National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014 Report October 2014

National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014 Report October 2014
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Report
Spending and Health Workforce
October 2014
Our Vision
Better data. Better decisions.
Healthier Canadians.
Our Mandate
To lead the development and
maintenance of comprehensive
and integrated health information
that enables sound policy and
effective health system management
that improve health and health care.
Our Values
Respect, Integrity, Collaboration,
Excellence, Innovation
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................11
Key Findings .............................................................................................................................13
Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................14
Introduction ...............................................................................................................................19
1.0 Overview of Health Spending in Canada ............................................................................20
1.1 Total Health Expenditure .............................................................................................20
1.2 Total Health Expenditure per Capita............................................................................26
1.3 Total Health Expenditure and Economic Growth .........................................................28
2.0 Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance .................................................................30
2.1 Public and Private Sectors Fund Canada’s Health Care System ................................. 30
2.2 Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance ............................................. 34
2.3 Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance ............................................ 37
3.0 Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds .........................................................................41
3.1 Where Health Dollars Are Spent .................................................................................41
3.2 Hospitals .....................................................................................................................46
3.3 Drugs ..........................................................................................................................49
3.4 Physicians ...................................................................................................................52
3.5 Other Professionals.....................................................................................................54
3.6 Other Institutions .........................................................................................................59
3.7 Administration .............................................................................................................60
3.8 Public Health ...............................................................................................................61
3.9 Other Health Spending ................................................................................................62
4.0 Health Expenditure in the Provinces and Territories ...........................................................63
4.1 Provincial/Territorial Health Spending Differs ..............................................................63
4.2 Trends in the Provinces and Territories ........................................................................68
5.0 Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditure by Age and Sex ....................... 72
5.1 Standardization for Age and Sex .................................................................................72
5.2 Population Aging .........................................................................................................74
5.3 Issues to Monitor in Future ..........................................................................................78
6.0 Provincial and Territorial Government Fiscal Position and Health Expenditures ................. 80
6.1 Provincial and Territorial Government Financial Trends .............................................. 80
6.2 Issues to Monitor in Future ..........................................................................................84
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
7.0 International Comparisons ..................................................................................................85
7.1 Comparability of Health Expenditure Across Countries ...............................................85
7.2 OECD Definition of Total Health Expenditure ..............................................................85
7.3 Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP—2012 .......................................... 86
7.4 Total Health Expenditure per Capita—2012 ................................................................87
7.5 Health Expenditure Growth .........................................................................................88
7.6 Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance—2012 ............................................... 89
7.7 Health Expenditure by Use of Funds—2012................................................................90
7.8 Canada’s Position Among the OECD Member Countries ............................................ 95
Appendix A—Methodological Notes ..........................................................................................96
A.1 Concepts and Definitions ............................................................................................96
A.2 Major Data Limitations...............................................................................................102
A.3 Collection and Non-Response ...................................................................................103
A.4 Major Changes From Previous Years........................................................................ 123
A.5 Sources of Data ........................................................................................................124
Appendix B—Data Tables .......................................................................................................127
References .............................................................................................................................172
Comprehensive versions of data tables, series A to G, are available on the CD-ROM at the
back of this report. They are also available online at www.cihi.ca/nhex.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
List of Figures
Figure 1: Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2014 ....................................................21
Figure 2: Total Health Expenditure, Annual Growth Rates in Constant 1997 Dollars,
Canada, 1976 to 2014 .............................................................................................22
Figure 3: Average Annual Growth in Total Health Expenditures per Capita and GDP
per Capita, 2000 to 2012 .........................................................................................23
Figure 4: Cost Driver Shares of Average Annual Growth in Public-Sector Health
Spending, 2000 to 2012, Compared With Annual Growth in 2013 and 2014 ............ 25
Figure 5: Total Health Expenditure per Capita, Canada, 1975 to 2014 ................................... 26
Figure 6: Total Health Expenditure per Capita, Annual Growth Rates in
Constant 1997 Dollars, Canada, 1976 to 2014 ........................................................27
Figure 7: Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product,
Canada, 1975 to 2014 .............................................................................................28
Figure 8: Total Health Expenditure and Nominal GDP, Annual Growth,
Canada, 1976 to 2014 .............................................................................................29
Figure 9: Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, 2014 (Percentage Share
and Billions of Dollars) .............................................................................................31
Figure 10: Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2014 ........................... 32
Figure 11: Public- and Private-Sector Shares of Total Health Expenditure, 1975 to 2014 ......... 33
Figure 12: Distribution of Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988 and 2012 (Percentage Share and Millions of Dollars) ....................... 37
Figure 13: Share of Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988 to 2012 .............................................................................................38
Figure 14: Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988, 1998 and 2012.................................................................................39
Figure 15: Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 2014 (Percentage Share
and Billions of Dollars) .............................................................................................42
Figure 16: Public and Private Shares of Total Health Expenditure, by Use of Funds,
Canada, 2014 ..........................................................................................................43
Figure 17: Total Health Expenditure, Share of Selected Use of Funds,
Canada, 1975 to 2014 .............................................................................................44
Figure 18: Total Expenditure per Capita, Selected Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014 ......... 45
Figure 19: Hospital Share of Public-Sector Health Expenditure ................................................47
5
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 20: Drugs by Source of Finance and Type, Canada, 2012 (Percentage Share
and Billions of Dollars) .............................................................................................49
Figure 21: Prescribed Drug Expenditure, Private-Sector Share, Canada, 1975 to 2014 ........... 50
Figure 22: Private Prescribed Drug Expenditure, Share by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988 to 2012 .............................................................................................51
Figure 23: Public-Sector Physician Expenditure per Capita, Share of Total Health
Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2014 ........................................................................53
Figure 24: Dental and Vision Care Services Expenditure, Total per Capita,
Canada, 1975 to 2014 .............................................................................................55
Figure 25: Professionals Expenditure by Source of Finance and Type, Canada, 2012
(Percentage Share and Billions of Dollars) ..............................................................56
Figure 26: Other Professionals Expenditure, Share of Total Private Spending,
by Type, Canada, 1975 to 2014 ...............................................................................57
Figure 27: Private Dental Expenditures, Share by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988 to 2012 .............................................................................................58
Figure 28: Other Institutions Health Expenditure per Capita, Canada, 1975 to 2014 ................ 59
Figure 29: Public-Sector Other Institutions Expenditure as a Percentage of Total Other
Institutions Expenditure, Canada, 2000 to 2014.......................................................60
Figure 30: Public Health Spending as a Percentage of Total Health Expenditure,
Canada, 1975 to 2014 .............................................................................................62
Figure 31: Public- and Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, 1988 to 2014,
by Province and Territory, Constant 1997 Dollars ....................................................69
Figure 32: Age Distribution, Canada, 2000 and 2012 ...............................................................74
Figure 33: Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
Canada, 2012 ..........................................................................................................75
Figure 34: Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita,
by Age Group, Canada, 2012 ..................................................................................76
Figure 35: Share of Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Age Group,
Canada, 2000 and 2012 ..........................................................................................77
Figure 36: Contribution of Aging to Average Annual Growth for Hospitals, Physicians,
Drugs and Other Institutions, Canada, 2000 to 2012 ...............................................78
Figure 37: Contribution of Population Growth and Aging to Average Annual Growth
in Provincial/Territorial Government Health Spending, by Province/Territory
and Canada, 2000 to 2012 ......................................................................................79
Figure 38: Provincial/Territorial Government Revenue, Constant Dollar Indices
(1993 = 100), Canada, 1993 to 2013 .......................................................................81
6
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 39: Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita in Constant
1997 Dollars, Canada, Three Distinct Periods, 1975 to 2014 ................................... 82
Figure 40: Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure as a Proportion
of Total Provincial/Territorial Government Expenditure and Programs,
Canada, 1993 to 2013 .............................................................................................83
Figure 41: Provincial/Territorial Government Spending Growth (Health, Transportation/
Communications, Education and Social Services) Compared With Revenue
and Debt Charges, Average Annual Real per Capita Expenditure Growth,
Canada, 1998 to 2009 .............................................................................................84
Figure 42: Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP, 30 Selected OECD
Countries, 2012 .......................................................................................................86
Figure 43: Total Health Expenditure per Capita, US$ Purchasing Power Parity,
30 Selected OECD Countries, 2012 ........................................................................87
Figure 44: Annual Growth in Total Health Expenditure per Capita, in Current
National Currency Units, Canada and OECD Average, 2001 to 2012 ...................... 88
Figure 45: Total Health Expenditure, Public and Private Shares, 30 Selected
OECD Countries, 2012 ............................................................................................89
Figure 46: Expenditure on Services Provided by Hospitals, per Capita US$ Purchasing
Power Parity, 29 Selected OECD Countries, 2012................................................... 91
Figure 47: Total Expenditure on Drugs, per Capita US$ Purchasing Power Parity,
29 Selected OECD Countries, 2012 ........................................................................92
Figure 48: Expenditure on Services Provided by Offices of Physicians, per Capita US$
Purchasing Power Parity, 26 Selected OECD Countries, 2012 ................................ 94
Figure A1: Composition of Total Health Expenditures, by Source of Finance ............................ 96
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
List of Tables
Table 1:
Distribution of Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1975 and 2012 ...........................................................................................34
Table 2:
Quebec Drug Insurance Fund, 1997 to 2014 (Millions of Dollars) ............................. 36
Table 3:
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance and Use of Funds,
Canada, 2012 (Millions of Dollars and Percentage Share)........................................ 40
Table 4:
Hospital Expenditure Summary by Sector of Finance, Canada, 2012 ....................... 46
Table 5:
Health Expenditure Summary, by Province/Territory and Canada, 2014 .................. 65
Table 6:
Total Health Expenditure per Capita and Share, Selected Use of Funds,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2014 ..................................................................67
Table 7:
Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita,
Standardized for Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada, 2009 to 2012 ..... 73
Table A1: Differences From Previously Reported Provincial Government–Sector Data
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2009 to 2011 ($ Millions) .................................. 123
Table A2: Differences From Previously Reported Private-Sector Data,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2010 and 2011 ($ Millions) ............................... 123
Table A3: Differences From Previously Reported Federal Direct–Sector Data,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2011 ($ Millions) .............................................. 123
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
List of Data Tables
Series A—Summary Data, Canada
1
Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Summary ............................ 130
2.1–2.3
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars ........................................................................... 131
2.4–2.5
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada,
1975 to 2014—Constant Dollars......................................................................... 134
3.1.1–3.1.3 Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars ........................................................................... 136
3.2.1–3.2.3 Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars ........................................................................... 142
3.3.1–3.3.3 Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars ........................................................................... 148
Series B—Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory
and Canada (Selected Tables)
1.1–1.2
Total Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars ........................................................................... 156
1.3
Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of (Provincial/Territorial)
GDP, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars........... 158
2.1–2.2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars ........................................................................... 159
2.3
Private-Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of Total Health
Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—
Current Dollars ...................................................................................................161
3.1–3.2
Public-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars ........................................................................... 162
3.3
Public-Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of Total Health
Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—
Current Dollars ...................................................................................................164
4.1–4.2
Provincial/Territorial Government Sector Health Expenditure, by
Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars ......................... 165
4.3
Provincial/Territorial Government Sector Health Expenditure as a
Proportion of Total Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and
Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars............................................................. 167
Series E—Provincial Government Health Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
by Province/Territory and Canada (Selected Tables)
1.1
Estimate of Total Provincial and Territorial Government Health
Expenditures, by Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada,
2012—Current Dollars........................................................................................170
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
List of Data Tables on CD-ROM and Online
Series A—Summary Data, Canada
Series B—Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory and Canada
Series C—Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Source of Finance, Canada
Series D—Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory
Series D1—Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Province/Territory
Series D2—Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Province/Territory
Series D3—Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Province/Territory
Series D4—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure by Use of Funds,
by Province/Territory
Series E—Provincial Government Health Expenditure, by Age and Sex, by Province/Territory
and Canada
Series F—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory
and Canada
Series G—Drug Expenditure by Type, by Source of Finance and as a Share of Public, Private
and Total Health Expenditures, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1985 to 2014
Appendix A—Gross Domestic Product at Market Prices
Appendix B—Price Indices, by Province/Territory and Canada
Appendix C—Population, Population by Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada
Appendix D—Total Provincial/Territorial Government Programs and Expenditures,
by Province/Territory and Canada
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Acknowledgements
The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) wishes to acknowledge the following
individuals for their contribution to National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014:
• Christopher Kuchciak, Manager, Health Expenditures, CIHI
• Gilles Fortin, Program Consultant, CIHI
• Ruolz Ariste, Program Consultant, CIHI
• Jean He, Program Lead, CIHI
• Yiqun Yang, Senior Analyst, CIHI
• Jian Gao, Senior Analyst, CIHI
• Amie Chant, Analyst, CIHI
• Vicky Wang, Analyst, CIHI
• Nicholas Corvari, Analyst, CIHI
• Lyndon Wiebe, Analyst, CIHI
• Hui Ju Hung Huang, Student, CIHI
It is only through the contribution of many individuals and organizations that the production of
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014 is possible. CIHI expresses its gratitude to
the following:
The National Health Expenditure Expert Advisory Group for its advice and constructive
comments related to national health expenditures:
• John Horne, PhD, Royal Roads University
• Richard Plain, PhD, University of Alberta
• Robert G. Evans, PhD, University of British Columbia
• Hu Lu, PhD, Health Canada
• Claudia Sanmartin, PhD, Statistics Canada
• Jeremiah Hurley, PhD, McMaster University
• François Béland, ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec
• Livio Di Matteo, PhD, Lakehead University
• Michael Wolfson, PhD, University of Ottawa
• Michael Hunt, Director, Health Spending and Strategic Initiatives, CIHI
• Brent Diverty, Vice President, Programs, CIHI
Data suppliers for their provision of data to the National Health Expenditure Database:
• Health Canada, Statistics Canada and other federal departments reporting health care
financial data
• The provincial and territorial governments
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
• The provincial and territorial workers’ compensation boards and the Commission de la santé
et de la sécurité du travail du Québec
• The Nielsen Company Canada
• The insurance industry, whose participation has enhanced our understanding of
expenditures in the private sector:
– The Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association Inc.
– Medavie Blue Cross
– Croix Bleue du Québec
– Green Shield Canada
– Manitoba Blue Cross
– Saskatchewan Blue Cross
– Group Medical Services
– Alberta Blue Cross
– Pacific Blue Cross
• Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada
• Provincial and territorial health ministries for providing age and sex distributions for their
respective drug subsidy and additional health benefit programs:
– Newfoundland and Labrador Medical Services Commission, Department of Health and
Community Services
– Prince Edward Island Department of Health and Wellness
– Medavie Blue Cross, facilitated by the Nova Scotia Department of Health, Insured
Programs Management and Clinical Rationalization
– New Brunswick Ministry of Health
– Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec, facilitated by the ministère de la Santé et des
Services sociaux du Québec
– Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Ontario Health Insurance Program and
Drug Programs Branch
– Manitoba Ministry of Health
– Saskatchewan Health, Saskatchewan Drug Plan and Extended Benefits Branch and
Saskatchewan Medical Services Branch
– Alberta Ministry of Health
– British Columbia Ministry of Health, Medical Services Plan and PharmaCare Planning
and Special Projects
– Yukon Department of Health and Social Services
– Northwest Territories Department of Health and Social Services
Please note that the analyses and conclusions in the present document do not necessarily
reflect those of the individuals or organizations mentioned above.
12
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Key Findings
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014 is the 18th edition of this annual publication.
The report provides an overview of how much is spent on health care annually, in what areas
money is spent and on whom, and where the money comes from. It features comparative
expenditure data at the provincial/territorial and international levels, as well as Canadian health
spending trends from 1975 to the present.
In 2014, total health spending is projected to be $214.9 billion, or $6,045 per person,
continuing a modest growth trend since 2011.
• Health spending is expected to increase by 2.1% this year—low in comparison to the
average annual increase of 7% from 2000 to 2010.
• After accounting for inflation and for population changes, health spending is expected to
decrease by 0.8% in 2014.
• Overall, health expenditure is expected to represent 11% of Canada’s gross domestic
product (GDP) in 2014, a share that has fallen gradually in the past few years—down from
an all-time high of 11.6% in 2010.
Slower growth is occurring in all three major spending areas: hospitals, drugs
and physicians.
• Hospital spending is expected to grow by 2.1% in 2014, reaching $63.5 billion, which is the
lowest rate of growth since the late 1990s.
• Drug expenditure is projected to be $33.9 billion, with a growth rate of 0.8% in 2014—the
lowest rate of growth since 1975.
• Physician spending is forecast to be $33.3 billion in 2014, representing an annual growth rate
of 4.5%. This is the second-lowest rate of growth since the late 1990s, down from 4.9% last
year. Growth for physician expenditure has outpaced that for hospitals or drugs since 2007.
Population aging is not the primary driver of rising health care costs.
• Overall, population aging is a modest cost driver, estimated at 0.9% per year. The numbers
show that the share of public-sector health dollars spent on Canadian seniors has not
changed significantly over the past decade—from 44.6% in 2002 to 45.2% in 2012.
• Price effects (general inflation) have been a significant driver of overall health spending.
Health spending per person varies among provinces.
• In 2014, total health spending per person is expected to be highest in Newfoundland
and Labrador ($6,953) and Alberta ($6,783) and lowest in Quebec ($5,616) and
British Columbia ($5,865).
Canada’s health care spending per capita is in the top quartile.
• Canada remains among the top quartile of 30 Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD) countries, with per person spending on health care in 2012 at
US$4,602, below that of the United States (US$8,745) and comparable with figures for
Denmark (US$4,698) and Luxembourg (US$4,578).
13
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Executive Summary
Total health expenditure expected to grow 2.1%, continuing a modest
growth trend since 2011
Health spending in Canada is projected to grow by approximately $4.5 billion this year to reach
$214.9 billion in 2014. This amounts to $6,045 per Canadian, about $61 more per person
than last year.
The rate of growth in health spending (2.1%) continues to be less than inflation and population
growth combined. Health spending decreased by an average 0.4% per year in the last four
years after adjusting for these factors.
Overall, health expenditure is expected to represent 11% of Canada’s GDP in 2014, a share
that has fallen gradually in the past few years—down from an all-time high of 11.6% in 2010.
Since the start of the global economic recession in 2008, the ratio of health spending to GDP
has stabilized or fallen in most OECD countries.
After a decade of 7% annual average growth in health spending (from 2000 to 2010), a new
period of slower growth is emerging. It reflects, in large part, Canada’s modest economic growth
and fiscal restraint as governments focus on balancing budgetary deficits. Health expenditure,
on average, accounts for about 40% of provincial/territorial government budgets.
14
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Slower growth in hospital, drug and physician spending
Hospitals (29.6%), drugs (15.8%) and physician services (15.5%) continue to account for the
largest shares of health dollars (more than 60% of total health spending). Although spending
continues to grow in all three categories, the pace has slowed in recent years.
• Hospital spending is expected to grow by 2.1% in 2014, reaching $63.5 billion. This is the
lowest rate of growth since the late 1990s, down from 2.7% last year. The majority (more
than 60%) of hospital expenditure is spent on compensation for the hospital workforce.
• Drug expenditure is projected to be $33.9 billion in 2014, a slight increase of 0.8% over
2013. This is the slowest growing category among the three largest categories of health
expenditure. The flattening growth in drug expenditure is due to jurisdictions introducing
generic pricing control policies, patent expirations and the emergence of fewer new drugs
on the market.
• Physician spending is forecast to be $33.3 billion in 2014, representing an annual growth
rate of 4.5%. This is the second-lowest rate of growth since the late 1990s. Growth of
physician expenditures has outpaced that of hospitals and drugs since 2007.
15
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Spending highest on seniors, but population aging a modest
cost driver
While Canadians age 65 and over account for less than 15% of the Canadian population,
they consume more than 45% of all public-sector health care dollars spent by the provinces
and territories. However, seniors are a diverse group. In 2012, the latest available year for data
broken down by age group, per person spending for seniors increased with age: $6,368 for
those age 65 to 69; $8,545 for those 70 to 74; $11,692 for those 75 to 79; and $21,054 for
those 80 and older.
Overall, population aging is a modest driver of increasing health care costs, estimated at 0.9%
per year. The share of public-sector health dollars spent on Canadian seniors has not changed
significantly over the past decade, rising only one-half of a percentage point between 2002 and
2012 (from 44.6% to 45.2%).
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Variations in provincial/territorial government health expenditure
Health spending per person varies among provinces and territories. Among the provinces, in
2014, total health spending per person is forecast to be highest in Newfoundland and Labrador
($6,953) and Alberta ($6,783) and lowest in Quebec ($5,616) and British Columbia ($5,865).
The amount spent per person reflects the population of each province and territory and its health
care needs, as well as the organization of health services, health personnel compensation and
the sharing of costs between public and private sectors. Note that per person spending on health
is expected to be higher in the territories due to their small, dispersed populations.
17
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Canada among the top quartile spenders in the OECD
Among 30 countries that had comparable accounting systems in the OECD in 2012, the latest
year for which data is available, spending per person on health care remained highest in the
United States (US$8,745). Canada was in the top quartile of countries in terms of per person
spending on health, with spending at US$4,602, which was similar to several other OECD
countries, including Germany (US$4,811), Denmark (US$4,698) and Luxembourg (US$4,578).
The lowest per capita expenditures were seen in Turkey (US$984) and Mexico (US$1,048).
18
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Introduction
Both the public and private sectors finance Canada’s health system. Public-sector funding
includes payments by governments at the federal, provincial/territorial and municipal levels
and by workers’ compensation boards and other social security schemes. Private-sector
funding consists primarily of health expenditures by households and private insurance firms.
The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) tracks health care spending by each
source of finance in the National Health Expenditure Database (NHEX). This database
contains a historical series of macro-level health expenditure statistics by province and territory.
CIHI assumed responsibility from Health Canada for the national health accounts, including
NHEX, in 1995.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014 is CIHI’s 18th annual health expenditure
trends publication and provides detailed, updated information on health expenditure in Canada.
This publication includes
• Highlights of national health expenditure;
• An overview including health expenditure trends from 1975 to 2014; 2012 figures, which are
now considered to be actual rather than a forecast; and an outlook for 2013 and 2014;
• An update of provincial/territorial government health expenditure by age and sex, including
expenditure data standardized for age and sex;
• Updated data tables to 2014; and
• International comparisons.
Summary-level data tables appear at the end of the publication. More than 300 detailed data
tables by calendar and fiscal year are available in Microsoft Excel on the CD-ROM affixed to
the inside of the back cover of this document or on CIHI’s website at www.cihi.ca/nhex.
The Survey of Household Spending (SHS) underwent a major redesign in 2010 by Statistics
Canada. In its Note to Users of Data From the 2010 Survey of Household Spending, it was
indicated that “Expense categories in the redesigned SHS are similar to those of previous years.
However, changes to data collection, processing and estimation methods have created a break
in the data series. As a result, caution should be used in comparing the 2010 SHS data with
previous years, unless otherwise noted.”1 Due to this redesign, private prescription drug
spending for 2009 and earlier years should not be compared with that for 2010, 2011 and 2012.
Likewise, the differences in survey design are responsible for the spike in private prescribed drug
spending observed in 2010. Further details can be found in Appendix A—Methodological Notes.
Appendix A—Methodological Notes includes information on NHEX concepts and definitions,
calculation methods, data limitations, major changes from previous years and sources of data.
Please note that, throughout the report (including text, figures and tables), numbers may not
add up to the total due to rounding.
19
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
1.0 Overview of Health Spending in Canada
Chapter Highlights
Slower growth in Canada’s health expenditure
• Total health expenditure in Canada, in current dollars, i was $205.4 billion in 2012 and
is forecast to have reached $210.4 billion in 2013 and to climb to $214.9 billion in 2014.
• In current dollars, total health expenditure per capita in Canada was $5,911 in 2012.
Forecasts for 2013 and 2014 are $5,985 and $6,045, translating to respective growth rates of
1.2% and 1.0%. When adjusted for inflation and for population changes, real rates of growth
are expected to have decreased by 0.6% in 2013 and to decrease by 0.8% in 2014.
• Total health expenditure in Canada was 11.3% of GDP in 2012. The forecast is 11.2% for
2013 and 11.0% for 2014.
1.1 Total Health Expenditure
2012 and Outlook for 2013 and 2014
This chapter examines health care spending trends and economic growth patterns.
Total health expenditure in Canada was $205.4 billion in 2012. Expenditures are forecast to
have been $210.4 billion in 2013 and to be $214.9 billion in 2014, an annual increase of 2.4%
and 2.1%, respectively. Total health expenditure in Canada doubled from close to $100 billion in
early 2000 to more than $200 billion in 2012, largely due to investment by federal, provincial and
territorial governments after a period of fiscal restraint from the early to mid-1990s (Figure 1).
When adjusted for inflation, total health expenditures rose to $140.5 billion in 2012, which
represents a 1.4% increase when compared with 2011. In constant dollar terms (1997 dollars),
the rates of growth are forecast at 0.6% for 2013 and 0.3% for 2014.
i.
20
All figures are in current dollars (unadjusted for inflation) unless otherwise stated.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 1: Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table A.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
21
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Trends—1975 to 2014
As the following figure illustrates, there have been three distinct phases in the growth of
total health expenditure since 1975: a growth phase from 1975 to 1991; a short period of
retrenchment and disinvestment from 1991 to 1996, when governments dealt with fiscal
deficits; and a growth phase that averaged 4.3% per year from 1996 until 2010, during which
time health care investment was a key priority of governments. During this latter period, major
investments were made in health care, including spending on physicians, drugs, hospitals and
advanced diagnostics. However, growth in total health expenditure has moderated since 2011.
Figure 2: Total Health Expenditure, Annual Growth Rates in Constant 1997 Dollars,
Canada, 1976 to 2014
Note
See Table A.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
22
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Growth in Health Care Spending and the Economy
When viewing Canada’s recent health spending trends in the larger global context, Canada’s
experience parallels that of other countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD). The most obvious similarity is the positive correlation between growth in
health care spending and growth in the economy between 2000 and 2012. Figure 3 illustrates
this by comparing Canada with other OECD countries. Almost all countries are above the
45-degree line; this means that the rates of increase in spending in OECD countries were
above the rates at which their respective economies grew from 2000 to 2012. Canada is above
the trend line of OECD countries, indicating that Canada invested more of its economic growth
in health care than the OECD average.
Figure 3: Average Annual Growth in Total Health Expenditures per Capita and GDP per Capita,
2000 to 2012
Notes
Country abbreviations are as follows: Australia, AUS; Austria, AUT; Belgium, BEL; Canada, CAN; Czech Republic, CZE;
Denmark, DNK; Estonia, EST; Finland, FIN; France, FRA; Germany, DEU; Hungary, HUN; Iceland, ISL; Israel, ISR; Japan, JPN;
Korea, KOR; Luxembourg, LUX; Mexico, MEX; the Netherlands, NLD; New Zealand, NZL; Norway, NOR; Poland, POL; Portugal,
PRT; Slovak Republic, SVK; Slovenia, SVN; Spain, ESP; Sweden, SWE; Switzerland, CHE; Turkey, TUR; United Kingdom, GBR;
United States, USA.
2011 data was used for Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain.
Source
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Health Data 2014 (June edition). Paris, France: OECD; 2014.
23
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Health Care Cost Drivers Overview
In November 2011, CIHI published a special report, titled Health Care Cost Drivers: The Facts.,
which shed light on the underlying factors influencing health care costs. 2 The report examined
growth in public-sector health spending from 1998 to 2008 in relation to macroeconomic factors
such as fiscal capacity and growth in gross domestic product (GDP). As well, the major
spending categories of hospitals, drugs and physicians were analyzed. The analysis used a
common analytical framework that focused on price effects, demographics (population growth
and aging) and other effects, such as volume and mix of services, technology and innovation.
Public-sector health expenditure in Canada increased by 7% per year in the 10-year period
from 2000 to 2010, followed by a slower average annual growth of 3.3% between 2010 and
2012. Forecasts for 2013 and 2014 show even slower rates of growth—2.4% and 2.0%,
respectively (Figure 4).
Price effects have been a significant driver of overall health spending. Since no ideal measure
of inflation for the entire health care sector exists, economy-wide inflation was used for the
purpose of the cost drivers study. General inflation averaged 2.4 percentage points of growth
per year from 2000 to 2010, with 2.5 percentage points of growth per year from 2010 to 2012.
It is forecast at 1.3% for 2013 and 1.7% for 2014.
Population growth added on average 1.0 percentage points per year to public-sector health care
spending, while population aging, at 0.9 percentage points per year, added even less to the total
growth. Demographic factors, at a combined 1.9% (both population growth and population aging),
have been a relatively modest contributor to the growth of 7% per year in health spending in last
decade. However, both population growth and aging vary considerably among provinces and
territories (see Figure 37 in Section 5.3).
The other category includes all other factors as a residual, such as health-sector inflation
above the rate of general inflation, health system efficiency, and changes in technology
and service utilization.
24
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 4: Cost Driver Shares of Average Annual Growth in Public-Sector Health Spending,
2000 to 2012, Compared With Annual Growth in 2013 and 2014
Notes
f: Forecast.
AAG: Average annual growth.
Age and sex data is available up to 2012.
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; gross domestic product, Statistics Canada.
Issues to Monitor in the Future
Weaker prospects for economic growth combined with fiscal deficits and fewer savings from
debt service charges could have a dampening effect on the future growth of public-sector
health spending.
As the percentage of the population age 80 and older increases, decision-makers will be faced
with the challenge of determining the best ways to provide care for older adults.
