Haliotis kamtschatkana,

Haliotis kamtschatkana,
Resurvey of Northern Abalone, Haliotis
kamtschatkana, Populations in Southeast
Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia,
April, 2002
«
M. Atkins, J. Lessard, and A. Campbell
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Science Branch, Pacific Region
Pacific Biological Station
Nanaimo, British Columbia
V9T 6N7
2004
,
•
Canadian Manuscript Report of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2704
1+1
Fisheries
P~ches
and Oceans
et Oceans
Canada
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Canadian Manuscript Report of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2704
2004
RESURVEY OF NORTHERN ABALONE, Haliotis kamtschatkana, POPULATIONS IN
SOUTHEAST QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, BRITISH COLUMBIA, APRIL 2002
by
M. Atkins, J. Lessard, and A. Campbell
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Science Branch, Pacific Region
Pacific Biological Station
Nanaimo, British Columbia
V9T 6N7
ii
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2004.
Cat. No. Fs 97-4/2704E
ISSN 0706-6473
Correct citation for this publication:
Atkins, M., Lessard, J., and Campbell, A. 2004. Resurvey of northern abalone, Haliotis
kamtschatkana, populations in southeast Queen Charlotte Islands, British
Columbia, April 2002. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2704: 37 p.
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES ..­
iv
LIST OF FIGLIRES
iv
LIST OF APPENDICES
v
ABSTRACT
vi
RESUME
vi
INTRODUCTION
1
METHODS
1
SURVEY METHODS
1
ANALYTICAL METHODS
2
RESULTS
3
SURVEY SUMMARy
3
SIZE FREQUENCY
3
DENSITY
4
PERCENT OF SITES WITH ABALONE
.4
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSiON
:
5
6
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
6
REFERENCES
7
iv
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Summary of exposed abalone shell length data from index sites surveyed in
southeast QCI, 2002 by area
10
Table 2. Mean abalone shell length, standard error of the mean and number of
exposed abalone measured for 'all sites' sampled in southeast QCI by year
10
Table 3. ANOVA results comparing the mean size of abalone, from all sites, between
years
10
Table 4. Mean exposed abalone density estimates (number/m 2 ) of abalone by size
category and by area, southeast QCI 2002
11
Table 5. Mean exposed abalone density estimates (number/m 2 ) by year and by size
category, from 'all sites' southeast QCI 2002
12
Table 6. Mann-Whitney U test probabilities comparing mean densities from 'all sites'
between years, by size category
13
Table 7. Percent of sites where there were no exposed abalone, or no legal (~100 mm
.
SL) exposed abalone, at index sites southeast QCI, 2002
14
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Map of areas surveyed in southeast QCI.
15
Figure 2. Size frequency of exposed abalone shell lengths (mm) measured from 'all
sites' for all survey years
17
Figure 3. Size frequency of exposed abalone from each survey area in southeast QCI,
April 2002
19
Figure 4. Mean density of 'all sizes' abalone and 'legal' abalonefrom all surveys. All
sites surveyed are included
21
Figure 5. Percent of 'index sites' with no abalone of any size or no 'legal' sized abalone
(~100 mm SL) from surveys in southeast QCI, 1978-2002 (excluding 1979 due to
small sample size)
23
v
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1. Abalone dive survey summary, by site, southeast aCI, April 2002
25
Appendix 2. Descrit>tiol1 of abalone index sites surveyed in southeast aCI, April 2002 .
...............................................................................................................................27
Appendix 3. Density of exposed abalone, by size group, for index sites surveyed in
southeast aCI, April 2002
29
2
Appendix 4. Total exposed abalone density (number/m ) and number of quadrats, by
site, for all surveyed years
31
2
Appendix 5. Abalone densities (number/m ) for legal and mature size classes, by site,
for all sample years
33
2
Appendix 6. Abalone densities (number/m ) for pre-recruit and new recruit size classes,
by site, for all sample years
35
Appendix 7. Additional sites from 1978 and 1979, not included Appendix 4-6 as index
sites
37
vi
ABSTRACT
Atkins, M., Lessard f J., and Campbell, A. 2004. Resurvey of northern abalone, Haliotis
kamtschatkana, populations in southeast Queen Charlotte Islands, British
Columbia, April 2002. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2704: 37 p.
Northern abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, have been protected by harvest closures
since 1990 due to low population levels. Index site surveys have been performed since
1978 to monitor abalone populations in British Columbia (BC). In April 2002, a total of
362 abalone were found from 45 of the 68 index sites surveyed along the southeast
coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Mean shell length (SL) was 67.0 mm; 12.4% of
abalone surveyed were of historic legal size (~1 00 mm SL). Abalone density for all sizes
was 0.34/m 2 , significantly lower than all previous survey years (except 1994). Densities
of legal and of mature (~70 mm SL) abalone were significantly lower in 2002 than all
other years. Since the fishery closure in 1990, there has been no evidence of a recovery
of northern abalone populations in southeast Queen Charlotte Islands.
RESUME
Atkins, M., Lessard, J., and Campbell, A. 2004. Resurvey of northern abalone, Haliotis
kamtschatkana, populations in southeast Queen Charlotte Islands, British
Columbia, April 2002. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2704: 37 p.
La peche de I'ormeau nordique, Haliotis kamtschatkana, de la Colombie­
Britannique est comph~tementfermee depuis 1990 afin d'assurer la conservation de
I'espece. Des releves des sites indicateurs ont ete effectues par Peches et Oceans
Canada depuis 1978 pour surveiller Ie retablissement des populations d'ormeaux. En
avril 2002, 362 ormeaux ont ete mesure 45 des 68 sites echantillonnes sur la cote
sud-est des iles de la Reine Charlotte. La longueur moyenne etait 67.0 mm et 12.4%
des ormeaux echantillonnes etaient de taille legale (~1 00 mm de longueur). La densite
totale estimee etait de 0.34/m 2 , une baisse significative comparee tous les
echantillonnages precedents, sauf celui de 1994. Les densites d'ormeaux legaux et
mature (~70 mm de longueur) etaient elles aussi leurs pius bas niveaux
comparativement tous les echantillonnages precedents. Les resultats indiquent que
les populations d'ormeaux nordiques ne se retablissent pas sur la cote sud-est des iles
de la Reine Charlotte depuis la fermeture de la peche.
a
a
a
a
a
INTRODUCTION
Generally occurring in patchy distributions on exposed or semi-exposed coastlines
in British ColumbiaiBC) the northern abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, is found from
Yakutat, Alaska to Baja California (McLean 1966; O'Clair and O'Clair 1998). In BC,
northern abalone were harvested by First Nations as a traditional food source, were a
target of recreational divers, and a commercial fishery operated between 1952 and
1990 (Campbell 2000). The biology and fishery of the northern abalone were reviewed
by Sloan and Breen (1988) and Farlinger and Campbell (1992).
Northern abalone stocks have been assessed through surveys of index sites in
southeast Queen Charlotte Islands (QCI) (Pacific Fishery Management Area (PFMA) 2
east) and the north central coast of BC (PFMA 5 and 6) using a standard survey design
since 1978 (Breen and Adkins 1979). Much of the commercial fishery for northern
abalone was conducted in these areas during 1977-90 (Harbo 1997). Results from the
surveys of index sites along the central coast of BC and the Queen Charlottes showed
evidence of a 75-80% decline in abalone abundance in the period of 1978-1990
(Thomas et al. 1990; Farlinger et al. 1991; Campbell 2000). The Department of
Fisheries & Oceans Canada (DFO) banned the harvest of northern abalone in
December of 1990 due to conservation concerns. Despite the harvest closure, their
numbers remained low and in 1999 northern abalone was listed as 'threatened' by the
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (Campbell 2000; Jamieson
2001 ).
As a result of the official listing, a National Recovery Strategy for the Northern
Abalone was prepared by the DFO and the Abalone Recovery Team (Abalone
Recovery Team 2002). The short-term measurable objective set out in the recovery
strategy is: "[to] ensure that mean densities of adult (~1 00 mm SL) northern abalone do
not decline below 0.1/m 2 at surveyed index sites in Haida Gwaii and North and Central
Coast, and that the percentage of surveyed index sites without adult (~1 00 mm SL)
northern abalone does not increase to greater than 60%". In order to monitor northern
abalone and evaluate recovery efforts, the surveys of index sites have continued.
This paper presents the results of the index sites survey in the southeast QCI in
April 2002 (Fig. 1) and compares abalone density estimates with those measured in
previous surveys (Breen and Adkins 1979; 1981; Boutillier et al. 1985; Carolsfeld et al.
1988; Thomas et al. 1990; Winther et al. 1995; Campbell et al. 2000).
METHODS
SURVEY METHODS
The Coast Guard research vessel 'CCGS W.E. Ricker' acted as a live-aboard
platform for the survey crew. Two dive teams, consisting of three DFO divers each,
worked from two smaller dive boats, for eight days, April 12-19, 2002.
