduce water demands. It may now or soon be
possible to develop ‘best practices’ guidelines or standards that quantify acceptable industry
performance with respect to water-use efficiency and water-use productivity within individual sectors
or sub-sectors.
Resource Extraction
With the exception of enhanced oil recovery operations, water quantity management issues in
the resource extraction sector generally focus on questions of diversions and impoundments rather
than conservation and efficiency.
Process water recycling has been a common practice in mineral mining operations for many
years as a means of minimizing wastewater discharge volumes. Evaporative losses from tailings
impoundments and from the use of water for dust suppression are generally minor, particularly in the
case of hard rock mining. Consumptive losses can be of greater concern in connection with refining
of metallic ores (water may be used both as a coolant and as a reagent in byproduct recovery) and
processing of non-metallic minerals that requires the creation of intermediate or final-product
suspensions or slurries.
Enhanced oil recovery operations (EOR) involving the use of water or steam have raised
public concerns over potential impacts on other extractive interests and the environment. Disposal of
contaminated water from these operations can also involve the use of permanent deep well injection
further adding to the consumptive nature of EOR water usage. These concerns have led governments,
particularly in Alberta, to curtail the granting or scope of new freshwater withdrawal approvals and
forced the industry to pursue other alternatives including the use of saline water sources along with
increased water recycling and reuse. Since EOR and heavy bitumen operations are vital and
expanding components in Canadian energy production the use of these and other alternatives for
minimizing freshwater use can only grow in importance.
Recreation
Public concern over the impact of water usage by the recreational sector continues to grow in
many parts of the country. The focus of much of this attention is golf course operations that, like
agricultural and landscape irrigation, exert high seasonal water demands. Ongoing expansion in the
number of courses in close proximity to major cities and within city regions will increase pressure on
governments and the industry to find management solutions that stress water efficiency improvements
over increases in withdrawals. Newer courses can be sited, designed, constructed and operated to
make more efficient and sustainable use of water than what is the norm for most existing courses.
4
Building Support and Overcoming Challenges
Understanding the interests and perspectives of key stakeholders is critical to overcoming
challenges in moving forward. The consensus-based views of several well-recognized organizations
representing a range of public utility, business, environmental and professional interests appear to
support strengthened government initiatives in water conservation. Some of these groups have,
however, voiced concerns over how any new initiatives would be structured and want to be part of the
process for deciding on the appropriate balance between voluntary and regulatory approaches and for
arriving at workable alternatives in the assignment of implementation costs and responsibilities.
Canadian Stakeholder Perspectives on Water Conservation
GROUP
POLICY OR PERSPECTIVE
MUNICIPAL & WATER UTILITIES
Federation of
FCM calls upon senior governments to work together in establishing policies and legislation
Canadian
aimed at water-use efficiency and sustainable infrastructure development. FCM supports:
Municipalities
•
Per capita consumption goals
(FCM)
•
Universal metering
•
Public education regarding alternatives
•
Building code requirements for water-efficient plumbing fixtures and other devices
•
Full cost accounting and cost recovery
•
Special support for small communities.
Canadian
Water and
Wastewater
Association
(CWWA)
CWWA supports:
•
Adoption of water conservation policies and programs by all municipal utilities
•
Universal metering
•
Full cost accounting and cost recovery
•
Integration of environmental, public health and sustainable development principles
in municipal planning, decision-making and day-to-day operations
•
Watershed management
•
Coordinated government intervention in funding municipal water and wastewater
infrastructure taking into account differences in the financial capacity of smaller and
northern communities.
MANUFACTURING
Forest
FPAC has not identified water conservation as a “current issue” facing the industry. It does,
Products
however, report that its members continue to seek ways to recycle and use water and other
Association of
resources more efficiently.
Canada
(FPAC)
Canadian
Chemical
Producers
Association
(CPPA)
Canadian
Steel
Producers
Association
(CSPA)
Canadian
Petroleum
Products
Institute (CPPI)
CCPA’s Responsible Care® program principles support water conservation. Member
companies are expected to:
•
Apply options including reducing, reusing, recycling and recovering [resources and
materials] to minimize impacts on the environment.
CSPA’s sustainable development principles commit its member companies to:
•
Maximize resource efficiency in the development, production and use of steel
products including efforts to use energy and water more efficiently.
CPPI’s guiding principles for the environment’ commit member companies to “develop
management systems that support efficient utilization of natural resources”.
5
GROUP
POLICY OR PERSPECTIVE
RESOURCE EXTRACTION
Mining
MAC’s Environmental Policy commits member companies to:
Association of
Develop, design and operate facilities based upon the efficient use of energy,
•
Canada (MAC)
resources and materials.
Canadian
Association of
Petroleum
Producers
(CAPP)
CAPP policies require or encourage its members to:
•
Measure and annually report on water-use productivity as a stewardship
benchmarking parameter
•
Develop new technologies to monitor, report and reduce water usage
•
Support research into and adoption of innovative water conservation and materials
recovery measures.
AGRICULTURE
Canadian
CFA does not have a specific position on water conservation and water-use efficiency. On
Federation of
the broader issue of environmental protection, CFA requests governments to consider:
Agriculture
•
Long-term and stable funding for environmental farm planning
(CFA)
•
Capital cost allowances for environmental investments
•
Funding for stewardship initiatives undertaken for public environmental benefits.
RECREATIONAL INDUSTRIES
Royal
RCGA’s Environmental Principles encourage golf course designers, developers, owners
Canadian Golf
and operators to:
Association
•
Design and operate irrigation systems to use water efficiently and responsibly
(RCGA)
•
Consider alternative and supplemental sources of water including use of reclaimed
water and stormwater runoff.
OTHER
Canadian
Water
Resources
Association
(CWRA)
Organization
for Economic
Cooperation
and
Development
(OECD)
CWRA supports government, business, public and professional collaboration to encourage
water conservation through:
•
Recognizing the value of and limits on water resources and the costs of providing
water in adequate quantity and quality
•
Balancing education, market forces and regulatory systems to promote choice and
recognition of shared responsibilities to pay for use of the resource.
•
Restoring and enhancing government commitments to hydrometric and
meteorologic monitoring networks.
In its 2004 Key Environmental Indicators Report, OECD observes that:
•
Most OECD countries [including Canada] face seasonal and/or water quantity
problems that serve as a constraint to sustainable development and to the
sustainability of agriculture
•
Solving these problems will involve reducing losses, using more efficient
technologies, increasing recycling, using a watershed approach, and applying
user-pay principles.
Suggested Directions
Successful water conservation programs and initiatives are founded upon informed decisionmaking with respect to problem identification, goals, objectives, available alternatives and expected
benefits. They also incorporate a good understanding of water conservation’s important linkages to
other sustainable development initiatives.
6
Potential partners and major stakeholders need to be engaged in the development of
objectives and targets and in the identification and resolution of implementation issues. A range of
tools and measures should be evaluated with due consideration to the expected contribution of key
water-use sectors. The rationale for harmonization at the provincial/territorial and national levels
should also be considered. The resulting water conservation strategy and plan will clearly define the
purposes, objectives, targets and actions, will prescribe roles and responsibilities and institutional
arrangements and will identify how implementation is to be resourced.
Suggested Government Directions in Support of Water Conservation
Sustainable Resource Development and Use Policies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Promote water conservation and water-use efficiency as components of broader sustainable
development goals and commitments.
Set water conservation and water-use efficiency targets to address watershed and service-area
sustainability objectives while also ensuring inter-regional and cross-sectoral harmonization.
Integrate water conservation goal-setting, messaging and implementation with initiatives targeting
conservation of energy and other resources and the protection of water quality and aquatic systems.
Integrate the use of regulatory and non-regulatory tools for managing water use. Give due
recognition to the capacity and responsibility of users and the benefiting public to share in the costs.
Develop business-renewal strategies for the creation of new economic opportunities based on moreproductive water uses.
Support urban development standards and practices that encourage attenuation of stormwater runoff
and protection of groundwater recharge.
Implement full-cost accounting and cost recovery across all levels of government in the management
and delivery of water-related services. Have regard for the limited financial capacity of smaller
communities and some business sectors. Factor in the projected costs of renewing and replacing
failing and outdated infrastructure.
Legislation and Regulation
•
•
Introduce regulatory measures that i) require self-supply water users to prepare water conservation
/efficiency plans, ii) establish water-efficiency standards/guidelines for individual sectors, iii) protect
in-stream uses and aquatic systems, and iv) implement cost recovery.
Introduce or amend legislative mechanisms that will enable government agencies to address
situations where reprioritization, redistribution and/or reduction in allocations are essential for the
protection and advancement of the public good.
Monitoring, Reporting and Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
•
Implement mandatory requirements for the metering/measurement and reporting of water usage by
all self-supply water users. Harmonize data collection and reporting requirements to facilitate
information compilation and analysis across sectors and among jurisdictions.
Implement mandatory metering for all customers served by public/municipal water systems.
Expand and intensify surface and ground water level and flow characterization studies and
monitoring networks. Assign priority to areas of existing or emerging water-use conflict or concern.
In high growth watersheds, compile information on projected increases (10-50-yr planning horizons)
in water demands across all sectors.
Enhance support for the development, refinement and use of watershed and aquifer-based water
allocation and conservation planning tools.
Summarize and publicly report on water availability, water usage and conservation information and
analysis on a routine and frequent basis.
7
Outreach and Education
•
•
•
Review existing outreach and education initiatives at all levels of government. Ensure they are
effective in reaching water users and in providing essential information on conservation benefits,
options and implementation strategies. Tailor initiatives according to sector.
Document and disseminate more detailed technical and cost information required by industry,
agricultural producers, and other businesses.
Expand and enhance coverage of water conservation and stewardship goals and measures within
school curricula at all age levels.
Consultation and Involvement
•
•
Engage municipalities, industry, business and other stakeholders in target setting, identifying
preferred efficiency measures, and in finding innovative resourcing approaches.
Enlist the support of water conservation innovators and champions within each sector in spreading
the conservation message and knowledge to their colleagues.
Economic Instruments
•
•
•
•
Accelerate the use of full-cost accounting and cost recovery approaches in the provision of water
management services and activities including those pertaining to water conservation and efficiency.
Phase out the use of flat-rate and declining block-rate pricing and the use of preferential pricing for
large-volume water users. Introduce conservation-oriented rate structures while providing appropriate
forms of rate relief for low income households.
Make development of and commitment to a water conservation plan a condition of eligibility for
funding assistance in connection with all water and wastewater infrastructure expansion and renewal
projects.
Develop and implement appropriate strategies for addressing the more limited implementation
capacity of smaller and northern communities and of smaller business operators.
Research and Development
•
•
•
Examine the benefits and drawbacks of encouraging or requiring use of closed-loop cooling systems
in thermal power generation, industrial, commercial and institutional water-use applications.
Investigate the feasibility of national or regional water-use efficiency standards or guidelines based
on best technologies and/or practices in major water use sectors and sub-sectors.
Expand research into the impacts of global warming and climate change on water resource
availability and demand with a focus on improving regional-level quantification of those impacts.
Implementation
•
•
•
Acknowledge that the attainment of water efficiency and sustainability goals is likely to take longer in
some areas and sectors than in others. Require all new growth and development to use best
practices and technologies while setting realistic timeframes for attaining targeted improvements
within existing development. Seek continuous improvement.
Work toward devolving day-to-day water management decision-making to the lowest practicable level
subject to the application of clearly defined policies and principles and the provision of appropriate
over-sight. Assist local and regional/watershed authorities in developing capacity to assume these
responsibilities.
Integrate and harmonize conservation planning and implementation among all levels of government
and between the public and private sectors.
8
Potential Roles and Responsibilities
The goal of ensuring that Canada and Canadians develop and use the nation’s water resources
to the sustainable benefit of all interests can only be realized if responsibilities and accountability are
broadly shared. The following roles and responsibilities are suggested.
CCME
•
•
•
Provide a forum for the discussion, analysis and harmonization of current and proposed
federal and provincial/territorial water conservation initiatives.
Facilitate sharing of conservation experiences across all Canadian jurisdictions.
Conduct periodic reviews of implementation progress and concerns.
Federal Government
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Facilitate cooperation among the provinces and territories and with federal departments.
Continue and expand support for shared federal-provincial/territorial networks and programs
designed to characterize and monitor streamflows, water-levels and groundwater-elevations.
Continue to survey, analyze and report information on water use across all major use sectors
and on a country-wide basis.
Implement conservation measures at all federal facilities and properties.
Seek US support and commitment to conservation initiatives impacting on boundary waters.
Monitor conservation initiatives and practices in other countries.
Provide coordination and support for the evaluation, development, adaptation and
demonstration of new or improved water-use technologies and practices, e.g. closed-circuit
cooling.
Provide coordination and support toward development of sectoral best practices standards and
guidelines for water-use efficiency.
Examine the feasibility of introducing a national water-efficiency labeling program for
plumbing fixtures, household and commercial appliances, and other water-use related
devices.
Adopt taxation policies and cost-share infrastructure eligibility criteria that encourage and
facilitate adoption of water-efficiency measures by municipalities and businesses and
discourage new or ongoing investment in the use of inefficient practices and technologies.
Provincial and Territorial Governments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use provincial building codes to require the mandatory use of water-efficient plumbing
fixtures in all new residential, commercial and institutional construction and retrofits.
Require self-supply water-use licence and permit holders (as a condition of approval) to:
o Prepare water conservation plans and implement water efficiency measures
o Accurately meter/monitor and routinely report daily water usage
Adopt criteria that make municipal and private sector eligibility for water-related
infrastructure grants and other government funding conditional upon the preparation and
adoption of an acceptable water conservation plan and practices.
Support development of sectoral best practices water-efficiency standards and guidelines.
Restrict new water takings and prioritize uses in areas subject to existing or impending
conflicts between demand and supply.
Require and facilitate the preparation of drought-response plans for areas subject to recurring
water shortages.
Implement conservation measures at all provincially-owned facilities and properties.
9
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use sectorally targeted outreach and education to promote and encourage conservation.
Provide support for the evaluation, development, adaptation and demonstration of new or
improved water-use technologies and practices.
Establish economic incentives to encourage water users to adopt water-efficient practices and
technologies and/or disincentives to discourage new and continued use of inefficient practices
and technologies.
Adopt permit fees and other water charges to cover the costs of water management programs
and activities and to support conservation behaviours.
Continue and expand support for cost-shared monitoring networks and programs used to
characterize and measure streamflows, water-levels and groundwater-elevations.
Require and support the use of supply and demand forecasting and water budgets/balance
analyses in all critical-use watersheds/aquifers.
Monitor conservation initiatives and best practices in other jurisdictions for potential adoption
or adaptation.
Support interprovincial and national harmonization of conservation and sustainable use
initiatives.
Support coordinated conservation and sustainable use initiatives in Canada-US transboundary
watersheds.
Municipalities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make conservation and water-use efficiency programs a municipal priority.
Approach conservation planning and implementation in a comprehensive and systematic
manner; seek continuous improvement.
Set water savings targets and implementation timelines.
Implement universal metering for all customer sectors; commit to regular meter inspection
and calibration.
Minimize distribution system losses through:
o Leak detection and correction
o Pressure modulation
o Scheduled watermain replacement
Enact bylaws that do some or all of the following:
o Require use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures and appliances
o Appropriately restrict lawn watering and other outdoor uses as needed
o Require the use of rainfall sensors and automated controls for regulating rates of flow
and on-off cycles of landscape irrigation systems
o Limit the impervious area portion of a building lot
Implement water pricing based on full-cost accounting and recovery.
Use increasing block, seasonal use and other conservation-oriented rate structures.
Encourage and subsidize residential, commercial and institutional plumbing-fixture retrofits.
Promote xeriscaping and use of drought tolerant plants.
Require or encourage (and subsidize) water-use audits and conservation planning among
large-volume users.
Use outreach and education to encourage good conservation practices.
Implement conservation measures at all municipally-owned facilities and properties.
Monitor progress and report on accomplishments.
Monitor practices in other municipalities for potential adoption or adaptation.
10
Business and Professional Organizations
•
•
•
•
•
•
Adopt a water conservation and efficiency code of ethics and require member adherence to it.
Stay current with advances in sectoral Best Management Practices (BMPs) and disseminate
this information to members through seminars, fact sheets, case study reviews, etc.
Support and participate in pilot and full-scale BMP demonstrations.
Support and participate with governments in the development of sectoral water efficiency
standards and guidelines.
Routinely monitor and report on sector performance.
Represent member interests in provincial/territorial and national consultations on water
management.
11
1.0
INTRODUCTION
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
1.1
BACKGROUND
This report has been prepared for the CCME Water Conservation and Economics Task
Group. Its purpose is to highlight strategies and actions that could assist Canadian governments,
businesses and households in meeting the challenges and capitalizing on the opportunities associated
with the productive, efficient and sustainable use of water. It is intended to provide water managers
with a “single recognized and respected source of information on water conservation relevant to
Canadian conditions”1.
Advancement of water conservation initiatives and achievements across the country
continues to be identified as a priority by the Council’s member governments. Ten years have passed
since CCME released its ‘National Action Plan for Encouraging Municipal Water-Use Efficiency’
and progress has been made on a number of fronts. Notwithstanding this progress, there is mounting
evidence that a more coordinated, comprehensive and multi-sectoral approach to managing water use
and demand is needed to ensure the long-term sustainability of Canadian communities, businesses
and individual livelihoods and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. Rapid urbanization,
intensification of agricultural operations, growth in the energy-production sector, industrial
expansion, and increasing recreational water demands are heightening local and regional concerns
over the sustainable use of water resources and sparking debate over priorities of use. Adding to these
concerns are the increasingly apparent water resource impacts of climate change.
1.2
WATER CONSERVATION DEFINED
In the broadest context, water conservation includes any and all efforts and actions taken to
ensure the wise development, efficient use, productive use, and careful management of surface and
ground water resources. Such actions are taken to ensure the sustainability of aquifer and watercourse
yields in the face of cumulative water withdrawals by individuals, communities and businesses. They
are also taken to protect in-stream uses and the health of both local and downstream aquatic
ecosystems and the biota they support. The connectedness of hydrologic systems dictates that
conservation needs and objectives be considered not just at the local level but also at the watershed
and basin scales.
In order to arrive at a common understanding among its members and with its consultants, the
Task Group took on the task of more specifically defining what they wished to see reflected in the
analysis and discussion of water-use practices and conservation in Canadian and other jurisdictions.
The following observations and definitions came out of their deliberations.
The terms ‘water conservation’ and ‘water efficiency’ are often used interchangeably in
discussions of water conservation. One definition that combines the intent of both terms is proposed.
It has been adapted from A Handbook of Water Conservation by Amy Vickers, 2001 and Principles
of Water Use Efficiency by Donald Tate.
Water conservation / water efficiency refers to the desired outcome of actions taken to
bring about a beneficial reduction in water loss or water waste or to minimize the amount of water
used in accomplishing a task or producing a product (adapted from Vickers and Tate).
Water conservation measure refers to specific tools (technologies) and practices (behaviour
changes) that result in more conservative and efficient water use. (per Vickers).
12
Water use productivity refers to amount of water used to produce one unit of any good or
service, e.g. m³/tonne or m³/$1,000 of shipment value. The lower the water input required, the higher
the productivity. (adapted from Tate).
1.3
CONSERVATION BENEFITS
Using water more efficiently and productively has been shown to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.4
Prevent or reduce conflicts among water users who share a common resource;
Contribute to the protection of environmental flows and to the health of aquatic ecosystems;
Make water resources available for new growth and development;
Avoid or defer the need to expand the capacity of water and wastewater infrastructure;
Eliminate the need to augment water supplies through potentially harmful or undesirable
diversions from other watersheds;
Free-up public funding for investment in other priorities including the renewal of outdated
water and sewage infrastructure;
Increase the ability of water users to withstand the impacts of low-water conditions resulting
from inherent weather variability and climate change;
Conserve energy, other resources and raw materials and improve business profitability;
Enhance wastewater treatment efficiency and reduce environmental emissions; and
Enhance leverage with other jurisdictions on issues relating to shared waters.
CONSERVATION TOOLKIT
The complex nature of ensuring that the country’s water resources are developed wisely, used
efficiently and shared appropriately requires governments to draw upon a comprehensive range of
regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms from the following categories.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Legislation and regulations
Outreach and education
Research and demonstration
Economic instruments
Implementation partnerships
Monitoring and enforcement
Ongoing performance review and reporting
The effectiveness and efficiency of government conservation initiatives depends on selecting
an appropriate mix of measures and tools for use in directing and influencing individual, community
and business choices and behaviours in the way water is used.
1.5
CHALLENGES
“We never know the worth of water till the well is dry”2. This centuries-old saying sums up
the significant challenge most governments face in getting people, communities and businesses to
conserve and use water more efficiently. The task is made more difficult by gaps in knowledge and
information such as:
•
An insufficiently shared understanding of the existing impacts and long-term consequences
posed by current water use practices on sustainable resource development, the environment
and the economy.
13
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Limited awareness of the broader benefits associated with water conservation and efficiency
projects, e.g. energy savings, water quality enhancement, renewed growth and development
opportunities.
Lack of complete and/or reliable data on current and projected levels of water use.
Limited information on surface and ground water availability and variability in levels and
flows, even in critical use watersheds.
Uncertainty over the potential impacts of climate change and variability on water resources.
Lack of and sometimes conflicting information concerning the scale of water savings
achievable under various demand management scenarios.
Limited accounting of the true and full costs involved in providing water services and in
carrying out other water management activities.
Uncertainty among governments and water users over the impacts of acting independently
on conservation initiatives for fear of jeopardizing economic viability and competitiveness
within communities and business sectors.
Uncertainty within current water allocation rules and processes over what is and isn’t
possible with respect to reducing and reapportioning water withdrawals in response to
changing societal and economic interests within regions and watersheds.
A shared sense of the priority for enhancing government initiatives in water conservation vs.
focusing the attention and resources on other environmental needs.
14
2.0
STUDY DEVELOPMENT
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.1
SCOPE AND ASSUMPTIONS
The CCME Request for Proposal defined the scope of study and analysis as including “…
investigating, analyzing and presenting findings on water conservation measures [within the
municipal, industrial, agricultural and power generation sectors] that can be implemented provincially
/ territorially and/or nationally, including their potential effectiveness, and barriers along with
opportunities to implement these measures more broadly across Canada.”
With the agreement of Task Group representatives, the project scope was subsequently
refined to focus on freshwater resources and expanded to include examination of individual subsectors where they exhibit distinct water-use characteristics and/or conservation opportunities. The
recreational services industry was added to the list of intensive water-use sectors. The list of study
jurisdictions was also expanded to enhance the overall depth and relevance of inter-jurisdictional
analyses.
2.2
SELECTION OF STUDY JURISDICTIONS
Jurisdictions selected for study were as defined in the Request for Proposal with the addition
of several others that were thought to warrant consideration and review. The study list encompasses
all Canadian federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions; the U.S. federal government and the
states of Arizona, California, Florida and New Mexico; along with Australia and some of its member
states, the European Union, England and Wales, and France. Reference was also made to sectorspecific approaches and practices found in a number of other jurisdictions where these were
considered of particular interest and benefit.
The breadth of coverage ensured a good mix of jurisdictions that possess a cross-section of
physiographic, climatic, demographic and/or institutional characteristics comparable to the range of
conditions found throughout Canada.
2.3
RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS
To illustrate the full breadth of Canadian demographic and physiographic settings under
which water use occurs, the project team undertook an initial scoping of water availability and
demand conditions and concerns at the regional level. See Chapter 3.
Extensive internet searches of senior government, municipal, industry association, and
individual company websites were used to compile information on:
•
•
•
•
•
Characteristics of water use within major geographic regions and sectors / sub-sectors
Profiling the contribution of water-use intensive sectors within the Canadian economy
Water-related legislation, regulations, policies and guidelines within each study jurisdiction
Scope, objectives, content, implementation status and results of water conservation and
water-use efficiency program initiatives within each jurisdiction
Canadian municipal, industrial and NGO perspectives on water conservation programming
needs and directions
15
•
Individual municipal utility and business operator case studies including documentation of
conservation program drivers, targets, scope of measures, implementation partnerships,
costs and results
Inter-jurisdictional and cross-sectoral comparisons of information pertaining to water usage,
water-efficiency requirements and production levels rely heavily on the quality and specificity of the
data reporting contained in the source documents. In this regard great care was taken to maintain the
integrity of the source data and to ensure clarity in how it was used within this report.
Phone interviews and draft materials circulation were used to confirm the currency, accuracy
and completeness of the information being collected where necessary.
Information analysis was undertaken at two levels, i.e. comparing approaches among
jurisdictions (Chapter 4) and comparing practices within sectors (Chapters 5-8). While these levels
should be more closely connected, it is apparent that most jurisdictions are in the relatively early
stages of truly making those connections through the use of integrated water resources planning.
Follow-up analysis focused on a deeper examination of stakeholder views regarding water
conservation needs and directions. Government initiatives meet with greater acceptance and
participation if they have the broad support of those expected to make further investments in
technologies and practices. The informed consensus among individuals and businesses within key
sectors can be a useful indicator of that support. Many leading organizations representing interests of
municipalities, industries, agriculture, other businesses and ratepayers have thoughtfully studied the
issues and have documented what they feel to be the fundamental directions, roles and needs for their
sector.
The following organizations were surveyed for their perspectives on conservation and wateruse efficiency:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.4
American Water Works Association (AWWA)
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP)
Canadian Chemical Producers Association (CCPA)
Canadian Federation(s) of Agriculture (CFA)
Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI)
Canadian Steel Producers Association (CSPA)
Canadian Water Resources Association (CWRA)
Irrigation Association (IA)
Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM)
Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC)
Mining Association of Canada (MAC)
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
Royal Canadian Golf Association
DEVELOPMENT OF CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTED DIRECTIONS
The study’s conclusions and suggestions for moving forward draw on the consultant team’s
extensive experience in the evaluation and formulation of public policy and programs for water
resources management in Canada and elsewhere. Reference was also made to other independent
examinations of conservation needs and directions in the Canadian, North America and global
contexts.
16
3.0
WATER CONSERVATION IN THE CANADIAN CONTEXT
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
3.1
WATER CONSERVATION: WHY SHOULD CANADIANS CARE?
Canada is widely seen as a nation rich in water resources accounting for 8% of the world’s
renewable freshwater resources. The Great Lakes contain 20% of the global freshwater volume and
form one of the largest connected freshwater systems in the world3. A comparison of total annual
water renewal rates vs. total annual demand puts Canada in the top tier of countries whose gross
renewable supplies far exceed its water-use demands.
This view of abundance masks other realities concerning the availability of these resources
and discounts the significance of the mounting list of situations where sustainable-use concerns exist
at the local and regional levels. It also ignores the substantial economic costs and foregone
opportunities associated with inefficient and less-productive uses of water.
•
•
•
•
•
Much of the country’s water wealth is situated in areas far removed from the point of need
thereby limiting its availability and potential for development. Sixty percent of Canada’s
water resources flow north while more than 85% of the population and the vast majority of
the country’s economic activity are located in more southern regions4. This is more than just
an issue of cost. Environmental concerns have intensified public opposition to diversions.
(See Drainage Basins figure below).
Agriculturally significant areas of the country including the southern prairies and
southwestern Ontario possess semi-arid climates and net water deficits or face growing
competition over available supplies. Crop and livestock production and many local
communities have come to depend on supply management measures including large-scale
diversions, constructed storages and widespread irrigation.
Many other areas exhibit seasonal or more-prolonged patterns where the cumulative demand
for water results in competition for locally available supplies and threatens aquatic
ecosystems and environmental health.
Climate change predictions show that these and other parts of the country are likely to
experience increasing risks from reduced water availability and increased water demand.
Inefficient and non-productive uses of water continue to drive avoidable expenditures and
debt accumulation for the construction, expansion, operation and rehabilitation of municipal
and private water infrastructure. They also result in excessive energy consumption and
contribute to the inefficient use of other resources.
Historically, Canadian cities and towns and water-dependent businesses were drawn to areas
with good access to surface or ground water resources. As growth and expansion occurred, they
further developed these supplies with little regard for conservation and efficiency of use. Today, this
focus on supply-side management is increasingly seen as economically and environmentally
unsustainable.
17
Canada’s Major Drainage Basins
Atlas of Canada. See online at www.atlas.gc.ca/site/english/maps/reference/national/drainbasins
3.2
WATER AVAILABILITY
Canada’s east and west coasts are characterized by high precipitation and average annual
runoff in the range of 1000-3000 mm and higher (see figure). At the opposite extreme, the southern
prairies experience mean annual precipitation levels of less than 400 mm and runoff of less than 50
mm. Climatic conditions in southern Ontario and southwestern Quebec are in between with normalyear precipitation levels in the range of 600-900 mm and runoff levels of 200-400 mm annually. The
distribution and scope of groundwater resources is highly variable, however, all provinces have
access to significant supplies. These are important as potable supplies for most rural populations,
some urban communities and agriculture.
Average Annual Runoff
18
Water Survey of Canada. See online at www.wsc.ec.gc.ca/hydrology/main
3.3
WATER WITHDRAWALS AND WATER USAGE
Extractive uses of water are generally separated into two categories – non-consumptive uses
and consumptive uses. If the water withdrawn is returned undiminished to the source from which it
was taken, the use is commonly referred to as non-consumptive. The returned water becomes
available for reuse by downstream users/uses even though its quality may have been altered. Water
takings for domestic, commercial and institutional indoor uses, mining, power generation, and some
industrial purposes are often considered non-consumptive. Other uses involving significant
evaporative losses, e.g. crop and landscape irrigation and steam generation in manufacturing, as well
as uses that result in water being incorporated into a product are considered consumptive.
This simplistic characterization of consumptive vs. non-consumptive uses is not particularly
helpful when a water manager is faced with having to determine a water budget or balance for an
aquifer or watershed. What is the likely impact if most but not all of the water taken is returned?
What if all the water is returned but to a different waterbody or to the same waterbody but at a time
and/or location well removed from the initial taking?
Answering these questions requires a closer look at actual levels of consumptive usage or loss
and at the particulars relating to the location and timing of discharge (return) relative to the intake. In
the first instance it is common to use an empirical consumptive-use coefficient determined for the
category of use. A commonly used consumptive-loss coefficient for irrigation uses is 0.8 or 80% of
intake. Higher or lower values could apply if locally specific data were as available to support their
application.
From a conservation perspective, water withdrawals involving high consumptive losses are of
greater concern than those where most of the taking is returned to the originating watercourse.
Notwithstanding the basic hydrologic-cycle principle that water consumed is not truly lost and
ultimately returns to earth at another time and location, consumptive usage is often a critical factor in
the creation of imbalances between water availability and demand and user conflicts at the local and
regional scale, i.e. at the stream reach, sub-watershed and watershed levels.
The case of groundwater withdrawals is more complicated since that which is not consumed
is typically returned to a surface watercourse or to the shallow groundwater system and therefore
becomes available to downstream interests. This is not to lessen the environmental significance of
those situations where groundwater takings exceed the rate at which the source aquifer is replenished.
Such “mining” of an aquifer, can interfere with other extractive uses and diminish the baseflows that
sustain local watercourses.
Information is presented later in this report regarding technologies and practices used to
reduce the amount or significance of consumptive loss associated with crop irrigation, turf and
landscape irrigation, and other activities. More in-depth attention is given to crop irrigation practices
since additional considerations surround the need to minimize return flows (runoff and groundwater
transport) that can carry nutrients and agricultural chemicals detrimental to surface and groundwater
quality.
Knowledge and understanding of where and how water is used and how the balance between
water availability and water demand varies from region to region (or more appropriately from
watershed to watershed) and over time are essential to the proper planning and successful
implementation of conservation initiatives.
19
While statistics on the magnitude and distribution of water use by business activity exist at
the national, provincial and (less uniformly) lower levels, their compilation and reporting lack both
rigour and continuity. Most jurisdictions have yet to require water users to accurately meter and
routinely report on their water withdrawals making currently available data rough estimates at best.
Different forms of water use can also result in different pressures on the resource and other uses, e.g.
in relation to the consumptive usage or loss component and/or whether the taking is from a surface or
ground water source.
The following table illustrates the distribution of freshwater withdrawals and consumptive
use among major sectors at the national level for 1996 (most current reporting year). Environment
Canada is in the process of compiling and analyzing more recent data. The more recent figures are
expected to show reduced total withdrawals between the primary and manufacturing industries. These
anticipated reductions are a product of ongoing company efforts in creating water and energy savings
and in improving wastewater emission performance. A sector by sector overview of some of these
initiatives, along with case studies, is contained in Chapter 6.
Canadian Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumptive Usage (1996)
Activity Sector
Withdrawal
million m³
% of National
Freshwater Use
5
Consumptive Use
million m³ (% of
Withdrawal)
Agriculture
Mining
Self-Supply Manufacturing (Total)
- Pulp & Paper
- Primary Metals
- Chemicals & Chemical Products
- Petroleum Refining
- All Other Manufacturing
Thermal-Electric Power Generation
Municipal
Rural (domestic, commercial, institutional)
4,100
475
5,290
(2,350)
(1,350)
(1,015)
(255)
(320)
26,900
4,895
840
9.6
1.1
12.4
3,040 (74)
63.3
11.5
2.0
450 (1.7)
550 (11)
Totals
42,500
100
4,535
495 (9.4)
Sectoral water use was further broken out on a regional basis as shown in the accompanying
table. Some data had to be interpolated from the 1996 Environment Canada survey results using best
judgment assumptions in reconfiguring the municipal and manufacturing categories, i.e. to separate
self-supply industrial takings from municipally supplied industrial usage.
Canadian Freshwater Withdrawals by Region and Sector (1996)6
(million m³/year)
Region
Thermal
Power
Mfg
Municipal
(self-supply)
(all sectors)
Agriculture
Mining
Rural
Total
BC
Prairies
ON
QC
Atlantic
4
2,337
23,228
809
522
990
350
2,448
1,032
470
715
544
1,832
1,519
285
778
3,030
173
103
16
143
61
56
38
177
116
121
250
238
115
2,746
6,443
27,987
3,739
1,585
Total
26,900
5,290
4,895
4,100
475
840
42,500
20
3.4
SUSTAINABLE USE: AVAILABILITY VS. DEMAND
The following figure provides a snapshot of broad regional differences in the ratio of water
demand or use to resource availability. Challenges being faced in areas where the ratio is moderate to
high are briefly highlighted in the next section and are then looked at in greater detail in Chapter 4.
Water Use and Availability within Major Drainage Basins
Environment Canada . See online at www.ec.gc.ca/water/images/manage/use
3.5
CROSS-COUNTRY LOOK AT ISSUES AND CONCERNS
Balancing water allocations and demands to keep within the bounds of the naturally occurring
availability of supply has long been problematic in selected areas of the country. Such situations are
likely to become more challenging and more widespread in the future without demand intervention.
Contributing factors include pre-existing water deficits, urban population growth and economic
development pressures, the debt burden imposed by aging infrastructure, the impacts of climate
change, and inadequacies in current water allocation processes.
3.5.1
Water Allocation Processes
Inflexibility and gaps in existing water allocation rules and decision-making processes can
contribute to creation of situations that force governments and water users to implement after-the-fact
conservation initiatives. Problems stem from both legislative and information shortfalls.
Laws that limit mandatory licensing of surface and ground water withdrawals (other than deminimus and emergency takings) or create inalienable rights of access can make it difficult to allocate
21
and manage water resources in the long-term public interest. The legal principles of ‘prior
appropriation’, as generally prevails in the western provinces, and ‘riparian rights’, as found in
eastern Canada, may hinder government action in situations where demands on the resource approach
or surpass the sustainable yield of the resource. As growth and development proceed, the collective
public interest in water often changes. This brings with it the expectation that existing allocations
must also change. As is often the case, environmental and ecological sustainability needs may lose
out in favour of the demands of extractive uses.
The lack of accurate information on water availability and current water use together with
limited exposure to the tools needed in using this information in water allocation decision-making
increase the risks of authorizing levels of use that are not sustainable.
3.5.2
Water Waste and Energy Waste
Transporting, heating, cooling, treating and doing other things with water (and wastewater)
normally involve the use of significant quantities of electrical and thermal energy. Global estimates
place the amount of energy consumed in water-related processes at 7% of total energy consumption7.
Reports from southern California estimate that the amount of energy used in providing water to
residential customers equates to one third of the average household electrical consumption in the
region8.
The corollary is that reducing demand and making more productive use of water will result in
less energy consumption and important cost savings for all water users.
3.5.3
Climate Change Impacts
The impacts of climate change on Canadian water resources are predicted to include periods
or events involving more widespread, more prolonged, more frequent, and more extreme conditions
of low-water and high-water affecting both surface and ground water9. Other changes such as
increased water temperatures are anticipated to alter the forms, behaviour and health of fish and other
aquatic life. These anticipated effects vary among regions.
•
•
•
•
•
•
3.5.4
Worsening drought conditions in the Prairies could lead to increased irrigation water
demands, which, in turn, could increase soil salinity and degrade productive capacity.
Producer interest (driven by a warmer climate) in expanding prairie agriculture further north
could be countered by potential conflicts with industrial and Aboriginal interests.
Loss of soil moisture could put some forested areas at risk leading to increased soil erosion
and loss of ability to store water and moderate runoff.
Great Lakes water levels could fall by an average of 0.5-1.0 m and the St Lawrence River
outflow could be reduced by 20%. Changes of this magnitude would have significant
impacts on the availability of water to support hydroelectric power production, shipping,
public and industrial water supplies, and ecosystem health.
Renewed pressures are expected from a range of U.S interests regarding negotiation and
ultimate approval of new and expanded water diversions or withdrawals from some
transboundary drainage basins.
Salt-water intrusion into and contamination of groundwater aquifers used by some Atlantic
coast communities as a source of water supply would result in pressures on alternate sources.
Urban Growth: Water-Use Efficiency and Sustainable Infrastructure Concerns
Urban growth and boundary expansion continues across Canada. Driving forces are the
ongoing consolidation in agriculture and other rural economic activities and influx of new immigrants
22
the vast majority of whom seek out urban areas in which to settle. Total water demands within cities
and city regions continue to escalate in response not only to population growth but also to associated
growth in industrial and commercial activity, institutional services and recreational services. Supplydemand conflicts and inefficiencies in the utilization of existing infrastructure are increasingly being
felt within growing municipalities regardless of size.
Even in the absence of concerns over water availability, regulated and voluntary management
of demand and the minimization of water losses within the distribution system benefit everyone.
Conservation actions reduce overall capital and operating costs for both water and sewage services,
save energy, create growth opportunities without the need to expand infrastructure, and can encourage
residents and businesses to seek out other opportunities to reduce their environmental footprints.
In its Policy Statements on the Environment and Municipal Infrastructure, the Federation of
Canadian Municipalities (FCM) continues to call on the federal government to work with provincial /
territorial governments to “establish a national policy with goals for water conservation through
efficiency of use including10:
•
•
•
•
•
Goals for per capita consumption in water use;
Public education on the range of options available, from voluntary to rate-driven programs;
Changes in the national building code to mandate water-conserving equipment for domestic
and industrial use;
Support for moving toward universal metering; and
Rates that reflect total costs.”
In 2001, the Federation passed a resolution “[urging] the federal and provincial governments
to introduce legislation to facilitate increased water conservation practices.”
With respect to municipal infrastructure sustainability, FCM recommends that:
•
•
•
•
•
“Municipalities be encouraged to establish water user fees and sewer surcharges that reflect
the true cost of current service and provide revenues for upgrading water and wastewater
infrastructures;
Each municipality be encouraged to use water meters instead of flat rates;
Municipalities undertake water audits, and develop water conservation policies within their
own operations;
Municipalities undertake public awareness programs designed to encourage efficient use of
water; and
Further program initiatives place a particular emphasis on environmental remediation,
energy and water efficiency retrofits in partnership with the private sector, with a focus on
sustainability.”
While the intent by municipal leaders to have communities use water more efficiently and to
recover the true cost of services from water users appears to be there, progress has been slow and
uneven across the country as evidenced by recent Environment Canada and Canadian Mortgage and
Housing Corporation surveys11.
3.5.5
Northern Communities: Unique Issues and Concerns
Communities in the Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories and Nunavut and in the northern
regions of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Newfoundland
and Labrador provide water services in ways that differentiate them from their southern counterparts.
Generally speaking, per capita water use can be much lower within those communities where water is
23
delivered to residential customers in bulk rather than via piped systems. Other factors include the
reduced intensity and duration of seasonal outdoor activities that drive peak demands and the greater
costs involved in supplying and purchasing water. Countering this view of lower demand is the
situation facing other communities where individual customers require free-flow or thermostatically
controlled bleeders to guard against frost damage and rupture of piped water services.
Even though conflicts between water availability and demand or among users are not
generally an issue, conservation and efficient use are continuing concerns because of the higher costs
for treated and delivered water within these communities.
Governance systems are also in a state of transition as powers over natural resources
management are being transferred from the Government of Canada to the governments in Nunavut
and the Northwest Territories. The transition period may add to the complexity and timelines in
taking coordinated action on any new conservation initiatives.
3.5.6
Southern Prairies Region (South Saskatchewan River Basin)
Canada’s Prairie region, which extends across the southern portions of Alberta and
Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba, is among the world’s largest and most important
producers of wheat and other grains. The area is also a significant player in the global production of
cattle.
In an average year the southern Prairie region receives less than 400 mm of precipitation and
exhibits a net water deficit, i.e. accumulative evaporative losses exceed precipitation inputs. In
average and drier years, agricultural crop production cannot be sustained without the use of irrigation.
The water demands of irrigation, in turn, cannot be met without seasonal enhancement of naturally
occurring supplies of water through the use of storages and in some cases diversions. Not
unexpectedly, the region accounts for approximately 75% of the total land under irrigation throughout
Canada.
Future expansion of irrigated agricultural production on the prairies is seen both regionally
and nationally as fundamental to sustaining the Western Canadian economy and feeding an ever
growing global population. Clearly this expectation will drive the need for innovative, aggressive and
integrated demand management approaches in conjunction with the development and use of new
water sources.
3.5.7
Great Lakes Basin
The Ontario portion of the Great Lakes Basin is home to 11.6 million Canadians. The region
accounts for 45% of Canada’s industrial capacity and 25% of its agricultural production12. Some 88%
of Ontarians, virtually all of the province’s thermal power production capacity, and the majority of
manufacturing are served by water supplies taken directly from the lakes themselves.
In spite of the vast volumes of water found in the Great Lakes, increasing concern is being
expressed by basin governments, the International Joint Commission (IJC), professional organizations
and NGOs that the current water use practices of basin residents and businesses are not sustainable.
Major concerns surround issues relating to water-resource development approvals, water diversions,
bulk removals, consumptive uses, accommodation for future growth and development, and the
impacts of climate change.
As early as 1965, the IJC was asked by governments to examine water withdrawals,
diversions and consumptive uses. Since then, the Commission has undertaken three additional
studies. The February 2000 IJC report entitled Protection of the Waters of the Great Lakes spoke
24
directly to the issue of conservation. The Commission recommended that “governments of the Great
Lakes states and Ontario and Quebec, in collaboration with local authorities, should develop and
launch a coordinated basin-wide conservation initiative, with quantified consumption reduction
targets, specific target dates, and monitoring of the achievement of targets.…” It laid out eleven
specific items and actions for governments to consider. In its most recent report, (August 2004)13 the
IJC criticized governments for their lack of progress in implementing its February 2000
recommendations. They again call on Canadian and U.S governments at all levels to pursue the
Commission’s earlier recommendations ‘with urgency’ and recommend that no new water diversions
be entertained unless and until the governments of the proposed destinations of the diverted water are
doing all they can to conserve and manage properly their existing water supply.
A second public consultation on a revised draft agreement between the eight Great Lakes
States, Ontario and Québec was held from June 30 to August 29, 2005. The draft Great
Lakes Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement will be the first time that sub-nations of
different countries will be signing an agreement on the management of water withdrawals
from a cross-border water basin. It provides for the implementation of commitments made
by the Governors and Premiers in 2001, in the Great Lakes Charter Annex. The States and
Provinces seek by this means to adopt common standards for the use and protection of water,
which they will apply when making decisions on the use of water resources in the Great
Lakes Basin and the St. Lawrence River.
3.5.8
Southwestern Ontario
Southwestern Ontario encompasses some of Canada’s most productive agricultural land, is
home to 1.58 million people (not including the Greater Toronto Area), and possesses a relatively
diversified economy14. Most major rivers and streams in the area are subject to some degree of flow
control primarily for the purpose of flood protection. Groundwater resources serve multiple uses
including municipal, rural domestic and agricultural.
Successive dry years experienced in the late 1990s and early 2000s (see figure) demonstrated
the susceptibility of many area watersheds and aquifers to water usage conflicts between extractive
users and between extractive uses and in-stream needs.
The problems, which were most severe in areas where extensive crop irrigation occurs,
triggered development of the multi-stakeholder Ontario Low Water Response Plan. Continued
population growth and an expanding economy suggest that drought response measures alone will not
be sufficient to ensure sustainable water use in this part of the province. Tighter controls over water
allocation and concerted efforts to manage demand and improve water-use efficiency are needed.
3.5.9
Southern British Columbia (Lower Fraser, Okanagan and Thompson Valleys)
The drought conditions of 2003 affected much of southern British Columbia, reducing water
flow in many streams and rivers to historic lows. A survey of water utilities in September of that year
indicated that 2.2 million people were affected by the drought with 84 public water systems being
under stress. Even in an average year, much of the region receives less than 400 mm of precipitation.
Agricultural production often experiences water shortages in late summer months even in wetter areas
since most precipitation occurs over the winter months15.
Currently, over 17% of the province’s surface water sources have reached or are nearing their
capacity to reliably supply water in a normal year. Observation wells indicate that groundwater levels
25
are declining in some areas of the province. The water resources of the Okanagan Basin are
anticipated to be fully allocated within 25 years unless current per capita usage rates are reduced16.
3.5.10 Atlantic Provinces
Canada’s Atlantic-provinces have generally not experienced the levels of concern over water
use sustainability felt in other parts of the country. This is a combined product of high water-renewal
rates in proportion to demand and slower rates of population and economic growth. Recent droughtlike conditions approaching historic lows have, however, begun to raise concerns in parts of Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.
26
4.0
COMPARISON OF JURISDICTIONAL APPROACHES
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
4.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter examines driving forces, legal frameworks, policy-positioning, and overall
approaches that characterize water conservation activities in each of the study jurisdictions.
Evaluation focuses on the role and actions of senior governments. The intent is to look for lessons
learned and to identify alternative strategies with potential application in a Canadian context.
The most obvious drivers underlying public interest and government involvement in water
conservation are the incidence, severity and impacts of water shortages and unsustainable water use.
Are there concerns regarding the adequacy of water supplies needed to support communities, the
economy, the environment and future growth? The more widespread and severe these concerns are,
the more likely they are to become a matter of public interest and government priority.
In terms of water availability and renewal rates, Canada finds itself in as good or better
position than most nations including those selected for comparison in this analysis. The existence of
local and regional water resource sustainability concerns in many parts of the country are, however,
becoming of provincial and national interest because of their broader importance in relation to water
and wastewater infrastructure investments, business competitiveness, the management of shared
watercourses, and international commitments surrounding sustainable development.
Differences in program development and delivery approaches are also influenced by the
constitutional division of water management mandates and responsibilities among national,
state/provincial and local levels of government. In Canada and Australia, much of the responsibility
resides at the provincial level with federal powers generally focusing on inter-jurisdictional and
international matters, fisheries, trade and taxation. In Europe and the United States federal mandates
for water resources management are more extensive.
4.2
WATER GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORKS
Most jurisdictions and governments follow a basic policy and program development approach
in deciding needs and directions in water conservation. In its most comprehensive form, this involves
defining the origin and scope of the problem, identifying the regulatory audience and other
stakeholders, setting goals and objectives, identifying information needs, seeking a balance between
regulatory and other measures, assessing costs and benefits, forming partnerships, establishing
timetables and milestones, developing an implementation resourcing strategy, and monitoring
performance.
Preference is usually given to building upon existing laws and processes rather than starting
from scratch. Legislation and processes dealing with water allocation and licensing are a common
starting point.
The following table outlines basic principles that might be considered in arriving at an
effective approach. The project team looked for evidence regarding how these principles were being
addressed within each study jurisdiction.
27
Generic Program Planning Principles for Government Water Conservation Initiatives
Principle
Rationale
Goal-Oriented
As with other sustainable resources-management programs, the objectives and desired
outcomes of water conservation and water-use efficiency initiatives need to be properly
thought out and clearly communicated. Some typical questions to ask are what will
conservation initiatives do to:
•
Reduce or eliminate water-use conflicts among extractive users or between
extractive and in-stream uses
•
Enhance environmental flows and protect ecological functions and aquatic
communities
•
Avoid or defer the need for costly water and/or sewage infrastructure expansions
and upgrades and/or help free-up money that could be used for the replacement
or renewal of existing infrastructure
•
Eliminate or reduce the need to augment water supplies through potentially
harmful or undesirable diversions from other watersheds
•
Create opportunities for additional growth and development
•
Assist with achieving energy-efficiency goals
•
Produce cost savings and other benefits for agricultural producers,
manufacturing facilities and commercial enterprises
•
Prevent or mitigate the socially unacceptable consequences of drought
conditions
•
Further public and private interest in conservation and wise use of other
resources
Legislatively
Supported
•
•
Well-Informed
•
•
•
Demographically
Connected and
Participatory
•
•
Voluntary conservation efforts supported through effective outreach and
education are often successful in meeting more modest water savings targets
and providing short-term relief to supply-demand issues.
Regulatory tools may, however, be necessary supplements in order to achieve
larger savings and provide equity. They can enable governments to
appropriately allocate and regulate the use of available water resources, protect
water quality and aquatic ecosystems, ensure that individual water users share
in the attainment of required savings in proportion to their contribution to the
problem being addressed, and recover the costs of programs and services.
Voluntary conservation efforts supported through effective outreach and
education are often effective in meeting more modest water savings targets and
in providing short-term relief to supply-demand issues.
It is difficult to make sound water management decisions in the absence of good
information on the availability and variability of supply, on the extent of current
and future demand within each water-use sector, and on the availability of
practicable conservation measures.
The solution starts with mandatory requirements for the accurate measurement
and routine reporting of surface and ground water takings along with
enhancement of water level and flow monitoring networks. At the next level,
additional resources need to be committed to the refinement and use of
analytical tools in determining water balances, predicting the impacts of climate
variability and change, and projecting how water demands may change under
different growth alternative water use practices scenarios.
Many water users are able to reduce their usage and make a return on their
investment. Others can incur considerable expense to achieve sizeable water
savings. Feasibility, cost, fairness and effectiveness are important considerations
in selecting the mix of conservation measures and in apportioning
responsibilities for achieving targeted water savings.
Where various water users are called upon to find the required savings all
affected parties should be engaged in searching for an approach that
incorporates and blends these considerations. History suggests that this
approach must bridge user-pay and beneficiary-pay principles. This is
particularly the case with protection of in-stream uses and environmental flows
28
since extractive users commonly expect that governments and the broader
public should assume some portion of the implementation costs.
Adaptive
•
•
•
Adequately and
Appropriately
Resourced
4.3
CANADA
4.3.1
Introduction
•
Independent of human demands, water levels and flows are subject to event,
seasonal and longer-term variability associated with changing weather and
climate conditions. Stream hydrographic, lake level, and water-well elevation
logs taken from most locations in the country will affirm the dramatic differences
that can occur week to week, season to season and year to year.
Water allocation decisions need to recognize and respect this variability. They
must incorporate the adaptive measures needed to maintain social and
environmental sustainability in the face of severe or prolonged drought while
allowing for ongoing and productive use at other times. They must also be
precautionary in considering longer-term impacts of climate change and global
warming on water availability and demand.
Over time, growth and development may alter the distribution of social and
economic interests in and uses within a watershed. Water allocation rules and
processes must contain appropriate flexibility to amend and reprioritize water
entitlements for the public good.
The general principles of user-pay, beneficiary-pay, cost recovery and sharing of
responsibility should apply while allowing for innovation in how to effectively
garner the necessary resources.
The scale and form of water conservation approaches in use among Canadian jurisdictions
were anticipated to be quite variable. This assumption was made based on a prior understanding of
the differences in geographic extent, severity and origin of sustainability issues and concerns
throughout the country. The one area of common ground was felt to be that surrounding mutual
interests and efforts in the promotion and facilitation of water-use efficiency within the municipal
utility sector. As will be seen later, the absence of a more comprehensive or multi-sectoral approach
distinguishes Canada from other study jurisdictions.
4.3.2
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME)
The release of the CCME ‘National Action Plan for Encouraging Municipal Water-Use
Efficiency’ in 1994 was important in bringing the issues of sustainable water use and sustainable
water and wastewater infrastructure investments to the national forefront. It has also served as an
example of the power and benefits of coordinated policies and actions in tackling mutual concerns.
Even though community, industry and business profiles may differ across the country, the same
principles apply in understanding the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of resource conservation and wise use.
4.3.3
Canadian Federal Initiatives17
With its limited mandate for the regulatory aspects of water-use management, the federal
government has focused much of its attention on outreach and education and the advancement of
water-efficient technologies and practices. These efforts have primarily targeted communities and
public water systems with some more limited programs or projects aimed at the crop-irrigation and
primary manufacturing sectors. Under the auspices of an inter-departmental committee the
government has also acted to ensure the use of efficient plumbing fixtures and water-use practices in
federal facilities
29
The Federal Water Policy (1987), which was formulated during a period of intense debate
surrounding the pros and cons of large-scale water diversions, states that the government will
“promote the wise and efficient management and use of water”.
The Government Organization Act (1979) assigns national leadership over water
management to the Minister of the Environment. Environment Canada is, however, joined by several
other federal departments in promoting and implementing its conservation agenda as illustrated in the
following table.
Canadian Federal Initiatives in Water Conservation
Department / Agency
Environment Canada
Activities
•
•
•
•
•
Agriculture and AgriFood Canada
•
•
•
•
•
Fisheries and Oceans
•
Indian and Northern
Affairs
Industry Canada
•
•
•
•
Canada Mortgage and
Housing Corporation
(CMHC)
Foreign Affairs &
International Trade
•
Inter-Departmental
Committees (EC,
NRCan, et al)
•
•
Responsible for the Federal Water Policy, Canada Water Act, Canadian
Environmental Protection Act and Canadian Environmental Assessment
Act.
Disseminates information on best practices for water-use efficiency and
supports operation of the Water Efficiency Experiences Database.
Maintains the Canadian Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse
that provides technical advisory services on best environmental practices
to Canadian communities and businesses.
Partners with Infrastructure Canada in development of sustainable
resource- use criteria as a basis for authorizing federal financing of
municipal works projects.
Conducts periodic water use and water-use practices surveys covering
all major water-use sectors.
Participates with the provinces in monitoring streamflows and lake levels.
Oversees the Agricultural Policy Framework that includes provisions for
the protection and conservation of water and other natural resources
Provides crop irrigators with technical and cost-share assistance for the
adoption of improved water-use practices.
Oversees the National Water Supply Expansion Program, the National
Farm Stewardship Program and the National Agri-Environmental Health
Analysis and Reporting Program.
Promotes crop diversification for the enhancement of water-use
productivity and economic well-being.
Administers provisions of the Fisheries Act regulating activities that
could interfere with water levels and flows to the detriment of fish and fish
habitat.
Provides transitional assistance to the governments of Northwest
Territories and Nunavut in water management.
Promotes investment in industrial innovation and sustainable production
practices.
Assists government and private-sector research into water and energy
efficient technologies and processes for industry.
Compiles and disseminates case study information on eco-efficient
practices.
Conducts research and disseminates technical information on water
efficient technologies and practices for sustainable communities and
buildings.
Responsible for the International Boundary Waters Treaty Act, amended
to prohibit the diversion or bulk removal of ‘boundary’ waters for any
purpose including export. Each province has subsequently enacted
complementary legislation preventing diversions and bulk transfers out of
major river basins and out of province.
Oversees the Code of Environmental Stewardship, which commits
government departments to the sustainable use of water, energy and
other resources in federal facilities and projects.
30
4.3.4
British Columbia18
Water Availability and Demand
British Columbia (BC) is blessed with large supplies of renewable freshwater resources. A
sizable portion of this water wealth is, however, not easily accessible or well located relative to areas
of greatest need. In 2003, a significant drought affecting southern British Columbia reduced water
flow in many streams and rivers to historic lows. A survey of water utilities in September 2003
indicated that 2.2 million people were affected by the drought, 84 public water systems were under
stress.
Currently, more than 17% of surface water sources have reached or are nearing their capacity
to reliably supply water in a normal year. Water shortages and sustainable use concerns are most
prevalent in the interior semi-arid watersheds of the south where there is strong competition among
agricultural and public water supply interests (see figure). Observation wells indicate that
groundwater levels are also continuing to decline in some areas of the province. Ground water
sources serve the potable supply needs of 20% of BC residents.
Total water withdrawals (excluding waterpower production) were estimated at about 2,750
million m³ in 1996. Distribution by sector was as follows:
•
•
•
•
Industrial/commercial - 47%
Public water supply - 31%
Agriculture - 22%
Other <1%
Percentages of Stream Length Fully or Almost Fully Allocated in BC
BC Environment. Environmental Trends in BC 2002. See online at www.env.gov.bc.ca/soerpt/publications
31
An estimated 76% of BC residents living with municipally serviced areas are on unmetered services.
This includes most residents in the Greater Vancouver area. Full metering is more common among
municipalities on Vancouver Island and in the Okanagan Valley. Estimated average per capita usage
among the unmetered population was 524 L/day in 1999. Per capita usage among the metered
population was 455 L/d or about 13% less. Overall (domestic + ICI) municipal per capita usage was
678 L/day.
Water Allocation and Conservation
Water licenses are issued by Land and Water British Columbia Inc (LWBC) under authority
of the BC Water Act. Licences are granted on a prior appropriation basis. While the licensing of
surface water withdrawals has been in place for many years, ground water licensing only came into
effect in 2004. Each licence holder pays an administrative fee (application processing) and annual
volumetric water rental charges. The metering / monitoring and reporting of actual water usage may
be imposed on a case specific basis.
The February 2004 ‘Water Sustainability Action Plan for British Columbia’ is the latest in a
series of provincial documents encompassing the government’s desired directions in implementing
sustainable water management on a province-wide basis. It builds upon the earlier initiatives, which
included the 1998 ‘Water Conservation Strategy’, the ‘Water Use Efficiency Catalogue’, the 1999
‘Freshwater Strategy’ and the 2003 Drought Management Action Plan. Accomplishments under these
earlier initiatives include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Water Conservation Plumbing Regulation (2004) - requires use of low-flow toilets and other
devices in the Capital Region District
1999 Municipal Sewage Regulation - supports use of reclaimed wastewaters for non-potable
use.
The ‘Water Smart” Program - promotes and assists municipal conservation and efficiency
initiatives that contribute to reducing water and sewage infrastructure costs
Requiring mandatory review of water use practices as a condition in granting a water licence
Public education and incentives in support of metering, leak detection and repair, pressure
regulation and xeriscaping
Preparation and release of several Ministry of Agriculture and Food and BC Irrigation
Association best practices guides/manuals for use by the province’s broad-based agricultural
industry. Topics include crop-specific irrigation requirements, irrigation scheduling,
irrigation equipment selection and costing, and irrigation efficiency
Audit and revocation of unused or dormant water licences.
The new Action Plan is a joint effort of the BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection
and the Water Sustainability Committee of the BC Water and Waste Association. Its basic tenets
argue that:
•
•
•
•
The drought, forest fires and floods of 2003 were a “wake-up” call surrounding the need to
fundamentally change how water is viewed, valued and managed
Water management planning and land use planning are inextricably linked. Land
developments must be examined using time scales extending from the present out to the 50year planning horizon
Sustainability is best achieved through shared involvement and partnerships at all levels from
the provincial to the household and across all water-use sectors. It requires influencing
individual and group values, choices and behaviours
Watersheds are the water management planning units of choice
32
•
•
•
Actions should start from and build upon existing and emerging government policies,
legislation and programs
Effective and ongoing communications are front and centre in getting the message out and in
encouraging feedback
The principles of adaptive management and continuous improvement should apply.
The Action Plan is framed around six elements.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Water Sustainability Website Partnership – A multi-partner, centralized and comprehensive
website for finding out what’s going on in water management.
Water Save Tool Kit – Everything individuals and communities need to know to achieve
conservation and efficiency objectives.
Water Sustainability Roundtable – Multi-stakeholder forum for dialogue on issues, directions
and partnerships.
Green Infrastructure Partnerships – Initial efforts focus on developing a best practice ‘Model
Subdivision Bylaw and Green Infrastructure Standards’ for use in land development
regulation.
Water Balance Model – A web-based evaluation tool for enhanced land development
decision-making with a focus on site-level stormwater controls.
Watershed/Landscape Based Approach to Community Planning – 10-step methodology
stressing watershed features requiring consideration and protection.
Specific to the issue of water conservation, the Water Save Tool Kit is being designed as a
‘living document’. It will be a focal point for the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of
information on conservation achievements around the province; for the identification of knowledge
gaps, barriers and opportunities; and for the formulation of adjustments that ensure continuous
improvement. Even now, BC government websites provide access to an extensive collection of online
resources (their own and others through hotlinks) pertaining to water conservation and efficiency, e.g.
the BC Water Efficiency Catalogue.
4.3.5
Alberta19
Water Availability and Demand
Eighty percent of Alberta’s renewable freshwater supplies are located in the northern half of
the province while 80% of the demand for water lies in the south. The Hay, Peace/Slave and
Athabasca watersheds drain in a northerly direction to their eventual discharge to the Arctic Ocean.
These basins are also home to Alberta’s largest lakes.
The North and South Saskatchewan Rivers that originate in the glaciers of the Rocky
Mountains flow easterly into Saskatchewan (see figure). The Milk River in the extreme south enters
the province from Montana and returns there after flowing in an easterly direction.
Surface water sources dominate Alberta’s overall withdrawals accounting for 97.5% of all
extractive usage. Estimates for 2001, indicate that crop irrigation allocations accounted for 45.7% of
all surface water withdrawals with commercial (cooling) and municipal supplies making up 26.7%
and 10.8% respectively. Ground water allocations are primarily for enhanced oil recovery operations
26.4%, municipal supply 26.3%, and commercial uses 12.7%. The nature and extent of sectoral usage
is discussed in greater detail in chapters 5-7.
33
Alberta’s Major River Basins
Alberta Environment. Water For Life – Backgrounder. See online at
www.waterforlife.gov.ab.ca/html/background3
Water Allocation and Conservation
Water use sustainability has long been under scrutiny in Alberta, particularly in the south
where semi-arid conditions and limited water availability prevail. The sizable and growing demands
of agriculture, industry and communities compete with the need to safeguard aquatic ecosystems and
honour apportionment agreements that require Alberta to reserve 50% of the natural flows in the
North and South Saskatchewan Rivers for Saskatchewan.
In comparison to other Canadian jurisdictions, Alberta has a much more sectorally balanced
approach to water conservation programming. It has taken steps to cap crop-irrigation water usage
and protect in-stream flows in the agriculturally significant and urbanizing south (1991 South
Saskatchewan Basin Regulation) and has moved to limit and rollback the freshwater withdrawals by
primary oil producers (Ground Water Allocation Policy for Oilfield Injection Purposes) .
The province’s current approach to water management and conservation is embodied in the
2003 Water For Life Strategy. The Strategy’s goals target sustainable water resource development
and use from the combined perspectives of quality and quantity. The desired outcomes are:
•
•
•
Safe, secure drinking water supply
Healthy aquatic ecosystems
Reliable, quality water supplies for a sustainable economy
The Strategy calls for the adoption of best water management practices within all major
water-use sectors and sets as a target a 30% improvement in overall (i.e. province-wide) water-use
efficiency and productivity over a 10-year period, i.e. 2005-201520.
To assist in reaching its Water For Life goals and targets, Alberta is focusing attention on
three core areas, i.e. knowledge and research, partnerships and conservation. In this regard, the
strategy commits the province to undertake the following actions:
34
Short Term
• Establish a system to monitor and report actual water use by all sectors on an on-going basis.
• Determine and report on the true value of water in relation to the provincial economy.
• Complete an evaluation and make recommendations on the merit of economic instruments to
meet water conservation and productivity objectives.
• Establish a public awareness and education program on water conservation in Alberta.
Medium term
• Prepare water conservation and productivity plans for all water using sectors.
• Implement economic instruments as necessary to meet water conservation and productivity
objectives.
Long term
• Establish an on-going monitoring program to ensure all sectors are achieving water
conservation and productivity objectives.
The Alberta government also works with its municipalities in the promotion of broad-based
conservation and efficiency initiatives and maintains an active water conservation website. The
website contains best practices guidance for residential and ICI water users. Specific examples are
presented in Chapter 5. The majority of Alberta cities and towns are on full metering.
4.3.7
Saskatchewan2122
Water Availability and Demand
Saskatchewan is home to 7% of Canada’s renewable freshwater resources but, as in other
provinces, most of these resources lie in the north away from the area of demand. Agricultural uses
are responsible for 67% of total withdrawals, followed by municipal supply 21%, industrial supply
6%, mining 3%, thermal power 2% and oil and gas extraction 1%. The largest concentration of
withdrawals is in the South Saskatchewan, North Saskatchewan and Qu’Appelle river basins, which
together account for 70% of total abstractions (see figure). The Missouri River basin in the extreme
south accounts for an additional 10% of province-wide takings.
Saskatchewan’s southern prairie ecozone, which is both agriculturally important and home to
most of the province’s population, is semi-arid, having mean annual precipitation levels in the range
of 350-420 mm.
The overall average per capita water usage within Saskatchewan municipalities was reported
to be 375 L/d in 2003. Domestic/residential usage on its own was estimated to be 293 L/day, which is
well below the Canadian average. Ground water serves as the source of potable water supply for more
than 40% of Saskatchewan residents. The majority of Saskatchewan communities are on metered
services.
35
Saskatchewan’s Major River Basins
Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. Conserving Our Water- A Water Conservation Plan for Saskatchewan. See
online at www.swk.sk.ca/waterconservation/documents
Water Allocation and Conservation
All extractive uses of water, except domestic takings of less than 5,000 m³/yr (13,700 L/d),
require a Water Rights Licence (Saskatchewan Watershed Authority Act). In a manner similar to its
water-sharing agreement with Alberta, Saskatchewan is required to restrict overall allocations to
ensure that at least 50% of the natural flow of the North and South Saskatchewan Rivers
continuously flows to Manitoba.
The Saskatchewan government recently released the document ‘Conserving Our Water: A
Water Conservation Plan for Saskatchewan’ as a component of its existing Safe Drinking Water
Strategy. The discussion paper highlights current water usage and water availability, examines
pressures to conserve, identifies possible conservation measures and their potential application on a
province-wide and sectoral basis, and requests public input on preferred approaches. The
Saskatchewan Watershed Authority (SWA) is charged with receiving input at public meetings held in
January-February 2005 and with finalizing the Plan for Cabinet consideration in 2005.
The government has indicated that the final Plan will be guided by and reflect the following
principles:
•
•
•
Water sustains life
Water is a renewable yet finite resource
Water is a public trust, a shared legacy and a collective responsibility
36
•
•
•
•
•
Water efficiency / productivity
Fair value for water
Comprehensive, integrated and long term approach
Citizen involvement and participatory decision-making
Leadership
Water-Use Efficiency Options Identified in Saskatchewan’s 2004 (Draft) Water Conservation Plan
Sector
Cross-Sectoral
Agriculture
Municipal / Domestic
Potential Water Efficiency Measures
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Manufacturing
Oil & Gas Extraction
Thermal Power
Generation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Full-cost accounting and cost recovery
Amend water allocation processes and licences to specifically require
identification and use of conservation measures
Require universal metering/measurement and reporting of all water usage
Convert from flood irrigation to sprinkler irrigation technologies and from
open channel to closed-pipe delivery systems
Convert from high-pressure to low-pressure sprinklers
Irrigate when it is most beneficial
Use drip irrigation systems where appropriate
Retrofit dwellings and other buildings with low-flow plumbing fixtures
Amend Plumbing Regulations to require low-flow fixtures in new
construction
Allow some domestic grey water recycling
Encourage use of efficient washers and dishwashers
Demonstrate government leadership with efficient practices in public
buildings
Promote water efficient landscaping
implement full metering and conservation pricing structures
Reduce distribution system losses
Document and share best practices information
Conduct facility water audits
Amend relevant legislation, regulations and policies
Use financial incentives to encourage conservation and water recycling
Document and share best practices information
Conduct facility water audits
Develop and promote alternative methods (solvent extraction and carbon
dioxide injection) for enhanced oil recovery operations
Amend relevant legislation, regulations and policies
Use financial incentives to encourage conservation and water recycling
Two of the province’s three existing coal-fired stations already use extensive
water recycling. The third uses reclaimed effluent from the Estevan
wastewater treatment facility
The utilities also pay water use charges on the consumptive usage
component of their water withdrawals.
The Watershed Authority has also produced a watershed and aquifer planning model and
process as part of the government’s source protection commitments. The participatory process is led
by a SWA planning team supported by a Watershed Advisory Committee and a Technical
Committee. So far, planning is underway in seven areas including the North Saskatchewan / Battle
River Watershed, South Saskatchewan Watershed, Upper Qu’Appelle Watershed, Yorkton Aquifer,
Upper Assiniboine Watershed, Lower Souris Watershed and Moose Jaw River Watershed.
Industries taking water from the South Saskatchewan River, Lake Diefenbaker, Buffalo
Pound Lake or the Qu’Appelle River are required to pay a water charge of $0.03915/m³ to the
Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. The purpose of the charge is “to reflect and emphasize the value
37
of water, promote wise water usage and help offset the costs of managing our water resources”. All
agricultural users and industries serviced by municipal water utilities are exempt.
4.3.8
Manitoba23
Water Availability and Demand
Thirteen percent of Canada’s freshwater resources drain through Manitoba into Hudson Bay.
Major river inflows are received directly from Saskatchewan, North Dakota, Minnesota, Ontario and
the Northwest Territories (see figure).
Manitoba’s River Basins
Manitoba Conservation. (2003). The Manitoba Water Strategy. See online at
www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardship/waterstrategy
Mean annual precipitation varies from less than 400 mm in the southwest Prairie region to a
range of 600-900 mm in the central and northern regions. Year to year variability can produce both
flood and drought conditions that impact adversely on agricultural communities. Excluding
hydropower production, the three sectors of crop irrigation, public water supply and industrial uses
account for most water withdrawals. Eighty percent of Manitobans receive their drinking water from
public water utilities with 85% of those people depending on surface water as their source of supply.
On the other hand, 55% of the province’s 400 public water systems are served by ground water
38
sources. Residents living in Winnipeg and most other southern communities are on fully metered
services.
Water Allocation and Conservation
The 2003 Manitoba Water Strategy document identifies the province’s overarching directions
in water management. In the area of conservation it commits to development and use of outreach and
education programs, financial incentives, and taxation measures applied within a watershed planning
framework. Watershed management plans are to be developed on a priority watershed basis. The
province has already formulated aquifer management plans for the Winkler, Oak Lake and Dauphin
Lake aquifers.
A companion Water Efficiency Strategy is also in the works. Public debate and input will be
encouraged through the planned release of a discussion document entitled ‘Wise Use of Water’. It
includes discussion of directions and options under consideration in the areas of:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Data collection and management
Identification, evaluation and prioritization of alternative approaches
Integration of water efficiency into codes, standards, and funding criteria
Measures for reducing water losses in municipal water distribution systems
Use of water charges and fees
Outreach, education; and partnerships
A follow-up scientific/technical research document is also planned. It will identify existing
and projected water use by sector, analyze the costs and benefits of various water efficiency
alternatives, and suggest appropriate changes to provincial policy. It is intended that this document
will be updated every three years.
Water withdrawals, except domestic takings of less than 25,000 L/day, are subject to
licensing under the Water Rights Act. Licence holders are required to measure and record water use
(on a form approved by the Minister) and to report water usage on an annual basis.
In late 2004, the government introduced (Bill 22) the Water Protection Act in the legislature.
It calls for the establishment of watershed planning authorities with responsibilities for the
development of comprehensive watershed management plans. Municipal councils would be required
to follow these plans in making planning and development decisions. Each plan would contain
objectives, policies and recommendations concerning some or all of the following conservationrelated measures:
•
•
Protection, conservation and restoration of aquatic ecosystems and drinking water sources
Water demand management, water use practices and priorities, the conservation of water
supplies, and the reduction of water use and consumption during droughts and other periods
of water shortage.
The proposed Act also provides for the adoption of regulations establishing water
conservation programs and other measures aimed at the reduction of water usage in Manitoba. A
Water Stewardship Fund would help finance research, projects and activities in support of the Act.
Projects that “promote wise and efficient use of water” may also be eligible for grant assistance under
the existing Sustainable Development Innovation Fund (Sustainable Development Act of 1998).
39
4.3.9
Ontario24
Water Availability and Demand
Ontario is unique among Canadian jurisdictions in having the Great Lakes system to draw
upon for meeting a large portion of its water supply needs. The Great Lakes are a direct source of
supply to the majority of Ontario’s urban population, to virtually all of the province’s thermal power
generating capacity and its largest waterpower facilities, and to the primary manufacturing industries.
Indeed, the province’s current social and economic status and prospects for continued growth are
closely linked to this vital resource.
While the Great Lakes are Ontario’s most significant water resource asset and heritage, the
province also has a wealth of northern rivers and lakes and extensive ground water resources. A small
portion of those resources serves large and small municipalities, numerous rural residents, as well as
mining, manufacturing and agricultural interests.
Freshwater renewal rates are generally high throughout the province as a result of mean
annual precipitation in the range of 600-1,000 mm. Year to year and longer term variations (below
average conditions) in water renewal coupled with heavy demand have, however, exerted recurrent
and worsening pressure on water use sustainability particularly in the southern and southwestern parts
of the province.
Environment Canada data for 1996 show total provincial freshwater withdrawals amounted to
almost 28,000 million m³ or about 66% of all national water usage. Thermal power production
accounted for 83% of the Ontario total. The next largest water users were manufacturing at almost 9%
and public water supply at about 6.5%. While they account for only 0.4% of total annual withdrawals,
agricultural water uses are most frequently at the centre of Ontario’s more serious and/or widespread
water shortage situations. This is a function of the seasonality of demand and the strong competition
over available surface and ground water supplies in areas of concentrated crop irrigation activity.
Sample Low Water Conditions in Southern Ontario
40
Ontario MNR. Low Water Conditions. See online at www.mnr.gov.on.ca/MNR/water/surface_water/maps/2002
Water Allocation and Conservation
Ontario’s first province-wide conservation undertakings came in the late 1980s and early
1990s. The two-pronged approach included an extensive conservation awareness and education
campaign aimed at municipalities and their customers and Building Code amendments requiring the
use of low-flow toilets, showerheads and other fixtures in new construction and renovation. Cutbacks
and tighter eligibility conditions on provincial grants for municipal water and sewage infrastructure
projects were simultaneously causing growth municipalities to look at a variety of demand
management alternatives as a way of addressing the challenges of increasing water demands.
For the next several years the province’s conservation and water-use efficiency initiatives
clearly emphasized the municipal sector. Other self-supply sectors began to become more involved
with the introduction of the 1998 Water Taking and Transfer Regulation, more clearly identified
government objectives and powers in evaluating applications for new or expanded water takings. In
the absence of sector-based conservation planning guidelines the usefulness of these powers in
driving water-use efficiency was limited to a case-by-case approach.
The sustainability of agricultural water-use practices, particularly within the crop-irrigation
sector, are beginning to receive more attention as a fallout of widespread drought-like conditions
experienced in southern Ontario in the late 1990s. Escalating conflicts among extractive users and
evidence of stresses to aquatic environments led to the development of the inter-agency Ontario Low
Water Response strategy. The strategy, initially released in 2000, established province-wide
guidelines for determining levels of drought severity and defined staged water-use restrictions that
would be applied based on the level reached. Local watershed committees with representation from
government ministries, conservation authorities, municipal officials, water users and other
stakeholders assist in coordinating implementation of the restrictions.
Water-use efficiency practices of industry have not been specifically targeted by provincial
conservation initiatives. They are, however, the subject of industry attention and action as a byproduct of tighter wastewater discharge requirements imposed by provincial and federal regulations.
The province has recently strengthened its Water Taking and Transfer Regulation, which is
the primary instrument governing water withdrawal permits. The amended regulation requires
mandatory measurement and reporting of all permitted withdrawals, designates sensitive watersheds
where further withdrawals may be prohibited, strengthens requirements for conservation planning,
and requires upfront documentation of measures that will be taken to prevent or mitigate impacts on
other users and the environment. The regulation provides for the establishment of sectoral water-use
efficiency standards. Universal metering of residential and ICI services is now common within most
southern Ontario towns and cities while a majority of northern residents remain on unmetered
services.
The Drinking Water Source Protection Act and the Sustainable Water and Sewage Systems
Act are also supportive of water conservation objectives. The former arose out of recommendations
from the judicial inquiry into the Walkerton drinking water tragedy25. It requires development of
watershed-based plans that include rationalization (through a water balance or budget) of future water
demands against water resource availability. Development of such plans will ultimately be required
for all watersheds in the province. The latter legislation requires and empowers municipalities and
other service providers to implement water-use charges based on full-cost accounting and cost
recovery. Charges can be levied to cover the costs of infrastructure renewal and source protection.
41
The principles and concepts involved in integrating water allocation, water conservation, and
source protection planning along with other water management decision-making were examined as
part of a series of best practices pilot projects supported by the provincial government, Conservation
Ontario and a number of individual conservation authorities back in 2002-0326. A suggested
framework for accomplishing this type of integration on the basis of watersheds was developed and
was further delineated for areas of varying levels of water sustainability concern. A universal
commitment to some level of water conservation planning and implementation was viewed as
essential irrespective of the existence of existing conflicts between water availability and demand
(see figures).
42
A Suggested Water Allocation and Water Use Management Framework
27
Based on the Watershed Approach
Government of Ontario, Conservation Ontario et al. (2003). A Framework for Local Water Use Decision-Making
on a Watershed Basis. See online at www.conservation-ontario.on.ca/projects/watershed
43
Managing Water Allocation and Use within Areas of Varying Concern
28
Government of Ontario, Conservation Ontario et al. (2003). A Framework for Local Water Use Decision-Making
on a Watershed Basis. See online at www.conservation-ontario.on.ca/projects/watershed
4.3.10 Québec29
Water Availability and Demand
Quebec’s renewable freshwater resources are the largest among all Canadian provinces. They
are also among the most extensively utilized taking into consideration the province’s leadership role
in hydropower production.
44
There are more than 430 significant watersheds distributed among four major drainage
basins, i.e. the St Lawrence River, James Bay, Hudson Bay and Ungava Bay. The St Lawrence Basin
is home to most of the province’s population and a majority of its non-hydropower based economic
activity. On its own, the St Lawrence Basin accounts for 40% of Quebec’s renewable freshwater
resources. The provincial land base is also underlain by extensive ground water resources that are
only marginally developed. Mean annual precipitation across the entire province is about 750 mm but
is notably higher in the St Lawrence River Basin.