Price inflation has been a significant cost driver. Managing health-specific price inflation for core
medicare goods and services, including doctors, nurses, other health care professionals and
advanced diagnostics, will be a challenge.
Health care system managers and policy-makers will continue to be challenged to innovate
and reform how health care is provided. The provision of health care in Canada continues to
evolve. A few examples of the continuing transformation of the Canadian health care system
include the introduction of interprofessional collaboration to provide team-based care, expansion
in the scope of practice for some non-physician providers, increased focus on patient-centred
25
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
care, emphasis on integration and continuity of care, shifting to ambulatory and home care,
ensuring the affordability of drugs and helping health care providers to meet the needs of their
patient populations.
1.2 Total Health Expenditure per Capita
2012 and Outlook for 2013 and 2014
With the slower pace of growth, total health expenditure per capita in Canada increased to
$5,911 in 2012. Forecasts for 2013 and 2014 are $5,985 and $6,045, respectively. From 1997
to 2010, the growth in total health expenditure per capita outpaced population growth and
inflation combined. However, this trend has changed since 2011 (Figure 5).
Figure 5: Total Health Expenditure per Capita, Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table A.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
26
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Trends—1975 to 2014
Total health expenditure per capita in Canada in constant (1997) dollars—after adjusting for
inflation and population growth—declined by an annual average rate of 0.5% in the early to mid1990s. During subsequent years, total spending on health care per capita in constant dollars
increased by an average rate of 3.3% per year from 1996 to 2010 (Figure 6). The rates of
increase are projected to have declined by 0.6% in 2013 and 0.8% in 2014.
Figure 6: Total Health Expenditure per Capita, Annual Growth Rates in Constant 1997 Dollars,
Canada, 1976 to 2014
Note
See Table A.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
27
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
1.3 Total Health Expenditure and Economic Growth
2012 and Outlook for 2013 and 2014
Total health expenditure in Canada was 11.3% of GDP in 2012. It is forecast at 11.2% for 2013
and 11.0% for 2014 (Figure 7).
From 2000 to 2012, total health expenditure increased by an average of $8.9 billion yearly. Similar
to total health expenditure, GDP also grew during the same time period, with the exception of 2009
due to the economic downturn. The decline in GDP in 2009 is reflected in a higher total health
expenditure–to-GDP ratio for that year. In 2014, GDP is expected to grow faster than health
expenditures, resulting in a lower total health spending–to-GDP ratio than in 2012 and 2013.
Figure 7: Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product,
Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table A.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
As in other G7 countries, growth in Canada’s health care spending per capita has exceeded
economic growth over the last decade, resulting in an increasing share of GDP devoted to
health. Between 2000 and 2012, the health spending–to-GDP ratio in Canada increased from
9.0% to 11.3%. Similar growth was seen in other countries. For example, health spending as a
percentage of GDP in the U.S. increased from 13.1% to 16.9% in the same period; the ratio in
France went up from 10.1% to 11.6%; and in the U.K. it increased from 6.9% to 9.3%.
28
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Trends—1975 to 2014
Total health expenditure as a proportion of GDP was 7.0% in 1975. During the late 1970s, total
health expenditures increased at rates that were almost identical to the rate of growth in GDP.
The two rates of growth diverged during the early 1980s. GDP fell during the 1982 recession
and did not recover to its pre-recession level until 1984 (Figure 8). Health expenditure continued
to grow during this time. Consequently, the ratio of total health expenditure to GDP increased
sharply, from 6.8% in 1979 to 8.1% in 1983.
Figure 8: Total Health Expenditure and Nominal GDP, Annual Growth, Canada, 1976 to 2014
Note
See Table A.1 and Appendix A.1.
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; gross domestic product, Statistics Canada.
Canada experienced another recession from 1990 until 1992. The ratio of total health expenditure
to GDP increased significantly, reaching 9.8% for the first time in 1992 (Figure 7). Total health
expenditures then grew more slowly than GDP between 1993 and 1997 (Figure 8); consequently,
the health-to-GDP ratio fell each year in that period until it reached 8.7% in 1997. Health
expenditure grew faster than or close to GDP from 1998 to 2010 (except 2000), with the result
that the health–to-GDP ratio has trended upwards for the last decade, finally peaking at 11.6% in
both 2009 and 2010. This ratio declined to 11.3% in 2012.
29
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
2.0 Total Health Expenditure by Source
of Finance
Chapter Highlights
The health spending split between public and private sectors
unchanged for more than a decade
• In 2012, at the pan-Canadian level, hospitals and physicians were financed mainly by
the public sector, while drugs and other professionals were financed primarily by the
private sector. ii
• Since 1997, the public-sector share of total health expenditure has remained relatively stable
at around 70%. In 2012, the public sector spent $145.1 billion on health care, accounting for
70.6% of total health expenditure. It is forecast at $148.6 billion for 2013 and $151.5 billion
for 2014, accounting for 70.6% and 70.5% of total health spending, respectively.
• In 2012, the private sector spent $60.3 billion on health care. Annual growth rates are
forecast at 2.5% and 2.6% for 2013 and 2014, respectively. Both are higher than publicsector annual growth rates, which are forecast at 2.4% and 2.0%, respectively.
2.1
Public and Private Sectors Fund Canada’s
Health Care System
This chapter explores the sources of finance and the distribution of expenditure for different
aspects of health care spending.
Both the public and private sectors finance Canada’s health system. Public-sector funding
includes payments by governments at the federal, provincial/territorial and municipal levels and
by workers’ compensation boards and other social security schemes. Private-sector funding
consists primarily of health expenditures by households and private insurance firms.
As shown in Figure 9, provincial and territorial government spending on health accounted for
65.5% of total health expenditure in 2014. Another 5.0% came from other parts of the public
sector: federal direct government, municipal government and social security funds. The private
sector was made up of three spending categories, the largest of which was out-of-pocket
spending (14.2%), followed by private health insurance (12.2%) and non-consumption, iii which
accounted for 3.2% of total health spending.
ii. See Appendix A for category definitions.
iii. Non-consumption expenditure includes a number of heterogeneous components, such as hospital non-patient revenue, capital
expenditures for privately owned facilities and health research.
30
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 9: Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, 2014f (Percentage Share and
Billions of Dollars)
Note
f: Forecast.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
31
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
2012 and Outlook for 2013 and 2014
In 2012, governments and government agencies in Canada (the public sector) spent $145.1 billion
on health care (Figure 10). Public-sector expenditure is forecast to have been $148.6 billion in 2013
and to be $151.5 billion in 2014. The growth rates associated with these forecasted increases are
2.4% and 2.0%, respectively.
In 2012, the private sector spent $60.3 billion. Private-sector expenditure is forecast to have
reached $61.8 billion in 2013 and to reach $63.4 billion in 2014, with expected corresponding
growth rates of 2.5% and 2.6%.
Since 1997, the public-sector share of total health expenditure has remained relatively stable at
around 70%. It accounted for 70.6% of total expenditure in 2012 and is forecast to have
accounted for 70.6% in 2013 and to account for 70.5% in 2014.
Figure 10: Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table A.2.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
32
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Trends—1975 to 2014
The average annual rate of growth in public-sector health expenditure between 1975 and 1991
was 11.0%. There was a pronounced change in public-sector expenditure trends following the
1990-to-1992 recession.
During this period, governments introduced fiscal restraint measures, which affected spending
for health and social programs. Private-sector growth rates were considerably higher than the
public-sector rates during this period and, as a result, the private-sector share of total health
expenditure increased to 29.9% by 1997; it has remained stable since then. The private-sector
share is estimated to be 29.5% in 2014 (Figure 11).
Figure 11: Public- and Private-Sector Shares of Total Health Expenditure, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table A.2.2.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
33
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
2.2 Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance
Health expenditures by governments and government agencies (the public sector) are financed
by three levels of government—provincial and territorial governments; federal government direct
health care spending; and municipal government—and by workers’ compensation boards and
the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund. The distribution of public-sector expenditure among these
four sources of finance is shown in Table 1. Provincial/territorial government expenditure was
$8.7 billion in 1975, accounting for 93.6% of public-sector expenditure. The other public sources
together totalled $0.6 billion, or 6.4% of the public sector in 1975. The provincial/territorial
government share of public-sector spending declined in 1997, when the Quebec Drug Insurance
Fund was introduced, as the portion that is self-financed by premiums was included in the social
security funds sector. By 2012, provincial/territorial government expenditure was $134.7 billion,
accounting for 92.8% of public-sector expenditure.
Table 1: Distribution of Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1975 and 2012
1975
2012
$ Millions
%
$ Millions
%
8,709.3
93.6
134,655.0
92.8
Federal Direct
398.3
4.3
6,846.2
4.7
Social Security Funds*
121.1
1.3
2,735.6
1.9
Provincial/Territorial Governments
Municipal Governments
Total Expense
71.6
0.8
871.4
0.6
9,300.3
100.0
145,108.2
100.0
Notes
* This includes workers’ compensation boards and premiums to the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund.
See tables B.4.1, B.6.1, B.7.1 and B.8.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Federal Transfers
National health expenditures are reported based on the principle of responsibility for payment
rather than on the original source of the funds. It is for this reason that federal health transfers
to the provinces are included in the provincial government sector. There are now four major
programs: the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), Canada Social Transfer (CST), Territorial Formula
Financing (TFF) and Equalization.
In September 2004, first ministers signed a 10-year plan to strengthen the health care system.
This agreement included $41.3 billion in new federal spending, beginning in 2004–2005.
It included funding for the financial recommendations in the report of the Commission on the
Future of Health Care in Canada, wait times, additions to the Medical Equipment Fund, an
increase to the CHT and improvements to Aboriginal and northern health.
The increases in federal transfers were reflected primarily in increased expenditures by the
provincial and territorial governments over the past several years.
34
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Direct Federal Health Expenditure
In 2012, federal government departments and agencies provided direct health care services
to Canadians worth $6.8 billion, accounting for 3.3% of total health expenditure (including the
public and private sectors). Forecasts indicate that the share of federal direct spending will be
3.2% for both 2013 and 2014.
Federal departments that had the largest shares of total federal direct health expenditure in
2012 were Health Canada, which funded 82.2%, the Department of Veterans Affairs (7.2%),
the Solicitor General of Canada (4.5%) and the Department of National Defence (3.2%); several
other departments totalled 2.8%. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research, which is included
under Health Canada, accounted for 14.8% of total federal direct health expenditure.
Social Security Funds
Workers’ compensation boards are included under social security funds, along with a portion of
the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund. Both workers’ compensation boards and the Quebec Drug
Insurance Fund meet the conditions of social security funds. Social security funds are financially
autonomous social insurance schemes that are imposed and controlled by a government
authority. They generally involve compulsory contributions by employees, employers or both,
and the government authority determines the terms on which benefits are paid to recipients.
Workers’ compensation boards operate under provincial and territorial statute and are
considered agencies of the provincial/territorial governments. They are financed through
compulsory contributions by employers, who pay a percentage of their total payroll depending
on the accident experience of each category of employer.
On January 1, 1997, the government of Quebec created a basic drug insurance plan with the
objective of ensuring the population of Quebec has access to drugs as required by health status.
All residents of Quebec must be covered by drug insurance, whether by private group insurance
or by the public plan administered by the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ).
The Drug Insurance Fund was the chosen mechanism to pay all drug and pharmaceutical
service costs provided to subscribers iv insured by the RAMQ, as well as their children. Since
July 1, 2002, the Drug Insurance Fund has also covered persons age 65 and older and social
assistance recipients insured by the RAMQ. Accordingly, the public plan has been financed,
since July 1, 2002, both by the expenditure allocated to this program by the Quebec government
(provincial government sector) and by the amounts collected by the Drug Insurance Fund as
premiums and proceeds (social security funds sector). The premiums are paid by the subscribers
of the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund and by persons age 65 and older insured by this plan.
The premium component of the Quebec drug program is considered to be a social security
scheme, while the remaining portion of the program that is paid through the ministère de la
Santé et des Services sociaux (MSSS) is included as a provincial government expenditure.
iv. Subscribers are defined as Quebec residents younger than age 65 who do not receive social assistance benefits and who do
not have access to private group insurance.
35
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table 2 presents estimates from 1997 to 2014 for the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund.
The premiums are calculated as the difference between the total Drug Insurance Fund,
extracted from RAMQ annual reports, and the fund financed by the MSSS, extracted from
Quebec public accounts.
Table 2: Quebec Drug Insurance Fund, 1997 to 2014 (Millions of Dollars)
Financed by ministère
de la Santé et des Services
sociaux du Québec
Year
Financed Through Premiums
1997
169.2
700.2
869.4
1998
213.7
779.5
993.2
1999
259.0
922.0
1,181.0
2000
309.8
1,136.4
1,446.2
2001
361.9
1,314.9
1,676.8
2002
446.0
1,426.7
1,872.7
2003
582.1
1,534.6
2,116.7
2004
619.0
1,674.5
2,293.6
2005
620.5
1,796.9
2,417.5
2006
670.3
1,954.3
2,624.5
2007
689.1
2,187.8
2,877.0
2008
768.4
2,303.6
3,071.9
2009
808.8
2,378.7
3,187.5
2010
846.4
2,393.2
3,239.6
2011
853.4
2,445.5
3,298.9
2012
885.8
2,456.7
3,342.5
2013
f
910.6
2,457.8
3,368.4
2014
f
950.3
2,465.5
3,415.8
Note
f: Forecast.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
36
Total
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
2.3 Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance
Private-sector expenditure in the national health accounts has three distinct components:
household out-of-pocket expenditure, commercial and not-for-profit insurance expenditure and
non-consumption (e.g., capital, health research) expenditure. The distribution of private health
expenditure among these three sources of finance is shown in Figure 12.
In 1988, the first year for which data at this level of detail was available, out-of-pocket expenditure
accounted for 58.1% of private-sector expenditure. By 2012, the proportion dropped to 48.4%, as
expenditure by insurance firms grew more rapidly (Figure 12).
Figure 12: Distribution of Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988 and 2012 (Percentage Share and Millions of Dollars)
Note
Private-sector data was revised following a methodology review in the early 1990s. The revised private-sector data incorporated
information estimated directly from insurance, out-of-pocket and non-consumption sources for 1988 and subsequent years. See
Appendix A for further details.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
37
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
The share of private health insurance in private-sector health expenditure increased from 1988
to 2012, while the share of out-of-pocket expenditure dropped (Figure 13). During the same
period, the share of non-consumption expenditure remained relatively stable.
Figure 13: Share of Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1988 to 2012
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Private health insurance expenditure per capita has grown more rapidly than the other sources
of finance (Figure 14). Over more than two decades (1988 to 2012),
• Out-of-pocket health expenditure per capita increased from $277.5 to $840.1
(4.7% annual growth);
• Private health insurance expenditure per capita increased from $139.5 to $708.3
(7.0% annual growth); and
• Non-consumption expenditure per capita increased from $60.7 to $187.4 (4.8% annual growth).
38
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 14: Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988, 1998 and 2012
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Table 3 presents the distribution of expenditure financed by insurance, households (out-ofpocket expenditure) and non-consumption in 2012. Of more than $60 billion financed by the
private sector, almost half was paid by households and individuals out of pocket for health
care goods and services, while about 40.8% was made up of health insurance claims paid to
individuals by commercial and not-for-profit insurance firms. The remaining 10.8% of total
private-sector health care spending was non-consumption expenditure.
Drug expenditure in the private sector was $21 billion in 2012, accounting for 35.3% of total
private-sector spending. Prescribed drugs accounted for the largest portion of spending on
drugs, at over $16 billion in 2012. More than 60% of prescribed drugs were paid for by
insurance companies. Over-the-counter drugs and personal health supplies were paid for out
of pocket by Canadians.
The second-largest share of private-sector spending was on dental care services. Canadians
spent $11.7 billion on private dental care in 2012, of which about $7.0 billion was paid for by
insurance firms and $4.7 billion by households. When looking at expenditures on private vision
care services ($3.6 billion), only 26% was paid for by insurance companies, while 74% was paid
for out of pocket.
Of the $5.6 billion spent on hospital services by the private sector in 2012, households and
insurance firms together spent $2.4 billion providing income to hospitals for patient services. v
v.
Income to hospitals for patient services includes charges for preferred accommodation, care of non-residents, chronic care
copayments, uninsured services and other patient services.
39
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Non-patient revenue earned from investments, food services, real estate, parking, rentals,
donations and other sources provided the remaining $3.1 billion of the private-sector expenditure.
Table 3: Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance and Use of Funds,
Canada, 2012 (Millions of Dollars and Percentage Share)
Households
(Out of Pocket)
$ Millions
%
Insurance
$ Millions
933.2
16.8
5,978.7
100.0
441.7
97.8
9.7
Dental Care
4,723.2
40.4
Vision Care
2,626.1
73.6
Other—Other
Professionals
1,919.7
Prescribed Drugs
Hospital
1,508.1
Non-Consumption
%
$ Millions
%
27.1
3,118.7
56.1
Total
$ Millions
%
5,560.0
100.0
5,978.7
100.0
2.2
451.4
100.0
6,977.3
59.6
11,700.4
100.0
941.2
26.4
3,567.2
100.0
59.5
1,304.7
40.5
3,224.4
100.0
6,434.2
39.6
9,815.4
60.4
16,249.6
100.0
Over-the-Counter Drugs
2,894.3
100.0
2,894.3
100.0
Personal Health
Supplies
2,136.8
100.0
2,136.8
100.0
2,154.3
100.0
3,681.8
100.0
1,241.3
100.0
Other Institutions
Physician Care
Other Professionals
Drugs
2,154.3
Capital
3,681.8
Administration
100.0
100.0
Other Health Spending
Health Research*
1,241.3
Other Health
Care Goods
754.6
Other Health
Care Services
354.8
Total Expense
29,197.3
84.7
136.8
15.3
100.0
891.3
59.5
241.6
40.5
100.0
596.4
48.4
24,616.5
40.8
Notes
* Estimated for 2012.
See Appendix A for definitions.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
40
100.0
6,514.3
10.8
60,328.1
100.0
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
3.0 Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds
Chapter Highlights
Slower growth in spending on hospitals, drugs and physician services
• In 2014, hospitals, which make up the largest component of health care spending, are
forecast to have grown by 2.1% from 2013 to reach $63.5 billion, reflecting 29.6% of total
health expenditure. This is the lowest rate of growth since the late 1990s, and down from
2.7% last year.
• Drugs, which account for the second-largest category, are forecast to have grown by 0.8%
from 2013 to reach $33.9 billion in 2014, amounting to 15.8% of total health care spending.
This is the slowest-growing category among the three largest categories of health expenditure.
• During the same period, spending on physicians is forecast to have increased by 4.5%,
reaching $33.3 billion, which represents 15.5% of total health care spending. This is the
second-lowest rate of growth since the late 1990s, down from 4.9% last year.
3.1 Where Health Dollars Are Spent
This chapter examines where health expenditure dollars are spent in Canada.
Health dollars are used to purchase health care goods and services, to provide capital
investment, to administer public and private insurance plans as well as public-sector health
programs, and to fund research. These uses are grouped into nine major categories (uses of
funds) throughout most of the national health expenditure data series. Data table series A.3.1
to A.3.3 provides national estimates for all 13 categories.
Hospitals make up the largest component of health care spending, accounting for 29.6% of total
health expenditures in 2014. Drugs represent the second-largest share (15.8%), while physicians
make up the third-largest share (15.5%) (Figure 15).
41
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 15: Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 2014f (Percentage Share
and Billions of Dollars)
Notes
f: Forecast.
See tables C.1.1 and C.1.2 and Appendix A for definitions.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
42
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
The following three figures present different aspects of total health expenditure and per
capita spending.
Variations in public and private shares in the nine major uses of funds at the Canada level are
shown in Figure 16. Hospitals and physicians are financed mainly by the public sector, while
drugs and other professionals are financed primarily by the private sector.
Figure 16: Public and Private Shares of Total Health Expenditure, by Use of Funds, Canada, 2014f
Notes
f: Forecast.
See tables C.1.1, C.2.1 and C.3.1 and Appendix A for definitions.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
The shares of health care expenditure have changed over time for the three largest spending
categories—hospitals, physicians and drugs—as is evident in Figure 17. In 1975, hospital
spending accounted for nearly half of total health spending. There has been a notable decreasing
trend in hospitals’ share of spending over the years. However, hospital spending still takes the
largest share of total health care funding; this trend has been stable since 2001. In contrast,
drug expenditures’ share has been increasing since the mid-1980s, and it has accounted for the
second-largest share since 1997, after hospital spending. The growth of drug spending has been
stable since 2004. Physician spending as a percentage of total health expenditure edged down
in the early 1990s. From 1991 to 2005, physician spending’s share dropped from 15.2% to 13.2%.
Since 2006, physician spending as a share of total health care spending has increased.
43
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 17: Total Health Expenditure, Share of Selected Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table A.3.1.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
44
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Per capita spending on hospitals, drugs and physicians in Canada is shown in Figure 18. In 2012,
Canadians spent $1,743 per person on hospitals, $958 on drugs and $873 on physicians. Forecasts
for 2014 are $1,787, $955 and $936 per person on hospitals, drugs and physicians, respectively.
Figure 18: Total Expenditure per Capita, Selected Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table C.1.3.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
45
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
3.2 Hospitals
In 2012, Canadians spent $60.6 billion on hospitals, accounting for 29.5% of total health
expenditure. Hospital spending is forecast to have been $62.2 billion in 2013 and to be
$63.5 billion in 2014, representing 29.6% of total health expenditure for both forecast years.
Public-sector spending accounts for more than 90% of total hospital expenditure. Provincial
and territorial governments are by far the major financing sources of hospitals (89.6%), as
shown in Table 4.
Table 4: Hospital Expenditure Summary by Sector of Finance, Canada, 2012
Total Expenditure ($ Millions)
Expenditure per Capita
Share of Total
Provincial/
Territorial
Other Public*
Private
Total
$54,296.7
$723.6
$5,560.0
$60,580.3
$1,562.3
$20.8
$160.0
$1,743.1
89.6%
1.2%
9.2%
100.0%
Notes
* The Other Public category includes federal direct and municipal governments, workers’ compensation boards and the Quebec
Drug Insurance Fund.
See tables C.4.1, C.4.3, C.5.1, C.5.3, C.2.1 and C.2.3.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
From the mid-1970s to the early 1990s, as shown in Figure 19, the growth rate in public-sector
hospital expenditure was slightly lower than that in public-sector health expenditure overall. In the
mid-1990s, public-sector hospital expenditure decreased, while public-sector health expenditure
continued to grow, albeit at a very diminished pace. Hospitals were particularly affected at that
time by fiscal restraint measures, as federal and provincial/territorial governments focused on
reducing or eliminating budget deficits. This was a period of hospital consolidation, restructuring
and bed closures. There was systematic shifting from inpatient to outpatient care, especially to
day surgery procedures and ambulatory clinics in hospital settings. These measures resulted in
a sharp fall in the hospital share of public-sector health expenditure. Since 2001, the two growth
rates have been similar and the hospital share of public-sector health expenditure has been
relatively stable.
46
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 19: Hospital Share of Public-Sector Health Expenditure
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Hospital Spending Cost Drivers
In the context of the health care cost drivers project, public-sector hospital spending was
analyzed with a focus on the most recent 10 years for which comprehensive data was available
(1998 to 2008). The analysis used the common analytical framework consisting of price effects,
population growth and aging, as well as other effects. 3
The estimated average annual growth rate for public-sector hospitals in this decade was 6.7%,
which can be broken down as 2.8% for price effects (as measured by Statistics Canada’s GDP
deflator), 1.0% for population growth, 1.0% for population aging and 1.9% for other effects.
Price inflation was also a major factor in the growth of hospital costs.
The health care sector in general is labour intensive, and hospitals are no exception.
Compensation constitutes more than 60% of total hospital costs, and the single largest
component of the workforce in hospitals is nurses. Compensation of the hospital workforce also
grew faster than compensation in non-health sectors during the study period. This could be due,
in part, to the increased demand for health professionals in hospitals.
47
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Other effects include the volume and mix of services and the effects of technology and
innovation. These factors are difficult to estimate explicitly in the hospital sector, since there
have been myriad changes in models of care during the last decade. Some of these changes
have tended to reduce costs (e.g., the shift from inpatient to ambulatory care) while others have
tended to increase costs (e.g., higher average resource requirements for inpatient care).
The following issues will affect hospital expenditure trends in the future. The first two can be
seen as cost drivers. Technological changes may influence cost in different directions due to
process efficiency and new development. The fourth suggests that administrative action to limit
the effects of cost drivers may be more difficult in the future:
• Hospital inflation outpacing general inflation
• Expansion of hospital services, such as hip and knee replacements and diagnostic imaging
• Growing impact of technological changes
• Opportunities for further cost savings from shifting care from an inpatient to an
outpatient setting
48
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
3.3 Drugs
Retail sales vi of prescribed and non-prescribed drugs together constituted the second-largest
category of health expenditure in 2012, at $33.3 billion. Spending on drugs is forecast to
have increased by another 1.1% in 2013, to $33.7 billion, and to increase by 0.8% in 2014, to
$33.9 billion.
Prescribed drugs amounted to 84.9% of total expenditure on drugs in 2012 (Figure 20), of which
36.1% is attributed to the public sector and 48.8% to the private sector.
Figure 20: Drugs by Source of Finance and Type, Canada, 2012 (Percentage Share and
Billions of Dollars)
Notes
Non-prescribed drugs include over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and personal health supplies (PHS).
See tables A.3.1.1, A.3.2.1 and A.3.3.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
vi. The drug category does not include drugs dispensed in hospitals and, generally, in other institutions. These are included in the
categories of hospitals and other institutions.
49
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
As shown in Figure 21, the private sector accounted for 79.5% of expenditure for prescribed
drugs in 1975. This share decreased to 52.4% by 1992 and has remained relatively stable
since. In 2014, it is expected to be 57.9%.
Figure 21: Prescribed Drug Expenditure, Private-Sector Share, Canada, 1975 to 2014
Notes
See tables A.3.2.1 and A.3.3.1.
The spike in private prescribed drug spending observed in 2010 is due to the redesign of Survey of Household Spending (SHS) by
Statistics Canada in 2010. See Appendix A for further details.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
50
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Private prescribed drug expenditures are split between households (out of pocket) and private
health insurance. As shown in Figure 22, private health insurance accounts for a bigger share,
and its overall trend is to increase over time. The share of out-of-pocket expenditure decreased
from 44.5% in 1988 to 39.6% in 2012.
Figure 22: Private Prescribed Drug Expenditure, Share by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988 to 2012
Note
The spike in households’ (Out of Pocket) prescribed drug spending observed starting from 2010 is due to the redesign of Survey of
Household Spending (SHS) by Statistics Canada in 2010. See Appendix A for further details.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Drivers of Retail Spending on Prescription Drugs
Over the past two decades, pharmaceuticals have been one of the fastest-growing components
of health system spending in Canada. However, between 2007 and 2009, drug spending grew
more slowly than hospital spending, physician spending and total health care spending. In 2011,
CIHI released a report looking at factors that influenced retail prescription drug expenditure in
the latest 10 years. 4
The study vii examined the cost drivers of retail prescription drugs between 1998 and 2007, the
latest year for which data was available. During this period, the average annual growth rate was
10.1%. Increased volume of use and changes in the mix of treatments being used were the largest
contributors, accounting for average annual growth of 6.2% and 2.0%, respectively. Both volume
and mix effects were due in part to changes in treatment guidelines, increased disease prevalence
and the uptake of new drugs.
vii.
It should be noted that the drug cost drivers report used multiple data sources to examine overall drug spending. For further
details on the data sources, see its appendices A and B.
51
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Population growth and aging had a more modest impact on spending during the study period,
each accounting for average annual growth of 1.0%, while price changes did not have a
significant role.
Cholesterol-lowering drugs, cancer drugs and immunosuppressants accounted for roughly onethird of overall growth in drug spending; the growth of cancer drugs and immunosuppressants
was due in part to the uptake of newer biologic drugs. Trends in drug development suggest that
these classes may continue to drive spending in the years to come. Although these therapeutic
categories historically accounted for less than 10% of all approved drugs on the market, they
account for 20% of drugs approved in the past decade and nearly 30% of drugs under clinical
development today.
Some cost savings may also be available in the future due to the increased availability of generic
drugs. In 2009, drugs whose patents were set to expire between 2010 and 2014 accounted for
nearly $8.7 billion in wholesale purchases. This was equal to more than one-third (38.2%) of all
wholesale spending on prescription drugs in Canada.
In addition to a high number of generic products recently coming, or about to come, to market,
there has been a trend recently for public drug programs to regulate generic prices as a
percentage of the equivalent brand name product (these prices are often applied by private
drug programs as well).
3.4 Physicians
Physician services constituted the third-largest category of total health expenditure in 2012, at
$30.3 billion, representing 14.8% of total health expenditure. In 2014, this category is forecast to
have grown by 4.5% from 2013 to reach $33.3 billion, reflecting 15.5% of total health expenditure.
Public-sector expenditure on physicians has remained above 98% of total physician expenditure
since 1975. viii Public-sector physician health expenditure per capita in Canada was $860 in
2012. Forecasts for 2013 and 2014 are $892 and $921 (Figure 23), with growth rates of 3.7%
and 3.3%, respectively.
As Figure 23 illustrates, public-sector physician spending as a percentage of total health
expenditure declined from 1987 to 2004. Subsequently, this share increased from 13.0%
in 2005 to 15.2% in 2014.
viii. Households account for almost all private spending for physician services. Insurance for supplementary charges to patients for
medically necessary services is discouraged under the Canada Health Act.
