Compendium of Recommendation s Chapter 1 2

Compendium of Recommendation s Chapter 1 2
Chapter 1 2
Compendium of Recommendations
This chapter lists all the recommendations of the Commission of
Inquiry and summarizes the basis on which each has been made .
The recommendations are designed to restore Unemploymen t
Insurance to its original concept and to place it in the context of a
strategic plan for comprehensive human resource development .
Unemployment Insurance has the pivotal role in the income security
system of this country . Consequently, reform of the current program
must be accompanied by changes in other programs concerned with
human resource development and income security .
Chapter 1 : What We Hear d
Chapter 1 presents a resume of what participants said during the
public hearings about the problems of unemployment and the Unemployment Insurance program . There was strong consensus that Unemployment Insurance is and will continue to be needed . At the same time we
were assailed with complaints and grievances about the program . There
was virtually universal condemnation of the complexity of the Act and
regulations, and strong and opposing positions on the nature and
purpose of the program itself. Some saw the program as attempting to
meet too many social objectives, and called for a return to the basic
principles of insurance . Others wanted these social aspects of the
program expanded . The consultation process focussed the field of
debate on several issues, including the program's objectives, inequities,
incentives, the imbalance between the government's role and that of the
premium payers, and inadequacies in the program's delivery .
Chapter 2 : Employment and Unemployment
Chapter 2 presents an overview of unemployment, its nature an d
scope, and the interplay between rising expectations for jobs and the
growth in the number of jobs available . The chapter shows that
unemployment is a significant problem - a problem which annually
affects one in four Canadians who want to work . The risk of unemployment is greater for those with lower levels of education, particularly
youth, older workers, and workers in industries, occupations or regions
facing structural transformations . Examination of the operation of the
Unemployment Insurance program itself shows three patterns of usage
that suggest problems within the design of the program . These patterns
are specific to short-term workers, those on industrial layoffs with recall,
and full-year workers who exhaust their benefits .
What are the needs of the unemployed? Quite simply, they need jobs,
money, skills and increased options in the labour market . Meeting all the
needs of the unemployed is a task well beyond the scope of an Unemployment Insurance program . Unless reform of the current program is
undertaken as part of a broad, integrated human resource development
304
PART N :
CHAPTER 12
strategy, it can be no more than a token effort, almost certain to fall short
of its objective . Part II of the report focusses on the need for a comprehensive human resource development strategy .
Chapter 3 : Job s
This chapter looks at full employment, at employment development
strategies and, in particular, at job creation . It is pointed out that the
demand for jobs can be met only if there is economic growth and if that
growth keeps pace with growth in the labour force . Economic growth, in
turn, requires a high and sustained level of investment . In recent years,
investment in Canada has not been sufficient to achieve both increased
productivity and expanded employment opportunities to match the
growth in the labour force . Unemployment can be truly resolved only in
an environment characterized by economic growth .
All industrialized countries are finding it difficult to eliminate
unemployment . As a result, there is a gro ing lack of confidence in
traditional fiscal and moneta ry policies . (The task of stabilizing the
economy at a low level of unemployment is difficult but essentialnd in
attempting to achieve this objective, new solutions to old problem s
appear necessary . One possible alternative which has been persuasively
argued involves revenue sharing . This entails workers agreeing to accept
part of their remuneration as a share of the firm's profits rather than a s
,, wages . This approach increases the stability of employment and has bee n
successfully adopted in Japan and Korea and is gaining in popularity in
the United States .
Recommendations
1
2
3
Economic policies should give high priority to raising the rate of growth of the economy, in
recognition of the role of economic growth in creating employment opportunities . Particular
attention should be paid to policies that would ensure :
• a high and sustained volume of investment ; an d
• sufficient improvement in productivity to maintain or improve Canada's competitive position
in the world .
Full employment should continue to be a primary objective of fiscal and monetary policies .
Profit or revenue sharing as a component of total earnings of labour should be encouraged and
the treatment of income from these schemes by Unemployment Insurance and Revenue Canada
should encourage their introduction .
The problem of regional unemployment is currently approached in
two ways . The first is through regional economic development initiatives
that attempt to increase the productive capacity of regions by subsidizing industry to locate or expand there . The second is through job
creation programs, which are a more temporary response to regional
unemployment, involving short-term projects that provide jobs .
Regional economic development policy has concentrated on
grafting large firms onto depressed regions . In many of these cases
subsidies are required on a continuing basis to offset the inherent
competitive disadvantages of these regions . Current programs do not
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 30 5
seem to provide much support to the growing service and small business
sectors . An attractive alternative would be to invest in increased
productive capacity and a higher level of employment by supporting
community economic development initiatives such as Community
Economic Councils and Community Development Corporations . These
community-inspired initiatives have the advantage of building on local
strengths, and the employment that they create becomes part of the
fabric of the local community .
There is evidence from both British and French experience that the
unemployed can be successful in creating their own jobs by starting their
own businesses . In cases where the unemployed have a sound business
plan, Unemployment Insurance rules and regulations should encourage
their initiative .
Recommendation
An industrial and regional development strategy should be designed with the following
4 characteristics :
• A substantial proportion of regional and industrial assistance should be directed to new and to
small businesses, including those in the non-manufacturing sector .
• Community economic development initiatives should be funded, at least in part, from funds
released by phasing out regionally extended benefits . They should be undertaken in a manner
that ensures local control and should be widely available to communities in Canada .
• Initiatives that assist the unemployed to start their own business enterprises should be
encouraged .
Job creation programs have come in all shapes and sizes and have
been designed with the best of intentions to meet a large number of
specific problems . They have always been considered a "temporary"
response to an unemployment crisis . The projects undertaken, however,
have failed either to counterbalance the economic depression of the
various regions or to improve the employability of participants . In
addition, these initiatives have been plagued by changing federal
priorities, lack of coordination among the various levels of government,
and political pressures for constituency funding . What is needed is more
long-term planning and the creation of jobs of long-term value to the
community . All projects should be evaluated and the results made
public .
Recommendation
5 Short-term job creation programs should be eliminated and the funds redirected to longer-ter m
employment programs . These programs should :
• focus on jobs with a long-term value to the participant and community, rather than on shortterm make-work jobs ;
• eliminate the constituency basis of funding ; an d
• set aside a portion of program budgets for analysis by independent researchers to determine
whether their objectives have been met . The results of these evaluations should be available to
the public .
306
PART IV : CHAPTER 12
Under Section 38 of the Unemployment Insurance Act, benefits may
be provided to participants in approved job creation projects for up to
six weeks after the project ends . Although there are many problems with
Section 38, the basic one is that it is not an appropriate feature in an
Unemployment Insurance program . Job creation should be supported
directly from general revenue and should be open to a wider group than
just those receiving benefits . Individuals who have already exhausted
their benefits, for example, may be in even greater need of assistance than
those still receiving Unemployment Insurance .
Recommendatio n
G
Section 38 (Job Creation) of the Unemployment Insurance Act should be rescinded .
Chapter 4 : Money - The Need for Income Security
This chapter outlines Canada's income security system and the role of
Unemployment Insurance within that system . Income security programs
in Canada can be divided into three distinct categories or tiers . Tier 1
consists of income support programs (such as social assistance and the
Guaranteed Income Supplement) . Tier 2 includes income supplementation programs (such as Old Age Security, Family Allowances, the Child
Tax Credit, and programs operated by certain provincial governments) .
Tier 3 consists of social insurance programs (such as Unemployment
Insurance, the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans, and Workers'
Compensation) .
Ale
~A
Income support provides financial assistance to individuals and
families who have little or no other income . Income supplementation
provides income assistance to low-income earners to minimize the effect
of an inadequate income . Social insurance programs provide some
measure of income replacement in the event of various contingencies
such as unemployment, sickness or injury .
Unemployment Insurance is the cornerstone of income security i n
Canada . It was originally designed, in 1940, as a program of temporary
assistance to workers who are between jobs . With the haphazard addition
~of functions over the years, to cover new situations and serve new needs ,
the program has expanded far beyond this . As a consequence in some
parts of the count ry it is now part of a regular pattern of income from
seasonal or short-term employment, unemployment benefits and, for
some, social assistance . In some cases, benefits actually exceed the
earnings that they are intended to replace, due to the provision of
regionally extended benefits . Thus, Unemployment Insurance has
become a major element of income or earnings supplementation .
Unemployment Insurance is poorly designed to undertake the
function of supplementing income because benefits are not income
tested, Unemployment Insurance is directed to the individual rather than
the family, and benefits are based on previous earnings rather than need,
with higher benefits going to higher earners rather than to the needier .
Only 11 percent of Unemployment Insurance benefits go to families with
incomes of less than $ 10,000, and almost 20 percent go to families wit h
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 30 7
incomes greater than $40,000 . It is simply not a good instrument for
income redistribution .
Regionally extended benefits, funded by general revenues rather
than premiums, were introduced to provide supplementa ry assistance in
specific regions with particularly high unemployment . Over time, ~
however, unemployment has risen throughout Canada so that regionally
extended benefits have been paid in eve ry region since 1981 . Consequently, these benefits are no longer part of an economic adjustment
plan directed toward areas with unusually severe problems ; they have
become a kind of temporary social assistance/income maintenance plan
for those who can find at least 10 weeks of work per year .
Regionally extended benefits are considered by many to be an
essential element in regional economies . These benefits, however, attack
the symptoms rather than the underlying causes of unemployment .
Eliminating regionally extended benefits would free up some $2 .8 billion
which could be directed to correcting the causes of unemployment and
providing earnings supplementation to those who need it . It would be
irresponsible to give serious consideration to removing regionall y
extended benefits without providing an income supplement to workers
faced with economic hardship and without providing development funds
to regions and communities suffering from the impact of economic
forces well beyond their control .
A federal Earnings Supplementation Program cannot exist in
isolation, distinct from developments in other social security benefits,
the tax system or provincial initiatives . Four provinces have income
supplementation programs and all provinces are vitally interested in
helping low-income families . What may be needed is a group or series of
supplementation plans, reached through federal-provincial agreements,
to reflect the differing provincial concerns .
An Earnings Supplementation Program which helps those who have
some income differs fundamentally from a guaranteed annual income
which helps those who have no other sources of support . An Earnings
Supplementation Program should be designed to increase a person's
benefits when earnings increase and the program should have a low and
consistent tax-back rate on income earned while receiving the supplement . A well-designed program would compensate for the effects of
phasing out regionally extended benefits . It would be a major reform of
one tier in the income security system, and would allow Unemployment
Insurance to return to its appropriate role .
Unemployment Insurance plays essentially a transitional role, that of
partial income replacement for a specific period during an interruption
of earnings . It should serve as a lifeline rather than a safety net - to help
people return to stable employment rather than holding them in a
pattern of dependence . The many additions to its functions over the
years have subverted its essential nature and created unacceptable
inequities . This has occurred largely because of the lack of other, more
appropriate programs or agencies . Unemployment Insurance should
return to its original purpose and other initiatives should now be
adopted to assume the functions of income supplementation for lowincome families .
308 PART IV : CHAPTER 1 2
Recommendations
7 Regionally extended benefits within the Unemployment Insurance program should b e
progressively abolished and replaced over a period of four to five years with a range of human
resource development programs better tailored to meet the needs of individuals and regions .
The range of programs and policies should include :
• an Earnings Supplementation Program ;
• economic and community development initiatives ;
• education, literacy and basic training programs ; and
• policies and programs to facilitate greater flexibility in the labour market .
8 The Canadian government should work closely with the provinces to develop earnings
supplementation plans that complement the proposed changes in the Unemployment insurance
program . These plans should ensure that those who participate in the labour force but have
inadequate incomes would be eligible to receive a supplement on the basis of total household
income rather than individual income . The tax-back rate, when combined with the income tax
system, should be less than 50 percent .
9 Unemployment Insurance should provide temporary replacement of earnings in the case of job
loss or interruption of employment earnings .
Unemployment results from either job loss or a temporary interruption of earnings . It is as reasonable to cover temporary sickness,
maternity or parental benefits as it is to cover temporary layoffs with
recall notices . In the absence of another, more inclusive system to
protect those whose earnings are interrupted because of maternity,
parental or sick leave, it is appropriate for Unemployment Insurance to
continue to provide this coverage .
The issue of the "medical yardstick" for sickness benefits caused
many complaints at the public hearings . While the use of the medical
yardstick as a guide is not disputed, the secrecy that surrounds it is
insupportable . Another issue concerns the waiving of the normal twoweek waiting period in certain cases of illness . This practice is contrary
to the principle of co-insurance whereby the insured and the insurer
share the cost of any contingency covered by the insurance .
Maternity benefits have changed over time to provide benefits not
only for the mother, but also for parental care . Although in 1984 benefits
were extended to adoptive parents, the role of the natural father has not
been equally recognized . The provision for a 2-week waiting period and
for a total benefit period of 15 weeks should be maintained . A two-tier
system would allow parents to decide how long the mother would
receive benefits and which parent would assume the initial parenting
role . The current restriction limiting the duration of the receipt of
special benefits such as maternity and sickness in any combination to a
maximum of 15 weeks is unduly harsh .
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 30 9
Recommendations
10 . 1
10 .2
11 . 1
11 .2
The Unemployment Insurance program should continue to provide sickness benefits . It should
retain the provision for premium reduction equivalent to the saving to the Unemployment
Insurance Account from private disability insurance, but the method of calculating the premium
reduction should be reviewed .
The medical yardstick for determining sickness benefits should be readily available for client
reference . The two-week waiting period for sickness benefits should continue and this
requirement should be enforced .
A two-tier system of maternity and parental benefits should be implemented, comprised of :
• maternity benefits available during the period surrounding childbirth ; an d
• parental benefits available during the period following maternity leave or placement of an
adopted child ;
• parental benefits should be available to either or both parents (but not concurrently) such that
the total amount of benefits does not exceed the maximum available to one parent ; this should
be made available only to those who are active labour force participants .
Section 22(3) of the Act should be amended to remove the present 15-week aggregate benefit
limit, so that the availability of sickness benefits is separate and distinct from any maternity or
parental benefits to which a person is entitled . Maternity, parental and sickness benefits should
be available during any phase of the claimant's unemployment spell .
Seasonal factors, layoffs and other industrial practices contribute
heavily to interindustry variations in the relationship between contribution and benefits . The result is that industries with stable employment
patterns are seen as subsidizing those with less stable patterns .
Experience rating has been suggested as a means of reducing, if not
eliminating, these cross-subsidies . Evidence shows, however, that on
balance its effect would be negligible in affecting the behaviour of firms .
Recommendation
12 Unemployment Insurance premiums should not be based on experience rating .
31 0
PART IV: CHAPTER 12
Chapter 5 : Skills - A Choice of Futures
This chapter identifies runaamentai inaaequacies in ine cuucational and
skill level of the work force and examines the role of Unemployment
Insurance in that context .
An educated work force is better able to adapt to changing labour
market demands and will therefore have a better choice of futures . There
are fundamental inadequacies in the educational and training system,
however, and this has resulted in inadequate skills among many workers .
Evidence shows that those who have not completed high school are much
more likely to be unemployed . For this reason, a strategy to help achieve
at least high school equivalency is essential . Rather than emphasizing
specialized skills training, the focus should be on ensuring attainment of
the basic educational level which is necessary for future training and
retraining .
To overcome the current inadequacies in the educational system,
there is an urgent need for leadership on the part of educators and public
policy makers to put aside jurisdictional considerations and deal with
the real needs of high school dropouts . It is recognized that high school
education is largely within provincial jurisdiction, but the education
required for a more flexible and better trained labour force knows no
provincial boundaries .
Many adult Canadians are functionally illiterate and lack numeracy
skills . The resulting inability of almost a third of the adult population to
deal at the necessary level with language, numbers and concepts has
considerable human and economic costs . Functional illiteracy is being
recognized increasingly by Canadian industry as a major concern . If
Canada continues to ignore the illiteracy crisis and fails to mount a
cooperative and sustained effort to eliminate it, a large proportion of
workers will be limited in their ability to participate effectively in the
work force .
Recommendation s
13
14
The federal government should invite provincial governments to undertake measures at the high
school level to ensure that a high minimum level of education is achieved by all Canadians and
that these measures emphasize :
• flexibility in program requirements ;
• the acquisition of general basic skills to grade 12 or an equivalent level ;
• cooperative programs that combine work and study ; and
• the inclusion of technological content in all programs .
The federal government should invite provincial governments to cooperate in mounting a
sustained effort to eradicate functional illiteracy and innumeracy among the adult population .
Basic knowledge and skills are fundamental preconditions of a
skilled and flexible work force . Changing requirements, and the
consequent necessity for the labour force to adapt, demand a greater
emphasis on employment training and retraining . Employers repeatedly
complained at the public hearings that they could not find workers able
to solve problems, and that what they needed were workers with general
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 31 1
skills, who are able to adapt and to learn new technical skills as job
requirements change . Funding arrangements have also been criticized on
the grounds that they limit the selection of the most appropriate courses .
Recommendatio n
15
Training programs and funding arrangements under the National Training Act should be
odified to :
assign high priority within the Institutional Trai~ g~'og~ m, or its replacement, to providing
urses in functional literacy, basic training for skill development, and educational upgrading ;
re recognize programs that enable functionally illiterate workers to gain basic literacy skills as a
legitimate component of on-the-job training ; an d
• replace the current funding arrangement with one that will increase the relevance and
responsiveness of training institutions to the labour market .
Section 39 of the Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits, in
some cases for an extended period, from general revenues to recipients
who undertake training in approved courses . There are several concerns
about this arrangement . All unemployed individuals should be given the
opportunity to upgrade their skills and improve their employability . The
current practice in approving courses is not to place emphasis on basic
skills but to favour those who already have substantial skill levels and, in
the case of apprenticeship training, to favour those who are already
employed . The operation of the apprenticeship program should be
removed from the Unemployment Insurance program and reviewed by
the appropriate federal and provincial authorities . The provision of
extended benefits to a person while on training is inequitable and a
violation of the insurance principle . Trainees should receive benefits
only for the period of their regular entitlement, and the role of Unemployment Insurance should be limited to waiving the search requirements for those undertaking approved training .
Recommendatio n
16
Section 39 of the Unemployment Insurance Act should be rescinded and provision should be
made to :
• waive job search requirements for approved beneficiaries undertaking approved training
programs (including literacy, educational and skills upgrading) ;
• establish a review process to monitor these approvals ;
• exclude allowances for expenses from computation of earnings on claim ; an d
• initiate a review of the operation of the apprenticeship program by the appropriate federal and
provincial authorities .
31 2
PART IV :
CHAPTER 12
1~
4
Those in the 15-to-24 age group need special attention . The baby
boom generation has already flooded the labour market and produced
high unemployment among youth and young adults . Many are poorly
equipped for participation in the labour forceCand have difficulty
adjusting to the demands of adulthood~ 7
lor
Recommendation
17
The Minister of State for Youth should consider implementation of a comprehensive Youth
Opportunities Program . The program would combine basic education, counselling, life skills
and work experience for young people aged 15 to 24 years who do not have a high school
diploma or are otherwise disadvantaged and are having difficulty entering the labour force .
Chapter 6 : Options - Employment Flexibilit y
This chapter addresses the need for greater flexibility in the labour
market and evaluates such programs as mobility assistance, retirement
policies and alternative work arrangements . These initiatives provide
individuals with greater choice and allow the labour market to adapt
more readily to change .
Labour displacement in declining industries and depressed regions
often involves many people . In these circumstances, it is sometimes in
everyone's interest that relocation take place . Currently, several
programs provide mobility assistance to facilitate the movement of
individuals who are unemployed, underemployed or about to become
unemployed . What is required is a consolidation of mobility assistance
into a single program, to avoid overlap and duplication .
Mobility, however, is not a panacea for solving labour market
problems . A key policy element should be the degree of flexibility in
labour adjustment . A consolidated mobility program should be based as
much on the needs of the individual as on the needs of industry . It should
have few criteria that limit eligibility, and should provide assistance to
those who relocate to undergo training .
Recommendation s
18 .1
18.2
All federal labour market programs that provide mobility assistance should be consolidated .
In the new consolidated mobility assistance program :
• the industry and community basis for determining eligibility should be eliminated ; an d
• in addition to those currently eligible, assistance should be provided to workers who relocate
for training purposes .
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 31 3
Changing economic and social demands will require greater
flexibility in the way that work is organized and also in the rules and
regulations of Unemployment Insurance . There are many alternative
work arrangements, but the variety and the benefits of these alternatives
are not sufficiently understood . Some alternatives, such as job sharing
and working part time, have direct implications for employment income
and consequently for the Unemployment Insurance system . Job sharing
involves restructuring a single full-time job into two or more part-time
jobs . Interest in job sharing has increased in response to the needs and
preference of working parents and partially retired persons .
Part-time employment has increased rapidly over the last decade .
The Unemployment Insurance program excludes many part-time
workers, since in order to be eligible a person must work at least 15
hours per week for the same employer . This restriction imposes hardship
on many families, is unfair, and is out of step with changing work
patterns . The Wallace Commission of Inquiry on part-time work and the
Boyer Committee on equality rights both concluded that the current
minimum of 15 hours per week should be reduced to 8 hours . The
principle that all hours of work should be covered is accepted, but it is
recognized that in practice extending coverage to every hour and to
every worker may create administration problems and may result in
additional costs, particularly for small businesses . The feasibility of such
an extension should be examined by the Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission .
Recommendation
Unemployment Insurance coverage, in principle, should be extended to all part-time workers ,
19 but first of all to those who work a minimum of eight hours per week . Workers should be allowed
to accumulate hours of work in order to become eligible for coverage . The administrative
feasibility of covering all hours of work, including work for different employers, should be
examined by the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission .
Compensated work sharing is a temporary arrangement intended to
preserve employment through the avoidance of layoffs, at least in the
short term . A prorated share of the regular weekly Unemployment
Insurance benefit is paid to those workers whose normal hours are
reduced by a formal agreement . There is widespread support for these
arrangements .
Recommendatio n
20 The current work-sharing provision in Unemployment Insurance should be retained, and an
internal review should be undertaken in order to streamline procedures and reduce
administrative and compliance costs .
314 PART IV : CHAPTER 12
Since the end of World War It, the proportion of a worker's life spent
in the labour force has declined substantially, largely because of a
preference for increased leisure as real wages and real incomes rose . This
preference is reflected most notably in the choice of a shorter work year
through increased holiday periods . In contrast, the average work week
has remained remarkably constant . Because of the projected aging of the
population, the wisdom of attempting to reduce work time or ban
overtime work by legislation is questionable .
Recommendation
21 Flexibility in work time should be encouraged but shorter work days, weeks or years should b e
negotiated by individual firms and industries rather than being established by legislation .
The requirement of mandatory retirement at age 65 is under attack
because of the equality provisions in the Canadian Charter of Rights and
Freedoms . The federal government has expressed a commitment to
facilitate flexible retirement, and changes to increase the flexibility of
public and private pension plans either have been made or are contemplated . Available empirical evidence from the United States and from
Quebec indicates that these measures may have little effect on postponing retirement . They will, however, expand the range of genuine personal
choice . These changes have major implications for the Unemployment
Insurance program . They change the context of the three-week
"retirement benefit" at age 65 and the treatment of pension income in
determining Unemployment Insurance benefits for persons under age 65
who take on another job while receiving a pension . Since Unemployment
Insurance and Old Age Security are elements of the social security
system, changes in their age limits should be coordinated .
Recommendation
22 The age limit of 65 years should be removed as a barrier to Unemployment Insurance eligibility ,
concurrently with changes in the age limit established in the Old Age Security program . At that
time, the provisions in the Unemployment Insurance Act for payment of a three-week
"retirement benefit" should be rescinded .
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 31 5
Chapter 7 : A Plan for Refor m
This chapter sets forth the proposed fundamental reform of the core
program of Unemployment Insurance, the objectives, and the reasons for
the new program design . The current program is perceived by many to be
unfair, illogical, at variance with the principles of social insurance, and
overly complex . Different criteria are applied and different benefits
provided to individuals who are in similar circumstances . More generous
treatment is given to short-term than to long-term workers, and more is
given to those in some regions than in others . The entrance requirements
are complicated and there are different benefit phases . Not all hours of
work are treated equally in determining eligibility for benefits, and
workers in the same occupation with the same employment possibilities
are treated differently . The practice of basing eligibility on the local
unemployment rate is unfair, since that rate is a poor indicator of job
opportunities .
The proposed new approach must be viewed within the broad
context of the human resource development proposals included in
preceding recommendations, and within the framework of the income
security system . The reform embodies the view that Canada must invest
more in human resources and make funds available to support programs
for that purpose . Within the context of a comprehensive human resource
development strategy, the role of Unemployment Insurance would
become one of strict income replacement . Income supplementation and
other aspects of the current program would be transferred to programs
specially designed for these purposes .
To respond to deficiencies in the current program, the proposed
reforms involve moving to "Annualization" in the calculation of benefits
- that is, basing the level of benefits on insurable earnings over the
previous 52 weeks and paying benefits for up to 50 weeks . In addition, an
annual maximum limit on insurable earnings is set . This annual limit
would remove inequities and encourage increased flexibility in the
workplace . A further change involves a revised approach to credit
banking, ensuring that all hours worked and all earnings are included in
the calculation of benefits, which will provide greater incentives for the
unemployed to accept full-time work . Finally, shifting to an entrance
requirement based on hours rather than weeks would allow workers to
accumulate all hours of work .
It was decided that simple modification of the existing program
would not meet the demands of the changing economic environment or
provide the best possible foundation for the future . The weaknesses and
inequities in the current system were carefully reviewed and the
advantages and disadvantages of various options were studied and
debated . The decision was reached that, on balance, Annualization was
the best approach, because it combines low entrance requirements with
long maximum duration of benefits, without the inequities, disincentives and administrative complexity of the current approach .
316
PART IV: CHAPTER 1 2
Recommendations
23
24
A new Unemployment Insurance program should be developed and implemented . Features of
the program should include :
• a standard cumulative entrance requirement of 350 hours ;
• benefits based on average weekly insurable earnings in the 52 weeks prior to unemployment ;
• benefits paid in 50 weekly instalments after a two-week waiting period ;
• benefits to equal 66 3'3 percent of insurable earnings ;
• an annual maximum insurable earnings limit applied according to the employer's pay periods ;
an d
• a system of credit banking .
The reformed program should be introduced in four phases .
• Phase 1 : benefits would be based on the average weekly earnings over 13 weeks, paid in 50
weekly instalments, and would be 60 percent of insurable earnings .
• Phase 2 : benefits would be based on the average weekly earnings over 26 weeks, paid in 50
instalments, and would be 60 percent of insurable earnings .
• Phase 3 : benefits would be based on the average weekly earnings over 39 weeks, paid in 50
instalments, and would be 66 3'3 percent of insurable earnings .
• Phase 4 : benefits would be based on the average weekly earnings over 52 weeks, paid in 50
instalments, and would be 66 2/3 percent of insurable earnings .
Particular concern was expressed at the public hearings about the
situation of unemployed older workers who are too young to draw a
pension but may be considered too old to be readily employable . For
them, one year of benefits may be insufficient for the sort of adjustment
that all workers may find increasingly necessary . Under Annualization,
workers who suffer a number of layoffs in quick succession after many
years of steady employment with the same company may need a means to
top up their benefits to some percentage of their average weekly
earnings . They may also need assistance to top up or extend their benefits
so that they can undertake approved training and move for relocation
purposes .
Recommendation
5 c A Cumulative Employment Account should be developed, having the following features :
2
• Credits would accrue at the rate of two weeks for every year worked, to a maximum of 25 years
of credit .
• Benefits could be drawn only after a 30-year threshold .
• Benefits could be used to (a) top up Unemployment Insurance benefits to 66 413 percent of
average insurable earnings over the previous five years ; and (b) top up or extend benefits for
those undertaking approved training, retraining or mobility . Benefits could be extended to a
maximum of 52 additional weeks .
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS
Chapter 8 : Immediate Steps - Other Program Reforms
Fundamental restructuring of the Unemployment Insurance program
involves sweeping changes that must be carefully considered and
gradually introduced . This chapter deals with a number of less fundamental changes that could be implemented more rapidly, either within
the current program or as part of a reformed program .
The treatment of pensions was the subject of a special reference to
the Commission of Inquiry . In considering this issue, it must be
recognized that the entire question of retirement and retirement policy
is changing rapidly. Under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,
age 65 may no longer be a basis for mandatory retirement . Actuarial
adjustments for those wishing to retire at other than the "normal"
retirement age are already taking place or being contemplated in both
the public and private sectors . As a consequence, it will become less and
less true that receipt of a pension and retirement are synonymous . Thus,
the question of the treatment of pension income by Unemployment
Insurance has become part of a more general problem facing policy
makers - the increasing importance placed on flexibility in retirement
and pension arrangements, and the resulting need for better coordination of all related social policies, particularly Old Age Security .
Since those who have retired are no longer in the labour force, they
should no longer be covered by a program such as Unemployment
Insurance, which is designed to assist members of the labour force .
Receipt of a pension, however, does not necessarily mean that a person
has left the labour force and should not lead to disqualification from
Unemployment Insurance benefits .
Denying coverage to everyone with pension income would mean
denying coverage to the many individuals who enter another job after
leaving a career with a pension . By contrast, the approach that became
effective January 5, 1986 compels those with a pension from previous
employment to pay for coverage on subsequent employment but treats
pension income as earned income, so that when these workers become
unemployed their benefits may be negligible or non-existent . Another
possible approach would be to ignore pension income entirely . This
would mean ignoring deferred income from another job, since that is
how pension income is generally considered . If the mandatory retirement age were removed and pension income were ignored completely,
then Unemployment Insurance could be used to finance the first year of
retirement and the cost could become prohibitive .
It was recognized that those in receipt of pension income should not
be discouraged from pursuing a second career . It was therefore decided
to recommend treatment of pensions in two ways : the first if the
pensioner is unemployed when the pension is received initially and the
second if the pensioner becomes unemployed from a subsequent job .
Because building up a pension is a lifetime process, any changes that
might reduce pension income should be introduced only after notice of
three years to those likely to be affected .
31 7
318 PART IV : CHAPTER 1 2
Recommendatio n
26
The current treatment of pension income should be rescinded with an effective date of January 5,
1986 . The new policy should be announced and an implementation date of January 1, 1989 set .
The new policy should be :
• that pension income received during a period of unemployment immediately following
retirement from a first career would be treated as earnings when calculating Unemployment
Insurance benefits for that period ;
• that during future employment periods, Unemployment Insurance would provide coverage
only on the difference between pension income and the lesser of the new earnings or maximum
insurable earnings ;
• that premiums would be calculated on the basis of insurable earnings minus pensions in pay ;
and
• that administratively, weekly premiums would be calculated as now, with any excess rebated
via annual income tax returns .
Currently, lump-sum payments, including severance pay, vacation
pay, bonuses and payments from an employee profit-sharing plan, are
translated into weekly earnings and treated like earnings on claim, which
are subtracted from eligible benefits . It is considered inequitable that in
these cases the maximum benefit period and the amount of benefits are
reduced . The major exception to this treatment of lump-sum payments is
the treatment of vacation pay trust funds, which exist predominantly in
the construction industry in Ontario and Quebec . In these funds,
vacation entitlement is accrued and benefits are usually paid twice a year
and vacation must be taken in a set time period . Individuals should not
be considered as unemployed and available for work during these
vacation periods .