Total freshwater withdrawals (excluding hydropower) are estimated at 3,740 million m³/year.
These are shared among public water supply (41%), industrial (28%), thermal power (21%),
agricultural (6%) and rural domestic (3%) uses. Takings from surface water sources account for 80%
of all public water supply and virtually all of the water used in the other sectors.
Environment Canada municipal water use surveys show Québec’s mean per capita domestic
water usage is about 400 L/day making it among the highest in Canada. This may reflect in part the
limited use of residential water metering in a majority of the province’s towns and cities.
Water Allocation and Conservation
Until recently, conservation and use-efficiency initiatives have been limited and have focused
on outreach, education and technical assistance programs targeting municipal water utilities and their
customers. The non-profit organization Reseau Environnement has been providing services in this
area since 1977. Some 70 municipalities currently participate in the organization’s ‘Water
Conservation Campaign’.
Québec’s current policy directions for moving forward in the field of water management are
laid out in the document ‘Water: Our Life, Our Future’. Release of this important document in 2002
followed extensive public consultations dating back to 1997. The main themes are:
•
•
•
•
•
Reform of water governance
Integrated management of the St. Lawrence River
Protection of water quality and aquatic ecosystems
Continuation of water clean-up and improved management of water services
Promotion of water-related recreational tourism activities.
Conservation-related undertakings committed to under the new provincial water policy
include development of:
•
•
•
•
•
A provincial charge (recently announced at $0.01/m³) on water withdrawals.
Guidelines for how municipalities calculate and recover the cost of water services.
A funding strategy that makes provincial assistance to municipalities (for drinking water
system enhancements) contingent upon adoption of measures to conserve water and reduce
leakage. This strategy will be based on achieving a) a minimum 20% reduction in average per
capita water consumption for all of Québec over 7 years and b) reduction of water losses
through leakage to no more than 20% within 10 years.
A water-conservation program to be implemented in all government buildings.
Institutional, financial and technical support for 33 watershed-based agencies that have been
assigned the task of preparing watershed master plans.
45
4.3.11 New Brunswick303132
Water Availability and Demand
Most of New Brunswick receives in excess of 1,100 mm of precipitation in a typical year
with 20-33% of that coming in the form of snow. While the spring and early summer period tends to
be dry, there is generally ample rain during the growing season.
Water use by sector in 2001 was distributed as follows: industrial uses 35%, public water
supply 24%, aquaculture 28%, rural domestic 9%, and other uses (agriculture, golf courses, ski hills
and bottled water) 5%. Surface water sources supply about two-thirds of the province’s municipal
population. Full metering is common among the province’s larger towns and cities.
Water Allocation and Conservation
Under the Water Quality Regulation of the Clean Environment Act, all waterworks
withdrawing/using greater than 50 m³/day (50,000 L/d) require a permit to operate. Domestic wells
not connected to a distribution system are exempt from this requirement. Development of such a
waterworks is also a trigger to register under the Environmental Impact Assessment Regulation under
the Clean Environment Act.
While the Water Quality Regulation permit is not strictly speaking a water allocation tool, it
does provide a link to the new (July 2004) Water Supply Source Assessment Process. Under this
process a determination is made relating to the long-term sustainability of the proposed taking and
any measures that may be required to mitigate interference with other uses. Water abstraction from a
municipal watershed designated under a Watershed Protected Area Designation Order is restricted.
The Order requires that the withdrawal be controlled so that a flow of not less than 25 % of the mean
monthly flow is maintained in the watercourse at all times. The allowable abstraction from a
municipal well designated under a Wellfield Protected Area Designation Order is also restricted.
The Department of the Environment and Local Government maintains a web page containing
water conservation and efficiency tips for homeowners. Residential water utility customers in New
Brunswick’s largest city of Saint John can elect to pay an unmetered flat-rate water charge or to have
a meter and volumetric (declining-block) pricing. The provinces next two largest cities (Fredericton
and Moncton) have mandatory metering.
4.3.12 Nova Scotia33
Water Availability and Demand
Mean annual precipitation varies from 1,000 mm along the Northumberland north shore, to
1,500 mm along the southern shore and more than 1,600 mm in the Cape Breton Highlands. Rain
accounts for approx 85% of total precipitation except in Cape Breton where up to 30% of
precipitation may come as snow.
The adequacy of Nova Scotia’s renewable supplies of freshwater in meeting current and
foreseeable public and private demands has generally not been of much concern. Water shortages
when they have occurred have tended to be localized and of short duration.
Fifty-four percent (54%) of Nova Scotians are served by municipal water systems. The
remaining largely rural population is served by private or communal ground water supplies. A
majority of the province’s communities are on universal metering.
46
Water Allocation and Conservation
A provincial approval (Environment Act) from the Ministry of Environment and Labour is
required for any water withdrawal exceeding 23,000 L/day. Applications for a water withdrawal
approval (Activities Designation Regulations) must include a water budget assessment showing that
the proposed withdrawal is sustainable. The permit may include long-term monitoring requirements
to assess impacts on streamflows and/or groundwater levels.
The Department of Environment and Labour provides water-related technical guidance and
project funding assistance to municipalities, the tourism industry and other businesses under the
auspices of its Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. A three-year pilot project launched in Lunenburg
in 2001 is helping to demonstrate and test actions that combine water efficiency and water quality
enhancement. The project features distribution of residential water conservation kits, xeriscaping
demonstrations, and development of a green business network. The pilot will form the basis for
similar initiatives in other Nova Scotia cities and towns. Delivery of the department’s outreach and
education programs is providing employment and practical experience to young people through the
activities of the Nova Scotia Youth Conservation Corps.
An interdepartmental water committee, chaired by the Department of Environment and
Labour, provides direction on implementation of the provincial Drinking Water Strategy and for the
management of other province-wide water quality and quantity issues.
4.3.13 Prince Edward Island34
Water Availability and Demand
Prince Edward Island (PEI) is blessed with a large store of ground water resources that is
regularly renewed by abundant rainfalls averaging 1,000-1,100 mm/year. It is estimated that about
one third of this precipitation finds its way into the provinces extensive sandstone bedrock aquifers.
Prince Edward Island is the only Canadian province that is almost totally dependent on
groundwater supplies for drinking and most other uses. Fifty-seven percent (57%) of island residents
obtain their drinking water through private wells. Drought conditions and increasing economic
development in recent years are starting to put a strain on those resources.
Residential water use in most PEI communities is unmetered. The Environment Canada
Municipal Water Use Database (1996) indicates, however, that PEI’s per capita domestic water usage
is among the lowest in Canada at 186 L/day.
Water Allocation and Conservation
A water withdrawal permit (Environment Protection Act) is required for takings in excess of
10,000 gal/day (45,460 L/d). PEI’s irrigation water allocation policy restricts the rate of an individual
groundwater taking to a level not exceeding 50% of the annual recharge rate over the area influenced
by the well. Surface water withdrawals are similarly restricted so as to maintain a downstream flow of
not less than 70% of the flow rate that is exceeded 50% of the time during any month.
In watersheds where there is a high crop irrigation demand, stakeholder committees are
established to coordinate irrigation allocations and scheduling. The committees are comprised of each
irrigating farmer and representatives of the Departments of Environmental Resources and
Agriculture.
Notwithstanding the abundance of its ground water supplies, the Province has stated that
“water efficiency programs are a likely part of PEI’s future”. The province unveiled its Sustainable
47
Resource Development Policy in November 2002. The policy brought together previously
independent resource management policies with the objective of providing more coordinated and
comprehensive direction to the management actions of all government departments. Initial attention
has focused on the agricultural sector with the intention of progressing on to include forestry,
aquaculture and fisheries. Measures targeting improvements in water efficiency are an integral part of
environmental farm planning.
Prince Edward Island is at the midway point in implementing a three-year $2.3 million
federal-provincial cost share program with a water conservation focus. The program provides
technical and financial assistance to agricultural and rural organizations for a variety of projects
including:
•
•
•
Ground and surface water characterization studies
Promotion of irrigation efficiency measures
Promotion of water metering and use of low-flow technologies
Low interest rate loans are available from the PEI Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and
Aquaculture to encourage and assist farmers in upgrading the efficiency of irrigation systems.
4.3.14 Newfoundland and Labrador35
Water Availability and Demand
Mean annual precipitation over most of Newfoundland exceeds 1,000 mm. Some parts
including the south coast typically receive more than 1,650 mm/yr making them the wettest in eastern
Canada. Spring and early summer are generally the driest periods with occasional drought conditions.
Rainfall in the summer of 1987 was in the range of 50-70% of normal leading to some water shortage
concerns for farmers.
The annual renewable water resources of Newfoundland and Labrador are large and generally
well distributed relative to water demands. Water shortages and conflicts are rare outside of the
seasonal peak demand pressures exerted on municipal systems.
Eighty-eight percent of total public water supply withdrawal is from surface water sources
with public systems serving some 83% of the province’s population. Environment Canada water use
surveys indicate that the province’s per capita usage is highest among all provinces. Recent provincial
estimates put the domestic component of municipal water use at 450 L/capita/day. Most residential
water use in Newfoundland and Labrador is unmetered.
Current water allocation by sector has been estimated as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Thermal power generation- (estimate not available)
Municipal supply- 125.65 million m3/year
Pulp and paper- 118.0 million m3/year
Fish processing- 8.24 million m3/year
Aquaculture- 5.0 million m3/year
Water bottling 0.0075 million m3/year
Newfoundland and Labrador requires more accurate estimates from those of 1995 and 1996 in
relation to its water use sectors and enabling provisions in its Water Resources Act.
48
Water Allocation and Conservation
Legislative mechanisms for regulating and managing water use only recently came into force
with passage of the 2002 Water Resources Act. Its water licensing provisions are unique among
Canadian jurisdictions in that they subject all non-domestic water abstraction to application and
licensing regardless of magnitude, i.e. there are no size related exemptions. While licence holders are
expected to record and report water usage there is as yet no mandatory requirement surrounding the
form and accuracy of measurements.
The Act provides a foundation for future conservation management initiatives by permitting
the province to enact additional regulations for the use of “economic measures such as incentives,
royalties, subsidies, administrative and other fees, and water use charges, for the purposes of ensuring
the conservation and proper utilization of water resources, and for the financing of programs and
other measures”.
The province’s non-regulatory approach to conservation and use-efficiency has, to date,
focused on encouraging and working with larger municipalities in reducing peak demands associated
with seasonal water use and in reducing distribution system losses. The lack of universal or even
extensive metering of residential water use in most towns and cities can be an impediment in
achieving full effectiveness from these initiatives.
4.3.15 Nunavut36
Water Availability and Demand
While water resources may appear abundant in Nunavut, the occurrence of significant surface
water flows is seasonally restricted and groundwater resources are generally not accessible.
Portions of each of the communities of Iqaluit, Rankin Inlet, and Nanisivic are served by
piped (above-ground) water distribution but in general most residential customers in Nunavut are
served by trucked supply. Only 16% of all Nunavut and NWT residents are connected to centralized
water systems. Regardless of the form of water delivery, metering or other measurement of the waters
provided to each customer is common.
While trucking water involves significant operating costs, lower investments in construction
and maintenance makes it more economic than piped service for most northern communities. Water
usage among customers receiving trucked service is generally less than 200 L/capita/day.
Water Allocation and Conservation
The Nunavut Water and Surface Rights Tribunal Act (2002) clarifies the licensing mandates
of the Water Board and the Surface Rights Tribunal established in accordance with the 1993 Nunavut
Land Claims Agreement. Although the efficient use of water is not mentioned directly in the act, it is
indirectly addressed by the requirement that the Board is prohibited from issuing, renewing or
amending a licence that could have a substantial adverse affect on the quality, quantity or rate of flow
of waters through Inuit-owned land (unless the applicant has entered into an agreement with the Inuit
to compensate for any loss or damage or the Board has determined the appropriate compensation).
The Nunavut Water Board could require conservation measures as a condition of licensing. The
Nunavut Tunngavik Water Policy (2003) stipulates that Inuit traditional knowledge as well as
scientific analysis will be used in managing water use.
On Inuit owned lands, regional Inuit organizations representing the regional population, are
responsible for granting land use permits, which are a prerequisite for the receipt of a water license.
49
On federally owned lands the Canadian government is responsible. Work continues on a proposed
Freshwater Management Framework that is based on ensuring a harmonized watershed-approach to
managing the quality and quantity of Nunavut’s water resources. Water conservation, sustainable
development and integrated management are proposed as guiding principles.
Conservation-related initiatives underway at this time include multi-unit residential dwelling
pilot projects in Iqaluit and Cape Dorset for the treatment and recycling of grey water and black water
for non-potable use as well as enhancements to existing groundwater resource monitoring and
characterization programs.
4.3.16 Northwest Territories3738
Water Availability and Demand
The Northwest Territories occupy a large portion of the lower Mackenzie River Basin with a
mean annual discharge of approx 9,000 m³/sec. Great Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake are both
wholly contained within the basin boundaries (see figure). The Mackenzie River flows out of Great
Slave Lake at Fort Providence and passes the communities of Fort Simpson and Norman Wells before
discharging to the Beaufort Sea near Inuvik.
The Mackenzie’s eastern tributaries flow from the Taiga Plains and Southern Arctic ecozones
while its western streams originate in the more mountainous Taiga Cordillera. The hydrology of many
tributary rivers, especially in the north, is characterized by large spring (May-June) snowmelt flows,
highly variable summer peak flows in response to rain events, and very minimal flows throughout the
late fall and winter periods. Mean annual precipitation throughout the region is typically in the range
of 250-350 mm.
50
Water Allocation and Conservation
The Northwest Territories Act (1989) contains basic provisions for the licensing and
management of extractive water use.
Current water efficiency initiatives focus on projects targeting water savings and operational
cost reductions within municipal/communal systems. These include conversion of free-flow frost
protection bleeders to thermostatically controlled devices, reclamation of grey water for non-potable
use, and conservation outreach and awareness campaigns. Public outreach on conservation is
identified as a component in the December 2003 policy framework document ‘Managing Drinking
Water Quality in the Northwest Territories’.
Sixty-three percent (63%) of the total NWT population lives in Yellowknife and other
communities surrounding Great Slave Lake. City of Yellowknife alone has 18,700 residents or about
45% of the NWT population. Metering or other forms of measurement of customer water usage are
common to most communities.
The government’s overall directions in the conservation of water and other natural resources
are established in the 1997 Sustainable Development Policy. Perhaps the most significant principle
spelled out in this document is that stating that “natural resources should be managed so that
opportunities for future resource uses are maximized and maintenance of ecosystems is ensured”.
51
4.3.17 Yukon3940
Water Availability and Demand
The Yukon has a vast store of freshwater resources distributed among lakes, wetlands,
streams, glaciers, snowpacks and ground water systems. The territory experienced drought-like
conditions in the late 1990s with 1998 being the driest in 51 years of recorded weather history.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that ground water tables have been declining in the Whitehorse area
leading to well water shortage concerns in some of the rural subdivisions surrounding the city.
The distribution (1998) of permitted water withdrawals based on type of use was municipal
supply 75.4%, placer mining 12.6%, conservation 6.9%, hard rock mining 2.1%, agriculture 0.9% and
other uses 2.1%. The current extent of metering or measurement of actual levels of municipal
domestic water use appears lower in the Yukon than in its sister territories. Only 50% of Whitehorse
households were reported as having metered service in the 1999 Environment Canada survey.
Water Allocation and Conservation
Responsibility for water management was transferred from the federal government to the
Yukon government on April 1, 2003. The Water Act 2003 created the Yukon Water Board, an
independent administrative tribunal with responsibility for the issuance of water use licenses. The Act
defines the purpose of licensing as providing “for the conservation, development and utilization of
waters in a manner that will provide the optimum benefit from them for all Canadians and for the
residents of the Yukon in particular.”
Water withdrawal licences are required in designated “water management areas” as defined
through regulation. Domestic uses, industrial takings of less than 100,000 L/day, and agricultural
water takings of less than 300,000 L/day are exempt. While conditions of use may be imposed on a
licence there are no mandatory provisions regarding conservation planning or practices.
Given the relative scarcity of water use conflicts it is not surprising that current conservation
initiatives are municipally oriented. Initiatives include leak detection and repair, replacement of freeflow bleeders with thermostatically controlled devices, outreach and education on water conserving
best practices and local bylaws requiring use of low-flow toilets in new construction and renovation.
Cooperatively funded programs are assisting municipalities with characterizing the ground water
resources underlying their communities.
4.3.18 Canadian Non-Government (NGO) Initiatives
National and provincial organizations representing municipal water utilities, large industries,
commercial enterprises and water management professionals endorse strengthened measures for the
promotion and facilitated implementation of water-use efficiency. The following table provides
examples from a cross-section of water-use interests.
Water Conservation Policy Positions of Selected Canadian NGOs
Organization
MUNICIPAL UTILITIES
Federation of Canadian
Municipalities (FCM)
Policies and Activities
FCM has called upon senior governments to work together in establishing policies
and legislation aimed at water-use efficiency and sustainable infrastructure
development. Suggestions include:
•
Goals on per capita consumption
•
Support for universal metering
52
•
Canadian Water and
Wastewater Association
(CWWA)
Public education on available options from voluntary to rate-driven
programs
•
Changes to building codes to mandate water-conserving plumbing fixtures
and equipment for domestic, commercial and industrial use
•
Rates reflecting total costs including the cost of current services and the
cost of upgrading infrastructure
CWWA has adopted policies that:
•
Encourage development and implementation of water-use efficiency and
conservation policies and programs by all water service providers.
•
Encourage all water utilities to implement universal metering programs
•
Encourage water and wastewater services to set rates on the basis of
recovering the full costs of their systems
•
Encourage water and wastewater services to integrate environmental,
public health and sustainable development principles in their planning,
decision-making and day-to-day operations
•
Support the concept and principles of environmental sustainability and in
particular watershed and water recharge area management
•
Welcomes sustained and coordinated federal, provincial and territorial
intervention in funding municipal water and wastewater infrastructure
taking into account differences in local financial capacity, e.g. as faced by
smaller and northern communities
CWWA also operates the municipal Water Efficiency Experiences Database.
AGRICULTURE
Canadian Federation(s)
of Agriculture (CFA)
The Canadian Federation of Agriculture (CFA) does not have a documented
position specific to water conservation and water-use efficiency. In respect of
broader environmental protection issues, CFA has requested that governments
consider:
•
Long-term and stable funding for environmental farm planning
•
Funds to facilitate information and technology transfer
•
Capital cost allowances for environmental investments
•
Funds to encourage and facilitate land set-aside and stewardship
initiatives for achieving public environmental benefits
With respect to recent changes to Ontario’s Water Taking and Transfer Regulation,
the Ontario Federation of Agriculture (OFA) stated that it:
•
Applauds the goal of improving irrigation efficiency; favours guidelines
over sectoral standards
•
Believes that agricultural takings should have precedence over
commercial and industrial uses in ‘high use watersheds’ and during lowwater periods in all watersheds
•
Opposes administrative or usage charges for agricultural takings
RESOURCE EXTRACTION AND MANUFACTURING
Forest Products
While FPAC has not identified water use and conservation as a “current issue”
Association of Canada
facing the industry, the Association states that its members are “constantly finding
(FPAC)
more ways to recycle and use resources more efficiently”. It cites industry-wide
data showing improvements in water-use productivity as evidence of this.
Canadian Chemical
CCPA’s ‘Responsible Care® Program’ is based on a set of principles two of which
Producers Association
are inferred to promote water conservation. Member companies are expected to:
(CPPA)
•
Continuously reduce emissions with the goal of preventing unacceptable
risk to the environment, and
•
Apply a broad range of options including reducing, reusing, recycling and
recovering to effectively manage the environmental impact of processes.
Mining Association of
Canada (MAC)
Member companies of the American Chemistry Council (CCPA’s U.S. counterpart)
also subscribe to the Responsible Care® Program
MAC’s ‘Environmental Policy’ commits member companies to:
•
Develop, design and operate facilities based upon the efficient use of
energy, resources and materials.
53
•
Canadian Petroleum
Products Institute
(CPPI)
Canadian Steel
Producers Association
(CSPA)
Canadian Association of
Petroleum Producers
(CAPP)
Establish an ongoing program of review and improvement of
environmental performance, taking into account technical and economic
developments, scientific understanding and environmental effects of
operations
In its submission to the Government of Canada on Bill C-33, MAC reported that:
•
Modern mining industry practices have long recognized the need for
prudent use of water resources… and that,
•
It is widely accepted [by the industry] that the long-term management,
protection and conservation of water resources prevails over the
immediate interests of individual user groups
CPPI’s hierarchical approach to environmental protection gives ‘first consideration’
to CCME’s definition of pollution prevention, i.e. “the use of processes, practices,
materials, products or energy that avoid or minimize the creation of pollutants and
waste, at the source”.
CPPI’s ‘Guiding Principles’ commit member companies to develop management
systems that support efficient utilization of natural resources
CSPA’s ‘Sustainable Development Principles’ commit member companies to:
•
Maximize resource efficiency in the development, production and use of
steel products including making efforts to use energy and water more
efficiently.
•
Work to continuously improve company and sector environmental
performance through adoption of new or improved processes, practices,
technologies and products
CAPP has identified freshwater use per unit of production as one of its stewardship
benchmarking parameters. Member companies are required to report their usage
on an annual basis.
CAPP encourages its members to:
•
Exceed what is expected to reach the highest degree of water protection
•
Develop new technologies to monitor, report and reduce water use
•
Recycle used water
•
Proactively improve practices
•
Support research into water conservation and recovery methods
OTHER
Royal Canadian Golf
Association (RCGA)
Canadian Water
Resources Association
(CWRA)
RCGA’s ‘Environmental Principles’ encourage golf course designers, developers,
owners and operators to:
•
Ensure adequate water supply is available for both potable and irrigation
needs of the facility and neighbouring properties
•
Design irrigation systems to efficiently use water only when and where
needed
•
Investigate the feasibility of alternative and supplemental sources of
irrigation water including the use of reclaimed water and the collection,
storage and use of stormwater runoff
•
Develop and implement self-initiated action plans to conserve and
enhance natural resources.
RCGA supports:
•
Individual course participation in and certification under the Audubon
Cooperative Sanctuary Program for Golf Courses. Water conservation is
a program component.
•
Research into the development of drought tolerant grasses.
CWRA supports governments, business, the public and water-resource
professionals working together to encourage water conservation and protection of
water quality through:
•
Recognizing the value and limits of water resources and the costs of
providing water in adequate quantity and quality
•
Acknowledging water’s consumptive and non-consumptive values to
humans and other species
54
•
Balancing education, market forces and regulatory systems to promote
choice and the recognition of the responsibility of beneficiaries to pay for
their use of the resource.
CWRA has also asked federal and provincial governments to restore and enhance
their commitments to hydrometric and meteorologic monitoring networks.
4.4
AUSTRALIA
4.4.1
Legal and Institutional Context
The constitutional division of water management powers in Australia gives lead
responsibility to the eight states and territories. Large differences in the size and nature of state
economies, in the distribution of natural resources wealth, and in the depth of environmental policies
and laws have contributed to difficulties in managing water resources in a coordinated and sustainable
manner. This is particularly true in the case of shared river systems and regional aquifers41.
4.4.2
Water Availability and Water Use
The Australian Continent is the most arid in the world with more than half of the land area
receiving less than 300 mm of precipitation in an average year. Appreciable rainfall is distinctly
seasonal in nature and is essentially confined to areas close to the eastern and northern coasts. This
accounts for the fact that most of Australia’s population resides in the coastal region particularly in
the more temperate east and southeast. Some of the interior arid and semi-arid areas of the country are
fortunate to lie atop the Great Artesian Basin that provides the only reliable water supply for much of
the arid outback42.
Average Annual Rainfall - Australia
Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology. (2003). See online at www.bom.gov.au/climate/map
55
Most of the country’s continuously flowing river basins are comparatively short and
discharge directly along the coastline. A significant exception is the 1.06 million km² Murray-Darling
Basin that drains approx. one-seventh of the continent’s landmass. The Murray-Darling is located in
the southeast and discharges to the South Australian Basin of the Indian Ocean near the City of
Adelaide. It is home to close to 2 million people or 11% of Australia’s population and accounts for
more than 40% of the country’s agricultural production43. An additional 1 million living outside the
basin also depend on it as a source of supply.
Annual water withdrawals (1997) for all uses amount to some 24,060 million m³44. Water use
has increased by 65% since the mid 1980s. Crop irrigation uses 17,940 million m³ of water annually
or 75% of total withdrawals. Urban/industrial and rural uses (domestic + livestock watering) account
for 20% and 5% respectively of total takings. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of withdrawals come from
surface water sources.
There are 2.1 million ha of crop and pasture lands under irrigation in Australia with 1.5
million ha or 71% of those situated in the Murray-Darling Basin.
An estimated 26% of Australia’s surface water management areas are close to or have already
exceeded sustainable extraction limits with the greatest problems occurring in the Murray-Darling
(see figure). While national and state governments agreed that water withdrawals from the basin
should be ‘capped’ at levels as they existed in 1993-94, Queensland has not yet agreed to their share
and New South Wales has not been successful in staying within the cap in the tributary Barwon
watershed. River systems in the north and west of Australia are generally not stressed but are
expected to see increased pressure from agricultural interests in future.
Total annual ground water abstractions increased by 90% from 1995 to 1997. Total usage is
divided between crop irrigation (51%), urban-industrial uses (32%), and stock watering and rural
domestic uses (17%). Four million Australians are totally or partially dependent on ground water
supplies for their domestic needs. The rapid growth in ground water use has led to unsustainable
levels of withdrawal in some areas (see figure).
Sustainable Development Status of Australia’s Surface Waters
56
Department of Environment and Heritage. (2001). Australia State of the Environment 2001. See online at
www.deh.gov.au/soe/2001/water
Sustainable Development Status of Australia’s Ground Waters
Department of Environment and Heritage. (2001). Australia State of the Environment 2001. See online at
www.deh.gov.au/soe/2001/water
4.4.3
National and State Water Reforms
In the late 1980’s in response to the gravity of its water management problems, the Council of
Australian Governments (COAG) began a search for a coordinated approach to finding and
implementing changes. This resulted in a 1994 agreement to develop a “strategic framework to
achieve an efficient and sustainable water industry”. The framework addressed the following areas of
need:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Water entitlements and trading
Environmental requirements
Institutional reform
Public consultation and outreach
Water pricing
Research
Australia’s National Competition Policy (1995) provides annual payments to individual states
and territories based on their progress in implementing the agreed to water reforms. A state/ territory
must continue implementation and observance of agreed to measures and timetables in order to
receive its full share of the available payments. Annual payments under the program have been in the
range of $ 500-700 million AU. A number of jurisdictions received reduced funding in some years
because of inadequate progress.
57
4.4.4
Current Reforms Status
Progress in implementing the COAG reforms has been more challenging than initially
anticipated particularly in the area of enhanced water allocations and trading systems. The timetable
for full implementation has, therefore, been extended to 20054546.
Reported achievements to date under the ongoing reforms include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A “genuine” recognition of the needs of the environment in water use decision-making.
Governments generally are not granting new water allocations from overused rivers and
aquifers and are no longer building dams that are ecologically unsustainable. Water
management plans are being developed that provide for environmental flows and aim to
preserve ecologically significant environments.
Institutional reforms involving significant enhancements to legislation, organizational
structures and interagency coordination
Implementation of partial cost recovery in irrigation areas
Early progress on securing water entitlements and enhancing trading arrangements has led to
improvements in water efficiency and allowed water to be reallocated to higher value crops
Implementation of full cost recovery (including environmental costs) and block-rate pricing
for most public-utility supplied water
Formal introduction of a Water Efficiency Labeling and Standards Scheme applicable to
toilets, urinals, washers, dishwashers, showerheads and faucets
Extension and refinement of watershed-based planning and management with broader
stakeholder participation. The large Lake Eyre Basin in central Australia and the Diamantina
River and Cooper Creek watersheds in South Australia are cited as leading examples
Restructuring and consolidation of water reforms into a new package entitled the National
Water Initiative (NWI).
The NWI will address the establishment of:
•
•
•
•
•
A nationally compatible system of water access entitlements
o Firm pathways and open processes for returning overallocated systems to
environmentally sustainable levels of extraction
o Identification and assignment of risks and responsibilities between governments and
water users over possible future reductions in water availability
o Commitment to sharing lessons learned and to continuous improvement in watersharing plans
More efficient water markets
o Expand markets to their widest practical geographic scope
o Harmonize policies and rules within major basins, e.g. Murray-Darling
Strengthened institutional arrangements for the recovery and management of water for the
environment
o Use of flexible markets and other mechanisms, e.g. capital improvements to water
infrastructure, to capture water for the environment when needed
Improved cost accounting and institution of ‘best practice’ water pricing
o Apply the principles of user pay and full cost recovery including, as appropriate, the
cost of delivery, planning and environmental impact
Further improvements in urban water management
o Promotion of water reuse and recycling
o Adoption of more efficient technologies
o Review effectiveness of pricing policies
58
•
Improved measuring, monitoring and information management systems
o Recognition that accurate measurement and routine reporting are fundamental to
making the water management system function in a reliable, equitable and
transparent manner
o Governments will invest in improving scientific understanding of water resources,
water use and ecosystems
4.5
UNITED STATES
4.5.1
Legal and Institutional Context
Under the constitution, major water management powers are vested in the federal
government. While states also have important law-making powers relating to water, their processes
and end results must adhere to minimum national standards in order for them to access related
program funding available from various federal agencies involved in water management. Given the
extensive ‘carving-up’ of watersheds and major aquifers by state boundaries, the vestige of ultimate
power over water with the federal government is critical to its effective management.
As in Canada, U.S water allocation principles and laws differ from east to west, i.e. riparian
or common law rights in the east vs. prior appropriation rights in the west.
4.5.2
Water Availability and Water Use
At the global scale, the U.S is considered to have a large natural endowment in renewable
water resources relative to its per capita needs. These resources are, however, not evenly distributed.
Water demands in many western states, which have characteristically arid or semi-arid climates, do
exceed naturally renewable supplies. This has required construction of several large-scale diversions
and storages and is resulting in overdrafting of some ground water aquifers.
Total U.S freshwater withdrawals (excluding hydropower) in 2000 amounted to 345 billion
US gallons per day, which equates to 477 billion m³ for the year (see accompanying figure and
table)47. Surface water withdrawals accounted for 76% of the total. Withdrawals by major sector were
crop irrigation 39.7%, thermal power 39.4%, public water supply 12.6%, industrial 5.4%, livestock
(including aquaculture) 1.6%, self-supply domestic 1.0%, and mining 0.6%. While water withdrawal
intensity is generally higher in the east, existing and potential sustainability concerns are more serious
in the west (see figure).
The water-use significance of crop irrigation relates not only to the extent of overall
withdrawals but also to the fact that the largest acreages and heaviest demands occur in the arid or
semi-arid western states. Thirteen (13) states each use more water for irrigation than what is used
across all of Canada. California, Idaho, Colorado, Nebraska, Texas and Montana together account for
more than 60% of total U.S. crop-water usage. The nature, distribution and impacts of crop irrigation
are examined in more detail in Chapter 7.
Within the thermal power generation sector, facilities with once-through cooling account for
91% of sectoral withdrawals48. Water-cooled power plants operating in arid states such as Arizona,
New Mexico, Nevada and Utah are exclusively based on closed-loop systems. These systems also see
extensive use in many other states including Delaware, Kentucky, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, South
Carolina and Texas. Since the 1970s most new thermal plants and many existing plants have been
built or converted to use closed-loop or air cooling in response to stricter federal water quality
requirements on return flows and water shortages. Today, these technologies account for 60% of total
installed steam-generation capacity within the thermal power sector. As a result of these changes,
59
water-use productivity in U.S. thermal-electric power generation has improved from 63 US gallons
per kWh in 1950 to 21 US gal/kWh in 2000.
Intensity of U.S. Freshwater Withdrawals by State49
US Geological Survey. (2000). Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. See online at
www.usgs.gov/watuse
60
Watersheds of Existing and Emerging Concern in the U.S. West
US Department of the Interior. (2003). Water 2025: Preventing Crises and Conflict in the West. See online at
www.doi.gov/water2025/supply.html
61
Total U.S Water Withdrawals by Sector and State (2000)
50
(Million US gallons per day)
US Geological Survey. (2000). Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. See online at
www.usgs.gov/watuse
Total water withdrawals from all sectors combined were about 8% lower in 2000 than the
peak levels reached in the early 1980s. They have been relatively constant since 1985 (see figure).
The decline is largely attributed to cooling-system changes in the thermal power generation sector
and improved water conservation practices in crop irrigation. Overall water use is also down in the
industrial sector as a result of water efficiency improvements (triggered by stricter water quality
62
standards) and some decline in domestic production among primary industries. Total public watersupply withdrawals have continued to rise but at a slower rate than the rate of population growth.
Trends in Total U.S. Water Withdrawals by Water-Use Category, 1950 - 2002
US Geological Survey. (2000). Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. See online at
www.usgs.gov/watuse
4.5.3
Federal Initiatives
One or more federal agencies may be involved in water conservation planning and
implementation depending on the water-use sector. Key agencies include the Environmental
Protection Agency (US EPA), Dept of Agriculture (UDSA), Dept of Energy (DOE), and Dept of the
Interior (DOI).
US EPA has been active in the development of water conservation program planning
guidance for public water utilities in conjunction with its responsibilities for administering the Safe
Drinking Water Act (1996). The agency’s Guidelines for Preparing Water Conservation Plans
formally released in 1998 currently serve as a model for municipal water authorities both in the U.S
and other countries51. EPA’s effluent quality standards and watercourse standards have also played a
significant role in encouraging water-use intensive industries and municipalities to reduce their water
usage.
EPA continues to promote water conservation as a cost-saving element of infrastructure
renewal and sustainability initiatives and as integral consideration in integrated water/watershed
management planning. It is also considering the establishment of a national water efficiency labeling
program for water-using appliances and other devices similar to that of the Energy StarTM Program.
USDA and DOI are involved in promotion and facilitation of conservation initiatives in crop
irrigation particularly in the West (see Chapter 7). DOI is also the home of the U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS) with its responsibilities in monitoring, compiling, evaluating and disseminating
information on water availability and water use throughout the country. The Dept of Energy may
63
emerge as a more significant player in water conservation efforts with its active involvement in
promoting the synergistic benefits of water and energy conservation (see Chapter 6)52.
4.5.4
State Initiatives
Arizona53
In 2000, Arizona water users withdrew an average of 6,720 million US gal/day (9,285 million
m³/yr) of freshwater from surface and ground water sources. Crop irrigation accounted for 80% of
total usage with public water supplies accounting for most of the remainder at 16%. Severe
overdrafting of groundwater resources has been reported throughout many parts of the state.
Arizona’s system of water management involves granting and administration of surface and
ground water rights, controls on well drilling, promotion and facilitation of ground water recharge
measures, monitoring and assessment of water resources, and long-range planning. The Arizona Dept
of Water Resources is the lead agency. The state’s Ground Water Code requires the preparation of
water resource management plans within designated Active Management Areas (AMAs). These plans
include provisions that generally prohibit additional irrigation development, set 5-year targets for
conservation improvements, and require metering of wells withdrawing more than 35 US gallons/min
or 190,000 L/day. Land developers can be required to demonstrate the availability of a 100-year
assured supply of water before growth approvals are granted.
Cost-share and technical support is available under the Water Management Assistance
Program to help irrigators in implementing water efficiency measures.
California54
Californians use more water than people and businesses in any other state. Total freshwater
withdrawals (2000) amounted to 38,400 million US gal/day (53,055 million m³/yr) or slightly more
than 11% of all U.S. withdrawals. Crop irrigation accounts for 79% and public water supply 16% of
state-wide withdrawals. It is estimated that in an average year the state uses 40-50% of all water that
falls as precipitation or enters the state via Oregon, Colorado or Mexico.
The state Dept of Water Resources (DWR) together with the Office of Water Use Efficiency
(OWUE) has lead responsibilities over most aspects of water management. DWR requires all utilities
serving more than 3000 customers to develop Urban Water Management Plans that details the
measures to be taken to ensure reliability of supply during normal, dry and multiple dry years.
State authorities work closely with urban water providers in implementing a range of
education and incentive programs designed for the particular needs of residential, industrial,
commercial and institutional water users. These programs combine efforts aimed at both water and
energy conservation. Water providers coordinate their program approaches and outreach materials
through the California Urban Water Conservation Council.
DWR and OWUE work with irrigation districts and water districts that provide water to the
state’s large irrigated crop industry. OWUE manages the California Irrigation Management
Information System that provides growers with up-to-date information on weather and evapotranspiration rates to assist them in making decisions on scheduling and application rates. OWUE also
disseminates information on best technologies and practices, conducts research and demonstration
projects, aids in setting up mobile efficiency testing laboratories, facilitates the development of water
reclamation and reuse projects, and provides loans and grants for conservation improvements.
64
Florida55
Total statewide freshwater withdrawals in 2000 amounted to 8,140 million US gal/day
(11,245 million m³/year). Crop irrigation and public water supply withdrawals respectively account
for 53% and 30% of total usage making them a focal point for water efficiency efforts. Landscape and
golf-course irrigation is also an area of focus.
Florida has enacted a State Water Use Plan that establishes targets for, provides ongoing
direction to and monitors the performance of its five (5) watershed-based Water Management
Districts (WMDs). The Plan is administered by the Florida Dept of Environmental Protection.
Districts have a range of regulatory and coordination responsibilities covering the areas of surface and
ground water monitoring and mapping, water-use permitting, drought response planning and
management, public outreach and education, flood protection and conservation lands acquisition.
Each WMD operates within the context of 5-year plans with annual performance evaluation and
updating.
The state’s water conservation goal is “to prevent and reduce the wasteful, uneconomical,
impractical or unreasonable use of water resources”. WMDs are required and empowered to work
with and assist local and regional governments and other parties on conservation programs. Together
they can develop and implement water-efficiency standards, enforce irrigation restrictions, impose
conservation rate structures, take measures to reduce unaccounted-for-flows, require installation of
water-efficient plumbing fixtures, require xeriscaping and irrigation rain sensors, and conduct public
education programs.
The Florida Joint Statement of Commitment for the Development and Implementation of a
Statewide Comprehensive Water Conservation Program for Public Water Supply (JSOC) is a
negotiated agreement among state, district and local partners to collaborate on a range of measures for
the continuous improvement of water-use efficiency.
Florida’s Dept of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) operates cost-share and
technical extension services programs (in conjunction with USDA and other state and local agencies)
that assist agricultural producers to implement better technologies and practices for conservation and
water quality protection. DACS oversees development and implementation of best management
practices (BMPs) and voluntary interim measures relating to irrigation retrofits, irrigation scheduling
and integrated water management.
New Mexico56
Crop irrigation water withdrawals account for 88% of all water usage in New Mexico. Public
water supplies account for 9%.
Lead responsibilities in water management reside with the Interstate Stream Commission
(ISC) and the Office of the State Engineer. Regional water planning, which has been in place since
1987, was endorsed as the basis of state programs in recognition of “the many variables in climate,
water supply, water demand, and legal and institutional constraints”. The state is divided into 16
planning regions.
Regions are guided in their work by a Regional Water Planning Handbook developed by the
ISC in 1994. The planning process involves identification and monitoring of supply including
determination of potential ground water availability, projection of demand, and development of
alternative strategies for meeting the challenges of water shortages that are prevalent in this arid
state.
65
The New Mexico State Engineer, together with the ISC, oversees the state-wide Water
Management Program. The program mandates the State Engineer’s Office to consider conservation
practices in the granting of water rights permits. Applicants are required to “utilize the highest and
best technology available to ensure conservation of water to the maximum extent practical”.
Inter-State Programs
The above states plus many more outside of the list selected for study also actively work with
sister states and other levels of government in promoting and implementing mutually beneficial or
essential conservation measures. Such inter-state agreements and programs are relatively common
because of the many major river basins that cross state boundaries.
The federal government frequently plays a role in inter-state water initiatives through
agencies such as the Corps of Engineers and the Dept of the Interior. Because of the severity of
sustainability concerns and problems in the West, U.S federal agencies led the recent development of
the U.S. Water 2025 Report. This report examines the competing interests in and conflicts over water
resulting from rapid urban expansion, ongoing irrigated-crop production, and escalating public
demands for greater protection of fisheries and other instream uses. The report’s conclusions endorse
the urgency of modernizing and ‘tightening-up’ existing water supply infrastructure and of
implementing a comprehensive range of other conservation measures.
Some western states including Colorado, Montana and Washington have introduced
legislation intended to assure the protection of fisheries in the face of historically over allocated
resources. Other examples of U.S state and local initiatives are referenced in other chapters and cited
in Appendices B and C.
4.5.5
Non-Government and Industry Initiatives
Several national organizations representing a cross-section of water interests have become
active in the promotion of integrated water resources management and water conservation. Two of the
largest and most influential are the American Water Works Association (AWWA) representing public
water utilities and the Irrigation Association (IA) that represents the agricultural and landscape
irrigation industries. Excerpts from the conservation policy positions of AWWA and the IA are
presented below.
Similar groups advocate for improved water management practices among primary
manufacturing industries (pulp and paper, steel, chemicals and energy production), service industries
(laundries, car washes and food), recreational industries (golf courses and ski resorts) and institutional
facilities (schools and hospitals). The role and contributions of several of these are discussed in
Chapters 5-8. There are also a variety of locally, regionally, nationally and internationally based
environmental NGOs who have made the wiser and sustainable use of water a cause. These include
countless watershed partnerships, Great Lakes United and the World Watch Institute.
66
American Water Works Association Position on Water Conservation
(Excerpts from the June 1995 AWWA White Paper)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Water conservation programs should emphasize lasting improvements in water-use efficiency.
Conservation should be used to reduce current and future water demands to the benefit of the
customer, the utility and the environment.
Water utilities should adopt sound water management practices including;
o Reducing unaccounted-for water through universal metering and accounting for water
use, routine meter testing and repair, and distribution system leak detection and repair
o Use of cost-of-service water rates
o Using public information and education programs to promote conservation and assist
customers in implementing improvements
The reliability of conserved water depends on accurate estimates of potential savings. Careful
planning and analysis is a prerequisite to major utility investments in conservation programs.
There is an ongoing need to monitor and document program effectiveness.
In the event of water shortages, utilities with broad-based conservation programs will be better
able to mitigate the impacts on the utility and its customers.
While the upfront costs of conservation initiatives can be considerable and the full benefits
materialize over time, the impact of reduced water sales can normally be accommodated through
periodic rate adjustments.
In growing municipalities, conservation can defer the need for or reduce the size of capital
investments in expanded infrastructure and reduce operating costs.
Conservation reduces wastewater collection and treatment costs and improves effluent quality.
The first goal of any rate structure is to generate sufficient revenues to maintain efficient and
reliable utility operations. The second goal is fairness in allocating service costs. The rate
structure should have the capability to encourage conservation and penalize excessive use.
Conservation-oriented rate structures by themselves do not constitute an effective water
conservation program. They need to be coupled with concerted and ongoing customer education
and assistance with changing technologies and practices.
The Irrigation Association Water Conservation Policy
(Formally adopted in 1990)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Measure all water use.
Price water so as to recognize its finite nature. Pricing mechanisms should provide incentives to
water users who conserve water, as well as penalties for those who waste it.
Hold all water users responsible for protecting the quality of water resources at their disposal.
Create financial systems to reward user s for efficient irrigation systems. Key elements to observe
are system design, operation, and maintenance combined with effective scheduling and
management practices.
Create national education programs for all water users emphasizing the absolute necessity of
supporting regulatory policies which reward conservation and efficient use.
Support water reclamation initiatives, particularly for irrigation, including the use of reclaimed
water from municipal, industrial, agricultural and other available sources, where practical.
Give increased support to developing new water resources, conveyance and storage facilities to
enhance dependable water supplies for urban and agricultural use, with proper consideration for
legitimate environmental concerns.
Participate in water conservation planning as an ongoing program. These plans must be in place
prior to a critical need and must provide for each water user’s acceptance of a fair share of any
conservation effort.
Institute studies to assess water use and misuse within all sectors as a basis for sound decisionmaking on the equitable distribution of water during periods of shortage.
Promote policies which allow for the lease, sale or transfer of established water rights, and/or the
lease, sale or transfer of water without jeopardizing established water rights, whenever possible.
67
4.6
EUROPE
4.6.1
Constitutional and Legal Context
The European Union continues on the path toward harmonization of national laws governing
the development, use and protection of water and other natural resources. Harmonization is being
achieved through negotiation and formal adoption of legally binding Framework Directives and
Environment Action Programmes. These establish EU-wide policies and standards that serve as
benchmarks for the introduction or amendment of state laws and guidance in the coordination of
programmes. Oversight of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is under the auspices of the
European Commission. The European Environment Agency (EEA) is responsible for compiling and
disseminating information that will assist member states in achieving Framework objectives and for
progress reporting.
Promotion of sustainable water use based on the “long-term protection of available water
resources” is an identified purpose of the WFD57. Specific policy requirements are still being
developed surrounding water conservation and water-use efficiency. Member countries are currently
required to conduct economic analyses of water use at a river basin level taking into account the
principles of cost recovery for services including environmental and resource costs.
The Integrated Pollution Prevention Directive of 1996 establishes “best available techniques”
guidance and water efficiency targets for the pulp and paper industry and for the hog and poultry
sectors of the intensive livestock production industry58. These are discussed in chapters 6 and 7.
An objective of the Sixth Environment Action Programme (2001-2010) is “to provide
products and services using fewer resources, such as water, and encouraging resource efficiency
through more sustainable consumption patterns”. It goes on to say that, “to achieve this objective,
measures to improve the efficiency of water use in different economic sectors have to be implemented
at national, regional and local levels”.
EU Directive 97/11/EC obligates member countries to enact formal Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) requirements as part of approval processes associated with large water withdrawals
(≥ 10 million m³/yr) and inter-basin transfers (≥ 100 million m³/yr).
4.6.2
Water Availability and Water Use
Generally speaking the European continent is blessed with abundant freshwater resources but
there are important regional disparities in the level of renewable supplies. The extent and severity of
sustainability concerns reflect differences in geography, climate, population densities and the sectoral
distribution of economic activity across the continent. Countries in the south with their sizeable
agrarian economies, e.g. Spain, Italy and Turkey, experience more problems than their northern
neighbours (see figures)59,60. Some eastern accession countries including Romania, Poland and
Slovakia, which historically experienced sustainable water-use issues, have seen some reduction of
concern albeit as a result of the partial collapse of their agrarian economies.
Water-resource sustainability is becoming an issue in the United Kingdom with its relatively
limited crop irrigation, relatively abundant precipitation and more temperate climate. France lies
somewhere in the middle of the overall European experience since higher agricultural water demands
are balanced off by higher annual water resource renewals. This is not to say that these countries
don’t suffer from localized problems with respect to maintaining a balance between water availability
and water use.
68
Surface water withdrawals account for the largest portion of water takings in most
countries61. They constitute close to 80% of all withdrawals in the UK, 85% in France and 90% in
Finland. Exceptions are Denmark, Iceland and Slovenia where ground water is the basis of more than
80% of total water withdrawals. Ground water is the primary source of public water supply in rural
areas of most European countries. Large scale ground water withdrawals, primarily for public supply,
have resulted in worsening saltwater intrusion problems for the coastal aquifers of Denmark, southern
Baltic countries and countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
The last decade has seen a higher incidence and severity of drought-like conditions in parts of
Europe leading to increased attention being focused on measures that will improve water-use
efficiency and productivity.
Water Exploitation Indices (WEI %) for EU Countries
European Environment Agency. (2004). Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Exploitation. See online at
www.eea.eu.int/indicators/all_factsheets_box
Note: WEI or water withdrawal ratio is defined as the mean annual total abstractions of freshwater
divided by the mean annual renewable freshwater resources.
69
Sectoral Water-Use Distribution within Major EU Regions
European Environment Agency. (2004). Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Use by Sectors. See online at
www.eea.eu.int/indicators/all_factsheets_box
Notes:
- Western (Southern) region consists of France, Greece, Italy Portugal, Spain
- Western (Central+Nordic): Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Ireland,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
- AC (Southern): Acceding countries of Cyprus, Malta, Turkey
- AC (Northern): Bulgaria, Czech Rep., Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia
4.6.3
Water Pricing and Cost Recovery
The EU Water Framework Directive obliges all member states to have full-cost recovery
pricing policies in place by 201062. Increased water prices are being viewed as “an enabling
mechanism” in altering behavioural responses on the part of water users. Most EU countries now use
water-rate structures that combine fixed and volumetric charges and have been progressively raising
prices by several percentage points annually. Removal of pricing subsidies in Eastern Europe
contributed to decreases in average domestic water use by as much as 32% in recent years. Domestic
water bills range from 0.2% of household income in Oslo, Norway to 3.5% in Bucharest, Romania.
As a point of reference, the World Bank has stated that the cost of water services should not exceed
5% of household income.
Across Europe, municipal water prices tend to be lower in Mediterranean countries and in
most countries with abundant water supplies. The highest prices are typically found in the cities of
northern Europe. In-country differences are common as is the case in Spain where prices in the resort
island areas are 2.0-2.5 times national average rates. Municipal water pricing in Europe and elsewhere
is discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.
The agricultural sector is acknowledged as presenting the biggest challenge in moving toward
full-cost recovery. Current agricultural water prices are typically an order of magnitude lower than
those found in the municipal and industrial sectors. While this may appear justified on the basis of
lower servicing costs, it runs counter to the sector’s status as the largest contributor to water quality
degradation across the continent. Austria and the Netherlands are exceptions to this pricing disparity
70
as seen in the following figure. The EU Common Agricultural Policy provides for direct payments to
farmers to assist with the implementation of resource and environmental protection measures.
Payments are capped on the basis of crop types and acreages and require the adoption and ongoing
use of environmentally acceptable production methods and practices.
Median Prices for Industrial, Agricultural and Household Water Supply (late 1990s)
European Environment Agency. (2004). Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Prices. See online at
www.eea.eu.int/indicators/all_factsheets_box
4.6.4
England and Wales63
Water Availability and Water Use
While England and Wales are traditionally considered as having wet climates, total
accumulated precipitation can vary widely from year to year. Drought-like conditions occur with
some regularity during the summer period. This combined with a large and growing population living
on a small land base can exert tremendous pressure on available surface and ground water supplies.
The population is expected to increase by 2.8 million persons in the period 1996 to 2016.
Total annual water withdrawals from all sectors combined are about 16,000 million m³.
Public water supply and thermal power plant withdrawals each account for about 42% of total
abstractions (see figure). Industrial and commercial-aquaculture takings make up most of the
remainder. With only 108,000 ha or 0.6% of all agricultural lands being irrigated and much of that for
higher-value crops, the UK’s agricultural crop-water use component is the smallest among
jurisdictions included in this study.
71
Trends in Sectoral Water Withdrawals in England and Wales (1971-2002)
Environment Agency. (2002). Your Environment- Environmental Facts and Figures. See online at
www.environment-agency.gov.uk/yourenv/eff
Water Management
Water management in the UK has gone through a succession of reforms in the past few
decades that have seen responsibilities fully devolved to watershed authorities and then partially
centralized again. The provision of public water supplies is generally the responsibility of private
water companies. These companies typically provide water services to several communities and
report to watershed-based regional offices of the Environment Agency (see figure).
72
U.K. Environment Agency Regional Offices
The 1991 Water Resources Act and the more recent U.K. Water Act (2003) both incorporate
provisions for regulating water-use sustainability. The former requires measurement and reporting of
abstractive water usage within catchment management areas. It also established a Water Demand
Management Department within the Environment Agency with responsibilities to further the science
and practice of demand management and drought management. The Water Act strengthens
requirements for sustainable use. Water companies are required to document the measures they are
taking and the progress made in managing the water distribution system and in encouraging water-use
efficiency among their customers. The Environment Agency has the power to revoke or amend water
licenses if the water use is found to be damaging the environment.
The Water Industry Act (1991) regulates the prices that water companies charge customers. In
addition to bringing needed price stability and certainty to the industry, the Act facilitates application
of universal metering and cost recovery on actions taken to implement conservation and water-use
efficiency. Price structures are reviewed every five years. Water Supply Regulations which
accompany the Act set minimum national efficiency standards for toilets, washers and dishwashers
and specify other plumbing requirements intended to minimize water waste. On the surface, these
mechanisms together with the Water Act requirements would appear to require water companies to
aggressively pursue water conservation. Recent government and independent reviews have, however,
shown that the privatized water industry has been slow in introducing changes seen as a threat to its
profit margins.
73
Since 2001, the Catchment Abstraction Management Strategies (CAMS) process has required
the establishment of water budgets for designated river basins. The budgets will be used to determine
sustainable abstraction levels and aid in the identification of actions needed to regulate water
withdrawals in the face of future growth. Throughout England and Wales, a Water Abstraction
Licence and/or a Water Impoundment Licence is required for any non-domestic surface or ground
water taking in excess of 20,000 L/day.
The UK’s ‘Waterwise’ and ‘Envirowise’ outreach and education programs offer detailed and
regularly updated advice and technical assistance to homeowners, industries, commercial
establishments, institutional facilities and farmers on selecting and implementing best technologies
and practices for water efficiency.
4.6.5
France64
Water Availability and Water Use
France is considered a water-rich nation with large annually renewable freshwater supplies
and significant ground water reserves. Even the driest regions rarely receive less than 600 mm of
precipitation on an annual basis.
Total annual freshwater withdrawals are in the range of 32,000 million m³, 85% of which
come from surface water sources. Thermal power plants account for 60%, public water supplies 18%,
agricultural uses 12%, and industrial uses 10% of total withdrawals. Water usage for crop irrigation
has been on the rise in recent years particularly in western and south-western regions of the country
where increases of as much as 75% have occurred since 1981.
Consumptive use has been estimated at 4,000 million m³ annually or about 12.5% of total
withdrawals. Crop irrigation accounts for 68% of consumptive use, public water supply 24%,
industries 5%, and power generation 3%.
In contrast to the norm of abundant supplies, hot and dry conditions have been prevalent in
recent years. Record setting drought conditions in 2003 required widespread introduction of water use
restrictions.
Water Management
The national or state role in water management is primarily focused on the regulation or
authorization of water takings and wastewater discharges for the expressed purposes of protecting
public health and safety and the health of aquatic environments. These powers are vested in the Water
Department (Agence de l’eau) of the Environment Ministry.
Under the Water Law (1992), the river basin unit figures prominently in how water is
managed. Each of France’s six major basins is overseen by an elected committee comprised of key
stakeholders representing state and local governments and water users. The committee establishes
basin objectives and a programme of interventions. Programme delivery is the responsibility of a
financially independent state Water Agency with powers to raise revenues through both water charges
and effluent charges. Monies are made available through loans and subsidies to assist communities,
industries and farmers implement works deemed necessary and eligible within the current 5-year
water management plan. These plans (created at the watershed and sub-watershed level) are expected
to reflect all standards and measures as laid out in the EU water framework.
France has perhaps the most comprehensive and far-reaching system of water pricing among
all study jurisdictions. Volumetric charges are levied not only as a basin (Water Agency) charge tied
74
to the magnitude of the abstraction but also as a state tax reflecting the extent of consumptive usage.
The state tax is determined through a system of consumptive use coefficients assigned to the
particular sector. The basin abstraction charge is higher (2-3.5 x) for ground water withdrawals and is
also higher in water-short areas and areas where the source water is of higher quality.
Under provisions of the Water Law, wastewater reclamation and reuse in crop and landscape
irrigation is both permitted and encouraged both to address water shortages and reduce pollutant
discharges to surface waters.
The drought conditions experienced in 2003 led to the development of a national Drought
Management Plan. It provides for the establishment of a national committee to be mobilized as
required by Ministerial Order. The committee will ensure the development of guidelines for assessing
drought risk and will disseminate the guidance required to ensure uniform approaches to the
implementation of water-use restrictions. Actions are underway to modernize existing monitoring
networks used to measure water availability and demand.
The Irrimieux Initiative jointly launched by the Ministries of Agriculture and Environment in
the 1990s required crop irrigators to install volumetric metering. It also provides them with up-to-date
weather and climate data to assist with irrigation scheduling and determination of appropriate
application rates and offers guidance on other best practices.
4.7
DROUGHT PLANNING AND RESPONSE
Within all study jurisdictions special water management provisions and processes have been
developed to deal with conditions of deep or prolonged drought. Notwithstanding the fact that
governments are coming under increasing pressure to apply the precautionary principle in granting
new water allocations or amending existing ones, it is generally accepted that the upper limits placed
on individual extractive water uses cannot be so conservative as to absolutely guarantee that there will
be no interference with other users or the aquatic environment under extreme low-water conditions.
In the extreme view, some might suggest that the total of the individual maximum permitted
daily water withdrawals of all users sharing the resource not be allowed to exceed the minimum
observed or predicted available flow less a prescribed environmental flow requirement. Not
surprisingly those responsible for water licensing do not use such a strict interpretation. They
recognize that the average daily withdrawals by self-supply water users are typically much lower
(often 50% or more) than their permitted maximums, that higher shared demands are not likely to
occur on the same day, that some portion of most withdrawals is returned, and that high cumulative
demands do not necessarily coincide with the period of lowest streamflow.
The risk of adversely overlapping supply and demand conditions is strongest in rural areas
where high seasonal-use demands from agriculture, golf courses and other users may coincide with
depressed stream flows and ground water tables. Few jurisdictions manage to escape the drought or
low water conflict scenario happening in some location. The ability to prevent it from happening or
to move quickly and fairly in response is strongly linked to the accuracy, currency and completeness
of information on water availability and demand.
Most drought contingency plans define a series of drought-severity stages that, when reached,
require specific and progressively more water-use restrictive actions to be taken by individuals or
groups of water users. Those actions involve a combination of restrictions on when water can be used
(e.g. limited hours and days of use), progressively more stringent limits on the level of taking, and
occasionally an outright ban on certain uses. Some jurisdictions use blanket regulatory powers such as
a government declaration of a drought emergency backed up by enforcement and penalties. Others
75
encourage groups of water users in the affected area to work alongside agency staff in designing,
negotiating and implementing a voluntary response plan. The latter approach offers the potential that
water users can work together over time to tailor their individual and collective levels and patterns of
use in a way that not only responds to crisis conditions but works to prevent a recurrence in future
years.
4.8
CROSS-JURISDICTIONAL HIGHLIGHTS
4.8.1
Introduction
The following analysis focuses on where individual governments and Canada in general stand
in their pursuit of sustainable water use practices relative to current and emerging directions and
commitments observed both internally (i.e. domestically) and internationally. The intent is to reflect
on similarities and differences in an objective manner.
It is important to note up front that Canada’s domestic program differences, i.e. among
provinces and territories, are larger in some respects than its fundamental differences with other
countries over the selection of individual conservation measures and approaches. This should be
viewed not as a point of criticism of one province’s commitments against another’s but rather from
the perspective of where Canada may need to reorient itself nationally and internationally. The
potential benefits of greater internal harmonization have as much to do with strengthening Canada’s
own growth and development opportunities, quality of life and sovereignty as they do with being a
partner in the global economy and society.
4.8.2
Water Conservation as a Government Priority
Sustainable water-use concerns have yet to receive the same level of public attention and
government priority in Canada as in the other jurisdictions selected for study. Canada’s current water
withdrawals and usage averaged over the entire national landscape are arguably less imposing when
compared to the apparent availability of supply. On the other hand, if it were not for Canada’s more
limited involvement in irrigated crop production and the fact that a majority of its urban population
and major industries draw water directly from the Great Lakes system and other large bodies of water,
the country’s current lack of efficient water-use practices could have produced concerns and events
closer to those seen elsewhere.
The one area that reflects some level of similarity between Canada and other countries is the
attention given to promoting and enhancing municipal water-use efficiency. All countries and
governments share an inherent interest in demand management as an alternative to investing
government resources in the costly expansion of water and wastewater systems or as a necessary
response for avoiding community health and economic well-being concerns in the face of local
supply shortages.
Within Canada, the level of priority devoted to promoting and facilitating water-efficient
practices among residents and businesses varies widely. Provinces with longer histories of conflicts
over water use or challenges in cost-effectively addressing the water demands of rapidly growing
populations and economies generally have more comprehensive and mature programs. This includes
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Ontario. Others like Quebec and Saskatchewan have
recently begun to put similar frameworks in place. Current programs in the Atlantic Provinces and the
Territories are more limited in scope and more voluntary in nature.
4.8.3
Inter-Governmental and Cross-Sectoral Integration and Harmonization
76
To date, Canadian water conservation efforts have seen relatively limited harmonization in
target setting and program design between and among national and provincial/ territorial levels of
government. As pointed out earlier, governments have also tended to limit their focus to the
municipal sector in searching for potential water-efficiency savings.
The fundamental principles of equity and cost-effectiveness suggest that conservation needs
and opportunities should be identified on the basis of what works best in achieving sustainability
within individual communities and watersheds and on what is possible within each water-use sector.
National harmonization of water efficiency targets and requirements within business sectors would
also assist in maintaining current levels of competitiveness.
The use of watersheds as the basic management unit is now widely embraced throughout
North America and on other continents. Many jurisdictions have taken steps to formally establish
river basin or watershed management agencies and have given these agencies a range of powers in
information collection, planning and implementation. This is consistent with the growing global
recognition that water management responsibilities should be devolved to lowest practicable level
subject to appropriate national and provincial/state guidelines and approvals.
Watersheds are in and of themselves integrators of upstream-downstream effects, cumulative
impacts and land-water interconnections.
4.8.4
Legislative, Policy and Planning Frameworks
All study jurisdictions appear to have overarching policies that identify the sustainable
development and productive use of water and other resources as intended goals. To be truly effective,
such policies need to be backed up by appropriate legislation, regulations and guidelines. Even where
a majority of individuals and businesses may voluntarily support conservation principles and
objectives, history uniformly suggests the effectiveness of their actions is strongly dependent on
coordinated planning, formal guidance and the knowledge that governments will step in to ensure
shared accountability.
The collective Canadian experience demonstrates that the full range of regulatory, policy and
planning tools in use in other jurisdictions have their parallels here. The differences lie in the fact that
very few Canadian jurisdictions are currently using the broad spectrum of what’s considered most
productive for effective water resource management. Several basic tools already in place or being put
in place in other jurisdictions are not yet widely used in Canada. This includes universal
metering/measurement of water use, watershed-based planning (with respect to both water allocation
and land use planning), water-efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures and other devices,
mandatory conservation planning, and full-cost accounting and cost recovery. The variable nature of
water availability coupled with the cumulative and expanding nature of water demands suggests that
such tools should form an integral part of how water is allocated, used and managed.
Most jurisdictions utilize and build upon existing water resource protection laws and other
legislation pertaining to land use planning and building standards as a basis for implementing
conservation-oriented regulatory initiatives. These measures appear as the basic underpinning for
conservation-oriented regulatory initiatives. The use of stand-alone conservation legislation is rare.
4.8.5
Informed Decision-Making
Decisions regarding water conservation undertakings fit within broader decision-making
processes surrounding water allocation and management. They benefit from having good information
on water availability and demand and a good understanding of the opportunities and potential
effectiveness associated with a range of conservation alternatives. Water managers need to be aware
77
of the inherent variability in surface and ground water hydrology, of the possible impacts of climate
change and variability on water resources, and of the projections for future growth and development.
This information is compiled on the basis of watersheds, aquifers and utility service areas and
evaluated through a process that examines water balances or budgets under a range of demand and
supply conditions.
Accurate water availability and usage information is also a prerequisite in assigning
responsibilities and costs and in evaluating progress. As this study has shown, Canada lags behind
other study jurisdictions in the collection, analysis and dissemination of both water availability and
water usage information. In general, governments have not committed sufficient resources to
adequately characterize and understand local and regional water availability and have not imposed
mandatory requirements for the accurate measurement and routine reporting of water usage. This is
true even for most critical use areas.
Significant progress is being made in developing simulation models used for deriving both
planning and operational-level water budgets. Their use will aid in reducing the risk of water
licensing decisions overestimating or underestimating what may be safely and sustainably withdrawn.
4.8.6
Stakeholder Consultation and Participation
In the continuing era of tightly focused government mandates and increasing reliance on
partnerships and voluntary approaches in managing and protecting natural resources, it is imperative
that extractive water users and other stakeholders be kept informed of and consulted in the planning
and implementation of water conservation policies, regulations and programs. Most if not all study
jurisdictions appear to be communicating with affected stakeholders and the general public on a
routine basis. In some cases this is driven by legislatively imposed ‘right-to-know’ requirements, in
others it is voluntary.
Involving stakeholders typically means discussing drivers and targets, listening to concerns,
presenting alternatives, obtaining buy-in, sharing successes, and recognizing contributions.
In future, greater efforts may be needed in explaining the rationale for and objectives behind
such measures as full cost accounting and recovery, minimum sectoral requirements, priority of uses,
and protection of environmental levels and flows.
4.8.7
Outreach and Education
Canada’s approach to water conservation outreach and education largely parallels what is
happening in other study jurisdictions at least with respect to its being seen as a critical component in
building support for program objectives and assisting behavioural change. The use of media and other
venues are also quite similar.
On the deficiencies side, most outreach programs fail to promote water conservation from the
broader perspective of its energy saving and other benefits. Greater attention might also be given to
drawing municipal and other water users together, e.g. on a watershed basis, to ensure that there is an
awareness and acceptance of shared responsibilities.
4.8.8
Research, Demonstration and Continuous Improvement
Support for ongoing research is fundamental to finding better ways to reduce demand and
make more productive use of water. Research assists in refining water-saving technologies and
processes and in improving methods for collecting, analyzing and disseminating information.
78
In general, Canada has not been at the forefront in the development of new water-efficient
technologies and innovative practices because it hasn’t felt the need to be. Notwithstanding this
reality, there are a number of government institutions (e.g. Canada Mortgage and Housing
Corporation), private sector interests (primary manufacturers) and institutes of higher learning (e.g.
University of. Victoria), that continue to monitor developments in other parts of the world with a
view to evaluating their applicability within Canadian communities and businesses. Continued
support for monitoring and evaluation along with enhanced support for on-the-ground demonstration
of new technologies and practices should be a priority in moving forward with regional and national
conservation initiatives. The scope of these activities should encompass a broad range of Canadian
settings and cut across all water-use sectors
4.8.9
Incentives and Resourcing
At the outset it is important to recognize the value of water conservation and sustainable use
initiatives for their cost savings potential. While implementing conservation programs and projects
requires up front investments by water users and ongoing costs for governments, most undertakings
should result in savings and paybacks that more than cover the costs of implementation.
The above reality does, however, not negate the need to account for expenditures and returns.
Program planning should include identification of the expected costs of promoting and educating,
adding or replacing equipment, modifying processes and practices, expanding data collection,
providing training, enforcing regulations and monitoring progress. A growing wealth of case studies
and experience is available to assist in this task.
Governments, in consultation with affected stakeholders and the public, need to examine
innovative resourcing strategies and alternatives beginning with the underlying principles of cost
recovery, user pay and beneficiary pay. Financial incentives or assistance may be required in cases
where the pace or depth of planned implementation could lead to some initial social disruption or
economic hardship.
The use and role of incentives (e.g. equipment rebates or assistance for low-income
households) should be considered in the context of an overall costing and resourcing strategy that
looks at required expenditures (and expected savings) on the part of government agencies and water
users. There is evidence that this is happening in Australia and Europe where commitments and
timetables have been established for implementing full cost recovery and mechanisms are being
worked out to provide financial assistance to those individuals and businesses that otherwise would
not be able to pay for the required conservation measures. While some Canadian provinces and some
important user groups have indicated their support for moving in a similar direction, the current
situation lacks both uniformity and the certainty of formal timetables and commitments.
4.8.10 Performance Review and Adaptation
All conservation initiatives warrant monitoring during and after implementation to determine
whether predicted savings are being obtained and to assess whether assumptions regarding
influencing factors such as climate variability, rate of growth and levels of production still apply. The
information obtained is used in validating program effectiveness and identifying where program
adjustments might be needed or warranted.
The greatest initial needs in Canada in laying the groundwork for ongoing performance
review are the implementation of mandatory water-use metering/monitoring and reporting and the
upgrading of ground and surface water monitoring networks within critical use watersheds.
79
5.0
MUNICIPAL SECTOR CONSERVATION PRACTICES
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
5.1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter examines inter-jurisdictional similarities and differences in water use and
conservation practices within the municipal sector. Evaluation focuses on the priority being given to
the sustainable development and efficient use of water, the role of regulatory compliance vs.
voluntary initiatives, the comprehensiveness of conservation planning, the linkages to other objectives
and initiatives (e.g. energy conservation and pollution control), the selection of measures (new
technologies, improved practices or process modifications) and accomplishments.
Case study documentation of municipal water conservation program initiatives and
accomplishments across jurisdictions are captured as potential benchmarks for what may be more
broadly achievable. The majority of reported examples were observed to deal with the household or
domestic component of municipal usage. This is attributed to the fact that this sector typically
accounts for at least 70% of total billed water usage in most Canadian municipalities as well as in
most towns and cities in other countries.
Domestic per capita use by Canadians is among the highest in the world. As shown in the
following figures, the average Canadian resident, served by a municipal utility, uses almost as much
water as his/her U.S counterpart and more than twice as much as many Europeans.
While there appears to be no global standard dictating the minimum amount of water required
to meet basic human needs, some guidance is available on the subject. In 1996, Gleick recommended
a minimum value of 50 L/cap/d which he broke out as follows: 5 L for drinking water, 20L for
sanitation and hygiene, 15L for bathing, and 10L for cooking65. More recently, World Health
Organization investigators have suggested that a supply of 100 L/cap/d would meet all consumption
and hygiene needs and protect human health in situations where water services are provided to
individual households on a continuous basis, e.g. through piped systems.66. This figure does not
include water used for landscape maintenance and other outdoor uses which can account for 25% or
more of residential water usage over the course of a year. While most Canadians are not likely to
reduce their domestic water usage to the levels observed throughout most of Europe, there are
opportunities to narrow the gap by addressing efficiency improvements both inside and outside the
home.
80
Comparison of Domestic Water Use among Developed Nations
Environment Canada. Water Use. See online at www.ec.gc.ca/water/images/manage/use
Household Water Use in Selected European Countries
European Environment Agency. (2004). Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Use in Urban Areas. See online at
www.eea.eu.int/indicators/all_factsheets_box
The following section focuses on conservation initiatives and opportunities with broad
municipal applicability. It is followed by a section looking at the special issues faced by northern
communities. Section 5.4 examines water-use efficiency practices and opportunities within the more
specialized industrial, commercial and institutional customer components of the municipal water
supply sector.
81
5.2
PRACTICES WITH BROAD APPLICABILITY
5.2.1
Background
Municipal conservation measures generally fall within two categories. The first is focused on
reducing losses or waste associated with the design and operation of the treatment and distribution
system itself. The second encompasses measures intended to reduce individual and cumulative user
demands.
Across Canada, distribution system losses and other ‘unaccounted-for-flows’ also referred to
as ‘non-revenue water’, are typically in the range of 10-15% of actual water withdrawals but can
amount to as much as 30%67. Higher losses can be reflective of older distribution systems, systems
subject to recurrent frost damage, or systems lacking routine inspection and maintenance.
Distribution system losses are a significant problem in some parts of Europe particularly in
accession countries of the Eastern block (see figure)68.
Average Public Water Distribution System Losses in Europe (late 1990s)
European Environment Agency. (2004). Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Use Efficiency (in cities): Leakage. See
online at www.eea.eu.int/indicators/all_factsheets_box
Most Canadian municipalities with active water conservation programs are implementing a
selection of measures but few have taken a truly comprehensive approach. The following table
summarizes the results of a 2000 survey of municipalities selected on the basis of already being
involved in a variety of conservation initiatives. The survey was commissioned by the
Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research, Canadian Mortgage and Housing
Corporation (CMHC). Statistics are based on the 65 responses received out of the 102 municipalities
contacted.
82
Uptake of Conservation Measures among CMHC-Surveyed Municipalities (Yr 2000)
Measure
Metering
Conservation rate structures
Leak detection and repair
Plumbing retrofits
General outreach and awareness
Outreach and education regarding
outdoor water use
School programs
Watering restrictions
Xeriscaping demonstrations
Conservation bylaws
Percent of Surveyed Municipalities Using Measure
full metering - 60%; partial metering - 21%; no metering - 19%
Increasing block rate - 18%; uniform/constant rate – 19%
66%
60%
87%
80%
65%
57%
22%
35%
A more extensive survey undertaken by Environment Canada in 1999 showed the percentage
of Canadian municipalities with populations greater than 1,000 that were not on universal metering is
larger than that represented by the CMHC results69. It found that some 44% of Canadians were using
unmetered services. While community size appears to play a role, it is worth noting that only 40% of
cities in the 20,000-50,000 size range and almost half of Canada’s largest cities were not on full
metering. Several cities had no residential metering. The following table indicates the percentage of
communities with full metering (assumed to be at least 90% coverage of residential users) for
different size intervals.
Extent of Universal Water Metering by Canadian Municipalities - 199970
Municipality Size (Population)
# of Municipalities in Range
Municipalities with Full Metering
1,000 - 3,000
3,001 - 5,000
5,001 - 10,000
10,001 - 20,000
20,001 - 50,000
50,001 - 200,000
> 200,000
467
200
227
200
103
71
15
35%
26%
40%
48%
40%
59%
53%
Totals
1,283
38%
Environment Canada data showed that per capita water use within unmetered households
was, on average, 70% greater than that observed within metered dwellings. Lack of metering is a
handicap to both water users and water managers in implementing and monitoring water-use
efficiency.
Both surveys show that more than 60% of Canadian municipalities continue to use pricing
structures that do not encourage conservation, i.e. they are using declining block-rate or flat-rate
pricing. By comparison, a recent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) survey indicated
that more than 70% of American municipalities with populations greater than 10,000 were using
either increasing-block or uniform-rate volumetric pricing71. In the U.K (England and Wales), flatrate pricing predominates as only some 25% of households are metered72. Most U.K. commercial,
industrial and institutional customers are metered and do pay volumetric rates.
Many Canadian communities appear to rely solely on outreach and education measures to
manage and reduce the seasonal demands of turf and landscape irrigation and other outdoor water
83
usage. Only 57% of the municipalities surveyed by CMHC indicate they have watering restrictions in
place and some of these may not have bylaws in place to enforce compliance.
Practicable measures for responding to these and other issues are addressed in the following
analysis. The discussion begins with an examination of the role of system-wide or comprehensive
planning and then looks at observed best practices on a program component basis. It concludes with
an examination of practices specifically applicable within the residential/domestic and ICI sectors.
5.2.2
Comprehensive or System-Wide Program Planning
It stands to reason that all municipalities would benefit from following a systematic
conservation program development and implementation process. The process assesses driving forces,
defines objectives and targets, evaluates a range of possible conservation measures, selects a preferred
approach, monitors progress, and adapts to new information and opportunities. This approach is
common in the United States where the US EPA has developed program planning guidelines the
depth of which varies according to community size73. The guidelines are directed at utility managers
and adherence to them is not a legal requirement under federal law.
The involvement of both in-house and outside water supply specialists and customer
representatives in program design provides greater assurance that the recommended conservation
program is well thought out and is likely to receive broad public support. Case studies highlighted at
the end of the section illustrate the multi-dimensional nature and accompanying results of programs
being implemented in a range of U.S., Canadian and other cities.
Several larger Canadian municipalities are successfully using processes similar to those found
south of the border. Some of these are also highlighted as case studies at the end of the section. The
CMHC in cooperation with the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA) and others is
in the process of finalizing a made-in-Canada system-wide planning tool for municipal water
managers74. The resulting Water Efficiency Plan Template will provide Canadian municipalities with
information on a range of useful conservation measures. It will include documentation of the potential
water savings, anticipated costs and probable payback periods associated with each measure.
The following best practice guidelines were adapted from the EPA model with added
consideration given to addressing watershed influences, the risks associated with climate change and
variability, and the long-term costs of infrastructure renewal.
Best Practice: Water Conservation Program Planning Guidelines for Municipal Water Systems
Step
Establish preliminary water
conservation goals and
targets
Description
•
•
Describe the current water
supply system and its
operating environment
•
Prepare demand forecasts
•
•
•
Define preliminary goals and targets in terms of anticipated benefits for
the water system and its customers.
Involve the local community and customers and consult with watershed
stakeholders as required.
Describe the design and operating characteristics of the existing water
supply system.
Highlight conditions and issues relative to water availability, competing
water uses, wastewater collection and treatment system capacity,
climate change and variability, current water taking approvals, and any
other factors that could have implications for conservation planning and
implementation.
Develop forecasts of anticipated water demand for selected time periods
out to and beyond 20 years.
Take into consideration potential changes in customer (i.e. residential,
commercial, industrial and institutional) profiles and demands.
84
•
Evaluate needed
improvements to existing
facilities
•
•
Identify conservation
measures
Evaluate anticipated costs
and benefits
Select the preferred
measures
•
•
•
•
Modify demand forecasts
and servicing plans
•
Develop the
implementation strategy
•
Factor in water demand forecasts for other water users/uses sharing the
same source of supply.
Summarize and cost out improvements to the water and wastewater
systems that would be required in the absence of additional
conservation measures.
Include both capital and operating costs including cost projections for
water distribution and sewage collection Infrastructure renewal.
Develop a list of planned and potential conservation measures having
regard for experiences in other similar systems.
Calculate the anticipated costs of implementing each potential
conservation measure and assess the expected water savings.
Rank potential measures based on cost-effectiveness.
Develop the preferred suite of measures using cost-effectiveness and
other criteria such as budgetary considerations, ratepayer impacts
(fairness and affordability), environmental impacts, and linkages to other
programs such as source protection and energy conservation.
Revise existing water and wastewater servicing plans taking into
consideration the anticipated benefits and costs of implementing the
conservation measures.
Develop a strategy and timetable for implementing the conservation
plan and integrate them with the system improvement and expansion
plans. Incorporate performance reviews of conservation measures
effectiveness and adjust plans and programs as required.
Using the EPA guidelines as a starting point, the State of Maryland has made comprehensive
water conservation planning a requirement for all municipal water supply systems serving 10,000 or
more persons and for some smaller systems as determined on a case by case basis75. The planning
requirements are codified in the Maryland Water Conservation Act 2002. Several conservation
measures are required elements of the municipality’s plan. These include full metering, water
accounting and loss control (leak detection and correction), conservation pricing, and outreach and
education programs. Other measures are designated recommended elements including user-specific
water audits, plumbing retrofits, rebates and incentives, water re-use and recycling, pressure
management, and outdoor water-use regulations.
The City of Toronto Water Efficiency Plan (2002)76 (overviewed in the following table) and
the BC Capital Region Strategic Plan for Water Management (2004)77 were developed following
processes similar to the above.