52
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 23: Public-Sector Physician Expenditure per Capita, Share of Total Health Expenditure,
Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table C.3.3.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Physician Spending Cost Drivers
Physician expenditure in Canada has increased steadily since 1975, with the exception of a
few years during the 1990s. It was one of the fastest-growing categories of health expenditure
in the last seven years (except 2010), outpacing growth in spending on hospitals or drugs. CIHI
presented the results of an analysis of physician cost drivers in 2011. This report 5 focused on
the period 1998 to 2008, the most recent 10 years for which comprehensive data was available.
The key points from the analysis are summarized below:
• Total public-sector spending on physicians increased at an average annual rate of
6.8% between 1998 and 2008.
• Physician fee increases (average annual increase of 3.6%) were the main cost driver during
this period, accounting for approximately one-half of annual growth in expenditure.
• Physician fees have grown faster than wages for other health and social services workers.
• Population growth and aging accounted for combined average annual increases of 1.6%
in expenditure.
• Physician supply per 1,000 Canadians grew more rapidly from 2004 to 2008, despite the
relatively low supply level in Canada compared with that in other OECD countries.
53
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
A number of factors identified in the study have the potential to affect future trends in
expenditure for physicians’ services.
• Increases in physician fees have been above rates of inflation. Many provinces have
multi-year contracts with physicians.
• Utilization increased at accelerated rates between 2003 and 2008. Higher expenditure per
physician combined with an increasing physician supply could have added to these rates
of growth in the few years following 2008.
• The scope of practice of non-physician health professionals is changing, meaning that
pharmacists or nurse practitioners may be offering services previously delivered by another
provider, but at a lower cost.
3.5 Other Professionals
The broad category of other professionals ix includes care primarily provided by dental and vision
care professionals. The category of other professionals accounted for $20.4 billion, or 9.9%, of
total expenditures in 2012, and has maintained the highest percentage of private spending of all
the major categories (91%).
In 2012, total per capita health expenditure on dental services in Canada, including the public
and private sectors, was $359 (Figure 24). The private sector, which makes up the largest
component of spending on dental services, grew annually at an average rate of 4.6% from
2000 to 2012. Private spending reached $337 per person in 2012, reflecting 57.4% of total
expenditure on other professionals.
During the same period, total per capita spending on vision care grew at an average annual rate
of 2.5% to reach $113 in 2012, which represents 19.3% of total other professionals spending.
Expenditures on dental services grew faster than those on vision care in the last decade. From
2000 to 2012, the average annual growth rate for dental services in Canada was 4.7%, while for
vision care it was 3.6%.
ix. Care provided by nurses in hospitals is included in hospital expenditures.
54
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 24: Dental and Vision Care Services Expenditure, Total per Capita, Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
The decreases in dental and vision care services spending observed starting from 2010 are due to the redesign of the Survey
of Household Spending (SHS) by Statistics Canada in 2010. See Appendix A for further details.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
CIHI’s Health Personnel Database shows that between 2003 and 2012, the number of dentists
and dental hygienists increased by 39.4%, from 35,122 to 48,945; the average annual growth
rate was more than three times that of the Canadian population. Growth in the number of
optometrists in the same time period, from 3,821 to 5,356, was slightly more than the growth
rates of dentists and dental hygienists combined.
55
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Dental care and vision care are the major discrete categories of expenditure in the private
sector for other professional services (Figure 25). The remaining subcategory (other) includes
professionals such as chiropractors, massage therapists, physiotherapists, podiatrists
and psychologists.
Figure 25: Professionals Expenditure by Source of Finance and Type, Canada, 2012
(Percentage Share and Billions of Dollars)
Note
See tables A.3.2.1 and A.3.3.1.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
56
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
As shown in Figure 26, dental care accounted for 71.6% of private-sector expenditure for other
professionals in 1975. This share is forecast to decrease to 62.8% in 2014. The share of vision
care in the private sector for other professional services is forecast to be 18.8% in 2014.
Figure 26: Other Professionals Expenditure, Share of Total Private Spending,
by Type, Canada, 1975 to 2014
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
57
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
For dental services, the shares of private insurance and of household (out-of-pocket) spending
were almost equal in 1988. By 2012, the share of household spending had decreased to 40.4%,
and that of private health insurance had increased to 59.6 (Figure 27).
Figure 27: Private Dental Expenditures, Share by Source of Finance, Canada, 1988 to 2012
Note
The decrease in dental expenditures observed starting from 2010 is due to the redesign of the Survey of Household Spending
(SHS) by Statistics Canada in 2010. See Appendix A for further details.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
58
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
3.6 Other Institutions
In 2012, the category of other institutions, which includes nursing homes and residential care
facilities, accounted for 10.3% of total health expenditures, or $21.2 billion. Other institutions’
share of total health expenditure is forecast at 10.3% for both 2013 and 2014.
Other institutions’ health expenditure per capita increased during the period from 1975 to 2014
(Figure 28). It was $49 in 1975, increased more than tenfold to $609 in 2012, and is forecast to
have been $617 in 2013 and to be $625 in 2014. The annual growth rate was 2.4% in 2012 and
is expected to have been 1.3% in 2013 and to be 1.2% in 2014.
Figure 28: Other Institutions Health Expenditure per Capita, Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table C.1.3.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Public-sector expenditure is the main source of finance for other institutions. In many provinces,
public responsibility is split between provincial and/or regional authorities; funding is often
provided by both health and social services departments. In 2012, the public-sector share of
other institutions was 71.8%.
59
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Despite the growth in spending on other institutions, the public-sector share of total other
institutions expenditure is expected to drop to 71.2% in 2014 from 76.4% in 2001 (Figure 29).
Figure 29: Public-Sector Other Institutions Expenditure as a Percentage of Total Other Institutions
Expenditure, Canada, 2000 to 2014
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
3.7 Administration
Prior to 2005, NHEX included a category of public health and administration in public-sector
expenditure estimates. A study published in June 2002 examined the feasibility of breaking
out the category into separate components for public health expenditure and administrative
expenditure. 6 A complete review of provincial estimates was carried out during the feasibility
study to create separate subcategories for public health and certain public and private
administration costs. The review identified two key factors that limit the degree of comparability
of estimates from public sources and therefore are responsible for significant variation between
the estimates of some provinces.
These factors are the following:
1. The degree of provincial/territorial detail for certain items in the public health subcategory
was quite variable. Levels of detail for administrative costs also vary from province to
province in public sources.
2. In the absence of a consistent reporting framework, the ability to produce consistent
inter-provincial/-territorial comparisons is limited.
60
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Results of the review were presented in the 2005 edition of National Health Expenditure Trends.
Following consultation with the NHEX Expert Advisory Group, the original category of public health
and administration was redefined and separated. The data tables were revised back to 1975.
Administration includes infrastructure costs to operate health departments, as well as prepayment
administration (the administrative expenses of providing health insurance by governments and
private health insurance companies). Administrative expenses for health services are included
under the relevant category of service. For example, administrative costs of operating hospitals
are included under the hospital category, and administrative costs of operating long-term care
programs are included under the other institutions category.
In 1975, administration accounted for 2.9% of total public-sector expenditure and 2.5% of total
private-sector expenditure. The public- and private-sector trends have differed over time. While
the public-sector share gradually declined to 1.8% in 2012, the private-sector share rose to
6.1%. For detailed cost data on administration, see Appendix B—Data Tables, Table A.3.2.2
and Table A.3.3.2.
3.8 Public Health
NHEX captures public health spending by governments and government agencies and includes
expenditures for items such as food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion
activities, community mental health programs, public health nursing, measures to prevent the
spread of communicable disease and occupational health to promote and enhance health and
safety at the workplace. The decision to broaden the definition of public health beyond the ambit
of health promotion, disease prevention and health inspection is consistent with the definition of
prevention and public health services used by the OECD in its manual, A System of Health
Accounts (SHA). The SHA is the framework that Canada’s health accounts are based on.
In 1975, public health accounted for 3.3% of total expenditure. Growth in this category has
generally been higher than in other categories throughout the series. During the period when
governments practised policies of retrenchment in health care spending, particularly from
1993 to 1996, growth in public health was at least double the growth in total health expenditure.
This resulted in the share of total expenditure increasing to 5.2% in 2012. The share is expected
to be 5.2% for 2013 and 5.3% for 2014 (Figure 30).
61
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 30: Public Health Spending as a Percentage of Total Health Expenditure,
Canada, 1975 to 2014
Note
See Table A.3.1.2.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
3.9 Other Health Spending
In 2012, other health expenditures accounted for $12.4 billion, or 6.0% of total health
expenditure. In 2013 and 2014, it is expected that other health spending will have grown
by 2.5% and 3.4%, respectively.
The subcategory with the greatest impact on the category of other health spending is health
research, which accounted for 1.6% of total health expenditure in 2012 for Canada. x The
remaining categories include medical transportation, hearing aids and appliances, voluntary
health associations and explicitly identified home care. Certain services that are identified by
data sources as home care are included under the broad category of other health spending.
Private nursing care in the home, however, would be included in the other professionals
category. Home care programs provided by hospitals are included in the hospitals category.
Support services such as domestic maintenance and delivery of meals are considered to be
social services within the current definition of home care and are removed where identified.
Public-sector sources accounted for 78.0% of other health expenditures in 2012, most of which
was for health research, medical transportation and home care.
x.
62
Research funded by pharmaceutical companies is funded from drug sales and included in the drugs category.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
4.0 Health Expenditure in the Provinces
and Territories
Chapter Highlights
Variations in provincial/territorial spending on health
• Total health expenditure per capita varies among the provinces. In 2014, Newfoundland and
Labrador and Alberta are forecast to spend more per person on health care than the other
provinces, at $6,953 and $6,783, respectively. Quebec and British Columbia are forecast to
have the lowest health expenditure per capita, at $5,616 and $5,865, respectively.
• In 2014, total health expenditure as a percentage of provincial GDP is forecast to range from
8.0% in Alberta to 16.3% in Prince Edward Island. For the territories, the health expenditure–
to-territorial GDP ratio is forecast at 19.4% for Nunavut, 12.7% for Yukon and 10.3% for the
Northwest Territories.
4.1 Provincial/Territorial Health Spending Differs
This chapter examines how much the provinces and territories spend on health care and the
variations across the jurisdictions.
Health expenditure per capita varies among provinces/territories in part because of different age
distributions. xi Population density and geography also affect health expenditure, particularly in
the case of the territories. Other factors that affect health expenditure include population health
needs, the manner in which health care is delivered (including the balance between institutional
and ambulatory care) and differences in the remuneration of health care workers across the
country. The manner in which health care is financed is also an important consideration,
including the degree of public coverage and private insurance for services not included
in the Canada Health Act.
Health expenditure per capita is highest in the territories because of, among other things, their
large geographical areas and low population densities (Table 5). In 2014, total health expenditure
per capita in Newfoundland and Labrador is expected to reach $6,953, followed by Alberta
($6,783). The lowest per person expenditures are forecast for Quebec ($5,616), followed by
British Columbia ($5,865).
In 2014, total health expenditure as a percentage of provincial GDP is expected to range from
8.0% in Alberta to 16.3% in Prince Edward Island. For the territories, the health expenditure–
to-territorial GDP ratio is forecast to be 19.4% for Nunavut, 12.7% for Yukon and 10.3% for the
Northwest Territories.
xi.
Provincial/territorial comparisons in this discussion are based on figures that are not adjusted for variations in age and sex.
For age–sex standardized comparisons, see the discussion in the next section.
63
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
The public sector is forecast to be responsible for 70.5% of Canadian health expenditure in
2014. The public sector’s share is expected to be the highest in the territories (ranging from
75.4% in Yukon to 92.3% in Nunavut) and the lowest in Ontario (68.1%).
Provincial and territorial governments’ health expenditure per capita is expected to average
$3,960 in 2014. The highest per capita spending among the provinces is projected to be in
Newfoundland and Labrador ($5,087) and Alberta ($4,699), while the lowest is forecast to be
in Quebec ($3,660) and Ontario ($3,768).
Private-sector expenditure is expected to be $1,784 per capita in 2014. Among the provinces,
Nova Scotia ($2,065) and New Brunswick ($1,942) are forecast to have the highest spending,
while Saskatchewan ($1,487) and Newfoundland and Labrador ($1,649) are forecast to have
the lowest.
64
Provincial/Territorial
Government
Total
Expenditure
$ Billions
Exp. as
Exp. per Percentage
Capita
of GDP
Expenditure
$
%
$ Billions
Total Public Sector*
Exp. per
Capita
Growth
Exp. per
From
Capita
2013 Expenditure
$
%
$ Billions
Private Sector
Exp. per
Capita
Exp. per
Capita
Growth
From
2013
$
%
%
$ Billions
$
%
Exp. as
Percentage
Exp. per
of Total
Expenditure Capita
Exp. per
Capita
Growth
From
2013
Exp. as
Percentage
of Total
%
N.L.
3.7
6,953
9.7
2.7
5,087
1.3
2.8
5,304
1.3
76.3
0.9
1,649
2.4
23.7
P.E.I.
0.9
6,477
16.3
0.6
4,307
0.6
0.7
4,778
0.4
73.8
0.2
1,700
2.2
26.2
N.S.
6.4
6,761
15.6
4.1
4,345
2.6
4.4
4,696
2.5
69.5
1.9
2,065
3.7
30.5
N.B.
4.8
6,340
14.7
3.1
4,094
1.4
3.3
4,398
1.4
69.4
1.5
1,942
1.9
30.6
Que.
46.1
5,616
11.9
30.1
3,660
1.3
32.6
3,967
1.3
70.6
13.6
1,650
1.8
29.4
Ont.
80.7
5,894
11.3
51.6
3,768
0.4
55.0
4,014
0.4
68.1
25.7
1,879
0.7
31.9
Man.
8.5
6,689
13.7
5.7
4,430
0.2
6.4
5,000
0.7
74.8
2.2
1,689
1.8
25.2
7.3
6,472
8.6
5.0
4,461
0.3
5.6
4,985
0.8
77.0
1.7
1,487
0.8
23.0
Alta.
27.8
6,783
8.0
19.3
4,699
2.1
20.6
5,012
2.1
73.9
7.3
1,771
2.6
26.1
B.C.
27.3
5,865
11.5
17.7
3,807
-0.5
19.0
4,085
-0.4
69.7
8.3
1,780
1.5
30.3
Y.T.
0.4
10,044
12.7
0.2
6,407
-4.8
0.3
7,574
-3.4
75.4
0.1
2,470
11.7
24.6
N.W.T.
0.5
12,160
10.3
0.4
8,018
0.5
0.4
9,945
1.7
81.8
0.1
2,215
3.9
18.2
Nun.
0.5
13,160
19.4
0.4
10,393
-5.1
0.4
12,152
-3.7
92.3
0.0
1,009
-2.9
7.7
214.9
6,045
11.0
140.8
3,960
0.8
151.5
4,261
0.8
70.5
63.4
1,784
1.4
29.5
Sask.
Canada
Notes
* Total Public Sector includes provincial/territorial, federal direct and municipal governments; workers’ compensation boards; and the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund.
f: Forecast.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
65
Table 5: Health Expenditure Summary, by Province/Territory and Canada, 2014f
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
The figures in Table 6 present total health expenditures per capita and shares of the total
provincial expenditure in 2014 by selected use of funds for each jurisdiction. For hospital
spending, Newfoundland and Labrador and Alberta are forecast to spend more per capita than
any other province, at $2,496 and $2,386, respectively. Quebec and Ontario are projected to
have the lowest per capita spending on hospitals, at $1,487 and $1,665, respectively.
For the drug category, the highest per capita spending among the provinces is projected to be
in New Brunswick ($1,145) and Nova Scotia ($1,098), while the lowest is forecast to be British
Columbia ($740) and Saskatchewan ($856).
For physician spending, the highest per capita spending among the provinces is projected to be
in Alberta ($1,060) and Ontario ($989), while the lowest is forecast to be in Prince Edward
Island ($751) and New Brunswick ($791).
66
Hospitals
Drugs
Exp. per
Capita
Exp. as
Percentage
of Provincial
Total
$
N.L.
Physicians
Exp. per
Capita
Exp. as
Percentage
of Provincial
Total
%
$
2,496
35.9
P.E.I.
2,034
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Other Professionals
Exp. per
Capita
Exp. as
Percentage
of Provincial
Total
%
$
951
13.7
31.4
934
2,058
30.4
2,103
1,487
Ont.
Other Institutions
Exp. per
Capita
Exp. as
Percentage
of Provincial
Total
Exp. per
Capita
Exp. as
Percentage
of Provincial
Total
%
$
%
$
%
888
12.8
471
6.8
882
12.7
14.4
751
11.6
526
8.1
908
14.0
1,098
16.2
878
13.0
711
10.5
868
12.8
33.2
1,145
18.1
791
12.5
549
8.7
725
11.4
26.5
1,065
19.0
844
15.0
509
9.1
786
14.0
1,665
28.3
982
16.7
989
16.8
608
10.3
577
9.8
Man.
2,010
30.0
862
12.9
948
14.2
613
9.2
777
11.6
Sask.
1,945
30.1
856
13.2
926
14.3
569
8.8
795
12.3
Alta.
2,386
35.2
882
13.0
1,060
15.6
740
10.9
506
7.5
B.C.
1,801
30.7
740
12.6
868
14.8
717
12.2
381
6.5
Y.T.
2,791
27.8
735
7.3
930
9.3
759
7.6
1,956
19.5
N.W.T.
4,471
36.8
702
5.8
1,177
9.7
654
5.4
922
7.6
Nun.
4,688
35.6
644
4.9
1,498
11.4
579
4.4
1,269
9.6
Canada
1,787
29.6
955
15.8
936
15.5
613
10.1
625
10.3
Note
f: Forecast.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
67
Table 6: Total Health Expenditure per Capita and Share, Selected Use of Funds, by Province/Territory and Canada, 2014f
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
4.2 Trends in the Provinces and Territories
The figures in this section present health expenditure per capita at constant prices. This is to
standardize for both population growth and inflation, which have varied by province/territory
during the last two decades. xii
The 1990s witnessed policies of health system reform and public-sector expenditure restraint in
virtually all jurisdictions. Public-sector expenditure per capita declined across the board at some
time during this period, although the timing and duration of expenditure reductions varied.
Saskatchewan and Alberta experienced sharp declines, while Ontario experienced declines in each
of the four years from 1993 to 1996. Public investment in health care near the end of the 1990s
contributed to significant increases in growth rates of public-sector health expenditure across
Canada. Meanwhile, the private sector experienced parallel growth in all provinces.
xii.
68
The indices used to measure inflation are the implicit price index for government current expenditure in the public sector and
the consumer price index—health component in the private sector from Statistics Canada. Both indices track prices separately
in each province and territory. See Collection and Non-Response in Appendix A for more details.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 31: Public- and Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, 1988 to 2014,
by Province and Territory, Constant 1997 Dollars
(cont’d on next page)
Note
See tables B.2.5 and B.3.5.
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; population and price indices, Statistics Canada.
69
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 31: Public- and Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, 1988 to 2014,
by Province and Territory, Constant 1997 Dollars (cont’d)
(cont’d on next page)
Note
See tables B.2.5 and B.3.5.
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; population and price indices, Statistics Canada.
70
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 31: Public- and Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, 1988 to 2014,
by Province and Territory, Constant 1997 Dollars (cont’d)
Note
See tables B.2.5 and B.3.5.
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; population and price indices, Statistics Canada.
71
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
5.0 Provincial and Territorial Government Health
Expenditure by Age and Sex
Chapter Highlights
Health spending highest on seniors and infants
• Similar to previous years, per capita health care spending by provincial and territorial
governments was highest for seniors and infants.
• In 2012, the latest available year for data broken down by age group, Canadians younger
than age 1 cost an estimated $10,487 per person. For youths age 1 to 14, per person
average spending on health was $1,409; it was $2,607 per capita for those age 15 to 64.
Compared with other age groups, per person spending for seniors increased prominently:
$6,368 for those age 65 to 69, $8,545 for those 70 to 74, $11,692 for those 75 to 79 and
$21,054 for those 80 and older.
CIHI has been collecting actual utilization data since 1996 from national and provincial/territorial
administrative databases for the major categories of service delivered by provincial and territorial
governments. The estimates for five major categories—hospitals, physicians, drugs, other
institutions and other professionals—are presented in the Series E data tables of this report.
5.1 Standardization for Age and Sex
This chapter examines provincial and territorial government health expenditure, after adjusting
for population age and sex profiles.
Similarities in provincial and territorial government per capita health expenditures arise in large
part because of universal coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services under
the Canada Health Act. However, each jurisdiction has different population age and sex profiles,
which could lead to systematic differences in total expenditure (even if per capita expenditure were
virtually the same for each age and sex group). Standardizing expenditure to a common population
distribution provides a means of measuring differences that result from utilization and prices.
Total provincial/territorial government expenditure per capita, standardized for age and sex, is
compared in Table 7. The data shows both actual and standardized expenditures from 2009
to 2012 (the latest year for which age and sex data is available). Standardized expenditures were
calculated by multiplying the male and female population of Canada in each of 19 age groups
by the expenditure per capita for each age group in each province and territory and dividing the
product by the population of Canada.
Percentage differences between actual and standardized expenditure tend to be most
pronounced in Alberta and the territories. Alberta and the territories have lower-than-average
percentages of their populations older than 65, which accounts for their increases in per capita
expenditure when standardized to the national population. Ontario shows little difference
between actual and standardized expenditure, due to its large share of the total population.
Most other provinces show lower expenditure per capita when data is standardized.
72
2009
2010
2011
2012
Actual
Standardized
Difference*
Actual
Standardized
Difference*
Actual
Standardized Difference*
$
$
%
$
$
%
$
$
%
$
$
%
N.L.
4,265
4,217
-1.1
4,671
4,614
-1.2
4,944
4,864
-1.6
5,095
5,010
-1.7
P.E.I.
3,665
3,507
-4.3
3,959
3,800
-4.0
4,340
4,181
-3.7
4,213
4,058
-3.7
N.S.
3,531
3,327
-5.8
3,849
3,637
-5.5
4,090
3,878
-5.2
4,140
3,912
-5.5
N.B.
3,710
3,514
-5.3
3,886
3,678
-5.4
4,103
3,891
-5.2
4,066
3,834
-5.7
Que.
3,208
3,119
-2.8
3,315
3,214
-3.0
3,430
3,321
-3.2
3,474
3,359
-3.3
Ont.
3,498
3,525
0.8
3,624
3,650
0.7
3,685
3,710
0.7
3,734
3,753
0.5
Man.
3,981
3,933
-1.2
4,115
4,094
-0.5
4,255
4,272
0.4
4,434
4,477
1.0
Sask.
3,843
3,703
-3.6
4,056
3,938
-2.9
4,278
4,211
-1.6
4,313
4,295
-0.4
Alta.
3,964
4,424
11.6
4,422
4,967
12.3
4,472
5,043
12.8
4,587
5,196
13.3
B.C.
3,435
3,360
-2.2
3,573
3,496
-2.1
3,681
3,598
-2.2
3,793
3,704
-2.4
Y.T.
5,362
6,696
24.9
5,426
6,846
26.2
5,845
7,515
28.6
5,933
7,858
32.5
N.W.T.
6,738
9,910
47.1
6,645
10,038
51.1
7,318
11,005
50.4
7,353
11,054
50.3
Nun.
9,084
15,032
65.5
9,447
15,554
64.6
10,042
16,571
65.0
10,529
17,493
66.1
Canada 3,530
3,530
—
3,705
3,705
—
3,806
3,806
—
3,874
3,874
—
Notes
* Difference between actual and standardized amounts.
It is not recommended to compare standardized data across years.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; population, Statistics Canada.
Actual Standardized Difference*
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
73
Table 7: Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita, Standardized for Age and Sex,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2009 to 2012
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
5.2 Population Aging
Canada’s population is growing; 7 this growth is a function of changing birth, mortality,
immigration and emigration rates. Although these factors are largely outside the control of
health system decision-makers, the implications of a growing population in terms of potential
demand for health care services in the future need to be considered.
Population aging describes a shift in the age structure of the population. Like many
industrialized countries, Canada is undergoing a demographic shift. As seen in Figure 32, the
largest concentration of the population is in the middle age groups (30s to 50s); however, the
baby-boom cohort, Canada’s largest population group in recent history, is beginning to turn 65.
Figure 32: Age Distribution, Canada, 2000 and 2012
Source
Population, Statistics Canada.
One perception is that future demands for health care by an aging population will strain
governments’ ability to fund services covered under the Canada Health Act. However, some
Canadian studies suggest that the effects of population growth and aging will be manageable
within the context of a growing economy.
74
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
The distribution of provincial/territorial government health expenditure by age and sex xiii is
shown in Figure 33. More was spent on seniors’ health care than on health care for other age
groups. More was spent on females age 25 to 34 and age 80 and older than on males of the
same age ranges. This is because females tend to have longer life expectancy and because of
higher costs during childbearing years.
Figure 33: Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
Canada, 2012
Note
See Table E.1.15.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
xiii. Missing data was estimated for this analysis. A detailed explanation of the method and data sources used to distribute provincial/
territorial government health expenditure by age and sex is available in Appendix A.
75
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
As a consequence of the population shift and baby boomers turning 65, there is a concern that
an aging population will lead to greater demands for health care services and acceleration in
the growth of health spending. However, seniors are a diverse group. As shown in Figure 34,
provincial and territorial government health spending varies among the senior age groups.
On average, health care spending per person is highest for those age 80 and older.
Figure 34: Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita, by Age Group,
Canada, 2012
Note
See Table E.1.15.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Older seniors consume more health care dollars largely as a consequence of two factors: the
cost of health care in the last few months of life, and the minority of the population with chronic
illnesses that tends to require more intensive medical attention with age. Survey data shows a
stronger correlation between the presence of multiple chronic diseases and higher utilization of
health services than between age and utilization. 8
76
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
As seen in Figure 32 and Figure 35, while Canadians older than age 65 account for less than
15% of the population, they consume 45% of provincial and territorial government health care
dollars. xiv However, the share spent on Canadian seniors has not changed much over the last
decade or so—from 44% in 2000 to 45% in 2012. During the same time period, the percentage
of seniors in the population grew from 12.5% to 14.9%.
Figure 35: Share of Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Age Group,
Canada, 2000 and 2012
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
xiv. Program design also plays a small role. For example, most provincial and territorial drug plans target seniors for coverage.
77
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
5.3 Issues to Monitor in Future
As the percentage of the population age 80 and older increases, decision-makers will be faced
with the challenge of determining the levels of hospital care, long-term institutional care and
community care for older Canadians that balance access, quality and appropriateness of care
on the one hand and cost on the other.
Figure 36 shows that the effects of aging have varied slightly across categories in the
provincial/territorial government sector and that aging is not the dominant factor. Aging
contributed an average annual rate of growth of only 0.6% to physician spending and
contributed 2.1% per year on average to the growth in spending on other institutions.
Figure 36: Contribution of Aging to Average Annual Growth for Hospitals, Physicians,
Drugs and Other Institutions, Canada, 2000 to 2012
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
78
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Even though population aging has been a very modest cost driver overall (contributing an
annual average growth of only 0.9%), the effects of population aging vary across Canada.
As can be seen in Figure 37, there is a noticeable east–west gradient in Canada, in which the
impact of aging is more significant in the Atlantic region and Quebec than in Ontario and
Western Canada. The different demographic profiles across provinces/territories are a product
of numerous factors, including immigration and interprovincial migration. The influx of workingage individuals into a province or territory usually lessens the importance of population aging
as a health care cost driver.
Figure 37: Contribution of Population Growth and Aging to Average Annual Growth
in Provincial/Territorial Government Health Spending, by Province/Territory
and Canada, 2000 to 2012
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
79
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
6.0 Provincial and Territorial Government Fiscal
Position and Health Expenditures
Chapter Highlights
Health spending as a share of total program spending stable on
average since 2005
• Around 40% of total provincial/territorial government program expenditures were allocated to
health care in 2013.
6.1 Provincial and Territorial Government Financial Trends
This chapter explores the relationship between the provincial/territorial government fiscal
position (as expressed by the level of revenues) and its health expenditures. From 1998 to
2009, provincial-/territorial-sector health spending, along with other major sectors such as
transportation, communications and education, grew faster than the rate of revenue growth
of provincial, territorial and federal governments. This faster growth in program spending
was supported by a lower debt burden. The data used here consists of general government
revenues and expenditures. xv
Revenues
Provincial and territorial revenues are identified as two major categories of revenue: own-source
revenue and intergovernmental transfers. The first category consists of taxation, investments
and other sources, such as royalties. Transfers from other levels of government—the second
major category of revenue—include statutory subsidies, equalization payments, the CHT and
the CST. Even though both own-source revenues per capita and transfers per capita at constant
(1993) price levels fluctuated between 1993 and 2012, they generally increased over this period
(Figure 38). Transfers per capita decreased in constant dollars in the mid-1990s and then
increased in subsequent years. To some extent, these increases have mitigated the impact of
negative growth in provincial and territorial government own-source revenue, namely in the
early 2000s and during the 2008–2009 recession.
xv. The financial trend data from Statistics Canada’s Financial Management System (FMS) is used. General government revenues
and expenditures are the largest component of the series for total provincial and territorial government revenues and expenditures.
The remaining three components are non-autonomous pension plans, universities and colleges, and health and social service
institutions. General government expenditure is consistent with expenditures reported in the public accounts; the public accounts
are also the source of data used in the NHEX series. For this analysis, fiscal year data has been converted to calendar year data.
