Sigma HDTV5 Instruction manual

Sigma HDTV5 Instruction manual
4530 SERIES
RF POWER METER
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
This manual is applicable to:
Instrument serial numbers: ALL*
Operating Firmware Versions:
ersions: 20021119 and later*
*earlier firmware may not contain all capabilities listed herein
Revision date: 07/08/2003
Manual P/N: 98404800C
CD P/N: 98404899C
%
BOONTON ELECTRONICS
A subsidiary of Noise/Com -- A Wireless Telecom Group Company
25 Eastmans Road
Parsippany, NJ 07054-0465
Web Site: www.boonton.com
Email: [email protected]
Telephone: 973-386-9696
Fax: 973-386-9191
& 1998-2002, 2003 Boonton Electronics. All rights reserved.
% is a registered trademark of Boonton Electronics, a subidiary
of Noise/Com, a Wireless Telecom Group Company
Boonton Electronics
25 Eastmans Road
Parsippany, NJ 07054-0465
Information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice. Boonton Electronics makes no warranty of
any kind with regard to this material, including, but not limited to, the implied warraties of merchantability and fitness
for a particular purpose. Boonton Electronics shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishings, performance, or use of this material. No part of this
document may be photocopied, reproduced, or translated to another language without the prior written consent of
Boonton Electronics.
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Contents
Contents
CHAPTER/SECTION
List of Tables
PAGE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
List of Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Safety Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Repair Policy and Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.2
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.3
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.4
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.2 Calibration Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.3 Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.4 Sampling Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.5 Measurement Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.6 Sensor Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.7 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.8 Environmental Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.9 Physical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-6
2. INSTALLATION
2.1
Unpacking and Re-Packing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.2 Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.3
Internal Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.4
Preliminary Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
3. OPERATION
3.1 Operating Controls, Indicators and Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.2
Key Function Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
i
Contents
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Contents (Cont)
CHAPTER/SECTION
PAGE
3.3
Display Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Measurement Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3 Status Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4 Channel Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5 Header / Page Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-5
3-5
3-5
3-5
3-5
3-5
3.4
Operating Mode Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Menu Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Text Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3 Graph Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.4 Edit Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.5 Zero/Calibration Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-6
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-7
3-7
3.5
Menu Mode Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.3 Menu Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.4 Menu Screen Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.5 Menu Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-10
3.6 Text Mode Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.1 Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.2 Measurement Page Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.3 Channel Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.4 Measurement Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.5 Parameter Editing from Text Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-11
3.7
Graph Mode Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.1 Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.2 Measurement Page Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.2 Channel Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.3 Measurement Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.4 Parameter Editing from Graph Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-12
3.8 Edit Mode Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.1 Entry, Exit and Channel Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.2 Screen Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.3 Parameter Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.4 Parameter Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-13
ii
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Contents
Contents (Cont)
CHAPTER/SECTION
3.9
PAGE
Display Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3.9.1 Channel Selection and Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3.9.2 Mixed Mode Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.10 Sensor Connection and Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10.1 Sensor Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10.2 Zero Offset Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10.3 Fixed Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10.4 Automatic (step) Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10.5 Frequency Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10.6 Calibrator Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10.7 Calibration Volatility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10.8 Zero/Cal Menu Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-18
3-18
3-18
3-18
3-19
3-19
3.11 Menu Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.1 Measure Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.2 Channel Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.3 Markers Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.4 Trig/Time Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.5 Statisticl Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.6 Calibratr Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.7 Save/Recl Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.8 Utilities Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.9 Help Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.10Defaults Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.11 Menu Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-21
3-22
3-23
3-30
3-31
3-34
3-35
3-37
3-37
3-43
3-43
3-44
3.12 Error Messages and Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-47
3.13 Recorder Output Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-49
3.14 Firmware Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-50
4. REMOTE OPERATION
4.1
GPIB Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.2
Serial Port Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.3
SCPI Language Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
iii
Contents
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Contents (Cont)
CHAPTER/SECTION
4.4
PAGE
Basic Measurement Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.5 Command Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 MEASure Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2 INITiate and ABORt Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.3 FETCh Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.4 READ Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.5 Native Mode Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.6 SENSe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.7 Calculate Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.8 MARKer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.9 DISPlay Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.10 TRIGger Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.11 TRACe Data Array Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.12 SENSe:MBUF Data Array Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.13 SENSe:SBUF Data Array Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.14 SENSe:HIST & SENSe:CALTAB Data Array Cmnds . . . .
4.5.15 CALibration Sybsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.16 MEMory Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.17 OUTput Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.18 SYSTem Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.19 STATus Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.20 IEEE-488.2 Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.21 Remote Interface Command Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-9
4-12
4-19
4-24
4-28
4-29
4-33
4-36
4-37
4-39
4-40
4-42
4-43
4-44
4-48
4-50
4-52
4-56
Remote Sensor Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-61
4.6.1 AutoCal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-61
4.6.2 Zero and Fixed Cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-61
4.7 Native Mode Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-62
4.8 SCPI Example Program Fragments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.1 Pulse Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.2 Modulated Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.3 CW Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.4 Statistical Mode - CDF, CCDF, DISTRIBUTION . . . . . .
4.9
4-63
4-63
4-65
4-65
4-66
Error and Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-67
iv
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Contents
Contents (Cont)
CHAPTER/SECTION
PAGE
5. MAKING MEASUREMENTS
5.1 Sensor Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Thermal RF Power Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 CW Dual-Diode RF Power Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 RF Voltage Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.4 Peak Power Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2
Selecting the Right Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.2.1 CW Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.2.2 Modulated Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.3 Measurement Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 CW Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 Modulated Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.3 Statistical Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4 Pulse Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-4
5-5
5.4
Selecting the Right Measurement Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 CW Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Modulated Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Pulse Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 Statistical Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-7
5.5
Setting Measurement Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1 What You Need to Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2 Channel Parameters Menu Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.3 Trig/Time Menu Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-8
5.6 Settings for some Common Signal Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.1 Measuring GSM and EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.2 Measuring NADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.3 Measuring iDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.4 Measuring Bluetooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.5 Measuring CDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.6 Measuring HDTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-9
5-9
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5.7 Measurement Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.1 Error Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.2 Discussion of Error Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7.3 Sample Uncertainty Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-13
5-14
5-14
5.17
v
Contents
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Contents (Cont)
CHAPTER/SECTION
PAGE
APPENDIX A
Available Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
APPENDIX B
Model 2530 1 GHz Calibrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
vi
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Contents
List of Tables
TABLE
PAGE
3-1
Keyboard Controls, Indicators and Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3-2
4530 Graph and Text Mode Edit Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
3-3
Measurement Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3-4
Zero/Cal Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3-5
Main Menu Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
3-6
Graph/Text Header Error and Status Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-47
3-7
Sensor and Probe Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-47
3-8
Sensor Zero / Cal Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48
3-9
Startup Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48
4-1
Remote Command Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-56
4-2
Remote Interface Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-67
4-3
Measurement Result Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-67
vii
Contents
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
List of Illustrations
ILLUSTRATION
PAGE
C-1
4530 Series RF Power Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
2-1
Unpacking and Packing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
3-1
4530 Series, Front Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3-2
4530 Series, Rear Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3-3
Display Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3-4
Menu Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3-5
Text Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3-6
Graph Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3-7
Edit Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3-8
Zero/Cal Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
3-9
Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
3-10
Digit Editing Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3-11
Menu Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3-12
Text Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
3-13
Graph Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
3-14
Edit Mode Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
3-15
Graphic Mixed Mode Measurement Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3-16
Graphic Mixed Mode Edit Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3-17
Text Mixed Mode Measurement Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3-18
Text Mixed Mode Edit Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3-19
External Calibrator Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3-20
Zero/Calibration Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
viii
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Contents
SAFETY SUMMARY
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation and maintenance of this
instrument. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual violates safety
standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of the instrumenmts. Boonton Electronics Corporation assumes
no liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these requirements.
INSTRUMENT MUST BE GROUNDED
To minimize shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be connected to an electrical ground. The instrument is equipped with a three conductor, three prong AC power cable. The power cable must either be plugged into an
approved three-contact electrical outlet or used with a three-contact to a two-contact adapter with the (green) grounding wire firmly connected to an electrical ground at the power outlet.
DO NOT OPERATE THE INSTRUMENT IN AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of flammable gases or fumes.
KEEP AWAY FROM LIVE CIRCUITS
Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component replacement and internal adjustments must be
made by qaulified maintenance personnel only. Never replace components or operate the instrument with the covers
removed and the power cable connected. Even with the power cable cable removed, dangerous voltages may be
present. Always remove all jewelry (rings, watches, etc.) and discharge circuits before touching them. Never attempt
internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering first aid and resusitaion, is present.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS OR MODIFY INSTRUMENT
Do not substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification of the instrument. Return the instrument to
Boonton Electronics for repair to insure that the warrenty and safety features are maintained.
!
This safety requirement symbol has been adopted by the International
Electrotechnical Commission. Document 66 (Central Office) 3, Paragraph
5.3, which directs that an instrument be so labeled if, for the correct use of
the instrument, it is necessary to refer to the instruction manual. In this
case it is recommended that reference be made to the instruction manual
when connecting the instrument to the proper power source. Verify that
the correct fuse is installed for the power available.
NOTE
The appearance of NOTE
NOTE indicates that clarifying information follows
immediately.
immediately In many cases this information is necessary for proper operation or is a further explanation of important data.
CAUTION
The CAUTION sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an operating
procedure which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in
damage to the instrument or equipment under test. Do not procedeed
beyond a CAUTION sign until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
WARNING
The WARNING sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an operating
procedure, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to could result in
personal injury. Do not procedeed beyond a WARNING sign until the
indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
ix
Contents
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Figure C-1 4530 Series RF Power Meter
x
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Contents
Repair Policy
Model 4531 / 4532 Instrument. If the Boonton Model 4531/4532 RF Power Meter is not operating correctly and
requires service, contact the Boonton Electronics Service Department for return authorization. You will be provided
with an RMA number and shipping instructions. Customers outside the USA should contact the authorized Boonton
distributor for your area. The entire instrument must be returned in its original packing container. If the original
container is not available, Boonton Electronics will ship a replacement container and you will be billed for the container
cost and shipping charges.
Boonton Peak Power Sensors. Damaged or defective peak power sensors are repaired as separate accessories.
Note that sensors which have failed due to overloading, improper mating, or connecting to an out-of-tolerance connecarranty If repair is needed, contact the
tor are not considered defective and will not be covered by the Boonton Warranty.
Boonton Electronics Service Department for return authorization. You will be provided with an RMA number and
shipping instructions. Customers outside the USA should contact the authorized Boonton distributor for your area.
Only the defective sensor should be returned to Boonton, not the entire instrument. The sensor must be returned in its
original packing container. If the original container is not available, Boonton Electronics will ship a replacement
container and you will be billed for the container cost and shipping charges. If a new sensor is ordered, note that it
does not include a sensor cable - this item must be ordered separately..
Contacting Boonton. Customers in the United States having questions or equipment problems may contact
Boonton Electronics directly during business hours (8 AM to 5 PM Eastern) by phoning (973) 386-9696. FAX messages may be sent at any time to (973) 386-9191. Email inquiries should be sent to [email protected]
International customers should contact their authorized Boonton Electronics representative for assistance. A current
list of authorized US and international representatives is available on the Boonton website at www.boonton.com.
Limited Warranty
Boonton Electronics warrants its products to the original Purchaser to be free from defects in material and workmanship and to operate within applicable specifications for a period of one year from date of shipment for instruments,
probes, power sensors and accessories. Boonton Electronics further warrants that its instruments will perform within
all current specifications under normal use and service for one year from date of shipment. These warranties do not
cover active devices that have given normal service, sealed assemblies which have been opened, or any item which has
been repaired or altered without Boonton’s authorization.
Boonton’s warranties are limited to either the repair or replacement, at Boonton’s option, of any product found to be
defective under the terms of these warranties.
There will be no charge for parts and labor during the warranty period. The Purchaser shall prepay inbound shipping
charges to Boonton or its designated service facility and shall return the product in its original or an equivalent
shipping container. Boonton or its designated service facility shall pay shipping charges to return the product to the
Purchaser for domestic shipping addresses. For addresses outside the United States, the Purchaser is responsible for
prepaying all shipping charges, duties and taxes (both inbound and outbound).
THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Boonton will not be liable for any incidental damages or for any consequential damages, as
defined in Section 2-715 of the Uniform Commercial Code, in connection with products covered by the foregoing
warranties.
xi
Contents
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
xii
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
1.
Chapter 1
General Information
GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1 DESCRIPTION
The 4530 Series RF Power Meter is a new generation of instruments. It allows high-resolution power measurement of
a wide range of CW and modulated RF signals over a dynamic range of up to 90dB depending on sensor. The power
meter is available configured as the single-channel Model 4531, or as the dual-channel Model 4532. For the remainder
of this manual, the series designation of 4530 will be used to indicate either model, except when otherwise stated.
The 4530 is really several instruments in one, and can function as a CW Power Meter, a Peak Power Meter, a Statistical
Power Analyzer, and an RF Voltmeter. It accepts the full series of Boonton RF power and voltage sensors, which
includes coaxial dual-diode sensors and thermal sensors. Sensor data and calibration information is automatically
downloaded from the sensor or “smart adapter” whenever a new sensor is connected, eliminating the need to manually
enter calibration factors.
When used as a CW power meter,, the 4530 provides seamless measurement performance due to the extremely wide
dynamic range of its input stage. Thermal and peak power sensors require no range switching under any conditions,
and even CW diode sensors spanning a 90dB dynamic range require only two widely overlapping ranges. This means
that practically any measurement can be performed without the interruptions and non-linearities associated with the
range changes of conventional power meters.
For modulated signals, the 4530 can make accurate average and peak power measurements with modulation bandwidths as high as 20MHz, making it ideal for high-speed digitally modulated carriers such as CDMA, W-CDMA, GSM,
TDMA, HDTV and UMT. Periodic and pulse waveforms can be displayed in graphical format, and a host of automatic
measurements are available which characterize the time and power profiles of the pulse. Effective sampling rates up to
50MSa/sec and user programmable cursors allow instantaneous power measurements at precise time delays from the
pulse edge or an external trigger as well as time gated or power gated peak and average power.
For spread-spectrum or randomly modulated signals such as CDMA, the 4530’s powerful statistical analysis mode
allows full profiling of the power probability at all signal levels. Sustained acquisition rates in excess of one million
readings per second along with rangeless operation insure that a representative population can be acquired and
analyzed in minimum time. By analyzing the probability of occurrence of power levels approaching the absolute peak
power, it is possible to characterize the occasional power peaks that result in amplifier compression and data errors.
Because of the random and very infrequent nature of these events, they are next to impossible to spot with the
conventional techniques used in other universal power meters. In addition, the instrument’s extremely wide video
bandwidth insures that even the fastest peaks will be accurately measured.
The 4530’s powerful dual-processor architecture permits advanced measurement capabilities with unprecedented
speed and performance. A high-speed, floating-point digital signal processor (DSP) performs the measurements. It
gathers and processes the power samples from the sensors, performs time-stamping, linearity correction, gain adjustment and filtering, all in fractions of a microsecond. The processed measurements are then passed to a dedicated,
32-bit I/O processor that monitors the keyboard, updates the LCD display and responds to RS-232 and GPIB requests
for formatted measurements. This design eliminates the speed tradeoffs between measurement data input (acquisition)
and output (over the GPIB) that are so common among other power meters.
Instrument operating firmware is stored in flash memory that may be field reprogrammed with any PC via the onboard
RS-232 port. Free firmware upgrades permit the easy addition of new features or capabilities that may become available
in the future. Visit the Boonton website at WWW.BOONTON.COM for upgrade information and to download the
latest firmware version.
1-1
Chapter 1
General Information
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
1.2 FEATURES
Multi-mode capability
Utilizes CW sensors, Peak Power sensors and Voltage probes with automatic sensing and setup for each type. Measures conventional CW power and voltage,
power versus time for pulse analysis, and statistical power distributions for spread
spectrum signals.
Text and Graphics
The backlit LCD display shows numerical results as well as graphical results for all
measurements. Measurements are displayed using a large, easy-to-read numerical
format, or in graph mode with a fast-updating, oscilloscope-like trace.
Dual Independent Channels Model 4532 is equipped with two identical independent measurement channels
with the capability to display two pulse measurements, two statistical measurements or two CW measurements at the same time.
Remote Programming
All functions except power on/off can be controlled by a GPIB interface or via an
RS-232 serial connection. The programming language follows the SCPI model with
added non-SCPI commands for special applications.
1.3 ACCESSORIES
Supplied accessories:
1 – NEMA type power cable
1 – Fuse Kit
1 – 4530 Series Operators Instruction Manual
Other accessories:
Rack Mounting Kit
See Boonton Electronics Power Sensor Manual for power sensors available.
Options:
Model 4531 Single Channel RF Power Meter
Model 4532 Dual Channel RF Power Meter
Rear panel sensor inputs
Rear panel calibrator output
1.4 SPECIFICATIONS
TIONS MODEL
MOD
4531 and 4532
1.4.1 General.
Sensor Inputs (Performance depends upon sensor model selected)
Channels:
Single Input: Model 4531
Dual Input: Model 4532
RF Frequency Range:
10 kHz to 110 GHz ( Sensor dependent )
Peak Power Measurement Range:
-40 to +20 dBm ( Sensor dependent )
CW Measurement Range:
-70 to +44 dBm ( Sensor dependent )
Relative Offset Range:
±99.99 dB
Video Bandwidth:
20 MHz (Sensor dependent)
Single Shot Bandwidth:
250 kHz (based on 10 samples per pulse)
Pulse Repetition Rate:
1.8 MHz maximum for stable, internal trigger
1-2
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 1
General Information
1.4.2 Calibration Sources
Internal Calibrator
Output Frequency:
50 MHz ± 0.005%
Level:
-60 to +20 dBm
Resolution:
0.1 dB steps
Source SWR:
1.05 (reflection coefficient = 0.024)
Accuracy, 0° to 20°C, NIST traceable: At 0 dBm:
±0.055 dB (1.27%)
+20 to -39 dBm: ±0.075 dB (1.74%)
-40 to -60 dBm: ±0.105 dB (2.45%)
RF Connector:
Type N
External Calibrator (See Appendix B)
Model 2530 1 GHz Calibrator
(Purchased separately if required)
1.4.3 Trigger ( Peak power modes only. )
Modes:
Pre-trigger and post-trigger
Trigger Time Resolution:
20 ns
Trigger Delay:
±900µs for timespans 5µs and faster
±4ms for timespans 10µs to 50µs
± (80 x TimeSpan) for timespans 50µs to 2ms
± (30 x TimeSpan) for timespans 5ms and slower
Trigger Holdoff:
0 µs to 1 sec, resolution 1µs
Internal Trigger Range:
Equivalent to -30 to +20 dBm pulse amplitude range.
External Trigger Range:
±5 volts, ±50 volts with 10:1 divider probe.
External Trigger Input:
1 megohm in parallel with approximately 15pF, dc coupled.
External Trigger Connector:
Rear-panel BNC input
1.4.4 Sampling Characteristics
Effective sampling rate:
50 Megasamples per second (each channel, pulse mode)
Sustained sampling rate:
2.5 Megasamples per second (each channel, pulse mode)
Measurement Technique:
Continuous and triggered (burst) sampling
1-3
Chapter 1
General Information
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
1.4.5 Measurement Characteristics
Measurements:
Average Power*
Maximum Average Power*
Minimum Average Power*
Maximum Instantaneous (“Peak”) Power*
Minimum Instantaneous Power*
Peak to Average Power Ratio*
Cumulative Distribution Functions: CDF, 1- CDF,
Probability Distribution (histogram)
Power at a percent statistical probability
Statistical probability at a power level
CW Power
RF Voltage
* All measurements marked with an asterisk (*) may be performed continuously, or in a synchronous, triggered mode. When triggered, these
measurements may be made at a single time offset relative to the trigger,
or over a defined time interval. The time offset or interval may be before
or after, or may span the trigger interval.
Channel Math:
Displays the ratio, sum (power sensors) or difference (voltage sensors)
between channels or between a channel and a reference measurement
(Modulated and CW modes only).
Trace Averaging:
1 to 4096 samples per data point.
Panel setup storage:
4 complete setups.
Measurement rate (via GPIB):
Greater than 200 two-channel measurements per second, neglecting bus
master overhead, or 500 single-channel measurements per sec.
1.4.6 Sensor Characteristics
CW Power Sensors
Power Detection Technique:
Dual diode, single diode or thermo-electric.
Internal Data:
Frequency and linearity calibration tables, frequency range, power range,
sensor type, serial number and other sensor dependent information are
stored in EEPROM within the sensor cable or in a cable-adapter for use
with existing CW sensors.
Peak Power Sensors
Power Detection Technique:
Dual diode with selectable detector bandwidth.
Signal compression:
The use of logarithmic signal compression circuitry in the sensor enables
the instrument to measure and analyze changes in power exceeding 60
dB in a single range.
Internal Data:
Frequency, linearity and temperature calibration tables, frequency range,
power range, sensor type, serial number and other sensor dependent
information are stored in EEPROM within the peak power sensor.
Sensor Cable:
The sensor cable is detachable from both sensor and instrument. The
standard cable length is 5 feet. Optional cable lengths are 10, 20, 25, and
50 feet. Additional cable length will affect measurement bandwidth.
RF Voltage Sensors
Dual diode detector.
1-4
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 1
General Information
1.4.7 Interface
Video Output:
Compressed representation of detected RF envelope of peak channel(s)
envelope for external oscilloscope monitor or external device synchronization. This output is roughly logarithmic with input power, is not
calibrated, and can not be used for making any measurements.
Recorder Output:
Programmable voltage output which may be used for monitoring measurements or status of either channel, or for outputting a fixed,
programmable voltage. When used as a measurement monitor, the output is proportial to displayed signal level with programmable or automatic
scaling.
Output range:
Output resolution:
Output impedance:
Absolute accuracy:
Linearity:
0 to 10V (unipolar), or -10V to +10V (bipolar)
5.0mV
9K
±100mV typical, ±200mV max, uncalibrated
±20mV after user calibration
0.1% typical
GPIB Interface:
Complies with IEEE-488.1. Implements AH1, SH1,T6, LE0, SR1, RL1, PP0,
DC1, DT1, C0, and E1.
RS-232 Interface:
Accepts GPIB commands (except bus dependent commands). Provides
for user software updates.
Remote Programming:
SCPI (1990) compliant and Native Mode commands via GPIB or RS-232
interfaces.
Software Drivers:
LABVIEW drivers available.
1.4.8 Environmental Specifications
General:
Manufactured to the intent of MIL-T 28800E, Type III, Class 5, Style E
CE Mark:
Conforms to EU specifications:
EN 61010-1(90)(+A1/92)(+A2/95)
EN 61010-2-031
EN 61326-1(97)
EN 55022(94)(A2/97)Class B
Display:
Graphic type LCD, with LED backlight. Text and trace displays.
Operating Temperature:
0 to 50° C
Ventilation:
Fan cooled
Altitude:
Operation up to 15,000 feet.
Storage Temperature:
-40 to 75° C
Humidity:
95% ±5% maximum (non-condensing).
Shock:
Withstands ±20G, 42ms impulse in X, Y, and Z axes, as per MIL-STD-810.
Vibration:
Conforms to MIL-STD-167-1.
Power Requirements:
90 to 260 VAC, 47 to 63 Hz, <50 VA , <30 Watts. No voltage switching
required.
Battery:
One Lithium coin cell for maintaining non-volatile memory information.
Not user replaceable. Typical battery life: 10 years.
1-5
Chapter 1
General Information
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
1.4.9 Physical Specifications
Dimensions:
3.5 inches (8.9 cm) high,
8.4 inches (21.3 cm) wide,
13.5 inches (34.3 cm) deep,
All dimensions are approximate, and exclude clearance for feet and
connectors. Feet may be removed for rack mounting.
Weight:
7 lbs. (3.2kg)
Connector location option:
Sensor input(s) and calibrator connector: Front or rear panel.
Construction:
Surface mount, multilayer printed circuit boards mounted to rigid aluminum frame and front extrusion/casting with aluminum sheet metal
enclosure.
Note: All specifications are subject to change without notice.
1-6
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
2.
Chapter 2
Installation
INSTALLATION
2.1 UNPACKING & REPACKING
The 4530 Series RF Power Meter is shipped complete and ready to use upon receipt. Figure 2-1 shows the packaging
material. Save the packing material and container to ship the instrument if necessary. If the original materials are not
available, contact Boonton Electronics to purchase replacements. Store materials in a dry environment.
2.2 POWER REQUIREMENTS
The 4530 Series is equipped with a switching power supply that permits operation from a 90 to 260 volt, 47 to 63 Hz,
single-phase AC power source. Power consumption is 50 VA maximum. For replacement fuses, use the fuse kit
supplied.
CAUTION
Before connecting the instrument to the power source, make certain that the correct
fuse(s) are installed in the power entry module on the rear panel.
WARNING
Before removing the instrument cover for any reason, place the entry module power
switch in the OFF (0=Off) position and remove the line cord from the entry module.
2.3 INTERNAL BATTERY
The 4530 Series contains a coin cell Lithium battery to provide memory backup when the power source is off. The
battery has an expected life of ten years and is not user replaceable.
2.4 PRELIMINARY CHECK
The following preliminary check verifies that the instrument is operational and has the correct software installed. It
should be performed before the instrument is placed into service. To perform the preliminary check, proceed as follows:
1.
Connect the AC power cord to a suitable AC power source.
2.
Press the upper half of the rocker type power switch located in the power entry module on the rear panel.
3.
If the instrument does not start up, press the ON/STBY key on the front panel.
4.
A banner message should appear on the LCD display, followed by a self-check display and sensor detection
messages. If any fatal errors occur during the startup, the process will terminate with a failure message on the
display. Any marginal conditions detected will be indicated with a cautionary message, but the startup process
will be allowed to proceed.
5.
When the startup process is complete, press the Menu key twice to force the Main Menu to be displayed. Using
the arrow keys to move through the list of menu items and the Enter key to select Utilities > Sys-Tests >
SystemInf display. Verify that the Serial Number matches the number on the rear panel tag. If the numbers do not
match, contact Boonton Electronics technical support.
2-1
Chapter 2
Installation
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
6.
The sensors supplied with the instrument may vary widely in model number and type. Refer to Section 3-9 for
information on connecting and calibrating sensors.
7.
Upon successful calibration of the supplied sensors, the instrument is ready for use.
Figure 2-1. Packing and Unpacking Diagram
2-2
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 3
Operation
3.
OPERATION
3.1 OPERATING CONTROLS, INDICATORS AND CONNECTIONS
Controls, indicators and connectors for the 4530 Series RF Power Meter are shown in figures 3-1 and 3-2. The front
panel is illustrated in figure 3-1 and the rear panel in figure 3-2.
1
2
12
11
3
10
9
8
7
Figure 3-1. 4530 Series, Front Panel
18
12
13
17
16
1
15
14
19
Figure 3-2. 4530 Series, Rear Panel
3-1
4
5
6
Chapter 3
Operation
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
3.2 KEY FUNCTION SUMMARY
Table 3-1 references each operating key or connector to a callout in Figure 3-1or 3-2 and briefly describes the key
function
Table 3-1. Keyboard Controls and Connectors
Item
Figure 3-1
Function
50 MHz Calibrator
1
The output of the built-in 50MHz programmable calibrator is available
from a Type-N connector located on the front or optionally on the rear
panel of the instrument. This calibrator is used to automatically calibrate
sensor offset and linearity, and can also be used as a general purpose
calibration signal source.
Display
2
The 4530 Series RF Power Meter uses a 160x80 pixel graphic liquid crystal
display module with a switchable LED backlight. The display contrast
may be adjusted by holding down the ESC key while pressing the ∧ or ∨
keys.
< and > Keys
3
Used to navigate between levels of the menu structure while in Menu
Mode or Zero/Cal Mode and to select individual editing numeric parameters. In Text Mode and Graph mode these keys can be used to switch
the display between channels. In Text or Graph Edit Modes, the < and >
keys scroll the header line left or right through a list of editable parameters.
∧ and ∨ Keys
4
Used to scroll up and down through a list of items when in Menu Mode
or Zero/Cal Mode. They are also used to increment and decrement parameter values or individual digits when editing. In certain Text Modes,
these keys can be used to page up or down through a series of measurement screens.
(Key Repeat)
---
Note - If the ∧ or ∨ key is pressed and held when incrementing or
decrementing a variable, it enters auto-repeat mode. At first, there is a
short delay, and then the number begins to increment at a slow rate. The
increment rate accelerates to a medium rate after 2 seconds, and to a high
rate after 7 seconds. To select and hold the medium repeat rate, doubleclick the key - releasing and immediately pressing the key will inhibit the
high-speed auto-repeat rate so the value doesn’t “run away” just as the
desired number is being approached.
Enter/Run Key
5
Activates a menu selection or completes update of a parameter in Menu
Mode or Zero/Cal Mode. Pressing Enter/Run while stopped in Text
Mode or Graph Mode will start (or restart) the measurement process.
ON/STBY Key
6
Switches the power meter between on and standby modes. When in
standby, some circuitry remains powered to reduce drain on the battery
used to maintain the non-volatile memory.
3-2
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 3
Operation
Table 3-1. Keyboard Controls and Connectors (Cont)
Item
Figure 3-1
Function
ESC/Stop Key
7
Aborts any operation in progress when in Menu Mode or Zero/Cal Mode.
Pressing ESC/Stop while running in Text Mode or Graph Mode first causes
the measurement process to stop. Pressing it when already stopped will
clear the screen and reset all measurement values. Pressing ESC/Stop
when the instrument is in remote mode (the GPIB has control of the
instrument and keyboard entry is disabled) will return it to local mode
(the instrument is under keyboard control) unless the local lockout command, LLO, has been issued by the controller.
Zero/CAL Key
8
Places the instrument in Sensor Zero/Calibration Mode and displays a
menu to allow automatic sensor offset and gain adjustments using the
built-in 50MHz calibrator or an external calibrator.
Text Key
9
Places the instrument in Text Mode to display the current measurements
in a numeric format. Pressing Text while already in Text Mode toggles the
top portion of the display between the normal Text Mode header and Edit
Mode for each active channel.
Graph Key
10
Places the instrument in Graph Mode to display the current measurement
waveforms in a graphical format. Pressing Graph while already in Graph
Mode toggles the top portion (header) of the display between the normal
Graph Mode header and Edit Mode for the active channel.
Menu Key
11
Places the instrument in Menu Mode to allow navigation of the menu
structure. Pressing Menu while already in Menu Mode returns the user
to the top-level Main Menu.
Sensor 1 - 2
12
One or two sensor inputs are located on the front, or optionally on the
rear panel of the instrument. These are 10-pin precision connectors designed to accept only Boonton Peak or CW power sensors and Boonton
voltage sensors. The sensor inputs are not measurement terminals and
cannot be used for other than the intended purpose.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to connect anything other than a
Boonton sensor or sensor adapter to the Sensor inputs!
GPIB
13
A rear-panel 24-pin GPIB (IEEE-488) connector is available for connecting the power meter to the remote control General Purpose Instrument
Bus. GPIB parameters can be configured through the menu.
3-3
Chapter 3
Operation
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Table 3-1. Keyboard Controls and Connectors (Cont)
Item
Figure 3-1
EXT CAL CONTROL
14
Function
An RJ-11 type modular telephone jack is used to connect the instrument
to a Boonton Model 2530 1GHz Programmable Calibrator. This feature
must be used to calibrate peak power sensors that cannot be calibrated at
50MHz, the operating frequency of the built-in calibrator.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to connect the External Calibrator
Control RJ-11 port to a telephone line or to any device
other than a Boonton Model 2530, 1 GHz Calibrator!
RECORDER OUT
15
A rear-panel BNC programmable analog output is available for connection to an external chart recorder or other device. The output voltage
range is unipolar or bipolar 10 volts, and a 9K output impedance allows
for simple scaling using a single external load resistor. The output can be
programmed to produce a voltage proportional to signal level, or a logiclevel status voltage for signaling when the RF power is above or below
preset “alarm limit” thresholds. Recorder output parameters can be configured through the menu.
VIDEO OUT 1-2
16
Two rear-panel video BNC outputs are used to view the demodulated RF
envelope for each channel on an external oscilloscope when using peak
sensors. The output voltage is 0 to 2.5 volts, and is approximately proportional to the logarithm of the sensor power. These outputs are
uncalibrated, and should not be used for making any type of external
measurement.
EXT TRIGGER
17
A rear-panel BNC input is available for connecting an external trigger
source to the power meter. The input impedance is 1 megohm to allow
triggering from a common 10x oscilloscope probe, and the input voltage
range is +5 to -5 volts to simplify triggering from logic-level signals.
RS-232
18
A rear-panel 9-pin female “D” connector is used to connect the instrument to a PC or other serial device. The power meter will directly interface
with most PC serial ports using a straight-through type RS-232 cable.
RS-232 parameters can be configured through the menu.
AC Line Input
19
A multi-function power input module (lower right of rear panel) is used to
house the AC line input, main power switch, and safety fuse. The module
accepts a standard AC line cord, included with the power meter. The
power switch is used to shut off main instrument power. The safety fuse
may also be accessed once the line cord is removed. The instrument’s
power supply accepts 90 to 260VAC, so no line voltage selection switch
is necessary.
CAUTION
Replace fuse only with specified type and rating!
3-4
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 3
Operation
3.3 DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
The screen display of the 4530 is divided into three sections: the header, the measurement window and the status
window. Because these functions apply to all modes of operation, it is very important to understand them thoroughly.
Note that the display contrast may be adjusted by holding down the ESC key while pressing the ∧ or ∨ keys.
Header
Status Window
Measurement Window
Figure 3-3. Display Functions
3.3.1
Header. The header appears at the top of the screen. It displays a title line and a line of text describing the
status of the currently highlighted item (sensor status, measurement status or auxiliary measurement values).
If the item is a submenu, a short description of the menu’s function will appear. If it is a parameter, the present
value for that parameter is shown. If it is an action item, the action will be described, and upon activation, the
message will change to indicate that the action has occurred. The header is also used as a two-line parameter
editing window when in the Edit mode.
3.3.2
Measurement Window. The major portion of the screen displays the current measurement results in a single
(4531) or split-channel (4532) format. The text display shows a trace for the primary measurement of the
channel(s) (usually average power), which updates as samples are acquired. In addition, while in the text mode,
the channel source (sensor, reference, or math function) is displayed along with measurement units. While in
the Graph mode, at slower display timebases, the trace will roll from right to left in chart recorder format, while
faster timebases use an oscilloscope-like sweep.
3.3.3
Status Window. The right-hand portion of the screen displays six annunciators that indicate status for the
GPIB, calibrator and measurement. The first four indicate GPIB status: REM, TLK, LSN, and SRQ. Position five
is a measurement status indicator, that can display: STOP, RUN, AUTO, ARMD, or SNGL. Position six displays
CAL when the calibrator output is active.
3.3.4
Channel Selection. Pressing the < or > keys while in text or graph mode toggles the measurement window
between channels. If Channel 1 is active, pressing < from a split-channel display will display only Channel 1,
and pressing > at that point returns to the split channel display. Similarly, pressing > from the split-channel
screen switches to the Channel 2 only display and < returns to the split-channel format. Note that in the singlechannel Model 4531, there is no “Channel 2 only” display, and while the split-channel display is present, there
are no measurements for Channel 2.
3.3.5
Header / Page Selection. Pressing the ∧ and ∨ Keys while in text or graph mode scrolls the display through
a series of three “measurement pages”, each displaying a different set of measurements or status indicators. In
single-channel text mode, the entire measurement window may change, while in graph mode or split-channel
format, only the “auxiliary” measurements shown in the header will change.
3-5
Chapter 3
Operation
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
3.4 OPERATING MODE SUMMARY
The 4530 can operate in several modes. It is possible to move between these modes without interrupting the measurements currently being performed, even though the measurement display may not always be present.
3.4.1
Menu Mode. The Menu Mode and is used to set operating parameters and start or stop measurements. A
series of displayed menus may be navigated using the front-panel arrow keys to access any instrument
function. The menu is an inverted tree, which begins at the top-level Main Menu, and branches downwards
through several levels of menu items and submenus. Refer to Table 3-5 for a summary of the instrument’s
entire menu structure. The first time the Menu key is pressed after power-up, the instrument enters the Menu
Mode and displays the Main Menu. Subsequent entries into Menu Mode will return the user to the same
position in the menu tree that was last used. Pressing the Menu key twice (or pressing it at any time when
already in Menu Mode) will always return to the Main Menu.
Figure 3-4. Menu Mode
3.4.2
Text Mode. In Text Mode, the measurements are presented in a numerical format. A summary split-channel
(4532) display which shows the key measurement values for each channel in a large font may be selected, or
detailed single-channel (4531) display that presents a number of different measurements in a tabular format.
In the dual-channel text display, a programmable bargraph can be displayed to aid in viewing fluctuating
signals.
Dual Channel (Example)
Single Channel (Example)
Figure 3-5. Text Mode
3-6
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
3.4.3
Chapter 3
Operation
Graph Mode. The Graph Mode can present an oscilloscope style trace of power versus time or power
versus percent probability in statistical mode. Each channel may be viewed individually, or both can be
overlaid to make channel-to-channel comparisons. User programmable cursors can be moved back and forth
or up and down on the trace to define measurement regions of interest.
Figure 3-6. Graph Mode (Example)
3.4.4
Edit Mode. Edit Mode is an extension of the basic Graph Mode or Text Mode operation. The screen’s
measurement window continues to display and update the active measurement, but the two-line header area
at the top of the screen is used as an edit window. The arrow keys scroll through a list of commonly accessed
parameters, and allow these parameters to be updated “on the fly” without the need to return to Menu Mode.
Channel
Edit Parameter List
Selected Parameter and current Value
Figure 3-7. Edit Mode (Example)
3.4.5
Zero/Calibration Mode. When the 4530 is placed in Zero/Calibration Mode, a special menu is displayed
that allows quick, single-key access to the instrument’s sensor zeroing and linearity calibration functions. A
configuration submenu is available for each channel to set up certain calibration parameters.
3-7
Chapter 3
Operation
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Figure 3-8. Zero/Cal Mode (Example)
3.5 MENU MODE OPERATION
3.5.1
Entry. When the Menu key is pressed, the instrument enters Menu Mode (See Figure 3-9). The first time the
Menu key is pressed after power-up, the instrument will always enter Menu Mode displaying the Main Menu.
Subsequent entries into Menu Mode will return the user to the same position in the menu tree that was last
used.
Figure 3-9. Main Menu Screen
3.5.2
Navigation. The menu tree is navigated using the arrow keys until the desired menu is highlighted, and then
that item may be activated. The ∧ and ∨ keys are used to move the cursor up and down through the current
menu’s item list. Pressing > or Enter/Run will activate the highlighted item and move to a subordinate menu
item associated with the selected item. Pressing < or ESC will return to the parent menu. Pressing Graph, Text
or Zero/Cal will exit Menu mode and abort any parameter editing in progress.
3.5.3
Menu Items. Menu items may be one of four types: Submenu, Numerical Value, Picklist, or Action.
a.
Submenus. A submenu is simply a menu at a lower level containing more items. Activating a submenu item
will cause the current menu to become the parent menu, and the submenu will then be opened and become the
current menu.
b.
Numerical Values. A numerical value is an operating parameter that can be edited. When a numerical value
item is activated, that item name (parameter) is displayed along with the highlighted current value of the
parameter. Editing is performed with the arrow keys. The default edit mode is increment/decrement mode.
Only the ∧ and ∨ keys are used to increment or decrement the parameter’s value by a preset amount.
3-8
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 3
Operation
If a precise value is required, a special digit editing mode (Figure 3-10) may be selected. This mode is entered
from increment/decrement mode by pressing the > key. When > is pressed, a digit pointer will be displayed
below the leftmost digit field, and the ∧ and ∨ keys will change that digit of the parameter by one count.
Pressing > or < will move the digit pointer right or left so any digit of the numeric parameter may be selected.
Pressing < when the leftmost digit is selected will return to increment/decrement mode.
Figure 3-10. Digit Editing Mode (Example)
In either editing mode, the parameter’s value is always clamped to valid limits, and cannot be advanced
beyond these limits. When editing is complete, press Enter/Run to save the new value and return to the
previous level menu. Press ESC to abort the edit and restore the original value before returning.
c.
Picklist. A picklist is used to select a parameter’s value from a list of two or more fixed entries. When a picklist
is activated, the list of available values is displayed with the current value highlighted. Use the ∧ and ∨ keys
to move the cursor up and down through the list until the desired value is highlighted. Press Enter/Run to
save the new value and return to the previous level menu, or press ESC to abort the edit and restore the
original value before returning. If the number of items in the picklist exceeds what can be displayed on the
screen, a ↓ or ↑ will appear to the left of the top or bottom item to indicate that there are more list items that
are scrolled off the top or bottom of the display.
d.
Action Item. An action item is a menu selection that causes an event to occur or be initiated immediately when
the item is activated. In some cases (such as AutoSetup), the user will first be prompted to confirm the action
before continuing.
3.5.4
Menu Screen Display. The menu screen is divided into three sections: the header, the path, and the list
of menu items (see figure 3-11).
Menu Path
Header
Figure 3-11. Typical Menu Screen
3-9
Menu Items
Chapter 3
Operation
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
a.
Header. The header displays a title line and a line of text describing the currently highlighted item (sensor or
measurement status, or auxiliary measurement values). A short description of a selected submenu, or action
item, is listed or the value of a selected parameter is displayed.
b.
Path. The path appears on the left side of the screen, and is a list of each branch of the menu tree used to get
to the current position. Each time a new menu item is opened, that item is highlighted, and then that item may
be activated. Pressing > or Enter will activate the highlighted item and move to a subordinate menu item
associated with the selected item. Pressing < or ESC will return to the parent menu. Pressing Graph, Text or
Zero/CAL will exit Menu Mode, and abort any parameter editing in progress. Table 3-5 shows the complete
menu structure of the 4530.
c.
Menu items. The list of menu items appears on the right side of the screen, where individual selections maybe
highlighted and activated. The menu is always entered with the top item highlighted, and the ∧ and ∨ keys
may be used to move the cursor up and down through the list. If a ↓ or ↑ appears to the left of the top or
bottom menu item, it means that the list extends above or below what is currently displayed on the screen. In
this case, the list can be scrolled up or down to allow access to these additional items.
As each item is highlighted, the header will show a brief description of that item or its current value. If the item
is a submenu, numeric value or picklist, a → will be shown to the right of the item to indicate that activating
that item moves you down another menu level or an edit screen. Action items have nothing displayed to the
right of the item since there is no “next level” associated with them.
3.5.5
Menu Syntax. When referring to item locations within the menu hierarchy, it is convenient to describe them
by their path. Each menu level will be separated by a “>” (indicating the > or Enter/Run key must be pressed
at this point to move down a level). Since Menu Mode always remains within the Main Menu, this manual will
always show the path beginning with the first item picked from the Main Menu level. For example, to set the
IEEE-488 bus address to 13, the following path string will be used:
Utilities > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Address > 13
To execute this function, you must first enter Menu Mode by pressing the Menu key.
3.6 TEXT MODE OPERATION
In Text Mode, the current measurements are displayed in a numeric format with optional fast-responding bargraph
readouts. Since the 4530 can measure more than just average power, most modes have a number of measurements
associated with them. The flexible text presentation allows you to view key average power measurements in a traditional format or a tabular format to show a larger number of items on the screen.
Figure 3-12. Text Mode (Example)
3-10
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 3
Operation
3.6.1
Entry. When the Text key is pressed, the 4530 enters Text Mode.
3.6.2
Measurement Page Selection. Pressing the ∧ or ∨ keys while in Text Mode pages up or down through a
series of pages that contain all the measurements being performed in the current mode. See paragraph 3.9
(Display Formats) for a list of what measurements are displayed in each format.
3.6.3
Channel Selection. Pressing the < or > keys while in Text mode switches the display between channels.
The keys toggle the display between “CH1 < > BOTH < > CH2”. In addition to the primary measurement, the
CH1 and CH2 displays may show a number of secondary measurements for that channel. The BOTH display
format shows the primary measurements only in the main display window, along with an optional bargraph. In
some cases, secondary measurements for each channel may appear in the header. Single-channel units
(Model 4531) can only page between the CH1 and BOTH display formats. See paragraph 3.9 (Display
Formats) for a list of what measurements are displayed in each format.
3.6.4
Measurement Control. Pressing Enter/Run while in Text Mode starts the measurement if it is stopped, or
arms the trigger if single-sweep mode is active. Pressing ESC/Stop stops the measurement if it is running and
holds the current measurement values. Once stopped, pressing ESC/Stop again clears the measurement
result, and resets for a new measurement. Anytime measurement is stopped, you can change display settings
or certain measurement parameters, and the current measurements displayed are updated accordingly.
3.6.5
Parameter Editing from Text Mode. Pressing Text while already in Text Mode will enter Edit mode for the
first active channel. The screen’s measurement window continues to display and update the active measurement, but the two-line header area at the top of the screen is used as an edit window. Pressing Text again
switches to Edit Mode for the second channel, if active. Another press of the Text key will return to normal
Text Mode. See paragraph 3.8 (Edit Mode Operation) for more details.
3.7 GRAPH MODE OPERATION
Graph Mode is used to present the current measurements in a real-time graphic or trace-type format. This can be a plot
of signal amplitude (usually power) versus time, similar to an oscilloscope screen, or power versus percent probability.
Power is always presented on the Y-axis, while time or probability is on the X-axis. Both axes can be scaled, and vertical
or horizontal cursors can be positioned on the trace to perform measurements at specific time or percent offsets of each
cursor or in the region between the two cursors.
Figure 3-13. Graph Mode (Example)
3-11
Chapter 3
Operation
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
3.7.1
Entry. When the Graph key is pressed, the 4530 enters Graph Mode.
3.7.2
Measurement Page Selection. Pressing the ∧ or ∨ keys while in Graph Mode pages the header display up
or down through several commonly used measurements or parameters. See paragraph 3.9 (Display Formats) for
a list of what measurements are displayed in each format.