Comprehensive Planning Case Study: City of Toronto Water Efficiency (WEP) Plan (2002)
Program Overview and Targets
•
•
•
•
•
•
Toronto’s population is projected to grow to 2.86 million by 2011 (10% increase from 2001). Annual
(2000) average day and peak day water demands are 1,258 ML/d and 1,700 ML/d respectively.
Water and wastewater infrastructure expansion to accommodate this growth had been estimated to
cost $220 million.
The WEP alternative is being implemented over an 11-year period at a cost of $74.3 million (includes
incentives and program support costs).
Water reduction targets were set by City Council at 15% of both the peak day and annual average
day water demands and 15% of the wastewater flows that would otherwise occur at 2011 in the
absence of efficiency measures. Reduction targets include savings attributable to Ontario Building
Code requirements for use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures in new construction.
WEP focuses on 7 measures deemed to be ‘technically feasible, applicable and socially acceptable’.
The initial list contained more than 70 measures identified from a review of practices in other
jurisdictions. It was subsequently shortened to 21 ‘potentially acceptable’ measures.
‘Best management practices’ previously committed to and not included in the list of 7 WEP measures
include universal metering, ongoing meter calibration and replacement, watermain rehabilitation,
85
public education, and enhanced school programs.
Measures Selected for Immediate Implementation
Category
Description
Timetable (Cost)
Municipal
- Leak detection
- Computer controlled irrigation
- Watering restrictions (as needed)
- Toilet replacement (includes low-flow faucet aerators and
showerheads where applicable)
- Clothes washer replacement
- Outdoor water audits
- Toilet replacement (includes low-flow faucet aerators and
showerheads where applicable)
- Clothes washer replacement
- Outdoor water audits
- Toilet replacement (includes low-flow faucet aerators and
showerheads where applicable)
- Clothes washer replacement
- Outdoor water audits
- Indoor water audits
- 2004-05 ($0.5M)
- 2003-2007 ($2.0M)
- 2002-11 ($18.7M)
Single-Family
Residential
Multi-Unit
Residential
ICI
- 2003-07 ($3.0M)
- 2003-11 ($11.0M)
- 2001-07 ($16.8M)
- 2003-11 ($1.5M)
- 2003-11 ($1.8M)
- 2002-11 ($7.1M)
- 2003-11 ($0.7M)
- 2003-11 ($1.1M)
- 2003-11 ($1.6M)
Measures Selected for Further Consideration
Category
Description
Municipal
Residential
and ICI
- Pressure modulation
- Rainwater re-use
- Xeriscaping
- Conservation rate structures
- Seasonal pricing
- Grey water re-use
Remarks
- City has focused on harmonizing rate structures that
existed prior to amalgamation. A rate study is planned.
- Use of grey water for domestic purposes is currently
prohibited by the Ontario Building Code.
Municipal Case Studies: Comprehensive Conservation Programs
Municipality
Description
Results
CANADA
Capital Region
District, BC78
(Pop’n 319,000)
The CRD began a comprehensive program of
water conservation measures in 1994.
Current total per capita water use
inclusive of all domestic and ICI uses
averages 538 L/d. Average year-round
domestic use is 380 L/cap/d. Average
winter domestic use is 281 L/cap/d.
The current volumetric water rate in
Victoria is uniform at $0.513/m³.
Other CRD municipalities have uniform
rates ranging from $0.424/m³ in Oak
Bay to $1.013 /m³ in the Western
Communities
Association of
Manitoba
Municipalities
(AMM)
The AMM has developed and published water
efficiency booklets for small and medium
sized communities, motels/small hotels,
schools, water plant operators and
hospitals. Funding was provided through the
provincial Sustainable Development
Innovations Fund.
86
Barrie, ON
(Pop’n 115,000)
Union Water
System,
Ruthven,ON79
(Pop’n 53,000)
Lunenburg,NS80
(Pop’n 2,570)
The City initiated its Water Conservation
Program in 1995 in partnership with the Ontario
Clean Water Agency and MOE. The goal is to
reduce water use by an average of 50L/day per
person across 15,000 households.
Components include free distribution of a
Water Efficiency Handbook, adoption of a
restrictive lawn watering bylaw, provision of
rebates for residential toilet, showerhead and
washing machine retrofits/replacements, use of
mandatory metering, and adoption of an
increasing block-rate structure for all
residential users.
The Union W.S. serves 7 communities, several
food-processing plants and a number of
greenhouses. By mid 1990s, system was
capacity was exceeded by combined consumer
demands in late summer. A comprehensive
program was started including installation of
full metering and low-flow showerheads in
the two largest communities, promotion of
water-efficient landscaping, initiation of a
leak detection/correction program, and
subsidization of rain barrel purchases.
Residential services are currently unmetered
with flat rate pricing. Commercial and industrial
users pay declining block rate charges ranging
from $0.50/m³ for usage up to 1.5 million
gallons/month to $0.088/m³ for usage in excess
of 2.5 million gallons/month.
As of 2002, 15,000 ultra-low flush
(ULF) toilets had been installed and
3000 washing machine rebates
awarded.
Monitoring results indicate that ultra
low flush toilets have created water
savings of 62 L/cap/d in targeted
households. System-wide savings
equal 55L/cap/d. The combined efforts
have saved the City $ 17.1 million in
net deferred capital expenditures.
Sustainable demand-supply conditions
were restored and need for expansion
was deferred.
A 3-year town/province pilot program started
in 2001. Program seeks to reduce water
pollution, safeguard sewage system and
conserve water. It involves residents,
businesses and institutions. Water conservation
initiatives focus on home “tune-ups”
(evaluations, recommendations and
conservation kits), a green-business
network and xeriscape demonstrations. The
pilot is intended to serve as a model for other
NS communities.
OTHER
City of
Albuquerque, NM
(Pop’n 472,000)
The City’s goal is to reduce water usage by
40% by 2014.
To achieve this, it is using a mix of regulatory,
outreach and incentive measures.
Water Conservation and Water Waste
Ordinance:
- defines water waste as any water, other than
natural precipitation, that flows from one
person’s property to the public right-of-way or
to an adjacent property
- penalties range from $20 for a first offence up
to $1000 per occurrence
- upon the 8th violation, a flow limiter is installed
on the water service allowing only enough
water for basic drinking water and sanitation
Water usage dropped from 250 US
gallons per capita per day when the
program began in 1995 to 193 US
gpcd in 2003. Residential demands,
which account for nearly 70% of total
usage, decreased by 32% over the
period.
Uptake to date has included:
- 50,000 toilets
- 2,000 xeriscape conversions covering
more than 3,000,000 square-feet
- 6,000 washing machines
- 9,000 residential water audits and
retrofits
- 23,000 multi-family unit customer
87
needs.
audits and retrofits
Time-of-Day Watering Ordinance:
- watering is not permitted between 10am and
6pm from April 1 to Sept 30.
The City has one of the US’s most
comprehensive incentive programs. Each
household can obtain a free water audit and
free installation of low-flow shower heads,
high-efficiency faucet aerators, auto-shutoff
hose nozzles and a toilet dam.
Several water-efficiency rebates are offered
including:
- low-flow toilets ($125 US / toilet)
- washing machines ($100 US / machine)
- dishwashers
- rain water barrels
- sprinkler timers
- xeriscaping ($800)
- hot water recirculation units
Phoenix, AZ
(Pop’n 1.4 million)
Lompoc, CA81
(Pop’n 42,000)
Los Angeles, CA82
(Pop’n 3,800,000)
St. Petersburg,
FL83
(Pop’n 250,000)
Commercial and residential customers are also
eligible for rebates.
The City initiated its first water conservation
program in 1982. The current (1998) program
involves 15 components. The city has
universal metering, a multi-media public
and school education program, promotes
wastewater re-use for irrigation and industrial
uses, has turf limitation bylaw, has
xeriscaping requirements for public areas,
and requires water recycling in water features.
Volumetric charges increase according to
season.
The City has universal metering, uses an
extensive multi-media education; distributes
water conservation kits; has comprehensive
bylaws imposing watering restrictions,
prohibiting use of potable water for washing
driveways and sidewalks, requiring positive
shut-off hose nozzles, and prohibiting
serving of water in a restaurant except upon
customer request; requiring mandatory use of
ultra low-flow fixtures in new construction;
and promoting gray water re-use.
The City initiatives include universal metering
(since the early 1900s), an extensive multimedia education program, 20% higher water
rates in summer, mandatory installation of
low-flow showerheads and toilet dams,
toilet and clothes washer replacement
rebates, water audits, xeriscaping
directives, low-interest loans for conservation
upgrades, and wastewater reclamation and
re-use.
City has universal metering, watering
restrictions with a complaint hotline, requires
rain sensors for automated sprinkler systems,
distributes water conservation kits, has
public and school-based education
Total per capita water use inclusive of
all domestic and ICI uses is 204 US
gal/d (772 L/d). Domestic use averages
170 US gal/cap/d (643 L/cap/d).
Current volumetric charges are $
0.46/m³ US (Dec-Mar), $ 0.54/m³ US
(Apr-Nov) and $ 0.69/m³ US (Jun-Sep).
The current uniform volumetric water
rate is $ 0.706/m³ US.
In the past decade the LA Dept of
Water and Power has invested $100
million US in water conservation
measures. It expects to invest a similar
amount over the next ten years.
Current per capita water use inclusive
of all domestic and ICI uses is 155 US
gal/d (587 L/cap/d).
In spite of population increases, total
average annual water use dropped by
21% between 1998 and 2001. Current
per capita water use inclusive of
domestic and ICI uses is 131 million
88
programs, requires low-flow fixtures in new
construction, operates a large wastewater
reclamation and reuse system, and promotes
gray water systems for outdoor lawn and
landscape uses.
Cary, North
84
Carolina
(Pop’n 100,000)
Massachusetts
Water Resources
Authority85
(Pop’n 2.2 million
in 46 cities, towns
and water
districts)
New York City,
NY86
(Pop’n 18.6
million)
5.2.3
City initiated its program in 1996 with a goal of
reducing overall per capita water use 20% by
2015. It includes wastewater reclamation and
re-use (for irrigation and cooling), public
education, toilet-flapper rebate, outdoor
water-use ordinance, rain sensor ordinance,
residential water audits, increasing blockrate pricing, and developer incentives for
water-efficient building projects.
Prior to the late 1980s the MWRA was
exceeding the safe yield of its water sources
and was considering large scale water
diversion and treatment plant expansion
options. They ultimately decided to implement a
comprehensive conservation program and
only proceed with the capital works as required.
The program included leak detection and
correction, low-flow retrofits (730,000
homes), metering upgrades, conservation
pricing, 6L toilet regulation (by the State),
and public and business outreach and
education.
A 1992 study identified conservation as the
preferred alternative in solving the City’s
problems of water supply shortages and excess
flows at its wastewater treatment plants. These
problems had been ongoing since the mid
1970s. The main elements of the program are
completion of full metering, public outreach
and education, free plumbing retrofits, leak
detection and repair, and replacement of 1.3
million toilets with 6L models.
US gal/d (496 ML/d). The City’s
wastewater reclamation system treats
and pipes 36.9 million US gal/d (140
ML/d) of reclaimed water to 10,483
residential and commercial customers.
It is used solely for lawn and landscape
watering.
Water plant expansion has been
deferred and City expects to
comfortably meet its water savings
goal.
Average daily system-wide demand
was reduced by 24%. Treatment plant
expansion did proceed but with a
reduced design capacity. The river
diversion plan was deferred for at least
20 years.
Water savings attributed to each
element include:
- Full metering: 200 mgd (US)
- Leak repair: 40 mgd (US)
- Toilet replacement: 75 mgd (US)
Overall per capita water use declined
14% from 738 L/d in 1991 to 632 L/d in
1998. Customers received savings of
20-40% on their water and wastewater
bills.
Engineered and Technology-Based Measures
Engineered or technology-based water efficiency measures are arguably the most effective
tools for reducing total water demand and usage. These include full metering, leak detection and
correction, scheduled watermain replacement, distribution-system pressure modulation, water
efficient plumbing fixtures, water-efficient manufacturing and commercial processes, water-efficient
turf and landscape irrigation systems, more-efficient backwashing of water treatment plant filters, and
wastewater reclamation and reuse.
Canadian municipalities generally lag behind communities in other study jurisdictions in the
promotion and use of engineered and technology-based solutions. Opportunities for expanding their
use across the country appear less limited by feasibility and affordability than they are by the
perception that the need, benefits and public acceptance are not there. Hopefully, the CMHCsponsored conservation program-planning template referred to in the previous section will provide
much needed assistance to water managers in responding to these roadblocks. Renewed outreach and
education efforts will be important in convincing municipal councils and customers to take action.
89
Water recycling and wastewater reclamation and reuse can be used to supplement or replace
the use of municipal drinking water or freshwater takings for certain applications. These range in
scope from the household-level reuse of grey water for toilet flushing and outdoor uses to much larger
schemes involving the use of wastewater treatment plant effluents for golf-course irrigation and
industrial applications. Current building code regulations in most Canadian provinces prohibit
wastewater and even rainwater use in situations where any possibility of a cross-connection to, or
confusion with, the potable supply system exists. Limited use of treated wastewater in golf course
irrigation is reported in a few provinces. The ongoing wastewater reuse research findings and
guidance available from the WaterReuse Foundation in the U.S warrant monitoring. The organization
is focused on expanding the beneficial use of reclaimed waters while addressing the concerns for
public health and safety87.
A survey of utility experiences as reported in the CWWA Water Efficiency Experiences
Database, indicated that conversion to full metering was most frequently cited as the most effective
measure undertaken for reducing overall water demand within their community or service area88.
Municipal Case Studies: Engineered and Technology-Based Conservation Measures
Municipality
CANADA
Various cities, BC89
Kamloops, BC90
(Pop’n 77,300)
Vernon, BC91
(Pop’n 36,000)
Whitecourt, AB92
(Pop’n 8,000)
Strathmore, AB93
(Pop’n 7,250)
Description
Universal metering is common to many
BC cities. The list includes the Capital
Region District, Chilliwack, Kelowna,
Namaimo, Prince George (planned), and
Vernon. The Greater Vancouver
Regional District and Kamloops do not
have mandatory metering for residential
users.
The City set a target of reducing peak
period water use by 15% between 1992
and 1997 to be achieved mainly through
outdoor watering restrictions. City
sponsors an “aquanomics” course in
elementary schools. Universal metering
was rejected by city residents in an
Oct 2001 referendum. This contradicted
a city Water Use Efficiency Committee
conclusion that universal metering was
“the single most cost effective method of
achieving more efficient water use..”.
Since 1977, the city’s treated
wastewater has replaced freshwater
used in agricultural, forest nursery,
golf course and playing field irrigation.
System operates 125 days per year.
Installation of individual water meters in
a 150-unit (500 persons) trailer park.
The project was a response to data
showing that the park development was
using 25% more water per unit than the
rest of the town.
Installation of a non-potable water
system for lawn watering. The piped
distribution system takes water from
irrigation ditches adjacent to the town for
delivery to 800 of 2,300 homes. All new
development is required to install the
Results
Average water usage in peak summer
months has been reduced by 21%.
Electrical energy savings = $ 100K per
year
Wastewater reuse replaces 16,000
m³/day of freshwater supply. No effluent
is discharged to Okanagan Lake when
system is operating.
Average water use declined by 24%.
The trailer park’s per capita water use
dropped to approx. 175L/d.
Conversion to non-potable water for
outdoor use has deferred the need to
expand the town’s treated water system.
90
Gimli, MB
(Pop’n 1,575)
Rural Municipality of
St Andrews, MB94
(Pop’n 10,000)
Saugeen Shores,
ON95
(Pop’n 6,500)
Fredericton, NB
(Pop’n 47,600)
Pasadena, NL96
(Pop’n 3,450)
OTHER
Gallitzin, PA97
(Pop’n 2,000)
Hillcrest Park
Condominium
Complex,
98
Albuquerque, NM
Connecticut,
Massachusetts,
necessary piping. Water use is charged
at a flat rate.
In 1996, the Town installed water meters
and carried out toilet retrofits in all
residences at no direct cost to
homeowner. Volumetric pricing was also
introduced.
Water-efficiency measures pilot study.
Project involved installation of dual-flush
toilets and low-flow showerheads in 40
homes along with detailed before and
after metering of actual water usage at
various points in the home.
Former Town of Port Elgin installed
metering on all 2,400 residential and
commercial units. There was also a 7080% voluntary installation of low-flow
showerheads and faucet aerators. The
cost of meters was recovered through a
2-year levy on property taxes.
In 2004, the City passed a bylaw
requiring that water services to all
premises be metered. The current
volumetric charge is $0.49/m³.
A 1996 study led to the initiation of a pilot
study involving metering, the installation
of water conservation kits, and the
distribution of educational materials.
During the early 1990s the Town was
experiencing water losses of over 70%. In
1994 it initiated a leak detection and
correction and corrosion control
program. Town staff located 95% of the
leakage and retained an outside
contractor to find the remainder.
Modifications were made to the 268 unit
apartment complex originally built in
1972. These included installation of
ultra low flow toilets, low-flow
showerheads, and xeriscaping. The
automated sprinkler system
sprayheads were converted to
bubblers and misters.
These states now require or empower
individual communities to require the
Water usage decreased by about 25% in
the year following completion of the
changes.
There was an average 46% (pre to post)
reduction in total toilet flush volumes.
While no savings were achieved through
showerhead replacement it was noted
that most homes were already using lowflow models. Clothes washers replaced
toilet use as the largest indoor water use
after toilet replacement. Homes already
using front-load washers were using 2030% less wash water than those using
top-load machines. Water used in the
regeneration of water softeners (found in
80% of the homes) accounted for 16% of
total indoor use. Outdoor water uses
accounted for half of overall household
water use during the summer monitoring
period. Domestic per capita water use
declined from 174 L/day prior to the
improvements to 149 L/day after, i.e. by
about 15%.
Water plant expansion (est. to cost $5.5
M) has been deferred indefinitely.
Annual cost savings at the town’s water
and wastewater plants amount to $12K
Average household water demand
dropped by 20% immediately following
meter installation and was 43% lower
after installation of the water-saving
devices.
By 1998 water use had decreased by
60% and losses were reduced from 70%
to 9% of total pumpage. Annual energy
costs were reduced by $20,000 and
chemical costs by $5,000.
Between 1994 and 1998, when the
changes were completed, water use had
declined by 31%.
91
Michigan, Minnesota,
New Hampshire,
Rhode Island,
Vermont and most
southern States
Colorado, Florida,
Idaho, Louisiana,
Nevada, New Jersey,
New York, North
Dakota, Texas
All New Mexico
communities
Yarra Valley Water,
Mellbourne, AU
(Serviced pop’n 1.5
million)
5.2.4
mandatory installation and use of rain
sensor shutoffs on automatic lawn and
landscape irrigation systems.
These states have introduced mandatory
training and certification requirements
for irrigation-system designers and
installers. Training includes exposure to
information on BMPs for irrigation-system
design, set-up and maintenance, on
drought tolerant plant selection, and on
xeriscaping.
Homeowners may use 946 L/d of their
gray water for residential landscape
irrigation. This includes water from baths,
showers, bathroom sinks and clothes
washers.
Yarra serves northern and eastern
Melbourne and surrounding suburbs. In
addition to implementing Stage 1 and 2
water-use restrictions imposed by the
Sate of Victoria, Yarra has implemented
leak detection and repair, pressure
management and treated wastewater
recycling programs.
Water use has been reduced by 21%
since the mid 1990s. Yarra is recycling
20% of treatment plant effluent for reuse.
Bylaws / Ordinances
Municipal bylaws are an effective tool for regulating certain types of water use in the absence
of or as a complement to provincial/state regulations. The most common conservation application is
in restricting the timing, level and types of outdoor water use. Many Canadian municipalities have
successfully (i.e. with broad public acceptance and voluntary compliance) enacted bylaws that restrict
lawn watering to certain hours of the day and alternating days of the week. Some municipalities
enforce these provisions throughout the entire summer season while others implement them on an as
needed basis. The power to enforce an outright ban on all outdoor uses in the event of an emergency
low-water situation is commonly included. While monetary penalties for non-compliance are also
common, enforcement action is usually taken on the basis of complaints received. Good examples of
such bylaws are available on the municipal websites of cities and towns in most provinces.
In provinces that have not yet enacted regulations governing the use of low-volume plumbing
fixtures in new and retrofit construction, some municipalities, e.g. Victoria, BC, have introduced
bylaws requiring their use. Sewer-use bylaws put in place by some Canadian communities to
safeguard the sewer system and wastewater treatment facility can also have a positive impact on
moderating water usage by industries and commercial establishments.
In the United States, the typical municipal conservation ordinance reaches well beyond its
Canadian counterpart although the primary focus is still on restricting outdoor uses and reducing peak
demands. Many communities have enacted ordinances regulating the efficiency of in-ground
landscape irrigation systems. Specific provisions observed among the study jurisdictions and a
sampling of other states include certification and conservation training requirements for systems
designers and installers, mandatory use of rain sensors, and restrictions on the proportion of a lot that
can be devoted to grass. A growing number of states including many in the temperate northeast have
taken action to enact some or all of these provisions on a statewide basis. Given the growth in the use
of in-ground irrigation systems by landowners in some Canadian municipalities, introduction of
92
bylaws requiring the use of rain sensors and possibly the certification/training of irrigation-system
designers and installers may warrant consideration.
The (U.S.) Irrigation Association has developed a Water Action Guide to help state
legislators introduce legislation aimed at statewide adoption of more efficient landscape irrigation
practices. The guide contains model legislation dealing with system design requirements, designer
and contractor certification, restrictions on days and hours of use, and conservation-oriented rate
structures.
Municipal Case Studies: Water Conservation Bylaws
Municipality
CANADA
Greater
Vancouver
Regional
District, BC99
(Pop’n 2.1
million)
Barrie, ON
(Pop’n 115,000)
OTHER
City of Lompoc,
100
CA
(Pop’n 42,000)
City of
Albuquerque,
NM
(Pop’n 472,000)
Description
Results
Outdoor watering restrictions. GVRD also uses extensive
outreach and education efforts aimed at residential and ICI
customers. Residential / domestic water use is not metered.
Current average annual water use is 580 L/cap/d inclusive of
all domestic and ICI usage.
Since watering bylaw
restrictions were
introduced in 1993,
average annual water
use has declined by 15%
and peak usage by 25%.
City bylaws establish a restrictive lawn watering schedule
and use of an increasing block-rate structure for all
residential users.
The City of Lompoc has one of the most comprehensive
sets of bylaws observed among the jurisdictions studied. City
bylaws impose watering restrictions, prohibit the use of
potable water use for washing driveways and sidewalks,
require positive shut-off hose nozzles, prohibit serving
water in a restaurant except upon customer request,
require mandatory use of ultra low-flow fixtures in new
construction; set rules for gray water re-use.
Water Conservation and Water Waste Ordinance:
- defines water waste as any water, other than natural
precipitation, that flows from one person’s property to the
public right-of-way or to an adjacent property
- penalties can range from $20 for a first offence up to $1000
per occurrence
th
- upon the 8 violation, a flow limiter is installed on the water
service allowing only enough water for basic drinking water and
sanitation needs.
Time-of-Day Watering Ordinance:
- watering is not permitted between 10am and 6pm from April 1
to Sept 30.
Melbourne,
101
AU (Pop’n 3.4
million)
(U.S.) Irrigation
Association
Under permanent water restrictions in force since March
1/04, watering of private and public lawns and gardens is
restricted to the hours 8pm-10am, all hoses must be fitted with
a trigger nozzle, and no concrete or paved surface can be
hosed.
The IA has developed a ‘Water Action Guide’ to help state
legislators enact laws requiring statewide adoption of
water-efficient landscape irrigation practices. The guide
contains model legislation on irrigation system design
standards, designer and contractor certification, bylaw
restrictions on days and hours of use, and conservationoriented rate structures.
The city’s water use has
been reduced by 19%
since the mid 1990s.
93
5.2.5
Economic Instruments
To date, most Canadian municipalities have used a relatively limited range of economic
instruments to support conservation efforts. The most commonly used tools are full or partial
customer rebates for water meter installation and plumbing fixture conversion. Some larger
municipalities have provided funding assistance to industrial, commercial and institutional water
users for the implementation of comprehensive water audits.
Pricing strategies applied to water and wastewater services have generally targeted recovery
or partial recovery of capital and operating costs rather than conservation objectives. Even in
situations where increasing block-rate structures are being used, the cost differentials may not be of
sufficient magnitude to significantly impact water demand. Concerns over public acceptance and
business-sector impacts of increasing block-rate pricing appear to have caused some municipal
councils to not go beyond uniform-rate structures in pricing reform. While the potential impacts of
increasing block-rate pricing structures on low-income households requires further consideration,
there appears to be little or no underlying rationale to support the continued use of flat-rate and
declining block-rate pricing. The conclusions and recommendations of the Federation of Canadian
Municipalities with respect to water conservation needs and directions support this view102.
Continuing the pursuit of full-cost accounting and full-cost recovery in connection with the
long-term provision, protection and rehabilitation of water and sewage services may be a more
significant and necessary undertaking than independent pricing actions taken in the more limited
context of conservation. In this regard, legislative initiatives underway in Ontario warrant watching.
When the final regulations are promulgated to bring the full-cost recovery provisions of the
Sustainable Water and Sewage Systems Act (2002) into effect, consumer water prices imposed by
Ontario municipalities are likely to continue the ascent seen in recent years. The Act includes
provisions for the recovery of source protection planning costs. Under pending source protection
planning legislation these costs will include all studies and monitoring needed to establish the
sustainable level of water taking (i.e. a water balance) on a watershed basis. At some point, a price
level may be reached where consumers find it necessary or worthwhile to take additional actions to
reduce demand.
Municipal Case Studies: Achieving Conservation through Economic Instruments
Municipality
CANADA
Nanoose Bay,
103
BC
(Pop’n 4,500)
Nanaimo, BC104
(Pop’n 72,000)
Greater
105
Vancouver
Water District
(Pop’n 2.1
million)
Barrie, ON
(Pop’n
115,000)
Description
Results
Residents requested increasing block rate pricing
to discourage excessive summer outdoor use and
bring equity in the distribution of water service costs.
Pricing program is supported by staged watering
restrictions.
City has had full metering and an Increasing block
rate since 1978.
Water-use rates are:
-$0.49/ m³ for first 0.88 m³
-$0.98/ m³ for 0.98-2.22 m³
-$1.47/ m³ for use >2.22 m³/day
Water-use rates are:
-$0.31/ m³ for first 0.66 m³/d
-$1.41/ m³ for 0.67-1.00 m³/d
-$1.65/ m³ for use >5.0 m³/d
GVRD has initiated a study to examine the feasibility
and implications of introducing seasonal water rates
at the wholesale and retail levels.
The City uses an increasing block-rate pricing
structure for all residential users.
94
OTHER
Albuquerque,
NM
(Pop’n
472,000)
Los Angeles,
CA106 (Pop’n
3,800,000)
Yarra Valley
Water,
Mellbourne, AU
(Serviced pop’n
1.5 million)
New South
Wales, AU
5.2.6
In the mid 1990s the City set a goal of reducing total
water usage by 40% by 2014. The program focuses
largely on indoor and outdoor retrofits supported
by sizeable rebates. Rebates ranging from $100 to
$800 US (up to $5000 for businesses) are available
for conversions to low-flow toilets, low-use dish and
clothes washers, rain barrels, hot-water recirculation
units, sprinkler timers and xeriscaping. Free water
audits for homes and apartments are also offered
along with free installation of low-flow
showerheads, faucet aerators, auto-shutoff hose
nozzles, and toilet fill-tube diverters or toilet
dams. City also provides xeriscaping design
templates and conducts regular conservation
seminars.
LA uses a seasonal pricing structure. Volumetric
rates are 20% higher in summer
Total (i.e. inclusive of all domestic
and ICI usage) per capita water use
dropped by 23% between 1995 and
2003. Current use is about 193 US
gal/cap/d (730 L/cap/d). Residential
water use declined by 32% over the
same period
Yarra serves northern and eastern Melbourne and
surrounding suburbs. In 2004, Yarra implemented
increasing block-rate pricing.
Water rates are:
-$0.75/m³ for up to 40m³/quarter
-$0.88/m³ for 40-80m³/quarter
-$1.30/m³ for use >80m³/quarter
The other 2 public water retailers
serving Melbourne have similar
rates.
Water efficiency improvements are provided free
of charge to low-income households.
Outreach and Education
Education and outreach are important in a political environment that generally favours
voluntary over regulatory approaches as a means of influencing public attitudes and actions on
sustainable resource use.
All across Canada, federal, provincial/territorial and local governments have been active for
some time in informing homeowners and businesses about water-use efficient technologies and
practices. The missing piece in most of these efforts is stronger messaging around the need for and
benefits of action. Attention should be drawn to locally and regionally relevant examples of water
shortages experienced over recent years, water resources threats posed by climate change, impending
conflicts associated with projected/desired population growth and economic development, threats to
the health of aquatic ecosystems, and the role of water conservation in reducing energy costs.
Municipal Water Conservation Case Studies: Outreach and Education Measures
Municipality
CANADA
BC Power
Smart
Program107
Description
Results
Comprehensive multi-municipality $15M program
focusing on reducing gas, electricity and water use in
the home. Water savings target was 3.8 million m³
annually. Trained contractors offered free one-hour inhome audits ending with recommendations for action.
Each inspected home was provided with a free toiletflow reducer or low-flow showerhead. The
communications program included ads on TV, radio
and buses, ads in newspapers and magazines, and bill
inserts. Promotion was also done in shopping malls
and at special events.
Neighbour to neighbour and friend
to friend word-of-mouth was found
to be the most effective tool for
getting people to enroll in the audit
program. $ 0.9 M or 6% of total
program cost was spent on
advertising and promotion.
95
Greater
Vancouver
Regional
108
District, BC
(Pop’n
1,800,000)
Regina, SK
(Pop’n 178,000)
GVRD conducts annual water-use efficiency
seminars for landscape and irrigation
professionals. Partners include the BC Nursery
Trades Association, Irrigation Assoc’n of BC, Western
Canada Turfgrass Assoc’n and BC Society of
Landscape Architects.
With the intent of deferring expansion of its wastewater
treatment facilities, the City introduced a summer
water conservation public awareness campaign in
1988. It promotes a plan of voluntary watering
restrictions and includes information and
demonstrations on xeriscaping. Homeowners are also
provided with tips on indoor efficiency measures.
Winnipeg,
109
MB
(Pop’n 600,000)
The City initiated its “Waterfront” outreach and
information program in the early 1990s. It has also
made home water conservation kits available,
conducted water audits on industrial uses, and
implemented a school program for middle year
students. For several years, the City has also been
imposing added water charges to create a funding
reserve for construction of a treatment plant and for
aqueduct improvements. The City continues, however,
to use declining block-rate pricing.
The City has identified inefficient water use as a
concern specifically as it relates to the cost of water
and wastewater services. City initiated a study to
investigate measures for encouraging
conservation within each of the domestic and ICI
sectors.
A cooperative city-provincial “Home Tune-Up”
program is helping homeowners improve energy and
water efficiency. Involves a comprehensive
environmental assessment and individualized
information and recommendations. A water
conservation kit is provided.
Cavendish’s large influx of tourists in the summer
period puts a burden on local water and wastewater
services. The municipality has initiated an education
and awareness program aimed at expanding use of
water efficiency measures and practices.
Montreal, QC110
(Pop’n 1.82
million)
Halifax, NS111
(Pop’n 359,000)
Resort
Municipality of
Cavendish, PEI
(Permanent
pop’n 270)
OTHER
Albuquerque,
NM
(Pop’n 472,000)
U.S EPA Water
Star® Labeling
Program
Phoenix,AZ;
Los Angeles,
CA; Lompoc;
CA
Mean annual water usage has
been reduced by 20% and peak
usage by 25% since the late
1980s. A 1998 survey indicated
that ¾ of city residents had
initiated some level of
conservation. Infrastructure
expansion was successfully
deferred.
The combination of actions has
deferred indefinitely the need to
proceed with previously planned
expansions to the city’s aqueduct
and distribution system.
Data for 2002 showed that the
city-wide water demand had
declined by 6%.
The City provides xeriscaping design templates and
conducts regular conservation seminars.
EPA has initiated the Water Star® product-labeling
program aimed at informing and encouraging
Americans to purchase water-efficient plumbing
fixtures, appliances and other products.
These cities and many others among the U.S study
jurisdictions incorporate comprehensive, multi-media
and ongoing outreach and education as an integral
part of obtaining sustained public and business
commitments to water conservation.
96
5.2.7
Land Use Controls and Stormwater Management
Conservation of water resources can be assisted through land use planning and other
measures not typically considered as part of the demand management spectrum. Planning controls
such as the designation and protection of greenbelt areas, wetlands and woodlots and the placement of
upper limits on the creation of impervious areas within a watershed, help to safeguard groundwater
recharge mechanisms as well as reducing runoff rates. Stormwater infiltration augments shallow
groundwater systems that are important for the protection of summer baseflows in rivers and streams.
Such measures are now being successfully applied in urban and urbanizing watersheds in many parts
of Canada particularly where provincial and local governments have adopted the integrated watershed
approach.
5.3
NORTHERN COMMUNITY CONSIDERATIONS
5.3.1
Background
Municipal water services in Canada’s more northern communities often differ markedly from
those of their southern counterparts. This can impact on water usage patterns and conservation
opportunities. Colder climates, shorter summer seasons, a smaller ICI customer base, along with the
physical challenges and costs of constructing, operating and maintaining water treatment and
distribution systems are contributing factors. The challenges are not unique to the Yukon, Northwest
and Nunavut Territories. They are also felt in the northern regions of British Columbia, Alberta,
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador.
Residential/domestic per capita water use can be either higher or lower than in southern
municipalities depending largely on the mode of water distribution. Communities are often served by
a combination of above-ground, in-ground and trucked distribution systems. Household water usage
in the range of 80-200 L/cap/day is common within those communities where water is trucked in bulk
rather than being supplied through piped systems. Much higher domestic per capita demands,
sometimes in excess of 500 L/day, have been observed in other areas where ‘bleeders’ are used to
protect individual services and the distribution system from frost damage.
While source-water availability does not appear to be a major issue, conservation and
efficient use are ongoing concerns primarily because of the high costs of treatment and delivery. With
the range of delivery systems and limited metering, it is not surprising to see a range of pricing
approaches. Flat rate pricing with quarterly billing is common among customers served by piped
systems. Bulk-rate volumetric pricing is common where water is delivered by truck. The cost of water
services along with constraints in storage capacity likely play a role in moderating demand among
bulk users.
5.3.2
Current Approaches and Opportunities
The following discussion and guidance on water servicing practices in northern communities
essentially represents a distillation of the most innovative of what is happening in the Canadian north.
None of the other jurisdictions selected for comprehensive review offered useful parallels in terms of
physical conditions. Nevertheless, some information and observations have been drawn from a quick
review of current and emerging practices in Scandinavian countries. While not specifically discussed,
more generic conservation practices seen in southern communities also have application in the north.
This would include the use of low-flow plumbing fixtures, continuing outreach and education, water
audits for ICI uses, and distribution system maintenance.
To date, the most commonly observed conservation efforts in Canada’s northern communities
include promotion of and support for water-efficient plumbing fixtures, customer education on ways
97
to avoid water wastage, and conversion of some customer services from continuous-flow to
thermostatically controlled bleeders.
Municipal Water Conservation Case Studies: Northern Communities
Municipality
CANADA
Fort Nelson
and Northern
Rockies RD,
112
BC
(Pop’n 4,700 in
Fort Nelson
only)
Iqaluit and
Cape Dorset,
113
NU
(Pop’n: Iqaluit
6,000, Cape
Dorset 1,150)
Whitehorse,
114
YK
(Pop’n 19,060)
RM of Wood
Buffalo, AB115
(Pop’n 56,000,
Fort McMurray
only)
Yellowknife,
116117
NT
(Pop’n 18,000)
5.4
Description
Results
The RD uses flat-rate pricing tailored to the type
of use. Bulk customers pay volumetric charges
on a declining block-rate structure.
Sample quarterly rates are $67 for a
single family dwelling or apartment
unit, $308 for a restaurant seating
over 40 people, $427 minimum for a
coin laundromat. Bulk rates range
from $10 per 1000 gallons down to
$5 / 1000 gals.
In Iqaluit, the objectives are to
reduce water use by 50%, to cut the
frequency of bulk water deliveries,
and save the city $34K per year.
Demonstration projects are underway in pilot
households to examine the feasibility of reclaimed
grey water for use in toilet flushing and laundry
facilities. Objective is to reduce water demand and
wastewater flow. Funding assistance is being
provided by the Federation of Canadian
Municipalities.
Replacement of free-flowing bleeders with
thermostatically controlled bleeder devices on
some water services. Low-flow toilets required in
new construction. With only partial metering there is
a mixture of flat-rate and volumetric water charges.
Uses an increasing block-rate structure
The City has eliminated use of bleeders and
implemented leak detection and repair. These
efforts are supported by a public awareness
program. It reduces its normal residential customer
water rate from $1.31 to $0.66/m³ during the months
of June, July and August to “encourage citizens to
maintain their lawns and gardens”.
Significant decrease in total demand
after changes. Metered customers
pay a uniform rate of $ 0.91/m³. Flat
rate customers pay $35.20/month.
Residential rates are:
- $0.7887/ m³ up to 11.5 m³/month
- $1.0494/ m³ for next 11.5 m³
- $1.0771/ m³ for use >23 m³/mo.
Bleeder elimination from approx 400
services created savings of $600
K/yr. Leak repair has saved an
additional $150K/yr.
CONSERVATION PRACTICES WITHIN THE ICI SECTOR
Collectively, the commercial, institutional and industrial sectors served by municipal water
utilities normally account for less than 30% of total municipal water usage. They can, however,
represent an important water savings opportunity. There are also situations, particularly in more rural
areas, where a single industry such as a food processor can account for 50% or more of municipal
water usage and wastewater discharge.
5.4.1
Commercial and Institutional
Most commercial and institutional establishments and facilities are significant users of water.
This includes schools, hospitals, office buildings, hotels, commercial laundries, automatic car washes
and water theme parks. Water is used for drinking and sanitation and for a variety of operations such
as cleaning, rinsing, heating and cooling. Many of these facilities are situated on sizable landholdings
that include large landscaped areas served by in-ground irrigation systems.
98
Municipally Supplied Commercial / Institutional Water Conservation Case Studies
Enterprise /
Municipality
CANADA
Fairmont Hotels
Canada118
(Formerly CP
Hotels) – 26
properties across
Canada
C.K Choi Building
Vancouver, BC
St Mary’s General
Hospital, Kitchener,
119
ON
Diocese of
Charlottetown
Enviro Church
Conservation
Project
OTHER
Marriott Hotel,
120
Albuquerque, NM
Presbyterian
Healthcare
Services,
121
Albuquerque, NM
International Car
Wash Association
Description
Results
Program involved equipping 15,000 hotel rooms
with water-efficient fixtures. Ongoing guest and
employee education program is included.
15% water saving was achieved
at Royal York in Toronto. Annual
cost savings equal $250 K at this
hotel alone.
Building uses waterless composting toilets,
waterless urinals, rainwater collection (used in
the combined and automated sprinkler and drip
irrigation system) and xeriscaping.
Entire 3-story building was
designed to use less than 500 L
of potable water per day. This
water is used only in kitchen and
washroom sinks. This represents
a 93% water saving over a more
conventional design.
St Mary’s was only the second hospital in all of
North America to develop and register its
Environmental Management System to conform to
ISO 14001 standard. Its ‘green landscaping’
initiative is based on use of drought tolerant
native plants and a “no chemicals” policy.
The Diocese is undertaking environmental
assessments of church properties in 56 parishes.
The program aims to reduce energy use, water
consumption and wastewater production by
10%. Parishioners are being encouraged to
undertake similar efforts in their homes.
Water and energy efficiency improvements were
made In keeping with the hotel chain’s corporate
commitments. Changes at the 411 room hotel
included installation of toilet dams and low flow
faucet aerators in guest rooms, replacement of
laundry machines with high efficiency models,
and improved maintenance to detect and
correct leaks. Outside, existing trees and
shrubs were replaced with drought tolerant
species and the irrigation system was revamped
to eliminate leaks, improve scheduling, and
convert to drip methods wherever possible.
The healthcare corporation operates a main
hospital campus covering 16 city blocks and more
than 20 other facilities in the area. Starting with an
intensive internal water audit in 1995, the company
has made a series of targeted changes. Largest
savings have come from improvements to
grounds irrigation including replacement of
inefficient spray heads, improved scheduling,
and automatic shutdown if a leak is detected.
Indoor changes have included recycling of
autoclave condensate and cooling water,
replacement of water-cooled vacuum pumps
with oil-cooled models, required shutoffs on xray developers, and water-efficiency retrofits of
all public washrooms.
The association has prepared an in-depth manual
on conservation measures for both new and
Water usage declined by 36.5%
after the improvements.
The cost of Irrigation system
improvements was paid for with
one year’s water savings.
Between 1994 and 1998 water
usage declined by 19% and
further improvements are
expected.
99
retrofitted automatic car wash facilities. Topics
include design and operation of wash-water
recycling systems, leak correction, efficient
spray nozzle design, pressure control.
5.4.2
Industrial
Most value-added or secondary manufacturing industries locate in cities and towns where
they have access to a steady workforce, their major markets and suppliers, and to municipal water and
sanitation services. Canada’s largest manufacturing interests including the transportation equipment
sector ($121 billion in 2003 shipments), food and beverage processors ($75 billion), consumer
products manufacturers ($46 billion), the high-tech industry ($19 billion), and machinery makers ($25
billion) are typically situated within urban settings122.
Urban-based manufacturers often use significant amounts of water for cooling, steam
production, processing, cleaning and rinsing and, in some cases, as a fundamental component in final
products. They have similar interests to the self-supply water user in relation to the conservation of
energy, the more productive use of raw materials, and the reduction of wastewater collection and
treatment burdens. Since they pay directly and transparently for the water they use and for the
treatment of wastewaters there is a more obvious incentive to use water more efficiently. The
importance of this incentive is, however, often negated by the municipal use of decreasing block-rate
structures or other preferential pricing for large volume users.
Municipally Supplied Industrial Water Conservation Case Studies
Municipality
Description
Results
CANADA
Daimler Chrysler
Windsor
Assembly Plant,
Windsor, ON123
Water-efficiency improvements included
modification of paint sludge pit purge rates
and an increase of cooling tower cycles.
Total annual water savings are
estimated to be 12 million L from the
paint sludge pit changes and 42 million
L from the cooling tower
improvements. Net cost savings are
expected to be $78,500 annually.
Truck plant water use has been
reduced by 45% resulting in a water
savings of 700 million L annually.
General Motors of
Canada Oshawa
Truck Plant,
124
Oshawa, ON
Kingsway EcoIndustrial Park,
Sudbury, ON
(proposed)
Humpty Dumpty,
Brampton, ON125
OTHER
Industry-Specific
Water Efficiency
Fact Sheets,
North Carolina
Intel Corp.126
U.S.
Water used for humidity addition in paint booths
is being recycled for reuse rather than
sewered.
Project to be developed on a 112-acre site calls
for process water recycling and reuse for
irrigation and potentially other non-potable
uses.
Snack food producer’s annual charges for
water, wastewater and energy were approx $1
million, 60% from over-strength wastes.
Efficiency improvements focused on installation
of in-house process and wastewater centrifuge
systems, starch recovery and water recycling.
The NC Dept of Pollution Prevention and
Environmental Assistance has developed water
efficiency guides for the textiles, food
processing and metal finishing industries.
Recycling of treated process water and other
control measures at a micro-chip production
plant.
The water recycling capability alone
has resulted in annual cost savings of
$100,000.
Annual water savings of 35% were
achieved.
100
5.5
SYNTHESIS OF MUNICIPAL PRACTICES
The following represents a compilation of practices constituting a highly comprehensive
municipal conservation and efficiency program. As discussed at the beginning of the chapter, such a
far-reaching program might be considered where circumstances warranted it. Regardless of the
appropriate scope of individual programs, municipal decision-making should begin with the
evaluation of a full range of alternatives and ensure that the preferred solution adheres to the
principles of effectiveness, efficiency and equity.
Best Practices: A Municipal Water-Use Efficiency Opportunities Checklist
Component
Planning
and
Monitoring
Description
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Technology
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bylaws
•
Economic
Instruments
•
•
•
Outreach
and
Education
•
•
Make water conservation and efficiency municipal council and department priorities
Approach conservation planning and implementation in a comprehensive and
systematic manner; seek and identify opportunities for continuous improvement
Prioritize water conservation and efficiency alternatives based on the expected
returns on investment.
Commit to water savings targets, budgets and implementation timelines
Implement water-use audits and conservation planning for large-volume users
Monitor progress and report on accomplishments
Monitor conservation initiatives and best practices in other municipalities for adoption
or adaptation
Implement universal metering for all customers; commit to regular meter inspection
and calibration
Minimize distribution system losses
o Leak detection and correction
o Pressure modulation
o Scheduled watermain replacement
Improve water-use efficiency in filter backwash cycles
Implement residential, commercial and institutional plumbing-fixture retrofits
Implement conservation measures at all municipally-owned facilities and properties
Seek opportunities for approved uses of reclaimed wastewater
Select, as appropriate, from bylaws that:
o Require use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures, i.e. in the absence of
jurisdiction-wide building code requirements
o Restrict lawn watering and other outdoor uses
o Require use of rainfall sensors and soil-moisture sensors for regulating the
timing and duration of watering in automatic landscape irrigation systems
o Limit the creation of impervious areas
o
Require use of xeriscaping and/or limit grassed area
o
Impose pre-established, automatic demand reduction measures on all
customers in the event of drought-related or other supply shortages
Implement pricing for water and wastewater services based on full-cost accounting
and full-cost recovery
Use an increasing block-rate pricing structure
Consider subsidies for upfront costs of metering, plumbing retrofits, water audits, etc
Implement outreach and education initiatives aimed at improving customer
awareness and acceptance of conservation needs and opportunities
Tailor programs to customer interests and capabilities
101
6.0
CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE POWER GENERATION,
RESOURCE EXTRACTION AND MANUFACTURING SECTORS
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
6.1
INTRODUCTION
Canada’s wealth in forest, mineral, energy, water and other natural resources results in
stronger business ties among its resource extraction, manufacturing and power generation sectors than
what is typical of other developed nations. Economic growth and development prospects and plans
within all three sectors are closely connected. The previous chapter examined the practices and
opportunities of industries such as automotive production, metal finishing and food processing which
are primarily served by public water systems. This chapter examines water use and conservation
practices within all three sectors with a focus on self-supply water users.
6.2
THERMAL POWER GENERATION
According to the 1996 Environment Canada industrial water-use survey, freshwater
withdrawals by thermal electric power production facilities amounted to some 26,900 million m³
annually or about 63% of all self-supply water withdrawals127. Annual withdrawals increased by
about 13% between 1986 and 1996. The size of the increase was tempered by the fact that waterrecycling rates within the sector increased from 18% to 41% over the same period.
A majority of Canada’s installed thermal-power production capacity is located adjacent to
major lakes or river systems and typically features once-through cooling systems. Once-through
cooling necessitates large water withdrawals but involves relatively small consumptive losses, i.e. in
the range of 1-2%. The alternatives to once-through cooling are the closed-loop water-cooled and aircooled systems. Arguments for moving away from once-through systems where water availability is
not a limiting factor focus on other environmental concerns such as the role of large cooling-water
intake flows in the entrainment or entrapment of fish and other aquatic organisms and the impact of
discharged heat on fish habitat and migratory behaviour.
Cooling Towers used in Thermal Power Production
102
Cooling practices within the U.S thermal power generation sector have shifted dramatically
away from once-through systems in the past three decades even though once-through cooling still
accounts for 91% of sectoral water withdrawals128. Power plants operating in arid states such as
Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and Utah are exclusively based on closed-loop systems or air-cooled
systems. These systems also see extensive use in many other states including Delaware, Kentucky,
Minnesota, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Texas. A number of closed-loop power plants are also
found in western Canada.
The conversion of older plants and design of new plants in the U.S. is a response to stricter
federal water quality requirements on return flows and/or local water shortages. Sixty percent (60%)
of total installed thermal power capacity in the U.S. is now based on closed-loop or air-cooled
technology. Water-use productivity in U.S. thermal-electric power generation has improved from 63
US gallons per kWh in 1950 to 21 US gal/kWh in 2000.
Ongoing restructuring in Canada’s electricity sector supports the construction of smaller
thermal plants in locations where they can take advantage of alternative energy sources and cogeneration opportunities. The trend is supported by a variety of factors including the emergence of
more-efficient production technologies, the availability of natural gas, uncertainties surrounding
expansion of nuclear, coal and hydropower production, and increased private-sector investment
interest. Such facilities are good candidates for closed-loop and air-cooling technologies.
Water conservation actions taken by individual residential, commercial, institutional and
industrial electricity consumers within a municipality or region can significantly reduce the overall
demand for electrical power. This in turn reduces the volume of water that otherwise would be
required in the production of that power.
6.3
RESOURCE EXTRACTION
Canadian resource-extraction industries including oil and gas extraction, metal mining and
non-metallic minerals mining, had total shipments estimated at $ 84 billion in 2001 (most current
reporting)129. Metal and/or non-metallic mineral production activities are found in most provinces and
territories. Many of these operations, especially those involving hard-rock, metal mining, are situated
in more remote areas where there is generally less competition over access to and withdrawal uses of
water. Basic fuels production is concentrated mainly in Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan.
Total Canadian freshwater withdrawals by the mining / resource extraction sector (excluding
upstream oil and natural gas production) in 1996 were estimated to be 475 million m³130.
6.3.1
Metal Mining
Canada’s metal mining industry is concentrated in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia.
They account for 33%, 21% and 14% respectively of total Canadian shipments by value. A further
23% is associated with mines in Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Saskatchewan131.
The mining of metal-bearing ores often involves water quantity management issues that have
less to do with the deliberate withdrawal of fresh water and more to do with the handling of natural
and incidental surface and groundwater flows. Watercourses sometimes may have to be diverted
around the operating site. In other cases, surface runoff and groundwater seepage may require
collection and discharge so that they don’t interfere with mining and processing operations or add to
the volumes managed in the tailings disposal facility.
103
A portion of the incidental water flows are typically used in the production process. They
may be required in drilling, in ore-crushing, screening, grinding and mineral-recovery operations, and
for dust control.
Since most jurisdictions treat the watercourse diversions and the impoundment of surface
runoff and groundwater discharge as water takings requiring licensing, gross water-withdrawals by
the metal mining sector can be a misleading point of comparison with water usage in other sectors.
Consumptive losses are typically limited to evaporation from impoundments and areas where water is
used for dust suppression and are moderated by the cooler climates found in most metal-mining
regions of Canada.
The above suggests that the metal-mining sector is not a primary target for water
conservation initiatives. On the other hand, ongoing attention is warranted in connection with the
potential adverse environmental impacts of water-diversion and impoundment activities and tailingpond operations. Water reclamation and recycling are important components in minimizing
wastewater discharges.
Case Studies: Water Conservation Practices in Metal Mining
Mine, Location
CANADA
Falconbridge
Raglan Mine,
Nunavik, QC132
Placer
133
Dome
OTHER
Teck
Cominco134
6.3.2
Description
Results
Process water recycling.
Between 1998 and 2001, freshwater withdrawals
were reduced by 19% at the same time that mine
production was increasing by 50%. 2001 water
usage amounted to 0.57 m³/ tonne of ore
processed. Wastewater emissions were also
reduced. A further 10% reduction in water usage
is targeted.
In 2003, water use productivity at its three
Canadian mining operations was Campbell, Red
Lake - 4.1m³/ tonne, Musselwhite - 2.0 m³/ tonne,
and Porcupine, Timmins - 0.2 m³/ tonne of ore
production
Company reports that “the objective at
each mine is generally to minimize the
amount of fresh surface or ground water
used at the mine by re-using, or
recycling and capturing impounded
water on site as much as possible”.
Company reports that “initiatives to
conserve water are considered at all
sites to ensure that water usage is
optimized”. At its Red Dog mine in
Alaska, the company is using
reclaimed tailings pond water in
process applications. At its refinery
operations in Peru, treated
wastewaters are used in agricultural
irrigation.
Fresh water withdrawals at the Red Dog mine
account for less than 4% of total water usage.
Non-Metallic and Industrial Minerals Mining (and Processing)
This sector includes the broadly based aggregates and building materials (sand, gravel and
stone) industries and more geographically limited operations involving mining/processing of potash,
phosphate rock, gypsum and similar minerals. The processing side is normally considered separate
from the mining side in economic analysis and reporting but has been included here because of its
importance from a water-use perspective.
104
Canada’s non-metallic mineral mining industry has a much broader provincial/territorial
representation than that of metal mining. It is primarily shared among Ontario (28% of total Canadian
shipments), British Columbia (21%), Quebec (17.5%), Northwest Territories (11%), Alberta (7.5%),
and British Columbia (7%)135. Nunavut is the only jurisdiction with no reported production.
As in the metal mining sector, most water quantity management issues tend to relate to the
handling of naturally occurring surface and groundwater flows. The construction aggregates industry
uses significant amounts of water in materials washing and sorting. This water can come from a
combination of ground water inflows or surface water takings and is often reclaimed and recycled.
Secondary processing operations including the creation of products made from gypsum, lime and
calcium carbonate, the manufacturing of ready-mix concrete, or the production of table salt use
freshwater as a reagent or carrier and often results in the incorporation of water into the final product.
Solution mining and water recycling is also in use at some potash mining operations.
Case Studies: Water Conservation Practices in the Non-Metallic Mineral Mining and Processing Industry
Mill, Location
Description
Results
CANADA
PotashCorp
SK and NB136
Water recycling
Company reports that its “water-intensive
mining operations recycle 92-96% of the
water used”.
NGC’s wallboard plant uses byproduct
gypsum produced during scrubber (flue
gas de-sulphurization) operations at a
nearby coal-fired power generating
station. The plant also recycles all of its
process water for reuse. Other NGC
plants are using reclaimed wallboard
and recycled papers.
The company replaced its once-throughcooling water system with a closed-loop
recycling system in 2000 at a cost of
415,000 Euros.
Use of the byproduct gypsum eliminates
freshwater usage that would otherwise be
required in producing an equivalent
amount of mined gypsum. It also saves on
the landfill capacity otherwise needed to
dispose of the scrubber waste. The NGC
plant is a zero wastewater discharge
facility.
The volume of water withdrawals from and
wastewater discharges to the Armançon
River were reduced by 75%.
OTHER
National Gypsum
Company,
Shippingport, PA137
Lafarge Cement
Plant. Frangey,
France138
6.3.3
Oil and Gas Extraction
Canada’s crude-oil equivalent production amounted to almost 2.4 million barrels per day in
2003139. Natural gas production was 16.9 billion cubic feet per day. Alberta producers alone account
for 64% of national oil production and about 78% of natural gas production. Other oil producing
provinces include Saskatchewan at 17.5%, and Newfoundland and Labrador at 14% of total national
output. British Columbia (15%) and Nova Scotia (3%) were Canada’s other significant natural gas
producers.
The most intensive water usage in the upstream petroleum production sector is that associated
with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and oil sands operations. Most enhanced oil recovery processes
(EOR) use waterflooding or steamflooding to extract petroleum not recoverable by conventional
pumping. In the first case, water is injected into the oil-producing reservoir to replace or enhance the
natural pressures that cause the oil to flow to and up the production well. In the second, steam is
injected into the reservoir where it reduces the viscosity of heavier crudes thereby enabling them to be
drawn to the production well for recovery140. Oil sands production uses water to produce steam used
in the separation process. Because of government pressure and public concern over water shortages
105
and associated environmental impacts, the Alberta industry is continuing to move toward higher
water-recycling rates and increased use of saline ground waters141.
In 2001, reported takings from surface freshwater sources for conventional oil production in
Alberta amounted to 26.9 million m³. Takings of non-saline ground water amounted to 10.1 million
m³. Freshwater use in oil sands production was 60 million m³ or 1.86 m³/ m³ of bitumen production
142
. Smaller takings for other purposes such as hydrostatic testing of pipelines, water used in drilling
operations, and water used for drinking, sanitary and fire protection uses are not included.
The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has recently identified freshwater
usage per unit of production as one its stewardship benchmarking categories. All conventional oil, oil
sands and natural gas producers will be expected to report their facility data on an annual basis for
CAPP compilation and reporting.
Increasing government and industry interest is being shown in the expanded use of CO2
injection in EOR production. It is used as an adjunct to water injection to enhance oil recovery rates.
The main environmental benefit of CO2 injection may come from its potential role in the capture and
geologic sequestration of CO2 that otherwise would be released to the atmosphere as a byproduct of
gas processing or other industrial operations. A number of anthropogenic CO2-EOR operations are
underway in the United States. A similar project started at EnCana Energy’s Weyburn, SK operations
in 2000 using CO2 piped in from a gas processing plant in North Dakota143.
Case Studies: Water Conservation Practices in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industries
Facility,
Location
CANADA
Petro-Canada
MacKay
River,AB144
Suncor
Energy: Oil
Sands
Fort
McMurray,
AB145
Imperial Oil
Cold Lake,
AB146
6.4
Description
Results
Company uses only saline
groundwater sources in steam
production. Recycling of recovered
water eliminates wastewater discharges
as well.
The company “is undertaking a
company-wide assessment of
internal water management practices
to identify opportunities for
improvement”.
No freshwater is used.
Company reported that freshwater withdrawal per
unit of production decreased from 7.66 m³/m³ in
2001 to 5.52 m³/m³ in 2002. Of the 67 million m³ of
water withdrawn from the Athabasca River in 2002,
12% was returned.
Freshwater use has dropped from 3.0 m³/ m³ of oil
produced to < 0.5 m³/ m³ .
MANUFACTURING
Water use and conservation practices were examined for all manufacturing sectors having a
strong national or regional presence in Canada. Sub-sectoring was undertaken in cases where withinsector differences in the magnitude and form of water usage and conservation opportunities warranted
finer evaluation. The description of water use practices and analysis of conservation opportunities
draws extensively on a 2003 U.S. Department of Energy study of integrated water and energy
conservation strategies within several key industry sectors147.
Prior to examining individual sectors it is helpful to look at strategic or higher-level
approaches being taken to address broader issues of resource use and environmental protection at the
national, state and inter-state level. The European Union’s Integrated Pollution Prevention and
106
Control (IPPC) Directive which came into force in 2000 establishes a phased regulatory system that
encompasses major industries and businesses and crosses all media148. The directive represents the
integration, broadening and deepening of previously existing regulatory regimes and measures
operating in and impacting on EU member states149. It is intended to take into account all of the
environmental impacts of an operation, including efficient use of raw materials, energy efficiency,
waste minimization, reduction of accidents and noise, and end-of-process issues such as waste
disposal, site-closure and site restoration.
The IPPC directive operates around the application of production-process based raw material
usage and environmental emission standards developed through government-industry technical
committees. Water-use efficiency is addressed in the standards for some manufacturing sectors, e.g.
pulp and paper, in the form of limits on water withdrawals per unit of production. New and
significantly altered operations are required to comply immediately with the standards while existing
facilities are to be phased in over a seven-year period. Some extensions to the compliance timetables
have been granted particularly for those countries receiving accession into the EU.
The International Standards Organization (ISO) environmental management system provides
another example of a higher-level integrated approach to environmental protection. The ISO approach
has been endorsed by many Canadian industry associations and member companies with many
reporting certification at the ISO 14,000 level. It is less prescriptive than the IPPC directives, i.e. it
does not include quantitative targets for water-use productivity.
Current water conservation and water-use efficiency initiatives within the Canadian and U.S.
manufacturing sectors have been less-directive than in Europe. They are largely driven by
government tightening of wastewater discharge requirements and by industry recognition that
reductions in water usage result in significant energy savings and lower other input costs. The close
relationship between water and energy use is illustrated in the following figure.
The Water Use - Energy Use Relationship in Manufacturing150
US Department of Energy. (2003). Water Use in Industries of the Future. Report prepared by CH2M HILL.
107
The process complexity characteristic of large industrial operations requires in-depth study of
water, other raw-material and energy flows throughout the facility and careful planning of how
changes in one area can affect other operations. Such audits or “plant-wide assessments” usually
require in-depth facility knowledge and often require months of information collection and analysis.
The following table outlines a generic process for developing and implementing an industrial water
conservation program in combination with energy conservation and other process improvements.
Best Practice: Generic In-House Approach for Industrial Conservation Initiatives151
Principles and Actions
Be thorough and systematic
Rationale
•
•
Sound water management involves a commitment to continuous
improvement facilitated through the ongoing transfer of knowledge
and experience within individual facilities and company-wide.
It requires the recognition and support of corporate executives.
Look at total water-use
•
Maximizing conservation opportunities requires that the facility’s
entire water flow and balance system be evaluated and
understood.
Institute rigorous water-use
measurement.
•
An accurate picture of how much water is being used within and
between different process areas is fundamental to understanding
where savings can be found.
Take a watershed perspective
•
Reduce once-through cooling
•
Broader understanding of water availability and variability and of
shared resource interests is important to acting responsibly.
Other forms of cooling may be more practical and desirable in
water-short areas.
Educate and involve employees
•
Employees respond better to conservation initiatives if they are
well informed and see them as a corporate priority.
Eliminate leaks and other
inefficiencies.
•
Repairing leaks and reducing other water wastage offer high rates
of return on investment.
Identify water-reuse opportunities
•
Water recycling and reuse become more attractive when energy
savings and other opportunities are factored in.
Focus first on changes that will also reduce energy consumption
and recover process chemicals.
•
Expand research into improved
production methods
•
•
Ongoing research and development is aiding in the discovery and
refinement of production processes once thought impractical.
Focus on low energy and low water-use processes.
According to the 1996 national survey data, Canada’s manufacturing industries were second
only to the thermal power generation sector in terms of water withdrawals152. Total manufacturing
withdrawals amounted to 6,038 million m³ that year. This was down 24% from the levels observed in
the 1986 survey. Information compiled in this analysis suggests that industrial water withdrawals
have continued to fall in all major manufacturing sectors and among most sub-sectors. These
reductions have likely narrowed the gap between manufacturing and agricultural water use in terms of
total water takings on a national scale.
108
6.4.1
Pulp and Paper
The Canadian pulp and paper industry is a major contributor to national, provincial and local
economies. Manufacturing shipments totaled $ 33.2 billion in 2003153. Mills are found in all
provinces except Prince Edward Island. The most common production methods found in Canada are
the Kraft, thermomechanical and the chemi-thermomechanical process. There are also a few sulphite
chemical mills and ground wood mills.
Water usage in pulp and paper mills serves four main functions - chemicals make-up,
transport and management of material flows throughout the production process, materials separation
and cooling154. The industry exhibits the highest process water usage to total water use ratio of all
industrial sectors. Freshwater withdrawals by Canadian mills amounted to some 2,350 million m³
annually in 1996155. This represented about 44% of the combined self-supply water withdrawals by
all manufacturing sectors making it the largest single industrial user.
Industry studies indicate that water usage by North American bleached Kraft mills using
once-through cooling generally falls in the range of 55-90 m³ per air dried tonne (adt) of product.
Water use in unbleached-Kraft production, which is less common in Canada, is in the range of 35-55
m³/adt. A North American ground wood-mechanical mill normally exhibits water use in the 6-20
m³/adt range. The following table illustrates the industry’s current water-use productivity compiled at
the global level.
Global Water-Use Productivity in the Pulp and Paper Industry (circa 2000)
Mill Process Type
Bleached Kraft
Unbleached Kraft
Ground Wood
Non-Integrated
156
Water-Use Productivity (m³/adt) at Selected Percentiles
10%
30%
50%
70%
90%
35
15
10
5
56
22
23
13
75
32
35
24
92
45
48
45
122
68
77
85
The Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC) reports that total water usage by
Canadian mills decreased by 32% between 1989 and 2003 while total pulp/paper production was
increasing by 30%157. Total water usage has declined by 67% since the 1960s. FPAC also indicates
that further incremental water savings are anticipated in coming years. Reductions are being achieved
through adoption of new technologies and manufacturing processes that permit recovery and reuse of
process waters and through tighter process controls and improved maintenance. The growth in usedpaper recycling has also played a part. Water-saving measures also contributed to an 11%
improvement in energy efficiency on a per tonne basis at Canadian mills in the period 1990-99158.
While modernization of certain equipment and processes has been ongoing in most Canadian
mills, continued use of some original infrastructure and production technology is not uncommon.
This in turn can limit the scope of potential water savings. The older mills of eastern Canada have
generally not achieved the same level of water use and waste discharge improvements seen in their
western counterparts159.
Significant process advancements have made construction of a “zero liquid effluent” (ZLE)
mill based on the use of a modified bleached chemi-thermomechanical (BCTMP) process a reality.
The world’s first successful ZLE mill is reported to be the Millar Western Meadow Lake mill in
Saskatchewan160. Since some water losses are unavoidable in the production process, a ZLE mill may
require a small amount of make-up water (+/-2 m³/adt) on an ongoing basis. The synergies involved
in eliminating water quality impacts, reducing water use, recovering and recycling chemicals,
109
increasing wood-fibre recovery, and conserving energy make this an attractive option in the
construction of new mills.
The following table summarizes the broad range of industry opportunities to reduce
freshwater requirements, reduce operating costs and achieve other environmental objectives within
existing mills.
Best Practice: Water Conservation Opportunities for Existing Pulp and Paper Mills161
Process Type
Suggested Improvement Measures
Water Productivity Targets
(following improvements)
Chemical
pulping
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mechanical
and chemimechanical
pulping
•
•
•
•
•
•
Recycle
pulping
•
•
•
•
•
Papermaking
•
•
•
•
•
Dry debarking
High efficiency brown-stock washing and
screening
Improved spill controls
Steam stripping and reuse of all pulping
condensates
Cooling water collection and reuse
Improved countercurrent flow of paper machine
waters back to the bleaching and pulp washing
processes
Digester-extended and/or oxygen delignification
prior to bleaching
Elemental chlorine free or total chlorine free
bleaching with alkaline filtrate recycle
•
Bleached: 30-50 m³/adt
•
Unbleached: 15-25
m³/adt
Dry debarking
Segregation and countercurrent reuse of paper
mill process waters
Use of thickeners or presses prior to pulp drying
Segregation of non-contact cooling and process
waters for reuse
Enhanced liquid storage to balance process
water requirements and prevent intermittent
overflows of process waters
Installation of more efficient pulp-washing
equipment in BCTMP and CTMP mills
•
Integrated mills
producing newsprint,
light-weight coated and
supercalendered
papers: 12-20 m³/adt
•
BCTMP and CTMP
market pulp mills: 1520 m³/adt
•
ZLE BCTMP mills: 2
m³/adt
Separation and countercurrent reuse of less
contaminated process waters
Internal filtration, gravity clarification or flotation
and reuse of process waters
Segregation and reuse of non-contact cooling
water
Enhanced liquid storage to balance process
water requirements and prevent intermittent
overflows of process waters
Internal biological treatment of process waters
and partial recycle and reuse of treated effluents
•
Corrugated-medium
and linerboard mills: <7
m³/adt
•
Deinked newsprint and
writing paper mills: 815 m³/adt
•
Tissue product mills: 825 m³/adt
Whitewater filtration and filtrate reuse for paper
machine showers and chemical dilution
Enhanced whitewater recirculation to displace
freshwater make-up during upset conditions
Segregation, collection and reuse of cooling
waters
Clarification of whitewaters for reuse in pulp mill
Countercurrent washing of incoming pulp
•
Paper-product
dependent:
•
Ranges from 4-10
m³/adt for corrugated
medium to 15-25
m³/adt for high quality
tissues
110
Case Studies: Water Conservation Practices in the Pulp and Paper Industry
Mill, Location
Description
Results
CANADA
Howe Sound Pulp and
Paper Ltd., BC162
Process-water recycling and reuse.
Between 1990 and 2000, the company
reduced total water usage while
production tripled. Over the same period,
energy consumption per tonne of product
was reduced by 40%. An in-house Water
Conservation Committee has identified
measures for reducing water use by an
additional 10%.
The mill is reported to be the world’s first
successful zero liquid effluent (ZLE) mill.
It is also chlorine free.
Millar Western,
Meadow Lake, SK
Weyerhaeuser
163
Company
Hinton Forest Products
164
Hinton, AB
Tembec
Company has pulp and
paper mills in QC, ON,
MB and BC and in
165
France
OTHER COUNTRIES
European Union IPPC
166
Directives
Bowater Incorporated
South Carolina and
The 280,000 tonnes/yr zero-liquid
effluent Meadow Lake mill constructed
by Millar Western Forest Products in
1992. It is jointly owned by the company
and the SK Government. It uses aspen
feedstock.
Weyerhaeuser’s Environmental Policy
sets a company goal of “conserving
natural resources through recycling
and waste reduction”.
In 2002, company diverted heated
cooling water for re-use in the mill’s
bleaching plant. Further water use
reduction opportunities are being
pursued.
Under its Impact Zero® environmental
management program, Tembec has set
water-use productivity targets of 50
m³/tonne for its Kraft mills, 20 m³/tonne
for its high-yield pulp mills, and 30-40
m³/tonne for its newsprint-groundwood
papers mills. The targets are to be
achieved by 2008.
The company’s 32 pulp and paper mills
combined have reduced water use by
40% since 1980. The amount of water
required to produce a tonne of pulp or
paper has declined by 58% and is
currently 45.9 m³ / tonne.
The Flint River pulp mill in Oglethorpe,
GA, is currently operating at 36.7
m³/tonne.
Re-use of heated cooling water reduced
water usage by 900 gal/min or about 4%
of average daily withdrawals..
Average water-use productivity by mill
type in Canada in 2002:
Kraft (3 mills): 90-130 m³/tonne
High Yield Pulp (2 mills): 30-53 m³/t
Newsprint-Groundwood (2 mills): 43-55
m³/t
Water-use productivity requirements are:
IPPC Directives require the immediate
use of best available techniques for
water-use efficiency in all new mills.
Best Available Techniques (BAT)
adoption within existing mills must be in
place by 2007. BAT requirements vary
according to mill process and product
type.
Integrated P & P Mills
-Bleached Kraft: 40-65 m³/adt
-Unbleached Kraft: 25-40 m³/adt
-Bleached sulphite: 50-70 m³/adt
-Mechanical: 12-20 m³/adt
-Recovered paper: 8-15 m³/adt
Water recycling and processefficiency improvements.
Paper-Only Mills
-Coated/uncoated papers: 10-15 m³/adt
-Tissues: 10-25 m³/adt
The company’s Catawba Mill in South
Carolina has reduced its water usage by
111
Alabama mills
167
International Paper168
IP operates 36 pulp,
paper and packaging
mills in the U,S.
Canada (BC and AB),
Europe, Russia and
New Zealand
169
Netherlands mills
Bowater’s ‘Good Neighbor’ Policy states
that “the company has been entrusted
with the stewardship of extensive
renewable natural resources and
accepts the responsibility of managing
those resources on a sustainable
basis…”
In 2002, IP initiated “an effort to identify
water supply concerns at each of our
mills.” The company has been using
‘water reuse loops’ to conserve water.
StoraEnso
The company has mills
in Nova Scotia, the
U.S. and Europe
6.4.2
30% and expects to reduce it by a further
15%. The Coosa Pines Mill in Alabama
reduced its water use by 40% over a 2year period. Both mills also experienced
energy savings as a result of the
improvements.
The median water-use productivity
measured across all IP mills is:
Bleached Kraft - 65 m³/tonne
Unbleached Kraft - 40 m³/tonne
Ground Wood - 35 m³/tonne
Non-Integrated - 22 m³/tonne
Netherland’s mills are reported to have
reduced total water usage by 90% since
the late 1970s.
StoraEnso’s current global average water
-use productivity is 55 m³/ tonne of pulp,
paper and packaging board. An
improvement of about 5% was reported
for the period 1999-2003.
Chemical Industries
For the purposes of this discussion, the chemicals and chemical products sectors were
considered to include all of the organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, fertilizers, and plastics and
rubbers sub-sectors. In 2003, Canadian manufacturing shipments from the combined industry totaled
$65.9 billion170. Industrial production is concentrated in Ontario, Quebec and Alberta, which
respectively account for 50%, 25% and 20% of total Canadian shipments171.
Environment Canada’s 1996 industrial water use survey showed the chemicals sector as
having total annual freshwater withdrawals of 1,015 million m³ ranking it behind the pulp and paper
and primary metals sectors in total withdrawals172. More recent reporting by the industry, suggests
that many Canadian companies have since reduced their process-water usage173.
Outside of the inorganic chemicals and fertilizers sub-sectors, water is not commonly used as
a feedstock or reactant but is extensively used in cooling, steam production and washing/rinsing
operations174. As in many other industry sectors, cooling requirements account for the largest portion
of freshwater withdrawals. Notwithstanding the limited process usage, contaminated wastewater
streams are not uncommon because of system leaks and incidental contact of water with both raw and
intermediate materials and final products. Total water usage per unit of production rankings (highest
to lowest) among North America’s largest chemical producers are as follows: nitrogen, ethylene,
ammonia, phosphoric acid, propylene, polyethylene, chlorine, sulfuric acid and oxygen.
Consumptive losses can involve evaporative losses to the atmosphere (particularly where
cooling towers are used), deep-well disposal of contaminated wastewaters and, in the case of the
inorganic chemical and fertilizers industries, the incorporation of varying amounts of water into final
products shipped throughout North America. While global industry estimates suggest that less than
5% of total water usage ends up in final products the percentage can be significantly higher and may
result in locally significant environmental impacts in some cases
112
The Canadian industry has made significant progress in reducing overall process water usage
through extensive recycling. These initiatives have been driven by pressures to eliminate or
significantly reduce wastewater emissions and lower energy consumption.
Case Studies: Water Conservation Practices in the Chemical Products Industry
Facility, Location
CANADA
Ethyl Canada Inc.175
Corunna, ON
Manufacturer of
diesel and gasoline
additives
Celanese
Canada176
Edmonton, AB
Manufacturer of
petrochemicals and
industrial products
ERCO Worldwide177
Saskatoon, SK
Description
Results
Prior to 1997 the company operated water
and energy conservation programs on the
basis of acting on ‘individual targets of
opportunity’. The company then established
a cross-functional Water Team to monitor
and address all aspects of water use.
Internal at source reductions and recycling
have allowed the company to eliminate its
discharge of storm water runoff, non-contact
cooling water and utilities blowdown waste
streams to the North Saskatchewan River.
Compared to 1996, water use has
been reduced by 91%. Water use per
tonne of production is down 94% and
energy use per tonne of production has
decreased by 76%.
Recycling of cooling water and better
water use.
Water requirements and discharge
volumes decreased by 67% from 1997
to 2003.
Company produces a glycolic acid
compound for use in cleaning power plant
cooling towers and other industrial heat
exchangers, condensers and boilers.
Enhanced cleaning effectiveness was
shown to reduce the typical volume of
cooling water make-up by 6%. Cost
savings for water and wastewater fees
are reported to far outweigh the cost of
cleaning treatments.
Internal recycling has offset 30% of the
river water intake.
Manufacturer of
chlorine dioxide
precursors
OTHER
DuPont 178
6.4.3
Petroleum Refining
Canadian shipments of refined petroleum products were valued at $ 35.5 billion in 2003 with
most of that production coming from refineries in Ontario, Alberta and Quebec179. At 228,600 m³/day
crude throughput was up 6.3% from 1999 levels180.
Total freshwater withdrawals by Canadian refineries in 1996 were 255 million m³181. Current
withdrawals are believed to be lower as a result of ongoing leak detection and correction efforts and
the recycling/reuse of process waters. Canada’s petroleum industry associations do not currently
compile and document total water use and water-use productivity data in sector-wide environmental
reporting182.
The principal uses of water in petroleum refining are in steam production and cooling.
Smaller amounts are used for the removal of water soluble inorganic compounds from hydrocarbon
streams183. Most Canadian refineries use once-through cooling systems making overall withdrawals
markedly higher than that found in refineries using closed-cooling circuits and cooling towers.
Process wastewaters originate mainly from the crude distillation and fluid catalytic-cracking units
where there is direct contact with hydrocarbons and, to a lesser extent, from flushing and cleaning
activities and runoff from process or product handling and storage areas. The dissolved solids content
of some wastewater streams renders them too expensive to treat for surface water discharge. They are
113
typically disposed of through deep-well injection assuming that a suitable bedrock formation is
located nearby. Consumptive losses of water are primarily a result of evaporation to the atmosphere.
Since cooling and steam production dominate refinery water demands, it follows that these
areas represent potential targets in seeking further reductions in withdrawals. The decision to move
from once-through cooling to closed-circuit cooling involves the combined considerations of water
and energy conservation, environmental benefits and costs. With cooling towers there is still a
sizeable make-up water requirement some of this can be obtained from other sources such as boiler
blowdown, storm water runoff or treated sanitary wastewater184. Some portion of any non-contact
cooling water flow may be reusable in process operations or in utility functions. The more temperate
climate that Canadian refineries operate in compared to conditions found in the southern U.S.
suggests that selected air-cooling applications could also be examined185. On the process side, oily
condensates might be reusable as desalting wash water and stripped sour water from the hydrotreaters
might be used for desalter-water makeup186. Recent and ongoing refinements of reverse osmosis and
other membrane technologies have increased the opportunities associated with treating wastewaters
for recycle and reuse.
A 2003 study of water conservation practices in the petroleum refining industry, undertaken
for the U.S. Dept of Energy, concluded that the most promising strategies for tightening up the water
balance within a refinery include:
•
•
•
•
•
Internal treatment and recycle/reuse of process waters
Conversion to closed-circuit cooling
Cooling tower design modifications that increase heat transfer and reduce evaporative losses
Treatment of cooling-tower makeup waters to minimize the required blowdowns
Use of treated wastewater obtained from external sources
Case Studies: Water Conservation Practices in the Petroleum Refining Industry
Refinery, Location
CANADA
Suncor Energy:
Sarnia Refinery
Sarnia, ON187
Description
Results
In 2002, the refinery withdrew an average of 78.6 mgd
of water from the St Clair River using 99% of it for
process cooling. Most of it was returned to the river
after treatment.
Water withdrawal per unit of
production (at the combined
Sarnia and Denver, CO
refineries) improved from 7.35
m³/m³ in 2001 to 6.61 m³/m³ in
2002.
Treated municipal wastewater is being used to
replace freshwater used in cooling at both oil
refineries. This is the largest industrial water reuse
project in California.
Freshwater withdrawal
savings equal 1.8 billion US
gallons/yr (6.8 million m³/yr).
70,000 barrel/day
refinery
OTHER
Chevron-Texaco
Corp.,
Richmond and East
Segundo,CA188
6.4.4
Primary Metals Manufacturing
The primary metals sector includes primary production of basic iron and steel and associated
products along with the smelting, refining, rolling, casting and extruding of non-ferrous metals. Total
Canadian shipments from all sub-sectors combined in 2003 were $ 37.6 billion189. Primary iron and
steel and steel products operations account for some 55% of total shipments. Smelting and refining of
non-ferrous metals (e.g. aluminum, copper, and nickel) account for a further 25%.