80
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 38: Provincial/Territorial Government Revenue, Constant Dollar Indices
(1993 = 100), Canada, 1993 to 2013
Note
FMS data is estimated for 2009 to 2013.
Sources
Financial Management System, Statistics Canada; provincial public accounts, budgets, main estimates.
In interpreting this trend data, it is important to note that transfers include all intergovernmental
transfers, including at various times the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST), Established
Programs Funding and Canada Assistance Plan. The CHST replaced the latter two transfer
mechanisms in 1996–1997, which in turn was replaced by the CHT and the CST in 2004–2005.
Amounts transferred under these programs are often the main focus of discussion about funding
for health and social programs. Federal, provincial and territorial cost-sharing arrangements
for health also included the value of tax points, which would be included as provincial and
territorial government own-source revenue.
Starting in 2014–2015, CHT transfers to provincial/territorial governments are allocated on an
equal per capita cash basis only. Total CHT cash levels are set in legislation to grow at 6% until
2016–2017. Starting in 2017–2018, total CHT cash will grow in line with a three-year moving
average of nominal GDP, with funding guaranteed to increase by at least 3% per year, as
reported in the 2014 budget. 9
Health Expenditures
In 2014, provincial and territorial government health expenditures are forecast to reach
$140.8 billion, which accounts for 65.5% of total health expenditures in Canada and 94.8% of
expenditures by all levels of government (federal, provincial and municipal).
81
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Provincial and territorial government expenditure per capita in constant (1997) dollars declined
at an average annual rate of -0.7% from 2010 to 2012, the second period of decrease since
1975 (Figure 39). However, during the first period (from 1991 to 1996), the decline was much
more pronounced, with an average annual rate of -1.6%.
Figure 39: Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita in Constant 1997
Dollars, Canada, Three Distinct Periods, 1975 to 2014
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Statistics Canada.
Health Expenditure and Total Provincial/Territorial
Government Expenditure
Total provincial/territorial government expenditures include two components: total program
expenditures (health, education, transportation and communication and social services) and
debt charges. During the most recent years, the declining fiscal balance led to a slightly higher
debt burden, reaching 8.5% of expenditures in 2013. This number is up from a low of 8.1% in
2009, after a decade of improving fiscal balance and lower interest rates.
The shares of total provincial/territorial government expenditures and program expenditures
allocated to health were 34.5% and 37.7%, respectively, in 2013 (Figure 40). Health
expenditures were equivalent to
• A high of 35.8% of total provincial/territorial government expenditures and 39.3% of program
expenditures (total expenditure less debt charges) in 2008; and
• A low of 27.5% of total provincial/territorial government expenditures and 32.5% of program
expenditures in 1995.
82
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 40: Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure as a Proportion of Total
Provincial/Territorial Government Expenditure and Programs, Canada, 1993 to 2013
Note
FMS data is estimated for 2009 to 2013.
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Financial Management System, Statistics Canada;
provincial public accounts, budgets, main estimates.
When general inflation and population growth are accounted for, provincial/territorial
government health spending grew at an average annual rate of 3.7% from 1998 until 2009,
higher than the rate of revenue growth of provincial/territorial governments. However, spending
in other major sectors, including transportation and communication and education, also
exceeded revenue growth (Figure 41). This was a result of the fiscal dividend that governments
earned as a result of bringing down debt loads in the 1990s, thereby reducing—substantially—
the interest they had to pay on outstanding debt in the years following. However, not all of the
fiscal dividend was invested in government programs such as health care. Some of the dividend
was returned to Canadians in the form of tax cuts, thus also explaining the relatively moderate
growth of government revenues during the period.
The decline in interest rates reduced government debt service costs and allowed for investments
in new programs, expansion of existing programs—including health care—and tax reduction. xvi
However, in the wake of the global recession in 2008, and with the return of large provincial/
territorial fiscal deficits and lower GDP growth, the foundation for a fiscal dividend has
not continued.
xvi. Balanced budgets after the mid-1990s opened up a fiscal dividend that enabled provinces to spend more on health, even while
lowering income and corporate taxes.
83
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 41: Provincial/Territorial Government Spending Growth (Health, Transportation/
Communications, Education and Social Services) Compared With Revenue and Debt
Charges, Average Annual Real per Capita Expenditure Growth, Canada, 1998 to 2009
Source
Financial Management System, Statistics Canada.
6.2 Issues to Monitor in Future
With fiscal surpluses from 1998 to 2009, provincial and territorial governments were able to
reduce government debt service costs, which allowed for investments in new programs,
expansion of existing programs—including health care—and tax reduction. Improved
government fiscal position could shift the trends of health spending in the future.xvii
Changes to the CHT starting in 2014–2015 may affect provincial/territorial government health
care spending.
xvii.
84
The federal government has projected a return to balanced budgets in 2015.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
7.0 International Comparisons
Chapter Highlights
Health spending slows in Canada and other OECD countriesxviii
• In 2012, Canada was among the top quartile of spenders in the OECD with regard to total
health expenditure per capita.
• The public-sector share of total health expenditure in Canada (70.1%) was below the OECD
average (73.3%).
• In per capita terms, Canada was among the top spenders for drugs (US$771) and physicians’
services (US$684), and near the OECD average for hospital services (US$1,310).
7.1 Comparability of Health Expenditure Across Countries
This chapter compares health care spending in Canada with that in other OECD countries in
2012, both on a per capita basis and in relation to GDP. It discusses the mix between public and
private funding and looks at three major types of services and goods (hospital services, drugs,
physicians’ services). Finally, it compares Canada’s growth rates in health care spending per
capita with those of other OECD countries since 2000, with a focus on the years after the
beginning of the global economic recession in 2008.
7.2 OECD Definition of Total Health Expenditure
Total expenditure on health is defined by the OECD as the sum of expenditure on activities
that—through application of medical, paramedical and nursing knowledge and technology—
have the goals of
• Promoting health and preventing disease;
• Curing illness and reducing premature mortality;
• Caring for persons affected by chronic illness who require nursing care;
• Caring for persons with health-related impairments and disabilities who require nursing care;
• Assisting patients to die with dignity;
• Providing and administering public health; and
• Providing and administering health programs, health insurance and other funding arrangements.
Activities such as food and hygiene control, health research and development and training of
health workers are considered health-related but are not included in total health expenditure.
xviii. OECD member countries are asked to report health expenditure according to concepts presented in the OECD manual
A System of Health Accounts (SHA). Countries are at varying stages of reporting total health expenditure according to the
boundary of health care proposed in the SHA manual. This means that data presented in OECD Health Statistics 201410 is at
varying levels of comparability. This section shows health expenditure information for the 30 countries that most closely follow
the health care boundary proposed in the SHA. The OECD states that the data for those countries is believed to be fairly
comparable, although some deviations from SHA definitions may still exist among the sub-aggregate variables of total health
expenditure. For more details, see Appendix A.
85
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
7.3 Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP—2012
Canada’s total health expenditure was 10.9% of GDP in 2012, placing it among eight countries
with the highest ratio of total health expenditure to GDP (Figure 42). This is the lowest level
since 2009. xix
Figure 42: Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP, 30 Selected OECD Countries, 2012
Note
* Data for 2011.
Source
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Health Statistics 2014 (June edition). Paris, France: OECD; 2014.
xix. The OECD GDP figures are standardized for international comparability; consequently, the health expenditure–to-GDP ratios
reported by the OECD may differ from those reported by the national health accounts of member countries. Specific to Canada,
the GDP estimate published by Statistics Canada contains an amount for financial intermediation services indirectly measured
(FISIM). Statistics Canada removes the FISIM from the GDP estimate provided to the OECD. In addition, there is a time lag
between both Statistics Canada’s revision of the Canadian GDP and CIHI’s revision of national health expenditure data and its
publication in OECD reports.
86
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
7.4 Total Health Expenditure per Capita—2012
In terms of total health expenditure per capita, Canada was among the highest spenders,
with US$4,602 per person in 2012. There remains a big difference between the United States
(US$8,745), the top spender, and the rest of the member countries. The second-highest
spender was Norway, with US$6,140 per person. Canada’s spending was comparable to that
of Luxembourg (US$4,578) and Denmark (US$4,698) (Figure 43).
Figure 43: Total Health Expenditure per Capita, US$ Purchasing Power Parity,
30 Selected OECD Countries, 2012
Note
* Data for 2011.
Source
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Health Statistics 2014 (June edition). Paris, France: OECD; 2014.
87
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
7.5 Health Expenditure Growth
Growth of total health care spending per capita in national currency units has slowed in most
OECD countries, including Canada, since the beginning of the global economic recession in
2008 (Figure 44). However, the decline in the growth rate has varied across OECD countries. In
some countries, such as the United States, Germany and Switzerland, the growth rates started
to rise again in 2012, while it kept falling in Canada.
Figure 44: Annual Growth in Total Health Expenditure per Capita, in Current National Currency
Units, Canada and OECD Average, 2001 to 2012
Source
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Health Statistics 2014 (June edition). Paris, France: OECD; 2014.
88
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
7.6 Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance—2012
Among the 30 selected OECD member countries, the public sector’s share of total health
expenditure was 73.3% on average. The Netherlands had the highest share at 85.8%, and the
United States had the lowest, with less than half of total health care spending funded by the
public sector. Canada’s share of total health expenditure funded by the public sector was 70.1%
in 2012, slightly below the OECD average. It had been stable in recent years (Figure 45).
Figure 45: Total Health Expenditure, Public and Private Shares, 30 Selected
OECD Countries, 2012
Notes
* Total current expenditure (capital excluded).
† Data for 2011.
‡ Public and private shares do not add up to 100% due to the “rest of the world” financing. Rest of the world equals 0.5% of total
expenditure in Poland, 1.5% in Estonia and 1.6% in Israel.
Source
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Health Statistics 2014 (June edition). Paris, France: OECD; 2014.
89
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
7.7 Health Expenditure by Use of Funds—2012
Hospitals
Similar to the situation in Canada, hospitals in other OECD countries occupy a prominent place
in health care provision. On average, hospitals account for more than one-third of all health care
spending in OECD countries. Figure 46 shows countries in descending order of per capita
expenditure on hospital services in 2012. Canada, with spending of US$1,310 per person, fell
within the middle of the countries, near Germany, Belgium and Iceland. There were large
differences in hospital spending per capita. The United States had the highest spending
(US$2,811), more than twice the OECD average. Mexico had the lowest spending (US$108).
While hospital spending in Canada includes remuneration of physicians on hospital payrolls, it
excludes payments made directly by the provincial/territorial medical care insurance plans to
physicians for services provided in hospitals. This exclusion results in an under-estimation of
hospital spending in Canada as, under the SHA, all expenditures for physicians’ services
provided in hospitals are to be recorded under the hospital category. There exists a similar
under-estimation in the United States, where independently billed physicians’ fees are excluded
from inpatient hospital expenditure. Another variation in hospital spending per capita across
OECD countries reflects, among other factors, the extent to which long-term care is provided in
hospitals rather than in residential long-term care facilities.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 46: Expenditure* on Services Provided by Hospitals, per Capita US$ Purchasing
Power Parity, 29 Selected OECD Countries, 2012
Notes
* Total current expenditure (capital excluded).
† Data for 2011.
‡ Data for 2010.
§ Data for 2008.
Source
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Health Statistics 2014 (June edition). Paris, France: OECD; 2014.
91
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Drugs
Drugs include prescribed and non-prescribed drugs (often referred to as over-the-counter drugs)
as well as other medical non-durables (or personal health supplies) such as bandages,
syringes, elastic stockings and knee supports, and contraceptive devices. Drugs consumed in
hospitals are excluded as, under the SHA, they are considered intermediate consumption in the
production of hospital care. Drugs constitute a large category of health expenditure across
OECD countries, accounting for, on average, almost a fifth of total health care spending.
Figure 47 shows that Canada spent US$771 on drugs per capita, less than the United States
(US$1,010). Canada’s per capita amount has been stable in the last decade.
Figure 47: Total Expenditure* on Drugs, per Capita US$ Purchasing Power Parity,
29 Selected OECD Countries, 2012
Notes
* Total current expenditure (capital excluded).
† Data for 2011.
‡ Data for 2010.
§ Data for 2008.
Source
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Health Statistics 2014 (June edition). Paris, France: OECD; 2014.
92
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Physicians
Figure 48 shows per capita expenditures for 26 OECD countries on services provided by offices
of physicians, defined as establishments of health practitioners who hold the degree of doctor of
medicine or a corresponding qualification and who are primarily engaged in the independent
practice of medicine.
Canada spent US$684 per capita on offices of physicians, less than the United States,
Switzerland and Germany. Canada’s per capita amount has been stable in recent years.
Canadian expenditure includes payments made directly by the provincial/territorial medical care
insurance plans to physicians for services provided in hospitals, resulting in an over-estimation
as, under the SHA, all expenditures for physicians’ services provided in hospitals are to be
recorded under the hospital category.
93
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figure 48: Expenditure* on Services Provided by Offices of Physicians, per Capita
US$ Purchasing Power Parity, 26 Selected OECD Countries, 2012
Notes
* Total current expenditure (capital excluded).
† Data for 2011.
‡ Data for 2010.
Source
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Health Statistics 2014 (June edition). Paris, France: OECD; 2014.
94
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
7.8 Canada’s Position Among the OECD Member Countries
Among the 30 selected OECD member countries, Canada was one of the top health care
spenders, both on a per capita basis and in relation to GDP. Looking at the three major
categories of spending—hospital services, drugs and physicians’ services—Canada’s spending
on drugs and physicians’ services was much higher than the OECD average, but its spending
on hospital services per capita was close to the OECD average.
The public sector has consistently been the largest contributor to total health care spending
in Canada in recent years, at around 70%. This also holds true in most European countries
and Japan, with the public sector’s share ranging from 85.8% in the Netherlands to 65.8%
in Switzerland. Israel, Korea, Mexico and the United States had the lowest percentage of
public funding.
The economic downturn that began in 2008 greatly affected most OECD countries, including
Canada. Average annual growth rates in total and public health expenditure per capita slowed in
Canada, as well as in most other member countries, following the beginning of the recession. In
some countries the rates rebounded in 2012, unlike in Canada.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Appendix A—Methodological Notes
A.1 Concepts and Definitions
Mandate of the National Health Expenditure Database (NHEX)
The mandate of NHEX is twofold:
1. To support the development and evaluation of health programs in Canada by all levels
of government and within the private sector.
2. To compile information on health expenditures that will accurately portray the importance
of health care as a component of national expenditure.
Variables and Concepts
Health expenditure—includes any type of expenditure for which the primary objective is to
improve or prevent the deterioration of health status.
This definition allows economic activities to be measured according to primary purpose and
secondary effects. Activities that are undertaken with the direct purpose of improving or
maintaining health are included. Other activities are not included, even though they may impact
health. For example, funds aligning with housing and income support policies which have social
welfare goals as their primary purpose are not considered to be health expenditures, yet they
are recognized as powerful factors in determining population health.
Figure A1: Composition of Total Health Expenditures, by Source of Finance*
Note
* The remaining funds in the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund are financed through the Consolidated Revenue Fund
(these expenditures are captured under the provincial government sector).
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Source of Finance (Sectors)
National health expenditures are reported based on the principle of responsibility for payment
rather than on the original source of the funds. It is for this reason, for example, that federal
health transfers to the provinces/territories are included in the provincial government sector,
since it is the responsibility of provincial/territorial governments to expend federal transfers on
health services. The exception to this principle is that provincial government health transfers to
municipal governments are included in the provincial government sector.
Public sector—includes health care spending by governments and government agencies. xx
It is subdivided into four levels, as described below:
1. The provincial government sector includes health spending from provincial/territorial
government funds, federal health transfers to the provinces/territories and provincial
government health transfers to municipal governments.
2. The federal direct sector refers to direct health care spending by the federal government in
relation to health care services for special groups, such as Aboriginal Peoples, the Canadian
Forces and veterans, as well as expenditures for health research, health promotion and
health protection. Federal direct health expenditure does not include federal health transfers
to the provinces.
3. The municipal government sector expenditure includes health care spending by municipal
governments for institutional services; public health; capital construction and equipment;
and dental services provided by municipalities in the provinces of Nova Scotia, Manitoba
and British Columbia. Designated funds transferred by provincial governments for health
purposes are not included in the municipal sector but are included with provincial
government expenditure.
4. Social security funds are social insurance programs that are imposed and controlled by a
government authority. They generally involve compulsory contributions by employees,
employers or both, and the government authority determines the terms on which benefits
are paid to recipients. Social security funds are distinguished from other social insurance
programs, the terms of which are determined by mutual agreement between individual
employers and their employees. In Canada, social security funds include the health care
spending by workers’ compensation boards, as well as the premiums paid by the
subscribers of the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund and by persons age 65 and older insured
by this plan.
Health spending by workers’ compensation boards includes what the provincial boards
commonly refer to as medical aid. Non–health related items often reported by the workers’
compensation boards as medical aid expenditure, such as funeral expenses, travel,
clothing, etc., are removed.
xx.
Statistics Canada (Public Sector Statistics Division) publishes estimates of government health expenditure as part of its
comprehensive reporting system of all government expenditures, the Financial Management System (FMS). The FMS publicsector health spending estimates are lower than those reported by CIHI because different classification methods are applied
and a narrower definition of health expenditure is used in the FMS.
97
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
On January 1, 1997, the government of Quebec created a basic drug insurance plan with
the objective of ensuring the population of Quebec has access to drugs as required by
health status. All residents of Quebec must be covered by drug insurance, whether by
private group insurance or by the public plan administered by the RAMQ. The Drug
Insurance Fund is the chosen mechanism to pay all drug and pharmaceutical service costs
provided to subscribers insured by the RAMQ, as well as their children. Since July 1, 2002,
the public plan has been financed both by the expenditure allocated to this program by the
Quebec government (provincial government sector) and by the amounts collected by the
Drug Insurance Fund as premiums and proceeds (social security funds sector).
Private sector—includes out-of-pocket expenditures made by individuals for health care goods
and services; the health insurance claims paid to individuals by commercial and not-for-profit
insurance firms, as well as the cost of administering those claims; non-patient revenues received
by health care institutions, such as donations and investment income; private spending on healthrelated capital construction and equipment; and health research funded by private sources.
Use of Funds (Categories)
Hospitals—institutions where patients are accommodated on the basis of medical need and
are provided with continuing medical care and supporting diagnostic and therapeutic services.
Hospitals are licensed or approved as hospitals by a provincial/territorial government, or are
operated by the government of Canada, and include those providing acute care, extended and
chronic care, rehabilitation and convalescent care, psychiatric care, as well as nursing stations
or outpost hospitals.
Other institutions—include residential care types of facilities (for the chronically ill or disabled,
who reside at the institution more or less permanently) and which are approved, funded or
licensed by provincial or territorial departments of health and/or social services. Residential
care facilities include homes for the aged (including nursing homes); facilities for persons
with physical disabilities, developmental delays, psychiatric disabilities and alcohol and
drug problems; and facilities for emotionally disturbed children. Facilities solely of a custodial
or domiciliary nature and facilities for transients or delinquents are excluded.
Physicians—expenditures include primarily professional fees paid by provincial/territorial
medical care insurance plans to physicians in private practice. Fees for services rendered
in hospitals are included when paid directly to physicians by the plans. Also included are other
forms of professional incomes (salaries, sessional, capitation).
The physician expenditure category does not include the remuneration of physicians on the
payrolls of hospitals or public-sector health agencies; these are included in the appropriate
category, for example, hospitals or other health spending. Physician expenditures generally
represent amounts that flow through provincial/territorial medical care plans. Provinces/territories
differ in terms of what the medical care plans cover. CIHI has not attempted to make adjustments
to physician expenditures to reflect these differences because only a few provinces, to date, can
net out these differences from their data.
98
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Other professionals—services at the aggregate level represent expenditures for the services
of privately practising dentists, denturists, chiropractors, optometrists, massage therapists,
osteopaths, physiotherapists, podiatrists, psychologists, private duty nurses and naturopaths.
Discrete identification of many of the professions included under other professionals is often
possible only when they are reported by provincial medical care insurance plans.
This category has been disaggregated at the Canada level in the data tables to provide
information on the following subcategories:
• Dental services—expenditures for professional fees of dentists (includes dental assistants
and hygienists) and denturists, as well as the cost of dental prostheses, including false teeth,
and laboratory charges for crowns and other dental appliances.
• Vision care services—expenditures for the professional services of optometrists and
dispensing opticians, as well as expenditures for eyeglasses and contact lenses.
• Other—expenditures for chiropractors, massage therapists, osteopaths, physiotherapists,
podiatrists, psychologists, private duty nurses and naturopaths.
Drugs—at the aggregate level, include expenditures on prescribed drugs and non-prescribed
products purchased in retail stores. Estimates represent the final costs to consumers including
dispensing fees, markups and appropriate taxes. This category has been disaggregated at the
Canada level in the data tables to provide information on the following subcategories:
• Prescribed drugs—substances considered to be drugs under the Food and Drugs Act and
which are sold for human use as the result of a prescription from a health professional.
• Non-prescribed drugs—include two subcomponents: over-the-counter drugs and personal
health supplies.
– Over-the-counter drugs—therapeutic drug products not requiring a prescription.
– Personal health supplies—include items used primarily to promote or maintain health, for
example, oral hygiene products, diagnostic items such as diabetic test strips and medical
items such as incontinence products.
The drug category does not include drugs dispensed in hospitals and, generally, in other
institutions. These are included with the category of hospitals or other institutions. The
classification system is consistent with international standards developed by the OECD.
Capital—includes expenditures on construction, machinery, equipment and some software
of hospitals, clinics, first-aid stations and residential care facilities. It is based on full-cost or
cash-basis accounting principles.
Public health—by governments and government agencies, includes expenditures for items
such as food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion activities, community mental
health programs, public health nursing, measures to prevent the spread of communicable
disease and occupational health to promote and enhance health and safety at the workplace in
public-sector agencies.
99
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Administration—expenditures related to the cost of providing health insurance programs by
the government and private health insurance companies and all costs for the infrastructure to
operate health departments. The administrative costs of operating hospitals, drug programs,
long-term care programs and other non-insured health services are not included under the
category of administration, but rather are included under the category of service, for example,
hospitals, other institutions and drugs.
Other health spending—at the aggregate level includes expenditures on home care, medical
transportation (ambulances), hearing aids, other appliances and prostheses, health research
and miscellaneous health care. Some of the subcategories of the aggregate category are
defined as follows:
• Health research—expenditures for research activities designed to further knowledge of the
determinants of health, health status or methods of providing health care, evaluation of
health care delivery or of public health programs. The category does not include research
carried out by hospitals or drug companies in the course of product development. These
amounts would be included with either the hospital or drug category.
• Other—expenditures for items such as home care, medical transportation (ambulances),
hearing aids, other appliances, training of health workers and voluntary health associations.
The definition of home care that is currently used in NHEX is based on the definition used by
the OECD, under which only the health professional component of home care is intended to
be included. The portion that is commonly referred to as home support is considered to be a
social service expenditure rather than a health expenditure and is excluded when it can be
identified. A home care feasibility study at CIHI investigated the feasibility of developing a set
of estimates that identify both the health professional and the home support components of
home care. The process of updating the data collected in this study is under way in order to
assess the feasibility of reporting this set of estimates.
Other Terms
Federal transfers—refer to the total of various federal, provincial and territorial health financing
arrangements that may be used to fund the delivery of health and health-related services. They
include at various times the Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social Transfer, Health Reform
Transfer, Canada Health and Social Transfer, Canada Assistance Plan, Established Programs
Financing, Equalization, Territorial Formula Financing and Health Resource Fund, which
supported provincial capital health expenditures from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s, and
transfers by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs to the territorial governments for the
medical care and hospital insurance plans on behalf of Aboriginal People. More recently, several
other targeted transfer mechanisms were created, including the Diagnostic/Medical Equipment
Fund, the Public Health and Immunization Fund and the Wait Times Reduction Fund.
In April 2004, the federal government restructured its transfers into five major programs: the
Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social Transfer, Health Reform Transfer, Equalization and
Territorial Formula Financing. Effective April 1, 2004, the Canada Health and Social Transfer
was restructured to enhance the transparency and accountability of federal support for health.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
The Canada Health and Social Transfer was replaced by the Canada Health Transfer and the
Canada Social Transfer. In 2005–2006, the Health Reform Transfer was rolled into the Canada
Health Transfer program.
• Canada Health Transfer (CHT)—is provided to each province and territory in support
of health care. CHT funding is provided through cash payments and tax transfers and
supports the government of Canada’s commitment to the five principles of the Canada
Health Act.
• Canada Social Transfer (CST)—provides support to the provinces and territories for postsecondary education, social assistance and social services, including early childhood
development and early learning and child care.
• Health Reform Transfer (HRT)—provides provinces and territories support for health care
reforms targeted to primary health care, home care and catastrophic drug coverage. The
HRT was integrated into the CHT starting in 2005–2006.
• Equalization—ensures that less prosperous provinces have sufficient revenue to provide
reasonably comparable levels of public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation.
Equalization payments are unconditional; provinces can spend them according to their
respective priorities. Eligibility to receive equalization funding is determined by a formula
measuring each province’s revenue-raising capacity against a five-province standard.
Currently, six provinces receive equalization: Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba.
• Territorial Formula Financing (TFF)—ensures that territorial governments can provide
reasonably comparable levels of public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation,
taking into account the higher costs in the North. The transfers are based on a formula that fills
the gap between the expenditure requirements and revenue-raising capacity of the territories.
• Diagnostic/Medical Equipment Fund—to improve access to publicly funded diagnostic
services, the government of Canada provides provinces and territories with targeted funding
that supports specialized staff training and equipment.
• Wait Times Reduction Fund—to improve access to health care services, the government of
Canada provides provinces and territories with targeted funding to assist in reducing wait times.
• Public Health and Immunization Fund—to improve public health capacities, the government
of Canada provides provinces and territories with targeted funding to support
immunization programs.
• Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST)—on April 1, 1996, the CHST replaced federal
transfers for social assistance under the CAP and for health and post-secondary education
under EPF. The CHST was a block fund provided in the form of both cash transfers and tax
point transfers to all provinces/territories in support of health, post-secondary education,
social assistance and social service programs. Provinces/territories allocated the CHST to
health and other social programs according to their particular priorities while upholding the
criteria and conditions of the Canada Health Act. In 1996–1997, CHST transfers were
allocated among the provinces and territories in the same proportions as provincial/territorial
entitlements under the combined EPF and CAP transfers in 1995–1996.11
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
• Canada Assistance Plan (CAP)—introduced in 1966 by the federal government to share in
eligible costs incurred by the provinces and territories in providing social assistance and
welfare services to persons in need or persons likely to become in need if these services
were not provided. The 1994 budget limited 1995–1996 CAP transfers for all provinces/
territories to 1994–1995 levels.12
• Established Programs Financing (EPF)—prior to the introduction of the CHST, the federal
government contributed to the operation of provincial/territorial health insurance plans
according to the provisions of the Federal–Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and Federal PostSecondary Education and Health Contributions Act, 1977. Under the act, provinces and
territories were entitled to equal per capita federal health contribution increases according to
a fixed formula (escalator). Health contributions to the provinces/territories consisted of both
cash and an equalized tax transfer. The February 26, 1991, federal budget extended a
freeze at 1989–1990 levels to 1994–1995. Legislation later provided for EPF entitlements to
grow in 1995–1996 in accordance with the escalator, less three percentage points.
Gross domestic product (GDP)13—is the sum of gross value-added originating within the
boundaries of Canada, regardless of the ownership of the factors of production. Gross domestic
product can be valued either at factor cost or at market prices. In this publication, GDP is valued
at market prices and is expressed in terms of the prices actually paid by the purchaser. It
includes all indirect taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, customs duties and property taxes,
and also reflects the impact of subsidy payments.
Implicit price indices—see Calculation of Constant Dollars in the Calculation Methods
section, below.
Purchasing power parity (PPP)10—purchasing power parities are the rates of currency
conversion that equalize the purchasing power of different currencies. This means that a given
sum of money, when converted into different currencies at the PPP rates, will buy the same
basket of goods and services in all countries. Thus PPPs are the rates of currency conversion
that eliminate differences in price levels between countries.
A.2 Major Data Limitations
Data contained in NHEX is estimated. The data is collected from diverse sources and includes
varying classes of financial information. The data is collected and classified according to methods
established by a review committee. CIHI analysts and external experts continue to improve the
comprehensiveness, accuracy and currency of the data to provide the most complete and
objective estimates possible. A series of feasibility studies (e.g., on home care, public health
and administration) were conducted to determine the advisability and possibility of expanding
estimates in NHEX for a number of priority issues. The research papers for these feasibility
studies are available on CIHI’s website (www.cihi.ca). Notwithstanding, national health
expenditure data is estimated and should be used accordingly.
102
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Most private-sector expenditures are estimated from survey data. Prior to 1996, the Family
Expenditure Survey by Statistics Canada,14 an important source of private-sector data, was not
carried out annually; therefore, trend data has been imputed for years between surveys. Privatesector data was revised following a methodology review in the early 1990s. The revised privatesector data incorporated information estimated directly from new sources for 1988 and subsequent
years. Prior years were estimated using trend dataweird. As a result, readers should use caution
when using the private-sector expenditure data for small provinces and for years prior to 1988.
In 2010, the Survey of Household Spending (SHS), formerly the Family Expenditure Survey,
underwent a major redesign by Statistics Canada. This impacts out-of-pocket health expenditure
in NHEX. For more details, see General Methods—Private Sector in Appendix A.3: Collection
and Non-Response.