Recommendations
27 . 1
27 .2
Severance pay, vacation pay and lump-sum payments should be allocated to weeks, using the
same formula as at present . These monies should delay but not reduce benefit entitlement . In
addition, they should be considered as insurable earnings .
Recipients of benefits from vacation pay trust funds should be disentitled for the period for
which vacation pay is received . This would delay but not reduce benefit entitlement .
Under the present system, if a person in receipt of benefits earns
more than 25 percent of his or her benefits, then benefits are reduced by
one dollar for every dollar earned above that limit . Thus, there is no
financial incentive to work beyond the exemption level . Maximum work
incentives should be .provided to the extent that benefits and earnings
together do not exceed the previous insured earnings of the individual
worker .
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 31 9
Recommendation
. 1 Earnings while on claim should reduce benefits at a rate equal to the replacement ratio . That is, i f
28
the replacement ratio is 66 ~/3 percent, then the reduction rate should also be 66 2/3percent .
At present, coverage under Unemployment Insurance is limited to
jobs that involve at least 15 hours of work a week or pay at least $99 a
week . Part-time workers with more than one job are considered
unemployed and eligible to receive benefits if they lose one job, provided
it is insurable . Earnings from the job that continues are treated as
earnings while on claim, however, and as a consequence, they are treated
more harshly than a full-time worker with the same total insurable
earnings .
Recommendation
2 Benefits for multiple job-holders should be calculated on the basis of total insurable earning s
2 8.
from all jobs . Any earnings during the benefit period should be treated as earnings on claim .
A particularly contentious issue is the provision in the current Act
that makes those whose earnings are interrupted because of a labour
dispute ineligible for benefits . That provision is based on the fact that the
strike is voluntary and that payment of benefits to strikers would breach
the principle of neutrality by making Unemployment Insurance into a
form of strike fund . The present rule considers an industrial dispute to be
in progress until 85 percent of the work force is recalled, even if an
agreement has been ratified . Once the agreement has been ratified, these
workers are no longer on strike .
Recommendation
. 1 A dispute should be considered over on the date that the collective agreement is signed, excep t
29
in cases where a date for return to work is identified in a subsidiary agreement or protocol .
Employees are also considered to be ineligible for benefits in the
event of a lockout by their employer, although the employees who are
locked out are not voluntarily unemployed .
Recommendation
29 .2
In the case of a lockout, workers should be eligible for Unemployment Insurance benefits while a
collective agreement is in force .
At present, some workers who are indirectly involved in a strike are
disqualified . This policy violates the principles of voluntary action and of
neutrality. The present rule is that contributing to a common strike fund
32 0
PART IV : CHAPTER 12
may lead to disqualification . Therefore, members of a local that is part of
the same union are disqualified even if they did not participate in the
decision to go on strike . Workers in the same plant but in a bargaining
unit that is not a local of the striking union are not disqualified . This
distinction maybe both inequitable and illogical .
It is important to acknowledge that there may be instances where
those indirectly involved in a labour dispute may receive substantial and
early benefits from it . Where this is established, disqualification should
follow. In such cases, there should be a right of appeal with the onus on
the Commission to justify the decision .
Recommendation
Those indirectly involved in a dispute, including those who belong to the same union but are in a
29.3J different local, should not be disentitled . Where there are direct, substantial and early
advantages to those who are indirectly involved, they should be disentitled but that decision
should be subject to appeal .
At present, workers involved in a labour dispute who take a second
job are not eligible for benefits if they are laid off from that job . This
practice ignores the fact that the layoff is entirely separate from the
original labour dispute . This practice is not justified unless the
Commission can show that the layoff was contrived in order to collect
benefits .
Recommendation
2n . In a situation where a worker is disentitled because of a labour dispute, then takes another jo b
7 and
.`t / is laid off, that worker should be eligible for Unemployment Insurance on the basis of the
second job . In cases where claimants have earnings on claim and lose those earnings because of
an industrial dispute, this should not disentitle the worker from the original claim .
Claims for sickness, maternity and adoption benefits are denied at
all times during a labour dispute . These events are not related to the
dispute and would have occurred whether or not the labour dispute had
taken place . The provision of sickness benefits, however, must be very
limited to avoid possible abuse .
Recommendation
.C Maternity, adoption and sickness benefits should be paid during an industrial dispute . In th e
29 J case of sickness, however, benefits should be awarded only if the claimant is confined to
hospital .
On strict insurance principles, voluntary quitters should not be
eligible for benefits . To apply these principles would require the
employer to identify those who voluntarily quit their jobs . There is,
however, no extra cost to the employer in identifying the situation as a
layoff, and therefore no incentive to police the system . Indeed, the
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 32 1
employer may collude to call it a layoff rather than a resignation .
Increasing the penalty might simply increase the pressure for collusion .
There is need, however, to clarify and publicize the conditions
under which a person may leave a job without penalty . "Just cause" is
poorly understood among claimants . There is also need to revise the
rules to cover cases of "inverse seniority" in collective layoffs, when
older workers by agreement may choose to be laid off. In these cases no
penalty should be imposed .
Recommendation
30
The current penalty of loss of benefits for up to six weeks for voluntarily leaving a job should b e
retained . "Just cause" for leaving a job voluntarily should be clarified and publicized, and
"inverse seniority" in a collective layoff should be included as just cause .
The requirements that recipients be engaged in job search and
available for work are critical in that they determine whether a claimant
is considered to be unemployed or to have left the labour force .
Enforcement of the requirements should be conducted in a humane,
reasonable and intelligent manner, and those attempting to start a
business should not be disentitled on the grounds that they are not
available for paid employment .
Recommendation
31 Job search and availability for work should continue to be essential elements in the
Unemployment Insurance program .
• Criteria regarding what constitutes suitable employment should be made explicit to clients .
• The kinds of jobs claimants are required to search for should be continuously adjusted in light
of the local availability of "suitable" jobs .
• Job search and availability requirements should be waived in instances of sickness and
maternity, temporary layoff with assured recall, jury duty, approved training programs, and
approved plans to start a small business .
322 PART IV : CHAPTER 12
Chapter 9 : The Self-Employe d
This chapter addresses the issue of self employment and deals in some
detail with the issue of fishing benefits .
There would be almost insurmountable obstacles to providing
protection to all categories of the self-employed . In cases where the
individual can create the conditions which permit the collection of
benefits, as the self-employed can, the degree of moral hazard presented
is incompatible with Unemployment Insurance . A spouse who works on
salary for a self-employed person, however, should not be excluded from
coverage, except in jurisdictions where the spouse is treated as a partner
under family property law .
Recommendatio n
32
Unemployment Insurance coverage should be extended to persons married to and working for
the self-employed, in jurisdictions where under family property law spouses of business owners
are not treated as partners in the business and where they are paid a salary subject to income tax .
Self-employed fishermen were included under the umbrella of
Unemployment Insurance by a special amendment of the Act in 1956 .
The purpose was to provide income support to self-employed fishermen,
particularly on the Atlantic, and to the many coastal communities that
depend upon the fishery for their survival . But the fishing benefits
program has problems stemming from the nature of the program, its
inherent administrative difficulties, its inadequacies in meeting the
needs of the fishermen whom it was intended to serve, and the obstacles
that it presents to processors who need a greater supply of fish during the
latter part of the season . Unemployment Insurance is neither appropriate
nor adequate to meet the needs of fishermen who, through the vagaries of
nature or government policy, are most in need of income supplementation .
Recommendation
33 "Part V Fishermen's Regulations" should be amended to establish a five-year maximum deadlin e
for phasing out the eligibility of self-employed fishermen for Unemployment Insurance .
• During this five-year period, eligibility for special fishing benefits should not be extended to
any new fishermen . Current Unemployment Insurance beneficiaries should be permitted to elect
to receive a weekly payment during their off-season, calculated on the basis of their average
entitlement over the preceding five years rather than on the current schedule of benefits .
• During this five-year period, the federal and the provincial governments involved in the fishing
industry should develop and implement an income supplementation plan for all workers in
relation to their need, with resources at least equivalent to those currently available for
Unemployment Insurance benefits to self-employed fishermen .
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 32 3
Chapter 10 : The Reform of Program Delivery
This chapter provides a range of proposals for improving the administration of Unemployment Insurance . They include fundamental changes in
the structure of the organization and other changes that could be
adopted even without the proposed reorganization . Although nominally
independent, the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission is a
federal body subject to the guidelines of the Treasury Board and to the
personnel policies of the Public Service Commission . The two Commissioners who represent employers and employees exert minimal
influence . Those who pay most of the costs through premiums have an
insignificant role in the management of the program . The delivery of
service appears to be directed more to serving the needs of the system
rather than to responding to the needs of the clients . In short, the
Commission lacks autonomy, power and authority .
Recommendatio n
A new autonomous organization, the Unemployment Insurance Commission, should be
established to be the mechanism for delivering Unemployment Insurance and employment
services, and it should operate at arm's length from the government .
34
Throughout the report, the need has been stressed for the federal
government to assume leadership in the development of a comprehensive human resource development strategy . A revitalized Department of
Employment and Immigration should have a broad mandate for that
strategy . Whether or not all of the existing programs and functions
related to human resource development are allocated to this department, coordination of these initiatives is essential .
Recommendation
35
The remaining Department of Employment and Immigration should be revitalized, with a broad
mandate for human resource development .
The new Commission should function at arm's length from
government, while operating subject to a revised Unemployment
Insurance Act that would limit its discretion with respect to the basic
features of the program and the appeal process . It would not need
parliamentary appropriations, since it is proposed that it be financed
entirely from premiums .
Recommendatio n
36
The new Unemployment Insurance Commission should be established as a parent Crown
corporation under Schedule C, Part II, of the Financial Administration Act .
In order to provide an administration that will operate at arm's
length from government, a board of directors with wider representation
of employers and employees than at present should be appointed . This
324
PART IV : CHAPTER 12
board would balance the interests of the employers and employees who
jointly fund the program .
Recommendatio n
37
• The board of directors of the new Unemployment Insurance Commission should consist of
between 13 and 21 members, and a majority of members should be selected equally from labour
and from employers .
• These appointments should be made by Order in Council upon consultation with interested
groups and for a fixed term of three years, with one-third of the board eligible for replacement
and reappointment every year .
• The board of directors should be responsible for selection of the chairman of the board and of
the chief executive officer .
It is essential that the administration of the program be more
responsive to the needs and concerns of employers and employees, and
that the current imbalance between a massive impersonal bureaucracy
and the individual claimant be redressed .
Recommendation
38
The legislation enacting the Unemployment Insurance Commission should grant it full authority
over the implementation of the program and responsibility for the delivery of services .
It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that public access to the
Unemployment Insurance program has low priority, since there is
widespread criticism of the lack of information provided to employers
and employees on all aspects of the program . There is considerable
public frustration over the difficulties of obtaining answers to questions
and even of contacting the staff, whether in person or by telephone .
Recommendatio n
39
The Unemployment Insurance Commission should do more to inform the public, employers and
employees about the program in general ; about the requirements of the law, regulations and
appeal process ; and about the rights and responsibilities of claimants and appellants .
Rules of implementation used to deliver the program are sometimes
found in the Act or the regulations, and sometimes in administrative
policies or the decisions of umpires . It is the intent of the proposed
changes to give the new Commission responsibility for the rules that are
to be adopted in order to deliver the program . Existing rules need careful
examination and evaluation . Deadlines for filing claims, for example,
have important implications in terms of lost benefits . It is not clear what
circumstances constitute "just cause for delay" and would allow a claim
to be antedated . The onus of proof of qualification for benefits is placed
on the claimant rather than this onus being on the Commission . The
current rules and procedures governing appeals require the claimant to
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 32 5
provide evidence, but give no clear guidance regarding the nature of the
evidence required or what constitutes "just cause . "
Claimants should be expected only to show that they have met the
basic requirements for eligibility . If their request for benefits is denied,
the onus should then be on the Commission to show justification for that
decision . Furthermore, the Commission should provide reasonable
assistance to the claimant in preparing the argument to support his or her
claim .
Recommendation
40 All rules used to deliver the Unemployment Insurance program, particularly those related t o
filing deadlines, onus of proof and the standard of evidence, should be evaluated . Claimants
should be provided with reasonable assistance in marshalling the facts necessary to support their
case .
The legislation establishing a reformed Unemployment Insurance
program and an autonomous Commission should reflect the simplicity
and clarity requested by clients, and should permit the flexibility
required to respond to the changing needs of the unemployed and to
economic changes . It should identify the purpose of the program and the
mandate of the Commission without attempting to foresee every possible
eventuality . The role and nature of the Unemployment Insurance
program and the major features of the benefit structure should be
specified, but detailed rules of implementation should be left to the
discretion of the Commission .
Recommendatio n
41
The new Unemployment Insurance Act should clearly identify the objectives of the
Unemployment insurance program, its nature and scope . Specific references should be made in
the Act to :
• the principles that constitute the basis for setting premium rates and benefit levels ;
• the principles that determine what is unemployment under the Act (including the interruption
of earnings) ;
• the concept of voluntary and involuntary unemployment (including availability for work) ;
• the principles that determine what earnings are insurable ; and
• the rights and obligations of claimants, including the right to appeal .
326
PART IV : CHAPTER 12
The Unemployment Insurance Act is complex and difficult even for
jurists to understand, let alone clients and employers . The regulatory
process is itself a complicated maze because of countless piecemeal
changes in regulations . It is reasonable to require due notice of changes
in regulations and policy that affect clients significantly.
Recommendation
42
The new Act, in delegating to the Unemployment Insurance Commission the power to issue
regulations, should prescribe a manner and schedule for making these changes, so as to limit
their frequency. Notice of proposed changes to regulations should be published in the media
well in advance of their proposed date of implementation .
Canadian law has traditionally had an appeal system that reviews the
substance and facts of the case at the first level and reviews the legal
procedures and interpretation at the second level . The Unemployment
Insurance appeal system is more complex . It involves an internal review
plus several levels of review of the procedures . Other problems include
the fact that boards of referees are not regarded by claimants as "bona
fide" appeal boards, since they are not seen to function at arm's length
from the Commission, do not apply standard rules of evidence, and are
chaired by persons who lack the legal training or the necessary depth of
understanding of the program . Furthermore, the internal review
procedure is perceived as inadequate in that the staff person involved is
not separate from the normal line of authority .
Recommendations
43 . 1
43 .2
The current appeal system of a board of referees and umpire should be replaced by an
Unemployment Insurance ombudsman/adjudicator's review and a board of appeal .
• The responsibilities, independence and powers of the Unemployment Insurance
ombudsman/adjudicator should be specified in the Act and should include the obligation to
report annually on problems in implementing the Act and interpreting statutory and regulatory
provisions, and to provide pursuant recommendations .
• The board of appeal should be established to hear all first-level appeals and be empowered to
review the substance of all cases . It should consist of an experienced lawyer deemed qualified for
appointment to the judiciary, as presiding officer, and two assessors representing the interests of
employers and employees . The board should function judicially, making full use of the adversary
process and abiding by the rules of evidence .
• The function of adjudication review should be clearly separate from claims processing and
benefit control .
Funding should be provided to approved groups, such as unemployment action centres, to assist
both employers and employees in the appeal process . These groups and claimants should have
ready access to the decisions of umpires, in order to prepare for the appeal process .
COMPENDIUM OFRECOMMENDATIONs
32 7
The present Act conters wide powers upon the Commission . The
Commission has, for example, the power not only to impose administrative penalties but also to lay charges against the same individual or
company for criminal prosecution . It has powers of search and seizure
and is not obligated by law to give clients sufficient notice to allow them
time to examine the documentary evidence assembled by the prosecution .
Recommendation
.1 The Act should narrowly define the powers of enforcement of the Commission consistent wit h
44
the guarantees prescribed in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and ensure that they
are necessary to the essential purposes of the program .
Because Unemployment Insurance is a compulso ry program
financed by a payroll tax, the public interest requires that the autonomous Commission be financially accountable and that certain rules to
that end be specifically laid down in the Act .
Recommendation
44 .2
The Act should ensure normal standards of accountability to Parliament for the new
Unemployment Insurance Commission . Specific references should be made in the Act to :
• the permissible scope of its activities ;
• the exercise of its power to borrow to finance a deficit in its fund ;
• the investment of surplus funds in goverment securities ;
• the accumulated rights and benefits of present employees ; an d
• the manner in which its power to set premium rates and vary designated features of the benefit
structure should be exercised .
Unemployment Insurance, as a social insurance program, is
essentially a pooling of the risk of the financial loss arising from
unemployment, and is appropriately financed from contributions made
by those sharing in this risk . As an insurance against the loss of wage
income, it provides benefits as a right only to those who are insured . It
therefore follows that the cost of benefits to individuals and the related
administration costs should not be borne by the public purse, but
entirely by those who are eligible to receive benefits .
Recommendatio n
45 The reformed Unemployment insurance program should be financed entirely by premiums .
Human resource development programs, earnings supplementation and other labour market
programs should be delivered separately from the Unemployment Insurance program and should
be financed from general government revenue .
328 PART IV : CHAPTER 12
The mode of allocating premiums between employers and
employees reminds both parties that the system of insurance, though
essential, has a cost and that each party has a share in it . An equal
allocation would underline the equal importance of employers and
employees in determining administrative policies .
Recommendation
Unemployment Insurance should gradually move toward allocating premiums to employers and
46 .1 employees on a 50 :50 basis .
A federal transactions or value-added tax has implications for the
collection of premiums because the premiums of employers could be
assessed on the basis of total value added rather than total insurable
payroll .
Recommendation
calculation of the employer's share of Unemployment Insurance premiums should b e
4 6 .2 Thereviewed
if a value-added tax is introduced .
In setting premium rates, sudden increases in premiums in times of
increasing unemployment and higher rates during the initial years of
recovery have a destabilizing impact upon demand . The current practice
is to set the rate on the basis of a three-year moving average . But
economic cycles are irregular and formulas prescribed by legislation are
seldom in tune with reality .
Recommendatio n
47
The proposed Unemployment Insurance Commission should be given the power to alter benefit
or premium levels within given parameters defined in the new Act .
Separating the Unemployment Insurance Commission from the
current Department of Employment and Immigration raises the question
of where employment services should be placed . There is agreement that
services to the unemployed should be provided from one office . That
office should provide information regarding claims and should offer
assessment and counselling services . It appears reasonable to integrate
the job listing and referral system with these services . These services
should be available to all of the unemployed, and should not be confined
to those in receipt of benefits .
Recommendatio n
The new Unemployment Insurance Commission should continue to assume responsibility for
employment services (including job placement, assessment and counselling services) for all of
those who are unemployed, including those who are not receiving Unemployment Insurance
benefits . An evaluation of the placement services should be undertaken and this function should
either be revitalized and refocussed or cancelled .
COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS 32 9
Government reorganization is disruptive to clients and to the staff .
While the separation of the Commission and the Department is an
essential and fundamental change, the subsequent dislocation and
potential problems of communication or duplication of services should
be minimized .
Recommendatio n
49
Staff of the new Unemployment Insurance Commission and the federal department delivering
other human resource development programs should be co-located in the existing network of
Canada Employment Centres .
The Commission is a massive organization with some 28,000
employees . The size and level of the staff at both national and regional
headquarters are out of proportion to the nature and value of the services
that they perform . It would appear that a significant reduction in the
number of staff could be achieved .
Recommendation
A significant reduction should be made in the number of staff at national and regional
50 headquarters .
The Record of Employment supplied by the employer is the source of
information required to determine the appropriate rate and period of
benefits for a claimant . Errors in that form are the main cause of over- and
underpayments of benefits, and of delays in processing claims .
Recommendation
51 The Unemployment Insurance Commission should investigate the use of a simplified wage
request or wage record system to replace the current Record of Employment system .
Currently, an automated, comprehensive tracking system monitors
the magnitude and causes of incorrect payments . It is designed more to
determine the probability of fraud than to identify individual cases .
Performance measurement is based on number of cases, not on dollar
values or significance of cases . There is limited access to information on
clients that is in the possession of other departments and agencies of
government .
Recommendations
52 Benefit control systems should be established which cross-check data on claimants with data i n
other relevant government files . The Unemployment Insurance Act should be amended to permit
overpayments to be recovered through offsets against other amounts owing to claimants from the
goverment (e .g ., income tax refunds) .
53 The investigative effort of the Unemployment Insurance Commission should be focussed and
improved, and cases of organized fraud should be given more attention . Performance
measurement in this area should be based on dollar values in addition to the number of cases .
330
PART IV :
CHAPTER 12
Conclusion
The changes to the Unemployment Insurance program, and the
recommendations for an earnings supplement and other economic and
human resource development programs in this report, are radical and
will be controversial . It will take courage to adopt them and will take
time before they can be fully implemented . The Commissioners are
acutely aware of how disruptive changes may be both to individuals and
to regions . Time must be permitted for full assessment of the consequences, for monitoring new developments, and for introducing
modifications as circumstances change .
But there are other reasons why time is needed . Some of the major
recommendations are closely interrelated . The proposed phasing-out of
regionally extended benefits and of fishing benefits is dependent upon
the introduction of an Earnings Supplementation Program . These
proposals and the other initiatives in the human resource development
strategy require consultation with provincial governments and federalprovincial agreements .
The proposed new autonomous Commission and the reorganization
of the current Canada Employment and Immigration Commission will
also take time, not only to implement the proposed changes but also to
allow those affected to adjust to the changes . For these reasons it is urged
that a transition period of four or five years be allowed in order to phase
in proposals where time for adjustment is deemed to be necessary .
Appendices
Appendix A
333
Terms of Reference
Commission of Inquiry on Unemployment Insuranc e
Order in Council P .C . 1985-2162 . Certified to be a
true copy of a Minute of a Meeting of the Commit-
Saucier, President, Produits Forestiers-Saucier, as
Commissioners to inquire into the role of the
tee of the Privy Council, approved by Her Excellency the Governor General on the 4th day of July,
Unemployment Insurance Program within the
1985 .
a means of improving the operation of labour
context of the Canadian social security system, as
The Committee of the Privy Council have had
markets in Canada, supporting more effectively
before it a report of the Minister of Employment
Canada's economic development, ensuring the
and Immigration stating that :
equitable financing of the Program and providing
Whereas in response to urgent calls from
new and better opportunities for Canadians
many quarters for reform of the Unemploy-
experiencing temporary unemployment by :
ment Insurance Program, the Government of
(a) examining, in relation to the Program, the
appropriateness and adequacy o f
Canada announced in its November 1984
Economic Statement and May 23, 1985
(i) the coverage and conditions of insurabil-
Budget Statement that it would undertake a
ity, entitlement, and eligibility ,
thorough review of the Program ;
(ii) the benefit structure ,
Whereas the Program is so large, so complex
(iii) the funding by employers, employees and
and impacts on Canadians so directly and in
the Government of Canada of the various
so many different ways, that any changes are
components of the Program ,
bound to be far reaching ;
(iv) the respective proportions of the cost of
And Whereas, since the Program is in large
part financed by premiums from employers
the Program that are borne by employers,
employees and the Government of Canada ,
and employees, it is vital that these financing
partners play a major role in the review to
(v) the developmental uses of the Unemployment Insurance Account for the purposes set
ensure that a thorough and impartial reexami-
out in sections 37, 38 and 39 of the Unemploy-
nation of the Program be undertaken and that
ment Insurance Act, 1971, and
changes be introduced only after the views of
(vi) any other aspects of the Program that may
Canadians from all walks of life have been
be raised during the course of the inquiry ; an d
taken into consideration ;
(b) inquiring into
it is desirable that an inquiry be made into the
(i) means to respond to deficiencies in the
Unemployment Insurance Program .
Program ,
The Committee, therefore, on the recommen-
(ii) ways in which the Program may be used t o
dation of the Minister of Employment and Immigration advises that, pursuant to Part I of the
further re-entry into and adjustment to the
labour market of claimants,
Inquiries Act, a Commission do issue appointing
(iii) changes to requirements to be met by
Claude Forget, Partner, Secor Inc ., Roy Bennett,
claimants in order to receive benefit, an d
Esquire, John Munro, President, Regional Council
(iv) administrative measures to be taken t o
#1, International Woodworkers, Frances Soboda,
maintain or improve the
President, Local 4253, United Steelworkers of
Program ;
integrity of the
America and Vice-President, the Nova Scotia
and to report on the findings of the inquiry .
Federation of Labour, Moses Morgan, President
Emeritus, Memorial University and Guylaine
In making the inquiry and report, the Commissioners shall give particular attention to :
334
APPENDIX A
(i) the views of employers and employees
mission as soon as possible after the conclu-
referred to in paragraph (a) and of associations representing those employers and
employees, on the matters referred to in
paragraphs (a) and (b), an d
sion of the inquiry ;
9
the Commissioners be known as the Commission of Inquiry on Unemployment Insurance ;
and
(ii) any recommendations and findings of the
10 Claude Forget be designated as Chairman of
Royal Commission on the Economic Union
the Commission of Inquiry on Unemployment
and Development Prospects for Canada that
relate to the Unemployment Insurance Pro-
Insurance .
P .C . 1986-73 0
gram .
The Committee further advises that :
1 the Commissioners be authorized to adopt
such procedures and methods as they may
from time to time consider expedient for the
conduct of the inquiry ;
2 the Commissioners be authorized to sit at
such times and in such places inside Canada
as they may consider necessary for the purposes of the inquiry ;
3 the Commissioners be authorized to travel
outside Canada, where in the opinion of the
Chairman of the Commission, it is necessary
to do so, to gather information or otherwise to
fulfil the purposes of the Commission ;
4 the Commissioners be authorized to engage
the services of such consultants, researchers,
technical advisers, or other experts, clerks,
Certified to be a true copy of a Minute of a Meeting
of the Committee of the Privy Council, approved
by Her Excellency the Governor General on the
26th day of March, 1986 .
The Committee of the Privy Council, on the
recommendation of the Minister of Employment
and Immigration and the Treasury Board, pursuant
to Part I of the Inquiries Act, advise that the
commission establishing the Commission of
Inquiry on Unemployment Insurance, issued
pursuant to Order in Council P .C . 1985-2162 of
the 4th July, 1985, be amended by deleting therefrom the following paragraph :
"AND WE DO HEREBY direct Our Commissioners to report to the Governor General in
Council not later than March 31, 1986 ; "
and substitute therefor the following paragraph :
reporters and assistants, as they consider
"AND WE DO HEREBY direct Our Commis-
necessary or advisable, and also the services of
sioners to report to the Governor General in
counsel, to aid them in the conduct of the
Council not later than September 30, 1986 . "
inquiry at such rates of remuneration and
reimbursement as may be approved by Treasury Board ;
5 the Commissioners be assisted by the officers
and employees of the departments and agencies of the Government of Canada in any way
the Commissioners may require for the
conduct of the inquiry ;
6 the Commissioners be authorized, in cooperation with the Department of Public Works, to
rent office space and space facilities for public
hearings as they may consider necessary at
such rental rates as are consistent with the
policies of the Department of Public Works ;
7 the Commissioners be directed to report to
the Governor General in Council not later
than March 31, 1986 ;
8 the Commissioners be directed to file with the
Dominion Archivist the records of the Com-
P .C . 1986-225 6
The Committee of the Privy Council, on the
recommendation of the Minister of Employment
and Immigration and the Treasury Board, pursuant
to Part I of the Inquiries Act, advises that the
commission establishing the Commission of
Inquiry on Unemployment Insurance, issued
pursuant to Order in Council P . C . 1985-2162 of
4th July, 1985, as amended pursuant to Order in
Council P .C . 1986-730 of 26th March, 1986, be
further amended by deleting therefrom the following paragraph :
"AND WE DO HEREBY direct our Commissioners to report to the Governor General in
Council not later than March 31, 1986 ; "
and substituting therefor the following paragraph :
"AND WE DO HEREBY direct our Commissioners to report to the Governor General in
Council not later than November 30, 1986 ."
Appendix B Where We Went
Appendix B
Where We Went
Public hearings and meetings
October 28, 1985 Winnipeg, Manitoba
November 4, 1985 Whitehorse, Yukon
November 6, 1985 Yellowknife, Northwest
Territories
November 13, 1985 Moncton, New
Brunswic k
November 14, 1985 Fredericton, New
Brunswick
November 14, 1985 Bathurst, Ne w
Brunswick
November 15, 1985 Newcastle, New
Brunswick
November 18, 1985 St . John's,
Newfoundland
November 20, 1985 Glace Bay, Nova Scotia
November 21, 1985 Halifax, Nova Scotia
November 29, 1985 Edmonton, Albert a
December 2, 1985
Calgary, Alberta
December 3, 1985
Regina, Saskatchewan
December 4, 1985
Regina, Saskatchewan
January 6, 198 6
Vancouver, British
Columbia
January 7, 1986
Vancouver, British
Columbia
January 8, 1986
Vancouver, British
Columbia
January 9, 1986
Prince Rupert, British
January 9, 1986
Columbi a
Castlegar, British
Columbia
January 9, 1986
Duncan, British
January 10, 1986
Victoria, British
Columbia
Columbia
January 10, 1986
Prince George, British
Columbi a
January 13, 1986
Charlottetown, Prince
Edward Island
January 14, 1986
January 16, 1986
Quebec, Quebec
Montreal, Quebec
January 17, 1986
Montreal, Quebec
January 27, 1986
Thunder Bay, Ontario
January 27, 1986
January 28, 1986
Sudbury, Ontario
January 29, 1986
Toronto, Ontario
January 30, 1986
Toronto, Ontario
January 31, 1986
January 31, 1986
Windsor, Ontario
Hamilton, Ontario
January 31, 1986
London, Ontario
February l1,1986
Ottawa, Ontario
February 12, 1986
Ottawa, Ontario
Toronto, Ontario
February 13, 1986
Ottawa, Ontario
February 14, 1986
Ottawa, Ontario
February 15, 1986
Ottawa, Ontario
3
Field trips, round-table
discussions and consultations
October 29, 1985 Winnipeg, Manitoba
October 30, 1985 Thompson, Manitoba
November 4, 1985 Dawson City, Yukon
November 5, 1985 Fort Simpson, Northwes t
Territories
November 6, 1985 Rae Edzo, Northwest
Territorie s
November 14, 1985 Bathurst, New
Brunswick
November 15, 1985 Fredericton, Ne w
Brunswick
November 15, 1985 Newcastle, New
Brunswic k
November 19, 1985 Stephenville,
Newfoundland
November 19, 1985 Port au Port ,
Newfoundland
November 19, 1985 Corner Brook,
Newfoundland
November 19, 1985 Dildo, Newfoundlan d
November 19, 1985 Wabush, Labrador City,
Labrador
November 20, 1985 Sydney, Nova Scotia
November 22, 1985 Halifax, Nova Scotia
November 28, 1985 Edmonton, Albert a
December 2, 1985
Calgary, Alberta
January 9, 1986
Duncan, British
Columbia
January 9, 1986
Prince Rupert, British
Columbi a
January 10, 198 6
Prince George, British
January 15, 1986
Columbi a
Sept-Iles, Quebec
January 15, 1986
January 15, 1986
January 27, 1986
Beauce, Quebec
Trois-Rivieres, Quebec
Thunder Bay, Ontario
January 27, 1986
Sudbury, Ontario
January 31, 1986
Toronto, Ontario
January 31, 1986
Chatham, Ontario
January 31, 1986
Windsor, Ontario
February 3, 1986
Toronto, Ontario
February 10, 1986
March 1 1 , 1986
Ottawa, Ontario
Frobisher Bay,
Northwest Territories
Appendix C
339
List of Participants and Submissions
Many individuals and organizations contributed to
our work, through briefs presented at public
hearings, through discussions during informal
meetings and field trips, as well as through letters
received at our offices . Our thanks go to all of them
Canada Employment and Immigration Union,
Alberta/NWT Region '
City of Edmonton, Social Services Department'
Communitas Inc . '
Construction Labour Relations'
and to the communities visited .