114
The most recent national survey of water usage shows primary metals producers with
combined annual freshwater withdrawals of 1,350 million m³ in 1996190. This places the industry
behind the pulp and paper sector and ahead of the chemical and chemical products sector as the most
water-use intensive manufacturing industries in Canada. Water is primarily used in cooling, material
conditioning, dust suppression, and cleaning and in the control of air emissions (i.e. wet scrubbers)191.
Within a typical North American integrated steel mill approximately 12% of water use is devoted to
material conditioning, 13% to air pollution control and most of the remainder to heat transfer or
cooling. Consumptive losses result from evaporation in the blast furnace, basic-oxygen furnace, coke
oven, and casting areas.
The Canadian Steel Products Association (CSPA) reports that closed-loop cooling systems
along with treatment and reuse of process waters have helped to reduce water demand to the point
where 95% of the water used by the industry is recycled192. The industry’s ongoing interest in
reducing energy consumption and related costs along with the increased availability and use of
recycling steel products have also played an important part in the realization of improved water-use
and energy-use. Some 9.5 million tonnes of steel scrap were recycled in 2002
Water requirements in the production of aluminum, copper and other non-ferrous metals are
less intensive than those of the iron and steel industry. Promising conservation opportunities in
aluminum and copper processing include reusing non-contact cooling water in other areas, converting
to closed-circuit cooling, and internal treatment, chemical recovery and reuse of water used in surface
treatment (finishing) baths.
Case Studies: Water Conservation Practices in the Primary Metals Industry
Mill, Location
CANADA
Dofasco
Hamilton,
193194
ON
Algoma Steel
Inc.
Sault Ste Marie,
ON195
OTHER
International
Steel Group Inc.
Sparrows Point
Mill
Baltimore, MD196
Alcoa Inc,
Lafayette, IN197
Description
Results
Company began construction of a state-of-theart Acid Regeneration Plant (ARP) in 2003. The
plant will use a closed loop system to recover
and reuse spent acid and rinse water. The
project is the final stage of several process
water recirculation initiatives dating back to
1990..
Water recirculation systems have been
installed in the Direct Strip Production Complex
(built in 1995) and blast furnace.
The ARP will eliminate the need for
water intake from and sodium chloride
discharge to Hamilton Harbour. Since
1990, the company reduced water
intake and effluent discharge volumes
by 58.4 million m³/yr at a cost of $34 M.
Company reports that water demand
has been “significantly reduced”.
Treated effluents from a nearby municipal
wastewater treatment plant are used to meet
some of a mill’s water demands.
Ingot cooling water recirculation system
(proposed)
A one-time capital cost of $10,000 US,
is projected to result in energy savings
of $18,000 annually. No estimate of the
expected water savings was given.
115
7.0
AGRICULTURAL SECTOR CONSERVATION PRACTICES
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
7.1
CANADIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND WATER USAGE
Canada’s agricultural industry exhibited gross farm receipts (excluding agri-forest products)
of $38.3 billion in 2000198. Alberta’s $9.92 billion, Ontario’s $9.12B, Quebec’s $6.14B and
Saskatchewan’s $5.89B accounted for 81% of the total. Manitoba contributed $3.53B, British
Columbia $2.31B, the Atlantic Provinces $1.18B, and the Yukon and Northwest Territories a
combined total of $8.13 million. Out of 230,000 reporting farms within the 2001 Canada-wide
Census of Agriculture, 118,000 were identified as primarily involved in livestock production and
112,000 in crop production. Livestock operations accounted for 55% of total farm receipts in 2000.
Total annual freshwater withdrawals by Canadian agriculture were estimated at 4,100 million
m³ in 1996 (most recent survey)199. This represented about 9% of total withdrawals among all wateruse sectors combined. Crop irrigation accounts for 85% of agricultural withdrawals with the
remaining 15% going to livestock watering, and other uses including cleaning, washing, preparation
of fertilizer and pesticide applications, and dilution of manure. Overall consumptive usage or loss
amounts to about 67% of withdrawals but can be higher depending on prevailing climate and weather
conditions, operating systems and producer practices.
7.1.1
Provincial Profiles
British Columbia200, 201, 202
• British Columbia had gross farm receipts of $2.31 billion in 2000. These were split almost
equally between crop production (48%) and livestock production (52%).
• Estimated freshwater use by BC’s agriculture industry in 1996 was 763 million m³ for crop
irrigation and 14.7 million m³ for livestock production203.
Alberta204, 205
• Alberta’s gross farm receipts totaled $9.92B in 2000. Livestock and livestock products
accounted for two thirds of the total.
• Estimated freshwater use by Alberta’s agriculture industry in 1996 was 2,609 million m³ for
crop irrigation and 61.5 million m³ for livestock production206.
Saskatchewan207, 208, 209
• Gross farm receipts totaled $5.89B in 2000 with crop production accounting for almost 70%
of the total.
• Estimated freshwater use by Saskatchewan agriculture in 1996 was 271 million m³ for crop
irrigation and 40 million m³ for livestock production210.
Manitoba211, 212
• Manitoba’s gross farm receipts totaled $3.53B in 2000. Crop production accounted for about
$1.8B (51%) and livestock production for $1.6B (49%).
• Estimated freshwater use by Manitoba’s agriculture industry in 1996 was 24.7 million m³ for
crop irrigation and 23.6 million m³ for livestock production213.
Ontario214, 215, 216, 217
• Ontario’s gross farm receipts were $9.12 billion in 2000. Receipts were split rough equally
between livestock (53%) and crop production (47%).
116
•
Estimated freshwater use by Ontario’s agriculture industry in 1996 was 114 million m³ for
crop irrigation and 59.2 million m³ for livestock production218. More recent (2000) estimates
put total withdrawals at 202 million m³/yr divided among crop production at 121 million
m³/yr (60%), livestock production 53 million m³ (26%) and aquaculture 28 million m³/yr
(14%).
Quebec219, 220, 221
• Quebec had gross farm receipts of $6.14B in 2000. Livestock and livestock products
accounted for more than 70% of total receipts.
• Current annual water requirements for agricultural production are estimated at 174.1 million
m³. This includes 73.5 million m³ for aquaculture, 56.0 million m³ for livestock and 44.6
million m³ for crop production. The Environment Canada 1996 water use survey estimated
annual irrigation usage to be 58.4 million m³ and livestock usage to be 45 million m³.
Nova Scotia222, 223, 224
• Nova Scotia had gross farm receipts of $0.41B in 2000. Livestock and livestock products
accounted for 66% of receipts.
• Nova Scotia’s agricultural water usage in 1996 was estimated to be 5.47 million m³; 3.2
million m³ in livestock production and 2.27 million m³ for crop irrigation.
New Brunswick225, 226, 227
• New Brunswick had gross farm receipts of $0.37B in 2000. Receipts are almost equally
divided between crop and livestock production.
• New Brunswick’s agricultural water usage in 1996 was estimated to be 3.81 million m³; 2.37
million m³ in livestock production and 1.44 million m³ for crop irrigation.
Prince Edward Island228, 229, 230
• PEI had gross farm receipts of $0.32B in 2000. Crop production accounted for 61% of total
receipts.
• PEI’s agricultural water usage in 1996 was estimated to be 3.62 million m³; 1.9 million m³ in
livestock production and 1.72 million m³ for crop irrigation.
Newfoundland and Labrador231, 232, 233
• Newfoundland and Labrador had gross farm receipts of $0.074B in 2000. Livestock and
livestock products accounted for almost 80% of total receipts.
• The province’s agricultural water usage in 1996 was estimated to be 0.63 million m³; 0.48
million m³ in livestock production and 0.15 million m³ for crop irrigation.
Yukon and Northwest Territories234
• Gross farm receipts (2000) are roughly the same in the two territories at approx. $4 million
annually.
• There were no data available on agricultural water withdrawals.
7.2
CROP IRRIGATION FUNDAMENTALS
7.2.1
General Principles
Crop-irrigation needs and practices reflect production settings and crop types. The amount of
water required for plant growth varies significantly among crop types and species. The need and
decision to supplement natural precipitation are influenced by soil type, topography, climate, weather,
production objectives and economic considerations. Irrigated production may be under cover, e.g. in
117
greenhouses, or involve field crop and rangeland production. It is not surprising, therefore, to see that
a range of irrigation technologies and practices are in use within the industry and across Canada.
While crop irrigation accounts for a large percentage (67%) of consumptive water usage in
Canada, as it does in most countries, it is important to consider agricultural water management from
the broader perspective of water-use productivity. How can the benefits of crop irrigation be realized
while using minimum and sustainable water withdrawals?
Irrigation is used to supplement natural precipitation in order to sustain crop health and
productivity. In some areas it is also used on an as needed basis for frost protection. In its primary
use, the objective is to deliver the right amount of water, at the right time and at the right cost
particularly to the root zone where it is available for uptake by the plant. Some of the applied water
evaporates from the soil surface, some is stored in plant tissues and some is transpired. Both storage
and transpiration are essential processes for plant growth. In a perfectly designed and operated
system, all of the irrigation water would be consumed through one of these processes. To approximate
such a system, conservation efforts need to address issues of water waste throughout the system and
fundamental questions regarding the type and value of irrigated agricultural production in an area.
This includes understanding:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
7.2.2
Evaporative and exfiltration losses from primary irrigation infrastructure such as storages
and irrigation ditches often found in regional systems
Evaporative losses attributable to the design and operation of irrigation equipment
Water rights and allocation provisions
Irrigation scheduling
Moisture holding capacity of soils
Return on total system investment as influenced by the economic and social choices in
choosing to irrigate and choosing to grow particular crops
Environmental and other consequences including excessive return flows, soil erosion,
transport/leaching of agricultural chemicals and other pollutants into surface and ground
waters, and increased soil salinity
Competition with other water users including the need to protect aquatic systems and
maintain environmental flows
Opportunities and implications in using reclaimed municipal and other wastewaters as
supplements or replacements for freshwater use
Irrigation Systems
There are four basic types of irrigation systems used in crop production:
•
•
•
•
Gravity Flow or Surface Flood
Spray or Sprinkler
Drip or Trickle
Micro-irrigation
Gravity-flow systems are most often operated at the regional scale by irrigation districts.
Water is conveyed to the farm and farm field through open ditches and then applied through surface
flooding. The system is used to some extent in Saskatchewan and Alberta. It is used more extensively
in some southern U.S. states including California, Arizona and New Mexico and in Australia. Overall
water-use efficiency is lowest among all system types because of extensive surface evaporation and
exfiltration losses throughout the lengthy conveyance network. While labour and capital costs are
low, use of the system is limited to flat terrain and may even necessitate precision-leveling of the
irrigated fields. A higher proportion of applied waters may be returned (via runoff or percolation to
118
ground water) for use on the same acreage or by others but the trade-off is the much-increased risk of
pollutant transfer to both surface and ground water sources.
Irrigation of Row Crops using Gravity Flow
Sprinkler systems typically offer higher water-use efficiencies than gravity or flood systems
but actual efficiency can vary widely depending on configuration and operating pressures. These may
draw upon a large regional water supply system or may take from an on-farm source. There are four
basic categories of sprinkler systems235.
•
•
•
•
Solid Set: These systems may be put permanently in place or may be hand moved. They can
be used on a wide variety of field and row crops and are suitable over a range of terrains.
Mechanized Centre-Pivot / Linear Systems: These are most often used in large-scale
applications on flat to moderate topography. They can be fitted with overhead sprinklers or
sprinklers mounted closer to the ground on drop tubes. They are less labour intensive than
hand move sets but are not suited to smaller square or rectangular field applications.
Wheeline: These systems use medium-sized sprinklers. They are suited to smaller
rectangular fields having flat to moderate topography growing lower value field crops. They
are less labour and capital intensive than centre-pivot / linear systems.
Travellers: Travellers are most often fitted with large spray guns and are used on crops that
are less sensitive to the uneven application of water. Like the wheeline, they are less labour
and capital intensive than centre-pivot / linear systems.
High pressure (>60 psi) sprinklers and spray guns are widely used across Canada on a variety
of crops. There water efficiency can be quite low because of high evaporative and drift losses
particularly under windy conditions.
Low to moderate pressure (<50 psi) centre-pivot and linear sprinklers are used in parts of
southern Alberta and Saskatchewan in the production of forage, cereal and oilseed crops and pulses.
Independent studies have demonstrated the higher water-use efficiencies and lower energy
requirements of these systems236237. They have been found to be highly effective (98% in winds under
5 km/hr) in delivering water to plant and soil surfaces. The low-pressure, drop-tube sprinkler system
has been described as “the biggest single advancement [among mechanized-irrigation systems]
towards increasing irrigation efficiency…”238. Lower pressure systems are particularly suited to flat
terrain and lighter soils. In regional supply systems, evaporative and exfiltration losses from storage
reservoirs and open conveyance channels can still limit overall project efficiency.
119
Low-Pressure Drop Tube Sprinkler System
Drip or trickle irrigation systems involve the use of small diameter tubing or piping placed
above or below the field surface in proximity to plant rows or, in some cases, individual plants. Holes
along the length of the pipe deliver water directly to the root zone minimizing evaporation. These
low-flow high-efficiency systems are most often used in nursery, tender fruit, berries and vineyard
operations. They are receiving increasing interest in the production of vegetables and other field crops
particularly in perpetually water-short areas. In addition to their efficiency in delivering water directly
to the plant, drip and trickle systems can increase crop yield and quality, reduced energy costs, and
avoidance of diseases239. They are also suited to some ‘chemigation’ applications, i.e. the co-delivery
of water soluble fertilizers and pesticides, and minimize the potential transfer of pollutants into
ground or surface waters.
Drip Irrigation in Strawberry Production
120
Micro-irrigation systems are used extensively in greenhouse production and in some openfield production of high-value vegetable, berry and floriculture crops. Water is delivered directly to
the individual plants through small tubing or micro sprays. These systems are both water and energyuse efficient. Chemigation may also be incorporated subject to the avoidance of clogging problems
with the small orifices.
Micro Irrigation in Greenhouse Floriculture
7.3
CANADIAN CROP IRRIGATION PRACTICES
7.3.1
National Overview
Successful crop production relies on availability of land, suitability of soils and temperatures,
stability in commodity demand and prices, and having enough precipitation when it is needed.
Irrigation is needed when precipitation is not sufficient to maintain soil moisture. In some parts of the
country this is an ongoing need rather than an occasional requirement. As can be seen in the
following table, growing areas in the Atlantic Provinces receive 3.0-3.5 times the precipitation
received in the Southern Prairies and in the southern interior of British Columbia. As much of the
precipitation in the western provinces comes in the form of snow, annual averages tend to even inflate
the picture of what is truly available during the growing season.
Average Annual Precipitation in Selected Agricultural Areas (1971-2000)
Location
Kelowna, BC
Medicine Hat, AB
Swift Current, SK
Souris, MB
Delhi, ON
Vineland Station, ON
Joliette, QC
Greenwood, NS
Fredericton, NB
Summerside, PE
Average Annual
Precipitation (mm)
340
334
377
516
1010
875
1006
1127
1124
1078
121
The following table summarizes the area under irrigation and major irrigated crops grown
within each province as reflected in the 2001 Census of Agriculture240.
Irrigated Crop Area by Province: 2001 Census
Province/
Territory
Irrigated Area
hectares x 1000
1995
2000
BC
AB
SK
MB
ON
QC
NB
NS
PE
NL
115.4
516.6
97.4
22.2
66.1
33.6
1.4
2.2
1.1
0.1
111.2
499.2
68.5
28.1
49.3
22.6
1.1
3.5
0.7
0.2
Totals
856.1
784.5
Major Irrigated Crops (by value)
Floriculture/nursery, greenhouse, vegetables, fruits
Forages, potatoes, vegetables, floriculture/nursery
Oilseeds, cereals, pulses, forages
Potatoes, greenhouse, vegetables
Floriculture/nursery, vegetables, greenhouse, tobacco, fruits
Vegetables, greenhouse, nursery
Potatoes, floriculture/nursery
Fruits, floriculture/nursery, vegetables
Potatoes
Floriculture/nursery, vegetables
Canada’s greenhouse production comprises only 1,835 ha or 0.2% of total irrigated area but
is responsible for $570 million in gross annual (2000) receipts. High commodity values relative to
overall water requirements make under cover crops along with nursery, floriculture, vegetable and
tender fruit crops prime candidates in the allocation of water supplies. Greenhouse production
encompasses 914 ha (50% of national total) in Ontario, 464 ha (25%) in British Columbia, 251 ha
(14%) in Quebec, and 103 ha (6%) in Alberta.
7.3.2
Provincial Summaries
British Columbia241, 242, 243, 244
•
•
•
•
•
•
BC’s irrigated crop acreage amounted to 111,000 ha in 2000 placing it second to Alberta in
provincial totals. Forages constitute 85% of irrigated area, followed by tree fruits at 5.5% and
vegetables and berries at 2.7% and 2.5 % respectively.
85% of crop area under irrigation is self-supplied (i.e. private licences) with the remainder
being served by a local irrigation district or a combination of private and communal systems.
Estimated freshwater use in 1996 was 763 million m³. Surface water withdrawals dominate at
97.5% of overall usage.
The largest contributors to gross farm receipts were floriculture and nursery 32%, greenhouse
and field vegetables 21%, and fruit 15%.
Primary producing areas include the Thompson (forages and ginseng), Okanagan (forages,
tree fruits, nursery and grapes), Caribou (forages), Kootenays (forages) and Fraser Valley
(berries, vegetables, forages and nursey).
Sprinkler systems are used on 71% of irrigated acreage, surface flood on 18%, spray guns on
7%, and trickle/drip on 3%.
Alberta245, 246, 247
• The province has 13 irrigation districts all of which are located in the South Saskatchewan
River Basin (see accompanying map). Water storage and distribution networks owned and
operated by the districts often serve municipal water supply and recreational needs in addition
to crop irrigation uses.
122
•
•
•
•
•
The districts serve a total assessed irrigable area of 526,000 ha. The 4 largest districts account
for almost 78% of the total. These are St Mary’s River 28%, Eastern 22%, Bow River 16%,
and Lethbridge Northern 12%.
Freshwater withdrawals for crop production in 1996 were 2,609 million m³.
Forage crops occupy 43% of land served by irrigation districts. This is followed by cereals
36% and oilseeds 12%.
While irrigated acreages represent only 4% of Alberta’s arable land base, they are responsible
for 20% of agricultural production. Among irrigated crops, the largest contributors to gross
farm receipts are forages, potatoes, vegetables, and floriculture/nursery crops.
Sprinkler systems are used on approximately 76% of Alberta’s irrigated acreage. Most of the
remainder (i.e. 20%) uses surface flood systems.
Water Irrigation Districts in Alberta
Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. Irrigation: Industry Overview. See online at
www.agric.gov.ab.ca/app21
123
Saskatchewan248, 249, 250
• While only 68,500 ha were reported as irrigated in 2000, provincial records indicate there
were 137,000 irrigated ha in 2001.
• Estimated freshwater use by Saskatchewan crop producers in 1996 was 271 million m³.
• There are 30 irrigation districts, the majority of which are located within a 150km radius of
Lake Diefenbaker on the South Saskatchewan River. In addition, there are many thousands of
private irrigators located outside the districts.
• On a province-wide basis, the distribution of irrigated acreages is forages 46%, cereals 35%,
oilseeds 8%, pulses 8% and floriculture 3%.
• Irrigation in the Southwest Development Area centred around Swift Current is focused on
alfalfa and other forages (83% of irrigated area) and cereals (13%). Total irrigated area equals
59,000 ha.
• In the Lake Diefenbaker Development Area currently irrigated acreage is apportioned 47% to
cereals, 26% to forages and 11% each to pulses and oilseeds. Total irrigated area equals
40,000 ha. There is considerable opportunity for expansion because of consistent water
supplies, good soils and a favourable climate.
• The Southeast and Northern Development areas together contain a total of 35,000 ha most of
which is irrigated from private sources. The focus tends to be on high value crops including
turf grass, Saskatoon berries, market gardening, tree nurseries, potatoes and hybrid canola.
• Among irrigated crops, the highest contributors to farm receipts were oilseeds, cereals, pulses
and forage crops.
• Primary irrigation systems used in Saskatchewan include sprinkler 51%, backflood 29% and
surface flood 21%. Drip irrigation is used on some high value low acreage crops.
PFRA’s Val Marie Dam and Storage Reservoir (11, 528 dam³) in Southwest Saskatchewan
124
Manitoba251, 252, 253
Most of Manitoba’s irrigated acreage (28,000 ha in 2000) lies in an area running east from
Brandon to Portage La Prairie then south to the Canada-U.S border (see figure).
• Potato production accounts for 69% of irrigated land area. Lesser irrigated crops include
cereals at 16%, vegetable crops 5%, and forages 4% of irrigated land.
• Highest contributors to farm receipts among irrigated crops are potatoes, greenhouse and
vegetables crops.
• Freshwater use for crop irrigation in 1996 amounted to 24.7 million m³.
• Most irrigated lands are served by sprinkler systems.
Irrigated Crop Lands in Manitoba
Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives. Manitoba Agricultural Yearbook 2002
Ontario254, 255, 256, 257
• Ontario farmers irrigated some 50,000 ha in 2000. Major production areas include Norfolk
County (tobacco, floriculture and nursery and vegetables); Hamilton, New Tecumseth and
Georgina (vegetables, sod and nursery); Niagara (greenhouse vegetables and flowers and
tender fruit); and Leamington-Essex (greenhouse vegetables and floriculture and nursery).
The New Liskeard area of north-central Ontario is regionally important for vegetable
production.
• With more than 900 ha under cover (plastic and glass) the province is home to 50% of
Canada’s total greenhouse area.
• Crop irrigation withdrawals were estimated at 114 million m³ in 1996 and 121 million m³ in
2000.
• Highest receipts among irrigated crops come from floriculture and nursery, greenhouse
vegetables and tobacco.
125
Quebec258, 259, 260
• The major irrigated crop-producing areas include the Montérégie region (vegetables); and the
Lanaudière and Central Quebec regions (vegetables and cranberries).
• The Montérégie region is home to 40% of the province’s irrigated croplands followed by
Lanaudière at 25%.
• Among irrigated crops, the highest contribution to gross farm receipts came from vegetables,
greenhouse and nursery crops.
• Current water requirements for irrigation are estimated to be 44.6 million m³/yr. Environment
Canada’s 1996 Industrial Water Use survey estimate was 58.4 million m³/yr.
• Water usage is broken out as follows: field crops 75%, cranberries 18%, and greenhouse
production 7%. Field crop production draws 41% of its water from farm ponds, 35% from a
river or lake, and 14% from private wells.
• Greenhouse production of vegetables and ornamentals encompasses a total of 230 ha.
Twenty-seven percent (27%) is in Montérégie, 20% in the Laurentians Region, and 10% in
the Central Quebec region. Total greenhouse water usage amounts to 3.34 million m³/yr.
Sixty percent (60%) of this water comes from private wells and 23% from public water
systems.
• Sprinkler systems are used by 50% of irrigating producers, spray guns by 23%, and drip
systems by 20%.
• Water supply shortages where they occur have mainly affected the vegetable production
sector.
Nova Scotia261, 262, 263
• Nova Scotia’s primary crop producing areas are located in the Annapolis Valley and Cape
Breton.
• Irrigation is common on blueberries, apples, strawberries, vegetables and horticultural crops.
• Among irrigated crops, the highest contribution to gross farm receipts came from fruits
(32%), floriculture and nursery (25%), and vegetables (14%).
• Irrigation withdrawals were estimated at 2.27 million m³ in 1996.
• The occurrence of 4 record-setting dry summers since 1997 has increased interest in irrigation
systems development.
New Brunswick264, 265, 266
• Crop irrigation is found mainly in the Fredericton-Sussex area with 20% of agricultural lands
under irrigation. Primary crops include vegetables and cranberries.
• Other areas with more limited irrigation include the Upper Saint John River valley (potatoes),
Kent and Westmoreland (vegetables) and Northeast (blueberries).
• Among irrigated crops, potatoes (56%) and floriculture/nursery crops (26%) were the highest
contributors to total farm receipts.
• New Brunswick’s irrigation water usage in 1996 was estimated to be 1.44 million m³.
Prince Edward Island267, 268, 269
• Primary irrigated crops include potatoes, blueberries and cole crops.
• Only 3-4% of producers irrigate and only on occasion.
• Potatoes account for more than 83% of crop receipts.
• PEI’s agricultural water usage in 1996 was estimated to be 3.62 million m³; 1.9 million m³ in
livestock production and 1.72 million m³ for crop irrigation.
126
•
•
About 8,000 ha have been identified of potential interest for expanded irrigation.
Potato processors are promoting irrigation to increase potato size.
Newfoundland and Labrador270, 271, 272
• There are only some 180 ha currently irrigated and it’s mainly for frost protection.
• Floriculture/nursery and vegetable production account for 88% of crop receipts.
• The province’s irrigation water usage in 1996 was estimated to be 0.15 million m³.
Yukon and Northwest Territories273
• The Yukon had 2,840 ha in crops with 565 ha under irrigation. Total crop area in NWT was
91 ha with 7 ha irrigated. Tame hay, oats and alfalfa occupy most of the Yukon cropped area.
• Greenhouse vegetables and flowers are the largest contributors to crop receipts in both
territories.
7.3.3
Programs, Issues and Obstacles
Further expansion of irrigated-crop production in Canada is a virtual certainty. The pressure
will come not only because of increased domestic and foreign demand for Canadian-grown products
but also because producers will act to minimize the impact of climate change and variability on crop
yield and quality.
A recent study by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA) considered
Canada’s expected role in meeting the global demand for agricultural commodities274. It focused on
the prairies and examined existing proposals which call for the development of an additional 380,0001,830,000 ha of irrigated land within Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba275. The proposed
expansions include an additional 78,180 ha in Alberta, 50,850-1,500,000 ha in Saskatchewan and
250,000 ha in Manitoba. The higher end of the range reported for Saskatchewan is dependent on
diverting 780,000 dam³ of water from the North Saskatchewan to the South Saskatchewan River
Basin. These expansions represent a 65-300% increase in irrigated prairie lands.
A 2003 report by the Saskatchewan Dept of Agriculture, Food and Rural Revitalization also
examined irrigation opportunities and concluded that, “the full economic benefit of irrigation projects
are only realized when high value, non-traditional crops such as potatoes, timothy hay and dry beans
are grown in conjunction with in-province agricultural processing, intensive livestock production or
similar value added activity.276”
Given the natural water deficits that exist throughout much of the southern prairies the
viability of the proposed irrigated-area increases assumes continued use of supply management
measures including major inter-basin diversions and constructed storages along with improved
regional and farm-level irrigation practices. The PFRA report acknowledges the likelihood that
environmental concerns, competing water uses and economic constraints are likely to moderate the
scope and form of future development.
Diversification of irrigated production into higher-value crops on lower acreages and
matching crop types to local soil and climate conditions can reduce overall water demands and
withdrawals in watersheds where water availability on a sustained and equitable basis is a problem.
Maintaining soil health through addition or retention of organic matter, avoidance of compaction and
reduced tillage are also effective in reducing water demand and increasing irrigation efficiency.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada recently (2002-03) completed an in-depth survey of water
supply and management issues facing Canada’s agriculture industry277. The survey included extensive
and separate regional consultations in British Columbia, the Prairies, Ontario, Quebec and the
127
Atlantic Provinces. It was intended to provide direction and support to the existing 4-year (2002-06),
$60M National Water Supply Expansion Program (NWSEP).
The survey illustrates that some constraints are widespread in nature and impact on the
industry in six or more provinces (see table). These include the lack of information on water
availability and demand, seasonal shortages of supply, limited uptake of conservation measures, and
limited local capacity to fund regional water supply development. Constraints were described as
“most widespread in location and type in the Prairies and British Columbia” and “primarily related to
irrigation supplies” in the central and eastern provinces.
The study concluded that, in many areas of the country, constraints to agricultural water use
and agricultural expansion could be accommodated through improvements in water-use efficiency
without the need to expand supplies. It also suggests that deficiencies in current practices are often a
result of the limited education, extension and technical assistance opportunities provided to
producers.
The final study report suggests that the NWSE Program should be guided by the following
priorities:
•
•
•
•
Improving knowledge of surface and ground water resources in terms of the availability of
supplies and the imposition of demands by all sectors
Encouraging more efficient use of available water
Improving planning and communication among all parties involved in water resource
development and water withdrawals
Facilitating further development of water supply and distribution infrastructure needed to
support agricultural industry sustainability and growth.
The report cautions that the existing timeframe and funding commitments under NWESP are
considered insufficient to address identified issues and constraints facing the industry.
Constraints to Agricultural Water Supply Development and Use in Canada
(Main constraints are identified in bold)
128
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2003). Analysis of Agricultural Water Supply Issues: National Summary. See
online at www.agr.gc.ca/pfra/water/natsupply
It remains unclear what portion of NWSEP funding might be available to assist existing crop
irrigators in becoming more water efficient vs. what is intended to go toward investment in water
supply development and expansion. In this regard, the NWSEP constraints analysis differs from a
related survey of U.S. crop irrigators (see discussion in the following section) in that the Canadian
study did not specifically explore what could be done to enhance the productivity of existing water
usage and thereby create growth opportunities without expanding withdrawals. Given the current
economic climate for agricultural production in Canada and elsewhere, it is hard to imagine producers
investing in more efficient water use practices and technologies without the increased cost-share
assistance from governments.
7.4
CROP IRRIGATION PRACTICES IN OTHER COUNTRIES
7.4.1
United States
Overview of Irrigated Crop Production
Crop irrigation accounts for 40% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. and 64% of all
withdrawals when thermal power generation usage is excluded. Total agricultural water withdrawals
amounted to 197 billion m³ in 2000 of which 96% (189 billion m³) was used for crop irrigation278.
The 25 million ha of irrigated cropland represented only 16% of the country’s harvested lands, but
accounted for 49% of total crop sales. Crop irrigation is responsible for 90% of all consumptive water
use in the western states and 80% nationwide.
In terms of overall area under irrigation, the most extensively irrigated crops (from highest to
lowest) are corn for grain, alfalfa hay, wheat, cotton, soybeans, orchard crops, rice and vegetables279.
Corn for grain and alfalfa dominate irrigated acreage in the U.S. West where they form the main
feedstock for the $45 billion US livestock industry.
Greatest concentrations of irrigated cropland are found in California, Texas and Nebraska280.
California accounts for about 22% of total irrigation use on 16% of nationally irrigated land. It along
with the Pacific Northwest, Colorado, Texas Gulf, Great Basin and Rio Grande regions are
responsible for about two-thirds of all irrigation usage.
Irrigated lands in the American West produce 72% of all crop sales on only 27% of total
harvested acreage281. High-valued orchards, berries, vegetables and nursery crops account for 60% of
the West’s crop sales on 15% of irrigated lands. Field and forage crops account for most of the
remaining 40% while occupying more than 70% of total irrigated area. Average crop sales (1997) per
harvested acre were $950 US on irrigated land and $120 US/acre on dry land282.
In the eastern U.S., only 7% of harvested lands are irrigated283. The largest acreages are in
rice, soybeans and corn for grain, however, overall sales value is dominated by nursery crops,
orchards, vegetables and grains other than corn. Average sales per acre were $1,200 US irrigated and
$200/acrea dry land.
Irrigation Acreages, Water Usage and System Types in Selected U.S. States (1998)284
State
Arizona
Annual Usage
Irrigated Area
(million m³)
(ha x 1000)
7.460
395
Irrigated Area by System Type (ha x 1000)
Sprinkler
74
Micro-irrigation
Gravity/Surface
6
315
129
California
42,140
4,087
672
1,201
2,214
Florida
5,925
834
208
285
340
New Mexico
3,950
404
187
3
214
189,000
25,043
11,453 (45.7%)
1,692 (6.8%)
11,898 (47.5%)
Total (U.S)
On a national basis, the average annual rate of water use in irrigation is 7,560 m³/ irrigated ha.
This compares to a rate of 5,220 m³/ irrigated ha in Canada. The higher U.S rate can be attributed to a
combination of factors including climate, relative distribution of crop types, water availability, and
irrigation practices.
There has been a 20% decline in the use of gravity or surface flood systems since 1979 but
they are still used on almost half of all irrigated cropland nation-wide285. Gravity flow systems
dominate the irrigation of pastureland, wild hay and rice and significantly outweigh the use of
sprinklers on alfalfa, mixed forages, cotton, soybeans and orchard lands. Partial conversion away
from gravity systems has contributed to a 12% decline in overall irrigation water use since the peak of
the early 1980s. Gravity methods still account for 63% of all crop irrigation usage in the country.
A Utah State University extension service study concluded that the average efficiency of
surface flood systems is only about 50% of that of a well designed and operated sprinkler system286.
The same study also reported that crop yields in alfalfa and wheat were 40-50% higher using
sprinklers for the same amount of applied water. Sprinklers began replacing gravity systems in Utah
beginning in the early 1950s, but are currently in use on only 40% of the state’s 1.3 million acres
(0.526 million ha) of irrigated cropland.
Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. See online at www.ers.usda.gov/data/maps
130
Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. See online at www.ers.usda.gov/data/maps
The case of the High Plains aquifer has received international notoriety with respect to the
impacts of crop irrigation on ground water and in turn on surface water resources. The immense
aquifer, which underlies parts of 8 states (see figure), was first developed for irrigation usage in the
early 1940s. Irrigation withdrawals began to expand rapidly after 1950. Data from 3,860 observation
wells indicate that over the period 1950-2002 the mean water level across the entire aquifer has fallen
about 12 feet (3.7m)287. Large areas with water table declines of more than 50 feet (15.2m) are
evident in southwest Kansas, east-central New Mexico, the central part of the Oklahoma Panhandle,
and the western part of the Texas Panhandle.
131
Water Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer from Pre-Development (circa 1950) to 2002
US Geological Survey. (2004). Water Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2002. Fact
Sheet #2004-3026. See online at http://infotrek.er.usgs.gov/pubs
U.S. Water Conservation and Use-Efficiency Initiatives
U.S. agriculture’s conversion to more water-efficient irrigation technologies and practices has
been a slow and evolving process288. This is particularly true in the West with its historic roots in
guaranteed water rights and massive supply management schemes. In the absence of an efficient
water-rights trading system or other mechanisms for reassigning rights, the prior appropriation
doctrine provides little incentive for existing rights holders to reduce their water usage through
132
investing in capital improvements. These and other obstacles were assessed as part of the 1998 Farm
and Ranch Irrigation Survey (FRIS)289. The following table explores those barriers for the four states
focused on in this report.
Barriers to Making Water and Energy Conservation - 1998 Farm and Ranch Survey
(% of respondents reporting)
Reported Barrier
Arizona
California
Florida
New
Mexico
U.S. Wide
Risk of lower crop yield or quality
Physical limitations of crop or field conditions
Savings will not cover costs
Unable to finance improvements
Landlord won’t share in cost
Uncertainty over future water rights
Won’t be farming long enough to justify making
improvements
Other reason
20
21
56
56
19
15
27
48
18
62
34
4
20
24
27
7
15
11
2
8
13
13
22
35
47
7
28
10
29
26
52
52
18
21
25
8
4
5
34
13
Percentage of farms that have not investigated
improvements
55
30
45
33
36
(based on total farms reporting a reason)
Some general observations that can be drawn from the survey include:
•
•
•
•
•
One third or more of producers in all four states had not bothered to investigate making
any type of improvements. Lack of interest in investigating improvements was highest in
Arizona at 55% of those surveyed
Cost or financing issues (i.e. return on investment and ability to finance) were seen as the
largest barrier in Arizona, California and New Mexico but less of an issue in Florida. The
nation-wide average price paid for off-farm surface water supplies was $16 US per acrefoot or $41 per acre. The price is generally based on the operation and maintenance costs
of the delivery system. One third of respondents felt that water-cost reductions through
conservation improvements would not cover the costs of those improvements.
Less than one quarter of respondents in all four states and only 7% of Florida respondents
saw physical limitations of crop or field conditions as an barrier to making improvements
Uncertainty over future water rights was highest in New Mexico and California and lowest
in Florida. This issue was of greatest concern in states facing rapid urban growth and
escalating environmental demands.
The potential for reduced crop yield or quality is a concern to almost half of California
producers but to less than one quarter of producers in the other states. They were, however,
still the largest single area of concern to Florida growers.
Without direct government assistance or the forced incentives of water shortages and/or
higher prices for purchased water, producers using gravity systems are not as likely to convert to
more efficient sprinklers. On the positive side, those with large acreages who did make the change to
sprinklers have found the benefits of centre-pivot low-pressure technologies in reducing both energy
and labour costs290. Since 1979 in the Plains States there has been an ongoing shift away from big
gun, solid set and hand move high pressure systems to more water, energy and labour-efficient centrepivot sprinklers.
The survey found that 46% of sprinkler-irrigated acreage in the U.S West was served by lowpressure (<30 psi) systems and an additional 32% was served by moderate pressure systems (30-60
133
psi)291. For gravity flow systems, FRIS determined that only about 40% of irrigated cropland was
subject to some form of ‘conserving’ practice including use of above or below ground pipe, linedditches and laser-leveled basins.
FRIS concluded that, “significant potential exists for improvement in irrigation water-use
efficiency”. For farms served by pressure or sprinkler systems this potential was determined to range
from 52% for larger farms to 66% for smaller farms. Smaller farms are defined as those with annual
farm sales of less than $250,000 US. For those using gravity systems the conservation improvement
potential was 36% on larger farms and 57% on smaller farms. Realizing these improvements can
depend on parallel initiatives to upgrade the delivery system to ensure that water is available to the
farmer when it is most needed.
Over the years, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Interior
Department’s Bureau of Reclamation have had a variety of cost-share and technical assistance
programs in place to assist farmers in converting to more water-efficient practices with a focus on
smaller farms. An estimated 21,000 irrigated farms (8 million acres) received USDA cost-share
funding for irrigation or drainage improvements in the period 1994-98. Other federal programs
provided cost sharing to 12,000 farms (3 million acres) while state, irrigation district and local costshare initiatives included 13,000 farms (4 million acres). Currently approved multi-year federal
funding (2002 Farm Act) for irrigation and drainage-related program initiatives is scheduled to
increase from $400 million US in 2004 to $ 520 million US in 2007. Several states including Arizona,
Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Texas, Utah and Washington also provide financial support for water
conservation.
The small-farm focus, predominant in existing programs, is under review since it is apparent
that this approach does not get at larger conservation objectives intended to “support environmental
policy goals as well as Native American trust responsibilities”292. Program improvements being
considered include expanded use of water banks, water markets and conserved-water-right
programs293. Changes in federal water prices including higher rates, per unit charges and block-rate
pricing are being examined as a possible complement to other initiatives.
Improved irrigation scheduling has been identified as another area where significant waterefficiency gains can be made294. Over 70% of western U.S farmers use observed plant condition or
soil feel as their means for determining when to irrigate. Only 8% use soil-moisture sensing devices,
4% use commercial scheduling services, and 1% use farm-calibrated computer simulation models.
Operators of smaller farms were found to be less likely to use more sophisticated scheduling methods.
An irrigation success story is that of the Eastern Oregon Farming Company, which uses fieldlevel monitoring and computer simulation to direct daily irrigation operations on 10,500 acres (4,250
ha) of cropland. The system paid for itself in energy savings alone in its first year of operation295. It is
said to be accurate to 3%± in predicting and meeting actual crop water requirements.
Use of reclaimed municipal and food-processing wastewaters for crop irrigation is receiving
increased interest but has seen relatively limited application to date. The main challenges in
expanding the application arise from producer and public concerns over the possible risks to plant and
animal health and food safety and uncertainties over the financial aspects of putting the system in
place. While use of reclaimed water can produce mutual benefits for the farmer and wastewater
utility, the opportunities are essentially confined to lands in close proximity to a major urban area.
7.4.2
Australia
Overview of Irrigated Crop Production296, 297
134
Australia’s arid climate does not easily support intensive crop production. It is, therefore, not
surprising that water management practices within the irrigated crop sector have become a focal point
for national and state water reforms.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Australia’s agriculture industry had gross receipts of $39.6 billion AU in 2001-02. Receipts
from irrigated crop production accounted for 25% of that output.
By order of (decreasing) value, the major economic contributors among irrigated crops are
cotton, fruit and grapes, sugar cane, and vegetables.
Total land under irrigation amounted to 2.545 million ha. This represents only 0.5% of all
production lands. Irrigated acreages were distributed among pastures 38.3%, cereals 20.7%,
cotton 16.4%, sugar cane 9.3%, grapes 5.4%, fruit 4.6%, vegetables 4.3% and other 3.2%.
Irrigation water withdrawals for the year were 15.5 billion m³, accounting for 75% of total
freshwater use by all sectors. The country-wide mean water-use productivity in irrigated crop
production is 6,090 m³/ha/year.
Water use in crop irrigation is the leading cause of unsustainable abstractions from both
surface and ground water. The 2000 National Water Resources Assessment showed that 26%
of Australia’s river basins and 34% of its groundwater management units were nearing or
exceeding their sustainable extraction limits.
Because of the country’s dry climate, irrigation is used on 91% of all cotton producing lands,
84% of all vegetable lands, 79% of fruit and 43% of sugar cane.
The majority of Australia’s irrigated lands lie in the 1.06 million km² Murray-Darling Basin,
which spans parts of 4 states, i.e. New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and South
Australia. Annual precipitation over much of the basin averages 600-700 mm except for a
small band along the eastern perimeter, which receives in the range of 700-800 mm.
Areas of Concentrated Irrigated Crop Production in Australia
135
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004). Water Use on Australian Farms 2002-03. See online at
www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats
Murray-Darling River Basin in Australia
Murray-Darling Basin Commission. (2004). Annual Report 2003-2004. See online at
www.mdbc.gov.au/subs/annual_reports
Australian Agricultural Water Reforms
Under Australia’s ongoing water reforms package, commonwealth and state governments
have identified improving agricultural water use efficiency as a major priority. “Irrigation water is
becoming less available, more tradable and more expensive. The irrigation industry is facing
restrictions, and in some cases reductions, in water availability and entitlements. Future growth in
irrigation now depends on efficiency gains in existing enterprises, rather than further use of scarce
water resources”298.
Since 1997, the Murray-Darling has had a ‘cap’ in place that restricted total water
withdrawals to levels as they existed in 1993-94. The net effect is that in order for any new waterrelated development to proceed, there must be a corresponding decrease through efficiencies in
existing development or the transfer/purchase of an existing water right. Each state is responsible for
implementing the provisions.
136
Improved water-use efficiency in the irrigation sector is to be achieved through a combination
of four mechanisms:
•
•
•
•
Full-cost pricing including environmental costs
Water-use monitoring as part of water administration and water allocation processes
Progressive implementation of volumetric metering and reporting with a priority on heavily
and over-allocated watersheds and aquifers
Establishment of water-use efficiency targets.
Research and field trials are underway to look at ‘water-use efficiency’ and water balances at
multiple scales from the basin-level down to the field-level and to factoring in the economic return or
‘water-use productivity’ as depicted in the following figures. Efforts are focused on identification and
quantification of major water loss pathways and examination of alternative measures to reduce these
losses. The goal is to improve and coordinate the capabilities of water management agencies and
individual producers in managing water-use efficiency throughout entire water withdrawal and
delivery systems.
137
Framework for Evaluating Water-Use Efficiency in Crop Irrigation
Land and Water Australia and NSW Agriculture. (2003). Irrigation Insights #5 – Water Use Efficiency: An
Information Package. See online at www.lwa.gov.au/products
138
Nested Approach for Performing Water Balance Calculations
139
Land and Water Australia and NSW Agriculture. (2003). Irrigation Insights #5 – Water Use Efficiency: An
Information Package. See online at www.lwa.gov.au/products
140
Crop Irrigation Case Study: State of Victoria, AU Agricultural Water-Use Reforms
Background
•
•
•
•
•
One third of Victoria’s rivers are in poor condition. Two-thirds of wetlands have dried up or are
severely degraded. The state has had 8 consecutive years of below normal precipitation. More than
200 communities are on permanent water restrictions. Water shortages and conflicts among urban
and rural water users are commonplace. The state’s population is expected to grow by 30% by the
year 2030.
Crop irrigation accounts for 77% of total water withdrawals.
Irrigated crops contribute 30% of all agricultural output
Authorized national and state water reforms prohibit expanded withdrawals, require roll backs of
some entitlements, and require irrigation system operators and individual irrigators to become more
efficient in using water.
Victoria’s multi-faceted reform package ‘Securing Our Water Future Together’ contains the following
elements targeted at the crop- irrigation sector.
Program Element
Actions
Improved Water
Trading
•
•
•
Preventing ‘water
barons’
•
More secure
entitlements
•
•
•
•
Smarter water
delivery
•
•
•
Better on-farm
practices
•
•
•
7.4.3
Water entitlements are being ‘unbundled’ from land ownership
Enables individuals to lease water to and from other people
Someone can own shares of available water without having to own land to
use it on
Government regulations limit non-water user ownership to 10% of available
supplies in each system to prevent price gouging
All water trading will be publicly registered, tracked and reported
Ongoing entitlements or ‘sales’ water in excess of a user’s needs may be
traded
The government will return 20% of all sales water to rivers
$100 million AU is being invested in transitional assistance to farmers and in
modernizing irrigation channels
A $320 million trust will allow the state to invest in new channel automation
technology that will save up to 30% of water currently lost in open channel
delivery
Metering will be required of all ‘significant’ water users with subsidies for
existing users not currently metered
Unused, uneconomic and environmentally problematic irrigation channels
will be closed through a negotiated process
Smarter delivery is expected to assist farmers in adopting more efficient
irrigation technologies
$15 million is being made available to farmers for conversion to improved
practices
Performance standards will be raised to ensure that poor practices are
gradually phased out.
Europe
European Union (EU) Policy and Program Directions for Irrigated Agriculture
The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy provides the basis for guiding necessary
improvements to European irrigation practices299. Crop irrigation has been identified as a major user
of water and a significant contributor to widespread environmental concerns. Irrigated production
accounts for 30% of overall EU water withdrawals and as much as 60-70% of total withdrawals in
some western and southern countries.
141
The European Commission Water Framework Directive requires EU member countries to
apply cost accounting and pricing mechanisms that provide adequate incentives for all users to use
water resources efficiently and that will ensure that each economic sector contributes to the cost of
water services including those related to the environment and resource sustainability. The goal is to
have these mechanisms fully operational by 2010.
All farmers are expected to maintain minimum ‘good farming practice’ standards. Where it is
considered necessary for a farmer to take additional measures in order to “protect the environment
and maintain the countryside” he/she is to be compensated for the added costs. This financial
assistance, referred to as an ‘agri-environmental scheme’, requires the farmer to make a minimum 5year commitment to implement and maintain the additional measures. As of 2001, more than 27% of
all EU agricultural land area was covered by such schemes. The Common Agricultural Policy makes
‘cross-compliance’ a condition for assistance.
There is currently a broad range of irrigation technologies in use across Europe with lessefficient gravity systems still being fairly common in the south. In the face of the Common
Agricultural Policy requirements, many European countries are looking to the results of ongoing
improvements in neighbouring EU countries as well as evaluating emerging crop irrigation practices
in Australia and the United States (California) in deciding the most appropriate direction to take.
Mean Water Allocation for Crop Irrigation among EU Regions
European Environment Agency. (2004). Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Use for Irrigation. See online at
www.eea.eu.int/indicators/all_factsheets_box
Notes:
- Western (Southern) region consists of: France, Greece, Italy Portugal, Spain
- Western (Central+Nordic): Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
- AC (South): Cyprus, Malta, Turkey
- AC (North): Bulgaria, Czech Rep., Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
England and Wales300
With only 108,000 ha or 0.6% of all agricultural lands being irrigated and much of that on a
relatively infrequent basis and for higher-value crops, the UK’s agricultural crop-water usage
component is the smallest among the countries included in this study. Surface water withdrawals
account for 80% of crop water usage.
142
The 2003 Water Resources (EIA) Regulations require the proponent of a crop irrigation
project that could have ‘significant environmental effects’ to complete an environmental impact
assessment or statement prior to approval.
The UK Environment Agency’s 2003 document ‘Best Farming Practices: Profiting from a
Good Environment’ offers non-prescriptive guidance to farmers on a range of environmental
matters301. It is premised on preventing and solving environmental problems in a manner that should
also be profitable to the farmer. In the area of water management, the focus is on planning and
monitoring water use, detecting and repairing leakage, preventing surface and ground water pollution,
monitoring crop-water needs, cooperatively scheduling irrigation operations, and exploring
alternative sources, e.g. rainwater capture.
France302
France’s agricultural sector has some 2.634 million ha of crop land under irrigation. This
accounts for 9% of all arable land. Assuming that crop irrigation accounts for almost all agricultural
water usage, the country-wide mean annual withdrawal rate is estimated to be about 12,000 m³/ha of
irrigated land. More than 80% of withdrawals are obtained from surface water sources. Considerable
expansion of irrigation acreage happened during the 1990s as a result of government assistance in the
form of subsidized equipment purchases and low water prices.
More serious effects of irrigation over-abstraction on other water users and the environment
are being felt in western France and in the Beauce region of the north303. The drought-like conditions
experienced throughout large portions of Europe in recent years have, however, heightened concerns
across many parts of the country.
7.5
SYNTHESIS OF CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES IN CROP IRRIGATION
Achieving a year-to-year and long-term sustainable balance among the interests of crop
producers, other water users and the environment is one of the biggest water-related challenges facing
land use planners and water managers in many parts of the country. Increasing productions demands,
urban expansion within agricultural areas, water resource impacts of climate change, and resourcing
constraints are sure to exacerbate that challenge.
It is clear from a wealth of Canadian and other experience that achieving success will require
more innovative approaches to irrigation and more ingenuity in assigning responsibility and
accountability. The role of global markets and competition in food commodities must also be
addressed as they work to hinder the industry’s ability to absorb the costs of making improvements in
water-use efficiency. This innovation must integrate decision-making surrounding.
•
•
•
•
Application of limits and priorities on water supply allocation
Adoption of sound water management practices
Selection and diversification of crops (i.e. water-use productivity)
Use of economic instruments and legislative safeguards for enhancing the long-term security
for producers, other water users and environmental health.
Best Practices for Water Conservation and Efficiency in Crop Irrigation
Component
Design
Best Practices
•
Work collectively with other water users, other stakeholders and governments in
developing a comprehensive watershed-based plan for developing, sharing and
143
•
•
•
•
•
Operation and
Maintenance
•
•
•
•
•
Policy
Suggestions
•
•
•
•
sustaining the resource over the long term.
Select the most water-efficient irrigation technologies and practices practicable
Choose sprinkler systems over gravity systems and low-moderate pressure over
high-pressure systems to minimize conveyance and evaporative losses.
Use a mix of locally available water sources including surface, shallow ground
water and deep groundwater where possible.
Assess water-use productivity; diversify production to include higher value and less
water-use intensive crops.
Determine the legal aspects of water use; obtain all necessary permits and
licenses
Monitor the real-time water requirements of individual crops and plantings and
irrigate only as is necessary to relieve or prevent water stress
Apply only as much water as the soil can hold; minimize runoff
Avoid irrigating under windy conditions and during hot periods of the day.
Monitor and maintain the irrigation system; repair leaks
Coordinate irrigation scheduling among users sharing the same resource
Require metering / monitoring and routine reporting of all significant water use
Establish water-use efficiency targets and guidelines; use incentives as needed
Periodically review allocations; implement reductions or reallocations as necessary
to ensure water-use sustainability for combined extractive and in-stream interests.
Move toward full cost-accounting and cost-recovery on government investments in
water infrastructure and services
7.6
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND WATER MANAGEMENT
7.6.1
Canadian Livestock Production and Water Usage
Canadian agriculture’s gross farm receipts from the production of livestock and livestock
products amounted to $21B in 2000304. Total freshwater withdrawals (1996) were approx. 600 million
m³ or about one-sixth of that used in crop production305.
British Columbia306, 307, 308
• British Columbia had gross farm receipts from livestock production of $1.1 billion in 2000.
• Dairy accounted for 32%, poultry and eggs 29%, cattle and calves 28%, and hogs 4% of total
receipts.
• Estimated freshwater use (1996) was 14.7 million m³.
Alberta309, 310
• Alberta’s gross farm receipts from livestock and livestock products totaled $6.45B in 2000.
• Cattle and calves accounted for 74%, hogs 11%, and dairy 7% of total receipts.
• Estimated freshwater use (1996) was 61.5 million m³.
Saskatchewan311, 312, 313
• Gross farm receipts from livestock production totaled $1.8B in 2000.
• Estimated freshwater use (1996) was 40 million m³.
Manitoba314, 315
• Manitoba’s gross farm receipts from livestock production totaled $1.6B in 2000.
• Estimated freshwater withdrawals (1996) were 23.6 million m³ for livestock production.
Ontario316, 317, 318, 319
• Ontario’s gross farm receipts from livestock and livestock products were $4.84B in 2000.
144
•
Estimated freshwater use was 59.2 million m³. More recent (2000) estimates put livestock
withdrawals at 53 million m³ and aquaculture withdrawals at 28 million m³.
Quebec320, 321, 322
• Quebec had gross farm receipts of $4.3B from livestock and livestock products in 2000.
• Highest receipts came from dairy (43%), hogs (27%), poultry and eggs (15%) and cattle
(13%).
• Current water requirements for livestock production are estimated at 73.5 million m³/yr for
aquaculture and 56.0 million m³/yr for livestock. The Environment Canada 1996 water use
survey estimated livestock usage to be 45 million m³/yr.
• Dairy, beef cattle and hog production are responsible for 92% of livestock water
requirements.
Nova Scotia323, 324
• Nova Scotia’s livestock production farm receipts were $0.27B in 2000.
• Highest receipts from livestock production were dairy 35%, poultry and eggs 30%, hogs
13%, and cattle and calves 13%.
• Livestock related water withdrawals (1996) amounted to 3.2 million m³.
New Brunswick325, 326
• New Brunswick had gross farm receipts from livestock of $0.18B in 2000.
• Highest receipts were from dairy 37%, poultry 24%, and hogs 21%.
• Livestock water usage in 1996 was estimated to be 2.37 million m³.
Prince Edward Island327, 328
• Gross farm receipts from livestock totaled $0.12B in 2000.
• Receipts were shared among dairy 43%, hogs 25%, and cattle and calves 23%.
• PEI’s livestock water usage (1996) was estimated to be 1.9 million m³.
Newfoundland and Labrador329, 330
• Newfoundland and Labrador’s gross farm receipts from livestock were $0.06B in 2000.
• Dairy, poultry and eggs account for 93% of livestock receipts.
• Livestock water withdrawals (1996) were 0.48 million m³.
The daily volume requirements for watering and cleaning vary considerably by animal as
reflected in the following table. Agriculture Canada estimates put the distribution of livestock water
use as watering 80%, sanitation and washing 10% and spillage 10%331.
Livestock and Poultry Water Requirements332, 333, 334
Animal
Dairy cattle
Calves
Beef cattle
Hogs
Sheep
Poultry: mature pullets, hens and chickens
Poultry: mature turkeys
Water Requirement
(L/day)
90
20
45
9
7
0.2-0.6
1-1.8
145
7.6.2
Water Licensing Requirements and Conservation Practices
Water withdrawals for livestock watering are generally exempt from license or permit
approvals in most provinces unless the water is being taken into storage prior to use. Like domestic
supply needs, livestock watering normally takes precedence over irrigation and other uses in the event
of water shortages. In most years, reports of producers not having sufficient supplies to water their
livestock are rare. On the other hand, livestock operations have been hit hard when insufficient water
is available to produce the corn and forage crops they depend on for feed.
The European Commission has established non-quantitative Best Available Techniques
(BAT) directives for the poultry and pork industries335. The directives are applicable to operations
involving more than 40,000 poultry, 2000 production pigs (>30kg) or 750 sows. Their focus is waterefficient cleaning practices and the elimination of waste in watering operations. Livestock producers
are expected to:
•
•
•
•
Clean animal housing and equipment with high-pressure cleaners after each production cycle
or batch with the objective of “finding the balance between cleanliness and using as little
water as possible”
Carry out regular calibration of drinking-water systems to avoid any spillage
Meter and keep records of water use
Detect and repair leakages
The use of ‘mains’ water is not unusual in smaller livestock watering operations in the U.K.
where costs for water are the equivalent of about $1.63 / m³ Cdn.
Most Canadian jurisdictions offer a range of best practices guidance materials and workshops
for livestock producers covering water management in relation to environmental and animal health
issues336. A synthesis of available information from across Canada and from other countries suggests
the following as appropriate best practices and policy considerations:
Best Practices for Livestock Water Management
Component
Design
Best Practices
•
•
•
Operation and
Maintenance
•
•
•
•
Policy
Suggestions
•
•
Site intensive livestock operations in areas with adequate water supplies and
minimal long-term risk of interference with and from other users/uses
Consider the need for water storage to ensure continued adequacy of supply in the
event of low-water conditions.
Understand the legal aspects of water use; obtain all necessary permits and
licenses.
Monitor water needs, water use and water waste throughout the operation; target
areas where efficiency can be improved.
Maintain watering equipment floats and seals to prevent leakage, spillage and
overflows
Install watering facilities that reduce livestock competition
Reduce water needs by reducing animal exposure to heat stress in summer
months.
Require metering / monitoring and routine reporting of all significant water use
Establish water-use efficiency targets and guidelines; use incentives as needed
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8.0
RECREATIONAL SECTOR CONSERVATION PRACTICES
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
8.1
INTRODUCTION
While recreation industries are not traditionally seen as important contributors to water-use
concerns at the national and provincial/territorial levels, the rapid growth of industry segments such
as golf courses is causing local, regional and some provincial governments to express concern over
long-term resource sustainability in selected urban or near-urban area watersheds. A crossjurisdictional analysis of water-use issues associated with the recreation industries sector identified
both golf courses and ski resorts as sub-sectors warranting attention.
8.2
GOLF COURSES
The increasing popularity of golf has seen the number of courses grow to more than 2,200
nationally337. There are more than 200 courses within a one-hour drive from downtown Toronto and
several new courses are opening within the Greater Toronto area each year. Other areas with a high
concentration of golf courses include the Greater Vancouver / Lower BC Mainland area with 88
courses, the Greater Montreal / Eastern Townships’ area with 84, and the Greater Calgary area with
51.
Irrigation demands can vary considerably from course to course based on factors such as soil
and turf types, climate, irrigation practices and system design. They may also vary significantly from
year to year. A typical 18-hole course with irrigation coverage of all fairways, greens and tee boxes
may use as much as 34 million litres of water in an average season338.
Industry associations and affiliates such as the Royal Canadian Golf Association (RCGA),
Canadian Golf Superintendents Association, the U.S Golf Association and the American Society of
Golf Course Architects have adopted environmental codes of practice and endorsed conservation
action programs. Under programs like the Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program for Golf, course
developers and operators receive guidance on best practices and have access to numerous case studies
147
demonstrating their application339. Topics addressed include water quality and quantity management,
pest management, fertilizer use, wildlife and habitat protection. Uptake of the Audubon program is
voluntary and in spite of its promotion by the RCGA and others, only 52 Canadian courses have so
far received certification.
Europe’s Committed to Green Programme for Golf is similar but ecologically broader than
the Audubon Program340. Formally established as a charitable trust in the UK in 2000, there are some
500 participating courses in 17 countries. Twenty courses in six countries have received full
accreditation. The programme, which has been extended to encompass other sports played on turf
addresses the following elements:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Nature conservation
Landscape and cultural heritage
Water resources management
Turfgrass management
Waste management
Energy efficiency and purchasing policy
Education and the working environment
Communications and public awareness
A broad range of water conservation measures were observed among study jurisdictions
including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Restricting normal watering to tee boxes, greens and primary landing areas on fairways.
Further restricting watering to tees and greens during low-water conditions
Constructing storages to hold water collected during spring runoff
Irrigation-water recapture and re-use
Use of clubhouse gray water and treated municipal wastewaters
Use of drought-tolerant turf grasses and soil conditioners
Case Studies: Water Conservation Practices for Golf Courses
Location
CANADA
Manitoba Golf
Superintendents’
341
Association
Fairmont
342
Hotels
Canada and
other countries
Description
Results
With the aid of Manitoba Conservation
and a grant from the federal
government MGSA has developed a
self-assessment checklist to help
interested clubs implement a Safety
and Environmental Management
System (SEMS). A section of the
checklist is dedicated to proper water
management and conservation.
All courses must develop and
implement a water conservation
plan. Plans are expected to include
use of weather monitoring, irrigated
area restrictions, drought-tolerant
vegetation, and improved irrigation
scheduling.
To date 47 golf courses have participated with
follow-ups completed on 15. Participating clubs
have seen improvements in water use.
OTHER
148
Florida
343
Other U.S.
States344
8.3
Use of reclaimed water for irrigation
Use of reclaimed water for irrigation
Statewide in 2001, 419 golf courses reported
using a total of 110 US mgd or 416 ML/d of
reclaimed wastewater for irrigation. This
represents 29% of all courses in Florida. Golf
courses accounted for 19% of reclaimed water
usage in the state. The use of reclaimed water
now accounts for 37% of the total irrigation water
requirements for all Florida courses combined.
The Loxahatchee reuse system by itself provides
reclaimed water to 12 courses.
Extensive use of reclaimed water on golf courses
is now ongoing in Arizona, California, Florida,
Hawaii, Nevada, South Carolina and Texas. Less
extensive usage is occurring in Alabama,
Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan,
Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico,
Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South
Dakota, Tennessee and Wisconsin.
SKI RESORTS
The water-use practices of ski-resort operations may not warrant particular national attention
or concern at this time. They are briefly discussed here because of their presence among a majority of
provinces and evidence that they have raised local water management concerns. More and more
Canadian ski resorts are evolving into year-round multi-purpose operations thus increasing the
potential for competition with other water uses. Proper water-use planning during site design and
sound operating practices can help ensure that conflicts are avoided.
There are more than 250 ski resorts in Canada with the greatest number being located in
Quebec, British Columbia, Ontario and Alberta345.
Canadian Ski Area Facilities
Province / Territory
# of Facilities
Quebec
British Columbia / Yukon
Ontario
Alberta
Manitoba / Saskatchewan
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
Prince Edward Island
Newfoundland and Labrador
83
62
50
32
14
4
3
1
3
Total
252
At a large resort, water used in snow making could amount to as much as 10 million L/day
albeit on an as needed and short-season basis. The intensity of snow making operations is generally at
its peak early in the ski season as resort operators are focused on building a strong base. It is then
ongoing throughout the season as required to make up for a lack of fresh snow or to maintain good
skiing conditions on steeper and more heavily used runs.
The National Ski Areas Association (NSAA) and its affiliated companies and organizations
in the U.S. have endorsed a set of environmental principles dealing with water use and other issues.
Beyond expecting member compliance with all federal, state and local requirements, NSAA promotes
149
the voluntary utilization of a variety of water-use efficiency and conservation measures including the
use of:
•
•
•
•
Constructed storages and runoff recapture to reduce the need for water withdrawals at times
when they might interfere with other users/uses
Water and energy-efficient snow guns
Efficient landscape and golf course irrigation system designs and practices at year-round
resorts
Outreach and education in connection with water-use efficiency in area hotels, restaurants
and other businesses346.
Water Use in Snow-Making
150
9.0
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
9.1
ACKNOWLEDGING THE CURRENT AND PREPARING FOR THE FUTURE
Canadians (along with Americans and Australians) continue to use water less efficiently than
peoples of other nations. Examples of inefficient and wasteful practices are pervasive among
households, communities and all business sectors. Even where such practices may not have resulted
in water shortages, compromised the availability of supply for other users, or adversely impacted on
the aquatic environment, they are likely contributing to other concerns. Water-use inefficiencies are a
factor in increasing the consumption of energy and other resources, in adding to the complexity and
cost of managing wastewater emissions, and in driving unnecessary expenditures for expansion of
water-related infrastructure.
While all governments have begun important actions to conserve water resources these
actions do not appear to be as aggressive, broad-based and consistent as they need to be to ensure a
sustainable future. Growing populations, expanding economies and climate change continue to drive
increased water demands while simultaneously reducing or threatening the availability and suitability
of supplies.
What lies ahead provides justification and support for strengthened government initiatives
that would systematically encourage and facilitate adoption of comprehensive and harmonized wateruse efficiency practices by Canadian businesses, communities and citizens. These initiatives should
stress universal and early adoption of well documented ‘no regrets’ technologies and practices within
all water-use sectors and pragmatically seek out and pursue progressively more aggressive solutions
based on maximizing overall benefits. Priority attention should be directed to situations where
existing practices have resulted in conflicts among users, are threatening environmental quality, or
may be leading to wasteful expenditures on water servicing infrastructure.
9.2
SECTORAL OPPORTUNITIES AND APPROACHES
The review of conservation measures being applied within individual sectors indicates that
many globally recognized ‘best practices’ are already in use within some Canadian communities and
businesses. What distinguishes Canada from most other study jurisdictions is the lack of more
comprehensive and uniform uptake or application of these measures. The following is a sector by
sector overview of more apparent water efficiency opportunities, of the rationale for their broader
adoption and of key considerations that need to be addressed in their implementation.
9.2.1
Municipal
Sustainability issues in the municipal water supply sector transcend the question of balancing
between water availability and demand. This is especially so in the case of growth communities
where water efficiency improvements can be the key to avoiding or limiting expensive investment in
expanding both water and wastewater infrastructure.
Strong pressures to implement full cost accounting and cost recovery in the municipal sector
favour implementation of universal metering and conservation-oriented rate structures. The first is
fundamental in making all water users aware of the scope of their demands and in achieving greater
equity in the distribution of costs. The latter offers an incentive to use water wisely. The case can also
be made for minimizing distribution system losses and for capitalizing on the mutual benefits (to
151
community and consumer) of moving toward the mandatory use of water efficient plumbing fixtures,
appliances and other devices in new construction as well as in retrofit and replacement.
Higher per-capita servicing costs faced by many small communities (<1000 residents) and
northern communities may warrant more direct senior government involvement in helping to fund
upfront implementation costs. Government intervention in seeking an appropriate level of water
pricing harmonization among municipalities may also be warranted to restrict the destabilizing use of
subsidies as a tool in attracting business development.
9.2.2
Agriculture
The agricultural sector and irrigated-crop production in particular is a common contributor to
water sustainability concerns and user conflicts across Canada and in other countries. Addressing
these concerns presents a major challenge in water management. Production activities tend to be
concentrated within contiguous areas, water demands are intensive, cumulative and overlapping, and
these demands typically coincide with periods of lowest water availability. Sectoral demands are also
expected to grow as a result of pressures to expand production, to irrigate crop types not currently
irrigated, and to counteract increasingly evident impacts of climate change, e.g. increased incidence
and severity of drought and higher evapotranspiration rates.
Solving or preventing serious water management problems will almost certainly involve both
demand management and supply management approaches. Demand management opportunities exist
to minimize water losses in conveyance systems, to better coordinate the scheduling of irrigation use
by individual farmers and groups of producers, to use more efficient application technologies, and to
more carefully determine the net economic return in irrigating certain lower-value crops. The required
investments, which could be substantial, pose tough issues for both producers and governments in
determining appropriate rates of return and in arriving at a workable division of funding
responsibilities. The basic issues of mandatory water-use monitoring and reporting, full-cost
accounting and cost recovery need to be dealt with in these deliberations.
9.2.3
Thermal Power Generation and Cooling
In Canada more water is withdrawn for cooling purposes than for any other type of use. The
majority of these withdrawals are used in thermal power generation. They also constitute a large
component of water used in the raw materials processing and manufacturing sectors.
The dominance of cooling withdrawals within Canada’s overall water use picture is made
even more pronounced by the long-standing practice of once-through cooling. While use of closedloop water cooling and air cooling has been growing in popularity, Canada has not as aggressively
followed the regulatory lead of other countries that clearly favour their use in new and retrofit
applications. A country-wide examination of environmental and financial arguments for and against
continued use of once-through cooling appears warranted in light of what is happening elsewhere.
Such a review is timely in view of the ongoing restructuring within the industry.
9.2.4
Industrial
The breadth of the industrial or manufacturing sector makes it complex and diverse in terms
of water quantity management issues and opportunities. The interests and practices of self-supply
water users are also often quite distinct from those who draw from municipal systems, i.e. self-supply
users have a less obvious cost-driven incentive to conserve.
Evidence suggests that many Canadian companies within all major industrial sectors have
voluntarily reduced water withdrawals as an adjunct to other objectives such as reducing energy
152
consumption or assisting with the management of wastewaters and reduction of emissions. Actual
levels of achievement appear to be highly variable perhaps reflecting inconsistencies in the
application of government pressure and/or incentives for dealing with these objectives.
Beyond taking more straightforward steps to reduce water waste through repairing leakages
and to increase water recycling and reuse, companies within every sector can readily avail themselves
of documentation involving same-sector companies who have successfully reengineered processes,
replaced equipment or implemented other measures to directly or indirectly reduce water demands.
As is being observed in the European Union, it may now or soon be possible to develop ‘best
practices’ guidelines or standards that quantify acceptable industry performance with respect to
water-use efficiency and productivity within individual sectors or sub-sectors.
9.2.5
Resource Extraction
With the exception of enhanced oil recovery operations, water quantity management concerns
in the resource extraction sector generally focus on questions of diversions and impoundments rather
than conservation and efficiency.
Process water recycling has been a common practice at metal and non-metallic mineral
mining operations for many years as a means of minimizing wastewater discharge volumes.
Evaporative losses are associated with tailings impoundments and use of water for dust suppression
but these are generally minor particularly in the case of hard rock mining. Consumptive losses may be
of greater concern in connection with refining of metallic ores (water may be used both as a coolant
and as a reagent in byproduct recovery) and processing of non-metallic minerals that requires the
creation of intermediate or final-product suspensions or slurries.
Enhanced oil recovery operations (EOR) involving the use of water or steam have raised
public concerns over potential impacts on the availability of supplies used by other extractive
interests and on the environment. Disposal of some of the contaminated water from these operations
has involved the use of permanent deep well injection, which further adds to the consumptive nature
of EOR water usage. These concerns have led governments, particularly in Alberta, to curtail the
granting or scope of new freshwater withdrawal approvals and forced the industry to pursue other
alternatives including the use of saline water sources along with increased water recycling and reuse.
Since EOR and heavy bitumen operations are vital components in Canadian energy production the
use of these and other alternatives for minimizing freshwater use can only grow in importance.
9.2.6
Recreation
Public concerns over the impacts of water usage by the recreational sector continue to grow
in many parts of the country. The focus of much of this attention is golf course operations that, like
agricultural and landscape irrigation, exert high water demands over short periods of time. Ongoing
expansion in the number of courses being developed in close proximity to major cities and within city
regions will increase pressure on governments and the industry to find water management solutions
that stress water efficiency improvements over increased withdrawals. Indeed, many newer courses
are being sited, designed, constructed and operated to make much more efficient and sustainable use
of water than what is the norm for most existing courses.
9.3
STRATEGIC PRINCIPLES AND DIRECTIONS
The absence of a comprehensive federal/provincial/territorial strategic plan and approach to
water conservation sets Canada apart from other countries examined as part of this study. Most of
these countries have faced similar within-country variations in the nature of water resource concerns
153
and in the willingness and capacity of water users to deal with the problems. The design and
implementation of purposeful and successful conservation initiatives should not be managed solely on
the basis of local, regional and provincial undertakings. Such an approach would lead to delays and
inconsistencies in achieving sustainable development goals. It could also result in unacceptable social
and economic hardship in some areas, alter the competitive environment among businesses operating
in the same sector, and escalate inter-jurisdictional tensions surrounding the use and sharing of
transboundary waters.
The directions that follow are premised on the principle that water-resource sustainability
solutions and outcomes are best arrived at through a continuum of intergovernmental and publicprivate collaboration from the national level on down to the local level. To be effective, they must
have the buy-in and support of the businesses and communities they are intended to serve and protect.
Sustainable Resource Development and Use Policies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Endorse and promote water conservation and water-use efficiency as components of broader
sustainable development goals and commitments to be established within all jurisdictions.
Factor in Canada’s international undertakings with respect to global resource sustainability
goals.
Set water conservation and water-use efficiency targets that address watershed and servicearea sustainability objectives while also ensuring inter-regional and cross-sectoral harmony.
Integrate water conservation goal-setting, messaging and implementation with related
initiatives targeting the efficient use and conservation of energy and other resources and the
protection of water quality and aquatic systems.
Integrate the use of regulatory and non-regulatory tools in a manner that effectively,
efficiently and equitably achieves the desired conservation savings. Give due recognition to
the capacity and responsibility of water-users and the benefiting public to share in the costs.
Develop and support business-renewal strategies for the creation of new economic
opportunities based on more-productive water uses. Give particular attention to areas where
current and/or projected water demands are likely to pose unacceptable costs upon waterusers, the public or the environment.
Develop and support urban development standards and practices that encourage attenuation
of stormwater runoff and protection of groundwater recharge.
Endorse and promote full-cost accounting and cost recovery across all levels of government
with regard to the management and delivery of water-related services. Have appropriate
regard for the limited financial capacity of some smaller communities and within some
business sectors. Factor in the projected costs of renewing and replacing failing and outdated
infrastructure.
Legislation and Regulation
•
•
Introduce regulatory measures that i) require self-supply water users to prepare water
conservation/efficiency plans, ii) establish water-efficiency standards/guidelines for
individual sectors, iii) protect in-stream uses and aquatic systems, and iv) implement cost
recovery.
Introduce or amend legislative mechanisms that will enable government agencies to address
situations where reprioritization, redistribution and/or reduction in water use allocations are
essential for the protection and advancement of the public good.
154
Monitoring, Reporting and Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
•
Implement mandatory requirements for the accurate measurement and routine reporting of
water usage by all self-supply water users. Harmonize data collection and reporting
requirements as necessary to facilitate information compilation and analysis within and across
sectors and among jurisdictions.
Implement mandatory metering of water usage by all customers served by public/municipal
water systems.
Expand and intensify surface and ground water level and flow characterization studies and
monitoring networks. Assign priority to areas of existing or emerging water-use conflict or
concern.
In known growth areas, compile information on potential increases in water demands for key
sectors and watersheds. Assume 10, 20 and 50-year planning horizons.
Enhance support for the development, refinement and use of watershed and aquifer-based
water allocation and conservation planning tools, i.e. water budget models.
Summarize and publicly report the above information and any associated analysis of it on a
routine and frequent basis.
Outreach and Education
•
•
•
Undertake a review of existing outreach and education initiatives at all levels of government.
Ensure they are effective in reaching water users and in providing essential information on
conservation benefits, options and implementation strategies. Tailor initiatives according to
individual sector.
Develop documentation of and/or links to the more detailed technical and cost information
required by industry, agricultural producers, and other businesses.
Expand and enhance the coverage of water conservation and stewardship goals and measures
within the school curricula at all age levels.
Stakeholder Consultation and Involvement
•
•
Engage municipalities, industry, business and other stakeholders in target setting, identifying
alternative measures, formalizing commitments, finding innovative resourcing approaches,
and assessing progress.
Enlist the support of water conservation innovators and champions within each sector to
spread the conservation message and knowledge to their colleagues. Document and
disseminate information on progress made and challenges overcome, i.e. success stories.
Economic Instruments
•
•
•
Accelerate the use of full-cost accounting and cost recovery approaches in the provision of
water management services and activities including those pertaining to water conservation
and efficiency.
Require municipalities to phase out the use of flat-rate and declining block-rate pricing and
the use of preferential pricing to large-volume water users. Investigate the relative merits of
increasing block rate structures, seasonal pricing and similar measures in reducing total
demand and peak demand. Provide appropriate forms of rate relief where needed for low
income households.
Make development of and commitment to a water conservation plan a condition of eligibility
for funding assistance in connection with all water and wastewater infrastructure expansion
and renewal projects.
155
•
Develop and implement appropriate strategies for addressing the more limited
implementation capacity of smaller and northern communities and of smaller business
operators.
Research and Development
•
•
•
Examine the benefits and drawbacks of encouraging or requiring the use of (conversion to)
closed-circuit cooling systems in thermal power generation, industrial, commercial and
institutional water-use applications. Assess the influence of different geographic/watershed
and demographic settings.
Investigate the feasibility of implementing national or regional water-use efficiency standards
or guidelines based on best technologies and/or practices in major water use sectors and subsectors.
Expand research into the anticipated impacts of global warming and climate change on water
resource availability and demand with a focus on better regional-level quantification of these
impacts.
Implementation
•
•
•
9.4
Acknowledge that the attainment of water efficiency and sustainability goals will take longer
to achieve in some areas and sectors than in others. Require that new growth and
development be based on best practices and technologies and set realistic timeframes for
attaining targeted improvements within existing development. Seek commitments to
continuous improvement.
Work toward devolving operational water management decision-making to the lowest
practicable administrative level subject to the application of clearly defined policies and
principles and the provision of appropriate over-sight. Devolution would be phased based
upon the development and demonstration of the local capacity to assume responsibility.
Integrate and harmonize conservation planning and implementation among all levels of
government and between the public and private sectors.
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The goal of ensuring that Canada and Canadians develop and use the nation’s water resources
to the sustainable benefit of all interests can only be realized if responsibilities and accountability are
broadly shared. The following roles and responsibilities are suggested.
CCME
•
•
•
Provide a forum for the discussion, analysis and harmonization of current and proposed
federal and provincial/territorial water conservation initiatives.
Encourage and facilitate sharing of conservation experiences across all Canadian jurisdictions
Conduct periodic reviews of implementation progress and concerns.
Federal Government
•
•
Encourage and facilitate cooperation among the provinces and territories and with federal
departments.
Continue and expand support for shared federal/provincial/territorial networks and programs
designed to characterize and monitor streamflows, water-levels and groundwater-elevations.
156
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Continue to survey, analyze and report information on water use across all major use sectors
and on a country-wide basis.
Implement conservation measures at all federal facilities and properties.
Seek US support and commitment to conservation initiatives impacting on boundary waters.
Monitor conservation initiatives and practices in other countries.
Provide coordination and support for evaluation, development, adaptation and demonstration
of new or improved water-use technologies and practices, e.g. closed-circuit cooling.
Coordinate and support development of sectoral best practices standards and guidelines for
water-use efficiency.
Examine the feasibility of introducing a national water-efficiency labeling program for
plumbing fixtures, household and commercial appliances, and other water-use related
devices.
Adopt taxation policies and cost-share infrastructure eligibility criteria that encourage and
facilitate adoption of water-efficiency measures by municipalities and businesses and
discourage new or ongoing investment in the use of inefficient practices and technologies.
Provincial and Territorial Governments
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use provincial building codes to require the mandatory use of water-efficient plumbing
fixtures in all new residential, commercial and institutional construction and retrofits.
Require self-supply water-use licence and permit holders (as a condition of approval) to:
o Prepare water conservation plans and implement water efficiency measures
o Accurately meter/monitor and routinely report daily water usage.