A.3 Collection and Non-Response
The following notes briefly describe some of the major technical points associated with the
compilation of the health expenditure estimates. Additional information can be obtained by
contacting the National Health Expenditure section by phone at 613-241-7860, by fax at
613-241-8120 or by email at [email protected]
Hierarchy of Classification
National health expenditures in Canada are based on a system of classification that is consistent
with international standards developed by the OECD for reporting health expenditures.
National health expenditures are grouped within the broad categories of personal health care or
other expenditures:
• Personal health care consists of expenditure for health goods and services used
by individuals.
• Other expenditures consist of expenditures on behalf of society, such as public health;
expenditures made as investments for purposes of future consumption, such as capital
expenditures; the administrative expenses of planning and managing the health care system;
and research.
Personal health expenditures are classified within categories that describe the type of health
care used. Certain categories overlap. The hierarchy of classification that is used to allocate
overlapping categories of expenditure is as follows:
• Institutional setting—health care services consumed in hospitals or other institutions are
allocated to the institutional category if the institution purchases the services on behalf of its
patients. For example, physician services and drugs paid through hospital budgets are
classified as hospital expenditures. This allocates expenditure to the supplier actually paid
by patients or their agents in the form of government or insurance companies. It also reflects
data availability.
• Self-employed provider of service—for example, all expenses of physicians’ practices are
considered to be expenditures for physician services, even though some of these expenses
would be for employment of other health professionals, drugs or personal health supplies.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
• Type of good and service—drugs, personal health supplies and appliances are examples.
An exception to the hierarchy of classification is eye care, in which optometrist services,
eyeglasses and contact lenses sold by optometrists are combined as one category: vision
care services.
The definitions and methods used in the preparation of this report are for the most part based
on those adopted in 1994 by the National Health Expenditure Methodology Review Committee.
This committee included representation from Health Canada, Statistics Canada, the MSSS, the
Canadian Medical Association and the Canadian Healthcare Association.
International Comparisons: Data Comprehensiveness and Boundaries
of Health Care
The OECD manual A System of Health Accounts provides a comprehensive framework for
reporting expenditures on the entire field of health care activities and proposes common
functional boundaries of health care for international comparisons. However, member countries
do not yet fully report comprehensive data. Also, they may include expenditures that fall outside
the boundaries of health care as defined by the OECD. For OECD Health Data 2014, countries
were asked to provide notes on their departures from OECD/SHA boundaries. Country notes
are presented below. For each country, there are categories for expenditures that should and
should not have been included in total health expenditure, listed under the headings Includes
and Excludes, respectively.
Since the early 2000s, countries have adopted the SHA to report their data for the most recent
years. Many countries have yet to revise their series for earlier years. Breaks in series thus
appear in most countries from the mid-1990s to early 2000s.
The data is based on the SHA starting in the year in parentheses after each country’s name.
Australia (1998)
Excludes
• Health expenditure on health services provided by the Australian Defence Force, some
school health expenditure and some expenditure incurred by corrective services institutions.
• All expenditure for residential aged care facilities in welfare (social) services, about 30% of
which have a health purpose.
Austria (1990)
Excludes
• Expenditure by the public sector on occupational health.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Belgium (2003)
Excludes
• Expenditure by corporations on occupational health services.
• Total spending on glasses and other vision product purchases that are financed entirely out
of pocket.
• Expenditure on all other industries as secondary producers of health care.
• Capital expenditures.
Canada (1975)
Includes
• Expenditure of Canadian hospitals for care provided to non-Canadians.
• Revenues of Canadian hospitals from ancillary operations (gift shops, parking lots, etc.). Only
profit used to subsidize patient care should be included; however, while hospital revenues
from ancillary operations are reported, profit cannot be determined from available data.
• Expenditure of inpatient facilities for alcohol/drug addiction, except for private-sector
expenditure after 1999.
• Expenditure by the private sector in some long-term residential care facilities providing
mainly room and board and social services (e.g., facilities for mental retardation, emotionally
disturbed children) until 1998.
• Such items as oral hygiene (e.g., dentifrice, dental floss, toothbrushes, oral antiseptics),
medicated shampoos, antiperspirants, etc.
Excludes
• Expenditure on school health made by provincial ministries of education.
• Expenditure by private insurers for out-of-country care provided to Canadians.
• Private-sector expenditure on occupational health care.
• Expenditures of voluntary health associations (societies dedicated to prevention and
treatment of major diseases such as arthritis, cancer, diabetes, cerebral palsy, lung, kidney,
liver and heart diseases, etc.).
• Expenditure by public and private insurance plans for motor vehicle insurance for health
services not covered by the public programs for health care (such as services of
physiotherapists, chiropractors, etc.).
• Expenditure on the systematic evaluation of health care delivery or of public health
programs (non-biomedical research). In Canada, this expenditure is included under health
research and development, a health-related function, rather than under health administration
and insurance.
Czech Republic (2000)
There are problems determining the boundaries for health care, health-related care and
non-health care.
105
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Includes
• Some health-related functions (e.g., training of health workers and health research).
Excludes
• Some health care expenditure in social services institutions (e.g., for long-term nursing care)
other than health personnel salaries.
• Some out-of-pocket expenditure (out-of-pocket expenditure is probably underestimated).
Denmark (2003)
Private investments in medical facilities are not available. Therefore, there is no estimate of total
private expenditure on health. Expenditures on other non-medical durables, as well as public
expenditures on therapeutic appliances, are likely to be underestimated.
Excludes
• Parts of private health expenditure, such as occupational health services, and expenditure
by non-profit institutions serving households, such as the Red Cross and philanthropic and
charitable institutions.
Estonia (1999)
Excludes
• Private expenditures for day and home long-term care.
Includes
• Spending on pharmaceutical and other medical non-durables consumed by foreigners.
Finland (1995)
Includes
• Expenditure on environmental health.
Excludes
• Private capital formation of health care provider institutions.
• Some inpatient long-term nursing care expenditure (only long-term care within health centre
hospitals is included).
• Hearing and medico-technical devices and all other miscellaneous medical durables.
France (1995)
Excludes
• Residential mental retardation facilities, mental health and substance abuse facilities and all
other residential care facilities.
• Inpatient long-term care expenditure by private sector.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
• Expenditure on blood and organ banks.
• Retail sales and other suppliers of hearing aids.
Germany (1992)
Excludes
• Expenditure for military health and prison health.
• Capital formation for ambulatory providers.
Hungary (1998)
Excludes
• Private services provided abroad and financed by (voluntary) insurance enterprises.
Iceland (2003)
Includes
• Public expenditure for services provided to European Economic Area citizens temporarily
present in Iceland.
Excludes
• The lack of adequate information hinders the estimation of capital formation in the
private sector.
Israel (2006)
Includes
• Food and hygiene control and research in hospitals.
Excludes
• Health services provided by hospitals at military bases.
• Services for the frail elderly in geriatric centres and homes for the aged, which are defined as
welfare services.
• Some expenditures on services provided by market clinics or private physicians and
nurses, which were purchased by enterprises and institutions that are not affiliated with
the health industry (e.g., manufacturing establishments) instead of being purchased
by households.
Japan (1995)
Excludes
• Some expenditure by central and local governments on administration of health
care services.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
• Some expenditure made out of pocket or by private insurance agents on medical services
not covered by national medical insurance schemes.
• Expenditures made by private insurance companies to supplement copayments on health
services covered by the national medical insurance schemes.
• Expenditure made on health insurance to cover medical expenses for residents of Japan
while travelling abroad.
• Expenditures made by non-profit institutions to finance health care to disadvantaged citizens.
• Nursing and residential care facilities. Medical care services at long-term care welfare facilities
for the elderly exist, but no estimation is made for these services because no data is available.
• Providers of ambulatory health care. No calculation is made for medical treatments not covered
by insurance (judo-orthopedy, massage, acupuncture, etc.), because no data is available.
• Retail sales and other providers of medical goods. No estimation is made, except for
glasses, hearing aids, mercury thermometers and mercurial column blood pressure gauges.
Korea (1980)
Data for administration expenditure by private insurance is not available.
Luxembourg (1999)
Total, public and private health care expenditure includes aggregate health care costs covered
by the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, including expenditure on frontier-zone workers and
residents insured by international institutions. Therefore, the health care expenditure per
inhabitant of Luxembourg cannot be correctly calculated by dividing the health care expenditure
by the resident population of Luxembourg.
Mexico (1999)
Includes
• Figures for total expenditure also include health-related expenditure; consequently for
international comparison these items have to be deducted from total expenditure.
The Netherlands (1998)
Capital expenditure is available in total, but there is no breakdown according to financing
sources. As a result, health expenditures broken down by financing sources refer to current
expenditures only.
New Zealand (2004)
Excludes
• Expenditures for capital items in OECD reporting.
Norway (1997)
No departures from OECD/SHA boundaries reported.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Poland (2002)
No departures from OECD/SHA boundaries reported.
Portugal (2000)
Excludes
• Health expenditures of the military forces, workers of the ministry of justice and police forces.
Slovak Republic (2005)
Excludes
• Private expenditures on joint examination and therapeutic units.
• Data on expenditure on private investment, private prevention and administration, etc.
Slovenia (2002)
Excludes
• Expenditure on long-term nursing care provided at home and paid for exclusively
by beneficiaries.
Spain (1999)
Excludes
• Health care incurred by industries in their production process (occupational health care).
• Much private investment in medical facilities (includes only hospital capital expenditure).
• Much prevention and public health expenditure (includes only public expenditure and
non-profit institutions serving households [NPISH] expenditure).
Sweden (2001)
No departures from OECD/SHA boundaries reported.
Switzerland (1995)
Includes
• Investments in figures for medical services. Thus, the sum of personal and collective health
expenditure is greater than the reported total current expenditure.
Excludes
• Other medical non-durables and medico-technical devices, including wheelchairs.
• Administration of social insurance.
• Outpatient care centres, ambulance services, blood and organ banks and providers of all
other ambulatory services.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
• Retail sales, other suppliers of optical glasses, other vision products, other suppliers of
hearing aids and other suppliers of medical appliances.
• All other providers of health care.
Turkey (1999)
The Turkish NHA covers Turkish residents’ expenditures for purchases of health care abroad.
However the purchase of health care domestically by non-residents is not estimated separately
and deducted from the total, as this is accepted as non-feasible and should not significantly
change the results.
United Kingdom (1997)
Excludes
• Non-NHS expenditure on nursing care in nursing homes, occupational health care and
household production of health care.
United States (1999)
No departures from OECD/SHA boundaries reported.
General Methods
The following is intended as a general overview of the methods applied to calculate estimates
of health expenditure in Canada. More detailed information can be obtained by contacting the
National Health Expenditure section by phone at 613-241-7860, by fax at 613-241-8120 or
by email at [email protected]
Provincial/Territorial Government
Data is extracted annually from provincial/territorial government public accounts. Programs
and/or program items are classified into health expenditure categories according to accepted
and standardized methods and definitions used in estimating national health expenditure. Data
from the public accounts is supplemented with information from provincial/territorial government
department annual reports and annual statistical reports when available, as well as information
provided by provincial/territorial government department officials. Total provincial government
health spending figures include spending for health services reported by the provincial/territorial
ministry responsible for health as well as by other departments that report spending on health
according to national health accounts definitions.
Adjustments for regional health authority and/or hospital deficits or surpluses are not made in
NHEX unless the provincial government assumes them. Once assumed by the provincial
government, they are allocated to the years when the regional health authority and/or hospitals
accumulated them.
During the preparation of this report, CIHI’s estimates of provincial/territorial government health
expenditure were submitted to provincial/territorial departments of health for review.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Figures identified as forecasts are based on the growth rates of major programs reported in
provincial/territorial government main estimates and budgets.
The variations seen in administration, prevention and promotion, and health research in
2006–2007 for Saskatchewan are due to methodological changes in its accounting system.
The methodological changes involved reclassifying Saskatchewan’s health expenditure data.
On April 1, 1999, Nunavut was formed from the eastern part of the Northwest Territories. The
Northwest Territories expenditures for calendar year 1999 include expenditures for Nunavut
for one-quarter of the fiscal year ending March 31, 1999, prior to the formation of Nunavut.
Consequently, expenditure data for the Northwest Territories is not comparable before and
after calendar year 1999.
Private Sector
Private-sector data was revised in 1995, following a methodology review that began in the early
1990s. Private-sector data under the revised methodology incorporated information estimated
directly from new sources for 1988 and subsequent years.
Expenditure amounts prior to 1988 were estimated using trend data. Therefore, readers should
exercise caution when using the private-sector expenditure data for small provinces and for
years prior to 1988.
Health insurance claims by category and premiums are collected from eight not-for-profit
insurance companies and the Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association, which surveys
its member companies. The difference between claims and premiums is allocated to the
category of prepayment administration, which relates to the cost of providing health insurance
programs. Currently, health care spending data by insurance companies providing casualty
insurance is not included in the estimates.
Out-of-pocket health expenditures are based on data from the Survey of Household Spending
(SHS), formerly the Family Expenditure Survey, fielded by Statistics Canada. Only category
data from Section P of the survey on direct costs for health care is used; the SHS categories of
other medicines, drugs and pharmaceuticals (i.e., not prescribed by a doctor) and hospital care
are replaced with data from other sources as described below. National health expenditure
estimates are equal to the average expenditure per household for each category multiplied by
the estimated number of households.
The SHS is an annual survey that began in 1996. Prior to 1996, full surveys that included both
urban and rural areas were carried out in 1986 and 1992. In 1990, a survey was conducted that
included only metropolitan areas. In years when complete surveys are carried out, data is
available for the 10 provinces and for 17 urban centres. The urban centres include Yellowknife
and Whitehorse, which are used to derive estimates of expenditure in the territories. Metropolitan
expenditures per household tend to be somewhat higher than provincial estimates. All relevant
categories were updated in complete survey years. In years when only urban surveys were
carried out, the percentage changes in urban expenditures within each province or territory
were used to update category estimates from complete survey years.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Between 1992 and 1996, when no surveys were conducted, provincial growth rates of the
Statistics Canada variables of personal expenditure on medical care and dental care, drug and
drug sundries, and other health care were used to impute missing years. Starting in 2000, the
SHS is conducted in the territories only every second year. For 2000, 2002 and each year
thereafter, out-of-pocket estimates in the territories for physicians, dental care, eye care and
other professional services, prescribed drugs and other health goods and services are
estimated by CIHI. The SHS category of other medicines, drugs and pharmaceuticals is
replaced with information purchased from the Nielsen Company, which tracks consumer sales
of non-prescribed drugs sold in Canada at retail. Each year, the Nielsen Company reports retail
sales data for two consistent years for more than 50 non-prescribed drug categories. Data is
reported by sales channel, xxi total dollar sales volume and regional sales distribution for five
regions that include nine provinces. Newfoundland and Labrador and the territories are not
included. The data is processed by classifying the non-prescribed drug categories as either
over-the-counter drugs or personal health supplies. Regional sales amounts are separated into
nine provinces, and estimates for Newfoundland and Labrador and the territories are calculated
using provincial distributions of direct costs for health care from the SHS. Lastly, appropriate
provincial and federal sales taxes are incorporated into the estimates.
In 2010, the SHS underwent a major redesign by Statistics Canada: the reference period for
prescribed drugs changed from 12 months to 3 months, and the result was annualized by
multiplying by 4. One of the objectives of the redesign was to better adapt collection methods and
reference periods. The 2010 growth rates of out-of-pocket prescribed drugs exceeded 30% for
most provinces and were almost 50% in some provinces. To mitigate the impact of this change,
a smoothing method was used in the 2012 production year to adjust prescribed drugs and other
professionals. Since the 2013 production cycle, we have used 2010, 2011 and 2012 SHS raw
data from Statistics Canada without any mitigation. As a result, there is a break in the series of
out-of-pocket prescribed drugs spending across the provinces in 2010, which ultimately impacts
private prescribed drugs spending across the provinces. The average annual growth rate for
SHS data was used to forecast 2013 and 2014 numbers for both prescribed drugs and
other professionals.
The SHS category of hospital care is not used; instead the out-of-pocket component of hospital
care is estimated based on revenues from patient services from Statistics Canada’s Annual
Return of Health Care Facilities (HS-2) prior to 1994–1995 and the Canadian MIS Database
(CMDB) thereafter.
Private-sector estimates of other institutions are derived from data from Statistics Canada’s
Residential Care Facilities Survey (RCF). Data used from the survey includes income to
facilities from co-insurance or self-pay of residents, differential for preferred accommodation
and sundry earnings.
xxi.
112
As a general rule, Statistics Canada definitions govern the classification of stores by class of trade. Sales channels include
drug stores, food stores with pharmacies, grocery banners, mass merchandisers and warehouse clubs, which are estimated
from the Nielsen Company’s household panel data.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
The non-consumption component of the private sector includes non-patient revenue to hospitals,
including ancillary operations, donations, investment income, etc. This data is derived from
Statistics Canada’s HS-2 prior to 1994–1995 and the CMDB thereafter.
The non-consumption portion of the private sector also includes expenditures for biomedical
and health care research by Canadian faculties of medicine derived from medical education
statistics published by the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada. Included are
amounts for research funded by national and provincial not-for-profit foundations such as the
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the National Cancer Institute of Canada and the
Canadian Cancer Society, to name only a few. In addition, funding from local sources, internal
university sources, university and unaffiliated hospitals and foreign sources are also included.
The sum of these amounts is provincially distributed according to the reported distribution of
total amounts spent on research by the various faculties of medicine across the country.
Capital expenditure in the private sector is also included as a non-consumption component
category. Additional information on the calculation of capital can be found in the Calculation
Methods section under Capital Expenditure and in the Forecasting Method section.
Federal Direct
Data on federal direct health care spending is estimated from information provided by federal
government organizations supplemented with information from the national public accounts.
Federal government health care spending is generally provided according to the province in
which the expenditure was made. Some data, however, is provided only at the national level;
in these cases it is distributed by the appropriate provincial/territorial population.
Historically, public health and administration in the federal direct sector have been reported as
one combined category. In an attempt to break out the category into separate components for
public health and administration, an analysis of more detailed data available from 1988 to 2003
was undertaken. The estimated distribution between the categories during this period was
applied to the historical data from 1975 to 1987 to produce separate estimates for public health
and administration for the entire time series.
Municipal Government
Municipal government health care spending up to 2009 is based on information provided by the
Public Sector Statistics Division (PSSD), formerly known as the Public Institutions Division, of
Statistics Canada.
Social Security Funds
In Canada, social security funds include the health care spending by workers’ compensation
boards and the Drug Insurance Fund component of the MSSS drug subsidy program. The
workers’ compensation board data is derived from special tabulations from each provincial and
territorial workers’ compensation board of its medical aid expenditures. Income replacement and
occupational rehabilitation are not included. Items included as medical aid that do not meet the
national health expenditure definition of health expenditures, such as funeral expenses, clothing
expenses, hotel accommodation and non-medical transportation, are excluded.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
The workers’ compensation boards’ data is supplemented after 1996 with the portion of the
RAMQ’s drug program that is not funded by the MSSS. See the definition of social security
funds in the Concepts and Definitions section of this appendix for additional information.
Calculation Methods
Calculation of Average Annual Rate of Growth
The average annual rate of growth is the constant annual rate necessary for a value at the
beginning of a period to grow to a value at the end of a period over the number of compounding
years in the period. The formula used to calculate the average annual rate of growth is
e
(ln(value at end of period) − ln(value at beginning of period)) ∕ T
−1
where the constant e equals 2.718, which is the base of the natural logarithm, and T equals the
number of years in the period.
Calculation of Calendar Year
Some information sources provide data in fiscal years. Calendar year data was calculated by
adding three-quarters of one fiscal year to one-quarter of the previous fiscal year.
Calculation of Constant Dollars
Real health expenditure and real per capita health expenditure are presented in constant (1997)
dollars. Constant dollar expenditure was calculated using price indices for public and private
expenditures in each province and territory. The indices are the implicit price indices (IPIs) for
government current expenditure, which are used to deflate public-sector health care spending,
and the health component of the consumer price index (CPI), which is used to deflate privatesector health care spending. Statistics Canada developed both sets of indices. A more complete
explanation of the methodology for calculating implicit price indices is available in Statistics
Canada publications.15
In the health expenditure series, public and private expenditures are adjusted separately in each
province using the appropriate index. Adjusted values are summed to obtain Canada totals at
constant dollar values. Consequently, the overall implicit price index of the health expenditure
series reflects the mix of public and private expenditures reported in NHEX.
The government current expenditure index was forecast for the latest year in this report for
the provinces and territories. The forecasts are based on The Conference Board of Canada’s
forecasts of this index for Canada, Ontario and Quebec and CIHI’s forecasts for the
remaining provinces.
The CPI (health) index was forecast to December of the latest year in this report based on the
average of the monthly index up to April of the same year, which was the latest information
available prior to the publication of this report.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Calculation of TOTAL Health Expenditure as a Percentage of Gross
Domestic Product
The GDP at market prices xxii was used to express total health expenditure as a percentage of
GDP. National GDP figures for Canada were used rather than the sum of provincial/territorial
GDP to calculate the total health expenditure–to-GDP ratio for Canada.
The GDP figures provided by Statistics Canada were revised (upward) in 2013 as part of its
historical revision of the Canadian System of National Accounts (CSNA) due to the implementation
of the new international standards published in the System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA 2008).
Revised GDP figures for Canada and the provinces/territories are available from 1981 to 2012.
No attempt was made by CIHI to estimate Canada and provincial/territorial GDP prior to 1981.
Forecasts of GDP figures at both the national and provincial/territorial levels for the latest year
were prepared by CIHI by applying The Conference Board of Canada’s latest available forecasted
growth rate of GDP to the previous year’s GDP figures from Statistics Canada.
Calculation of per Capita Dollars
Per capita health expenditures were calculated using the most recent revised population
estimates from the Demography Division of Statistics Canada. This takes into account the
results of the census adjustment for net census under-count, non-permanent residents and
returning Canadians. Population figures for the latest year are projections from the Demography
Division of Statistics Canada.
Calculation of TOTAL Health Expenditure
Total health expenditure refers to the sum of the public and private sectors. Canada refers
to the sum of the 10 provinces and 3 territories. Total health care spending in constant
(1997) dollars is the sum of public-sector health care spending in constant (1997) dollars and
private-sector health care spending in constant (1997) dollars. Canada average is the sum
of provincial/territorial expenditures divided by the sum of provincial/territorial data of another
variable, such as population.
Capital Expenditure
Prior to a major methodology review in 1995, several categories in the private sector were
estimated using a residual method, whereby public-sector spending was subtracted from an
estimated total. The remainder was allocated entirely to the private sector. Following a major
methodology review in the early 1990s, capital expenditure remained the only category that
was estimated this way. In 1998, the method of calculating capital expenditure was reviewed
and revised. Capital expenditure for the private sector and provincial and municipal government
sectors is now estimated from the Capital Expenditures Survey (CES) information obtained from
the Investment, Science and Technology Division at Statistics Canada. Capital expenditure in the
federal direct sector is obtained from the national public accounts and federal departments that
provide health services. There are no capital expenditures in the social security funds sector. The
xxii.
Information provided by the National Accounts and Environment Division of Statistics Canada.
115
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
implications of this change are twofold: capital expenditure in all sectors is based on full-cost
or cash-basis accounting principles, and capital is the only category of expenditure in which
spending is categorized as private or public based on ownership of the facility in which the
investment is made. This convention has been adopted due to data limitations.
Forecasting Methods
Provincial government–sector health spending forecasts are based on the growth rates of a
consistent set of major health programs of provincial health departments reported in provincial
main estimates and budgets. In the case of territorial government forecasts of the Northwest
Territories and Nunavut, estimates were based on amounts reported in their main estimates.
In other sectors, figures for these two territories were calculated by developing a forecast for
the Northwest Territories including Nunavut. The share of Nunavut spending in the last year
of actual data of the combined total of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut was used as a
proxy to break out the forecasts for the Northwest Territories and Nunavut for the latest years.
The 2011 figures for capital expenditure in the provincial government sector, the municipal
government sector and the private sector are estimated based on actual figures from the
Investment, Science and Technology Division of Statistics Canada. The 2012 capital figures
are based on preliminary actual data, while 2013 capital data is based on intentions.
Forecasts for federal direct health care spending are based on information from the national
public accounts and the Treasury Board of Canada’s main estimates. Forecasts for workers’
compensation boards, municipal government and the private sector were made entirely based
on econometric analysis of time series trends. For each specific category, such as drugs and
other institutions, up to 40 different univariate forecasting specifications were evaluated, and the
best one (based on the root mean square error of prediction) was selected. The functional forms
studied included the exponential smoothing family (simple, double, Holt, Brown, Winters,
damped trend, etc.), time trends, ARIMA specifications, etc. Logarithmic transformations were
used when the data warranted their use. A LOESS smoothing technique was used as well to
help in generating better forecasts in some cases by capturing recent information in the series.
Forecasts of health expenditures are identified in the figures by special symbols and in the data
tables by the letter “f.”
Gross domestic product figures at both the national and provincial/territorial levels were forecast
for 2013 and 2014 by CIHI by applying The Conference Board of Canada’s forecasted growth
rate of GDP of this year to the previous year’s GDP figures from Statistics Canada.
The government current expenditure price index forecasts are based on The Conference Board
of Canada’s latest forecasts of this index for Canada, Ontario and Quebec and CIHI’s forecasts
of the remaining provinces.
The CPI (health) index was forecast to December of the latest year based on the average of the
monthly index up to April of the same year, which was the latest information available prior to
the publication of this report.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Age and Sex Distribution Methods
The Series E data tables present provincial government health expenditure for selected categories
of spending by sex and age groupings. Total provincial/territorial government expenditure by
age, sex and province/territory is available for 1998 onwards. The five categories presented are
hospitals, other institutions, physicians, other professionals and drugs. The method of distributing
the five categories and total is explained below. The data reported in Series E of the data tables is
not age–sex standardized.
Hospitals
The distribution of provincial government hospital expenditure by age and sex is based
on information from CIHI’s Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) xxiii and Hospital Morbidity
Database (HMDB). The CIHI Case Mix Group (CMG) grouping methodology was used to
group patient discharge information into homogenous groups, based on clinical and resource
utilization characteristics. Currently, the CMG can only be grouped back by a maximum of five
years. Therefore, for the period from 1995–1996 to 1996–1997, the 2001 methodology was
employed, while for the period 1997–1998 to 2002–2003, the 2002 methodology was used.
The 2003 CMG methodology was used for 2003–2004 to 2005–2006. After the grouper
redevelopment, the CMG+ methodology has been in place since 2006. Thus the 2006 CMG+
methodology was used for 2006–2007, the 2012 CMG+ grouper was used for for 2007–2008
and the 2013 CMG+ grouper was used for the period 2008–2009 to 2012–2013.
Based on the CMG grouping methodology, patients are assigned to a group according to
diagnosis and surgical procedures. Within each group patients are further classified into a
complexity level xxiv based on the number and type of comorbid diagnoses and age. Once the
patient is grouped, a Resource Intensity Weight (RIW) xxv is assigned. The assigned RIWs
were then aggregated to generate total weighted cases by age and sex.
The provincial government hospital expenditure estimate for each province is allocated to a
given age group based on the weighted cases in that age group relative to total weighted cases.
Weighted case information from the DAD and the HMDB is for acute inpatient care only.
Weighted cases for the majority of hospital-based ambulatory care (day surgery, emergency
departments and clinics) are currently limited to some facilities in a couple of provinces.
Nevertheless, acute inpatient weighted cases are used as a proxy to distribute the national
health expenditure estimate of hospital expenditure financed by provincial governments, which
includes inpatient and ambulatory care. CIHI investigated the reasonableness of using the acute
inpatient data as a proxy to distribute comprehensive provincial government hospital
expenditures by comparing 1998–1999 weighted cases calculated from Alberta’s Ambulatory
Care data set with the Alberta acute inpatient weighted cases from the DAD/HMDB. The
xxiii. The Discharge Abstract Database receives information from participating hospitals that represent about 85% of all hospital
discharges in Canada. The database contains clinical, demographic and administrative data for inpatient acute, chronic and
rehabilitation care and day surgery.
xxiv. Following extensive consultation with experts in the field, it is believed that this data has not been substantially affected by
recent concerns regarding complexity.
xxv. RIWs are resource allocation algorithms developed by CIHI for estimating the relative hospital resources used for a typical
case. See http://www.cihi.ca/CIHI-ext-portal/internet/en/document/standards+and+data+submission/standards/case+mix/
casemix_ri for more information.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
analysis showed that the distribution of ambulatory care weighted cases differs from inpatient
weighted cases primarily in the senior age groups. The impact of including the ambulatory care
weighted cases with the inpatient weighted cases is to lower per capita spending in the senior
age groups from what it would have been based on the inpatient weighted cases only.
Data from the DAD/HMDB covers 11 jurisdictions across Canada; the territories are combined
due to the small number of facilities. Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut (1999
onward) were distributed according to a combined territorial distribution and further distributed
based on population. Data for Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan from the DAD for
1995–1996 to 1997–1998 represents about 85% of total acute hospitalizations within each
province; however, from 1998–1999 onward the DAD represents 100% coverage in these two
provinces. Data for 2002–2003 to 2006–2007 in Quebec, as well as for 2003–2004 in Manitoba,
was unavailable and has been estimated based on an analysis of the historical series.