Dandelion Group '
Presentations at public hearings
Edmonton Chamber of Commerce'
Some people who came to the hearings also submitted written briefs, and their names are marked
Jannohamed, Sa m
Doering, Peter '
with an asterisk' .
Albert a
Calgary, December 2,1985
Aitcheson, Ji m
Alberta Chamber of Commerce'
Northern Alberta and Northwest Territories
(District of Mackenzie) Building and Construction Trades Council '
Personnel Association of Edmonton'
Robertson, Dorrell '
British Columbia
Alberta Federation of Labour'
Vancouver, January 6, 198 6
Calgary Chamber of Commerce'
Calgary Labour Council'
British Columbia Chamber of Commerce '
Calgary Personnel Association'
Canadian Petroleum Association'
British Columbia Federation of Labour, Unemployment Action Centre '
Garvin, Terry
British Columbia Government Employees Union'
Broome, Dou g
Hart, Harris '
Business Council of British Columbia'
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
Canada Employment and Immigration Union'
Local254 '
Meyer, Jack L .'
Murphy, Sheila
Capilano College Faculty Association'
College-institute Educators' Association of British
I
Columbia '
Parry, Wayne
Confederation of Canadian Unions'
Radke, David'
International Woodworkers of America'
Overall, Rand y
Roy, Edmond '
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Veterans' Association, Calgary Division '
Southern Alberta Building and Construction
Trades Council '
Stumpf, Harley
Van Bostelen, Marti n
Edmonton, November 29, 1985
Alberta Teachers' Association'
Berg, Carl
Bolstad, Allan'
Unitarian Church of Vancouver, Unemployment
Sub-Committee '
United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipefitting Indust ry
of the United States and Canada, Local Union
170 '
United Fishermen and Allied Workers' Union,
Local 31 '
Vancouver Unemployment Action Centre'
3 40
APPENDIX C
Vancouver, January 7, 1986
Kamloops Unemployment Guidance Centre'
Ash, Ceci l
Kroll, Barbara '
British Columbia and Yukon Territory Council of
the Canadian Federation of Labour '
Marsh, Don N .'
Shayler, John
British Columbia Council of the Confederation of
Solidarity Coalition '
Canadian Unions '
British Columbia Federation of Labour'
Surrey Regional Chamber of Commerce'
Unemployed Teachers' Action Centre'
British Columbia Forest Products Ltd . '
Unemployment Insurance Working Group'
British Columbia Provincial Council of Carpen-
Vancouver and District Labour Council'
ters '
Canadian Association of Industrial, Mechanical
Vancouver and District Public Housing Tenants'
Association '
and Allied Workers '
Canadian Farmworkers' Union '
Vancouver Island Building and Construction
Trades Council '
Canadian Union of Public Employees, British
Columbia Division '
Carling, Mike
Elliot, Lorne
Victoria, January 10, 1986
Association of British Columbia Professional
Foresters '
Gariepy, Richard
Campbell River, Courtenay and District Labour
Hayter, Mavis '
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
Council '
Committee of the Unemployed'
Local 213 '
Jackson, Larry'
Kaminski, Albert
Cote, Serge
Cracknell, Pa t
First Nations of South Island Tribal Council'
Management and Professional Employees Society
Gray, Lesli e
of B .C . Hydro '
Marine Workers' and Boilermakers' Industrial
Hutcheson, Paul
Kiess, Viola
Union, Local No . 1 '
Moyle, Barbara
National Anti-Poverty Organization'
Office and Technical Employees' Union'
Krueger, Lawrence '
Manly, Jim (MP, Cowichan-Malahat-The
Islands) '
Ouellet, Joh n
Scott, BeverleyJ . '
Port Alberni and District Labour Council'
Social Planning and Review Council of British
Touchstone Committee '
Columbia '
Vancouver Board of Trade '
Vancouver, New Westminster and District Building and Construction Trades Council'
Vlahovic,Jack
Unemployed Workers' Centre'
Victoria and District Labour Council'
Victoria Chamber of Commerce'
Women for Economic Survival '
Manitob a
Wilkinson, Norma n
Winnipeg, October 28, 1985
Vancouver, January 8, 198 6
British Columbia and Yukon Territory Building
and Construction Trades Council '
British Columbia and Yukon Territory Building
Trades Training Co-ordinators Committee'
Burnaby Unemployment Action Centre '
Carpentry Apprenticeship Joint Board of British
Columbi a
Cinnamon, Rei d
End Legislated Poverty '
Jobs or Income Now Coalition
Community Unemployed Help Centre'
Emberley, Kenneth '
Government of Manitoba, Department of Employment Services and Economic Security'
Manitoba Federation of Labour '
Manitoba Teachers' Society '
Social Planning Council of Winnipeg'
Winnipeg Chamber of Commerce'
Winnipeg Labour Council'
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 34 1
New Brunswic k
Newfoundlan d
Bathurst, November 14, 198 5
Association des pecheurs professionnels acadiens
St . John's, November 18, 1985
Coalition for Equality'
inc ., Shippagan '
Blanchard, Mathild a
Brunswick Mining and Smelting - Bathurst
Decker, Chris (MHA, Strait of Belisle)
Chaleur Regional Industrial Commission
Newfoundland and Labrador Federation of
City of Bathurs t
New Brunswick Association of Metis and NonStatus Indian s
Fishermen's Union, Local 1252 '
Lush, Tom (MHA, Bonavista North)'
Labour '
Newfoundland Teachers' Association '
Provincial Advisory Council on the Status of
Women '
New Brunswick International Paper Forest Products Inc . - Dalhousi e
St . John's and District Labour Council'
North Shore Forest Products Marketing Board -
St . John's Board of Trade '
Bathurs t
St . John's Status of Women Council '
Unemployed Workers' Union
Northwest Territorie s
Fredericton, November 14,198 5
Canada Employment and Immigration Union'
Fredericton Anti-Poverty Organization
Government of New Brunswick'
Northumberland County Truckers' Association '
Moncton, November 13,198 5
Conseil du travail, peninsule du nord-est du
Nouveau-Brunswick'
Yellowknife, November 6,1985
Cominc o
Northwest Territories Chamber of Mines
Northwest Territories Federation of Labour'
Yellowknife Chamber of Commerce '
Nova Scoti a
Glace Bay, November 20, 198 5
Greater Moncton Chamber of Commerce '
Kent North Truckers Association'
Canadian Seafood and Allied Workers' Union,
McKee, Mike (MLA, Moncton North)'
Cape Breton Island Building and Construction
Moncton and District Labour Council'
Local 116 '
Trades Council '
New Brunswick Federation of Labour'
Kowalski, Barbar a
Newcastle, November 15, 1985
Maritime Fishermen's Union
O'Neill, Benni e
Carter, Jerry
Cercle fran4;ais
Comeau, Mr .
Greater Miramichi Chamber of Commerce
Paquette, James
United Mine Workers of America
Walsh, Gus
Heath Steele Mines Limite d
Halifax, November 21,198 5
Maritime Fishermen's Unio n
City of Halifax, Social Planning Department'
Miramichi Pulp and Paper - Woodlands Organiza-
Halifax Board of Trade '
tio n
Kerans, Pat '
Miramichi Regional Development Corporation
Miramichi Unemployed Workers Union
Mainland Nova Scotia Building and Construction
Trades Council '
Newcastle-Chatham District Labour Council
Metro Action Committee for Employment'
Town of Newcastl e
Vandijk, Viola
Nova Scotia Federation of Labour'
Village of Rogersville
Wood, Charmaine '
Truckers' Association of Nova Scotia'
Women's Centre - Chatham
Ontario
Hamilton, January 31, 1986
Arnold, Ben
342
APPENDIX C
Burlington Chamber of Commerce'
Mining Association of Canada'
Canadian Association of Movers'
Cochrane, Edit h
National Council of Women of Canada'
Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton'
Community College Teachers
Sutter, Stewart '
Copps, Sheila (MP, Hamilton East)'
Cronkwright Transport Limited'
Ottawa, February 12, 1986
Fraser, Barry '
Brewster, Doug
Hamilton and District Chamber of Commerce'
Caccia, Hon . Charles (MP, Davenport)'
Canadian Conference of Teamsters'
Hamilton-Brantford, Ontario Building and Construction Trades Council '
Canadian Construction Association'
McCall, Peter
Canadian Dump Truckers Federation'
Michalec, H .
Canadian Labour Congress '
National Committee for Independent Canadian
Canadian Shipbuilding and Ship Repairing Asso-
Unions '
ciation '
O'Connor, Terry
Corbett, Harold
Ontario Provincial Council of Labour'
Steylen, Ann '
Crosby, Howard (MP, Halifax West)
Federated Women's Institutes of Canada'
Strobl, Edward
Federation des travailleurs et travailleuses du
United Steelworkers of America, Hamilton Area
Council '
Quebec '
Frith, Hon . Douglas C . (MP, Sudbury)'
United Steelworkers of America, Local 1005'
Labourers' International Union of North America'
United Steelworkers of America, Local 8995,
Lavoie, Gaston '
Simcoe '
Voss, Susan'
Weszely, Paul
Wright, Timothy G . '
Mechanical Contractors Association of Canada'
National Anti-Poverty Organization '
New Democratic Party Caucus '
Nowlan, Patrick (MP, Annapolis Valley-Hants)'
Ontario Secondary School Teachers' Federation'
London, January 31, 1986
Rockburne,E d
County of Bruce, Social Services'
Rompkey, Hon . William (MP, Grand Falls-White
Dow, Muriel '
Bay-Labrador) '
Guetter, John'
Jefferson, James Earl '
Ottawa, February 13, 198 6
London and District Labour Council'
Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops'
London Unemployment Help Centre
Canadian Forestry Service '
Canadian Pulp and Paper Association'
Snyder, Grig g
Canadian Textiles Institute '
Ottawa, February 11, 1986
Canadian Union of Public Eniployees, National
Berger, David ( MP, Laurier) '
Building and Construction Trades Department
Cassidy, Michael (MP, Ottawa Centre)'
AFL/CIO '
Canada Employment and Immigration Union'
Canadian Conference on the Arts '
Canadian Federation of Independent Business'
Canadian Federation of Labour '
Canadian Paperworkers Union'
Canadian Railway Labour Association'
Canadian Teachers' Federation '
Office '
Eldon, Jean E . '
Lewis, Doug (MP, Simcoe North) '
Local Agricultural Employment Advisory Board,
Ottawa Valley'
Local Agricultural Employment Advisory Board,
Stormont-Dundas '
Machinery and Equipment Manufacturers' Association '
CUSO ( Canadian University Services Overseas)'
Mouvement socialiste du Quebec'
Department of National Defence '
National Council of YMCAs of Canada '
National Union of Provincial Government
Kroeker, John'
MacDonnell, Sandy
Employees'
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 34 3
OPCAN'
Van Embden, R .'
Social Planning Council of Ottawa-Carleton'
Watts, Ji m
3rd Dimensions and Associates (1973) Ltd .'
United Food and Commercial Workers Union'
United Steelworkers of America '
Thunder Bay, January 27, 1986
Angus, lain (MP, Thunder Bay-Atikokan)'
William M . Mercer, Limited '
Bayne, Francis W . '
Brotherhood of Railway and Airline Clerks'
Ottawa, February 14,1986
Browning-Ferris Industries Ltd .'
Alliance autochtone du Quebe c
Canada Employment and Immigration Advisory
Council '
Clatworthy, Douglas
Communist Party of Canada, Northwest Ontario
Canadian Artists' Representation (CARFAC)'
Regional Committee '
Epp, Ernie (MP, Thunder Bay-Nipigon)'
Canadian Council on Social Development'
Kam Theatre '
Canadian Hospital Association '
Kinna-Aweya Legal Clinic '
Canadian Police Association'
Ontario-Manitoba Primary Council of the
Chiasson, Alfre d
Economists, Sociologists and Statisticians Association '
Canadian Paperworkers Union '
Thunder Bay Council of Retirees '
United Steelworkers of America, Local 5055 '
Federal Superannuates National Association'
Federation des femmes du Quebec'
Toronto, January 28, 1986
International Longshoremen's Association'
Native Council of Canada '
Benetech Canada Inc . '
Board of Trade of Metropolitan Toronto'
Ontario Metis and Non-Status Indians' Associa-
Canadian Actors' Equity Association '
tion '
Public Service Alliance of Canada '
Canadian Federation of Students, National Graduate Council '
Canadian Paraplegic Association '
Ottawa, February 15, 1986
Communist Party of Canada, Central Executive
Fortier, Guy '
James Bay Cree Corporation '
Committee '
de Cunha, Rui
Mouvement action chomage de I'Outaouais
Elias, Coli n
Ottawa Board of Education '
International Union, United Automobile, Aero-
Royal Canadian Mounted Police'
Unemployment Help Centre, Kingston '
space and Agricultural Implement Workers of
America (UAW ) '
Kitchener-Waterloo and District Community
Sudbury, January 27, 1986
Borsato, Mari o
Corporation of the City of North Bay, Department
of Social Services '
Lane, Arja'
McLean, Harvey '
Industrial Training Committee '
Madsen, Jay S .'
McCormick, Mary
Micallef, Captain Jame s
National Action Committee on the Status of
Women '
N'Swakamok Native Friendship Centre'
National Citizens' Coalition'
Pastoral Institute of Northern Ontario'
Regional Municipality of Sudbury'
Ontario Federation of Labour'
Rodriguez, John (MP, Nickel Belt )
Roy, Claude*
Ontario Nurses' Association'
Ontario Police Association
St-Pierre, Ronald '
Organization of Canadian Symphony Musicians'
Professional Association of Canadian Theatres
Sudbury and District Chamber of Commerce'
Retail Council of Canada '
Sudbury Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union,
Social Planning Council of Oshawa-Whitby'
Local 598 '
Sudbury Multicultural-Folk Arts Association'
United Steelworkers of America, Local 6500'
344
APPENDIX C
Toronto, January 29, 1986
Alliance of Canadian Cinema, Television and
Radio Artists '
Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers
Union '
Canadian Electrical Distributors Association'
Canadian Farm Labour Pools
Canadian Organization of Small Business'
Rexdale Planning '
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Veterans' Association '
United Auto Workers, Local 707 '
United Church of Canada, National Working
Group on the Economy and Poverty'
Waterloo, Wellington, Dufferin and Grey, Buildin g
and Construction Trades Council '
Canadian Payroll Association '
Canadian Restaurant and Foodservices Associa-
Windsor, January 31, 1986
tion '
Canadian School Trustees' Association'
Commissioner of Social Se rvices, City of Windsor
Heap, Dan (MP, Spadina) '
Holjevac, Mike
INCO Limited'
Essex and Kent Counties Building and Construction Trades Council '
Mayor's Committee on Employment Opportunities and Se rvices to the Unemployed '
Klein, George '
Sarnia and District Labour Council'
Labour Council of Metropolitan Toronto'
McCue, Mik e
Unemployed Help Centre of Windsor'
Windsor and District Labour Council '
Social Planning Council of Kitchener-Waterloo'
Windsor Youth Employment Counselling Centre '
Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto'
Toronto Legal Clinics' Unemployment Insurance
Prince Edward Islan d
Workgroup '
Toronto Union of Unemployed Workers '
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of
Canada '
Charlottetown, January 13, 198 6
Action Commission of the Roman Catholic
Diocese of Charlottetown
Atlantic Provinces Chamber of Commerce'
Toronto, January 30, 1986
Binns, Pat (MP, Cardigan) '
Axe, Mr . and Mrs . Lawrence '
Berwick Ferguson Payroll Canada Ltd .'
Construction Association of Prince Edward
Brewery, Flour and Cereal Workers
Government of Prince Edward Island'
Canada Employment and Immigration Union'
Canadian Bankers' Association '
Latin American Mission Program'
MacAusland, Colin '
Canadian Chamber of Commerce '
Maritime Fishermen's Union '
Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities for
Prince Edward Island Federation of Labour'
Women '
Canadian Forces Retirees
Canadian Hearing Society'
Canadian Institute of Actuaries '
Canadian Manufacturers' Association '
Church and Community : Partners for Employment '
Etobicoke Advisory Committee on Unemployment '
Island '
Prince Edward Island Fishermen's Association'
Prince Edward Island Opposition Caucus'
Prince Edward Island Truckers' Association'
Roberts, Hugh D . '
Wood Product Manufacturers Association of Nova
Scotia '
Quebe c
Montreal, January 16, 1986
Federation of Temporary Help Services'
Independent Artists' Union '
Benoit, Annette
Ontario Coalition for Better Day Care '
Centrale des syndicats democratiques'
Ontario English Catholic Teachers' Association'
Ontario Public Service Employees Union '
Commission des services juridiques '
Conseil conjoint numero 91 des teamsters du
Ontario Public Service Employees Union, Local
595 '
Quebec '
Conseil consultatif canadien sur la situation de la
Ontario Trucking Association'
Centrale de 1'enseignement du Quebec'
femme
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 34 5
Conseil provincial du Quebec des metiers de la
construction (International) '
de Romana, Alfredo
Regina Chamber of Commerce '
Saskatchewan Action Committee on the Status of
Women '
Forte, Angelo'
Saskatchewan Association on Human Rights'
Hughes, Frank'
Jacques, Jean-Paul'
Saskatchewan Federation of Labour'
Western Grain Elevator Association '
Martineau, Serge '
Mouvement action chomage de Montreal inc .'
Regina, December 4, 1985
Office diocesain de pastorale ouvriere et sociale'
Bauman, Gail '
Poirat, Gustave '
Committee Against Poverty '
Societe de ressources communautaires de
Community Service Employment Co-operative of
Brandon '
Solidarite populaire Quebec '
Syndicat de 1'emploi et de 1'immigration du
Canada, region du Quebec '
Regina '
Labourers' International Union of North America'
Riches, Graham '
Saskatchewan Chamber of Commerce'
Union des artistes '
Saskatchewan Community Colleges Trustees
Montreal, January 17, 1986
Ternowetsky, Gordon '
Association '
Action-travail des femmes'
Association des femmes collaboratrices'
Beaudoin, Gaston
Chambre de commerce du Quebec '
Comite socio-economique des Iles-de-la-Madeleine '
Yukon
Whitehorse, November 4,1985
Armstrong, Irwin '
Council for Yukon Indians
Mauro, Jennife r
Confederation des syndicats nationaux (CSN)'
Millard, Ro n
Conseil du patronat du Quebec '
Whitehorse Chamber of Commerce
Federation des travailleurs du papier et de la foret
( CSN ) '
Williams, Hughi e
Mouvement action chomage de Trois-Rivieres'
Yukon Chamber of Mines
Yukon Federation of Labour
Syndicat des techniciennes et techniciens du
Yukon Visitors' Associatio n
cinema du Quebec '
Visual Planning Corporation'
Quebec, January 14, 1986
Action chomage Kamouraska, inc .
Confederation des syndicats nationaux (CSN)'
Federation des syndicats du secteur aluminium
inc . '
Mouvement action chomage de Quebec inc .'
Reseau d'action et d'information pour les femmes
(RAIF) '
Vaillancourt, Jean-Pau l
Written submission s
Alberta
Alberta Chamber of Commerce, Edmonton
Alberta Federation of Labour, Edmonton
Alberta Federation of Police Associations, Calgary
Alberta Institute of Microcomputing, Edmonton
Alberta Provincial Pipe Trades Association,
Edmonto n
Alberta Teachers' Association, Edmonton
Anderson, G .H ., Edmonto n
Saskatchewa n
Aries Geo-Data Corporation, Calgary
Armstrong, Ralph, Edmonto n
Regina, December 3,198 5
Art of Winningness, Calgary
Canada Employment and Immigration Union'
Beecher, Barbara E ., Calgary
Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities for
Women '
Bergevin, Dianne, Leduc
Blais, Marie, Grande Prairie
Irwin, Gordon'
Bolstad, Allan, Edmonton
Krempien, Brian'
Bradley, Noreen T ., Edmonton
346
APPENDIX C
Bruce, David, Grande Prairie
Byers, Henry, Calgary
Koehler, U ., Peace River
Krisher, Glenn, Barrhea d
Calgary Chamber of Commerce
Labourers International Union, Construction and
General Workers, Local Union No . I 111,
Calgary Labour Council
Calgary Personnel Associatio n
Calgary
Canada Employment and Immigration Union,
Alberta/NWT Region, Edmonto n
Laebon Development Limited, Red Deer
L'Heureux, Louise, Joussar d
Canadian Pension Equality Foundation, Calgary
Malone, Arnold, MP, Crowfoot
Canadian Petroleum Association, Calgar y
Marcellus, Pat, Calgary
City of Calgary
Meyer, Jack L ., Calgary
City of Edmonton, Social Services Department
Moon, Gayle, Grande Prairie
Clarke, Sandra, Barrhea d
Morey, Ruth T ., Edmonton
Coal Association of Canada, Calgary
Newcombe, Valerie, Edmonton
Northern Alberta and Northwest Territories
Communitas Inc ., Edmonton
Construction Labour Relations, Edmonton
Cormier, Paul R ., Calgary
(District of Mackenzie) Building and Construction Trades Council, Edmonto n
Cote, Joyce, Calgary
Olsen, Roy, Medicine Hat
County of Strathcona, No . 20, Sherwood Park
Parnwell, L ., Edmonton
Coyle, Garry G ., Lethbridg e
Pederson, Ruth E ., Sherwood Park
Dandelion Group, Edmonton
Personnel Association of Edmonton
Doering, Peter, Edmonton
Pittman, Peter R .J ., Calgary
Plourde, Patrick, Rycroft
Druhall, John, Calgary
E & E Containers (1979) Ltd ., Calgary
Plypick, N .A ., Edmonton
Edmonton Chamber of Commerce
Puzey, Matthew, Red Deer
Edmonton West Progressive Conservative Associa-
Radke, David, Calgary
tion Policy Committee
Robertson, Dorrell, Edmonton
Edwards, Jim, MP, Edmonton South
Robinson, Wendy, Edmonton
Eggens, Bert, Sherwood Park
Fisher, A .J ., Edmonton
Roy, Edmond, Calgary
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Veterans' Associa-
Fletcher, Greg, Calgary
Ghosh, N ., Fort McMurray
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Veterans' Associa-
Gibson, Keith, Bluffton
tion, Calgary Divisio n
tion, Lethbridge Divisio n
Government of Alberta, Edmonton
Rysdyk, J . R ., Calgary
Greene, John, Edmonto n
Sauter, Charles D ., Calgary
Guckert, A ., Drumheller
Servpro Cleaning Ltd ., Calgary
Hamilton, Vivian, Grande Prairie
Simms, Norma, Calgary
Southern Alberta Building and Construction
Hart, Harris, Calgary
Hudson, A .W ., Rocky Mountain House
International Association of Heat and Frost Insula-
Trades Council, Calgary
Taylor, Gordon E ., MP, Bow River
tors and Asbestos Workers, Local 110, Edmon-
Tosh, Vivian, Grimshaw
to n
University of Alberta, Edmonton
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
Local 254, Calgary
Westersund, Donald A., Elnora
Wilson, L .L., Grimsha w
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
Local 424, Edmonto n
Wilson, Margaret, Edmonton
Woytkiw, Emily, Mundare
James, B .G ., Edmonton
YWCA, Calgary
Jarman, W .L ., Edmonton
Jonsson, Diane, Edmonton
Kaplain, Florence, Edmonton
Kobley, John L ., Calgary
British Columbia
Ability Personnel Association, Victoria
Adey, J .K ., Kelowna
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 34 7
Alnos, Bob, Vancouver
Alton, James R ., Oliver
Arnison, L ., Port Coquitla m
Association of British Columbia Professional
Foresters, Vancouve r
Aten, Wilma C ., Campbell River
Bachmeier, A ., Port Alberni
Canadian Association of Industrial, Mechanical
and Allied Workers, New Westminste r
Canadian Farmworkers' Union, Burnab y
Canadian Union of Public Employees, British
Columbia Division, Burnaby
Capilano College Faculty Association, North
Vancouver
Barnett, Wendy, Prince George
Bibby, John, Crawsto n
Carlson, A .G ., Revelstoke
Carter, Dave, Castlega r
Bingley, K ., Coquitla m
Board of School Trustees, School District No . 50,
Castlegar and District Unemployment Action
Queen Charlotte Cit y
Centre
CMS Self Help Centre, Shawinigan Lake
Boehmer, Herbert J ., Westbank
Coffin, Alison Kim, Fruitval e
Boyle, E .F ., Vancouve r
College-Institute Educators' Association of British
Columbia, Vancouve r
Brisco, Bob, MP, Kootenay Wes t
British Columbia and Yukon Territory Building
and Construction Trades Council, Burnaby
British Columbia and Yukon Territory Building
Collier, Thomas A ., Quesne l
Committee of the Unemployed, Campbell River
Community Law Centre, Nanaim o
Trades Training Co-ordinators Committee,
Comox Valley UIC Appeal Group
Vancouve r
Confederation of Canadian Unions, Vancouver
British Columbia and Yukon Territory Council of
the Canadian Federation of Labour, Burnaby
Corporation of the Village of Lake Cowichan
British Columbia Chamber of Commerce, Vancou-
Craigen, Jim, Williams Lake
Cranbrook Unemployment Action Centre
ver
British Columbia Construction Association,
Crawford, Andrew B ., Ladysmith
Cruickshank, A ., Vancouve r
Victori a
British Columbia Council of the Confederation of
Cummings, J .D ., Victori a
Canadian Unions, New Westminste r
British Columbia Federation of Labour, Unemployment Action Centre, Burnaby
British Columbia Forest Products Ltd ., Vancouver
British Columbia Government Employees Union,
Burnaby
British Columbia Government Employees Union,
Prince George
British Columbia Provincial Council of Carpenters, Vancouver
Brooke, Mary, Victoria
Dawson Creek and District Chamber of Commerce
Dawson, James Paul, Lower Nicol a
Dilts, A .W ., Cranbrook
Downey, K .J ., Westban k
East-West Kootenay, Building and Construction
Trades Group, Cranbrook
End Legislated Poverty, Vancouve r
Evens Group, Human Resource Council, Richmond
Ferguson, William, Sardi s
First Nations of South Island Tribal Council, Mill
Bay
Buckberry, A ., Surrey
Flynn, James, Kamloops
Building and Construction Trades Group, Cran-
Forshaw, R .P ., Grand Forks
Fort George Band, Shelley
brook
Burnaby Unemployment Action Centr e
Business Council of British Columbia, Vancouver
Freer, Ed, Revelstoke
Gaffney, H .C ., Burnaby
"By Wave" Fresh-Frozen Seafoods, Prince Rupert
Gardiner, Connie, Kelowna
Campbell River, Courtenay and District Labour
George, B ., Penticton
Council, Campbell Rive r
Canada Employment and Immigration Union,
Godderis, Bud, Castlegar
British Columbia and Yukon Territory Region,
Godderis, Francis M ., Castlegar
Gooden, Dorothy, Salmon Arm
Burnaby
Goodman, Hugh J ., Quesne l
Government of British Columbia, Victoria
348 APPENDIX C
Grant, Nigel, West Vancouver
Hayes, John C ., Cranbrook
Marine Workers' and Boilermakers' Industrial
Union, Local No . ], Vancouver
Hayter, Mavis, Vancouver
Marsh, Don N ., Delta
Hjorleifson, Christine, Vancouver
Martin, C .E ., Abbotsford
Hofer, Joe, Kelowna
Holomay, N ., Vancouver
Marvel, Jack E ., Golden
Hope, M .E ., Victoria
McCarthy, Grace M ., Victoria
McCorkindale, Russell R ., Surrey
Horswell, R .G ., Vernon
McEachern, Allan, The Honourable, Chief Justice,
Hutchinson, A .M ., Vancouver
Intensive Forestry, Ymi r
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
Local 213, Burnaby
International Woodworkers of America, Local
1-80, Duncan
International Woodworkers of America, Local
1-363, Courtena y
The Supreme Court of B .C ., Vancouver
McKenna, J .R ., New Hazelto n
Mechanical Contractors Association of British
Columbia, Burnaby
Meyer, Phyllis, Nanaimo
Miltimore, J .E ., Summerland
Mitchell, Margaret, MP, Vancouver East
Momuth, T .W ., Victori a
International Woodworkers of America, Western
Canadian Regional Council No . 1, Vancouver
Morgan, Mitchell, Victoria
Morley,J .H ., Victoria
Irving, Ronald H ., Vancouve r
Mulherin, P . Wayne, Vancouver
Jackson, Larry, Burnaby
Jaeggle, Gilbert E ., Coquitlam
Murray, James W ., Prince George
James, John, Winfiel d
Narsing, Rama, Williams Lake
Jenna Construction Ltd ., New Hazelton
Jervis, T . Fred, Burnaby
National Anti-Poverty Organization, Vancouver
Nelson, H .K ., Verno n
Johnson, Frances M ., Trai l
Nelson Unemployment Action Centr e
Kamloops Unemployment Guidance Centre
Kearns, R.P ., Maple Ridg e
New Westminster and District Labour Council
Kennedy, Ronald J ., Vancouver
Kerkkonen, Linda, Kelowna
North Coast Tribal Council, Prince Rupert
Kinakin,John, Castlega r
Office and Technical Employees' Union, Burnaby
Kitimat-Terrace and District Labour Council,
Olson, Melvin A ., Surre y
Kamloop s
Kroll, Barbara, Vancouver
Krueger, Lawrence, Victoria
Landen, Audrey, Vancouver
Murray, R .L ., Surrey
Unemployed Action Centre
O'Donnell, J ., North Vancouve r
Oosterman, Jan, Burnaby
Organization of Unemployed Workers, Port
Alberni
Orr, Doug, Nakus p
Landsman Community Services Ltd ., Courtenay
Orser, Russell, Coquitlam
Larson, Ralph, Kamloop s
Pacific Trollers Association, Richmond
Law, Larry L ., Merritt
Penny, Vincent L ., Kelown a
Legge, Mary, Kamloops
Piersdorff, Isabel, Vancouver
Leung, Cynthia, Victori a
Pineo, Robert, Nanaimo
Linde, Kathey A ., Williams Lake
Lovell, Verna, Vancouve r
Poirier, Norma, Kelown a
Low Income Support Group, Castlegar
Lussier, Pierre, Terrace
MacDonald, Beth, Victoria
Pitts, A ., Maple Ridge
Port Alberni and District Labour Counci l
Prince George and District Building and Construction Trades Counci l
MacKinnon, A .A ., Kamloop s
Prince George and District Labour Council
Management and Professional Employees Society
of B .C . Hydro, Vancouve r
Prince George Unemployment Action Centre
Prince George Women's Resource Centre
Manly, J ., MP, Cowichan-Malahat-The Islands
Prince Rupert Labour Council
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 34 9
Professional Employees Association, Victori a
Pulp and Paper Workers of Canada, Local No . 1,
Castlega r
Ramesbottom,J .D ., Comox
Ransom, Iris, Maple Ridge
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of
America, B .C . Northwest District Council,
Locals 1735, 1549, 1081, Prince Ruper t
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of
America, Local 2300, Castlega r
Reed, Peter, Vancouver
Regan, Ross, Vancouver
United Fishermen and Allied Workers' Union,
Local 31, Prince Ruper t
Reid, W ., Surre y
Vancouver and District Labour Counci l
Vancouver and District Public Housing Tenants'
Reynard, Dennis, Prince George
Robinson, R .K ., Langley
Robinson, Svend J ., MP, Burnaby
Rudhardt, K .L .L ., Sidne y
Ryan, Larry, Victori a
Salmon Arm and District Chamber of Commerce
School District Number 7, Nelson
Schraepel, Gloria, Elkford
Association
Vancouver Board of Trad e
Vancouver Island Building and Construction
Trades Counci l
Vancouver, New Westminster and District Building and Construction Trades Council, Burnaby
Scott, BeverleyJ ., Vancouver
Vancouver Unemployment Action Centre
Selles, Peter, Naramata
Vandyke, Pieta M ., Victori a
Siquera, Vincent M ., Victoria
Victoria and District Labour Council
Sjodin, W ., Revelstoke
Victoria Chamber of Commerce
Smith, Lenora I ., West Vancouve r
Victoria Personnel Association
Visser, Derek, Winla w
Social Planning and Review Council of British
Columbia, Vancouve r
Waters, C . A ., Armstrong
Solidarity Coalition, Vancouver
Watkins, B ., Williams Lake
Squamish Solidarity Coalition
Webb, D ., Vancouver
West, J . P ., South Burnab y
Stead, R ., Nanaim o
Steeves, Kenneth A ., Courtenay
Sterner, Kurt, Surrey
West Kootenay Power and Light Company Limited,
Stretch, Helen, Malakwa
Trai l
Williamson, T .H ., Ganges
Surrey Regional Chamber of Commerce,
Wilson, Douglas G ., North Vancouver
Vancouve r
Thurston, Donna M ., Surrey
Thyer, N .H ., Nelso n
Touchstone Committee, Victoria
Trail Unemployment Action Centre
Wilson, Raymond, North Vancouver
Women for Economic Survival, Victori a
Women in Trades - Kootenay Council, Kootenay
Regio n
Wood, Leroy V ., Comox
Tweed, A .K ., 100 Mile House
Woodhouse, John A ., Prince George
Unemployed Teachers' Action Centre, Vancouver
Unemployed Workers' Centre, Nanaimo
Woods, Herbert, Castlega r
Woods, T .D ., Vancouver
Unemployment Action Centre, Prince Rupert
Wray, Cramford P ., Oliver
Unemployment Insurance Working Group,
Yuuho, Sunee, Victoria
Zak, E ., Olive r
Vancouver
Unemployment Research Group, Vancouver
Unitarian Church of Vancouver, Unemployment
Sub-Committe e
Manitoba
Association of Employees Supporting Education
tices of the Plumbing and Pipefitting Industry
Services, Winnipe g
Becker, Felix I ., Thompson
of the United States and Canada, Local Union
Bennett, Wesley R ., Winnipe g
170, Burnaby
Blaikie, Bill, MP, Winnipeg-Birds Hill
United Association of Journeymen and Appren-
Clark, Lee, MP, Brandon-Souri s
Community Unemployed Help Centre, Winnipeg
350
APPENDIX C
Deschenes, Elie, Winnipeg
Deschenes, Joseph, Winnipeg
Brownridge, Ronald, Oromocto
Bruce, Carl H ., Bolestown
Emberley, Kenneth, Winnipeg
Cameron, Ian D ., Fredericto n
Gnutel, John, Winnipe g
Canada Employment and Immigration Union, New
Brunswick Region, Moncto n
Government of Manitoba, Department of Employment Services and Economic Security,
Canadian Labour Congress, Atlantic Regional
Winnipeg
Harrison, George, Winnipeg
Henderson, Cheryl, Brandon
Office, Moncton
C .N . Pensioners Association of Canada Inc .,
Moncton Council No . 1
Hilderman, Art, Winnipeg
Coakley, Charles, Mint o
Ireland, G .W ., Winnipeg
Irwin, Gordon R ., Winkle r
Conseil du travail, peninsule du nord-est du
Nouveau-Brunswick, Moncto n
J .B . Agri Industries Ltd ., Morden
Conseil economique du Nouveau-Brunswick inc .,
Job Finding Club, Winnipeg
Moncton
Manitoba Action Committee on the Status of
Women, Winnipe g
Corbett, R .A ., MP, Fundy-Royal
Cosman, Wilbur M ., Oromocto
Manitoba Business Development and Tourism,
De Luca, J ., Moncto n
Duffy,John L., Fredericto n
Winnipe g
Manitoba Federation of Labour, Winnipeg
Federal Superannuates National Association,
Manitoba Teachers' Society, Winnipeg
Fredericton and Area Branch, Oromocto
Federation des travailleurs du Nouveau-Bruns-
McBurney, James B ., The Pas
McKenzie, Dan, MP, Winnipeg-Assiniboine
Millar, Vern, Souri s
National Federation of Nurses' Unions, Thompson
National Working Group on the Economy and
Poverty, Winnipe g
Red River Community College, Winnipeg
wick, Moncto n
Flemming, Arthur G ., Fredericton
Fox, Mel, Oromocto
Fredericton Anti-Poverty Organizatio n
Fundy Weir Fishermen's Association Inc ., St .