Adopt criteria that make municipal and private sector eligibility for water-related
infrastructure grants and other government funding conditional upon the preparation and
adoption of an acceptable water conservation plan and practices.
Support development and use of sectoral best practices water-efficiency standards and
guidelines.
Restrict new water takings and prioritize uses in areas subject to existing or impending
conflicts between demand and supply.
Require and facilitate the preparation of drought-response plans for areas subject to recurring
water shortages.
Implement conservation measures at all provincially owned facilities and properties.
Use sectorally targeted outreach and education to promote and encourage conservation.
Provide support for the evaluation, development, adaptation and demonstration of new or
improved water-use technologies and practices.
Establish economic incentives to encourage water users to adopt water-efficient practices and
technologies and/or disincentives to discourage new and continued use of inefficient practices
and technologies.
Adopt permit fees and other water charges to cover the costs of water management programs
and activities and to support conservation behaviours.
Continue and expand support for cost-shared monitoring networks and programs used to
characterize and measure streamflows, water levels and groundwater-elevations.
Require and support the use of supply and demand forecasting and water budgets/balance
analyses in all critical-use watersheds/aquifers.
Monitor conservation initiatives and best practices in other jurisdictions for potential adoption
or adaptation.
Support interprovincial and national harmonization of conservation and sustainable use
initiatives.
157
•
Support coordinated conservation and sustainable use initiatives in Canada-US transboundary
watersheds.
Municipalities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make conservation and water-use efficiency programs a municipal priority.
Approach conservation planning and implementation in a comprehensive and systematic
manner; seek continuous improvement.
Set water savings targets and implementation timelines.
Implement universal metering for all customer sectors; commit to regular meter inspection
and calibration.
Minimize distribution system losses through:
o Leak detection and correction
o Pressure modulation
o Scheduled watermain replacement.
Enact bylaws that do some or all of the following:
o Require use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures and appliances
o Appropriately restrict lawn watering and other outdoor uses as needed
o Require the use of rainfall sensors and automated controls for regulating rates of flow
and on-off cycles of landscape irrigation systems
o Limit the impervious area portion of a building lot.
Implement water pricing based on full-cost accounting and recovery.
Use increasing block, seasonal use and other conservation-oriented rate structures.
Encourage and subsidize residential, commercial and institutional plumbing-fixture retrofits.
Promote xeriscaping and use of drought tolerant plants.
Require or encourage (and subsidize) water-use audits and conservation planning among
large-volume users.
Use outreach and education to encourage good conservation practices.
Implement conservation measures at all municipally owned facilities and properties.
Monitor progress and report on accomplishments.
Monitor practices in other municipalities for potential adoption or adaptation.
Business and Professional Organizations
•
•
•
•
•
•
Adopt a water conservation and efficiency code of ethics and require member adherence to it.
Stay current with advances in sectoral BMPs and disseminate this information to members
through seminars, fact sheets, case study reviews, etc.
Support and participate in pilot and full-scale BMP demonstrations.
Support and participate with governments in the development of sectoral water efficiency
standards and guidelines.
Routinely monitor and report on sector performance.
Represent member interests in provincial/territorial and national consultations on water
management.
158
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Aquifer: An underground geological formation or group of formations containing useable amounts of
groundwater that can supply wells or springs for domestic, industrial, commercial, or irrigation uses and
maintain seasonal baseflows / levels within a stream or lake.
Backflood: A system used to temporarily retain water at shallow depth over large areas of crop or pasture land.
The system involves keeping a dam in place for a period of 2 weeks or more in order to build up soil moisture
content.
Baseflow: The amount of water or rate of flow being carried in a stream in the absence of precipitation and its
related runoff. During dry periods, baseflow is typically comprised only of groundwater discharge and any
continuous inputs of water or treated wastewater from man-made sources and operations.
Best (Management) Practice: A practice or combination of practices (including the use of innovative
technologies and processes) that embodies and optimizes the combined benefits of effectiveness, practicality
and versatility in addressing the needs of the environment and the water user.
Business Renewal: The act of changing what is being produced or how it’s being produced in order to become
more productive and efficient in the use of raw materials, labour and other resources. In a water conservation
sense, business renewal would be beneficial if it reduced the demand for water and/or increased the amount
and/or value of what was produced relative to the amount of water required.
Closed-Circuit Cooling: A system used to extract unwanted heat from an industrial or commercial process
wherein the water used is treated (e.g. in a cooling tower) to release some or all of the acquired heat and is then
recycled for re-use in the same manner for which it was originally taken.
Consumptive Use / Loss: A use of water involving its removal from a source without its being returned or its
being returned in a diminished amount to that source. Also, the quantity of water that has been ‘consumed’.
Some processes or practices that result in a consumptive use include evaporation, evapotranspiration,
incorporation into a plant, animal or product, transfer and diversion.
Demand Management: A strategy involving actions taken to improve water-use efficiency, increase water
recycling and re-use, minimize waste and conserve available water resources. Also any action or set of actions
taken to reduce the amount of water required or used by an individual, business or community.
Drought / Low-Water Condition: A period of prolonged dry weather which leads to a marked depletion in
stream flows, lake levels, groundwater tables or other measure of water resource availability.
Eco-Industrial Park: A planned co-location of industries (and other businesses) within a contiguous area for
the purposes of sharing resources and byproducts in a manner that conserves overall use of water, energy and
other resources, minimizes waste and leads to a healthier environment.
Economic Instrument: A monetary measure (e.g. fees, taxes, subsidies and grants) used to generate revenue or
to influence the activities, practices and behaviours of the person or business to which it is directed.
Environmental Flows: The minimum amount of streamflow essential for the maintenance of ecological
functions, the protection of aquatic life and habitat, and the assimilation of pollutant inputs. This amount will
differ from reach to reach, watercourse to watercourse and season to season.
Evapotranspiration: Process by which water is transpired by plants and evaporated from plant and soil
surfaces.
Extractive Uses: Uses of water in which it is removed from its source for use or application elsewhere. A use
is still extractive even when all or a majority of it is returned altered or unchanged to its source at a later time.
Water withdrawals serving municipalities, industry, agriculture, thermal and off-line waterpower production,
commercial enterprises, and conservation projects, e.g. wetland creation, are extractive uses. Diversions of
159
water from one watercourse to another or from one point to another point in the same watercourse are extractive
uses.
Instream Uses: Uses of water that don’t require its removal or diversion from a river, stream or lake. Uses
involving the temporary on-line storage of water, e.g. a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power dam and reservoir,
are generally still considered instream uses. Notwithstanding their classification as instream uses, any use
involving even the temporary on-line storage or retention of flow requires a water-taking licence or permit in
most jurisdictions.
Irrigation Efficiency: The ratio of the average depth or quantity of irrigation water beneficially used to the
average depth or quantity of irrigation water applied.
Natural Water Deficit: The amount of water lost through evaporation exceeds the amount of water gained
through precipitation.
Once-Through Cooling: A system that uses ambient water to extract unwanted heat from an industrial or
commercial process wherein the water is used only once and is then discharged, i.e. it is not reclaimed or
recycled for re-use in the same manner.
Per Capita Water Use: Total per capita water use generally refers to overall water usage by all domestic,
industrial, commercial and institutional customers on a municipal water system divided by the total population
residing within the service area. Domestic or residential per capita water use is based only on that portion of
the municipal supply that is used in and around dwellings. Unfortunately, much of available municipal wateruse reporting neglects to clarify which of two measurements is being given.
Rain Sensor: A device for monitoring rainfall and the subsequent rate of moisture evaporation. The device is
used to interrupt the normal on-off cycle of an automatic crop, lawn and landscape sprinkler system so as to
prevent watering when it is not needed.
Return Flow: That portion of a water withdrawal that is returned from its point of use to a watercourse and
becomes available for use by others. In the strictest sense, a returned flow should re-enter the same source or
system from which it was drawn and should do so within a relatively short time after the initial withdrawal.
Supply Management: Any action or set of actions taken to meet the water demands of an individual, business
or community by accessing and developing new or additional sources of supply.
Tail Water: Excess irrigation water that reaches the end of the field to which it was applied. This water may be
available for irrigation use on an adjacent field or property or may return in whole or in part to a receiving
watercourse.
Unaccounted-for-Flow: An expression used to describe that portion of municipally supplied water that enters
the distribution system from the treatment plant but does not reach the utility’s customers. It may also be
referred to as ‘non-revenue water’. This unaccounted for flow or volume may include water lost through
distribution-system leakages and watermain breaks, water taken from hydrants for fire-fighting and other unmetered purposes, deliberate water theft, and water delivered but not measured due to metering error.
Water Allocation: The process of determining who is given access to an amount of water from a surface or
ground water source, how much that amount is, and when it may be used. Also, the amount of water authorized
for use by someone.
Water Budget / Balance: A mathematical determination of how much water can be withdrawn from a ground
or surface water source without interfering with other water users and uses including the water needed to protect
ecological functions and protect aquatic biota and their habitats. The water balance takes into consideration
current conditions and projected changes and variability in supply and demand.
Water Conservation Measure: A tool, process or practice intended to result in the more conservative and
efficient use of water.
160
Water Conservation Plan: A document that details objectives, targets, specific measures and timetables for
optimizing water use and conserving available supplies.
Watercourse: Any body of water (normally with a physical connection to another body of water) including a
creek, stream, river or lake. Through legal definition, a watercourse may also be deemed to include ground
water.
Watershed / Subwatershed: The total area of land and water that drains to a common outlet such as to a larger
river, lake or ocean. The perimeter of a watershed or sub-watershed generally follows the height of land that
divides water flowing toward one watercourse from water flowing to another.
Water-Use Efficiency: The targeted result of actions taken to bring about a beneficial reduction in water loss or
water waste or to minimize the amount of water used in accomplishing a task or producing a product.
Water-Use Productivity: The ratio of the amount of water used in the production of a good or service to the
level of production obtained, e.g. litres per tonne of pulp or litres per vehicle. The lower the water input
required, the higher the productivity.
Water Withdrawal / Taking: The bulk or continuous removal of water from a surface watercourse or from
ground water.
Xeriscaping: An alternative form of landscape design that emphasizes the use of drought resistant and, in
particular, indigenous plants as a means of minimizing supplementary irrigation water demand and runoff.
161
COMMONLY USED UNITS AND EQUIVALENTS
ac = acre = 0.4047 ha
acre-foot = 1233.5 m³
BL = billion litres
dam³ = 1,000m³
ha = hectare = 10,000m²
m³ = 1,000 litres
ML = million litres
tonne = 1,000 kg = 1.102 tons
US gallon = 3.7854 litres = 0.8327 imperial gallons
162
REFERENCES
1
CCME Water Conservation and Economics Task Group. 2004. Request for Proposal- Analysis of Water Conservation
Measures. CCME Contract No. 336-2005.
2
Thomas Fuller. Gnomologia, 1732.
3
Statistics Canada. 2004. Land and Freshwater Area. Table available at www.statcan.ca.
4
Environment Canada. Freshwater Website: www.ec.gc.ca/water.
5
Adapted from Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use 1996 and Water Use in Canada, 1996.
6
Ibid.
7
U.S. Dept of Energy. 2003. Saving Water / Saving Energy. News Article. Industrial Technologies Program. Sept 2, 2003.
8
Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy. 2004. Water and Energy – Precious Resources. In Wisions of
Sustainability Issue II, 2004.
9
Environment Canada. Freshwater Website. How might climate change affect Canada?
10
Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM). 2004. Policy Development Book. FCM 67th Annual Conference. Edmonton,
AB. May 28-31,2004.
11
See Environment Canada. 2001. Municipal Water Pricing 1991-1999. EC Environmental Economics Branch. 2001 and
Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC).
12
Adapted from the Government of Ontario Fact Sheet - About Ontario. Available at www.gov.on .ca
13
International Joint Commission (IJC) 2004. Protection of the Waters of the Great Lakes: Review of
Recommendations in the February 2000 Report. IJC, August 2004.
14
Ontario Ministry of Finance. Ontario Demographic Quarterly – Sept 29, 2004.
Golder Associates. 2003. Analysis of Agricultural Water Supply Issue: National Water Supply Expansion Program.
Report prepared for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. March 2003.
16
CWRA, BC Branch. 2005. Program announcement for the conference” Water – Our Limiting Resource” to be held Feb
23-25, 2005 in Kelowna.
17
Refer to Appendix A – Federal Government.
18
Refer to Appendix A - British Columbia.
19
Refer to Appendix A - Alberta.
20
Alberta Environment. 2003. Water for Life: Alberta’s Strategy for Sustainability.
21
Refer to Appendix A - Saskatchewan.
22
Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. 2004. Conserving Our Water: A Water Conservation Plan for Saskatchewan.
Available at www.swa.sk.ca
23
Refer to Appendix A - Manitoba.
24
Refer to Appendix A - Ontario.
25
O’Connor. 2003. Report of the Walkerton Inquiry Part Two- A Strategy for Safe Drinking Water. Queen’s Printer for
Ontario.
26
Government of Ontario, Conservation Ontario et al. 2003. A Framework for Local Water-Use Decision-Making on a
Watershed Basis.
27
Ibid.
28
Ibid.
29
Refer to Appendix A - Québec.
30
Refer to Appendix A - New Brunswick.
31
City of Saint John. Water and Sewerage Rates and Payments. Available at www.cityofsaintjohn.com
32
Environment Canada Atlantic Climate Centre. The Climate of New Brunswick.
33
NS Dept of Environment and Labour. 2002. A Drinking Water Strategy for Nova Scotia.
34
Refer to Appendix A – Prince Edward Island.
35
Environment Canada Atlantic Climate Centre.
36
Refer to Appendix A – Nunavut.
37
Refer to Appendix A - Northwest Territories.
38
INAC. 2001. Hydrologic Overview of the Gwich’in and Sahtu Settlement Areas.
39
Refer to Appendix A - Yukon.
40
Yukon Government. State of the Environment Report 1999.
41
Australian Dept of the Environment and Heritage. 2005. Australian State of the Environment Report.
42
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Environment: Rivers, Inland Waters and Ground Water.
43
Murray-Darling Basin Commission. Basin Statistics.
44
Australian Dept of the Environment and Heritage. 2005. Australian State of the Environment Report.
45
Ibid.
46
Australian Dept of the Environment and Heritage. 2004. Water Policy: Water Reform Framework.
47
USGS. 2004. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.
48
USGS. 2004. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.
49
Ibid.
15
163
50
Ibid.
US EPA. Guidelines for Preparing Water Conservation Plans, revised August 1998.
52
CH2M MILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future. Report prepared for the Center for Waste Reduction
Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy, July 2003.
53
Refer to Appendix A - Arizona
54
Refer to Appendix A - California
55
Refer to Appendix A - Florida.
56
Refer to Appendix A - New Mexico
57
European Environment Agency. 2004. Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Use by Sectors.
58
European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau. Activities of the EIPPCB. See www.eippcb.jrc.es
59
European Environment Agency. 2004. Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Exploitation.
60
European Environment Agency. 2004. Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Use by Sectors.
61
European Environment Agency. 2000. Sustainable Use of Europe’s Water? State Prospects and Issues. Environmental
Assessment Report Series No. 7.
62
European Environment Agency. 2004. Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Prices.
63
Refer to Appendix A - England and Wales.
64
Refer to Appendix A - France.
65
Gleick, Peter H. 1996. BasicWater Requirements for Human Activities: Meeting Basic Needs. Article appearing in Water
International.
66
World Health Organization. 2003. Domestic Water Quantity, Service Level and Health.
67
Environment Canada. Freshwater Website: www.ec.gc.ca/water.
68
European Environment Agency. 2004. Indicator Fact Sheet: Water Use Efficiency in Cities - Leakage.
69
Environment Canada. 2001. Municipal Water Pricing 1991-1999. EC Environmental Economics Branch. 2001.
70
Environment Canada. Municipal Utility Database (MUD).
71
US EPA, 2002. Community Water System Survey 2000. US EPA Office of Water, Report # 815-R-02-005A. Dec 2002.
72
Water UK. How Water Pricing Levels are Set.
73
Adapted from Advanced Guidelines for Preparing Water Conservation Plans, US EPA, revised August 1998.
74
Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA). 2004. As reported in the minutes of the Sept 30, 2004 meeting of
the CWWA Water Efficiency Network Steering Committee.
75
Maryland Dept of the Environment. 2004. Developing and Implementing a Water Conservation Plan.
76
City of Toronto. 2002. Toronto Water Efficiency Plan 2002.
77
Capital Region District (BC) Water Services. 2004 Review of the Strategic Plan for Water Management. Nov 2004.
78
See Capital Region District website at www.crd.bc.ca/water
79
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
80
See NS in Appendix A.1.
81
See City of Lompoc, CA website at www.ci.lompoc.ca.us
82
Los Angeles Dept of Water and Power. Water Conservation Program. Available at www.ladwp.com
83
St Petersburg, FL website at www.stpete.org
84
As reported in Maryland Dept of the Environment. 2004. Developing and Implementing a Water Conservation Plan.
85
As reported in Maryland Dept of the Environment. 2004. Developing and Implementing a Water Conservation Plan.
86
As reported in Maryland Dept of the Environment. 2004. Developing and Implementing a Water Conservation Plan.
87
WateReuse Foundation. 2001. Best Practices for Developing Indirect Potable Reuse Projects: Phase 1 Report – Project
WRF-01-004.
88
CWWA. Water Efficiency Experiences Database. Available at www.cwwa.ca/WEED
89
Kamloops, BC. 2001. Overview of Other Communities’ Experiences. Found in Appendix B of the Water Use Efficiency
Committee report.
90
See Kamloops, BC website at www.city.kamloops.bc.ca
91
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
92
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
93
Ibid.
94
Veritec Consulting Inc. Water Use Monitoring and Water Efficiency Program for the RM of St Andrews. Oct 2004.
95
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
96
See NL review in Appendix A.1.
97
As reported in Maryland Dept of the Environment. 2004. Developing and Implementing a Water Conservation Plan.
51
98
New Mexico State Engineer’s Office. 1999. Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Users.
99
See Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) website at www.gvrd.bc.ca
See City of Lompoc, CA website at www.ci.lompoc.ca.us
101
Government of Victoria, 2004. Media Release: Thwaites Announces Permanent Water Savings Rules.
102
FCM. 2004. Policy Development Book.
103
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
104
Ibid.
100
164
105
Ibid.
Los Angeles Dept of Water and Power. Water Conservation Program. Available at www.ladwp.com
107
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
108
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
109
City of Winnipeg Water and Wastewater Division.
110
Ville de Montreal. Wastewater Treatment Plant: Comments on Water Conservation. Available at
www.services.ville.montreal.qc.ca
111
See NS in Appendix A.1.
112
Fort Nelson and Northern Rockies Regional District. Bylaws 94 and 543, 1997 (as amended). Available at www.northern
rockies.org
113
See NU Review in Appendix A.1.
114
City of Whitehorse, YK. Bylaw 94-12 (as amended). Available at www.city.whitehorse.yk.ca.
115
RM of Wood Buffalo. Utility Rates Bylaw. Available at www.woodbuffalo.ab.ca
116
City of Yellowknife, NT. Water and Sewer Services By -law No. 3529 (as amended).
117
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
118
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
119
Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention. 2001. Green Landscaping. Summary available www.c2p2online.com
106
120
121
New Mexico State Engineer’s Office. 1999. Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Users.
New Mexico State Engineer’s Office. 1999. Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Users.
122
Statistics Canada. 2004. Manufacturing Shipments
The Delphi Group. 2004. Analysis of Water Sustainability Issues for Key Industrial Sectors. Draft report prepared for the
Sustainable Water Use Branch, Environment Canada.
124
The Delphi Group. 2004. Analysis of Water Sustainability Issues for Key Industrial Sectors. Draft report prepared for the
Sustainable Water Use Branch, Environment Canada.
125
The Delphi Group. 2004. Analysis of Water Sustainability Issues for Key Industrial Sectors. Draft report prepared for the
Sustainable Water Use Branch, Environment Canada.
126
Pacific Institute.
127
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
128
USGS. 2004. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.
129
Statistics Canada. 2004. Mineral Production of Canada: Preliminary Estimates 2003.
130
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use 1996
131
Ibid.
132
Falconbridge. 2002. Environmental, Health and Safety Progress Report 2001.
133
Placer Dome. 2004. Environmental Report on Water Use and Management.
134
Teck Cominco. 2003. 2002 Sustainability Report.
135
Statistics Canada. 2004. Mineral Production of Canada by Province and Territory: 2003 Preliminary Data.
136
PotashCorp. Safety, Health and Environment GRI Performance. Available at www.potashcorp.com
137
National Gypsum Company. 2003. NGC News: National Gypsum Plant Wins Environmental Award.
138
Lafarge Company. Sustainable Development Case Studies; Frangey Closed Loop Recycling of Cooling Water.
139
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). 2004. 2003 Industry Statistics. Available at www.capp.ca
140
CH2M MILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future: Petroleum Industry. Report prepared by CH2M HILL for the
Center for Waste Reduction Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy, July 2003.
141
Ibid.
142
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). 2003. 2002 Stewardship Benchmarking Report. Available at
www.capp.ca
143
U.S. Dept of Energy. 2003. Carbon Sequestration through Enhanced Oil Recovery. Program Facts sheet prepared by the
Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. August 2003.
144
CAPP. Using Freshwater Alternatives.
145
Suncor. 2004. 2003 Report on Sustainability.
146
CAPP. Water Use: Good Stories Outweigh the Bad. Available at www.capp.ca
147
CH2M HILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future. Report prepared for the Center for Waste Reduction
Technologies, U.S. Dept of Energy. July 2003.
148
European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau. Activities of the EIPPCB. See www.eippcb.jrc.es
149
UK Environment News. 1999. Industry Should Prepare for New Pollution Prevention Regime. Article appearing in UK
Environment News, Vol 3, Issue 1. March 1999.
150
Figure taken from Water Use in Industries of the Future. Report prepared by CH2M HILL for the Center for Waste
Reduction Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy, July 2003.
151
Adapted from Water Use in Industries of the Future.
152
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
153
Statistics Canada. 2004. Manufacturing Shipments. Contained in CANSIM table 304-0014.
154
CH2M HILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future: Forest Products Industry.
123
165
155
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996. Report prepared by the Environmental Economics Branch, EC.
Ekono Duoplan Oy. 2002. Environmental Performance, Regulations and Technologies in the Pulp and Paper Industry.
June 2002.
157
Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC). Reducing Water Use. Available at www.fpac.org
158
FPAC. Reducing Energy Use.
159
Sierra Legal Defence Fund. 2000. Pulping the Law.
160
See Millar Western company website at www.millarwestern.com.
161
Adapted from CH2M HILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future: Forest Products Industry.
162
Howe Sound Pulp and Paper. 2003. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Article in Envirosound, Vol8, Issue 2, June 2003.
163
Weyerhaeuser. 2004. Roadmap for Sustainability – 2003 Citizenship and Environment Report. Available at
www.weyerhaeuser.com
164
Hinton Forest Resources. 2004. Environmental Performance Review: Water. Available at www.weldwood.com
165
Tembec. 2004. Environmental Performance Indicators. Available at www.tembec.com
166
European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the
Pulp and Paper Industry. IPPC, Dec 2001. Available at www.eippcb.jrc.es
167
Bowater Inc. We Live Here To. Available at www.bowater.com
168
International Paper. 2004. Sustainability Report 2002-2003.
169
C. Negro et al. 2000. Toward ZLE in Paper Making: State-of-the-Art in Water Consumption.
170
Statistics Canada. 2004. Manufacturing Shipments. Contained in CANSIM table 304-0014.
171
Statistics Canada. 1999. Growth in Chemicals and Chemical Products Industries. Sept 1999.
172
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
173
Canadian Chemical Producers’ Association (CCPA). 2004. Reducing Emissions Report 12. Available at www.ccpa.ca
174
CH2M HILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future: Chemical Industry.
175
CCPA. 2004.
176
Ibid.
177
Ibid.
178
DuPont. Chemical Solutions Enterprise: Advantage Glycolic Acid Cleaning…..
179
Statistics Canada. 2004. Manufacturing Shipments. Contained in CANSIM table 304-0014.
180
Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI). 2004. 2003 Environment and Safety Performance Report.
181
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
182
CPPI. 2004.
183
CH2M HILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future: Petroleum Industry.
184
Ibid.
185
Ibid.
186
Ibid.
187
Suncor. 2004.
188
Chevron-Texaco Corp. 2003. 2002 CR Report: Conserving a Natural Resource.
189
Statistics Canada. 2004. Manufacturing Shipments.
190
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
191
CH2M MILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future: Steel and Aluminum Industries.
192
Canadian Steel Producers Association. An Industry Going Green. Available at www.canadiansteel.ca
193
Dofasco. 2004. 2003 Annual Report.
194
The Delphi Group. 2004. Analysis of Water Sustainability Issues for Key Industrial Sectors. Draft internal report
prepared for Environment Canada, Sustainable Water Use Branch.
195
Algoma Steel Inc. Environment 2003 - Water Quality. Available at www.algoma.com.
196
Ibid.
197
U.S. Dept of Energy. 2001. Alcoa Lafayette Operations Energy Efficiency Assessment. Best Practices Case Study.
198
Statistics Canada. 2004. Agriculture 2001 Census.
199
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
200
BC Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. 2002. Census of Agriculture 2001.
201
BC Ministry Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. 2004. The Importance of Agriculture and Agri-Food to British Columbia.
Available at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/stats
202
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
203
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
204
Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. 2004. Alberta Agriculture Statistics Yearbook, 2003.
205
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
206
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
207
Saskatchewan Agriculture, Food and Rural Revitalization. 2003. Irrigation in Saskatchewan.
208
Saskatchewan Agriculture, Food and Rural Revitalization. 2004. Agriculture Statistics 2001.
209
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
210
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
156
166
211
Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives. 2003. 2002 Manitoba Agriculture Yearbook.
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
213
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
214
Marshall, Macklin, Monaghan et al. 2003. Analysis of Agricultural Water Supply Issues - Ontario. Report prepared for
Ag and Agri-Food Canada. March 2003.
215
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Farm Cash Receipts from Farming Operations 1997-2003.
216
de Loë et al. 2003. Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
217
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
218
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
219
BPR Consulting Group. 2003. Analysis of Agricultural Water Supply Issues - Quebec. Report prepared for Ag and AgriFood Canada. March 2003.
220
Agriculture, Pécheries et Alimentation Quebec. 2004. La Production Animale et Végétale. Available at
www.mapaq.gouv.qc.ca
221
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
222
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
223
Nova Scotia Dept of Agriculture and Fisheries. 2002. NS Agricultural Statistics.
224
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
225
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
226
New Brunswick Dept of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2001-2002 Annual Report.
227
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
228
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
229
PEI Agriculture, fisheries and Aquaculture. Farm Income Statistics 2001.
230
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
231
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
232
Newfoundland and Labrador Agrifoods. Statistics. Available at www.gov.nf.ca/agric
233
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
234
Statistics Canada. 2004. Agriculture 2001 Census.
235
Rainbird Corporation. Water Conservation for Farmers, Growers and Agriculture. Available at www.rainbird.com
236
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2003. Irrigation Sustainability – Saskatchewan Activity. Paper prepared by the
Canada-Saskatchewan Irrigation Diversification Centre.
237
Alberta Irrigation Projects Association et al. 2003. Irrigation Water Management Study: Executive Summary.
238
Nelson Irrigation Corp. 2001. Water Application Solutions for Center Pivots. In Irrigazette # 67, Nov/Dec 2001.
239
U.S Dept of Agriculture. 2001. Briefing Room: Irrigation and Water Use Qs and As.
240
Statistics Canada. 2004. 2001 Census of Agriculture-.Data Tables. Available at www.statcan.ca
241
BC Ministry of Agriculture. 2004. Efficient Use of Agricultural Water. (Slide Presentation).
242
BC Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. 2002. Census of Agriculture 2001.
243
BC Ministry Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. 2004. The Importance of Agriculture and Agri-Food to British Columbia.
Available at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/stats
244
BC Ministry of Agriculture and Food. 2000. Irrigation Fact Sheet # 500.100-1.
245
Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. 2004. Alberta Agriculture Statistics Yearbook, 2003.
246
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. circa 2000. Report on the Potential for Irrigation Expansion in Western Canada.
247
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
248
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
249
Saskatchewan Agriculture, Food and Rural Revitalization. 2003. Irrigation in Saskatchewan.
250
Saskatchewan Agriculture, Food and Rural Revitalization. 2004. Agriculture Statistics 2001.
251
Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives. 2003. 2002 Manitoba Agriculture Yearbook.
252
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
253
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
254
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
255
Marshall, Macklin, Monaghan et al. 2003. Analysis of Agricultural Water Supply Issues - Ontario. Report prepared for
Ag and Agri-Food Canada. March 2003.
256
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Farm Cash Receipts from Farming Operations 1997-2003.
257
de Loë et al. 2003. Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
258
BPR Consulting Group. 2003. Analysis of Agricultural Water Supply Issues - Quebec. Report prepared for Ag and AgriFood Canada. March 2003.
259
Agriculture, Pécheries et Alimentation Quebec. 2004. La Production Animale et Végétale. Available at
www.mapaq.gouv.qc.ca
212
167
260
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
262
Nova Scotia Dept of Agriculture and Fisheries. 2002. NS Agricultural Statistics.
263
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
264
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
265
New Brunswick Dept of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2001-2002 Annual Report.
266
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
267
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
268
PEI Agriculture, fisheries and Aquaculture. Farm Income Statistics 2001.
269
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
270
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
271
Newfoundland and Labrador Agrifoods. Statistics. Available at www.gov.nf.ca/agric
272
Environment Canada. See the EC Freshwater Website at www.ec.gc.ca/water.
273
Statistics Canada. 2004. Agriculture 2001 Census.
274
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2003. The Potential for Irrigation Expansion in Western Canada.
275
Ibid.
276
Saskatchewan Agriculture, Food and Rural Revitalization. 2003. Irrigation in Saskatchewan.
277
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2003. Final Report: Analysis of Agricultural Water Supply Issues- National
Summary. May 2003.
278
U.S. Geological Survey. 2004. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.
279
CH2M HILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future: Agriculture
280
U.S. Dept of Agriculture. 1998
281
USDA. Irrigation in the American West: Area, Water and Economic Activity.
282
USDA. Irrigation and Water Use: Questions and Answers
283
Ibid.
284
U.S. Geological Survey. 2004. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.
285
U.S. Dept of Agriculture 2000.
286
Utah State University Extension Service. 2002. Sprinklers, Crop Water Use and Irrigation Time - Uintah and Daggett
Counties.
287
USGS. 2004. Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2002. Fact Sheet #2004-3026.
288
USDA. Irrigation and Water Use: Questions and Answers
289
U.S. Bureau of Census. 1998. 1998 Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey
290
Ibid.
291
Ibid.
292
Ibid.
293
Ibid.
294
Ibid.
295
CH2M HILL. 2003. Water Use in Industries of the Future: Agriculture
296
Australia Bureau of Statistics. 2004. Year Book Australia: Agriculture Crops.
297
Land and Water Australia and NSW Agriculture. 2003. Irrigation Insights #5 - Water Use Efficiency: An Information
Package.
298
Ibid.
299
European Commission. 2004. Agriculture and the Environment: Introduction.
300
Refer to Appendix A.3 - England and Wales.
301
U.K. Environment Agency. 2004. Best Farming Practice: Profiting from a Good Environment.
302
Refer to Appendix A.3 - France
303
European Commission. 2000. The Environmental Impacts of Irrigation in the European Union.
304
Statistics Canada. 2004. Net Cash Receipts.
305
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
306
BC Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. 2002. Census of Agriculture 2001.
307
BC Ministry Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. 2004. The Importance of Agriculture and Agri-Food to British Columbia.
Available at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/stats
308
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
309
Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. 2004. Alberta Agriculture Statistics Yearbook, 2003.
310
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
311
Saskatchewan Agriculture, Food and Rural Revitalization. 2003. Irrigation in Saskatchewan.
312
Saskatchewan Agriculture, Food and Rural Revitalization. 2004. Agriculture Statistics 2001.
261
168
313
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives. 2003. 2002 Manitoba Agriculture Yearbook.
315
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
316
Marshall, Macklin, Monaghan et al. 2003. Analysis of Agricultural Water Supply Issues - Ontario. Report prepared for
Ag and Agri-Food Canada. March 2003.
317
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Farm Cash Receipts from Farming Operations 1997-2003.
318
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
319
de Loë et al. 2003. Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food.
320
BPR Consulting Group. 2003. Analysis of Agricultural Water Supply Issues - Quebec. Report prepared for Ag and AgriFood Canada. March 2003.
321
Agriculture, Pécheries et Alimentation Quebec. 2004. La Production Animale et Végétale. Available at
www.mapaq.gouv.qc.ca
322
Environment Canada. 2002. Industrial Water Use, 1996.
323
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
324
Nova Scotia Dept of Agriculture and Fisheries. 2002. NS Agricultural Statistics.
325
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
326
New Brunswick Dept of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2001-2002 Annual Report.
327
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
328
PEI Agriculture, fisheries and Aquaculture. Farm Income Statistics 2001.
329
CBCL Ltd. 2003. Agricultural Water Supply Issues- Atlantic Provinces. Report prepared for Ag and Agri-Food Canada.
March 2003.
330
Newfoundland and Labrador Agrifoods. Statistics. Available at www.gov.nf.ca/agric
331
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada et al. 1993. Water Management Best Management Practices
332
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Ontario Ministy of Agriculture and Food. 1994. Best Management Practices:
Water Management.
333
Canada Plan Service. 2001. Water Requirements for Poultry. Bulletin #5603
334
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. 1992. Fact Sheet: Water Requirements of Livestock.
335
European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau. 2003. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques
for Intensive Rearing of Poultry and Pigs, July 2003. See www.eippcb.jrc.es
336
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada et al. 1993. Water Management Best Management Practices
337
Golf-Courses.ca. Canada’s Online Golf Course Guide.
338
Massachusetts Dept of Environmental Protection. Golf Course Water Use Policy. Policy # BRP/BWM/PeP-P00-5. June
8, 2000.
339
Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System of Canada. Programs. Available at www.acssc.ca/programs
340
European Golf Association Ecology Unit. 1997. Committed to Green Handbook for Golf Courses. Available at
www.golfecology.com
341
Refer to Appendix A - Manitoba
342
CWWA. As reported in the Water Efficiency Experiences Database
343
Use of Reclaimed Water on Golf Courses.
344
Ibid.
345
Canadian Ski Council. 2004. Facts and Stats 2004.
346
National Ski Areas Association. Sustainable Slopes: The Environmental Charter for Ski Areas.
314
169
APPENDICES
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
A:
Jurisdictional Reviews
B:
Recommended General and Sectoral BMP Guides and Manuals
C:
Suggested Websites
170
APPENDIX A
JURISDICTIONAL REVIEWS
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
A.1:
Canada
A.2:
United States
A.3:
Other Countries
171
APPENDIX A.1 CANADA
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CANADIAN COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE ENVIRONMENT (CCME)
Introduction
The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment is the major intergovernmental forum in Canada for
discussion and joint action on environmental issues of national and international concern. The council is
comprised of 14 environment ministers, one from each of the federal, provincial and territorial governments in
Canada. The objective of the council is to achieve a high level of environmental quality across the country by
means of collective intergovernmental cooperation and the development of nationally consistent environmental
standards, strategies and objectives.
A Deputy Ministers Committee and a full-time Secretariat manage the work of the CCME between annual
meetings of the Council of Ministers. The Secretariat provides support to the Council of Ministers and various
CCME committees. Providing on-going advice to the Deputy Ministers Committee and coordinating specific
CCME projects assigned to intergovernmental task groups, the Environmental Planning and Protection
Committee is a permanent intergovernmental steering committee. Through task groups, CCME members work
cooperatively to achieve specific goals, and to reach consensus on proposed national policies, programs,
standards and guidelines. Over the years the CCME has addressed issues of water use efficiency and
conservation through such task groups. Past and present task group initiatives are identified in the table below.
Water Conservation and Related Initiatives
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Sector(s)
targeted
National Action Plan to Municipal
Encourage Municipal
Water Use Efficiency
(1994)
Water Use Efficiency
Task Group
Analyses of Water
Conservation
Measures and
Economic Instruments
for Water
Conservation (2005)
Provincial and
territorial
governments
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
The action plan offers direction to governments and
recommends what government departments and municipalities
should do to achieve greater water efficiencies and decrease
capital expansion and operating costs. Among other things,
the Action Plan calls for governments to show leadership by
reducing water use in their own facilities, as well as publicly
funded facilities, and to adopt consistent policies, regulations
and codes concerning water efficiency. Implementation of the
plan is promoted by the CWWA.
Work is currently being carried out to develop a comprehensive
source of information on water conservation measures,
relevant to Canadian conditions. It is intended to facilitate
information transfer and sharing of approaches for furthering
conservation objectives in the nation. A second project
analyzing economic instruments for water conservation is also
currently under-way.
Water Conservation
and Economics Task
Group
FEDERAL GOV’T & OTHER NATIONAL INITIATIVES
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Constitution Act
(1867)
Gives direct responsibility for water management on federal lands, in the
territories and on the reserves of Canada’s aboriginal peoples to the federal
government. Provinces are identified as the “owners” of the water resources and
are therefore primarily responsible for their daily management. Other federal
172
International River
Improvements Act
(1955)
Environment
Canada
duties include transboundary management, fisheries and navigation.
Calls for joint consultation between the federal and provincial governments in
matters relating to water resources. Joint projects involve the regulation,
apportionment, monitoring or survey of water resources, and the pre-planning,
planning or implementation of sustainable water resource programs.
Provides for licencing of activities that may alter the flow of rivers flowing into the
United States;
Government
Organization Act
(1979)
International
Boundary Waters
Treaty Act
Environment
Canada
Assigns the national leadership for water management to the Minister of the
Environment
Department of
Foreign Affairs and
International Trade
(DFAIT)
Department of
Fisheries and
Oceans (DFO)
DFO
Prohibits the bulk removal of boundary waters from Canadian Basins for any
purpose, including export.
Canada Water Act
(1970)
Fisheries Act
Navigable Waters
Protection Act
Department of
Indian Affairs and
Northern
Development Act
Nunavut Waters and
Surface Rights
Tribunal Act (2002)
Environment
Canada
(Indian and
Northern Affairs
Canada (INAC)
INAC
INAC
Northwest Territories
Waters Act (1989)
Arctic Waters
Pollution Prevention
Act (1985)
Transport Canada
and INAC
Prohibits dumping of wastes that may obstruct navigation and prohibits
construction in navigable waters.
INAC is responsible for the development, implementation and interpretation of all
legislation and policy relating to its responsibilities for water management in the
Northwest Territories and Nunavut, approving type A licenses, enforcing licensed
operations, and the collection of water data.
This Act clarifies the mandates of the Nunavut Water Board and the Surface
Rights Tribunal, in accordance with the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement and, as
a result, creates legal certainty over the scope of their powers and
responsibilities.
Details how water may be used in the Northwest Territories. Establishes the
NWT Water Board. The board is responsible for granting water use licences in
the NWT, however, the Minister of INAC must give approval for the granting of a
water use licence, with some exceptions.
Introduced to prevent pollution of waters adjacent to the mainland and islands of
the Canadian Arctic.
Transport Canada
Provides for the Governor in Council to make regulations with respect to
prohibiting the discharge from ships of pollutants and prescribing substances and
classes of substances that are pollutants.
INAC
Sets out provisions for the construction, maintenance, operation of crown owned
waterpower projects.
National Office of
Pollution
Prevention
Provides for the protection of the quality of the environment and pollution
prevention through the issuing of regulations, objectives, guidelines and codes of
practice. S. 54(2) of the Act states that these objectives etc., shall relate to: d)
the conservation of natural resources and sustainable development.
Provisions of this Act focus of pollution prevention, release of toxics, air and
water pollution.
Canada Shipping
Act (1985)
Dominion Water
Power Act (1985)
Canadian
Environment
Protection Act
(1999)
Protects fish habitat by prohibiting habitat disturbance and ensures the
construction of a fishway around any obstruction in a waterway.
Policies and Guidelines
Federal Water Policy
(1987)
The policy was formulated after several years of intensive consultation, both
within and outside the government. It addresses the management of water
resources, balancing water uses with the requirements of the many
interrelationships within the ecosystem. The policy takes into account the needs
of all Canadians in its overall objective: to encourage the use of freshwater in an
efficient and equitable manner consistent with the social, economic and
environmental needs of present and future generations.
To manage Canada's water resources, the federal government has defined two
main goals:
To protect and enhance the quality of the water resource; and,
To promote the wise and efficient management and use of water.
Agricultural Policy
Framework
Drafted to better meet today’s challenges, the Agricultural Policy Framework is
composed of five components: business risk management, food safety and food
173
quality, science and innovation, environment and renewal.
In the environmental part of the framework, signatories agree to reduce
agricultural risks and provide benefits to the health and supply of water, with key
priority areas being nutrients, pathogen, pesticides and water conservation. The
Parties also agree to work towards a complete agri-environmental scan of all
farms to identify priority farms and regions requiring corrective action, the
completion and implementation of environmental farm plans.
All provinces and territories have now signed on to the framework and have
signed implementation agreements with the Government of Canada.
Code of
Environmental
Stewardship
Government of
Canada
The code commits the government to sustainable development in all aspects of
its operations and activities. Commitments include but are not limited to: a
commitment to seek cost-effective ways of reducing the input of raw materials,
toxic substances, energy, water and other resources; etc.
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
In this section many initiatives involve federal department/agency partnerships. These initiatives have been
listed under the agency heading the initiative, or considered to be the lead. It should be noted however that in
some cases “the lead” agency was not always apparent. In these cases the initiative is listed under any one of
the partner organizations.
Intergovernmental Working Groups
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Interdepartmental Advisory
Group on Water
Conservation at Federal
Facilities (WCFF)
Federal
government
The long-term goal of the WCFF initiative is the
promotion of water use efficiency within the federal
government by members of the group both individually
and collectively. A major activity of the WCFF Advisory
Group was the development of the Water Conservation
Plan for Federal Government Facilities and the
accompanying Manual for Conducting Water Audits
and Developing Water Efficiency Programs at Federal
Facilities, launched in 1993. Since then, WCFF
members have promoted awareness of water efficiency
through regional briefings, implementation of water
efficient measures, training sessions, exhibits,
publication of case studies and installation of washroom
decals that advise people to save water and to report
leaks. The WCFF was instrumental in amending the
plumbing fixtures section of the National Master
Specifications to reflect water efficiency and including
water in the Federal Buildings Initiative Program. The
WCFF has provided advice to the Auditor General’s
office on performance measures for water efficiency
and to Public Works and Government Services Canada
on the water conservation chapter for the
Environmentally Responsible Construction and
Renovation Handbook. The WCFF is currently helping
the SDGO (see below) EMS Task Group develop and
deliver the water efficiency part of their work plan.
Federal
government
Purpose is to coordinate the federal effort to green
government operations and encourage the report of
concrete results among the departments and agencies
that prepare Sustainable Development Strategies
(SDSs). Water conservation and wastewater
management is one of the 7 priority areas for action.
Departments are encouraged to develop SDSs with
concrete goals and actions to integrate SD into their
policies, programs and operations. Those that prepare
strategies must report on progress in meeting their
commitments annually.
Formed in 1990 to help
deliver the water
conservation requirements
of the Green Plan (no
longer exists) and Code of
Environmental
Stewardship.
Sustainable Development
in Government Operations
Initiative (SDGO)
(Natural Resources
Canada, Environment
Canada, Public Works and
Government Services
Canada)
Results and
Effectiveness
Since 1997, a number
of federal departments
have prepared
Sustainable
Development Strategies
with targets to improve
the government’s
environmental
performance. Some of
these initiatives are
mentioned in the table
below.
174
Environment Canada (EC)
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
All
Maintains Freshwater Website, an on-line information resource
on Canadian water issues, including water conservation and
efficiency. Website offers tips on how to conserve water and a
large number of links to water related publications. Classroom
materials for a variety of different grades are also provided.
Other publications include: a number of water conservation
related fact sheets, a consumer’s guide to water conservation,
a series of Wise Use of Water brochures. A number of waterrelated studies into municipal pricing, economic instruments,
water use in Canada are also provided. Environment Canada
also has a water use database which includes information on
all major water users obtained from national surveys on:
municipal water use, municipal water pricing, industrial water
use. The department is also responsible for the development
of the Water Efficiency Experiences Database (WEED) in
partnership with the Canadian Water and Wastewater
Association;
Currently the branch is working with many different partners in
the area of water conservation and efficiency. For example
the branch is working with the CSA and CMHC to develop a
guideline on the use of recycled household water for toilets;
working with US EPA in the development of a water star label
for water-related consumer products; mapping watersheds
with NRCAN, including the development of an interactive
website; partnering with Infrastructure Canada to influence
criteria for federal financing of the municipal infrastructure
program e.g. requiring monitoring and reporting of water use,
watershed planning etc.; partnering with INAC in the
development of a water audit manual for First Nation reserves.
The Department is also working on a water efficiency plan for
Canada in 2005 in response to a commitment made at WSSD.
ICI
Developed the Canadian Pollution Prevention Information
Clearinghouse featuring over 1000 P2 resources including fact
sheets, case studies etc. The Office has also developed a
series of Pollution Prevention Fact Sheets to help Canadians
implement P2 practices at work, home etc. Water
conservation is discussed in these documents. A Pollution
Prevention Planning Handbook has also been published.
Although the main purpose of the handbook is to help
businesses that manage toxic substances prepare pollution
plans that may be required under CEPA, the book also
discusses opportunities for increased water use efficiency and
conservation. Several Environmental Codes of Practice for
specific industries and chemicals have also been developed.
Codes of Practice for the steel industry target wastewater
reuse and recycling.
Sustainable Water Use
Branch
National Office of
Pollution Prevention
Responsible for the
development and
implementation of
regulations, guidelines,
codes of practice that
target the management of
toxics and other
substances.
Environmental
Economics Branch
Results and
Effectiveness
Engaging with provinces and department partners to restart
Nature survey, to bridge current gaps in nature related
economic data, including for water activities. Current objective
to estimate a national value for water. Pilot projects across
country to be implemented. Other relevant work includes a
study to determine best water pricing practices for
municipalities.
Sources:
Environment Canada. Freshwater Website. Available: http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/e_main.html
Environment Canada. National Office of Pollution Prevention. Available:
http://www.ec.gc.ca/NOPP/EN/index.cfm
175
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
National Water
Supply Expansion
Program
Agriculture
A four year $60 million initiative under the Agricultural Policy
Framework. The objective of the Program is to provide
assistance to the agricultural community across Canada to help
reduce the risk of future water shortages, and to meet the
everyday growing needs of a vibrant Canadian agricultural
sector, through the planning and development of secure, healthy
and reliable water resources. Three tiers of projects are eligible
under the program including: on-farm water infrastructure (like
meters), multi-user water supply projects and strategic initiatives
like groundwater exploration and monitoring etc. Financial
assistance is available. The NWSEP will be implemented in the
agricultural areas of Canada – British Columbia, the Prairies,
Ontario, Quebec, and the Atlantic provinces.
A program to continue building agri-environmental information to
help guide future government policies and programs and to track
environmental performance of Canadian agriculture. The project
builds on previous work that led to the publication in Feb. 2000
of the first comprehensive assessment of Canadian agriculture’s
environmental performance. It involves the development of agrienvironmental indicators. Indicators for water use efficiency are
currently under development.
So far the following
provinces are currently
implementing, or
planning to implement
the program: BC, AB,
SK, MB, NS, PE
Agriculture and
Agri-Food Canada
in partnership with
the provinces
Agriculture
National AgriEnvironmental
Health Analysis
and Reporting
Program
Agriculture
On-line resource providing weekly maps of climate variability
including precipitation/temperature/water supplies etc.,
farm water conservation tips during times of water shortage.
Agriculture
AAFC also conducts research in the area of water management,
water use efficiency and sustainable production systems.
Drought Watch
AAFC Research
Branch
The AAFC plans to
publish an update of its
Feb. 2000 report in
2005.
Sources:
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. National Water Supply Expansion Program. Available:
http://www.agr.gc.ca/env/index_e.php?section=h2o&page=h2o
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. National Agri-Environmental Health Analysis and Reporting Program.
Available: http://www.agr.gc.ca/env/naharp-pnarsa/index_e.php
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Drought Watch. Available:
http://www.agr.gc.ca/pfra/drought/index_e.htm
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. National Science Programs. Available: http://res2.agr.gc.ca/index_e.htm
Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)
CMHC is the Government of Canada’s national housing agency. Responsibilities include developing new ways
to finance home purchases, encouraging innovation in housing design and technology, and helping low income
groups live in affordable housing.
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Canada Mortgage
and Housing
Corporation
(CMHC)
Municipal,
Residential,
ICI
CMHC is a leader in promoting the concept of Healthy Housing,
housing that promotes the health of its occupants while protecting the
environment and maintaining affordability. Water conservation and
efficient use is an important component of this initiative. Water related
projects include: the development of a Household Guide to Water
Efficiency on behalf of Canadian municipalities for distribution to
residential users; research into water efficient toilet performance and
many other water conserving technologies/practices; the development
of water conservation fact sheets; and case studies.
Results and
Effectiveness
Sources:
CMHC. Water Conservation. Available: http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/imquaf/himu/wacon/
Industry Canada (IC)
176
IC works towards a fair, efficient and competitive marketplace, an innovative economy, competitive industry and
sustainable communities.
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Industrial Research
Commercial,
Assistance Program Industrial
-Technology
Partnerships Canada
National Research
Council of Canada
and Industry Canada
Eco-efficiency
Commercial,
industrial
Canadian
Environmental
Solutions
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
Research in the area of industrial water and energy efficiency
technologies and processes is supported primarily by the Federal
government through advisory services and financial assistance.
Through the IRAP-TPC Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are
eligible for up to $3 000 000 in repayable project financing. The
main objective of the program is to increase the technological
competitiveness of Canadian firms. The program emphasizes
advancing unproven technology to the point of performance testing
and the various validation stages prior to commercialization. The
development of technologies resulting in the enhanced
conservation of water is eligible for financing under the
Environmental Technology area of the program (NRC).
IC initiatives relating to water conservation and efficiency include
an eco-efficiency information website featuring industrial case
studies and tools to help businesses develop their own ecoefficiency strategies; eco-efficiency workshops for business (in
partnership with a number of other government/private partners);
links to on-line and other resources addressing eco-efficiency and
cleaner production.
A directory of Canadian companies providing technologies,
products and services to address the environmental challenges
faced by every sector of the economy. Companies that address
water related issues are listed in their own directory
Sources:
National Research Council of Canada. (No date). IRAP/Technology Partnerships Canada. [Online].
Available: http://irap-pari.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/english/iraptpc_e.html
Industry Canada. Eco-efficiency. Available: http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/inee-ee.nsf/en/Home
Industry Canada. Canadian Environmental Solutions – Water. Available: http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/cgibin/sc_coinf/ccc/index_gen/company.pl?lang=e&profileId=1541&tagid=226001
Infrastructure Canada
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
National Guide to
Sustainable Municipal
Infrastructure
(InfraGuide)
Public
A national network of people and of published best practice
documents for use by decision makers and technical
personnel in the public and private sectors. Based on
Canadian experience and research the guide sets out the
best practices to support sustainable municipal infrastructure
decisions and actions in 6 key areas, one of them being
potable water. Documents in this strategic area include one
on Establishing a Metering Plan to Account for Water Use
and Loss, Water Use and Loss in the Water Distribution
System etc.
Municipal
$1 billion of federal financing was announced in 2003 to
support smaller scale municipal infrastructure projects that
improve the quality of life, sustainable development and
economic opportunities of smaller communities. As of Feb.
14 2004 the Govt of Canada commenced negotiations with
provinces, leading to a formal application process
municipalities must follow to apply for the funds. Evaluating
project criteria for water and wastewater infrastructure
projects address water efficiency and conservation, and
include: use of best practices, closed-loop resource
management, is based on a strategy for local water and
Infrastructure Canada in
partnership with the
National Research
Council and the
Federation of Canadian
Municipalities
Municipal Rural
Infrastructure Program
Results and
Effectiveness
So far New
Brunswick, Ontario
and Manitoba have
the program in place.
177
wastewater management providing for long-term
sustainability, involves demand management including water
metering and public education, a sustainable approach to
financing
Infrastructure Canada
Program
Municipal
Launched in 2000 with a budget of $2.05 billion to renew and
build infrastructure in rural and urban municipalities across
Canada. Top priority is green municipal infrastructure.
Priority projects target water and wastewater systems and
water management. Projects underway include water
infrastructure improvement projects, metering projects, etc.
Projects are well
underway across
Canada.
Sources:
Infrastructure Canada. Municipal Rural Infrastructure Program. Available:
http://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/mrif-fimr/index_e.shtml?menu35
MRIF. 2004. Project Business Case Guideline. [Online]. Available: http://www.gnb.ca/0009/0373/0006/0001e.asp
Correctional Services Canada (CSC)
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Environmental
Guidelines – Water
Measurement and
Conservation
Public
In accordance with the Department’s Sustainable Development
Strategy, environmental guidelines for the use of water in all dept.
facilities have been developed. The objective is to implement a system
for the measurement and monitoring of potable water consumed in
institutions. The system will make it possible to: gather, record and
save reliable and auditable data on water; formally manage this
environmental aspect of CSC's Sustainable Development Strategy;
and monitor on an ongoing basis the results and hence environmental
performance.
Results and
Effectiveness
Sources:
Correctional Services of Canada. 2003. Environmental Guidelines Water Measurement and Conservation.
[Online]. Available: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/plcy/cdshtm/318-gl9-cd_e.shtml
Foreign Affairs Canada (FAC)
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Environmental
Management
System (EMS)
Public
FAC is committed to greening its own operations and has developed
an EMS to help do this, in accordance with its Sustainable
Development Strategy. Water conservation and efficiency is a priority
target area. FAC identifies a number of individual and corporate
actions intended to reduce water usage in their operations.
Results and
Effectiveness
Sources:
Foreign Affairs Canada. Greening Operations – Water Usage. Available: http://www.dfaitmaeci.gc.ca/sustain/EnvironMan/system/emp/miscklst/area03-en.asp
National Research Council of Canada (NRC)
The NRC has been active for more than 80 years and is the Government of Canada’s premier organization for
research and development. In addition to the water efficiency initiatives listed in the table below, the Council has
partnered with a number of other departments in the implementation of water conservation and efficiency related
projects. These projects are mentioned throughout this document and include a partnership with Infrastructure
Canada and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities in the development of a National Guide to Sustainable
Municipal Infrastructure (InfraGuide); and a partnership with Industry Canada in the administration of the
Industrial Research Assistance Program -Technology Partnerships Canada.
178
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Institute for
Research in
Construction
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
The institute is a leader in research, technology and innovation for
the Canadian construction industry. Through research and
partnerships the institute works to improve the efficiency and
durability of public infrastructure, among other things. Projects to
improve water mains and sewer pipes have included: leak
detection methods for plastic water distribution pipes, Leakfinder:
a new system for pipeline leak detection, evaluation the
effectiveness of cathodic protection of water mains etc.
Partnerships with
industry and other
interested parties
ensure research
targets industry
needs.
Sources:
NRC of Canada. Institute for Research in Construction. Urban Infrastructure. Available: http://irc.nrccnrc.gc.ca/uir/index.html
Natural Resources Canada
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Office of Energy
Efficiency
Residential,
ICI
Offers many energy-saving tips for using and maintaining
appliances, vehicles and new housing. Water use
efficiency and conservation is an important component of
energy efficiency and specific tips to enhance water use
efficiency in the home and business are identified.
Public
Helps federal departments and agencies reduce energy
and water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
Private sector companies plan and implement costeffective facility upgrades and retrofits. Other levels of
government, institutions and private sector firms also draw
on the FBI's experience for help in designing their own
energy efficiency programs. The program is voluntary.
Federal Buildings
Initiative
Office of Energy
Efficiency in
partnership with
Real Property
Services, PWGSC
Results and
Effectiveness
7000 federal buildings have
already been upgraded,
saving millions of dollars and
reducing the risks related to
climate change.
Sources:
Natural Resources Canada. Office of Energy Efficiency. Available:
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/english/index.cfm?Text=N&PrintView=N
Natural Resources Canada. Office of Energy Efficiency. Federal Buildings Initiative. Available:
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/FBI/home_page.cfm?PrintView=N&Text=Y
Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC)
The Real Property Services Branch of Public Works and Government Services Canada acquires, manages,
operates, maintains, repairs, builds and disposes of federal government department and agency property.
Initiative,
Lead
Agencies
and Partners
Real Property
Services
Branch (RPS)
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
The Branch has developed An Architects Guide for Sustainable Design of
Office Buildings. The guide is directed primarily towards architects engaged
in the renovation of federal facilities. It presents a set of design issues and
strategies in support of RPS commitment to upgrading existing federal
facilities to meet energy and resource use principles. Building water use is
covered in the guide.
An EMS has been prepared to ensure RPS meets its commitments in its
Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS). Within this context several other
projects have been carried out including: the development of a Water Audit
Methodology Protocol and a Water Management Strategy for Property and
Facilities Management. The Protocol defines how water is to be managed
within the inventory and includes guidance on conducting preliminary
evaluations, detailed water audits, work plans, water saving initiatives, and
179
annual monitoring.
Sources:
PWGSC, Real Property Services Branch. 1999. An Architects Guide for Sustainable Design of Office
Buildings. [Online]. Available: http://www.pwgsc.gc.ca/rps/content/publications-e.html
Sectoral Intiatives
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
Audubon Cooperative
Sanctuary Program
for Golf Courses
Golf
courses
Provides comprehensive environmental education and
conservation assistance to golf course superintendents and
industry professionals. Water conservation is a major component
of the program. By completing projects in a number of different
program areas, golf course members become internationally
recognized as a Certified Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary.
45 golf courses in
Canada are
currently certified.
ECOmmodation
Rating Program
Tourism
A graduated rating system designed to recognize hotels, motels
and resorts that are committed to improving their fiscal and
environmental performance. Based on results of an audit, hoteliers
are awarded a 1-5 green key rating and receive guidance on how
to improve environmental performance.
Approx 44
Canadian hoteliers
have received
green-key rating.
Municipal
Represents the common interests of Canada’s municipal water and
wastewater systems. CWWA policy states, “CWWA supports and
encourages the development and implementation of water use,
efficiency and conservation policies and programs by all water
services.” The CWWA assisted in the development of the Water
Efficiency Experience DB in partnership with EC and CMHC and
has just recently published the third edition of its publication
“Maximum Performance, Testing of Popular Toilet Models”. The
CWWA also supports the web-based Water Efficiency Network,
which allows any Canadian having an interest, role or responsibility
in water management or conservation activities to exchange
information on regulatory, policy and performance issues. The
committee has recently announced the establishment of a water
efficiency research fund.
Hotel Association of
Canada (administered
by CH2M Hill)
Canadian Water and
Wastewater
Association (CWWA)
Sources:
Hotel Association of Canada. Available: http://www.hotelassociation.ca/programs/index.html
Canadian Water and Wastewater Association. Available: http://www.cwwa.ca/home_e.asp
PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL INITIATIVES
ALBERTA (AB)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Ninety-eight percent of all water that is allocated in Alberta is from surface water sources. The largest user of
water is the agricultural crop irrigation sector, which accounts for almost 46 per cent of all surface water is used
for agricultural irrigation. Another two per cent is used for livestock operations, growing specialty crops
(greenhouses), and for running farms. Thirteen irrigation districts supply water to irrigate over 500,000 hectares,
and to supply 50 communities with water for domestic uses. All of the irrigation occurs in southern Alberta in the
South Saskatchewan River Basin. Three rivers including the South Saskatchewan, Bow River, and Oldman River
provide the majority of water for this sector.
In 2001, total combined surface and ground water allocations were as follows:
44.8% irrigation
26.2% commercial cooling
11.1% municipal
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6.5% commercial
3.1% water management
8.3% other agriculture, oil and gas, recreation and other sectors.
Water related issues in Alberta include water scarcity in the south, increasing water treatment costs and the
potential for oil sands development leading to massive water needs. The winter, spring and summer of 2001
saw abnormally warm and dry weather conditions across Southern Alberta. In fact, that year the water supply
only met 60% of the rights of its water license holders. Despite significant and successful efforts by government,
industry, municipalities and farmers to share water and enhance efficiency, all reservoirs were nearly empty by
the end of the year.
Sources:
Alberta Environment Water Conservation website. Available:
http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/Conservation/index.cfm
Advisory Committee on Water Use Practice and Policy: Preliminary Report. 2004. [Online]. Available:
http://www.waterforlife.gov.ab.ca/
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Alberta
Environment
This piece of legislation authorizes water takings in the province, replacing
the old 1931 Water Resources Act. In S. 2, the Water Act declares as its
purpose, “the conservation and management of water, including the wise
allocation and use of water…”. According to the Act, farmers diverting less
than 6250 cubic metres of water for the purposes of raising animals or
applying pesticides to crops, statutory household use, fire-fighting, wells
equipped with hand pumps, operating an alternate watering system and
using surface water for livestock that are generally grazed, are exempted
from obtaining a license.
Legislation and Regulations
The Water Act W-3 RSA
2000
Important water conservation and sustainability components in the Act
include:
a) s. 15(1) of the Act states that the Director may establish a Water
Conservation Objective pertaining to the amount and quality of water the
Director deems necessary for the protection of the natural environment,
management of fish and wildlife, protection of other instream uses
b) s. 9. the development of a provincial water management planning
framework to ensure the sustainability of Alberta’s water supply. This
framework will allow for the development of water management plans
addressing local and regional issues.
c) s. 8. The development of a provincial strategy for protecting and
conserving Alberta’s aquatic environments will also be a crucial part of this
framework
Water (Ministerial)
Regulation AR 205/98
Alberta
Environment
Water (Offences and
Penalties) AR 193/98
Water (South Saskatchewan
Basin Water Allocation
Regulation) AR 307/91
Alberta
Environment
Alberta
Environment
The Framework for Water Management Planning and The Strategy for the
Protection of the Aquatic Environment came into effect on January 1, 2002
Applicants for an irrigation approval or licence under the Water Act must
submit an Agricultural Feasibility Report along with their application so that
the Department can assess the suitability of the land for irrigation. The
water requirement, water quality and soil suitability is assessed.
Identifies those activities exempt from licensing and approval processes.
For example, the placing, constructing, installing, maintaining, replacing or
removing of a watercourse crossing, or a telecommunication line crossing,
does not require an approval. However, these activities must be carried
out in accordance with designated Codes of Practice.
Outlines all offences and penalties under the Water Act and its regulations.
This regulation regulates the use of water for irrigation in southern AB,
where it is particularly dry and basin water supplies are almost fully
allocated. The maximum
volume of water that an irrigation district may divert and use under license
is determined by the Controller of Water Resources through this regulation.
As identified in s. 2, this volume is determined in accordance with the
181
following criteria: a) water required at the farms; b) canal losses within the
district; c) evaporation for district reservoirs; d) water flows returning to
rivers. S. 7 also states that, “any licence issued in accordance with this
Regulation may contain conditions limiting the amount of water that may be
diverted and used when necessary to maintain minimum instream flows.”
Minimum flow rates are then listed for the Waterton River, Belly River and
St. Mary River.
Irrigation Districts Act I-11
RSA 2000
Agriculture,
Food and Rural
Development
Municipal Government Act
M-26 RSA 2000
Municipal Affairs
This Act provides for the formation, dissolution and governance of irrigation
districts.
These districts are recognized as independent corporations responsible for
managing the water within them. Districts are licensed with a block of water
and they decide how that water is distributed within the district.
Grants municipalities broad powers to pass and enforce bylaws
Policies and Guidelines
Groundwater Allocation
Policy for Oilfield Injection
Purposes
Alberta
Environment
Underground Water Injection
Guidelines
This policy requires oil and gas operations to investigate alternative
resource recovery methods and alternative sources of water before an
application to use potable groundwater is made. The policy also outlines
quantity limitations and time limit restrictions on water diversions.
To address public concern for the use of water in the oil industry, a multistakeholder Committee on Water Use Policy and Practice was formed to
examine whether changes are needed to improve management of water
related to underground injection. Preliminary guidelines for this
management were drafted in March 2004, with the suggestion that more
time be allotted to the committee for public and stakeholder consultation.
The committee is now reviewing that feedback and preparing its final
recommendations to the Minister of the Environment.
Specific recommendations include, but are not limited to:
The use of water management plans under the Water Act to provide
guidance on the use of water in each basin. These plans could
include conservation objectives.
Applicants for water for underground injection should be required to
identify and assess alternatives to non-saline water sources
Provincial water conservation plan should be established (in line with
Water for Life) identifying potential reductions in use of non-saline
water for all sectors
Research into alternative technologies to reduce the use of non-saline
water sources for underground injection practices should be increased
Guidelines for Groundwater
Diversion For Coalbed
Methane/Natural Gas in Coal
(CBM/NGC) Development
(2004)
Alberta
Environment
Summarizes the rules and processes already in place to guide CBM/NGC
development where non-saline water is involved. Alberta Environment will
consider adjustments or enhancements to these or any regulations relevant
to CBM/NGC development as recommendations come forward from the
current reviewing committee. A water working group was formed as part of
the CBM/NGC review process in March 2004. Based on their
recommendations the Multi-Stakeholder Advisory Committee overseeing
the review is expected to develop final recommendations for submission to
the AB government in November 2004.
Sources:
Backgrounder: Water for Life – Water and Oil. [Online]. Available:
http://www.waterforlife.gov.ab.ca/html/background5.html
Advisory Committee on Water Use Practice and Policy. 2004. Preliminary Report. [Online]. Available:
http://www.waterforlife.gov.ab.ca/index.html
Alberta Environment. Coalbed Methane/Natural Gas in Coal Water Working Group. Available:
http://www.waterforlife.gov.ab.ca/html/coalbed.html
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
Water conservation and water use efficiency has always been an important issue in Southern Alberta, where dry
weather conditions and limited water resources supply the province’s richest agricultural lands. However,
continuing growth in this sector, along with increasing growth in the industrial sector and in the population in
182
general, is causing increased concern for the reliability of this supply. In response to these concerns, the
province of Alberta has recently launched its Water for Life Strategy. Water conservation is one of three
strategic directions the government identifies in the strategy.
Initiative, Lead Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Water for Life: Alberta’s Strategy for
Sustainability
All
The Strategy embraces a new water management
approach and outlines specific strategies and
actions to address issues of unreliable water
supply. It is based on the following commitments to
Albertans
Albertans will be assured their drinking water
is safe.
Albertans will be assured that the province’s
aquatic ecosystems are maintained and
protected.
Albertans will be assured that water is
managed effectively to support sustainable
economic development.
Water conservation is one of three key strategic
directions the government identifies in the strategy,
along with knowledge and research, and
partnerships.
Water conservation outcomes to guide and
measure the success of the strategy in meeting
these goals are identified in the short, medium and
long term (2010/11 to 2013/14). Important
outcomes include the development of watershed
plans, the adoption of best management practices
amongst the various sectors, and an overall
improvement in the efficiency and productivity of
water use in Alberta by 30 % from 2005 levels by
2015. Specific actions related to water conservation
and identified in the strategy include, but are not
limited to the following:
A cross-ministry steering committee
guides strategy development and
implementation.
(Key ministries include:
Environment; Sustainable Resource
Development; Agriculture, Food and
Rural Development;
Health and Wellness;
Innovation and Science;
Community Development; Economic
Development; and
Transportation)
The Strategy is the Government’s
response to recent issues of
fluctuating and unreliable water supply
due to increased population growth,
droughts and agricultural and industrial
development.
Results and
Effectiveness
Short term
Establish a system to monitor and report
actual water use by all sectors on an on-going
basis
Determine and report on the true value of
water in relation to the provincial economy
Complete an evaluation and make
recommendations on the merit of economic
instruments to meet water conservation and
productivity objectives
Establish a public awareness and education
program on water conservation in Alberta
Medium term
Prepare water conservation and productivity
plans for all water using sectors
Implement economic instruments as
necessary to meet water conservation and
productivity objectives
Long term
Establish an on-going monitoring program to
ensure all sectors are achieving water
conservation and productivity objectives
Specific sub-actions relating to each of the above
listed actions are also identified in the strategy.
Alberta Environment Water
Conservation Website
(Alberta Environment)
All
Outlines a number of water conservation activities
that can be applied in the residential, ICI and
agricultural sectors, in addition to various other
resources.
Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural
Agriculture
The Irrigation Branch offers a broad range of
183
Development; Irrigation Branch
engineering, water management and agronomic
services to irrigation producers and the irrigation
industry. The Branch carries out a wide variety of
research, demonstration and extension activities
directly related to irrigation within southern Alberta.
The areas of direct responsibility are: producer and
industry consultation, research, planning and
development, demonstrations and education on
matters relating to irrigated agriculture.
Extension services to irrigators concerning the
efficient and best use of water are also offered.
Research is currently going on in the area of water
flow devices. The Department held a
demonstration field day for the irrigation industry
recently (2004) as part of a current program
demonstrating and testing water measurement and
flow systems. The field day was intended to
demonstrate new best technologies, as well as not
so good technologies.
Agriculture Drought Risk Management
Plan for Alberta
Agriculture
(Alberta Drought Management
Committee – made up of
representatives from Alberta
Environment, Prairie Farm
Rehabilitation Administration,
Agriculture Financial Services Corp.,
Alberta Agriculture; other involved
parties include the agencies
mentioned above, municipal councils
and industry associations)
Actions taken under the plan depend on the level of
drought – normal, drought alert and drought.
During dry conditions, members of the affected
municipalities and industry associations are invited
to assist in the identification of suitable response
options based on a Response Toolbox of possible
actions. Under normal conditions, partner agencies
monitor and report water conditions, package and
deliver information on drought preparedness to
producers, etc.
Sources:
Alberta Environment. 2003. Water for Life: Alberta’s Strategy for Sustainability. [Online]. Available:
http://www.waterforlife.gov.ab.ca/docs/strategyNov03.pdf
Alberta Environment. Water Conservation website. Available:
http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/Conservation/index.cfm
Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Alberta Environment and Agriculture and Agri-Food
Canada. 2002. Agriculture Drought Risk Management Plan for Alberta. [Online]. Available:
http://agapps16.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/ppe3883?OpenDocument
Municipal and Regional
Municipal water efficiency initiatives for the larger cities in Alberta, including Calgary with a population of 922,315
(2003 Civic Census) and Edmonton, population 946,840 (2003 official population list, Alberta Municipal Affairs)
are very comparable to those implemented in similar sized cities in the rest of the nation (e.g. Toronto, Ontario).
Universal metering is the norm with public awareness campaigns; retrofit programs, watering restrictions and
network maintenance programs. The programs for both of these cities are detailed below. In contrast to these
larger cities, initiatives in the Town of Strathmore, population 8,640 (2003 official population list, Alberta
Municipal Affairs) are also detailed. Epcor is a company owned by the City of Edmonton that provides water
services to Edmonton and surrounding municipalities, including the Town of Strathmore.
Municipality
or Region
Target
Sector
Description
City of Calgary
Residential,
ICI, public
Current program initiatives include:
Residential toilet replacement program
Subsidized indoor and outdoor water
saver kits for sale
Waterwise educational TV
commercials
The passing of a by-law in 2002
requiring that all homes are metered by
2014
Detecting and repairing leaks in
Results and Effectiveness
Estimated savings of 3 million L/day
Leak reduction program resulted in an
estimated saving of 400 000 bathtubs of water
184
underground pipes
Town of
Strathmore
Non-potable
irrigation
system
Municipal
City of
Edmonton
All
ICI water use study to better design
water conservation and efficiency
programs
Water conservation and efficiency
information specific to a number of
different businesses, on website
Water efficiency school program for
grades 4-9
Community school programs
Team Water Wise to address outdoor
water inefficiencies in all sectors
through education
Mandatory watering restrictions during
times of water shortage
Waterways newsletter
Water efficient fixtures by-law
A non-potable system for lawn irrigation has
been in place for many years. The system
delivers non-potable water to residential
customers from irrigation ditches passing
near to the town. Developers of new homes
are required to install pipes to new lots. The
homeowner pays a flat rate for the use of
this water.
Epcor initiatives include those identified
below for Edmonton.
Current initiatives include:
Universal water metering
2-part rates structures including a fixed
monthly service charge and a variable
charge based on consumption
(inclining block rate for res, declining
for comm.)
Subsidized sale of rain barrels
Water reuse at gold bar wastewater
treatment plant
Epcor voluntary odd-even watering
program
Epcor online home water audit
Epcor public awareness via classroom
programs (grades 1-6), internet, radio
Epcor residential and commercial
water efficiency guides and advice on
website
Epcor water efficiency coordinator
Epcor water restriction measures
during times of water shortage
Epcor network maintenance program
including meter maintenance, unidirectional flushing, leak detection,
routine maintenance of main valves
and curb service valves, cast iron pipe
and line replacement program,
corrosion control anode inspection and
replacement program
a day in 2003.
Savings are significant during the summer
months.
Maintenance program has resulted in an
overall decrease in UAW to less than 5% of
total production. The cast iron water main
replacement program in particular has
reduced the number of annual main breaks
from 1,600 per year in the mid 1980s to 500
per year, and has achieved a repair rate of
94% of main breaks within 24 hours.
Sources:
City of Calgary Waterworks. Available: http://www.calgary.ca
Epcor. Available: http://www.epcor.ca/default.htm
Roach, R., Huynh, V. and S. Dobson. 2004. Drop by Drop: Urban Water Conservation Practices in Western
Canada. [Online]. Available: http://www.cwf.ca
CWWA – Water Efficiency Experience Database. Strathmore, AB: Non-potable water system for lawn
watering. Available: http://www.cwwa.ca/WEED/Record_e.asp?ID=219
Sectoral
185
Initiative, Lead Target
Agencies and Sector
Partners
Description
Alberta
Environment
Farm Plan
(Funded by
Alberta
Agriculture, the
Federal
government and
others)
Agriculture
The Alberta Environmental Farm Plan (AEFP) is a nonprofit company that helps farmers and ranchers identify
environmental opportunities and challenges on their own
land. AEFP was created in April 2002 because Alberta
producers identified the need for delivery of an
environmental farm plan program that was not 100%
owned and operated by the government. AEFP is
comprised of a team of industry, government and other
stakeholders working together to develop and implement
the program. The company has a nine-member board of
directors and four staff. A worksheet on irrigation
management assists farmers in assessing and
improving the efficiency of water for irrigation on the
farm.
Alberta Irrigation
Projects
Association
(AIPA)
Agriculture
AIPA represents Alberta’s irrigation districts in
government forum. Main activities include education
and outreach, policy development and research
activities. Research to improve the efficiency of water
use is on-going, and includes studies to improve
automated controls, new water control devices and
enhanced monitoring equipment.
Results and Effectiveness
This research has contributed to
a reduction in irrigation water use
per hectare by one-third, from 15
years ago. Almost 2/3 of all land
irrigated in S. Alberta is watered
under low-pressure pivots.
Sources:
Alberta Environmental Farm Plan. [Online]. Available: http://www.albertaefp.ca/index.shtml
Alberta Irrigation Projects Association. Available:
Hill, D. 2004. Every Drop Counts. In Corporate Knights – Waterlution Special Water Issue. [Online].
Available: http://www.corporateknights.ca/water/03.pdf
BRITISH COLUMBIA (BC)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
In 2003, a significant drought affecting southern British Columbia reduced water flow in many streams and rivers
to historic lows. A survey of water purveyors in September 2003 indicated that 2.2 million people were affected
by the drought, 84 water systems were under stress and 43 systems were expected to be under stress in spring
2004.
Currently, over 17% of surface water sources have reached or are nearing their capacity to reliably supply water
in a normal year. Observation wells indicate that groundwater levels are declining in some areas of the province.
Most of the surface water allocated in the province is for the non-consumptive uses of water for power production
and storage for power production. Agricultural, commercial, industrial and drinking water uses, together use only
3% of water licensed in British Columbia. Water use by sector is as follows:
22% for agricultural purposes
47% for industrial/commercial purposes
31% for drinking water purposes
Statistics for the Georgia Basin (where 74% of BC’s population is located and where 75% of the municipal water
in 1999 was consumed) indicate the following:
65% of municipal water is used for residential purposes
20% for commercial purposes
8% for industrial purposes
7% for other purposes
In addition, the average British Columbian uses 440 litres of water/day (Canadian average is 326 L/day).
Sources:
186
Environment Canada. Water Use and Wastewater in the Georgia Basin. Available.
http://www.ecoinfo.ec.gc.ca/env_ind/region/wateruse/gbwateruse_e.cfm. Last updated: Feb. 20 2004
BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2000. Environmental Indicator 2000: Water Use in British
Columbia. [Online]. Available: http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/soerpt/files_to_link/2000tecdocs/09-water-usetechdoc.pdf
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Water Act (1996),
Parts 2 and 3 (under
Water Act consolidation,
effective Nov 1, 2004)
Ministry of Land,
Water and Air
Protection
(MLWAP)
Part 2 (Licensing, Diversion and Use of Water and Related Matters) and
Part 3 (Water Users' Communities) regulate the diversion, use and storage
of surface water through a comprehensive licensing system. All surface
water uses must be licensed or approved. The system is based on a “first in
line, first in right” principle (i.e., holders of older licenses have precedence if
water becomes scarce).
For any new water licence application with a proposed diversion rate of
over 25,000 gallons per day (1.32 litres per second), a Development Plan
must be completed. Water recycling and conservation measures should be
documented, along with a description of how water flow will be monitored.
Land and Water BC Inc. (LWBC), a government corporation, is responsible
for some water inventory work, assessing water availability for allocation
purposes, allocation decisions and regulation and enforcement of licenses.
Water Act,
Part 4
Ministry of
Sustainable
Resource
Management
(MSRM)
Water Act,
Part 5
MWLAP
Groundwater Protection
Regulation under Water
Act (enacted July 2004;
in force November 2004)
MWLAP
Water Protection Act
(1995)
MWLAP
Part 4 of the Water Act (Water Management Plans) provides for solutionoriented, legally binding water management plans. Plans are tailored to
addressing local issues and could thus deal with water use efficiency.
The Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management (MSRM) & the Ministry
of Water, Land & Air Protection (MWLAP) are responsible for administering
Part 4.
Part 5 of the Water Act provides for protection of wells and groundwater.
Part 5 came into force November 1, 2004 and is largely enabling. Initial
provisions of the Groundwater Protection Regulation (see below), which are
currently being implemented, focus on standards for well construction and
qualification requirements for well drillers & pump installers.
MWLAP is responsible for administering Part 5.
S.3 of the Groundwater Protection Regulation states that its purpose is:
To set out minimum standards for construction, identification, reporting
on, testing, maintenance, alteration & closure of wells;
To safeguard & maintain the integrity of groundwater;
To promote the efficient use of groundwater; and,
To require that activities related to well water and groundwater are
undertaken in an environmentally safe manner, which precludes a
contaminant entering the groundwater and protects human health and
safety.