3.7.3
Channel Selection. Pressing the < or > keys while in Text mode switches the display between channels.
The keys toggle the display between “CH1 < > BOTH < > CH2”. This is helpful to distinguish between traces
when two channels are being viewed, or to concentrate on settings for one of the channels. Single-channel
units (Model 4531) can only page between the CH1 and BOTH display formats.
3.7.4
Measurement Control. Pressing Enter/Run while in Graph Mode starts the measurement, if it is stopped, or
arms the trigger if Single-Sweep Mode is active. Pressing ESC/Stop stops the measurement if it is running and
holds the current measurement values. Once stopped, pressing ESC/Stop again clears the measurement result,
and resets for a new measurement. Any time measurement is stopped, it is possible to change display settings
or certain measurement parameters, and the current measurements displayed will be updated accordingly.
Also, cursors can be moved around to view the power at selected times without the need to restart the
measurement.
3.7.5
Parameter Editing from Graph Mode. Pressing Graph while already in Graph Mode will enter Edit Mode
for the first active channel. The screen’s measurement window continues to display and update the active
measurement, but the two-line header area at the top of the screen is used as an edit window. Pressing Graph
again switches Edit Mode to the second channel, if active. Another press of the Graph key returns to normal
Graph Mode. See paragraph 3.8 (Edit Mode Operation) for more details.
3.8 EDIT MODE OPERATION
Edit mode is an extension of Graph Mode or Text Mode operation which allows common measurement parameters to be
edited in the header area while the active measurements continue to update in the measurement window. The arrow
keys scroll through a list of commonly accessed parameters, and allow these parameters to be updated “on the fly”
without the need to return to Menu Mode. This interactive mode allows parameters to be changed in real time while
viewing the effect of these changes as they are made.
3.8.1
Entry, Exit, and Channel Selection. Edit Mode is entered from Text Mode by pressing the Text key or from
Graph Mode by pressing the Graph key. Edit mode is always entered for the first active channel currently
displayed. If the display is in single-channel mode, only one channel is displayed and Edit Mode is entered
for that channel. If both channels are active and displayed, Channel 1 will be active first. Pressing Text or
Graph again switches to the next active channel, or returns to regular Text Mode or Graph Mode once both
channels have been accessed or if the next channel is not active.
3.8.2
Screen Display. When Edit Mode is active, the two-line header area becomes the edit window while the rest
of the display continues to function normally. The top line of the Edit Window is used for parameter selection.
It is a list of parameters that are commonly accessed from the present mode. The second line displays the
active channel and the value of the currently selected parameter for that channel. Note that some parameters
are global (not channel specific), and may be accessed from either channel with the same results.
3.8.3
Parameter Selection. The < and > keys are used to scroll the top header line to select an item to display
or edit. The list is a continuous loop, which may be scrolled left or right, and the center item on the display is
always highlighted to indicate it is currently selected.
3-12
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
3.8.4
Chapter 3
Operation
Parameter Editing. The ∧ and ∨ keys are used to increment or decrement the value of the currently selected
edit parameter. The increment and decrement intervals are preset, although their values may change depending on current settings. Note that key repeat is active, and holding the key will cause the parameter to
continue to advance. See the “Key Repeat” section above for tips on most effective use of the auto-repeat
feature.
Note that if a specific value that is considerably different from the current value of the parameter is desired,
it may be more convenient to enter Menu Mode, and edit the parameter using digit editing mode rather than
try to increment or decrement a long distance to the new value.
Channel
Edit Parameter List
Selected Parameter and Current Value
Figure 3-14. Edit Mode Operation (Example)
Table 3-2. Graph and Text Mode Edit Menus
Meas Mode
Freq*
Units
Edit Menu Parameters / Values
Resoltn
Filter
Ld/ClrR
CW
(Text)
0.001 to
Modulated 110.00 GHz
(Text)
* Impedance
Pulse
for voltage
(Text)
sensors:
50-2500Ω
Statistical
(Text)
VertSpn
CW
(Graph)
Log Scaling:
0.1dB to
Modulated
100dB
(Graph)
Linear Scaling:
Pulse
1nW to
(Graph)
1MW
Statistical
(Graph)
dBm
Watts
Volts
dBV
dBmV
dBuV
1 to 3
None, Auto, ∧ to Ld Ref
∨ to Clr Ref
significant
0.01 to
digits
15.00 sec
TimeSpn
2.5µS to
5 seconds
StatMode
CDF, 1-CDF,
Distribution
VertCtr TimeSpan
TrigDly
TrigLvl
TimeSpan -40dBm to
Dependent
+20dBm
TermCnt MarkrMod
2M to
Off, Vertical,
4000M
Horizontal
Filter
Ld/ClrR
1 second
to 1 hour
None, Auto, ∧ to Ld Ref
∨ to Clr Ref
0.01 to
15.00 sec
Linear Scaling: TimeSpn
(VertSpan
2.5µS to
dependent) 5 seconds
HorzSpn
1 to 100%
TrigDly
TrigLvl
TimeSpan -40dBm to
Dependent
+20dBm
%Offset MarkrMod
HorzSpan Off, Vertical,
Dependent Horizontal
Log Scaling:
-100dBm to
+100dBm
3-13
DutyCyc
Offset
0.01 to
100.00% -100.00dB to
PeakHld +100.00dB
Off, InstHld
AvgHold
Marker1
Marker2
Trace start to trace end
in display window
Marker1
Marker2
Vert: 0.000 to 100.000%
Horz: -99.99 to +99.99dBm
DutyCyc
Offset
0.01 to
100.00% -100.00dB to
PeakHld +100.00dB
Off, InstHld
AvgHold
Marker1
Marker2
Trace start to trace end
in display window
Marker1
Marker2
Vert: 0.000 to 100.000%
Horz: -99.99 to +99.99dBm
Chapter 3
Operation
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
3.9 DISPLAY FORMATS
3.9.1
Channel Selection and Paging. Pressing the ∧ or ∨ keys while in Graph Mode or Text Mode pages the
measurement window and header display up or down through a series of up to three measurement “pages”,
each showing one or more common measurements or parameters. Pressing the < or > keys switches the
display between channels in a “CH1 < > BOTH < > CH2” format. In the single-channel Text Mode display, the
page selection may change only the header display, only the main measurement window, or both. In Graph
Mode and the dual-channel Text Mode, the page selection changes only the header, while the main measurement window shows only the primary measurement or trace. Between page selection and channel selection,
there are a considerable number of possible displays for each operating mode. Table 3-3 shows what measurements are displayed for each combination of measurement mode, channel and page setting. Note that singlechannel units (Model 4531) can only page between the CH1 and BOTH display formats.
Table 3-3. Measurement Pages
Measurement
Mode /
Display Page
Single Channel
Text Mode
Main Window
CW
Page 1
CW
Pg 2
Header
Dual Channel
Text Mode
Main Window
Frequency
CalFactor
CW Average
Max Hold
Min Hold
Frequency
CalFactor
Header
Single Channel Dual Channel
Graph Mode
Graph Mode
Header
Frequency
CalFactor
CW Average,
Opt. Bargraph
Max Hold
Min Hold
Header
Frequency
CalFactor
DutyCycle
PulsePower
Max Hold
Min Hold
CW
Pg 3
Duty Cycle
Pulse Power
CW Average
Pulse Power
CW Average
Pulse Power
Modulated
Pg 1
Frequency
CalFactor
Frequency
CalFactor
Frequency
CalFactor
Modulated
Pg 2
Modulated Avg
Peak Hold
Min Hold
Modulated
Pg 3
Marker
Measurements
Pulse
Pg 2
Waveform Time
Measurements
Pulse
Pg 3
Waveform Power
Measurements
Statistical
Pg 2
Statistical
Pg 3
Modulated Avg
Opt. Bargraph
PkToAvg Ratio
Pulse
Pg 1
Statistical
Pg 1
Snsr Temp
Acal Temp
Mrkr1 Position
Mrkr2 Position
LongTerm Avg
Peak Power
Min Power
# MegaSamples
PkToAvg Ratio
Total Time
Mrkr1 Pwr & %
Mrkr2 Pwr & %
Avg Betw Mrkrs
Opt. Bargraph
LongTerm Avg
Opt. Bargraph
Pk or Max Hold
Min Hold
Pk or Max Hold
Min Hold
Modulated Avg
PkToAvg Ratio
Modulated Avg
PkToAvg Ratio
[email protected] 1
[email protected] 2
[email protected] 1
[email protected] 2
Pk Betw Mrkrs
Min Betw Mrkrs
Mrkr1 Position
Mrkr2 Position
Pk Betw Mrkrs
Min Betw Mrkrs
Avg Betw Mrkrs
Pk/Avg Bet Mrkrs
Avg Betw Mrkrs
Pk/Avg Bet Mrkrs
[email protected] 1
[email protected] 2
[email protected] 1
[email protected] 2
Peak Power
Min Power
Long Term Avg
PkToAvg Ratio
3-14
PkToAvg Ratio
# MegaSamples
Total Time
Peak Power
Min Power
Long Term Avg
PkToAvg Ratio
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
3.9.2
Chapter 3
Operation
Mixed Mode Operation. All of the measurement functions of the 4532 series can be performed in two
independent channels. The trigger system is common to both channels, but either can be selected as the
trigger source. There are some restrictions imposed on two-channel operation when both channels are not in
the same measurement mode. This situation is referred to as “mixed mode”.
Pulse Mode cannot be combined with Modulated Mode or Statistical Mode when two peak sensors are
connected. The CW voltage and power modes can be freely combined with any measurement mode in the
opposite channel. When Statistical mode is used CW or modulated mode, the graphical display must be
interpreted as having two overlapping horizontal axes with different dimensions. The statistical graph will be
referred to a horizontal axis with percentage units, while the CW/modulated graph will be referred to a
horizontal axis with time units.
Channel 1
CW Sensor
Both Channels
Channel 2
Peak Sensor (Pulse Mode)
Figure 3-15. Graphic Mixed Mode Displays
Channel 1
CW Sensor
Both Channels
Channel 2
Peak Sensor (Pulse Mode)
Figure 3-16. Graphic Mixed Mode Edit Displays
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Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Channel 1
CW Sensor
Both Channels
Channel 2
Peak Sensor (Pulse Mode)
Figure 3-17. Text Mixed Mode Measurement Displays
Channel 1
CW Sensor
Both Channels
Channel 2
Peak Sensor (Pulse Mode)
Figure 3-18. Text Mixed Mode Edit Displays
3.10 SENSOR CONNECTION AND CALIBRATION
RF Power Sensors or Voltage Probes are used to sense the high-frequency RF signal and convert it to a voltage that is
proportional to the input amplitude. A number of different sensor types are available depending on the frequency,
power level, modulation and impedance of the signal to be measured. These sensors generally consist of an input
connector appropriate for the signal’s frequency band, and internal RF detection and processing circuitry, as well as a
non-volatile EEPROM memory that stores sensor characteristics and calibration information. A power sensor cable
routes the sensor’s output signal to the sensor input connectors on the 4530’s front or rear panel. In CW sensors, the
EEPROM is located at the instrument end of the sensor cable rather than in the sensor itself.
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4530 Series RF Power Meter
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Operation
Since each sensor is different, the power meter must know the precise relationship between RF input amplitude and the
sensor’s detected output. Information about this relationship can be characterized at the factory, and stored in the
sensor’s EEPROM, then used by the power meter to calculate the input power from the sensor’s output. This technique
is known as shaping, because it corrects the shape of the sensor’s nonlinear transfer function into a linear function of
power. Because the sensor’s output curve is not perfectly stable with time and temperature, greater absolute accuracy
may be gained by calibrating points on the transfer function at the time of measurement, and including these factors in
the shaping calculation.
The most basic field calibration consists of two reference points on the curve. By correcting these two points so they
read the expected values, the accuracy of the entire curve is increased. Generally, 0mW and 1mW are chosen as
calibration points. The 0mW calibration is known as a Zero adjustment, and the 1mW (0dBm) calibration is know as a
FixedCal. These power reference levels are generated by a precision RF calibrator that is built in to the power meter.
The accuracy of the shaping technique can be further improved by increasing the number of power calibration points.
For this purpose, the 4530 is equipped with a programmable step calibrator, which generates precise RF power levels
between +20dBm and -60dBm. By stepping through the entire power range of the sensor (including zero power), the
basic accuracy of the shaping technique is significantly increased over a simple, two-point calibration. This technique
is known as an AutoCal.
All peak sensors and most CW sensors are calibrated using a precision step calibrator. The Model 4530 has a built-in
50 MHz step calibrator, and can program an optional Model 4530 1 GHz Calibrator Accessory (see Appendix B). All
57000 series peak sensors can be calibrated using either calibrator. Most 56000 series peak sensors require the 1 GHz
calibrator. All CW sensors except waveguide types, and sensors with more than 20 dB attenuation, can also use the
FixedCal method. This method uses either calibrator at a fixed level in combination with shaping curves to produce a
correct reading, but offers less accuracy than a full step calibration. Waveguide sensors and a few other models must
use the FreqCal method. An external 0 dBm source at the calibration frequency is required. All calibration data is saved
in non-volatile memory. No calibration is required for voltage probe/sensors; only zero offset adjustment is available.
When a peak or CW sensor is step calibrated (AutoCal) a zeroing procedure is performed followed by a power step
calibration in small increments over the entire dynamic range of the sensor. The resulting calibration table is saved in
non-volatile memory. If a new peak sensor, which has not been AutoCal’ed, is plugged in, the AutoCal message will
appear in the graphics and text headers indicating that a calibration must be performed before any measurements can
be made, since there is not yet a valid calibration table for the peak sensor in use. When a new calibration has
successfully completed, the previous one will be overwritten.
Occasionally, a zero or calibration procedure may not complete successfully. In most cases, this can be traced to the
sensor not being connected to the active calibrator. Zeroing can be performed any time the signal source is turned
completely off or the sensor RF port is disconnected. Fixed or autocal must be performed with the sensor connected
to the instrument’s internal calibrator port, or the port of a Model 2530 1GHz Calibrator. In either case, the active
calibration source must be set to match the calibrator being used in the Zero/Cal > CalSource menu. If zeroing ro
calibration fails, a status code is reported on the display. See table 3-8 for a list of calibration status codes.
3.10.1 Sensor Connection. Connect the sensor to the 4530 by plugging one end of a sensor cable into the power
sensor and the other end into the sensor input on the instrument’s front (or rear) panel. Peak power sensor
cables are the same on both ends, so it does not matter which end of the cable is inserted into the sensor. CW
power sensors and RF voltage probes use a two-pin connector on the sensor, and the cable has a multi-pin
smart adapter on the instrument end. This adapter contains the EEPROM that holds the sensor’s characteristics and calibration information, so the cable/adapter assembly must be matched to the sensor. Serial
number labels on each should be used to identify matching assemblies.
When the sensor is connected to the 4530, message is displayed indicating the type and model of the sensor,
and will download its calibration information. At this point, CW and voltage sensors may be used to take
measurements using the default shaping calibration technique. For best accuracy, however, a sensor zero
and/or calibration should be performed. Peak sensors require a multi-point calibration (autocal) before measurements can be taken for the first time.
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3.10.2 Zero Offset Adjustment. After a CW sensor is connected, and anytime a low-level measurement is about
to be taken, the sensor should be zeroed. To zero a sensor, press the Zero/CAL button to display the Zero/
Calibration menu. Peak sensors may also be zeroed once they have been autocaled, but this is not necessary
immediately following an autocal, since zeroing is performed as part of any autocal process. If more than one
sensor is connected to the 4530, the < and > keys may be used to select the desired sensor. The Zero/Cal menu
is shown in Table 3-4. Connect the sensor to the instrument’s calibrator or to a terminated connector with no
RF present, and use the ∧ and ∨ keys to select Zero Chan, then press Enter/Run to start the process. Zeroing
the sensor takes approximately 20 seconds, and the instrument will display a status line indicating progress.
When zeroing is complete, the sensor can be removed from the calibrator and measurements can be started,
or a Fixed Calibration can be performed to adjust for gain errors.
3.10.3 Fixed Calibration (CW sensors). Fixed calibration adjusts the slope (gain) of the sensor’s shaping curve
by measuring power at a single, reference level (usually 0dBm, or 1mW) from the internal calibrator. To
perform a fixed calibration, connect the sensor to the instrument’s calibrator and press the Zero/CAL key.
Use the ∧ and ∨ keys to select Fixed Cal, and then press Enter/Run to start the process. This will take several
seconds. When fixed calibration is complete, the sensor can be removed from the calibrator and measurements can be taken. Fixed calibration is very fast, and provides good accuracy for many applications.
However, for best accuracy, a step calibration (AutoCal) is recommended when available.
3.10.4 Automatic (step) Calibration. A multi-point step calibration, or autocal uses the 4530’s built-in 50MHz
programmable calibrator or an external Model 2530 1GHz programmable calibrator to step through the entire
power range of the sensor and store a shaping correction at each point. To perform an autocal, connect the
sensor to the instrument’s calibrator and press the Zero/Cal key. Use the ∧ and ∨ keys to select AutoCal, and
then press Enter/Run to start the process. The autocal process takes from one to two minutes, during which
time the instrument will display a status line indicating the current power point being calibrated. When
autocal is complete, the sensor can be removed from the calibrator and measurements can be taken.
3.10.5 Frequency Calibration. If no other calibration factor is entered, the instrument calculates a calibration
factor for the current operating frequency by interpolating between entries from this list. If, however, greater
accuracy is desired, the user may perform a single-point frequency calibration using an external 0 dBm
reference signal at the desired test frequency. To perform a frequency calibration, first make sure the channel’s
operating frequency is set to the frequency of the external reference signal to be used. Connect the sensor to
the reference source, set the source for 0.00 dBm, and press the Zero/Cal key. Use the ∧ and ∨ keys to select
FreqCal, and then press Enter/Run to start the process. The process takes several seconds. When the
frequency calibration is complete, the sensor can be removed from the reference source and measurements
can be taken.
3.10.6 Calibrator Selection. Certain peak power sensors have a video bandwidth that is too high to permit
calibration using the 4530’s built-in 50MHz calibrator. In this case, an external 1GHz calibrator must be used
to autocal the sensor. The Boonton Model 2530 1GHz Programmable Calibrator is designed to connect
directly to the 4530 and operate under instrument control in the same manner as the internal calibrator. (See
Appendix B.) To use an external 2530 calibrator to calibrate sensors, first make sure the 2530 is connected to
the EXT CAL CONTROL connector on the rear of the instrument using a standard RJ-11 type modular
telephone cable (see Figure 3-20). The calibrator’s power must be turned on, and proper connection can be
verified by pressing MainMenu > Calibratr > SelectExt to select the external calibrator, then pressing
MainMenu > Calibratr > ExtStatus to view status information from the 2530. If an error message appears,
check the connections and repeat the process.
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Chapter 3
Operation
BOONTON ELECTRONICS
MODEL 4530
RF POWER METER
BOONTON ELECTRONICS
MODEL 2530
1GHZ RF CALIBRATOR
EXT CAL
CONTROL
EXT CAL
CONTROL
RJ-11 Telephone Cable
Figure 3-20. External Calibrator Connection
Once proper connection has been verified, the 2530 may be used to automatically calibrate sensors. To select
it as the calibration source, press the Zero/Cal key. Use the ∧ and ∨ keys to select Configure, and then press
Enter/Run to view the configuration menu for the selected channel. Select 2530/1GHz as the calibrator for
that sensor, and then press Enter/Run. Now anytime a fixed cal or autocal is performed on that channel, the
sensor must be connected to the 2530 calibrator rather than the internal 50MHz calibrator. The status line
during any zero or calibration process will display the currently active calibrator. If the sensor is connected to
the wrong calibration source or not connected at all, the calibration will usually fail and an error message will
be displayed.
3.10.7 Calibration Volatility. When any user calibration process (zero, fixed cal, frequency cal, autocal) is performed, the 4530 saves the correction factors calculated during that process. If instrument power is switched
off, these factors are all restored when power is reapplied. They are also preserved if the sensor is unplugged
and reconnected to the same input. Removing a sensor and replacing it with a different sensor will require that
a new calibration be performed, unless there have been no other calibrations done on that channel since that
sensor was last connected. If instrument power is switched off, these factors are all restored when power is
restored, although it is a good idea to repeat the zero adjustment before any low-level measurements.
3.10.8 Zero/Cal Menu Navigation. Navigating the Zero/Cal menu is similar to navigating the 4530’s main menu.
Press the Zero/Cal key to enter the menu from any display mode. The ∧ and ∨ keys are used to scroll up and
down through the available menu selections, and the < and > keys select between Sensor 1 and Sensor 2.
Pressing Enter will start the selected calibration procedure, and pressing ESC will exit the Zero/Cal menu.
When the procedure is complete, the instrument will generally return the display mode that was active when
the Zero/Cal key was pressed. If CalSource is selected, the ∧ and ∨ keys are used to select either the internal
50MHz or external 1GHz calibrator.
Figure 3-19. Zero/Calibration Menu
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Table 3-4. Zero/Cal Menu
Zero Chan
(ALL SENSOR TYPES) Zero the sensor to remove the low-level power offsets of the sensor without
doing a complete AutoCal. This procedure is used to remove the effects of thermal drift. On nontemperature compensated peak sensors, an advisory message will appear in the graphical and text
headers when the sensor's temperature changes more than 4 degrees Celsius from the calibration
temperature. This is not an error message. The need to zero is determined by the signal level
measured and the desired repeatability. It is recommended that a sensor be re-zeroed immediately
before performing any measurement in the lowest 10 dB of the sensor’s dynamic range.
When a sensor zero is performed, the sensor must be removed from any RF source, or connected to
the selected calibrator. Allow the sensor to settle for at least 30 seconds before zeroing if a high level
signal was previously applied.
GPIB Command Syntax: CALibration:{INTernal|EXTernal}:ZERO[?]
NOTE
The CALibrate commands ending with a question mark (?) are combined command/queries. At the
end of the calibration procedure, they return a zero character in the read buffer if successful, and
a one character if unsuccessful. This is in addition to any service request flags in use.
AutoCal
(PEAK AND CW SENSORS) Performs a zero and complete step calibration of the sensor over its
specified dynamic range. This is required when the sensor is changed or when the temperature of the
environment has changed a significant amount. Peak sensor bandwidth is automatically set to low
and restored to its original setting at the end of the calibration process. This is the preferred method
of calibration for most CW sensors, and the required method for peak sensors. Frequency is automatically set to the correct value during calibration and restored to the previous value afterward.
GPIB Command Syntax: CALibration:{INTernal|EXTernal}:AUTOcal[?]
FixedCal
(CW SENSORS ONLY) Perform a fixed level calibration of the CW sensor. The calibration signal level
used depends upon the sensor's input attenuation. A Zero adjustment should always be performed
before a FixedCal. Frequency is automatically set to the correct value during calibration and restored
to the previous value afterwards. In most cases, AutoCal provides a more accurate calibration.
Attenuation
0 dB
10 dB
20 dB
Calibration Level
0 dBm
+10 dBm
+20 dBm
Example
51075
51077
51079
GPIB Command Syntax: CALibration:{INTernal|EXTernal}:FIXEDcal[?]
FreqCal
(ALL POWER SENSORS) A single frequency, 0 dBm calibration with a user supplied reference
source of known accuracy. Set the channel's frequency parameter to the frequency of the external
power reference. On peak sensors, an AutoCal of the sensor must be completed before a FreqCal
may be performed.
GPIB Command Syntax: CALibration:USER:FREQcal[?]
NOTE
To change the calibration method of the sensor in use from the AutoCal to the FreqCal method,
perform a CancelCal to erase the AutoCal data.
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Table 3-4. Zero/Cal Menu - (Cont)
CalSource
Selects the calibrator to be used for calibration. Two calibration sources are possible for FixedCal
and AutoCal procedures, and the Zero command also allows a calibrator to be specified. In the case
of the zero, it does not actually use the selected calibrator, but the CalSource is used to determine
which calibrator’s RF output will be turned off during sensor zeroing. All Model 4530 Series RF
Power Meters contain a 50 MHz step calibrator. An optional accessory 1 GHz calibrator Model 2530
can also be used for sensor calibration to reduce measurement uncertainty on signals close to or
above 1 GHz (See Appendix B). The CalSource setting has no effect on FreqCal, since it uses a user
source for the power reference.
Int/50MHz
Ext/1GHz
Select the internal 50 MHz calibrator
Select the external 1 GHz 2530 calibrator
GPIB Command Syntax: CALibration:INTernal:{ZERO|AUTOcal|FIXEDcal|}[?] for 50 MHz
CALibration:EXTernal:{ZERO|AUTOcal|FIXEDcal|}[?] for 1 GHz
CalCancel
Cancel the sensor calibration and zero data in non-volatile memory and set default values. Do not
use this function to abort a calibration in progress. Press the ESC/Stop key to abort calibration and
restore saved values. There is no equivalent GPIB command for this menu item.
3.11 MENU REFERENCE
The section contains a list of all menu commands accepted by the Model 4530. The list is grouped by menus, with the
“Main Menu” as the top level. When a sub-menu or item is highlighted, pressing the Enter/Run key will activate that
option or, in some cases, take you to a further submenu or option. For example, to set markers to the Vertical Mode,
scroll to and highlight Markers. Press Enter/Run and scroll to Mrkr Mode, highlight and press Enter/Run. Highlight
Vertical and press Enter/Run.
Main Menu > Markers > Mrkr Mode > Vertical (> = Enter key or right arrow key)
Sections 3.11.1 to 3.11.10 contain detailed descriptions of all items in each top-level menu, and the final section
contains a summary of the entire menu structure.
Menu
Measure . . . . . . .
Channel 1 . . . . . .
Channel 2 . . . . . .
Markers . . . . . . .
Trig/Time . . . . . .
Statistcl . . . . . . .
Calibratr . . . . . . .
Save/Recl . . . . . .
Utilities . . . . . . . .
Help . . . . . . . . . .
Defaults . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . .
Description
Section
Select Run/Stop Capture . . . . . . . . . 3.11.1
Edit Channel 1 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.2
Edit Channel 2 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.2
Set/Position Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.3
Set Trigger/Time Span . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.4
Set Statistical Mode Parameters . . . . 3.11.5
Calibrator Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.6
Save and Recall Settings . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.7
Status, Display, Bus, Clock . . . . . . . . 3.11.8
Keyboard Help Display . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.9
Initialize to Default Settings . . . . . . . 3.11.10
Summary of entire menu tree . . . . . . 3.11.11
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3.11.1 Measure Menu.
The Measure menu contains items that control the taking of measurements.
Main Menu>Measure>
Stop
Select Run/Stop Capture
Stop data capture.
INITiate:CONTinuous OFF
Run
Restart Data Capture.
INITiate[:IMMediate[:ALL] or INITiate:CONTinuous ON
SnglSweep
Perform Single Sweep. For time span (TSPAN) settings from 2 µsec to 50µsec, the
single trace will be made up of 125 pixels at 1 sample/pixel. For TSPAN settings
from 5 sec to 5 µsec, the 125 trace pixels will each be the average of 2 or more
samples.
1) With INITiate:CONTinuous OFF, and TRIGger:SOURce BUS trigger a single measurement with *TRG or {GET}.
2) With INITiate:CONTinuous OFF, and TRIGger:SOURce
BUS>SNSR1 arm for a single measurement with *TRG or {GET}. When
the sensor signal trigger qualifiers are met, a single trace measurement
will be made.
NOTE
For TSPAN settings from 20 µsec to 2.5 µsec, multiple triggers are needed to fill
all 125 pixels. For this reason, a triggered measurement with averaging set to
one is recommended if repetitive triggers are possible. This procedure will use
the minimum number of triggers to fill all 125 pixels.
Clr/Reset
In the Stop mode clear all measurement results. This will cause all displayed
readings to be replaced by dashes. For GPIB operation this occurs when measurements are initiated using the INITiate command. This guarantees fresh measurement data rather than a re-read of previously read (stale) data. The measurement
status flag that precedes each GPIB query result also warns of stale data.
AutoSetup
For the Pulse Mode automatically adjust the trigger and position controls to produce a waveform on the display. This does not override a channel set to OFF.
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3.11.2 Channel Menu.
The Channel menu contains items that affect a single measurement channel. The “channel” is a full measurement path, starting at (and sometimes before) the sensor, and including data acquisition, processing of
measurements, and display of the processed information. The Model 4531 single channel power meter has
only a Channel 1 menu, while the dual-channel Model 4532 has separate menus for Channel 1 and Channel 2.
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > MeasMode
Set or return the measurement mode of the selected channel. CW and MODULATED are continuous measurement modes, PULSE is a triggered, oscilloscope-like mode, and CDF, CCDF and DIST are various presentation formats of statistical mode, which gathers and analyzes a large number of samples over a relatively long
time interval.
Off
Disable measurement
Modulated
Measure the true average power of the applied signal. (Peak sensor default)
PulseMode
Measure power versus time of a triggered signal. (Peak sensors only)
Statistcl
Measure the CCDF, CDF or Distribution of the input signal. See Paragraph 3.11.5
for Statistical Mode Parameter Settings. (Peak sensors only)
CW
Measure the CW input signal. (CW & Voltage sensor default)
Remote Command:
CALCulate:MODe <Modulated, Pulse, CDF, CCDF, DIST, CW>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > dB Offset
Set a constant measurement offset. Used to account for attenuators and couplers in the RF signal path. In the
main TEXT display, a small triangle (Delta) symbol will appear above the units if the offset is not set to zero.
Range:
-100.00 to 100.00 dB
Default:
0.00 dB
Remote Command:
SENSe:CORRection:OFFset <n>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Frequency
Set the frequency of the input signal. Causes frequency cal factor to be automatically calculated from sensor
EEPROM data and applied to the measurement.
Range:
0.001 to 110.000 GHz
Default:
0.050 GHz (CW sensor) or 1.000 GHz (peak sensor)
Remote Command:
SENSe:CORRection:FREQuency <n>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Averaging
Set the number of traces averaged together in pulse mode to form the measurement result. Used to reduce
noise. Also known as “video averaging” on competitive peak power meters.
Range:
1 to 4096
Default:
4
Remote Command:
SENSe:AVERage <n>
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Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Filter
Set the integration time of the digital filter to reduce noise in Modulated and CW modes. Longer filter times
reduce noise, but increase the settling time of the measurement. The AUTO setting will adaptively set the
filter time for a good tradeoff between noise and settling time based on the signal’s current power level. The
digital filter performs an unweighted average of the measured power during the last N seconds, where N is the
filter time setting. The settling time of the filter is exactly equal to the filter time.
Range:
Auto, None, 0.01 to 15.00 seconds
Default:
Auto
Remote Command:
SENSe:FILTer:STATe <OFF, ON, AUTO>
SENSe:FILTer:TIME <n>
(forces STATE to ON)
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Peak Hold
Set the operating mode of the peak hold feature in Pulse, CW and Modulated modes.
Off
Peak readings are held for a short time, then automatically decayed according to
the averaging selected. This is useful for slowly fluctuating modulated signals.
(Default)
Inst Hold
The maximum instantaneous peak value is held until reset.
Avg Hold
Holds the maximum average (filtered) power until reset.
Remote Command:
CALCulate:PKHLD <OFF, INST, AVG>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > CalFactor
Displays or changes the current frequency cal-factor value in dB. Selecting the menu item will show the
calfactor currently in use, whether manually entered or automatically calculated from sensor data and the
current frequency. Entering a value temporarily overrides the sensor table value. Changing the frequency
restores sensor table values.
Range:
-3.00 to 3.00 (dB)
Default:
0.00 dB
Remote Command:
SENSe:CORRection:CALFactor <n>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Video BW
Selects the peak sensor’s video bandwidth.
High
Setting normally used for measurements. Actual bandwidth is determined by the
peak sensor model used. (Default)
Low
Setting used during calibration and available for measurements. For 57000 series
peak sensors, the low video bandwidth is less than 500 kHz to allow calibration at
50 MHz.
Remote Command:
SENSe:BANDwidth <HIGH, LOW>
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Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > DutyCycle
Sets the duty-cycle in percent for calculated CW pulse power measurements. Valid only for thermal sensors
and CW sensors in the square-law region and subject to the accuracy of the duty-cycle value. Setting the
duty-cycle to 100% is equivalent to a CW measurement. Note that this method of measuring pulse power
should be used only if a peak power measurement cannot be used.
Range:
0.01 to 100.00 %
Default:
100.00 %
Remote Command:
CALCulate:DCYC <n>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Def Pulse >
This submenu is used to sets the define pulse reference levels and times which are used to calculate all
readings that are referenced to pulse parameters. The distal, mesial and proximal parameters are related to
pulse geometry in accordance with IEEE definitions. Time gating is used to define the “useful portion” of a
pulse or burst - the interval over which power should be averaged, and represents a percentage
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Def Pulse > [ Distal, Mesial, Proximal ]
The mesial level defines the “midpoint” of the pulse transition, and is used for pulse width and power
measurements. The proximal and distal levels are the lower and upper thresholds used for edge transition time
measurements. These power levels are entered as a percentage, and the actual power levels are calculated by
multiplying this percentage by the pulse’s current top power.
Range:
0 to 100%
Default:
Proximal: 10%, Mesial: 50%, Distal: 90%
Remote Command:
SENSe:PULSe:{DISTal | PROXimal | MESIal} <n>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Def Pulse > Units
Set the units to which the pulse parameters apply. Note that 90% voltage level corresponds to 81% power
level; 50% voltage to 25% power; and 10% voltage to 1% power. This relationship must be preserved in order
to relate risetime and bandwidth in the voltage and power domains.
Volts
Choosing this setting and the default distal and proximal levels above will preserve the conventional assumption that risetime equals 0.35/BANDWIDTH. (Default)
Watts
Choosing this setting and 81% and 1% distal and proximal levels, respectively, will
preserve the bandwidth assumption above.
Remote Command:
SENSe:PULSe:UNITs VOLTS
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Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Def Pulse > [ StartGate, EndGate ]
The average power of a pulse can be measured with “automatic gating” rather than by “time specified gating
with markers”. This is useful in GSM and TDMA applications to exclude the rising and falling transition
intervals. The gate start and end is automatically determined as a percentage of detected pulse width and the
average power during the “useful portion” of the pulse is returned as AvgPulse power in the auto-measure
array. The pulse start and end are defined as the times at which the pulse’s rising and falling edges crosses the
mesial level. Setting to 0 and 100% will measure average power over the entire pulse from start to end.
Range:
StartGate: 0 to 40%, EndGate: 60 to 100%
Default:
StartGate: 5%, EndGate: 95%
Remote Command:
SENSe:PULSe:{STARTGT | ENDGT} <n>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Range
Select the instrument's internal measurement range when using CW power sensors or Voltage sensors. The
4530 series uses two widely overlapping ranges for power measurements, and voltage sensors add a third
range for very high level signals. Auto is the preferred setting, and should be used in all cases except when
the signal makes frequent, large, level transitions, or when the absolute fastest settling is needed after a large
power step. Note that improper range settings may result in incorrect or overrange readings.
Auto
Automatically chooses the best range for the current signal. (Default)
Range 0
Range 0 is used for low-level signals (below approximately -10dBm)
Range 1
Range 1 is used for higher signals (above approximately -30dBm).
Range 2
Range 2 is only needed for voltage measurements above 3 volts.
Remote Command:
CALCulate:RANGe <AUTO, 0, 1, 2>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Alarm >
Controls the power limit alarm operation. When alarm operation is enabled (ON), the “primary measurement”
(average power in CW or Modulated modes, average power between markers in Pulse mode) is monitored, and
compared to preset upper and lower power limits. If the power is beyond either of these limits, a ↑ or ↓ will
appear in the main text display above the units to indicate an out-of-limit measurement. Additionally, remote
interface flags are set to save a trip condition even if the power has returned to within the normal limits.
Off
Disable alarms (Default)
On
Enable alarms
Remote Command:
CALCulate:LIMit:STATe <OFF, ON>
Hi Limit, Lo Limit
Set the upper and lower alarm limits.
Range:
-100.00 to 100.00 dBm
Default:
Hi Limit: 100.00dBm, Lo Limit: -100.00dBm
Remote Command:
CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer <n>
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4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 3
Operation
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Params > Impedance
Characteristic impedance is used only for voltage to power conversions. This is useful for calculating and
displaying power from a voltage measured across a load impedance using a voltage probe.
Range:
10.0 to 2500.0 ohms
Default:
50.0 ohms
Remote Command:
SENSe:IMPEDance <n>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Display > VertSpan
Select the vertical sensitivity for the full height of the graph display in a 1-2-5 scaling sequence. Note that the
vertical span setting controls only the graph display presentation, and has no effect on measurement. Full
dynamic range measurements are always availably even if the trace is off scale.
Range:
0.1 to 100 dB in a 1-2-5 sequence (log units)
1nW to 1MW in a 1-2-5 sequence (watts)
1nV to 1MV in a 1-2-5 sequence (volts)
1% to 10000% in a 1-2-5 sequence (ratiometric mode with linear units)
Default:
100 dB (log units)
Remote Command:
DISPlay:TRACe:{LOGSPAN | LINSPAN | PCTSPAN} <n>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Display > VertCntr
Set the power or voltage level that corresponds to the center of the display. Note that the vertical center
setting controls only the graph display presentation, and has no effect on measurement. Full dynamic range
measurements are always availably even if the trace is off scale.
Range:
-100.00 to 100.00 dBm (log units)
1nW to 1MW (watts)
1nV to 1MV (volts)
0.01 to 9999.99% (ratiometric mode with linear units)
Default:
0dBm (log units)
Remote Command:
DISPlay:TRACe:{LOGCNTR | LINCNTR | PCTCNTR} <n>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Display > Units
Select the measurement units for both the display and remote interface. Note that some display settings have
different sets of values depending on the measurement units selected.
Log-dBm
Power in dB relative to 1 milliwatt (Default)
Lin-Watts
Power in watts (calculated from voltage and user-supplied impedance for voltage
probes)
Lin-Volts
RF Voltage (calculated from power and sensor impedance for power sensors)
Log-dBV
Voltage in dB relative to 1 volt
Log-dBmV
Voltage in dB relative to 1 millivolt
Log-dBuV
Voltage in dB relative to 1 microvolt
VSWR
Calculated VSWR (ratiometric measurements only)
Remote Command:
CALCulate1:UNITs <DBM, WATTS, VOLTS, DBV, DBMV, DBUV, VSWR>
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4530 Series RF Power Meter
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Display > Resolutn
Select the display resolution for the main readings. Note display resolution has no effect on internal measurement accuracy or the resolution of readings returned over the remote interface. Measurements are always
made with full, internal resolution. Log resolution specifies a radix point following one leading digit with the
number of remaining places selected. Linear resolution specifies a total number of places without regard to
the radix point.
Range:
Log units: 1 (x.x), 2 (x.xx) 3 (x.xxx), Linear units: 1 (xxx), 2 (xxxx), 3 (xxxxx)
Default:
Maximum resolution (3, x.xxx or xxxxx)
Remote Command:
DISPlay:TEXT1:RESolution <1, 2, 3>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Display > Disp Srce
Select the source or sources combined in an arithmetic operation for the displayed reading. For ratio, sum and
difference calculations, both sensors must be of the same type, i.e. power or voltage. For power sensors, the
power ratio of two sources in dB relative (dBr) or percent and the sum of the power of two sources in dBm or
linear units is provided. For voltage sensors, the voltage ratio of two sources in dB relative (dBr) or percent
and the voltage difference between two sources in volts or log units are provided. The following list shows
only the available settings for channel 1, but channel 2 (on 2 channel units) has a matching list of settings.
Sensor 1
Display Sensor 1 power or voltage. (Default)
Ref 1
Display Reference1 power or voltage
Sen1/Ref1
Ratio of Sensor1 to Ref1
Sen1+Ref1
Power Sum (power sensors only): Sensor1 (watts) + Ref1 (watts)
Sen1-Ref1
Voltage Difference (voltage sensors only) Sensor1 (volts) - Ref1 (volts)
Sen1/Sen2
Ratio of Sensor1 to Sensor2
Sen1+Sen2
Power Sum (power sensors only): Sensor1 (watts) + Sensor2 (watts)
Sen1-Sen2
Voltage Difference (voltage sensors only): Sensor1 (volts) - Sensor2 (volts)
Remote Command:
CALCulate:MATH <CH1, REF1, REF_RAT, REF_SUM, REF_DIFF, CH_RAT,
CH_SUM, CH_DIFF>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Display > Bar Graph
Enable or disable the bar graph feature. The bar graph appears along the bottom of the main Text display and
gives a visual indication of the size and variation of the reading. In the Model 4532, there are two independent
bar graphs, one for each channel.
Off
Disable bar graph. (Default)
On
Enable bar graph
Remote Command:
DISPlay:TEXT BARgraph <OFF, ON>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > FrDepOfst >
Submenu to control the Frequency Dependent Offset feature. Frequency dependent offsets are used to
compensate for external devices such as couplers or attenuators in the RF signal path that have know loss
characteristics that vary with frequency. In the main TEXT display, an asterisk (“*”) symbol will appear above
the units if a frequency dependent offset table is in use (setting is TBLA or TBLB). A frequency dependent
offset is similar to a sensor calfactor - it is changed automatically when the operating frequency parameter is
changed. The value is looked up or interpolated from entries in the active FDOF table.
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4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 3
Operation
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > FrDepOfst > Ofst Src
Select which, if either, of the two frequency dependent offset tables is to be used.
Off
Disable the frequency dependent offset feature. (Default)
Table-A
Enable the frequency dependent offset feature using “Table A” offset data.
Table-B
Enable the frequency dependent offset feature using “Table B” offset data.
Remote Command:
SENSe:CORRection:FDOFfset <OFF, TBLA, TBLB>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > FrDepOfst > [ Modify-A, Modify-B ]
View or edit the frequency dependent offset tables. When this item is selected, the display will show the
current table. Three columns will be displayed: On the left is the table index (entry number), the center column
is the frequency in GHz, and the right column is the offset in dB for that frequency. By positioning the cursor
on the index, the ∧ and ∨ keys will move the cursor up and down to different entries. To edit an entry, position
the cursor on that index, then use the < and > keys to select either the frequency or offset for that entry. To
make a new table entry, position the cursor on the “Add” index. To delete an entry, select the entry, and use
the ∨ key to change its frequency to “-.--- GHz” (just below 0.000 GHz). When done editing, press ENTER to
save the table, or ESC to abort and restore the old table.
Remote Command:
MEMory:FDOFfset <entire table>
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Snsr Data >
Submenu to view sensor parameters stored in the sensor’s EEPROM.
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Snsr Data > SensrInfo
Displays a sensor information screen showing key operating parameters that are stored in the EEPROM of the
currently installed sensor. A list is displayed showing type, model number, serial number, EEPROM checksum
result, input attenuation, input impedance, and power range. Pressing the ∨ key will display a screen showing
sensor temperature compensation information for all sensors with this feature.
Remote Command:
TKSDATA (SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON)
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Snsr Data > [ FastTable, SlowTable, FreqTable ]
Displays a sensor information screen showing the frequency calfactor table that is stored in the EEPROM of
the currently installed sensor. The list shows each frequency and its corresponding calfactor. Use the ∧ and
∨ keys to scroll up or down through the list. Peak sensors contain a “fast” and “slow” table for high and low
video bandwidth settings, respectively. CW sensors contain a single “frequency” table.
Remote Command:
TKSFAST, TKSLOW (SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON)
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Snsr Data > TempComp
Enable or disable peak sensor temperature compensation. This feature is only available if the installed
sensor’s calibration includes a factory temperature charactization, otherwise the menu item is not displayed.
If temperature compensation is active, the temperature drift warning will not be displayed until temperature
has drifted by 30C from the Autocal temperature. TempComp always defaults to ON when the instrument is
powered up or whenever a new sensor is installed.
Remote Command:
SENSe:CORRection:TEMPComp <ON, OFF>
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Chapter 3
Operation
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4530 Series RF Power Meter
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Snsr Data > GainConst
Displays a sensor information screen showing the linearity calibration table that is stored in the EEPROM of
the currently installed sensor (CW sensors only). The list shows each “range” (measurement segment), along
with an Upscale and Downscale coefficient for that range. CW sensors have 7 ranges, for a total of 14
coefficients. Voltage sensors add a midscale coefficient and an eighth range, for a total of 24 coefficients.
Remote Command:
TKSCWRG (SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON)
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Load Ref
Loads the current average power level as the ratiometric mode reference level, and switches the measurement
to ratiometric (relative) mode. The power level applied to the sensor is stored as the reference level, and all
power readings will be in dBr, relative to this level. Immediately after the reference is loaded, the display
should always indicate 0.000 dBr until the applied power changes.
Remote Command:
CALCulate[1|2]:REFerence:COLLect
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Ref Off
Disables ratiometric (reference) mode. The measurement will revert to a normal, absolute (non-ratiometric)
power measurement mode. The stored reference level is, however, preserved, and it is possible to enter
ratiometric mode without reloading the reference by using the Channel > Display > DispSrc menu item to
set the display source to “Snsr1 / Ref1”.
Remote Command:
CALCulate[1|2]:REFerence:STATe OFF
Main Menu > Channel 1 | 2 > Enter Ref
Enters a ratiometric reference level from the keyboard, and switches the measurement to ratiometric (relative)
mode. The power level entered is always in dBm, and the arrow keys are used to edit the value. All power
readings will be in dBr, relative to this level.
Remote Command:
CALCulate[1|2]:REFerence:DATA <n>
3.11.3 Markers Menu.
The Markers menu is used to configure and locate measurement markers (cursors) at specific points on the
processed measurement waveform. Markers are used in Pulse mode to perform measurements at or between
two time offsets relative to the trigger, and in Statistical mode to measure the power at a particular statistical
percent, or the percent at a specified power level. In Pulse mode, the markers can only be placed on the visible
portion of the trace (as defined by the timespan and trigger delay settings), while Statistical mode markers may
be placed at any power or percent value and will still return readings.