Eight abalone surveys have been completed in southeast QCI since 1978. During
the first survey in 1978, 108 sites were surveyed using the standard method described
2
below, but several of these sites were not re-sampled in 1984 and did not become
'index sites' (location re-sampled at each survey). Only 10 sites were surveyed in 1979,
of which 7 were repeats from 1978. In 2002, most of the index sites sampled in previous
surveys since 1984-were resurveyed. Index site positions were located from previous
chart records, written site descriptions, photographs and GPS positions. In 1998, in
addition to index sites, additional sites were randomly selected and surveyed. In this
paper, when the additional sites from 1978 and 1998 were included in the analysis, the
combination is referred as 'all sites'.
The sites were grouped into eight general areas: Cumshewa Inlet, Selwyn Inlet,
Tanu Island, Upper Juan Perez Sound, Lower Juan Perez Sound, Skincuttle Inlet,
Carpenter Bay, Kunghit Island (Fig. 1).
Abalone index sites were surveyed using the method described by Breen and
2
Adkins (1979). Once each site was located, divers placed a 1m quadrat at the top of
the abalone habitat zone and then sampled 16 quadrats within a 7m by 16m area (4
rows of 4 quadrats). The 16 quadrats were arranged in 4 transects, each 4 m apart;
each of the 4 quadrats, within a transect, were 1 m apart. For each quadrat, divers
recorded the dominant algal species and the number of urchins, and cleared the
quadrat of all kelp, sea urchins, and sea stars to ensure all exposed abalone were
easily detectable. Divers then recorded the depth and substrate type, and measured,
with callipers, the shell length (SL in mm) of each exposed abalone. If no abalone were
encountered in the first eight quadrats, the dive was aborted and the site count was
scored as zero.
In the 1984, 1987 and 1990 surveys, divers turned boulders and rocks in search of
hidden or cryptic abalone, but, in an effort to conserve time and increase sample size,
only exposed abalone were recorded on the 2002 survey. Searching for cryptic abalone
is time-consuming and only 15-17% more abalone are seen during a cryptic search
(Cripps and Campbell 1998; Campbell and Cripps 1998). Data for cryptic abalone from
1984, 1987 and 1990 were excluded from the analyses in this paper.
ANALYTICAL METHODS
Abalone densities were expressed as the number/m 2 for several size categories: all
sizes, immature «70 mm SL), mature (~70 mm SL), pre-recruit (92-99 mm SL), new
recruit (100-106 mm SL) and legal (~100 mm SL). Size at 100% maturity for northern
abalone is approximately 70 mm SL (Campbell et al. 1992). Pre-recruit and new recruit
sizes for northern abalone were estimated using growth curves provided by Quayle
(1971) and Breen (1986). The number of abalone measured at a site occasionally did
not match the number counted because some may not have been accessible or the
shells were broken. For this reason, the size frequencies for each site were used to
estimate the proportion of abalone within each size category. Densities for each size
category (Dj) were calculated as Dj = PjD, where Pj is the proportion of abalone in each
category (Pi the number per category i divided by the total abalone measured in the
2
sample) and D is the density (abalone/m ) calculated from the total abalone count from
the 16 quadrats. In 1978, abalone were not measured at all sites, but the legal
proportion was estimated. Therefore, 1978 density estimates for immature, mature,
=
3
pre-recruit, and new-recruit could not be calculated for 57 sites (out of 108). For all
survey years, densities of immature abalone should be treated with caution due to the
difficulty of detecting small individuals «70mm SL).
All the data from all index sites surveys was recently entered in a Microsoft Access
database. Some errors were corrected when preparing the data for the database;
therefore estimates presented in this paper (Appendix 4,5,6), for some sites, may differ
slightly from previously published estimates.
A Kolmorgorov-Smirnov two-sample test was used to test for differences in mean
shell length between each of the eight general survey areas in 2002. A one-way
ANOVA was used to compare mean shell length over all years; if differences were
detected at the 0.05 confidence level, a post-hoc Bonferroni test was used for
comparisons between years.
Previous analyses of index site surveys compared changes in densities between
years for repeated sites only and several sites were ignored. This meant that each time
a particular site was not surveyed because of weather conditions, or other reason, the
number of sites included in the analysis decreased. In 2002, of the 68 sites surveyed,
only 55 had the complete time-series for all sizes and legal density estimates, and only
24 for the other size categories where size frequencies were available. Considering the
amount of effort necessary to survey each site, all sites should be included in the
analysis, if possible. For this reason. the analysis in this paper was changed. The non­
parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used in order to include as many sites as possible
while considering each site an independent sample. This made the comparison
between years with different sample sizes possible. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used
to compare densities between all years for all sizes, legal, mature. pre-recruit and new
recruit abalone; if differences were detected at the 0.05 confidence level, a Mann­
Whitney U was used for comparisons between years.
RESULTS
SURVEY SUMMARY
In total, 68 historic index sites were sampled for abalone density. Abalone were
found at 45 (66.2%) of the 68 sites surveyed. No abalone were found at any sites
surveyed in the Cumshewa Inlet area. An average of 32.3 minutes (minimum 5,
maximum 78) was spent sampling each site (Appendix 1). In general the sites
consisted of bedrock and/or boulders. Macrocystis integrifolia, Nereocystis luetkeana,
Pterygophora californica and Laminaria spp. were the dominant kelp species
(Appendix 2). Encrusting coralline algae were present at most sites.
SIZE FREQUENCY
In total. 362 abalone were measured during the survey. The mean shell length was
67.0 mm; the smallest abalone measured was 8 mm and the largest was 135 mm
(Fig. 2, 3; Table 1). Excluding Cumshewa Inlet, from which no abalone were found,
there were two areas (Selwyn Inlet and Lower Juan Perez Sound) from which no legal
4
sized abalone were found, although in both cases the total abalone counts were small
«10).
Mean shell lengths were compared between areas using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov
two sample test (Table 1). Lower Juan Perez Sound had the smallest mean size (54.8
mm SL), which was significantly different (~ 0.05) from both Tanu and Kunghit Islands
areas. The largest mean size (76.3 mm SL) was in Kunghit Island area and was
significantly higher (P$. 0.05) than the mean sizes in Tanu Island, Upper Juan Perez
Sound, and Carpenter Bay.
In 2002, the mean size (67.0 mm SL) was significantly smaller (P<0.05) than all
other survey years, except 1978 (Tables 2 and 3).
DENSITY
Of the seven areas with abalone, densities for all sizes ranged from 0.04
abalone/m 2 (Selwyn Inlet) to 0.79 abalone/m 2 (Kunghit Island) (Table 4). Density
estimates by size categories and by area were very low or zero. For this reason, only
'all sizes' density estimates were compared between areas (Cumshewa Inlet area was
excluded). Kunghit Island had significantly more abalone than Selwyn Inlet, Tanu Island
and Skincuttle Inlet. Amongst areas with abalone present, Selwyn Inlet had the lowest
density all sizes, which was significantly different from Tanu Island, Upper Juan Perez
and Kunghit Island areas. Carpenter Bay had the highest density of immature «70 mm
SL) abalone with 0.35 abalone/m 2 . Kunghit Island had the highest density of legal (~100
mm SL) abalone with 0.12 abalone/m 2 .
Mean densities of different abalone size groups for all surveyed sites were
compared between survey years (Table 5, 6, and Appendix 3,4,5). Abalone densities
declined significantly between 1978 and 1984 and have since fluctuated (Fig. 4). In all
size classes, abalone densities were significantly higher (P<0.05) in 1978-79 than all
subsequent years (Table 6). There were no significant differences between 1978 and
1979 except for the density of new recruits. The density of legal sized and mature
abalone was significantly lower in 2002 than all previous survey years. The 2002
abalone density estimate of all sizes was significantly lower than all other years except
1994 (Table 6).
PERCENT OF SITES WITH ABALONE
The overall percentage of sites with no exposed abalone was 30.9%, and with no
exposed legal-sized abalone was 75.0%, for all index sites sampled (N=68) in 2002.
When comparing between areas, these values ranged from 0% to 100% for total
abalone and 14% to 100% for legal abalone (Table 7). There were three areas
(Cumshewa Inlet, Selwyn Inlet and Lower Juan Perez Sound) in which no legal-sized
abalone were observed; this was probably due, in part, to the low number of sites
sampled within each area (4, 6, and 2 sites respectively).
The 2002 survey had the highest percentage of sites with any exposed abalone
(30.9%), the next closest being 1984 (15.7%). The percentage of sites with no legal
abalone increased from 23.1 % in 1978 to 75.0% in 2002 (Fig. 5).
5
DISCUSSION
While the current data analysis methods differed, the results of the statistical
analysis presentedllere were similar to Campbell et al. (2000) (e.g., 'all sizes' densities
between 1987 and 1990 were significantly different using both type of analysis). The
discrepancies were probably due to the different number of sites included in the
respectlve analysis.
The mean size of abalone surveyed significantly dropped from 76.4 mm SL in 1998
to 67.0 mm SL in 2002 (Table 2). This decrease was likely due to a greater proportion
of small individuals. While there was a significant decline of 'all sizes' density from 1998
to 2002 of 39%, the legal and mature densities went down by 56% and 64%,
respectively, compared to 18% for immature (Table 5). In other words, the density for
large abalone decreased more rapidly than that for small individuals.