Schaefer, Stan, Winnipe g
Andrew s
Gareau, Gil, Oromocto
Simard, Robert and Roland, Winnipeg
Geldart, Loris R ., Elgin
Social Planning Council of Winnipeg
Gerdson, John, Oromocto
Toews, John, Selkirk
Girard, Albert, MP, Restigouche
United Steelworkers of America, Local 6166,
Godfrey, Karen A ., St . John
Thompson
Wilde, John, Winnipeg
Winder, Len, Winnipeg
Winnipeg Chamber of Commerce
Winnipeg Labour Counci l
Young Women's Christian Association, Winnipeg
New Brunswick
Association des pecheurs professionnels acadiens
inc ., Shippagan
Atlantic Provinces Chamber of Commerce, Moncton
Audet, Marcel, Fredericton
Barton, B .D ., Rothwell
Bennett, Francis, Albert
Bennett, Myron L ., Albert
Berthelot, L .G ., Campbellton
Bierhorst, Muriel, Oromocto
Borden, Harold E ., Fredericton
Good, David, Oromocto
Goodlad, Terence S ., Oromocto
Gordon, D ., Newcastl e
Government of New Brunswick, Fredericton
Greater Moncton Chamber of Commerce
Greene, David G ., Tide Head
Harding, Doug, Rothesay
Hill, Robert, Oromocto
Hobday, Leonard T., Fredericton
Howie, Hon . J . Robert, MP, York-Sunbury
Johnston, Wayne S ., Fredericton
Joordens, Thomas, Fredericto n
Kent North Truckers Association, St . Louis de Kent
King, Richard, Fredericton
Kirk, H .W ., Fredericto n
Kitts, Clarence E ., Albert County
Landry, Vernon, Oromocto
LeBel, Myrtle, Plaster Rock
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 35 1
Lord,James E ., Chatham
Wilson, A .R ., Saint John East
Lustig, M . Allan, Oromocto
Wood, Lebaron, Nackawic
Young, Don, Fredericton
MacDonald, Blaine R ., Rothesay
MacDonald, James J ., Oromocto
Zwoker, M .N ., Oromoct o
Maclntosh, Bertha, Chatham
MacKinnon, Rodney A ., Oromocto
Newfoundland
Mason, Guy G ., Westfield
Bay St . George Community College, Stephenville
McArthur, Georgina, Fredericton
Bay St . George Regional Band of Newfoundland
Indians, St . George' s
McKay, John, Oromoct o
McKee, Mike, MLA, Moncton North
McKinnon, Barbara, Oromocto
McQueen, J . Wayne, Grand Bay
Moir, Mel, Fredericto n
Mombourquette, J .W ., Minister of Labour,
Fredericto n
Moncton and District Labour Council, Riverview
Montgomery, Stephen, Rothesa y
Morais, Albert, Fredericton
Murphy, Donald W ., Minto
New Brunswick Federation of Labour, Moncton
Northumberland County Truckers' Association,
Red Ban k
Parsons, Keith, Saint John
Pert, Robert W ., Shediac
Pinsent, Stuart, Oromocto
Price, G .R ., Oromocto
Progressive Conservative Women's Association,
Bragg, Clifford J ., Gambo
Canadian Labour Congress, Newfoundland and
Labrador, St . John' s
Cannell, R.K ., Labrador
Coalition for Equality, St . John' s
Combined Councils of Labrador, Labrador City
Corner Brook Chamber of Commerc e
Crocker, Harold F ., Corner Broo k
Dunfield Park Tenant Association, Corner Brook
Economic Council of Newfoundland and Labrador, St . John' s
Fishermen of Fortune Bay, Placentia Bay, Bonavista Bay, Trinity Ba y
Fishermen's Union, Local 1252, St . John's
Fizzard, Helena, Buri n
Fogo Island Co-operative Society Limited
Grenfell Regional Health Services, St . Anthony
Hiscock, Eugene, St . John' s
Ramsay, Thomas B ., Fredericton
Kelland,Jim, MHA, Naskaupi
Labrador Inuit Association, St . John' s
Ricketts, Edward G ., Oromocto
Labrador West Status of Women Council, Labrador
Oromoct o
Russon, Sylvia . Fredericto n
St . John District Waterfront Council International
Longshoremen's Association, Local 273
Salonius, P .O ., Fredericto n
Sargent, Archie and Gloria, Bloomfield
Scott, Melrose, Penobsqui s
Simcock, William, Fredericton
Somerton, Cecil W ., Oromocto
Spadoni, L ., Fredericton
Starkey, Douglas S ., Queens County
Sutherland, J .W ., Oromocto
Tompkins, A ., Fredericto n
Town of Susse x
Valcourt, Bernard, MP, Madwaska-Victoria
Cit y
Lush, Tom, MHA, Bonavista Nort h
Modified Industry and Labour Adjustment Program (MILAP), Labrador Cit y
Moore, Kevin M ., Corner Brook
Newfoundland and Labrador Employers' Labour
Relations Council, St . John's
Newfoundland and Labrador Federation of Labour,
St . John's
Newfoundland and Labrador Fisheries Producer
Co-operative Association, St . John's
Newfoundland . Fishermen, Food and Allied Workers Union, St . John' s
Village Council of Eel River Crossing
Newfoundland Teachers' Association, St . John's
Orr, James C ., St . John' s
Village of Belledun e
Petty Harbour Fishermen's Producer Co-operative
Village of Mint o
Warnock, Fred, Fredericton
White, Harold, Fredericton
Willar, Donald H ., Fredericton
Society Ltd .
352
APPENDIX C
Provincial Advisory Council on the Status of
Women, Newfoundland and Labrador, St .
John' s
Prowse, K .R .J ., Deer Lake
Rompkey, Hon . William, MP, Grand Falls-White
Bay-Labrado r
Forsyth, William R., Chester Basin
Fudge, David, Deep Brook
Gale, Edward, Lower Sackville
Geldart, Loris R ., Elgi n
Gibbons, Michael, Musquadobort Harbour
Government of Nova Scotia, Halifax
St . John's and District Labour Council
Halifax Board of Trade
St . John's Board of Trad e
Hall, Allison G ., Annapolis County
St . John's Status of Women Council
Hamer, Derek, Halifax
Sparks, Jean, St . John' s
Hatch, Peter C ., Hantspor t
Taylor, James A ., Con Bay
Taylor, Leonard, Crique t
Hurley, Gardner, MLA, Cumberland West
Tobin, Brian, MP, Humber-Port Au Port-St . Barbe
Igoe, John M ., Weymout h
John's Cove Fisheries Ltd, Yarmouth
Torngat Fish Producers Co-operative Society Ltd .,
Jones, David B ., Sackville
Happy valley
Town of Glenwoo d
Kennedy, Donald J ., Dartmouth
Kerans, Patrick, Halifax
Unemployment Action Committee, St . John's
Lacroix, Mary Dale, Yarmouth
Warren, Garfield, MHA, Torngat Mountai n
Lingley, Edward, Dartmouth
White Bay North Development Association, St .
Anthony
Lively, C .E ., Weymout h
Lunenburg County District School Board,
Women's Involvement Committee, Dild o
Nova Scotia
Annapolis Valley Labour Council, Hantsport
Beaver, Dorothy, Halifa x
Boyd, R .W ., Yartmout h
Breton Industrial and Marine Limited, Port
Hawkesbury
Burke, Stanley L ., Greenwoo d
Canadian Seafood and Allied Workers' Union,
Local 116, North Sydne y
Cape Breton Development Corporation, Sydney
Cape Breton Island Building and Construction
Trades Council, North Sydne y
City of Halifax, Social Planning Department
Coates, Hon . Robert C ., MP, Cumberland-Colcheste r
Comeau, Gerald, MP, South West Nova
Community Initiatives Support Network, Halifax
Dalhousie Staff Association, Halifa x
Dennison, Charles, Middleton
Diamond, A .R ., Stellarton
Element National Component, Halifax
Enriquez, Charles, Antigonis h
Everett, Ernest M ., Digby
Farmer, Emily, Halifax
Farnsworth, Stanley, Lakeside
Ferreira, Winston, Annapolis Royal
Fillmore, Gerald E ., Newport
Fitzgerald, James, Halifax
Fleming, James, Halifax
Bridgewate r
MacAulay, W .G ., Greenwood
MacDonald, Blaine R ., Rothesay
MacDonald, Hugh, North Sydney
MacDonald, Kathleen, D'Escousse
MacKenzie, Don, Greenwood
MacKenzie, Steve, Sydney
MacLean, Alma, Amherst
MacLeod, Greg, Sydney
MacMillan,J .N ., Cornwallis
MacNeil, Gary, New Glasgow
Mainland Nova Scotia Building and Construction
Trades Council, Halifax
Marshall, Wayne, Bridgewater
Menzies, Janet, Halifa x
Metro Action Committee for Employment, Halifax
Meuse, Harold, Yarmout h
Mitton, June, Street Harbour
Montgomery, Thomas R., Chester Basin
Murphy, William J ., Mahone Ba y
Nova Scotia Certified Nursing Assistant Association, Halifax
Nova Scotia Federation of Labour, Halifa x
Nova Scotia Government Employees Union,
Halifax
Nowlan, Patrick, MP, Annapolis Valley-Hants
Oakley, Arthur, Granville Ferr y
Oxford, Raymond, Cape Breton
Pensioners Against UI Injustice, Sackville
Pettipas, AndrewJ ., Halifax
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 35 3
Ranger, Lionel H ., Dartmouth
Rousseau, Jacques, Plympton
Algonquin College of Applied Arts and Technology, Nepea n
Roy, Dianne, Dartmouth
Alliance of Canadian Cinema, Television and
Sadler, M ., Halifa x
Radio Artists, Toront o
Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers
Saunders, John A ., Newport
Saurette,J ., Deep Brook
Semple, Matthew L ., Dartmouth
Simourd, J .G ., Halifa x
Skiba, Shirley, Dartmouth
Southwest Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association,
Metegha n
Union, Toront o
Angus, lain, MP, Thunder Bay-Atikoka n
Apparel Manufacturers Association of Ontario,
Toront o
Aquafarms Canada Limited, Feversham
Armstrong, Grant G ., Trenton
Tomlinson, Gordon F ., Dartmouth
Association of Canadian Distillers, Ottawa
Tompkins, A ., Fredericton
Association of Part-Time Undergraduate Students,
Township of Pictou
Toronto
Truckers' Association of Nova Scotia, Halifax
Attewell, William C ., MP, Don Valley East
Tupper,J .D ., Kingston
Axe, Lawrence, Kincardine
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of
Balch, Joan, Toronto
America, Local 1588, Sydney
Vicar, Bruce A .M ., Middleton
Voluntary Planning, Halifax
White, Thomas, Yarmout h
Bauer, Ray, Frankford
Baugh, David J ., Toronto
Baxter, Leslie D ., Orleans
Bayne, Francis W ., Thunder Bay
Women's Employment Outreach, Halifax
Beath, J .G ., Trento n
Wood, Charmaine, Halifa x
Beatty, William, Willowdale
Wood Product Manufacturers Association of Nova
Beeby, Dean, Toront o
Scotia, Lower Sackvill e
Young, Brian, North Sydne y
Bell, Alex G ., Carrying Place
BeII,John R ., Frankford
Bell, R .J ., Brighto n
Northwest Territorie s
Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Frobisher Bay
Apprenticeship In-Training Service, Government
of the Northwest Territories, Frobisher Bay
Cairns, Rosemary, Yellowknife
Deh Cho Regional Council, Fort Simpson
Dene Band, Fort Simpso n
Dene Nation, Yellowknif e
Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife
Government of the Northwest Territories, Depart-
Benetech Canada Inc ., Toronto
Berwick Ferguson Payroll Canada Ltd ., Toronto
Bird, Debbie, Fergu s
Bissonnette, Cecil J ., Copper Cliff
Board of Trade of Metropolitan Toronto
Booth, R.F ., Mississauga
Bosley, Hon . John (Speaker of the House of Commons), Ottaw a
Bracher, Susan, Toronto
Branch, Anna, Orillia
Bray, I ., Orangeville
Breimer, Theo J ., Kingston
ment of Economic Development and Tourism,
Brett, T .M ., Stirlin g
Baffin Region, Yellowknife
Brien, Joseph, Toronto
Northwest Territories Federation of Labour,
Yellowknife
Northwest Territories Public Service Association,
Yellowknife
Pasiciel, Rita, Inuvi k
Yellowknife Chamber of Commerce
Ontario
Abramowitz, Michael, Glouceste r
Alcan Placement Assistance Committee, Kingston
Brightman, L ., Peterborough
Brittain, John, Stittsville
Britton, Kenneth H ., Agincourt
Broderick, T .C ., Trenton
Brookes, T .A .F ., Baden
Brotherhood of Railway and Airline Clerks, Thunder Ba y
Brown, Dale C ., Wellington
Brown, Herbert T ., Toronto
354
APPENDIX C
Browning-Ferris Industries Ltd ., Thunder Bay
Buchanan's Mink Ranch Inc ., Laure l
Canadian Horticultural Council, Nepean
Canadian Hospital Association, Ottawa
Building and Construction Trades Department,
Canadian Human Rights Commission, Ottawa
AFL/CIO, Ottaw a
Burlington Chamber of Commerce
Canadian Institute of Actuaries, Ottawa
Burridge, Bruce W ., Thunder Bay
Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association
Busbridge, T ., Scarborough
Buss, G ., Kingston
Inc ., Toronto
Canadian Manufacturers' Association, Toronto
Caccia, Hon . Charles, MP, Davenport
Canadian Organization of Small Business, Mark-
Cambridge, G ., Bellevill e
Canadian Labour Congress, Ottaw a
ha m
Campbell, Mary A ., Hamilton
Campbell, W .R ., Trento n
Canadian Paraplegic Association, Toronto
Canada Employment and Immigration Advisory
Canadian Railway Labour Association, Ottawa
Council, Ottaw a
Canada Employment and Immigration Union,
Ottawa
Canada Employment and Immigration Union,
Ontario Region, Toronto
Canadian Actors' Equity Association, Toronto
Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of
Women, Ottawa
Canadian Artists' Representation (CARFAC),
Ottaw a
Canadian Association for Adult Education,
Toront o
Canadian Association of Movers, Hamilton
Canadian Association of Professional Dance
Organizations, Toront o
Canadian Payroll Association, Toronto
Canadian Restaurant and Foodservices Association, Toront o
Canadian School Trustees' Association, Ottawa
Canadian Shipbuilding and Ship Repairing Association, Toront o
Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa
Canadian Textile and Chemical Union, Toronto
Canadian Union of Public Employees, Ottawa
Canadian Union of United Brewery, Flour, Cereal ,
Soft Drink & Distillery Workers, Toronto
Canital Insurance Limited, Malto n
Capital Tool and Design Limited, Concord
Carmichael, D .J ., Kanat a
Carr, G .L ., Nepea n
Cassidy, Michael, MP, Ottawa Centre
Canadian Association University Continuing
Celetti, Paul, Sault Ste . Marie
Education, Toront o
Canadian Bankers' Association, Toronto
Chadband, Edward, Stell a
Chamber of Commerce, Niagara Falls
Canadian Chamber of Commerce, Ottawa
Charlebois, Laurier, Cornwall
Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops, Ottaw a
Charron, Ray, Windso r
Canadian Conference of Teamsters, Ottawa
Cherry, RosemaryJ ., Baltimore
Canadian Conference on the Arts, Ottawa
Chevalier, Ernest, Trenton
Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities fo r
Chidgey, Peter, Yarke r
Women, Toront o
Canadian Construction Association, Ottawa
Canadian Council on Social Development, Ottawa
Canadian Dump Truckers Federation, Ottawa
Canadian Electrical Distributors Association, Don
Mill s
Canadian Federation of Independent Business,
Ottaw a
Canadian Federation of Labour, Ottawa
Canadian Federation of Students, National Graduate Council, Toront o
Canadian Food Processors Association, Ottawa
Choice in Child Care Committee, Ottaw a
Church and Community : Partners for Employment, Toront o
Chute, Ruth, London
Citizens for Public Justice, Toronto
Clements, D .R ., Ottawa
Clowater, R .J ., Trenton
Cole, D .W ., Trento n
Communist Party of Canada, Central Executive
Committee, Toronto
Communist Party of Canada, Northwest Ontario
Canadian Hearing Society, Toront o
Regional Committee, Thunder Bay
Community College Teachers, Hamilton
Canadian Home Builders' Association, Ottawa
Community Impressions Ltd ., Durham
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 35 5
Community Initiatives Support Network, Ottawa
Energy Pathways Inc ., Ottaw a
Confederation of Canadian Unions, Toronto
Epp, Ernie, MP, Thunder Bay-Nipigo n
Cooney, Joan, Bellevill e
Essex and Kent Counties Building and Construc-
Copps, Sheila, MP, Hamilton East
Corak, Miles R ., Kingston
Corbett, Lester, Petawawa
Cornet, Herman C .J ., Kingston
Corporation of the City of North Bay, Department
of Social Se rvices
Corporation of the City of Windsor, Social Se rv ices
Department
Corporation of the Town of Gore Ba y
Corporation of the Township of St . Joseph, Richards Landing
tion Trades Council, Windsor
Etobicoke Advisory Committee on Unemployment, Rexdale
Family Service Association of Metropolitan
Toronto
Federal Superannuates National Association,
Ottaw a
Federated Women's Institutes of Canada, Ottawa
Federation of Automobile Dealer Associations of
Canada, Willowdale
Federation of Temporary Help Services, Toronto
Coughlan, W .J .P ., West Hil l
Fennell, Scott, MP, Ontari o
Council of Ontario Contractors Associations,
Ferguson, Doris, Monkland
Willowdal e
Ferrie, Douglas S ., Weston
County of Bruce, Social Se rv ices, Walkerton
Cowan, Ma ry , Minde n
Fisher, Larry, Pembroke
CP Express and Transport, Cobourg
Cringan, Craig, Mississauga
Fitzpatrick, Michael, Don Mills
Fisheries Council of Canada, Ottawa
Cronkwright Transport Limited, Simcoe
Fontaine, Fernand, Ottawa
Fortier, Guy, Gloucester
Crow, Don, Wallaceberg
Fortin, Maurice, Belleville
Cruddas, Edward, Willowdale
Foster, Barbara, Sault Ste . Marie
Cuddy Farms Limited, Strathroy
Foster, David, North York
Cummings, She ry l L ., Kincardine
Foster, Maurice, MP, Algoma
Curto, C ., Hamilto n
CUSO ( Canadian University Se rv ices Overseas),
Francescone, B ., Trenton
Fraser, Barry, Hamilto n
Davis, Patricia, Hamilton
Ottawa
Frith, Hon . Douglas C ., MP, Sudbury
Gastle, Mary, Burlingto n
Dawe, William J ., Neustadt
Gearing, W .R ., Orilli a
Daynard, Kenneth G ., Chalk River
Gervais, Aurele, MP, Timmins-Chapleau
Dean, W .J ., Ottaw a
Gilligan, D .J ., Agincour t
Dennison, Pauline Joan, Ingleside
Department of National Defence, Ottawa
Gloin, James R ., Mount Brydges
Dewart, Sheila, Toront o
Gough, Pamela R ., Etobicoke
Grant, Marcia, Hamilton
Dobby, E ., Oshawa
Dow, Muriel, London
Gosselin, E . P ., Thunder Bay
Gray, Hon . Herb, MP, Windsor West
Dowding, Gerald S ., Windsor
Green, Len and Betty, Guelph
Dragenovich, Lynda, Sault Ste . Marie
Greenwood-Speers, Judy, Waterlo o
D .S . Rudd Associates Limited, London
Duczak, Linda J .M ., Allisto n
Grey-Bruce Canada Farm Labour Pool, Owen
Duncan, Murray, Scarboroug h
Guerin, Gary L ., Toronto
East Gate Alliance Church, Ottaw a
Economists, Sociologists, and Statisticians Asso-
Guetter, John, Woodstock
Gurbin, Gary M ., MP, Bruce-Gre y
ciation, Ottawa
Soun d
Hall, Donald F ., Scarborough
Edgar, Frank, Trenton
Hall, Doug, Brantford
Edwards, W .S ., Mooretown
Hamilton and District Labour Council
Cldon,Jean E ., Ottaw a
Employees of Samsonite, Stratford
Hamilton and District Chamber of Commerce
356
APPENDIX C
Hamilton-Brantford, Ontario Building and Construction Trades Counci l
Hardey, Elliot, Chatham
Harris, Freda, Par ry Sound
Jesseau, Albert, Orillia
Johnston, Douglas B ., Ottawa
Kam Theatre, Thunder Ba y
Hart ry , V .M ., Frankford
Keewaytinok Native Legal Services, Moosonee
Kellogg, Dora, Willowdal e
Hassall, Jack, Huttonville
Kemp, Ronald W ., Belleville
Hayes, Howard, Trenton
Kendall, Dave, Pembroke
Haythorne, George V., Ottawa
Kinna-Aweya Legal Clinic, Thunder Bay
Heap, Dan, MP, Spadina
Kitchener-Waterloo and District Community
Heard, Barbara, Willowdale
Industrial Training Committe e
Klein, George, Toronto
Helmkay, D ., Rainy River
Hemingway, John A ., Kanata
Kozulak, A ., Gloucester
Henderson, Cheryl, Brandon
Kramer, Sara, Belleville
Heppell, Christina, Scarborough
Kroeker, John, Ottawa
Hiel, Dolf, Scarboroug h
Kroeplin, James, Walkerton
Hill, Bruce, Ottawa
Kubisheski, Carole J ., Renfrew
Hill, R .C ., Mississauga
Kuley, Erika, Sarni a
Kutac, Zdenek, London
Hillier, Tammy, Kingsville
Hoddinott, Margaret, Rexdale
Holophane-Manville Canada Inc ., Brampton
Kvas-Jemec,Josie G ., Toront o
Labour Adjustment Review Board, Ottawa
Holt, Bernard, Toront o
Labour Council of Metropolitan Toronto, Don
Hoover, Jay, Brantford
Hore, Raymond E ., Trenton
Hucul, S ., St . Alber t
Mill s
Labourers' International Union of North America,
Toront o
Hughes, Frank P ., Hawkesbu ry
Hughes, G .W ., Petawawa
Lagorio, BE ., Carrying Place
Hughes, Laughlin, Toront o
Humane Society of Ottawa-Carleton
Langhorne and Lynch, Cobourg
Lavallee, Philippe, Gloucester
Hutchinson, M ., Willowdal e
Lavoie, Gaston, Ottaw a
INCO Limited ( International Nickel Company of
Lawr, Mary, Haliburto n
Ontario), Toront o
Lane, Arja, Sudbury
Lea, Joseph William, Etobicoke
Independent Artists' Union, Toront o
Leduc, Rose Marie, Victoria Harbour
International Association of Bridge, Structural and
Lefebvre, Ernest, Rockland
Ornamental Iron Workers, Local 736, Hamilto n
Legal Assistance of Windsor
Lewis, Doug, MP, Simcoe North
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
Lewis, Henry, Prescott
Local Union 353, Toront o
International Longshoremen's Association,
Link-up Delivery Ltd ., Hamilton
Toront o
International Union, United Automobile,
Aerospace and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America (UAW), Willowdal e
Intertech Engineering Corporation, Toronto
Isaacs, L ., Trenton
James Fibre-Glass Manufacturing Co . Ltd ., Shelburne
Jefferson, James E ., London
Jensen, Clarence H ., Ottawa
Jess, Michael, Hamilton
Lewis, J .T ., Ingersol l
Local Agricultural Employment Advisory Board,
Kent and Are a
Local Agricultural Employment Advisory Board,
Ontario Region of the Counties of Northumberland and Durham, Chatha m
Local Agricultural Employment Advisory Board,
Ottawa Valle y
Local Agricultural Employment Advisory Board,
Stormont-Dundas
Logan, Ralph A ., Beachburg
London and District Labour Council
London Union of Unemployed Workers
1 .1ST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 35 7
Loosemore, Doreen, London
Moser, A ., Brampton
Lozowy, Nadia, Etobicoke
Motor Vehicle Manufacturers' Association,
Luff, William, Bellevill e
MacDougall, John A ., MP, Timiskaming
Mountainview Homes, Thorold
MacFie, Alex, Windso r
Toront o
MacGillivray and Company, St . Catharines
Mudrick, Florence, Willowdale
Mullen, Alastair, Pembrok e
Machinery and Equipment Manufacturers' Asso-
Municipalite de Cosby-Mason et Martland, Noel-
ciation, Ottawa
vill e
MacKinnon, William, Trenton
MacNeill, Ida L ., Pembroke
Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, Metropolitan Community Services Departmen t
Madsen, Jay S ., Port Perry
Malmud, Maureen, Toronto
Nagpur, Anant, Ottawa
Management Science America (Canada) Ltd .,
Toront o
Marquardt, Charles, Eganville
Martin Lacey Agencies Limited, Toront o
National Action Committee on the Status of
Women, Toront o
National Anti-Poverty Organization, Ottawa
National Association of Women and the Law,
Ottawa
Mayor's Committee on Employment Opportuni-
National Citizens' Coalition, Toronto
ties and Services to the Unemployed, Windsor
McCarthy and McCarthy, Toronto
National Committee for Independent Canadian
McCormack, Shirley, Thunder Bay
Unions, Hamilto n
National Council of Women of Canada, London
McDermid, John, MP, Brampton-Georgetown
National Council of YMCAs of Canada, Ottawa
McDonald, Donald D ., Windso r
National Union of Provincial Government
McFarland, W .J ., Fort Erie
Employees, Ottaw a
McFarlane, R ., Trenton
Native Council of Canada, Ottawa
McHersch, Mary, Toronto
McIntosh, G .C ., Waterloo
Native Friendship Centre, Sudbury
McKeage, R .G ., Kanata
McKelvie, Harry, Kitchener
Neukamn, Emil, Aylme r
Neish, P ., London
McLean, Donald S ., Orillia .