Main Menu > Markers > Mrkr Mode
Selects the global marker orientation for the pulse and statistical modes. Markers 1 and 2 are always paired
and operate together. Markers are not used in the CW and modulated modes.
Off
Markers are not displayed, and no marker measurements are performed.
Vertical
Vertical markers appear as vertical bars on the graph display, and measure the
power at a particular time (Pulse mode) or percent (Statistical mode). (default)
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4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 3
Operation
Horizontal
Horizontal markers appear as horizontal bars, and measure the percent at a particular power level in Statistical mode. Horizontal markers may also be used in Pulse
mode graph display as “reference lines”, to indicate certain power levels. In this
case they are strictly visual tools, and no marker measurements can be performed.
Remote Command:
MARKer:MODe <OFF, VERT, HORZ>
Main Menu > Markers > [Mrk1 Pos, Mrk2 Pos]
Sets the position of Marker 1 or Marker 2. The function and parameter range for this menu item are dependent
on marker mode and measurement mode.
Vertical Markers, Pulse Mode: Sets the marker position in time relative to the trigger. Note that time markers
must be positioned within the time limits of the trace window in the graph display. If any attempt is
made to position them outside these limits, they will be forced back into the range of the trace
window. Note that if timespan, trigger delay, or trigger position settings are changed, the marker
positions on the graph display will remain unchanged, but their times relative to the trigger will
change. For this reason, it is a good idea to set all timing and trigger parameters before setting the
marker times. Time limits are: TrigDly - (TimeSpan / 2) < MarkerTime < TrigDly + (TimeSpan / 2).
Vertical Markers, Statistical Mode: Sets the marker position in percent probability. Note that the power
value returned for each marker will depend on the setting of CALCulate:MODe. When set to CDF,
the highest power levels are towards the right side of the screen, with maximum (highest peak) power
occurring at 100%. For CCDF (1-CDF), the highest levels are towards the left, with peak power at 0%.
Horizontal Markers: Sets the marker position in absolute power. Note that horizontal markers may be
positioned at any power level, regardless of the vertical span setting, and will not necessarily appear
on the graph display.
Range:
-150.0 to 150.0 sec
0.000 to 100.000 %
-99.99 to +99.99 dBm
(Vert Markers, Pulse Mode - see restrictions above)
(Vertical Markers, Statistical Mode)
(Horizontal Markers)
Remote Command:
MARKer:POSition[1|2]:TIMe <n>
MARKer:POSition[1|2]:PERcent <n>
MARKer:POSition[1|2]:POWer <n>
(Vertical Markers, Pulse Mode)
(Vertical Markers, Statistical Mode)
(Horizontal Markers)
3.11.4 Trig/Time Menu
The Trig/Time menu is used to configure trigger and timing settings for time domain measurements. In pulse
mode, the timebase and trigger settings are very similar to those of a digital storage oscilloscope for a familiar
operating feel. They control selection of hardware trigger source and polarity, setting a trigger level, configuring delay and holdoff timing, and setting the trigger position on the display. The Time Span setting also
controls the graph mode display for Modulated and CW modes, although it has no effect on the measurement.
Main Menu > Trig/Time > TimeSpan
Select the horizontal time span of the display for Pulse, CW and Modulated modes. The 4530 has fixed
timespan settings in a 1-2-5 sequence. Note that trigger delay and holdoff settings are restricted to certain
values based on the timespan setting, and marker positions must always fall within the trace window. It is
always a good idea to set the timespan before setting any other parameters when in Pulse mode. In CW or
Modulated mode, this setting affects the display only, and has no effect on the measurement.
Range:
2.5e-6 to 5.0 seconds (Pulse), 1.0 to 3600 seconds (CW, Modulated)
Default:
0.001 second (Pulse), 1 second (CW, Modulated)
Remote Command:
DISPlay:TSPAN <n>
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Chapter 3
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Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Main Menu > Trig/Time > Trig Pos
Selects the position of the trigger event on displayed sweep. The following descriptions assume zero trigger
delay. If trigger delay is positive, the trigger position will move further to the left (less pre-trigger and more
post-trigger information is shown. Negative trigger delay has the opposite effect.
Left
The trigger location will be at the left edge of the display, and the entire trace will
be post-trigger.
Middle
The trigger location will be at the center of the display. The left portion of the trace
will be pre-trigger, and the right portion will be post-trigger. (Default)
Right
The trigger location will be at the right edge of the display, and the entire trace will
be pre-trigger.
Remote Command:
TRIGger:POSition <LEFT, MIDDLE, RIGHT>
Main Menu > Trig/Time > TrigDelay
Sets the trigger delay time with respect to the trigger. Positive values cause the actual trigger to occur after the
trigger condition is met. This places the trigger event to the left of the trigger point on the display, and is
useful for viewing events during a pulse, some fixed delay time after the rising edge trigger. Negative trigger
delay places the trigger event to the right of the trigger point on the display, and is useful for looking at events
before the trigger edge. Due to memory limitations, positive or negative trigger delay is restricted in all
timespans, but is always at least 30 times the timespan setting, and considerably greater for some settings.
Range:
-900µs < TrigDly < 900µs for timespans 5µs and faster
-4.00ms < TrigDly < 4.00ms for timespans 10µs to 50µs
(-80 x TimeSpan) < TrigDly < (80 x TimeSpan) for timespans 50µs to 2ms
(-30 x TimeSpan) < TrigDly < (30 x TimeSpan) for timespans 5ms and slower
Default:
0.0 seconds
Remote Command:
DISPlay:DELay <n>
Main Menu > Trig/Time > TrigLevel
Sets the trigger threshold signal level for synchronizing data acquisition with the a pulsed input signal or
external trigger pulses. If there is an global offset applied to the channel, the trigger level should be entered
in offset units. For internal trigger, the trigger level is always set/returned in dBm, and for external trigger, the
units are volts. Note that there is a small amount of hysteresis built in to the trigger system, and the signal
should have at least one dB greater swing than the trigger level setting, and somewhat more at low levels.
Note that setting a trigger level when Trigger Mode is set to PkToPk will force the trigger mode back to Auto.
Range:
[-40.0 to +20.0] + Offset (dBm) (Trigger Source = Sensor)
-5.0 to +5.0 (Trigger Source = External)
Default:
-3.0 dBm (Sensor), 0 Volts (External)
Remote Command:
TRIGger:LEVel <n>
Main Menu > Trig/Time > TrigSlope
Sets the slope or polarity for the active trigger edge.
Pos (+)
Triggers will be generated when a signal’s rising edge crosses the trigger level
threshold. (Default)
Neg (-)
Triggers will be generated when a signal’s falling edge crosses the trigger level
threshold.
Remote Command:
TRIGger:SLOPe <POS, NEG>
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Chapter 3
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Main Menu > Trig/Time > HoldOff
Sets the trigger holdoff time. Trigger holdoff is used to disable the trigger for a specified amount of time after
each trigger event. The holdoff time starts immediately after each valid trigger edge, and will not permit any
new triggers until the time has expired. When the holdoff time is up, the trigger re-arms, and the next valid
trigger event (edge) will cause a new sweep. This feature is used to help synchronize the power meter with
burst waveforms such as a TDMA or GSM frame. The trigger holdoff resolution is one microsecond, and it
should be set to a time that is just slightly shorter than the frame repetition interval.
Range:
10 e-6 to 0.999999 seconds, 0.0 = no holdoff
Default:
0.0 seconds
Remote Command:
TRIGger:HOLDoff <n>
Main Menu > Trig/Time > Trig Srce
Select the source of the trigger signal. In the Modulated, CW and Statistical modes, a measurement can be
triggered. In the Pulse mode, the trace can be triggered to synchronize the waveform and the combination of
the waveform and measurement can be triggered as well. Any trigger source that includes “BUS” uses a GPIB
measurement trigger qualifier. In these cases, the GPIB trigger arms a signal trigger circuit. This permits bus
synchronization of a process that includes a signal-triggered measurement. These modes DO NOT APPLY to
manual operation. Use ESC/Stop and Enter/Run from the keypad.
Immediate
No trigger. Measurement starts on INITiate.
Bus
Group Execute Trigger or *TRG from GPIB. No hardware trigger.
Sensor1
Internal signal from sensor1 (Pulse Mode only) (Default)
Sensor2
Internal signal from sensor2 (Pulse Mode only)
External
External signal input (Pulse Mode only)
Bus/Snsr1
GET or *TRG arms the Sensor1 trigger. (Pulse Mode only)
Bus/Snsr2
GET or *TRG arms the Sensor2 trigger. (Pulse Mode only)
Bus/Ext
GET or *TRG arms the External trigger. (Pulse Mode only)
Remote Command:
TRIGger:SOURce < IMMEDIATE, BUS, SENSOR1, SENSOR2,
EXTERNAL, BUS>SNSR1, BUS>SNSR2, BUS>EXT >
Main Menu > Trig/Time > Trig Mode
Selects the trigger mode for synchronizing data acquisition with pulsed signals.
Norm
Normal mode will cause a sweep to be triggered each time the power level crosses
the preset trigger level in the direction specified by TRIGger:SLOPe. If there are
no edges that cross this level, no data acquisition will occur.
Auto
Auto mode operates in much the same way as Normal mode, but will automatically
generate a trace if no trigger edges are detected for a period of time (100 to 500
milliseconds, depending on timespan). This will keep the trace updating even if
the pulse edges stop.
PkToPk
Peak-To-Peak mode operates the same as AUTO mode, but will adjust the trigger
level to halfway between the highest and lowest power levels detected. This aids
in maintaining synchronization with a pulse signal of varying level. Note that a
setting of PKTOPK will be overridden and forced back to AUTO if a trigger level is
set. (Default)
Remote Command:
TRIGger:MODe <NORM, AUTO, PKTOPK>
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Chapter 3
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3.11.5 Statisticl Menu.
The Statisticl menu is used to configure data acquisition and measurement parameters for statistical mode
operation. Statistical mode is a special operating mode that acquires a very large sample population, and
analyzes the distribution of power levels rather than the measuring power in the time domain as is done in
conventional power meters. This mode uses peak power sensors only, and is useful for measuring signals
that don’t have a periodic or predictable time component on which to trigger.
Main Menu > Statisticl > Horz Span
Select the horizontal display span for the Statistical Mode graph display. Note that display scaling does not
affect the statistical mode measurement in any way. Full power and probability resolution are available in all
settings.
Range:
1 to 100% in a 1-2-5 sequence.
Default:
100%
Remote Command:
DISPlay:%SPAN <n>
Main Menu > Statisticl > % Offset
Select the horizontal display offset for the Statistical Mode graph display. Note that display scaling does not
affect the statistical mode measurement in any way. Full power and probability resolution are available in all
settings.
Range:
0 to (100 - HorzSpan) %
Default:
0%
Remote Command:
DISPlay:%OFST <n>
Main Menu > Statisticl > Stat Mode
Select the Statistical Mode display presentation format.
CDF Stat
Cumulative distribution function. The measurement is the probability that the
power will be below a particular level. This results in the highest probabilities
corresponding to the highest power levels. The peak power is at 100.0% CDF,
which will appear on the right side of the graph display. (Default)
1 - CDF
Inverse (complimentary) CDF, also known as CCDF. The measurement is the probability that the power will be above a particular level. This results in the lowest
probabilities corresponding to the highest power levels. The peak power is at
0.0% CCDF, which will appear on the left side of the graph display. This display
presentation is generally easier to use, since changing the span will have the effect
of zooming in on the peak power area
Distribut
Probability distribution histogram. A bar-type histogram is displayed. Ten bars
are displayed, which represent an equal spread of ten power ranges across the
current vertical span setting. When log units are in use, each histogram bar will
span an even number of dBm. For linear units, each bar spans an even number of
milliwatts.
Remote Command:
CALCulate:MODe <CDF, 1-CDF, DIST>
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Chapter 3
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Main Menu > Statisticl > TrmCount
Sets the terminal count (sample population size) for statistical mode acquisition. When the terminal count is
reached, the CDF is considered “complete”, and the instrument will halt acquisition if INITiate:CONTinuous
is set to OFF. If INITiate:CONTinuous is ON, sample acquisition will continue in the manner specified by the
TRIGger:CDF:DECImate setting.
Range:
2 to 4000 MegaSamples
Default:
4000 MegaSamples
Remote Command:
TRIGger:CDF:COUNt <n>
Main Menu > Statisticl > TrmAction
Select the action to be taken when the Statistical Mode terminal count is reached.
Stop
Stop sampling when the terminal count is reached. The measurement halts and no
further samples are added to the population. (Default)
Restart
Clear the measurement and restart acquisition of a new sample population once
the terminal count is reached. This setting is used when the signal changes and
old data must be periodically flushed to maintain valid statistics. Note that it may
take several seconds after each restart before enough samples are taken for a
statistically significant population.
Decimate
Decimate the current sample population (divide all sample counts in half), and
continue adding new samples to the same population. The effect is to “decay” the
old information, and more heavily weight the new information. This provides a
technique for coping with changing signals without the invalid interval associated
with the Restart setting, but the setting should be used with caution, as it may take
some time for all old data to be decimated away, depending on the Terminal Count
setting.
Remote Command:
INITiate:CONTinuous <OFF, ON> for Stop or Continous running
TRIGger:CDF:DECimate <OFF, ON> to select between Restart and Decimate.
3.11.6 Calibratr Menu.
The Calibratr Menu is used to control both the internal, 50 MHz RF calibrator, and an optional, external 1 GHz
accessory calibrator (Model 2530). Both calibrators may be used as precision RF reference levels for testing
or measurements. The internal calibrator is CW only, while the external calibrator may be pulse modulated
using either a built-in pulse generator, or via a rear-panel BNC pulse input. Note that this menu does not
contain any items related to sensor calibration - it is only for controlling the calibrator for use as a signal
source. For sensor calibration information, refer to Section 3.10 of this manual.
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4530 Series RF Power Meter
Main Menu > Calibratr > [ Int Signal, Ext Signal ]
Control the on/off state of the selected calibrator, and modulation source for the External Calibrator.
Off
Disable the selected calibrator’s RF output. (Power-on default)
On CW
Enable selected calibrator’s RF output. Output signal will be unmodulated (CW).
Int/Pulse
Enable external calibrator’s RF output, modulated by its internal pulse generator.
Ext/Pulse
Enable external calibrator’s RF output, modulated by its “ext pulse” input.
Remote Commands:
OUTPut:{INTernal | EXTernal}:SIGNAL <ON, OFF>
OUTPut:EXTernal:MODulation <CW, PULSE> (controls modulation)
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULSe:SOURce <INT, EXT> (modulation source)
Main Menu > Calibratr > [ Int Level, Ext Level ]
Set the output level of the selected calibrator in 0.1dB steps.
Range:
-60.0 to +20.0 dBm
Default:
0.0 dBm
Remote Command:
OUTPut:{INTernal | EXTernal}:LEVEL <n>
Main Menu > Calibratr > PlsPeriod
Select the pulse period for the internal pulse modulator of the external calibrator.
Range:
10, 1.0 or 0.1 millisecond (100 Hz, 1kHz or 10kHz)
Default:
10 ms
Remote Command:
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULSe:PERiod <10, 1, 0.1>
Main Menu > Calibratr > DutyCycle
Select the duty cycle for the internal pulse modulator of the external calibrator.
Range:
10% to 90% in 10% steps
Default:
10%
Remote Command:
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:DCYC <10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90)
Main Menu > Calibratr > [ IntStatus, ExtStatus ]
Display a status screen for the selected calibrator. For the internal calibrator, this monitors the oscillator drive
level to verify proper operation. For the external calibrator the software version, serial number, calibration
date, internal temperature and calibration factor are shown.
Remote Command:
None.
Main Menu > Calibratr > [ SelectInt, SelectExt ]
Selects the active calibrator. Only the menu item for the currently inactive calibrator is displayed. Note that
attempting to select the external calibrator will generate an error if it is not connected or turned on.
Remote Command:
No explicit command. INT or EXT is embedded in any command that requires a
calibrator to be specified.
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3.11.7 Save/Recl Menu.
The Calibratr Menu is used to control both the internal, 50 MHz RF calibrator, and an optional, external 1 GHz
accessory calibrator (Model 2530). Both calibrators may be used as precision RF reference levels for testing
or measurements. The internal calibrator is CW only, while the external calibrator may be pulse modulated
using either a built-in pulse generator, or via a rear-panel BNC pulse input. Note that this menu does not
contain any items related to sensor calibration - it is only for controlling the calibrator for use as a signal
source. For sensor calibration information, see section 3.10 of this manual.
Main Menu > Save/Recl > SetupSave
Save the instrument setup to one of four non-volatile memory locations for later recall.
Range:
Memory 1, Memory 2, Memory 3 or Memory 4
Remote Command:
MEMory:SYS[n]:STORe <1, 2, 3, 4>
Main Menu > Save/Recl > SetupRecl
Recalls the instrument setup from one of four non-volatile memory locations. NOTE: The Recall function
returns with the Calibrator output OFF even if it was on when the setup was saved. This is a safety measure
to prevent damage to sensitive circuits that may have been connected to the output since the setup was
saved. Also, the communications parameters for the GPIB and RS-232 interfaces remain unaffected. This is
necessary because the recall function can be commanded using the GPIB or RS-232. If these parameters are
changed by the recall, communications may be terminated with a fatal error.
Range:
Memory 1, Memory 2, Memory 3 or Memory 4
Remote Command:
MEMory:SYS[n]:LOAD <1, 2, 3, 4>
3.11.8 Utilities Menu.
The Utilities Menu is used to control instrument functions and systems that are not directly related to
performing measurements. This includes hardware, communication, and auxiliary output configuration, as
well as system tests and diagnostics.
Main Menu > Utilities > InstrStat
Displays a status screen for the current measurement setup. The screen contents show the setup for one
channel. If a second channel is present, the ∧ and ∨ keys may be used to scroll up and down between
channels. Exact display is somewhat mode dependent.
Main Menu > Utilities > Display > Contrast
Adjust the contrast of the LCD backlight. This setting updates immediately upon pressing the ∧ and ∨ keys,
and once changed, cannot be restored by hitting the ESC key..
Remote Command:
None
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Main Menu > Utilities > Display > Backlight
Selects the operating mode of the LCD backlight. Turning the backlight off reduces power consumption of
the power meter, and extends the life of the display.
On
Backlight is always on (Default).
On/5 min
Backlight turns on with any user input, off after 5 minutes of inactivity.
On/1 min
Backlight turns on with any user input, off after 1 minute of inactivity.
Off
Backlight is always off
Remote Command:
SYSTem:LIGHT <ON, ON_5, ON_1, OFF>
Main Menu > Utilities > Key Beep
Enables or disables the audible key beep. Also affects beep during errors.
Off
Key beep is disabled (Default).
On
Key beep is enabled.
Remote Command:
SYSTem:BEEP <OFF, ON>
Main Menu > Utilities > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Address
Set the primary GPIB address. This parameter must be set - setting instrument defaults has no effect.
Range:
0 to 30
Remote Command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:ADDRess <n>
Main Menu > Utilities > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > ListnTerm
Select the LISTENER line termination (EOS) character. This character is used to terminate any command the
instrument receives over the GPIB. However, since the instrument always responds to an EOI command from
the controller, it is not necessary for the user to transmit the EOS character unless the controller doesn’t set
EOI on the last command byte. This parameter must be set - setting instrument defaults has no effect.
CR
Use carriage return (ASCII CR, 13, 0x0D hex) as listen termination character.
LF
Use line feed (ASCII LF, 10, 0x0A hex) as listen termination character.
Remote Command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:LISTen <CR, LF>
Main Menu > Utilities > IEEE-488 > Bus Setup > Talk Term
Select the TALKER line termination (EOS) character(s). This character(s) is sent by the instrument at the end
of any response string it transmits. However, since it always asserts EOI on the last character of any string,
it may not be necessary to use any EOS character if the controller recognizes the EOI. In this case, set the talk
termination to NONE. This parameter must be set - setting instrument defaults has no effect.
CRLF
Use carriage return followed by a line feed to terminate all strings sent, with EOI.set
on the last (LF) byte.
CR
Use a carriage return only (with EOI set) to terminate all strings sent.
LF
Use a line feed only (with EOI set) to terminate all strings sent.
None
Don’t use any termination character when sending strings - just set EOI on the last
byte of the message.
Remote Command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:TALK <CRLF, CR, LF, NONE>
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Main Menu > Utilities > IEEE-488 > SRQ Mask
Set the GPIB Service Request Enable mask value. This value is used to enable particular bits for generating a
service request (SRQ) over the GPIB when certain conditions exist in the Status Byte register. When a mask
bit is set, and the corresponding STB bit goes true, an SRQ will be generated. No SRQ can be generated for
that condition if the mask bit is clear. The bits in the Status Byte register are generally summary bits, which are
the logical OR of the enabled bits from other registers. This parameter must be set - setting instrument
defaults has no effect.
Range:
0 to 255
Remote Command:
*SRE <n>
Main Menu > Utilities > IEEE-488 > View Bufr
View the contents of the GPIB listen (receive) and talk (transmit) buffers on the LCD display. This is useful for
debugging communication difficulties. A command sequence may be sent to the power meter, and then the
listen buffer may be examined to see if the entire command was received correctly. Similarly, examining the talk
buffer will show the response that the instrument has generated and is prepared to send (or has sent). The ∧
and ∨ keys are used to scroll between the two buffers.
Main Menu > Utilities > IEEE-488 > Mnemonic
View a table of all valid SCPI remote interface command mnemonics on the LCD display. This table is in
alphabetical order by command group or subsystem, and is useful for reviewing the command names and their
acceptable shortcut forms, but it should be no substitute for studying this manual.
Main Menu > Utilities > Serial > Baud Rate
Select the serial port’s baud rate (speed). If it appears characters are being skipped during serial communications, try a lower baud rate setting. This parameter must be set - setting instrument defaults has no effect.
Range:
1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400
Remote Command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:BAUD <n>
Main Menu > Utilities > Serial > Data Bits
Select the number of data bits for the serial port. This parameter must be set - setting instrument defaults has
no effect.
Range:
7 or 8
Remote Command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:BITS <n>
Main Menu > Utilities > Serial > Stop Bits
Select the number of stop bits for the serial port. This parameter must be set - setting instrument defaults has
no effect.
Range:
1 or 2
Remote Command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:SBITS <n>
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Main Menu > Utilities > Serial > ParityBit
Select whether the serial port will transmit a parity bit, and if so, its polarity. This parameter must be set setting instrument defaults has no effect.
None
Don’t transmit any parity bit.
Odd
Transmit an odd parity bit: sends a 1 if the number of 1’s in the data bits is odd,
otherwise sends a 0.
Even
Transmit an even parity bit: sends a 1 if the number of 1’s in the data bits is even,
otherwise sends a 0.
Remote Command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:PARity <NONE, ODD, EVEN>
Main Menu > Utilities > Serial > Handshake
Select the serial port handshake mode for the RTS line. This parameter must be set - setting instrument
defaults has no effect.
None
No handshaking takes place - the RTS line is ignored, and the DTR line is always
asserted.
RTS
The RTS line is used for hardware handshaking.
Remote Command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:CONTrol:RTS <OFF, ON>
Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > Outp.Sig
Select whether the recorder output will be enabled.
Off
The recorder output is disabled, and will always output 0.0 volts. (Default)
On
The recorder output is enabled, using the defined mode.
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:SIGnal <OFF, ON>
Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > Channel
Select which channel’s measurement will be tracked by the recorder output.
Channel 1
The recorder output will generate a voltage proportional to the primary measurement of channel 1. (Default)
Channel 2
The recorder output will generate a voltage proportional to the primary measurement of channel 2.
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:SOURce <CH1, CH2>
Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > Meas Mode
Select the measurement and scaling mode for the recorder output.
Auto
The recorder output will generate an automatically ranged signal that follows the
primary reading of the selected channel. The output voltage is automatically
scaled, and will span the full output voltage once for each decade of signal level.
The voltage will be proportional to power when linear units are in use, and proportional to the log of power when logarithmic units are in use. (Default)
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Manual
The recorder output will generate a manually ranged signal that follows the primary reading of the selected channel. The output voltage is scaled using the
preset minimum and maximum signal levels to correspond to minimum and maximum output voltages. The voltage will be proportional to power when linear units
are in use, and proportional to the log of power when logarithmic units are in use.
Alarm
The recorder output is used as an alarm condition indicator so external circuitry
may detect when the selected channel’s primary measurement has exceeded the
acceptable range of conditions (see the Channel > Parameters > Alarm submenu).
The output is TTL compatible, and will be zero volts for a normal condition, and +5
volts when an alarm condition exists.
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:MEAS <AUTO, MANUAL, ALARM>
Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > Outp.Mode
Select the output polarity mode (span) for the recorder output.
Unipolar
Minimum voltage = 0.0 volts, Maximum voltage = +10.0 volts. (Default)
Bipolar
Minimum voltage = -10.0 volts, Maximum voltage = +10.0 volts.
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:POLarity <UNIPOLAR, BIPOLAR>
Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > [ Set Min, Set Max ]
Set the signal levels corresponding to the minimum scale (0.0V or -10.0V, depending on polarity setting) and
maximum scale (+10.0V) recorder output signal.
Range:
-100.00 to +100.00 dBm
Default:
0.00 dBm
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:{MIN | MAX} <n>
Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > Fast Mode
Select whether Fast Mode is active for the recorder output.
Off
Use standard recorder output speed - typically about 50ms update rate. Display
and other functions have priority over the recorder output. (Power-on default)
On
Enable a special, high-speed recorder output mode. This mode gives priority to
updating the recorder output, and should only be used where the absolute, fastest
recorder output response is required. Latency will be under 10ms in Modulated
Mode. Note that display update speed may slow down.
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:FAST <OFF, ON>
Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > Force
Sets the recorder output to a user specified voltage. This will override all other recorder settings in effect, but
is only temporary. Setting Recorder > Outp.Sig will cancel the force voltage, and restore normal recorder
output operation. Although the setting resolution is 1mV, the recorder’s actual resolution is 5mV, so the
nearest value will be set.
Range:
-10.000 to +10.000 volts
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:FORCE <n>
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Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > Calibrate > Slope Adj
Adjusts the slope, or gain of the recorder output. This command is typically used with a recorder Zero Adj
command to calibrate the recorder output for maximum absolute accuracy. The setting represents the deviation in percent from the factory default slope value, and may be adjusted in 0.01% increments, corresponding
to 1mV at fullscale, although actual output resolution is 5mV. Changing the slope “pivots” the curve around
the 0.0 volt setting, and will have maximum effect at -10.0 volts and +10.0 volts. Note that this setting is not
permanent unless “Save Cal” is used.
Range:
-10.00 to +10.00% (corresponds to actual slope of 90.00 to 110.00% of default)
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:CALibration:SLOPe <n>
Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > Calibrate > Zero Adj
Adjusts the zero, or voltage offset of the recorder output. This command is typically used with a recorder
Slope Adj command to calibrate the recorder output for maximum absolute accuracy. The setting increases or
decreases the actual output voltage by a fixed amount, and may be adjusted in 1mV increments, although
actual output resolution is 5mV. Changing the offset moves the entire curve up or down, and has equal effect
at all output levels. Note that this setting is not permanent unless “Save Cal” is used.
Range:
-1.000 to +1.000V
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:CALibration:ZERO <n>
Main Menu > Utilities > Recorder > Calibrate > Save Cal
Saves the recorder Zero and Slope adjustments to the instrument’s non-volatile calibration memory once they
have been set. If this step is not performed, the settings will revert back to the previous settings next time
instrument power is applied.
Remote Command:
OUTput:RECOrder:CALibration:SAVE <n>
Main Menu > Utilities > Sys-Tests > SystemInf
Display a set of information screens showing system information. Info includes: serial number, model number,
internal firmware versions, calibration information, accumulated hours, power cycles, memory checksums,
and sensor calibration settings. The information will be on two or more pages, and the ∧ and ∨ keys may be
used to scroll back and forth.
Main Menu > Utilities > Sys-Tests > Voltages
Display an of information screen showing internal system voltages and current sensor temperature. Pressing
the ∧ and ∨ keys may be used to scroll back and forth between the measured values, and the raw A/D counts.
Main Menu > Utilities > Sys-Tests > Disp Test
Perform a diagnostic test on the LCD display. The screen will first set and clear all pixels by wiping across,
then will display the full character set of each of the internal fonts. Note that if the display appears too light
or dark, the contrast may be adjusted by holding down the ESC key while pressing the ∧ or ∨ keys.
Main Menu > Utilities > Sys-Tests > Keypad
Perform a diagnostic test of the front panel keypad. Pressing any key should highlight the symbol for that key,
and pressing it multiple times should cause the count to increment each time. To test the full keypad, press
each key at least once. Press the ESC key last, as this key terminates the test.
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Main Menu > Utilities > Sys-Tests > Recorder
Perform a diagnostic test of the recorder output. While the test is running, the recorder output should
generate a repeating ramp waveform that spans the full output range of the recorder output from -10.0V to
+10.0 volts. The signal may be monitored with an external oscilloscope, and it is normal for the waveform to
have a “stair-step” appearance. Pressing any key terminates the test.
Main Menu > Utilities > Sys-Tests > CycleRly
Perform a diagnostic test of the power meters internal relays. This test is used primarily at the factory to
burnish the relay contacts that are in the signal or calibration path. This significantly improves the repeatability of the relay’s contact resistance. Press the ESC key to terminate the test.
Main Menu > Utilities > Sys-Tests > DnldFlash
Restart the power meter in a special mode for downloading new firmware. Although new firmware can be
downloaded and installed anytime the system is in Menu Mode, rebooting to the special Download Menu
always sets the serial port for the maximum baud rate, and insures that no other processes are running that
might interfere with firmware download and programming. This insures the fastest possible update speed.
The Download Menu may also be entered by turning on instrument power while holding down the ESC key.
When this is done, the power on diagnostic may report a stuck ESC key, but this is not a problem.
Main Menu > Utilities > Sys-Tests > EraseSnsr
Erase the contents of the selected sensor EEPROM. This is a special utility that is only intended for customers that have an existing sensor “Smart Adapter”, and need to use it on a different sensor. It erases all sensor
identity and calibration information from the adapter or sensor EEPROM. Be absolutely certain this is what
you intend to do before executing this command - once erased, there is no way to restore the calibration
information, and the sensor must be recalibrated. A confirmation dialog will appear, prompting the user to
press ENTER to complete the erase operation. Press any other key to abort.
Adapter 1
Erase the information in the smart adapter or sensor plugged into the Sensor 1
input.
Adapter 2
Erase the information in the smart adapter or sensor plugged into the Sensor 2
input.
3.11.9 Help Menu.
The Help Menu displays a series of help screens describing keyboard operation of the Model 4530. These
screens show only the top-level function of the keys, and are no substitute for the detailed information that
is available by consulting Chapter 3 of this manual.
3.11.10 Defaults Menu.
The Defaults Menu item is used to reset the operating configuration of the power meter to a known, default
state. Most measurement and some system parameters are set to the default settings, which are listed in this
section 3.11 of this manual. Communication parameters for the GPIB and serial port are not affected by this
operation.
Remote Command:
*RST
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3.11.11 Menu Summary.
The following table is a compressed summary the entire menu structure of the Model 4530. Each level of
indent indicates a new submenu
Table 3-5. Main Menu Summary
Measure
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement Control Menu
Stop
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop data capture
Run
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restart data capture
SnglSweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arm for Single Sweep
Clr/Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear current measurement
AutoSetup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup automatically using current signal
Channel / Channel 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Settings Menu
Meas Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select mode <Off, CW, Modulated, Pulse, Statistical>
Params . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Parameters Submenu
dB Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set measurement offset
Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set operating frequency
Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set video averaging (Pulse Mode only)
Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set filter time (CW & Modulated modes)
Peak Hold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select PeakHold mode (Peak Sensors only)
CalFactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set CalFactor (Power Sensors only)
Video BW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select sensor BW (Peak Sensors only)
Duty Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set pulse duty cycle (CW Sensors only)
Def Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulse Config Submenu (Pulse Mode only)
Distal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Distal %
Mesial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Mesial %
Proximal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Proximal %
PulsUnits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set pulse units <%Volts or %Watts>
StartGate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Define pulse start %
EndGate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Define pulse end %
Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select Gain Range (CW & Voltage Sensors only)
Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm Configuration Submenu
Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disable Alarm
On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enable Alarm
HiLimit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set upper alarm power limit
LoLimit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set lower alarm power limit
Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set probe impedance (Voltage Sensors only)
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display Configuration Submenu
Vert Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set graph mode vertical sensitivity
Vert Cntr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set graph mode vertical center
Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select display units
Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select text mode display resolution
DispSrce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select channel math functions
Bar Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enable/disable bargraph
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Table 3-5. Main Menu Summary - (Cont)
FrDepOfst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Freq Dependent Offset Submenu
Ofst Src . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select Offset Table <None, TableA, TableB>
Modify-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View/edit Freq Dep Offset Table A
Modify-B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View/edit Freq Dep Offset Table B
Snsr Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sensor Data Submenu
SensrInfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View general sensor information
FastTable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View high-bw calfactor table (Peak Sensors only)
SlowTable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View low-bw calfactor table (Peak Sensors only)
FreqTable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View frequency calfactor table (CW Sensors only)
GainConst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View linearity calibration table (CW Sensors only)
TempComp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select temperature compensation mode <On, Off>
Load Ref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Reference level from currently measured power
Ref Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disable Reference
Enter Ref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enter Reference level from keyboard
Markers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marker Control Menu
Mrkr Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select Marker Mode <Off, Vertical, Horizontal>
Mrk1 Pos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Marker 1 position
Mrk2 Pos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Marker 2 position
Trig/Time
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trigger / Time Configuration Menu
Time Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select measurement time span
Trig Pos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select trigger position (Pulse Mode only)
TrigDelay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set trigger delay time (Pulse Mode only)
TrigLevel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set trigger level (Pulse Mode only)
TrigSlope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select trigger slope (Pulse Mode only)
HoldOff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set trigger holdoff time (Pulse Mode only)
Trig Srce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select trigger source
Trig Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select trigger mode <Auto, Norm, Pk-to-Pk>
Statisticl
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Mode Configuration Menu
Horz Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select horizontal axis sensitivity
% Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set horizontal axis display center
Stat Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select mode <CDF, 1-CDF, Histogram>
TrmCount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set number of samples to acquire
TrmAction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select action at TermCount <stop, restart, decimate>
Calibratr
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration Control Menu
[Int | Ext] Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select output signal <Off, On, (Int-Pulse, Ext-Pulse)>
Level
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set calibrator output level
PlsPeriod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select Pulse Period (external calibrator only)
DutyCycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select Pulse Duty Cycle (external calibrator only)
[Int | Ext] Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View status of internal/external calibrator
Select [Int | Ext] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select internal/external calibrator
Save/Recl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instrument Save/Recall Menu
SetupSave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Save current setup to memory[1,2,3,4]
SetupRecl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recall current setup from memory[1,2,3,4]
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Table 3-5. Main Menu Summary - (Cont)
Utilities
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instrument Utilities Menu
InstrStat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View configuration status
Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjust display settings
Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjust LCD display contrast
Backlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select backlight mode <On, 1-min, 5-min, Off>
Key Beep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select key beep <On, Off>
IEEE-488 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IEEE-488 Configuration Submenu
Bus Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bus Setup submenu
Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set instrument address
ListnTerm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select Listen Terminator <CR, LF>
Talk Term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select Talk Terminator <CRLF, LF, CR, none>
SRQ Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set SRQ mask value
View Bufr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View Talk/Listen Buffers
Mnemonic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View list of SCPI remote commands
Serial
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Serial Port Configuration Submenu
Baud Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select baud rate
Data Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select data bits
Stop Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select stop bits
ParityBit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select parity bit
Handshake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select hardware handshake mode
Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recorder Output Configuration Submenu
Outp.Sig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select recorder enable <Off, On>
Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select recorder channel <Channel1, Channel2>
Meas Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select recorder mode <Auto, Manual, Alarm>
Outp.Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select recorder polarity <Unipolar, Bipolar>
Set Min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set recorder lower manual limit
Set Max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set recorder upper manual limit
Fast Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select fastest update (slows GPIB & display)
Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Force recorder output to a voltage level
Calibrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recorder Output Calibration Submenu
Slope Adj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibrate slope (gain) of recorder output
Zero Adj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibrate zero offset of recorder output
Save Cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Save current slope and zero adjustments
Sys-Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Test Submenu
SystemInf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display system information screens
Voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display internal voltages
Disp Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test LCD display
Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test front panel keypad
Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test recorder output
CycleRly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cycle internal relays for burn-in
DnldFlash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reboot in firmware update mode
EraseSnsr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Erase sensor 1 or 2 adapter information
Help
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Keyboard Help Display
Defaults
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set instrument to default state
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3.12 ERROR MESSAGES AND STATUS CODES
The following tables show the various error, warning or status messages that may appear from time to time, along with
an explanation of the meaning of the message. In some cases, the messages may be ignored, while other messages
indicate a major malfunction or error that prevents the power meter from performing measurements.
Table 3-6. Graph/Text Header Error and Status Messages
These messages may appear in the Header at the top of the display in Graph or Text mode.
NoSensor
There is no sensor present on this channel.
SnsrCalT
The sensor’s (internal EEPROM) cal factor tables are invalid.
AutoCal
The peak sensor’s serial/model number does not match the previous device that
was auto-calibrated on this channel. A new AutoCal is needed.
InstrCal
The DSP cal table for this peak sensor is not initialized. An AutoCal is needed.
TmpDrift
The temperature of the peak sensor has drifted by more than 4 degrees C from
the temperature at which the sensor was AutoCaled. For best measurement
accuracy, a new auto-calibration should be performed.
Meas Off
The measurement mode (or display mode) for this channel is turned off.
Table 3-7. Sensor and Probe Error Messages
These messages may appear briefly on the main display when a sensor or probe is plugged-in.
Page Error: nnnnnnnn
One or more of the sensor’s internal EEPROM tables contains a checksum error.
*No Calib. Tables*
No peak sensor calibration tables have been saved. A new auto-cal is needed
before measurements can be made.
*AutoCal Required*
The peak sensor’s serial and model number do not match the sensor for which
calibration tables have been saved. A new auto-cal is needed before measurements can be made.
*Using Default Cal*
The CW sensor’s serial and model number do not match the sensor for which
the zero or fixed-cal factors were last performed. Default values will be used
until a zero and fixed-cal or AutoCal are done for this sensor.
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Table 3-8. Sensor Zero / Cal Status Codes
00
operation complete, no errors
03
coarse peak offset failed
04
top power code too low or too high
05
zero power point invalid
06
power entries nonmonotonic
07
code entries nonmonotonic (sensor may not be warmed up - try again)
08
too far (over 32dB) to extend table
13
zero offset signal level too low
14
zero offset signal level too high (sensor probably connected to signal source)
15
zero offset code value out of range (sensor probably connected to signal source)
23
step calibration signal level too high
24
zero offset adjustment invalid
26
autocal step signal level too high
27
autocal step signal level too low (sensor probably not connected to correct calibrator)
28
step calibration linearity questionable (sensor may not be warmed up - try again)
29
fixed cal power level invalid (fixed cal should be attempted only at 0dBm)
2A
fixed cal input power level too high
2B
fixed cal input power level too low
Table 3-9. Startup Error Messages
These messages appear briefly during startup if a system error is detected. The error status may also be viewed on
the display menu Utilities>Sys-Tests>SystemInf. Try a power off/on cycle to recover normal operation. If this fails,
service may be required.
DSP S/W Failed
The DSP is not running or failed to respond.
DSP - NoResp
During normal operation, the DSP failed to respond to a command.
DSP-CalTbl
During the boot-up process, an error occurred while down loading the calibration tables to the DSP.
DSP-IniErr
During the boot-up process, an error occurred while down loading the channel
parameters to the DSP.
No System Calib. Tables
The calibrator is missing its internal calibration tables. This requires factory
recalibration of the internal 50 MHz calibrator for proper operation.
No DC Calibration Data
The instrument is missing its CW channel gain calibration table. This requires
factory recalibration for proper operation.
Chan# Cal Table: Err
The DSP cal table for this peak sensor is not initialized. An autocal is needed.
Sensor# EEProm: Err
Checksum Error in one of the EEPROM pages. If this error occurs again after a
power cycle, sensor service may be required.
No DSP Data Records
The flash memory does not contain valid DSP instruction code. Try reinstalling
operating firmware.
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3.13 RECORDER OUTPUT CALIBRATION
The recorder output may be user calibrated for maximum in-system accuracy when used as a measurement monitor. The
output span of the hardware is -10.0 to +10.0 volts. This span is covered by a 12-bit D/A converter, which generates
4096 voltage steps to cover the 20 volt span, or about 5 millivolts per step. The absolute accuracy specification is
about 100 millivolts at any point on the transfer function, which may be further degraded by loading of the output.
However, the zero offset and gain may be adjusted by the user to provide better absolute accuracy stand-alone and in
system. After calibration, an absolute accuracy of 20mV at all points should be easily achievable. It should be noted,
however, that calibration of the gain and offset does not change the minimum and maximum voltages that are generated, only the transfer function in between. The minimum and maximum voltages are determined by hardware tolerances, and are still subject to the 100 millivolt absolute accuracy specification.
The procedure to adjust the recorder output consists of setting the recorder output voltage level to two different
values, recording the voltage, and adjusting offset and slope to achieve the desired readings. From the front panel, the
following menu commands are used for the calibration. See the section 3.11.8 for detailed descriptions of these menu
commands.
Utilities > Recorder > Force (sets voltage)
Utilities > Recorder > Calibrate > Zero Adj (adjusts offset)
Utilities > Recorder > Calibrate > Slope Adj (adjusts slope, or gain)
Utilities > Recorder > Calibrate > Save Cal (saves the adjustment to nonvolatile calibration memory)
If performing the calibration from the remote interface, the bus commands should be substituted for the menu commands. See section 4.5.17 for detailed descriptions of these remote commands.
OUTPut:RECOrder:FORCE
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:ZERO
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:SLOPe
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:SAVE
To perform the recorder output calibration, the following steps should be followed:
1.
Connect a precision, high-impedance (10M or greater) DVM to the recorder output, with the recorder also connected to your monitoring system, if desired.
2.
Force voltage to 0.000 volts using the Force command, and record the DVM reading. Other voltages may be used,
if desired.
3.
Use the Zero Adj command to adjust the zero offset, and achieve a reading as close to the force setting (normally
0.000 volts) as possible, typically within 3mV. Use the ∧ and ∨ keys to adjust the value up or down, then press
Enter/Run to update the voltage. The zero offset may be adjusted up or down by 1.000 volt, corresponding to
approximately 10% of the range. If the DVM reading is positive, the zero offset setting should be decreased by
approximately that same value. For example, if the reading is 27.2mV, and the current Zero Adj setting is 0.004 volts,
the new setting should be: 4.0mV - 27.2mV = -23.2mV = -0.023 volts. Note that the output voltage resolution is only
5mV, so not all setting changes will result in a change in the output voltage.
4.
Force the voltage to 9.000 volts using the Force command, and record the DVM reading. Other voltages may be
used, if desired.
5.
Use the Slope Adj command to adjust the slope, or gain of the output., and achieve a reading as close to the force
setting (normally 9.000 volts) as possible, typically within 3mV. Use the ∧ and ∨ keys to adjust the value up or
down, then press Enter/Run to update the voltage. The slope is stored adjusted as a “delta percent” from the
default slope, and may be adjusted up or down by 10% (corresponding to 90% to 110% of default). If the DVM
reading is positive, the slope setting should be decreased by an appropriate amount. For example, if the reading
is 9.260 volts, and the current Slope Adj setting is 1.61%, the slope is too high by: ((9.260 / 9.000) - 1) x 100 = 2.89%.
This means the new slope setting should be 1.61 - 2.89 = -1.28%. Note that the output voltage resolution is only
5mV, so not all setting changes will result in a change in the output voltage.
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6.
The slope adjustment has no effect on the output voltage when the force setting is 0.000 volts. If a voltage other
than zero volts was chosen for setting the offset in step 2, it will be necessary to iteratively repeat steps 2 through
5 to achieve convergence upon the desired transfer line. If you are calibrating the recorder output to a “custom”
transfer line (the output voltages desired are not exactly equal to the “force” settings), modify steps 3 and 5 by
substituting your desired output voltage for the force setting in the equations.
7.
Verify the output voltage for several voltage levels by forcing a voltage, and checking the DVM reading. An
optimally calibrated output should be within about 5mV at all points, and 8mV worst case. This allows some room
for time and temperature drift while still staying within the 20mV absolute calibrated accuracy specification.
8.
Once it has been verified that the recorder output calibration is acceptable, it should be saved to the instrument’s
non-volatile EEPROM calibration memory using the Save Cal command. Once this has been performed, the slope
and zero offset adjustment settings will become permanent, and will be reloaded whenever instrument power is
turned on.
3.14 FIRMWARE UPDATE
The 4530 Series RF Power Meter uses field reprogrammable “flash” memory to store the operating firmware. From time
to time, Boonton Electronics may release new firmware versions for the instrument which add new features, enhance
performance, or extend operating capabilities. Firmware is automatically updated to the latest version any time the
power meter is returned for factory service or calibration, but it is also possible to download firmware from the Boonton
Electronics website ( www.boonton.com ), and install the firmware into the instrument via the serial port on most
personal computers (Windows 95, 98, 2000, ME, XP, and NT).
To update instrument firmware, the following steps should be followed:
1.
Locate the software update executable file (the filename will be something like: upd4530_000425.exe). If you
downloaded the update file from the web or via email, a file icon should be embedded in the message, or the file
should be saved in your default directory for downloads or email attachments.