Abalone population density estimates for southeast QCI during the 2002 survey
(0.34 ± 0.06 abalone/m 2 ) were higher than the densities observed during the most
recent survey along the central coast of BC in 2001 (0.27 ± 0.04 abalone/m 2 ; Atkins et
al. 2004) and a f.relirninary survey of the northwest coast of Vancouver Island (0.09 ±
0.04 abalone/m ; Atkins and Lessard 2004).
Abalone population abundance in southeast QCI in 2002 could be reaching a critical
density too low to maintain a sustainable population. The minimum density under which
reproductive potential is impaired due to rarity, known as the Allee effect (Allee et al.
1949) is unknown for northern abalone. Shepherd and Partington (1995) showed that
there was a critical stock density threshold (0.15-0.20 abalone/m 2 ) for H. laevigata,
below which the risk of recruitment failure was high. Shepherd and Brown (1993)
observed a 50% decline in the profortion of aggregating adults in H. laevigata when
density declined from 1.8 to 0.7/m . They reasoned that the loss of reproductive
potential was multiplied by a factor related to the ability of abalone to aggregate. In
other words, the effective population size (the population contributing to the next
generation) declines more rapidly than the true population size as density declines.
These aggregations are believed to enhance reproductive success by increasing the
chance of fertilization (Sloan and Breen 1988; Shepherd and Brown 1993; McShane
1995a, 1995b; Shepherd and Partington 1995; Babcock and Keesing 1999). Recent
studies in abalone (McShane 1995a, 1995b; Shepherd and Partington 1995; Babcock
and Keesing 1999) and sea urchins (Levitan et al. 1992; Levitan and Sewell 1998) have
pointed to reduced fertilization success caused by dilution of gametes through reduced
adult spawner densities. For H. kamtschatkana, Breen (1986) suggested pre-recruit
(92-99 mm SL) and new-recruit (100-106 mm SL) densities of 0.55/m 2 and 0.45/m 2 ,
respectively, as replacement requirement densities with an ongoing fishery. Campbell
(1997) suggested densities 0.26/m 2 for pre-recruits and 0.14/m 2 for new-recruits would
be required for the reopening of the fishery in BC; the suggested required densities for
the reopening of the fishery were set arbitrarily at slightly higher than 50% of the peak
densities during the late 1970s. In the 2002 survey, the densities of pre-recruit and
new-recruit abalone were 0.02/m 2 and 0.02/m 2 respectively, well below both the
suggested harvestable replacement density levels.
6
CONCLUSION
The mean density of 'legal' abalone (>100mm in SL) was only at 0.04/m 2 (Table 5;
Fig.4), well below the short-term objective of maintaining densities at or above 0.1 /m 2
(Abalone Recovery Team 2002). The percentage of sites with no legal sized abalone,
75% in 2002 (Table 7; Fig. 5), was also above the short-term recovery target of 60%.
The number of sites without any or legal sized abalone should be treated with caution.
The number of secondary units (quadrats) sampled could potentially change the relative
quantity of zero sites (Campbell et al. 2000). With the current sampling design, the dive
is aborted after the eight quadrats if no abalone are encountered and the site count is
scored as zero. The 'Breen' survey method has provided a valuable time series of
general population trends of mature emergent northern abalone at index sites in large
remote areas of BC. The method has had few changes since 1978 and has made
survey comparisons between year and location possible. However, abalone densities
have decreased and the probability of encountering an abalone in 8 quadrats is lower
than it was in the late 1970s. We recommend that the 'Breen' survey method continue
to be used, but for repeated index sites, all 16 quadrats should be completed even
when no abalone are found after the 8th quadrat.
There has been no evidence of abalone populations rebuilding in the southeast QCI
in the 14 years since abalone were protected by harvest closures which started in late
1990. The densities of every size group, except new-recruit, have significantly
decreased from the 1998 estimates. The proportionally larger decrease in densities of
mature and legal compared to immature abalone density suggests that the main factor
in the overall decline was probably not low recruitment, but poaching. Although other
factors, e.g. natural predation, have played a role, low recruitment levels and continued
harvest despite the fisheries closures probably have had predominant and widespread
effects and are considered to be the most significant threats to northern abalone
recovery (Abalone Recovery Team 2002). Poachers target larger individuals, which
have the highest reproductive potential, compounding the impact of their removal on the
surrounding population. The level of poaching is difficult to assess. Abalone are valued
between $45-100/kg fresh/frozen to $2600/kg for dried meat, making them a very
profitable commodity (Campbell 2000; Jubinville 2000). Poaching does come with risk;
several people have been sentenced to over $170 000 in fines and equipment
forfeitures (Jubinville 2000). In addition to enhancing public education and awareness,
active enforcement must be increased to reduce the impact poaching has on the future
of northern abalone populations in BC.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Doug Brouwer, Brad Beaith, Claudia Hand, James Pegg, Pauline Ridings,
and Ivan Winther for help with the dive survey, the crew of the Ricker for dive tending,
and Dominique Bureau and Ivan Winther for reviewing the paper.
7
REFERENCES
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(Haliotis kamtschatkana) in Canada. 22 pp. http://www-comm.pac.dfo­
mpo.gc.ca/pages/consultations/fisheriesmgmt/abalone/documents/AbaloneRecov
Strategy_e. htm
Allee, W.C., Emerson, AE., Park, 0., Park, T., and Schmidt, K.P. 1949. Principles of
Animal Ecology. Saunders, Philadelphia. 837 p.
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Columbia, April 2001. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
6abcock, R., and Keesing, J. 1999. Fertilization biology of the abalone Haliotis
laevigata: laboratory and field studies. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 1668-1678.
Boutillier, J.A., Carolsfeld, W., Breen, P.A, Farlinger, S., and Bates, K. 1985. Abalone
resurvey in the southeast Queen Charlotte Islands, July 1984. Can. Manuscr.
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Breen, P.A 1986. Management of the British Columbia fishery for northern abalone
(Haliotis kamtschatkana). Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 92: 300-312.
Breen, P.A and Adkins, B.E. 1979. A survey of abalone populations on the east coast
of the Queen Charlotte Islands, August 1978. Fish. Mar. Servo Manuscr. Rep.
1490: 125 p.
Breen, P.A and Adkins, B.E. 1981. Abalone surveys and tagging conducted during
1979. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1623: 88 p.
Campbell, A 1997. Possible criteria for reopening the northern abalone (Haliotis
kamtschatkana) fishery in British Columbia. DFO Can. Stock Assess. Sec. Res.
Doc. 1997/64: 47 p.
Campbell, A 2000. Review of northern abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, stock status
in British Columbia. In Workshop on Rebuilding Abalone Stocks in British
Columbia. Edited by A. Campbell. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 130. pp. 41­
50.
Campbell, A, Brouwer, D., Rogers, J., and Miller, D.C. 2000. Abalone resurvey in
south east Queen Charlotte Islands, 1998. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
2528: 30 p.
Campbell, A, and Cripps, K. 1998. Survey of abalone populations at Stryker Island,
Tribal Group and Simonds Group, Central Coast of British Columbia, May 1997.
Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2451: 21 p.
8
Campbell, A, Manley, I., and Carolsfeld, W. 1992. Size at maturity and fecundity of the
abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, in northern British Columbia. Can Manuscr.
Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2169: 47-65.
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Abalone resurvey in the southeast Queen Charlotte Islands, June 1987. Can.
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Cripps, K., and Campbell, A 1998. Survey of abalone populations at Dallain Point and
Higgins Pass, central coast of British Columbia, 1995-96. Can Manuscr. Rep.
Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2445: 31 p.
Farlinger, S., and Campbell, A 1992. Fisheries management and biology of northern
abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, in the northeast Pacific. pp. 395-406 In Shepherd,
S.A, Tegner, M.J., Guzman del Proo, S.A. (eds), Abalone of the World - Biology,
Fisheries and Culture. Fishing News Books, Oxford.
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the Estevan Group and Aristazaballsland, June 1989. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish.
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2369: 86-92.
Jamieson, G.S. 2001. Review of status of northern abalone, Haliotis kamstchatkana, in
Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115: 555-563.
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kamtschatkana) in British Columbia [Abstract]. In Workshop on Rebuilding Abalone
Stocks in British Columbia. Edited by Campbell, A. Can. Spec. Pub!. Fish. Aquat.
Sci. 130. pp. 52.
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invertebrates: review of the evidence and fisheries implications. Can. Spec. Pub!.
Fish. Aquat. Sci. 125: 159-164.
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influence fertilization success in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus.
Ecology 73: 248-254.
McLean, J. 1966. West American prosobranch gastropoda: Superfamilies Patellacae,
Pleurotomariacea, and Fissurellacea. Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University. 255 p.
McShane, P.E. 1995a. Estimating the abundance of abalone: the importance of patch
size. Marine and Freshwater Research 46: 657-662.