The WPA prohibits bulk removal of water from BC, and prohibits diversion
of water between major watersheds in BC. It also reconfirms that the
Province owns the surface water and groundwater in British Columbia
(except in so far as private rights have been established) and has the right
to ensure its protection and sustainable use.
The BC Environmental Assessment Act requires that certain types of
project proposals undergo an environmental assessment and obtain an
environmental assessment certificate in order to proceed. For example,
new or modified facilities designed to extract groundwater at a rate of 75
litres or more per second may be reviewable under EMA. Water diversion
projects permitted under the Water Act to divert water at a maximum rate of
>10 million m3/year may be reviewable under EMA.
In June 2002, an Action Plan for safe drinking water was announced to
modernize drinking-water protection in British Columbia. An amended
Drinking Water Protection Act and regulations came into force in May 2003,
replacing the Safe Drinking Water Regulation under the Health Act.
Under the new drinking water legislation, the province has increased the
basic expectations around assessing water systems, certifying operators
and suppliers, and monitoring and reporting on water quality. The legislation
gives drinking-water officers increased powers to protect water sources
from contamination by any drinking-water health hazard.
In addition, drinking-water officers will oversee a source-to-tap assessment
Environmental
Assessment Act (2002)
Drinking Water
Protection Act
(2001)
Ministry of Health
Services (MHS)
187
Fish Protection Act
(1997)
(S. 8-11 are not in force)
MSRM (except for
S.12)
MWLAP (S.12)
Sensitive Streams
Designation Regulation
(Mar 2000)
under Fish Protection Act
and Water Act
Land & Water
British Columbia
Inc. (LWBC)
Streamside Protection
Regulation under Fish
Protection Act
S. 12
Riparian Areas
Regulation under Fish
Protection Act (deferred
to Mar 31’05)
Water Conservation
Plumbing Regulation
Ministry of
Community,
Aboriginal and
Women's Services
(MCAWS)
Municipal Sewage
Regulation (1999) under
Environmental
Management Act
MWLAP
of every drinking-water system in the province to address all potential risks
to human health. The drinking water officer may order the water supplier to
prepare an assessment response plan if an assessment has identified
threats to the drinking water. An assessment response plan may include
provisions for best management and conservation practices, and
infrastructure improvement.
The Fish Protection Act has four major objectives:
Ensuring sufficient water for fish;
Protecting and restoring fish habitat;
Improving riparian (streamside) protection and enhancement; and
Giving local government greater powers for environmental planning.
When the FPA was passed in July 1997, only one major section (prohibiting
the construction of new dams on 14 rivers) was brought into force. In March
2000, Sections 6 and 7 (Sensitive Streams and Recovery Plans) were
brought into force along with the Sensitive Streams Designation (see below)
and Licensing Regulations.
The remaining sections of the Act will come into effect over the next few
years as supporting regulations, policies and procedures are developed.
These include:
S.8 provides for the issuance of streamflow protection licenses;
S.9 allows orders for temporary reduction in water use in cases of
drought;
S.10 identifies fish and fish habitat considerations in water
management plans (e.g., a plan could identify water use efficiency
measures to provide additional water for fish and fish habitat);
S.11 authorizes reduction of water rights in accordance with water
management plan;
S.12 covers provincial directives on streamside protection (see below).
S.6 of the Fish Protection Act allows the designation of a sensitive stream
to protect a fish population at risk because of inadequate water flow or
degradation of fish habitat. To address this the Sensitive Streams
Designation Regulation was developed. Sections relevant to water
conservation include the following:
S.5 of the Sensitive Streams Designation Regulation provides authority to
require water licence applicants to provide information such as seasonal
distribution of water demand, and any specific water conservation
measures the applicant will use to minimize use of water.
S.7 of the Sensitive Streams Designation Regulation provides authority to
require information on proposed project mitigation strategies (including but
not limited to water use metering and water conservation measures).
The Streamside Protection Regulation (enacted under S.12 of the Fish
Protection Act but not in force) protects streamside areas so they can
provide natural features, functions & conditions, including those that
maintain sustained water flows during low flow periods.
The Riparian Areas Regulation (enacted under S.12 of the Fish Protection
Act in July 2004 and intended to replace the Streamside Protection
Regulation) calls on local governments to protect riparian areas during
residential, commercial and industrial development by ensuring that
proposed activities are subject to an assessment.
The provincial Water Conservation Plumbing Regulation has been
amended to require the installation of low consumption (6 litre) toilets in the
Capital Regional District (CRD), which is piloting the regulation in BC.
Effective January 1, 2005, low consumption toilets must be installed in new
construction and renovations throughout the CRD. Other local governments
that would like to apply the requirement for low consumption toilets in their
jurisdictions may express their interest to the Ministry of Community,
Aboriginal and Women’s Services’ (MCAWS).
The Municipal Sewage Regulation, which became effective in July 1999,
encourages the use of reclaimed water. The Regulation identifies the
permitted non-potable uses of reclaimed water as well as treatment and
infrastructure requirements, effluent quality and monitoring requirements. A
code of practice for the use of reclaimed water was produced in 2001 as a
companion document to the Regulation.
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
188
Water conservation as a provincial issue has been on the table in British Columbia for over a decade. In 1993 a
consultation series (Stewardship of the Water of BC) including a separate discussion paper on water
conservation was developed. Fifteen actions for the conservation and efficient use of BC waters were proposed.
Following up on this initiative, a Water Conservation Strategy for British Columbia was introduced in 1998. The
strategy aimed to promote water conservation measures that could be adopted by water purveyors, local
governments and users across the province. It identified 10 strategic directions and 20 actions for
implementation ranging from public education to regulatory measures such as watering restrictions etc. As part
of the Strategy, a Water Use Efficiency Catalogue was developed that compiled water conservation strategies
implemented or ongoing throughout BC and identified the lead agencies and partners. In 1999, a Freshwater
Strategy for British Columbia was proposed in 1999. The Strategy provided an overview of accomplishments,
future directions, key challenges and priority actions for water management in BC. Water conservation was a key
component of the strategy. Current initiatives relating to water conservation in the province are outlined below.
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
Water Sustainability
Action Plan for British
Columbia (2004)
All
Builds upon the Water Conservation Strategy
for British Columbia that was introduced by the
same Ministry in 1998.
The goal of the new Plan is to encourage
province-wide implementation of fully integrated
water sustainability policies, plans and
programs. The Action Plan comprises 6
elements that link water management with land
use, development and resource protection. Its
implementation will depend upon financial
support from both the government and the
private sector. Action Plan elements are as
follows: water sustainability website, water save
tool kit for BC, water sustainability round table,
green infrastructure partnership to develop a
“best practice” Model Subdivision Bylaw and
Green Infrastructure Standards, water balance
model for BC and a watershed/landscape-based
approach to community planning.
A provincial focus group session has
already taken place to ensure that the
water save tool kit will meet the
needs of all stakeholders and to
brainstorm around tool kit content,
presentation, design etc.
(Water Sustainability
Committee of the BC
Water and Waste
Association in
partnership with the
Ministry of Water,
Land and Air
Protection)
Drought Management All
Action Plan (2003)
(Ministry of
Sustainable
Resource
Management)
Dealing with Drought
Planning Assistance
Program
Municipal,
water
purveyors
(Land and Water BC
Inc.)
Pollution Prevention
Planning
(Ministry of Water,
Land and Air
Protection)
Industry
Contains immediate, short, medium and longterm drought management measures.
Initiated in response to 2003 drought conditions.
Applications for funding assistance from local
water suppliers interested in assessing,
mitigating and responding to drought conditions
through the development and implementation of
drought management and water conservation
plans and bylaws, are currently being accepted
by the provincial govt. $2 M in funding is
available for this. A handbook for water
suppliers, containing templates for processes
and plans related to drought management,
including water conservation and drought
management plans, example bylaws and
guidelines for establishing local drought
management teams, is also available. Eligible
applicants are local governments and
improvement districts that are water suppliers.
Instigated by the BC government, in 2001 the
Pollution Prevention Planning Implementation
Advisory Committee, made up of a variety of
different stakeholders, published its final
recommendations concerning the development
The water sustainability website is
currently under development with a
public launch anticipated in early
2005.
The Water Balance Model for BC has
also already been developed through
an inter-governmental partnership.
An Outreach and Continuing
Education Program to create
momentum and stakeholder support
for the use of the model as standard
practice in land development
decisions is currently underway.
Funding is required for further
technical enhancements.
Measures completed to date include:
assisting communities in developing
emergency response plans,
encourage demand management by
water purveyors, develop provincial
drought management plan etc
Workshops providing an overview of
how to develop these sorts of plans
were offered to local water suppliers
who had received grants in
July/August 2004. Application
deadline is December 31 2004.
189
of pollution prevention planning for large
industry in BC. The report examines and
addresses a broad range of issues including
emissions and discharges, toxic substances,
energy use, water use, material efficiencies,
odour and noise. Several different approaches
to P2 implementation are presented, from a
government driven to business driven approach.
However, in all approaches, the planning
process is strictly voluntary amongst industry.
Initiated by the
Ministry of WLAP
upon completion of a
pollution prevention
demonstration project
with several other
large industries in
1996.
(Ministry of
Agriculture and Food)
Agriculture
In recent years the Ministry has developed
several manuals and guides concerning water
use efficiency and conservation in irrigation
practices, including:
BC Trickle Irrigation Design Manual
Irrigation Scheduling Guide
Sources:
http://www.qp.gov.bc.ca/statreg/reg/W/WasteMgmt/129_99.htm
1998. A Water Conservation Strategy for British Columbia. [Online]. Available:
http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wat/wtr_cons_strategy/toc.html
Water Sustainability Committee of the BCWWA. 2004. Water Sustainability Action Plan for British Columbia:
Framework for Building Partnerships.
http://www.waterbucket.ca/waterbucket/dynamicImages/386_WaterSustainabilityActionPlanforBC.pdf
Pollution Prevention Implementation Advisory Committee. 2001. Recommendations for Implementing
Pollution Prevention Planning for Large Industry in British Columbia. [Online]. Available:
http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/epd/epdpa/industrial_waste/pollution_prvntn/P2IACReportFinal1.pdf
Water Balance Model for British Columbia.
http://www.waterbalance.ca/waterbalance/home/wbnBCIndex.asp
Municipal and Regional
The City of Kamloops WaterSmart Program has been hailed as a provincial leader in the non-metering approach
to water efficiency. In the table below, this program is contrasted with current water conservation initiatives in the
Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). With a population greater than 2 million, the GVRD has many
times the 92, 459 inhabitants of Kamloops. The Greater Vancouver Regional District is a partnership of 21
municipalities and one electoral area that make up the metropolitan area of Greater Vancouver. The GVRD is
responsible for the delivery of essential services like drinking water, waste water treatment etc. in a manner that
makes it more efficient and economical than the delivery of these services by the individual municipalities.
Municipality or
Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
City of Kamloops
Residential
Kamloops set the objectives of reducing
peak period water consumption by 10
percent between 1992 and 1996, and
15 percent from 1997 on.
The program has proven to be effective,
reducing average water consumption during
peak summer months by 21%. $100,000 per
year in electricity costs was saved from
reduced pumping of water. $500,000 was
saved annually in deferred interest charges.
Each summer the program paid for itself
within the first month, and generated an
annual return on investment of over 500
percent.
In 2003, the Watersmart message was
delivered to more than 2500 students by the
two educational programs.
WaterSmart
Program
Launched in 1992
to delay
expansion of the
city pumping
facility
Components of the program include:
A WaterSmart bike team available
to visit elementary classrooms and
to enforce watering bylaws
An Aquanomics course providing
students with both environmental
and economic reasons to conserve
water. Available to grades 4-7.
Compulsory water use restrictions
between May – August
Demonstration Xeriscape garden
and free workshops
In 2001 the City also instigated research
into the effectiveness of universal water
metering for Kamloops. The Water
Use Efficiency Committee determined
that universal water metering is the
single most cost-effective method of
On October 15 2001 universal metering was
defeated in a referendum. Residents will be
footing a bill for an estimated $9 million in
added construction costs for larger water
treatment facilities and operating costs.
190
Greater
Vancouver
Regional District
Residential,
commercial,
institutional,
industry
achieving more efficient water use in
Kamloops.
Water conservation initiatives in the
GVRD include the following:
Conservation information targeting
residents on website
Water restrictions between June –
October
A SmartSteps program to help
businesses improve the efficiency
of energy, water and material use.
A website provides information and
technical advisors are available to
guide business through the
program
A BuildSmart program providing
information and resources to the
design and construction community
on green building. Water efficiency
is an important element of the
program.
Since the implementation of sprinkling
regulations in 1993, water consumption in the
region has decreased on average by 15 per
cent, with peak usage declining by 25 per
cent.
Sources:
City of Kamloops. WaterSmart Program. Available: http://www.city.kamloops.bc.ca/environment/index.html
Greater Vancouver Regional District. Water Conservation. Available:
http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/water/conservation.htm
Greater Vancouver Regional District. SmartSteps Program. Available: http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/smartsteps
Greater Vancouver Regional District. BuildSmart Program. Available:
http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/buildsmart/index.htm
MANITOBA (MB)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Manitoba is blessed with an abundant amount of both surface and ground waters; however, water supply
constraints do exist in some parts of the province. Groundwater is the main source of water supply for much of
rural Manitoba.
The statistics below represent proportional ground and surface water allocations (excluding hydropower) in the
province. Water usage is measured via a number of sources and work is currently underway to consolidate the
system of measurement.
City of Winnipeg - 28% of total provincial withdrawals
Irrigation - 24%
Municipal supplies - 22%
Industrial - 18%
Other - 6%
Other agricultural - 2%
According the Environment Canada Municipal Water Use Database, mean per capita water use in Manitoba is
estimated at 249 L/day.
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
The Water Rights Act
Manitoba
Water
Stewardship
States that all users of water, except domestic users of less than 25 000 l/day,
require a license to use water. Priorities to water use are also outlined in the Act.
The Water Licensing Branch within the Department of Manitoba Water
Stewardship is in charge of granting licenses. The Department of Water
191
Stewardship is the primary water planning and management authority in the
province.
Manitoba
Water
Stewardship
Sets out the fees payable according to license type. S. 8 of the regulation
requires all license holders to keep records of water use on a form approved by
the Minister. All licenses require water users to report water use on an annual
basis. The majority of all current users have a monitoring and reporting condition
attached to their license. In addition, point-of-use monitoring is widespread in
Manitoba.
Manitoba
Water
Stewardship
Forbids the removal of water from a water basin or sub-water basin in Manitoba,
except in special circumstances (i.e. in containers less than 25L, for use in a
product etc.).
The Water Protection Act Manitoba
Water
(proposed)
Stewardship
Focus of this act is the entrenchment of water quality standards, objectives and
guidelines into legislation. It proposes the establishment of water quality
management zones and watershed planning authorities to develop watershed
management plans. Municipal councils would be required to consider water
management plans and water management zones in making planning and
development decisions. As stated in s. 16 of the Act concerning the content of a
watershed management plan, a plan must contain objectives, policies and
recommendations concerning some or all of the following (only direct
conservation ones listed here):
The protection, conservation or restoration of water, aquatic ecosystems
and drinking water sources,
Water demand management, water use practices and priorities, the
conservation of water supplies, and the reduction of water use and
consumption during droughts and other periods of water shortage,
The promotion of water conservation is an important component of the Act. As
stated in s. 10 of the Act, regulations establishing water conservation programs
and/or generally respecting the reduction of water usage in Manitoba are
allowed.
The proposed act also identifies the establishment of a Water Stewardship Fund
that would be used to finance research, projects and activities in support of the
act, as well as the development of watershed management plans and water
conservation programs. The legislature is expected to vote on the Act before the
end of 2004.
The Water Rights
Regulation 126/87 under
the Water Rights Act
The Water Resources
Conservation and
Protection Act (2000)
The Conservation
Districts Act (1998)
Manitoba
Water
Stewardship
The Conservation Districts Act in Manitoba authorizes the creation of
Conservation Districts to provide for the conservation, control and prudent use of
resources. Conservation Districts are groups of neighbouring rural municipalities
whose boundaries are usually defined based on the watershed or drainage basin
of the major river in the area. In partnership with the Province of Manitoba, these
districts work to develop programs to effectively manage the natural resources of
the area. Programs can be designed specifically to meet the needs of the
district. Potential program areas might include water management and or
conservation. Currently there are 16 districts in Manitoba making up over 60% of
agro-Manitoba.
The Sustainable
Development Act (1998)
Manitoba
Conservation
The Environment Act
Manitoba
Conservation
The Water Power Act
Manitoba
Water
Stewardship
Manitoba
Water
Stewardship
The Sustainable Development Innovation Fund, originally created in 1989, was
officially continued under the Sustainable Development Act of 1998. The fund
provides grants in support of innovative projects, activities, research and
developments that further the sustainability of Manitoba’s environment,
economy, human health, and social well-being and supports sustainable
economic growth. One of the nine priority areas is that of water. The focus for
this priority area is on initiatives that protect water quality, promote wise and
efficient use of water, and conserve water. Revenue for the fund is derived from
an environmental protection tax applied to glass liquor bottles and disposable
diapers.
Provides licensing authority, a framework for assessment, as well as
comprehensive tools to protect, maintain, and restore the quality of all
environmental components, including water. Users of any type whom divert less
than the threshold amounts described in Manitoba Regulation 164/88 of the
Environment Act do not require an Environment Act License.
Establishes provincial ownership of all provincial water powers.
The Water Resources
Administration Act
Sets out responsibility for the provincial waterway system, designated flood
areas, and all water control works.
192
Policies and Guidelines
Applying Manitoba’s
Water Policies (1990)
Outlines the overarching
water resource
management policies of
the provincial
government
The Sustainable
Development Act (1998)
Manitoba
Conservation
Conservation Policy Objective: To conserve and manage the lakes, rivers and
wetlands of Manitoba so as to protect the ability of the environment to sustain life
and provide environmental, economic, and aesthetic benefits to existing and
future generations.
Policy 4.1 of the Manitoba Water Policies associated with the issue of Water
Supply states, “Demand management programs shall be implemented to
conserve water and reduce the requirements for new water supply infrastructure”
The policy also states that the following actions will be pursued by the provincial
government:
The development of municipal water use rate structure options
The promotion of municipal rate structures that support water conservation
The development and maintenance of water source and use monitoring
networks
Encourage extensive metering of water supply systems
Explore and promote water conservation technology etc.
Under this Act, several principles and guidelines relating to the use of Manitoba’s
natural resources are specified. These include:
Principle: Conservation and Enhancement
Manitobans should
(a) Maintain the ecological processes, biological diversity and life-support
systems of the environment;
(b) Harvest renewable resources on a sustainable yield basis;
(c) Make wise and efficient use of renewable and non-renewable resources; and
(d) Enhance the long-term productive capability, quality and capacity of natural
ecosystems.
Continued
Guidelines for Sustainable Development
Efficient Use of Resources - which means
(a) Encouraging and facilitating development and application of systems for
proper resource pricing, demand management and resource allocation together
with incentives to encourage efficient use of resources; and
(b) Employing full-cost accounting to provide better information for decision
makers.
Continued
Sources:
Manitoba government. 2004. Province proposes legislative action to protect Manitoba’s water supply. News
release. [Online]. Available: http://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/press/top/2004/03/2004-03-04-03.html
Bill 22, Water Protection Act. [Online]. Available: http://web2.gov.mb.ca/bills/sess/b022e.php
Manitoba Department of Water Stewardship. Conservation Districts. [Online]. Available:
http://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardship/mwsb/cd/index.html
Manitoba Conservation, Pollution Prevention Branch. Sustainable Development Innovation Fund. Available:
http://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/pollutionprevention/sdif/index.html
Sustainable Development Act. [Online]. Available: http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/s270e.php
Applying Manitoba’s Water Policies. [Online]. Available:
http://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/watres/leg_&_policies.html
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
The Manitoba Water
Strategy (2003)
All
Concerning water conservation, initiatives of today and tomorrow
are outlined in the strategy. Future conservation activities shall
include the continued development of appropriate education,
financial instruments and taxation incentives to encourage
Results and
Effectiveness
193
conservation objectives, the development of a watershed
planning framework and guidelines that have conservation as a
priority, plus more.
Water Efficiency
Program
(Manitoba
Conservation,
Pollution Prevention
Branch)
All
The objective of this program is to promote water efficiency
amongst Manitobans. The program website provides
suggestions for how to reduce water usage and consumption.
The Sustainable
Development
Innovations Fund
(Manitoba
Conservation)
Municipal,
water
purveyors,
commercial,
institutional
The Sustainable Development Innovations Fund of Manitoba
Conservation partnered with the Association of Manitoba
Municipalities to develop and publish booklets that give specific
water use efficiency suggestions to municipalities, water plant
operators, small hotels and motels and schools. These guides
can be found online at the following address:
http://www.amm.mb.ca/res_tools.html.
Covering New Ground is a recent government program aiming to
provide producer groups and commodity organizations with
financial and technical support to projects seeking solutions to
environmental challenges. Most CNG demonstration projects
explore on-farm practices in three main areas: forage and
livestock; crop management, and integrated pest management.
Regional delivery teams set program priorities for the various
regions. Water quantity is a priority in some of the regions
identified.
Manitoba Conservation and Manitoba Water Stewardship are
currently developing a “Wise Use of Water” public discussion
piece suggesting work in the areas of water data; identifying,
assessing and prioritizing approaches; integration of efficiency
into codes, standards, funding etc.; tightening water distribution
systems; water charges and fees; education; and partnerships.
Once issued, public consultations on these issues will be held. A
follow-up scientific research based document to this process is
also planned. The purpose of the document is to identify water
use by sector and withdrawal, to analyze the cost/benefit of
various options promoting water use efficiency, and to identify
appropriate policy changes for Manitoba. This document will be
updated every 3 years.
Agriculture
Covering New
Ground
(Manitoba
Agriculture, Food
and Rural Initiatives)
All
Wise Use of Water
(Manitoba
Conservation and
Manitoba Water
Stewardship)
(Currently being
developed)
Integrated
Watershed Planning
(Manitoba Water
Stewardship)
All
(Currently being
developed)
Water Stewardship
Fund
(Manitoba Water
Stewardship)
All
Manitoba Water Stewardship is encouraging the formation of
local Water Planning Authorities to prepare Watershed
Management Plans for their respective watershed. These plans
will include consideration of: water quality standards, objectives
and guidelines; water quality management zones regulations;
studies relating to water, land use, demographics and the
environment; public input; water management principles;
provincial land use policies, development plans, and zoningbylaws; and any other relevant information.
The fund will offer grants and support to innovative water related
efforts in the province. Specific to water conservation, one of the
primary aims of the fund is to provide grants to assist in the
implementation of watershed management plans or water
conservation programs.
Initiated in 1998,
over 1000 projects
had been supported
as of September
2003.
Integrated
Watershed Planning
will commence in
April of 2005.
The fund is being
developed and will
be implemented in
April of 2005.
(Currently being
developed)
Sources:
2003. The Manitoba Water Strategy. [Online]. Available:
http://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardship/waterstrategy/pdf/index.html#Conservation
2003. Covering New Ground. [Online]. Available:
http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/research/covering/about.html
Personal communication. Lisbeth Liebgott. Pollution Prevention Branch, Manitoba Conservation. CCME
Task Group meeting, October 18, 2004.
Personal communication. Ray Bodnaruk. Manitoba Conservation. 2002.
Municipal and Regional
194
The two conservation programs of the City of Winnipeg (population around 700 000) and the Town of Gimli,
Manitoba (population 1600 at the time the program took place in 1996) are outlined in the table below.
Municipality or
Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
City of Winnipeg
‘Waterfront Program’
Residential,
Institutional
Industrial
‘Waterfront’ is a web-based information
source on water conservation initiatives
taking place in Winnipeg. Initiatives
implemented since the early 1990s include:
Public awareness campaign
Slow the Flow Water Education
Program for middle year students,
available to interested teachers
Residential retrofit program involving
the sale of home water conservation kits
Industrial water use survey
Development of a database to assist in
ongoing evaluation of the conservation
program
Gimli’s water conservation program was
initiated and completed in 1996. Elements of
the initiated included:
Water meter and toilet retrofit
installation in all residences at no cost to
homeowner
Application of a volumetric water rate
Water conservation workshops for
residents
Audits of water town water users
including water efficiency
recommendations
Analysis of sewers for sources of
infiltration using closed circuit television
with identification of priority areas for
repair
Citywide improvements in water
efficiency have deferred the
expansion of the water supply
system indefinitely.
Implemented to defer
the need to expand the
water supply system
Town of Gimli
‘Water Conservation
Program’
Rationale: Town lagoon
was at maximum
capacity
As of 2001, 100 classrooms were
implementing the education
program
As of 1997, water consumption
has decreased by approximately
25%.
Sources:
City of Winnipeg. 2001. Winnipeg’s Water Conservation Program. Available:
http://www.winnipeg.ca/waterandwaste/water/waterfront/progress.htm
CWWA. Water Efficiency Experience Database – Water Conservation Program for Gimli, Manitoba.
Available: http://www.cwwa.ca/WEED/Record_e.asp?ID=237
Sectoral
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Association of
Manitoba
Municipalities
(AMM)
Municipal
Manitoba Golf
Superintendents
Association
(MGSA)
Golf
The main function of the AMM is to lobby on behalf of
all 199 municipalities in Manitoba on issues that affect
them. As identified previously, in the area of water
conservation, the AMM has developed and published
water efficiency booklets for small and medium sized
communities, motels/small hotels, schools, water
plant operators and hospitals. Funding was provided
through the Sustainable Development Innovations
Fund. Water policy and conservation is an interest of
the AMM.
The MGSA functions to provide information,
instruction and education to the benefit of its
members. With the aid of Manitoba Conservation and
a grant from the federal government MGSA has
developed a self-assessment checklist to help
interested clubs implement a Safety and
Environmental Management System (SEMS). A
section of the checklist is dedicated to proper water
Results and Effectiveness
To date 47 golf courses have
participated. Only 15 have had
follow-ups. Participating clubs have
seen improvements in many areas
including product substitution,
reduced pesticide and water use,
improved chemical storage etc.
195
management and conservation.
Sources:
Association of Manitoba Municipalities. Available: http://www.amm.mb.ca/default.htm
Manitoba Golf Superintendents Association. Available: http://www.mgsa.mb.ca/cim/42C182_271T7892.dhtm
NEW BRUNSWICK (NB)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Water availability and shortage of supply have not historically been a major concern in New Brunswick. Most of
the Province receives in excess of 1,100 mm of precipitation in a typical year with 20-33% of that coming in the
form of snow. While the spring and early summer period tends to be dry, there is generally ample rain during the
growing season.
Water use by sector in 2001 was distributed as follows: industrial uses 35%, public water supply 24%,
aquaculture 28%, rural domestic 9%, and other uses (agriculture, golf courses, ski hills and bottled water) 5%.
Surface water sources supply about two-thirds of the province’s municipal population. Full metering is common
among the province’s larger towns and cities.
According to the Environment Canadian Municipal Water Use Database, per capita water consumption in New
Brunswick is estimated at 414 l/c/day.
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
The Province does not have overarching legislation governing authorization and regulation of water withdrawals
or prioritization of extractive uses. Protection of surface water and ground water levels and flows is, however,
addressed through a number of Clean Water Act regulations that place restrictions on water abstractions and
other activities that might interfere with the quality of public water supplies.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Department of
Environment and
Local Government
(DELG)
DELG
The Act details the order-making powers of the Minister, which provide a
means of controlling or stopping the discharge of contaminants, or of
requiring the clean up of contaminated sites.
DELG
Protects municipal wellfields by providing standards for chemical storage and
land use activities around designated wellfields. Activities that adversely
affect the quantity or quality of water in a public ground water supply system
are not permitted.
Watershed Protected
Area Designation Order
2001-83 (2001) under
the Clean Water Act
DELG
Water Classification
Regulation 2002-13
(2002) under the Clean
Water Act
DELG
Environmental Impact
Assessment Regulation
87-83 (1987) under the
Clean Environment Act
DELG
Protects municipal watersheds by providing standards for chemical storage
and activities in and around designated watersheds. Places restrictions on
the amount of water that may be extracted from a designated watershed. S.
6.o.VI states, “the maximum water withdrawal rate from any Protected Area A
shall permit a maintenance flow of not less than 25 per cent of the mean
monthly flow to be maintained in the watercourse at all times”
Used to classify inland surface waters. The regulation sets goals for water
quality on a watershed basis. It establishes water quality classes, and the
associated water quality standards, and outlines the administrative processes
and requirements related to the classification of water. The regulation has
been developed to help watershed and other community-based groups to
plan and set goals for surface water quality and watershed management.
Requires individuals proposing certain projects to register with the Minister.
Withdrawals of more than 50 m3/day must be registered. The Minister may
place restrictions on the amount of water extracted from surface and ground
water sources by persons operating a registered waterworks.
Clean Water Act (1989)
Watercourse and
Wetland Alteration
Regulation 90-80 (1990)
under the Clean Water
Act
Wellfield Protected Area
Designation Order 200047 (2000) under the
Clean Water Act
Requires individuals planning a project that alters or diverts a surface
watercourse or wetland to obtain a permit from the Minister. The Minister may
impose conditions restricting the magnitude and timing of extraction.
196
Water Quality Regulation
82-126 (1982) under the
Clean Environment Act
DELG
Establishes an approval process for the construction, modification and
operation of a source of contaminant, sewage works or waterworks. Only
“waterworks” that extract more than 50 m3/day are regulated. The
Department has occasionally used the regulation to control water extraction
by industry however the general intent is to protect the quality of public water
supplies.
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
Water for Life Strategy
(Department of the
Environment and Local
Government)
All
Currently developing a water
strategy in consultation with other
NB government departments.
Will likely lead to the implementation of a
number of water conservation and economic
instrument initiatives at the provincial level
Residential
Water conservation tips for indoor
and outdoor water use on website.
(Under development)
(Department of the
Environment and Local
Government)
Sources :
DELG. New Brunswick Water Quantity Information, Water Conservation. Available:
http://www.gnb.ca/0009/0371/0007/0005-e.asp
Municipal and Regional
Specific municipal water conservation programs in New Brunswick are limited, most likely due to an abundance
of water resources and slow population growth in recent years. Municipal water conservation initiatives are
dominated by efforts to meter water use and the application of volumetric charges. Universal water metering is
now applied in the cities of Moncton and Fredericton. An example is highlighted below.
Municipality
or Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
City of
Fredericton
All
By-law No. W-2 A, passed in February 2004,
requires mandatory metering. Current water rates
include a service charge of $22 quarterly and a
volumetric charge of $0.49/m³
The Utility is currently investigating
various types of remote and automatic
reading technology for safe and
convenient service.
Sources:
Fredericton By-Law No. W-2 A By-Law Relating to the Water and Sewer Systems. [Online]. Available:
http://www.city.fredericton.nb.ca/assets/documents/bylaws/W2B.pdf
Sectoral
Initiative, Lead
Agencies &
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
Produit au NB
Grown and the
Environmental
Farm Plan
Agriculture
APANB represents NB farmers and lobbies on behalf of
farmers for sustainable farming.
The program is an educational strategy to inform the
public of the significance of supporting NB farmers and
educates farmers on the importance of following BMPs.
A “Produit au NB Grown” label is used to identify NB
products. To receive this label NB farmers must
complete an EFP. The EFP is based on the same
concept as in other provinces. The service is provided
free of charge to the farming community by the APANB.
The Produit au NB Grown
program was introduced in
February 2004. To date,
approximately 822 NB farms
have participated in the EFP,
with 500 receiving a certificate.
(Agriculture
Producers Assoc’n
of New Brunswick)
(APANB)
Sources:
Agriculture Producers Association of New Brunswick. Available: http://www.nbfarm.com/main.htm
197
NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR (NL)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Approximately 83% of the province’s population receives its water supply from public sources and 17% from
private sources. Eighty-eight percent of public waters are extracted from surface waters, which cover between
10-20% of the entire land area of the province, and the remaining is extracted from ground water sources. Dry
summer months in recent years have been primarily addressed by local municipalities through the
implementation of water conservation restrictions and programs, rather than through initiatives at the provincial
level. Water supply and shortage have not historically been much of a problem in the province.
Water allocation by sector in Newfoundland and Labrador is estimated as follows:
Municipal 125.65 million m3/year
Fish Processing 8.24 million m3/year
3
Aquaculture hatcheries 5.0 million m /year
3
Pulp and paper 118.0 million m /year
Thermal power generation (no estimate available)
Bottling 0.0075 million m3/year
Newfoundland and Labrador requires more accurate estimate from those of 1995 and 1996 in relation to its
water use sectors and enabling provisions in its Water Resources Act. As evident from the above statistics,
water and thermal power generation is by far the largest non-consumptive user of water in the province.
According to the Environment Canada Municipal Water Use Database (1996), water consumption in the province
is the highest in Canada, measured at 561 l/person/day. More recent provincial estimates put domestic water
use at 450 L/capita/day.
Sources:
Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 2001. Source to Tap – Water Supplies in Newfoundland and
Labrador. [Online]. Available: http://www.gov.nl.ca/env/SourceToTap/SourceToTap/Report.asp
Personal Communication. A.K. Abdel-Razek.
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
The most significant initiative in the province addressing water conservation is the recently enacted Water
Resources Act of 2002. Unlike legislation in other provinces, the Act does not specify a de minimus amount
below which an approval and licence is not required. All non-domestic withdrawals from any water source,
(surface, ground, marine and icebergs) require a Water Use Licence (WUL).
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Water Resources Act SNL
(2002) cW-4.01
Department of
Environment and
Conservation
DEC)
An important principle of the Act is the wise use of water resources.
Regulates the use of water through an approval and licensing system.
Approvals are required for specific activities that affect water bodies and
water and sewer systems (water quality protection) whereas a license
allocates water for specified uses (water quantity protection). Domestic
users do not require a license to use water according to the riparian rights
doctrine. However, all other non-domestic users, no matter how little
water they require, must have a license to take or divert water.
Under the new legislation, persons with existing water rights (licenses,
approvals etc.) must register those rights but do not need to apply for a
new license (section 10). Section 13 of the Act allows for the
establishment of a public registry of water rights to keep track of water
allocations in the province. This will help ensure better water use planning
and management and avoidance of water use conflicts that may otherwise
arise.
The bulk removal of water is prohibited (Subsection 12). Subsection 15 of
198
the Act outlines the priority uses of water.
The minister may also require a licensee to install and operate stream flow
stations, to keep records on flow and pay the costs associated with this.
The Minister may also attach terms and conditions to a permit authorizing
municipal water supply operations.
Section 29 of the Act also indicates that the Lieutenant Governor in
Council may establish, in accordance with the regulations, economic
measures such as incentives, royalties, subsidies, administrative and
other fees and water use charges, for the purposes of ensuring the
conservation and proper utilization of water resources, and for the
financing of programs and other measures.
Water Power Rental
Regulations, Reg. 64/03
Under the Water Resources
Act
Municipalities Act (1999)
S. 39 of the Act allows the minister, by regulation, to establish a source
protection area surrounding a public water supply. In such an area, a
person is not allowed to use or divert water to such an extent that it
interferes with public water supply. The minister may also designate such
an area to protect a wellfield.
Sets annual rent for a water use license authorizing the generation of
power from water. The annual rent for a water use licence shall be $0.80
per megawatt hour of power generated.
DEC
Municipal and
Provincial Affairs
An Act Relating to the
Municipal Affairs of the City
of St. John’s (Chapter C-17
of the Revised Statutes of
Newfoundland 1990)
Gives municipalities the power to construct, acquire, establish, own and
operate public water supply systems, subject to the Water Resources Act
(S. 156). It also gives Municipalities the authority to alter or divert
watercourses for the purpose of improving the watercourse or supply (S.
161).
Sections 112 and 114 of this Act aim to ensure the prevention of waste,
undue consumption and the contamination of water supplied by the city to
residents. In a case of misuse, the city may stop supplying water to that
premises.
Policies and Guidelines
Policy for Allocation of Water DEC
Use
Policy for Land and Water
Related Developments in
Protected Public Water
Supply Areas
Policy establishes a mechanism for issuing a water use license/approval
to an applicant subject to the terms and conditions necessary to ensure
efficient utilization of the water and fair distribution between competing
uses. S. 4.2.6 of the policy requires the licensee to keep an account of
water use and water quality and to regularly submit this information on
prescribed forms to the Department.
Outlines policy guidelines for land and water related developments in
protected water supply areas. Allows municipalities to request the
establishment of a Watershed Monitoring Committee and the development
of a watershed management plan in designated areas under increasing
pressure for multiple development activities.
DEC
Sources:
Department of Environment and Conservation. 2002. Guide to the Water Resources Act. [Online]. Available:
http://www.gov.nf.ca/env/ActsReg/wraguide.pdf
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
Outside of the Water Resources Act, Newfoundland and Labrador conservation initiatives are generally limited to
the promotion of seasonal water-use restrictions in municipal systems.
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
(Department of
Environment and
Conservation)
All
registered
water users
Registered water users are required to report water usage figures
every 6months to one year using a Ministry form. Water withdrawal
figures must be recorded for each month. Before the applicant is
granted the license, the applicant is required to sign a Notification
of Acceptance of Water Use Licence.
Results and
Effectiveness
199
Sources:
Personal Communication, A.K. Abdel-Razek. October 18 2004. CCME Task Group Meeting, Toronto.
Department of Environment and Conservation. Terms and Conditions of Water Use Licence Under NL
Water Resources Act.
Municipal and Regional
Municipal water conservation initiatives in Newfoundland and Labrador are dominated by policies and restrictions
aiming to reduce water consumption during dry periods. This is the case for both the City of Mount Pearl with a
population 26,555 and for the City of St. John’s with a population around 175,000.
Municipality
or Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
Town of
Pasadena
Residential
In 1996 a water conservation study was
undertaken in the town of Pasadena,
Newfoundland. 50 households volunteered to
have water meters installed. Half of these
households were asked to continue with their
normal water use practices, while the other half
received educational materials and water
conservation devices.
Even before the conservation devices,
including faucet aerators, low flow
showerheads, toilet flappers and Frugal
flush adapters, were installed water
consumption decreased by an average of
20% in these households. After
installation of the devices, overall water
consumption was reduced by
approximately 43%.
City of Mount
Pearl
Water
Conservation
Program
Residential,
ICI,
Municipal
Three main initiatives are part of this program:
The city is currently working towards
having remote monitoring placed on this
equipment to give the city more timely
access to water usage data on a daily
basis.
City of St.
John’s
Water
Conservation
Order
Residential,
ICI
- Year-round conservation policy containing
certain restrictions on watering of lawns,
cleaning sidewalks, washing vehicles etc.
- Investigation of water distribution system to
identify and repair leaks
- Installation of water meters on water entry
points into Mount Pearl to monitor overall city
water usage.
The Order was introduced in the summer of
2002 and is still in effect. It applies to all
outdoors uses of water, governing the watering
of lawns, washing of vehicles and sidewalks etc
by time of day and type of equipment.
The City has installed 1027 meters for nonresidential uses from its municipal water supply
system between 1998 to present.
Sources:
Atlantic Planners Institute. 2000. Newfoundland and Labrador Waters. [Online]. Available:
http://www.atlanticplanners.org/newsletr/april2000/water_nf1.htm
City of Mount Pearl. Environmental Initiatives. Available: http://www.mtpearl.nf.ca/enviro.asp
City of St. John’s. Water Conservation Order. Available:
http://www.stjohns.ca/cityservices/water/waterconservation.jsp
Sectoral
Initiative, Lead Agencies and Partners
Environmental Farm Plan
(Delivered by Newfoundland and Labrador Federation of
Agriculture and funded by Agriculture and Agri-foods
Canada, Environment Canada, and others)
Target
Sector
Description
Agriculture
Program is based on the
same concepts as in other
provinces.
Results and
Effectiveness
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES (NT)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
200
In the Northwest Territories, only 8 of 33 communities have piped water distribution systems. These include Fort
Smith, Hay River, Yellowknife, Edzo and Rae, which have predominantly inground pipes and Norman Wells,
Inuvik, and Fort McPherson, which have predominantly above-ground pipes or utilidors (insulated boxes). Water
for commercial and industrial purposes in these municipalities is typically supplied through piped systems while
water used for residential purposes is often trucked. In combination with communities in Nunavut, only 16% of
communities are serviced by centralized distribution systems. Seventy-four percent have trucked water supply
and waste disposal systems, and the remaining 10% have private supply systems.
Although the operating costs for trucked-in water service are very high, the lower capital costs make it more
economic than piped service for most northern communities. Consumption is much lower for areas with trucked
service, about 80-90 litres per capita per day in the Northwest Territories. According to the Environment Canada
Municipal Water Use Database (1996), overall per capita water use in NWT is estimated at 268 l/capita/day.
Sources:
Environment Canada. 2004. Water – How we Use it. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/en/info/pubs/primer/e_prim03.htm Last updated: July 13 2004.
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
The NWT does not have a policy to conserve water.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Constitution Act (1867)
Northwest Territories
Waters Act (1989)
Indian and
Northern Affairs
Canada (INAC)
Northwest Territories Water Indian and
Northern Affairs
Regulations (SOR/93-303)
Under the NWT Waters Act Canada
Mackenzie Valley Resource
Management Act
Indian and
Northern Affairs
Canada
Yukon-Northwest Territories
Transboundary Water
Management Agreement
(2002)
Department of Indian Affairs
and Northern Development
Government of
Canada, NWT
and Yukon
INAC
The federal government, through the Department of Indian and Northern
Affairs, has the overall responsibility for the management of water resources
in the North.
S. 6 allows the Minister of INAC to delegate water management
responsibilities to the Minister of the NWT. S. 8 of the Act details how water
may be used. All users in a water management area require a license unless
they are a domestic user, an instream user or require the water for
emergency use. S. 10 establishes the NWT Water Board to provide for the
conservation, development and utilization of waters in a manner that will
provide the optimum benefit for all Canadians in general and, in particular, for
the residents of any part of the Northwest Territories for which the Board is
authorized to issue licences. The board is responsible for granting water use
licences in the NWT, however, the Minister of INAC must give approval for
the granting of a water use licence, with some exceptions. The Board may
include any conditions in the license it deems appropriate, including
conditions relating to the use of the water, monitoring of use, the submission
of specific plans etc. The Act is enforced by INAC.
Sets out in different schedules for various sectors (i.e. industry, agriculture,
municipal etc.), the criteria for which a license to use water is not required.
The regulation also describes in more detail the information to be included in
license applications for these sectors, water use fees. S. 15 states, Every
licensee shall maintain accurate and detailed books and records, and shall
submit a report to the Board each year, on or before the anniversary of the
date of issuance of the licence, setting out the quantity of water used under
the licence.
With its passing, the responsibility for the management and regulation of
natural resources in specific areas was handed down from INAC to local
boards, including the Gwich’in Land and Water Board, the Sahtu Land and
Water Board, the Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board. Permitting and
licensing of water use as detailed in the NWT Waters Act is the responsibility
of these boards. Minister approval is required before the board can grant a
type A license. License applications deemed by the board to result in
significant environmental impact are referred to the Mackenzie Valley
Environmental Impact Review Board, also established under this Act.
Provides a means for the NWT and the Yukon to address transboundary
water- management issues and provide protection to the aquatic
environment. The agreement also allows for the establishment of water
quantity and quality objectives for waters entering the NWT from the Yukon.
Gives INAC overall responsibility for water management in the NWT.
INAC is responsible for the development, implementation and interpretation
201
of all legislation and policy relating to its responsibilities for water
management in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, approving type A
licenses, enforcing licensed operations, and the collection of water data.
Delegates power to make bylaws and for the provision of services, public
utilities and operations to municipalities. The council may make bylaws
respecting public utilities, the management and use of lands in the
hamlet/municipality etc.
Act
Hamlets Act (2004)
and the
Cities, Town and Villages
Act (2004)
Policies and Guidelines
A Policy Respecting the
Prohibition of Bulk Water
Removal from Major River
Basins in the Northwest
Territories
INAC
Prohibits the bulk removal of water from the NWT.
Principles include:
The wise and sustainable use of water is critical to protect the health of
ecosystems in the NWT…
The conservation and protection of water in the NWT…requires the
cooperation of all parties that manage water and regulate its use.
Sources:
INAC. 2003. A Policy Respecting the Prohibition of Bulk Water Removal from Major River Basins in the
Northwest Territories. [Online]. Available: http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ps/nap/wat/pdf/polprohnwt_e.pdf
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
Initiative, Lead Agencies
and Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
(Northwest Territories Housing
Corporation)
Residential
NWTHC installed wastewater reuse
systems in five single-family homes within
Yellowknife’s Dene First Nation
community. Grey and black water is
treated and recycled for non-potable uses.
System capacity is 1000 L/day each. Total
cost of each system, including purchase,
shipping, modification and installation was
$13,295 per system.
Based on a review of similar initiatives
across Canada, the 2003 strategy
emphasizes a multi-barrier 3 pronged
approach: keeping NWT water clean,
making drinking water safe, and proving it
to be safe. Coordinated watershed
decision-making is an important
component of the keeping water clean
strategy. Specific actions include the
establishment of an inter-jurisdictional
committee to develop a source protection
plan for the province, the designation of
watershed areas, the development of
emergency response plans, the
development of watershed management
plans, and the education of the public
concerning source protection and water
conservation.
A not-for-profit organization, the Energy
Alliance was formed through a partnership
between several government bodies.
Northwest Territories Power Corp and
Northland Utilities Ltd are also members.
The focus of the alliance is to enhance
energy efficiency and the uptake of
renewable energy sources in the territory.
Water use efficiency is often addressed in
energy efficiency projects. An energy
efficiency advisory service is provided at
Anticipated benefits include
a significant reduction in
demand for potable water,
savings of nearly $5000 per
year per house in trucked
water service costs,
availability of more water for
non-potable uses.
Rationale: High demand for and
cost of trucked water services.
Managing Drinking Water Quality All
in the Northwest Territories: A
Preventative Strategy and
Framework
Established to respond to
specific NWT challenges and the
Walkerton, North Battlefield
incidents.
Arctic Energy Alliance
(Representatives from Public
Works and Services; NWT
Housing Corporation;
Resources, Wildlife and
Economic Development,
Municipal and Community
Affairs, NWT Association of
Communities, NWT Public
Residential,
commercial,
industry
202
Utilities Board make up the
Board of Directors)
Energy Conservation Program
Resources, Wildlife and
Economic Development
Public sector,
non-profit
organizations
no cost to all organizations and residences
in NWT, energy audit and assessment
services are also available.
Provides funding for projects that reduce
the amount of electricity purchased,
heating fuel or water used in facilities
owned or leased by the Government of the
Northwest Territories.
In 2003/2004 a community
arena in Tulita received lowflow showerheads and
toilets, in addition to several
energy efficiency
installations. Water savings
are estimated at 33,000 L
per year.
Sources:
Northwest Territories Housing Corporation. Case Study #2, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Available:
http://www.north-rthn.org/FactSheets/Yellowknife.htm
2003. Managing Drinking Water Quality in the Northwest Territories: A Preventative Strategy and
Framework. [Online]. Available: http://www.pws.gov.nt.ca/pdf/WaterAndSanitation/WaterFramework.pdf
Arctic Energy Alliance. Available: www.aea.nt.ca
Municipal and Regional
Municipality or
Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
City of Yellowknife
Water Supply
Infrastructure
Upgrade
Public
Since the mid 1980s, the city has undertaken a water
supply infrastructure upgrade program, a leak detection
survey and installation of water meters at trailer courts.
Water supply lines using the bleeder system continue to
be upgraded to a double line service that prevents pipes
from freezing and saves significant amounts of water.
Through a cost-sharing
program offered by the city,
nearly all leaks have been
eliminated and water
consumption by trailer park
owners has been cut in half.
Sources:
Government of Canada. Canada and Freshwater: Experience and Practices. [Online]. Available:
http://www.sdinfo.gc.ca/reports/en/monograph6/ecoaprch.cfm. Last updated: Jan. 22, 2003
NOVA SCOTIA (NS)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Water is abundant in Nova Scotia. However, prolonged dry spells in recent years have raised some concern as
farmers relying on streams for their sole water source, with no backup water supply for irrigation, have suffered
loss of crops in areas such as the Annapolis Valley.
Interestingly, only 54% of Nova Scotians receive treated drinking water from central ground or surface water
supplies operated by municipal water utilities. Forty-six percent of the population relies on private wells for water
supply.
According to the Halifax Regional Water Commission, Halifax residents consume approximately 400
litres/capita/day. According to the Environment Canada Municipal Water Use Database (1996), per capita water
usage for Nova Scotia is 269 l/capita/day.
Sources:
CMHC. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Home Tune-Up Program. Available: http://www.cmhcschl.gc.ca/en/imquaf/himu/wacon/wacon_103.cfm
Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour. 2002. A Drinking Water Strategy for Nova Scotia.
[Online]. Available: http://www.gov.ns.ca/enla/water/h2ostrat.pdf
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
203
Legislation and Regulations
The Environment Act
(1995)
Department of
Under part X of the act, water and watercourses, including groundwater, are
Environment and vested in the Crown; the Minister has supervision over use and allocation of
Labour
water resources. Annual administrative and withdrawal fees for approvals
have been established, with some exceptions (e.g., agriculture).
The Activities Designation
Regulations and the
Environmental
Assessment Regulations
Under the Environment
Act
Department of
Requires an approval from the Ministry for the withdrawal of water from a
Environment and watercourse greater than 23 000 L/day, and for storage of more than 25 000
Labour
cubic meters of water. In the surface water permitting process, the Ministry
can require, as a condition of approval, the preparation of a long-term plan to
monitor streamflow in order to assess and evaluate the impacts of the water
withdrawal on water resources. Applicants may also be required to develop a
contingency plan for mitigation of any unexpected adverse effects. The
development of a long-term water withdrawal monitoring plan is mandatory in
the groundwater permitting process. A water budget must also be prepared in
the application process for a surface water permit, so that the Ministry can
determine whether the proposed rate of water withdrawal can be sustained
particularly during periods of seasonal low flow.
A project which involves the transfer of water between drainage basins where
the drainage area to be diverted is greater than one square kilometer must
undergo an environmental impact assessment.
Water Resources
Protection Act (Bill 32)
(2000)
Department of
The act forbids the removal of water from the Atlantic Drainage Basin, which is
Environment and essentially the entire province. However, there are exceptions to this rule.
Labour
For example, water may be removed if it is to be transported in bottles no
larger than 25 L, it is included in packaged foods or products, etc.
Public Utilities Act
Service Nova
Scotia and
Municipal
Relations
Service Nova
Scotia and
Municipal
Relations
Allows the Utility and Review Board (UARB) to set rates that municipal water
utilities are permitted to charge their customers. The UARB also regulates
N.S. Power Inc. and other power utilities in the province under this legislation.
Service Nova
Scotia and
Municipal
Relations
This SPI (and others made under the act) must be adhered to when a
municipal planning strategy and land use by-laws are being developed.
Provides guidelines to municipalities on how to protect municipal water supply
by restricting inappropriate development. Recommended considerations
include: balancing the expansion of existing uses against the risks posed to
water quality.
Municipal Government
Act (1998)
Bestows much of the regulatory authority for land use to Municipalities.
Policies and Guidelines
Statement of Provincial
Interest Regarding
Drinking Water under the
Municipal Government
Act (SPI)
Sources:
Nova Scotia Environment and Labour. 2004. Guides to Groundwater and Surface Water Withdrawal
Approvals. [Online]. Available:
http://www.gov.ns.ca/enla/water/pdf/guideToSurfaceWaterWithdrawalApprovals.pdf
Statements of Provincial Interest. [Online]. Available:
http://www.gov.ns.ca/snsmr/muns/manuals/pdf/mga/mgasch-b.pdf
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
In addition to the specific provincial initiatives detailed below, Agriculture Canada and Geological Survey of
Canada are working with provincial departments to provide education on water conservation and alternate onfarm water supplies, to make infrastructure improvements and to study regional aquifers.
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Drinking Water Strategy All
(2002)
Description
Results and Effectiveness
A conservation based action plan for the
integrated management of water on a
watershed basis, began after proclamation of
As a condition of the approval
process, municipalities/water
utilities must submit System
204
(Department of
Environment and
Labour through a new
Inter-departmental
drinking water
management
committee)
the Environment Act in 1995 (section 105 of
the act). The focus is the sustained
maintenance of water quality in the province.
Source protection and water pricing to reflect
the true cost of water services are important
components of the strategy. The department
will continue to work with municipalities in
developing drinking water protection plans
that may include the establishment of
watershed plans, a Protected Water Area
designation, land use by-laws etc. Roll out of
the province’s water strategy beyond 2005
will place more emphasis on a broader range
of water resources issues.
In response to the
Walkerton Inquiry
Recommendations
Pollution Prevention
Program
(Department of
Environment and
Labour working with a
variety of partners)
Commercial,
industrial,
institutional,
public
The Eco-Efficiency
Business Assistance
Program
(Lead agency: The
Eco-Efficiency Centre
NGO)
Partners: Department
of Labour and
Environment + others
Manufacturing
(Funding for research
has been provided by
the Department of
Environment and
Labour, Health and
others)
Assessment Reports (by 2004)
and Source Water Protection
Plans. These must be submitted
by fall 2005. The ministry has
already developed a set of
booklets (online) to guide
municipalities in this process. The
main emphasis is on protection of
water quality, yet utility managers
should assess water quantity
issues and develop appropriate
strategies.
Provides information, research and technical
assistance. The role of the branch is to
identify pollution prevention opportunities, to
research and develop pollution prevention
plans and programs. Current projects
include the Eco-efficiency Business
Assistance Program (described below), and
the Lunenburg Municipal Water Pollution
Prevention Program, also described below.
The province is also working with the golfing
industry to develop pollution prevention plans
that include irrigation efficiency.
The Centre is a project of the Faculty of
Management at Dalhousie University. The
program funds up to 75% of the cost of a
consultant to identify pollution prevention and
efficiency options and strategies within a
willing Nova Scotian Small and Medium
Enterprises (SME) that meets program
criteria. For example, the SME must
manufacture or process goods, have fewer
than 500 employees, be prepared to cost
share in the project, have intent to engage in
recommended solutions etc. The program is
available until December 2004. Water
conservation and efficiency of use is an
important element of eco-efficiency in the
workplace.
A number of projects related to wastewater
reuse and water use efficiency, including the
domestic use of rainwater cisterns, have
been conducted by the Centre for Water
Resource Studies at the University of
Dalhousie.
Sources:
Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour. 2002. A Drinking Water Strategy for Nova Scotia.
[Online]. Available: http://www.gov.ns.ca/enla/water/h2ostrat.pdf
Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour. Pollution Prevention Program. Available:
http://www.gov.ns.ca/enla/envin/p2/default.asp
The Eco-Efficiency Centre. Available: http://www.mgmt.dal.ca/sres/ecoburnside/businessassistanceprogram.html#Description
Municipal and Regional
Municipality or Target
Region
Sector
Description
Town of
Lunenburg
The Lunenburg
Municipal
Water Pollution
The program encourages water pollution
prevention, water conservation and protection
of municipal infrastructure by reducing the
discharge of hazardous materials and
pollutants to the municipal sewerage system.
Businesses,
residents,
schools,
municipal
officials
Results and Effectiveness
205
Prevention
Program
In partnership
with the
Department of
Environment and
Labour
Halifax
Home Tune-up
Program
Residential
Halifax Regional
Water
Commission in
partnership with
Clean Nova
Scotia
The three-year pilot program launched in 2001
will serve as a model for other communities in
Nova Scotia. Current pollution prevention
initiatives include: the development of a water
conservation garden featuring xeriscaping,
residential home tune ups involving the
installation of water conservation kits, the
development of a green business network to
promote pollution prevention in NS SMEs.
Program focuses on helping homeowners to
improve energy and water use efficiency. The
program offers residents a comprehensive
environmental assessment of their home.
Participants are provided with a report,
information and recommendations for saving
resources and money. A water conservation
kit is also provided.
As of 2002, statistics indicate an overall
reduction in water consumption of
approximately 6 per cent. This is
attributed to both educational efforts
and the installation of water-conserving
devices. With approximately 1,050
homes currently assessed, this
amounts to approximately 16,000 cubic
metres of water conserved. This also
results in an equal reduction of
wastewater discharge. Further
reductions may be realized through
behavourial changes resulting from the
program.
Sources:
The Lunenburg Municipal Water Pollution Prevention Program. Available:
www.gov.ns.ca/enla/envin/p2/projects.asp
CMHC. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Home Tune-Up Program. Available: http://www.cmhcschl.gc.ca/en/imquaf/himu/wacon/wacon_103.cfm
Sectoral
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and Partners
Target
Sector
Atlantic Golf Superintendents Golf
Association (AGSA)
Sustainable Tourism Project
(Tourism Industry
Association of Nova Scotia)
Tourism
industry
Agriculture
Environmental Farm Plan
(EFP)
(Nova Scotia Federation of
Agriculture with funding from
Agriculture and Agri-food
Canada and the NS
Department of Agriculture
and Fisheries)
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
AGSA has promoted a number of pollution prevention
projects on NS golf courses, with funding assistance from the
Canada/Nova Scotia Cooperation Agreement on Sustainable
Economic Development. The primary focus has been on
integrated pest management but has also included
recommendations for naturalization of vegetative areas and
use of drought-tolerant plants.
The Sustainable Tourism Project was established in 1993 to
bring together government and industry stakeholders in the
development of a sustainable tourism strategy. A
Sustainable Tourism Self-Audit Workbook and a Sustainable
Tourism resource centre have been developed. The
workbook titled, “A Question of Balance”, is a
comprehensive, step-by-step resource that offers operators
practical guidance on how to conduct an audit of their
business and how to implement eco-efficient strategies that
may result in cost savings and improved environmental
performance. Water conservation is a major component of
the workbook.
The Nova Scotia EFP program differs from other provinces,
in that program coordinator and an agricultural engineer
develop an action plan for the farmer. In other provinces
each farmer develops the EFP based on following
workbooks. Water supply and management is still an
important component of the program.
Sources:
Environment Canada. 2001. Pollution Prevention Canadian Success Stories. Atlantic Golf Superintendents
Association. Available: http://www.ec.gc.ca/pp/en/storyoutput.cfm?storyid=20
206
Tourism Industry Association of Nova Scotia. Sustainable Tourism Project. Available:
http://www.tians.org/sustain.html
Nova Scotia Federation of Agriculture. Available: http://www.nsfa-fane.ca/default.htm
NUNAVUT (NU)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Although water resources may appear to be abundant in Nunavut, groundwater is generally not accessible and
surface watercourses receive relatively little recharge due to minimal precipitation.
While portions of the communities of Iqaluit, Rankin Inlet, and Nanisivic have piped above-ground water
distribution, most customers are served by trucked supplies. Only 16% of communities in Nunavut and NWT
combined are serviced by centralized water distribution systems. Of the remainder, 74% have trucked water
supply and waste disposal systems and 10% exist on private systems.
Although the operating costs for trucked-in water service are very high, the lower capital costs make it more
economic than piped service for most northern communities. Consumption is much lower for areas with trucked
service averaging about 200 litres per capita per day.
Sources:
Environment Canada. 2004. Water – How we Use it. [Online]. Available at
http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/en/info/pubs/primer/e_prim03.htm Last updated: July 13 2004.
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
The federal government, through the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, has the
overall responsibility for the management of water resources in the North.
Constitution
Act (1867)
Nunavut
Land Claims
Agreement
(1993)
Inuit of the
Nunavut
Settlement
Area and Her
Majesty the
Queen in
right of
Canada
Outlines Inuit water rights, which are constitutionally protected and supersede any rights
granted under water legislation.
Nunavut
Land Claims
Agreement
Act (1993)
Indian and
Northern
Affairs
Canada
(INAC)
INAC
This Act ratifies the Land Claims Agreement, making it legal and giving it effect.
Nunavut
Waters and
Surface
Rights
Tribunal Act
(2002)
Department
INAC
Article 13 of the Act establishes the Nunavut Water Board to manage and regulate water
resources in the Nunavut settlement area, including regulation of water withdrawal. Its
jurisdiction includes all of Nunavut’s inland freshwater sources. Under the Agreement, the
Board is also required to cooperate with the Nunavut Planning Commission to develop land
use plans that affect water, and with the Nunavut Impact Review Board to assess
environmental and socio-economic impacts of water-related project proposals. Permits are not
required for domestic or personal water use, fire fighting, boating, swimming etc. All other
water users require a license.
This Act clarifies the mandates of the Water Board and the Surface Rights Tribunal, in
accordance with the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement and, as a result, creates legal certainty
over the scope of their powers and responsibilities. Although the efficient use of water is not
mentioned directly in the act, it is indirectly addressed by the requirement that the Board is
prohibited from issuing, renewing or amending a licence if there may be a substantial effect on
the quality, quantity or rate of flow of waters through Inuit-owned land (unless the applicant has
entered into an agreement with the Inuit to compensate for any loss or damage or the Board
has determined the appropriate compensation). The Nunavut Water Board (NWB) may
therefore require water conservation efforts as a condition of licensing. A water monitoring
program is typically prescribed by the NWB to the proponent, whom must follow the program
and report on it in order to retain its license.
On Inuit owned lands, regional Inuit organizations representing the regional Inuit population,
are responsible for granting land use permits, which is a prerequisite for the receipt of a water
license. On federally owned lands the Canadian government is responsible for this.
Gives INAC overall responsibility for water management in Nunavut.
207
INAC is responsible for the development, implementation and interpretation of all legislation
and policy relating to its responsibilities for water management in the Northwest Territories and
Nunavut, approving type A licenses, enforcing licensed operations, and the collection of water
data.
of Indian
Affairs and
Northern
Development
Act
Canada
Corporation
Act
Incorporates the Nunavut Tunngavik Corporation (Tunngavik Inc.), a corporation without share
capital responsible for ensuring and monitoring the implementation of the Land Claims
Agreement. As a result, the organization plays an important role in ensuring that Inuit water
rights as outlined in the agreement are protected.
Policies and Guidelines
A Policy
Respecting
the
Prohibition of
Bulk Water
Removal
from Major
River Basins
in Nunavut
Nunavut
Tunngavik
Water Policy
(2003)
INAC
Prohibits the bulk removal of water from Nunavut.
Principles include:
the wise and sustainable use of water is critical to protect the health of ecosystems in
Nunavut…
the conservation and protection of water in Nunavut…requires the cooperation of all
parties that manage water and regulate its use.
Nunavut
Tunngavik
Inc. (NTI)
Framework
for Managing
Water on
Inuit Owned
Lands (2003)
Outlines a comprehensive vision for water use and management on Inuit Owned Lands (IOLs).
Policy statements of particular interest include the following:
Designated Inuit Organizations (DIOs) shall ensure that water use proponents undertake
measures to protect water quality, quantity and flow; and that appropriate monitoring is carried
out. Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. (NTI) and DIOs shall ensure that fair water prices are set as a
means to maximize benefit to Inuit, manage water demand, and minimize adverse effects from
all activities on IOLs. Decisions concerning the management of water uses will be based on
the Inuit way of doing things as well as scientific information. Implementation of the policy is
primarily the responsibility of the Regional Inuit Organizations (RIO or RIA).
As the RIA has the right to compensation for any adverse effect upon water flow, quantity or
quality on IOLs, the framework outlines procedures for the RIA to follow in determining the
affect of proposed development on waters, negotiating compensation agreements, monitoring
water resources and setting fees for water use. Traditional Ecological Knowledge of water
flow and quantity is an important input in determining the affect of a project. Using the
procedures outlined in this document to estimate the affect of a proposed project on water
resources in IOLs, the RIA is able to influence the NWB in the permitting process. The
potential for having to pay out compensation and pay fees for water use set by the RIA, may
provide an incentive to the proponent to use water efficiently.
Sources:
Nunavut Water Board. [Online]. Available at http://www.nwb.nunavut.ca/default.htm
INAC. 2003. A Policy Respecting the Prohibition of Bulk Water Removal from Major River Basins in
Nunavut. [Online]. Available: http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ps/nap/wat/pdf/polprohnuna_e.pdf
NTI. 2003. Nunavut Tunngavik Water Policy.
2003. Water Management Framework for Inuit Owned Lands (IOLs).
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Territorial
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Freshwater
Management
Framework for
Nunavut (proposed)
Rationale: Concern
for water quality
Healthy House
Residential
Water Management
Systems
Description
Results and Effectiveness
A proposed framework to establish a harmonized
watershed-approach to managing the quality and
quantity of Nunavut’s water resources. Water
conservation, sustainable development and
integrated management are proposed as guiding
principles.
Wastewater reuse systems are being installed in five
existing multi-family homes (17 units) in the Inuit
community of Cape Dorset. They will treat grey and
Several systems have been
installed in Iqaluit and planned for
Cape Dorset.
208
black water from each building and cycle it back for
toilet flushing and laundry purposes. Each system
has a capacity of 1000 L/day. Total capital costs for
each building are expected to be about $45,200.
Annual operation and maintenance costs are
projected at $1,125 per building.
Initiated by
Northwest
Territories Housing
Corporation
Funded by Nunavut
Gov’t
Rationale: High
demand for and
cost of truck
haulage of potable
water and
wastewater.
Regional Inuit
Association (RIA)
Land Use
Permitting and
Inspections
All
RIA and Nunavut
Impact Review
Board
Water Monitoring
Business Plan for
NWT and Nunavut
RIA annually inspects developments on IOLs to
ensure that proponents are respecting the water
related terms and conditions of licenses.
INAC supports the collection, analysis and
dissemination of information about water resources.
The water monitoring business plan focuses on
increased monitoring in high priority areas
(communities, industry sites etc.), a focus on realtime data, upgraded monitoring equipment, and
planning partnerships.
INAC
Projected benefits include
significant reductions in the
demand for potable water,
availability of more water for nonpotable household uses, savings
of nearly $12 000 per year per
building in the cost of trucked
water and reduced cost for truck
haulage of wastewater.
Released in 2003 and
implementation is on-going.
Sources:
Creative Communities Research Inc. Case Study #4: Cape Dorset, Nunavut. [Online]. Available at
www.north.rthn.org/FactSheets/CapeDorset.htm
INAC. 2003. Water Monitoring Business Plan Northwest Territories and Nunavut. [Online]. Available at
http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ps/nap/wat/pdf/watmoni_e.pdf
Municipal and Regional
Municipality or
Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
City of Iqualuit ‘Apex
Healthy House
Project 2001’
Residential
The 2001 demonstration project was initiated in
response to the water treatment plant nearing
capacity, the high cost of hauling water by truck,
and the wear and tear on city streets. The project
involves installation of a treatment plant in the
community that will directly supply 11 Apex
households with recycled water.
It is estimated that these systems
would cut water usage by 50%.
The number of water delivery trips
would be reduced by 75% saving
the city about $34 000 a year.
Funded in
partnership with the
Federation of
Canadian
Municipalities
Sources:
The Apex Healthy House Project. [Online]. Available at
http://healthyhousesystem.com/apex/textHandouts.sxw.pdf
ONTARIO (ON)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
In the Great Lakes Basin (GLB), where the majority of water-taking occurs in the province (94%), consumptive
uses of water across all sectors (and the entire GLB) have been estimated at 5% of total water takings.
Agricultural irrigation, public water supply and industrial uses of water result in the greatest consumptive losses
209
in the basin, at 29%, 28% and 26% respectively. Average consumptive loss rates in the agricultural sector are
greater than 70%, and in some cases reaching loss rates of up to 90%. Average consumptive loss rates in the
public water supply sector and the industrial sector are estimated at 10%. Based on projected growth and
development patterns in Ontario until 2020, the following water use and consumption trends by sector are
expected:
Power generation: Increase in withdrawals shadowing growth and development
Commercial/Industry: Gradual reduction in withdrawals in response to increasingly restrictive pollution
control legislation, advances in technology, and a shift in the sector from heavy manufacturing to serviceoriented industries
Municipal/domestic/rural: Gradual reduction in withdrawals in response to increased water conservation
efforts
Agriculture: Significant increase in water demand for irrigation due to expected increases in food production,
and higher unit area demand for water as a result of climate change. Water use for agriculture in Ontario
continues to climb significantly.
Assuming a continuing extension of these trends, a 19% increase in consumptive water use is estimated for the
Basin. However, under an aggressive conservation effort, this increase in consumptive water use could be
limited to a 1% increase (International Joint Commission report).
At the local level, an increasing number of cities and municipalities are projecting or experiencing water
shortages. This is due in large part to below normal summer precipitation and low water levels in Ontario since
1998, and continuing population and economic growth (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 2003). This is of
particular concern in southern Ontario where water demand has been projected to surpass locally available
supply in many regions and municipalities.
Sources:
International Joint Commission. 2001. Protection of the Waters of the Great Lakes: Final Report to the
Government of Canada and the United States. [Online]. Available: http://www.great-lakes.net/lakes/
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
The management of surface and ground water quantity in Ontario is quite complex. Primary regulatory
responsibilities are held by the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Natural Resources with Conservation
Authorities and municipalities also playing key roles.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Ontario Water Resources
Act (OWRA)
Ministry of
Environment
(MOE)
The piece of legislation authorizing water takings in the province. S. 34 of
the OWRA requires anyone taking more than a total of 50,000 litres of water
in a day, with some exceptions, to obtain a Permit to Take Water.
Permit conditions may be imposed including requirements for metering and
reporting water use and for submission of water conservation plans.
Applications for water takings are considered by the MOE through the
Permit to Take Water program.
Water Taking and Transfer
Regulation, O. Reg. 387/04
under the OWRA
MOE
The purpose is to “provide for the conservation, protection and wise use and
management of Ontario’s waters, because Ontario’s water resources are
essential to the long-term environmental, social and economic well-being of
Ontario”.
The regulation identifies “high use watersheds” where applications for new
and/or expanded takings for certain types of water uses will not be
permitted.
The regulation imposes mandatory requirements for daily metering (or other
approved measurement) and annual reporting of water use by all permit
holders. The requirements are being phased in by sectors over a 3 year
period . All permit holders will be monitoring their water takings by 2007.
210
Sustainable Water and
Sewage Systems Act (2002
(SWSSA))
MOE
Ontario is the only province to have adopted full cost pricing principles into
its regulatory framework for water supplies. Under this Act, the province
has made the full recovery of municipal water and sewer services
mandatory for municipalities. The SWSSA cannot be proclaimed until
regulations are developed that will provide the content details to
municipalities for reports and plans required by the Act. The Ministry of
Environment is working with other ministries on a strategy to develop
regulations to support this important initiative.
(Proposed) Drinking Water
Source Protection Act
MOE
The development of mandatory watershed source protection plans
throughout the province is a key component of this proposed Act. Every
source protection plan would have to include a water budget to assess the
amount of water available in the watershed and the amount of water being
removed. Protection plans would also have to identify all significant
withdrawals of water, all sources of pollution, areas of groundwater
vulnerability and wellhead areas. Vulnerability mapping would show where
source protection measures are most urgently needed. The Ontario
government released a White Paper in February 2004 to consult on the
planning aspects of source protection legislation including the preparation,
roles and responsibilities, approvals and appeals of source protection plans.
Draft legislation based on comments received on the White Paper was
posted for public comment in June 2004. Following the comment period on
the planning aspects of source protection legislation (August 2004), the
ministry considered the advice of the government committees working on
the implementation aspects of the legislation, and any comments received
on the proposed legislation, and is combining the planning components and
implementation components into one comprehensive source protection bill.
Ministry of
Municipal Affairs
and Housing
(MMAH)
A regulation was filed in 1992 amending the Building Code to address water
efficiency. Water-use efficiency requirements for water fixtures used in all
new construction and renovation are regulated as follows:
(Proposed In response to
recommendations outlined
by Justice O’Connor in the
Walkerton Inquiry Report)
Ontario Building Code
Conservation Authorities Act Ministry of
Natural
Resources
(MNR)
•
•
•
Faucets: 8.4 litres/min or less (as of 1993)
Showerheads: 9.8 litres/min or less (as of 1993)
Toilets: 6 litres/flush or less (as of 1996)
Operating at the watershed and local level, conservation authorities (CA)
lead or play an important role in a variety of regulatory, operational and
planning activities pertaining to natural resources management. Primary
water quantity-related responsibilities include flood management, droughtresponse management, monitoring and modeling, and water supply
management. CA’s are also involved in resource monitoring and
inventorying, watershed planning, landowner outreach and assistance, and
conservation education. Often in partnership with the province, developers
and municipalities, many have completed watershed plans identifying the
impacts of anticipated land use changes and population growth on ground
and surface water resources and action plans to mitigate these impacts.
Member municipalities within the watershed participate in the administration
and operation of the CA through representation on the Board of Directors.
CAs may construct and operate dams and reservoirs, prohibit or regulate
watercourse alteration, and construct, operate and maintain flood and
erosion control structures.
MNR
Emergency Plans Act
MMAH
Planning Act
Designates MNR as the lead agency in coordinating emergency response
to floods and drought. MNR has the lead responsibility for the verification of
precipitation and streamflow condition levels in the Ontario Low Water
Response program.
Empowers and governs municipalities in land use planning and provides for
the development of statements of provincial interest to be regarded in the
planning process.
Policies and Guidelines
MOE
Ministry of Environment
Water Management
Policies, Guidelines, and
Provincial Water Quality
Objectives
The over-arching policy for water quantity management in the province is
“To ensure the fair sharing, conservation and sustainable use of the surface
and ground waters of the province”.
MOE also outlines the following specific guideline relating to the
conservation of water:
211
“All reasonable and practical measures should be taken to conserve the
quantity of surface and ground water to sustain ecosystem integrity and to
maximize its availability for existing or potential uses”.
The guideline further indicates that in order to conserve groundwater and
protect streamflow, all new flowing wells must contain a flow control device
in accordance with Ontario regulation 903. It also indicates that specific
statements respecting water conservation should be incorporated into
appropriate planning documents and that all parties proposing or reviewing
proposed projects in such areas should ensure that appropriate water
conservation measures are undertaken.
The Provincial Policy
Statement (PPS) under the
Planning Act
MMAH
The PPS defines provincial interests and provides policy direction to
municipalities in the long range and inter-municipal planning of
infrastructure including water and sewage services.
Policy 1.6.4 for Sewage and Water states that water conservation and water
use efficiency shall be promoted.
Policy 2.2.1 for Water states that planning authorities shall protect, improve
or restore the quality and quantity of water by promoting efficient and
sustainable use of water resources, including practices for water
conservation and sustaining water quality.
Sources:
Ministry of the Environment. (2004). Watershed-based source protection planning. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/water/spp.htm
Ministry of Environment (and Energy). (1994). Water Management Policies, Guidelines, Provincial Water
Quality Objectives of the Ministry of Environment (and Energy). [Online]. Available:
http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/gp/3303e.pdf
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
MOE
ICI
Resource conservation guides for a number of industries have
been published.
Program aims to ensure provincial preparedness, to assist in
coordination and to support local response in the event of a
drought. The plan outlines the means for measuring and
quantifying drought and the three condition levels leading up to it.
Water use restrictions increase with level. CAs or MNR verify a
Level 1 condition and are responsible for setting up a local
response team. The team then works to achieve a 10% reduction
of water use in the watershed. In a level II situation, restrictions on
non-essential water uses may be applied and a 20% reduction of
water use in the watershed. At level III, water use may be
restricted for a range of water users and decisions regarding
priority uses must be made.
Program relates to better irrigation techniques, water use efficiency
and water management. A number of Best Practice guides and fact
sheets have been developed.
All
Ontario Low Water
Response
(MNR and
Conservation
Authorities)
Program implemented
in response to below
average precipitation
and low water levels in
ON.
Ontario Ministry of
Agriculture and Food
(OMAF)
Agriculture
(Research funded by
Agriculture
OMAF, implemented in
partnership with
University of Guelph)
Results and
Effectiveness
Research & Development in areas of water resource management
and conservation.
Sources:
•
Ontario Invests in Alternative Irrigation Sources. July 31 2002. [Online]. Available:
http://www.uoguelph.ca/~c-ciarn/news/news_2002_jul.html
212
•
•
Ministry of Environment and Energy. 1997. Guide to Resource Conservation and Cost Savings
Opportunities in the Plastics Reprocessing Sector. [Online]. Available:
http://www.cpia.ca/epic/docs/resource_conservation_and_cost_savings.PDF
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. (2003). The Ontario Low Water Response Plan. [Online]. Available:
http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/MNR/water/publications/OLWR_2003.pdf
Municipal and Regional
In this section the water conservation programs implemented by the cities of Toronto and Barrie and the Grand
River Conservation Authority are investigated. As the most populace city in Ontario, Toronto is facing increasing
demand for water and wastewater services and has recently gone through a comprehensive process to identify
best practice water conservation measures for the city.
Municipality or
Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
Toronto
Water Efficiency Plan
2002
Residential,
ICI, Utility
Program Goal is to reduce peak day
demand by 275 ML/d by 2011 and
reduce wastewater flow by 86 ML/d
by 2011.
Estimated to cost city 1/3 the cost of
infrastructure expansion while achieving the
same goal. Expected to avoid $29 million in
operating costs related to chemical and energy
use in water and wastewater treatment. When
plan is fully implemented and water savings are
sustained, savings could amount to more than
$4.5 million per year after 2011.
Rationale: Growing
demand for water
and for expanded
water and
wastewater treatment
capacity and
services.
City of Barrie
Water Conservation
Program 1995
In partnership with
the Ontario Clean
Water Agency and
MOE.
Residential,
ICI
Production and free distribution
of a Water Efficiency Handbook
Even/Odd Lawn Water By-law
Toilet and showerhead rebate
program (residential)
Washing machine rebate
program (residential)
Metering of all water customers
Increasing block rate structure
for residential users
Rationale: Growing
demand for water
and for expanded
water and
wastewater treatment
services.
Water Budget and
Balance Analysis
(MOE, MNR and
CAs)
Measures include:
System Leak Detection
(municipal)
Computer Controlled Irrigation
Program (municipal)
Water Restrictions Program in
times of need (all)
Toilet Rebate Program (single
family residential, public, multiunit residential, ICI)
Washing machine rebate
program (single family
residential, multi-unit residential,
ICI)
Indoor water audit program (ICI)
Outdoor water audit program
(single family residential, multiunit residential, ICI)
Program Goal is a reduction in water
use of 50 L/day per person for 15,000
households
Watershed,
all sectors
MOE, in cooperation with MNR, is
currently funding several CAs, in the
development of water budget pilots.
These budgets are intended to form
the technical basis for provincial and
municipal decision making related to
water use, and may serve as
examples that could be implemented
in other areas throughout the
province.
Between 1995 and 1997, a total of 10 500
households received 15 000 Ultra Low Flush
toilets. A water savings of approximately 62
litres per person per day was achieved in those
households participating in the program. Total
program savings translated to 55 L/person/day
for the system. Water savings of 1 628 cubic
litres per day were generated, allowing the city
to defer expensive capital expansion project.
These efforts saved an estimated $17.1 million
in net deferred capital expenditures. Over 3000
washing machine rebates were awarded 19982002.