2.
Connect a nine-pin serial port extension cable (DB9 M-F) from your computer's serial communication port (COM1)
to the 4530's RS-232 connector on the rear panel. The cable should be a “straight-through type” - DO NOT use a
null modem cable or adapter! (If your computer only has COM2 available, see special instructions below).
3.
From the main menu select:
Utilities > Sys-Tests > DnldFlash [ENTER]
Then, when prompted, press [ENTER] again to confirm the download.
The instrument will re-boot with the 4530 Downloader menu for setting serial communication parameters.
4.
Execute the update file by double-clicking on the filename or file icon from your browser or email client. If you save
the file to disk, you can also execute the file from Windows Explorer, by typing the filename (or the full pathname)
at a command prompt (“MS-DOS”) window, or from the RUN selection in the Windows Startup menu.
5.
The program will immediately attempt to establish serial communication with the 4530. If successful, it will report
the baud rate and serial parameters used and begin loading the new software.
The progress of loading and programming will be reported on your computer's display and on the 4530's front
panel. It takes about 6 minutes to complete the download. When finished, the word “Done.” will appear. The
program has terminated at this point and it is safe to close the window.
If the 4530 does not restart at the end of the loading process, turn the power off and on to force a restart. From the
main menu select Utilities > Sys-Tests > SystemInf [ENTER]. Two Software date codes should be displayed: a
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main software version, and a DSP software version. They may not be the same, but the more recent of these dates
should match the datecode of the update file just downloaded. If the updated versions do not appear, the
download failed and the old software is still installed.
TROUBLESHOOTING:
If serial communication cannot be established, the update program will respond: "Unable to determine baud rate", or
“No response on COM1”. If this happens, check the following items:
1.
Make sure you are connected to COM1.
2.
Make sure you are using a 9-pin straight-through type serial cable.
3.
Try setting the 4530 to download at a slower baud rate. The update program will automatically detect the 4530
baud rate if it is set to 9600, 19200 or 38400 baud, so there is no need to change settings on the computer.
When the downloader is invoked, the 4530's initial serial port settings are always:
Baud rate: 38400
Data bits: 8
Stop bits: 1
Parity bit: none
Handshake: none
Check to make certain that these settings are correct. If you wish to try a slower baud rate, try selecting Serial >
BaudRate > 19200 from the downloader menu.
4.
If COM1 is not available on your computer (perhaps it is in use by another device or program), you may force the
install program to use COM2 by executing it with “-2” in the command line. To do this, you must either execute
from a command prompt or from the Windows Start Menu, and specify the “-2” command line argument. Note that
the file must be saved to a disk first. This action cannot be performed from a browser or email client.
a) FROM A COMMAND PROMPT (“MS-DOS”) WINDOW:
Open a command prompt window, and type the full pathname of the install file, followed by a space and “ -2”.
Alternatively, CD to the directory containing the install file, and just type the filename followed by “ -2”. The
following example assumes the install file is in a directory called “download” under the root directory.
CD c:\download <enter>
UPD4530_020501 -2 <enter>
b) FROM WINDOWS START MENU:
Click on the Windows “Start” button, and select “Run”. When the dialog appears, click “Browse”, and locate
the install file. Select (highlight) the file, then click “OK”, and the full pathname of the install file should appear
in the “Open” box of the Run window. Next, place the mouse cursor at the end of the filename, and add “ -2”
(don’t forget the space), then click “OK” to execute the program.
5.
Note that versions of the installation program prior to firmware version 20020501 accessed the serial port hardware
directly, and some newer Microsoft operating systems may impose limitations on this type of operation which
slow or totally prevent serial communications from taking place. It is recommended that MS-DOS, Windows 3.x, or
Windows 95 be used when loading these firmware versions. Version 20020501 (filename UPD4530_020501.EXE)
and later use standard, 32-bit, Windows calls for widest compatibility, but will not operate under MS-DOS or
Windows 3.x operating systems. Should you require a firmware loader that runs under MS-DOS or Windows 3.x,
please contact the factory.
Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
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4.
Chapter 4
Remote Operation
REMOTE OPERATION
4.1 GPIB CONFIGURATION.
The 4530 Series GPIB interface is configured using the main menu key at menu level Main Menu>Utilities>IEEE488>BusSetup. The primary listen/talk address (MLTA) under menu item >Address can be set to any value from 0 to
30. The value assigned must be unique to each GPIB device. Secondary address is not implemented.
The Listen string terminator character (EOS) can be set under menu item >ListnTerm to ASCII character LF (or NL,
decimal 10) or CR (decimal 13). The 4530 Series always responds to the GPIB end signal (EOI), which may be sent by
the controller with the last character of the command string or with the EOS character. If the controller does not, or
cannot send the EOI signal, a mutually agreed upon EOS character must be used.
The Talk string terminator character (EOS) can be set under menu item >TalkTerm to ASCII character LF (or NL,
decimal 10), CR (decimal 13), the two character sequence CRLF or None. The 4530 Series always sends the GPIB end
signal (EOI) with the last character of every string. If a one or two character EOS is selected, the EOI signal will be sent
with the last EOS character. If EOS is set to None, the EOI signal will be sent with the last character of the string. In
accordance with IEEE-488 specifications the EOI signal and EOS characters are not used with serial poll status byte
messages.
The string terminators must agree or be compatible with the controller in use for communication to take place. For SCPI
operation, both EOS characters should be set to LF (or NL, decimal 10).
At menu item >IEEE488>SRQ MASK, the bus service request enable byte mask value can be set. If the value is zero,
SRQ is disabled.
The menu item IEEE-488>View Buffer shows the current contents of the Listen and Talk internal buffers. Use the ∧
and ∨ arrow keys to alternate between the Talk and Listen buffer displays. This feature is very useful for analyzing bus
communication problems. The buffers show what has been received from the controller and what has been returned.
The menu item IEEE-488>MNEMONIC is a multi-page list of all valid SCPI mnemonics in an outline format. Use the ∧
and ∨ arrow keys to scan through the pages. For non-SCPI commands and more detailed information, refer to this
manual.
4.2 SERIAL PORT OPERATION.
General. The RS-232 serial interface is available for 4530 Series remote control when the GPIB is not in use. The
command set and data transfer protocol are nearly identical to those for the GPIB. The Main Menu>Utilities>Serial
menu is used to configure the serial interface to match the settings the terminal or host computer in use. In serial remote
operation, the GPIB end-of-string termination characters and SRQ Mask values are used for the serial port as well. All
the normal SCPI and native-mode control commands are available over the serial port; only GPIB-specific functions
such as SRQ, serial poll, LLO, and GET can not be used in serial port remote operation.
Serial Remote Mode. The 4530 enters serial remote mode when the ASCII “SI” control code (hexadecimal 0F, CtrlO) is received. In the remote state, the front panel keyboard is disabled, except for the ESC/Stop key, which serves as
the return to local function. The status window on the LCD display will show the SER annunciator to indicate that
serial remote mode is active. The instrument can also be returned to local mode by sending it the ASCII “SO”
(hexadecimal 0E, Ctrl-N) control code. When in remote mode and set for native-mode operation, the 4530 will continuously place formatted measurements in its talk buffer, which can be transmitted by issuing a single character.
Serial Listen and Talk Addressing. Since the RS-232 serial port is a single-device full-duplex interface, the 4530
is always active as both a talker and a listener in serial remote mode. Any character the remote terminal transmits over
the interface will be received by the instrument, and there is no provision to “unaddress” the 4530 as a listener.
Requesting a response or measurement is accomplished by issuing the ASCII “DC2” (hexadecimal 12, Ctrl-R) control
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code. Upon receiving this code, the instrument immediately transmits the string currently in its talk buffer. If the buffer
is empty, the response will be delayed until a string is available. Once a single string and its terminator has been sent,
the instrument will not send any further data until another DC2 has been received. Although this behavior is similar to
the GPIB when it is addressed to talk, the RS-232 transmitter is always “on the bus”, and actively transmitting a high or
low signal level; there is no way to “unaddress” it and force the transmitter to a high impedance state.
4.3 SCPI LANGUAGE SYNTAX.
The 4530 Series instruments follow the SCPI programming language conventions and also provide a non-SCPI protocol
extension for special situations. The default language is:
SYSTem:LANGuage SCPI
The SCPI Model of the 4530 Series provides a single or dual SENSe sub-system to handle sensor input and a matching
single or dual CALCulate sub-system to process the data obtained from the sensors into useful results. A TRIGger
sub-system provides for measurement and signal synchronization. The CALibration sub-system is used to calibrate
both CW and Peak Power sensors. For the dual channel Mode1 4532, channel dependent commands end with a 1 or 2
to indicate the desired channel. If the number is omitted, channel 1 is selected by default. For the single channel Model
4531, only channel 1 is valid. The number 1 can be specified or omitted as desired.
Commands may be transmitted together if separated by a semicolon “;” character. The 4530’s listen buffer can accept
over 1000 characters, so buffer overflow should not be a problem. It is a good idea, however, to limit strings of
commands to a manageable size for ease in troubleshooting communication difficulties. Also, programmers should be
aware that sending long strings of commands reduces the “sequential” nature of the command execution, and can
cause some of the more complex commands (such as mode changes), which take longer to complete, to “overlap” the
short commands. If some commands are mode or context dependent, it may be a good idea to use the *WAI IEEE-488.2
command to force sequential execution.
Most commands have an optional short form that reduces the number of characters necessary over the bus. When
commands are printed in this document, the short form letters will be capitalized, with the remaining characters in lower
case. If a channel number designation and/or query ? symbol is needed, it is appended to either the long or short form
of the command. Commands which take numerical or literal arguments require an ASCII space between the command
and the argument.
Example:
CALCULATE1:STATE?
queries the current value of channel 1’s measurement state
CALC1:STAT?
is the short form equivalent
SENSE:AVERAGE 128
sets channel 1’s trace averaging to 128 (channel 1 is implied)
SENS:AVER 128
is the short form equivalent
SENS:CORR:OFF 0.42;TRIG:LEV 14.2 is two commands issued together as one string
In the discussion and tables below, the following notation will be used:
Command name long and short form:
SYSTem
Optional command name in brackets:
SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?
Command with channel dependence:
CALCulate[1|2]:REFerence:COLLect
Default channel 1:
CALCulate:REFerence:COLLect
Explicit channel 1:
CALCulate1:REFerence:COLLect
Select channel 2:
CALCulate2:REFerence:COLLect
Short Form:
CALC2:REF:COLL
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Command which takes numeric argument:
SENSe1:AVERage <n>
Command with literal text argument:
TRIGger:SOURce <asc>
Command to set a parameter:
CALCulate[1|2]:LIMit:UPPer <n>
Same command; query that parameter:
CALCulate[1|2]:LIMit:UPPer?
Command with no query form:
*CLS
Command with query form only:
SENSe[1|2]:TEMPerature?
NOTES
A literal argument denoted by <asc> indicates a text string, which must exactly match one of the
choices for the command, while an argument denoted by <n> is a string which can be converted
to a number which is within the range of valid arguments. Numerical values can generally be in
any common form including decimal and scientific notation.
The vertical separator bar | character is used to separate a set of optional command choices. This
character is for showing syntax only, and should not be entered as part of the command.
Square brackets [ ] are used to enclose one or more optional command entries, separated by the
vertical separator bar | character. None or one of the enclosed options may be inserted into the
command, and the brackets should not be entered as part of the command.
Curly braces { } are used to enclose two or more possible choices for a mandatory entry, separated
by the vertical separator bar | character. One of the enclosed options MUST be inserted into the
command, and the braces should not be entered as part of the command.
4.4 BASIC MEASUREMENT OPERATION.
The easiest way to obtain a reading is by use of the MEASure command. This command initiates one complete
measurement sequence which includes a default configuration. Examples are:
MEAS1:POWER?
To return the average power of channel 1, or
MEAS1:VOLTAGE?
To return the average voltage of channel 1.
For finer control over the measurement, individual configuration and function commands should be used. Readings
are obtained using the FETCh[1|2]? command for current data or the READ[1|2]? command for fresh data. These
commands may return multiple results if an array is read.
Readings are in fundamental units as set by the CALCulate[1|2]:UNITs command. Each reading is preceded by a
condition code, which has the following meaning:
-1
Measurement is STOPPED. Value returned is not updated.
0
Error return. Measurement is not valid.
1
Normal return. No error.
2
An Over-range or Under-range condition exists.
These conditions may also be retrieved from the error system by command.
With the INITiate:CONTinuous OFF condition, a single measurement cycle is started by use of the
INITiate[:IMMEDIATE] command, where bracketed commands are optional. Multiple triggered measurement cycles
are enabled by INITiate:CONTinuous ON and a TRIGger source selection. If TRIGger:SOURce IMMediate is
selected, a free running measurement process is started. Otherwise, a measurement cycle begins with each valid trigger
condition.
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4.5 COMMAND REFERENCE.
This section contains a list of all remote commands accepted by the 4530. The list is grouped by SCPI or IEEE488
function, and detailed descriptions of each commands may be located by section. The final section contains a
summary list of commands.:
Command Group
Section
Page
MEASure Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INITiate and ABORt Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FETCh Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
READ Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Native Mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SENSe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MARKer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DISPlay Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRIGger Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRACe Data Array Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SENSe:MBUF Data Array Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SENSe:SBUF Data Array Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SENSe:HIST and SENSe:CALTAB Data Array Commands . . . .
CALibration Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MEMory Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OUTPut Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSTem Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STATus Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IEEE-488.2 Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote Interface Command Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.3 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.4 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.5 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.6 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.7 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.8 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.9 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.10 . . . . . . . .
4.5.11 . . . . . . . .
4.5.12 . . . . . . . .
4.5.13 . . . . . . . .
4.5.14 . . . . . . . .
4.5.15 . . . . . . . .
4.5.16 . . . . . . . .
4.5.17 . . . . . . . .
4.5.18 . . . . . . . .
4.5.19 . . . . . . . .
4.5.20 . . . . . . . .
4.5.21 . . . . . . . .
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-9
4-12
4-19
4-24
4-28
4-29
4-33
4-36
4-37
4-39
4-40
4-42
4-43
4-44
4-48
4-50
4-52
4-56
4.5.1 MEASure Queries
The MEASure group of commands is used to acquire data using a set of high level instructions. They are structured
to allow the user to trade off interchangeability with fine control of the measurement process. MEASure? provides a
complete capability where the power meter is configured, a measurement taken, and results returned in one operation.
The instrument is set to a basic, predefined measurement state with little user intervention necessary or possible.
Sometimes, more precise control of measurement is required. In these cases, MEASure? should not be used. Rather,
a sequence of configuration commands, generally from the CALCulate and SENSe groups should be used to set up the
instrument for the measurement, then READ? or FETCH? commands are used to return the desired measurement data
in a specific format.
MEASure:POWer
Description:
Return average power using a default instrument configuration
Syntax:
Measure[1|2]:POWer?
Returns:
Average power in dBm
Modes:
Automatically sets to Modulated or CW voltage mode before measurement
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MEASure:VOLTage
Description:
Return average voltage using a default instrument configuration.
Syntax:
MEASure[1|2]:VOLTage?
Returns:
Average voltage in linear volts
Valid Modes:
Automatically sets to Modulated or CW voltage mode before measurement.
4.5.2 INITiate and ABORt Commands
The purpose of the INITiate group of commands is to start and control the process of data acquisition once a
measurement has been configured. Depending on settings, the power meter may be commanded to begin either a
single measurement (INITiate:CONTinuous OFF) which stops when complete, or enter a “free-run” mode where data
acquisition occurs continuously (INITiate:CONTinuous ON). The ABORt command terminates any operation in
progress and prepares the instrument for an INITiate command. In some operating modes, the INITiate commands do
not actually start measurements, but rather arm a hardware trigger, which is then used to gate the actual measurements
cycle.
INITiate:CONTinuous
Description:
Set or return the data acquisition mode for single or free-run measurements. If
INITiate:CONTinuous is set to ON, the 4530 immediately begins taking measurements
(Modulated, CW and Statistical modes), or arms its trigger and takes a measurement each
time a trigger occurs (Pulse mode). If set to OFF, the measurement will begin (or be armed)
as soon as the INITiate command is issued, and will stop once the measurement criteria
(averaging, filtering or sample count) has been satisfied. Note that INITiate:IMMediate
and READ commands are only valid when INITiate:CONTinuous is set to OFF.
Syntax:
INITiate:CONTinuous <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = ON, OFF
Valid Modes:
Any
INITiate:IMMediate
Description:
Starts a single measurement cycle when INITiate:CONTinuous is set to OFF. In CW or
Modulated mode, the measurement will complete once the power has been integrated for
the full FILTer time. In Pulse mode, enough trace sweeps must be triggered to satisfy the
AVERaging setting. In Statistical mode, acquisition stops once the sample count reaches
the preset terminal count. In each case, no reading will be returned until the measurement
is complete. This command is not valid when INITiate:CONTinuous is ON.
Syntax:
INITiate[:IMMediate[:ALL]]
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
Restrictions:
INITiate:CONTinuous must be OFF
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ABORt
Description:
Terminates any measurement in progress and resets the state of the trigger system. Note
that ABORt will leave the measurement in a stopped condition, and forces
INITiate:CONTinuous to OFF.
Syntax:
ABORt
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
4.5.3 FETCh Queries
The FETCh? group of queries is used to return specific measurement data from a measurement cycle that has been
INITiated and is complete or free-running. FETCh? performs the data output portion of the measurement. FETCh?
does not start a new measurement, so a series of FETCh? queries may be used to return more than one set of processed
measurements from a complete set of acquired data. FETCh? usually returns the current value of measurements, and
should be used anytime free running data acquisition is taking place (INITiate:CONTinuous ON). If FETCh? is used
for single measurements (INITiate:CONTinuous OFF), no data will be returned until a measurement has been INITiated
and is complete.
FETCh:CW:POWer
Description:
Returns the current average reading of the specified channel in power units. Channel’s
units setting is forced to power units.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:CW:POWer?
Returns:
power in <dBm, Watts>
Valid Modes:
CW, Modulated and Statistical modes
Special Case:
If in ratiometric mode, reading will be in units of dBr (log) or Percent Power (linear).
FETCh:CW:VOLTage
Description:
Returns the current average reading of the specified channel in voltage units. Channel’s
units setting is forced to voltage units.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:CW:VOLTage?
Returns:
voltage in <dBuV, dBmV, dBV, Volts>
Valid Modes:
CW, Modulated and Statistical modes
Special Case:
If in ratiometric mode, reading will be in units of dBr (log) or Percent Voltage (linear).
FETCh:MARKer:POWer
Description:
Returns the current power reading at the specified marker on the specified channel.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:MARKer[1|2]:POWer?
Returns:
power or voltage in active units
Valid Modes:
Pulse and Statistical modes
Restrictions:
MARKer:MODe must be set to VERT
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FETCh:ARRay:MARKer:POWer
Description:
Returns the current power readings at both markers on the specified channel.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:ARRay:MARKer:POWer?
Returns:
[email protected], [email protected] in active units
Valid Modes:
Pulse and Statistical modes
Restrictions:
MARKer:MODe must be set to VERT
FETCh:ARRay:MARKer:PERcent
Description:
Returns the current statistical percent readings at both markers on the specified channel.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:ARRay:MARKer:PERcent?
Returns:
[email protected], [email protected]
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only
Restrictions:
MARKer:MODe must be set to HORZ
FETCh:ARRay:CW:POWer
Description:
Returns the current average, maximum, minimum powers and peak-to-average ratio in dB
(peak sensor) or pulse power (CW sensor) of the specified channel. Note that the values for
maximum and minimum power will depend on the peak hold mode; see the description of the
CALCulate:PKHLD command for details. If a CW sensor is used, the pulse power returned
is computed from the measured average power and the preset duty cycle (see
CALCulate:DCYC command). Channel’s units setting is forced to power units.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:ARRay:CW:POWer?
Returns:
Pavg, Pmax, Pmin, PkToAvgRatio (Modulated mode) or Ppulse (CW mode)
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
FETCh:ARRay:CW:VOLTage
Description:
Returns the current average, maximum, minimum voltage and peak-to-average ratio in dB
(peak sensor) or pulse voltage (CW sensor) for the specified channel. Note that the values
for maximum and minimum voltage will depend on the peak hold mode; see the description
of the CALCulate:PKHLD command for details. If a CW sensor is used, min and max
powers returned are always the highest and lowest filtered average readings that have
occurred since the start of the measurement, and the pulse voltage returned is computed
from the measured average power and the preset duty cycle (see CALCulate:DCYC command). Note the peak-to-average ratio is returned in dB for log units, and percent for linear
units. Channel’s units setting is forced to voltage units.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:ARRay:CW:VOLTage?
Returns:
Vavg, Vmax, Vmin, PkToAvgRatio (Modulated mode) or Vpulse (CW mode)
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
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FETCh:ARRay:PULse:POWer
Description:
Returns an array of the current marker measurements for the specified channel. The array
consists of the average, maximum, and minimum power and peak-to-average ratio between
the two markers, powers at both markers, and the ratio of the two markers. Note the peakto-average ratio and marker ratio are returned in dB for log units, and percent for linear units.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:ARRay:PULSe:POWer?
Returns:
Pavg, Pmax, Pmin, PkToAvgRatio, [email protected], [email protected], Mrk1/Mrk2
ratio
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
FETCh:ARRay:AMEAsure:TIMe
Description:
Returns an array of the current automatic timing measurements performed on a periodic
pulse waveform. Measurements performed are: the frequency, period, width, offtime and
duty cycle of the pulse waveform, and the risetime and falltime of the edge transitions. For
each of the measurements to be performed, the appropriate items to be measured must be
visible on the screen if the power meter is place in GRAPH mode. Pulse frequency, period,
offtime and duty cycle measurements require that an entire cycle of the pulse waveform
(minimum of three edge transitions) be present. Pulse width measurements require that at
least one full pulse is visible, and are most accurate if the pulse width is at least 15% of the
screen width (timespan). Risetime and falltime require that the edge being measured is
visible, and will be most accurate if the transition takes at least 5% of the screen width. It is
always best to have the power meter set on the fastest timespan possible that meets the
edge visibility restrictions. Set the trace averaging as high as practical to reduce fluctuations and noise in the pulse timing measurements. Note that the timing of the edge transitions is defined by the settings of the SENSe:PULSe:DISTal, :MESIal and :PROXimal
settings; see the descriptions for those commands.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:TIMe?
Returns:
PulseFreq, PulsePeriod, PulseWidth, Offtime, DutyCycle, Risetime, Falltime in fundamental
units
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
Restrictions:
Timespan must be set appropriately to allow measurements (see above)
FETCh:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer
Description:
Returns an array of the current automatic power measurements performed on a periodic
pulse waveform. Measurements performed are: peak power during the pulse, average
power over a full cycle of the pulse waveform, average power during the pulse, IEEE top
amplitude, IEEE bottom amplitude, and overshoot. Note the pulse overshoot is returned in
dB for log units, and percent for linear units. Also, the pulse “on” interval used for peak
and average power calculations is defined by the SENSe:PULSe:STRTGT and :ENDGT
time gating settings. A full pulse must be visible to make average and peak pulse power
measurements, and a full cycle of the waveform must be visible to calculate average cycle
power.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer?
Returns:
PulseOnPeak, PulseCycleAvg, PulseOnAvg, PulseTop, PulseBot, Overshoot.
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
Restrictions:
Timespan must be set appropriately to allow measurements (see above)
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FETCh:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer
Description:
Returns an array of the current automatic statistical measurements performed on a sample
population. Measurements performed are: long term average, peak and minimum powers,
peak-to-average ratio, power at each marker, statistical percent at each marker, and the
sample population size in megasamples. Note the peak-to-average ratio is returned in dB
for log units, and percent for linear units. Depending on the setting of MARKer:MODe,
either the power or the percent can be the marker position, and the opposite item will be the
calculated value at that position.
Syntax:
FETCh[1|2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer?
Returns:
Pavg, Ppeak, Pmin, PkToAvgRatio, [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], SampCnt
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only
4.5.4 READ Queries
The purpose of the READ? group of queries is to initiate a measurement cycle, acquire data, and return specific
measurement data. READ? performs the initiation, data acquisition, postprocessing, and data output portions of the
measurement. READ? is equivalent to ABORting any operation in progress, INITiating a new measurement, then
FETChing the data when it is ready. READ? generally does not return data unless acquisition is complete. Since
READ? INITiates a new measurement every time it is issued, READ? queries should not be used for free running data
acquisition (INITiate:CONTinuous ON) - in this case, use FETCh queries instead. For CW and Modulated modes, the
measurement is generally considered complete when the integration filter (see SENSe:FILTer) is filled. In Pulse mode,
the measurement is considered complete when all the number of complete traces specified by the SENSe:AVERage
command have been acquired and averaged together. In statistical mode, the measurement is considered complete
when the number of samples specified by TRIGger:CDF:COUNt has been gathered.
READ:CW:POWer
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns the average reading of the specified channel in
power units.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:CW:POWer?
Returns:
power in <dBm, Watts>
Valid Modes:
CW, Modulated and Statistical modes
Special Case:
If in ratiometric mode, reading will be in units of dBr (log) or Percent Power (linear).
READ:CW:VOLTage
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns the average reading of the specified channel in
voltage units.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:CW:VOLTage?
Returns:
voltage in <dBuV, dBmV, dBV, Volts>
Valid Modes:
CW, Modulated and Statistical modes
Special Case:
If in ratiometric mode, reading will be in units of dBr (log) or Percent Voltage (linear).
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READ:MARKer:POWer
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns the power reading at the specified marker on the
specified channel.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:MARKer[1|2]:POWer?
Returns:
power or voltage in active units
Valid Modes:
Pulse and Statistical modes
Restrictions:
MARKer:MODe must be set to VERT
READ:ARRay:MARKer:POWer
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns the power readings at both markers on the
specified channel.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:ARRay:MARKer:POWer?
Returns:
[email protected], [email protected] in active units
Valid Modes:
Pulse and Statistical modes
Restrictions:
MARKer:MODe must be set to VERT
READ:ARRay:MARKer:PERcent
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns the statistical percent readings at both markers
on the specified channel.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:ARRay:MARKer:PERcent?
Returns:
[email protected], [email protected]
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only
Restrictions:
MARKer:MODe must be set to HORZ
READ:ARRay:CW:POWer
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns the average, maximum, minimum powers and
peak-to-average ratio in dB (peak sensor) or pulse power (CW sensor) of the specified
channel. Note that the values for maximum and minimum power will depend on the peak
hold mode; see the description of the CALCulate:PKHLD command for details. If a CW
sensor is used, the pulse power returned is computed from the measured average power
and the preset duty cycle (see CALCulate:DCYC command).
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:ARRay:CW:POWer?
Returns:
Pavg, Pmax, Pmin, PkToAvgRatio (Modulated mode) or Ppulse (CW mode)
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
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READ:ARRay:CW:VOLTage
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns the average, maximum, minimum voltage and
peak-to-average ratio in dB (peak sensor) or pulse voltage (CW sensor) for the specified
channel. Note that the values for maximum and minimum voltage will depend on the peak
hold mode; see the description of the CALCulate:PKHLD command for details. If a CW
sensor is used, min and max powers returned are always the highest and lowest filtered
average readings that have occurred since the start of the measurement, and the pulse
voltage returned is computed from the measured average power and the preset duty cycle
(see CALCulate:DCYC command). Note the peak-to-average ratio is returned in dB for log
units, and percent for linear units.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:ARRay:CW:VOLTage?
Returns:
Vavg, Vmax, Vmin, PkToAvgRatio (Modulated mode) or Vpulse (CW mode)
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
READ:ARRay:PULse:POWer
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns an array of marker measurements for the specified channel. The array consists of the average, maximum, and minimum power and peak-toaverage ratio between the two markers, powers at each of the markers, and the ratio of the
two marker powers. Note the peak-to-average ratio and marker ratio are returned in dB for
log units, and percent for linear units.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:ARRay:PULSe:POWer?
Returns:
Pavg, Pmax, Pmin, PkToAvgRatio, [email protected], [email protected], Mrk1/Mrk2 ratio
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
READ:ARRay:AMEAsure:TIMe
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns an array of automatic timing measurements
performed on a periodic pulse waveform. Measurements performed are: the frequency,
period, width, offtime and duty cycle of the pulse waveform, and the risetime and falltime of
the edge transitions. For each of the measurements to be performed, the appropriate items
to be measured must be visible on the screen if the power meter is place in GRAPH mode.
Pulse frequency, period, offtime and duty cycle measurements require that an entire cycle of
the pulse waveform (minimum of three edge transitions) be present. Pulse width measurements require that at least one full pulse is visible, and are most accurate if the pulse width
is at least 15% of the screen width (timespan). Risetime and falltime require that the edge
being measured is visible, and will be most accurate if the transition takes at least 5% of the
screen width. It is always best to have the power meter set on the fastest timespan possible
that meets the edge visibility restrictions. Set the trace averaging as high as practical to
reduce fluctuations and noise in the pulse timing measurements. Note that the timing of the
edge transitions is defined by the settings of the SENSe:PULSe:DISTal, :MESIal and
:PROXimal settings; see the descriptions for those commands.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:TIMe?
Returns:
PulseFreq, PulsePeriod, PulseWidth, Offtime, DutyCycle, Risetime, Falltime in fundamental
units
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
Restrictions:
Timespan must be set appropriately to allow measurements (see above)
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READ:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns an array of automatic power measurements
performed on a sample population. Measurements performed are: peak power during the
pulse, average power over a full cycle of the pulse waveform, average power during the
pulse, IEEE top amplitude, IEEE bottom amplitude, and overshoot. Note the pulse amplitude is returned in dB for log units, and percent for linear units. Also, the pulse “on”
interval used for peak and average power calculations is defined by the
SENSe:PULSe:STRTGT and :ENDGT time gating settings. A full pulse must be visible
to make average and peak pulse power measurements, and a full cycle of the waveform must
be visible to calculate average cycle power.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer?
Returns:
PulseOnPeak, PulseCycleAvg, PulseOnAvg, PulseTop, PulseBot, Overshoot
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
Restrictions:
Timespan must be set appropriately to allow measurements (see above)
READ:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer
Description:
Performs a single measurement and returns an array of automatic statistical measurements
performed on the sample population. Measurements performed are: long term average,
peak and minimum powers, peak-to-average ratio, power at each marker, statistical percent
at each marker, and the sample population size in megasamples. Note the peak-to-average
ratio is returned in dB for log units, and percent for linear units. Depending on the setting
of MARKer:MODe, either the power or the percent can be the marker position, and the
opposite item will be the calculated value at that position.
Syntax:
READ[1|2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer?
Returns:
Pavg, Ppeak, Pmin, PkToAvgRatio, [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], SampCnt
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only
4.5.5 Native Mode Commands
The 4530 native instructions are not SCPI commands, and do not follow standard SCPI syntax. They are used for
special purposes - primarily as optimized queries issued in combination with SCPI configuration commands to return
measurements with significantly less overhead and higher speed than is possible using SCPI compliant queries. In
most cases, the data formats are similar to FETCh? queries, but a single native-mode query (“talkmode” command) is
issued in advance, and the measurement data is returned every time the 4530 is re-addressed. There is no need to
transmit the query command for each measurement - simply re-address the power meter as a talker. By processing the
measurement data to be returned in the desired format in advance and saving the overhead of transmitting a query for
each measurement, much higher sustained measurement speed is possible over the GPIB. Native mode supports all
SCPI instructions for compatibility. Note that in SCPI mode, the instrument returns data only in response to an explicit
query, while in native mode it will always return a value when addressed to talk. This can potentially result in some
confusion when interleaving control and measurement commands. See Section 4.7 for more information on programming the power meter in native mode.
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CH1
Description:
Configures native mode talk instructions to return Channel 1 measurement data
Syntax:
CH1
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
Description:
Configures native mode talk instructions to return Channel 2 measurement data
Syntax:
CH2
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
CH2
TALKMODE
Description:
Returns the current native mode active channel and talk mode.
Syntax:
TALKMODE?
Returns:
Active channel <CH1, CH2> and talkmode mnemonic
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
TKERR
Description:
Returns the next queued error code number, 0 if no error. See section 4.9 for a more detailed
description of the error codes that may be returned.
Syntax:
TKERR?
Returns:
<numeric error code>
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
TKERRMSG
Description:
Returns the next queued error code number followed by a quoted ASCII text string describing the error. See section 4.9 for a more detailed description of the error codes that may be
returned.
Syntax:
TKERRMSG?
Returns:
<numeric error code>, “QUOTED ERROR DESCRIPTION”
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
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TKSDATA
Description:
Returns the sensor data table from sensor’s EEPROM. Note that year codes are excess1990, that is 5 means 1995, and 11 means 2001. Power and attenuation levels are coded as
dBm x 100; that is, -3500 means -35.00 dBm. All other values are in fundamental units.
Model numbers are only shown as the base number - any special “S” version number will
not appear.
Syntax:
TKSDATA?
Returns:
numeric array < type, model#, build month, day, year, serial#, calibration month, day, year,
attenuation, impedance, min pwr, max pwr, CW min pwr, CW max pwr >
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
TKSSLOW
Description:
Returns the low bandwidth frequency calfactor table from sensor’s EEPROM. Frequencies
are in GHz and the calfactors are in dB. Count is the total number of data items in the string
including the upper and lower frequency limits.
Syntax:
TKSSLOW?
Returns:
numeric array < Count, LowerFreq, UpperFreq, Freq0, CF0, Freq1, CF1, Freq2, CF2... FreqN,
CFn >
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
TKSFAST
Description:
Returns the high bandwidth frequency calfactor table from sensor’s EEPROM. Frequencies are in GHz and the calfactors are in dB. Count is the total number of data items in the
string including the upper and lower frequency limits.
Syntax:
TKSFAST?
Returns:
numeric array < Count, LowerFreq, UpperFreq, Freq0, CF0, Freq1, CF1, Freq2, CF2... FreqN,
CFn >
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
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TKSCWRG
Description:
Returns the CW sensor linearity calibration table from sensor’s EEPROM. CW power
sensors have 7 pairs of upscale / downscale gain factors, and voltage probes have eight
pairs of upscale / midscale / downscale gain factors. Upscale factors have a nominal value
of 5000, and midscale and downscale factors have a nominal value of 0. On voltage probes,
the eighth pair of up/downscale factors and all eight midscale factors is returned at the end
of the array for compatibility with CW sensors.
Syntax:
TKSCWRG?
Returns:
numeric array: < DS0,US0,DS1,US1, ...DS6,US6 [,DS7,US7,MS0,MS1, ...MS7] >
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
TKSMSG
Description:
Returns the sensor text message from sensor’s EEPROM. This message is programmed at
the factory or during sensor calibration.
Syntax:
TKSMSG?
Returns:
<Message String>
Valid Modes:
All
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
TKAVG
Description:
Sets the talkmode to return the average power of the selected channel each time the 4530 is
addressed to talk. This is a “permanent” talkmode, and will remain in effect until a new
talkmode is set. Use this command in 4530 native mode for the fastest possible sustained
reading rate of single-channel average power over the bus. Power is returned in current
units.
Syntax:
TKAVG
Returns:
Average (or CW) Power
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
Special Case:
If in ratiometric mode, reading will be in units of dBr (log) or Percent Power (linear).
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TKPWR
Description:
Sets the talkmode to return the average, maximum and minimum power and peak-to-average
ratio (or pulse power, for CW sensors) for the selected channel each time the 4530 is
addressed to talk. This is a “permanent” talkmode, and will remain in effect until a new
talkmode is set. Power is returned in current units, and peak-to-average ratio is in dB for log
units, and percent for linear units.
Syntax:
TKPWR
Returns:
Pavg, Pmax, Pmin, PkToAvgRatio (Modulated mode) or Ppulse (CW mode)
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
Special Case:
If in ratiometric mode, average power readings will be in units of dBr (log) or Percent Power
(linear).
TKBOTH
Description:
Sets the talkmode to return the average power of both channels each time the 4530 is
addressed to talk. This is a “permanent” talkmode, and will remain in effect until a new
talkmode is set. Power is returned in current units. Use this command in 4530 native mode
for the fastest possible sustained reading rate of two-channel average power over the bus.
Syntax:
TKBOTH
Returns:
Pavg (ch1), Pavg (ch2)
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions
Special Case:
If in ratiometric mode, power readings will be in units of dBr (log) or Percent Power (linear).
TKMK1
Description:
Sets the talkmode to return the reading at marker 1 for the active channel each time the 4530
is addressed to talk. This is a “permanent” talkmode, and will remain in effect until a new
talkmode is set. Power is returned in current units.
Syntax:
TKMK1
Returns:
[email protected]
Valid Modes:
Pulse and Statistical modes
Restrictions:
MARKer:MODe must be set to VERT. SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use
native mode instructions.
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TKMK2
Description:
Sets the talkmode to return the reading at marker 2 for the active channel each time the 4530
is addressed to talk. This is a “permanent” talkmode, and will remain in effect until a new
talkmode is set. Power is returned in current units.
Syntax:
TKMK2
Returns:
[email protected]
Valid Modes:
Pulse and Statistical modes
Restrictions:
MARKer:MODe must be set to VERT. SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use
native mode instructions.
TKPLSTIM
Description:
Sets the talkmode to return an array of automatic timing measurements performed on a
periodic pulse waveform each time the 4530 is addressed to talk. Measurements performed
are: the frequency, period, width, offtime and duty cycle of the pulse waveform, and the
risetime and falltime of the edge transitions. For each of the measurements to be performed,
the appropriate items to be measured must be visible on the screen if the power meter is
place in GRAPH mode. Pulse frequency, period, offtime and duty cycle measurements
require that an entire cycle of the pulse waveform (minimum of three edge transitions) be
present. Pulse width measurements require that at least one full pulse is visible, and are
most accurate if the pulse width is at least 15% of the screen width (timespan). Risetime and
falltime require that the edge being measured is visible, and will be most accurate if the
transition takes at least 5% of the screen width. It is always best to have the power meter set
on the fastest timespan possible that meets the edge visibility restrictions. Set the trace
averaging as high as practical to reduce fluctuations and noise in the pulse timing measurements. Note that the timing of the edge transitions is defined by the settings of the
SENSe:PULSe:DISTal, :MESIal and :PROXimal settings; see the descriptions for those
commands. This is a “permanent” talkmode, and will remain in effect until a new talkmode
is set. Power is returned in current units.
Syntax:
TKPLSTIM
Returns:
PulseFreq, PulsePeriod, PulseWidth, Offtime, DutyCycle, Risetime, Falltime in fundamental
units
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
Restrictions:
Timespan must be set appropriately to allow measurements (see above).
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions.
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TKPLSPWR
Description:
Sets the talkmode to return an array of automatic power measurements performed on a
periodic pulse waveform each time the 4530 is addressed to talk. Measurements performed
are: peak power during the pulse, average power over a full cycle of the pulse waveform,
average power during the pulse, IEEE top amplitude, IEEE bottom amplitude, and overshoot. Note the pulse overshoot is returned in dB for log units, and percent for linear units.
Also, the pulse “on” interval used for peak and average power calculations is defined by
the SENSe:PULSe:STRTGT and :ENDGT time gating settings. A full pulse must be
visible to make average and peak pulse power measurements, and a full cycle of the waveform must be visible to calculate average cycle power. This is a “permanent” talkmode, and
will remain in effect until a new talkmode is set. Power is returned in current units.
Syntax:
TKPLSPWR
Returns:
PulseOnPeak, PulseCycleAvg, PulseOnAvg, PulseTop, PulseBot, Overshoot
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
Restrictions:
Timespan must be set appropriately to allow measurements (see above).
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions.
TKMKMEAS
Description:
Sets the talkmode to return an array of marker measurements for the specified channel each
time the 4530 is addressed to talk. The array consists of the average, maximum, and minimum power and peak-to-average ratio between the two markers, powers at each of the
markers, and the ratio of the two marker powers. Note the peak-to-average ratio and marker
ratio are returned in dB for log units, and percent for linear units. This is a “permanent”
talkmode, and will remain in effect until a new talkmode is set. Power is returned in current
units.
Syntax:
TKMKMEAS
Returns:
Pavg, Pmax, Pmin, PkToAvgRatio, [email protected], [email protected], Mrk1/Mrk2 ratio
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions.
TKSMEAS
Description:
Sets the talkmode to return an array of automatic statistical measurements performed on the
sample population each time the 4530 is addressed to talk. Measurements performed are:
long term average, peak, and minimum powers, peak-to-average ratio, power at each marker,
statistical percent at each marker, and the sample population size in megasamples. Note the
peak-to-average ratio is returned in dB for log units, and percent for linear units. Depending
on the setting of MARKer:MODe, either the power or the percent can be the marker position, and the opposite item will be the calculated value at that position.. This is a “permanent” talkmode, and will remain in effect until a new talkmode is set. Power is returned in
current units.
Syntax:
TKSMEAS
Returns:
Pavg, Ppeak, Pmin, PkToAvgRatio, [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], SampCnt
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only
Restrictions:
SYSTem:LANGuage must be set to BOON to use native mode instructions.
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4.5.6 SENSE Subsystem
The purpose of the SENSe command subsystem is to directly configure device specific settings used to make measurements, generally parameters related to the RF power sensor and signal processing. The SENSe commands are used to
configure the power meter for acquiring data. SENSe enables you to change measurement parameters such as filtering
or averaging, sensor bandwidth, operating frequency and calfactors, and measurement gain or offset. The numeric
suffix of the SENSe program mnemonic in the SENSe commands refers to a hardware measurement “channel”, that is
SENSe1 and SENSe2 represent the power meter’s SENSOR 1 and SENSOR 2 signal paths, respectively. The SENSe
commands generally DO NOT affect the data processing and display portion of the measurement (see the CALCulate
subsystem, below). Note that SENSe2 commands will generate an error if used with a single channel Model 4531.
SENSe:AVERage
Description:
Set or return the number of traces averaged together to form the measurement result on the
selected channel. Can also be used to reduce display noise on both the visible trace, and on
marker and automatic pulse measurements. Trace averaging is a continuous process in
which the measurement points from each sweep are weighted (multiplied) by a appropriate
factor, and averaged into the existing trace data points. In this way, the most recent data will
always have the greatest effect on the trace shape, and older measurements will be decayed
at a rate determined by the averaging setting and trigger rate. Note that for timespans faster
than 50uS, the 4530 acquires samples using a technique called equivalent time or interleaved sampling. In this mode, not every pixel on the trace gets updated on each sweep,
and the total number of sweeps needed to satisfy the AVERage setting will be increased by
the sample interleave ratio of that particular timespan.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:AVERage <n>
Argument:
<n> = Numeric value from 1 to 4096 (1 = no trace averaging)
Valid Modes:
Pulse
SENSe:FILTer:STATe
Description:
Set or return the current setting of the integration filter on the selected channel. OFF
provides no filtering, and can be used at high signal levels when absolute minimum settling
time is required. ON allows a user-specified integration time, from 10 milliseconds to 15
seconds (see SENSe:FILTer:TIMe command). Note that setting the filter time will force the
state to ON. AUTO uses a variable amount of filtering, which is set automatically by the
power meter based on the current signal level to a value that gives a good compromise
between measurement noise and settling time at most levels.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:FILTer:STATe <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON, AUTO
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
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SENSe:FILTer:TIMe
Description:
Set or return the current length of the integration filter on the selected channel. If the filter
state is set to AUTO, querying the time will return -0.01, and if set to OFF, a time query will
return 0.00. Note that setting the filter time will force the state to ON.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:FILTer:TIMe <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0.01 to 15.00 seconds
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
SENSe:BANDwidth
Description:
Set or return the sensor video bandwidth for the selected sensor. HIGH is the normal
setting for most measurements. The actual bandwidth is determined by the peak sensor
model used. For 57000 series peak sensors the LOW video bandwidth is less than 500 kHz
to allow calibration at 50 MHz. Use LOW bandwidth for additional noise reduction when
measuring CW or signals with very low modulation bandwidth. If LOW bandwidth is used
on signals with fast modulation, measurement errors will result because the sensor cannot
track the fast changing envelope of the signal.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:BANDwidth <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = LOW, HIGH
Valid Modes:
Peak sensors only
SENSe:IMPEDance
Description:
Set or return voltage probe sensor impedance for power calculations for the selected channel. Characteristic impedance is used only for voltage to power conversions. This can be
used to calculate and display power from a voltage measurement across a load impedance
using a voltage probe.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:IMPEDance <n>
Argument:
<n> = 10 to 2500 ohms
Valid Modes:
Voltage probes only
SENSe:CORRection:OFFset
Description:
Set or return a measurement offset in dB for the selected sensor. This is used to compensate
for external couplers, attenuators or amplifiers in the RF signal path ahead of the power
sensor. In the main TEXT display, a small triangle (delta symbol) will appear above the units
if the offset is not set to zero.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:CORRection:OFFset <n>
Argument:
<n> = -100.00 to 100.00 dB
Valid Modes:
Any
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SENSe:CORRection:FDOFfset
Description:
Set or return the name of the current frequency dependent offset table in use on the selected channel. Two tables (TableA and TableB) are available, and each holds a list of up to
64 frequencies and corresponding offset values. See the MEMory:FDOFfset commands
for entering these tables. Whenever the operating frequency is changed with one of the
tables active, a new frequency dependent offset value will be calculated and applied. Setting the active table to OFF cancels any frequency dependent offset. Frequency dependent offsets are used to compensate for external devices such as couplers or attenuators in
the RF signal path that have know loss characteristics that vary with frequency. In the main
TEXT display, an asterisk (“*”) symbol will appear above the units if a frequency dependent offset table is in use (setting is TBLA or TBLB).