McShane, P.E. 1995b. Recruitment variation in abalone: its importance to fisheries
management. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 46: 555-570.
O'Clair, RM., and O'Clair, C.E. 1998. Southeast Alaska's Rock Shores. Animals.
Plant Press, Auke Bay, Alaska. 564 p.
Quayle, D.B. 1971. Growth, morphometry and breeding in the British Columbia
abalone, Haliotis Kamtschatkana. Fish. Res. Bd Can. Tech. Rep. Ser. 279: 84 p.
9
Shepherd, S.A, and Brown, L.D. 1993. What is an abalone stock: implications for the
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Shepherd, S.A, ang Partington, D. 1995. Studies on southern Australian abalone
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Freshwater Research 46: 669-680.
Sloan, N.A., and Breen, P.A 1988. Northern abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, in
British Columbia: fisheries and synopsis of life history information. Can. Spec.
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82.
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resurvey in the southeast Queen Charlotte Islands, 1994. Can. Manuscr. Rep.
Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2273: 46 p.
10
Table 1. Summary of exposed abalone shell length data from index sites surveyed in
southeast QCI, 2002 by area. SE = standard error of the mean. Means followed by the
same letter were signi'ficantly different (P<0.05) from each other, using a Kolmogorov­
Smirnov two sample test.
Area
Cumshewa Inlet
Selwyn Inlet
Tanu Island
Upper Juan Perez
Lower Juan Perez
Skincuttle Inlet
Carpenter Bay
Kunghit Island
Total
Shell Length (mm)
Minimum
Median SE
nfa
nfa
nfa
Mean
nfa
62.8
65.6a .c
59.9d
54.8a .b
71.1
65.58
76.3 b•c.d •e
67.0
65
65
55
56.5
71
67
80
68
51
25
14
39
26
8
20
8
4.4
3.1
3.3
4.7
4.4
2.7
2.3
1.4
Maximum
nfa
Total
Count
Percent Legal
0
4
43
93
6
34
94
88
362
0.0
0.0
4.7
15.1
0.0
23.5
9.6
14.8
12.4
70
117
128
68
123
121
135
135
~100
mm SL
Table 2. Mean abalone shell length (SL), standard error of the mean (SE) and number
of exposed abalone measured (N) for 'all sites' sampled in southeast QCI by year.
Year
Mean SL (mm)
SE
N
1978
69.5
0.6
2102
1979
80.2
1.3
328
1987
81.3
1.1
718
1984
74.1
1.1
583
1990
76.8
1.1
581
1994
77.7
1.0
725
1998
76.4
0.8
1029
2002
67.0
1.4
362
Table 3. ANOVA results comparing the mean size of abalone, from all sites, between
years. Numbers represent P-values from the multiple comparison Bonferroni test. Bold
numbers indicate significant difference (a 0.05).
=
Year
Year
1978
1979
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
0.005
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.000
1979
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
0.023
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.646
0.000
0.000
0.002
1.000
0.401
1.000
0.056
0.248
0.003
0.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Legal
(~1 00
mm SL)
0.00
0.00
0.00
New Recruit (100-106 mm)
mm SL)
0.00
(~70
0.00
Pre-Recruit (92-99 mm SL)
Mature
Immature «70 mm SL)
No. of Sites
All sizes
Cumshewa
Inlet
4
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.05
(0.02)
0.02
(0.01 )
(0.02)
0.00
0.01
(0.01 )
0.01
(0.03)
0.11
(0.08)
0.21
(0.09)
U Juan
Perez
18
0.32 bd
(0.01 )
0.14
(0.05)
0.01
(0.07)
(0.02)
(0.01 )
0.20
(0.10)
(0.02)
0.03
Tanu
Island
8
0.34 b
Selwyn
Inlet
6
0.04abc
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
(0.19)
0.19
(0.19)
L Juan
Perez
2
0.19
(0.02)
0.04
(0.01 )
0.02
0.00
(0.04)
0.09
(0.02)
0.08
(0.05)
Skincuttle
Inlet
13
0.16 8
(0.04)
0.06
(0.01 )
0.01
(0.03)
0.06
(0.09)
0.26
(0.21 )
0.35
(0.24)
Carpenter
Bay
10
0.61
(0.04)
0.12
(0.04)
0.09
(0.04)
0.09
(0.20)
0.50
(0.07)
0.29
(0.24)
Kunghit
Island
7
0.79ad8
(0.01 )
0.04
(0.01 )
0.02
(0.01 )
0.02
(0.03)
0.15
(0.04)
0.18
(0.06)
All
sites
68
0.34
Table 4. Mean exposed abalone density estimates (number/m 2 ) of abalone by size category and by area, southeast QCI
2002. The values in brackets are the standard errors of the mean. All sizes means followed by the same letter were
significantly different (P<0.05) from each other, using a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (Cumshewa Inlet area was
excluded).
.......
.......
(~70
mm SL)
Legal
(~1 00
mm SL)
New Recruit (100-106 mm SL)
Pre - Recruit (92-99 mm SL)
Mature
Immature «70 mm SL)
Number of sites sampled
Number of quadrats sampled
Number of abalone counted
All sizes
Abalone Size
0.49
(0.18)
0.36
(0.05)
0.27
(0.06)
0.11
0.29
(0.08)
0.23
(0.05)
(0.02)
1.53
(0.22)
(0.27)
(0.41 )
0.58
1.40
1.25
(0.52)
(0.24)
(0.24)
1979
10
152
369
2.34
1978
108*
1659
3749
2.22
(0.02)
0.09
(0.03)
0.19
0.06
(0.01 )
0.03
(0.01 )
0.06
(0.01 )
0.06
(0.06)
0.40
(0.06)
0.24
(0.08)
1987
70
1091
724
0.65
(0.01 )
(0.05)
0.30
(0.05)
0.22
(0.06)
1984
70
1044
588
0.53
0.02
0.10
(0.02)
(0.01 )
0.06
(0.00)
0.04
(0.01 )
(0.01 )
0.03
(0.03)
0.18
(0.02)
0.12
(0.04)
1994
70
2492
747
0.30
(0.01 )
0.05
(0.05)
0.27
(0.03)
0.20
(0.06)
Year
1990
69
1144
581
0.46
(0.02)
0.11
(0.01 )
0.04
(0.01 )
0.05
(0.04)
0.34
(0.03)
0.22
(0.05)
1998
115
1840
1041
0.56
(0.01 )
0.04
(0.01 )
0.02
(0.01 )
0.02
(0.03)
0.15
(0.04)
0.18
(0.06)
2002
68
920
366
0.34
Table 5. Mean exposed abalone density estimates (number/m 2 ) by year and by size category, from 'all sites' southeast
QCI 2002. The values in brackets are the standard errors of the mean. * only 51 sites used for density estimates of
immature, mature, pre-recruit and new-recruit.
....
I\)
13
Table 6. Mann-Whitney U test probabilities comparing mean densities from 'all sites'
between years, by size category. P-values in bold indicate significant difference (0 =
0.05).
Year
All sizes
1979
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
Immature «70 mm SL)
1979
1984
1987
. 1990
1994
1998
2002
Mature (~70 mm SL)
1979
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
Pre-recruit (92-99 mm SL)
1979
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
New Recruit (100-106 mm SL)
1979
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
Legal (~1 OOmm SL)
1979
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
1978
1979
1984
Year
1987
1990
1994
1998
0.394
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.140
0.631
0.046
0.348
0.009
0.017
0.000
0.307
0.000
0.092
0.057
0.023
0.000
0.384
0.000
0.329
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.029
0.032
0.026
0.005
0.041
0.010
0.647
0.816
0.379
0.149
0.583
0.773
0.122
0.365
0.302
0.235
0.240
0.458
0.007
0.796
0.046
0.415
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.002
0.006
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.000
0.054
0.923
0.787
0.165
0.041
0.023
0.002
0.312
0.000
0.578
0.131
0.022
0.020
0.034
0.000
0.203
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.624
0.077
0.150
0.669
0.003
0.197
0.390
0.897
0.014
0.431
0.099
0.269
0.212
0.044
0.003
0.009
0.000
0.041
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.065
0.664
0.927
0.802
0.106
0.167
0.032
0.077
0.001
0.681
0.857
0.055
0.783
0.080
0.051
0.353
0.000
0.012
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.027
0.001
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.031
0.739
0.784
0.840
0.010
0.062
0.010
0.011
0.000
0.499
0.575
0.004
0.996
0.010
0.012
14
Table 7. Percent of sites where there were no exposed abalone, or no legal
SL) exposed abalone, at index sites southeast QCI, 2002.
Area
Cumshewa Inlet
Selwyn Inlet
Tanu Island
Upper Juan Perez
Lower Juan Perez
Skincuttle Inlet
Carpenter Bay
Kunghit Island
All areas
% of zero
Total
100.0
50.0
25.0
22.2
50.0
38.5
40.0
0.0
30.9
site
Legal
100.0
100.0
87.5
72.2
100.0
76.9
80.0
14.3
75.0
Number
of sites
4
6
8
18
2
13
10
7
68
(~1 00
mm
15
132"30
Graham
Island
~
o
Q
Haida Gwaii
Figure 1. Map of areas surveyed in southeast QCI.