Caution should be exercised when comparing age and sex expenditure estimates across
provinces, particularly with respect to Manitoba. Hospital utilization data in Manitoba is reported
to CIHI differently than in other provinces and territories. In addition to acute inpatient care,
Manitoba’s weighted cases include chronic, rehabilitative and long-term hospital care, which
results in higher weights applied to senior age groups and ultimately higher spending in those
age groups.
Physicians
The distribution of provincial government physician expenditure by age and sex is based on
information from CIHI’s National Physician Database (NPDB). The NPDB contains data on the
socio-demographic and billing activities of fee-for-service physicians, as well as on the age and
sex of patients. NPDB data is used as a proxy to distribute all physicians’ services expenditure
from NHEX. NHEX includes primarily professional fees, paid by provincial medical care
insurance plans to physicians in private practice, but it also includes alternative payment
methods such as salaries, sessional and capitation payments.
Fiscal year 1996–1997 data was unavailable from the NPDB for Nova Scotia and was estimated
using growth rates in the population by age and sex applied to the 1995–1996 fee-for-service
data from the NPDB. Data for 1995–1996 was also unavailable from the NPDB for New
Brunswick. Similar to Nova Scotia, it was estimated using growth rates in the population by age
and sex applied to 1994–1995 fee-for-service data from the NPDB. Yukon fee-for-service data
from 1995–1996 onward was used to estimate the Northwest Territories by applying Yukon
fee-for-service per capita spending by age and sex to the Northwest Territories population for
1995–1996 onward. Similar to the Northwest Territories, Nunavut for 1999–2000 onward was
estimated using Yukon data. Data was collected in fiscal year and converted to calendar
year (see Calculation Methods).
Data provided by the NPDB for the latest year is a preliminary estimate.
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National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Other Institutions
Statistics Canada’s Residential Care Facilities Survey (RCF) was used to estimate the
provincial/territorial age and sex distribution for other institutions. Facilities for delinquents,
transients and others were excluded from the age–sex distribution. Only facilities financed to
provide a level of care for type II or higher were considered for the estimation. These levels of
care require a minimum of at least one and a half hours a day of medical and/or professional
nursing supervision. Patient counts by age and sex and by predominant level of care within
each facility were used to create the distributions.
In order for a facility’s patient count to be included it was also necessary for the facility to report
both income from provincial/territorial government sources and days of care for provincial
government–funded clients. Within a particular facility type, patient counts by age and sex were
weighted based on the predominant level of care. Weights were generated using the estimated
cost per patient for a particular type of care relative to type II. That is, type II care was the basis
and had a weight of one. Once patient counts by age and sex, level of care and facility type
were assigned weights, the patient counts were aggregated to create total weighted provincial or
territorial patient counts. A distribution across age and sex was generated and then applied to the
appropriate provincial/territorial NHEX figure for other institutions. The age groups from the RCF
(<10, 11 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, 65 to 69, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84 and 85+) were expanded
into five-year age groups by CIHI using population, as well as DAD/HMDB weighted cases.
At the time of publication data was unavailable for Quebec for all years. The weighted patient
counts for Canada (minus Quebec) from the RCF were used as a proxy for Quebec’s
distribution of other institutions expenditure.
Drugs
Provincial government prescribed drug expenditure primarily includes drugs that are dispensed
through provincial drug subsidy programs. The level of coverage under these programs varies
across the country. Universal drug plans with first dollar coverage to all residents are currently
not available in any province. Most provincial government plans provide prescribed drugs to
seniors and welfare recipients. British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba provide some
coverage to all residents with an assortment of substantial individual deductibles and
copayments. Similarly, Quebec instituted a universal plan in 1997 that requires Quebec
residents to be covered under the provincial plan if a private group plan, usually available
through an employer, is not available.
CIHI requested drug claims that were paid in a given year by age and sex from each provincial
drug subsidy program. Some data from 2005–2006 was obtained from CIHI’s National
Prescription Drug Utilization Information System (NPDUIS) Database. Drug claim information
by age and sex is currently unavailable from Nunavut only.
The Newfoundland and Labrador Prescription Drug Program (NLPDP) supplied expenditure
data by age and sex from 2007–2008 onward. Data collected from the NLPDP consists of five
main plans (the Foundation Plan, 65Plus Plan, Access Plan, Assurance Plan and Select Needs
Plan) and prescription drug claims paid by the Department of Health and Community Services.
119
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Data from Nova Scotia consists of the Seniors Pharmacare Program and prescription drug
claims paid by the Department of Community Services through the Income Assistance Program
and Family Benefits Program. Data from the Special Drug Program was unavailable; expenditure
for this plan was distributed using data from the Department of Community Services.
Data collected from the New Brunswick Prescription Drug Program consists of 10 different drug
plans: Seniors Plan (A), Cystic Fibrosis Plan (B), Social Development (Individuals in Licensed
Residential Facilities) (E), Social Development (F), Children in Care (G), Multiple Sclerosis (H),
Organ Transplant (R), Human Growth Hormone (T), HIV (U) and Nursing Home (V). However,
there is no data available for Special Authorization (SA) (for drugs not normally covered under
the provincial formulary). Beginning in October 1996, claims under SA are included in six other
plans (A, B, G, R, T and V) if the claimant is a beneficiary of one of these plans. In September
1997, this was expanded to include plans E and F. Minor plans for which age–sex data was not
available were distributed using the overall distribution of plans for which data was available.
The MSSS supplied data on its drug subsidy program in calendar year. The plans included
coverage for seniors, income security recipients and others. Data for 1997 onward also included
a general client group representing recipients whose drug claims are paid through the selffinanced Drug Insurance Fund by the premiums of subscribers to the plan and not the provincial
government. Consequently, the age–sex distribution of this group was not included with the rest
of the provincial government program. xxvi
The Ontario Drug Benefits program (ODB) supplied age–sex data, which included combined
prescription drug claims paid by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and the Ministry of
Community Services, as well as data for the Trillium Drug Program, which was implemented in
April 1995. The Special Drug Program does not have an age–sex profile; its expenditure was
therefore applied to the ODB distribution.
Manitoba was unable to provide data for 1996–1997 because of the Drug Programs Information
Network (DPIN) conversion from a calendar year to a fiscal year system. This resulted in a
15-month year from January 1996 to April 1997. The Department of Health’s Pharmacare
plan supplied data on drug claims paid for 1997–1998 onward. Data for the Ministry of Family
Services, Employment and Income Assistance Division’s drug plan was supplied for 1997–1998
onward. The figures reported for Manitoba in 1997 are based on fiscal year data for 1997–1998.
Data supplied by the Saskatchewan Drug Plan and Extended Benefits Branch was reported by
calendar year.
Alberta Health provided expenditure data by age and sex on its prescription drug programs
from 1995–1996 onward. Data was supplied for all four of Alberta’s prescription drug plans:
Seniors, Widow’s Pension, Regular and Palliative Care. Alberta Human Resources and
Employment provided data for its prescription drug expenditure under the Employment
and Income Assistance programs (formerly under Alberta Family and Social Services) for
1995–1996 to 1998–1999 and 2000–2001 onward. The age–sex distribution for 1999–2000
Alberta Human Resources and Employment’s drug plan is based on 1998–1999 data.
xxvi.
120
See the definition of social security funds in the Concepts and Definitions section of this appendix.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
British Columbia’s Ministry of Health Services supplied claims paid by age and sex of the client
in calendar year from 1996 onward for each plan administered by the PharmaCare program.
NHEX drug plan expenditures for British Columbia were converted to calendar year and then
applied to the distribution of the appropriate data supplied by the province.
Yukon Department of Health and Social Services supplied drug expenditure claims for three
administered drug plans: Seniors, Child Drug Plan and Chronic Care Drug Plan. Data from
1995–1996 to 2004–2005 was provided for each plan, with the exception of the Child Drug
Plan, which was implemented in 1997–1998. The Northwest Territories Department of Health
and Social Services supplied data by age and sex for prescription drug claims paid for Extended
Health Benefits.
The provincial government drug estimate at the program level is allocated to a given age group
based on the value of claims paid in that age group relative to total claims paid. In provinces
with more than one program, the age–sex–distributed programs were combined to represent a
total estimate for the province. Most data was collected in fiscal year and converted to calendar
year (see Calculation Methods).
Other Professionals
Expenditure for the category of other professionals accounted for less than 1% of total provincial/
territorial health expenditure in recent years. Provincial/territorial governments provide a variety
of health services delivered by health professionals other than physicians, including primarily
dentists, optometrists, chiropractors and physiotherapists.
All provinces provide various programs for seniors and children, as well as programs for income
assistance recipients. However, the services provided vary considerably across Canada. For
instance, Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec provide physiotherapy services to residents,
while other provinces do not. Chiropractic services are provided through provincial insurance
plans from Ontario west to British Columbia, but nowhere else in Canada. Target populations,
copayments and deductibles also vary from province to province. CIHI requested from each
province data for claims that were paid for by provincial/territorial governments in a given year,
by age, sex and type of service provided by other health care professionals. Details of data
availability and estimation methods are described below.
Data was unavailable from Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Nunavut. The remaining
provinces and territories were able to supply data by age and sex for approximately 75% or
more of other professional services. When a province or territory was unable to supply 100%
of services, CIHI estimated the age and sex distribution for these services by using data from
programs from other provinces with similar coverage and eligibility levels.
The provincial government expenditure estimates for other professionals at the program level are
allocated to a given age group based on the value of claims paid in that age group relative to total
claims paid. In provinces with more than one program, the age–sex–distributed programs were
combined to represent a total estimate for the provinces’ other professionals expenditure. Most
data was collected in fiscal year and converted to calendar year (see Calculation Methods).
121
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Total Provincial Government Health Expenditure by Age and Sex
To age–sex standardize total provincial government health expenditures, it is necessary that
all categories of expenditure be distributed by age and sex for each province. Unfortunately,
age–sex distributions for all provincial/territorial government expenditures are currently not
available in all provinces and territories. Consequently, CIHI estimated the missing data using
the following methods. The age–sex distribution of drug subsidy programs for Nunavut was
estimated for 1998 onward using the distribution of drug subsidy programs in the Northwest
Territories. The age–sex distributions of the category of other professionals in Prince Edward
Island, New Brunswick and Nunavut (1999 onward) were estimated for 1998 onward. The age–
sex distributions of these provinces were based on the distributions in other provinces of other
health care provider programs that had similar beneficiaries and copayment plans. Dental
expenditure by age and sex in Prince Edward Island was based on Newfoundland and Labrador
Dental Health Plan clients age 3 to 16. Similarly, New Brunswick’s dental expenditure for the
Youth Income Assistance Plan was based on clients up to age 17 from the Newfoundland and
Labrador dental plan. New Brunswick’s age and sex distribution for the Income Assistance
Optometry Plan was based on Saskatchewan Health’s Supplementary Health Optometry plan.
As was the case with Nunavut’s drug expenditure, Nunavut’s other professionals category
expenditure was based on the age–sex distribution for the Northwest Territories. Quebec’s
physiotherapy expenditure was distributed across a combined age–sex distribution of Ontario
and British Columbia’s fee-for-service physiotherapy plans.
Capital expenditure was estimated for all provinces and territories using the general provincial/
territorial populations by age and sex. This method was used based on two criteria: 1) capital
investments in health care institutions typically last for decades, and those who do not use
institutional services in a given year may use them in the future; and 2) given the uncertainty
of illness, the availability of facilities has a value for all who potentially would use them if the
need arose.
The remaining categories of public health, administration and other health spending were also
estimated using the general provincial/territorial populations by age and sex based on the
following rationale. Public health and health research benefit the entire population, and it would
be difficult to attribute them in different proportions to specific age and sex groups. Prepayment
administration expenditures are accounted for mainly by the universal hospital and physicians’
services plans. The rationale for distributing them according to the general population rather
than based on utilization is because prepayment administration expenses are made up largely
of the costs of registration systems for eligible residents, which cover the total population, and
claims processing costs. The convention of allocating ambulance expenditure by population
distributions is not believed to result in significant error of the total provincial expenditure
distributions due to its small share of the other health care spending category.
Age–Sex Standardization of Provincial Government Expenditures
For the purpose of age–sex standardization, CIHI used a direct method. Standardized
expenditures by category were calculated by multiplying the male and female population of
Canada in each of the 19 age groups by the expenditure per capita for each age group and sex
by province and territory. Male and female standardized expenditure was aggregated and then
divided by the total Canada population to generate the standardized per capita spending for a
particular category by province and territory.
122
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
A.4 Major Changes From Previous Years
In the process of compiling the national health expenditure series from year to year, new
information becomes available, methods and concepts are refined and data sources are
improved. The data is revised to incorporate these enhancements.
Revision History
Provincial Government Sector
Historical revisions were made for Saskatchewan from 2009 onward due to the availability of
more data.
Table A1: Differences From Previously Reported Provincial Government–Sector Data
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2009 to 2011 ($ Millions)
Year
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T. Nun. Canada
2009
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
18.9
—
—
—
—
—
18.9
2010
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
26.4
—
—
—
—
—
26.4
2011
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
27.4
—
—
—
—
—
27.4
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Private Sector
The changes in 2010 and 2011 across jurisdictions were due to the SHS and RCF updates by
Statistics Canada.
Table A2: Differences From Previously Reported Private-Sector Data, by Province/Territory
and Canada, 2010 and 2011 ($ Millions)
Year
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
2010
-6.5
—
24.6
-18.7
-37.2
-18.2
2011
2.7
4.6
10.5
-36.3 256.0
Man.
-2.4
Sask.
Alta.
10.0
-140.9 -124.4 -81.8
4.5
B.C.
Y.T. N.W.T. Nun. Canada
-12.9 -0.5
-265.3 -362.4
0.7
-1.9
-1.4
-60.5
-1.9
-1.4
-740.1
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Federal Direct Sector
The historical revisions shown in Table A3 are largely due to methodological changes made to
several federal departments in 2011.
Table A3: Differences From Previously Reported Federal Direct–Sector Data, by Province/Territory
and Canada, 2011 ($ Millions)
Year
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
2011
0.1
—
0.1
0.4
1.0
9.8
—
0.1
-0.1
1.1
Y.T. N.W.T. Nun. Canada
—
—
—
12.5
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
123
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Age and Sex Expenditure Data
Changes to the age–sex distributions from the previous publication occurred due to methodology
revisions and new information from data sources. For more detailed information please contact
the NHEX section by telephone at 613-241-7860 or by email at [email protected]
Economic and Demographic Data
Statistics Canada recently revised its population estimates back to 2006. The estimates in this
report are now based on the latest released data of March 2014.
A.5 Sources of Data
National health expenditure estimates are compiled based on information from the
following sources.
Provincial Government Sector
• Provincial public accounts and main estimates.
• Provincial departments of health annual reports and statistical supplements where available.
• Annual reports of various foundations, agencies and commissions.
• Special tabulations and specific information from various provincial departments reporting
health expenditures.
• Federal transfers as a part of provincial government spending:
– EPF, CHT, CST—Federal–Provincial Relations Division, Federal Department of Finance.
– CAP—Cost Shared Programs Division, Human Resources and Development Canada.
– Contributions to the governments of the Northwest Territories and Yukon—Public
Accounts of Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.
– Health Resource Fund—Health Canada.
Federal Direct Sector
• Public Accounts of Canada.
• Main estimates of Treasury Board of Canada.
• Special tabulations/information from
– Health Canada;
– Department of Veterans Affairs;
– Department of National Defence;
– Public Safety Canada;
– Statistics Canada;
– Citizenship and Immigration Canada; and
124
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
– Several organizations that are responsible for administering research funds from the
federal government, such as the Canada Foundation for Innovation, Canadian Health
Services Research Foundation and Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.
Municipal Government Sector
• Special tabulation purchased from the Public Sector Statistics Division of Statistics Canada.
Social Security Funds Sector
• Special tabulations on medical aid spending provided by the provincial/territorial workers’
compensation boards.
• Annual reports of provincial/territorial workers’ compensation boards.
• Special tabulations from the MSSS.
Private Sector
• Private insurance component:
– The not-for-profit portion is captured from special tabulations provided by the not-for-profit
insurance companies.
– The commercial portion is captured by a special tabulation provided by the Canadian Life
and Health Insurance Association.
• Out-of-pocket component:
– Survey of Household Spending, Statistics Canada, except for the following categories:
o Hospital accommodation (adjusted revenues from patient services)—Annual Return
of Health Care Facilities, fielded by Statistics Canada to 1994–1995, and the CMDB,
administered by CIHI from 1995–1996 onward.
o Other institutions—Residential Care Facilities Survey fielded by Statistics Canada.
o Over-the-counter drugs and personal health supplies—Market Review of
Selected Drug Categories at Retail, a special tabulation purchased from the Nielsen
Company Canada.
• Non-consumption component:
– Hospital accommodation (adjusted revenues from non-patient services)—Annual Return
of Health Care Facilities, Part 2, fielded by Statistics Canada to 1994–1995, and the
CMDB, from 1995–1996 onward.
– Capital expenditures—the Investment, Science and Technology Division, Statistics Canada.
– Health research—the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, Canadian Medical
Education Statistics, Expenditure for Biomedical and Health Care Research of Canadian
Faculties of Medicine by Source of Funds.
125
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Age and Sex Data
• CIHI’s DAD and HMDB.
• CIHI’s NPDB and NPDUIS Database.
• Special tabulations provided by provincial/territorial government departments responsible
for administering drug and other health benefit programs.
• Statistics Canada’s Residential Care Facility Survey.
Economic and Demographic Data
• Gross domestic product:
– CANSIM Table 384-0038, Statistics Canada.
– Purchased from The Conference Board of Canada (GDP growth rates) for the latest year.
• Population—the Demography Division, Statistics Canada.
• Provincial government expenditure—special tabulation purchased from the Public Sector
Statistics Division of Statistics Canada. Since 2009, data has been extracted and estimated
from provincial public accounts, budgets and main estimates.
• Price indices:
– Income and Expenditure Accounts Division and Prices Division, Statistics Canada.
– Purchased from The Conference Board of Canada for the latest year.
126
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Appendix B—Data Tables
This section provides summary-level expenditure data. These data tables are organized
as follows:
Series
A—Summary Data, Canada
B—Total Health Expenditure, by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory and Canada
(Selected Tables)
E—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Age and Sex, by Province/Territory
and Canada (Selected Tables)
The CD-ROM affixed to the back cover of this report contains more comprehensive data tables
in Microsoft Excel. The data tables listed below are also available for download, free of charge,
at www.cihi.ca/nhex.
Series available on CD-ROM and online
A—Summary Data, Canada
B—Total Health Expenditure, by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory and Canada
C—Health Expenditure, by Use of Funds, by Source of Finance, Canada
D—Health Expenditure, by Use of Funds, by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory
E—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Age and Sex, by Province/Territory
and Canada
F—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada
G—Drug Expenditure by Type, by Source of Finance and as a Share of Public, Private and
Total Health Expenditures, by Province/Territory and Canada
Appendix A—Gross Domestic Product at Market Prices
Appendix B—Price Indices, by Province/Territory and Canada