If the proposed source protection legislation
survives, the development of water budgets will
be mandatory in Ontario watersheds, and
Conservation Authorities will play an even
greater role in the sustainable management
and conservation of local water resources.
Sources:
213
•
•
•
Works and Emergency Services. 2002. Toronto’s Water Efficiency Plan. [Online]. Available:
http://www.city.toronto.on.ca/watereff/plan.htm
USEPA. Cases in Water Conservation: How Efficiency Programs Help Water Utilities Save Water and Avoid
Costs. [Online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/owm/water-efficiency/utilityconservation.pdf
Bellamy, Sam. (2002). Water in the bank? In: Grand Actions: The Grand Strategy Newsletter, volume 7
number 2. [Online]. Available: http://www.grandriver.ca/GrandStrategy/pdf/ga_mar02.pdf
Sectoral
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Ontario Water Works
Association
Public
OWWA supports best practices in the
stewardship of water through continuous
improvement of technology, science and
management, and by influencing
government policy. Water efficiency
committee is active in the following
areas: water efficiency awards, produce
articles and run workshops on relevant
topics, produce guidebooks on principles
and practices related to planning and
implementing a municipal water
efficiency program.
Developed by the farm community and
funded by the provincial and federal
government, the program assists
farmers to identify areas of environment
concern on their farms, to set realistic
goals and to implement enhancement
projects. A grant of $1500 is available to
farmers willing to implement their action
plans. Farmers voluntarily attend an
introductory workshop and are given a
workbook to conduct a self-assessment
of their farm operation. Water efficiency
is but one of the components addressed
in the workbook. Using best practice
reference materials the farmer may
continue to develop an action plan.
Once reviewed and approved by a
committee of peers, the farmer is eligible
for the incentive.
A voluntary membership
organization of drinking
water professionals
dedicated to protecting
public health through the
delivery of safe,
sufficiency and
sustainable drinking water
in Ontario.
Ontario Environmental
Agriculture
Farm Plan
Lead by Ontario
Federation of Agriculture,
Christian Farmers
Federation of Ontario,
Ontario Farm Animal
Council, AGCare, and
delivered by the Ontario
Soil and Crop
Improvement Association
and OMAF
Results and Effectiveness
Since launch in 1993, approximately $15
mill has been claimed by about 11, 500
producers. Each dollar of federal grant
has on average triggered $ 3 investment
by the farmer towards the same project
for a total investment of over $60 million.
Over 27 000 farmers have attended
workshops. Budgeted funds are currently
exhausted for the program, however, a
new version of the program should be
launched in the near future.
Sources:
Ontario Water Works Association. Available: http://www.owwa.com
Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association. EFP Incentive Dollars Fully Committed. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ontariosoilcrop.org/EFP.htm
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND (PEI)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Prince Edward Island is the only Canadian province that is 100 % dependent on groundwater for drinking and
most other uses. Fifty-seven percent (57%) of island residents obtain their drinking water through private wells.
Drought conditions and increasing economic development in recent years is beginning to put a strain on
provincial groundwater resources. In a recent CBC news article, a Charlottetown official was quoted as saying
“We certainly don't have much availability to keep developing subdivisions, attracting any industry to PEI., or
Charlottetown, or any businesses that have a water consumption need.”
According to the Environment Canada Municipal Water Use Database (1996), PEI registers the lowest per capita
water usage in the nation at 186 l/capita/day.
Sources:
214
PEI CBC News. Water Supply Under Stress. News release October 20 2004. Available:
http://pei.cbc.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=pe_water20041020
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Water conservation as a specific issue is not currently addressed in provincial legislation. However, there are
several provincial programs targeting a reduction in water consumption. These are listed in the following section.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Environment
Protection Act
Water Well
Regulation
under the
Environment
Protection Act
Department of
Environment,
Energy and
Forestry
Department of
Environment,
Energy and
Forestry
Section 10 of the Act authorizes water withdrawal from surface water bodies. Prior to
extracting water from any stream or river, a person must first obtain a Watercourse
Alteration Permit (Water Withdrawal Permit).
Regulates the extraction of water from subsurface aquifers. Anyone wishing to
establish a high capacity well must first obtain a Groundwater Exploration Permit.
Once well construction is complete and the Department has assessed the impacts on
other users and stream flow as acceptable, a Groundwater Allocation Permit is issued.
Policies and Guidelines
Agricultural
Irrigation
Policy
Groundwater: Under no circumstances will the rate of groundwater extraction be
permitted to exceed 50% of the annual recharge for any area influenced by a well.
Surface water: Maintenance flow will be calculated for all surface water systems, and
will be calculated on the basis of 70% of the flow rate that is exceeded 50% of the time
in any month. Flow measurement gauges will be installed in watersheds where the
permitted withdrawal rate approaches 50% of the amount of water that is predicted to
be available in excess of maintenance flow. Monitoring to ensure that actual stream
flow does not drop below maintenance level will occur. A Watercourse Alteration
Permit will be required by any person withdrawing water at a rate in excess of 50
Imperial Gallons per Minute or when the total daily withdrawal exceeds 10 000 imperial
gallons.
In watersheds where there is a high demand for the available water for irrigation, a
committee will be formed for the watershed consisting of each irrigating farmer and
representatives from the Departments of Environmental Resources and Agriculture.
While the aim of the group is to coordinate efficient options for water extraction,
including management of pond levels, alternating extraction activities and other sharing
mechanisms, it will not conduct management activities.
Sustainable
Resource
Policy
Department of
Agriculture,
Fisheries and
Aquaculture
Announced in Nov 2002. An umbrella policy that aims to bring all parts of natural
resource management together under one policy. Sets a direction for the future of
PEI’s environment and for the work of all government departments. Current focus in
the PEI agricultural sector, forestry, aquaculture and fisheries will be included in time.
Several tools to achieve policy goals have been implemented in the Agricultural sector,
including enhanced environmental farm planning, funding for on-farm soil and water
conservation projects etc.
Sources:
Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture. Agricultural Irrigation Policy. Available:
http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/irrigatpolicy_e.pdf
Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture. PEI Sustainable Resource Policy. Available:
http://www.gov.pe.ca/af/agweb/index.php3?number=72033&lang=E
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Drinking Water Strategy
(Formerly Department of
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
Step 10 in this 10-point plan indicates that the Department
will work with municipalities and land owners in
development of a strategy for municipal wellfield protection
215
Fisheries, Aquaculture
and Environment)
Low-interest loan
program for waterconserving systems
by spring 2004.
Agriculture
Man-made reservoirs to collect surface runoff
Side ponds which use diverted stream water at low
flow rates
Low capacity wells to replenish manmade reservoirs
Drip irrigation systems
(Department of
Agriculture, Fisheries
and Aquaculture)
Canada-Prince Edward
Island National Water
Program
Agriculture
(Federal-provincial
partnership)
Evaluation of ULF
Gravity Toilets in Two
Schools 2001
(Formerly Department of
Fisheries, Aquaculture
and Environment)
Reuse of Renovated
Municipal Wastewater
for Golf Course Irrigation
1999
(Initiated by the
Department of
Technology and
Environment, prepared
by the Centre for Water
Resources Studies at
the U. of Dalhousie)
Provides low interest loans to producers that purchase
and implement alternative water efficient irrigation
technologies. Eligible expenses include:
Residential,
ICI
Dates of eligibility are from April 1, 2003 to March 31,
2006, and the payback for each applicant will be on a fiveyear repayment schedule. Applicants must have
completed an Environmental Farm Plan and will be
required to provide 20 percent equity towards the project
costs. The Department will monitor the impact of the new
systems on crop yield and water conservation.
Announced in April of 2004. The $2.3 million program is
intended to enhance information on water conservation,
groundwater and surface water resources, and efficient
use of irrigation water; promote the use of water
infrastructure such as low-flow technologies and metering;
and conduct water studies. The program will provide
technical and financial assistance to individuals and/or
incorporated groups of farmers, agricultural and
conservation groups, rural communities and municipalities,
agri-business and rural enterprises, education institutions,
and provincial governments, agencies and crown
corporations to help plan and develop agricultural water
projects listed as eligible under the three categories of: onfarm water projects, multi-user water supplies, and
strategic initiatives. The program is scheduled to end in
2006.
Engineering Technologies Canada was retained to carry
out a study to calculate how much (if any) water can be
saved in schools by using 6 L instead of conventional 13.2
L gravity toilets and to determine if there is a higher rate of
plugging or double flushing in 6 L toilets.
The study concluded
that the 6L toilets tested
did not result in
increased flushing due
to plugging. The
average net water
savings achieved over a
toilet that flushed 13 L
was 46-60 %.
The objective of this study was to provide information that
would help guide decisions concerning the reuse of
renovated municipal wastewater for golf course irrigation,
with particular reference seasonal applications such as
those that might exist on PEI. Specifically, the report
attempts to identify and provides references to information
about matters that should be taken into consideration in
the design, planning and management of golf course
irrigation systems that use renovated water. Nine
Canadian golf courses using renovated water for irrigation
purposes were identified and studied.
Sources:
Department of Environment, Energy and Forestry. Drinking Water Strategy. Available:
http://www.gov.pe.ca/infopei/onelisting.php3?number=50234&PHPSESSID=3c68553fee1262df6c9f214026ff
c8ed
Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquiculture. Programs and Services Quick Reference. [Online]. Available:
http://www.gov.pe.ca/af/agweb/index.php3?number=78586&lang=E#Environmental. Last updated: October
2004
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 2004. News Release: Water Program Announced for Prince Edward
Island. [Online]. Available: http://www.agr.gc.ca/cb/print_e.php?s1=n&s2=2004&page=n40423a
Engineering Technologies Canada. 2001. Evaluation of Ultra Low Flow (6L) Gravity Toilets in Two Schools.
[Online]. Available: http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/fae_6L_toilet.pdf
216
Centre for Water Resources Studies. 1999. Reuse of Renovated Municipal Wastewater For Golf Course
Irrigation. [Online]. Available: http://www.gov.pe.ca/infopei/onelisting.php3?number=1000162
Municipal and Regional
Cavendish Resort Municipality in PEI attracts almost a million tourists each year as it boasts some of the most
beautiful beaches in the province and is the home of “Anne of Green Gables”. The resident population in the
municipality, however, is a mere 267. Water supply and security is becoming more of a problem in the region
due to the growing tourist industry.
Municipality or
Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
Cavendish Resort
Municipality. ‘Water
Conservation and
Development Plan’
Tourism
In June 2003, Cavendish launched its Water
Conservation and Development Plan. The
municipality has over 40 projects it wants to tackle
over the next few years. One of them is a Water
Quality and Conservation project. Although the focus
of this project is the testing of local residential and
business water supply and the provision of water
testing training, education material will also be
provided on conserving water usage.
Two water conservation officers
were hired in the summer of 2003 to
look for abandoned wells and oil
tanks, identify problems in the local
water supply, and distribute
educational information to residents
and businesses.
Funding from
Canada/PEI Labour
Market
Development
Agreement (LMDA)
Sources:
CBC New. June 23 2003. Cavendish Takes Sustainability Step. Available:
http://pei.cbc.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=pe_cavendish20030623
Canada/PEI Labour Market Development Agreement. Government Funding to Assist Cavendish Area With
Water Testing and Conservation Project. News Release June 23 2003. Available:
http://www.lmda.pe.ca/view_news.php?id=98
Sectoral
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Enviro Church
Conservation Project
Church
Introduced in 2002, the Diocese of Charlottetown
will undertake environmental assessments of the
buildings on its 56 parishes. The program will
reduce energy use, water consumption and
wastewater production by about 10% and reduce
hazardous household and chemical lawn products
use by about 20%. In addition, educational
materials will be supplied to parishioners to
increase their awareness of the initiatives
undertaken by their local church and to encourage
similar efficiencies in their own homes.
Agriculture
Based on the EFP concept in other provinces, the
program has recently received additional funding
for an Enhanced EFP program. The new program,
which will be delivered by the Federation, will offer
technical assistance to Prince Edward Island
producers to develop more comprehensive
environmental plans for their farms.
(Diocese of Charlottetown
with funding from
Environment Canada and
technical assistance from
the Environmental
Coalition of PEI)
Environmental Farm Plan
(EFP)
(Delivered by PEI
Federation of Agriculture
and funded by Agriculture
and Agri-food Canada,
technical and financial
assistance provided by
provincial government)
Results and
Effectiveness
Currently, Prince Edward
Island leads the country with
approximately 75 per cent of
producers having developed
EFPs to improve the
environmental performance of
their operations.
Sources:
Diocese of Charlottetown. Enviro Church Conservation Project. Available:
http://www.dioceseofcharlottetown.com/projects/envirochurch.html
217
Agriculture and Agri-food Canada. Enhanced Environmental Farm Planning Coming to Prince Edward
Island. News Release Aug. 19 2004. Available:
http://www.agr.gc.ca/cb/index_e.php?s1=n&s2=2004&page=n40819a
QUEBEC (QC)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Québec is water rich province, 10% of its land area covered by freshwater. It has among the largest per capita
water resources available in the world. The level of residential consumption observed in Québec is also among
the highest in the world, at approximately 400 litres per person per day (l/p/d). For comparison, the Canadian
average is on the order of 350 l/p/d, the United Kingdom is at 200 l/p/d and France at 150 l/p/d. Total quantity of
water drawn for residential use is approx. 1, 712 million m3 of water.
Interestingly, the agricultural sector (not including the fish farming industry) is not a large consumer of water in
Québec. In fact, many agricultural producers have suffered from excess water and have had to set up drainage
systems in their fields.
In the industrial sector, the ready availability of water has favoured the establishment of enterprises for which this
resource is essential. For 1994, it is estimated that companies in the pulp and paper, petroleum, primary
metallurgy, and organic and inorganic chemicals sectors consumed 996 million m3 of water. Sixty nine percent
of this use is accounted for by the pulp and paper industry and 21% by the primary metallurgy sector.
Sources:
Government of Québec. (2002). Québec Water Policy: Water. Our Life. Our Future. [Online]. Available:
http://www.menv.gouv.qc.ca/eau/politique/index-en.htm
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Civil Code of
Québec
Water Resources
Preservation Act
2001
Environment Quality
Act
Groundwater
Catchment
Regulation 2002
Under the
Environment Quality
Act
Watercourses Act
Ministry of the
Environment
Outlines the rules regarding the property of the ‘hydric’ domain. Describes also
the rights and duties associated with waters that are tied to land property/title.
Prohibits very large transfers of water out of Québec, with some exceptions.
Ministry of the
Environment
Ministry of the
Environment
S. 22 of the Act specifies that a certificate of authorization from the Ministry is
required before carrying out any works or projects in a watercourse.
Sets out rules in connection with groundwater catchment for human
consumption, as well as for the exploitation of groundwater resources such as
spring or mineral water. These rules prevent the owner of a land to exploit
groundwater in a way that reduces the level of phreatic water for adjacent
landowners.
Outlines the rules regarding the uses of watercourses. Section 5 indicates that
land owners may improve any watercourse passing through or along their
property with the construction of dams, dykes etc for the purpose of
manufacturing, operating a mill etc.
The Land Use
Planning and
Development Act
Ministry of the
Environment and
Ministry of Natural
Resources, Wildlife
and Parks
Ministry of Municipal
Affairs, Sports and
Recreation
Municipal Code of
Québec and Cities
and Towns Act
Ministry of Municipal
Affairs, Sports and
Recreation
Outlines rules surrounding the management and use of municipal
watercourses and the establishment and operation of water services. Water
services in Québec primarily come under the municipalities, which own much
of the infrastructure related to drinking water and wastewater. Municipalities
plan, finance, maintain and control most activities related to these services.
Describes the responsibilities of the Regional County Municipalities in the
development of territorial Plans.
Policies and Guidelines
Québec Water
Development of the policy began in 1997. After years of public consultation,
the final policy was published in 2002. Three main issues were identified in the
218
Policy 2002: ‘Water.
Our Life. Our Future’
Lakeshores,
Riverbanks, Littoral
Zones and
Floodplains Policy
consultations, including the need to recognize water as a collective heritage of
all Québecers, to protect public health and aquatic ecosystems and to manage
water in an integrated manner and from a perspective of sustainable
development. Five strategic orientations are identified in the policy, including:
Reform of water governance; Integrated management of the St. Lawrence
River; Protection of water quality and aquatic ecosystems; Continuation of
water clean-up and improved management of water services; Promotion of
water-related recreo-tourism activities. See below for specific commitments
made.
Ministry of the
Environment
Describes measures to promote the quality of lakes and streams by protecting
lakeshores, riverbanks, littoral zones and floodplains. The municipalities and
the Regional County Municipalities are responsible for the implementation of
these measures
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
To date, provincial water conservation efforts and initiatives have come mainly in the form of financial support to
local efforts and Non Government Organizations.
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Québec Water Policy
All
Specific government commitments related to water
conservation include:
Results and
Effectiveness
- The development of water charges for the
withdrawal and disposal of water resources
- The development of a means for municipalities to
calculate the cost of water services
- The development of a Québec strategy for the
conservation of drinking water which makes the
allocation of any financial assistance contingent
upon the adoption, by municipalities, of measures to
conserve water and reduce leakage. This strategy
must aim for a reduction, within 7 years, of at least
20% in average per capita water consumption for all
of Québec, and for a reduction in water losses
through leakage, within 10 years, to no more than
20% of the total volume of water produced.
- The establishment of a water-conservation program
in government buildings
- The provision of financial and technical support to
33 watershed agencies, which will be responsible for
the development of watershed masterplans.
Water Conservation
Campaign (PEEP)
(Reseau Environment,
partner Ministere de
l’Environnement du
Québec)
Municipal
Reseau Environment is a non-profit organization that
encourages public awareness and information to
promote water conservation in Québec. It is
comprised of both a technical and an awareness
section. The technical program aims to promote
technical exchanges among municipalities on
optimal methods to manage their water supplies and
demands. The PEEP campaign has been organized
every year since 1977, with the objective of working
with municipal representatives and supplying them
The Minister of Environment
announced that measures will
be in place next spring with a
tax of $ 0.01 /m3
The Ministry of Municipal
Affairs, Sports and Recreation
should produce a report in
2004
The Ministry of Municipal
Affairs, Sports and Recreation
has delayed the production of
the strategy to 2005
The program has started and
there are 36 buildings (of 349)
that have water meters
All of the 33 watershed
agencies are now in place
and have received their
subsidy. A complete structure
of governmental support is
now in place.
Approximately 70
municipalities are participants
in the campaign
219
with the necessary campaign tools. Municipalities
pay according to services rendered and the
population of the municipality.
Sources :
Reseau Environment. Available: http://www.reseauenvironnement.com/RENV/ui/user/events/eventDetails.jsp?eventId=74
Municipal and Regional
Municipality or Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
Ville de Laval
Schools
An education campaign concerning the efficient
use of water was initiated by the city in 1992.
Classroom education is provided to grade 5
classes in the city. The water cycle, from source
to its return, is explained, emphasizing the
rationale for the efficient use of water. Classes
are also invited for study visits to the water
purification and wastewater treatment plants in the
city.
Other initiatives implemented in the city include:
Summer lawn watering bylaw
A regulation requiring all new connections to
the water distribution network to have water
meters
65 schools participate
in the program
annually, and about
4000 students have
been educated so far.
Montreal
(Montreal Urban Community in
partnership with 6 drinking
water producing municipalities
in its territory, the Ministry of
the Environment, Environment
Canada Biosphere and
Reseau Environnement)
Commercial,
Institutional,
Industry
An awards program, recognizing Montreal
enterprises for their efforts in the conservation of
drinking water, was initiated by the city in 1997.
Each year a “Biosphere” award is awarded to
each of the 6 winners from the three eligible sector
categories. Two prizes are awarded in each
category, one to recognize efforts of intervention,
and the other to recognize efforts of awareness.
The award is presented on the first Monday of the
month of May, during the cities “water
conservation days”. Applications submitted for
nomination by enterprises must reflect the results
of the year preceding the entry and the application
must apply to an activity or program implemented
or realized within the past 5 years.
About 2000 water
meters are installed a
year.
As of 2000, nearly six
million cubic metres of
water had been saved
by prizewinners.
Sources:
Portail de la Ville de Laval. Available: http://www.ville.laval.qc.ca/pls/wlav/wlav.site.show?p_type=1&p_no=1
Ville de Montreal. Montreal Waste Water Treatment Plant. Available:
http://services.ville.montreal.qc.ca/station/an/accustaa.htm
SASKATCHEWAN (SK)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
In the last century, Saskatchewan has seen both periods of severe drought and severe flooding. Waterlogging is
a common problem in parts of Saskatchewan, particularly in the southeast. Due to this variability in water supply,
there has been a need to divert or store water to support human activity. For example, there are over 7000 small
dams on creeks and streams that are primarily for stock watering purposes, over 60 000 wells and thousands of
dugouts.
The majority of the water withdrawals are for irrigation. The breakdown of province=wide water usage is as
follows:
Surface Water
220
Irrigation 30.2%
Multiple use (including storage of water for wetland creation) 22.8%
Other 16.8%
Municipal 15.8%
Industrial 11.8%
Domestic 2.7%
Ground Water
Industrial 47%
Municipal and Domestic 47%
Recreation and other 5%
Irrigation and Multiple 1%
Total current withdrawals have been calculated to be 140,790 cubic decametres annually.
Sources:
Saskatchewan Environment. 1999. Overview of Saskatchewan’s Water Resources. In Water Management
Framework. [Online]. Available:
http://www.se.gov.sk.ca/ecosystem/water/framework/PAGE5.htm#Appendix%20III
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Saskatchewan does not have a formal water conservation plan at this time but is in the process of developing
one.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Saskatchewan
Watershed Authority Act
(2002)
Saskatchewan
Watershed Authority
(SWA)
Saskatchewan Water
Corporation Act (2002)
The Conservation and
Development Act (1979,
last amended 2002)
The Groundwater
Conservation Act and
Groundwater
SWA
SWA
This Act establishes the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. The
Authority consolidates the water management components from several
previous provincial water management institutions. It was created to
meet source water protection requirements set out in the province’s Long
term Drinking Strategy.
Its mandate, amongst other things, is to promote the economical and
efficient use, distribution and conservation of the water, watersheds and
related land resources of Saskatchewan. The Authority is responsible for
the allocation of ground and surface water, the inventory and analysis of
water sources and the administration and control of all water
infrastructure including operations and planning and the maintenance of
provincially owned water management infrastructure. It is also responsible
for the management of watershed and aquifer planning, for the
development of partnerships and projects that help provide healthy
watersheds and the provision of assessment and monitoring practices
that ensure the protection and restoration of the province's water sources.
S. 45 of the Act states landowners do not require a water license for the
use of adjacent surface waters, or ground waters, for domestic purposes.
However, ALL other water users require a license.
Establishes SaskWater as a crown corporation responsible for providing
water, wastewater, and related services to municipalities, industrial,
government and domestic customers in the province. It provides system
assessments, project management of water infrastructure projects and
water and water treatment operations. The corporation was created in
response to actions outlined in the Long Term Safe Drinking Water
strategy. SaskWater currently owns and operates 12 regional water
supply systems, 5 municipal water treatment systems, 2 wastewater
treatment systems and 4 irrigation projects in Saskatchewan. It also
serves 50 municipal customers, 34 industrial customers and 1,300
individual rural households
Enables rural landowners to establish a Conservation and Development
Area to facilitate the development of works to conserve and develop
agricultural land and water resources.
An Act respecting the Drilling of Water Wells and the Conservation and
Utilization of Ground Water. The regulation outlines permit requirements
for ground water exploration, registration of machines for drilling, drilling
221
Regulations (1978, last
amended 2002)
The Water Power Act
(1978, last amended
2002)
The Watershed
Associations Act (1978,
last amended 2002)
The Water Regulations
(2002)
Under the
Environmental
Management and
Protection Act
The Irrigation Act (1966,
last amended 2004)
and evaluation, abandonment of test holes and wells, and regulations for
the use of ground water.
Provides for the regulation of water power development.
SWA
SWA
Enables two or more agencies to establish a Watershed Association to
facilitate the planning and development of works to conserve and develop
land and water resources on a watershed basis.
Outlines permitting requirements surrounding the construction and
operation of water and wastewater works for potable water systems only.
Saskatchewan
Environment
Department of
Saskatchewan
Agriculture, Food and
Rural Revitalization
(SAFRR)
Planning and
Development Act (1983,
last amended 2004)
The Act requires all individuals wishing to develop new irrigation projects
to obtain an Irrigation Certificate. The certificate confirms that the land is
suitable for irrigation from the specified water source, thereby protecting
the province’s water and land resources. Since January 2 1997
individuals cannot receive irrigation services from irrigation districts or the
SAFRR without an Irrigation Certificate. Projects constructed prior to this
date have been grandfathered from having a Certificate. Projects are
exempt from certification if they require less than 12,000 cubic meters of
water annually. In the certification, many soil and water criteria must be
met.
An Act respecting Planning and Development in Urban, Rural and
Northern Municipalities. Gives authority to municipalities in land use
planning, including the development of water supply and distribution
plans.
Policies and Guidelines
A Water Conservation
Policy (proposed)
Treated Municipal
Wastewater Irrigation
Guidelines (2004)
Saskatchewan
Environment
The Minister responsible for the Saskatchewan Water Corporation
announced in September 2004 that "Our provincial government is now
actively studying the whole issue of water conservation with the view to
bringing forward a comprehensive water conservation policy and the
people of the province will be consulted on this issue in the months to
come."
The Minister responsible for the Watershed Authority has also announced
that the Watershed Authority will develop a water conservation plan and
public consultations will begin before the end of the year.
A permit to construct, extend or alter any treated wastewater irrigation
works must be obtained from Saskatchewan Environment. Required
application information is outlined, in addition to a number of guidelines
concerning the design of the works, wastewater treatment, soils and
topography, siting, land control, irrigation water quality criteria, monitoring
and reporting.
Sources:
Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. Available: http://www.swa.ca
SaskWater. Available: http://www.saskwater.com
Water Trouble Ahead: Researcher. [Online]. Available:
http://www.waterconserve.info/articles/reader.asp?linkid=34983
Saskatchewan Environment. 2004. Treated Municipal Wastewater Irrigation Guidelines. [Online]. Available:
http://www.se.gov.sk.ca/environment/protection/water/epb 235 - treated municipal wastewater effluent
irrigation.pdf
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
Long Term Safe Drinking
Water Strategy 2002
Municipal
Builds upon the Water Management Framework
of 1999 that established goals, objectives and
actions for water management, in the province.
Source protection is an important component of
the new strategy. The SWA commits to working
The SWA has developed a
watershed and aquifer
planning model. The SWA
has focused its activities and
programming in watersheds
Motivated by the North
Battleford Inquiry.
222
Canada-Saskatchewan
Irrigation Diversification
Centre
(Saskatchewan Agriculture,
Food and Rural
Revitalization, Irrigation
Crop Diversification
Corporation, Saskatchewan
Irrigation Projects Assoc.)
Agriculture
with municipalities and others to develop
comprehensive watershed management plans.
Other actions include: requiring municipalities to
have bylaws and protection plans in place to
protect water supplies
The Centre promotes crop diversification and
sustainable irrigation practices to provincial
producers and industry.
deemed most in need.
Sources:
Saskatchewan’s Safe Drinking Water Strategy. [Online]. Available:
http://www.se.gov.sk.ca/environment/protection/water/drinking.asp
Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. Protecting Our Water: A Watershed and Aquifer Planning Model for
Saskatchewan. [Online]. Available: http://www.swa.ca/publications/documents/ProtectingOurWater.pdf
Canada-Saskatchewan Irrigation Diversification Centre. Available: http://www.agr.gc.ca/pfra/csidc/csidc.htm
Municipal and Regional
Municipality or
Region
Target
Sector
City of Regina
Water Conservation
Program
Residential
Established in 1988 to
delay the need for a
$40 mill expansion of
the wastewater
treatment plant.
Description
Summer water conservation public
awareness campaign promoting a
voluntary watering plan
Year round display at Home and Garden
Show
Free Xeriscape workshops with workbook
Xeriscape demonstration site
Conservation tips in water bills
Results and Effectiveness
The program has been successful.
Since the late 1980's average day
water usage has been reduced by
20%, and peak day water use is
down by 25%. A fall 1998 survey
showed nearly three-quarters of
Regina residents practice water
conservation
Sources:
City of Regina. Water Conservation. Available:
http://www.regina.ca/content/info_services/water_sewer/water_conserv.shtml
Sectoral
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
Saskatchewan
Conservation Learning
Centre Inc. (CLC)
(Funded by many
government, industry
institutions)
Agriculture
Since its inception in 1994,
13,578 youth have participated
in the CLC’s school program.
Destination
Conservation
Saskatchewan
(Administered by the
Saskatchewan
Environmental Society
(SES), with funding from
many different
Institutional
(schools)
A producer driven, non-profit corporation with
formal status as a registered charity, the centre
demonstrate at a farm scale, soil and water
conservation technology. It also serves as a field
laboratory for evaluation and applicability of new
research and technology. Scientists from federal,
provincial, private and university research
institutions conduct research at the centre. Each
year the centre undertakes between 30-40 short
term projects that highlight soil/water conservation.
A well-developed school program for students of all
grades is also offered.
A student driven, educational and technical
program to save energy, conserve water and
reduce waste in Saskatchewan schools. A
collaborative project between SES and several
school boards. The following are part of the
educational component: training of school
staff/parents in implementing the program,
manuals, home guides, curriculum links etc. A
Destination Conservation has
saved 11 Saskatchewan
School Divisions over
$650,000 in just six years of
operation. Typically, school
divisions have seen a 10%
reduction in water use.
223
government and private
sources)
couple of program options are offered in the
technical component, providing differing financing
options for technical retrofits in the school.
Sources:
Saskatchewan Conservation Learning Centre. Available:
http://www.conservationlearningcentre.com/index.html
Saskatchewan Environmental Society. Destination Conservation Saskatchewan. Available:
http://www.environmentalsociety.ca/index.html
YUKON (YK)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
In recent years the Yukon Territory has been experiencing drought conditions. As stated in the Yukon State of
the Environment report for 1999, 51 years of weather information indicate that 1998 was the driest year ever
recorded in the territory. According to Environment Canada, annual precipitation was 34 percent below normal in
this year. Residents in Whitehorse rural subdivisions that rely on groundwater were finding their wells drying up
or providing insufficient volume.
Water flows are normally abundant throughout the summer months, often peaking in late August or early
September.
Water allocation by sector in 1998 was as follows (data are based on amount of water permitted for withdrawal
according to license):
Municipal (75.4%)
Placer mining (12.6%)
Conservation (6.9%)
Other (2.1%)
Hardrock mining (2.1%)
Agriculture (0.9%)
In 2001, per capita water use (total water use divided by population) in the City of Whitehorse was 560 litres/day
down from 840 L/cap/day in 1998. High per capita usage can be attributed in large part to distribution system
leakage and the use of bleeder-devices for preventing pipes from freezing. The reduced usage rates in 2001
reflect replacement of some free-flow bleeders with thermostatically controlled devices.
Sources:
Yukon Government, Department of Renewable Resources. 2000. State of the Environment Report 1999.
[Online]. Available: http://www.environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca/soe/soe1999info.shtml
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Department of
the Environment
Responsibility for water management was transferred from the federal
government to the Yukon government on April 1, 2003. The Act is
administered by the Environmental Programs Branch, Water Resources
Section. The branch also conducts environmental assessments for water
license applications, and designs and coordinates water studies as
needed.
Legislation and Regulations
The Water Act 2003
The Yukon Water Board is also established in this Act (s. 8). The board is
an independent administrative tribunal. It is primarily responsible for the
issuance of water use licenses for the use of water and/or the deposit of
waste into water. It’s objective, according to s. 10 of the Act is to, “provide
for the conservation, development and utilization of waters in a manner
that will provide the optimum benefit from them for all Canadian and of the
residents of the Yukon in particular.” The board is also responsible for the
environmental assessment of some water use applications.
224
S. 6 of the Act requires that all persons using water in a water
management area are licensed to do so. A license is not needed for
domestic use, firefighting purposes, and instream uses. S. 13 indicates
that the Board may include in a license any conditions it considers
appropriate, including conditions relating to the manner of use of waters
permitted to be used under the license, conditions relating to studies that
must be undertaken, plans to be submitted and monitoring to be
undertaken, etc.
Waters Regulation 2003
Under The
Water Act
Department of
the Environment
Outlines the circumstances for which a water license is not required in a
water management area. For example, for industrial undertakings, water
use of less than 100 m3/ day does not require a license. According to the
regulation, conservation plans are not required for municipal undertakings,
or for any type of undertaking. A license for agricultural water takings is
not required for takings less than 300 m3/day.
Yukon-Northwest Territories
Transboundary Water
Management Agreement
(2002)
Government of
Canada, NWT
and Yukon
Mackenzie River Basin
Transboundary Waters
Master Agreement (1997)
Government of
Canada, NWT,
Yukon, BC, AB,
SK
Provides a means for the NWT and the Yukon to address transboundary
water management issues and provide protection to the aquatic
environment. The agreement also allows for the establishment of water
quantity and quality objectives for waters entering the NWT from the
Yukon.
Creates the Mackenzie River Basin Board. The parties to the agreement
commit to managing the use of the water in a sustainable manner,
resolving issues cooperatively, etc. The Board provides a forum for
communication, coordination, information exchange, notification and
consultation among all six jurisdictions and the public. It is also the
agreement from which the Yukon-Northwest Territories Transboundary
Water Management Agreement arose.
Yukon First Nation Final
Agreements (Umbrella
agreement finalized in 1990)
– Chapter 14, Section
14.10.1 (Water management)
Government of
Canada, Yukon
and First Nations
States that Canada and Yukon commit to make best efforts to negotiate
water management agreements with other jurisdictions that share the
same drainage basins with the Yukon. First Nations rights to water are
outlined.
Yukon currently maintains a formal cost sharing agreement with
Environment Canada for the design, construction and operation of the
hydrometric and sediment sampling networks in the Territory. Data from
this network is currently used for flood forecasting, project design
assessment and operation, as well as for inventory purposes including
flow monitoring, watershed characterization and climate change
monitoring.
Environment Canada –
Yukon Hydrometric
Agreement
Public Drinking Water
Systems Regulation (2004)
Department of
Health and
Social Services
The Prohibition of Bulk Water
from Major Drainage Basins
in the Yukon Territory
Department of
the Environment
Addresses every aspect of the drinking water system from "source to tap".
The regulation provides specifications for the protection, operation and
maintenance of a public drinking water system. As the title suggests the
regulation covers suppliers of drinking water in situations where there are
multiple users. All types of water supply systems are covered by the
regulations, including drilled wells, which must be developed to the
Canadian Groundwater Association standards. The regulations require
the submission of drill logs.
The removal of freshwater in bulk quantities from any major drainage
basin within the Yukon is prohibited. Any licenses submitted to the Minister
responsible for the Water's Act authorizing bulk water removal will not be
approved. Bulk water removal is defined as any water transferred out of a
river basin in any individual container greater than 40 litres in volume, or
removal by any means that involves permanent out-of-basin transfer,
whether it is by diversion, tanker or other mechanism.
Sources:
Government of Yukon. 2001. Water Resources Branch. [Online]. Available:
http://www.environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca/water/index.shtml
Yukon Water Board. [Online]. Available: http://www.yukonwaterboard.ca/index.htm Last updated July 15,
2004
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
Provincial
225
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
(Department of
Mines, Energy
and Resources,
Agriculture
Branch)
Energy Solutions
Centre Inc.(ESC)
(Funded by the
Yukon
Development
Corporation and
Natural
Resources
Canada)
Agriculture
Provides advice to farmers in all aspects of farm
management including conservation techniques and
new farm technology.
Residential,
ICI, Public
The Energy Solutions Centre is a service and
program delivery agency for the Federal and Yukon
governments' programs relating to energy efficiency
and green power. The Centre offers a number of
business and residential energy efficiency programs,
including the provision of energy audits and financial
incentives for enhanced energy efficiency. Water
conservation may play a role in many of these
projects. The Centre is also involved in the expansion
of a groundwater-monitoring database covering all
Yukon municipalities and first nation communities as a
first step in assessing the aquifer characteristics
underlying these communities. ESC's focus was on
the ground source energy potential beneath Yukon
communities for climate control. As a component of
the project, ESC purchased 1000 well logs from
Midnight Sun Drilling as well as rights to future logs.
Results and Effectiveness
ESC has offered the expanded
database and assorted well logs
to Yukon Water Resources for
long term management and
maintenance. With this database,
Water Resources and Community
Services will develop a web-based
database and input the newly
acquired drill logs, as well as drill
logs from other sources, into the
database.
Sources:
Department of Mines, Energy and Resources – Agriculture Branch. [Online]. Available:
http://www.emr.gov.yk.ca/Agriculture/Extension_%ADServices.htm Last updated Oct. 6 2004
Energy Solutions Centre Inc. Available: http://www.nrgsc.yk.ca/index.php
Municipal and Regional
Municipality
or Region
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
City of
Whitehorse
Municipal,
All
Domestic use is generally not metered. Commercial and industrial
customers are metered and pay by volume. To reduce water
consumption the city implemented a by-law requiring that all new
construction and retrofitting include low flow toilets. Thermostatically
controlled bleeder devices were also introduced. A Watershed
Management Plan for the city was also finalized in 2004; however,
the focus of this plan is water quality.
The bleeder reduction
program has
significantly reduced
total water use.
City of Dawson
Public
A low-flow bleeder system was installed in 2003.
Water consumption for
the city was reduced
by 27%.
Sources:
Yukon Government, Department of Renewable Resources. 2000. State of the Environment Report 1999.
[Online]. Available: http://www.environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca/soe/soe1999info.shtml
Sectoral
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Towel Saver
Program
(Tourism Industry
Association of the
Yukon) (TIA)
Target
Sector
Description
Hotels,
motels
The TIA Towel Saver Program encourages guests in Yukon
accommodations to reduce daily towel replacement in an effort to
reduce water and energy consumption. TIA Yukon also promotes
the national Green Leaf Eco-rating Program, which recognizes
hotels, motels etc., for improvements in environmental
performance. These initiatives are done in partnership with Natural
Resources Canada, Department of Business, Tourism and Culture,
Yukon Development Corporation, BC and Yukon Hotels’
Association, and Hotel Association of Canada.
Results and
Effectiveness
226
Sources:
Tourism Industry Association of the Yukon. Available: http://www.tiayukon.com/Page_programs.htm
227
APPENDIX A.2 UNITED STATES
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
National Water Supply and Demand Overview
At the global scale, the United States would appear to possess adequate renewable water resources in relation
to its current needs. On the other hand, an uneven distribution of these resources relative to water-intensive
growth and development has resulted in water shortages and user conflicts particularly in the western states.
Total freshwater withdrawals (excluding hydropower) amounted to 345 billion US gallons per day (477 billion m³
per year) in 2000. Surface water withdrawals accounted for 76% of all takings. Withdrawals by major sector were
crop irrigation 39.7%, thermal power 39.4%, public water supply 12.6%, industrial 5.4%, livestock (including
aquaculture) 1.6%, rural domestic 1.0%, and mining 0.6%. While the intensity of withdrawals is generally higher
in the east, sustainability concerns are more serious in the west. Six states - California, Idaho, Colorado,
Nebraska, Texas and Montana - together account for more than 60% of total U.S. crop-water usage.
Total Yr 2000 Freshwater Withdrawals for Selected States (excluding hydropower)
(Million US gallons/day)
State
Public
Other
Irrigation -
Lives-
Aqua-
Supply
Domestic
crop &
tock
culture
Industrial
Mining
Thermal
Totals
Power
landscape
Arizona
1,080
29
5,400
-
-
19.8
California
6,120
286
30,500
409
537
Florida
2,440
199
4,290
33
8
296
31
2,860
-
43,300
3,590
137,000
1,760
New
85.7
100
6,720
188.0
23.7
352
38,400
291.0
217.0
658
8,140
-
10.5
-
56
3,260
3,700
18,500
2,010
136,000
345,000
Mexico
Total USA
Overall U.S. water usage peaked in 1980, declined about 10% between 1980 and 1985, and has been relatively
stable since. The decline is attributed to water-efficiency improvements in the thermal power, irrigation and
industrial sectors. Thermal power and irrigation withdrawals have been largely stable since 1985 in spite of
increases in production. Total public water supply usage has tripled since 1950 while population has increased
by about 93%.
Sources:
•
Adapted from U.S Department of the Interior & U.S Geological Survey 2000. See
http://water.usgs.gov/pubs
Federal Water Conservation Initiatives
Under the United States constitution, considerable water management powers are vested in the federal
government. While states do have important law-making powers relating to water resources, their processes and
end results must adhere to minimum national standards in order for them to access program funding available
from the many federal agencies involved in water management. Given the extensive ‘carving-up’ of watersheds
and major aquifers by state boundaries, the vestige of ultimate power over water with the federal government is
critical to its effective management. Special purpose bodies have been created to manage water resources in
some large and heavily used river basins.
As in Canada, U.S water allocation principles and laws differ from east to west, i.e. riparian or common law rights
in the east vs. prior appropriation rights in the west.
One or more federal agencies can be involved in water conservation planning and implementation depending on
the water-use sector. Key agencies include the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Dept of Agriculture
(USDA), Dept of Energy (DOE), and Dept of the Interior (DOI).
228
US EPA provides water conservation program planning guidance relative to public water utilities in conjunction
with its responsibilities for administering the Safe Drinking Water Act (1996). The agency’s Guidelines for
Preparing Water Conservation Plans formally released in 1998 currently serve as a model for municipal water
authorities in the U.S and in other countries. EPA’s effluent quality standards and watercourse standards have
also played a significant role in encouraging water-use intensive industries and municipalities to reduce their
water usage.
EPA promotes water conservation and efficiency as a cost-saving element of infrastructure renewal and
sustainability initiatives and as integral consideration in watershed management planning. It is also considering
the establishment of a national water-efficiency labeling program for water-using appliances and other devices
similar to that of the Energy Star Program.
USDA and DOI are involved in the promotion and facilitation of conservation initiatives in crop irrigation
particularly in the Western States. DOI is also the home of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with its
responsibilities in monitoring, compiling, evaluating and disseminating information on water availability and water
use throughout the country. The Dept of Energy may emerge as a more significant player in water conservation
efforts with its active involvement in promoting the synergistic benefits of water and energy conservation.
ARIZONA (AZ)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Much of Arizona lies in a desert climate. As such, most settlement and economic growth is focused in areas
where dependable sources of water exist. Groundwater accounts for 40% of overall water use.
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
The Arizona Department of Water Resources (DWR) administers Arizona’s water resources policies and laws. Its
responsibilities include administration and oversight of surface and ground water rights, well drilling, groundwater
recharge activities, water monitoring, and long range planning. Much of the focus is on five Active Management
Areas (AMAs). These were established to provide long-term management and conservation in areas of strong
demand and limited groundwater supplies.
Area Management Plans are developed with a 10-year horizon. The first plans came into effect in 1980 so are
rd
now in their 3 generation, i.e. 2000-2010. The plan establishes conservation requirements for municipal,
agricultural and industrial water users with those requirements becoming increasingly stringent under each
successive plan. Extensive stakeholder consultations are involved.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
229
Legislation and Regulations
Groundwater
Management Act
1980 - Groundwater
Management Code
Department of
Water
Resources
The Arizona Groundwater Management Code establishes the legal framework for
conserving and managing water in Arizona’s most populous areas.
Primary Goals:
•
To control severe overdrafting of aquifers
•
To provide a means to allocate limited groundwater resources to most
effectively meet the changing needs of the state; and
•
To augment Arizona’s groundwater resources through supply development
Provisions:
•
establishes a program of groundwater rights and permits
•
prohibits irrigation of new agricultural lands within 5 Active Management
Areas (AMA)
•
requires preparation of water management plans for each AMA designed
to create a comprehensive system of conservation targets and other water
management criteria
•
requires developers to demonstrate a minimum 100-year assured water
supply for new growth
•
requires metering/measuring of water pumped from all large wells
•
requires annual water withdrawal and use reporting; these reports may be
audited to ensure water user compliance with the provisions of the
Groundwater Code and management plans; penalties may be assessed
for non-compliance
Groundwater Rights
Department of
Water
resources
A groundwater right or permit is required unless the person is withdrawing from an
“exempt” well or a well with a maximum pumping capacity of 35 US gallons/min.
Grandfathered rights, service area rights, and withdrawal permits are required to
withdraw water from non-exempt wells in all AMA’s
Unless irrigation occurred between 1975 and 1980 and the user received an
irrigation grandfathered right for the historical agricultural acres, no new lands may
be put into production within an Active Management Area.
Policies and Guidelines
Assured Water
Supply program
Adequate Water
Supply program
Department of
Water
resources
Department of
Water
resources
The Assured Water Supply Program covers subdivision development within an AMA.
In order to obtain a Certificate of Assured Water Supply, five criteria must be met:
1. The water supply must be physically, legally, and continuously available for the
next 100 years.
2. The water must meet water quality standards or be of sufficient quality.
3. The proposed water use must be consistent with the management goal of the
AMA.
4. The proposed water use must be consistent with the current management plan of
the AMA.
5. The developer must demonstrate the financial capability to construct any
necessary water storage, treatment, and delivery systems.
The Adequate Water Supply program, first created in 1973, operates outside of
AMAs. Developers are required to obtain a determination from DWR concerning the
quantity and quality of water available before any lot sales can occur. If the
application for a Water Adequacy Report successfully demonstrates that water of
sufficient quality will be physically, legally, and continuously available for the next
100 years, then the Department will determine the water supply to be adequate. If
the water supply is determined to be inadequate, the developer may still sell lots, but
the inadequate determination must be disclosed to potential buyers in the public
report approved by ADRE and in all promotional materials. If the proposed
subdivision will be served by a provider with a Designation of Adequate Water
Supply, then the developer only has to provide a written commitment of service from
the designated provider.
Sources:
•
Overview of Arizona Groundwater Management Code. [Online]. Available at
http://www.water.az.gov/adwr/Content/Publications/files/gwmgtovw.pdf
230
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
State
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
Water Management
Assistance Program
Department
of Water
Resources
The Arizona DWR Water Management
Assistance Program provides financial and
technical assistance to help water users meet
their conservation requirements, to facilitate
renewable water supply utilization, and to
obtain information on hydrologic conditions
and water availability in the Active
Management Areas (AMAs).
Sources:
•
Water Conservation, Augmentation and Monitoring Programs. [Online]. Available at
http://www.water.az.gov/watermanagement/Content/Conservation/default.htm
Municipal and Regional
Municipality or
Region
Target
Sector
Description
City of Tucson
Residential
Miscellaneous
Residential
November of 1999 Tucson Water published
“The Homeowners Guide To Using Water
Wisely”
Use of grey water for landscape irrigation is
permitted under the following restrictions:
-for private residential use only
-must be used at site where it is generated
-cannot be used in conjunction with spray
irrigation equipment
-maximum use is 400 gallons per day
Results and Effectiveness
Sources:
•
Homeowners Guide to Using Water Wisely. [online]. Available at
http://www.ci.tucson.az.us/water/conservation/conservation_general/Homeowner.pdf
CALIFORNIA (CA)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
In average water years like 2000, California receives about 200 million acre-feet of water from precipitation and
imports from Colorado, Oregon and Mexico. Of this total supply, about 50-60 percent either is used by native
vegetation, evaporates to the atmosphere, provides some of the water for agricultural crops and managed
wetlands (effective precipitation); or flows to Oregon, Nevada, the Pacific Ocean, and salt sinks like saline
groundwater aquifers and the Salton Sea. The remaining 40-50 percent, or dedicated supply, is distributed
among urban and agricultural uses, water for protecting and restoring the environment, or storage in surface and
groundwater reservoirs for later use.
In any year, some of the dedicated supply includes water that is used multiple times (reuse) and water stored
from previous years. Ultimately, about a third of the dedicated supply flows out to the Pacific Ocean, in part to
meet environmental requirements, or to other salt sinks. For wet and dry years, the total supply and the
distribution of the dedicated supply to various uses differ significantly from the example above for an average
year.
California's unique geography and climate have allowed it to become one of the most productive agricultural
regions in the world. The Sierra Nevada Mountain range bordering the eastern edge of the State captures and
stores winter precipitation that is used for summer irrigation in the Central Valley. California produces over 250
different crops and leads the nation in production of 75 commodities. California is the sole U.S. producer of
almonds, artichokes, dates, figs, raisins, kiwifruit, olives, persimmons, pistachios, prunes and walnuts.
231
California agricultural producers use roughly 30 million acre-feet of water a year on 9.6 million acres. California's
vast water infrastructure was developed to provide water for irrigation with agriculture using 80% of the State’s
developed water supply.
Ongoing population growth (projected to increase from 32.1 million in 1995 to 47.5 million by 2020) and greater
awareness of environmental requirements have increased pressure on California agriculture to use water more
efficiently and to make more water available for urban and environmental uses. Reducing agricultural water
usage has proved difficult as California producers are already among the most efficient in the country and are
reluctant to improve water efficiencies if it means sacrificing existing crop yields.
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Lead responsibilities for water management are held by the Department of Water Resources. Within DWR, the
Office of Water Use Efficiency (OWUE) oversees water use efficiency planning and coordination, provision of
technical and financial assistance, information collection and dissemination and ongoing water resources
evaluation. More specifically, OWUE:
•
Provides expertise to local agencies and individuals regarding agricultural and urban water and energy
conservation, reclamation and reuse of water, land and water use, and drainage management.
•
Manages the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) by collecting weather data
from over 120 stations and disseminating calculated reference evapotranspiration rates to assist
landscape and crop managers irrigate efficiently.
•
Assists in establishing mobile laboratories that conduct irrigation system evaluations.
•
Carries out data analysis, demonstration projects, and research to achieve energy and water use
efficiency.
•
Provides loans and grants to make more efficient use of water and energy resources.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Urban Water
Management Act of
2003
Department of
Water
Resources
(DWR)
The Act requires water utilities serving 3,000 or more customers, or providing over
3,000 acre-feet of water annually, must make every effort to reliably meet customer
demands during normal, dry, and multiple dry years. It also requires preparation of
an Urban Water Management Plan for the service area. Plans are subject to DWR
review and approval.
DWR assists urban water utilities in preparing the management plans and in
implementing conservation programs.
DWR staff review plans submitted in accordance with the Act. Results are provided
to local and regional water suppliers through a review letter. Results are also
compiled into a Legislative Report provided to California Legislature one year after
plans are due to DWR.
Established the Agricultural Water Management Council (formed in 1996) to help in
development of water management plans and in the promotion and implementation
efficient water management practices.
Agricultural Efficient
Water Management
Act of 1990
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
State
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Commercial, Industrial, and
Institutional (CII) Water
Management Program
ICI
The role of the Commercial, Industrial, and
Institutional Program is to disseminate information
on improved water use efficiency technologies and
help local agencies develop and implement CII water
use efficiency programs. This includes assisting in
compliance with California Urban Water
Conservation Council BMP directives and obtaining
financial assistance for implementing water and
energy efficiency programs.
CII Voucher Program (San
Diego County Water
ICI
The CII Voucher Program is managed by the
Authority for all participating member agencies. The
Results and
Effectiveness
232
Authority, Metropolitan Water
District)
Authority, its member agencies and the Metropolitan
Water District fund the program.
H2OUSE Website (California
Urban Water Conservation
Council)
The Program Development
Unit (Department of Water
Resources)
Residential
Website offers a list of water saving tips for a
homeowner
Agriculture
The Program Development unit encourages and
promotes irrigation practices and technology that
lead to efficiency in water and energy use. To
achieve this goal, the unit:
1. Conducts training and educational workshops on
new technologies for water and energy efficiency
measures.
2. Partners with other agencies, growers, and water
use efficiency experts to work with growers on
developing innovative water and energy efficiency
projects, guidelines and training.
3. Works with Irrigation/Water districts that pump
groundwater or provide pressurized water to
growers, to do pump testing to achieve optimum
performance. Promotes the benefits of testing to
water suppliers that haven't been testing.
Coordinates activities with local energy utilities and
the Agricultural Water Management Council to
facilitate the implementation of local and regional
pump testing.
4. Works with University of California and California
State University to develop guidelines and technical
specifications to evaluate the use of variable
frequency drives.
Association of California
Water Agencies (ACWA)
State Outreach Handbook
All
ACWA, founded in 1910, represents and provides
services to members. From legislation, to regulatory
activity, to broad policy issues, ACWA is on the front
lines in state and national capitals as a constant and
respected advocate for California’s public water
agencies.
California Irrigation
Management Information
System (CIMIS)
DWR
DWR manages a network of over 120 automated
weather stations across the State. The real-time data
assists crop irrigators to schedule and manage their
water usage more efficiently.
Sources:
•
Office of Water Use Efficiency homepage. [Online]. Available at
http://www.owue.water.ca.gov/index.cfm
•
San Diego County Water Authority. [Online]. Available at http://www.sdcwa.org/manage/conservationcii.phtml
•
California Urban Water Conservation Council. [Online]. Available at http://www.h2ouse.org/
•
California Department of Water Resources: Current Programs in Water Use Efficiency. [Online].
Available at http://www.owue.water.ca.gov/agdev/pgm/pgm.cfm
•
Association of California Water Agencies. [Online]. Available at http://www.acwanet.com/
FLORIDA (FL)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Floridians were using an estimated 7.7 billion US gallons of freshwater per day (US bgd) in 2000 and total
demand is projected to reach 9.1 US bgd by 2020. Agricultural uses account for some 52% of current
withdrawals with public supply use making up about 31%.
The Floridian Aquifer supplies most of Florida’s ground water needs. It is the potable supply for such cities as
Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Gainesville, Orlando, Daytona Beach, and portions of Tampa and St. Petersburg. It
also serves thousands of individual domestic, agricultural, industrial and commercial users.
233
One of the worst droughts in Florida’s history occurred in 2001. This together with rapidly growing water
demands led state and local water management agencies to begin a process aimed at identifying additional
measures to increase water efficiency. The public process resulted in the preparation of the April 2002 document
entitled ‘Florida Water Conservation Initiative’. The report’s 51 priority recommendations for improving water use
efficiency were captured in a Joint Statement of Commitment outlining agency roles and responsibilities for
implementation.
Sources:
•
Florida Water Conservation Initiative. April 2002. Florida Dept of Environmental Protection
Water Management Roles and Responsibilities
The Florida Water Resources Act of 1972 gives state regulatory control over water quantity and quality issues to
the Department of Environmental Protection. The Department of Environmental Protection oversees the
programs and activities of the state's five Water Management Districts (WMDs).
Water management districts are responsible for issuing a variety of water-related permits including the
Consumptive Use Permit (CUP). The CUP allows water to be taken from a surface or ground water source for
reasonable and beneficial uses. Permits are required for uses withdrawing water from a well that measures six
inches or more in diameter, involving an annual average taking of 100,000 US gallons of water or more per day,
or having the capacity to pump 1 US million gallons or more per day.
The Water Conservation Goal of the state is to “prevent and reduce wasteful, uneconomical, impractical, or
unreasonable use of water resources”. Conservation of water is required of all water users except where it is
determined to be “not economically or environmentally feasible”.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Florida Water
Resources Act 1972
Department of
Environmental
Protection
(DEP)
Florida Watershed
Restoration Act 1999
DEP
62-40.412 Water
Conservation
Department of
Environmental
Protection
Gives lead regulatory responsibilities over water quantity and quality issues to the
Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and establishes five water
management districts (WMDs) - Northwest Florida WMD, Suwannee River WMD, St.
Johns River WMD, South Florida WMD and the Southwest Florida WMD. DEP is
given regulatory supervision over the districts and is to delegate water resources
programs to them where possible.
The Florida Watershed Restoration Act further outlines the responsibilities of key
water management agencies including the Department of Environmental Protection
(DEP), Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) and the five
Districts with respect to a suite of integrated management functions.
Water Management Districts are expected to work with and assist local and regional
governments “ in designing and formulating plans and programs to conserve water to
meet their long term needs, including incentives such as longer term more flexible
permits, economic incentives, and greater certainty of supply during water
shortages”.
They have the mandate for:
- Prescribing efficiency measures for all urban, industrial, and agricultural users
including:
•
Restrictions against inefficient irrigation practices
•
Imposition of year-round time-of-day restrictions (subject to variances or
exemptions) on particular irrigation activities or irrigation sources
•
Minimization of unaccounted for water losses
•
Promotion of water conserving rate structures
•
Use of water-conserving plumbing fixtures, xeriscape, and rain sensors
- Implementing public information and education programs
- Coordinating activities with neighbouring districts
Part VI, chapter
373.62: Water
Conservation
Florida
Statutes
Requires any person purchasing or installing an automatic sprinkler system to install
a rain sensor that will override the irrigation cycle when sufficient rain has fallen.
Policies and Guidelines
Water Supply
Facilities Work Plan
Department of
Community
Affairs
Municipal governments are required to project local needs for at least a 10-year
period, identify and prioritize the water supply facilities and sources that will be
needed to meet those needs, and include a Five-Year Schedule of Capital
Improvements required. Each listed capital improvement must identify its
234
Watershed
Management
Program 1999
Department of
Environmental
Protection
accompanying revenue source(s).
The Watershed Management Program was created to guide implementation of the
provisions of the Florida Watershed Restoration Act. It covers the areas of:
- Watershed management planning and coordination
- Watershed monitoring and data management
- Watershed assessment
- Ground water assessment
- Non-point source management
- National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) stormwater permitting
Sources:
•
Florida Department of Environmental Protection. [Online]. Available: http://www.dep.state.fl.us
•
Department of Community Affairs. [Online]. Available at
http://www.dca.state.fl.us/fdcp/DCP/WaterSupplyPlanning/watersupplyplanning.htm
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
State
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Florida Water Conservation
Initiative. 2002
All
Developed in response to growing demands and
water supply conflicts that were exacerbated by the
2001 drought. The goal was to determine “what can
be done to make significant, permanent and costeffective improvements in water use efficiency”.
Joint Statement of
WMDs
Commitment for the
Development and
Implementation of a
Statewide Comprehensive
Water Conservation Program
for Public Water Supply
(JSOC)
Results and
Effectiveness
The result of the public process was a report
containing 51 recommendations covering:
- Agricultural irrigation
- Landscape irrigation
- Water pricing
- ICI BMP certification programs
- Indoor water efficiency measures
- Wastewater reclamation and reuse
The JSOC is an agreement among key water
management agencies and partners to collaborate
on measures for improving water-use efficiency.
The JSOC partners are developing a work plan
spelling out specific tasks, milestones, cost
estimates and responsibilities. The work plan is to be
completed by February 2005 and will include
recommendations regarding:
- Standardized definitions and performance
measures
- Establishment of a clearinghouse for water
conservation
- Development of a standardized conservation
planning process for utilities
- Implementation of pilots through cooperative
agreements with volunteer utilities.
Agricultural Water
Conservation Program
Agriculture
The Florida Dept of Agriculture and Consumer
Services supports state and local conservation
efforts targeted at agricultural producers. This
includes:
-Providing cost-share assistance for irrigation system
water-efficiency retrofits and demonstrations.
-Promoting development, implementation and
updating of voluntary interim measures and best
management practices adopted by rule.
-Providing assistance to the water management
districts in the development and implementation of
consistent methodologies for the allocation and
235
management of waters used for crop irrigation.
Sources:
•
Florida Senate. [Online]. Available at http://www.flsenate.gov/Welcome/index.cfm
NEW MEXICO (NM)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
The New Mexico Office of the State Engineer encourages water conservation in all water use sectors through the
educational efforts of its Water Conservation Program. It assists water rights applicants in preparing water
conservation plans and is in the process of establishing formal policies to guide conservation planning.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Water Planning
Program
State
Engineer
New Mexico law requires the State Engineer to consider water conservation when
reviewing an application for water rights. Water right permits that are issued include
a water conservation condition stating that the permittee "shall utilize the highest and
best technology available to ensure conservation of water to the maximum extent
practical."
NM Interstate
Stream
Commission
(ISC)
New Mexico has in place legislation for a regional water-planning program carried
out by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission (ISC). The regional waterplanning program was adopted by the New Mexico Legislature in 1987 (72-1-43 and
72-14-44 N.M.S.A., Cum Supp. 1993). The planning strategy was created at a
regional level “due to the many variables in climate, water supply, water demand,
and legal and institutional constraints to water resources management in New
Mexico”. There are a total of sixteen water-planning regions.
The ISC put together a Regional Water Planning Handbook in 1994, aiding with
water plans at the regional level. Each region is responsible for “identifying water
supply, projecting demand, and where water is determined to be inadequate to meet
projected demand, which is almost always the case in New Mexico, regions must
develop strategic alternatives to meet their water shortage challenges”.
Water plans must include recommended alternatives for regional water resources
management, water conservation, protection of the regional public welfare, and time
lines for implementing the water plan. Investigations are also used to identify
unappropriated ground water resources that may be reserved on behalf of a region.
State Water Plan
NM Interstate
Stream
Commission
Adopted by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission Dec. 17 2003
Policies and Guidelines
Infrastructure funding
eligibility
Use of grey water
Preparation and submission of a water conservation plan is a prerequisite in applying
for state funding assistance for local infrastructure projects.
In 2003, the State Legislature approved use of grey water for residential landscape
uses. Gray water is considered to include wastewater from baths, showers,
bathroom sinks and clothes washers.
Sources:
•
Office of the State Engineer [Online]. Available. http://www.seo.state.nm.us/waterinfo/NMWaterPlanning/NMWP-index.html
•
Use of Grey water [Online]. Available. http://www.seo.state.nm.us/publications/00-01-annualreport/isc.html
236
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
State
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Target
Sector
Description
Water Conservation
Program (Office of the
State Engineer and New
Mexico Interstate Stream
Commission)
Water
The New Mexico Office of the State Engineer
Management encourages water conservation in all water
Districts
use sectors through the educational efforts of
its Water Conservation Program. The agency
is also establishing water conservation policy
guidelines for water rights applicants.
Results and Effectiveness
Sources:
•
New Mexico Water Conservation Program. [Online]. Available: http://www.seo.state.nm.us/waterinfo/conservation/index.html
•
http://www.seo.state.nm.us/water-info/NMWaterPlanning/NMWP-index.html
•
http://www.seo.state.nm.us/publications/00-01-annual-report/isc.html
Municipal and Regional
Municipality
Target
Sector
Description
Results and Effectiveness
City of Albuquerque
Residential
and ICI
The goal is to reduce water usage by 40% by
2014.
Water usage dropped from 250
US gallons per/cap/day when the
program began in 1995 to 193 US
gpcd in 2003. Residential
demands, which account for
nearly 70% of total usage,
decreased by 32% over the same
period.
To achieve this, the City is using a mix of
regulatory, outreach and incentive measures.
Water Conservation and Water Waste
Ordinance
- Defines water waste as any water, other than
natural precipitation, that flows from one
person’s property to the public right-of-way or to
an adjacent property
- Penalties can range from $20 for a first offence
up to $1000 per occurrence
th
- Upon the 8 violation, a flow limiter is installed
on the water service allowing only enough water
for basic drinking water and sanitation needs.
Time-of-Day Watering Ordinance
- Watering is not permitted between 10am and
6pm from April 1 to Sept 30.
Uptake to date has included:
- 50,000 toilets
- 2,000 xeriscape conversions
covering more than 3,000,000
square-feet
- 6,000 washing machines
- 9,000 residential water audits
and retrofits
- 23,000 multi-family unit customer
audits and retrofits
The City has one of the US’s most
comprehensive incentive programs. Each
household can obtain a free water audit and free
installation of low-flow showerheads, highefficiency faucet aerators, auto-shutoff hose
nozzles and a toilet dam.
Several water-efficiency rebates are offered
including:
- low-flow toilets ($125/unit)
- washing machines ($100/machine)
- dishwashers
- rainwater barrels
- sprinkler timers
- xeriscaping ($800)
- hot water recirculation units
Commercial and residential customers are also
eligible for rebates.
237
Sources:
City of Albuquerque at http://www.cabq.gov/waterconservation
City of Albuquerque at http://www.cabq.gov/waterconservation/comply
238
APPENDIX A.3 OTHER COUNTRIES
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
AUSTRALIA (AU)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Most of the precipitation that falls upon Australian soils soaks into the ground. In fact, only 12% of its rainfall runs
off into the river system, and most of this runoff occurs in tropical monsoon areas where there are few
communities and minimal development.
In 2002, a National Land and Water Resources Audit indicated that water resources from 26% of Australia’s
surface management areas and 31% of its groundwater management units were fully allocated or overallocated.
In 1996-7, Australia used 26,000 GL of water. Consumption by sector was as follows:
75% for irrigation,
20% for urban and industrial purposes and
5% for stock and domestic use.
Between 1983-4 to 1996-7, the irrigation water use increased by 76%, urban and industrial water use increased
by 55%, and rural livestock and domestic use fell by 2%. Irrigated crop areas increased by 26%.
Australia has the 3rd highest per capita water usage after the USA and Canada among Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Households use about 59% of all urban water; of which 54%
of the water used in the average Australian household is used for flushing toilets and watering gardens. The
remaining water is used mainly in industry/commercial establishments (21.2%) and local government (6.7%).
In recent years, Australia has experienced widespread drought. Water restrictions have been implemented in
most capital cities, bringing home to the urban population that water is a limited resource.
Sources:
Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering. 2004. Water recycling in Australia.
[Online]. Available: http://www.atse.org.au/index.php?sectionid=597
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
The Commonwealth
The Commonwealth or national government of Australia has only limited powers in the regulation and
management of water. The high court has ruled that the Commonwealth is entitled to constitutional powers over
the environment, the scope of which is generally decided by negotiation between Commonwealth and state
governments. Commonwealth roles in urban water management are primarily in national leadership, standard
setting, intellectual contribution and financial investment.
The Australian Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (AFFA) is responsible for major
aspects of natural resource management, agriculture and food, including lead responsibility for the
Commonwealth Government’s water policy reforms under the Council of Australian Governments.
Under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act of 1999, commonwealth responsibility for
matters of national environmental significance rests with Environment Australia (EA). Environment Australia’s
responsibilities with respect to urban water management include developing and implementing a planning and
management framework for marine and estuarine water quality protection and implementation of water protection
programs. EA also shares responsibility for a number of water matters with AFFA.
State and Territory Regulatory Agencies
239
Most aspects of urban water regulation are the responsibility of state and territory governments. Within each
jurisdiction, there are generally four regulatory tasks, i.e. environmental protection; natural resource
management; public health, and price
setting.
Each state and territory has different legislation in place and different regulating authorities, making it very
complicated to list out specific water management roles and responsibilities for Australia as a whole.
State and Territory Water Utilities
The oversight of water, wastewater, and stormwater management services (not including the catchment
management function) are considered distinct functions that may be carried out by separate agencies in the
states and territories. Typically, state agencies are responsible for water and wastewater while local
governments manage stormwater.
In the State of Victoria, water services to residential, commercial and industrial customers within the Melbourne
metropolitan area are supplied by four state-owned businesses. Melbourne Water, a statutory corporation
owned wholly by the state government, is the wholesale supplier of water to these businesses. These
businesses also collect sewage for treatment by Melbourne water.
In South Australia, the South Australian Water Corporation (SA Water) owns, manages and operates the great
majority of South Australia’s water supply and sewerage systems. The State Government also wholly owns SA
Water.
Most utilities are required by law to have drought contingency plans in place. In Victoria, drought contingency
plans are being revised across the state, so they are uniform with four different restriction levels. Many also
implement various measures and programs to encourage water efficiency and conservation in the home and
business.
Role of local governments
Local governments are responsible for varying aspects of urban water supply, wastewater treatment, and
stormwater drainage. Local governments also manage local land use planning, zoning and development
approval processes within urban areas.
Catchment Management Authorities
Most jurisdictions have adopted the principles of integrated catchment management (ICM), and created
catchment management groups, although the roles of these groups vary around Australia. The largest of the
catchment management institutions is the Murray-Darling Basin Commission (MDBC). The MDBC manages the
water resources of the entire basin, including multiple catchment areas, across numerous state and local
government boundaries. Integrated catchment management on the whole, however, is still an emerging concept
in Australia.
Water management in Australia remains very fragmented and roles and responsibilities are often blurred. Water
supply and wastewater treatment systems are typically managed separately from stormwater drainage systems,
by different entities. Multiple agencies share responsibility for natural resource management; human health;
environmental protection; and price setting.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Environment
Protection and
Biodiversity
Conservation Act
Water Efficiency
Labeling and
Standards Scheme
(WELS)
This Act authorizes Environment Australia with responsibility for matters of national
environmental significance. Environment Australia’s responsibilities with respect to
urban water management include developing and implementing a planning and
management framework for marine and estuarine water quality protection and
implementation of water protection programs. EA also shares responsibility for a
number of water matters with AFFA.
Ministry for the In October 2002 a project to investigate the options for the introduction of mandatory
Environment
national water efficiency labeling, possibly in conjunction with minimum performance
and Heritage
standards, was announced. In September 2003, the Australian Government decided
to prepare legislation to introduce a mandatory WELS scheme, to apply initially to
240
(proposed)
showerheads, clothes washers, dishwashers and toilets, with further provision for
voluntary labeling of taps, flow regulators and urinals. In March 2004, a Regulation
Impact Statement on the proposed scheme was released for public comment, after
which it was decided that labeling of taps and urinals should also be made
mandatory. In July 2004, a Bill to Parliament was introduced to provide for the
establishment and operation of the scheme.
Sources:
Water efficiency labeling and standards scheme. Available:
http://www.deh.gov.au/water/urban/scheme.html
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
National
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and Partners
Sector(s)
targeted
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
1994 Council of Australian
Governments Water Reform
Framework
States and
Territories
The Framework outlines a package of measures
intended to improve the efficiency of water use as
well as the environmental management of the
nation’s river systems. The framework includes
provisions for water entitlements and trading
(permanent trading of water entitlements and the
separation of land and water rights),
environmental requirements, institutional reform,
public consultation and education, water pricing
and research. Water pricing, in the form of two
part tariffs and volumetric pricing to consumers, is
one of the key aspects of the reform. In 1995
COAG endorsed the National Competition Policy
for Australia, under which payments, acting as
financial incentives, were made available on a
competitive basis to states and territories
implementing a range of important reforms,
including the Water Framework. The time frames
for implementation of the Framework were set at
five to seven years with full implementation by the
year 2001. Timeframes for implementation were
subsequently extended to 2005 for certain
aspects including allocations and trading.
According to the national
competition council, urban
water reform is now
largely complete (as of
2004). The results of the
reform have included
improved efficiency in
water supply. Costs have
been reduced overall by
about 20 per cent and
urban consumption has
been reduced Australia
wide generally by around
20 percent. However, few
urban water service
providers have considered
how to account for
externalities in their water
charges and the National
Competition Council
considers that this
represents the next stage
in urban water reform.
All
In April 2003 the Australian government made a
555 ideas and
call to the public for ideas on how to make
technologies were
substantial water savings in urban, rural and
submitted.
regional Australia. The government has partnered
with savewater.com.au to showcase many of the
555 good ideas and technologies shared by
Australians.
Residential,
ICI
The scheme has been in place across Australia
since 1988. The WSAA program covers shower
heads, toilets, taps, clothes washers,
dishwashers, urinal
flushing devices and flow regulators.
All
National program aims to encourage wise use of
water by the whole community through
educational and promotional strategies across
water utilities, water industry organizations and
state and local governments.
In 1994 the Council of
Australian Governments
(COAG), comprising the
Prime Minister, Premiers,
Chief Ministers and the
President of the Local
Government Association,
established the Water
Reform Framework.
Water Savings Project
Voluntary Water Efficiency
Labeling Scheme
Managed by Water Services
Association of Australia
(WSSA)
WaterWise Australia
Australian Water
Conservation and Reuse
Research Program
(AWCRRP)
(Australian Water
The program is divided into 2 stages. Stage 1
reviews the research in a number of fields
identified to be critical to wider adoption of water
conservation and reuse in Australia (i.e. social
acceptance, health and risk assessment,
implementing new technology etc). This work
241
Association, Commonwealth
Scientific and Industrial
Research Organization
(CSIRO), Cooperative
Research Centre (CRC)
Water Quality Treatment)
The program was founded in
2003 in response to
statements in the Senate
Inquiry Report on Urban
Water Management (2002)
recognizing the need for
widespread adoption of
urban water conservation
and reuse.
Water Recycling in Australia
The Australian Academy of
Technological Sciences and
Engineering funded by the
Australian Research Council
Stimulated by the drought in
2001-2003
should be presented in workshops in each state
capital in Autumn 2004. The second stage is to
identify and initiate a national portfolio of
innovative demonstration projects and develop the
research program to support those.
A research initiative to gather information and
develop a report on water recycling in Australia.
The resulting report outlines the current extent of
water recycling in Australia, encompassing
rainwater and stormwater, but with the main
emphasis on the extent of treatment and recycling
of domestic and industrial wastewater. It
discusses a range of issues arising from both
international and Australian experience.
Suggestions and recommendations are made for
the future management and use of recycled water.
The paper also directly addresses stage one
research goals of the AWCRRP. It forms the
initial inventory of water conservation and reuse
activities and issues in Australia in the AWCRRP
program.
Sources:
Australian Government: Department of Environment and Heritage. 2004. Council of Australian
Governments Water Reform Framework. [Online]. Available: http://www.deh.gov.au/water/policy/coag.html
Last updated: June 24 2004
The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia. 2002. The Value of Water: Inquiry into Australia’s
Management of Urban Water. [Online]. Available:
http://www.aph.gov.au/Senate/committee/ecita_ctte/water/report/contents.htm
Australian Water Conservation and Reuse Research Program. Available:
www.clw.csiro.au/priorities/urban/awcrrp
Water efficiency labeling and standards scheme http://www.deh.gov.au/water/urban/scheme.html
NEW SOUTH WALES (NSW) (AU)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Flows within NSW river systems are extremely variable between seasons and between years. Groundwater is a
reliable source of water providing approximately 1 million ML, predominantly for irrigation, every year.
Approximately three-quarters of allocated water in the State is assigned for irrigation purposes. Urban and
industrial uses are the next largest users of water. In the urban sector, residential use dominates, representing
about 57% of the water used in this sector in 1998/99. Commercial uses account for 12%, industrial 10%,
institutional and public uses 5% and unaccounted for water amounts to 14%.
Sources:
NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation. 2000. NSW Water Conservation Strategy 2000.
[Online]. Available: http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/water/conserv_strategy/wcs.pdf
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
242
Legislation and Regulations
NSW Water Act 1912
Department of
Land and
Water
Conservation
Water Management
Act 2000
Department of
Infrastructure,
Planning and
Natural
Resources
(used to be
DLWC)
Sydney Water Act
(1994)
Department of
Urban Affairs
and Planning
The Water
Administration Act of
Water
Administration
Provides for licensing of water diversions, charging for water and allocation of water.
Part 9 of the Act requires Sydney Water Corporation and Hunter Water Corporation
to operate under license. Occupiers of riparian land can take water without a license
for domestic purposes, including watering stock and non-commercial irrigation.
Replaced by Water Management Act 2000
The aim of the Water Management Act 2000 (the Act) is to provide for the
sustainable and integrated management of the water sources of the State for the
benefit of both present and future generations. One of the most relevant outcomes
of the act concerning water conservation is the requirement of community water
management plans. These plans have statutory standing and can address any
aspect of water management from water sharing, environmental protection, drainage
management etc. Water licenses are linked to this plan, which specifies how water
is to be shared in the community. Individuals living within a management plan area
are bound to the water-taking rules of the Act, whereas those outside of these areas
remain under the Water Act 1912. Water management committees are formally
constituted by the Minister and given specific TOR defining the water management
area, the nature of the plan required, timeframe for the plan etc. The Act specifies
the make up of the committee to ensure a balanced representation of all interest
groups and government. Committees must consult with public in development of
plans. The plan is effective for 10 years and all public authorities are bound by the
plan. At the request of the minister, 36 draft management plans were developed by
local water management committees and 31 have since become effective as of July
1 2004. The Act also provides for the establishment of a State Water Management
Outcomes Plan (SWMOP) discussed in the policy section. The Water Act also lays
out the terms and conditions for the licensing of Irrigation Corporations, private
companies that supply water to irrigators. One of the conditions is the adoption of
industry best practice through the implementation of Land and Water Management
Plans (LWMPs). These plans are developed by community-elected working groups
and outline an integrated strategy to overcome current natural resource issues in the
community.
Section 17 of the Sydney Water Act outlines the terms and conditions associated
with the granting, renewal, enforcement etc. of Sydney Water Corporation’s
operating license. The operating license must be renewed every 5 years.
Section 8 of the operating license itself spells out the water conservation and
demand management requirements of the corporation. As stated, these include:
A reduction in the amount of water the corporation draws from all sources to the
following water conservation target levels
o
364 litres per capita per day by 2004/5 (28% reduction from the
1990/1991 baseline of 506 L/cap/d)
o
329 L/cap/d by 2014/2015
By September 1 each year Sydney Water Corporation must report to the
license regulator on its progress in complying with the target
By no later than 1 September each year, Sydney Water must provide a report
(the Demand Management Strategy Implementation Report) to the License
regulator on implementation of Sydney Water’s Demand Management Strategy
for the previous 12 months, to enable the regulator to consider and report on
the matter as part of the Annual audit
Important components of The Demand Management Strategy Implementation
Report include: an estimate of past, current and projected water use by sector,
a description of the frequency and magnitude of expected supply deficiencies,
conservation measures currently adopted and being practiced, the cost of
these, future plans for water reclamation and strategies to alter water use
practices, an evaluation of these plans in terms of cost with contrast against the
cost of alternative water supplies, an implementation schedule of future
conservation actions found to be cost effective.
Sydney Water must take action to re-use, intercept or otherwise prevent from
discharge into the ocean, waterways and other waters, sewage or effluent by
way of non-potable re-use. Sydney water is to meet the targets set by the
Minister (58 megalitres per day) from time to time.
Progress in meeting the target must be reported to the regulator no later than
September 1 of each year.
Sydney water, in support of the national water conservation and labeling
scheme, is to encourage manufacturers of water appliances to continue to
improve water use efficiency and to report on their progress in doing so no later
than September 1 of each year.
Gives the exclusive right to use and control water in river and lakes, water naturally
occurring on the surface, groundwater and water stored by works, to the Water
243
Ministerial
Corporation
Department of
The Local
Government Act 1993 Local
Government
Water Sewerage and Department of
Local
Drainage Regulation
Under the
Government
Local Government
Act
Department of
Catchment
Infrastructure,
Management Act
Planning and
2003 (CMA)
Natural
Resources
(DIPNR)
Environmental
Planning and
Assessment Act 1979
1986
Administration Ministerial Corporation (operating through the Department of Land
and Water Conservation).
Provides the statutory framework for the provision of water supply, sewerage and
stormwater services in urban areas of country NSW.
Dual-flush toilets are mandatory under this regulation.
Provides for the creation of Catchment Authorities (statutory bodies) to encourage
the protection, restoration and integrated management of natural resources on a
catchment basis. Authorities are required to develop catchment action plans, in
consideration of public consultations, and to implement these once approved by the
Minister. Plans created under this act must be consistent with water management
plans created under the Water Management Act and other acts.