16
This page purposely left blank
17
1978
1979
1984
100
100
100
152
152
152
114
114
114
7\l
7\l
7\l
3ll
3ll
3ll
0
0
2ll
40
00
0
0
00 100 120 140 100
0
0
Sl (mn)
1987
1990
100
1994
100
100
152
152
~ 114
..Q 114
114
'0
'0
152
G
C
"
G
C
~
7\l
"
7\l
7\l
3ll
2ll
40
0
0
00 00 100 12ll 140 100
Sl (mn)
1998
2002
100
100
152
152
s:J. 114
i
'0
'0
G
C
G
~
"
7\l
"
114
78
3ll
2ll
40
00 00 100 12ll 140 100
Sl (mn)
00
Figure 2. Size frequency of exposed abalone shell lengths (mm) measured from 'all
sites' for all survey years.
18
This page purposely left blank
19
2
4
3
10
10
10
2
0
0
ro
100
1ro
0
0
I
!lJ
1ro
SL(nm)
5
10
100
SL(nm)
1ro
100
1ro
7
6
10
ro
100
SL(nm)
10
o
o
!il
SL(nm)
8
10
Figure 3. Size frequency of exposed abalone from each survey area in southeast QCI,
April 2002. 2 = Selwyn Inlet; 3 = Tanu Island; 4 = Upper Juan Perez Sound; 5 = Lower
Juan Perez Sound; 6 = Skincuttle Inlet; 7 = Carpenter Bay; 8 = Kunghit Island. See
Table 1 for details.
20
This page purposely left blank
21
4
0.9
0.8 +--,­ ...-­ -- ''I'
10
3.5
0.7
­
0.6
3
N
E
Ql
§ 2.5
108
0.5
0.4 '
0.3
iii
.a
~
>.
::1=~:j':::~';=i~+;;
o
2
'iii
c
Q)
o
c
co
-- --­ -----­
1.5
1982
1986
1990
1994
i
,
1998
I
2002
.Q)
~
1
0.5
o
70
I·f···.
115
69
68
70
- . ·1· .........•............ _.• _
.. '. i- ­ . I
I
i i i
-·1
i l l
-
-a
i
I
1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002
Year
Figure 4. Mean density of 'all sizes' abalone (solid line) and 'legal' abalone (dashed
line) from all surveys. All sites surveyed are included. Error bars represent 2 SE.
Numbers are sample sizes. Inset graph displays greater resolution of densities for
survey years after 1982.
22
This page purposely left blank
23
100
90
.,.
80
70
68
60
'E
(])
...
(.)
(])
...
50
.•.............. ~
/70
...
ll.
40
30
20
69
70
70
.'
62
10
0
1976
1981
1986
1991
1996
2001
Year
Figure 5. Percent of 'index sites' with no abalone of any size (solid line) or no 'legal'
sized abalone (~100 mm SL) (dashed line) from surveys in southeast QCI, 1978-2002
(excluding 1979 due to small sample size). Numbers are sample sizes.
24
This page purposely left blank
25
Appendix 1. Abalone dive survey summary, by site, southeast QCI, April 2002.
Dive Time
Minutes
Finish
Date
Site
Cumshewa Inlet
75
Apr-12
76
Apr-12
77
Apr-12
78
Apr-12
15:40
14:54
14:50
16:25
15:45
15:34
15:20
16:42
5
40
30
Selwyn Inlet
Apr-19
65
Apr-19
66
67
Apr-19
Apr-19
68
Apr-19
69
70
Apr-19
11 :00
9:40
8:53
9:44
8:51
11 :43
Tanu Island
Apr-18
59
60
Apr-18
61
Apr-18
62
Apr-18
Apr-18
63
Apr-18
64
73
Apr-18
74
Apr-18
12:30
10:49
13:34
10:03
10:34
11:58
12:55
14:22
Start
Depth
Min
Max
Number of
Quadrats
Total number
Of abalone
Density
2
(abalone/m )
17
2
0
2
3
2
3
3
3
8
16
8
8
0
0
0
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
11 :27
10:05
9:22
10:10
9:21
11 :57
27
25
29
26
30
14
0
-2
-1
0
4
2
3
-1
2
4
6
4
8
8
16
16
16
8
0
0
1
2
1
0
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.06
0.00
13:25
11:26
14:00
10:23
11 :16
12:34
13:06
14:53
55
37
26
20
42
36
11
31
0
-1
0
-1
0
1
0
4
4
1
3
0
1
2
1
6
16
16
16
8
16
16
8
16
10
13
4
0
6
5
0
5
0.63
0.81
0.25
0.00
0.38
0.31
0.00
0.31
Upper Juan Perez Sound
36
Apr-16
9:54
10:16
37
Apr-16
10:10
10:40
38
Apr-16
12:05
12:32
Apr-16
39
12:05
12:41
40
Apr-16
13:59
14:19
Apr-16
41
14:00
14:40
44
Apr-16
15:26
16:15
Apr-16
45
15:30
15:48
Apr-17
46
9:10
10:28
Apr-17
48
13:59
14:51
Apr-17
49
14:06
14:46
Apr-17
50
12:20
13:15
Apr-17
11 :05
51
11:39
53
Apr-17
12:02
12:18
Apr-16
9:16
55
10:14
Apr-16
11:02
56
11:33
57
Apr-18
8:40
9:08
58
Apr-18
8:48
9:23
22
30
27
36
20
40
49
18
78
52
40
55
34
16
58
31
28
35
4
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
-1
0
-1
0
0
3
0
2
-1
-1
9
3
3
3
3
2
3
2
4
1
1
2
3
6
3
4
0
3
8
16
16
16
8
16
16
8
16
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
16
0
14
4
6
0
3
2
0
24
4
4
4
7
0
5
6
1
9
0.00
0.88
0.25
0.38
0.00
0.19
0.13
0.00
1.50
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.44
0.00
0.31
0.38
0.06
0.56
Lower Juan Perez Sound
42
Apr-16
9:00
9:23
43
Apr-16
9:00
9:16
23
16
0
2
6
5
16
8
6
0
0.38
0.00
26
Appendix 1 (cont'd)
Site
Date
Skincuttle Inlet
Apr-13
22
Apr-13
23
24
Apr-13
Apr-13
26
Apr-13
27
Apr-13
28
Apr-13
29
Apr-13
30
Apr-13
31
Apr-13
32
Apr-13
33
Apr-13
34
35
Apr-13
Start
Dive Time
Minutes
Finish
Depth
Min
Max
Number of
Quadrats
Total number
Of abalone
Density
2
(abalone/m )
15:55
17:06
17:04
15:22
15:19
14:19
13:20
13:20
11:32
9:25
11:20
11:39
9:26
16:50
17:36
17:20
16:23
15:38
14:42
14:00
13:43
12:10
10:04
11 :30
12:00
9:56
55
30
16
61
19
23
40
23
38
39
10
21
30
-1
0
-1
-1
3
0
0
1
1
4
2
0
0
4
0
1
2
4
5
4
4
2
7
3
2
1
16
16
8
16
8
8
16
16
16
16
16
8
8
1
3
0
5
0
0
4
4
5
2
10
0
0
0.06
0.19
0.00
0.31
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.25
0.31
0.13
0.63
0.00
0.00
Bay
Apr-14
Apr-14
Apr-14
Apr-14
Apr-14
Apr-14
Apr-14
Apr-14
Apr-14
Apr-14
14:17
15:01
12:39
14:00
11:40
11 :20
10:12
10:45
9:18
9:15
14:35
15:27
12:56
15:10
12:38
11 :34
10:35
11 :15
10:05
9:30
18
26
17
70
58
14
23
30
47
15
1
0
3
-1
1
2
2
1
0
5
3
3
4
3
1
4
5
4
6
6
8
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
8
0
17
10
6
18
0
8
0
35
0
0.00
1.06
0.63
0.38
1.13
0.00
0.50
0.00
2.19
0.00
Kunghit Island
Apr-15
1
2
Apr-15
Apr-15
3
Apr-15
4
Apr-15
7
71
Apr-15
79
Apr-15
8:30
9:35
12:32
11 :22
9:20
14:26
10:30
9:07
10:12
13:17
11 :57
10:00
15:00
11 :05
37
37
45
35
40
34
35
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
2
2
1
5
3
1
3
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
12
19
9
8
6
2
2.00
0.75
1.19
0.56
0.50
0.38
0.13
~arpenter
10
11
12
14
15
17
18
19
20
21
27
Appendix 2. Description of abalone index sites surveyed in southeast QCI, April 2002. The most
common substrates are listed (1 = first, 2 = second, 3 = third) where substrate code 1 = smooth bedrock,
2 = bedrock with crevices, 3 = boulders, 4 = cobble, 5 = gravel, 6 = pea gravel, 7 = sand, 8 = shell. Algae
are listed by growth characteristics for the most common species (Sp 1) and second most common (Sp 2)
with percentage cover (%) for each, where AC = articulated corallines, AG = Agarum sp, AL = Alaria sp,
BH = brown filamentous, CO = Costaria costata, CY = Cymathere triplicata, DE = Desmarestia sp, EG =
Egregia menziesii, GH = green filamentous, IR = Iridaea sp (Maziella sp), LA = Laminaria sp., MA =
Macrocystis integrifolia, NT = Nereocystis luetkeana, PH = Phyllospadix sp, PT = Pterygophora
californica, RF = red foliose, RH = red filamentous, UL = VIva sp.