Appendix C—Population, Population by Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada
Appendix D—Total Provincial/Territorial Government Programs and Expenditures,
by Province/Territory and Canada
Each series generally follows the order below except as indicated. In addition, tables in series A.3,
C, D, E, F.2 and F.3 are not available in constant dollar values.
127
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Current dollars
• In millions of dollars.
• Percentage distribution (use of funds only).
• Per capita.
• Sector as a proportion of
– GDP (B.1 and F.1 series only);
– Total health expenditure (B.2 to B.8 series only);
– Total provincial/territorial government program/expenditure (B.4 and F.4 series only).
Constant dollars
• In millions of 1997 dollars (A, B and F.1 series only).
• In 1997 dollars per capita (A, B and F.1 series only).
Most subseries also include a table of annual percentage changes.
In all tables, forecasts are denoted with the letter “f”; the symbol “—” denotes data that is either
unavailable or not applicable.
128
Series A
Summary Data, Canada
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.1
Year
Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Summary
Total Health Expenditure in Current Dollars
Total
Per Capita
($’ 000,000)
($)
Total Health Expenditure in Constant 1997 Dollars
Total
Per Capita
($’ 000,000)
($)
Total Health Expenditure as a % of GDP
(%)
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
12,199.4
14,049.8
15,450.0
17,106.8
19,169.7
527.1
599.1
651.2
713.9
792.1
39,684.0
40,766.5
41,609.5
42,940.6
44,203.5
1,714.7
1,738.5
1,753.8
1,791.9
1,826.5
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
6.8
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
22,298.4
26,276.7
30,759.1
34,038.6
36,743.1
909.5
1,058.7
1,224.6
1,341.8
1,434.9
46,676.2
50,911.5
53,289.0
55,239.5
57,106.9
1,903.9
2,051.2
2,121.6
2,177.6
2,230.1
7.1
7.2
8.0
8.1
8.0
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
39,842.4
43,338.1
46,789.2
50,960.1
56,096.2
1,541.7
1,660.4
1,769.0
1,901.8
2,056.2
59,393.3
62,037.3
63,659.9
66,268.9
69,134.4
2,298.3
2,376.8
2,406.9
2,473.1
2,534.1
8.0
8.3
8.2
8.2
8.4
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
61,092.9
66,437.4
69,853.6
71,519.1
73,159.6
2,205.7
2,370.1
2,462.5
2,493.5
2,522.8
71,265.3
73,988.9
75,196.3
75,468.1
75,913.1
2,573.0
2,639.5
2,650.9
2,631.2
2,617.8
8.8
9.5
9.8
9.6
9.3
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
74,237.4
75,082.3
78,741.5
84,067.3
90,463.9
2,533.5
2,535.6
2,632.8
2,787.6
2,975.4
76,182.6
76,259.2
78,741.5
82,665.2
87,255.2
2,599.9
2,575.4
2,632.8
2,741.2
2,869.9
9.0
8.8
8.7
9.0
9.0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
98,603.5
107,187.4
115,039.7
123,573.9
131,537.2
3,213.0
3,455.3
3,666.9
3,901.2
4,111.2
91,480.9
97,159.6
101,331.2
105,941.9
110,724.4
2,980.9
3,132.0
3,229.9
3,344.5
3,460.7
9.0
9.4
9.7
9.9
9.9
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
140,296.8
150,745.8
160,262.8
172,061.1
182,124.7
4,341.9
4,628.3
4,873.0
5,175.4
5,415.8
114,286.1
119,407.3
123,240.2
128,383.4
132,052.8
3,536.9
3,666.1
3,747.3
3,861.6
3,926.8
9.9
10.1
10.2
10.5
11.6
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
193,321.0
199,389.1
205,436.3
210,406.3
214,907.2
5,685.0
5,805.9
5,911.1
5,984.5
6,045.2
138,026.6
138,590.8
140,462.8
141,294.7
141,708.6
4,059.0
4,035.5
4,041.6
4,018.8
3,986.2
11.6
11.3
11.3
11.2
11.0
1976*
1980*
15.2
16.3
13.7
14.8
2.7
5.6
1.4
4.2
-----
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
8.4
8.8
8.0
8.9
10.1
7.4
7.7
6.5
7.5
8.1
4.0
4.5
2.6
4.1
4.3
3.1
3.4
1.3
2.8
2.5
-----------
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
8.9
8.7
5.1
2.4
2.3
7.3
7.5
3.9
1.3
1.2
3.1
3.8
1.6
0.4
0.6
1.5
2.6
0.4
-0.7
-0.5
-----------
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1.5
1.1
4.9
6.8
7.6
0.4
0.1
3.8
5.9
6.7
0.4
0.1
3.3
5.0
5.6
-0.7
-0.9
2.2
4.1
4.7
-----------
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
9.0
8.7
7.3
7.4
6.4
8.0
7.5
6.1
6.4
5.4
4.8
6.2
4.3
4.6
4.5
3.9
5.1
3.1
3.5
3.5
-----------
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
6.7
7.4
6.3
7.4
5.8
5.6
6.6
5.3
6.2
4.6
3.2
4.5
3.2
4.2
2.9
2.2
3.7
2.2
3.1
1.7
-----------
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
6.1
3.1
3.0
2.4
2.1
5.0
2.1
1.8
1.2
1.0
4.5
0.4
1.4
0.6
0.3
3.4
-0.6
0.2
-0.6
-0.8
-----------
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
130
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.2.1
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Provincial
Government
Federal
Direct
Municipal
Government
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
A
B
C
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
8,709.3
10,129.9
11,102.0
12,269.4
13,696.6
398.3
439.7
475.2
485.6
512.8
71.6
105.8
114.2
111.7
156.0
121.1
141.9
153.1
173.8
186.8
9,300.3
10,817.2
11,844.6
13,040.5
14,552.3
2,899.2
3,232.6
3,605.4
4,066.3
4,617.4
12,199.4
14,049.8
15,450.0
17,106.8
19,169.7
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
15,794.1
18,655.5
22,002.1
24,510.2
26,244.0
582.1
692.7
854.8
994.9
1,106.1
234.0
275.4
250.8
222.2
214.5
231.7
319.0
339.1
352.7
392.3
16,841.8
19,942.6
23,446.8
26,080.0
27,956.9
5,456.5
6,334.1
7,312.3
7,958.6
8,786.3
22,298.4
26,276.7
30,759.1
34,038.6
36,743.1
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
28,202.8
30,501.5
32,821.9
35,806.2
39,332.1
1,157.7
1,260.8
1,349.7
1,522.8
1,686.6
273.1
310.2
404.6
303.5
326.4
462.0
457.0
479.5
531.1
566.8
30,095.5
32,529.4
35,055.7
38,163.7
41,911.9
9,746.9
10,808.7
11,733.5
12,796.4
14,184.3
39,842.4
43,338.1
46,789.2
50,960.1
56,096.2
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
42,536.3
46,324.4
48,441.6
48,591.6
48,933.8
1,970.4
2,110.0
2,199.9
2,280.9
2,519.8
364.6
374.7
396.9
383.7
446.1
644.4
721.4
703.2
684.8
685.7
45,515.8
49,530.5
51,741.7
51,941.0
52,585.4
15,577.1
16,906.9
18,112.0
19,578.1
20,574.2
61,092.9
66,437.4
69,853.6
71,519.1
73,159.6
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
49,087.4
49,448.4
51,150.2
54,374.7
58,433.7
2,667.0
2,606.2
2,828.0
3,027.5
3,152.9
394.9
348.1
318.7
765.9
565.4
718.0
769.0
911.6
1,001.4
1,131.4
52,867.3
53,171.8
55,208.5
59,169.4
63,283.4
21,370.1
21,910.5
23,533.1
24,897.9
27,180.6
74,237.4
75,082.3
78,741.5
84,067.3
90,463.9
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
63,664.9
68,524.0
73,419.1
79,200.3
84,363.7
3,614.5
4,261.3
4,140.5
4,699.9
4,764.4
690.3
775.8
825.4
921.5
1,056.8
1,298.8
1,409.6
1,507.3
1,726.9
1,836.6
69,268.5
74,970.8
79,892.4
86,548.6
92,021.5
29,335.0
32,216.6
35,147.3
37,025.3
39,515.7
98,603.5
107,187.4
115,039.7
123,573.9
131,537.2
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
90,368.4
96,555.0
103,514.5
111,683.9
118,722.2
4,919.6
5,255.9
5,677.4
6,350.1
6,923.8
1,008.8
1,032.5
962.4
868.4
938.8
1,949.1
2,097.1
2,188.1
2,381.0
2,442.9
98,245.9
104,940.6
112,342.5
121,283.4
129,027.8
42,050.8
45,805.2
47,920.3
50,777.7
53,096.9
140,296.8
150,745.8
160,262.8
172,061.1
182,124.7
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
125,977.2
130,722.8
134,655.0
138,134.8
140,772.4
6,571.1
6,683.1
6,846.2
6,769.9
6,916.8
962.4
867.6
871.4
833.4
821.8
2,548.6
2,566.3
2,735.6
2,846.6
2,982.7
136,059.3
140,839.7
145,108.2
148,584.6
151,493.7
57,261.7
58,549.4
60,328.1
61,821.7
63,413.6
193,321.0
199,389.1
205,436.3
210,406.3
214,907.2
1976*
1980*
16.3
15.3
10.4
13.5
47.6
50.0
17.2
24.0
16.3
15.7
11.5
18.2
15.2
16.3
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
7.5
8.2
7.6
9.1
9.8
4.7
8.9
7.1
12.8
10.8
27.3
13.6
30.4
-25.0
7.6
17.8
-1.1
4.9
10.8
6.7
7.6
8.1
7.8
8.9
9.8
10.9
10.9
8.6
9.1
10.8
8.4
8.8
8.0
8.9
10.1
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
8.1
8.9
4.6
0.3
0.7
16.8
7.1
4.3
3.7
10.5
11.7
2.8
6.0
-3.3
16.2
13.7
11.9
-2.5
-2.6
0.1
8.6
8.8
4.5
0.4
1.2
9.8
8.5
7.1
8.1
5.1
8.9
8.7
5.1
2.4
2.3
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
0.3
0.7
3.4
6.3
7.5
5.8
-2.3
8.5
7.1
4.1
-11.5
-11.9
-8.4
140.3
-26.2
4.7
7.1
18.5
9.8
13.0
0.5
0.6
3.8
7.2
7.0
3.9
2.5
7.4
5.8
9.2
1.5
1.1
4.9
6.8
7.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
9.0
7.6
7.1
7.9
6.5
14.6
17.9
-2.8
13.5
1.4
22.1
12.4
6.4
11.6
14.7
14.8
8.5
6.9
14.6
6.3
9.5
8.2
6.6
8.3
6.3
7.9
9.8
9.1
5.3
6.7
9.0
8.7
7.3
7.4
6.4
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
7.1
6.8
7.2
7.9
6.3
3.3
6.8
8.0
11.8
9.0
-4.5
2.3
-6.8
-9.8
8.1
6.1
7.6
4.3
8.8
2.6
6.8
6.8
7.1
8.0
6.4
6.4
8.9
4.6
6.0
4.6
6.7
7.4
6.3
7.4
5.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
6.1
3.8
3.0
2.6
1.9
-5.1
1.7
2.4
-1.1
2.2
2.5
-9.8
0.4
-4.4
-1.4
4.3
0.7
6.6
4.1
4.8
5.4
3.5
3.0
2.4
2.0
7.8
2.2
3.0
2.5
2.6
6.1
3.1
3.0
2.4
2.1
($’ 000,000)
Year
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
131
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.2.2
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Provincial
Government
Federal
Direct
Municipal
Government
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
A
B
C
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
71.4
72.1
71.9
71.7
71.4
3.3
3.1
3.1
2.8
2.7
0.6
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
76.2
77.0
76.7
76.2
75.9
23.8
23.0
23.3
23.8
24.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
70.8
71.0
71.5
72.0
71.4
2.6
2.6
2.8
2.9
3.0
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.6
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.1
75.5
75.9
76.2
76.6
76.1
24.5
24.1
23.8
23.4
23.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
70.8
70.4
70.1
70.3
70.1
2.9
2.9
2.9
3.0
3.0
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.6
0.6
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
75.5
75.1
74.9
74.9
74.7
24.5
24.9
25.1
25.1
25.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
69.6
69.7
69.3
67.9
66.9
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.4
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.9
74.5
74.6
74.1
72.6
71.9
25.5
25.4
25.9
27.4
28.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
66.1
65.9
65.0
64.7
64.6
3.6
3.5
3.6
3.6
3.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.9
0.6
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.3
71.2
70.8
70.1
70.4
70.0
28.8
29.2
29.9
29.6
30.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
64.6
63.9
63.8
64.1
64.1
3.7
4.0
3.6
3.8
3.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
70.2
69.9
69.4
70.0
70.0
29.8
30.1
30.6
30.0
30.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
64.4
64.1
64.6
64.9
65.2
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.7
3.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
70.0
69.6
70.1
70.5
70.8
30.0
30.4
29.9
29.5
29.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
65.2
65.6
65.5
65.7
65.5
3.4
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.2
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
70.4
70.6
70.6
70.6
70.5
29.6
29.4
29.4
29.4
29.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1976*
1980*
1.0
-0.9
-4.1
-2.4
28.2
28.9
1.7
6.6
1.0
-0.5
-3.2
1.6
-----
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
-0.9
-0.6
-0.3
0.2
-0.2
-3.5
0.1
-0.8
3.6
0.6
17.4
4.4
20.8
-31.1
-2.3
8.6
-9.1
-2.8
1.7
-3.1
-0.7
-0.6
-0.2
0.0
-0.2
2.3
1.9
0.5
0.1
0.7
-----------
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
-0.7
0.1
-0.5
-2.0
-1.6
7.3
-1.5
-0.8
1.3
8.0
2.6
-5.5
0.8
-5.6
13.6
4.4
2.9
-7.3
-4.9
-2.1
-0.3
0.1
-0.6
-2.0
-1.0
0.8
-0.2
1.9
5.6
2.7
-----------
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-1.1
-0.4
-1.4
-0.4
-0.1
4.3
-3.4
3.5
0.3
-3.2
-12.8
-12.8
-12.7
125.1
-31.4
3.2
5.9
13.0
2.9
5.0
-0.9
-0.6
-1.0
0.4
-0.6
2.4
1.4
2.4
-0.9
1.4
-----------
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
0.0
-1.0
-0.2
0.4
0.1
5.2
8.5
-9.5
5.7
-4.8
12.0
3.4
-0.9
3.9
7.7
5.3
-0.2
-0.4
6.7
-0.1
0.4
-0.4
-0.7
0.8
-0.1
-1.0
1.0
1.7
-1.9
0.3
-----------
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
0.4
-0.6
0.8
0.5
0.4
-3.2
-0.6
1.6
4.2
3.0
-10.5
-4.7
-12.3
-16.0
2.1
-0.5
0.1
-1.9
1.4
-3.1
0.1
-0.6
0.7
0.6
0.5
-0.2
1.4
-1.6
-1.3
-1.2
-----------
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.2
-0.2
-10.6
-1.4
-0.6
-3.5
0.0
-3.4
-12.6
-2.5
-6.6
-3.5
-1.7
-2.4
3.5
1.6
2.6
-0.7
0.4
0.0
0.0
-0.2
1.6
-0.9
0.0
0.1
0.4
-----------
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Year
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
132
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.2.3
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Provincial
Government
Federal
Direct
Municipal
Government
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
A
B
C
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
376.3
432.0
467.9
512.0
565.9
17.2
18.8
20.0
20.3
21.2
3.1
4.5
4.8
4.7
6.4
5.2
6.0
6.5
7.3
7.7
401.9
461.3
499.2
544.2
601.3
125.3
137.9
152.0
169.7
190.8
527.1
599.1
651.2
713.9
792.1
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
644.2
751.6
876.0
966.2
1,024.8
23.7
27.9
34.0
39.2
43.2
9.5
11.1
10.0
8.8
8.4
9.5
12.9
13.5
13.9
15.3
687.0
803.5
933.5
1,028.1
1,091.7
222.6
255.2
291.1
313.7
343.1
909.5
1,058.7
1,224.6
1,341.8
1,434.9
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1,091.3
1,168.6
1,241.0
1,336.3
1,441.7
44.8
48.3
51.0
56.8
61.8
10.6
11.9
15.3
11.3
12.0
17.9
17.5
18.1
19.8
20.8
1,164.6
1,246.3
1,325.4
1,424.3
1,536.3
377.2
414.1
443.6
477.6
519.9
1,541.7
1,660.4
1,769.0
1,901.8
2,056.2
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,535.7
1,652.6
1,707.7
1,694.2
1,687.4
71.1
75.3
77.6
79.5
86.9
13.2
13.4
14.0
13.4
15.4
23.3
25.7
24.8
23.9
23.6
1,643.3
1,767.0
1,824.0
1,810.9
1,813.3
562.4
603.1
638.5
682.6
709.5
2,205.7
2,370.1
2,462.5
2,493.5
2,522.8
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1,675.2
1,669.9
1,710.3
1,803.0
1,921.9
91.0
88.0
94.6
100.4
103.7
13.5
11.8
10.7
25.4
18.6
24.5
26.0
30.5
33.2
37.2
1,804.2
1,795.7
1,846.0
1,962.0
2,081.4
729.3
739.9
786.9
825.6
894.0
2,533.5
2,535.6
2,632.8
2,787.6
2,975.4
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2,074.5
2,208.9
2,340.2
2,500.3
2,636.8
117.8
137.4
132.0
148.4
148.9
22.5
25.0
26.3
29.1
33.0
42.3
45.4
48.0
54.5
57.4
2,257.1
2,416.8
2,546.6
2,732.3
2,876.1
955.9
1,038.5
1,120.3
1,168.9
1,235.0
3,213.0
3,455.3
3,666.9
3,901.2
4,111.2
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2,796.7
2,964.5
3,147.5
3,359.3
3,530.4
152.3
161.4
172.6
191.0
205.9
31.2
31.7
29.3
26.1
27.9
60.3
64.4
66.5
71.6
72.6
3,040.5
3,222.0
3,415.9
3,648.1
3,836.8
1,301.4
1,406.3
1,457.1
1,527.3
1,578.9
4,341.9
4,628.3
4,873.0
5,175.4
5,415.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
3,704.6
3,806.4
3,874.5
3,928.9
3,959.9
193.2
194.6
197.0
192.6
194.6
28.3
25.3
25.1
23.7
23.1
74.9
74.7
78.7
81.0
83.9
4,001.1
4,101.0
4,175.3
4,226.2
4,261.4
1,683.9
1,704.9
1,735.8
1,758.4
1,783.8
5,685.0
5,805.9
5,911.1
5,984.5
6,045.2
1976*
1980*
14.8
13.8
9.0
12.0
45.7
48.1
15.6
22.4
14.8
14.2
10.0
16.7
13.7
14.8
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
6.5
7.1
6.2
7.7
7.9
3.7
7.8
5.6
11.4
8.8
26.1
12.5
28.7
-26.0
5.6
16.7
-2.1
3.5
9.3
4.8
6.7
7.0
6.3
7.5
7.9
9.9
9.8
7.1
7.6
8.9
7.4
7.7
6.5
7.5
8.1
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
6.5
7.6
3.3
-0.8
-0.4
15.1
5.8
3.0
2.5
9.3
10.0
1.5
4.7
-4.4
15.0
12.0
10.6
-3.7
-3.7
-1.0
7.0
7.5
3.2
-0.7
0.1
8.2
7.2
5.9
6.9
3.9
7.3
7.5
3.9
1.3
1.2
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-0.7
-0.3
2.4
5.4
6.6
4.7
-3.3
7.4
6.2
3.3
-12.4
-12.8
-9.4
138.3
-26.8
3.6
6.0
17.4
8.9
12.1
-0.5
-0.5
2.8
6.3
6.1
2.8
1.5
6.3
4.9
8.3
0.4
0.1
3.8
5.9
6.7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
7.9
6.5
5.9
6.8
5.5
13.6
16.6
-3.9
12.4
0.4
21.0
11.2
5.2
10.6
13.5
13.7
7.4
5.7
13.5
5.3
8.4
7.1
5.4
7.3
5.3
6.9
8.6
7.9
4.3
5.7
8.0
7.5
6.1
6.4
5.4
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
6.1
6.0
6.2
6.7
5.1
2.2
6.0
7.0
10.6
7.8
-5.5
1.5
-7.7
-10.7
6.9
5.1
6.7
3.3
7.6
1.4
5.7
6.0
6.0
6.8
5.2
5.4
8.1
3.6
4.8
3.4
5.6
6.6
5.3
6.2
4.6
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
4.9
2.7
1.8
1.4
0.8
-6.1
0.7
1.2
-2.3
1.0
1.4
-10.7
-0.8
-5.5
-2.5
3.2
-0.3
5.3
2.9
3.6
4.3
2.5
1.8
1.2
0.8
6.6
1.2
1.8
1.3
1.4
5.0
2.1
1.8
1.2
1.0
($’ per capita)
Year
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
133
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.2.4
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Constant Dollars
Provincial
Government
Federal
Direct
Municipal
Government
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
A
B
C
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
27,834.3
28,659.5
28,970.1
29,826.1
30,367.9
1,272.1
1,247.3
1,243.4
1,184.5
1,140.9
230.4
304.7
304.7
277.9
354.1
389.4
403.8
402.6
425.3
417.5
29,726.3
30,615.2
30,920.8
31,713.8
32,280.4
9,957.7
10,151.2
10,688.7
11,226.8
11,923.1
39,684.0
40,766.5
41,609.5
42,940.6
44,203.5
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
31,774.8
35,177.2
37,155.1
39,046.5
40,161.1
1,174.0
1,312.1
1,452.8
1,587.3
1,693.5
482.4
529.6
432.8
360.7
335.2
469.8
605.9
576.3
567.1
603.4
33,901.0
37,624.8
39,616.9
41,561.6
42,793.2
12,775.2
13,286.6
13,672.1
13,677.9
14,313.7
46,676.2
50,911.5
53,289.0
55,239.5
57,106.9
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
41,476.1
43,253.5
44,477.5
46,609.1
48,482.9
1,704.8
1,789.1
1,832.5
1,984.9
2,080.9
407.2
442.6
552.7
396.5
402.5
680.2
649.3
650.3
692.5
698.3
44,268.2
46,134.4
47,512.9
49,683.0
51,664.6
15,125.0
15,902.9
16,147.0
16,585.9
17,469.9
59,393.3
62,037.3
63,659.9
66,268.9
69,134.4
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
49,564.7
51,610.5
52,189.0
51,457.0
50,907.1
2,298.8
2,357.5
2,379.3
2,426.1
2,627.8
426.1
419.1
428.5
407.1
466.8
751.2
803.4
758.6
726.2
714.8
53,040.8
55,190.5
55,755.5
55,016.5
54,716.5
18,224.5
18,798.4
19,440.8
20,451.6
21,196.6
71,265.3
73,988.9
75,196.3
75,468.1
75,913.1
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
50,410.1
50,256.4
51,150.2
53,598.0
56,585.5
2,741.8
2,646.9
2,828.0
2,982.8
3,048.6
407.5
354.2
318.7
752.3
548.8
738.1
781.9
911.6
989.0
1,095.9
54,297.6
54,039.4
55,208.5
58,322.1
61,278.8
21,885.0
22,219.8
23,533.1
24,343.1
25,976.4
76,182.6
76,259.2
78,741.5
82,665.2
87,255.2
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
58,883.4
62,005.2
64,265.9
67,223.5
70,309.4
3,337.0
3,848.3
3,615.9
3,985.7
3,960.9
642.0
707.8
727.8
788.2
883.7
1,199.8
1,274.0
1,317.1
1,456.0
1,530.0
64,062.3
67,835.3
69,926.7
73,453.5
76,684.0
27,418.5
29,324.3
31,404.5
32,488.4
34,040.3
91,480.9
97,159.6
101,331.2
105,941.9
110,724.4
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
72,700.2
75,277.2
78,023.2
81,257.0
83,884.4
3,946.5
4,084.0
4,265.7
4,604.8
4,877.3
813.3
808.4
727.9
631.3
660.8
1,567.5
1,641.8
1,649.6
1,741.4
1,739.2
79,027.4
81,811.5
84,666.3
88,234.5
91,161.7
35,258.7
37,595.8
38,573.9
40,148.9
40,891.1
114,286.1
119,407.3
123,240.2
128,383.4
132,052.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
87,810.8
88,170.4
88,840.4
88,711.9
88,290.2
4,565.0
4,488.4
4,495.7
4,332.9
4,323.6
668.5
580.7
570.7
528.3
507.3
1,793.3
1,746.9
1,818.5
1,844.4
1,886.5
94,837.7
94,986.4
95,725.3
95,417.5
95,007.6
43,189.0
43,604.5
44,737.6
45,877.2
46,701.0
138,026.6
138,590.8
140,462.8
141,294.7
141,708.6
1976*
1980*
3.0
4.6
-2.0
2.9
32.2
36.2
3.7
12.5
3.0
5.0
1.9
7.1
2.7
5.6
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
3.3
4.3
2.8
4.8
4.0
0.7
4.9
2.4
8.3
4.8
21.5
8.7
24.9
-28.3
1.5
12.7
-4.5
0.2
6.5
0.8
3.4
4.2
3.0
4.6
4.0
5.7
5.1
1.5
2.7
5.3
4.0
4.5
2.6
4.1
4.3
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
2.2
4.1
1.1
-1.4
-1.1
10.5
2.6
0.9
2.0
8.3
5.9
-1.6
2.2
-5.0
14.7
7.6
6.9
-5.6
-4.3
-1.6
2.7
4.1
1.0
-1.3
-0.5
4.3
3.1
3.4
5.2
3.6
3.1
3.8
1.6
0.4
0.6
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-1.0
-0.3
1.8
4.8
5.6
4.3
-3.5
6.8
5.5
2.2
-12.7
-13.1
-10.0
136.1
-27.0
3.3
5.9
16.6
8.5
10.8
-0.8
-0.5
2.2
5.6
5.1
3.2
1.5
5.9
3.4
6.7
0.4
0.1
3.3
5.0
5.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
4.1
5.3
3.6
4.6
4.6
9.5
15.3
-6.0
10.2
-0.6
17.0
10.2
2.8
8.3
12.1
9.5
6.2
3.4
10.5
5.1
4.5
5.9
3.1
5.0
4.4
5.6
7.0
7.1
3.5
4.8
4.8
6.2
4.3
4.6
4.5
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
3.4
3.5
3.6
4.1
3.2
-0.4
3.5
4.4
8.0
5.9
-8.0
-0.6
-10.0
-13.3
4.7
2.5
4.7
0.5
5.6
-0.1
3.1
3.5
3.5
4.2
3.3
3.6
6.6
2.6
4.1
1.8
3.2
4.5
3.2
4.2
2.9
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
4.7
0.4
0.8
-0.1
-0.5
-6.4
-1.7
0.2
-3.6
-0.2
1.2
-13.1
-1.7
-7.4
-4.0
3.1
-2.6
4.1
1.4
2.3
4.0
0.2
0.8
-0.3
-0.4
5.6
1.0
2.6
2.5
1.8
4.5
0.4
1.4
0.6
0.3
Year
(in 1997 $’ 000,000)
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
134
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Constant Dollars
Provincial
Government
Federal
Direct
Municipal
Government
Table A.2.5
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
A
B
C
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1,202.7
1,222.2
1,221.0
1,244.7
1,254.8
55.0
53.2
52.4
49.4
47.1
10.0
13.0
12.8
11.6
14.6
16.8
17.2
17.0
17.7
17.3
1,284.4
1,305.6
1,303.2
1,323.4
1,333.8
430.3
432.9
450.5
468.5
492.7
1,714.7
1,738.5
1,753.8
1,791.9
1,826.5
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1,296.1
1,417.3
1,479.3
1,539.3
1,568.3
47.9
52.9
57.8
62.6
66.1
19.7
21.3
17.2
14.2
13.1
19.2
24.4
22.9
22.4
23.6
1,382.8
1,515.9
1,577.3
1,638.4
1,671.1
521.1
535.3
544.3
539.2
559.0
1,903.9
2,051.2
2,121.6
2,177.6
2,230.1
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1,604.9
1,657.1
1,681.6
1,739.4
1,777.1
66.0
68.5
69.3
74.1
76.3
15.8
17.0
20.9
14.8
14.8
26.3
24.9
24.6
25.8
25.6
1,713.0
1,767.5
1,796.4
1,854.2
1,893.7
585.3
609.3
610.5
619.0
640.3
2,298.3
2,376.8
2,406.9
2,473.1
2,534.1
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,789.5
1,841.2
1,839.8
1,794.1
1,755.5
83.0
84.1
83.9
84.6
90.6
15.4
15.0
15.1
14.2
16.1
27.1
28.7
26.7
25.3
24.6
1,915.0
1,968.9
1,965.5
1,918.2
1,886.8
658.0
670.6
685.3
713.0
730.9
2,573.0
2,639.5
2,650.9
2,631.2
2,617.8
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1,720.3
1,697.2
1,710.3
1,777.3
1,861.1
93.6
89.4
94.6
98.9
100.3
13.9
12.0
10.7
24.9
18.1
25.2
26.4
30.5
32.8
36.0
1,853.0
1,825.0
1,846.0
1,933.9
2,015.5
746.9
750.4
786.9
807.2
854.4
2,599.9
2,575.4
2,632.8
2,741.2
2,869.9
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
1,918.7
1,998.8
2,048.5
2,122.2
2,197.5
108.7
124.1
115.3
125.8
123.8
20.9
22.8
23.2
24.9
27.6
39.1
41.1
42.0
46.0
47.8
2,087.5
2,186.7
2,228.9
2,318.9
2,396.7
893.4
945.3
1,001.0
1,025.6
1,063.9
2,980.9
3,132.0
3,229.9
3,344.5
3,460.7
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2,249.9
2,311.2
2,372.4
2,444.1
2,494.4
122.1
125.4
129.7
138.5
145.0
25.2
24.8
22.1
19.0
19.7
48.5
50.4
50.2
52.4
51.7
2,445.8
2,511.8
2,574.4
2,654.0
2,710.8
1,091.2
1,154.3
1,172.9
1,207.6
1,216.0
3,536.9
3,666.1
3,747.3
3,861.6
3,926.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
2,582.3
2,567.4
2,556.2
2,523.2
2,483.6
134.2
130.7
129.4
123.2
121.6
19.7
16.9
16.4
15.0
14.3
52.7
50.9
52.3
52.5
53.1
2,788.9
2,765.8
2,754.3
2,713.9
2,672.5
1,270.1
1,269.7
1,287.3
1,304.9
1,313.7
4,059.0
4,035.5
4,041.6
4,018.8
3,986.2
1976*
1980*
1.6
3.3
-3.2
1.6
30.5
34.5
2.4
11.1
1.6
3.7
0.6
5.8
1.4
4.2
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
2.3
3.3
1.5
3.4
2.2
-0.2
3.9
1.1
6.9
3.0
20.4
7.6
23.2
-29.2
-0.3
11.7
-5.5
-1.2
5.1
-1.0
2.5
3.2
1.6
3.2
2.1
4.7
4.1
0.2
1.4
3.5
3.1
3.4
1.3
2.8
2.5
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
0.7
2.9
-0.1
-2.5
-2.2
8.8
1.3
-0.3
0.8
7.1
4.3
-2.8
1.0
-6.0
13.4
6.0
5.7
-6.7
-5.3
-2.6
1.1
2.8
-0.2
-2.4
-1.6
2.8
1.9
2.2
4.0
2.5
1.5
2.6
0.4
-0.7
-0.5
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-2.0
-1.3
0.8
3.9
4.7
3.3
-4.5
5.8
4.6
1.4
-13.6
-14.0
-10.9
134.1
-27.6
2.2
4.8
15.4
7.6
9.9
-1.8
-1.5
1.2
4.8
4.2
2.2
0.5
4.9
2.6
5.8
-0.7
-0.9
2.2
4.1
4.7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
3.1
4.2
2.5
3.6
3.5
8.4
14.1
-7.1
9.2
-1.6
15.9
9.1
1.7
7.3
11.0
8.5
5.0
2.2
9.5
4.0
3.6
4.8
1.9
4.0
3.4
4.6
5.8
5.9
2.5
3.7
3.9
5.1
3.1
3.5
3.5
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2.4
2.7
2.6
3.0
2.1
-1.3
2.7
3.4
6.8
4.7
-8.9
-1.4
-10.8
-14.2
3.5
1.4
3.9
-0.5
4.4
-1.3
2.0
2.7
2.5
3.1
2.1
2.6
5.8
1.6
3.0
0.7
2.2
3.7
2.2
3.1
1.7
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
3.5
-0.6
-0.4
-1.3
-1.6
-7.4
-2.6
-1.0
-4.7
-1.3
0.0
-14.0
-2.9
-8.5
-5.0
2.0
-3.5
2.9
0.3
1.2
2.9
-0.8
-0.4
-1.5
-1.5
4.4
0.0
1.4
1.4
0.7
3.4
-0.6
0.2
-0.6
-0.8
(in 1997 $’ per capita)
Year
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
135
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.1.1—Part 1
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Hospitals
Other
Institutions
Year
A
B
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
5,454.9
6,357.3
6,792.8
7,382.0
8,114.1
1,125.0
1,368.6
1,577.0
1,851.8
2,171.7
1,839.9
2,071.0
2,284.4
2,566.7
2,857.1
741.7
869.1
1,034.6
1,191.3
1,374.5
226.1
260.1
295.8
336.0
365.8
128.4
145.5
162.6
186.3
219.2
1,096.2
1,274.7