New Democratic Party Caucus
Nickerson, Brenda, Mississauga
McLean, Harvey, Lively
Niven, Robert, St . Catharine s
McLean, L ., Athen s
North Eastern Ontario Senior Citizens' Associa-
Mechanical Contractors Association of Canada,
tion, Sault Ste . Mari e
Northern Wilderness Outfitters Ltd ., Fort Frances
Ottaw a
Mehlenbacher, Yvonne, Ancaster
Melville, Robert M ., Frankford
Methuen, A ., Toronto
Meyrink, George, Puslinch
Millan, Earle T ., Don Mills
Miller, Ronald, Toronto
Mills, G .E ., Milto n
Norton, D .O ., North Bay
N'Swakamok Native Friendship Centre, Sudbury
Ontario Coalition for Better Day Care, Toronto
Ontario English Catholic Teachers' Association,
Toronto
Ontario Federation of Labour, Don Mills
Mines, Robert H ., Thunder Bay
Ontario-Manitoba Primary Council of the
Canadian Paperworkers Union, Thunder Ba y
Mining Association of Canada, Ottaw a
Ontario Metis and Non-Status Indians' Associa-
Ministry of Community and Social Services
tion, Sault Ste . Mari e
Ontario Nurses' Association, Toront o
(Ontario), Cobourg
Mitchell, F .B ., Trenton
Ontario Provincial Council of Labour, Scarbor-
Mitchell, John, Pembroke
Mollot-Jodi, Joanne, Brampton
oug h
Ontario Provincial Police Association, Barrie
Montone, Toni, Kanata
Ontario Public Service Employees Union, Toronto
Morgan, Cathie, Hensall
Ontario Public Service Employees Union, Local
Morrison, Lloyd, Guelph
595, Toronto
358
APPENDIX C
Ontario Secondary School Teachers' Federation,
Toront o
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Veterans' Association, Toront o
Ontario Trucking Association, Toronto
Rozon, Barbara, Vankleek Hil l
Organization of Canadian Symphony Musicians,
Rubber Association of Canada, Mississauga
Rexdale
St-Pierre, Ronald, Sudbury
Osgoode Hall Law School, Downsview
Santry, Gladys, North Ba y
Ottawa Board of Educatio n
Pappel, Albert, Barri e
Sarnia and District Chamber of Commerce
Pastoral Institute of Northern Ontario, Sudbury
Payne, G .W ., Frankford
Saunders, Maureen, Willowdale
Saweczko, Jilian M ., Toront o
Pearson, T .L., Londo n
Scheepers, Alida, Winchester
Penner, Keith, MP, Cochrane-Superior
Scott, Bill, Pembroke
Perry, Peter, Collingwood
Shekter, B .B ., Hamilton
Peterborough Hut Restaurant Limited
Simpson, B .M ., Cobourg
Peters,J .D .W ., Manotic k
Petrie,J .W ., Ottawa
Sioux Lookout Community Legal Clinic
Pettingil, John, Wellington
Sloan, R . F ., Trento n
Sarnia and District Labour Council
Sirois, Therese, Petawawa
Phoenix Global Ltd ., Rexdale
Smook, Maurice, Stoney Cree k
Pietz, Allan, MP, Welland
Social Planning Council of Kitchener-Waterloo
Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto
Platt, Kenneth J ., Toronto
Poirier, M .C ., Trento n
Social Planning Council of Oshawa-Whitby
Pounder, Malcolm B ., Carrying Place
Social Planning Council of Ottawa-Carleton
Practical Concepts Inc ., Ottaw a
Professional Computer Consultants Group Ltd .,
Soper, Joan, Toront o
Toront o
Professional Institute of the Public Service of
Canada, Ottaw a
Provincial Building and Construction Trades
Council of Ontario, Hamilto n
Stackhouse, Reginald, MP, Scarborough West
Starmph, F ., White Rive r
Status of Women Canada, Ottawa
Stein, R .W ., New Marke t
Stewart, Joseph 0 ., Salem District
Steylen, Ann, Beamsvi I le
Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Ottawa
Public Service Alliance of Canada, Ottawa
Stoakes, Robert, Ottawa
Ray, A .K ., Gloucester
Stuart, John W ., Belleville
Rea, Samuel A ., Toronto
Sudbury and District Chamber of Commerce
Read, A .D ., Bellevill e
Sudbury Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union,
Rector, William MacKinnon, Trenton
Redway, Alan, MP, York East
Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton
Regional Municipality of Sudbur y
Strong, Anne, Orleans
Local 59 8
Sudbury Multicultural-Folk Arts Association
Sudbury Women's Centre
Sutter, Stewart, Ottawa
Reid, Joe, MP, St . Catharines
Swackhammer, E ., Honey Harbour
Reid, W ., Concord
Szlapa, Dieter, Paisley
Retail Council of Canada, Toronto
Tang, Leticia, London
Rexdale Planning
Theriault, Gerry, Gloucester
Richardson, Violet, Grafton
Thompson, Bob, Willowdale
Thunder Bay Council of Retirees
Rittinger,J .E ., Trenton
Robertshaw, Thomas, Toronto
Robertson, W .R ., Cobourg
Tiessen, Herb, Trento n
Rocky Bay Band, MacDiarmid
Toronto Legal Clinics' Unemployment Insurance
Rolica, Lillian Roberta, Kerwood
Tops Car Wash Company Ltd ., Ottawa
Workgrou p
Roy, Claude, Sudbur y
Toronto Union of Unemployed Workers
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa
Torrance, Mary M ., Kingston
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 35 9
Township of Tehkummah
Working Centre, Kitchener
Tripp, Stephen G ., Trenton
Wotton, John, Pert h
Unemployed Help Centre of Windsor
Unemployed Workers' Network, Thunder Bay
Wright, Timothy G ., Hamilton
Unemployment Help Centre, Kingston
Zamora, Nancy L ., Toronto
United Auto Workers, Local 707, Oakville
Zollner, Heinz, Trenton
United Auto Workers, North York, Willowdale
Zuker, Richard C ., Nepea n
United Church of Canada, National Workin g
Group on the Economy and Poverty, Toronto
Prince Edward Island
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of
Canada, Don Mills
United Food and Commercial Workers Union,
Rexdal e
United Steelworkers of America, Thunder Bay
United Steelworkers Association of America,
Toront o
United Steelworkers of America, District 6, Thunder Bay
United Steelworkers of America, Hamilton Area
Counci l
United Steelworkers of America, Local 1005,
Hamilton
United Steelworkers of America, Local 5055,
Thunder Bay
United Steelworkers of America, Local 6500,
Sudbu ry
United Steelworkers of America, Local 8995,
Simco e
University of Toronto
Uriarte, Joseph, Mississauga
Van Embden, R ., Azilda
Voss, Susan, St . Catharines
Walker, Sandra S ., Mississauga
Warne Marketing and Communications, Toronto
Warner, Norman, MP, Stormont-Dundas
Waterloo, Wellington, Dufferin and Grey, Buildin g
and Construction Trades Council, Kitchener
Watson, Constance, Ashto n
Yando, S .A ., Niagara Falls
Atlantic Provinces Chamber of Commerce, Charlottetown
Binns, Pat, MP, Cardiga n
Canadian Manufacturers' Association, Prince
Edward Island Branch, Charlottetown
Community Advisory Board, Southern Kings an d
Queens Services Centre, Montague
Construction Association of Prince Edward Island,
Charlottetown
Coyle, F .C ., Charlottetown
Dennison Woodcutting Co ., Victoria
Gallant, Ed, Hilltop and North Rustico
Government of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetow n
Greater Summerside Chamber of Commerce
Irving, Axel, Murray Harbou r
Latin American Mission Program, Charlottetown
MacAusland, Colin, Parkdal e
Maritime Fishermen's Union, Charlottetown
Potato Producers' Association of P .E .I ., Kensingto n
Prince Edward Island Federation of Labour,
Charlottetow n
Prince Edward Island Fishermen's Association,
Charlottetow n
Prince Edward Island Opposition Caucus, Charlottetow n
Prince Edward Island Truckers' Association,
Charlottetow n
Wharton, J .S .D ., Kanata
Roberts, Hugh D ., Belfast
Wilds, Milford J ., Barri e
Royal Canadian Legion, Branch No . 26, Morrell
William M . Mercer Limited, Toronto
Schroeder, Julie, Bangor Roa d
Social Action Commission, Roman Catholic
Williams, Janet, Owen Sound
Williams, Sydney A ., Ottawa
Wilson, Andrew M ., London
Diocese of Charlottetow n
Walker, Felix, Cardiga n
Windsor and District Labour Counci l
Windsor Youth Employment Counselling Centre
Ward, James W ., Charlottetown
Wise, Hon . John, MP, Elgi n
Wood, Ross E ., St . Williams
Abbey-Finestone Inc ., Westmount
Quebec
Woolhouse, Mr . and Mrs ., Toronto
Action-travail des femmes, Montreal
Alliance des professeurs de Montreal
Workers' Compensation Board, Toronto
Amyot, Florian, Pointe-aux-Trembles
360
APPENDIX C
Association des anciens de la SCHL de la region du
Quebec, St-Lauren t
Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Montreal
Canadian Textiles Institute, Montrea l
Association des constructeurs de routes et grands
Carrefour des mouvements d'action catholique,
travaux du Quebec, St-Jean-sur-Richelieu
Association des femmes collaboratrices, St-
Centrale de l'enseignement du Quebec, Montreal
Lamber t
Association des manufacturiers canadiens, Montreal
Association des manufacturiers de bois de sciage
du Quebec, Quebec
comite diocesain d'action catholique, Quebec
Centrale des syndicats democratiques, Montreal
Centre d'emploi du Canada, section syndical e
locale 10430, Riviere-du-Loup
Centre des femmes de Riviere des Prairies, Montrea l
Association des proprietaires de machinerie
lourde du Quebec inc ., St -jean -sur-Richelieu
Centre local de services communautaires Les
Association des retraites de Montmorency, Beau-
Chambre de commerce de Grandes-Piles
por t
Association des retraites sans Assurance-chomage,
Quebe c
Association du personnel de l'enseignement de la
regionale Carignan, Sore l
Association quebecoise des payeurs, Anjou
Association quebecoise pour la defense des droits
Aboiteaux, St-Pasca l
Chambre de commerce de Riviere-du-Loup
Chambre de commerce du Quebec, Montreal
Champagne, Michel, MP, Champlain
Champagne, Paul, Fabrevill e
Charbonneau, Rosario, Verdun
Charron, Rheal D ., Charny
Chenel, Walter, Port-Cartier
des retraites et des pre-retraites, Trois-
Chevrier, Viateur, Montrea l
Rivieres
Audouin, Sylvie, Montreal
Chinese Neighbourhood Society of Montreal
Clarke, Angeline, Montreal
Ayotte, Ernest, Princeville
Clermont, Rene, St-Hubert
Bannister, Lloyd, La Salle
Cloutier, Paul, Trac y
Barrette,J .R ., Longueuil
Beauchemin, Jeanne, Quebec
Coalition des organismes communautaires du
Beauregard, Margo, Montreal
Comite action-chomage Kamouraska inc ., St-
Bechard, Jeanne d'Arc, Chateauguay
Quebec, Montreal
Bruno
Bechard,Lucie, Chateaugua y
Comite d'adaptation communautaire, Sept-Iles
Bell Canada, Tax Administration Division, Mont-
Comite de reclassement de la compagnie miniere
Quebec Cartier, Sept-Iles
rea l
Berger, David, MP, Laurie r
Comite des retraites, Rivi&e-du- Loup
Bernier, F .O ., Dollard des Ormeaux
Boisvert, Lorraine, Montrea l
Comite pre-retraite Cascades East Angus
Booth, S .C ., Pointe-Claire
Bouchard, Jacques, Ville la Baie
Boucher, Jerome, Sept-Ile s
Bourque, Jean-Paul, Otterburn Heights
Bourque, Noella, Montreal
Brisson, Lucie, Montreal
Comite socio-economique des Iles-de-la-Madeleine
Commission des services juridiques, Montreal
Compagnie miniere IOC, Sept-Ile s
Compagnie miniere Quebec Cartier, Port-Cartier
Confederation des syndicats nationaux (CSN),
Montrea l
Brunelle, Romuald, Montreal
Bruyere, Robert, Montrea l
Conseil central des syndicats nationaux de la
Campeau, Cousineau and Ouellet, Montreal
Conseil central des syndicats nationaux de Sept-
Campeau, Pierrette, Montrea l
Canadian Forestry Service, Hul l
Ile s
Conseil conjoint numero 91 des teamsters du
Canadian Office Employees Union, Ville MontRoya l
Canadian Paperworkers Union, Montreal
Canadian Police Association, Montreal
region de Quebec, Quebec
Quebec, Ville D'Anjou
Conseil du patronat du Quebec, Montrea l
Conseil paroissial de pastorale de la communaute
St-Hyacinthe-le-Confesseur, St-Hyacinthe
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 36 1
Conseil provincial du Quebec des metiers de la
construction (International), Montrea l
Conseil regional de developpement de la Cote
Nord, Baie-Comea u
Frenette, Maurice, Verdun
Gagne, Mireille, Victoriaville
Gagnon, Benoit, St-Eugene
Gagnon, Jean, Canton Tremblay
Conseil regional de pastorale, Pointe-au-Pic
Gaudreau, Denise, Granby
Cooper, D .B ., Hudson Heights
Gaudreau, Pierre, Montreal
Corporation des maitres mecaniciens en tuyauterie du Quebec, Ste-Fo y
Geltman, Harold, Montreal
Girouard, Derek E ., Chambly
Corporation municipale de St-Medard, Comte de
Goldsmith, Bernice, Montreal
Rimousk i
Goltman, D .M ., Montreal
Cote, Gaetane, Princeville
Groupe Sobeco Inc ., Montreal
Cote, Jacques, Montreal
Grow, R ., Verdu n
Couture, Carol, Sept-Iles
Guilbault, Jean-Guy, MP, Drummond
Couturier, Gvana, Jonquiere
Della Noce, Vincent, MP, Duvernay
Guimond,Jean-Marc, Montreal
Desrochers, Lucienne, Quebec
Dextraze, Prudent, St-Jea n
Helie, Bertrand, Val d'Or
Hesse, Mervin M ., Farnham
Hayeur, Lucie, Anjo u
Doyon, Donald, St-Georges-de-Beauce
Hogues, Jean-Paul, Charny
Drolet, Louis, Charny
Hooles, Patricia, Greenfield Par k
Dube, Alphonse, Trois-Rivieres
Hopital d'Argenteuil, Lachute
Dube, Guy, Lava l
Dubuc-Bouvier, Madeleine, Montreal
Houle, Paul-Cmile, Alm a
Hubert, Paul E ., Iles-de-la-Madeleing
Faucher, F ., Montrea l
lafigliola, Giuseppe, St-Leonard
Federally Regulated Employers - Transportation
Jacques, Jean- Pau1, Pointe-aux-Trembles
and Communications, Montreal
Federation des associations de families monoparentales du Quebec inc ., Montrea l
James Bay Cree Corporation, Montreal
Jansz, Clifford H ., Dorva l
Jones, William A ., Pierrefonds
Federation des femmes du Quebec, Montreal
Federation des policiers du Quebec, Montreal
Kaye, G .H ., Chateaugua y
Federation des producteurs de pommes d u
Labelle, Gilles, Montreal
Quebec, Longueui l
Federation des producteurs maraichers du
Quebec, Longueui l
Federation des syndicats du secteur aluminium
inc ., Jonquiere
Federation des travailleurs du papier et de la foret
(CSN), Montrea l
Keable, Guy, Pointe-aux-Trembles
Ladouceur, Marcel, Ste-Julie
L'Alliance des professeurs de Montreal
L'Allier, Carmen, Montrea l
Lamazzi, Gino, Laval
Lamazzi, Linda, Fabreville
Lamazzi, Pauline, Laval
Lapierre, Gaston, St-Georges
Federation des travailleurs et travailleuses du
Quebec, Montrea l
Larouche, Paul, Chicoutimi
Ferguson, Therese, Cap des Rosiers
Fieger, Rudolf, St-Huber t
Lecours, Yvan, Princeville
Leditt, Art, Montreal
Fillion, Claude, Arthabasca
Les travailleurs sans emploi enr ., Shawinigan
Fitzpatrick-Martin, Iris, Montreal
L'Hirondelle, comite d'accueil inter-ethnique,
Fleury, Gerard, Dolbea u
Lavigne, Ghislaine, Montreal
Montreal
Forcier, Gaston, Drummondville
Forte, Angelo, Laval-des-Rapides
MacLeod, Carol, Montreal
Franklin, Karina, Beaconsfield
Maison des jeunes de Mont-Joli inc .
Fraser, Noel C ., Montrea l
Martineau, Serge, Montreal
Mastercraft Leather Goods Ltd ., Montreal
Fraternite nationale des charpentiers-menuisiers,
forestiers et travailleurs d'usines, Montreal
Mainguy, Gerard, Sept-Iles
McTiernan, Cecil, Shawville
362
APPENDIX C
Michaud, Renald, Loretteville
Morin, Suzanne, Montreal
Reseau d'action et d'information pour les femmes
(RAIF), Sillery
Mousseau, Jacques, Aylme r
Ricard, Guy, MP, Laval
Mouvement action chomage de l'Outaouais, Hull
Mouvement action chomage de Montreal inc .
Rinfret, Carole, Montreal
Robert, Denyse, Montreal
Mouvement action chomage de Quebec inc .
Robitaille, Lionel, Grand'Mere
Mouvement action chomage de St-Hyacinthe
Roy, Constance, Granby
Mouvement action chomage de Trois-Rivieres
Ruel, Louise, Frelighsburg
Mouvement socialiste du Quebec, Montreal
St-Arneault, Marcel, Montreal
Municipalite regionale du comte de Matane
St-Pierre, Edith, Oka
Municipalite regionale du comte de Pontiac ,
St-Pierre, Ronald, Mascouche
Campbell's Bay
Nadeau, Fernand, St-Amable
Neumann, Ralph, Roxbor o
Office diocesain de pastorale ouvriere et sociale,
Shawinigan
Office de pastorale ouvriere et sociale, diocese de
Trois-Riviere s
OPCAN, Montrea l
Organisation populaire des droits sociaux, Montrea l
Organisme d'alphabetisation "lettres vivantes",
Larouche
Organisme du droit d'assurance-chomage aux
employes salaries musiciens et musiciennes
inc ., Montrea l
Pare, Danielle, Sillery
Parker, Michael, Kirkland
Sawyer, Jean-Claude, Montreal
Shragge, Eric, Montrea l
Societe de ressources communautaires Brandon,
St-Gabriel de Brandon
Societe d'exploitation de ressources des Basques
inc ., St-Mathie u
Solidarite populaire Quebec, Montreal
Stanworth, John C ., Otterburn Park
Syndicat de 1'emploi et de l'immigration du
Canada, Levi s
Syndicat de I'enseignement de Champlain, StHuber t
Syndicat de 1'enseignement de la region des Milleslles, Sainte-Theres e
Syndicat de l'enseignement de I'Estrie, Sherbrooke
Syndicat de 1'enseignement de 1'ouest de Mont-
Pavages Vaudreuil Ltee
real, Lachin e
Syndicat de l'enseignement de Taillon, St-Hubert
Pelletier, Philippe, St-Hyacinthe
Syndicat de l'enseignement du Haut-Richelieu, St-
Pensioners 1985/1986, Lasalle
Perreault, Albert, St-Alphonse-Rodriguez
Syndicat de I'enseignement du Lac St-Jean, Alma
Piney, Reg, Montrea l
Syndicat des enseignants de Chateauguay-Mois-
Pintal, Andre, St-Leonard
Jean-sur-Richelie u
sons, Beauharnoi s
Poirat, Gustave, Boucherville
Procycle Inc ., Ville de St-George s
Syndicat des enseignants de la region de la Mitis,
Provincial Association of Catholic Teachers,
Syndicat des fonctionnaires provinciaux du
Montrea l
Railwav Association of Canada, Montreal
Quebec, Quebe c
Syndicat des professeurs du Quebec metropolit-
Rapps, Sammy, Montrea l
Regroupement des chomeurs(euses) de Val d'Or
Syndicat des techniciennes et techniciens du
Regroupement des sans-emplois de Victoriaville
Mont-Jol i
ain, Quebe c
cinema du Quebec, Montrea l
Regroupement des sans-emploi de la Cote-Nord,
Syndicat des travailleurs des chantiers maritimes
Sept-Iles
Regroupement des separees, separes et divorcees,
Tanguay, Marcel, Saint-Prosper
divorces de 1'ouest inc ., Pierrefonds
Regroupement provincial des maisons d'heberge-
Tardif, Monique B ., MP, Charlesbourg
Terence Pye Associates, Montrea l
ment et de transition pour femmes victimes
de violence, Montreal
de Sorel, Tracy
3rd Dimensions and Associates (1973) Ltd .,
Verdu n
Todorovic, D ., La Salle
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS AND SUBMISSIONS 3 6 3
Toupin, Robert, Terrebonne
Kuhn, J .D ., Regin a
Tour de Lire, Montrea l
La Ronge Region Community College
Lang, E ., Saskatoo n
Tremblay, Maurice, MP, Lotbiniere
Union des artistes, Montrea l
Machie, Mary, Regin a
Union des producteurs agricoles, Longueuil
Matthew, Maureen, Saskatchewan
Valiquette, Raymond, Repentigny
Merrick, P .J ., Weybur n
Vezina, Robert, Montreal
Norwood Construction Ltd ., Saskatoon
Vigneault, Jean-Charles, Montreal
Olynyk, Ivan D ., Meacha m
Ville de Riviere-du-Lou p
Vincent, Pierre M ., MP, Trois-Rivieres
Ortman, Rose, Francis
Pocock, Dale, Nipawi n
Vincent, Serge, Granby
Visual Planning Corporation, Montreal
Regina Business and Professional Women's Club
Warren, Richard, Ste-Foy
Riches, Graham, Regin a
Weiner, Gerry, Dollard des Ormeaux
Saskatchewan Action Committee on the Status of
Wills, Edith Mary, Montrea l
Saskatchewan
Baker, Wayne and Faith, White Spruce
Basiuk, Cory, Saskatoon
Bauman, Gail, Regina
Regina Chamber of Commerc e
Women, Regin a
Saskatchewan Arts Alliance, Regin a
Saskatchewan Association on Human Rights,
Saskatoo n
Saskatchewan Chamber of Commerce, Regina
Beer, James, Prince Albert
Saskatchewan Community Colleges Trustees
Association, Saskatoo n
Bushnell, Robert, Saskatoo n
Saskatchewan Employment Development Agency,
Canada Employment and Immigration Union,
Regin a
Saskatchewan Federation of Labour, Regina
Regina
Canadian Congress for Learning Opportunities for
Saskatchewan Health, Saskatoo n
Women, Regin a
Committee Against Poverty, Regina
Saskatoon Region Community College, Saskatoon
Community Service Employment Co-operative of
Slinn, Norman K ., Regina
Regin a
Slaferek, Delores, Saskatoo n
Spanier, Claudia, Qu'Appelle
Coteau Range Community College, Moose Jaw
Cuddington, Gordon 0 ., Fort Qu'Appelle
Ternowetsky, Gordon, Regina
Ward, W .C ., Moose jaw
Cypress Hills Community College, Swift Current
Watson, Susan, Laniga n
Western Grain Elevator Association, Regina
Davies, William G ., Regin a
Davitt, Kathleen, Regina
Zilke, Sam, Springsid e
Doidge, W .S ., Swift Current
East, Elaine, Regin a
Yukon
Ens, Carl M ., Saskatoon
Armstrong, Irwin R ., Whitehorse
Globe Theatre, Regin a
Buckway, B ., Whitehors e
Government of Saskatchewan, Regina
Hnatyshyn, Hon . Ray, MP, Saskatoon West
Government of Yukon Territory, Whitehorse
Hovdebo, Stan, MP, Prince Albert
Youngblut, Sharon, Whitehorse
Inventronics Limited, Moose Jaw
Krempien, Brian, Saskatoon
Nhung, Nguyen Thi, Els a
Appendix D
365
Research Studie s
Arthur Anderson & Co ., "Administrative
D .J . Byrne, "The Relationship and Interaction
Effectiveness and Efficiency Review . "
Between the
Unemployment
Insurance
Assistance
Programs
."
Program and Social
This study reviews the organizational structure of
the Unemployment Insurance program, and
The number of long-term unemployed persons
comments on the efficiency and effectiveness of its
with employment potential has increased signifi-
management processes, as well as recommending
cantly in the last five or six years . They require
areas for improvement . Overall administrative
both income maintenance and employment
costs are compared with unemployment insurance
counselling se rvices to help them to develop or
schemes in the United States, and changes to
policies and procedures are assessed with respect
maintain job readiness and obtain long-term
employment . This study examines the current
to their impact on efficiency .
Unemployment Insurance and social assistance
programs in relation to these needs, and details
B .C . Research, "Demographic Change and
the problems faced by individuals who must deal
Employment . "
with both programs .
This study considers the employment outlook to
1991 for six major demographic groups : females,
The Canada East-West Centre Ltd ., "Equity
and Efficiency : The Theory and Realities
males, native Indians, youths, middle-aged workers and older workers . It examines the effects of
Relating to Employment, Unemployment and
the changing age distribution of the population on
the unemployment rates of these various groups,
and also identifies those industries and occupations with strong employment growth potential in
the next five years .
Income Security . "
Economic and social policy goals must acknowledge both the equity and efficiency consequences
of resource allocation and wealth distribution .
This study identifies and evaluates the policy goals
of core and non-core elements of the Unemploy-
Gerald A . Beaudoin, "Unemployment Insurance and the Constitution : An Overview . "
ment Insurance program and the relative weighting of economic and social considerations . It also
This is a legal opinion regarding the constitutional
suggests instances where other means than the
aspects of the Unemployment Insurance Act,
Unemployment Insurance program may be more
addressing both the rules of interpretation and
appropriate for meeting some or all of these
objectives .
relevant case law relating specifically to two
issues : the federal-provincial division of powers
and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms .
J . Davidson-Palmer & Associates, "Training:
Approaches to Employment . "
It then addresses specifically several legal questions that may arise in the future with regard to
Unemployment Insurance .
Although strong evidence points to the fact that
we are currently in a period of industrial restructuring, current labour market policy has been
unable to rectify what appears to be a poor match
between training and available jobs . This study
examines a number of issues related to training
366
APPENDIX D
"natural rate" of unemployment over the 1970s . It
policy, considers the possible role of funding and
administration of Unemployment Insurance, and
also examines evidence that the 1971 revisions to
identifies other mechanisms such as the tax system
the Unemployment Insurance program, which
which could be used to create a comprehensive
increased the generosity and coverage of benefits,
and coordinated approach to training .
contributed to the rise in the natural rate, and
considers the extent to which the tightening of the
Decima Research Ltd., "Work and Income
Security : A Survey . "
This survey examines the attitudes of Canadians
toward work, employment expectations, and
income assistance - Unemployment Insurance in
Unemployment Insurance program in the late
1970s may have partially reversed this earlier
effect .
Grady Economics & Associates Ltd ., "Full
Employment. "
particular . The results are analyzed by region, age,
education, income and employment experience of
This study considers the existence and magnitude
the respondents .
of constraints on the use of fiscal and monetary
Pierre Dufour, "Analysis of Problematic Legal
policy to pursue the objective of full employment,
and discusses policy tools other than fiscal and
Aspects of the Unemployment Insurance
monetary policy by which it would be possible to
Act. "
reduce structural unemployment in the absence of
This study analyzes in detail the legislation and
jurisprudence of the key sections of the Unemployment Insurance Act, with an emphasis on the role
renewed inflation . Reform of Unemployment
Insurance is but one example of measures that
might improve the functioning of labour markets .
of employers in the program . It considers the view
R .H . Hood Economics Inc ., "Regional Policy
of employers' groups that Unemployment Insur-
Problems in the Unemployment Insurance
ance should function as an income replacement
System . "
scheme, and provides recommendations for
possible changes to the Act and regulations .
This study examines the use of regionally extended
benefits in the Unemployment Insurance program
Michael Gardner, "The Fishermen's Unem-
as an instrument to achieve policy objectives . It
ployment Insurance Program. "
asks whether the Unemployment Insurance pro-
Since the extension of Unemployment Insurance
benefits to fishermen in 1956, the program has
played an important role in supporting and stabilizing the incomes of fishermen . Problems in
adapting coverage to the fishing industry arise
because of the complexity and diversity of the
industry, changes in the fishery brought about by
resource and market conditions, and changes in
gram should be regarded as a compulsory insurance plan, a social support scheme, or a program
to promote regional development, and considers
two major scenarios for Unemployment Insurance
reform in light of their consequences for income
redistribution and employment stability .
Informetrica Ltd., "Employment Impacts of
Free Trade . "
fishing patterns brought about by the Unemployment Insurance program itself. This study
This study estimates that net employment in
addresses these issues and considers possible
Canada will increase by some 150,000 jobs
options and improvements to the current
approach .
between 1988 and 2005 under a free trade agreement, based on an examination of actual tariff
Grady Economics & Associates Ltd ., "Infla-
differences and estimates of non-tariff barriers .
Significant gains and losses in employment are
tion and Unemployment . "
identified by sector and province . The study
This paper examines the issue of the trade-off
between inflation and unemployment, and documents the evidence of an upward shift in the
considers also the (re)training and interprovincial
mobility implications of free trade and the
implications for the design of an Unemployment
Insurance scheme .
RESEARCH STUDIES 36 7
National Tax Centre, "Taxation and Capital
Investment ."
in workers' skills as a result of shifts in technology ;
and Unemployment Insurance reforms .
The widespread use of tax incentives for capital
Lars Osberg, "The Incidence and Duration of
investment is a relatively recent phenomenon . This
Unemployment in Canada . "
study identifies the major tax incentives for capital
investment introduced since 1972, and examines
Public perception of the social and economic costs
the available economic evidence that tax incentives for capital investment are effective in produc-
of unemployment is affected by our view of the two
ing an increase in economic growth and/or
components of unemployment - that is, whether a
given unemployment rate is due to many people
employment .
being unemployed for a short period of time (high
incidence but short duration), or to a few people
National Tax Centre, "Taxation and Employ-
being unemployed for a long period of time (low
ment . "
incidence but long duration) . This study discusses
the incidence and duration of unemployment in
This study addresses the issue of whether increases
in taxation are accompanied by a decrease in the
Canada, as well as its regional, demographic and
industrial/occupational aspects .
desire to work, and develops guidelines by which
to judge whether certain provisions of the Income
Andre Philippart, "Unemployment Insur-
Tax Act encourage or discourage employment . In
ance : Lessons from the European Economic
particular, it examines the progressive rate
Community (Benelux and FRG) . "
schedule and the effect of the tax system on twoincome families as two areas likely to affect decisions either to enter the labour market or to
This study discusses the role of Unemployment
Insurance schemes in certain countries of the
increase labour market participation .