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:CORRection:FDOFfset <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, TBLA, TBLB
Valid Modes:
All Power Sensors
SENSe:CORRection:FREQuency
Description:
Set or return the RF frequency for the current sensor, and apply the appropriate frequency
calfactor from the sensor’s EEPROM table. Application of this calfactor cancels out the
effect of variations in the flatness of the sensor’s frequency response. If an explicit calfactor has been set, either manually or via the SENSe:CORRection:CALFactor command,
entering a new frequency will override this calfactor and use only the “automatic” frequency calfactor.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:CORRection:FREQuency <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0.001 to 110.000 GHz
Valid Modes:
All Power Sensors
SENSe:CORRection:CALFactor
Description:
Set or return the frequency calfactor currently in use on the selected channel. Note setting
a calfactor with this command will override the “automatic” frequency calfactor that was
calculated and applied when the operating frequency was set, and setting the operating
frequency will override this calfactor setting.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:CORRection:CALFactor <n>
Argument:
<n> = -3.00 to 3.00 dB
Valid Modes:
All Power Sensors
SENSe:CORRection:TEMPComp
Description:
Set or return the state of the peak sensor temperature compensation system. This system
compensates for drift that might otherwise be caused by changes in the temperature of the
peak power sensors. When set to OFF, a warning will be displayed if the sensor temperature drifts more than 4 degrees C from the autocal temperature. When ON, the warning will
not appear until temperature has drifted by 30C.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:CORRection:TEMPComp <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON (always defaults to ON on power up, or when new sensor inserted)
Valid Modes:
Peak Sensors Only
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SENSe:PULSe:UNITs
Description:
Set the units for entering the pulse distal, mesial and proximal levels. If units is set to
VOLTS, the pulse transition levels will be defined as the specified percentage in voltage. If
set to WATTS, the levels are defined in percent power. Many pulse measurements call for
10% to 90% voltage (which equates to 1% to 81% power) for risetime and falltime measurements, and measure pulse widths from the half-power (-3dB, 50% power, or 71% voltage)
points.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:PULSe:UNITs <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = WATTS, VOLTS
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
SENSe:PULSe:DISTal
Description:
Set or return the pulse amplitude percentage, which is used to define the end of a rising
edge or beginning of a falling edge transition. Typically, this is 90% voltage or 81% power
relative to the “top level” of the pulse. This setting is used when making automatic pulse
risetime and falltime calculations returned by FETCh:ARRay:AMEASure:POWer.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:PULSe:DISTal <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 100 percent
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
SENSe:PULSe:MESIal
Description:
Set or return the pulse amplitude percentage, which is used to define the midpoint of a rising
or falling edge transition. Typically, this is 50% voltage or 25% power relative to the “top
level” of the pulse. This setting is used when making automatic pulse width and duty cycle
calculations returned by FETCh:ARRay:AMEASure:POWer.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:PULSe:MESIal <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 100 percent
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
SENSe:PULSe:PROXimal
Description:
Set or return the pulse amplitude percentage, which is used to define the beginning of a
rising edge or end of a falling edge transition. Typically, this is 10% voltage or 1% power
relative to the “top level” of the pulse. This setting is used when making automatic pulse
risetime and falltime calculations returned by FETCh:ARRay:AMEASure:POWer.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:PULSe:PROXimal <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 100 percent
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
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SENSe:PULSe:STARTGT
Description:
Set or return the point on a pulse, which is used to define the beginning of the pulse’s
“active” interval. This point is defined in percent of the total pulse duration, with 0%
corresponding to the midpoint of the rising edge, and 100% corresponding to the midpoint
of the falling edge, as defined by the mesial setting. For most pulse “on” average power
measurements, it is desirable to exclude the rising and falling intervals, and only measure
power over the active portion of the pulse. This is often known as time gating, and is used
for the automatic pulse measurements returned by FETCh:ARRay:AMEASure:POWer.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:PULSe:STARTGT <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 40 percent
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
SENSe:PULSe:ENDGT
Description:
Set or return the point on a pulse, which is used to define the end of the pulse’s “active”
interval. This point is defined in percent of the total pulse duration, with 0% corresponding
to the midpoint of the rising edge, and 100% corresponding to the midpoint of the falling
edge, as defined by the mesial setting. For most pulse “on” average power measurements,
it is desirable to exclude the rising and falling intervals, and only measure power over the
active portion of the pulse. This is often known as time gating, and is used for the automatic
pulse measurements returned by FETCh:ARRay:AMEASure:POWer.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:PULSe:ENDGT <n>
Argument:
<n> = 60 to 100 percent
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
SENSe:TEMPerature
Description:
Return the current internal temperature of the selected peak power sensor. This temperature may be compared to the autocal temperature (see SENSe:CALTemp?) to aid in deciding whether the sensor temperature has drifted enough to warrant a new autocal. The 4530
displays a warning message on the LCD if a non-temperature compensated peak sensor is
in use, and the temperature has drifted more than 4C from the autocal temperature.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:TEMPerature?
Returns:
SensorTemp in degrees C
Valid Modes:
Peak Sensors only
SENSe:CALTemp
Description:
Return the internal peak power sensor temperature at the time of autocalibration. This
temperature may be compared to the current sensor temperature (see SENSe:TEMPerature?)
to aid in deciding whether the sensor temperature has drifted enough to warrant a new
autocal. The 4530 displays a warning message on the LCD if a non-temperature compensated peak sensor is in use, and the temperature has drifted more than 4C from the autocal
temperature.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:CALTemp?
Returns:
AutocalTemp in degrees C
Valid Modes:
Peak Sensors only
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4.5.7 CALCulate Subsystem
The CALCulate group of the command subsystem is used to configure post acquisition data processing. Functions in
the CALCulate subsystem are used to configure the measurement mode and control which portions of the acquired
measurement data is used and how it is processed to yield a finished measurement. In addition to measurement mode,
CALCulate is used to define mathematical operations, measurement units, and limit monitoring. The numeric suffix of
the CALCulate program mnemonic in the CALCulate commands refers to a processing and display “channel”, that is
CALCulate1 and CALCulate2 represent the power meter’s Channel 1 and Channel 2 functions. The CALCulate
commands generally DO NOT affect the data acquisition portion of the measurement (see the SENSe subsystem,
above). In a signal-flow block diagram, the CALCulate block operations will follow those of the SENSe block. Note that
CALCulate2 commands will generate an error if used with a single channel Model 4531.
CALCulate:STATe
Description:
Set or return the measurement state of the selected channel. When ON, the channel performs measurements; when OFF, the channel is disabled and no measurements are performed.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:STATe <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = ON, OFF
Valid Modes:
Any
CALCulate:MODe
Description:
Set or return the measurement mode of the selected channel. CW and MODULATED are
continuous measurement modes, PULSE is a triggered, oscilloscope-like mode, and CDF,
CCDF and DIST are various presentation formats of statistical mode, which gathers and
analyzes a large number of samples over a relatively long time interval.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:MODe <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = CW, MODULATED, PULSE, CDF, CCDF, DIST
Valid Modes:
Sensor dependent. CW and voltage sensors may select CW mode only. If CW mode is
selected for a peak sensor, it will be forced to MODULATED mode.
CALCulate:MATH
Description:
Set or return the signal source or sources combined in an arithmetic operation for the
displayed reading on the selected channel. Ratiometric displays may be made between two
sensors, or between a sensor and a stored reference (see CALCulate:REFerence commands), and sum or difference operations may be performed between two sensors, depending on sensor type. For power sensors, the power ratio of two sources in dB relative (dBr)
or percent power, or the sum of power of two sources in dBm or linear units is available.
Voltage sensors allow voltage ratios in dBr or percent power, and voltage difference in log
or linear voltage units.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:MATH <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = CH{1|2}, REF{1|2}, REF_RAT, REF_SUM, REF_DIFF, CH_RAT, CH_SUM, CH_DIFF
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
Restrictions:
For calculations between sensors, both sensors must be of the same type (power or voltage
sensors).
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CALCulate:DCYC
Description:
Set or return the pulse duty cycle in percent of the input waveform of the selected channel.
This value is used to calculate the theoretical pulse power based on an average power
measurement of a periodic pulse waveform. The pulse power result is valid only for thermal
sensors or for CW diode sensors operating in the square-law (true-RMS) region of their
dynamic range, and subject to the accuracy of the duty cycle value. Setting the duty cycle
to 100% is equivalent to a CW measurement.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:DCYC <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0.01 to 100 %
Valid Modes:
CW Sensors only
CALCulate:RANGe
Description:
Set or return the hardware measurement range for the selected CW channel. When set to
AUTO, the 4530 automatically selects the best range for noise and overload headroom. For
certain applications with large, frequent signal swings, setting the range manually can
improve settling time. Range 0 is used below approximately -10dBm on CW diode sensors
and on all thermal sensors. Range 1 is used above approximately -30dBm on CW diode
sensors. Range 2 is used only on voltage sensors when the input is above about 3.0 volts.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:RANGe <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = AUTO, 0, 1, 2
Valid Modes:
CW and Voltage sensors only
CALCulate:PKHLD
Description:
Set or return the operating mode of the selected channel’s peak hold function. OFF: instantaneous peaks are only held for a short time, and then decayed towards the average power
at a rate proportional to the filter time. This is the best setting for most signals, because the
peak will always represent the peak power of the current signal, and the resulting peak-toaverage ratio will be correct shortly after any signal level changes. INST: instantaneous
peaks are held until reset by a new INITiate command. This setting is used to hold the
highest peak over a long measurement interval. AVG: The held peaks correspond to the
highest and lowest filtered average power, and are held until reset. This is useful for
monitoring average power fluctuations over a period of time. In the case of pulse mode,
note that all average and peak hold measurements are performed on the interval between
the markers. Note that because CW sensors do not measure instantaneous power, they
always operate with the PKHLD mode equivalent to AVG.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:PKHLD <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, AVG, INST
Valid Modes:
Modulated and Pulse modes
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CALCulate:UNITs
Description:
Set or return default programming/display units for the selected channel. For power sensors, voltage is calculated with reference to the sensor input impedance. For voltage
sensors, power is calculated using the user supplied impedance parameter. Note that in
ratiometric mode, the current UNITs setting will be overridden: log units will always return
as dBr (dB relative), and linear units will represent the ratio in percent power (for WATTS)
or percent voltage (for VOLTS).
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:UNITs <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = WATTS, DBM, VOLTS, DBV, DBMV, DBUV
Valid Modes:
Any
CALCulate:REFerence:STATe
Description:
Set or return the state of the ratiometric reference mode for the selected channel. When
reference level is loaded or entered, enabling reference mode will cause the channel’s
primary measurement to calculate the ratio of the current average power to the stored
reference. Units will be changed to dBr (dB relative) for log units, or percent (power or
voltage) for linear units. Note that the stored reference should be loaded from the same
sensor that is currently in use on the channel.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:REFerence:STATe <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
CALCulate:REFerence:COLLect
Description:
Load (or “collect”) the current average power level as the ratiometric mode reference level
for the selected channel. The power level applied to the sensor is stored as the reference
level, and all power readings will be in dBr, relative to this level. Immediately after the
reference is loaded, the ratiometric power reading will always be 0.000 dBr until the applied
power changes.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:REFerence:COLLect
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
CALCulate:REFerence:DATA
Description:
Set or return the ratiometric mode reference level for the selected channel. When the
reference level is set using this command, the power specified by the argument will become
the current reference level, and all power readings will be in dBr, relative to this level.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:REFerence:DATA <n>
Argument:
<n> = Power in current units
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
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CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer
Description:
Set or return the upper limit power level for the selected channel. This limit is used for level
alarms. When the measured average power is above the upper limit, an up arrow will appear
on the display above the units on the main text screen, and flag bits are set in the alarm
register which may be accessed using CALCulate:LIMit commands.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:LIMit:UPPer <n>
Argument:
<n> = -100.00 to +100.00 dBm
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer
Description:
Set or return the lower limit power level for the selected channel. This limit is used for level
alarms. When the measured average power is below the lower limit, a down arrow will
appear on the display above the units on the main text screen, and flag bits are set in the
alarm register which may be accessed using CALCulate:LIMit commands.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:LIMit:LOWer <n>
Argument:
<n> = -100.00 to +100.00 dBm
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
CALCulate:LIMit:STATe
Description:
Set or return the limit alarm system state for the selected channel. When alarms are enabled
(ON), the measured average power is compared to the preset upper and lower limits, and
the error flags are set if out of range. When OFF, no action occurs if the power is out of
range.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:LIMit:STATe <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
CALCulate:LIMit:FAIL
Description:
Return the list of alarm limit status flags for the selected channel. The five flags are separated by commas, and each will be either a “1”, indicating the specified alarm condition is
active, or a “0”, indicating that condition is normal. Three of the flags are latched, and
indicate if any limit violation has occurred since the start of the measurement, while the
other two indicate the current status. See the CALCulate:LIMit:CLEar command for resetting the latched flags.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:LIMit:FAIL?
Returns:
< AnyLimitTripped, BelowLowerLimit, AboveUpperLimit, LowerLimitTripped,
UpperLimitTripped >
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
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CALCulate:LIMit:CLEar
Description:
Reset (clear to zero) the selected channel’s latched alarm limit status flags. Note that the
“current status” limit flags will continue to indicate the current alarm state.
Syntax:
CALCulate[1|2]:LIMit:CLEar[:IMMediate]
Argument:
none
Valid Modes:
CW and Modulated modes
4.5.8 MARKer Subsystem
The MARKer group of commands is used to configure and locate measurement markers (cursors) at specific points on
the processed measurement waveform. FETCH? or READ? queries may then be used to retrieve measurements at the
two markers and in the interval between them. Markers are used in Pulse mode to perform measurements at or between
two time offsets relative to the trigger, and in Statistical mode to measure the power at a particular statistical percent, or
the percent at a specified power level. In Pulse mode, the markers can only be placed on the visible portion of the trace
(as defined by the timespan and trigger delay settings), while Statistical mode markers may be placed at any power or
percent value and will still return readings.
MARKer:MODe
Description:
Set or return the global marker orientation for the pulse and statistical modes. Markers 1
and 2 are always paired and operate together. Markers are not used in the CW and modulated modes. Vertical markers appear as vertical bars on the graph display, and measure the
power at a particular time (Pulse mode) or percent (Statistical mode). Horizontal markers
appear as horizontal bars, and measure the percent at a particular power level in Statistical
mode. Horizontal markers may also be used in Pulse mode graph display as “reference
lines”, to indicate certain power levels. In this case they are strictly visual tools, and no
marker measurements can be performed.
Syntax:
MARKer:MODe <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, VERT, HORZ
Valid Modes:
Pulse and Statistical modes
MARKer:POSition:POWer
Description:
Set or return the power level (position) of the selected horizontal marker. Note that horizontal markers may be positioned at any power level, regardless of the vertical span setting,
and will not necessarily appear on the graph display.
Syntax:
MARKer:POSition[1|2]:POWer <n>
Argument:
<n> = -99.99 to +99.99 dBm
Valid Modes:
Pulse and Statistical modes. MARKer:MODe must be HORZ.
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MARKer:POSition:TIMe
Description:
Set or return the time (position) of the selected vertical marker relative to the trigger. Note
that time markers must be positioned within the time limits of the trace window in the graph
display. If any attempt is made to position them outside these limits, they will be forced
back into the range of the trace window. Note that if timespan, trigger delay, or trigger
position settings are changed, the marker positions on the graph display will remain unchanged, but their times relative to the trigger will change. For this reason, it is a good idea
to set all timing and trigger parameters before setting the marker times.
Syntax:
MARKer:POSition[1|2]:TIMe <n>
Argument:
<n> = +/- ### seconds (see restrictions)
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only. MARKer:MODe must be VERT.
Restrictions:
TrigDly - (TimeSpan / 2) < MarkerTime < TrigDly + (TimeSpan / 2)
MARKer:POSition:PERcent
Description:
Set or return the percent probability (position) of the selected vertical marker. Note that the
power value returned for each marker will depend on the setting of CALCulate:MODe.
When set to CDF, the highest power levels are towards the right side of the screen, with
maximum (highest peak) power occurring at 100%. When set to CCDF (also called 1-CDF),
the highest levels are towards the left, with peak power at 0%.
Syntax:
MARKer:POSition[1|2]:PERcent <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0.000 to 100.000 %
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only. MARKer:MODe must be VERT.
4.5.9 DISPlay Subsystem
The DISPlay group of commands is used to control the selection and presentation of textual, graphical and TRACe
measurements. With one exception (DISPlay:TSPAN), the DISPlay commands are independent of, and do not modify,
how data is returned to the bus controller. But since it does configure the measurement data presentation on the front
panel LCD, DISPlay can be considered an optional third and final block in a signal-flow block diagram of the power
meter. Text (TXT1, TXT2, TXTB) or graph (GRPH1, GRPH2, GRPHB) display modes may be selected with either or both
channels visible. When the power meter is in text mode, reading resolution and bargraph visibility may be configured.
In graph mode, waveform scaling and centering are set. Note that in the special case of DISPlay:TSPAN, the setting
of the display timespan may effect what portion of a pulse waveform can be measured; measurements may only be
performed on the portion of the trace falling within the left and right limits of the display window. These same
restrictions apply even when the power meter is in TEXT mode and the trace is not displayed.
DISPlay:%SPAN
Description:
Set or return the horizontal trace display span in statistical percent. The power meter has
fixed display range settings in a 1, 2, 5 sequence, and if the argument does not match one of
the settings, it will be forced to the next highest entry.
Syntax:
DISPlay:%SPAN <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 %
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only
Restrictions:
The sum of %SPAN and %OFST must not be greater than 100%.
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DISPlay:%OFST
Description:
Set or return the horizontal trace offset in statistical percent.
Syntax:
DISPlay:%OFST <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 99 % (see restrictions)
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only
Restrictions:
The sum of %SPAN and %OFST must not be greater than 100%.
DISPlay:TSPAN
Description:
Set or return the horizontal time span of the display. The 4530 has fixed timespan settings
in a 1-2-5 sequence, and if the argument does not match one of these settings, it will be
forced to the next highest entry. Note that trigger delay and holdoff settings are restricted
to certain values based on the timespan setting, and marker positions must always fall
within the trace window. It is always a good idea to set the timespan before setting any
other parameters when in Pulse mode.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TSPAN <n>
Argument:
<n> = 2.5e-6 to 5.0 seconds (Pulse), 1.0 to 3600 seconds (CW, Modulated)
Valid Modes:
CW, Modulated and Pulse modes
DISPlay:GRPH
Description:
Set the display to single channel graph mode showing the trace of only the selected channel, and set the header page to the value specified by the command argument. Although
this command accepts an argument, there is no query form.
Syntax:
DISPlay:GRPH{1|2} <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1, 2 or 3
Valid Modes:
Any
DISPlay:GRPHB
Description:
Set the display to dual channel graph mode showing the traces of both channels, and set
the header page to the value specified by the command argument. Although this command
accepts an argument, there is no query form.
Syntax:
DISPlay:GRPHB <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1, 2 or 3
Valid Modes:
Any
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DISPlay:TXT
Description:
Set the display to single channel text mode showing measurements for only the selected
channel, and set the header and measurement page to the value specified by the command
argument. Setting the display to single channel mode usually allows supplementary measurements or additional measurement detail to be displayed in the main measurement window, while the dual-channel display only shows the primary measurement for each channel.
Although this command accepts an argument, there is no query form.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TXT{1|2} <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1, 2 or 3
Valid Modes:
Any
DISPlay:TXTB
Description:
Set the display to dual channel text mode showing primary measurements for both channels, and set the header and measurement page to the value specified by the command
argument. Setting the display to single channel mode usually allows supplementary measurements or additional measurement detail to be displayed in the main measurement window, while the dual-channel display only shows the primary measurement for each channel.
Although this command accepts an argument, there is no query form.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TXTB <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1, 2 or 3
Valid Modes:
Any
DISPlay:TRACe:LOGSPAN
Description:
Set or return the vertical span (sensitivity) of the selected channel’s graph display when
using log units. The 4530 has fixed vertical span settings in a 1-2-5 sequence, and if the
argument does not match one of these settings, it will be forced to the next highest entry.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TRACe[1|2]:LOGSPAN <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 50, 100 dB
Valid Modes:
CALCulate:UNITs = <DBM, DBV, DBMV, DBUV>
DISPlay:TRACe:LINSPAN
Description:
Set or return the vertical span (sensitivity) of the selected channel’s graph display when
using linear units. The 4530 has fixed vertical span settings in a 1-2-5 sequence, and if the
argument does not match one of these settings, it will be forced to the next highest entry.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TRACe[1|2]:LINSPAN <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1nW to 1MW, or 1nV to 1MV
Valid Modes:
CALCulate:UNITs = <VOLTS, WATTS>
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DISPlay:TRACe:PCTSPAN
Description:
Set or return the vertical span (sensitivity) of the selected channel’s graph display when
using linear units in ratiometric (reference) mode. The 4530 has fixed vertical span settings
in a 1-2-5 sequence, and if the argument does not match one of these settings, it will be
forced to the next highest entry.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TRACe[1|2]:PCTSPAN <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0.1 to 10,000 %
Valid Modes:
Ratiometric (reference) mode with CALCulate:UNITs = <VOLTS, WATTS>
DISPlay:TRACe:LOGCNTR
Description:
Set or return the vertical center power value for the selected channel’s graph display when
using log units.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TRACe[1|2]:LOGCNTR <n>
Argument:
<n> = -100.00 to 100.00 (power in current log units)
Valid Modes:
CALCulate:UNITs = <DBM, DBV, DBMV, DBUV>
DISPlay:TRACe:LINCNTR
Description:
Set or return the vertical center power value for the selected channel’s graph display when
using linear units.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TRACe[1|2]:LINCNTR <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1nW to 1MW, or 1nV to 1MV (see restrictions)
Valid Modes:
CALCulate:UNITs = <VOLTS, WATTS>
Restrictions:
The vert center may be no more than 100 times the value of the current vertical span setting.
DISPlay:TRACe:PCTCNTR
Description:
Set or return the vertical center power value for the selected channel’s graph display when
using linear units in ratiometric (reference) mode.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TRACe[1|2]:PCTCNTR <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0.01 to 9999.99 percent
Valid Modes:
Ratiometric (reference) mode with CALCulate:UNITs = <VOLTS, WATTS>
DISPlay:TEXT:BARGRAPH
Description:
Set or return the visibility state of the selected channel’s bargraph display. When enabled,
the bargraph appears along the bottom of the main measurement window in dual-channel
text display mode, and gives a visual indication of the magnitude and fluctuations of the
reading. In the Model 4532 there are two independent bargraphs, one for each channel.
The bargraph value is calculated using the same settings and limits as the recorder output,
so it is possible to set the resolution and mode with the OUTPut:RECOrder commands.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TEXT[1|2]:BARgraph <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON
Valid Modes:
dual-channel text display
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DISPlay:TEXT:RESolution
Description:
Set or return the display resolution for the selected channel’s reading in the main text
display. When logarithmic units are in use, the argument sets the number of digits displayed after the decimal point. For linear units, the number of significant digits displayed is
approximately equal to the argument plus two. Note that any readings displayed in a small
font (secondary readings in the header or on some of the single-channel text displays) are
not affected by this setting. Resolution of the measurements returned over the bus is also
not affected by this command.
Syntax:
DISPlay:TEXT[1|2]:RESolution <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1, 2 or 3
Valid Modes:
Large font text display
4.5.10 TRIGger Subsystem
The TRIGger group of commands is used to control synchronization of data acquisition with external events. TRIGger
commands generally effect Pulse mode only, and control selection of a hardware trigger source and polarity, setting a
trigger level, configuring delay and holdoff timing, and setting the trigger position on the display.
TRIGger:POSition
Description:
Set or return the position of the trigger event on displayed sweep. Assuming zero trigger
delay, setting the position to LEFT causes the entire trace to be post-trigger. Setting it to
RIGHT causes the entire trace to be pre-trigger. And setting to MIDDLE will display both
the pre- and post-trigger portions of the trace. Note that the TRIGger:DELay setting is in
addition to this setting, and will cause the trigger position to appear in a different location.
Syntax:
TRIGger:POSition <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = LEFT, MIDDLE, RIGHT
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
TRIGger:DELay
Description:
Set or return the trigger delay time with respect to the trigger. Positive values cause the
actual trigger to occur after the trigger condition is met. This places the trigger event to the
left of the trigger point on the display, and is useful for viewing events during a pulse, some
fixed delay time after the rising edge trigger. Negative trigger delay places the trigger event
to the right of the trigger point on the display, and is useful for looking at events before the
trigger edge. Due to memory limitations, positive or negative trigger delay is restricted in all
timespans, but is always at least 30 times the timespan setting, and considerably greater for
some settings.
Syntax:
TRIGger:DELay <n>
Argument:
<n> = -150.00 to 150.00 seconds (see restrictions)
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
Restrictions:
-900µs < TrigDly < 900µs for timespans 5µs and faster
-4.00ms < TrigDly < 4.00ms for timespans 10µs to 50µs
(-80 x TimeSpan) < TrigDly < (80 x TimeSpan) for timespans 50µs to 2ms
(-30 x TimeSpan) < TrigDly < (30 x TimeSpan) for timespans 5ms and slower
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TRIGger:HOLDoff
Description:
Set or return the trigger holdoff time. Trigger holdoff is used to disable the trigger for a
specified amount of time after each trigger event. The holdoff time starts immediately after
each valid trigger edge, and will not permit any new triggers until the time has expired.
When the holdoff time is up, the trigger re-arms, and the next valid trigger event (edge) will
cause a new sweep. This feature is used to help synchronize the power meter with burst
waveforms such as a TDMA or GSM frame. The trigger holdoff resolution is one microsecond, and it should be set to a time that is just slightly shorted than the frame repetition
interval.
Syntax:
TRIGger:HOLDoff <n>
Argument:
<n> = 10 e-6 to 0.999999 seconds, 0.0 = no holdoff
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
TRIGger:LEVel
Description:
Set or return the trigger level for synchronizing data acquisition with a pulsed input signal
or external trigger pulses. If there is a global offset applied to the channel, the trigger level
entered should include this offset. For internal trigger, the trigger level is always set and
returned in dBm, and for external trigger, the units are volts. Note that there is a small
amount of hysteresis built in to the trigger system, and the signal should have at least one
dB greater swing in each direction past the trigger level setting, and somewhat more at low
levels. Note that explicitly setting the trigger level while TRIGger:MODe is set to PKTOPK
will cancel the PKTOPK setting, and force the trigger mode back to AUTO.
Syntax:
TRIGger:LEVel <n>
Argument:
<n> = -40 to +20 dBm (plus channel offset, if any) or -5.0 to +5.0 volts (external trigger)
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
TRIGger:MODe
Description:
Set or return the trigger mode for synchronizing data acquisition with pulsed signals.
NORM mode will cause a sweep to be triggered each time the power level crosses the preset
trigger level in the direction specified by TRIGger:SLOPe. If there are no edges that cross
this level, no data acquisition will occur. AUTO mode operates in much the same way as
NORM mode, but will automatically generate a trace if no trigger edges are detected for a
period of time (100 to 500 milliseconds, depending on timespan). This will keep the trace
updating even if the pulse edges stop. The third setting, PKTOPK operates the same as
AUTO mode, but will adjust the trigger level to halfway between the highest and lowest
power levels detected. This aids in maintaining synchronization with a pulse signal of
varying level. Note that a setting of PKTOPK will be overridden and forced back to AUTO
if a TRIGger:LEVel is set.
Syntax:
TRIGger:MODe <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = NORM, AUTO, PKTOPK
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only. PKTOPK mode functions only for internal trigger sources.
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TRIGger:SLOPe
Description:
Set or return the trigger slope or polarity. When set to POS, triggers will be generated when
a signal’s rising edge crosses the trigger level threshold. When NEG, triggers are generated
on the falling edge of the pulse.
Syntax:
TRIGger:SLOPe <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = NEG, POS
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only.
TRIGger:SOURce
Description:
Set or return the trigger source used for synchronizing data acquisition. SENSOR1 and
SENSOR2 settings use the signal from either of the sensors. EXTERNAL uses the signal
applied to the instrument’s rear panel external trigger input. IMMEDIATE will trigger a new
sweep without any trigger edge as soon as the previous sweep is complete or the trigger
has been armed. BUS will trigger a new sweep when a *TRG command or GET signal is
received on the bus. BUS>SNSR1, BUS>SNSR2, and BUS>EXT will arm the hardware
trigger when a *TRG or GET is received, and will then trigger the sweep when a trigger edge
is detected on the specified input. Any settings containing SENSOR1, SENSOR2, or EXT
are considered electrical triggers, and are only valid in pulse mode.
Syntax:
TRIGger:SOURce <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = SENSOR1, SENSOR2, EXTERNAL, IMMEDIATE, BUS, BUS>SNSR1, BUS>SNSR2,
BUS>EXT
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only, except IMMEDIATE and BUS, which are valid in all modes.
TRIGger:CDF:COUNt
Description:
Set or return the terminal count (sample population size) for statistical mode acquisition.
When the terminal count is reached, the CDF is considered “complete”, and the instrument
will halt acquisition if INITiate:CONTinuous is set to OFF. If INITiate:CONTinuous is ON,
sample acquisition will continue in the manner specified by the TRIGger:CDF:DECImate
setting.
Syntax:
TRIGger:CDF:COUNt <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1 to 4000 million samples
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only.
TRIGger:CDF:DECImate
Description:
Set or return the decimation when running continuously in statistical mode. This action
occurs when the terminal count is reached (as defined by TRIGger:CDF:COUNt), and
when set to OFF, the CDF will simply clear all data and restart. If set to ON, the entire sample
population will be decimated (divided by two), and new samples will be continue to accumulate into this data set. Decimating has the effect of maintaining the “shape” of the CDF
while slowly decaying away the effect of past history and updating to include new events.
This setting works best with relatively small terminal counts (1 to 10 million counts).
Syntax:
TRIGger:CDF:DECImate <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only.
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4.5.11 TRACe Data Array Commands
The TRACe group of commands is used to control the output of acquired measurement arrays, which appear as a
display trace when the power meter is in Graph mode. The TRACe commands allow outputting a channel’s entire trace
(126 measurement points) as one large array, or selecting and returning the array in smaller portions. These commands
are useful for capturing the displayed waveform and importing it into a database on the host.
TRACe:COUNt
Description:
Set or return the number of trace points, which will be returned each time the TRACe:DATA?
query is issued. At the completion of each read, INDEX is automatically incremented by
COUNT. If COUNT is set to a number greater than the number of points remaining in the
trace, the array will be truncated. Setting COUNT to 126 (and INDEX to zero each time) will
return the entire trace array. Setting COUNT to zero will return a single point, but does not
increment INDEX, and can be used to repeatedly query the same trace point.
Syntax:
TRACe:COUNt <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 126
Valid Modes:
Any
TRACe:INDEX
Description:
Set or return the array index for the first trace point to be returned next time the TRACe:DATA?
query is issued. Index 0 is the start of the trace buffer, and corresponds to the leftmost pixel
on the graph display. Index 125 is the last point, and is the rightmost pixel. Each time a block
of data is read, INDEX is automatically incremented by the COUNT value, so the full array
can be split up into blocks of manageable size and read with successive TRACe:DATA?
queries. INDEX must be reset to zero for each new trace that is to be dumped, whether or
not all the points have been read.
Syntax:
TRACe:INDEX <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 125
Valid Modes:
Any
TRACe:DATA
Description:
Return a comma-delimited array of power points corresponding to all or a portion of the
graph mode display trace for the selected channel. Note that graph mode does not have to
be active to read the trace, and the power points are returned without regard to display
vertical span and center settings. The array will consist of COUNT trace points, beginning
at point number INDEX, up to the last point of the trace (index = 125), and will be returned
in the currently selected units.
Syntax:
TRACe[1|2]:DATA?
Returns:
P(index), P(index+1), P(index+2).... P(index+count)
Valid Modes:
Any
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4.5.12 SENSe:MBUF Data Array Commands
The MBUF commands (which are grouped under the SENSe subsystem) are used to control buffered data capture and
output of a long array of sequential readings (the “Measurement BUFfer”). This capability is useful for capturing
readings at a rate higher than the host system can read back in real time. These commands are used in all but Statistical
modes, and allow control of buffer size, reading rate, status reporting, and buffer array output. Up to 4,096 readings
may be captured at programmable rates up to 1000 readings per second in Modulated or CW mode, and up to 500
triggered readings per second in Pulse Mode (timespan dependent). In Modulated and CW mode, each stored reading
in the measurement buffer is the value that would be returned as the current average power measurement over the
GPIB, including all filtering. To ensure no overlap between measurements, it may be preferable to set filtering off, or to
a value shorter than the buffer period, which is the inverse of the SENSe:MBUF:RATe setting. In Pulse mode, each
stored reading in the measurement buffer is the value that would be returned as the “average power between markers”
over the GPIB, including all averaging. To ensure no overlap between measurements, SENSe:AVERage should be
set to 1, and DISPlay:TSPAN should be set to 50 microseconds or slower. If it is important that the average power over
every pulse be recorded, sufficient time after the trigger must be allowed for the power meter to complete the sweep, and
rearm for the next sweep. Typically, this time is 3ms longer than the current timespan setting, assuming the trigger edge
is kept close to the left edge of the screen. For example, on a 10ms timespan, the pulse repetition frequency should not
exceed 80 Hz (1 / 10 + 3ms), or some pulses may be missed.
SENSe:MBUF:SIZe
Description:
Set or return the size of the measurement buffer. This controls how many readings will be
buffered before the buffer is considered full. If set to zero, the measurement buffer is
disabled, and the instrument operates in normal mode. If INITiate:CONTinuous is OFF,
measurements will be considered complete, and the instrument will stop when the buffer
has filled. Time to fill the buffer is determined by SIZE divided by RATE in Modulated and
CW modes (see below), and by the trigger rate in Pulse mode.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:MBUF:SIZe <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 4096 (0 = Buffered Measurements disabled)
Valid Modes:
Modulated, CW or Pulse modes
SENSe:MBUF:RATe
Description:
Set or return the reading acquisition rate for the measurement buffer in Modulated and CW
modes. This controls how fast readings are placed into the measurement buffer, and SIZE
divided by RATE determines how many seconds it will take to fill the buffer. Note that
buffer readings may be repeated if RATE is set faster than the internal measurement rate of
the instrument (500 readings/sec in Modulated mode, 300 readings/second in CW mode),
and best performance is achieved when RATE equals, or is an exact submultiple of the
internal measurement rate. Note that this command has no effect on Pulse mode buffering.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:MBUF:RATe <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1 to 1000 buffered readings/second
Valid Modes:
Modulated and CW modes
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SENSe:MBUF:POSition
Description:
Return the current acquisition position into the measurement buffer, which is the index of
the next buffer point which will be written to. This command is useful for determining
whether the measurement buffer is full. A value of zero indicates that no points have been
buffered yet, and a value of RATE indicates that the buffer is full.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:MBUF:POSition?
Returns:
current index value, 0 to 4096
Valid Modes:
Modulated, CW or Pulse modes
SENSe:MBUF:COUNt
Description:
Set or return the number of measurement buffer readings which will be returned each time
the SENSe:MBUF:DATA? query is issued when the measurement buffer is active. At the
completion of each read, INDEX is automatically incremented by COUNT. If COUNT is set
to a number greater than the number of points remaining in the measurement buffer, the
array will be truncated. Setting COUNT to SIZE will return the entire measurement buffer.
Syntax:
SENSe:MBUF:COUNt <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 4096
Valid Modes:
Modulated, CW or Pulse modes
SENSe:MBUF:INDEX
Description:
Set or return the array index for the first measurement buffer point to be returned next time
the SENSe:MBUF:DATA? query is issued. Index 0 corresponds to the first point in the
buffer, and index SIZE-1 is the last. Each time a block of data is read, INDEX is automatically
incremented by the COUNT value, so the full array can be split up into blocks of manageable size and read with successive SENSe:MBUF:DATA? queries. INDEX must be reset
to zero for each new measurement buffer that is to be dumped, whether or not the entire
buffer has been read.
Syntax:
SENSe:MBUF:INDEX <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 4095
Valid Modes:
Modulated, CW or Pulse modes
SENSe:MBUF:DATA
Description:
Return a comma-delimited array of power readings corresponding to all or a portion of the
measurement buffer for the selected channel. The array will consist of COUNT buffer
points, beginning at point number INDEX. Power is returned in currently selected units for
that channel.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:MBUF:DATA?
Returns:
P(index), P(index+1), P(index+2).... P(index+count)
Valid Modes:
Modulated, CW or Pulse modes, SENSe:MBUF:SIZe must be >0.
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4.5.13 SENSe:SBUF Data Array Commands
The SBUF commands (which are grouped under the SENSe subsystem) are used to control data capture and output of
a long array of sequential measurement samples (the “Sample BUFfer”). This capability is useful for capturing very
long, single, triggered events in the time domain. These commands are used in PULSE mode, and allow control of data
sampling and array output. Up to 12,000 points may be captured at programmable rates up to 2.5 million power readings
per second for importing long baseline measurements into a database on the host.
SENSe:SBUF:MODE
Description:
Set or return the on/off state of “user” sampling mode. When user mode is active (ON), the
timespan and trigger delay settings are overridden, and user programmed parameters are
used to configure sample rate, buffer size, and trigger position. Note that user mode is only
for outputting long measurement arrays, and that marker and automatic measurements are
not active in this mode. Setting to OFF restores normal operation.
Syntax:
SENSe:SBUF:MODE <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only
SENSe:SBUF:PERiod
Description:
Set or return the sampling period in internal, 80ns counts for “user” sampling mode. Sample
rate = (12.5 / n) MHz.
Syntax:
SENSe:SBUF:PERiod <n>
Argument:
<n> = 5 to 12500 (equivalent to 2.5 MSa/sec to 1.0 KSa/sec)
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only, SENSe:SBUF:MODE must be ON.
SENSe:SBUF:PREsamp
Description:
Set or return the number of pretrigger samples: points which are gathered for each sweep
before arming the trigger in “user” sampling mode. When the array is read, these points will
appear with a negative INDEX.
Syntax:
SENSe:SBUF:PREsamp <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 12000 (see restrictions)
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only, SENSe:SBUF:MODE must be ON.
Restrictions:
PREsamp + POSTsamp must be less than 12,000
SENSe:SBUF:POSTsamp
Description:
Set or return the number of posttrigger samples: points which are gathered for each sweep
after the trigger has been armed and a valid edge has been received. When the array is read,
these points will appear with a negative INDEX.
Syntax:
SENSe:SBUF:POSTsamp <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 12000 (see restrictions)
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only, SENSe:SBUF:MODE must be ON.
Restrictions:
PREsamp + POSTsamp must be less than 12,000
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SENSe:SBUF:COUNt
Description:
Set or return the number of samples (power readings), which will be returned each time the
SENSe:SBUF:DATA? query is issued in “user” sampling mode. At the completion of
each read, INDEX is automatically incremented by COUNT. If COUNT is set to a number
greater than the number of points remaining in the sample array, the array will be truncated.
Setting COUNT to (1 + PREsamp + POSTsamp), (and INDEX to zero each time) will return
the entire sample buffer.
Syntax:
SENSe:SBUF:COUNt <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 12000 (see restrictions)
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only, SENSe:SBUF:MODE must be ON.
Restrictions:
COUNT <= (PREsamp + POSTsamp)
SENSe:SBUF:INDEX
Description:
Set or return the array index for the first sample buffer point to be returned next time the
SENSe:SBUF:DATA? query is issued. Index 0 corresponds to the sample at (or closest
to) the trigger point. Samples with negative INDEX values are pretrigger points, and positive values are posttrigger points. Each time a block of data is read, INDEX is automatically
incremented by the COUNT value, so the full array can be split up into blocks of manageable size and read with successive SENSe:SBUF:DATA? queries.
Syntax:
SENSe:SBUF:INDEX <n>
Argument:
<n> = -12000 to +12000 (see restrictions)
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only, SENSe:SBUF:MODE must be ON.
Restrictions:
-PREsamp <= INDEX <= POSTsamp
SENSe:SBUF:DATA
Description:
Return a comma-delimited array of power points corresponding to all or a portion of the
“user” mode sample buffer for the selected channel. Note that graph mode does not have
to be active to read the buffer, and the power points are returned without regard to display
vertical span and center settings. The array will consist of COUNT buffer points, beginning
at point number INDEX. The buffer may span both pretrigger and posttrigger intervals.
Power is returned in currently selected units for that channel.
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:SBUF:DATA?
Returns:
P(index), P(index+1), P(index+2).... P(index+count)
Valid Modes:
Pulse mode only, SENSe:SBUF:MODE must be ON.
4.5.14 SENSe:HIST and SENSe:CALTAB Data Array Commands
The purpose of the SENS:HIST and SENS:CALTAB groups of commands is to output a power distribution histogram
array and corresponding power point array. These commands are used in STATISTICAL mode, and allow for EXTERNAL statistical analysis of a long acquisition of power samples via a spreadsheet or other database program. The HIST
commands return a histogram, which is an array of 4096 “bins”, each one corresponding to a particular power level, and
containing the number of samples that have occurred at that power level. The CALTAB commands return the power
calibration table (or “caltable”), which is the same size as the histogram (4096 points), and contains the power level for
each corresponding bin in the histogram. The power values are not equally spaced, so it is necessary to know both the
histogram and caltable arrays to compute statistical information about the input signal.
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SENSe:HIST:COUNt
Description:
Set or return the number of histogram elements (bins), which will be returned each time the
SENSe:HIST:DATA? query is issued. At the completion of each read, INDEX is automatically incremented by COUNT. If COUNT is set to a number greater than the number of
points remaining in the histogram, the array will be truncated. Setting COUNT to 4096 (and
INDEX to zero each time) will return the entire histogram array. Setting COUNT to zero will
return a single point, but does not increment INDEX, and can be used to repeatedly query
the same histogram bin.
Syntax:
SENSe:HIST:COUNt <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 4096
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only.
SENSe:HIST:INDEX
Description:
Set or return the array index for the first histogram element (bin) to be returned next time the
SENSe:HIST:DATA? query is issued. Index 0 is the first bin in the histogram, and corresponds to the lowest power level in the power calibration table. Index 4095 is the last bin,
and contain counts for the highest power level. Each time a block of data is read, INDEX is
automatically incremented by the COUNT value, so the full array can be split up into blocks
of manageable size and read with successive SENSe:HIST:DATA? queries. INDEX must
be reset to zero for each new histogram that is to be dumped, whether or not all the bins
have been read.
Syntax:
SENSe:HIST:INDEX <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 4095
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only.
SENSe:HIST:DATA
Description:
Return a comma-delimited array of integer counts corresponding to all or a portion of the
statistical mode power histogram for the selected channel. Each bin is 32 bits wide, and may
consist of a number from zero (indicating no hits to that power level) to 4 billion (indicating
all hits in the histogram were at that power level). The array will consist of COUNT histogram bins, beginning at bin INDEX, up to the last bin of the histogram (index = 4095).
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:HIST:DATA?
Returns:
N(index), N(index+1), N(index+2).... N(index+count)
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only.
SENSe:CALTAB:COUNt
Description:
Set or return the number of caltable entries, which will be returned each time the
SENSeCALTAB:DATA? query is issued. At the completion of each read, INDEX is automatically incremented by COUNT. If COUNT is set to a number greater than the number of
points remaining in the caltable, the array will be truncated. Setting COUNT to 4096 (and
INDEX to zero each time) will return the entire caltable array.
Syntax:
SENSe:CALTAB:COUNt <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 4096
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only.
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SENSe:CALTAB:INDEX
Description:
Set or return the array index for the first caltable element to be returned next time the
SENSe:CALTAB:DATA? query is issued. Index 0 is the first element in the caltable, and
will contain the lowest power level in the sensor’s calibration. Index 4095 is the last element,
and contains the highest power level. Note that the table may be extrapolated, so it is
normal for the table extremes to be outside the power measurement range of the connected
sensor. Each time a block of data is read, INDEX is automatically incremented by the
COUNT value, so the full array can be split up into blocks of manageable size and read with
successive SENSe:CALTAB:DATA? queries. INDEX must be reset to zero for each new
caltable that is to be dumped, whether or not all the bins have been read.
Syntax:
SENSe:CALTAB:INDEX <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 4095
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only.
SENSe:CALTAB:DATA
Description:
Return a comma-delimited array of integer counts corresponding to all or a portion of the
statistical mode power histogram for the selected channel. Each bin is 32 bits wide, and may
consist of a number from zero (indicating no hits to that power level) to 4 billion (indicating
all hits in the histogram were at that power level). The array will consist of COUNT histogram bins, beginning at bin number INDEX, up to the last bin of the histogram (index =
4095).
Syntax:
SENSe[1|2]:CALTAB:DATA?
Returns:
P(index), P(index+1), P(index+2).... P(index+count)
Valid Modes:
Statistical mode only.
4.5.15 CALibration Subsystem
The CALibration group of commands is used to control automatic zero offset and linearity adjustments to the RF power
sensor and the channel to which it is connected. Zero offset adjustment can be performed any time no RF signal is
applied to the sensor. Linearity calibration requires that the sensor be connected to a calibration signal source
(INTernal 50MHz, EXTernal 1GHz or USER supplied reference), as specified in the CALibration command sequence.
The numeric suffix of the CALibration program mnemonic in the CALibration commands refers to a measurement
channel, that is CALibration1 and CALibration2 represent SENSOR 1 and SENSOR 2 input channels, respectively.
Note that CALibration2 commands will generate an error if used with a single channel Model 4531. Also note that
although CALibration commands do not accept any arguments, all have a query form, which returns an error flag upon
completion of the zero or calibration process. This allows the user to determine when the process has completed, and
whether it was successful.
CALibration:{INTernal|EXTernal}:ZERO
Description:
Performs a sensor zero offset null adjustment of the selected sensor. This procedure should
always be performed immediately before making any measurements within the lowest 10dB
of a sensor’s dynamic range.