Substrate
Site
1
2
3
Cumshewa Inlet
6
5
75
3
4
2
76
4
3
5
77
7
3
78
Selwyn Inlet
1
3
65
4
3
66
1
2
67
1
2
68
3
8
69
2
3
70
Tanu
59
60
61
62
63
64
73
74
2
5
3
5
1
Slope
%
Sp1
Canopy
% Sp2
0
13
4
4
MA
MA
MA
MA
5
90
10
10
34
11
21
23
13
23
NT
MA
NT
10
30
30
%
Sp1
PT
LA
PT
PT
PT
5
CO
CO
LA
CO
LA
NT
10
CO
MA
100
MA
10
CY
DE
PT
Understorv
% Sp2
5
40
15
10
2
5
50
5
85
20
AG
%
Sp1
%
Turf
Sp2
%
40
AC
DE
LA
50
40
65
LA
DE
30
35
RH
AC
PH
20
10
70
PH
5
AC
40
AC
20
AC
AC
50
5
AC
UL
AC
AC
80
10
5
10
AC
AC
AC
AC
AC
AC
AC
AC
AC
RF
AC
AC
BH
10
20
30
20
5
50
2
5
20
5
2
50
75
AC
AC
AC
AC
10
10
20
30
EG
CO
AL
NT
AL
10
5
5
5
20
DE
30
50
5
50
10
5
70
Encrusting
%
80
90
70
100
90
90
10
Island
2
3
2
4
3
1
4
4
1
4
3
5
2
2
5
7
3
5
4
3
4
3
5
27
13
23
4
8
10
8
13
Upper Juan Perez Sound
2
65
36
2
1
19
37
2
8
19
3
38
2
11
3
39
2
6
30
40
1
3
4
17
41
1
3
4
21
44
2
30
45
2
30
3
46
2
1
4
8
48
2
4
5
10
49
4
3
5
15
50
2
17
3
4
51
1
2
46
53
2
15
55
2
3
17
56
2
10
3
57
1
2
23
3
58
LA
MA
MA
MA
20
80
40
NT
NT
20
15
PT
MA
MA
NT
MA
70
10
5
10
5
NT
20
MA
40
NT
NT
NT
NT
5
50
10
5
LA
LA
CY
AG
DE
LA
PT
AG
EG
PH
PT
MA
10
LA
LA
CY
CY
DE
DE
DE
LA
LA
20
90
10
20
30
10
70
100
CO
CO
NT
DE
20
25
2
PT
10
10
5
40
20
25
30
30
5
40
10
40
20
LA
LA
LA
25
3
PT
10
AL
CO
CO
UL
AG
20
5
10
30
10
PT
30
CO
NT
20
20
GH
10
UL
2
PH
30
70
75
10
70
50
50
70
90
100
80
80
60
70
80
90
50
40
75
80
80
80
70
90
60
80
28
Appendix 2 (cont'd)
Substrate
Slope
%
Site
3
Sp1
1
2
Lower Juan Perez Sound
2
1
32
42
2
27
NT
43
Skincuttle Inlet
2
1
22
1
3
4
23
2
24
4
3
8
26
5
3
6
27
2
28
2
29
2
30
1
2
4
31
2
32
3
33
2
3
34
4
3
2
35
29
6
23
19
11
61
27
15
19
21
8
27
15
Carpenter
2
10
2
11
3
12
1
14
1
15
3
17
3
18
1
19
2
20
2
21
Bay
8
3
7
5
7
2
7
2
2
8
3
3
3
4
19
17
6
27
2
27
13
15
34
11
Kunghit Island
2
3
7
1
3
2
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
4
1
2
3
7
6
7
4
71
1
4
3
79
8
10
8
23
19
4
10
Canopy
Sp2
%
%
Sp1
Understory
% Sp2
%
10
PT
PT
5
25
MA
20
CO
LA
5
50
MA
MA
5
50
LA
AG
1
90
CO
10
DE
10
NT
NT
PT
CY
PT
10
30
DE
20
20
PT
CO
5
30
%
AC
AC
1
20
AC
AC
10
30
AC
10
5
IR
MA
MA
30
100
NT
MA
100
20
CY
10
70
5
80
50
MA
5
LA
5
MA
10
PT
PT
5
5
LA
5
CO
3
DE
3
LA
Sp1
LA
MA
MA
MA
10
10
25
AL
AL
PT
10
5
25
NT
10
MA
MA
PT
5
20
50
PT
DE
AL
45
10
30
LA
AG
CO
45
2
30
AC
AC
AC
Turf
Sp2
Encrusting
%
%
90
60
NT
5
RF
10
PT
40
40
50
40
75
30
65
5
80
100
100
95
70
5
LA
5
5
50
90
AL
AC
60
5
AC
5
DE
AC
AC
AC
10
5
20
10
AC
5
AC
10
80
70
AC
CO
DE
AC
AC
AC
BH
15
20
10
10
30
1
2
90
95
60
90
95
5
70
20
30
25
5
100
20
50
CO
10
29
Appendix 3. Density of exposed abalone, by size group, for index sites surveyed in southeast QCI, April
2002.
Number of
Site
Quadrats
Cumshewa Inlet
75
8
76
16
77
8
78
8
­
Total number
of Abalone
<70
Exposed Density by Size Group (mm SL)
;::70
;::100
92-99
100-106
0
0
0
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Selwyn Inlet
65
8
66
8
67
16
68
16
69
16
70
8
0
0
1
2
1
0
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.06
0.00
Tanu Island
59
16
60
16
61
16
62
8
63
16
64
16
73
8
74
16
10
13
4
0
6
5
0
5
0.50
0.44
0.25
0.00
0.13
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.38
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.06
0.00
0.31
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.63
0.81
0.25
0.00
0.38
0.31
0.00
0.31
Upper Juan Perez Sound
36
8
0
14
37
16
16
38
4
16
39
6
40
8
0
16
41
3
44
16
2
45
8
0
46
16
24
48
16
4
49
16
4
50
16
4
51
16
7
53
8
0
55
16
5
56
16
6
57
16
1
58
16
9
0.00
0.88
0.13
0.31
0.00
0.13
0.13
0.00
1.25
0.25
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.19
0.06
0.31
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.19
0.25
0.44
0.00
0.19
0.19
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.31
0.00
0.13
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.88
0.25
0.38
0.00
0.19
0.13
0.00
1.50
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.44
0.00
0.31
0.38
0.06
0.56
Total
30
Appendix 3 (cont'd)
Number of ~ Total number
Site
Quadrats
of Abalone
Lower Juan Perez Sound
42
16
6
43
8
0
0.38
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.38
0.00
Skincuttle
22
23
24
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Inlet
16
16
8
16
8
8
16
16
16
16
16
8
8
1
3
0
5
0
0
4
4
5
2
10
0
0
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.19
0.13
0.13
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.19
0.00
0.44
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.19
0.00
0.31
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.25
0.31
0.13
0.63
0.00
0.00
Carpenter
10
11
12
14
15
17
18
19
20
21
Bay
8
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
8
0
17
10
6
18
0
8
0
35
0
0.00
0.38
0.06
0.31
0.56
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.94
0.00
0.00
0.69
0.56
0.06
0.56
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.38
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.06
0.63
0.38
1.13
0.00
0.50
0.00
2.19
0.00
Kunghit Island
1
16
2
16
3
16
4
16
7
16
71
16
79
16
32
12
19
9
8
6
2
0.38
0.38
0.50
0.38
0.31
0.06
0.00
1.63
0.38
0.69
0.19
0.19
0.31
0.13
0.31
0.13
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.19
0.00
0.25
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.31
0.00
0.25
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
2.00
0.75
1.19
0.56
0.50
0.38
0.13
<70
Exposed Density by Size Group (mm SL)
~70
92-99
~100
100-106
Total
31
Appendix 4. Total exposed abalone density (number/m
surveyed years. Blanks indicate no samples taken.