European Economic Community . Among the
issues addressed are the role of the state in financ-
Walter Nicholson, "Unemployment Insur-
ing Unemployment Insurance, the benefit and tax
ance Financing: Lessons from the United
structures implications for income redistribution,
States . "
and administrative issues . The broader context of
The United States is the only country in which
Unemployment Insurance is experience rated
(based on employers' layoff histories) . It is con-
the discussion includes the social and economic
policy environments within which the programs
function, as well as the role of supporting policies
such as education and training .
cluded that there appears to be empirical support
for the conclusion that experience rating can
Craig W . Riddell, "Changing Behaviour Pat-
reduce unemployment . This study considers
terns and Employment. "
various aspects of experience rating in the United
States, and the feasibility and possible implications of introducing such a system in Canada .
This study documents the demographic and
behavioural patterns underlying changes in the
composition of the labour force and in the nature
Lars Osberg, "Economic Theory and Unem-
of unemployment since the early 1970s . It then
ployment : An Essay on Constraints, Choices
considers the various objectives which might form
and Blind Spots . "
the basis of an Unemployment Insurance program
and discusses their implications for Unemploy-
This study reviews economic theory relating to
unemployment since the 1960s, and considers
four "missing links" in the literature . These are :
the impact of unemployment-induced stress on
individuals and on the economy ; the impact of
high unemployment on the mobility and flexibility
of the employed population ; the need for changes
mentInsurance .
368
APPENDIX D
A . Rotstein and R . Adlam, "Economic Networks and the Unemployed . "
This study discusses the issue of economic activity
among the unemployed and the extent of their
by-issue basis . Key recommendations are identified and parliamentary responses noted .
Patti Schom-Moffatt, "Social Consequences of
Unemployment . "
dependence on income assistance programs .
Based on a survey of unemployed individuals, it
This study surveys the available literature on the
identifies three network categories - cash, barter,
social consequences of unemployment, noting a
strong consistency in the conclusions of different
and one-way support networks of family and
friends - and attempts to estimate the extent and
value of these types of activity among the unemployed .
researchers . It identifies some conditions that act
as a major buffer against the adverse consequences
of unemployment and considers ways in which
policy could be encouraged to support the crea-
A . Rotstein and C .A .M . Duncan, "Informal
tion of such buffers .
Economic Activity : A Survey of International
Trends. "
Irving R . Silver Associates, "Changing
Demand Patterns and Labour Adjustment . "
Informal economic activity is perceived differently
in different countries . This study identifies these
This study identifies by age, sex and skill level, as
various attitudes and considers several policy
well as by industry and occupation, those workers
questions in an international context . It asks
whether informal economic activity ought to be
most susceptible to unemployment over the next
five years . It enumerates the most likely areas for
legitimated and expanded in the face of the long-
inter-occupational mobility in response to job loss
term unemployment that lies ahead, and examines
for those groups, and illustrates the variety of
the possibility of easing the burden on the current
welfare system through recourse to informal
approaches required from labour market policy in
economic activity .
Robert G . Saint-Louis and Lucie Lamarche,
"Critical Review of the Organization and
Administration of the Unemployment Insurance Act: The Claimant's Point of View . "
facilitating adjustment .
Monica Townson, "The
Segmentation of
Labour Markets . "
This study examines the literature on labour
market segmentation and its implications for the
development of Unemployment Insurance . Tenta-
This study evaluates the unemployment insurance
system with an emphasis on the claimant in the
tive conclusions are drawn for policy making,
system . It considers problems arising from current
labour market and the potentially limited access of
eligibility criteria, regulatory complexity,
its members to more stable employment oppor-
administrative problems and appeal procedures,
tunities in the core labour market .
focussing on the higher turnover in the secondary
and recommends changes where appropriate .
Martin L. Weitzman, "Profit Sharing as an
Robert G . Saint-Louis and William Schabas,
"Analysis of Parliament's Response to the Gill
Antidote for Canadian Unemployment . "
Committee of Inquiry, the Cousineau Com-
Weitzman's proposal for a profit-sharing economy
mittee, the Comprehensive Review of 1977
recognizes explicitly that the well-being of a firm's
and the Gershberg Task Force . "
workers depends ultimately on the financial health
of the firm itself. Workers take a portion of their
This study discusses the evolution of Canada's
Unemployment Insurance legislation in the light of
pay as a negotiated share of profits, and companies
and workers have greater incentives to keep
the four major reviews between 1962 and 1981 .
The interplay and synergy between the various
profits, output, and employment at high levels . A
reports and the legislation are treated on an issue-
unemployment, a redefinition of Unemployment
fully functioning share economy generates less
RESEARCH STUDIES
Insurance is suggested as a benefit that tem-
David R . Williamson, "The Tax System and
porarily replaces unexpected drops in earnings -
Unemployment . "
including wage loss as well as wage interruption .
This study examines the Canadian corporate tax
David R . Williamson, "The Economic Conse-
system in relation to firms' employment and
quences of Unemployment . "
capital investment levels . It questions whether the
tax treatment given to labour is neutral with
This study examines the literature on the issue of
whether future economic growth is affected by
respect to the amount employed, and whether the
tax treatment accorded to capital assets serves on
sustained high levels of unemployment . It consid-
balance to encourage firms to invest in capital
ers the links between current levels of Gross
assets as opposed to employing labour .
National Product and future potential growth, the
negative impact of a sustained high level of unem-
These studies, along with transcripts of the public
ployment on the labour force participation ratio
hearings and copies of the briefs submitted to the
and on the rate of inflation, and the relationship
between prolonged periods of high unemployment
Inquiry, are part of the records of the Commission
which are deposited with the Public Archives .
and capital investment .
Inquiries may be directed to :
Federal Archives Division
Public Archives Canada
395 Wellington Street
Ottawa, Ontari o
K1A ON 3
(613) 996-8507
36 9
Appendix E
371
Projecting the Impact of Employment Policies
on the Demand for Human Resource s
The Commission of inquiry used a simulation
Situation 1
model developed by Statistics Canada, called the
The Base Case : Are We Doomed to Poverty in
Socio Economic Resource Framework (SERF), to
explore a number of possible policies relating to
the development of Canada's human resources .
The purpose of the SERF model is to estimate the
impact of demographic changes on the supply and
demand for labour over a period of 50 years . The
model reflects the impact of the postwar baby
boom on the age structure of Canada's population
to the year 2031, and its implications for family
formation, home building, appliance sales, consumption of health, educational and other services . Using this model and adding changes in
rates of participation in the labour market, in
retirement patterns, in productivity rates and
other factors, it is possible to suggest what might
happen to the supply of and demand for labour
over the next 50 years as a result of various human
resource development strategies .
Old Age?
The "base case" is the set of circumstances that
includes projections of all relevant trends into the
future without any policy changes . The results
suggest that in the near and medium term Canada
would have high and then slowlyfalling unemployment rates, turning into an acute labour shortage
by 2031 . The profile of relative unemployment
resulting from this "do nothing" situation is
shown in Figure E .I . "Labour market tension"
(Statistics Canada's term) is an indication of the
relationship between the supply of and demand for
labour, and hence indicates trends in unemployment . This index is referred to here as the "relative
unemployment index ." It is similar to an unemployment rate .
The negative figure in 2031, which suggests
that there would be a shortage of workers, under-
The SERF program does not attempt to forecast the future . What it does is explore the longterm implications of "what if" situations . What if
starting from known elements (basically data on
the Canadian population and labour force) the
retirement age were lowered? By how much would
that reduce unemployment now and later? What
problems would be created later when Canada has
lines the limitations of these simulation exercises .
Since "negative unemployment" is inconceivable
and would never be observed, something that has
been assumed to remain constant in the model
would change in reality, possibly in a drastic way .
For example, it is likely that as Canada evolved
toward a zero unemployment rate, employers
would induce older workers to delay retiremen t
a much higher proportion of older people?
Figure G . 1
Relative Unemployment Index, Base Case, 1981-203 1
1981
Base case
1986
199 1
11 .9% 11 .9% 11 .0 %
2001
2011
2021
9 .8% 7 .9% 0 .5%
203 1
-5 .3 %
Note : The relative unemployment index, which Statistics
Source : Statistics Canada, special tabulations for the
Canada terms "labour market tension," compares the
supplyof labour to the demand for labour . It is similar to an
Commission of Inquiry• on Unemployment Insurance .
unemployment rate.
372 APPENDIX E
and all workers to increase working time . If
measured and in which technology has so far had
insufficient extra labour supply came forward in
these ways, immigration policy might have to be
the greatest impact . These aggregate measures of
productivity improvement, therefore, consider-
liberalized or a guest-worker program introduced
ably overstate productivity growth for the
to increase the number of working-age adults in
the population .
economy as a whole .
With the model, it was assumed that 150
goods-producing sectors would experience an
Situation 2
average yearly increase in productivity of 3 .2
percent as compared to the base case set of cir-
Productivity Growth : Cure or Curse?
cumstances in which average yearly productivity
Figure E .2 shows observed productivity growth for
different periods since 1946 for commercial-
increases by 1 .68 percent . The relative unemployment indices for the period 1986-2031 and the
goods-producing industries . These are the indus-
differential from the base case are shown in Figure
tries in which productivity growth can best be
E .3 .
Figure E . 2
Aggregate Productivity Measures for Commercial Goods-Producing
Industries, 1946-8 1
(Average annual growth rates)
1946-81 1961-7 1
Output per person/hour
4 .9% 5 .4 %
1971-81 1978-79
1979-80 1980-8 1
1 .7% -0 .4%- -0 .8% 0 .7 %
Source : Statistics Canada, Aggregate Producrtulty.
Measures(Cat . no. 14-201), 1984 .
Figure E . 3
Relative Unemployment Index under Various Situations
1986 199 1
Base
case
11 .9% 11 .0 %
1996
2001
2011
9 .8% 9 .8% 7 .9%
2021
203 1
.5% -5 .3 %
(1 .8% productivity growth)
Alternate cas e
12 .8%
12 .8 %
12 .3% 12 .8% 11 .9% 5 .4% ni l
0 .9%
1 .8 %
2 .5% 3 .0% 4 .0% 4 .9% 5 .3 %
(3 .2% productivity growth)
Change from base cas e
Alternate case and accelerated
work-week reduction
Alternate case and accelerated
work-week reduction :
Change from base case nil -0 .1
-0 .8 -1 .4 - .2%
Change from alternate case - .9%
-3 .3 -4 .4
- 1 .4
0 .1 %
nil
-4 .2 -4 .8 -5 .7 %
Alternate case and increase
in demand :
Change from base case
0 .5% 0 .9%
2 .0% 2 .0% 2 .0% 1 .8% 1 .4%
Change from alternate case
-0 .4 - .9 %
-1 .5
Note : The relative unemployment index, which Statistics
Canada terms "tabour market tension," compares the
supply of labour to the demand for labour. It is similar to an
unemployment rate .
Source : Statistics Canada, special tabulations for the
Commission of Inquiry on Unemployment Insurance.
-2 .1 -2 .0
-3 .1 -3 .9%
PROJECTING THE IMPACT. . . 37 3
It is often suggested that unemployment that
grows more rapidly in Canada than in compet-
is induced by productivity growth can be solved by
ing countries, our costs will fall relative to
reducing work time . The base case situation
theirs and our trade balance will improve
incorporates some reduction of work time, reflecting the existing trends . The average work week in
enough to create more jobs than are
2031 would accordingly be 30 hours .
itself.
"destroyed" by the growth in productivity
Reducing work time is not the only way to
compensate for the impact of productivity growth
on employment . Productivity growth increases
real incomes, and higher real incomes may lead to
higher consumption . If aggregate demand for
goods and services were to increase by 2 .2 percent
on average per year (not unreasonable if productivity increases at 3 .2 percent per year), then most
of the adverse impact of productivity growth on
employment would be neutralized . International
trade has a crucial role to play here for a country as
dependent on trade as Canada . The faster the rate
of productivity growth in Canada, the easier it will
be for the country to maintain a trade surplus . It
will then be relatively easy not only to offset the
adverse impact of higher productivity on employment, but even to reverse that impact : unemployment would fall below what it would be with
slower productivity growth .
The following observations can be made :
• Technological change would not increase
unemployment by more than 5 to 6 percentage points over several decades .
• This drop in employment could be fully
compensated by a modest shortening of work
time .
• If such a shortening of work time were not
reversible, it would only complicate the longterm labour deficit projected for the period
2021-31 .
• If the benefit (in terms of real income) made
possible by increased productivity is used up
by increasing leisure time, less or none of it
will be available to reduce the comparative
cost of goods and services made in Canada
with those made abroad . The deterioration of
the trade balance might then reduce employment in Canada by as much as or more than
productivity growth itself.
• In an open economy such as Canada's, absolute productivity growth is probably less
important than productivity growth relative
to that in other countries . If productivity
Situation 3
Education vs. Labour Market Participation
In 1980, only 52 .6 percent of Canadians aged 15 to
19 and 10 .4 percent of 20 to 24 year olds were
enrolled in full-time education programs . Educational enrolments (as a percent of population)
show an increase for the 15 to 19 year olds from
57 .6 to 60 .5 percent (1980 as compared to 1985) ;
for the 20 to 24 year olds, the rise is from 10 .4 to
14 .1 percent .
Four scenarios involving an increase in educational enrolments were simulated using SERF .
1 From the low school enrolment levels of 1981
(corresponding to an enrolment rate of 53
percent), a move to 100 percent educational
enrolment for this age group was simulated .
(While that level is highly unlikely, it is used
to show the greatest impact possible .) It
would reduce the group's labour force participation rate to 30 percent . In turn, this would
reduce the relative unemployment index by
0 .8 of a percentage point .
2 The second situation is based on the actual
higher educational enrolment observed in
1985 . This has already reduced the labour
force participation rate to 39 percent for the
15 to 19 age group, and reflects the decision
by some 15 to 19 year olds to continue into
post-secondary education . To achieve 100
percent high school enrolment would require
a further decrease in the labour force participation rate to only 24 percent . As a result, this
would reduce the relative unemployment
index by 1 .8 percentage points .
3 A third situation addresses the problem of
educational catch-up for adults 25 years of
age or older who are presently in the labour
force . In 1981, 4 percent of those aged 25 to
44 were full-time students . On the assumption that technological change requires a 50
percent increase in the full-time educational
374 APPENDIX E
enrolment of this age group, a 2 percent drop
Situation 4
in the labour force participation rate would
result . The relative unemployment index
Lifestyle Decisions
would drop by 1 .5 percentage points .
4 In 1981, 31 percent of adults aged 20-24 had
no high school diploma . On the assumption
that 1 .5 years would be needed on average to
make up the deficiency, and spreading the
effort needed to bring eve ryone in Canada up
Retirement
Changes in retirement patterns were not simulated . The following possibilities, however, were
noted .
to at least the high school graduation level
• For some, the possibility of retiring relatively
young (before age 65) will be enhanced by the
over a 10-year period, the relative unemployment index would be reduced by 2 percentage
flexibility of pension plans now being con-
points .
Quite apart from its long-term impact on the
country's competitive position and on its economic growth rate and employment potential,
sidered . Such a policy could reduce the labour
force participation rate below present levels .
• For others, the possibility of retiring relatively
late (after age 65) will also be enhanced by
the greater flexibility of pension plans . Such a
education could make a substantial contribution
possibility will be stimulated by the increas-
to reducing unemployment . The models are based
ing health of older persons . Working until age
on the goal of having every Canadian achieve a high
school certificate or an equivalent education .
75 will become a real possibility for many as a
More than 5 percentage points could be taken off
our unemployment rates by the implementation of
manufacturing and primary industries to
services . In that case, labour force participa-
that policy .
tion rates would increase above present
In devising a human resources policy for
Canada, increased education should be considered on a par with increased leisure time (i .e .,
reduced working time) as a strategy for balancing
result of the shift in the workplace away from
levels .
• The SERF model was used to examine possible
changes in labour force participation stemming from increased availability of part-tim e
labour supply and demand .
Figure E . 4
Change from Base Case in Relative Unemployment index due to Parental
Leav e
Take-up rates 1986 1991 199 6
2001
15%
-0 .6
-1 .2
-1 . 1
-1 .1 -1 .1 -1 .3 -1 .3 %
25%
-0 .8
-1 .8
-1 .8
-1 .8 -1 .9
Note : The relative unemployment index, which Statistics
Canada terms "labour market tension," compares the
supplyof labour to the demand for labour .
Source: Statistics Canada, special tabulations for the
Commission of Inquiryon Unemployment Insurance .
2011
2021
203 1
-2 .1 -2 .2 %
PROJECTING THE IMPACT . . . 37 5
work. In 1985, 12 percent of people aged 55
to 64 and 35 percent of those aged 65 and over
were working part time . But according to a
su rv ey commissioned by the Department of
National Health and Welfare, 40 percent of
people aged 55 and over would like part-time
employment .' Increasing the availability of
part-time work would encourage a higher rate
of participation for older people . It might also
lower the . unemployment rate . The SERF
The impact on labour force participation rates
of such a possible retargetting and transformation
of exemptions would depend on the "take-up"
rate - that is, on the decision of either parent to
take an, extended parental leave . Two simulations
were carried out, one assuming a 15 percent
"take-up" rate and the other a 25 percent rate .
Figure E .4 gives the estimated impact on the
relative unemployment index .
Little is known about the preferences of
simulation of substituting two and a quarter
parents and even less about their responsiveness to
part-time jobs for one full-time job showed a
a change in the set of fiscal incentives confronting
gradual return to the labour force participation rate experienced in the early 1970s by
them . The above results are highly tentative .
older workers, or an average reduction in the
Blending the Situation s
relative unemployment index of 1 .5 points
over the 1981-2031 period .
Through a combination of the four situations, a
rapid and persistent decline in the relative unem-
Two simulations were run to explore the impact of
ployment index can be observed . Figure E .5
illustrates the different profiles over several
decades .
changing the income tax exemption for nonworking spouses to target benefits more precisely
changes in labour force participation rates with
Labour Force Participation of Wome n
The combination of situations speculates on
to situations where one spouse stays home tem-
higher productivity assumptions, the various
porarily to care for young children . The "equiva-
alternative possibilities of reduced work time, and
lent to married" exemption now benefitting single
increased domestic and external demand . These
parents with dependants was retained .
present a whole menu of policy options for th e
Figure E . 5
Relative Unemployment Index Resulting from a Combination of
Situations, 1986-2031
1986 199 1
Base case
11 .9% 11 .0 %
Combination of participation 9 .8%
1996
2001
2011
2021
203 1
9 .8% 9 .8% 7 .9% 0 .5% -5 .3 %
7 .6 %
6 .1% 5 .5% 4 .5% 1 .7%
9 .4 %
8 .6% 8 .6%
With work-time reduction` 9 .9 %
7 .5 %
5 .4% 4 .1% 4 .4%
With increased demandd 10 .2%
8 .5%
7.3%
.0 %
rate reductions'
Participation rate reduction 10 .7%
8 .7% 6 .5% 5 .0 %
with productivity change s
without offsetb
a Assumes reduced participation rates .
1 .8%
.0 %
6 .5% 6 .6% 3 .5% 1 .0 %
Note : The relative unemployment index, which Statistics
b Assumes reduced participation rates and higher Canada terms "labour market tension," compares the
productivity rates . supply of labour to the demand for labour
.
c Assumes only reduced working time .
Source : Statistics Canada, special tabulations for the
d Assumes only an increase in domestic and external Commission of Inquiryon Unemployment Insurance,
demand .
376
APPENDIX E
This exercise is a fairly primitive attempt to
future . These numbers summarize a large part of
what is known about demographically induced
formulate a human resource policy . Conclusions
change on labour force composition, demand for
should not be drawn from it . Its value is to demon-
goods and services, trends in labour force participation, and productivity improvements . They are
strate, however imperfectly, how a human
resources development policy might be developed
not forecasts . They are a set of tools to help evalu-
and what kinds of issues an analytical framework
ate the long-term and short-term implications of
should tackle .
various policy alternatives .
Not e
1 Canada, Department of National Health and Welfare,
Policy Research and Long Range Planning, Retirement in
Canada (2 vols .) (Ottawa : The Department, 1977) .
Appendix F
37 7
The Unemployment Insurance Program
Objectives
In general, the interruption of earnings for the
with two objectives :
Unemployment Insurance is a national program
insured person who ceased work by reason of
sickness, maternity or adoption occurs in the week
• to provide income protection for workers
when normal employment earnings drop below 60
suffering temporary income interruptions ;
percent of normal weekly insurable earnings from
an d
that employment . For others, it occurs when,
• to facilitate the best possible match between
following separation from employment, the
insured person has a period of seven days with no
unemployed workers and available jobs .
Coverage
The program insured 11 .5 million Canadian
workers in 1984 . These workers are referred to as
being in insurable employment . The main exclusions from coverage are those 65 years of age and
over, the self-employed (except fishermen who are
covered by special arrangement), and those who
work less than 15 hours per week and earn less
than 20 percent of the maximum insurable earn-
paid employment .
The basic entrance requirement varies from
10 to 14 weeks of insurable employment in the
qualifying period (which is usually the past 52
weeks), depending on the unemployment rate in
the Unemployment Insurance economic region in
which the claimant resides . Figure F .1 shows the
variable entrance requirement .
Claimants who have already received benefits
ings ( 899 per week in 1986) .
during the qualifying period are program repeaters . To qualify, they require an additional week of
Eligibility Requirements
employment for every week of benefit they collect
To qualify for benefits, claimants must have
in excess of the minimum entrance requirement
suffered an interruption of earnings from employ-
for the region, to a maximum of 6 weeks, as shown
ment and accumulated a specified number of
in Figure F .2 . To illustrate, for a claimant who had
weeks of insurable employment .
drawn 20 weeks of benefits in the previous 52
Figure F .1
Figure
F.2
Variable Entrance Requirement Insurable Weeks Required by Repeat Claimants by Region
Regional rate Weeks of insurable Weeks of Weeks of insurable employment at
of unemployment employment required benefits regional unemployment rat e
paid/payable
14 in qualifying
6%& 6 .1-7% 7 .1-8%
13 period unde r
12
8 .1-9%
11
Over 9% 10
8 .1-9% 9 .1-11 .5% Over
11 .5 %
10 & under 14
13
12
11
10
11
14
13
12
11
11
12
14
13
12
12
12
13
14
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
16
18
18
18
17
16
19
19
18
17
16
20 & over 20
19
18
17
16
18
19
378 APPENDIX F
weeks in a region where the unemployment rate
Benefits
was less than 6 percent, the requirement would be
Benefits are paid during a benefit period generally
20 weeks of insurable employment ( that is, the
of up to 50 weeks after a two-week waiting period
normal 14 weeks plus a penalty of 6 weeks) ;
whereas in a region where the unemployment rate
has been served . Employment earnings in the
waiting period are deducted from the first three
was between 9 and 11 .5 percent, the individual
would require only 16 weeks ( the normal 10
weeks of benefits payable . Deductions made for
each week in the waiting period do not exceed the
weeks plus a 6-week penalty) . The repeater provi-
benefit rate . Income received as sick or maternity
sion does not apply in regions with unemployment
leave or from any group wage-loss insurance plan
rates over 11 .5 percent .
Claimants who had less than a combined total
during sickness or maternity is not taken into
of 14 weeks of insurable employment, Unemployment Insurance benefits or other weeks prescribed
by regulation in the 52-week period preceding the
qualifying period ( i .e ., the previous 104 weeks)
are new entrants or re-entrants to the labour force .
account as earnings in the waiting period .
Regular benefits are payable in three successive phases :
• Initial benefits - one week of benefits for each
week of insurable employment (maximum 25
weeks in the 52-week benefit period) .
They are required to have 20 weeks of insurable
employment in the qualifying period .
• Labour force extended benefits - one week of
The qualifying period of up to 52 weeks may
be extended to a maximum of 104 weeks if the
claimant was prevented from working because of
imum 13 weeks), in accordance with Figure
benefits for every two insurable weeks (maxF.3
• Regionally extended benefits - two weeks of
sickness, pregnancy, imprisonment, attendance at
an approved training course, or receipt of Work-
benefits for every 0 .5 percent that the regional
ers' Compensation for tempora ry total disability .
maximum of 32 weeks, in accordance with
The insurable weeks and insurable earnings
are reported by the employer on the Record of
Figure F .4 .
unemployment rate exceeds 4 .0 percent, to a
Employment, which the employee uses at the time
of application for benefits .
Figure F . 4
Regionally Extended Benefit s
Figure F . 3
Regional rate of Maximum regionally
unemployment extended benefi t
Labour Force Extended Benefit s
Weeks of insurable
Maximum labour
employment in claimant's force extended
qualifying period benefit payable
(weeks )
payable
(weeks )
4 .1-4 .5%
2
4 .6-5%
4
6
5 .1-5 .5 %
8
27 or 28 1
5 .6-6%
29 or 30 2
6 .1 -6 .5%
31 or 32 3
6 .6-7%
33 or 34 4
7 .1-7 .5%
35 or 36 5
7 .6-8%
37 or 38 6
8 .1-8 .5 %
18
39 or 40 7
8 .6-9%
20
41 or 42 8
9 .1-9 .5%
43 or 44 9
9 .6-10%
10
12
14
16
22
24
45or46 10
10 .1-10 .5%
47 or 48 11
10 .6-11%
26
49 or 50 12
11 .1-11 .5%
30
Over 50 13
Over 11 .5%
32
28
THE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE PROGRAM 37 9
The overall maximum is 50 weeks of benefits in the
52-week benefit period .
The benefit rate is 60 percent of average
insurable earnings in the qualifying weeks . These
For the purposes of the entrance requirements
are the last 20 weeks of the qualifying period for
and the payment of benefits, Canada is currently
divided into 48 economic regions .
those with 20 or more weeks of insurable employment or all weeks in the qualifying period in the
Sickness benefits are payable to claimants who
case of those with less than 20 insurable weeks .
prove incapacity by way of a medical certificate
The maximum weekly benefit amount in 1986 is
and who have at least 20 weeks of insurable
$ 297 . Unemployment Insurance benefits are
employment . A maximum of 15 weeks of sickness
taxable for income tax purposes .
benefits are payable as part of the maximum of 25
Decisions affecting benefits may be appealed
weeks of initial benefits .
Maternity benefits are payable to claimants
in the first instance to a Board of Referees and in
who prove pregnancy by way of a medical certifi-
the second instance to an Umpire of the Federal
Court . Under special circumstances an appeal can
cate and who have 20 weeks of insurable employment . A maximum of 15 consecutive weeks of
be made to the Federal Court of Appeal and the
maternity benefits are payable as part of initial
Special provisions affect benefits for fisher-
benefits . These must be the first 15 weeks of initial
men . For example, self-employed fishermen can
benefits and may commence as early as 8 weeks
draw the special fishing benefit only from Novem-
before the expected week of confinement for birth
ber 1 to May 4, or from May 1 until November 15 .
A portion of Unemployment Insurance ben-
and as late as 17 weeks after birth . (Note : A pregnant woman who does not qualify for maternity
benefits is not entitled to any benefits in the period
starting 8 weeks before and ending 6 weeks after
Supreme Court of Canada .
efits may have to be repaid by some claimants . If
the claimant's net income (including Unemployment Insurance) for income tax purposes exceeds
the week of confinement .) When adopting a child,
$38,766 in 1986, the claimant will be required to
either parent may be entitled to receive up to 15
repay up to 30 percent of the Unemployment
weeks of adoption benefits commencing with the
Insurance benefits received in 1986 or 30 percent
week of actual placement of the child . The combi-
of net income over $38,766 in 1986, whichever is
lower .
nation of sickness and maternity benefits cannot
exceed 15 weeks .
A special severance benefit of three weeks is
payable in lump sum to those who have attained
Effect of Earnings on Benefit s
the age of 65 years and have 20 insurable weeks in
All earnings from employment which are in excess
the qualifying period . Benefits may also be paid to
of 25 percent of Unemployment Insurance benefits
claimants undertaking approved training, or
received during the benefit period are deducted
participating in approved job creation projects or
from benefits . This is known as the allowable
earnings rule . All earnings received from employ-
work-sharing agreements . The benefit periods and
weeks of benefits payable in these cases can
exceed the usual maximum of 50 weeks .
ment while receiving sickness or maternity benefits are deducted from benefits .
Claimants are disqualified from receiving
Monies received such as vacation pay, separa-
benefits for up to six weeks if they have quit a job
tion pay, retirement pensions, wages in lieu of
without just cause, been fired for misconduct on
notice, and bonuses and gratuities are treated as
the job, or refused suitable employment . Claimants who fail to prove their entitlement for reasons
earnings and have the effect of reducing and/or
postponing benefits . Monies received such as
such as non-availability for work are not entitled to
benefit for as long as such a condition exists .
plan payments, or supplemental unemployment
Benefits are not payable to claimants involved in
benefits are not treated as earnings for benefit
labour disputes .
purposes and do not reduce or postpone benefits .
disability pensions, relief grants, non-group sick
380
APPENDIX F
Financing
benefits for self-employed fishermen that is in
The Unemployment Insurance program is financed
excess of premiums from that employment, and
on a tripartite basis through contributions from
the cost of extended benefits for those undertaking
employer and employee premiums and the federal
approved training or participating in approved
work-sharing or job creatiori pi•ojects .
government . The basic employee premium rate for
1986 is $2 .35 for each $100 of weekly insurable
earnings . The employer premium is 1 .4 times the
employee rate ($3 .29 per $100 in 1986) . The
Organization and Administration
maximum weekly insurable earnings in 1986 is
In general, the Minister of Employment and Immigration is responsible for the Unemployment
$495 . It is increased in accordance with the rate of
increase in wages and salaries averaged over the
Insurance Act, and the Canada Employment and
most recent eight-year period .
responsible for administering the Unemployment
Immigration Commission is the corporate body
Premiums are tax deductible . Premium
Insurance program . Special arrangements exist,
revenues absorb the cost of benefits for the initial
however, for the collection of premiums and the
and labour force extended phases, sickness,
determination of insurable employment, as well as
maternity, adoption, special severance and work
sharing as well as the costs of administering the
the benefit repayment provision . These are the
Unemployment Insurance Act, which includes the
responsibility of the Minister of National Revenue
and are administered by the Department of
National Employment Service .
National Revenue, Taxation .