Empowers state government and local councils to control activities occurring in a
catchment. Activities can be controlled through local environmental plans (LEPs),
regional environmental plans (REPs), and state environmental planning policies
(SEPPs). REPs in particular are used on a catchment basis. Planning instruments
established under this act also have precedence over plans created under the CMA
2003.
Policies and Guidelines
State Water
Management
Outcomes Plan
(SWMOP)
Changing the Way
We Think about
Water
Farm Dams Policy
(1999)
Sets out the over-arching policy context, targets and strategic outcomes for the
development, conservation, management and control of the State’s water sources.
Targets for water use efficiency are detailed in the SWMOP and include a target
specifying that Country town (local water utility) water consumption is to decline by
greater than 5 percent per head of population on average Statewide, excluding
Sydney Water Corporation and Hunter Water Corporation whose demand
management targets are set in their operating licences.
In March 2003, the Government responded to the imbalance in water supply/demand
in its new urban water policy and reaffirmed its commitment to no new dams. The
policy has clear implications for the ongoing implementation of Sydney Water’s
demand management program. The report states that Sydney Water must:
Continue to invest in demand management and provide programs to lowincome households free of charge
Work with local councils and industry groups to make water smart buildings
compulsory for new developments
Provide opportunities to recycle treated wastewater where it is environmentally
and economically viable
Examine the feasibility of improving demand management by implementing a
water-efficiency trading scheme
Allows landholders to capture 10% of the average regional rainfall runoff from their
land. Replaces a rule allowing landholders to build a dam of up to 7 ML on their
property without a license.
Sources:
NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation. 2001. Water Management Act 2000: What it means for
NSW. [Online]. Available:
http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/water/wml/pdfs/watermanagementact2000_booklet2.pdf
Department of Land and Water Conservation. 2003. Caring for Our Natural Resources, Water. [Online].
Available: http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/water/
2000. Sydney Water Operating License. [Online]. Available: http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/
Catchement Management Authorities Act 2003. [Online]. Available:
http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/whatsnew/legislation.html
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
State
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and Partners
NSW State Water Reform
Package
Sector(s)
targeted
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
The package included processes to:
1. Improve sharing of water between water
users and the environment. Actions
Most of the actions are
complete or underway. Many
of these are identified and
244
Department of Land and
Water Conservation,
Environment Protection
Authority, NSW National
Parks and Wildlife Services,
NSW Fisheries and NSW
Agriculture
Initiated in response to
National COAG Water
Reform Framework.
NSW Water Conservation
Strategy 2000
All
NSW Water Conservation
Task Force, made up of nongovernmental and
governmental
representatives
Initiated as part of state
water reform
Water Reform Structural
Adjustment Program (past)
(WRSAP)
NSW Department of Primary
Industries
Agriculture
Irrigated Agriculture Water
Use Efficiency Incentive
Scheme (Past)
Agriculture
Initiated as part of NSW
government WRSAP
All
WaterWise NSW
WaterWise in the
Catchment, Home and
Garden are managed by the
Department of Infrastructure,
Planning and Natural
include the establishment of
environmental flow rules, the
establishment of water management
committees and plans for stressed rivers,
the development of guidelines to inform
water management plans etc.
2. Create investment confidence in the rural
water sector through clearly defining
access rights and expanding the water
market. Actions include the separation of
water access and use rights, improving
water trading opportunities, the
establishment of a new farm dams policy,
the development of a water conservation
strategy for NSW, cost recovery and
water pricing requirements for the water
industry etc.
3. Reshape the relationship between
Government and the community in
managing water. Actions include the
establishment of river management
committees, the licensing of Sydney
Water and Hunter Water etc.
After extensive public consultation, a Water
Conservation Strategy was released for the
state in 2000. The strategy contains 19
strategies and 55 actions to promote
significant improvements in water conservation
in NSW.
Key government actions include: water
allocation and volumetric charges as an
incentive to water use efficiency, ensuring
adoption of water conservation strategy
principles by all government agencies, to
encourage irrigators to adopt irrigation and
drainage management planning outside of
Land and Water Management Plan (LWMP)
areas, develop water conservation targets for
water suppliers etc.
$34 million was invested in this 5-year program
in 1998. Aimed to assist irrigators to increase
the productivity and sustainability of their
industry for the long term. Provided practical
help for the irrigator in several areas:
better decision making, in providing
easier access to information, extension
and training in best irrigation management
practices and technologies through
WaterWise on the Farm
redevelopment through financial
incentives to irrigators for improved water
efficient operations (Water Use Efficiency
Incentive Scheme). See below for further
details on both of these initiatives.
Initiated in 1998 by the NSW government, the
scheme provided financial incentives to
individual irrigators outside areas covered by
Land and Water Management Plans to plan,
adopt and monitor best irrigation management
practices and water efficient technologies.
discussed as separate
initiatives in this section.
The Scheme, which was
worth $25 million and was
operational until August 2003,
funded water use efficiency
improvements on over 500
irrigation farms in New South
Wales.
Aims to inform and educate the community on
how to use water wisely. WaterWise does this
through a range of information and practical
materials promoting water conservation, reuse
and recycling, which are distributed and
promoted in programs implemented by local
governments.
In NSW, WaterWise is made up of the
245
Resources
WaterWise on the Farm is
managed by NSW
Agriculture
Agriculture
WaterWise on the Farm
NSW Agriculture
Irrigation and Systems
Management Project
Agriculture
NSW Agriculture
NSW Agriculture
Agriculture
following elements:
• WaterWise in the Catchment
• WaterWise in the Home
• WaterWise in the Garden
• WaterWise on the Farm
Aims to identify, benchmark and document
best irrigation management practices,
technologies and systems, and through an
associated WWF awareness campaign, assist
irrigators to identify and adopt methods to
improve their on-farm water use efficiency.
The communication strategy of the program
emphasizes irrigation industry involvement in
identification of client needs, barriers to
effective communication and methods to
increase adoption of management techniques
and efficient irrigation technologies.
Promotional resources have been prepared for
use by irrigator associations that promote the
efficient use of agricultural water. The program
is gathering momentum in other states and
interstate communication is being fostered with
a view to establishing a national program.
Aims to increase awareness of crop water
requirements, to improve irrigation skills, to
improve irrigation systems and to promote best
irrigation and drainage management
techniques.
NSW Agriculture is also funding providing
additional resources to:
Document irrigation benchmarks and
water use efficiency case studies
Trial field technology for evaluating and
monitoring farm water use for furrow
irrigation
Evaluate sub-surface irrigation
technology for water conservation and
efficiency and
Develop water management decision
support strategies for dryland cropping
and livestock enterprises
Sources:
NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation. 1998. Water Sharing: The Way Forward NSW Progress
on the Water Reforms 1995-1998. [Online]. Available: http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/water/wr/pdfs/12.pdf
NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation. 2000. NSW Water Conservation Strategy 2000.
[Online]. Available: http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/water/conserv_strategy/wcs.pdf
Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources. Be WaterWise. [Online]. Available:
http://www.waterwise.nsw.gov.au/about.html
Sectoral
Initiative Name, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Sector(s)
targeted
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
Sydney Water Utility
Demand Management
Strategy
Connected
water users
The program involves a mix of education,
incentive, regulation and support approaches.
Some of these initiatives are listed here
One in every 7 households in
Sydney Water’s supply area
has participated in the indoor
retrofit program, with 34, 588
receiving the retrofit in
2002/3. Water savings are
estimated in the range of 20
900 litres per household per
year. Average saving of $30100 in utility bills per year per
Sydney Water Utility
To meet water
conservation targets laid
out in Sydney Water’s
operating license, the
Go Slow on the H2O: outdoor water
conservation campaign encouraging
customers to adopt water efficient gardening
and outdoor water use practices
Rainwater tank rebates
Washing machine rebate
246
corporation developed a
demand management
strategy in 1995.
Every drop counts indoor retrofit program:
one of the largest residential water efficiency
incentive programs offered anywhere in the
world. Costs $22 (retail value $130) and a
licensed plumber installs efficient
showerheads, tap-flow regulators, toilet
cistern flush arrestors and repairs any minor
leaks.
Every drop counts business:
Leakage reduction program
Water recycling: increasing use of recycled
water for irrigation schemes at golf clubs,
agriculture, University of Western Sydney
and some residential areas. Also being used
at BHP’s Port Kembla steelworks, Sydney
Water’s largest customer
Support of a number of regulatory measures
including pricing for demand management,
outdoor water use conditions, appliance
rating, labeling and minimum performance
standards, urban planning regulation and
building codes
household
Sources:
Water Conservation and Recycling Implementation Report 2002-2003. [Online]. Available:
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Publications/index.cfm#Reports
VICTORIA (AU)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Water Act 1989
Department of
Sustainability
and
Environment
(DSE)
Water Industry Act
1994
Catchment and Land
Protection Act 1994
DSE
Environmental
Protection Act 1970
DSE
DSE
Establishes water rights and obligations, provides mechanisms for the allocation of
water, governs the statutory powers and functions of all water authorities outside the
metropolitan area, and provides for integrated management of the water resource
and for environmental and consumer protection.
Section 8 recognizes that individuals adjacent to a watercourse or bore can extract
water without a license for domestic and stock use. Section 22 outlines the role of
the Minister in ensuring that a continuous program of the assessment of water
resources of the state is undertaken. The program must provide for the collection,
analysis and publication of water availability and use/re-use data amongst other
things. The Minister may also set permissible annual extraction volumes for an area.
Section 27 provides for the establishment of water supply protection areas by the
Minister. A committee is appointed and is responsible for drafting a management
plan according to Minister guidelines. The management plan may prescribe any
number of requirements, including metering and reporting requirements, licensing
restrictions, etc. The plan is binding on every person. Section 170A requires water
suppliers to prepare and submit permanent water saving plans to the Minister.
These plans set out use restrictions or prohibitions. Section 171 empowers water
suppliers to make by-laws implementing these plans.
Introduces a number of reforms to the Victorian water industry to facilitate its longterm development and to extend the application of commercial practices.
Establishes a framework for the integrated management and protection of
catchments and outlines processes to encourage and support community
participation in the management of land and water resources. The Act also
establishes the Victorian Catchment and Land Protection Council, Regional
Catchment and Land Protection Boards and the Pest Animal Advisory Committee.
Establishes the Environment Protection Authority and makes provision for the
Authority's powers, duties and functions. These relate to improving the air, land and
247
water environments by managing waters, control of noise and control of pollution.
This Act creates the MMBW to administer water, sewerage, drainage, flood
protection, stream management and development of water resources in the
metropolitan and designated areas.
DSE
Melbourne and
Metropolitan Board of
Works Act 1958
(MMBW)
DSE
Establishes the Melbourne Water Corporation through the corporatisation of the
MMBW. The Act establishes objectives for the Corporation, defines the relationship
between the Corporation, the Minister and Parliament, sets out the role of the
Corporation's Board of Directors, and makes provision for the monitoring of the
Corporation's performance. In the state of Victoria, water services to residential,
commercial and industrial customers within the Melbourne metropolitan area are
supplied by four state-owned businesses. Melbourne Water, a statutory corporation
owned wholly by the state government, is the wholesale supplier of water to these
businesses. These businesses also collect sewage for treatment by Melbourne
water.
Melbourne Water
Corporation Act 1992
Policies and Guidelines
Sources:
Department of Sustainability and Environment. DSE Legislation. Available:
http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/dse/dsencor.nsf/FID/-D4B2460290EC3DA54A2567820022E0C7?OpenDocument
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
State
Most utilities are required by law to have drought contingency plans in place. In Victoria, drought contingency
plans are being revised across the state, so they are uniform with four different restriction levels.
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and Partners
Our Water Our Future
Department of Sustainability
and Environment
Sector(s)
targeted
Description
All
Goal: In the agricultural sector, the goal is a
25% increase in the efficiency of irrigation
water use by 2020. In the domestic sector, the
goal is a 15% reduction in the use of drinking
water from 1990s levels by 2010.
Results and
Effectiveness
In the urban sector, the government outlines
the following actions for increased water
efficiency and conservation:
Preparation of water supply-demand
strategies by water authorities. To be
prepared every 5 years with a 50 year
outlook. Progress reports will be required
on an annual basis.
Water authorities shall be required to
determine water conservation targets for
incorporation into strategies.
Rising block tariff structures for domestic
users in Melbourne starting Oct 1 2004.
Implementation of permanent water
saving measures by urban water
authorities. Recommended measures
include lawn watering, car washing, pool
filling, construction industry and pavement
cleaning restrictions.
Implementation of legislation
implementing the national water efficiency
labeling scheme in 2005.
Introduction of mandatory water efficient
plumbing measures such as water
248
The Victorian Smart Water
Fund
A joint initiative between the
Department of Sustainability
and Environment and the
four metropolitan water
businesses (City West
Water, Yarra Valley Water,
South East Water and
Melbourne Water)
Water Smart Gardens and
Homes Rebate Scheme
conserving showerheads and taps for all
new houses and other buildings and all
new fittings in existing buildings from July
1 2004.
Continue to support the Water Smart
Gardens and Homes Rebate Scheme
Preparation of Water Sensitive Urban
Development guidelines to assist
developers, local governments etc
achieve the govt target for new
development to achieve a 25 percent
savings in water use.
Government will require improved water
efficiency in government buildings. All
govt departments are currently required to
implement EMS, and to report on
progress annually.
Local water authorities required to work
with industry towards improved water
management outcomes
Water authorities required to report
annually on their water conservation
programs with industry, and to provide
details of water saved
Funding will be provided to support the
extension of local government water
conservation plans across regional
Victoria, water authorities will be required
to assist in the development of these
plans
The aim of the fund is to generate and
implement ideas on saving or recycling water.
Residential
The rebates scheme is
administered by the Victorian
water businesses on behalf
of the Government, in
partnership with the
Department of Sustainability
and Environment.
Water Conservation
Assistance Pilot Project
Since it commenced in
January 2003 more than 63,
000 rebates have been
approved. During October
and November 2003 alone,
over 13, 600 rebates were
provided to customers for the
purchase of water efficient
washing machines.
Estimated savings from the
uptake of water saving
products through the program
is in the order of 680
megalitres per year.
This program is designed to provide a means
to increase the participation of low income
Victorians to participate in water conservation.
The program provides a one-off grant of $500
for the assessment, repair, maintenance and
replacement of water related plumbing fixture
in homes in six nominated local government
areas over a two year time period. You must
be the holder of a specific type of concession
card to be eligible.
The program is administered
and funded through local
government-owned water
suppliers.
The Savewater Alliance
The Victorian government has committed $10
million over the next four years to a water
conservation rebate program for the garden
and home. Water efficient products eligible
under the scheme are marked with a special
label and include products like rainwater tanks
with connection to toilet, grey water systems,
washing machines, dishwashers, efficient dual
flush toilets, shower heads, high pressure
cleaning devices, water conservation home
audits, and a basket of garden products
including mulch, flow control valves,
wetting/moisture agent, moisture/rain sensor,
garden tap timer, drip watering system etc.
Residential,
Institutional,
Commercial,
Industry
The alliance is not-for-profit and aims to
accelerate water conservation behaviour
change and product purchasing preferences in
line with Government and water industry
249
Conceived and developed by
Yarra Valley Water, a
government owned water
company, and the Centre for
Design at RMIT University.
Permanent Water Saving
Plan
Drafted by Yarra Water
Authority
Werribee Irrigation District
Recycled Water Scheme
needs. The alliance carries out the following
functions:
Residential,
Institutional,
Commercial,
Industry
Agriculture
Manages the savewater.com.au website
Conducts major water conservation
exhibitions like the various state Home
Shows and Royal Agricultural Shows on
behalf of Government and suppliers
Manages the savewater! Awards in
Victoria
Undertakes programs like the savewater!
efficiency service for businesses and
schools, the ongoing savewater!
competitions and prize giveaways and
various other marketing activities
Savewater! initiatives are designed to:
Provide independent expert advice
Provide a one-stop shop for information
on water conservation
Provide access to water conserving
products
Present real life examples of water
conservation in action
Encourage use of local knowledge,
experience and products
The following restrictions are identified::
Private gardens and lawns
A watering system must not be used to
water a garden or lawn except between
the hours of 8 pm and 8 am
All automatic water systems installed from
1 December 2004 must be fitted with
either a rain sensor or soil moisture
sensor as part of the control system
All existing automatic watering systems
must be fitted with either a rain sensor or
soil moisture sensor as part of the control
system by 1 December 2005
A hand-held hose fitted with a trigger
nozzle, a watering can or a bucket can be
used at any time
Motor Vehicle cleaning
A hose used to clean a vehicle by hand
must be fitted with a trigger nozzle
Paved Areas – cleaning
A paved area must not be cleaned with
water from a hose unless cleaning is
required as a result of:
o
An accident, fire, health
hazard etc.
Swimming pools
Before a pool or spa with the capacity of
2000 litres or greater is filled for the first
time, an application which includes details
of measures that will be undertaken to
provide water savings to offset the
volumes used in filling, must be lodged
with and approved by the water authority.
A person may apply to the authority for
temporary or permanent exemptions from
these restrictions, however, exemptions shall
only be granted under special circumstances
identified in the plan. Penalties for noncompliance, including fines and imprisonment,
are also outlined.
Melbourne’s largest commercial recycled water
project aims to provide a sustainable future for
both Werribee vegetable growers and the
natural environment. The project will deliver
The next step is for
Melbourne's three water
retailers (Yarra Valley Water,
South East Water and City
West Water) to review their
Permanent Water Saving
Plans, taking into
consideration the feedback
received. Once the Plans
have been finalized, they will
then be submitted to the
Minister for Water for
approval.
250
Project team consists of
members from Melbourne
Water, Southern Rural
Water, the Department of
Sustainability and
Environment and the
Department of Primary
Industries. EPA Victoria and
the Department of Human
Services are also involved to
assist in providing advice
regarding compliance with
extensive state guidelines.
up to 10 600 million litres of Class A recycled
water from Melbourne Water’s Western
Treatment Plant (classified safe for use on
irrigation for food crops) a year to more than
100 farmers in the area. The project will
increase the reliability of water supply for local
growers and has significant environment
benefits to the area. The recycled water is
scheduled to begin flowing at the end of
October 2004.
Sources:
Department of Sustainability and Environment. 2004. Securing Our Water Future Together. Our Water Our
Future [Online]. Available:
http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/dse/nrenlwm.nsf/LinkView/BF55F9AC10B3871FCA256EA200255F883018EEC1F
535E3A84A2567D7000B1794
Department of Sustainability and Environment. Water Conservation Assistance Pilot Program. [Online].
Available: http://www.ourwater.vic.gov.au/ourwater/pilotprogram.htm
Blake Dawson Waldron Lawyers. 2004. Draft Permanent Water Saving Plan for Yarra Valley Water.
[Online]. Available: http://www.yvw.com.au/NR/rdonlyres/7EF3A090-720B-403E-9AD5EB4C88092CE8/0/PermanentWaterSavingPlan_YVW_9November2004.pdf
Melbourne Water. Werribee Irrigation District Recycled Water Project. [Online]. Available:
http://www.melbournewater.com.au/system/mainFrameset.asp?path=/current_projects/current_projects.asp
EUROPEAN UNION (EU)
Water Supply and Demand Overview
The European Environment Agency (EEA) reports that less than one quarter of Europe’s average annual
renewable supply is abstracted. At the same time, water availability varies dramatically among countries. Annual
average runoff from rain ranges from 3,000 mm in western Norway to less than 25 mm in southern and central
Spain. Large areas of Eastern Europe see only 100 mm of rainfall runoff in a typical year. Freshwater availability
per capita is generally lowest in the Eastern European and Mediterranean countries and highest in the
Scandinavian countries.
Large areas of Europe have experienced recurring droughts over the past 50 years. The more severe and
prolonged droughts of recent years have alerted governments, the public and business of the need to take
stronger and more coordinated mitigative action.
The average distribution of water use by sector across all European nations is:
•
All forms of power production and industrial cooling – 38%
•
Agriculture – 30%
•
Public Supply – 18%
•
Industrial non-cooling uses – 14%
Sources:
•
European Environment Agency. 2000. Sustainable Use of Europe’s Water: State, Prospects and
Issues. Environmental Assessment Series Report No. 7.
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Historically, water management practices have varied widely among European countries. In more recent years, a
series of EU-driven Water Management Frameworks have started to consolidate water management on a basin
or catchment level and harmonize state policies and practices. The frameworks address both quality and quantity
issues.
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
251
Legislation and Regulations
Integrated Pollution
Prevention and
Control Directive
(1996)
Sets out a common set of permitting rules for industrial installations in the EU. All
installations identified in Annex 1 of the directive are required to obtain a permit from
the relevant authority. Without this permit the installation is not allowed to operate.
With the intention of minimizing pollution and achieving a high level of environmental
protection as a whole, permits must be based on the concept of Best Available
Techniques (BAT).
Water use efficiency is an important component of BAT. Best Available Techniques
are identified through an exchange of information between member states and the
industries concerned, organized by the European Commission. This exchange of
information occurs within Technical Working Groups, comprised of nominated
experts from EU Member States, European Free Trade Association countries,
Accession countries, industry and environmental NGOs. Through this process, BAT
reference documents (BREFS) are produced following a predetermined BREF
outline and guide. Member states must take these reference documents into
account when determining best available techniques generally or in specific cases.
The directive applies to new or substantially changed installations outlined in its
Annex 1, with effect from October 1999 and no later than October 2007 for existing
installations.
Water Framework
Directive (2000)
Aims to: protect and improve the quality of aquatic ecosystems, promote sustainable
water use based on water management for the long term and to ensure that the right
amount of water is available where and when it is needed. The directive is legally
binding and is applicable to all waters in Europe. It identifies the river basin as the
management unit and requires the development of a “river basin management plan”
for every basin unit in the EU. This plan must be updated every 6 years.
In accordance with the Directive, river basin plans must outline the water quality and
quantity objectives of the basin. Plans must include an analysis of the river basin’s
characteristics, a review of the impact of human activity on the status of waters in the
basin, an estimate of the effect of existing legislation on these waters, a description
of "gaps" in current management strategies that may hinder the achievement of river
basin objectives; and a detailed action plan for bridging these gaps and achieving the
objectives. One additional component is that an economic analysis of water use
within the river basin must be carried out. It is essential that all interested parties are
fully involved in this discussion, and indeed in the preparation of the river basin
management plan as a whole.
Although the primary objective of the Directive is to clean up European waters, and
to keep them clean, the maintenance of water quantity in river basins will play an
important role in achieving enhanced water quality. Concerning water conservation,
the cost-recovery pricing requirement of the Directive is considered an important
driver. Member states will be required to ensure that the price charged to water
consumers - such as for the abstraction and distribution of fresh water and the
collection and treatment of wastewater - reflects the true costs including
environmental protection costs.
Policies and Guidelines
EU Common
Agricultural Policy
The aim is to provide farmers with a reasonable standard of living and to provide
consumers with quality food at fair prices. Key concepts of the policy are food safety,
preservation of the rural environment and value for money.
The Common Agricultural Policy is increasingly moving towards direct payments to
farmers as the best way of guaranteeing farm incomes, food safety and quality, and
environmentally sustainable production. Eligibility for these payments is linked to
compliance with rules on the environment, animal welfare, hygiene standards and
preservation of the countryside. Many of these rules are outlined in the Council
Regulation (EC) No 1257/1999 of 17 May 1999 on support for rural development
from the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) and
amending and repealing certain Regulations [Official Journal L 160 of
26.06.1999]. The aim of this regulation is to promote farming methods that are
compatible with environmental protection, environmental planning in farming
practice, the conservation of farmed environments with high natural value and the
upkeep of the landscape. To do this financial support may be granted to farmers
who, for at least five years, use agricultural production methods designed to protect
the environment and maintain the countryside (agri-environment).
252
Aid is calculated on the basis of income forgone, additional costs and the financial
incentive needed to encourage farmers to make agri-environmental undertakings.
However, such aid may not exceed EUR 600 for annual crops and EUR 900 for
specialized perennial crops. Aid for all other land uses may not exceed EUR 450 per
hectare per year.
Sources:
IPPC. Available: http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/ippc/index.htm
European Commission. 2003. Introduction to the new EU Water Directive Framework. [Online]. Available:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/water/water-framework/overview.html
EEA. 2000. Sustainable Use of Europe’s Water?
ENGLAND AND WALES
Water Supply and Demand Overview
The Water Resources for the Future publication concludes that water is a scarce resource in much of England
and Wales. Despite perceptions that England and Wales is quite wet, the climate is naturally extremely variable
and the country often suffers from extreme climatic events such as floods and droughts. Another important
factor is that of population. Government projections indicate an increase of 3.3 million households in England
and Wales between 1996 and 2016, and the total population is set to increase by 2.8 million over the same
period. This leaves relatively little water available to each person. In fact, it is estimated that up to 700 Ml/d of
current licensed abstractions must be recovered. In most agricultural areas, little summer water is available.
Abstraction for public water supply by far outweighs any other use (45. 4% of abstracted water). Electricity
generation is next at 32.1%. Direct abstraction by industry (supplied by public water supply) accounts for 7.7%
of abstracted water. Abstraction by industry is fairly evenly split between public water supply sources (typically
used in-process and in building themselves) and direct abstraction sources (used for by primary industry and in
manufacturing sector for cooling processes).
Sources:
Environment Agency. 2001. Water Resources for the Future: A Strategy for England and Wales. [Online].
Available: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/subjects/waterres/137651/?version=1&lang=_e
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
Water Resources Act
(1991)
Environment
Agency
Under this Act, the Environment Agency regulates the abstraction and impounding of
water. A license is required for almost all water takings, although some uses are
exempt. Section 201 gives the agency power to require abstractors to provide
information on the abstraction. License holders for most significant abstractions are
required to monitor and report abstracted volumes regularly to the agency.
In addition to authorizing water abstraction and impoundment licenses, the agency is
also responsible for monitoring and enforcing them, for setting out the agency’s plan
for managing the abstraction region of each catchment in the Catchment Abstraction
Management Strategies process, setting out the agency’s role for managing
droughts, regularly reviewing water company water resource plans and drought
plans, setting out the agency’s vision for the long term management of water
resources in each Region, and setting out the agency’s vision for the long term
management of water resources throughout England and Wales.
The Water Demand Management (WDM) Department of the Environment Agency
deals specifically with the science and practice of water demand management in
England and Wales. Its mission is to: provide a focus for information and
expertise to ensure acceptance of water conservation throughout society. It
provides technical and practical advice to both the Environment Agency and external
bodies. The activities of WDM fall under four broad categories: advice, promotion,
technical development and research. WDM works closely with key players in the
national and international water industry, including the Government, water
253
Water Act (2003)
Environment
Agency
companies, regulators, universities and academics, and trade bodies. WDM also
supports policy-makers in the Agency’s Head Office Water Resources Team.
Incorporates a stronger conservation ethic than the Water Resources Act of 1991.
Sections 81 to 83 of the Act outline water conservation requirements. These clauses
are summarized here:
81: Duty to encourage water conservation
The relevant authority (in England this is the Secretary of State, in Wales it is the
Assembly) must, where appropriate, take steps to encourage the conservation of
water. After the period of three years beginning with the date on which this section
comes into force, and after each succeeding period of three years, the Secretary of
State must prepare a report about the steps taken by him under this section, and
about any steps which he proposes to take. This report must be laid before
Parliament.
82: Water conservation: requirements of relevant undertakers.
Water companies are now required by law to demonstrate water conservation.
83: Water conservation by public authorities
In exercising its functions and conducting its affairs, each public authority shall take
into account, where relevant, the desirability of conserving water supplied or to be
supplied to premises.
Public water supply in England and Wales is provided by private water companies.
Under the Act, water companies are responsible for:
Water resource plans, that outline how the company intends to manage water
resources over the next 25 years, submitted to the Environment Agency and
reviewed annually
Drought plans outlining the various responses to different drought situations
Promoting the efficient use of water to its customers
In particularly sensitive environments, the law also allows the authorities to set lower
minimum exemption thresholds than the standard of 20m3/day. If existing licenses
are determined to be damaging the environment, the authorities may vary or revoke
the license with out compensation (after 2012).
Water Industry Act
(1991)
Economic regulation of water companies is carried out by the Director General of
Water Services through the Office of Water Services (OFWat). The Director’s
general duties are laid out in Section 2 of the Act. OFWAT requires water companies
to produce plans outlining how they are going to manage their water supply systems
and the Director General sets the prices companies can charge to their customers
for water supply. This is necessary so that companies have the income they need to
carry out the parts of the plans the Director General considers to be justified,
including water conservation and efficiency actions.
Prices are reviewed every 5 years. 2004 is a year of periodic review. By November
of this year OFWAT will publish price limits for the period 2005-2010.
Water Supply (Water
Fittings) Regulations
1999 under the
Water Industry Act
Local water by-laws have been replaced by these regulations. Made under section
74 of the Water Industry Act, the regulations set requirements for the design,
installation and maintenance of plumbing systems and water fittings with the
objective of preventing the waste, misuse, undue consumption, contamination and
erroneous measurement of drinking water. They are enforced by water companies
in their respective areas of supply.
The Regulations set minimum standards for the water consumption of Water Closets
(WCs), washing machines, dishwashers and washer driers. They also contain
requirements to ensure the durability and leak tightness of water fittings and
guidance on minimizing the length of pipe runs to reduce the run-off necessary to get
hot or cold water at the tap. The Regulations reduced the maximum flush volume of
new WCs to 6 litres (a reduction of 20%) and permitted more efficient dual flush
systems. In 2001 a performance specification for WC suites was introduced, with
which all newly installed suites must comply.
Environment Act
1995
Promotes the conservation and enhancement of the natural environment. Placed a
duty on water companies to promote the efficient use of water by their customers.
This duty is enforced by the Director General of Water Services. Section 41 allows
for the application of annual abstraction charges.
254
Policies and Guidelines
Directing the Flow –
Priorities for Future
Water Policy
Department
for
Environment,
Food and
Rural Affairs
(DEFRA)
Initial guidance from
the Secretary of State
to the Director
General of Water
Services 2004
periodic review of
water price limits
DEFRA
Policies outlined in this document that are particularly relevant to water conservation
and efficient use include the following:
4.63: We will continue to use the twin track approach of demand management and
development of resources to achieve sustainable management of water resources.
Many actions for water conservation and efficient use of water in England and Wales
are set out in the document.
Policies that cover the fourth periodic review of water company prices are published
in this document. Some of the policies intended to guide water companies on the
principles their water resources plans should be founded upon, and which are
relevant to water conservation and efficient use are outlined here:
All companies should maintain adequate security of supply, but during droughts
customers should be expected to reduce their demand for non-essential uses.
Government expects the management of water resources to follow the “twin track”
approach of managing demand and developing sustainable water resources where
needed. Companies should look first at the full range of possibilities for reducing
demand for water, including reducing their own leakage and helping customers to
reduce demands. Only where demand management is clearly insufficient or
unjustified in terms of cost should companies decide to develop new resources.
Government believes that increased water efficiency will be necessary, and water
companies are expected to promote water efficiency to their customers “with vigour,
imagination and enthusiasm”. Government expects companies to set themselves
realistic but challenging water efficiency targets.
Water metering has a role to play alongside other measures in managing demand;
companies have opportunities to use metering to influence demand once measured
charges are the established basis of charging for a property.
Water Resources
Planning Guideline
Drought Plan
Guideline
Environment
Agency
Environment
Agency
Sets out the framework for water company resource plans, required by the Water Act
2003.
Sets out the framework for water company drought contingency plans, as required by
the Water Act 2003.
Sources:
Environment Agency. 2004. Water Conservation in Force. Demand Management Bulletin, issue 65.
[Online]. Available: www.environment-agency.gov.uk/savewater
DEFRA. (2002). Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999.
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/industry/wsregs99/index.htm Last modified 2004.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. 2002. Directing the Flow: Priorities for Future Water
Policy. [Online]. Available: http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/strategy/
DEFRA. 2003. Initial Guidance from the Secretary of State to the Director General of Water Services 2004
Periodic Review of Water Price Limits. [Online]. Available:
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/industry/review/
Environment Agency and Ofwat. 2003. Water Resources Planning Guideline. [Online]. Available:
http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/subjects/waterres/408371/481122/?version=1&lang=_e
Environment Agency. 2002. Drought Plan Guideline. [Online]. Available: http://www.environmentagency.gov.uk/commondata/105385/dplans.pdf
EEA. 2000.
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
National
All ICI customers are metered, 20% of domestic properties are metered.
Initiative, Lead
Sector(s)
Agencies and Partners targeted
Description
Water Resources for the
Future – A Strategy for
England and Wales (2001)
The strategy looks some 25 years ahead and is
based on forecasts of water demand and supply
under four different socio-economic scenarios. A
variety of different supply management and demand
management actions are evaluated using a risk and
uncertainty framework, a sustainability appraisal and
Environment Agency
All
Results and
Effectiveness
255
a costing exercise, and a set of specific actions are
recommended for the long term. Specific water
efficiency and water use minimization recommended
actions include:
Catchment Abstraction
Management Strategies
(CAMS)
All
Environment Agency
(The Environment Agency)
All
Active promotion of water conservation and
efficiency by water companies to ICI customers
Increased metering of households and
application of tariffs that encourage water
efficiency
Encouragement of farmers to adopt good
practice in water use around the farm
Agency dialogue with supermarkets and food
processors to encourage understanding and
consideration of their crop requirements on
farmers use and management of water
resources
Launched in April 2001, the CAMS process sets out
a six-year programme to develop a CAMS for every
catchment in England and Wales. The document
‘Managing Water Abstraction’ provides a national
framework for the CAMS process. CAMS will be
produced on a six-year cycle, to correspond with the
EU Water Framework Directive, which requires the
preparation of River Basin Management Plans on a
six-year cycle. The process is based on the
development of a water budget for each of the
designated catchments, and a sustainability
appraisal of potential management options, with the
objective of quantifying the water available for
sustainable abstraction.
The agency has published a number of guides,
bulletins and resource materials focusing on water
conservation in a variety of different sectors. These
include:
The Demand Management Bulletin
Harvesting Rainwater for Domestic Users, 2003
Waterwise on the Farm: A Simple Guide to
Implementing a Water Management Plan, 2002
Waterwise: Good for Business and Good for the
Environment, 2001
Conserving Water in Buildings, 2001
Savewater – the hotels
water efficiency project
Commercial
The project, involving eight hotels, ran between June
2000 and April 2003. In the first stage of the project,
the hotels received free water audits to identify
problem areas. Common problems included leaking
taps, wasteful toilet flushes, taps left running and
weak showers. Water meters were then installed in
each hotel, and water consumption was recorded for
a year. A year later, repairs were carried out and
water-saving devices installed. After another year’s
monitoring, the team calculated the amount of water
saved.
Agricultural,
commercial,
industry,
community,
public
The water efficiency awards recognize, highlight and
celebrate good practice in water conservation in the
various sectors. The first awards ceremony was
held in 2001, and a competition has been held every
two years since.
Commercial,
industry
Offers free advice and support to businesses and
organizations concerning waste minimization, water
efficiency, energy efficiency and pollution abatement
etc. Its objective is to help make UK business more
competitive and profitable. Program components
include:
Environment Agency
The Water Efficiency
Awards
Environment Agency
Envirowise
Envirowise is jointly funded
by Department of Trade
and Industry (DTI) and
Each of the eight hotels
in the project cut its
water-use by an
average of 25 per cent
per day per guest. In six
of the hotels, overall
water consumption fell,
in spite of occupancy
increases of up to 70
per cent. These figures
translated into financial
savings ranging from
£139 to £1,605.
256
Department of
Environment, Transport
and Regions (DETR) and is
run on behalf of the
Departments by the
partnership of AEA
Technology plc and NPL
Management Ltd.
A national help-line (free)
The dissemination of authenticated examples of
technology and techniques suitable for
replication in industry and commerce through
the publication of guides and case studies
Organization of workshops, seminars
On-site consultancy for SMEs
Envirowise has also recently launched the Big
Splash campaign, challenging UK businesses to
save £10 million from water bills by March 2005.
Companies register to receive free support from
Envirowise, which includes an on-site visit to review
water use, water minimization workshops, on-line
support and free helpline, and an Envirowise “buddy”
to help with questions. The campaign is scheduled
to end March 31 2005.
The Water Technology List
Commercial,
Industry
DEFRA and Inland
Revenue, in partnership
with Envirowise
England Rural
Development Programme
(ERDP): The Rural
Enterprise Scheme (RES)
Agriculture
The RES provides targeted financial assistance to
support the development of more sustainable,
diversified and enterprising rural economies and
communities. The scheme covers a broad range of
potentially eligible activities, however, a specific
project category is that of Agricultural Water
Resources Management. The following activities in
this category are eligible:
The construction of reservoirs for the collection
and storage of winter rainfall for subsequent
agricultural use
Fixed piping and pumps associated with a new
reservoir to provide the core distribution
network
Other systems to provide sustainable
agricultural water resource management whilst
providing environmental benefits
Funding for the scheme is
provided through national
and EU money.
The Market Transformation
Program
All
Public sector
The Watermark Project
Watermark is a
government-funded
initiative
The list identifies products that encourage
sustainable water use and rewards businesses that
invest in them. Businesses investing in the products
on the Water Technology List can claim tax relief
through the Enhanced Capital Allowance (ECA)
scheme, which may provide a cash flow boost.
Businesses can offset 100% of the cost of products
on the Water Technology List against their taxable
profits. All businesses that pay corporation and
income tax in the UK are eligible for the tax
allowance.
The RES is part of the ERDP, which provides the
framework for the use of EU Common Agricultural
Policy funding for agri-environment, forestry and
other rural development objectives.
Mainstream agricultural equipment closely
associated with production such as irrigators and
other irrigation equipment, is not funded.
The Market Transformation Program is an initiative
that researches, identifies and promotes products
using less energy, water and other resources. The
program supports a structured, public domain sector
review process, conducted in partnership with
business, consumers, experts and other bodies. The
Internet is used to encourage public awareness and
scrutiny of current policy thinking.
The objective of this project has been to develop
water consumption benchmarks across the range of
building categories in the public sector. Since April
2000 the Watermark team has carried out a massive
data gathering exercise in conjunction with a large
number of public sector organizations, including the
Department for Transport, Local Government and
As the benchmarking
analysis was carried out
the potential saving
figures were calculated,
based on an estimated
number of sites in each
building category. It is
257
the Regions and the Department for Education and
Skills (DTLR, DfES), Wiltshire county Council and
with the support of the Sustainable Development
Unit of DEFRA. Water consumption data was
collected and organizations were asked to complete
site-specific questionnaires. Over 3000
questionnaires were submitted allowing the project to
set benchmarks for 17 different building categories,
including general office buildings through to prisons
and laboratories.
The project was initiated in
response to a lack of data
on water consumption
benchmarks in the public
sector, making the setting
of performance indicators
and targets very unreliable.
estimated that if all sites
within the relevant
building categories were
to achieve or better the
recommended
benchmark more than
£140 million could be
saved per annum!
Sources:
Environment Agency. 2002. Managing Water Abstraction: The Catchment Abstraction Management
Strategy Process. [Online]. Available: http://www.environmentagency.gov.uk/subjects/waterres/564321/309477/321271/?lang=_e
Environment Agency. 2004. Savewater: The Hotel Water Efficiency Project. [Online]. Available:
http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/subjects/waterres/286587/651262/?version=1&lang=_e
Water Efficiency Awards. Available: http://www.environmentagency.gov.uk/subjects/waterres/286587/487004/?version=1&lang=_e
Envirowise. Available: www.envirowise.gov.uk
Water Technology List. Available: www.eca-water.gov.uk
DEFRA. 2004. Rural Enterprise Scheme: Guidance Notes for Applicants. [Online]. Available:
http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/regulat/forms/erdp/res/guidance.pdf
DEFRA. The Market Transformation Program. Available: http://www.mtprog.com/Index.aspx
2003. Watermark scoops ISB efficiency award. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ogc.gov.uk/embedded_object.asp?docid=1000810
Sectoral
In compliance with their statutory duty to promote the efficient use of water to customers, water companies are
pursuing a variety of conservation strategies. Water resource plans were first developed by water companies in
1999. On an annual basis since this time, companies have submitted water supply and demand info to the
Environment Agency. This is to enable the Agency to quickly spot any emerging issues and discuss these with
companies. By April 2004, Water companies were required to submit new water resource plans for the 2004
periodic review. These plans are evaluated by the Agency to ensure that companies are making adequate
provision for their customers’ needs in a way that is environmentally and economically sustainable. Ofwat uses
the plans in assessing the supply/demand balance and quality enhancement elements of price limits for water
companies.
Water companies were requested by Government to agree drought plans with the Environment Agency by the
end of March 2000. All the water companies of England and Wales have produced these plans. This was the
first time companies had produced these plans in a consistent format, and for external review.
Despite the efforts identified here and in the matrix below, however, many questions remain concerning the
effectiveness of measures undertaken within a privatized industry. In her book, The Meaning of Water, Veronica
Strang discusses the inherent conflict of interest in the privatized water industry, suggesting that, “water users
are unlikely to limit their usage or accept vastly increased water changes from a privatized industry,” and that in
the end the only solution to increased water efficiency is to “reconsider public ownership in some form”.
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and Partners
Sector(s)
targeted
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
Water Company Initiatives in
England and Wales
All
Nine companies are currently involved in a
study looking at different controls that can be
attached to toilets to help reduce the amount of
water used in a single flush. The results are
expected to assist companies to prepare for
larger studies of the sustainability of savings
and logistics of free water-saving devices.
All water companies have customer
awareness campaigns, targeting various
users, and supported by leaflets, press
campaigns and offers of free water-saving
Despite these efforts, in the
Environment Agency’s advice
to Ministers on the final water
company resource plans, it is
reported that, “ we are
concerned that many plans
are still dominated by
resource development…” and
that “these plans
underestimate the role that
demand management can
258
devices. Many companies offer free water
efficiency advice and/or audits to commercial
users.
play in managing water
resources for the next 25
years.”
Sources:
Environment Agency. 2004. The Meaning of Water. In Demand Management Bulletin, Issue 66
FRANCE
Water Supply and Demand Overview
Frances’s average renewable water supply is estimated to be about 191 billion m³/year. The country’s five
largest rivers - Seine, Rhone, Rhine, Loire, and Garonne - account for 65% of annual discharge. The natural
water storage capacity in the nation is exceptional due to mountainous regions and large underground water
tables, providing potential resources of 3600 m³/per inhabitant/year.
Per capita water consumption in France is estimated at 150-200 L/day. Sixty percent of the demand for drinking
water is satisfied by ground water (94% of the 33,250 drinking water catchments are of underground origin), 30%
by surface water and 10% a mix of ground and surface water. With rain hardly falling below 600 mm per year in
the least watered areas of France, providing up to 100 km3 of water available for the taking each year, it is not
surprising that France is considered a water rich nation.
Total freshwater withdrawals were estimated to amount to 32 billion m³ / yr in 1999 with 85% coming from
surface water sources. Distribution by major sector was:
Thermal-electric power production: 19.2 billion m³ (60%)
Agriculture: 3.8 billion m³ (12%)
Public water supply: 5.8 billion m³ (18%)
Industry: 3.2 billion m³ (10%)
The volume of these takings not returned to the aquatic environment (total net consumption) in the same year
was estimated to be about 4 billion m³ (approximately 12.5%). Consumptive water use is divided as follows
between the following sectors:
Agriculture (irrigation): 68%
Food and drinking water: 24%
Industry: 5% (mainly food processing, pulp and paper, metallurgy)
Power: 3%
In spite of the perceived abundance of supply, recent hot and dry summers in France have raised serious water
quantity concerns. The summer of 2003 in particular lead 77 regional water departments to implement measures
limiting water takings; an effort never experienced before in France. Up until this time, no real drought
management planning or guidance had been developed.
The use of water for irrigation purposes also continues to increase in France, further straining low water levels in
summer months. In the Adour-Garonne river basin, abstraction for irrigation purposes has been on the rising
trend, with +75% between 1981 and 1994. The French Institute for Environment has recorded that the irrigated
land surface in France has tripled in 25 years – 539 000 ha in 1970 to 1 620 000 ha in 1995. This increase has
been most significant in the western and southwestern parts of France.
Sources:
Agence de l’eau. [Online]. Available: http://www.eaufrance.com/uk/eau/phys.php?lien=1
Agence de l’eau. [Online]. Available: http://www.eaufrance.com/uk/eau/donne.php?lien=2
European Commission General Directorate XVI and the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.
Towards a Sustainable/Strategic Management of Water Resources: Evaluation of Present Policies and
Orientation for the Future. [Online]. Available: http://www.fao.org/iccd/object/doc/sustwater.htm
European Environment Agency. 2000. Sustainable Use of Europe’s Water? State Prospects and Issues.
Env. Assessment Series, No. 7.
259
Water and Related Legislation and Policies
The role of the state in water management is limited to water law enforcement (withdrawal and discharge
authorizations) and to guarantee public health and safety. Communities are responsible for organizing potable
water supply and storm and wastewater collection and treatment. These communities may either entrust the
management of these services to a private industry, or manage them directly through the creation of a Water
Authority. The majority of potable water supply in France (75%) is managed by private industry.
The Environment Ministry, more specifically its Water Department, looks after:
Knowledge, protection, management and upgrading of aquatic environments and river systems,
Water protection,
Programming and coordination of State intervention in the sectors of water, fresh water fishing and aquatic
environments,
Policing the waters and policing fresh water fishing.
Many of these responsibilities are carried out through decentralized regional Ministry offices, known as Regional
Environment Divisions (DIREN). Regional offices play a major role in the water sector, ensuring implementation
of European Community and National legislation with regard to water and assuming a policing role in the
management and development of water resources.
Other state ministries with water management responsibilities include:
•
•
•
Departmental Directorates of Agriculture and Forests (DDAF)
Departmental Directorates of (Community) Facilities (DDE)
Departmental Directorates of Health and Social Affairs (DDASS)
Once again, the regional directorates of these departments carry out the relevant actions at the local level.
These departmental and/or regional agencies are also responsible for reviewing and authorizing water
withdrawals applications.
Source:
•
Agences de l’eau. [Online]. Available: http://www.eaufrance.com/uk/agences/parten.php
EU Directives
Name
Agency
Description, Roles and Responsibilities
Legislation and Regulations
The Water Law
(1992)
Environment
Ministry
Originally established in 1967 in response to water pollution concerns. The river basin
was identified as the ideal unit for identifying and responding to pollution. Six great
hydrographic catchment areas were identified and the river basin committee and water
agency were created. All withdrawal of water for non-domestic purposes must be
authorized.
The river basin committee is made up of as many as 200 elected stakeholders, including
state government representatives, local government and other water users. Its role is to
consult with regional and local councils to determine the water management objectives
in the basin (the water policy), to develop and approve the SDAGE for the basin,
approve the Water Agency intervention programme and to monitor the implementation
of the basin plan.
A financially independent state water agency within each basin is responsible for
implementing the policy defined by the basin committee. These agencies offer technical
advice to elected representatives, industry and farmers and provide financial aid for the
works necessary to fight water pollution and to protect water resources. Funds are
raised by charging all water users for the volume of water extracted, and for any
pollution caused by their operations. These funds are then reallocated in the form of
financial aid (loans, subsidies) to local communities, industry and farmers for works to
be undertaken. The eligibility of projects for funding is dependent upon the priorities of
the current 5-year plan.
260
The 1992 amended law requires the development of master water management and
development plans (SDAGEs) for each of the large basins. These plans set the general
trends for 10-15 years to be followed in the management and protection of water and
aquatic environment resources in the basin.
Each SDAGE adopts all the obligations laid down by the law, and by European
directives and takes account of State programmes in progress. The SDAGE also
outlines quantitative and qualitative objectives for the water, minimum regulations for
physical and technical coherence at basin level and defines the guidelines for the
development of local water improvement and management plans (SAGEs). These
objectives are identified through the development of water budgets or atlases for the
basin outlining the state and condition of the resource, its uses and the ecosystem.
Water improvement and management plans (SAGES) are another recommended
component of the Law, to be developed at the sub-watershed level after the
development and implementation of the master plan. Local water commissions, made
up of community representatives, user representatives and state representatives,
prepare and implement the scheme. These plans set quality objectives and timetables,
allocate water between categories of users, identify sensitive natural habitats, and
define other actions required for management/protection of the water resource. The
state, regional and local governments must take these plans into consideration in all
decisions concerning water and aquatic environments. Any financial assistance granted
by them must contribute to the implementation of projects compatible with the plans.
Wastewater reuse was also for the first time ever acknowledged as an alternate solution
to wastewater discharge.
Agricultural Law
(1999)
1995 Order by
Ministry of the
the Ministry of the Environment
Environment
Redefines the legal framework for land management in line with the Common
Agricultural Policy of the EU. The law extends responsibilities of landscape and
environmental management to farmers. A contrat territorial d’exploration binds the
farmer and state for 4-5 years, with the objective of protecting natural resources and
managing the landscape in an environmentally responsible way. The contract
specifically defines and renumerates missions aimed at conserving the environment,
including water resources.
The contract will also include a special clause on water management for basins
experiencing water shortages. The contract rules concerning quality and quantity are
based on the local SAGE.
Encourages the use of alternative solutions to the discharge of wastewaters in sensitive
environments, where tertiary treatment is not affordable. The reuse of treated
wastewater is recommended particularly for seaside resorts and tourist areas.
Policies and Guidelines
Wastewater
National
Reuse Guidelines Council for
(1991)
Public Health
These guidelines serve as a provisional regulation. It builds upon wastewater reuse
guidelines developed by the WHO. Additional requirements on irrigation management
and the prevention of health risks associated with human exposure to wastewater make
these provisional regulations more stringent than those of the WHO. For example, the
guidelines state that vegetables to be eaten raw can be irrigated with quality A water
(nematode egg content < 1/1, faecal coliform content < 1000/1000mL) however,
methods that minimize contact of water with foods are highly recommended.
Irrigation of public spaces with quality “A” water is also allowed, provided it is done using
short-range sprinklers more than 100 m from houses, sports and recreational areas.
Irrigations should also take place outside opening hours.
Each wastewater reuse project must be approved by the Ministry of Health and be
monitored on a permanent basis. Between 1981 and 1999, 19 projects had been
developed.
Sources:
Loire-Bretagne Water Agency. The SAGES, Water Improvement and Management Plans. [Online].
Available: http://www.eau-loire-bretagne.fr/english/b/fr_b6angl.htm
Faby, J.A., Brissaud, F. and Bontoux, J. 1999. Wastewater Reuse in France: Water Quality Standards and
Wastewater Treatment Technologies. Water Science and Technology. 40:4-5, pp. 37-42.
Water Conservation and Related Program Initiatives
261
Initiative, Lead
Agencies and
Partners
Sector(s)
targeted
Description
Results and Effectiveness
Ten short and medium-term actions are
recommended. The first action involves the
establishment of a national committee. This
independent committee would be mobilized
through an official request by the Minister of
the Environment by April of a foreseen
problematic summer season. At this time the
group would be responsible for evaluating the
situation and recommending mitigation
options. The group would also be responsible
for coordinating communication activities,
evaluating the management of the crisis and
its impacts upon the environment. Committee
members would include water users from all
sectors and representatives from all the
relevant government ministries.
Additional actions include the modernization of
the water consumption surveillance network
(i.e. improved surface water and ground water
monitoring devices), the definition of a set of
indicators to better identify and evaluate the
short term risks of a drought crisis and the
development of a guide for regional prefects
that outlines a methodology for implementing
water-taking restrictions under drought
conditions. The objective of the guide is to
encourage a uniform approach to restrictions
and drought measures across the country.
Established in the 1990s, the program aims to
increase the efficiency of water use for
irrigation purposes in France, particularly in
areas where irrigation uses of water lead to
conflicts or shortages in the summer months.
Other initiatives include education and
outreach, the installation of volumetric meters,
regular distribution of climatic/precipitation
information to farmers etc. The initiative
supports farmers in best irrigation techniques.
Expected to undergo review in
September 2004.
Residential,
public,
institutional
A major pilot project was initiated in seven
cities in Brittany (total population 800 000).
Water-saving equipment for
municipal irrigation in Brest
resulted in a saving of 62%.
Water-saving equipment and
leakage detection in two cities
resulted in savings of 51% and
79% respectively. The installation
of meters and water-saving
equipment in a community hall in
Pontivy resulted in a water saving
of 50%.
All
Charging for abstraction at the river basin
level introduced in 1964. Charges are split
between the amount abstracted (levied by the
Water Agency with the agreement of the River
Basin Committee) and the amount consumed
(levied by the State in the form of a tax) with a
consumption coefficient applied according to
whether the abstraction is for public water
supply, industry, power generation or
agriculture. Abstraction charges vary
according to volume, area, and water source groundwater abstractions are charged at 2 to
3.5 times higher than surface water
abstractions. Charges are also higher in
French Public Water
Management Policy 2004
Drought Management
Plan (2004)
Ministry of Ecology and
Sustainable
Development
In response to the deadly
summer heat of 2003, a
Drought Action Plan has
been proposed
Agriculture
The Irrimieux Initiative
Ministry of Agriculture
and Ministry of
Environment
Project financed by
regional council,
Environment Ministry,
water agency and town
councils.
Many actions taken including an information
campaign (users and professionals), letters to
domestic users, tests and installation of
various types of water-saving equipment,
investigation of leakage in the public
distribution system and in private households
Initiated in response to
water stress, droughts
and agricultural pollution
Water Pricing
Charges applied by basin
Water Agencies and the
State
In 2000 in the Basin de l’Adour,
the program lead to the installation
of 30 electronic regulators and 22
improved irrigation spray guns.
262
regions where water is scarce and where
water is of a particularly good quality so as to
encourage conservation of the resource.
Regional Development
Companies
Agriculture
These companies
include: the Gascogne
Development Company
in South Pyrenees, the
Lower Rhone-Languedoc
Company in LanguedocRoussillon and the Canal
of Provence Company for
the Riviera coastline.
Irrigation water is commonly priced by a
combination of a volumetric and a flat rate. In
1970, the Societe du Canal de Provence et
d’Aménagement de la Région Provencal,
which supplies 60 000 ha of farmland and
nearly 120 communes, introduced a pricing
scheme in which rates vary between peak
demand and off-peak periods. The peak
period rate is set to cover long-run capital and
operating costs. The off-peak rate is set to
cover only the operating costs of water
delivery. About 50 % of total supply costs
(variable and fixed) are subsidized by the
State.
In some regions of Southern France, Regional
Development Companies (SAR) are entrusted
with the overall objective of controlling water
to ensure and improve water supply in
agricultural areas. Although the main
approach taken by the SAR is to build
infrastructure that would make it possible to
irrigate large expanses of farmland, some
SARS offer outreach services advising
farmers of water conservation measures.
Sources:
Ministere de l’ecologie et du development durable. 2004. Plan d’Action Secheresse. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ecologie.gouv.fr/article.php3?id_article=2197
2001. Aquadour. Bulletin No. 25. [Online]. Available: http://www.univpau.fr/RECHERCHE/OBSEAU/aquadour/aquad25.pdf
Lallana, C., Krinner, W., Estrela, T., Nixon, S. and Leonard, J. 2001. Sustainable Water Use in Europe: Part
2 Demand Management. [Online]. Available: http://reports.eea.eu.int/Environmental_Issues_No_19/en
The International Office for Water. Organization of Water Management in France. The Integrated
Development of Watercourses. [Online]. Available: http://www.oieau.fr/anglais/gest_eau/index.htm
Municipal and Regional
Municipality
or Region
Sector(s)
targeted
Drome SubBasin
Description
Results and
Effectiveness
The SAGE for the Drome basin was the first to be adopted in France.
The basin suffers from severe low water at the same time local
communities need the water for irrigation, leisure activities on the water
and drinking water purposes. Three years out of four the water
requirements surpass the available water by at least 2 million cubic
metres. Several supply and demand objectives for the basin were
therefore defined in the SAGE, the demand management objectives
including the restriction of irrigation levels to 1995 levels, the setting up
of equipment to monitor and control groundwater consumption, and the
introduction of incentives to promote methods of irrigation that use less
water.
Sources:
Piegay, H., Dupont, P. and J.A. Faby. (2002). Questions of water resource management. Feedback on the
implementation of the French SAGE and SDAGE plans (1992-2001). Water Policy. 4, pp. 239-262.
Sectoral Examples:
263
264
APPENDIX B:
BEST PRACTICES GUIDES AND MANUALS
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Following is a compilation of general and sector-specific water conservation guides and manuals, which are
considered current and comprehensive. The focus is on documents which offer guidance going well beyond that
usually associated with fact sheets and lists of helpful hints. They contain the depth of information needed in
decision-making when more extensive and complex solutions are being promoted or contemplated.
General Purpose
Title / Organization / Date
Pages
Description
Designing a Water Conservation
Program: An Annotated Bibliography
of Source Materials / US EPA / 1994
Handbook of Water Use and
Conservation: Homes, Landscapes,
Businesses, Industries, Farms / Amy
Vickers / 2001
92
A comprehensive (if somewhat dated) listing of references organized under
the headings of public education, community programs, distribution
systems, economics, agriculture, devices/products and suppliers.
Hardcover text considered by many professionals to be “the most
comprehensive, authoritative and state-of-the-art reference ever published
on water use and conservation”. The book outlines 10 key steps for a
successful conservation program, describes water use characteristics of
major sectors, details how to conduct a water audit, provides in-depth
information on more than 100 water-efficiency measures, gives estimates of
expected costs and savings, and lists online links to additional resources.
State-level document describing the outcome of public and stakeholder
workshops examining ‘ways to improve water efficiency in all categories of
water use’. Recommendations (51 in total) cover the areas of agricultural
irrigation, landscape irrigation, water pricing, ICI water usage, indoor use,
and reuse of reclaimed water.
Florida Water Conservation Initiative
/ Florida Dept of Environmental
Protection / April 2002
464
170
Public Water Systems
Title / Organization / Date
Pages
Description
Advanced Guidelines for Preparing
Water Conservation Plans / US EPA
/ Aug 1998
42
Basic Guidelines for Preparing Water
Conservation Plans / US EPA / Aug
1998
18
Cases in Water Conservation: How
Efficiency Programs Help Utilities
Save Water and Avoid Costs / US
EPA/ July 2002
Developing and Implementing a
Water Conservation Plan / Maryland
Dept of the Environment / 2004
54
A step-by-step guide to the preparation of a water conservation plan for
public water supply systems serving more than 100,000 people. Topics
covered include goal setting, community involvement, system profiling,
demand forecasting, identification of possible conservation measures,
analysis of benefits and costs, selection of conservation measures,
adjustment of supply and demand forecasts, and implementation planning
and evaluation.
A simplified guide to the preparation of a water conservation plan for public
water supply systems serving less than 10,000 people. Topics covered
include goal setting, community involvement, system profiling, demand
forecasting, identification of no regrets conservation measures, and
implementation planning.
Presents case studies describing the water conservation experiences and
achievements of seventeen public water supply utilities – sixteen across the
US and one in Ontario.
Facility Manager’s Guide to Water
Management / Arizona Municipal
Water Users Association / March
2003
Intermediate Guidelines for Preparing
Water Conservation Plans / US EPA
/ Aug 1998
151
32
40
Document was developed in response to drought conditions in 1999 and
2002, which severely impacted on many municipal systems in the state. It
provides guidance to municipalities of all sizes and based on the US EPA
conservation planning guidelines.
A comprehensive guide for use by utility managers and ICI customers.
A step-by-step guide to the preparation of a water conservation plan for
public water supply systems serving 10,000-100,000 people. Topics
covered include goal setting, community involvement, system profiling,
demand forecasting, identification of possible conservation measures,
analysis of benefits and costs, selection of conservation measures,
adjustment of supply and demand forecasts, and implementation planning
and evaluation.
265
National Action Plan to Encourage
Municipal Water-Use Efficiency /
CCME / May 1994
10
Securing Our Water Future Together
/ State of Victoria, Australia / 2004
Water Conservation Guide for Public
Utilities / New Mexico State Engineer
Office / 2001
172
Water Conservation Measures:
Appendix A to the( parent) US EPA
Water Conservation Plan Guidelines
document / US EPA / Aug 1998
20
Water Conservation-Oriented Rates:
Strategies to Extend Supplies,
Promote Equity and Meet Minimum
Flow Levels / AWWA / 2005
Water Efficiency – A Resource for
Utility Managers, Community
Planners and Decision-Makers /
Rocky Mountain Institute / 1991
Water Efficiency Plan / City of
Toronto Works and Emergency
Services Dept / Dec 2002
144
206
120
CCME sanctioned plan offering higher-level direction to federal and
provincial/territorial governments and departments and to municipalities on
achieving greater water efficiencies and decreasing infrastructure
expansion and operating costs. Actions are based on the principles of
leadership, partnership, harmonization, user pay, full-cost pricing and an
informed public.
Victoria’s “pathway to sustainable water management”.
Comprehensive guide covering overall program development and design,
outreach ad education, in-school education, metering, water audits, leak
detection and repair, pressure reduction, plumbing fixture and appliance
retrofits, landscape irrigation and xeriscaping, wastewater reclamation and
reuse, drought planning and response and case studies.
Divides the range of possible water conservation measures for public
systems into three categories or levels. Level 1 measures are
recommended for implementation across all size systems while
implementation of the more comprehensive Level 2 and 3 measures is
encouraged in larger communities.
Discusses pricing structures that encourage conservation including drought
demand rates, excess use surcharges, increasing-block rates and seasonal
rates. Examines implantation issues, economic issues for the utility, and
assistance for low-income households. Includes case studies.
A detailed but somewhat dated guide to water conservation in municipal
systems. Looks at the benefits and costs of alternative measures. Contains
case studies.
86
Toronto’s action plan for becoming more water efficient. Document outlines
conservation program drivers, objectives, plan development, preferred
measures, timetables and costs.
Title / Organization / Date
Pages
Description
Household Guide to Water Efficiency
/ Canadian Mortgage and Housing
Corporation (CMHC) / 2000
69
Water Conservation and
Quantification of Water Demands in
Subdivisions – A Guidance Manual
for Public Officials and Developers /
New Mexico State Engineer Office /
1996
42
Modeled on and expanded from an earlier publication prepared by Durham
Region in Ontario. CMHC authors consulted with municipalities across the
country and designed the guide to be a useful reference for individual
homeowners and municipal water-system managers. It covers water-use
efficiency opportunities both inside and outside the home.
Guidelines for the preparation of and review of subdivision water supply
proposals and water rights applications. Guideline complexity and
requirements vary according to 5 size categories ranging from less than 25
lots to more than 500 lots.
Domestic / Residential
Industrial, Commercial and Institutional
Title / Organization / Date
BC Buildings Corporation Guide to
Building Retrofits that Lower Energy
and Water Use and Reduce
Greenhouse Gas and Waste
Generation / 2001
Environmentally Responsible
Construction and Renovation
Handbook- Second Edition / Public
Works and Government Services
Canada / March 2000
Healthcare EnviroNet
Manual for Conducting Water Audits
and Developing Water Efficiency
Pages
Description
138
Retrofit guidance targeting publicly funded educational and health care
institutions and facilities. Focus is on measures that are or become selffinancing and produce a net return on investment.
178
A technical guide for portfolio and asset managers, project managers,
leasing agents and property managers on planning and undertaking
renovations in an environmentally responsible manner. Topics covered
include water and energy conservation, waste reduction and greenhouse
gas emissions reduction.
Under the umbrella of the Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention, this is
an online guide to conservation and pollution prevention measures
available to health care facilities. Numerous Canadian case studies are
cited.
Detailed guide to designing and conducting water audits with a focus on
indoor water usage. Topics covered include characterizing water
266
Programs at Federal Facilities /
Environment Canada, Economics
and Conservation Branch /
North Carolina State Agency Water
Conservation Initiative
Water Conservation Guide for
Commercial, Institutional and
Industrial Users / New Mexico Office
of the State Engineer / July 1999
Water Conservation in the
Professional Car Wash Industry /
International Car Wash Association /
2002
108
Water Efficiency Manual for
Commercial, Industrial and
Institutional Facilities / North Carolina
Dept of Environment and Natural
Resources, Pollution Prevention and
Environmental Assistance Division /
1998
129
75
distribution and use, determining a water balance, identifying alternative
water reduction measures, and designing and implementing a
plan/program. Audit worksheets and case studies are included.
In 2002, the N.C. General Assembly passed a bill requiring all state
agencies to manage non-essential uses of water and to achieve water
savings of at least 10%. Online guidance is provided to assist departments
evaluate current water usage, identify conservation opportunities and
develop a comprehensive implementation plan.
Comprehensive guide covering facility-level program development and
design, indoor domestic use, landscape irrigation, cooling and heating,
industry-specific operations and case studies.
Provides detailed information on conservation measures for both new and
retrofitted automatic car wash facilities. Topics include design and operation
of wash-water recycling systems, leak correction, efficient spray nozzle
design, pressure control, and outdoor irrigation. Presents case studies from
throughout North America.
This is the North Carolina PPEA division’s own water-efficiency manual for
commercial, industrial and institutional facilities includes information for
planning and budgeting, information on new water fixtures and equipment,
information for new construction or process modifications, and information
for drought situations. It covers specific industry processes as well as water
management of domestic waste, food preparation, heating and cooling, and
landscaping uses.
Landscape Design and Irrigation
Title / Organization / Date
Pages
Description
Landscape Irrigation Scheduling and
Water Management(Draft) / The
Irrigation Association / Aug 2004
190
Low Volume Irrigation Design and
Installation Guide / City of
Albuquerque, NM
24
Turf and Landscape Irrigation Best
Management Practices / The
Irrigation Association / Feb 2004
50
Water Efficient Landscaping:
Preventing Pollution and Using
Resources Wisely / US EPA / Sept
2002
Water Wise Landscaping Best
Practices Manual: A Companion
Guide to Water Efficient Landscape
Design / Design Studios West et al /
2003
20
The guide to achieving efficient, water-conserving landscape irrigation.
Topics include basic irrigation concepts, scheduling and water management
methods, quality rating for systems, landscape water allowance and
drought management through deficit irrigation. An extensive glossary of
irrigation terms is included.
User-friendly guide to water-efficient landscape design, low-volume
irrigation technologies and system design, irrigation scheduling and
maintenance. Tables are provided that indicate average supplemental
irrigation water requirements by month for a range of municipalities
throughout the state.
Developed for use in a wide range of activities from policy making to lotlevel implementation. Intended users are government agencies, water
purveyors, system owners, irrigation systems consultants and contractors.
BMPS address the areas of design, installation, maintenance, operation
and regulator-purveyor-user cooperation and coordination.
A simplified guide to urban-areas landscaping. Topics include the what,
why and how of water-efficient landscaping, irrigation system technologies,
case studies, and identification of additional resources.
71
Prepared for City of Lafayette and Town of Erie, Colorado. Contains
chapters on WaterWise Principles and Guidelines, WaterWise Plant Lists,
Natural Areas and Native Plants, Understanding Soils and Soil Preparation,
Irrigation Design Techniques and Equipment, Water Budgeting, and
Additional Resources.
Title / Organization / Date
Pages
Description
Complete How To Guide to
Xeriscaping / City of Albuquerque,
NM
Xeriscape – A Guide to Developing a
Water-Wise Landscape / Cooperative
Extension Service / University of
Georgia / July 2003
48
Step-by-step guide to xerscaping design, plant (shrub and tree) selection,
planting instructions and landscape care and maintenance.
44
A ‘why and How To’ guide for homeowners, businesses and institutions.
Topics covered include conservation drivers, landscape design, xeriscaping
principles, soil analysis, plant selection, irrigation efficiency, use of mulches,
landscape maintenance and case studies.
Xeriscaping
267
Primary Industries
Title / Organization / Date
Pages
Description
Industrial Water Conservation
References of Paper and Packaging
Manufacturers / California Dept of
Water Resources / 1989
Practical Water Management in
Paper and Board Mills and Reducing
Water Costs in Paper and Board
Mills / Envirowise, UK Environment
Agency /
Water Use in Industries of the Future
/ US Dept of Energy, Center for
Waste Reduction Technologies /
2003
76
This report examined 15 (then) current articles on water conservation
practices among pulp and paper manufacturers. Pertinent information is
extracted on water and cost savings and on technical considerations that
had to be dealt with in implementing conservation measures.
Provides detailed technical information on water management technologies
and practices for Pulp and paper mills. Focus is on measures that delver
both water and cost savings. Details steps that companies should take in
developing an action plan. Includes UK examples.
74
White Paper on Produced Water
from Production of Crude Oil, Natural
Gas and Coal-Bed Methane / Report
for US Dept of Energy / 2004
87
This report prepared by CH2M HILL covers six water and energy-use
intensive industry sectors, i.e. aluminum, chemicals, forest products,
mining, petroleum, and steel. It examines current and emerging practices
relating to water use and reuse and the relationships between water and
energy flows and balances. In addition to specific coverage on each sector,
the report looks at commonalities felt to be helpful in guiding research and
development that could lead to “high impact changes and reduction in water
and energy use patterns”. Nine critical steps for achieving significant wateruse savings are identified.
Examines the origin, volumes and quality of produced water. Looks at
environmental issues and management options including treatment,
disposal, and recycle/reuse for EOR and other purposes. Case studies are
included.
Agriculture
Title / Organization / Date
Pages
B.C. Livestock Watering Manual /
B.C. Ministry of Agriculture & Food /
April 1990
B.C. Sprinkler Irrigation Manual /
B.C. Ministry of Agriculture & Food
and Irrigation Industry Assoc’n of
B.C. / April 1995
B.C. Trickle Irrigation Manual / B.C.
Ministry of Agriculture & Food and
BC Irrigation Industry Association /
April 1999
Profile of the Agricultural Crop
Production Industry / USEPA / 2000
150
Profile of the Agricultural Livestock
Production Industry / USEPA / 2000
Water Management Best
Management Practices / Agriculture
Canada et al / 1993
Water- More Nutrition Per Drop:
Towards Sustainable Food
Production and Consumption
Patterns in a Rapidly Changing
World / Stockholm International
Water Management Institute / April
2004
Water-Use Efficiency - An
Information Package; Irrigation
Insights Pub No. 5 / Land & Water
Australia and National Program for
Sustainable Irrigation / 2003
Water Use in Industries of the Future
/ US Dept of Energy, Center for
Waste Reduction Technologies / July
2003
166
140
Description
Covers all aspects of livestock water management including animal
requirements, regulatory approvals, watering system types and design,
operations, and maintenance.
Covers sprinkler system design (all types), operation and management.
Includes section on economic and financial analysis.
330
Detailed publication dealing with all aspects of system design, management
and operation. Also covers determination of crop water requirements, water
quality considerations, scheduling and chemigation.
184
Contains small sections on the reasons and methods for water
conservation and water-use efficiency in crop irrigation in relation to field
and range crops and greenhouse production.
Contains a small section on the reasons and methods for water use
efficiency in watering and cleaning operations.
User-friendly guide for use by farmers. Includes coverage of water use in
the home, barn, and fields. Discusses protection of wetlands, watercourses,
woodlots and ponds and contains descriptions of relevant legislation.
Policy-level document looking at global water-use productivity issues in
agricultural production. Key policy issues include identifying and influencing
unsustainable consumption patterns, closing the productivity gap between
what is and can be produced, facilitating the demonstration and use of
more productive technologies, establishing minimum ecological criteria for
protecting watercourses from unsustainable extractive use, and addressing
the use of unsustainable subsidies and trade barriers.
Document looks at past and emerging trends in Australian crop-irrigation,
examines water-use efficiencies and water losses throughout regional
systems, evaluates measures for improving efficiencies and presents a
number of case studies.
91
36
73
74
Report prepared by CH2M HILL covers water use and management in
agriculture and in six resource-use intensive industry sectors. It takes a
forward looking examines what companies the integrated conservation
Recreation Industries: Golf Courses, Ski Areas, etc.
268
Title / Organization / Date
Pages
Description
Committed to Green Handbook for
Golf Courses / European Golf
Association Ecology Unit / 1997
Ontario Snow Resorts Association
BMP Manual / OSRA / 2001
40
Reuse of Renovated Municipal
Wastewater for Golf Course Irrigation
/ Prince Edward Island Dept of
Technology and Environment / Dec
1999
42
Sustainable Slopes: The
Environmental Charter for Ski Areas /
National Ski Areas Association
(NSAA) / 2000
24
Wastewater Reuse for Golf Course
Irrigation / United States Golf
Association (USGA) / 1994
304
The Committed to Green Environmental Management Program for golf
courses operates in 17 European countries and involves the participation of
more than 500 courses.
Focuses on environmental initiatives that improve efficiency and create cost
savings in the areas of water and energy conservation and waste reduction.
Templates allow the tailoring of measures to suit individual circumstances.
Report was prepared by the Centre for Water Resources Studies,
Dalhousie University. It provides an overview of regulatory issues,
environmental considerations, local soil and vegetation considerations,
planning, design and operational issues, and cost considerations. Several
case studies are presented involving golf courses from various parts of
Canada that are currently irrigating in whole or in part with treated
wastewater.
NSAA is a US-based organization whose members include more than 150
ski resorts from across the country and a number of ski-industry
organizations. The document outlines the environmental vision, values and
principles of sustainability, which are endorsed by NSAA members. The
principles address all areas of resort development including planning,
design, construction and operations. Water and energy conservation are
elements for which guidance is provided on voluntary measures that resort
developers/owners/operators and resort visitors can take to increase
efficiency. Areas covered include snowmaking, landscape irrigation (i.e.
relating to year-round facilities), and indoor uses.
Prepared for the USGA. Book covers both technical and regulatory aspects
of golf course irrigation. Topics include system design, water quality
considerations, operations and monitoring, retrofitting of existing systems,
and case studies (mainly from the southern U.S.).
27
Water Reuse and Recycling
Title / Organization / Date
Pages
Description
Code of Practice for the Use of
Reclaimed Water – Companion
Document to the Municipal Sewage
Regulation / B.C. Ministry of
Environment, Lands and Parks /
2001
Queensland Water Recycling
Strategy / Queensland Environmental
Protection agency / 2001
45
Code supports the intent and requirements of the Municipal Sewage
Regulation with respect to encouraging the beneficial reuse of classes of
wastewaters while ensuring the protection of human health and the
environment.
70
Provides the framework for encouraging adoption of safe and sustainable
water recycling initiatives and practices. Establishes guiding principles and
policies on sources, uses and action plans.
Pages
Description
Basics of Drought Planning: A TenStep Process / National Drought
Mitigation Center, University of
Nebraska / 2000
15
Ontario Low Water Response Plan /
Ontario Ministry of Natural
Resources et al / July 2003
44
Presents a generic approach to effective drought planning and response
based on more than 15 years of US and international observation and
experience. Outlines 10 steps focused on initiating action at the state level
but adaptable to other levels of government. The steps include appointing
a Drought Task Force, defining the purpose and objectives of the Drought
Plan, seeking stakeholder participation and resolving conflicts, inventorying
resources and identifying groups at risk, developing organizational
structure and preparing the Drought Plan, integrating science and policy
and closing institutional gaps, publicizing and obtaining feedback on the
proposed Plan, implementing the Plan, developing education programs,
and conducting a post-drought evaluation.
A plan intended to ensure provincial agency coordination and
preparedness in guiding and assisting local response in the event of a
drought. It establishes criteria for assigning the degree of drought severity,
specifies the range of response measures to be taken, and identifies roles,
responsibilities and linkages.
Drought Planning and Response
Title / Organization / Date
269
APPENDIX C:
ONLINE RESOURCES
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Websites referenced in the attached table have been found to be particularly useful sources of information on water
conservation and water-use efficiency. The list focuses on sites known to have a high degree of recognition and
credibility as well as above average content relating to water management practices. Starting an information search
with these sites will quickly lead the user to additional print and online resources on water conservation at levels of
detail suitable for both the water management professional and the more casual reader.
Government Resources
Jurisdiction and Department
Website
Canada
BC Buildings Corporation (How to Guidance for New Construction
and Retrofits)
Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention
Environment Canada (Pollution Prevention Success Stories)
National Research Council (Design for Environment Guide)
Ontario Centre for Environmental Technology Advancement
Public Works and Government Services Canada (Real Property
Services)
United States
Arizona Municipal Water Users Association
California Urban Water Conservation Council
Georgia Dept of Natural Resources (Pollution Prevention
Assistance Division)
Maryland Dept of the Environment
National Drought Mitigation Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Drought
Information Center
New Mexico State Engineer’s Office
North Carolina Dept of Environment and Natural Resources
(Pollution Prevention Division)
North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental
Assistance - State Agency Water Conservation Initiative
Pennsylvania Dept of Environmental Protection (Water Saving Tips)
US EPA (Water Efficiency Program)
US Dept of Energy (Center for Waste Reduction Technologies)
US Dept of Energy (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy –
Industrial Technologies Program)
www.greenbuildingsbc.com
www.c2p2online.com
www.ec.gc.ca/pp
http://dfe-sce.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
www.oceta.on.ca
www.pwgsc.gc.ca/rps
www.amwua.org
www.h2ouse.org/resources
www.p2ad.org
www.mde.state.md.us/programs/waterprograms
www.drought.unl.edu
www.drought.noaa.gov
www.ose.state.nm.us/water-info/
www.p2pays.org
www.sustainablenc.org/tools.htm
www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/subject/hotopics/drought/Sav
ingWater.htm
www.epa.gov/owm/water-efficiency
www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices
www.eere.energy.gov/industry
International
Envirowise Programme, UK Environment Agency
International Institute for Sustainable Development
Our Water Our Future (State of Victoria, AU)
Pollution Prevention World Information Network
United Nations Environment Programme (Division of Technology,
Industry and Economics)
World Water Council
www.envirowise.gov.uk
www.iisd.org
www.ourwater.vic.gov.au/ourwater/dsenowof.nsf/Home
+Page/OurWater~OurWater_home?open
www.p2win.org
www.unepie.org
www.worldwatercounicil.org
Non-Government Resources (Sectoral and Professional)
Sector or Organization
American Water Works Association (WaterWiser Program)
Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (Water Efficiency
Website
www.awwa.org/waterwiser
www.cwwa.org/WEED
270
Experiences Database)
Committed to Green Foundation (Europe)
Conservation Council of Ontario (Green Ontario)
Golf Course Superintendents’ Association of America
Hospitals for a Healthy Environment
Irrigation Association
POLIS (U of Victoria)
Pulp & Paper Industry Association
Rocky Mountain Institute
Royal Canadian Golf Association
University of Minnesota (Technical Assistance Program)
Water Environment Federation
WaterReuse Association of California
Water Saver Home
Water Use It Wisely
WaterWiser: The Water Efficiency Clearinghouse
www.committedtogreen.org
www.greenontario.org
www.gcsaa.org
www.h2e-online.org/
www.irrigation.org
www.waterdsm.org
www.tappi.org
www.rmi.org
www.rcga.org
www.mntap.umn.edu
www.wef.org
www.watereuse.org
www.h2ouse.org
www.wateruseitwisely.com
www.waterwiser.org
271
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