2
)
and number of quadrats, by site, for all
Total abalone density
Total number of guadrats per site
'<
Site 1978 1979
Cumshewa Inlet
75
1.13
76
2.69
2.19
77
78
1.44
0.88
Selwyn Inlet
65
1.06
66
0.63
1.38
67
0.94
68
1.13
69
3.88
3.06
70
3.63
2.13
Tanu
59
60
61
62
63
64
73
74
1984
0.13
0.13
0.00
0.19
0.06
0.31
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
1978
0.44
0.13
0.06
0.38
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
16
0.00
16
0.00
1.50
0.75
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
16
16
0.50
0.31
0.56
1.19
0.19
0.25
0.06
0.06
0.31
0.63
0.13
0.06
16
0.25
0.31
0.34
0.09
0.88
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.19
0.06
0.50
0.00
0.25
0.13
0.06
0.00
16
16
16
16
16
0.94
0.63
16
1.38
0.13
0.19
1.13
0.38
0.06
0.06
0.81
0.25
0.00
0.38
0.31
0.00
0.31
1979
1984
16
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
16
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
16
16
16
16
32
32
16
8
16
4
16
16
32
32
16
16
8
8
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
32
32
32
32
32
16
8
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
64
16
8
8
64
32
32
32
32
32
32
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
32
32
32
32
16
16
8
16
16
Island
1.44
0.88
1.06
0.63
1.53
1.25
0.31
0.63
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.44
2.19
0.56
0.19
0.06
0.81
0.19
0.75
1.00
0.13
0.63
0.56
0.06
0.13
0.06
0.81
0.19
0.28
0.16
0.31
0.03
0.38
0.59
0.00
0.38
0.69
0.88
0.00
0.19
0.22
0.06
0.31
0.25
0.00
0.88
0.94
0.31
0.41
0.28
0.03
0.06
1.00
0.38
0.06
0.13
0.22
0.19
0.06
0.38
0.25
0.38
0.00
0.19
0.13
0.00
1.50
0.25
16
16
0.25
0.44
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
16
7
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
Upper Juan Perez Sound
36
2.44
0.00
37
1.13
0.00
38
2.44
1.00
39
6.38
1.81
40
1.00
0.13
41
0.25
0.06
44
6.56
0.13
45
4.25
0.75
46
7.06
0.50
47
0.00
48
3.63
1.19
49
1.81
0.56
50
0.63
1.19
51
0.75
0.00
52
8.86
2.00
53
8.13
0.31
54
0.63
1.00
55
5.88
0.88
56
7.25
1.75
57
2.63
1.00
58
3.38
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.44
0.63
4.00
0.81
0.08
0.00
0.06
0.81
1.44
0.00
0.13
0.88
0.44
2.10
0.19
0.25
0.00
0.13
0.38
0.50
0.56
0.38
0.22
0.23
0.50
0.75
0.69
0.94
0.50
1.19
1.75
0.00
0.25
0.06
0.00
0.27
0.38
0.59
0.00
0.06
0.50
0.38
0.81
1.50
2.56
1.13
0.25
0.25
0.00
1.00
0.25
0.06
0.38
0.25
0.00
0.31
0.38
0.06
0.56
32
16
16
16
16
16
13
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
8
8
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
48
16
16
16
16
16
48
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
32
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
8
16
32
32
32
16
16
16
16
8
16
48
64
32
16
16
16
16
16
16
64
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
32
64
32
32
32
32
32
Appendix 4 (cont'd)
Total abalone density
Site 1978 1979 1984 1987
Lower Juan Perez Sound
42 16.56
1.56
0.06
43
9.38
0.31
0.81
Skincuttle Inlet
22
1.63
23
1.13
24
0.75
25
2.25
26
0.56
27
0.63
28
3.06
29
0.94
30
3.31
31.
1.75
32
5.75
33
3.00
34
6.13
35
0.31
Kunghit Island
1
1.56
2
2.38
3
0.75
4
5
6
7
8
9
71
79
1994
1998
2002
1978
1979
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
0.63
0.52
0.38
0.38
16
16
16
16
64
16
16
0.69
0.27
0.44
0.00
16
16
16
16
64
16
8
0.06
0.00
0.63
0.09
1.06
0.06
16
16
32
16
16
0.63
0.31
0.03
0.13
0.19
16
16
0
16
16
0.69
16
32
16
16
0.81
1.13
0.38
0.25
0.13
0.00
16
16
48
16
8
16
16
32
16
16
32
32
16
8
16
16
16
16
0.31
16
16
0.75
2.00
2.13
1.25
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.06
1.13
1.13
0.31
0.69
1.25
0.38
0.19
0.88
0.34
0.44
0.88
0.50
0.94
0.34
0.56
0.00
16
8
16
16
0.25
0.00
16
16
16
16
8
0.38
0.69
0.25
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
0.53
0.25
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
0.25
0.31
0.13
0.31
16
16
16
32
16
16
0.00
0.50
0.13
0.09
0.00
0.13
16
8
16
16
16
32
16
16
0.81
0.75
0.06
1.16
1.00
0.63
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
0.94
0.44
0.19
0.25
0.94
0.00
16
16
16
16
28
16
8
0.38
0.50
1.00
0.06
0.34
0.25
0.00
16
16
16
16
32
16
8
0.69
0.56
0.31
0.34'
0.50
0.00
16
0.00
0.19
0.06
0.16
1.06
1.06
16
0.19
0.19
0.31
0.22
0.88
0.63
72
Carpenter Bay
10
1.06
11
0.19
12
0.13
13
2.47
14
2.31
15
3.38
16
2.56
17
1.19
18
1.44
19
1.00
20
1.13
21
0.94
1990
Total number of guadrats per site
16
0.42
16
8
16
16
8
16
32
32
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
15
12
0.56
0.63
1.56
0.31
0.38
0.38
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
0.50
0.44
0.38
0.97
3.00
1.13
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
0.00
16
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
16
16
32
16
8
16
16
32
16
16
16
32
16
16
8
32
16
8
0.06
0.06
0.56
0.81
0.25
0.13
0.50
0.38
0.63
0.91
0.31
0.00
0.25
0.31
16
0.50
16
1.63
0.00
0.07
0.31
0.72
16
16
16
0.00
0.00
0.03
2.50
0.44
0.00
2.44
0.00
16
8
15
8
1.06
1.06
1.94
0.47
0.31
2.00
16
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
0.44
1.06
1.50
0.22
0.94
0.75
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
0.88
1.19
16
8
16
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
16
32
0.41
0.38
0.38
0.94
1.63
0.13
0.44
0.13
0.00
0.63
0.56
0.00
0.50
0.19
16
16
8
0.00
0.13
0.19
0.16
0.13
0.50
0.06
16
8
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
32
16
16
16
16
0.44
16
0.31
0.19
0.19
0.69
0.38
0.31
0.03
0.31
0.13
33
Appendix 5. Abalone densities (number/m 2 ) for legal and mature size classes, by site, for all sample
years. Blanks indicate no samples taken. Index sites only.
Legal (~ 100
Site 1978 1979 1984
Cumshewa Inlet
75
0.84
76
0.08
77
0.44
78
0.75
Selwyn Inlet
65
0.05
66
0.31
0.38
67
0.14
68
0.40
69
0.39
0.20
70
0.54
0.39
Tanu
59
60
61
62
63
64
73
74
mm SL) abalone density
Mature
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
1978
0.44
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.05
0.96
0.81
0.88
0.06
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
1.50
0.69
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.05
0.19
0.25
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.25
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.36
0.19
0.25
0.69
0.49
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.44
0.94
0.13
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
1979
0.75
0.00
70 mm SL) abalone density
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
0.44
0.13
0.00
0.06
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
1.50
0.69
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.44
0.06
0.09
0.13
0.00
0.25
0.44
0.06
0.17
0.06
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.16
0.63
0.13
0.00
0.06
0.38
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.03
0.19
0.03
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.63
0.00
0.44
0.50
0.00
0.00
0.38
0.44
0.63
0.16
0.06
0.09
0.88
1.25
0.06
0.13
0.13
0.38
0.00
0.00
0.24
0.03
0.34
0.22
0.73
0.38
0.06
0.06
0.25
0.06
0.00
0.31
0.00
0.03
0.20
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.47
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.38
0.69
0.00
0.06
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.68
0.75
1.25
0.25
0.56
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.13
2.12
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.10
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.14
0.09
0.23
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.38
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.31
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.08
0.00
0.00
0.56
0.44
0.00
0.00
0.09
0.09
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.03
0.99
(~
1984
2.06
1.74
0.06
0.00
Island
0.36
0.40
0.21
1.42
0.00
0.00
Upper Juan Perez Sound
36
0.00
0.00
37
0.00
0.00
38
0.24
0.00
39
0.00
0.00
40
0.00
0.00
41
0.00
0.06
44
0.06
0.00
45
0.13
0.19
46
0.00
0.00
47
0.00
48
0.54
0.38
49
1.63
0.42
50
0.56
0.75
51
0.68
0.00
52
0.00
0.00
53
1.22
0.00
54
0.00
0.08
55
3.53
0.06
56
0.36
0.13
57
0.13
0.00
58
0.12
0.00
0.13
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.13
0.70
0.31
0.06
0.33
0.44
0.31
0.00
0.44
0.00
0.00
0.41
0.26
0.50
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.29
0.14
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.16
1.43
1.00
0.13
0.38
3.13
1.55
1.67
1.63
0.00
0.00
0.44
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.21
0.44
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.31
0.31
0.06
0.00
0.94
0.49
1.13
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.13
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.09
0.71
1.66
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.77
0.56
1.19
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.75
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.31
0.31
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.03
0.06
0.03
0.06
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.38
0.82
0.38
0.50
0.00
0.25
1.71
0.56
0.38
0.00
0.15
0.23
0.22
0.23
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.25
0.44
0.00
1.16
0.00
0.44
0.00
0.00
2.18
1.00
0.00
0.88
1.25
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.34
0.81
0.25
0.00
0.25
0.19
0.19
0.00
0.08
0.47
0.00
0.00
0.25
34
Appendix 5 (cont'd)
Legal (~ 100 mm SL) abalone density
Site 1978 1979 1984 1987 1990 1994 1998 2002
Lower Juan Perez Sound
42
1.25
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.02
0.00
43
0.47
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Skincutlle Inlet