The federal government contribution absorbs
the cost of regionally extended benefits, the cost of
Appendix G
38 1
Statistical Appendix
This appendix contains more detailed statistical
G .7 provide information on the relationship
information on who uses the current program . In
between weeks worked and weeks on claim for
regular claims terminating in 1984 . The informa-
addition, it provides some background information on the assumptions underlying the simulation
analysis of the various options discussed in Chapter 7 as well as providing more information on the
impact of these options on particular individuals .
tion from Figure G .2 is the basis for the histogram
in Figure 2 .18 (in Chapter 2) . Figures G .3 to G .7
contain similar information by region . Figures G .8
to G .12 present information about the utilization
of Unemployment Insurance, by industry, by age
The Current Program
group and sex, by family income and by province .
Information in Figures G .1 to G .12 provides
background data on the operation of the current
A similar table is available by occupation (see
Figure 2 .14 in Chapter 2) .
Unemployment Insurance program . Figures G .1 t o
Figure G . 1
Proportion of Claimants Exhausting by
Weeks of Insurable Employment, 1984
Weeks of Number of
insurable claimants
employmen t
Number of Proportion
exhaustees of claimants
exhaustin g
10-14
207,100
68,300
33 .0%
15-19
174,500
48,700
27 .9%
20-24
321,300
93,700
25-29
208,700
49,100
30-34
116,300
33,600
35-39
131,800
27,500
40-44
147,900
31,100
21 .0%
45-49
151,600
42,000
27 .7%
50-51
145,300
46,200
31 .8%
230,100
80,500
35 .0 %
520,700
28 .4%
52+
Total 1,834,600
Note : Data are for regular claims terminating in 1984 .
Source : Calculations based on data provided by the
Canada Employment and Immigration Commission.
29 .2%
23 .5%
28 .9%
20 .9%
382
APPENDIX G
Figure G . 2
Canada : Number of Regular Claims 1984 "
Weeks of Weeks of benefit received
insurabl e
employment
0
1-4
5-9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-2 9
10-14 2,900 5,600 7,000 9,200 12,000 15,300 21,200
15-19 3,400 5,900 10,900 12,900 13,700 15,100 20,000
20-24 7,800 11,800 19,300 20,700 24,200 31,800 40,700
25-29 5,500 10,600 15,500 21,800 22,400 29,500 23,400
30-34 6,400 8,500 16,000 21,100 26,800 19,000 12,900
35-39 5,600 8,100 20,600 20,400 16,500 9,200 8,600
40-44 7,400 12,000 39,700 15,000 11,900 9,700 7,500
45-49 14,400 18,300 16,300 12,000 12,100 10,400 9,400
50-51 11,400 13,900 13,200 10,200 10,500 9,100 9,200
52+ 12,900 17,500 19,300 17,600 16,300 15,300 16,10 0
Total 77,700 112,200 177,800 160,900 166,400 164,400 169,00 0
Weeks of
insurabl e
employment
Percentage distribution of claimants by duration of benefits
0
1-4
5-9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-2 9
2 .7
4 .4
5 .8
7 .4 10 .2
10-14 1 .4
3 .4
3 .4
6 .2
7 .4
7 .9
8 .7 11 .5
15-19 1 .9
6 .0
6 .4
7 .5
9 .9 12 .7
20-24 2 .4
3 .7
5 .1
7 .4 10 .4 10 .7 14 .1 11 .2
25-29 2 .6
7 .8
5 .1
9 .6 12 .7 16 .1 11 .4
30-34 3 .8
6 .5
6 .2 15 .6 15 .5 12 .5
7 .0
35-39 4 .3
8 .1
6 .6
5 .1
40-44
5 .0
8 .1 26 .9 10 .1
7 .9
8 .0
6 .9
6 .2
45-49 9 .5 12 .1 10 .8
7 .2
6 .3
6 .3
50-51 7 .8
9 .6
9 .1
7 .0
8 .4
7 .7
7 .1
6 .7
7 .0
52+
5 .6
7 .6
Total
4 .1
a Only regular benctficiarics who received no other types of'
benefits are included . Data include all claims terminating
in 1984 .
Note : Few 10-19-week workers collect for 50+ as they
are not eligible but a large proportion collect for 3(>-49
weeks ( more detailed data show a strong concentration at
40-44 weeks) . The longer the labour force attachment, the
more prevalent are claimants with short duration . About
5% ofclaimants have 10-19 weeks of' insurable employment and col Icct for 40 or more wecks.
Source : Calculations based on data provided by Canada
Employment and Immigration Commission .
6 .0
9 .4
8 .5
8 .8
8 .7
9 .0
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
38 3
Tota l
30-34
35-39
40-44
33,200 40,300 49,300
26,600 22,100 15,400
38,200 31,900 29,600
15,400 16,100 17,500
11,600
10,000 10,90 0
9,400 5,800 6,800
7,900 5,900 7,000
6,800 9,600 12,300
8,200 9,100 14,20 0
12,900 12,100 23,500
45-4 9
50 +
10,400 700 207,100
21,500 7,000 174,500
25,500 39,800 321,300
19,100 208,70 0
11,900
9,800 13,300 166,300
8,700 12,000 131,700
1 1 ,000 12,800 147,800
11,400 18,500 151,500
14,600 21,800 145,400
26,200 40,300 230,000
170,200 162,900 186,500 151,000 185,30 0
30-34
35-39
40-44
16 .0
19 .5
15 .2
12 .7
11 .9
9 .9
7 .4
7 .7
7 .0
6 .0
4 .4
7 .1
5 .3
4 .0
4 .5
6 .3
5 .6
6 .3
5 .6
5 .3
9 .0
8 .6
23 .8
8 .8
9 .2
8 .4
6 .6
5 .2
4 .7
8 .1
9 .8
10 .2
9 .9
45-4 9
50+
5 .0
0 .3
12 .3
4 .0
7 .9 12 .4
5 .7
9 .2
5 .9
8 .0
6.6
9 .1
7.4
8 .7
7.5 12 .2
10 .0 15 .0
11 .4 17 .5
8 .0
9 .8
1,884,300
Total Percent of
claimants by
weeks of insured
employmen t
100 .0
11 .0%
100 .0
9 .3 %
100 .0 17 .1'X,
100 .0 11 .1%
100 .0
8 .8%
100 .0
7 .0X,
100 .0
7 .8%
100 .0
8 .0 %
100 .0
7 .7%
100 .0 12 .2 %
100 .0
100 .0%
384 APPENDIX G
Figure G . 3
Atlantic Canada : Number of Regular Claims 1984 a
Weeks of Weeks of benefit received
insurable
employment
0-9 10-19
Tota l
20-29
30-39
40-49
50+
10-19 2,900 5,800 10,000 29,600 19,100 1,300 68,700
20-29 6,100 7,100 11,700 10,600 7,200 5,700 48,400
30-39 4,300 8,300 5,800 4,800 4,000 2,700 29,900
40-49 6,800 2,800 2,700 2,300 3,500 1,900 20,000
50+ 6,200 4,600 3,900 4,600 6,900 4,600 30,80 0
Total 26,300 28,600 -34,100 51,900 40,700 16,20 0
Weeks of Percentage distribution of claimants by duration of benefits
insurabl e
employment 0-9 10-19
20-29 30-39 40-49 50+
197,80 0
Total Percent of
claimants by
weeks of insured
employmen t
10-19 4 .2% 8 .4% 14 .6% 43 .1% 27 .8% 1 .9% 100 .0% 34 .7%
20-29 12 .6% 14 .7% 24 .2% 21 .9% 14 .9% 11 .8% 100 .0% 24 .5%
30-39 14 .4% 27 .8% 19 .4% 16 .1% 13 .4% 9 .0% 100 .0% 15 .1%
40-49 34 .0% 14 .0% 13 .5% 11 .5% 17 .5% 9 .5% 100 .0% 10.1%
50+
20 .1% 14 .9% 12 .7% 14 .9% 22 .4% 14 .9% 100 .0% 15 .6 %
a Only regular beneficiaries who
received no other types ofbenefits
are included. Data include all claims
terminating in 1984 .
Note : More claimants have a short
labour force attachment and a longer
duration than in other regions . About
10% of clai mants have 10-I 9 weeks
of insurable employment and collect
benefits for 40 or more weeks .
Source : Calculations based on data
Total 13 . 3% 14 .5% 17 .2% 26 .2% 20 .6% 8 .2% 100 .0% 100 .0 %
provided by Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission .
Figure G . 4
Quebec : Number of Regular Claims, 1984 ,
Weeks of Weeks of benefit received
insurabl e
Total
employment 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50+
10-19 13,400 17,900 29,000 42,000 37,000 3,600 142,900
20-29 22,800 31,800 48,600 38,400 30,200 28,600 200,400
30-39 23,100 31,000 14,900 11,400 9,600 7,400 97,400
40-49 34,200 15,700 12,800 8,400 10,800 10,600 92,500
50+ 28,500 14,800 15,000 13,200 25,000 22,700 119,20 0
Total 122,000 111,200 120,300 113,400 112,600 72,900 652,40 0
Weeks of Percentage distribution of claimants by duration of benefits Total Percent of
insurable
claimants by
employment
0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50+ weeks of insured
employmen t
10-19
9 .4% 12 .5% 20 .3% 29 .4% 25 .9% 2 .5% 100 .0% 21 .9%
20-29
11 .4% 15 .9% 24 .3% 19 .2% 15 .1% 14 .3% 100 .0% 30 .7%
a Only regular beneficiaries who
received no other types of benefits
30-39 23 .7% 31 .8°G, 15 .3% 11 .7% 9 .9% 7 .6% 100 .0% 14 .9%
are included . Data include all claims
40-49 37 .0% 17 .0% 13 .8% 9 .1% 11 .7% 11 .5% 100 .0% 14 .2%
Note : The Quebec data are very
23 .9% 12 .4% 12 .6% 11 .1% 21 .0% 19 .0% 100 .0% 18 .3 %
much like the data for Canada as a
whole .
50+
terminating in 1984 .
Source: Calculations based on data
Total 18 .7% 17 .0°ti, 18 .4% 17 .4% 17 .3% 11 .2% 100 .0% 100 .0%
provided by Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission .
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
38 5
Figure G . 5
Ontario : Number of Regular Claims, 1984 ,
Tota l
Weeks of Weeks of benefit received
insurabl e
employment
0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40149 50+
10-19 10,000 10,000 14,300 17,300 9,300 1,300 62,200
20-29 20,600 23,000 28,900 20,400 18,700 7,200 118,800
30-39 18,600 22,100 12,200 7,600 11,400 6,200 78,100
40-49 32,100 14,500 8,100 7,100 11,600 7,700 81,100
50+ 26,700 15,700 12,900 10,000 22,700 16,900 105,00 0
Total 108,000 85,300
76,400
62,500
73,700
445,20 0
39,300
Weeks of Percentage distribution of claimants by duration of benefits Total Percent of
insurable claimants by
20-29 30-39 40-49 50+
weeks of insure d
employment 0-9 10-19
employmen t
10-19
20-29 17 .3% 19 .4% 24 .3% 17 .2%
30-39 23 .8% 28 .3% 15 .6% 9.7%
40-49 39 .6% 17 .9% 10 .0% 8.8%
50+
14 .0% a Only regular beneFiciaries who
received no other types of benefi t s
15 .7% 6 .1% 100 .0% 26 .7% arc included. Data include all claims
terminating in 1984 .
14 .6% 7 .9% 100 .0%
17 .5%
Note : There are fewer short-term
18 .2% attachmentclaimantsinOntario .
14 .3% 9 .5% 100 .0%
They tend to have shorter durations
21 .6% 16 .1% 100 .0%
23 .6% thaninotherprovinces .
16 .1% 16 .1% 23 .0% 27.8% 15 .0% 2 .1% 100 .0%
25 .4% 15 .0% 12 .3% 9 .6%
Source :
Total
24 .3% 19 .2% 17 .2% 14 .0% 16 .6% 8 .8% 100 .0%
100 .0%
Calculations based on dat a
provided by Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission .
Figure G . 6
Prairies : Number of Regular Claims, 1984 ,
Weeks of Weeks of benefit received
insurabl e
employment 0-9 10-19 20-29
Tota l
30-39
40-49
50+
10-19 3,800 6,000 6,300 6,900 6,300 200 29,500
20-29 11,900 14,600 19,200 14,700 13,800 5,100 79,300
30-39 12,500 13,700 9,900 7,300 6,000 4,200 53,600
40-49 18, 1 00 10,900 7,000 7,100 7,900 5,100 56,000
50+ 14,800
11,500 11,800
7,900
11,500
8,600 66,10 0
Total 61,100 56,700 54,200 43,800 45,500 23,200 284,50 0
Percentage distribution of claimants by duration of benefits Total Percent of
Weeks of
insurable claimants by
weeks of insure d
employment
0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50+
10-19
12 .9% 20 .3% 21 .4% 23 .4% 21 .4% 0 .7%
20-29 15 .0% 18 .4% 24 .2% 18 .5% 17 .4% 6 .4%
30-39 23 .3% 25 .6% 18 .5% 13 .6% 11 .2% 7 .8%
40-49 32 .3% 19 .5% 12 .5% 12 .5% 14 .1% 9 .1%
50+
Total
22 .4°.6 17 .4% 17 .9% 12 .0°.G 17 .4% 13 .0%
21 .5% 19 .9% 19 .1% 15 .4% 16 .0% 8 .2%
employment a Only regular beneficiaries who
received no other types of benefit s
are included. Data include aii claims
100 .0% 10 .4%
terminatingin 1984 .
100 .0% 28.9%
Note : Therearefewersho rt-term
.8% attachment claimants (only i0%)
100 .0% 18
and they tend to have shorter dura19.7% tionsof benefits. Only about 2xof
100 .0%
claimants had short attachments and
100 .0% 23.2% collected for more than 40 weeks .
Source : Calculations based on data
provided by Canada Employment and
100 .0%
100 .0%
Immigration Commission .
386
APPENDIX G
Figure G . 7
British Columbia : Number of Regular Claims, 1984 '
Weeks of Weeks of benefit received
insurabl e
employment
0-9
Tota l
10-19
20-29
30-39
40-49
50+
10-19 4,890 5,600 7,300 12,300 13,200 1,300 44,600
20-29 8,300 9,800 11,700 11,700 10,600 9,500 61,600
30-39 5,900 8,800 6,000 5,700 4,600 4,600 35,600
40-49
15,200 6,700 6,700 4,400 7,300 5,900 45,200
50+ 11,800 6,900 6,000 5,700 12,400 9,200 52,000
Total
46,100 37,800 36,700 39,800 48,100 30,500
239,000
Weeks of Percentage distribution of claimants by duration of benefits Total Percent of
insurable
claimants
by
employment 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50+ weeks of insure d
employmen t
10-19
11 .0% 12 .6% 16 .4% 27 .6% 29 .6% 2 .9% 100 .0% 18 .7%
20-29
13 .5% 15 .9% 19 .0% 19 .0% 17 .2% 15 .4% 100 .0% 25 .8%
30-39
16 .6% 24 .7% 16 .9% 16 .0% 12 .9% 12 .9% 100 .0% 14 .9%
40-49
33 .6% 14 .8% 12 .6% 9 .7% 16 .2% 13 .1% 100 .0% 18 .9%
50+
22 .7% 13 .3% 11 .5% 11 .0% 23 .8% 17 .7% 100 .0% 21 .8 %
19 .3% 15 .8% 15 .4% 16 .7% 20 .1% 12 .8% 100 .0% 100 .0 %
Tota l
a Only regular beneficiaries who
Note : Compared to Canada, British
Canada .
received no other types of benefits
are included . Data include all claims
Columbia has more claimants with
Source : Calculations based on data
50 or more weeks . Duration patterns
provided by Canada Employment and
terminating in 1984 .
are very much like the averages for
Immigration Commission .
Figure G . 8
Unemployment Insurance Claims and Employment by Industry, 198 4
Industry
Claimants Paid employment Ratio of
claimant percent
to employment
percen t
Fishing
18,000
0 .7%
Construction 257,000 11 .0%
Forestry
29,000
Finance 213,000
1 .2%
9 .1%
Agriculture 52,000 2 .2%
14,000
0 .1%
472,000
4 .8%
2 .29
68,000
0 .7%
1 .77
607,000
5 .27
6 .2%
156,000
1 .48
1 .6%
1 .39
Manufacturing 486,000 20 .7% 1,938,000 19 .7%
1 .05
Public
171,000
7 .3%
791,000
8 .0%
0 .91
38,000
1 .6%
180,000
1 .8%
0 .88
24 .7% 3,093,000 31 .4%
0 .79
administration
Mines
Service
Trade
580,000
323,000
13.8% 1,721,000 17 .5%
Transport 112,000 4 .8%
Other
All industries
68,000
2,346,000
808,000
2 .9%
100 .0%
-
8 .2%
0 .0%
9,848,000 100 .0%
Note : Claimants are persons whose claims terminated in Source : Special tabulation based on Canadian Employ1984 . Employment is the annual average for 1984 . ment and Immigration Commission.
0 .79
0 .58
-
1 .00
STATISTICAL APPENDIX 38 7
Figure G . 9
Unemployment Insurance Claims and Employment by Age Group, 1984
Age group
Number of Total Ratio of Excess of
claimants
regular benefits to benefits over
1984 benefits contributions' contributions
($ million)
(S million )
Total
employment
198 4
Under 20 834,000
107,000
20-24 1,540,000
591,000 2,013
302
3,499
1 .05
14
1 .63
1 .12
25-34 3,1 17,000
883,000
35-44 2,528,000
461,000
1,813
0 .71
45-54 1,719,000
30,000
1,187
0 .70
55-65 1,074,00 0
258,000
1,093
779
371
-73 3
-517
1 .09
87
2,602,000 9,907 1 .00
All groups 10,812,00 0
0
a The federal contribution is apportioned using the
distribution of federal tax revenue .
Sources : Statistics Canada, Benefit Periods Established
and Terminated under the Unemployment InsuranceAct
1984 (Cat . no . 73-201 ), 1986 ; The Labor Force, Dec ember
1 9 84 ( Cat . no . 71-001 1985 ; Department of National
Revenue, Tasation Statistics 1983 ( Ottawa: Minister of
Supply and Se rvices Canada, 1985) .
Figure G .1 0
Unemployment Insurance Claims and Employment by Age Group and Sex, 198 4
Age group Total Number
employment of claimants
1984 1984
Males Females Male s
Total Ratio of Excess of
regular benefits to benefits over
benefits contributions' contributions
Females Males Females Males Females Males Females
( S million) ( 8 million) ( $ million) ( 8 million )
under20 433,000 401,000
66,000 41,000 209 93 1 .24 0 .78 40 -26
20-24 800,000 740,000
356,000 235,000 1,338 675 1 .88 1 .29 627 152
25-34 1,781,000 1,336,000
516,000 368,000 2,202 1,297 1 .10 1 .15 203 168
35-44 1,471,000 1,057,000
276,000 185,000 1,195 619 0 .70 0 .74
-521 -213
45-54 1,049,000 671,000
187,000 114,000 810 377 0 .68 0 .75
-388 -129
55-65 709,000 365,000
179,000 80,000 820 273 1 .10 1 .03 78
All groups 6,243,000 4,570,000 1,580,00 0
a The federal contribution is apportioned using the
distribution of federal tax revenue .
Sources : Statistics Canada, Benefit Periods Established
and Terminated under the Unemployment Insurance Act
1984 (Cat . no . 73•201 ), 1986 ; Department of National
Revenue, Taxation Statistics 1983 (Ottawa: Minister of
Supply and Services Canada, 1985) .
9
1,022,000 6,573 3,334 1 .01 0 .99 39 -39
3 88
APPENDIX G
Figure G .1 1
Distribution of Unemployment Insurance Benefits
by Family Income, 198 2
Family
income
in 1982
Total Percentage
estimated distribution
benefi t
( E million )
Less than $10,000 821 11 .5%
E10,000-20,000
2,048 28 .7%
8 20,000-30,000
1,763 24 .7%
$ 30,000-40,000
1,189 16 .7%
140,000-50,000 633 8 .9%
E50,000 & over
Total
681
9 .5 %
7,135 100 .0 %
Note : Total does not match administrative data since the
source for these data is a survey subject to undercounting .
Source : Special tabulation by the Commission of Inquiry
on Unemployment Insurance based on data supplied by
Statistics Canada .
Figure G .1 2
Unemployment Insurance Claims and Employment by Province, 1984
Province
Newfoundland
Prince Edward Island
Total Number of Total Ratio of Excess of
regular benefits to benefits over
employment
claimants
1984 1984 benefits contribution' contribution s
( E million)
($ million )
176,000 111,000 494 3 .38
348
49,000 22,000 93 2 .83
337,000 106,000 .
1 .40
115
New Brunswick
248,000 10,000 480 2 .24
266
Quebec 2,722,000 74,000
403
60
Nova Scotia
2,945
1 .24
578
Ontario 4,243,000 809,000 2,649 0 .67 -1,323
Manitoba
472,000 91,000 299 0 .78
-85
Saskatchewan
439,000 68,000 235 0 .74
-83
Alberta 1,114,000
British Columbia
Yukon
Northwest Territories
Canada
1,202,000 316,000 1,376 1 .22
N/A
4,000
19
248
1 .80
9
0 .61
. -1 0
11,002,000 2,601,000 9,905 1 .00
0
N/A
a The federal contribution is appo rt ioned using the
distribution of federal tax revenue .
Sources : Statistics Canada, Benefit Periods Pstablished
and Terminated under the Unemployment insurance Act
1984 (Cat . no . 73-201 ),1986 : The Labour Force, December 1984 ( Cat . no . 71-001 ) 1985 ; Depart ment of National
Revenue, Taxation Statistics 1983 (Ottawa : Minister of
Supply and Services Canada, 1985) .
0 .88 -122
217,000 897
4,000
16
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
Options for Change to Unemployment
Insuranc e
an exact statistical cost of the various programs
Estimating the likely impact of changes in Unem-
comparing the likely impacts of the options . Other
ployment Insurance is not an exact science . The
methodologies could generate other estimates
which will differ somewhat from those presented
analysis is limited by the available claimant infor-
operating in 1988 . Rather they are a means of
the likely magnitude of changes in behaviour that
here .
The estimated changes in program expendi-
would result from changes in the Unemployment
tures included here are for regular benefits only
Insurance scheme . This latter limitation is particularly acute since some of the proposals are
(excluding maternity, fishing, sickness etc .) . The
intended to induce such changes in behaviour . In
ing in 1984 (the most recent data available on
addition, the impact of policy changes depends on
overall economic conditions, the local unemploy-
completed claims) by region, by weeks of insurable employment and by duration of benefits . The
ment rates and claimant characteristics .
earnings levels have been imputed using the 1985
mation and the lack of objective information about
base data used are the number of claims terminat-
In considering the estimates it should be
insurable earnings distribution of claimants by
borne in mind that the impact of changes made in
weeks of insurable employment . One should
the late 1980s, the earliest possible date of
implementation, will not be the same as that
further note that the estimated effects of program
estimated here using 1984 claimant characteristics . Not only will economic circumstances differ
if other data were used ; for example, all claimants
instead of regular claimants or all claims in a
but the estimated impact of options such as Annu-
calendar year rather than claims terminating in the
alization depends on behavioural response ; we
have assumed no change in behaviour . The Annual-
year.
ization proposal was estimated to reduce regular
benefits in the current system by about 32 percent .
difficulties . First, the effect of eliminating Variable
The impact in years with low unemployment is
because there is no information on the number of
more severe ; varying from about 24 percent in
1983 (a high unemployment year) to about 38
percent in 1973 (a low unemployment year) . This
people who currently fail to qualify for Unemploy-
is because in periods of high unemployment a
greater proportion of claimants have long labour
change is likely to be small, however, since only 13
force attachments . The impacts of the One-for-
ity requirement of more than 10 weeks .
One option, the Macdonald Royal Commission
proposal and the Enriched Current Program
maximum benefit duration is difficult because
option will also depend on the labour force char-
there is no information on how much longer
acteristics of the claimant population which, in
turn, varies with the overall economic situation .
exhaustees would have claimed benefits if permit-
For these reasons one cannot accept the
can be estimated, however, by assuming that all
estimates contained here as mathematical abso-
current exhaustees will continue to collect ben-
lutes . No estimates based on 1984 data will yield
efits to the new maximum duration (a worst case
change would differ somewhat, but not materially,
The simulation analysis involved several other
Entrance Requirements is not estimated . This is
ment Insurance but have 10 or more weeks of
insurable employment . The impact of ignoring this
Unemployment Insurance regions have an eligibilSecond, costing the impact of increasing
ted to do so . The maximum possible cost impact
38 9
390
APPENDIX G
scenario) . When Annualization and the Enriched
Current Program are presented in the text an
weeks of insurable employment . This was imputed
using labour force survey data on job tenure .
indication is made about the assumed take-up of
the increased number of weeks available .
The Impact of the Options on
Individuals
No information exists from claimant data on
earnings above the maximum insurable level .
Figures G-13 to G-24 indicate the impact on
individuals in St . John's, Winnipeg and Toronto, of
These data were imputed using information on the
the proposals which are outlined in Chapter 7
earnings level of Unemployment Insurance claim-
(Annualization, the One-for-One option, the
ants from Taxation Statistics. To cost options such
Macdonald Royal Commission proposal, and the
as the Macdonald Royal Commission proposal,
Enriched Current Program option) . In these
data are required on claimants with more than 52
figures the actual weeks of unemployment include
the waiting period .