Syntax:
CALibration[1|2]:{INTernal|EXTernal}:ZERO[?]
Returns:
0 if successful, 1 otherwise (query form only)
Valid Modes:
Power sensors only. Peak sensors must be AUTOCALed before a zero can be performed.
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CALibration:{INTernal|EXTernal}:FIXedcal
Description:
Performs a single point sensor gain calibration of the selected sensor with selected calibrator. This procedure calibrates the sensor’s gain at a single point. At other levels, that gain
setting is combined with stored linearity factors to compute the actual power.
Syntax:
CALibration[1|2]:{INTernal|EXTernal}:FIXedcal[?]
Returns:
0 if successful, 1 otherwise (query form only)
Valid Modes:
CW sensors only. For peak sensors, use AUTOcal.
CALibration:{INTernal|EXTernal}:AUTOcal
Description:
Performs a multi-point sensor gain calibration of the selected sensor with selected calibrator. This procedure calibrates the sensor’s linearity at a number of points across its entire
dynamic range, and is the recommended method when maximum accuracy is required.
Syntax:
CALibration[1|2]:{INTernal|EXTernal}:AUTOcal[?]
Returns:
0 if successful, 1 otherwise (query form only)
Valid Modes:
Power sensors only.
CALibration:USER:FREQcal
Description:
Performs a single-point sensor gain calibration of the selected sensor using an external
(user-supplied) 0dBm power reference at the current operating frequency. This method can
be combined with an AUTOCAL to yield the most accurate power readings at frequencies
that are far from the calibration frequency. It temporarily replaces the calfactor computed
from the sensor’s factory-stored values with a measured value.
Syntax:
CALibration[1|2]:USER:FREQcal[?]
Returns:
0 if successful, 1 otherwise (query form only)
Valid Modes:
Power sensors only.
4.5.16 MEMory Subsystem
The MEMory group of commands is used to save and recall instrument operating configurations, and to edit and
review user-supplied frequency dependent offset (FDOF) tables for external devices in the signal path. Up to four
configurations may be saved, and two frequency dependent offset tables. Note, however that assigning a stored
FDOF table to a particular measurement channel is not a MEMory command; it is handled through the SENSe subsystem.
MEMory:SYS:LOAD
Description:
Recall a stored instrument setup from location 1 thru 4.
Syntax:
MEMory:SYS{1|2|3|4}:LOAD
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
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MEMory:SYS:STORe
Description:
Saves the current instrument setup to internal memory location 1 thru 4.
Syntax:
MEMory:SYS{1|2|3|4}:STORe
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
MEMory:FDOFfset:DATA
Description:
Set or read back the data array for frequency dependent offset table A or B. The array must
be in comma delimited format, and should consist of up to 40 data pairs, each consisting of
a frequency, followed by the offset for that frequency. Frequencies are in GHz, and may be
any valid number within the operating range of the sensor. Offsets are in dB, and may range
from -9.99 to +9.99dB. Querying an empty FDOF table will return “0.00,0.00”.
Syntax:
MEMory:FDOFfset:{TBLA|TBLB}:DATA <asc>
Argument:
Freq1, Ofst1, Freq2, Ofst2 ... FreqN, OfstN
Valid Modes:
Power sensors only.
4.5.17 OUTPut Subsystem
The OUTPut group of commands is used to control the RF calibrator and recorder outputs of the power meter. For
calibrators, either the internal 50MHz, or optional external 1GHz RF calibration source(s) may be specified. The internal
calibrator is CW, and only ON/OFF status and output levels may be set. The external calibrator (Boonton Model 2530,
see appendix) can operate in CW mode, and can also be configured as a programmable pulse source, with options for
modulation rate and duty cycle. The 4530’s rear-panel recorder output is completely programmable, and may be used
as a DC voltage output, or configured to output a voltage proportional to the measured signal on either display channel
with adjustable or automatic scaling.
OUTPut:{INTernal|EXTernal}:SIGNal
Description:
Set or return the on/off state of the selected calibrator’s output signal..
Syntax:
OUTPut:{INTernal|EXTernal}:SIGNal <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON
Valid Modes:
Any. Model 2530 must be connected if EXTernal is selected.
OUTPut:{INTernal|EXTernal}:LEVel
Description:
Set or return the power level for the selected calibrator’s output signal.
Syntax:
OUTPut:{INTernal|EXTernal}:LEVel <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = -60.0 to +20.0 dBm (0.1dB resolution)
Valid Modes:
Any. Model 2530 must be connected if EXTernal is selected.
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OUTPut:EXTernal:MODulation
Description:
Set or return the output modulation state for the 2530 external calibrator. If set to CW, a
calibrated CW signal will be generated. If set to PULSE, the output will be pulse modulated
as specified by the OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:PERiod, :DCYC, and :SOURce settings.
Syntax:
OUTPut:EXTernal:MODulation <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = CW, PULSE
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:PERiod
Description:
Set or return the pulse period for the 2530 external calibrator’s internal pulse modulator.
Syntax:
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:PERiod <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = 0.1, 1, 10 milliseconds
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:DCYC
Description:
Set or return the pulse duty cycle for the 2530 external calibrator’s internal pulse modulator.
Syntax:
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:DCYC <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 %
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:SOURce
Description:
Set or return the pulse modulation source for the 2530 external calibrator. If set to INT, the
internal pulse generator is used. EXT selects the signal from the calibrator’s rear-panel “Ext
Pulse” input. Note this input is 50 ohms, and requires TTL compatible signal levels.
Syntax:
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:SOURce <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = INT, EXT
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:RECOrder:SIGNal
Description:
Set or return the on/off state of the instrument’s rear-panel Recorder Output port.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:SIGNal <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:RECOrder:SOURce
Description:
Set or return the source channel for the recorder output.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:SOURce <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = CH1, CH2
Valid Modes:
Any
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OUTPut:RECOrder:MEAS
Description:
Set or return the recorder output’s measurement mode. If set to AUTO, the output level is
automatically scaled to match the display, and generally will “downscale” every decade as
power increases. In MANUAL mode, the output level is scaled using the minimum and
maximum powers set with OUTPut:RECOrder:MIN and :MAX as the downscale and fullscale
values. This allows very wide range or very high resolution. Setting to ALARM will cause
the recorder output to behave as a logic-level alarm status indicator, which will be 0V under
normal conditions and 5V when an alarm condition exists.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:MEAS <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = AUTO, MANUAL, ALARM
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:RECOrder:POLarity
Description:
Set or return the recorder output polarity. UNIPOLAR selects 0.0 volts and 10.0 volts to as
minimum and maximum output levels, and BIPOLAR selects -10.0 to +10.0 volts.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:POLarity <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = UNIPOLAR, BIPOLAR
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:RECOrder:MIN
Description:
Set or return the recorder output minimum, or downscale (-10.0V or 0.0V) power reference
level. For voltage probes, this is the equivalent power at the current impedance setting.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:MIN <n>
Argument:
<n> = -100.00 to +100.00 dBm
Valid Modes:
OUTPut:RECorder:MEAS must be set to MANUAL.
OUTPut:RECOrder:MAX
Description:
Set or return the recorder output maximum, or fullscale (+10.0V) power reference level. For
voltage probes, this is the equivalent power at the current impedance setting.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:MAX <n>
Argument:
<n> = -100.00 to +100.00 dBm
Valid Modes:
OUTPut:RECorder:MEAS must be set to MANUAL.
OUTPut:RECOrder:FORCE
Description:
Set or return the recorder output voltage directly. This is useful to generate a fixed, DC
voltage level for controlling an external device in a test system. Issuing a FORCE command
will temporarily override all other recorder output settings.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:FORCE <n>
Argument:
<n> = -10.0 to +10.0 volts
Valid Modes:
Any
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OUTPut:RECOrder:FAST
Description:
Set or return the state of the recorder “fast mode” setting. OFF is the instrument’s poweron default setting, and uses standard recorder output speed (about 50ms). Display and
other functions including bus operation have priority over recorder output update. ON
enables a special, high-speed recorder output mode. This mode gives priority to updating
the recorder output, and should only be used where the absolute, fastest recorder output
response is required. Latency will be under 10ms in Modulated Mode. Note that display
update speed and bus response may be slowed.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:FAST <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:SLOPe
Description:
Adjusts the slope, or gain of the recorder output. This command is typically used with a
recorder Zero Adj command to calibrate the recorder output for maximum absolute accuracy. The setting represents the deviation in percent from the factory default slope value,
and may be adjusted in 0.01% increments, corresponding to 1mV at fullscale, although
actual output resolution is 5mV. Changing the slope “pivots” the curve around the 0.0 volt
setting, and will have maximum effect at -10.0 volts and +10.0 volts. Note that this setting
is not permanent unless “Save Cal” is used.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:SLOPe <n>
Argument:
<n> = -10.0 to +10.0 %
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:ZERO
Description:
Adjusts the zero, or voltage offset of the recorder output. This command is typically used
with a recorder Slope Adj command to calibrate the recorder output for maximum absolute
accuracy. The setting increases or decreases the actual output voltage by a fixed amount,
and may be adjusted in 1mV increments, although actual output resolution is 5mV. Changing the offset moves the entire curve up or down, and has equal effect at all output levels.
Note that this setting is not permanent unless “Save Cal” is used.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:ZERO <n>
Argument:
<n> = -1.000 to +1.000 V
Valid Modes:
Any
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:SAVE
Description:
Saves the recorder Zero and Slope adjustments to the instrument’s non-volatile calibration
memory once they have been set. If this step is not performed, the settings will revert back
to the previous settings next time instrument power is applied.
Syntax:
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:SAVE
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
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4.5.18 SYSTem Subsystem
The SYSTem group of commands is used to control system-level functions not directly related to instrument measurement performance. SYSTem commands are used to return error codes or messages from the power meter error queue,
control hardware features (backlight and keybeep), set the command language, and configure communication parameters for the GPIB and serial interfaces.
SYSTem:VERSion
Description:
Return the SCPI version compliance claimed.
Syntax:
SYSTem:VERSion?
Returns:
Version Code as <year.version> YYYY.V (will return 1990.0)
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:ERRor
Description:
Returns the next queued error code number followed by a quoted ASCII text string describing the error. Note that errors are stored in a “first-in-first-out” queue, so if more than one
error have occurred, repeating this command will report the errors in the sequence they
happened. The action of reading the error will clear that error, so once the most recent error
has been read, any more queries will report a code of zero, and “No Error”. See section 4.9
for a more detailed description of the error codes that may be returned.
Syntax:
SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?
Returns:
<numeric error code>, “QUOTED ERROR DESCRIPTION”
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:LANGuage
Description:
Set or return the remote interface “language”, SCPI (SCPI compliant), or BOON (native
mode). The instrument always powers up in the SCPI state. Activating the BOON language
extension will enable the 4530 Native Mode commands (see paragraph 4.5.5), while still
supporting all SCPI commands. Native mode is useful for reporting high-speed measurements over the remote interface with a minimum overhead.
Syntax:
SYSTem:LANGuage <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = SCPI, BOON
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:BEEP
Description:
Set or return the on/off state of the key beep: ON = audible, OFF = silent.
Syntax:
SYSTem:BEEP <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = ON, OFF
Valid Modes:
Any
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SYSTem:LIGHT
Description:
Set or return the display backlight status. OFF = always off, ON = always on, ON_1 and
ON_5 = on at any key press, off after 1 or 5 minutes of keyboard inactivity,
Syntax:
SYSTem:LIGHT <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = ON, OFF, ON_1, ON_5
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:BAUD
Description:
Set or return the serial port baud rate.
Syntax:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:BAUD <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:BITS
Description:
Set or return the number of serial port data bits.
Syntax:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:BITS <n>
Argument:
<n> = 7 or 8
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:SBITs
Description:
Set or return the number of serial port stop bits.
Syntax:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:SBITs <n>
Argument:
<n> = 1 or 2
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:PARity
Description:
Set or return the serial port parity status to NONE, ODD or EVEN.
Syntax:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:PARity <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = NONE, ODD, EVEN
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:CONTrol:RTS
Description:
Set or return the serial port handshake mode for the RTS line. ON = use as handshake line,
OFF = always deassert. The DTR line is always asserted.
Syntax:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:CONTrol:RTS <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = OFF, ON
Valid Modes:
Any
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SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:ADDRess
Description:
Set or return the instrument’s primary GPIB address. Use this command with caution, as
GPIB communication could become locked up if proper addressing does not occur.
Syntax:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:ADDRess <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 30
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:LISTen
Description:
Set or return the LISTENER line termination (EOS) character. This character is used to
terminate any command the instrument receives over the GPIB. However, since the instrument always responds to an EOI command from the controller, it is not necessary for the
user to transmit the EOS character unless the controller doesn’t set EOI on the last command byte.
Syntax:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:LISTen <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = CR, LF
Valid Modes:
Any
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:TALK
Description:
Set or return the TALKER line termination (EOS) character(s). This character(s) is sent by
the instrument at the end of any response string it transmits. However, since it always
asserts EOI on the last character of any string, it may not be necessary to use any EOS
character if the controller recognizes the EOI. In this case, set the talk termination to NONE.
Syntax:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:TALK <asc>
Argument:
<asc> = NONE, CR, LF, CRLF
Valid Modes:
Any
4.5.19 STATus Commands
The STATus command subsystem enables you to control the SCPI defined status reporting structures. The user may
examine the status of the power meter by monitoring the Operation Status Register and Questionable Status Register.
Note that IEEE-488.2 commands may be used to monitor device registers (See IEEE-488.2 Commands).
STATus:PRESet
Description:
Sets device dependent SCPI registers to default states. The Operational Enable and Questionable Enable mask registers are both cleared so an SRQ will not be generated for these
conditions, and the error queue is cleared.
Syntax:
STATus:PRESet
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
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STATus:OPERation:EVENt
Description:
Return the SCPI Operation Status Event register, which contains the latched bits of the
Operation Status register. If any of the bits in the status register have gone high, the
corresponding bit in the event register will be set, indicating that the event of interest is
present or has occurred. The event register bits are cleared after reading.
Syntax:
STATus:OPERation:EVENt?
Returns:
16-bit register value (0 to 32767)
Valid Modes:
Any
STATus:OPERation:CONDition
Description:
Return the current value (condition) of the SCPI Operation Status register. The following
table shows the bit assignments in the register:
Bit
Value
Definition
0
1-4
5
6 - 12
13
14
15 - 16
1
-32
-8192
16384
--
Calibrating
Not used
Trigger Status
Not used
Instrument Summary
Program Running
Not used
Syntax:
STATus:OPERation:CONDition?
Returns:
16-bit register value (0 to 32767)
Valid Modes:
Any
1 = sensor calibration in progress.
always returns 0
1 = waiting for a trigger signal.
always returns 0
1 = the instrument is executing a program.
always returns 0
STATus:OPERation:ENABle
Description:
Set or return the Operation Enable mask value. This value is used to enable particular bits
for generating a service request (SRQ) over the GPIB when certain conditions exist in the
Operation Status register. When a mask bit is set, and the corresponding STB bit goes true,
an SRQ will be generated. No SRQ can be generated for that condition if the mask bit is
clear. The bits in the Status Byte register are generally summary bits, which are the logical
OR of the enabled bits from other registers.
Syntax:
STATus:OPERation:ENABle <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 32767
Valid Modes:
Any
STATus:QUEStionable:EVENt
Description:
Return the SCPI Questionable Status Event register, which contains the latched bits of the
Questionable Status register. If any of the bits in the status register have gone high, the
corresponding bit in the event register will be set, indicating that the event of interest is
present or has occurred. The event register bits are cleared after reading.
Syntax:
STATus:QUEStionable:EVENt?
Returns:
16-bit register value (0 to 32767)
Valid Modes:
Any
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STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition
Description:
Return the current value (condition) of the SCPI Questionable Status register. The following table shows the bit assignments in the register:
Bit
Value
Definition
0
1-2
3
4
5-7
8
9 - 12
13
14
15
1
-8
16
-256
-8192
16384
--
Voltage
Not used
Power
Temperature
Not used
Calibration
Not used
Instrument Summary
Command Warning
Not used
1 = an internal power supply voltage is out of spec.
always returns 0
1 = there has been a power error.
1 = a sensor has drifted by more than 4C from autocal.
always returns 0
1 = sensor requires calibration and/or zeroing
always returns 0
always returns 0
Syntax:
STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition?
Returns:
16-bit register value (0 to 32767)
Valid Modes:
Any
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle
Description:
Set or return the Questionable Enable mask value. This value is used to enable particular
bits for generating a service request (SRQ) over the GPIB when certain conditions exist in
the Questionable Status register. When a mask bit is set, and the corresponding STB bit
goes true, an SRQ will be generated. No SRQ can be generated for that condition if the mask
bit is clear. The bits in the Status Byte register are generally summary bits, which are the
logical OR of the enabled bits from other registers.
Syntax:
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 32767
Valid Modes:
Any
4.5.20 IEEE-488.2 Commands
The purpose of IEEE488.2 commands is to provide management and data communication instructions for the system by
defining a set of “*” commands (an asterisk followed by a three character code). These commands allow device control
and status monitoring, and are the basis for some of the commands of the SCPI STATus subsystem (see previous).
*CLS
Description:
Clear Status command. This command resets the SCPI status registers (Questionable Status and Operation Status), the error queue, the IEEE488.2 Status Byte (STB) and Standard
Event Status (ESR) registers, and the measurement.
Syntax:
*CLS
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
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*ESE
Description:
Set or return the Standard Event Status Enable Register. The mask value in this register is
used to enable particular bits for generating a service request (SRQ) over the GPIB when
certain conditions exist in the Event Status Register. When a mask bit is set, and the
corresponding ESR bit goes true, an SRQ will be generated, provided the Event Status
Summary bit (ESB, bit 5) is enabled in the SRE register. No SRQ can be generated for that
condition if the mask bit is clear. See the *ESR command for bit assignments.
Syntax:
*ESE <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 255
Valid Modes:
Any
Description:
Return the current value of the Standard Event Status Register, then clear the register. This
register has bits assigned to a number of possible events or conditions of the instrument.
The register value may be read using this command, or may be used to generate a service
request (SRQ) over the GPIB when certain conditions exist. Individual bits may be enabled
or disabled for SRQ generation using the ESE mask (see *ESE command). The following
table shows the bit assignments in the Standard Event Status Register:
*ESR
Bit
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
Definition
OPeration Complete flag
Not used
Not used
Device Dependent Error
Execution Error
Command Error
Not used
PON
1 = all current operations have completed execution.
always returns 0
always returns 0
1 = the instrument encountered a device dependent error.
1 = the instrument encountered an execution error.
1 = a remote interface command error exists.
always returns 0
1 = the instrument power has been turned on.
Syntax:
*ESR?
Returns:
Current Value of Event Status Register (0 to 255)
Valid Modes:
Any
Description:
Return the instrument identification string. This string contains the manufacturer, model
number, serial number and firmware version number.
Syntax:
*IDN?
Returns:
< Mfgr, Model#, Serial#, Version >
Valid Modes:
Any
*IDN
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*OPC
Description:
Clear or read the OPC (OPeration Complete) status flag. Issuing this command with no
arguments clears the flag (resets it to zero), and the query form of the command returns the
flag’s current value. The flag is bit 0 (the LSB) of the Standard Event Status Register (ESR),
and is set to one when all pending operations have completed. Using the OPC flag requires
that it be immediately cleared before an operation is started. Once the flag has been cleared
by sending *OPC, the next command should be issued. After this, the flag may be queried
by *OPC? until a value of one is returned, indicating the command has completed. Note
that the query is not a true query - a value of zero will never be returned. Rather, *OPC? will
not return a result until the OPC flag has been set to one by the completion of the previous
operation. This has the disadvantage that the GPIB will be “hung” while waiting for OPC to
become true. Another way to handle this is to enable the OPC bit (bit 0) in the Standard
Event Status Enable mask so an SRQ is generated when the operation completes.
Syntax:
*OPC[?]
Returns:
Query form returns 1, when pending operation is complete
Valid Modes:
Any
Description:
Perform a global reset of the instrument, which sets most registers and measurement parameters to default values.
Syntax:
*RST
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
Description:
Set or return the mask value in the Service Request Enable Register. This value is used to
enable particular bits for generating a service request (SRQ) over the GPIB when certain
conditions exist in the STatus Byte register. When a mask bit in the SRE Register is set, and
the corresponding STB register bit goes true, an SRQ will be generated. No SRQ can be
generated for that condition if the mask bit is clear. The bits in the Status Byte register are
generally summary bits, which are the logical OR of the enabled bits from other registers.
See the *STB command for bit assignments.
Syntax:
*SRE <n>
Argument:
<n> = 0 to 255
Valid Modes:
Any
*RST
*SRE
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*STB
Description:
Return the current value of the STatus Byte register. This register has bits assigned to a
number of possible events or conditions of the instrument. The register value may be read
using this command, or may be used to generate a service request (SRQ) over the GPIB
when certain conditions exist. Individual bits may be enabled or disabled for SRQ generation using the SRE mask (see *SRE command). Note that the bits in the STatus Byte
register are generally summary bits, which are the logical OR of the enabled bits from other
registers. The following table shows the bit assignments in the STatus Byte register:
Bit
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
Definition
Not used
Not used
Not used
QUEStionable Status Summary
Message AVailable flag bit
Event Status Summary
SRQ Summary Status
OPERation Status Summary
1 = an enabled QUEStionable condition is true.
1 = an output message is ready to transmit.
1 = an enabled Event Status condition is true.
1 = an enabled Service ReQuest condition exist.
1 = an enabled OPERation condition is true.
Syntax:
*STB?
Returns:
Current Value of Status Byte register (0 to 255)
Valid Modes:
Any
Description:
Self-test query. This command initiates a self-test of the instrument, and returns a result
code when complete. The result is zero for no errors, or a signed, 16-bit number if any errors
are detected.
Syntax:
*TST
Returns:
Error Code
Valid Modes:
Any
Description:
Wait command. This command insures sequential, non-overlapped execution. Occasionally, the 4530 will execute commands in parallel for faster response. If a long-duration
command is being processed, and a second command is issued, their execution may overlap. If the second command requires a setting that the first command was changing, or is
invalid until the first command has executed, it is a good idea to issue a *WAI command to
insure that the second command won’t begin executing until the first one has completed.
An example of this is a mode change such as CALCulate:MODe PULSE, followed by
setting a pulse-mode-only parameter such as DISPlay:TSPAN. In this case, separate the
two commands with a *WAI command to ensure that there will be no conflicts. Another
option is to simply program a short delay (50mS) between such commands.
Syntax:
*WAI
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
*TST
*WAI
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*TRG
Description:
Trigger a measurement. This command is equivalent to receiving a GET command from the
GPIB bus controller. If the trigger is armed (usually by an INITiate command) and trigger
source is set to BUS, a new measurement will begin when *TRG is received.
Syntax:
*TRG
Argument:
None
Valid Modes:
Any
4.5.21 Remote Interface Command Summary
The following table is only a summary, and does not contain all command information necessary to program the remote interface. See previous the sections in this chapter for detailed command descriptions
and usage syntax. SCPI commands are listed in alphabetical order, followed by native mode commands.
Table 4-1 Remote Command Summary
*CLS
Clear status command to instrument
*ESE
set/return Event Status Enable mask
*ESR?
return value of Event Status Register
*IDN?
return instrument identification string
*OPC[?]
Set OPC flag false, or Return flag when it becomes true
*RST
Global Reset command.
*SRE
set/return value of Service Request Enable mask
*STB?
return status byte, except bit 6 (srq summary) always = 0
*TRG
Trigger a measurement; same action as GET
*TST?
Self test query. Return zero for no errors; signed 16-bit otherwise
*WAI
No-Op for sequential non-overlapped execution
ABORt
immediately set the measurement trigger system to idle
CALCulate[1 | 2]:DCYC
set/return pulse duty cycle, <n> = 0.01 to 100%
CALCulate[1 | 2]:MATH <asc>
set/return the calc math function, <asc> = [see command description]
CALCulate[1 | 2]:MODe <asc>
set/return measurement mode, <asc> = [see command description]
CALCulate[1 | 2]:LIMit:FAIL?
return alarm limit status flags
CALCulate[1 | 2]:LIMit:STATe <asc>
set/return upper and lower limit alarms, <asc> = ON, OFF
CALCulate[1 | 2]:LIMit:CLEar[:IMMediate]
action: reset channel alarm limit status flags
CALCulate[1 | 2]:LIMit:LOWer <n>
set/return the lower limit power level, <n> = -100.00 to +100.00 dBm
CALCulate[1 | 2]:LIMit:UPPer <n>
set/return the upper limit power level, <n> = -100.00 to +100.00 dBm
CALCulate[1 | 2]:PKHLD <asc>
set/return the state of the peak hold function, <asc> = OFF, AVG, INST
CALCulate[1 | 2]:RANGe <asc>
set/return meas range for CW & Voltage sensors, <asc>=AUTO, 0, 1, 2
CALCulate[1 | 2]:REFerence:STATe <asc>
set/return reference measurement mode, <asc> = ON, OFF
CALCulate[1 | 2]:REFerence:COLLect
action: load the sensor’s current power reading as the reference level
CALCulate[1 | 2]:REFerence:DATA <n>
set/return power value of the reference level, <n> = nn.nn dBm
CALCulate[1 | 2]:STATe <asc>
set/return calc channel status, <asc> = ON, OFF
CALCulate[1 | 2]:UNITs <asc>
set/return measurement units, <asc> = [see command description]
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Table 4-1 Remote Command Summary (Cont)
CALibration[1 | 2]:{INTernal | EXTernal}:ZERO[?]
Performs sensor zero offset null adjustment,[return err flag]
CALibration[1 | 2]:{INTernal | EXTernal}:FIXEDcal[?]
Performs single-point sensor gain calibration, [return err flag]
CALibration[1 | 2]:{INTernal | EXTernal}:AUTOcal[?]
Performs multi-point sensor gain “step” calibration, [return err flag]
CALibration[1 | 2]:USER:FREQcal[?]
Performs single-point snsr gain cal with user ref signal, [return err flag]
DISPlay:%SPAN <n>
set/return statistical mode horizontal trace span in percent
DISPlay:%OFST <n>
set/return statistical mode horizontal trace offset in percent
DISPlay:TSPAN <n>
set/return horizontal time span <n> = [mode dependent]
DISPlay:DATA?
return 3200 chars+terminator which encode pixels of the display
DISPlay:TEXT[1 | 2]:BARgraph <asc>
set/return bargraph visibility, <asc> = OFF, ON
DISPlay:TEXT[1 | 2]:RESolution <n>
set/return main readout resolution in decimal places, <n> = 1, 2, 3
DISPlay:GRPH[1 | 2] <n>
action: select single channel graph display, <n>=1, 2, 3 is display page
DISPlay:GRPHB <n>
action: select dual channel graph display, <n>=1, 2, 3 is display page
DISPlay:TXT[1 | 2] <n>
action: select single channel text display, <n>=1, 2, 3 is display page
DISPlay:TXTB <n>
action: select dual channel text display, <n>=1, 2, 3 is display page
DISPlay:TRACe[1 | 2]:LOGSPAN <n>
set/return vertical span in dB
DISPlay:TRACe[1 | 2]:LINSPAN <n>
set/return vertical span in Watts / Volts
DISPlay:TRACe[1 | 2]:PCTSPAN <n>
set/return vertical span in Percent
DISPlay:TRACe[1 | 2]:LOGCNTR <n>
set/return vertical center in dBm / dBr
DISPlay:TRACe[1 | 2]:LINCNTR <n>
set/return vertical center in Watts / Volts
DISPlay:TRACe[1 | 2]:PCTCNTR <n>
set/return vertical center in Percent.
FETCh[1 | 2]:CW:POWer?
return current average reading in power units
FETCh[1 | 2]:CW:VOLTage?
return current average reading in voltage units
FETCh[1 | 2]:MARKer[1 | 2]:POWer?
return current reading at the specified marker
FETCh[1 | 2]:ARRay:MARKer:POWer?
return current readings at both markers
FETCh[1 | 2]:ARRay:MARKer:PERcent?
return current statistical percent at both markers
FETCh[1 | 2]:ARRay:CW:POWer?
return array of current power readings
FETCh[1 | 2]:ARRay:CW:VOLTage?
return array of current voltage readings
FETCh[1 | 2]:ARRay:PULse:POWer?
return array of current marker measurements
FETCh[1 | 2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:TIMe?
return array of current automatic pulse timing measurements
FETCh[1 | 2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer?
return array of current automatic pulse power measurements
INITiate:CONTinuous <asc>
set/return state of mode which triggers meas cycles continuously
INITiate[:IMMediate[:ALL]]
set mode which starts a measurement cycle when trigger event occurs
MARKer:MODe <asc>
set/return global marker mode, <asc> = OFF, VERT, HORZ
MARKer:POSition[1 | 2]:POWer <n>
set/return marker power, <n> = -99.99 to +99.99 dBm
MARKer:POSition[1 | 2]:TIMe <n>
set/return marker time relative to the trigger, <n> =(+/- SPAN/2+Tdly)
MARKer:POSition[1 | 2]:PERcent <n>
set/return marker statistical percent, (vertical marker) <n> = 0 to 100 %
MEASure[1 | 2]:POWer?
return average power measurement using default configuration
MEASure[1 | 2]:VOLTage?
return average voltage measurement using default configuration
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Table 4-1 Remote Command Summary (Cont)
MEMory:SYS[1 | 2 | 3 | 4]:LOAD
recall stored instrument setup from setup memory location 1 thru 4.
MEMory:SYS[1 | 2 | 3 | 4]:STORe
store instrument setup in setup memory location 1 thru 4.
MEMory:FDOFfset:TBLA:DATA <asc>
set/return data array for frequency-dependent offset table A
MEMory:FDOFfset:TBLB:DATA <asc>
set/return data array for frequency-dependent offset table B
OUTPut:{INTernal | EXTernal}:SIGNal <asc>
set/return selected calibrator output state, <asc> = OFF, ON
OUTPut:{INTernal | EXTernal}:LEVel <n>
set/return selected calibrator output level, <n> = -60.0 to +20.0 dBm
OUTPut:EXTernal:MODulation <asc>
set/return external calibrator modulation, <asc> = CW, PULSE
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:PERiod <asc>
set/return external calibrator pulse period, <asc> = .1, 1, 10 ms
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:DCYC <asc>
set/return external calibrator pulse duty cycle, <asc> = 10 to 90 %
OUTPut:EXTernal:PULse:SOURce <asc>
set/return external calibrator modulation source, <asc> = INT, EXT
OUTPut:RECOrder:SIGNal <asc>
set/return Recorder Output state, <asc> = OFF, ON
OUTPut:RECOrder:SOURce <asc>
set/return Recorder Output source, <asc> = CH1, CH2
OUTPut:RECOrder:MEAS <asc>
set/return Recorder function, <asc> = AUTO, MANUAL, ALARM
OUTPut:RECOrder:POLarity <asc>
set/return Recorder Output polarity, <asc> = UNIPOLAR, BIPOLAR
OUTPut:RECOrder:MIN <n>
set/return Recorder Output dnscale level, <n> = -100.00 to +100.00 dBm
OUTPut:RECOrder:MAX <n>
set/return Recorder Output fullscale level, <n> = -100.00 to +100.00 dBm
OUTPut:RECOrder:FORCE <n>
set/return Recorder Output level directly, <n> = -10.0 to +10.0 volts
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:SLOPe <n>
set/return Recorder Output slope adjustment, <n> = -10.00 to +10.00%
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:ZERO <n>
set/return Recorder Output zero adjustment, <n> = -1.000 to +1.000 volts
OUTPut:RECOrder:CALibration:SAVE
save Recorder Output adjustments to non-volatile calibration memory
READ[1 | 2]:CW:POWer?
perform measurement, return new average reading in power units
READ[1 | 2]:CW:VOLTage?
perform measurement, return new average reading in voltage units
READ[1 | 2]:MARKer[1 | 2]:POWer?
perform measurement, return reading at the specified marker
READ[1 | 2]:ARRay:MARKer:POWer?
perform measurement, return readings at both markers
READ[1 | 2]:ARRay:MARKer:PERcent?
perform measurement, return statistical percent at both markers
READ[1 | 2]:ARRay:CW:POWer?
perform measurement, return array of power readings
READ[1 | 2]:ARRay:CW:VOLTage?
perform measurement, return array of voltage readings
READ[1 | 2]:ARRay:PULse:POWer?
perform measurement, return array of marker measurements
READ[1 | 2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:TIMe?
perform measurement, return array of automatic pulse timing measrmnts
READ[1 | 2]:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer?
perform measurement, return array of automatic pulse pwr measurmnts
SENSe[1 | 2]:AVERage <n>
set/return trace averaging count, <n> = 1 to 4096
SENSe[1 | 2]:BANDwidth <asc>
set/return sensor video bandwidth, <asc> = LOW, HIGH
SENSe[1 | 2]:CORRection:OFFset <n>
set/return sensor offset value in dB, <n> = -100.00 to +100.00 dB
SENSe[1 | 2]:CORRection:FREQuency <n>
set/return sensor measurement frequency in GHz, <n> = 0.001 to 110.00
SENSe[1 | 2]:CORRection:CALFactor <n>
set/return sensor cal factor in dB, <n> = -3.00 to +3.00 dB
SENSe[1 | 2]:CORRection:FDOFfset <asc>
set/return current freq dependent offset table, <asc> = OFF, TBLA, TBLB
SENSe[1 | 2]:CORRection:TEMPComp <asc>
set/return peak sensor temperature compensation state, <asc> = OFF, ON
SENSe[1 | 2]:FILTer:STATe <asc>
set/return filter state, <asc> = OFF, ON, AUTO
SENSe[1 | 2]:FILTer:TIMe <n>
set/return filter time, <n> = 0.01 to 15.00 seconds
SENSe[1 | 2]:IMPEDance <n>
set/return voltage probe sensor impedance for power calculations
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Table 4-1 Remote Command Summary (Cont)
SENSe[1 | 2]:PULse:DISTal <n>
set/return pulse distal level in percent of top power, <n> = 0 to 100%
SENSe[1 | 2]:PULse:MESIal <n>
set/return pulse mesial level in percent of top power, <n> = 0 to 100%
SENSe[1 | 2]:PULse:PROXimal <n>
set/return pulse proximal level in % of top power, <n> = 0 to 100%
SENSe[1 | 2]:PULse:UNITs <asc>
set/return power units used for DIST, MESI and PROX arguments
SENSe[1 | 2]:PULse:STARTGT <n>
set/return pulse gate start in % of pulse duration, <n> = 0 to 40%
SENSe[1 | 2]:PULse:ENDGT <n>
set/return pulse gate end in % of pulse duration, <n> = 60 to 100%
SENSe[1 | 2]:HIST:COUNt <n>
set/return the number of histogram bins to return, <n> = 0 to 4096
SENSe[1 | 2]:HIST:INDEX <n>
set/return index of first histogram bin to return, <n> = 0 to 4095
SENSe[1 | 2]:HIST:DATA?
return “count” bin values from the signal histogram, starting at “index”
SENSe[1 | 2]:CALTAB:COUNt <n>
set/return the number of cal table values to return, <n> = 0 to 4096
SENSe[1 | 2]:CALTAB:INDEX <n>
set/return index of first cal table value to return, <n> = 0 to 4095
SENSe[1 | 2]:CALTAB:DATA?
return “count” power values from the cal table, starting at “index”.
SENSe[1 | 2]:MBUF:SIZe <n>
set/return the number readings needed to fill meas buffer, <n> = 0 to 4096
SENSe[1 | 2]:MBUF:RATe <n>
set/return meas buffer rate for Mod & CW, <n> = 1 to 1000 rdgs/sec
SENSe[1 | 2]:MBUF:POSition?
return current acquisition index position of measurement buffer
SENSe[1 | 2]:MBUF:COUNt <n>
set/return the number of meas buffer readings to return, <n> = 0 to 4096
SENSe[1 | 2]:MBUF:INDEX <n>
set/return index of first meas buffer reading to return, <n> = 0 to 4095
SENSe[1 | 2]:MBUF:DATA?
return “count” stored readings from the meas buffer, starting at “index”
SENSe[1 | 2]:SBUF:MODE <asc>
set/return status of user defined sample buffer, <asc> = ON, OFF
SENSe[1 | 2]:SBUF:PERiod <n>
set/return the A/D sampling period, <n> = 5 to 12,500
SENSe[1 | 2]:SBUF:PREsamp <n>
set/return the number of samples before the trigger, <n> = 0 to 12,000
SENSe[1 | 2]:SBUF:POSTsamp <n>
set/return the number of samples after the trigger, <n> = 0 to 12,000
SENSe[1 | 2]:SBUF:COUNt<n>
set/return the total number of samples to return, <n> = 1 to 12,000
SENSe[1 | 2]:SBUF:INDEX <n>
set/return the index of next data point relative to trigger position
SENSe[1 | 2]:SBUF:DATA?
return “count” power samples from captured buffer starting at “index”.
SENSe[1 | 2]:TEMPerature?
return sensor internal temperature in degrees Celsius
SENSe[1 | 2]:CALTemp?
return sensor calibration temperature in degrees Celsius
STATus:PRESet
set device dependent SCPI and device status registers
STATus:OPERation:EVENt?
return value of Operation Status Register
STATus:OPERation:CONDition?
return value of Operation Condition Register (unlatched)
STATus:OPERation:ENABle <n>
set/return value of Operation Enable Mask, <n> = 0 to 32767
STATus:QUEStionable:EVENt?
return value of Questionable Status Register
STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition?
return value of Questionable Condition Register (unlatched)
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle <n>
set/return value of Questionable Enable Mask, <n> = 0 to 32767
SYSTem:BEEP <asc>
set/return keypad audible beeper status, <asc> = ON, OFF
SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?
return next queued error code number and description
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:BAUD <n>
set/return serial port baud rate, <n> = 1200 to 38400 baud
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:BITS <n>
set/return number of serial port data bits, <n> = 7 or 8
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:SBITs <n>
set/return number of serial port stop bits, <n> = 1 or 2
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:PARity <asc>
set/return state of serial port parity bit, <asc> = NONE, ODD, EVEN
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:CONTrol:RTS <asc>
set/return serial RTS handshake mode: OFF, ON
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Table 4-1 Remote Command Summary (Cont)
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:ADDRess <n>
set/return instrument’s own GPIB primary address, <n> = 0 to 30
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:LISTen <asc>
set/return LISTENER line termination, <asc> = CR, LF
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:TALK <asc>
set/return TALKER line termination, <asc> = NONE, CR, LF, CRLF
SYSTem:LANGuage <asc>
set/return language selection, <asc> = SCPI, BOON
SYSTem:LIGHT <asc>
set/return display backlight status, <asc> = ON, OFF, ON_1, ON_5
SYSTem:VERSion?
return SCPI version compliance if claimed, YYYY.V as 1990.0
TRACe[1 | 2]:COUNt <n>
set/return the total number of trace pwr points to return, <n> = 0 to 126
TRACe[1 | 2]:INDEX <n>
set/return the index of the next trace power point, <n> = 0 to 125
TRACe[1 | 2]:DATA?
return “count” trace power points in current units starting at “index”.
TRIGger:CDF:COUNt <n>
set/return the statistical mode terminal count, <n> = 1 to 4000 million
TRIGger:CDF:DECImate <asc>
set/return decimation action when reaching term cnt, <asc> = ON, OFF
TRIGger:DELay <n>
set/return trigger delay with respect to the trigger
TRIGger:HOLDoff <n>
set/return trigger holdoff, <n> = 0 to 0.999999 seconds
TRIGger:LEVel <n>
set/return trigger level <n> = -40 to 20dBm
TRIGger:MODe <asc>
set/return trigger mode, <asc> = PKTOPK, AUTO, NORM
TRIGger:POSition <asc>
set/return trigger position on display, <asc> = LEFT, MIDDLE, RIGHT
TRIGger:SLOPe <asc>
set/return trigger slope, <asc> = NEGative, POSitive
TRIGger:SOURce <asc>
set/return trigger source, <asc> = [see command description]
CH1
Native: Set Ch 1 to be the active channel for chan-depend talkmodes
CH2
Native: Set Ch 2 to be the active channel for chanl-depend talkmodes
TALKMODE?
Native: return active channel and current talkmode mnemonic
TKERR
Native: return next queued error code number, 0 = no error
TKERRMSG
Native: return next queued error code number and description
TKSDATA
Native: return sensor data page from sensor’s eeprom
TKSSLOW
Native: return slow freq calfactor table page from sensor EEPROM
TKSFAST
Native: return fast freq calfactor table page from sensor EEPROM
TKSCWRG
Native: return CW linearity factor table from sensor EEPROM
TKSMSG
Native: return message page from sensor EEPPROM
TKAVG
Native talkmode: return current average reading for active channel
TKPWR
Native talkmode: return current power array for active channel
TKBOTH
Native talkmode: return current average reading for both channels
TKMK1
Native talkmode: return current reading at Marker1 for active channel
TKMK2
Native talkmode: return current reading at Marker2 for active channel
TKPLSPWR
Native talkmode: return current automatic pulse pwr meas for act chan
TKPLSTIM
Native talkmode: return current automatic pls timing meas for act chan
TKMKMEAS
Native talkmode: return current marker measurements for act chan
TKSMEAS
Native talkmode: return array of statistical meas for active channel
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4.6 REMOTE SENSOR CALIBRATION
4.6.1 AutoCal (Peak or CW Sensors) - When maximum accuracy is required, an automatic sensor calibration
(AutoCal) should be used. This steps the sensor through a series of calibrated power levels and builds the sensor’s
linearity calibration table for its entire dynamic range. AutoCal is performed using the internal 50 MHz step calibrator
or the optional external 1 GHz step calibrator. The calibration process requires up to 2 minutes to accomplish with CW
and wider dynamic range peak sensors. The simplest way to accomplish this is to program a delay of approximately 2
minutes before reading the result flag from the 4530.
CAL2:INT:AUTOCAL?
Calibrate the sensor connected to the SENSOR 2 input using the
internal 50 MHz step calibrator and return a “0” if the calibration
has completed success fully or a “1” if it has not.
{ WAIT 2 MINUTES }
Allow sufficient time for the longest anticipated calibration.
{ READ flag }
Read the result flag and proceed accordingly.
This method is simple but has a disadvantage. You must anticipate the time required. An incorrect estimate will waste
time or cause an error. A better but more complicated method makes use of the service request capability of the GPIB:
*CLS
Clear all status registers.
*ESE 1
Enable the operation complete flag in the Event Status Register.
*SRE 32
Enable the Event Status Register to initiate a request for service
by setting the SRQ line of the GPIB true.
CAL2:INT:AUTOCAL?; *OPC
Calibrate the peak sensor connected to the SENSOR 2 input
using the internal 50 MHz step calibrator and return a “0” if the
calibration has completed successfully or a “1” if it has not.
Begin an operation complete sequence.
{ WAIT FOR SRQ }
Wait for an SRQ from the power meter over the GPIB bus.
{ SPOLL status byte }
Perform Serial Poll sequence to read the instrument’s status byte
and clear the SRQ condition.
{ READ flag }
Read the result flag and proceed accordingly.
If other STB or ESR bits are enabled, or if other instruments on the bus are able to set an SRQ, it may be necessary to
further examine the source of the SRQ to be certain that the completion of the calibration procedure is the cause.
4.6.2 Zero and FixedCal (CW Sensors only) - Where maximum accuracy is not necessary, most CW sensors
can be quickly calibrated by zeroing the sensor followed by a single-point FixedCal. Calibration and zeroing is
accomplished using the internal 50 MHz step calibrator or the optional external 1 GHz step calibrator. The zeroing
process requires up to 2 minutes to accomplish and the calibration process takes a few seconds. The simplest way to
accomplish this is to program a delay reading the result flag from the 4530.
CAL1:INT:ZERO?
Zero the CW sensor connected to the SENSOR 1 input using
the internal 50 MHz step calibrator and return a “0” if zeroing
has completed successfully or a “1” if it has not.
{ WAIT 2 MINUTES }
Allow sufficient time for the longest anticipated calibration.
{ READ flag }
Read the result flag and proceed accordingly.
CAL1:INT:FIXED?
Calibrate the CW sensor connected to the SENSOR 1 input at a
fixed level using the internal 50 MHz step calibrator and return a
“0” if the calibration has completed successfully or a “1” if it has
not.
{ WAIT 5 SECONDS }
Allow sufficient time for the longest anticipated calibration.
{ READ flag }
Read the result flag and proceed accordingly.
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This method is simple but has a disadvantage. You must anticipate the time required. An incorrect estimate will waste
time or cause an error. A better but more complicated method makes use of the service request capability of the GPIB.
Apply the alternate method shown in paragraph 4.6.1 for the ZERO and FIXEDCAL functions.
4.7 NATIVE MODE PROGRAMMING.
The native mode is invoked with:
SYSTem:LANGuage BOON
The native mode retains almost all of the SCPI functions, but allows for current readings to be returned by simply
addressing the instrument to TALK. The format of the returned data is pre-determined by setting an active channel and
a Talk Mode. This simplified procedure overcomes some of the latency involved in GPIB bus operations, but is entirely
instrument specific. All GPIB command strings are case insensitive.
Talkmodes
A talkmode is a preprogrammed response format, where the user instructs the instrument to return measurement data
in a particular format every time it is addressed to talk. The only exception is when an overriding query command
(anything containing a “?”) is issued, in which case the response immediately following that query will contain the
queried parameter. This query is active for only one “talk address” cycle, and following this, the response format will
revert to the programmed talkmode for any further talk addressing. Queries such as this are sometimes referred to as
“temporary talkmodes”. Talkmodes are enabled only when the power meter is set to native mode by setting the
language to BOON.
Native Commands
CH1
CH2
Set Channel 1 active for readings.
Set Channel 2 active for readings.