22
0.00
23
0.11
24
0.40
25
0.11
26
0.51
27
0.16
28
0.07
29
0.00
30
0.00
31, 0.09
32
0.45
33
1.10
34
0.26
35
0.03
Kunghit Island
1
0.30
2
0.96
3
0.43
4
5
6
7
8
9
71
79
0.00
0.21
0.19
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.04
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.86
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.69
0.00
0.38
0.06
0.13
0.88
0.25
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.59
0.00
0.19
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.56
0.42
0.27
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.38
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.28
0.00
0.09
0.19
0.00
0.06
0.31
0.03
0.00
0.44
0.00
0.81
0.00
0.00
0.38
0.69
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.00
0.06
0.03
0.13
0.25
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.11
0.05
0.15
0.38
0.31
0.13
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.16
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.31
0.00
0.25
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.13
0.06
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.12
0.13
0.21
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.06
0.00
0.06
1979
11.52
0.00
0.28
0.07
0.29
0.45
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.28
0.00
0.31
0.19
0.31
72
Carpenter Bay
10
0.06
11
0.06
12
0.10
13 0.00
14
0.93
15 0.13
16 0.20
17
0.06
18 0.44
19
0.00
20
0.00
21
0.19
Mature
1978
0.75
4.28
2.51
1.74
0.33
0.31
2.04
1.31
1.19
0.50
1.02
2.12
0.64
(~
70 mm SL) abalone density
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
0.00
0.19
0.69
0.06
0.19
0.13
0.03
0.02
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.69
0.68
0.52
1.81
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.75
0.81
0.38
0.00
0.63
1.00
0.00
0.31
0.38
0.03
0.03
0.25
0.06
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.19
0.00
2.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.88
0.13
0.63
0.31
0.50
1.00
1.00
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.19
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.25
0.06
0.06
0.03
0.13
0.22
0.00
1.03
0.18
0.31
0.50
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.94
0.69
0.25
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.19
0.00
0.44
0.00
0.00
0.52
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.44
0.19
0.00
0.06
0.81
0.00
0.75
0.00
0.51
0.13
0.19
0.31
0.06
0.31
0.34
0.16
0.13
0.44
0.50
0.88
0.00
0.69
0.56
0.19
0.06
0.81
0.06
0.28
0.53
0.00
1.44
0.06
0.56
0.21
0.21
0.06
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.06
0.25
0.00
0.28
0.36
0.22
0.44
0.03
0.44
0.31
0.06
1.13
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.28
0.00
0.75
0.84
0.27
0.29
1.63
0.69
0.81
0.00
0.34
0.00
1.27
0.00
0.06
0.67
0.56
1.63
0.38
0.69
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.16
0.13
0.19
0.19
0.25
0.19
0.03
0.69
0.25
0.31
0.13
1.00
0.44
0.38
0.00
0.00
0.21
0.13
0.06
0.31
0.31
35
2
Appendix 6. Abalone densities (number/m ) for pre-recruit and new recruit size classes, by site, for all
sample years. Blanks indicate no samples taken. Index sites only.
Pre-recruit (92-99 mm SL) abalone density
Site 1978 1979 1984 1987 1990 1994 1998 2002
Cumshewa Inlet
0.Q7
75
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
76
0.12
0.00
0.06
0.00
77
78
0.13
0.13
Selwyn Inlet
65
66
0.13
67
68
0.13
69
0.40
70
0.64
Tanu
59
60
61
62
63
64
73
74
New Recruit (100-106 mm SL) abalone density
1978
1979
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.07
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.09
0.18
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.14
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.17
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.14
0.19
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.17
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.31
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.06
0.09
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.14
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.30
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.Q7
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.09
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.07
0.03
0.03
0.00
0.13
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.27
0.45
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.31
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.38
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.06
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.24
0.25
0.13
0.13
0.32
Island
0.37
0.07
0.39
Upper Juan Perez Sound
36
0.00
0.00
37
0.00
38
0.00
39
0.00
0.00
40
0.00
41
0.00
44
0.31
0.00
45
0.19
0.06
46
0.38
0.06
47
0.00
48
0.24
0.31
49
0.07
50
0.19
51
0.00
52
0.00
0.00
53
0.00
54
0.00
0.08
55
0.06
56
0.13
57
0.00
58
0.47
0.00
0.17
0.21
0.39
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
36
Appendix 6 (cont'd)
Pre-recruit (92-99 mm SL) abalone density
Site 1978 1979 1984 1987
Lower Juan Perez Sound
42
0.00
0.06
2.49
43
0.06
0.00
Skincuttle Inlet
22
23
24
0.00
25
26
0.00
27
0.16
28
0.00
29
30
31.
32
0.89
33
0.31
34
0.19
35
72
Carpenter Bay
10
0.06
11
0.06
12
13
0.07
14
15 0.32
16
0.39
17
18 0.19
19
20
0.06
21
Kunghit Island
1
0.18
2
0.32
3
0.11
4
5
6
7
8
9
71
79
New Recruit (100-106 mm SL) abalone density
1990
1994
1998
2002
1978
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.93
0.00
0.34
0.07
0.00
0.65
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.22
0.00
0.19
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.21
0.13
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.66
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.19
0.06
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.09
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.03
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.38
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.05
0.07
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.19
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.11
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.24
0.06
0.11
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.13
1979
0.23
0.19
0.55
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.06
0.00
0.31
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.03
0.00
0.16
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.21
0.00
0.06
0.22
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.13
0.50
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.35
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.31
0.13
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.13
0.06
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.20
0.19
0.00
0.24
0.51
0.32
1984
1987
1990
1994
1998
2002
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.07
0.12
0.26
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.00
0.06
0.19
0.06
0.00
0.07
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.20
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.25
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.22
0.00
0.03
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0.00
0.00'
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.06
0.03
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.00
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.06
0.05
0.15
0.31
0.31
0.13
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.19
0.00
0.25
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.06
0.00
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
37
Appendix 7. Additional sites from 1978 and 1979, not included Appendix 4-6 as index sites.
YearSite
78-1
78-2
78-4
78-10
78-11
78-16
78-17
78-18
78-20
78-21
78-22
78-23
78-26
78-27
78-28
78-29
78-35
78-36
78-39
78-42
78-43
78-44
78-45
78-46
78-47
78-48
78-49
78-52
78-54
78-58
78-60
78-61
78-63
78-66
78-77
78-86
78-87
78-90
78-92
78-93
78-101
78-110
78-116
78-117
78-120
78-129
# of
Quadrats
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
12
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
8
16
8
16
16
8
8
16
Abalone
counted
11
17
10
46
0
16
7
22
1
43
11
52
12
8
25
20
31
0
9
42
11
26
74
29
11
74
3
29
38
16
55
118
15
47
0
4
48
29
0
24
1
3
2
0
0
3
All
sizes
0.69
1.06
0.63
2.88
0.00
1.00
0.58
1.38
0.13
2.69
0.69
3.25
0.75
0.50
1.56
1.25
1.94
0.00
0.56
2.63
0.69
1.63
4.63
1.81
0.69
4.63
0.25
1.81
2.38
1.00
3.44
7.38
0.94
2.94
0.00
0.25
3.00
1.81
0.00
1.50
0.13
0.19
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.19
79-58
79-60
79-63
16
16
16
65
2
93
4.06
0.13
5.81
Immature
Mature
Prerecruit
New
Recruit
0.72
2.16
0.13
0.39
0.24
0.07
0.48
0.76
0.51
0.89
0.47
0.15
0.14
0.12
0.07
0.00
0.69
2.00
0.50
0.19
0.75
0.59
0.81
0.66
0.19
0.20
0.06
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.83
0.79
0.06
0.00
1.81
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.95
0.05
0.00
0.00
5.41
0.11
0.47
0.00
1.96
0.83
2.47
0.00
0.47
0.17
0.53
0.00
0.14
0.33
0.00
0.00
0.70
2.30
0.38
0.32
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.57
3.49
0.57
0.63
2.31
3.50
0.56
0.25
Legal
0.52
0.53
0.47
1.44
0.00
0.18
0.29
0.21
0.00
0.56
0.00
1.63
0.52
0.35
0.19
0.07
1.74
0.00
0.42
0.00
0.00
1.22
0.23
0.73
0.00
0.93
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.34
0.20
0.55
0.33
0.00
0.19
0.32
1.09
0.00
0.38
0.13
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.90
0.00
0.38
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