Figure G .1 3
Effect of Annualization on Individuals in St . John's
(Average insured earnings E400, local unemployment rate 14 .5%, minimum weeks 10 )
Weeks of Maximum Weekly Maximum
insurable weeks of benefit total
employment benefit benefit
Actual benefits by actual weeks
of unemployment (dollars )
10
20
30
40
50
Benefits available under present syste m
10
42
240
10,080
20
50
240
12,000
1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
30
50
240
12,000
1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
40
50
240
12,000
1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
50
50
240
12,000
1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
52
50
240
12,000
1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,080
Benefits available with Annualizatio n
10
50
51
2,550
408 918 1,428 1,938 2,448
20
50
102
5,100
816 1,836 2,856 3,876 4,89 6
30
50
154
7,700
1,232 2,772 4,312 5,852 7,392
40
50
205
10,250
1,640 3,690
50
50
256
12,800
2,048 4,608 7,168 9,728 12,288
52
50
13,300
2,128 4,788 7,448 10,108 12,76 8
266
5,740
7,790 9,840
Difference from present system
10 8 -189 -7,530
-1,512 -3,402 -5,292 -7,182 -7,632
20 0 -138 -6,900
-1,104 -2,484 -3,864 -5,244 -6,62 4
30
0
-86
-4,300
-688 =1,548 -2,408 -3,?68 -4,128
40
0
-35
-1,750
-280 -630 -980
50
52
0
0
16
26
-1,330 -1,680
800
128 288 448 608 768
1,30 0
208 468 728 988 1,24 8
Percentage difference from present system
10 19 .0% -78 .8% -74 .7%
-78 .8% -78 .8% -78 .8% -78 .8% -75 .7%
20
0 .0%
-57 .5% -57 .5%
-57 .5% -57 .5% -57 .5% -57 .5% -57 .5%
30
0 .0% -35 .8% -35 .8%
-35 .8% -35 .8% -35 .8% -35 .8% -35 .8%
40
0 .0% -14 .6% -14 .6%
-14 .6% -14 .6% -14 .6% -14 .6% -14 .6 %
50
0 .0% 6 .7% 6 .7%
6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7%
52
0 .0% 10 .8% 10 .8%
10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8%
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
Figure G .1 4
Effect of Annualization on Individuals in Winnipe g
(Average insured earnings $400, local unemployment rate 8 .6%, minimum weeks 11 )
Weeks of Maximum Weekly Maximum Actual benefits by actual weeks
insurable weeks of benefit total of unemployment (dollars)
employment benefit benefit
10
20
30
40
50
0
0
Benefits available under present syste m
10
0
240
0
0
0
0
20 38 240 9,120 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 9,120
30 45 240 10,800 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,800
40 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
50 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
52 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,52 0
Benefits available with Annualizatio n
10 50 51 2,550 408 918 1,428 1,938 2,448
20 50 102 5,100 816 1,836 2,856 3,876 4,896
30 50 154 7,700 1,232 2,772 4,312 5,852 7,392
40 50 205 10,250 1,640 3,690
5,740
7,790 9,840
50 50 256 12,800 2,048 4,608 7,168 9,728 12,288
52 50 266 13,300 2,128 4,788 7,448 10,108 12,76 8
Difference from present system
10 50 -189 2,550 408 918 1,428 1,938 2,448
20 12 -138 -4,020 -1,104 -2,484 -3,864 -5,244 -4,224
30 5 -86 -3,100 -688 -1,548 -2,408 -3,268 -3,408
40 0 - 35 -1,750
50
52
0
0
16
26
800
-280 -630 -980
128
1,300
208
288
468
448
728
-1,330 -1,680
608
988
768
1,24 8
Percentage difference from present system
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20 31 .6% -57 .5% -44 .1% -57 .5% -57 .5% -57 .5% -57 .5% -46 .3%
30 11 .1% -35 .8% -28.7% -35 .8% - 35 .8% -35 .8%
-35 .8% -31 .6%
40
0 .0% -14 .6% -14 .6% -14 .6°.6 -14 .6% -14 .6% -14 .6% -14 .6%
50
0 .0% 6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7%
52
0 .0% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8%
10 .8% 10 .8%
39 1
392
APPENDIX G
Figure G .1 5
Effect of Annualization on Individuals in Toront o
(Average insured earnings $400, local unemployment rate 5 .8%, minimum weeks 14 )
Weeks of Maximum Weekly Maximum Actual benefits by actual weeks
insurable weeks of benefit total of unemployment (dollars )
benefit benefit -e
employment
10
20
30
40
50
Benefits available under present syste m
10
0
240
0
0
0
0
0
0
20 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
30 35 240 8,500 1,920 4,320 6,720 8,400 8,400
40 40 240 9,600 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 9,600
50 45 240 10,800 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,800
52 46 240 11,040 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,04 0
Benefits available with Annualizatio n
10 50 51 2,550 408 918 1,428 1,938 2,448
20 50 102 5,100 816 1,836 2,856 3,876 4,896
30 50 154 7,700 1,232 2,772 4,312 5,852 7,392
40 50 205 10,250 1,640 3,690 5,740 7,790 9,840
50 50 256 12,800 2,048 4,608 7,168 9,728 12,288
52 50 266 13,300 2,128 4,788 7,448 10,108 12,76 8
Difference from present system
10 50 -189 2,550 408 918 1,428 1,938 2,448
20 22 -138 -1,620 -1,104 -2,484 -3,864 -2,844 -1,824
30 15 -86 -700 -688 -1,548 -2,408 -2,548 -1,008
40 10 -35 650 -280 -630 -980 -1,330 240
50
5
16
2,000
52
4
26
2,260
128
208
288
468
448
608
728
1,488
988
1,72 8
Percentage difference from present syste m
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20 78 .6% -57 .5% -24 .1% -57 .5% -57 .5% -57 .5% -42.3% -27 .1%
30 42 .9% -35 .8% -8 .3% -35 .8% -35 .8% -35 .8% -30 .3% -12 .0%
40 25 .0% -14 .6% 6 .8% -14 .6% -14 .6% -14 .6% -14 .6% 2 .5%
50 11 .1% 6 .7% 18 .5% 6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7% 6 .7% 13 .8%
52 8 .7% 10 .8% 20 .5% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 15 .7%
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
Figure G . 1 6
Effect of One-for-One Option on Individuals in St . John' s
(Average insured earnings 8400, local unemployment rate 14 .5%, minimum weeks 10 )
Weeks of Maximum Weekly Maximum Actual benefits by actual weeks
insurable weeks of benefit total of unemployment (dollars)
employment benefit benefit
10
20
30
40
50
Benefits available under present syste m
10 42 240 10,080 1,920 4 .320 6,720 9,120 10,080
20 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
30 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
40 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
50 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
52 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,52 0
Benefits available with One-for-On e
10 10 240 2,400 1,920 2,400 2,400 2,400 2,400
20 20 240 4,800 1,920 4,320 4,800 4,800 4,800
30 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
40 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
50 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
52 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,72 0
Difference from present syste m
10 - 32 0 -7,680 0 -1,920 -4,320 -6,720 -7,780
20 -30 0 -7,200 0 0 -1,920 -4,320 -6,720
30
-22
0
-5,280
40
-22
0
-5,280
0
0
0
-2,400
-4,800
50
-22
0
-5,280
0
0
0
-2,400
-4,800
52
-22
0
0
-5,280
0
0
0
0
-2,400
0
--4,800
-2,400
-4,80 0
Percentage difference from present syste m
10 -72 .2% 0 -76 .2% 0 .0% -44 .4% -64 .3% -73 .7% -76 .2%
20 -60 .0% 0 -60 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -28 .6% -47 .4% -58 .3%
30 -44 .0% 0 -44 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3% -41 .7%
40
. -44 .0% 0 -44 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3% -41 .7%
50 -44 .0% 0 -44 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3% -41 .7%
52 -44 .0%
0 -44 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3% -41 .7%
39 3
394
APPENDIX G
Figure G .1 7
Effect of One-for-One Option on individuals in Winnipe g
(Average insured earnings $400, local unemployment rate 8 .6%, minimum weeks 11 )
Weeks of Maximum
insurable weeks of
employment
be nefit
Weekly
Maximum Actual be nefits by actual weeks
be nefit total of unemployment ( dollars)
be nefit
10
20
'
30
40
50
Benefits available under present syste m
10
0
240
0
0
0
0
0
0
20 38 240 9,120 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 9,120
30 45 240 10,800 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,800
40 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
50 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
52 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,52 0
Benefits available with One-for-On e
10 10 240 2,400 1,920 2,400 2,400 2,400 2,400
20 20 240 4,800 1,920 4,320 4,800 4,800 4,800
30 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
40 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
50 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
52 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
Difference from present syste m
10 10 0 2,400 1,920 2,400 2,400 2,400 2,400
20 -18 0 -4,320 0 0 -1,920 -4,320 -4,320
30
-17
0
-4,080
0
0
0
-2,400
-4,080
40
-22
0
-5,280
0
0
0
-2,400
-4,800
50
-22
0
-5,280
0
0
0
-2,400
-4,800
52
-22
0
-5,280
0
0
0
-2,400
-4,80 0
Percentage difference from present system
10
20 -47 .4%
-
-
-
0 -47 .4X
-
-
-
0 .0% 0 .0`X, -28 .6%
-
-
-47 .4X, -47 .4 %
30 -37 .8'X, 0 -37 .8% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3% -37 .8%
40 -44 .0%
0 -44 .0 %
0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .05(, -26 .3% -41 .7%
50 -44 .0% 0 -44 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3% -41 .7%
52 -44 .0% 0 -44 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3`X, -41 .7%
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
Figure G .1 8
Effect of One-for-One Option on Individuals in Toront o
(Average insured earnings E400, local unemployment rate 5 .8%, minimum weeks 14 )
Weeks of Maximum
Weekly
Maximum Actual benefits by actual weeks
insurable weeks of benefit total of unemployment ( dollars)
employment
be nefit benefit
10
20
30
40
50
Benefits available under present syste m
10
0
240
0
0
0
0
0
0
20 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
30 35 240 8,400 1,920 4,320 6,720 8,400 8,400
40 40 240 9,600 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 9,600
50 45 240 10,800 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,800
52 46 240 11,040 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,04 0
Benefits available with One-for-On e
10 10 240 2,400 1,920 2,400 2,400 2,400 2,400
20 20 240 4,800 1,920 4,320 4,800 4,800 4,800
30 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
40 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
50 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
52 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,72 0
Difference from present system
10 10 0 2,400 1,920 2,400 2,400 2,400 2,400
20 -8 0 - 1,920 0 0 - 1,920 -1,920 -1,920
30
-
40
-12
7
0
-1,680
50
-17
0
-4,080
0
0
0
-2,400
-4080
52
-18
0
-4,320
0
0
0
-2,400
-4,32 0
0
0
-2,880
0
0
0
0
-1,680
0
-
-2,400
1,680
-2,880
Percentage difference from present syste m
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20 -28 .6% 0 -28,6% 0 .0% 0 .0% -28 .6% -28 .6% -28 .6%
30 -20 .0% 0 -20 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -20 .0% -20 .0%
40 -30 .0% 0 -30 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3% -30 .0%
50 -37.8% 0 -37 .8% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3% -37 .8%
52 -39 .1% 0 -39 .1% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% -26 .3% -39 .1%
39 5
396
APPENDIX G
Figure G .1 9
Effect of Macdonald Royal Commission Proposal on Individuals in St . John's
(Average insured earnings 8400, local unemployment rate 14 .5%, minimum weeks 10 )
Maximum Actual benefits by actual weeks
Weeks of Maximum
Weekly
insurable weeks of benefit total of unemployment ( dollars )
employment benefit benefit
10
20
30
40
50
Benefits available under present syste m
10 42 240 10,800 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,080
20 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
30 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
40 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
50 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
52 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,52 0
Benefits available with Macdonald Royal Commission proposa l
10
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
30 15 200 3,000 1,600 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000
40 20 200 4,000 1,600 3,600 4,000 4,000 4,000
50 25 200 5,000 1,600 3,600 5,000 5,000 5,000
52 26 200 5,200 1,600 3,600 5,200 5,200 5,20 0
Difference from present syste m
10 -42 -40 -10,080 -1,920 -4,320 -6,720 -9,120 -10,080
20 -50 -40 -12,000 -1,920 -4,320 -6,720 -9,120 -11,520
30 -35 -40 -9,000 -320 -1,320 -3,720 -6,120 -8,520
40 - 30 -40 -8,000 -320 -720 -2,720 -5,120 -7,520
50 -25 -40 -7,000 -320 -720 -1,720 -4,120 -6,520
52 -24 -40 -6,800 -320 -720 -1,520 -3,920 -6,32 0
Percentage difference from present syste m
10 -100 .0% -16 .7% -100.0 ;4 -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0X, -100 .09G -100 .0X,
20 -100 .0% -16 .7% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0%
30 -70 .0% -16 .7% -75 .0% -16 .7% -30 .6% -55 .4% -67 .1% -74 .0%
40 -60 .0% -16 .7% -66 .7% -16 .7% -16 .7% -40 .5% -56 .1X, -65 .3%
50 -50 .0% -16 .7% -58 .3% -16 .7% -16 .7% -25 .6% -45 .2% -56 .651
52 -48 .0% -16 .7% -56 .7% -16 .7% -16 .7% -22 .6% -43 .0% -54 .9%
I
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
Figure G .2 0
Effect of Macdonald Royal Commission Proposal on Individuals in Winnipeg
(Average insured earnings $400, local unemployment rate 8 .6%, minimum weeks l i )
Weeks of Maximum Weekly Maximum Actual benefits by actual weeks
insurable weeks of benefit total of unemployment (dollars)
employment benefit benefit
10
20
30
40
50
Benefits available under present system
0
240
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
20
38
240
9,120 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 9,12 0
30
45
240
10,800 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,800
40
50
240
12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
50
50
240
12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520
52
50
240
12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,52 0
Benefits available with Macdonald Royal Commission proposa l
10
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
30
15
200
3,000 1,600 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000
40
20
200
4,000 1,600 3,600 4,000 4,000 4,000
50
25
200
5,000 1,600 3,600 5,000 5,000 5,000
52
26
200
5,200 1,600 3,600 5,200 5,200 5,200
Difference from present syste m
10
0
-40
0
0
0
0
0
0
20 -38 -40 -9,120 -1,920 -4,320 -6,720 -9,120 -9,120
30 - 30 -40 -7,800 -320 -1,320 -3,720 -6,120 -7,800
40 -30 -40 -8,000 -320 -720 -2,720 -5,120 -7,520
50 -25 -40 -7,000 -320 -720 -1,720 -4,120 -6,520
52 -24 -40 -6,800 -320 -720 -1,520 -3,920 -6,32 0
Percentage difference from present syste m
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20 -100 .0% -16 .7% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0%
-100 .0 %
30 -66 .7% -16.7% -72 .2% -16 .7% -30 .6% -55 .4% -67 .1% -72 .2%
40 -60 .0% -16 .7% -66 .7% -16 .7% -16 .7% -40 .5% -56 .1% -65 .3%
50 -50 .0% -16 .7% -58 .3% -16 .7% -16 .7% -25 .6% -45 .2% -56 .6%
52 -48 .0% -16 .7% -56 .7% -16 .7% -16 .7% -22 .6% -43 .0% -54 .9%
39 7
398
APPENDIX G
Figure G .2 1
Effect of Macdonald Royal Commission Proposal on Individuals in Toronto
(Average insured earnings $400, local unemployment rate 5 .8%, minimum weeks 14 )
Weeks of Maximum
Weekly
Maximum Actual benefits by actual weeks
insurable weeks of benefit total of unemployment ( dollars)
employment benefit
be nefit
10
20
30
40
50
Benefits available under present syste m
10
0
240
0
0
0
0
0
0
20 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720
30 35 240 8,400 1,920 4,320 6,720 8,400 8,400
40 40 240 9,600 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 9,600
50 45 240 10,800 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,800
52 46 240 11,040 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,04 0
Benefits available with Macdonald Royal Commission proposa l
10
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
0
200
0
0
0
0
0
0
30 15 200 3,000 1,600 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000
40 20 200 4,000 1,600 3,600 4,000 4,000 4,000
50 25 200 5,000 1,600 3,600 5,000 5,000 5,000
52 26 200 5,200 1,600 3,600 5,200 5,200 5,20 0
Difference from present system
10
0
-40
0
0
0
0
0
0
20 -28 -40 -6,720 -1,920 -4,320 -6,720 -6,720 -6,720
30 - 20 - 40 -5,400 -320 -1,320 -3,720 -5,400 -5,400
40 -20 -40 -5,600 -320 -720 -2,720 -5,120 -5,600
50 -20 -40 -5,800 -320 -720 -1,720 -4,120 -5,800
52 - 20 -40 -5,840 -320 -720 -1,520 -3,920 -5,84 0
Percentage difference from present syste m
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20 -100 .0% -16 .7% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0% -100 .0%
30 -57 .1% -16 .7% -64 .3% -16 .7% -30 .6% -55 .4% -64 .3% -64 .3%
40 -50 .0% -16 .7% -58 .3% -16 .7% -16 .7% -40 .5% -56 .1% -58 .3%
50 -44 .4%
-16 .7% -53 .7% -16 .7% -16 .7% -25 .6% -45 .2% -53 .7%
52 -43 .5% -16 .7% -52 .9% -16 .7% -16 .7% -22 .6% -43 .0% -52 .9%
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
39 9
Figure G .2 2
Effect of Enriched Current Program on Individuals in St . John's
(Average insured earnings 8400, local unemployment rate 14 .5%, minimum weeks 10 )
Weeks of Maximum
Weekly
Maximum .
Actual benefits by actual weeks of unemployment ( dollars)
insurable weeks of bene fi t tota l
employment benefit benefit 10 20
30 40 50 60
70
72
Benefits available under present system
10 42 240 10,080 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,080 10,080 10,080 10,080
20 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520 12,000 12,000 12,000
30 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520 12,000 12,000 12,000
40 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520 12,000 12,000 12,000
50 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520 12,000 12,000 12,000
52 50 240 12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520 12,000 12,000 12,00 0
Benefits available with Enriched Current Progra m
10 42 266 11,172 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374 11,172 11,172 11,172 11,172
20 52 266 13,832 2,394
5,054
7,714 10,374 13,034 13,832 13,832 13,832
30 62 266 16,492 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374 13,034 15,694 16,492 16,492
40 71 266 18,886 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374 13,034 15,694 18,354 18,886
50 71 266 18,886 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374 13,034 15,694 18,354 18,886
52 71 266 18,886 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374 13,034 15,694 18,354 18,88 6
Difference from present syste m
10 0 26 1,092 474 734 994 1,254 1,092 1,092 1,092 1,092
20 2 26 1,832 474 734 994 1,254 1,514 1,832 1,832 1,832
30 12 26 4,492
474 734
994 1,254 1,514 3,694 4,492 4,492
40 21 26 6,886
474 734
994 1,254 1,514 3,694 6,354 6,886
50 21 26 6,886
474 734
994 1,254 1,514 3,694 6,354 6,886
52 21 26 6,886
474 734
994 1,254 1,514 3,694 6,354 6,88 6
Percentage difference from present system
10
0 .0% 10 .8% 10 .8% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8%
20
4 .0% 10 .8% 15 .3% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 13 .1% 15 .3% 15 .3% 15 .3%
30 24 .0% 10 .8% 37 .4% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 13 .1% 30 .8% 37 .4% 37 .4%
40 42 .0% 10 .8% 57 .4% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 13 .1% 30 .8% 53 .0% 57 .4%
50 42 .0% 10 .8% 57 .4% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 13 .1% 30 .8% 53 .0% 57 .4%
52 42 .0% 10 .8% 57 .4% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 13 .1% 30 .8% 53 .0% 57 .4%
400 APPENDIX G
Figure G .2 3
Effect of Enriched Current Program on Individuals in Winnipeg
(Average insured earnings $400, local unemployment rate 8 .6%, minimum weeks 11 )
Weeks of Maximum Weekly
insurable
weeks of benefit
employment benefit
Maximum Actual benefits by actual weeks of unemployment ( dollars)
tota l
benefit
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
72
Benefits available under present syste m
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
240
20
38
240
9,120 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 9,120 9,120 9,120 9,120
30
45
240
10,800 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800
40
50
240
12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520 12,000 12,000 12,000
50
50
240
12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520 12,000 12,000 12,000
52
50
240
12,000 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,520 12,000 12,000 12,00 0
Benefits available with Enriched Current Program
10
28
266
7,448 2,394 5,054 7,448 7,448 7,448 7,448 7,448 7,448
20
38
266
10,108 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,108 10,108 10,108 10,108 10,108
30
48
266
12,768 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374 12,768 12,768 12,768 12,768
40
57
266
15,162 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374 13,034 15,162 15,162 15,162
50
57
266
15,162 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374 13,034 15,162 15,162 15,162
52
57
266
15,162 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374 13,034 15,162 15,162 15,16 2
Difference from present system
10 28 26 7,448 2,394 5,054 7,448 7,448 7,448 7,448 7,448 7,448
20 0 26 988 474 734 994 988 988 988 988 988
30
3
26
1,968
474 734
994 1,254 1,968 1,968 1,968 1,968
40
7
26
3,162
474 734
994 1,254 1,514 3,162 3,162 3,162
50
7
26
3,162
474 734
994 1,254 1,514 3,162 3,162 3,162
52 7 26 3,162 474 734 994 1,254 1,514 3,162 3,162 3,16 2
Percentage difference from present syste m
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20
0 .0% 10 .8% 10.8% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8% 10 .8%
30
6 .7% 10 .8% 18.2% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13.8% 18 .2% 18 .2% 18 .2% 18 .2%
40 14 .0% 10 .8% 26 .4% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 13 .1% 26 .4% 26 .4% 26 .4%
50 14 .0% 10 .8% 26 .4% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 13 .1% 26 .4% 26 .4% 26 .4%
52 14 .0% 10 .8% 26 .4% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 13 .1% 26 .4% 26 .4% 26 .4%
STATISTICAL APPENDIX 40 1
Figure G .2 4
Effect of Enriched Current Program on Individuals in Toronto
(Average insured earnings $400, local unemployment rate 5 .8%, minimum weeks 14 )
Maximum Actual benefits by actual weeks of unemployment ( dollars)
Weekly
Weeks of Maximum
insurable weeks of benefit tota l
30 40 50 60
employment benefit benefit 10 20
70
72
Benefits available under present syste m
10
0
240
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20 28 240 6,720 1,920 4,320 6,720 6,720 6,720 6,720 6,720 6,720
30 35 240 8,400 1,920 4,320 6,720 8,400 8,400 8,400 8,400 8,400
40 40 240 9,600 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 9,600 9,600 9,600 9,600
240 10,800 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800
50 45
52 46 240 11,040 1,920 4,320 6,720 9,120 11,040 11,040 11,040 11,04 0
Benefits available with Enriched Current Progra m
10 18 266 4,788
2,394 4,788
4,788 4,788 4,788 4,788 4,788 4,788
5,054
7,448 7,448 7,448 7,448 7,448 7,448
20 28 266 7,448 2,394
30 38 266 10,108
2,394 5,054 7,714
10,108 10,108 10,108 10,108 10,108
40 47 266 12,502 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374
12,502 12,502 12,502 12,502
2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374
12,502 12,502 12,502 12,502
52 47 266 12,502 2,394 5,054 7,714 10,374
12,502 12,502 12,502 12,50 2
50
47
266
12,502
Difference from present syste m
10 18 26 4,788 2,394 4,788 4,788 4,788 4,788 4,788 4,788 4,788
20
0
26
728
474 734
728 728 728 728 728 728
30
3
26
1,708
474 734
994 1,708 1,708 1,708 1,708 1,708
40
7
26
2,902
474 734
994 1,254 2,902 2,902 2,902 2,902
50
2
26
1,702
474 734
994 1,254 1,702 1,702 1,702 1,702
1,462
474 734
994 1,254 1,462 1,462 1,462 1,46 2
52
1
26
Percentage difference from present syste m
10
-
-
-
-
.8%
10
.8%
10 .8%
.8%
10
.8%
10
.8%
10
.7%
17
.0%
10
20 0 .0% 10 .8% 10 .8% 24
.3%
20
.3%
20 .3%
.8%
20
.3%
20
.3% 20
30 8 .6% 10 .8% 20 .3% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14
.2%
30
.2%
30.2%
40 17 .5% 10 .8% 30 .2% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 30 .2% 30
.8%
15 .8%
.8% 15 .8% 15
50 4 .4% 10 .8% 15 .8% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13 .8% 15
.8% 13 .2% 13 .2% 13 .2% 13 .2%
52 2 .2% 10 .8% 13 .2% 24 .7% 17 .0% 14 .8% 13
Biographies of Commissioner s
40 3
Claude E . Forget, Chairman
Guylaine Saucier, Commissione r
Claude Forget is an economic consultant, partner
in the firm SECOR in Montreal, and vice-president
Guylaine Saucier is the president and chief executive officer of Le Groupe Gerard Saucier Ltee ., one
of the C .D . Howe Institute . He has been professor
of the largest forestry products firms in Quebec .
of economics at l'Universite de Montreal, McGill
University, and 1'Universite du Quebec a Montreal .
Before becoming president she was company
He was a member of the Quebec National
for legal affairs and negotiations with public and
Assembly from 1973 to 1981 and served as Minis-
private sectors . She serves on the boards of several
ter of Social Affairs for the first three of those years .
Before that he was in the public service as Assist-
academic, forestry industry and business organizations . Ms . Saucier is a chartered accountant and a
ant Deputy Minister of Social Affairs in Quebec
graduate of le College Marguerite-Bourgeois and
from 1971 to 1973, consultant to the Federal
1'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, of the
Commission on Taxation from 1963 to 1966, and
Universite de Montreal .
consultant to the Quebec Commission of Inquiry
on Health and Welfare from 1968 to 1970 . Mr .
Forget studied law at 1'Universite de Montreal, and
economics at the London School of Economics and
at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland . He is a
member of the Quebec Bar .
comptroller for four years and had responsibility
404
Al
9MM9
Moses 0 . Morgan, Commissione r
Jack Munro, Commissione r
Moses Morgan is a distinguished Canadian scholar
Jack Munro has been president of Regional Council
in the social sciences . He taught at King's Collegi-
No . 1 of International Woodworkers of America
since 1973, and is an associate officer of the IWA
ate School and Dalhousie University, and was
president of Memorial University of Newfoundland from 1973 to 1981 . He has also served as
International Executive Board . He is also general
president of the Association of Universities and
and serves on the boards of the Asia Pacific Foun-
Colleges of Canada and as council member of the
Association of Commonwealth Universities . He
dation, the Canadian Forestry Advisory Council,
and the Vancouver Port Corporation . Mr . Munro
was appointed a Commissioner to inquire into the
began work as an apprentice machinist with the
closing of the mines in Labrador and a member of
Canadian Pacific Railway in 1948 . In 1959 he was
the Royal Commission on the
Ocean Ranger
laid off after 11 years with CPR and went to work
Marine Disaster . Mr . Morgan is a graduate of
as a welder at Kootenay Forest Products in Nelson,
vice-president of the Canadian Labour Congress
Dalhousie and of Oxford University which he
British Columbia . He was awarded an honorary
attended as a Rhodes Scholar, and has been
doctorate by the University of British Columbia in
awarded seven honorary degrees from universities
in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Ontario . He is
1985 .
a Companion of the Order of Canada .
40 5
Roy F . Bennett, Commissioner
Frances J . Soboda, Commissioner
Roy Bennett is president of his own management
Frances Soboda is a vice-president of the Canadian
consulting and investment firm, Bennecon Ltd . He
Labour Congress and a member of the CLC Pension
Committee . She is president of Local 4253 of the
formed the company after retiring from the Ford
Motor Company of Canada Ltd . where he was
United Steelworkers of America, vice-president of
president and chief executive officer from 1971 to
the Nova Scotia Federation of Labour, and co-
1981 . He is a member of the Business Council on
chairperson of the NSFL's Human Rights Commit-
National Issues and sits on the boards of several
tee . She served on the advisory committee for the
public and private organizations . He has been an
advisor to the Premier of Ontario and to the
Economic Summit Conference in 1985 and was an
employee representative on the Board of Referees
federal Minister of Industry, and has served as
of Unemployment Insurance for ten years . Ms .
chairman of the Better Business Bureau of Canada
Soboda is particularly involved in labour educa-
and chairman of the Motor Vehicles Manufacturers
tion . She has taught courses and coordinated
Association . Mr . Bennett is a chartered accountant
and a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Account-
seminars and workshops for workers and unem-
ants of Ontario .
an educational television program on microeco-
ployed persons, and co-hosted and co-produced
nomic matters . Ms . Soboda is a graduate of the
Labour College of Canada . She is among the
workers recently laid off by Hawker Siddeley
Canada Inc .'s Nova Scotia plant .
Commission Staff and Consultant s
Executive Directo r
Elizabeth Dowdeswel l
(August 1985-September 1986 )
Nola K . Seymoa r
(September 1986-December 1986 )
Director of Consultations
Nola K . Seymoa r
Director of Research
Donald J . MacDonald
Director o f
Finance and Administration
Gary Paradi s
Executive Assistant to
the Chairma n
Marie Bourbonniere
Executive Assistant to
the Executive Director
Ginette Dean
Consultation s
Consultation Officers
Martine Gow-Cooper
(Associate Director)
Jacques Berard
Lynn Berthiaume
Denis Coupland
Jan Knowles Brian
Hugh Mackenzie
Batool Siddiqui
Wendy Young
Logistics Officers
Robert Doucette
Audrey Schreyer
Gisele Farnswort h
Researc h
Research Coordinators
Emmanuel Feuerwerker
(Associate Director)
Kerry Johnston
Claude Majo r
Peter Ros s
Statisticia n
E . Richard Shillington
Research Associate s
Jack Hal l
Michele L . Veilleux
Maureen Woodro w
Research Assistant s
Sharon Angel
Richard Herold
Anne Hooper
Joyce Martin
Anthony Peluso
Publication
Production Manager
John McHal e
Assistant
Ghyslaine Ouellet
407
408
Administrative Office r
Senior Editors
(English )
(French )
Editors
(English )
(French )
Proofreading
(English )
(French )
Gisele Farnswort h
Ruth Crow
(April-October 1986)
Ann C . McCoomb
(October-November 1986 )
Verena Ossent
(May-September 1986)
Georges Royer
(September-November 1986 )
Valerie de Montigny
(and writer )
Therese Aquin
Michele Baril
Michele Bourbeau
Danielle Chapu t
Ian Mackenzie
Cecily Haydon
Robert Haydon
Ruth Goldstee n
Gilles Grondin
Henri Le Galleu
Michelle Martin
Paul Morissett e
Finance and Administratio n
Financ e
Barbara Springer
Marian Jame s
Administration and Secretaria l
Jose Beaumier
Paul Bonin
Yvonne Boyte l
Therese Choquette-Aubin
Franqoise Guilbaul t
Iris Henderson
Louise Kwan
Danyelle Labonte
Brenda Paquette-Gagne
Gisele Poisso n
June Samso n
Consultants
Arthur Andersen & Co .
ASI Consulting Group
BC Research
Chromascan
Robert Baldwin
Gerald Beaudoin
Diane Bellemare
Ray Brillinger
Desmond John Byrne
Canada East-West Ltd .
Ted Carmichae l
Cohen, Couture & Associates
Thomas Courchene
Jean-Michel Cousineau
40 9
Dalcor Innoventures Ltd .
J . Davidson-Palmer & Associates
Guy Dauncey
jean Davi d
Decima Research Ltd .
Daniel Deni s
Paul Dickinson
Pierre Dufour
Eiko Emori
Bernard Forti n
Gardner Pinfold Consulting
Economists Ltd .
Ginsberg, Gingras & Associes
Gowling & Henderso n
Grady Economics & Associates
Christopher Gree n
Herb Grubel
Morley Gunderson
John Halliwel l
R .D . Hood Economics Inc .
Informetrica Ltd .
Institut de Sciences
Mathematiques et Economiques
Appliquees (ISMEA )
A .W . Johnson
Gil Johnson
Patricia Johnston-Lavigueur
Stephen F . Kalisk i
Karyo Communications Inc .
Daniel Latouche
Fred Laza r
William M . Mercer Limited
The National Tax Centre
Walter Nicholson
O'Malley Communications
Lars Osber g
Leslie Pal
TimothyJ . Parker
Robert Priebe
Samuel Re a
W . Craig Riddell
David Ross
Abraham Rotstei n
Saga Communication Ltd .
Saint-Louis & Associes
Irving R. Silver Associates
Anne-Marie Sylvestre
Monica Townson & Associates
Richard Van Loo n
Martin Weitzman
David Williamson & Co .
Tony Wohlfart h
We wish to acknowledge the assistance of the staff of Employment and Immigration Canada and
in particular Marcelle Filiatrault and Pierre-Andre Laporte, Roger Laporte, the Regional
Directors General, Len Jodoin and Gale Brady .
Secretary of State : Helene Brisson, Richard Houde, Gerald jalbert and their translators .
Statistics Canada : Michael Wolfson, Goeff Rowe and the Social and Economic Statistics Division,
Kirk Hamilton .
Supply and Services : Terry Denovan, Keith Sutherland, Gilles Quirouette .
Part V
Supplementary Statements
Content s
413
Supplementary Statements
Supplementary Statement by Commissioners M .O. Morgan an d
C .E .
Forget
41 7
Supplementary Statement by Commissioner Roy F . Bennett 42 1
Supplementary Statement by Commissioner Guylaine Saucier 42 5
Supplementary Statement by Commissioners F. J. Soboda an d
J. J.
Munro
Executive
427
Summary
427
Disastrous Consequences 427
Misleading and Deceptive 427
A Report Based on
Myths
427
Submissions Ignored
428
A Progressive Minority Report 428
Proposals for Improving ui 429
Choosing Between Them 42 9
Chapter
1
Introduction
431
A Flawed Process and a Flawed Conclusion 431
The Report and the Hearings 431
The Commission of Inquiry on Unemployment Insurance in Context 433
The Philosophy Behind the Forget Report 43 4
Chapter 2 The Forget Proposal - A Critique 435
The Forget Proposal : Benefit Annualization 43 5
The Number Tells the Story 435
How Annualization Would Work 43 5
The Rationale for Annualization 436
Assumptions about Behaviour 437
Equity- A Narrow Definition 438
The Attack on Regionally Extended Benefits 4 39
ui Myths and the Forget Report 44 4
Implications of Annualization 455
Devastating Benefit Cuts 455
Women Particularly Hard Hit 455
Regional Impact of Annualization 457
Annualization and the Present System : A Summary 458
Provincial Welfare Costs Up 459
Working Poor Pushed Further into Poverty 459
414
The Impossible Achieved : A Program as Complex as Today's ui 460
Work Incentives 460
Part-Time Work : A Half Measure 46 1
The Treatment of Older Workers, Severance Pay, Pensions and th e
Cumulative Employment Account 461
An Inadequate Report 46 3
Chapter 3 An Alternative Proposal -Meeting the Needs of People 465
If It Ain't Broke, Don't Fix It 465
ui Program Fundamentally Sound 466
ui
Basics
46 7
Chapter 4 Our Proposals for Reform 469
Our Objectives 469
The Core ui Program 470
A Uniform 10-Week Entrance 470
A Simplified Benefit Period 470
Waiting Period 471
A New Formula for the Insurable Maximum 472
A 66 z/3% Benefit Rate 472
Pensions, Severance and Vacation Pay 472
Retirement and ui 474
Parental Benefits 475
Part-Time Workers 476
ui and Labour Disputes 477
Work While on Claim and Labour Force Separation 47 8
Earnings While on Claim 478
Short-Term Work While on Claim 479
Periods Outside the Labour Force 480
Farm Workers 480
Self-Employment 481
Fishermen's Benefits 48 1
Chapter 5 Financing 485
Government's Role in Unemployment Insurance Financing 486
Premium Allocation Between Employees and Employers 486
Premium Rate Setting 486
Financing of the Alternative 48 7
Revenue
487
Costing of Our Proposals 48 7
Chapter 6 Administration -A New Approach 489
Administration Issues 489
The Roots of the Problem 490
Program Complexity 491
Treatment of Claimants 49 1
Onus of Proof 492
Accessibility of ui Services 492
Coordination ofui and Employment Services 493
41 5
Other Administrative Issues 493
Late Applications 493
Just
Cause
493
Procedural Disqualifications 494
Centralization/Decentralization of Services 494
The Appeals System 494
Governance of ui 49 5
Chapter 7 Helping People Adjust to Rapid Change 497
Complementary Labour Adjustment Programs 497
Training and Job Creation 497
Older Workers 500
Full Employment 500
Human Face of Unemployment 50 1
Chapter 8 Conclusion and Recommendations 50 3
Appendix A The Forget Report's Perspective on Unemployment 50 5
Appendix B A Description of the 1986 ui Program 507
Coverage and Eligibility 507
Benefit
Rate
508
Duration of Benefits 509
Financing
510
Appeals
510
Organization and Administration 51 0
Recommendations
511
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