Set the active channel. When addressed to TALK, 4530 returns the current measurement string for whichever channel
is set as “active”. (Note that one command (TKBOTH), reports the readings on both channels without regard to the
active channel setting.) The result string consists of one or more measurement values, each preceded by a condition
code (cc) flag, with all flags and readings separated by commas. The code values and interpretations are:
-1
0
1
2
Measurement is STOPPED. Value returned may be “stale data”.
Error return. Measurement is not valid.
Normal return - no error. Measurement is valid.
An Over-range or Under-range condition exists.
Typical Measurement Responses
The return string when the talkmode is set to TKAVG will be in the form of:
<cc, Average Power>
(cc is one of the condition codes shown above)
sample return string:
1,12.135
Since the condition code is 1, the returned measurement value is valid.
When the talkmode is set to TKPWR, the return string will be in the form of:
<cc, Average Power, cc, Maximum Power, cc, Minimum Power>
sample return string:
1,0.051,1,10.105,2,-99.99
Avg and Max are valid (cc=1), but Min Pwr is underrange (cc=2)
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4.8 SCPI EXAMPLE PROGRAM FRAGMENTS.
4.8.1 Pulse Mode Example - Signal in: 100 microsecond wide periodic pulse waveform, modulating a 1 GHz
carrier. Peak sensor in use, trigger level is valid and results in synchronized trace when viewed in GRAPH mode.
NOTE
When the trigger source is set to Bus or to Bus in combination with a signal source, the READ
command cannot be used. If it is, a trigger deadlock error code is generated. READ is a macro
command which is equivalent to the sequence ABORt;INITiate;FETCh[:<function>]?.
a. Using the GPIB bus trigger to initiate a single measurement:
CALC1:MODE pulse
Set for pulse measurement mode
TRIG:SOURce bus
Set trigger source for bus
ABORT
Measurements STOP and triggers go to idle.
INIT:CONT off
Set for single, triggered measurement
INIT:IMMEDIATE
STOP with blank graph and empty readings
{send GET}
One random trace appears in graph mode
FETCH1:ARRAY:MARKER:POWER?
Returns marker-related power reading array.
{send GET}
No effect; measurement is complete.
b. Using the GPIB bus trigger to initiate successive measurements:
CALC1:MODE pulse
Set for pulse measurement mode
SENS1:AVER 1
Make each measurement display independent.. For > 1, successive triggered traces will be averaged.
TRIG:SOUR bus
Set trigger source for bus
ABORT
Measurements STOP and triggers go to idle.
INIT:CONT on
Continuous measurements subject to signal trigger conditions.
(INIT:IMMEDIATE)
CAN’T USE since INIT:CONT is ON -- Error condition!
{send GET}
One random trace appears in graph mode.
FETCH1:ARRAY:MARKER:POWER?
Returns marker-related power reading array.
{send GET}
New measurement cycle for each trigger.
c. Use an internal signal trigger to initiate a single measurements:
CALC1:MODE pulse
Set for pulse measurement mode
TRIG:SOUR sensor1
Set trigger source for sensor1 input signal
ABORT
Measurements STOP and triggers go to idle.
INIT:CONT off
Set for single, triggered measurement
INIT:IMMEDIATE
Single measurement trace.
FETCH1:ARRAY:MARKER:POWER?
Returns marker-related power reading array. Repeat
INIT:IMMEDIATE for each additional measurement cycle.
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d. Use an internal signal trigger to initiate successive measurements.
CALC1:MODE pulse
Set for pulse measurement mode
TRIG:SOUR sensor1
Set trigger source for sensor1 input signal
ABORT
Measurements STOP and triggers go to idle.
INIT:CONT on
Continuous measurements subject to signal trigger conditions.
( INIT:IMMEDIATE )
Error if used.
FETCH1:ARRAY:MARKER:POWER?
Returns marker-related power reading array.
e. Use a bus trigger to enable a single internal signal triggered measurement:
CALC1:MODE pulse
Set for pulse measurement mode
TRIG:SOUR bus>snsr1
Set to arm trigger via bus command, and trigger from sensor1
input signal.
ABORT
Measurements STOP and triggers go to idle.
INIT:CONT off
Set for single, triggered measurement
INIT:IMMEDIATE
Stop with blank graph and empty readings.
{send GET}
Enables signal trigger to make one measurement if signal trigger
condition is met.
FETCH1:ARRAY:MARKER:POWER?
Returns marker-related power reading array.
Repeat from INIT:IMMEDIATE for each additional measurement cycle.
f. Use a bus trigger to enable successive internal signal triggered measurements:
CALC1:MODE pulse
Set for pulse measurement mode
TRIG:SOUR bus>snsr1
Set to arm trigger via bus command, and trigger from sensor1
input signal.
ABORT
Measurements STOP and triggers go to idle.
INIT:CONT on
Stop with blank graph and empty readings until GET.
(INIT:IMMEDIATE)
CAN’T USE since INIT:CONT is ON -- Error condition!
{send GET}
Enables signal trigger to make continuous measurements if signal trigger condition of level and slope is met.
FETCH1:ARRAY:MARKER:POWER?
Returns marker-related power reading array.
Once GET starts the process, signal triggered measurements continue as long as signal trigger conditions are met and
the ABORT command has not been sent.
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4.8.2 Modulated Mode Example - Signal in: 100 microsecond wide periodic pulse waveform, modulating a 1
GHz carrier. Peak sensor in use.
NOTE
When the trigger source is set to Bus or to Bus in combination with a signal source, the READ
command cannot be used. If it is, a trigger deadlock error code is generated. READ is a macro
command which is equivalent to the sequence ABORt;INITiate;FETCh[:<function>]?.
a. Using the GPIB bus trigger to initiate a single averaged measurement:
CALC1:MODE modulated
Set for modulated measurement mode
TRIG:SOURce bus
Set trigger source for bus
ABORT
Measurements STOP and triggers go to idle.
INIT:CONT off
Set for single, triggered measurement
INIT:IMMEDIATE
STOP with blank graph and empty readings
{send GET} or *TRG
One random trace appears in graph mode
FETCH1:ARRAY:CW:POWER?
Returns average, peak and minimum power readings.
{send GET}
No effect; measurement is complete
b. To make successive measurements of average power in the Modulated mode, set TRIG:SOURce to IMMEDIATE
and INIT:CONT on. Then use the FETCH command as above to get readings. The bus trigger is not needed and will
be ignored if sent.
4.8.3 CW Mode Example - Signal in: 0dBm, 50MHz CW signal from internal calibrator. CW sensor in use.
NOTE
When the trigger source is set to Bus or to Bus in combination with a signal source, the READ
command cannot be used. If it is, a trigger deadlock error code is generated. READ is a macro
command which is equivalent to the sequence ABORt;INITiate;FETCh[:<function>]?.
a. Using the GPIB bus trigger to make single complete measurements.
CALC1:MODE cw
Set for CW measurement mode
TRIG:SOUR bus
Set trigger source for bus
ABORT
Measurements STOP and triggers go to idle.
INIT:CONT off
Set for single, triggered measurement
while { more = 1}
Loop for a series of complete measurements.
INIT:IMMEDIATE
STOP with blank graph and empty readings
{send GET} or *TRG
One random trace appears in graph mode
FETCH1:CW:POWER?
Returns CW power reading. Sending GET again has no effect;
the measurement is complete.
{ end while }
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b. Making successive measurements.
CALC1:MODE cw
Set for CW measurement mode
TRIG:SOUR bus
Set trigger source for bus
ABORT
Measurements STOP and triggers go to idle.
{send GET} or *TRG
One random trace appears in graph mode
FETCH1:CW:POWER?
Returns CW power reading. Sending GET again has no effect;
the measurement is complete.
(The bus trigger serves no purpose unless an ABORT command is issued to reset the trigger system and stop the
measurement. Otherwise, just set TRIGger:SOURce immediate and use FETCH to input readings on demand. )
4.8.4 Statistical Mode Example - (CDF, CCDF, DISTRIBUTION) - Signal in: CDMA signal at 0dBm average
power, at a 900MHz center frequency.
a. Start a CCDF measurement.
CALC1:MODE CCDF
Set CCDF display mode.
TRIG:SOUR immediate
Set for “immediate” start on trigger arming
ABORT
Reset the trigger system.
INIT:CONT off
Set for single, triggered measurement
INIT:IMMEDIATE
Restart statistical processing.
FETCH1:AMEASURE:POWER?
Return statistical reading array.
b. Using the bus trigger to start a CCDF measurement.
CALC1:MODE CCDF
Set CCDF display mode
TRIG:SOUR bus
Set trigger source for bus
ABORT
Reset trigger system.
INIT:CONT off
Set for single, triggered measurement
INIT:IMMEDIATE
Reset measurement.
{send GET or *TRG}
Start the measurement
FETCH1:AMEASURE:POWER?
Return statistical reading array
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4.9 ERROR AND STATUS CODES.
The following table shows codes that will be returned in response to any command that is unrecognized, invalid, or
not applicable in the current state. A list of these errors may be read in the sequence they occurred using the SCPI
command SYSTem:ERRor. This command will report each error by code and a short, quoted text description. An
error code of zero corresponds to “No Error”.
Table 4-2. Remote Interface Error Codes
E-100
User sent a command which was not recognized.
E-101
User sent a command that included a sub-command field, where none was expected.
E-103
User sent a command that did not include a sub-command field, where one was expected.
E-108
User included arguments, however none were expected.
E-109
Argument expected, but not found.
E-121
Arguments were present, but wrong type (such as alpha-text present where only numerical data
is expected).
E-140
Remote command string from host overflowed instrument’s input buffer.
E-200
Cannot select channel 2 on a single channel instrument.
E-213
Cannot set INITiate:IMMediate (start a single measurement) while INITiate:CONTinuous is set
to ON (free-run mode).
E-214
Cannot perform read command while trigger source is set to bus.
E-221
Attempting to set a parameter or talkmode while in the wrong measurement mode (such as
setting a statistical talkmode while in peak-continuous mode, or setting the marker in percent
while in peak-pulse mode, or using a Boonton language command in an SCPI-only mode).
E-222
Numeric argument out of range.
E-224
Text argument does not match a valid list entry.
E-230
Fetch command performed and no valid data available.
E-340
Error during sensor calibration. Check connections.
Table 4-3. Measurement Result Status Codes
-1
Measurement is STOPPED. Value returned may be “stale data”.
0
Error return. Measurement is not valid.
1
Normal return - no error. Measurement is valid.
2
An Over-range or Under-range condition exists.
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Making Measurements
MAKING MEASUREMENTS
5.1 SENSOR TYPES
The 4530 Series RF Power Meter can operate with any type of Boonton sensor to measure CW or modulated RF power
or voltage over a wide range of operating frequencies. Refer to Appendix A for a description of the most popular
sensors. Those sensors listed cover the great majority of applications used. For special requirements, contact
Boonton Electronics for a complete listing of available sensors. There are four key types of sensors:
5.1.1
Thermal RF Power Sensors. Thermal sensors use the RF energy to produce a temperature rise in a thermal
detector that produces a voltage output which is proportional to the applied RF power. Since the detector
output is very linear with input power over its entire operating range, and the thermal time constant is longer
than most signal fluctuations due to modulation, a thermal sensor may be used to accurately measure the
average RF power of both CW and modulated signals. Even very narrow duty-factor pulse signals can be
accurately measured, since the detector senses the long-term heating effect of the input signal. Thermal
sensors are very linear, and generally offer up to 50dB of dynamic range. They can be optimized to measure
as low as about one microwatt (-30dBm), but are sometimes combined with input pads (attenuators) to allow
measurement of higher power levels.
Frequency and linearity correction factors for Boonton Thermal Power Sensors are stored in the sensor
adapter, and power measurements can be taken immediately upon inserting the sensor. For best performance,
zero the sensor before taking any low-level measurements. A single- or multi-point calibration can be performed, if desired, to enhance the absolute accuracy of the measurement. See the Sensor Connection and
Calibration information in Chapter 3.
5.1.2
CW Dual-Diode RF Power Sensors. CW Diode sensors use high-frequency semiconductor diodes to
detect the RF voltage developed across a terminating load resistor. Two diodes are used so both the positive
and negative carrier cycles are detected; this makes the sensor relatively insensitive to even harmonic distortion. The diodes’ output signals are filtered by smoothing capacitors, and the resulting DC output voltage is
proportional to power at low signal levels and proportional to voltage at higher levels. To achieve high
sensitivities, the load resistance driven by the diode’s output is typically several megohms.
Below about -20dBm, the RF voltage is not high enough to cause the diodes to fully conduct in the forward
direction. Instead, they behave as non-linear resistors, and produce a DC output that is closely proportional
to the square of the applied RF voltage. This is referred to as the “square-law” region of the diode sensor.
When operated in this region, the average DC output voltage will be proportional to average RF power, even
if modulation is present. This means a CW sensor can be used to measure modulated signals, provided the
instantaneous (peak) power remains within the square-law region of the diodes at all times.
Above about 0 dBm, the diodes go into forward conduction on each cycle of the carrier, and the peak RF
voltage is held by the smoothing capacitors. In this region, the sensor is behaving as a peak detector (also
called an envelope detector), and the DC output voltage will be equal to the peak-to-peak RF input voltage
minus two diode drops. If modulation is present, the output voltage will rapidly slew to the highest peaks,
then slowly decay once the signal drops. Since the input signal could be at any amplitude during the time the
capacitor voltage is decaying, it is impossible to deduce the actual average power level of a modulated signal
once the peak RF power gets into this peak-detecting region of the diode.
CW Diode sensors can offer up to a 90dB dynamic range, and are extremely sensitive; some can measure
signals as low as about 100pW (-70dBm). They are also available with built-in input attenuators for calibrated
measurement of higher power signals.
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Frequency and linearity correction factors for Boonton CW Power Sensors are stored in the sensor adapter,
and power measurements can be taken immediately upon inserting the sensor. For best performance, zero the
sensor before taking any low-level measurements. A single- or multi-point calibration can be performed if
desired to enhance the absolute accuracy of the measurement. See the Sensor Connection and Calibration
information in Chapter 3.
5.1.3
RF Voltage Sensors. In some cases, it is necessary to measure the RF voltage without terminating or
significantly loading the source. For these applications, a voltage sensor (or voltage probe) is used. The
voltage probe is very similar to a CW power sensor, but there is no load termination resistor, and the diodes
simply detect the applied RF voltage. Since the voltage probe must have a reasonably high input impedance,
it will appear as a short section of unterminated transmission line to an external source. This open circuit
causes signal reflections that limit the upper frequency range of the voltage probe to no more than several
GHz. The low frequency range can extend as low as 10Hz, depending on the model.
Voltage probes are designed to measure primarily CW voltage, but they can also be used to measure the trueRMS value of a fluctuating or modulated voltage, provided the peaks stay within the square-law region of the
diodes’ transfer curve. The threshold voltage is about 20mV RMS. Above 20mV RMS the curve is no longer
a square-law function, and at about 200mV it has transitioned into the peak-detecting range.
Boonton RF Voltage Probes do not use frequency correction. Linearity correction factors are stored in the
sensor adapter, and voltage measurements can be taken immediately upon inserting the sensor. For best
performance, zero the sensor before taking any low-level measurements. This is the only calibration procedure applicable to voltage sensors; their gain is factory preset, and they cannot be user calibrated.
5.1.4
Peak Power Sensors. Although they can accurately measure CW power within the square-law region, CW
diode sensors cannot track rapid power changes (amplitude modulation), and will yield erroneous readings if
power peaks occur that are above the square-law region. By optimizing the sensor for response time (at the
tradeoff of some low-level sensitivity), it is possible for the diode detector to track amplitude changes due to
modulation. Peak sensors use a low-impedance load across the smoothing capacitors that discharges them
very quickly when the RF amplitude drops. This, in combination with a very small smoothing capacitance,
permits peak power sensors to achieve video bandwidths of several tens of megahertz, and risetimes in the ten
nanosecond range.
It should be noted that the term video bandwidth implies the frequency range of the power envelope
fluctionations, or the AM component of the modulation. If a signal has other modulation components (FM or
phase modulation), the bandwidth of those modulating signals does not have any direct affect on the video
bandwidth unless it causes additional AM modulation as an intermodulation product. A pure FM or phase
modulated signal contains very little AM, and may be considered a CW signal for the purposes of power
measurement. Power sensors are sensitive to only the amplitude of an RF signal, an not to its frequency or
phase.
Although the output of the sensor tracks the signal envelope, the transfer function is nonlinear - it is
proportional to RF voltage at higher levels, and proportional to the square of RF voltage at lower levels. By
sampling the sensor output and performing linearity correction on each sample before any signal integration
or averaging occurs, it is possible to calculate average and peak power of a modulated signal even if the input
signal does not stay within the square-law region of the diode. Additionally, a large number of power samples
can be analyzed to yield statistics about the signal’s power distribution, as well as assembled into an oscilloscope-like power-vs-time trace.
Boonton peak power sensors employ proprietary signal processing circuitry to compress the dynamic range
of the sensor before the signal is sampled. This compression is later removed digitally, but it permits the
sensors to maintain very high modulation bandwidths over a wide dynamic range. Conventional peak power
meters must set the gain (range) of the input channel to match the signal level being measured. This has
several undesirable side-effects including a bandwidth reduction as the input gain is increased, and brief
periods where measurements are invalid whenever the amplifiers must switch between gain ranges. Range-
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less operation allows continuous measurement of signals without the loss of data that would be incurred
whenever the signal crosses a power range threshold (typically every 10dB). The top and bottom of pulse
transitions can be measured without worrying about artifacts introduced by input amplifier saturation, and a
single-shot burst of samples can be acquired without the need to set the correct range in advance. And range
switching makes statistical sample analysis impossible, since it causes signal-related “holes”, clipped intervals, or synchronization in the sampling. When this happens, the sample population can becomes somewhat
or even strongly correlated with the signal rather than completely random. Statistical analysis requires a
completely random sample population for the results to be valid.
5.2 SELECTING THE RIGHT SENSOR
5.2.1
CW Signals. The absolute or relative power of CW Signals may be accurately measured using any type of
Boonton power sensor: CW Diode Sensors, CW Thermal Sensors, or Peak Power Sensors. The choice
depends mainly upon the signal’s power range. If the signal is always unmodulated or if the power level never
exceeds -20dBm, a CW diode sensor is the best choice due to its wide dynamic range. Although thermal
sensors and peak power sensors will work fine for many CW applications, they offer no distinct advantages,
and have somewhat less sensititivity for low-level signals.
5.2.2
Modulated Signals. For low-level modulated signals, a CW sensor is often the best choice. But whenever
the peak power of a modulated signal exceeds about -20dBm, the average power reading from a CW diode
sensor becomes unreliable due to its peak-detecting characteristics at higher power levels.
In these cases, a peak power sensor offers accurate average power measurements over the sensor’s entire
dynamic range, plus the ability to fully characterize the time-domain or statistical power characteristics. Note,
however, that peak sensors must possess sufficient video bandwidth to track any modulation-induced signal
variations. If the signal modulation bandwidth is above the sensor bandwidth, the sensor cannot track the
fastest signal changes, and the measurement accuracy is degraded.
In these cases, a thermal sensor may offer the best choice. The detector accurately integrates (averages) the
effect of any modulation present over a period of several tens or hundreds of milliseconds, regardless of
power level or frequency content. This type of sensor will measure the true, average power of any signal
within its power and frequency range. The primary drawback is slow response time, and lack of sensitivity for
low-level measurements.
5.3 MEASUREMENT MODES
The 4530 Series RF Power Meter can accept any type of Boonton power or voltage sensor, and each sensor type can
operate in one or more measurement modes.
5.3.1
CW Mode. CW diode sensors, thermal sensors and voltage probes all operate in CW mode. CW mode uses
a low-noise, high-resolution analog channel to process and digitize the sensor voltage. A wide dynamicrange sigma-delta A/D converter allows elimination of the ranging that plagues conventional power meters.
Range changing causes the hardware to switch to different gain settings for different signal levels. Each time
this is done, there is an interruption in the measurement process, and an additional settling time for the
amplifiers to stabilize at the gain setting. Additionally, it is difficult to get the gain settings to “splice
together” smoothly so that a signal measured at the top of one range is exactly equal to that same signal
measured at the bottom of the next range. This results in linearity errors, or steps in the reading as the power
level changes. Eliminating ranging allows the full dynamic range of a thermal sensor or the entire square-law
region of a diode sensor may be measured without the need for changing ranges. To optimize performance
and measurement speed at higher levels, the instrument switches to a higher-speed low-gain setting for the
upper region of diode sensors.
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CW mode measures the average power of CW signals (and modulated signals if using a thermal sensor or
diode sensor within the square-law region), and displays a high-resolution measurement. The power is
automatically corrected for sensor frequency response, and filtered using user-selectable parameters, then
displayed on the front panel readout. The display format, scaling, units (both linear and logarithmic) and
resolution are programmable. Two auxiliary measurements can be shown: the minimum and maximum held
power (after filtering).
The measurement may also be presented in a graphical format showing power (or voltage) versus time. The
display can span from one second to one hour, and in the slower time settings, it goes into roll mode, which
presents a chart-recorder type scrolling trace. This can be very useful for observing a drifting signal.
The primary display may be the actual sensor signal amplitude, offset amplitude, or a mathematical function
(ratio, sum or difference) of the sensor signal and the signal from a second sensor or stored reference.
5.3.2
Modulated Mode. Modulated mode operates only with peak power sensors. In this mode, the instrument
measures the average, instantaneous peak and instantaneous minimum power of a modulated RF signal. One
or more of these measurements can be displayed on the screen in a text or graphical format.
The processed sensor signal is continuously sampled and digitized by a high-speed A/D converter. Each A/
D sample is linearized to convert to a power reading, then adjusted for gain offset and sensor frequency factor.
The running average of these readings is calculated to yield the average modulated power. Additionally, each
sample is checked for a new instantaneous minimum or peak. Every time a new peak occurs, it replaces the
previous value. These values may be held to show the highest and lowest instantaneous power that has
occurred since measurement started, or may be automatically decayed after a preset time interval so the
current peak-to-average power may be viewed. This is especially convenient if the overall signal level is
changing. Held minimum and maximum average (filtered) power may also be displayed.
In most ways, Modulated Mode is similar to CW mode. The display can show the sensor signal level or a math
function, and displays a power-versus-time trace in graph mode, and text mode allows a full choice of display
formats. The primary difference is that the minimum and maximum power measurements include the lowest
and highest instantaneous readings, while in CW mode, only the lowest and highest filtered readings may be
displayed.
5.3.3
Statistical Mode. Statistical Mode operates only with peak power sensors, and is used to provide a
statistical analysis of the distribution of power over a period of time. By acquiring a very large number of
power samples, it is possible to determine, with a high degree of confidence, the statistical probability that the
power will fall within a specific range. This technique is very helpful for digitally modulated signals for
observing amplifier linearity with real signals, and predicting compression and bit error rate.
The processed sensor signal is continuously sampled and digitized by the high-speed A/D, and the number
of times each A/D code occurs is counted. In this fashion, a high-resolution histogram is formed which can
be processed to yield a CDF (cumulative distribution function), CCDF (the complement to the CDF, also know
as 1-CDF) or a conventional bar-type histogram with each bar showing the probability that the power will fall
within a certain range.
These functions can be displayed in graphical format, and screen cursors can be moved to specific probabilities or power levels on the curve, and the corresponding value read at that point. The text display can show
the cumulative average power, or a tabular display that adds a number of other measurements including the
highest and lowest power points during the entire interval. Note that in graph mode, the displayed trace is
power versus percent probability, while all the other 4530 measurement modes show power versus time. If the
instrument is in mixed mode (one channel is in Statistical Mode, and the other is in Modulated Mode or CW
Mode), two completely separate unit systems are presented on the X-axis of the graph display.
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Although the sample rate in statistical mode is high enough to gather a large sample population in a very short
time (over one million power samples are recorded each second), the strength of this mode is that it can be
allowed to run for a long period of time to capture very infrequent events. The sample counters are 32 bits, so
the runtime for a single CDF can be programmed to be more than an hour. For continuous running processes,
the CDF can be programmed to automatically restart or to decimate the sample counters when a programmed
count is reached.
Although statistical mode can display the average, minimun and peak power, it is important to note that these
are all cumulative results that take into account the entire sample history since the run was started. If the
power level or other signal characteristic is changed, the run should be cleared and restarted by pressing
ESC/Stop twice (once to stop, again to clear), then pressing Enter/Run to start acquiring a fresh data set.
5.3.4
Pulse Mode. For periodic or pulsed signals, it is often necessary to analyze the power for a portion of the
waveform, or a certain region of a pulse or pulse burst. For these applications, the 4530 Series has a triggered
Pulse Mode. Operation in this mode is similar to a digital storage oscilloscope - power samples are stored in
a circular memory buffer until a trigger signal is received. The samples, with the desired relationship to the
trigger signal, are then selected and processed to obtain a power-versus-time trace.
The trigger signal can be either internal, triggered from a rising or falling edge on the measured signal; or
external, triggered from a rear-panel BNC input. The trigger level and polarity are both programmable, as is the
trigger delay time and trigger holdoff time. Displays of both pre- and post-trigger data are available, and an
auto-trigger mode can be used to keep the trace running when no trigger edges are detected. A “peak-topeak” trigger level setting can be chosen to automatically set the trigger level based on the currenly applied
signal. The time span of the graph display can be selected from 2.5 microseconds to 5 seconds. This would
be equivalent to the 250nS/div to 500ms/div timebase settings on an oscilloscope, since a typical scope
screen has 10 horizontal divisions. The 4530 has no visible graticule, however, so horizontal sensitivity is set
as the timespan, which is the time interval spanned by the visible trace window.
Programmable time markers can be moved to any portion of the trace that is visible on the screen, and these
can be used to mark regions of interest for detailed power analysis. The instrument can display power at each
marker, as well as average, minimun and maximum power in the region between the two markers. This is very
useful for examining the power during a TDMA or GSM burst when only the modulated portion in the center
region of a timeslot is of interest. By adjusting trigger delay and other parameters, it is possible to measure the
power of specific timeslots within the burst. Trigger holdoff allows burst synchronization even if there is more
than one edge in the burst which may satisfy the trigger level. Simply set the holdoff time to slighly shorter
than the burst’s repetition interval to guarantee that triggering occurs at the same point in the burst each
sweep.
Pulse Mode is unlike the other operating modes of the 4530 in that it is discontinuous. For each sweep, data
acquisition into the circular buffer is restarted, and it runs at high speed until a trigger edge has been detected
and all post-trigger samples acquired. At this point, acquisition stops, and the buffer is processed and
displayed before another trace is restarted. Because the 4530’s trigger system and peak sensor sampling
system are common to both channels, it is not possible to run one channel in Pulse Mode while the other is in
Statistical or Modulated mode. The burst and continuous sampling processes can not be operated simultaneously. No such limitations exist if the second channel is in CW mode, and it is perfectly acceptable to run
one channel in Pulse Mode and the other in CW mode. Note, however, that in this case the CW sensor
bandwidth is not nearly high enough to display signal amplitude changes at most timespan settings, and it is
not possible to use a CW sensor as a trigger source.
For periodic waveforms, automatic measurement of waveform parameters is available in pulse mode. Whenever a stable, periodic signal is detected, the 4530 will automatically calculate a number of pulse parameters
such as pulse frequency, width, duty-cycle, rise and fall times, top and bottom powers, pulse on power,
overshoot, and average power over one full cycle. These measurements can be viewed on secondary pages
of the single-channel text display. For added flexibility, certain time and power thresholds used to define start
and end of pulse transitions are user-programmable.
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5.4 SELECTING THE RIGHT MEASUREMENT MODE
Since the 4530 Series RF Power Meter can accept any type of Boonton power or voltage sensor, and each sensor type
can operate in one or more measurement modes.
5.4.1
CW Mode. CW diode sensors, thermal sensors and voltage probes all operate in CW Mode, and CW Mode
is only available for these types of sensors. As its name implies, CW Mode is intended primarily for CW
(unmodulated) signals, but there are other cases in which you may wish to use it. CW Mode may be the best
choice if your measurement meets any of the following conditions:
• Signal level is very low (below about -40dBm).
• Signal is a single, unmodulated RF carrier (CW).
• Need to measure average power only of any signal (modulated or CW) that falls within dynamic range of
thermal sensor (-30 to +20dBm).
• Need to measure average power only of any signal (modulated or CW) that falls within the true-RMS
(square-law) range of a diode sensor (-70 to -20dBm) at all times.
• Need to measure a spread-spectrum signal, or a composite signal that consists of multiple carriers or
channels spanning a wide (20 MHz or higher) frequency range.
If you wish to measure a modulated signal, a peak sensor operating in Modulated Mode or Pulse Mode is
often your best choice, provided the modulation bandwidth of the signal is within the sensor’s bandwidth
specification.
5.4.2
Modulated Mode. Modulated Mode is only available when using a peak power sensor, and is best choice
for most continuously modulated signals as well as for many pulse modulated signals. Since Modulated
Mode is a continuous measurement mode, it does not differentiate between the times that a pulsed or periodic
signal is off, and the times it is on. If you wish to make measurements that are synchronous with a period
waveform, consider Pulse Mode. Modulated Mode is best for the following types of measurements:
• Moderate signal level (above about -40dBm).
• Signal is continuously modulated with a modulation bandwidth that is less than about 20MHz.
• Signal modulation may be periodic, but only non-synchronous measurements are needed (overall average
and peak power).
• “Noise-like” digitally modulated signals such as CDMA or COFDM when only average and peak power
measurements are needed. If peak probability information is required, consider Statistical Mode.
5.4.3
Pulse Mode. Pulse Mode is only available when using a peak power sensor, and is best choice for most
pulse modulated and periodic signals. Pulse mode requires a repeating signal edge that can be used as a
trigger, or an external trigger pulse that is syncronized with the modulation cycle. Pulse mode performs
measurements that are synchronous with the trigger - that is the measurements are timed or “gated” so that the
same portion of the waveform is measured on each successive modulation cycle. Multiple modulation cycles
may be averaged together, and measurement intervals may span both before and after the trigger. Pulse Mode
is best for the following types of measurements:
• Moderate signal level (above about -40dBm except when modulation is “off”).
• Signal is periodic.
• A time snapshot of a single event is needed (minimum single-shot time is 50 microseconds).
• Typical modulation and signal types: NADC, GSM (and extensions), TDMA, RADAR, SatCom, TCAS,
Bluetooth, iDEN, NTSC, Wireless LAN.
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Statistical Mode. Statistical Mode is only available when using a peak power sensor, and is best choice for
analyzing “noise-like” signals that are modulated in a random, nonperiodic fashion. Statistical mode yields
information about the probability of occurance of various power levels without regard for when those power
levels occured. Many digitally modulated spread-spectrum formats use a bandwidth coding techniques or
many individual modulated carriers to distribute a source’s digital information over a wide bandwidth, and
temporally spread the data for improved robustness against interference. When these techniques are used,
it is difficult to predict when peak signal levels will occur. Analysis of millions of data points gathered during
a sustained measurement of several seconds or more can yield the statistical probabilities of each signal level
with a high degree of confidence. Statistical Mode is best of the following types of measurements:
• Moderate signal level (above about -40dBm except when modulation is “off”).
• “Noise-like” digitally modulated signals such as CDMA (and all its extensions) or COFDM when probability information is helpful in analyzing the signal.
• Any signal with random, infrequent peaks, when you need to know just how infrequent those peaks are.
5.5 SETTING MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS
Once a sensor and measurement mode have been chosen, it is often possible to begin making very basic measurements
simply by using the power meter’s default menu settings. In most cases, however, better results are available by
customizing the measurement parameters to match your specific signal. The following list gives some guidelines for
how to best configure the 4530 for specific types of measurements, but remember that there is no substitute for
understanding the characteristics of the signal that you are trying to measure. Most of these items are not required
settings, and many are not applicable to all measurement modes, but consider setting each of these items when setting
up the meter for any type of measurement.
5.5.1
What You Need To Know. To perform accurate measurements, the following is a minimum list of things
you should know about the signal that you wish to measure.
Signal frequency - The center frequency of the carrier must be known to allow sensor frequency response
compensation.
Modulation Bandwidth - If the signal is modulated, know the type of modulatation and its bandwidth. Note
that power sensors respond only to the the amplitude modulation component of the modulation, and constant envelope modulation types such as FM can be considered a CW carrier for power measurement purposes.
Modulation Timing - If the modulation is periodic, know the pulse repetition rate, frame rate, and any other
relavant timing information. This is not important unless you intend to perform synchronous (triggered)
measurements in Pulse Mode.
5.5.2
Channel Parameters Menu Settings
Frequency (Required setting for all modes) - Setting the frequency tells the power meter what frequency RF
signal is being applied to the power sensor. This frequency is used to automatically apply a calibration factor
to compensate for the sensor’s frequency response deviations.
Offset (Optional setting for all modes) - Inform the power meter of a global gain offset to scale the reading.
Used to compensate for attenuators, couplers or amplifiers in the signal chain.
Filter (Optional setting for CW and Modulated mode) - Sets the signal integration filter to a user-defined
value to reduce measurement noise. The normal setting is “Auto”, but setting a manual filter allows user
control of the tradeoff between measurement noise and settling time.
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Averaging (Optional setting for Pulse Mode) - Sets the trace averaging for reducing noise on the trace
display, marker measurements, and automatic pulse measurements. The default setting is 4, but setting to 32
or higher can significantly reduce noise for low-level pulse waveforms.
Peak Hold (Optional setting for Modulated and Pulse modes) - Allows setting the peak-hold feature so
instantaneous peaks are held indefinitly or automatically decayed, or the mode may be set so the highest and
lowest averaged readings are held.
5.5.3
Trig/Time Menu Settings. These settings are only needed if you will be operating in Pulse Mode.
Time Span (Required setting for Pulse Mode) - The timespan setting is similar to the timebase setting on an
oscilloscope. Setting the timespan tells the power meter how much of a periodic signal to acquire at a time.
The timespan defines the displayed portion of the waveform in graph mode, and limits the interval over which
measurements may be performed. For pulse signals, it is usually a good starting point to set the timespan to
a little longer than the pulse repetition interval, or to a little longer than the pulse width. Once a stable
waveform is visible on the screen, the timespan and trigger delay setting (see below) may be adjusted to show
exactly the desired portion of the measured signal.
Trigger Delay (Require setting for Pulse Mode) - Setting the trigger delay tells the powermeter how much
measurement time before and after the trigger is needed. Assuming Trigger Position is set to Middle (the
default setting), a trigger delay value of 0 will split the measurement interval evenly between pretrigger and
posttrigger. If the timespan is set to 50 microseconds, the measurement interval will begin 25 microseconds
before the trigger edge, and will end 25 microseconds after the edge. If the trigger delay is then set to -15
microseconds, the measurement will be skewed in the pretrigger direction: it will begin 40 microseconds
before the trigger, and end 10 microseconds after.
HoldOff (Optional setting for Pulse Mode) - Trigger holdoff is used to aid in synchronizing with a periodic
burst waveform when the period is longer than the timespan setting, and multiple valid trigger edges may
exist. Trigger holdoff will disable (hold off) triggering for a preset time interval after every valid trigger, and
then re-arm the trigger after the holdoff time is up. This way, the instrument will trigger at the same point on
the waveform each cycle. For example, when viewing a GSM base station signal, more than one time slot may
be active, and the instrument could be triggered by the rising edge of the RF signal on any of the active
timeslots. Setting the trigger delay to just a bit less than the frame rate of 4.62mS will guarantee that there will
be no false triggers during other active timeslots.
Trigger Source (Required setting for Pulse Mode) - Set the trigger source to “Sensor 1” to trigger from the
measured signal itself, or “Ext” to trigger from an external synchronization pulse. See Chapter 3 for other
options.
Trigger Mode (Optional setting for Pulse Mode) - The default trigger mode is “Peak-to-Peak Auto”, which
works fine for most applications, and will always generate a sweep. If signal edges are present, the powermeter
will detect the signal amplitude and adjust the trigger level automatically. If no triggerable signal is found, the
sweep will be triggered anyway after a short time period. Trigger mode may also be set to “Normal”, which
requires a trigger level be set, and will only generate a sweep if a trigger occurs. “Auto” also uses the preset
trigger level, but will still generate a sweep even if there are no trigger edges.
Trigger Level (Optional setting for Pulse Mode) - The trigger level must only be set if Trigger Mode is not set
to “Peak-to-Peak”. The level should generally be set between 3 and 15dB below the maximum expected signal
level, but sometimes it may be necessary to experiment for best results.
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5.6 SETTINGS FOR SOME COMMON SIGNAL TYPES
The following list discusses some of the common telecommunication formats that are frequently measured. While this
list should give enough setup information to read back the most used measurements, some of the advanced features of
the 4530 Series can return other data as well. This information is not intended as a tutorial on each of the signal types,
but rather a guide on how to get started.
5.6.1
Measuring GSM and EDGE. The GSM (Global System for Mobil Communications) signal is a Time
Division Multiple Access (TDMA) multiplexing scheme that uses a repeating sequence of 8 time slots in a
frame. The data frame duration is 4615µs, and each time slot is 577µs. Handsets transmit during one of the
eight timeslots. Base stations transmit during all timeslots, but usually at different levels for each timeslot.
The power envelope of the GMSK modulation is relatively flat during each timeslot, and it is generally desired
to measure the average power during the “active” portion of the timeslot, or the middle 90%, or 520µs. The
first and last 5% (28µs) is excluded from the average to allow for RF power ramping at the edges of the timeslot.
This is accomplished by using Pulse Mode, and setting markers at the desired points in time.
EDGE is an extension of the GSM format (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution) which uses uses 8PSK modulation during the burst. This modulation does not share the flat envelope of GSM’s GMSK, so there is a
significant peak-to-average ratio, and the measurement of this is generally of interest. The setup shown
below will return the peak-to-average ratio as well as average power during the burst.
Meas Mode:
Frequency:
Averaging:
TimeSpan:
Trig Source:
Trig Slope:
Trig Mode:
Trig Position:
Trig Delay:
Trig Holdoff:
Marker Mode:
Marker1 Pos:
Marker2 Pos:
Query Cmnd:
Pulse
0.90 GHz (or whatever operating frequency is in use)
4 (use less for faster response time, more for better noise rejection)
1 ms (shows the full 577µs burst and both edges)
Sensor 1 (triggers on RF signal)
Positive (trigger on leading edge of pulse)
Pk-To-Pk (automatically sets based on signal level)
Left (position trigger point at left edge of screen)
-0.2 ms (moves leading edge of pulse 200µs to the right to center pulse in display)
4.500 ms (delay for almost a full frame, and arm trigger 100µs before next expected edge)
Vertical (set markers to measure power at time offsets)
30µs (set Marker 1 at beginning of timeslot’s “active interval”)
550µs (set Marker 2 at end of timeslot’s “active interval”)
FETCh1:ARRay:PULse:POWer? (returns array inclulding average pwr betwn markers)
Other measurements may include timing information such as burst rate, width, and transition times of the
leading and trailing edges of the burst.
To measure GSM basestation signals reliably, it is necessary to either limit the basestation to transmitting
during only one timeslot, or provide an external trigger pulse that is synchronized with the frame. Otherwise,
it is difficult to guarantee that the power meter will synchronize with the desired portion of the frame (timeslot).
The entire, 8-timeslot frame may be viewed by setting the timespan to 5ms, and power of each timeslot can be
measured by moving marker positions to each timeslot.
5.6.2
Measuring NADC. The IS-136 NADC (North American Digital Cellular) signal is a Time Division Multiple
Access (TDMA) multiplexing scheme that uses a repeating sequence of three time slots in a 20ms frame. The
full frame length is actually six time slots (40ms), with two time slots active, but there is little difference
between the two, and measuring either the first or second set should produce the same result. The data frame
duration is 20ms, and each time slot is 6667µs. Handsets transmit during one of the three timeslots (or two of
the six, depending how you view things). Base stations transmit during all timeslots, but usually at different
levels for each timeslot. The power envelope of the DQPSK modulation varies during each timeslot, and it is
generally desired to measure the average power and peak-to-average ratio during the “active” portion of the
timeslot, or the middle 96%, or 6.4ms. The first and last 2% (100µs) is excluded from the average to allow for
RF power ramping at the edges of the timeslot. This is accomplished by using Pulse Mode, and setting
markers at the desired points in time.
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Meas Mode:
Frequency:
Averaging:
TimeSpan:
Trig Source:
Trig Slope:
Trig Mode:
Trig Position:
Trig Delay:
Trig Holdoff:
Marker Mode:
Marker1 Pos:
Marker2 Pos:
Query Cmnd:
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Pulse
850 MHz (or whatever operating frequency is in use)
4 (use less for faster response time, more for better noise rejection)
10 ms (shows the full 6.67ms burst and both edges)
Sensor 1 (triggers on RF signal)
Positive (trigger on leading edge of pulse)
Pk-To-Pk (automatically sets based on signal level)
Left (position trigger point at left edge of screen)
-2.0 ms (moves leading edge of pulse 2ms to the right to center pulse in display)
19.000 ms (delay for almost a full frame, and arm trigger 1ms before next expected edge)
Vertical (set markers to measure power at time offsets)
0.10ms (set Marker 1 at beginning of timeslot’s “active interval”)
6.50ms (set Marker 2 at end of timeslot’s “active interval”)
FETCh1:ARRay:PULse:POWer? (returns array inclulding average pwr betwn markers)
Other measurements may include timing information such as burst rate, width, and transition times of the
leading and trailing edges of the burst.
To measure NADC basestation signals reliably, it is necessary to either limit the basestation to transmitting
during only one timeslot, or provide an external trigger pulse that is synchronized with the frame. Otherwise,
it is difficult to guarantee that the power meter will synchronize with the desired portion of the frame (timeslot).
The entire, 6-timeslot frame may be viewed by setting the timespan to 50ms, and power of each timeslot can be
measured by moving marker positions to each timeslot.
An alternative method for measuring average and peak power for the NADC reverse link (handset) is to use
modulated mode. Peak power is measured directly. Overall average power may be accurately measured, and
average power during the burst may be calculated by multiplying the overall average by 3 since the burst is
active during one of every three timeslots. This can be done by setting the measurement offset to 4.77dB.
Note, however, that this will make the peak power and peak-to-average ratio read 4.77dB too high, since the
peak power does not vary with duty cycle. Since the pulse repetition rate is relatively slow, the integration
filter should be set for an integral number of frames, or at some multiple of 40mS. This ensures that the signal
will be averaged over one or more full cycles, and the average reading will be the same no matter where in the
frame the reading is synchronized. The following table shows how to use modulated mode for this measurement.
Meas Mode:
Frequency:
Filter:
Offset:
Query Cmnd:
5.6.3
Modulated
850 MHz (or whatever operating frequency is in use)
400ms (average power over ten full frames. Any multiple of 40ms is OK.)
4.77dB (multiply power by 3.0 to account for the 1/3 duty cycle of the signal)
FETCh1:ARRay:CW:POWer? (returns array including average and peak power)
Measuring iDEN. The iDEN (integrated Digital Enhanced Network) signal is a Time Division Multiple
Access (TDMA) multiplexing scheme that uses a repeating sequence of 6 time slots in a frame. The data frame
duration is 90ms, and each time slot is 15ms. Handsets transmit during one of the six timeslots. Base stations
transmit during all timeslots, but often at different levels for each timeslot. The power envelope of the 4-carrier
QAM modulation varies during each timeslot, and it is generally desired to measure the average power and
peak-to-average ratio during the entire 15ms timeslot. This is accomplished by using Pulse Mode, and setting
markers at the desired points in time.
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Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Meas Mode:
Frequency:
Averaging:
TimeSpan:
Trig Source:
Trig Slope:
Trig Mode:
Trig Position:
Trig Delay:
Trig Holdoff:
Marker Mode:
Marker1 Pos:
Marker2 Pos:
Query Cmnd:
Chapter 5
Making Measurements
Pulse
0.815 GHz (or whatever operating frequency is in use)
8 (use less for faster response time, more for better noise rejection)
20 ms (shows the full 15ms burst and both edges)
Sensor 1 (triggers on RF signal)
Positive (trigger on leading edge of pulse)
Pk-To-Pk (automatically sets based on signal level)
Left (position trigger point at left edge of screen)
-2.0 ms (moves leading edge of pulse 2ms to the right to center pulse in display)
88.000 ms (delay for almost a full frame, and arm trigger 2ms before next expected edge)
Vertical (set markers to measure power at time offsets)
0.0ms (set Marker 1 at the beginning of pulse)
15.0ms (set Marker 2 at the end of pulse)
FETCh1:ARRay:PULse:POWer? (returns array inclulding average pwr betwn markers)
Other measurements may include timing information such as burst rate, width, and transition times of the
leading and trailing edges of the burst.
To measure iDEN basestation signals reliably, it is necessary to either limit the basestation to transmitting
during only one timeslot, or provide an external trigger pulse that is synchronized with the frame. Otherwise,
it is difficult to guarantee that the power meter will synchronize with the desired portion of the frame (timeslot).
The entire, 6-timeslot frame may be viewed by setting the timespan to 100ms, and power of each timeslot can
be measured by moving marker positions to each timeslot.
An alternative method for measuring average and peak power for the iDEN reverse link (handset) is to use
modulated mode. Peak power is measured directly. Overall average power may be accurately measured, and
average power during the burst may be calculated by multiplying the overall average by 6 since the burst is
active during one of every three timeslots. This can be done by setting the measurement offset to 7.78dB (10
x log10[6]). Note, however, that this will make the peak power and peak-to-average ratio read 7.78dB too high,
since the peak power does not vary with duty cycle. Since the pulse repetition rate is relatively slow, the
integration filter should be set for an integral number of frames, or at some multiple of 90mS. This ensures that
the signal will be averaged over one or more full cycles, and the average reading will be the same no matter
where in the frame the reading is synchronized. The following table shows how to use modulated mode for
this measurement.
Meas Mode:
Frequency:
Filter:
Offset:
Query Cmnd:
5.6.4
Modulated
0.87 MHz (or whatever operating frequency is in use)
360ms (average power over four full frames. Any multiple of 90ms is OK.)
7.78dB (multiply power by 6.0 to account for the 1/6 duty cycle of the signal)
FETCh1:ARRay:CW:POWer? (returns array including average and peak power)
Measuring Bluetooth. The Bluetooth signal is a frequency hopping multiplexing scheme that uses variable
length packets to transmit digital data. Each packet occupies one or more fixed-length 625µs timeslots. One
common type of packet is the DH1 (high rate data packet), which uses one timeslot. Although the timeslot is
625µs in duration, the transmitting device may only be active for 366µs of the timeslot, unless a multi-timeslot
packet is being set. This allows time for signal propagation and for frequency switching at the end of the
timeslot. The master and slave devices usually transmit during alternate timeslots, and these packets may
repeat at a rapid rate, so the transmitted signal envelope for a continous series of DH1 packets will appear as
a 366µs pulse repeating at a 1250µs (800Hz) rate. The modulation format is GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shift
Keying), which has a relatively flat power envelope while the pulse is on, so typically only average power
during the burst is of interest. The first and last 2.7% (0.4ms) is excluded from the average to allow for RF
power settling at the edges of the timeslot. This is accomplished by using Pulse Mode, and setting markers
at the desired points in time.
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Making Measurements
Meas Mode:
Frequency:
Averaging:
TimeSpan:
Trig Source:
Trig Slope:
Trig Mode:
Trig Position:
Trig Delay:
Trig Holdoff:
Marker Mode:
Marker1 Pos:
Marker2 Pos:
Query Cmnd:
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Pulse
2.44 GHz (center frequency of Bluetooth band)
4 (use less for faster response time, more for better noise rejection)
0.5 ms (shows the full 366µs burst)
Sensor 1 (triggers on RF signal)
Positive (trigger on leading edge of pulse)
Pk-To-Pk (automatically sets based on signal level)
Left (position trigger point at left edge of screen)
-0.07 ms (moves leading edge of pulse 70µs to the right to center pulse in display)
1.200 ms (delay for almost two time slots, and arm trigger 50µs before next expected edge)
Vertical (set markers to measure power at time offsets)
5.0µs (set Marker 1 at beginning of timeslot’s “active interval”)
360µs (set Marker 2 at end of timeslot’s “active interval”)
FETCh1:ARRay:PULse:POWer? (returns array inclulding average pwr betwn markers)
Other measurements may include timing information such as burst rate, width, and transition times of the
leading and trailing edges of the burst.
5.6.5
Measuring CDMA (all types). The CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) signal is a spread-spectrum
multiplexing scheme that modulates data at a very high rate by use of a “spreading code” to produce a very
wide spectrum signal that is quite immune to interference. The spreading code is unique for each user, and has
the effect of sending each bit as a predictable series of bits. The receiver is able to correlate the codes of one
device even though a number of other devices may be transmitting simultaneously on the same frequency,
since each user has his own spreading code. This requires that each user’s signal reach the receiver with
approximately the same amplitude, which necessitates very careful control of transmitted power. The modulated signal appears very much like random noise in the time domain, with a fairly high peak-to-average ratio
(sometimes called “crest factor”). There is no periodicity, and it is not very helpful to use a triggered
measurement such as Pulse Mode. It is a simple matter to measure average power and peak-to-average ratio
in Modulated Mode (default settings are usually fine), but this doesn’t tell the whole story. A Statistical
Mode measurement taken over several seconds is a much better choice, and can be used to display the
probability of occurence of all power levels in the sample population.
Meas Mode:
Frequency:
Stat Mode:
Terminal Count:
Marker Mode:
Marker1 Pos:
Marker2 Pos:
Query Cmnd:
Statistical
0.90 GHz (or whatever operating frequency is in use)
1 - CDF
10 Msamples
Vertical (set markers to measure power at a percent probability)
0.1% (returns power level exceeded by 0.1% of all samples)
0.001% (returns power level exceeded by 0.001% of all samples)
FETCh1:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer? (returns array of statistical measurements)
Statistical measurements include long term average power, minimum and maximum instantaneous powers,
peak-to-average ratio, power at each marker, percent at each marker, and total number of samples. This
measurement format is valid for all CDMA formats including cdmaOne, cdma2000, and W-CDMA.
The video bandwidth of the 4530 Series power meters with a Boonton 575xx peak power sensors is wide
enough to easily cover these formats. For future wideband formats that may require more than the 6MHz
bandwidth of the 575xx sensors, the 573xx sensors offer a bandwidth of 20MHz when used with the 4530
Series.
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Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
5.6.6
Chapter 5
Making Measurements
Measuring HDTV. Both of the common HDTV formats (8-VSB and COFDM) are very similar to CDMA in
many respects. They are both spread-spectrum formats, usually occupying a 6MHz television channel. The
modulated signal appears very much like random noise in the time domain, with a fairly high peak-to-average
ratio (sometimes called “crest factor”). There is no periodicity, and it is not very helpful to use a triggered
measurement such as Pulse Mode. It is a simple matter to measure average power and peak-to-average ratio
in Modulated Mode (default settings with a longer filter are usually fine), but this doesn’t tell the whole story.
A Statistical Mode measurement taken over several seconds is a much better choice, and can be used to
display the probability of occurence of all power levels in the sample population.
Meas Mode:
Frequency:
Stat Mode:
Terminal Count:
Marker Mode:
Marker1 Pos:
Marker2 Pos:
Query Cmnd:
Statistical
0.283 GHz (or whatever operating frequency is in use)
1 - CDF
10 Msamples
Vertical (set markers to measure power at a percent probability)
0.1% (returns power level exceeded by 0.1% of all samples)
0.001% (returns power level exceeded by 0.001% of all samples)
FETCh1:ARRay:AMEAsure:POWer? (returns array of statistical measurements)
Statistical measurements include long term average power, minimum and maximum instantaneous powers,
peak-to-average ratio, power at each marker, percent at each marker, and total number of samples.
The video bandwidth of the 4530 Series power meters with a Boonton 575xx peak power sensors is just wide
enough to cover a 6MHz channel. For HTDV formats using more than 6MHz of spectrum space, the 573xx
series sensors should be used.
5.7 MEASUREMENT ACCURACY
The 4530 Series includes a precision internal RF reference calibrator that is traceable to the National Institute for
Standards and Technology (NIST). When the instrument is maintained according to the factory recommended one
year calibration cycle, the calibrator enables you to make highly precise measurements of CW and modulated signals.
The error analyses in this chapter assumes that the power meter is being maintained correctly and is within its valid
calibration period.
Measurement uncertainties are attributable to the instrument, calibrator, sensor, and impedance mismatch between the
sensor and the device under test (DUT). Individual independent contributions from each of these sources are combined mathematically to quantify the upper error bound and probable error. The probable error is obtained by combining the linear (percent) sources on a root-sum-of-squares (RSS) basis. RSS uncertainty calculations also take into
account the statistical shape of the expected error distribution.
Note that uncertainty figures for individual components may be provided given in either percent or dB. The following
formulas may be used to convert between the two units:
U% = (10(UdB/10) - 1) 0 100
UdB = 10 0 Log10(1 + (U% / 100))
and
Section 5.7.1 outlines all the parameters that contribute to the power measurement uncertainty followed by a discussion on the method and calculations used to express the uncertainty.
Section 5.7.2 continues discussing each of the uncertainty terms in more detail while presenting some of their values.
Section 5.7.3 provides Power Measurement Uncertainty calculation examples for both CW and Peak Power sensors
with complete Uncertainty Budgets.
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Making Measurements
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
It should be noted that measurement uncertainty calculation is a very complex process, and the techniques shown here
are somewhat simplified to allow easier calculation. For a more complete information, the following publications may
be consulted:
5.7.1
1.
“ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement” (1995)
International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland
ISBN 92-67-10188-9
2.
“U.S. Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement” (1996)
National Conference of Standards Laboratories, Boulder, CO 80301
ANSI/NCSL Z540-2-1996
Uncertainty Contributions. The total measurement uncertainty is calculated by combining the following
terms:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Uncertainty Source
Instrument Uncertainty
Calibrator Level Uncertainty
Calibrator Mismatch Uncertainty
Source Mismatch Uncertainty
Sensor Shaping Error
Sensor Temperature Coefficient
Sensor Noise
Sensor Zero Drift
Sensor Calibration Factor Uncertainty
Distribution Shape
Normal
Rectangular
U-shaped
U-shaped
Rectangular
Rectangular
Normal
Rectangular
Normal
K
0.500
0.577
0.707
0.707
0.577
0.577
0.500
0.577
0.500
The formula for worst-case measurement uncertainty is:
UWorstCase = U1 + U2 + U3 + U4 + ... UN
where U1 through UN represent each of the worst-case uncertainty terms.
The worst case approach is a very conservative method in which the extreme conditions of each of the individual
uncertainties are added together. If the individual uncertainties are all independent of one another, the probability
of all being at their worst-case conditions simultaneously is extremely small. For this reason, the uncertainties
are more commonly combined using the RSS method. RSS is an abbreviation for “root-sum-of-squares”, a
technique in which each uncertainty is squared, the squares are summed, and the square root of the summation
is calculated.
Before the RSS calculation can be performed, however, the worst-case uncertainty values must be scaled, or
“normalized” to adjust for differences in each term’s probability distribution or “shape”. The distribution shape
is a statistical description of how the actual error values are likely to vary from the ideal value. Once normalized
in this way, terms with different distribution shapes can be combined freely using the RSS method.
Three main types of distributions are Normal (Gaussian), Rectangular, and U-shaped. The multipliers for each
type of distribution are as follows:
Distribution
Normal
Rectangular
U-shaped
Multiplier “K”
0.500
sqrt(1/3) = 0.577
sqrt(1/2) = 0.707
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4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 5
Making Measurements
The formula for calculating RSS measurement uncertainty from worst-case values and scale factors is:
___________________________________________
URSS = F(U1K1)2 + (U2K2)2 + (U3K3)2 + (U4K4)2 + ... (UNKN)2
where U1 through UN represent each of the worst-case uncertainty terms, and K1 through KN represent the
normalizing multipliers for each term based on its distribution shape.
This calculation yields what is commonly referred to as the combined standard uncertainty, or UC, with a level
of confidence of approximately 68%. To gain higher levels of confidence an Expanded Uncertainty is often
employed. Using a coverage factor of 2 (U = 2UC ) will provide an Expanded Uncertainty with a confidence level
of approximately 95%.
5.7.2
Discussion of Uncertainty Terms. Following is a discussion of each term, its definition, and how it is
calculated.
Instrument Uncertainty. This term represents the amplification and digitization uncertainty in the power
meter, as well as internal component temperature drift. In most cases, this is very small, since absolute errors
in the circuitry are calibrated out by the AutoCal process. The instrument uncertainty is 0.20% for the 4530
Series.
Calibrator Level Uncertainty. This term is the uncertainty in the calibrator’s output level for a given setting
for calibrators that are maintained in calibrated condition. The figure is a calibrator specification which
depends upon the output level:
50MHz Calibrator Level Uncertainty:
At 0 dBm:
±0.055 dB (1.27%)
+20 to -39 dBm: ±0.075 dB (1.74%)
-40 to -60 dBm: ±0.105 dB (2.45%)
1GHz Calibrator Level Uncertainty:
± (0.065 dB (1.51%) at 0 dBm + 0.03 dB (0.69%) per 5 dB from 0 dBm)
The value to use for calibration level uncertainty depends upon the sensor calibration technique used. If
AutoCal was performed, the calibrator’s uncertainty at the measurement power level should be used. For
sensors calibrated with FixedCal, the calibrator is only used as a single-level source, and you should use
the calibrator’s uncertainty at the FixedCal level, (0dBm, for most sensors). This may make FixedCal seem
more accurate than AutoCal at some levels, but this is usually more than offset by the reduction in
shaping error afforded by the AutoCal technique.
Calibrator Mismatch Uncertainty. This term is the mismatch error caused by impedance differences between
the calibrator output and the sensor’s termination. It is calculated from the reflection coefficients of the
calibrator (,CAL) and sensor (,SNSR) at the calibration frequency with the following equation:
Calibrator Mismatch Uncertainty = ±2 0 ,CAL 0 ,SNSR 0 100 %
The calibrator reflection coefficient is a calibrator specification:
Internal Calibrator Reflection Coefficient (,CAL):
0.024 (at 50MHz)
External 2530 Calibrator Reflection Coefficient (,CAL): 0.091 (at 1GHz)
The sensor reflection coefficient, ,SNSR is frequency dependent, and may be looked up in the sensor datasheet
or the Boonton Electronics Power Sensor Manual.
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Making Measurements
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Source Mismatch Uncertainty. This term is the mismatch error caused by impedance differences between the
measurement source output and the sensor’s termination. It is calculated from the reflection coefficients of
the source (,SRCE) and sensor (,SNSR) at the measurement frequency with the following equation:
Source Mismatch Uncertainty = ±2 0 ,SRCE 0 ,SNSR 0 100 %
The source reflection coefficient is a characteristic of the RF source under test. If only the SWR of the source
is known, its reflection coefficient may be calculated from the source SWR using the following equation:
Source Reflection Coefficient (,SRCE) = (SWR - 1) / (SWR + 1)
The sensor reflection coefficient, ,SNSR is frequency dependent, and may be looked up in the sensor datasheet
or the Boonton Electronics Power Sensor Manual. For most measurements, this is the single largest error
term, and care should be used to ensure the best possible match between source and sensor.
Sensor Shaping Error. This term is sometimes called “linearity error”, and is the residual non-linearity in the
measurement after an AutoCal has been performed to characterize the “transfer function” of the sensor (the
relationship between applied RF power, and sensor output, or “shaping”). Calibration is performed at discrete
level steps and is extended to all levels. Generally, sensor shaping error is close to zero at the autocal points,
and increases in between due to imperfections in the curve-fitting algorithm.
An additional component of sensor shaping error is due to the fact that the sensor’s transfer function may not
be identical at all frequencies. The published shaping error includes terms to account for these deviations. If
your measurement frequency is close to your AutoCal frequency, it is probably acceptable to use a value
lower than the published uncertainty in your calculations.
For CW sensors using the fixed-cal method of calibrating, the shaping error is higher because it relies upon
stored “shaping coefficients” from a factory calibration to describe the shape of the transfer function, rather
than a transfer calibration using a precision power reference at the current time and temperature. For this
reason, use of the AutoCal method is recommended for CW sensors rather than simply performing a FixedCal.
The shaping error for CW sensors using the FixedCal calibration method is listed in the Boonton Electronics
Power Sensor Manual as “Power Linearity Uncertainty”, and depends upon signal level. If the AutoCal
calibration method is used with a CW sensor, a fixed value of 1.0% may be used for all signal levels.
All peak power sensors use the AutoCal method only. The sensor shaping error for peak sensors is listed on
the sensor’s datasheet or in the Boonton Electronics Power Sensor Manual.
Sensor Temperature Coefficient. This term is the error which occurs when the sensor’s temperature has
changed significantly from the temperature at which the sensor was AutoCal’d. This condition is detected by
the Model 4530 and a “temperature drift” message warns the operator to recalibrate the sensor for drift
exceeding ±4C on non-temperature compensated peak sensors. For these sensors, the typical temperature
effect 4 degrees from the AutoCal temperature is shown as a graph versus level on the sensor datasheet.
Temperature compensated peak sensors have a much smaller temperature coefficient, and a much larger
temperature deviation, ±30C is permitted before a warning is issued. For these sensors, the maximum uncertainty
due to temperature drift from the autocal temperature is:
Temperature Error = ± 0.04dB (0.93%) + 0.003dB (0.069%) /degreeC
Note that the first term of this equation is constant, while the second term (0.069%) must be multiplied by the
number of degrees that the sensor temperature has drifted from the AutoCal temperature.
CW sensors have no built-in temperature detectors, so it is up to the user to determine the temperature change
from AutoCal temperature. Temperature drift for CW sensors is determined by the temperature coefficient of
the sensor. This figure is 0.01dB (0.23%) per degreeC for the 51075 and many other CW sensors. Consult the
Boonton Electronics Power Sensor Manual for the exact figure to use. Sensor temperature drift uncertainty
may be assumed to be zero for sensors operating exactly at the calibration temperature.
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Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 5
Making Measurements
Sensor Noise. The noise contribution to pulse measurements depends on the number of samples averaged
to produce the power reading, which is set by the “averaging” menu setting. For continuous measurements
with CW sensors, or peak sensors in modulated mode, it depends on the integration time of the measurement,
which is set by the “filter” menu setting. In general, increasing filtering or averaging reduces measurement
noise. Sensor noise is typically expressed as an absolute power level. The uncertainty due to noise depends
upon the ratio of the noise to the signal power being measured. The following expression is used to calculate
uncertainty due to noise:
Noise Error = ± Sensor Noise (in watts) / Signal Power (in watts) 0 100 %
The noise rating of a particular power sensor may be found on the sensor datasheet, or the Boonton Electronics
Power Sensor Manual. It may be necessary to adjust the sensor noise for more or less filtering or averaging,
depending upon the application. As a general rule (within a decade of the datasheet point), noise is inversely
proportional to the filter time or averaging used. Noise error is usually insignificant when measuring at high
levels (25dB or more above the sensor’s minimum power rating).
Sensor Zero Drift. Zero drift is the long-term change in the zero-power reading that is not a random, noise
component. Increasing filter or averaging will not reduce zero drift. For low-level measurements, this can be
controlled by zeroing the meter just before performing the measurement. Zero drift is typically expressed as
an absolute power level, and its error contribution may be calculated with the following formula:
Zero Drift Error = ± Sensor Zero Drift (in watts) / Signal Power (in watts) 0 100 %
The zero drift rating of a particular power sensor may be found on the sensor datasheet, or the Boonton
Electronics Power Sensor Manual. Zero drift error is usually insignificant when measuring at high levels
(25dB or more above the sensor’s minimum power rating). The drift specification usually indicates a time
interval such as one hour. If the time since performing a sensor Zero or AutoCal is very short, the zero drift is
greatly reduced.
Sensor Calibration Factor Uncertainty. Sensor frequency calibration factors (“calfactors”) are used to
correct for sensor frequency response deviations. These calfactors are characterized during factory calibration
of each sensor by measuring its output at a series of test frequencies spanning its full operating range, and
storing the ratio of the actual applied power to the measured power at each frequency. This ratio is called a
calfactor. During measurement operation, the power reading is multiplied by the calfactor for the current
measurement frequency to correct the reading for a flat response.
The sensor calfactor uncertainty is due to uncertainties encountered while performing this frequency calibration
(due to both standards uncertainty, and measurement uncertainty), and is different for each frequency. Both
worst case and RSS uncertainties are provided for the frequency range covered by each sensor, and are listed
on the sensor datasheet and in the Boonton Electronics Power Sensor Manual.
If the measurement frequency is between sensor calfactor entries, the most conservative approach is to use
the higher of the two corresponding uncertainty figures. It is also be possible to estimate the figure by linear
interpolation.
If the measurement frequency is identical to the AutoCal frequency, a calfactor uncertainty of zero should be
used, since any absolute error in the calfactor cancels out during AutoCal. At frequencies that are close to the
AutoCal frequency, the calfactor uncertainty is only partially cancelled out during AutoCal, so it is generally
acceptable to take the uncertainty for the next closest frequency, and scale it down.
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Chapter 5
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5.7.3
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Sample Uncertainty Calculations. The following examples show calculations for two measurement applications - one using a CW sensor (Model 51075), and the other with a peak power sensor (Model 57518). The
figures used in these examples are meant to show the general techniques, and do not apply to all applications.
Some “common sense” assumptions have been made to illustrate the fact that uncertainty calculation is not
an exact science, and requires some understanding of your specific measurement conditions.
Typical Example #1: Model 51075 CW Power Sensor
Measurement conditions:
Source Frequency:
10.3 GHz
Source Power:
-55 dBm (3.16 nW)
Source SWR :
1.50 (reflection coefficient = 0.2) at 10.3 GHz
AutoCal Source:
Internal 50MHz Calibrator
AutoCal Temperature: 25C
Current Temperature: 25C
In this example, we will assume that an AutoCal has been performed on the sensor immediately before the measurement.
This will reduce certain uncertainty terms, as discussed below.
Step 1: The Instrument Uncertainty figure for the 4530 Series is ±0.20%. Since a portion of this figure is meant to
include temperature drift of the instrument, and we know an AutoCal has just been performed, we’ll estimate (for lack
of more detailed, published information) that the instrument uncertainty is ±0.10%, or half the published figure.
UInstrument
= ±0.10%
Step 2: The Calibrator Level Uncertainty for the power meter’s internal, 50MHz calibrator may be read from the
calibrator’s specification. It is ±0.105dB, or ±2.45% at a level of -55dBm.
UCalLevel
= ±2.45%
Step 3: The Calibrator Mismatch Uncertainty is calculated using the formula in the previous section, using the internal
50MHz calibrator’s published figure for ,CAL and calculating the value ,SNSR from the SWR specification on the
51075’s datasheet.
,CAL = 0.024 (internal calibrator’s reflection coefficient at 50MHz)
,SNSR = (1.15 - 1) / (1.15 + 1) = 0.070 (calculate reflection coefficient of 51075, max SWR = 1.15 at 50MHz)
UCalMismatch
= ±2 0 ,CAL 0 ,SNSR 0 100 %
= ±2 0 0.024 0 0.070 0 100 %
= ±0.34%
Step 4: The Source Mismatch Uncertainty is calculated using the formula in the previous section, using the DUT’s
specification for ,SRCE and calculating the value ,SNSR from the SWR specification on the 51075’s datasheet.
,SRCE = 0.20 (source reflection coefficient at 10.3GHz)
,SNSR = (1.40 - 1) / (1.40 + 1) = 0.167 (calculate reflection coefficient of 51075, max SWR = 1.40 at 10.3GHz)
USourceMismatch = ±2 0 ,SRCE 0 ,SNSR 0 100 %
= ±2 0 0.20 0 0.167 0 100 %
= ±6.68%
Step 5: The uncertainty caused by Sensor Shaping Error for a 51075 CW sensor that has been calibrated using the
AutoCal method can be assumed to be 1.0%, as per the discussion in the previous section.
UShapingError = ±1.0 %
Step 6: The Sensor Temperature Drift Error depends on how far the temperature has drifted from the sensor calibration
temperature, and the temperature coefficient of the sensor. In this example, an AutoCal has just been performed on the
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4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 5
Making Measurements
sensor, and the temperature has not drifted at all, so we can assume a value of zero for sensor temperature drift
uncertainty.
USnsrTempDrift = ±0.0 %
Step 7: This is a relatively low-level measurement, so the noise contribution of the sensor must be included in the
uncertainty calculations. We’ll assume default filtering. The signal level is -55dBm, or 3.16nW. The RMS noise
specification for the 51075 sensor is 30pW, from the sensor’s datasheet. Noise uncertainty is the ratio of these two
figures.
UNoiseError
= ± Sensor Noise (in watts) / Signal Power (in watts)
= ±30.0e-12 / 3.16e-9 0 100 %
= ±0.95%
Step 8: The Sensor Zero Drift calculation is very similar to the noise calculation. For sensor zero drift, the datasheet
specification for the 51075 sensor is 100pW, so we’ll take the liberty of cutting this in half to 50pW, since we just
performed an AutoCal, and it’s likely that the sensor hasn’t drifted much.
UZeroDrift
= ± Sensor Zero Drift (in watts) / Signal Power (in watts)
= ±50.0e-12 / 3.16e-9 0 100 %
= ±1.58%
Step 9: The Sensor Calfactor Uncertainty is calculated from the uncertainty values in the Boonton Electronics Power
Sensor Manual. There is no entry for 10.3GHz, so we’ll have to look at the two closest entries. At 10GHz, the calfactor
uncertainty is 4.0%, and at 11GHz it is 4.3%. These two values are fairly close, so we’ll perform a linear interpolation to
estimate the uncertainty at 10.3GHz:
UCalFactor
= [ ( F - F1 ) * (( CF2 - CF1 ) / ( F2 - F1 )) ] + CF1
= [ ( 10.3 - 10.0 ) * (( 4.3 - 4.0 ) / ( 11.0 - 10.0 )) ] + 4.0
= 4.09%
Step 10: Now that each of the individual uncertainty terms has been determined, we can combine them to calculate the
worst-case and RSS uncertainty values:
U (±%)
K
(U0K)2 ( %2 )
1. instrument uncertainty
0.10
0.500
0.0025
2. calibrator level uncertainty
2.45
0.577
1.9984
3. calibrator mismatch uncertainty
0.34
0.707
0.0578
4. source mismatch uncertainty
6.68
0.707
22.305
5. sensor shaping error uncertainty
1.00
0.577
0.3333
6. sensor temperature drift uncertainty
0.00
0.577
0.0000
7. sensor noise uncertainty
0.95
0.500
0.2256
8. sensor zero drift uncertainty
1.58
0.577
0.8311
9. sensor calibration factor uncertainty
4.09
0.500
4.1820
___________________________
Total worst case uncertainty:
±18.43%
Total sum of squares:
Combined Standard uncertainty UC (RSS) :
Expanded Uncertainty U (coverage factor k = 2) :
29.936 %2
±5.47 %
±10.94 %
From this example, it can be seen that the two largest contributions to total uncertainty are the source mismatch, and
the sensor calfactor. Also note that the expanded uncertainty is approximately one-half the value of the worst-case
uncertainty. This is not surprising, since the majority of the uncertainty comes from just two sources. If the measurement
frequency was lower, these two terms would be reduced, and the expanded uncertainty would probably be less than
half the worst-case. Conversely, if one term dominated (for example if a very low level measurement was being
performed, and the noise uncertainty was 30%), the expanded uncertainty value would be expected to approach the
worst-case value. The expanded uncertainty is 0.45dB.
5-19
Chapter 5
Making Measurements
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Typical Example #2: Model 57518 Peak Power Sensor
Measurement conditions:
Source Frequency:
900 MHz
Source Power:
13 dBm (20mW)
Source SWR :
1.12 (reflection coefficient = 0.057) at 900 MHz
AutoCal Source:
External 2530 1GHz Calibrator
AutoCal Temperature: 38C
Current Temperature: 49C
In this example, we will assume that an AutoCal was performed on the sensor earlier in the day, so time and temperature
drift may play a role in the uncertainty.
Step 1: The Instrument Uncertainty figure for the 4530 Series is ±0.20%. Since it has been a while since AutoCal, we’ll
use the published figure.
UInstrument
= ±0.20%
Step 2: The Calibrator Level Uncertainty for the Model 2530 1GHz external calibrator may be calculated from the
calibrator’s specification. The 0dBm uncertainty is 0.065dB, or 1.51%. To this figure, we must add 0.03dB or 0.69% per
5dB step from 0dBm. 13dBm is 2.6 5dB steps (13/5) away from 0dBm. Any fraction must always be rounded to the next
highest whole number, so we’re 3 steps away.
UCalLevel
= ±(1.51% + (3 0 0.69%))
= ±3.11%
Step 3: The Calibrator Mismatch Uncertainty is calculated using the formula in the previous section, using the 2530
calibrator’s published figure for ,CAL and calculating the value ,SNSR from the SWR specification on the 57518’s
datasheet.
,CAL = 0.091 (external 2530 calibrator’s reflection coefficient at 1GHz)
,SNSR = (1.15 - 1) / (1.15 + 1) = 0.070 (calculate reflection coefficient of 57518, max SWR = 1.15 at 1 GHz)
UCalMismatch
= ±2 0 ,CAL 0 ,SNSR 0 100 %
= ±2 0 0.091 0 0.070 0 100 %
= ±1.27%
Step 4: The Source Mismatch Uncertainty is calculated using the formula in the previous section, using the DUT’s
specification for ,SRCE and calculating the value ,SNSR from the SWR specification on the 57518’s datasheet.
,SRCE = 0.057 (source reflection coefficient at 900 MHz)
,SNSR = (1.15 - 1) / (1.15 + 1) = 0.070 (calculate reflection coefficient of 57518, max SWR = 1.15 at 0.9 GHz)
USourceMismatch = ±2 0 ,SRCE 0 ,SNSR 0 100 %
= ±2 0 0.057 0 0.070 0 100 %
= ±0.80%
Step 5: The uncertainty caused by Sensor Shaping Error for a 57518 peak sensor is 4% at all levels, from the sensor’s
datasheet. But since we’re measuring at 900MHz, which is very close to the 1GHz AutoCal frequency, we’ll assume
that the frequency-dependent portion of the shaping error becomes very small, and we’ll estimate that 2% remains.
UShapingError = ±2.0 %
5-20
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Chapter 5
Making Measurements
Step 6: The Sensor Temperature Drift Error depends on how far the temperature has drifted from the sensor calibration
temperature, and the temperature coefficient of the sensor. In our case, we are using a temperature compensated
sensor, and the temperature has drifted by 11 degrees C (49C - 38C) from the AutoCal temperature. We will use the
equation in the previous section to calculate sensor temperature drift uncertainty.
USnsrTempDrift = ± (0.93% + 0.069% /degreeC)
= ± (0.93 + (0.069 0 11.0)) %
= ± 1.69%
Step 7: This is a relatively high-level measurement, so the noise contribution of the sensor is probably negligible, but
we’ll calculate it anyway. We’ll assume modulate mode with default filtering. The signal level is 13dBm, or 20mW. The
“noise and drift” specification for the 57518 sensor is 50nW, from the sensor’s datasheet. Noise uncertainty is the ratio
of these two figures.
UNoise&Drift = ± Sensor Noise (in watts) / Signal Power (in watts)
= ±50.0e-9 / 20.0e-3 0 100 %
= ±0.0003%
Step 8: A separate Sensor Zero Drift calculation does not need to be performed for peak sensors, since “noise and
drift” are combined into one specification, so we’ll just skip this step.
Step 9: The Sensor Calfactor Uncertainty needs to be interpolated from the uncertainty values in the Boonton
Electronics Power Sensor Manual. At 1 GHz, the sensor’s calfactor uncertainty is 2.23%, and at 0.5GHz it is 1.99%.
Note, however, that we are performing our AutoCal at a frequency of 1GHz, which is very close to the measurement
frequency. This means that the calfactor uncertainty cancels to zero at 1GHz, as discussed in the previous section.
We’ll use linear interpolation between 0.5GHz and 1GHz to estimate a value. 900MHz is only 20% (one fifth) of the way
from 1GHz down to 500MHz, so the uncertainty figure at 0.5GHz can be scaled by one fifth.
UCalFactor
= 1.99 0 (900 - 1000) / (500 - 1000)
= 1.99 0 0.2
= ±0.40%
Step 10: Now that each of the individual uncertainty terms has been determined, we can combine them to calculate the
worst-case and RSS uncertainty values:
U (±%)
K
(U0K)2 ( %2 )
1. instrument uncertainty
0.20
0.500
0.0025
2. calibrator level uncertainty
3.11
0.577
3.2201
3. calibrator mismatch uncertainty
1.27
0.707
0.8062
4. source mismatch uncertainty
0.80
0.707
0.3199
5. sensor shaping error uncertainty
2.00
0.577
1.3333
6. sensor temperature drift uncertainty
1.69
0.577
0.9509
7. sensor noise & drift uncertainty
0.00
0.500
0.0000
8. sensor calibration factor uncertainty
0.40
0.500
0.0400
___________________________
Total worst case uncertainty:
±18.43%
Total sum of squares:
Combined Standard uncertainty UC (RSS) :
Expanded Uncertainty U (coverage factor k = 2) :
6.6729 %2
±2.58 %
±5.17 %
From this example, different error terms dominate. Since the measurement is close to the calibration frequency, and
matching is rather good, the shaping and level errors are the largest. Expanded uncertainty of 5.16% translates to an
uncertainty of about 0.22dB in the reading.
5-21
Chapter 5
Making Measurements
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
5-22
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Appendix A
Appendix A
Sensors
Sensors
SENSORS
This appendix lists the characteristics of most common Boonton Electronics sensors used with the 4530 Series RF
Power Meter. Those sensors listed generally are suitable for the great majority of standard measurements. Additional
sensor types are available for special requirements. Contact Boonton Electronics for assistance in selecting a special
sensor to meet your specific requirements.
Two basic types of sensors are available: Peak Power Sensors and CW Power Sensors. Models 56218, 56318, 56326,
56418, 56518, 57318, 57340, 57518 and 57540 are peak sensors, and should be used for peak and average power
measurements of CW and Modulated signals. CW power sensors listed are Models 51075, 51077, 51079, 51071, 51072,
51100, 51101, 51102, 51200, 51201, 51300, 51301, 51011(EMC), 51011(4B), 51012(4C), 51013(4E), 51015(5E), 51033(6E) and
51078. CW diode sensors should only be used for CW signals, or for measuring the average power of modulated
signals, provided the power remains withing the square-law region of the diode detector’s measurement range. Thermal sensors may be used for measuring CW or modulated signals. See Sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this manual for more
information on available power sensor types and choosing the correct sensor for your application.
Applications for Peak Power sensors include peak power, average power, and peak-to-average ratio (crest factor)
measurements, continuous or time-gated, for all pulse and spread-spectrum telecom signals including GSM, GSMEDGE, CDMA, WCDMA, COFDM, and QAM. If the signal power envelope is not stationary, peak power peak power
capability is essential. All peak power sensors feature balanced dual-diodes for high sensitivity and even-order
harmonic suppression. Low input VSWR minimizes mismatch error. Frequency calibration factors (NIST-traceable)
and other data are stored within the peak power sensors. Linearity calibration is performed by the calibrator (internal
or optional 1 GHz external as required). The first listed group of peak power sensors (56000 series) requires the optional
Model 2530 1 GHz external calibrator (see Appendix B) for calibration, since their frequency range does not extend low
enough for 50MHz calibration. The 57000 series sensors are DC-coupled, and have an extended low-frequency limit in
the low-bandwidth setting, so are able to be calibrated from the built-in 50 MHz calibrator of the 4530 Series RF Power
Meter. All CW power sensors listed require only the built-in 50 MHz calibrator of the 4530 Series. One five-foot long
peak sensor cable is included per channel except when one or more CW sensors are ordered with the 4530. In this case,
a data adapter and cable is substituted for a peak sensor cable in each instance.
The following specification sheets list the characteristics of the various sensors mentioned above.
A-1
Appendix A
Sensors
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Peak Power Sensors
Model
Frequency
Range
Impedance
RF Conn
High BW
(Low BW)
Dynamic Range
Overload
Rating
Peak Pwr Range
CW Pwr Range
Pulse /
Int. Trig Range Continuous
Sensor Risetime
Video Bandwidth
Maximum SWR
Hi BW
Setting
Frequency
Low BW
Setting
SWR
For use with the 4530 Series RF Power Meter plus optional Model 2530 1 GHz Calibrator accessory only
56218
50Ω
N(M)
0.03 to 18 GHz
-24 to +20 dBm 1 W for 1µs
-34 to +20 dBm
200 mW
-10 to +20 dBm
<150 ns
2 MHz
<500 ns
700 kHz
0.03 to 1 GHz
1 to 6 GHz
6 to 18 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.25
56318
50Ω
N(M)
0.5 to 18 GHz
-24 to +20 dBm 1 W for 1µs
-34 to +20 dBm
200 mW
-10 to +20 dBm
<20 ns
20 MHz
<200 ns
1.75 MHz
0.5 to 1 GHz
1 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.28
1.34
56326
50Ω
K(M)
0.5 to 26.5 GHz
-24 to +20 dBm 1 W for 1µs
-34 to +20 dBm
200 mW
-10 to +20 dBm
<20 ns
20 MHz
<200 ns
1.75 MHz
0.5 to 1 GHz
1 to 4 GHz
4 to 18 GHz
18 to 26.5 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.45
1.50
56418
50Ω
N(M)
0.5 to 18 GHz
-34 to +5 dBm
-40 to +5 dBm
-18 to +5 dBm
1 W for 1µs
200 mW
<30 ns
15 MHz
<100 ns
6 MHz
0.5 to 1 GHz
1 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.28
1.34
56518
50Ω
N(M)
0.5 to 18 GHz
-40 to +20 dBm 1 W for 1µs
-50 to +20 dBm
200 mW
-27 to +20 dBm
<100 ns
6 MHz
<300 ns
1.2 MHz
0.5 to 1 GHz
1 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.28
1.34
The following four sensors do not require the optional Model 2530 1 GHz calibrator
57318
50Ω
N(M)
0.5 to 18 GHz
(0.05 to 18 GHz)
-24 to +20 dBm 1 W for 1µs
-24 to +20 dBm
200 mW
-10 to +20 dBm
<20 ns
20 MHz
<10 µs
350 kHz
0.05 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.28
1.34
57340
50Ω
K(M)
0.5 to 40 GHz
(0.05 to 40 GHz)
-24 to +20 dBm 1 W for 1µs
-34 to +20 dBm
200 mW
-10 to +20 dBm
<20 ns
20 MHz
<10 µs
350 kHz
0.05 to 4 GHz
4 to 38 GHz
38 to 40 GHz
1.25
1.65
2.00
57518
50Ω
N(M)
0.1 to 18 GHz
(0.05 to 18 GHz)
-40 to +20 dBm 1 W for 1µs
-50 to +20 dBm
200 mW
-27 to +20 dBm
<100 ns
6 MHz
<10 µs
350 kHz
0.05 to 2 GHz
2 to 6 GHz
6 to 16 GHz
16 to 18 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.28
1.34
57540
50Ω
K(M)
0.1 to 40 GHz
(0.05 to 40 GHz)
-40 to +20 dBm 1 W for 1µs
-50 to +20 dBm
200 mW
-27 to +20 dBm
<100 ns
6 MHz
<10 µs
350 kHz
0.05 to 4 GHz
4 to 38 GHz
38 to 40 GHz
1.15
1.65
2.00
A-2
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Appendix A
Sensors
CW Power Sensors
Model
Frequency
Range
Dynamic Range
Impdance
RF Conn
Overload
Rating
Pulse /
Continuous
Maximum SWR
Frequency
SWR
Wide Dynamic Range Dual Diode Sensors
51075
50Ω
N(M)
500 kHz to 18 GHz
-70 to +20 dBm
1 W for 1µs
300 mW
500 kHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 6 GHz
6 GHz to 8 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.40
51077
50Ω
N(M)
500 kHz to 18 GHz
-60 to +30 dBm
10 W for 1µs
3W
500 kHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 6 GHz
6 GHz to 18 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.40
51079
50Ω
N(M)
500 kHz to 18 GHz
-50 to +40 dBm
100 W for 1µs
25 W
500 kHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 6 GHz
6 GHz to 18 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.40
51071
50Ω
K(M)
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz
-70 to +20 dBm
1 W for 1µs
300 mW
10 MHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 4 GHz
4 GHz to 18 GHz
18 GHz to 26.5 GHz
1.15
1.20
1.45
1.50
51072
50Ω
K(M)
30 MHz to 40 GHz
-70 to +20 dBm
1 W for 1µs
300 mW
30 MHz to 4 GHz
4 GHz to 38 GHz
38 GHz to 40 GHz
1.25
1.65
2.00
Thermocouple Sensors
51100 (9E)
50Ω
N(M)
10 MHz to 18 GHz
-20 to +20 dBm
15 W for 1µs
300 mW
10 MHz to 30 MHz
30 MHz to 16 GHz
16 GHz to 18 GHz
1.25
1.18
1.28
51101
50Ω
N(M)
100 kHz to 4.2 GHz
-20 to +20 dBm
15 W for 1µs
300 mW
100 kHz to 300 kHz
300 kHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 4.2 GHz
1.70
1.35
1.60
51102
50Ω
K(M)
30 MHz to 26.5 GHz
-20 to +20 dBm
150 W for 1µs
300 mW
30 MHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 18 GHz
18 GHz to 26.5 GHz
1.35
1.40
1.60
51200
50Ω
N(M)
10 MHz to 18 GHz
0 to +37 dBm
150 W for 1µs
10 W
10 MHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 12.4 GHz
12.4 GHz to 18 GHz
1.10
1.18
1.28
51201
50Ω
N(M)
100 kHz to 4.2 GHz
0 to +37 dBm
150 W for 1µs
10 W
100 kHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 4.2 GHz
1.10
1.18
A-3
Appendix A
Sensors
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
CW Power Sensors (Cont)
Model
Frequency
Range
Dynamic Range
Impdance
RF Conn
Overload
Rating
Pulse /
Continuous
Maximum SWR
Frequency
SWR
Thermocouple Sensors - Continued
51300
50Ω
N(M)
10 MHz to 18 GHz
0 to +44 dBm
150 W for 1µs
50 W
10 MHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 12.4 GHz
12.4 GHz to 18 GHz
1.10
1.18
1.28
51301
50Ω
N(M)
100 kHz to 4.2 GHz
0 to +44 dBm
150 W for 1µs
50 W
100 kHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 4.2 GHz
1.10
1.18
Special Purpose Dual Diode Sensors
51011 (EMC)
50Ω
N(M)
10 kHz to 8 GHz
-60 to +20 dBm
1 W for 1µs
300 W
10 kHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 4 GHz
4 GHz to 8 GHz
1.12
1.20
1.40
51011 (4B)
50Ω
N(M)
100 kHz to 12.4 GHz
-60 to +20 dBm
1 W for 1µs
300 mW
100 kHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 4 GHz
4 GHz to 11 GHz
11 GHz to 12.4 GHz
1.12
1.20
1.40
1.60
51012 (4C)
75Ω
N(M)
100 kHz to 1 GHz
-60 to +20 dBm
1 W for 1µs
300 mW
100 kHz to 1 GHz
1.18
51013 (4E)
50Ω
N(M)
100 kHz to 18 GHz
-60 to +20 dBm
1 W for 1µs
300 mW
100 kHz to 4 GHz
4 GHz to 10 GHz
10 GHz to 18 GHz
1.30
1.50
1.70
51015 (5E)
50Ω
N(M)
100 kHz to 18 GHz
-50 to +30 dBm
10 W for 1µs
2W
100 kHz to 1 GHz
1 GHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 4 GHz
4 GHz to 12.4 GHz
12.4 to 18 GHz
1.07
1.10
1.12
1.18
1.28
51033 (6E)
50Ω
N(M)
100 kHz to 18 GHz
-40 to +33 dBm
10 W for 1µs
2W
100 kHz to 1 GHz
1 GHz to 2 GHz
2 GHz to 4 GHz
4 GHz to 12.4 GHz
12.4 GHz to 18 GHz
1.07
1.10
1.12
1.18
1.28
51078
50Ω
N(M)
100 kHz to 18 GHz
-20 to +37 dBm
100 W for 1µs
7W
100 kHz to 4 GHz
4 GHz to 12 GHz
12 GHz to 18 GHz
1.15
1.25
1.40
A-4
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Appendix B
Appendix B
2530 1GHz Calibrator
Model 2530 1GHz Calibrator
MODEL 2530 1 GHz CALIBRATOR
The Model 2530 operates as an optional accessory of the Model 4531 and 4532 RF Power Meters to provide calibration
and test signals at an output frequency of 1.024 GHz. The Model 2530 is controlled by the power meter through its
manual and remote programming systems and GPIB commands are defined for it. The 1.024 GHz calibrator is necessary
for sensors that cannot be calibrated at 50 MHz because of a higher low-frequency cutoff. It is also closer to commonly
used frequencies for telecom applications, and can reduce measurement uncertainty by requiring less interpolation of
sensor frequency calfactors. The Model 2530 calibrator must be conected to the 4530 powermeter using the supplied
RJ-11 control cable as shown in the diagram on the following page.
Accessories
Supplied accessories:
1 - NEMA type power cable
1 - RJ-11 Control Cable
1 - Fuse kit
1 - 2530 Operators Instruction Manual
Other accessories:
Rack Mounting Kit
Specifications
RF Section
Operating Modes:
CW, Internal or external pulse
Output Frequency:
1.024 GHz ± 0.005%
Level Range:
-60.0 to +20.0 dBm
Resolution:
0.1 dB
Source SWR (Refl. Coef.):
1.20 (0.091) maximum, CW mode
Accuracy (NIST traceable):
+20 to -40 dBm
Absolute:
± 0.065 dB (1.5%) at 0 dBm, CW mode
Linearity:
± 0.03 dB per 5 dB from 0 dBm, CW mode
Harmonics:
-35 dB minimum to 40 GHz
Spurious:
-60 dB minimum
Pulse Generator
Internal Pulse Period:
100 ms, 1 ms or 10 ms
Internal Pulse Duty Cycle:
10% to 90% in 10% increments
Pulse polarity:
+ or – for Internal and External pulses
RF Connector:
Type N, front or optional rear panel location
External Pulse Modulation Input:
Type BNC, rear panel, TTL compatible
Controller connector:
RJ-11
Controller:
Boonton Electronics Model 4531/4532 RF Power Meter
B-1
Appendix B
2530 1GHz Calibrator
Boonton Electronics
4530 Series RF Power Meter
Miscellaneous
Power requirements:
90 to 260 VAC, 47 to 63 Hz, < 50 VA, < 30 watts
No voltage switching required.
Cooling:
Internal fan.
Dimensions:
3.5 inches (8.9 cm) high, 8.4 inches wide (21.3 cm),
approx. 13.5 inches (34.3 cm) length , not including
removable feet and connector clearances.
BOONTON ELECTRONICS
4530 SERIES
RF POWER METER
BOONTON ELECTRONICS
MODEL 2530
1GHZ RF CALIBRATOR
EXT CAL
CONTROL
EXT CAL
CONTROL
RJ-11 Telephone Cable
External Calibrator Connection Diagram
B-2
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