1,493.0
1,713.5
1,959.5
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
9,334.4
11,030.7
13,092.8
14,417.6
15,344.8
2,539.6
2,889.9
3,384.8
3,741.6
3,915.5
3,287.5
3,824.8
4,420.8
5,052.7
5,525.9
1,592.0
1,811.8
2,072.7
2,225.7
2,402.3
414.4
513.6
609.8
715.0
829.4
255.4
303.7
357.3
411.6
452.2
2,261.7
2,629.1
3,039.8
3,352.4
3,683.8
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
16,260.3
17,637.2
18,951.1
20,400.3
22,270.1
4,105.9
4,087.3
4,329.2
4,738.7
5,141.3
6,045.7
6,674.8
7,342.8
7,942.1
8,506.7
2,711.3
2,959.6
3,203.6
3,494.0
3,820.7
925.9
1,002.2
1,075.6
1,184.2
1,302.3
496.4
562.0
634.3
715.6
833.8
4,133.6
4,523.8
4,913.5
5,393.8
5,956.7
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
22,768.5
24,204.6
25,190.2
25,289.0
24,757.4
6,681.8
7,636.6
8,143.7
8,203.3
8,358.4
9,178.8
10,105.4
10,343.4
10,403.5
10,635.5
4,128.5
4,449.7
4,667.6
4,908.2
5,199.9
1,413.2
1,502.6
1,557.6
1,605.7
1,700.2
941.9
1,062.6
1,149.5
1,193.3
1,226.6
6,483.6
7,014.9
7,374.7
7,707.1
8,126.7
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
24,231.5
24,245.4
24,635.3
25,866.1
27,228.9
8,610.7
8,696.6
8,966.3
9,382.8
9,974.7
10,615.6
10,771.3
11,224.8
11,771.1
12,408.4
5,468.4
5,648.1
5,880.0
6,261.4
6,754.3
1,778.4
1,831.8
2,189.8
2,278.1
2,349.2
1,266.6
1,310.2
1,516.9
1,509.1
1,707.7
8,513.3
8,790.0
9,586.7
10,048.7
10,811.3
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
29,615.4
31,528.2
33,952.2
36,213.8
38,882.3
10,821.1
11,504.3
12,251.4
12,930.0
14,205.2
13,220.9
14,149.9
15,199.2
16,281.1
17,316.4
7,175.0
7,761.1
8,244.2
8,473.0
8,972.0
2,576.6
2,761.1
2,799.8
2,681.6
3,062.4
1,794.3
2,009.9
2,027.3
2,065.3
2,165.0
11,545.9
12,532.1
13,071.3
13,219.9
14,199.4
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
40,927.7
43,660.8
46,513.2
49,779.7
53,117.2
14,651.6
15,722.9
16,685.7
17,573.9
18,879.7
18,556.6
20,047.2
21,553.0
23,779.9
25,673.6
9,821.6
10,366.1
11,110.8
11,838.2
12,147.7
3,182.5
3,443.8
3,769.7
3,925.8
4,223.9
2,187.1
2,520.2
2,533.8
2,863.8
2,862.7
15,191.2
16,330.1
17,414.3
18,627.9
19,234.3
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
56,733.9
58,924.5
60,580.3
62,241.9
63,538.6
19,990.9
20,431.8
21,165.9
21,689.9
22,204.9
27,445.0
29,252.7
30,334.3
31,834.9
33,260.7
11,884.8
11,932.5
12,462.1
12,916.8
13,198.8
3,913.1
4,000.1
3,921.3
4,045.3
4,119.7
3,054.6
3,272.6
3,984.8
4,188.5
4,461.5
18,852.6
19,205.2
20,368.2
21,150.6
21,780.0
1976*
1980*
16.5
15.0
21.7
16.9
12.6
15.1
17.2
15.8
15.0
13.3
13.3
16.5
16.3
15.4
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
6.0
8.5
7.4
7.6
9.2
4.9
-0.5
5.9
9.5
8.5
9.4
10.4
10.0
8.2
7.1
12.9
9.2
8.2
9.1
9.3
11.6
8.2
7.3
10.1
10.0
9.8
13.2
12.9
12.8
16.5
12.2
9.4
8.6
9.8
10.4
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
2.2
6.3
4.1
0.4
-2.1
30.0
14.3
6.6
0.7
1.9
7.9
10.1
2.4
0.6
2.2
8.1
7.8
4.9
5.2
5.9
8.5
6.3
3.7
3.1
5.9
13.0
12.8
8.2
3.8
2.8
8.8
8.2
5.1
4.5
5.4
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-2.1
0.1
1.6
5.0
5.3
3.0
1.0
3.1
4.6
6.3
-0.2
1.5
4.2
4.9
5.4
5.2
3.3
4.1
6.5
7.9
4.6
3.0
19.5
4.0
3.1
3.3
3.4
15.8
-0.5
13.2
4.8
3.3
9.1
4.8
7.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
8.8
6.5
7.7
6.7
7.4
8.5
6.3
6.5
5.5
9.9
6.5
7.0
7.4
7.1
6.4
6.2
8.2
6.2
2.8
5.9
9.7
7.2
1.4
-4.2
14.2
5.1
12.0
0.9
1.9
4.8
6.8
8.5
4.3
1.1
7.4
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
5.3
6.7
6.5
7.0
6.7
3.1
7.3
6.1
5.3
7.4
7.2
8.0
7.5
10.3
8.0
9.5
5.5
7.2
6.5
2.6
3.9
8.2
9.5
4.1
7.6
1.0
15.2
0.5
13.0
0.0
7.0
7.5
6.6
7.0
3.3
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
6.8
3.9
2.8
2.7
2.1
5.9
2.2
3.6
2.5
2.4
6.9
6.6
3.7
4.9
4.5
-2.2
0.4
4.4
3.6
2.2
-7.4
2.2
-2.0
3.2
1.8
6.7
7.1
21.8
5.1
6.5
-2.0
1.9
6.1
3.8
3.0
Physicians
C
Dental Services
Other
Subtotal
D
($’ 000,000)
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
136
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.1.1—Part 2
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Drugs
Prescribed Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Subtotal
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($’ 000,000)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Subtotal
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D
+E+F+G+H+J
771.7
883.4
987.9
1,052.7
1,162.9
305.6
316.0
324.5
392.8
495.5
1,077.3
1,199.4
1,312.4
1,445.5
1,658.4
536.1
544.1
563.7
672.2
725.2
406.8
510.6
598.5
615.4
707.0
343.6
361.9
408.3
406.7
451.8
93.7
105.4
129.4
150.4
173.7
226.0
256.7
290.3
302.5
351.3
319.7
362.1
419.7
452.9
524.9
12,199.4
14,049.8
15,450.0
17,106.8
19,169.7
1,298.4
1,677.1
1,924.1
2,107.1
2,255.6
586.3
655.0
715.0
845.9
1,058.6
1,884.6
2,332.1
2,639.1
2,953.0
3,314.2
990.7
1,111.2
1,394.8
1,436.6
1,504.1
845.4
1,006.1
1,149.7
1,241.4
1,376.5
512.3
631.5
693.3
763.6
897.6
202.5
231.2
258.0
297.3
336.9
439.5
590.2
686.1
782.4
843.7
642.1
821.3
944.1
1,079.7
1,180.6
22,298.4
26,276.7
30,759.1
34,038.6
36,743.1
2,566.5
3,018.0
3,293.1
3,736.8
4,262.9
1,235.9
1,399.0
1,621.7
1,784.9
1,975.6
3,802.3
4,417.1
4,914.9
5,521.7
6,238.5
1,651.2
1,801.4
1,871.8
1,901.7
2,092.8
1,515.7
1,570.2
1,661.0
1,786.6
1,953.6
966.1
1,030.6
1,060.1
1,225.5
1,525.0
381.8
453.7
453.0
508.0
589.1
979.8
1,142.1
1,291.9
1,541.7
1,822.4
1,361.6
1,595.8
1,744.9
2,049.7
2,411.5
39,842.4
43,338.1
46,789.2
50,960.1
56,096.2
4,871.6
5,466.4
6,097.1
6,600.3
6,760.0
2,058.7
2,236.6
2,418.1
2,576.0
2,764.0
6,930.3
7,703.1
8,515.2
9,176.3
9,524.0
2,123.7
2,027.5
2,058.0
2,016.9
2,272.8
2,231.4
2,415.8
2,578.8
2,691.5
2,971.0
1,689.3
1,790.0
1,863.4
2,132.3
2,389.8
681.7
716.6
822.6
805.9
811.5
2,323.8
2,823.0
2,963.7
3,093.0
3,312.6
3,005.6
3,539.6
3,786.2
3,899.0
4,124.1
61,092.9
66,437.4
69,853.6
71,519.1
73,159.6
7,399.9
7,604.6
8,532.0
9,451.1
10,240.3
2,788.4
2,846.7
2,976.8
3,171.3
3,358.8
10,188.3
10,451.3
11,508.7
12,622.4
13,599.2
2,263.1
2,160.0
2,122.0
2,301.5
3,508.9
3,136.7
3,277.7
3,420.9
4,295.3
4,419.2
2,447.3
2,463.6
2,508.5
2,454.3
2,784.2
798.1
799.4
1,075.0
1,291.4
1,324.3
3,432.8
3,426.9
3,693.3
4,033.6
4,404.9
4,230.9
4,226.4
4,768.3
5,325.0
5,729.2
74,237.4
75,082.3
78,741.5
84,067.3
90,463.9
11,724.6
13,166.6
14,750.9
16,413.7
17,855.8
3,420.3
3,536.4
3,684.7
3,762.2
3,930.2
15,144.8
16,703.0
18,435.6
20,176.0
21,785.9
3,965.5
4,508.7
4,933.0
5,605.0
5,511.1
4,896.3
5,601.8
5,814.6
6,871.5
6,977.8
3,110.0
3,731.2
4,171.1
4,644.6
4,897.8
1,580.0
2,072.7
2,057.6
2,320.0
2,476.6
4,703.6
4,855.5
5,153.6
5,312.2
5,284.6
6,283.6
6,928.3
7,211.2
7,632.2
7,761.2
98,603.5
107,187.4
115,039.7
123,573.9
131,537.2
19,109.8
20,798.6
21,954.7
23,358.6
24,768.7
4,083.7
4,263.7
4,440.3
4,516.3
4,757.6
23,193.5
25,062.2
26,395.0
27,874.9
29,526.2
6,596.7
7,240.7
7,255.4
8,167.3
8,758.7
7,814.9
8,467.4
9,055.1
9,488.8
9,818.2
5,086.1
5,134.3
5,554.5
5,769.4
5,801.3
2,552.2
2,893.6
3,121.0
3,606.3
3,596.4
5,726.3
6,186.5
6,715.6
7,393.2
7,719.1
8,278.5
9,080.1
9,836.6
10,999.4
11,315.5
140,296.8
150,745.8
160,262.8
172,061.1
182,124.7
27,564.6
27,925.3
28,257.9
28,584.6
28,842.8
4,842.3
5,070.5
5,031.2
5,075.8
5,092.7
32,406.9
32,995.8
33,289.1
33,660.4
33,935.5
10,100.7
9,824.9
10,285.3
9,616.7
8,862.3
9,847.2
10,358.7
10,704.4
11,003.9
11,485.8
5,978.2
6,290.2
6,317.6
6,506.8
6,707.6
3,409.0
3,312.3
3,339.2
3,444.4
3,536.2
8,556.6
8,793.1
9,052.0
9,256.7
9,595.6
11,965.6
12,105.4
12,391.2
12,701.1
13,131.8
193,321.0
199,389.1
205,436.3
210,406.3
214,907.2
14.5
11.7
3.4
18.3
11.3
13.6
1.5
36.6
25.5
19.6
5.3
13.4
12.5
16.6
13.6
25.1
13.2
22.3
15.2
16.3
13.8
17.6
9.1
13.5
14.1
16.7
13.2
15.9
10.1
10.7
14.7
16.2
11.3
12.3
13.0
9.8
9.1
3.9
1.6
10.0
10.1
3.6
5.8
7.6
9.3
7.6
6.7
2.9
15.6
24.4
13.3
18.8
-0.2
12.1
16.0
16.1
16.6
13.1
19.3
18.2
15.3
17.2
9.3
17.5
17.7
8.4
8.8
8.0
8.9
10.1
14.3
12.2
11.5
8.3
2.4
4.2
8.6
8.1
6.5
7.3
11.1
11.2
10.5
7.8
3.8
1.5
-4.5
1.5
-2.0
12.7
14.2
8.3
6.7
4.4
10.4
10.8
6.0
4.1
14.4
12.1
15.7
5.1
14.8
-2.0
0.7
27.5
21.5
5.0
4.4
7.1
24.6
17.8
7.0
3.0
5.8
8.9
8.7
5.1
2.4
2.3
9.5
2.8
12.2
10.8
8.4
0.9
2.1
4.6
6.5
5.9
7.0
2.6
10.1
9.7
7.7
-0.4
-4.6
-1.8
8.5
52.5
5.6
4.5
4.4
25.6
2.9
2.4
0.7
1.8
-2.2
13.4
-1.7
0.2
34.5
20.1
2.6
3.6
-0.2
7.8
9.2
9.2
2.6
-0.1
12.8
11.7
7.6
1.5
1.1
4.9
6.8
7.6
14.5
12.3
12.0
11.3
8.8
1.8
3.4
4.2
2.1
4.5
11.4
10.3
10.4
9.4
8.0
13.0
13.7
9.4
13.6
-1.7
10.8
14.4
3.8
18.2
1.5
11.7
20.0
11.8
11.4
5.5
19.3
31.2
-0.7
12.8
6.8
6.8
3.2
6.1
3.1
-0.5
9.7
10.3
4.1
5.8
1.7
9.0
8.7
7.3
7.4
6.4
7.0
8.8
5.6
6.4
6.0
3.9
4.4
4.1
1.7
5.3
6.5
8.1
5.3
5.6
5.9
19.7
9.8
0.2
12.6
7.2
12.0
8.3
6.9
4.8
3.5
3.8
0.9
8.2
3.9
0.6
3.1
13.4
7.9
15.5
-0.3
8.4
8.0
8.6
10.1
4.4
6.7
9.7
8.3
11.8
2.9
6.7
7.4
6.3
7.4
5.8
11.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
0.9
1.8
4.7
-0.8
0.9
0.3
9.8
1.8
0.9
1.1
0.8
15.3
-2.7
4.7
-6.5
-7.8
0.3
5.2
3.3
2.8
4.4
3.0
5.2
0.4
3.0
3.1
-5.2
-2.8
0.8
3.2
2.7
10.8
2.8
2.9
2.3
3.7
5.7
1.2
2.4
2.5
3.4
6.1
3.1
3.0
2.4
2.1
(annual percentage change)*
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
137
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.1.2—Part 1
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Hospitals
Other
Institutions
A
B
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
44.7
45.2
44.0
43.2
42.3
9.2
9.7
10.2
10.8
11.3
15.1
14.7
14.8
15.0
14.9
6.1
6.2
6.7
7.0
7.2
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.0
1.9
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
9.0
9.1
9.7
10.0
10.2
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
41.9
42.0
42.6
42.4
41.8
11.4
11.0
11.0
11.0
10.7
14.7
14.6
14.4
14.8
15.0
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.3
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
10.1
10.0
9.9
9.8
10.0
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
40.8
40.7
40.5
40.0
39.7
10.3
9.4
9.3
9.3
9.2
15.2
15.4
15.7
15.6
15.2
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.8
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.5
10.4
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.6
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
37.3
36.4
36.1
35.4
33.8
10.9
11.5
11.7
11.5
11.4
15.0
15.2
14.8
14.5
14.5
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
7.1
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.3
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.8
11.1
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
32.6
32.3
31.3
30.8
30.1
11.6
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.0
13.7
7.4
7.5
7.5
7.4
7.5
2.4
2.4
2.8
2.7
2.6
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.8
1.9
11.5
11.7
12.2
12.0
12.0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
30.0
29.4
29.5
29.3
29.6
11.0
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.8
13.4
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.2
7.3
7.2
7.2
6.9
6.8
2.6
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.3
1.8
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
11.7
11.7
11.4
10.7
10.8
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
29.2
29.0
29.0
28.9
29.2
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.2
10.4
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.8
14.1
7.0
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.7
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.3
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.6
10.8
10.8
10.9
10.8
10.6
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
29.3
29.6
29.5
29.6
29.6
10.3
10.2
10.3
10.3
10.3
14.2
14.7
14.8
15.1
15.5
6.1
6.0
6.1
6.1
6.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.0
2.1
9.8
9.6
9.9
10.1
10.1
1976*
1980*
1.2
-1.1
5.6
0.5
-2.3
-1.1
1.8
-0.4
-0.1
-2.6
-1.6
0.2
1.0
-0.8
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
-2.3
-0.3
-0.5
-1.2
-0.8
-3.3
-8.5
-1.9
0.5
-1.4
0.9
1.5
1.9
-0.7
-2.7
4.1
0.4
0.3
0.1
-0.7
3.0
-0.5
-0.6
1.1
-0.1
1.2
4.1
4.6
3.6
5.8
3.5
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.3
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
-6.1
-2.2
-1.0
-1.9
-4.3
19.3
5.1
1.4
-1.6
-0.4
-0.9
1.2
-2.6
-1.8
-0.1
-0.8
-0.9
-0.2
2.7
3.6
-0.4
-2.2
-1.4
0.7
3.5
3.7
3.7
2.9
1.4
0.5
-0.1
-0.5
0.0
2.1
3.1
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-3.5
-1.1
-3.1
-1.7
-2.2
1.5
-0.1
-1.7
-2.0
-1.2
-1.6
0.3
-0.6
-1.8
-2.0
3.6
2.1
-0.7
-0.3
0.2
3.1
1.8
14.0
-2.6
-4.2
1.8
2.3
10.4
-6.8
5.2
3.2
2.1
4.0
-1.8
0.0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
-0.2
-2.1
0.3
-0.7
0.9
-0.5
-2.2
-0.8
-1.8
3.2
-2.2
-1.5
0.1
-0.3
-0.1
-2.5
-0.5
-1.0
-4.3
-0.5
0.6
-1.4
-5.5
-10.8
7.3
-3.6
3.0
-6.0
-5.2
-1.5
-2.0
-0.2
-2.8
-5.8
0.9
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
-1.3
-0.7
0.2
-0.3
0.8
-3.3
-0.1
-0.2
-1.9
1.5
0.5
0.5
1.1
2.8
2.0
2.6
-1.8
0.8
-0.8
-3.1
-2.6
0.7
3.0
-3.0
1.6
-5.3
7.2
-5.4
5.3
-5.6
0.3
0.0
0.3
-0.4
-2.5
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
0.6
0.7
-0.2
0.3
-0.1
-0.2
-0.9
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.7
3.3
0.6
2.5
2.3
-7.8
-2.7
1.4
1.2
0.0
-12.7
-0.9
-4.9
0.7
-0.3
0.5
3.9
18.2
2.6
4.3
-7.7
-1.2
2.9
1.4
0.8
Year
Physicians
Dental Services
Other
C
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Subtotal
D
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
138
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.1.2—Part 2
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Drugs
Prescribed Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Subtotal
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
G
H
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Subtotal
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D
+E+F+G+H+J
6.3
6.3
6.4
6.2
6.1
2.5
2.2
2.1
2.3
2.6
8.8
8.5
8.5
8.4
8.7
4.4
3.9
3.6
3.9
3.8
3.3
3.6
3.9
3.6
3.7
2.8
2.6
2.6
2.4
2.4
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.8
1.8
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.6
2.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5.8
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.1
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.5
2.9
8.5
8.9
8.6
8.7
9.0
4.4
4.2
4.5
4.2
4.1
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.7
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.4
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.9
0.9
2.0
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.9
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
6.4
7.0
7.0
7.3
7.6
3.1
3.2
3.5
3.5
3.5
9.5
10.2
10.5
10.8
11.1
4.1
4.2
4.0
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.5
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.7
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1
2.5
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.7
3.7
4.0
4.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
8.0
8.2
8.7
9.2
9.2
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.8
11.3
11.6
12.2
12.8
13.0
3.5
3.1
2.9
2.8
3.1
3.7
3.6
3.7
3.8
4.1
2.8
2.7
2.7
3.0
3.3
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.1
1.1
3.8
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.5
4.9
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
10.0
10.1
10.8
11.2
11.3
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.7
13.7
13.9
14.6
15.0
15.0
3.0
2.9
2.7
2.7
3.9
4.2
4.4
4.3
5.1
4.9
3.3
3.3
3.2
2.9
3.1
1.1
1.1
1.4
1.5
1.5
4.6
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5.7
5.6
6.1
6.3
6.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
11.9
12.3
12.8
13.3
13.6
3.5
3.3
3.2
3.0
3.0
15.4
15.6
16.0
16.3
16.6
4.0
4.2
4.3
4.5
4.2
5.0
5.2
5.1
5.6
5.3
3.2
3.5
3.6
3.8
3.7
1.6
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.9
4.8
4.5
4.5
4.3
4.0
6.4
6.5
6.3
6.2
5.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
13.6
13.8
13.7
13.6
13.6
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.6
2.6
16.5
16.6
16.5
16.2
16.2
4.7
4.8
4.5
4.7
4.8
5.6
5.6
5.7
5.5
5.4
3.6
3.4
3.5
3.4
3.2
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.1
2.0
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.2
5.9
6.0
6.1
6.4
6.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
14.3
14.0
13.8
13.6
13.4
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
16.8
16.5
16.2
16.0
15.8
5.2
4.9
5.0
4.6
4.1
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.3
3.1
3.2
3.1
3.1
3.1
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.5
6.2
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
-0.6
-4.0
-10.2
1.7
-3.3
-2.3
-11.9
17.5
9.0
2.8
-8.5
-2.5
-2.3
0.3
-1.4
7.6
-1.7
5.2
-----
4.9
8.1
1.1
4.2
3.6
7.7
4.1
7.4
1.1
0.5
5.8
6.8
3.1
3.2
2.6
1.2
0.3
-3.8
-6.7
0.0
1.5
-4.8
-2.0
-1.2
-0.7
-0.7
-1.9
-4.7
6.1
13.0
4.5
9.2
-7.5
3.0
5.4
7.1
7.2
4.8
9.6
7.4
6.4
7.7
1.3
7.9
6.9
-----------
4.9
3.2
6.1
5.7
0.1
-4.3
-0.1
2.8
4.0
4.9
2.0
2.2
5.1
5.3
1.5
-6.8
-12.2
-3.5
-4.3
10.2
4.9
-0.4
1.5
1.9
7.9
1.7
-2.6
-1.0
11.8
9.6
6.3
-3.3
9.2
-4.3
-1.6
17.1
11.7
-0.2
1.9
4.7
14.4
8.3
1.7
0.6
3.4
-----------
7.9
1.6
7.0
3.8
0.7
-0.6
0.9
-0.3
-0.2
-1.6
5.4
1.4
5.0
2.7
0.1
-1.9
-5.6
-6.3
1.6
41.7
4.0
3.3
-0.5
17.6
-4.4
0.9
-0.5
-2.9
-8.4
5.4
-3.1
-1.0
28.2
12.5
-4.7
2.1
-1.3
2.8
2.3
1.5
1.1
-1.2
7.6
4.6
0.0
-----------
5.0
3.3
4.4
3.6
2.2
-6.6
-4.9
-2.9
-4.9
-1.9
2.2
1.5
2.8
1.9
1.4
3.7
4.6
1.9
5.8
-7.6
1.7
5.2
-3.3
10.0
-4.6
2.5
10.4
4.2
3.7
-0.9
9.5
20.7
-7.5
5.0
0.3
-2.0
-5.0
-1.1
-4.0
-6.5
0.6
1.4
-3.0
-1.5
-4.5
-----------
0.3
1.3
-0.7
-0.9
0.2
-2.6
-2.8
-2.0
-5.3
-0.5
-0.2
0.6
-0.9
-1.6
0.1
12.2
2.2
-5.7
4.8
1.3
5.0
0.8
0.6
-2.4
-2.2
-2.6
-6.0
1.8
-3.3
-5.0
-3.4
5.5
1.5
7.6
-5.8
1.6
0.5
2.1
2.5
-1.4
0.0
2.1
1.9
4.2
-2.8
-----------
4.8
-1.8
-1.8
-1.2
-1.2
-4.1
1.5
-3.7
-1.5
-1.8
3.4
-1.3
-2.1
-1.3
-1.3
8.6
-5.7
1.6
-8.7
-9.8
-5.5
2.0
0.3
0.4
2.2
-2.9
2.0
-2.5
0.6
0.9
-10.7
-5.8
-2.2
0.7
0.5
4.4
-0.4
-0.1
-0.2
1.5
-0.4
-1.9
-0.7
0.1
1.2
-----------
(annual percentage change)*
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
139
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.1.3—Part 1
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Hospitals
Other
Institutions
Physicians
Year
A
B
C
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
235.7
271.1
286.3
308.1
335.3
48.6
58.4
66.5
77.3
89.7
79.5
88.3
96.3
107.1
118.1
32.0
37.1
43.6
49.7
56.8
9.8
11.1
12.5
14.0
15.1
5.5
6.2
6.9
7.8
9.1
47.4
54.4
62.9
71.5
81.0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
380.7
444.4
521.3
568.4
599.2
103.6
116.4
134.8
147.5
152.9
134.1
154.1
176.0
199.2
215.8
64.9
73.0
82.5
87.7
93.8
16.9
20.7
24.3
28.2
32.4
10.4
12.2
14.2
16.2
17.7
92.3
105.9
121.0
132.2
143.9
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
629.2
675.7
716.5
761.3
816.3
158.9
156.6
163.7
176.8
188.5
233.9
255.7
277.6
296.4
311.8
104.9
113.4
121.1
130.4
140.0
35.8
38.4
40.7
44.2
47.7
19.2
21.5
24.0
26.7
30.6
160.0
173.3
185.8
201.3
218.3
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
822.0
863.5
888.0
881.7
853.7
241.2
272.4
287.1
286.0
288.2
331.4
360.5
364.6
362.7
366.8
149.1
158.7
164.5
171.1
179.3
51.0
53.6
54.9
56.0
58.6
34.0
37.9
40.5
41.6
42.3
234.1
250.3
260.0
268.7
280.2
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
826.9
818.8
823.7
857.7
895.6
293.9
293.7
299.8
311.1
328.1
362.3
363.8
375.3
390.3
408.1
186.6
190.7
196.6
207.6
222.2
60.7
61.9
73.2
75.5
77.3
43.2
44.2
50.7
50.0
56.2
290.5
296.9
320.5
333.2
355.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
965.0
1,016.3
1,082.2
1,143.3
1,215.3
352.6
370.9
390.5
408.2
444.0
430.8
456.1
484.5
514.0
541.2
233.8
250.2
262.8
267.5
280.4
84.0
89.0
89.2
84.7
95.7
58.5
64.8
64.6
65.2
67.7
376.2
404.0
416.6
417.3
443.8
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
1,266.6
1,340.5
1,414.3
1,497.3
1,579.5
453.4
482.7
507.4
528.6
561.4
574.3
615.5
655.3
715.3
763.4
304.0
318.3
337.8
356.1
361.2
98.5
105.7
114.6
118.1
125.6
67.7
77.4
77.0
86.1
85.1
470.1
501.4
529.5
560.3
572.0
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
1,668.4
1,715.8
1,743.1
1,770.3
1,787.3
587.9
594.9
609.0
616.9
624.6
807.1
851.8
872.8
905.5
935.6
349.5
347.5
358.6
367.4
371.3
115.1
116.5
112.8
115.1
115.9
89.8
95.3
114.7
119.1
125.5
554.4
559.2
586.1
601.6
612.7
Dental Services
Other
Subtotal
D
($’ per capita)
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
1980*
15.0
13.6
20.1
15.4
11.1
13.6
15.7
14.3
13.5
11.8
11.8
15.0
14.8
13.9
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
5.0
7.4
6.0
6.3
7.2
3.9
-1.4
4.5
8.0
6.6
8.4
9.3
8.6
6.8
5.2
11.8
8.1
6.8
7.7
7.4
10.6
7.2
5.9
8.7
8.0
8.8
12.1
11.4
11.4
14.4
11.2
8.4
7.2
8.4
8.5
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
0.7
5.0
2.8
-0.7
-3.2
28.0
12.9
5.4
-0.4
0.8
6.3
8.8
1.1
-0.5
1.1
6.4
6.5
3.7
4.0
4.8
6.9
5.1
2.4
2.0
4.7
11.3
11.5
6.9
2.7
1.7
7.2
6.9
3.9
3.4
4.3
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-3.1
-1.0
0.6
4.1
4.4
2.0
-0.1
2.1
3.8
5.4
-1.2
0.4
3.2
4.0
4.6
4.1
2.2
3.1
5.6
7.0
3.5
1.9
18.4
3.2
2.3
2.2
2.4
14.6
-1.3
12.2
3.7
2.2
8.0
4.0
6.7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
7.8
5.3
6.5
5.6
6.3
7.5
5.2
5.3
4.5
8.8
5.6
5.9
6.2
6.1
5.3
5.2
7.0
5.0
1.8
4.8
8.7
6.0
0.3
-5.1
13.1
4.1
10.8
-0.3
0.9
3.8
5.8
7.4
3.1
0.2
6.3
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
4.2
5.8
5.5
5.9
5.5
2.1
6.5
5.1
4.2
6.2
6.1
7.2
6.5
9.1
6.7
8.4
4.7
6.1
5.4
1.4
2.9
7.4
8.4
3.0
6.4
0.0
14.3
-0.4
11.8
-1.2
5.9
6.6
5.6
5.8
2.1
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
5.6
2.8
1.6
1.6
1.0
4.7
1.2
2.4
1.3
1.2
5.7
5.5
2.5
3.7
3.3
-3.2
-0.6
3.2
2.5
1.1
-8.4
1.2
-3.1
2.0
0.7
5.5
6.1
20.3
3.9
5.3
-3.1
0.9
4.8
2.6
1.8
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
140
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.1.3—Part 2
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Drugs
Prescribed Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Subtotal
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($’ per capita)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Subtotal
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D
+E+F+G+H+J
33.3
37.7
41.6
43.9
48.0
13.2
13.5
13.7
16.4
20.5
46.5
51.1
55.3
60.3
68.5
23.2
23.2
23.8
28.1
30.0
17.6
21.8
25.2
25.7
29.2
14.8
15.4
17.2
17.0
18.7
4.1
4.5
5.5
6.3
7.2
9.8
10.9
12.2
12.6
14.5
13.8
15.4
17.7
18.9
21.7
527.1
599.1
651.2
713.9
792.1
53.0
67.6
76.6
83.1
88.1
23.9
26.4
28.5
33.3
41.3
76.9
94.0
105.1
116.4
129.4
40.4
44.8
55.5
56.6
58.7
34.5
40.5
45.8
48.9
53.8
20.9
25.4
27.6
30.1
35.1
8.3
9.3
10.3
11.7
13.2
17.9
23.8
27.3
30.8
32.9
26.2
33.1
37.6
42.6
46.1
909.5
1,058.7
1,224.6
1,341.8
1,434.9
99.3
115.6
124.5
139.5
156.3
47.8
53.6
61.3
66.6
72.4
147.1
169.2
185.8
206.1
228.7
63.9
69.0
70.8
71.0
76.7
58.7
60.2
62.8
66.7
71.6
37.4
39.5
40.1
45.7
55.9
14.8
17.4
17.1
19.0
21.6
37.9
43.8
48.8
57.5
66.8
52.7
61.1
66.0
76.5
88.4
1,541.7
1,660.4
1,769.0
1,901.8
2,056.2
175.9
195.0
214.9
230.1
233.1
74.3
79.8
85.2
89.8
95.3
250.2
274.8
300.2
319.9
328.4
76.7
72.3
72.5
70.3
78.4
80.6
86.2
90.9
93.8
102.4
61.0
63.9
65.7
74.3
82.4
24.6
25.6
29.0
28.1
28.0
83.9
100.7
104.5
107.8
114.2
108.5
126.3
133.5
135.9
142.2
2,205.7
2,370.1
2,462.5
2,493.5
2,522.8
252.5
256.8
285.3
313.4
336.8
95.2
96.1
99.5
105.2
110.5
347.7
353.0
384.8
418.6
447.3
77.2
72.9
71.0
76.3
115.4
107.0
110.7
114.4
142.4
145.3
83.5
83.2
83.9
81.4
91.6
27.2
27.0
35.9
42.8
43.6
117.2
115.7
123.5
133.8
144.9
144.4
142.7
159.4
176.6
188.4
2,533.5
2,535.6
2,632.8
2,787.6
2,975.4
382.0
424.4
470.2
518.2
558.1
111.4
114.0
117.4
118.8
122.8
493.5
538.4
587.6
636.9
680.9
129.2
145.3
157.2
176.9
172.2
159.5
180.6
185.3
216.9
218.1
101.3
120.3
133.0
146.6
153.1
51.5
66.8
65.6
73.2
77.4
153.3
156.5
164.3
167.7
165.2
204.7
223.3
229.9
240.9
242.6
3,213.0
3,455.3
3,666.9
3,901.2
4,111.2
591.4
638.6
667.6
702.6
736.5
126.4
130.9
135.0
135.8
141.5
717.8
769.5
802.6
838.4
878.0
204.2
222.3
220.6
245.7
260.5
241.9
260.0
275.3
285.4
292.0
157.4
157.6
168.9
173.5
172.5
79.0
88.8
94.9
108.5
106.9
177.2
189.9
204.2
222.4
229.5
256.2
278.8
299.1
330.9
336.5
4,341.9
4,628.3
4,873.0
5,175.4
5,415.8
810.6
813.1
813.1
813.0
811.3
142.4
147.6
144.8
144.4
143.3
953.0
960.8
957.8
957.4
954.6
297.0
286.1
295.9
273.5
249.3
289.6
301.6
308.0
313.0
323.1
175.8
183.2
181.8
185.1
188.7
100.2
96.4
96.1
98.0
99.5
251.6
256.0
260.5
263.3
269.9
351.9
352.5
356.5
361.3
369.4
5,685.0
5,805.9
5,911.1
5,984.5
6,045.2
(annual percentage change)*
13.0
10.2
2.1
16.8
9.9
12.2
0.2
34.9
23.9
18.0
4.0
11.9
11.0
15.1
12.1
23.5
11.8
20.7
13.7
14.8
12.7
16.4
7.7
12.0
12.0
15.7
12.1
14.4
8.6
8.7
13.7
15.0
9.8
10.9
11.0
8.8
8.0
2.5
0.3
8.1
9.1
2.6
4.4
6.2
7.4
6.6
5.6
1.5
14.1
22.2
12.3
17.6
-1.5
10.7
13.9
15.1
15.4
11.6
17.8
16.1
14.3
16.0
7.9
15.9
15.6
7.4
7.7
6.5
7.5
8.1
12.6
10.9
10.2
7.1
1.3
2.6
7.3
6.8
5.4
6.1
9.4
9.8
9.2
6.6
2.7
0.0
-5.7
0.3
-3.1
11.5
12.5
7.0
5.5
3.2
9.2
9.1
4.7
2.9
13.2
10.8
14.0
3.9
13.4
-3.1
-0.4
25.6
20.0
3.7
3.2
5.9
22.8
16.4
5.7
1.8
4.6
7.3
7.5
3.9
1.3
1.2
8.3
1.7
11.1
9.9
7.5
-0.2
1.0
3.5
5.7
5.1
5.9
1.5
9.0
8.8
6.9
-1.5
-5.6
-2.7
7.6
51.2
4.5
3.4
3.3
24.5
2.0
1.3
-0.4
0.8
-3.0
12.5
-2.7
-0.9
33.1
19.1
1.7
2.6
-1.2
6.7
8.3
8.3
1.5
-1.1
11.7
10.8
6.7
0.4
0.1
3.8
5.9
6.7
13.4
11.1
10.8
10.2
7.7
0.9
2.3
3.0
1.1
3.4
10.3
9.1
9.1
8.4
6.9
12.0
12.5
8.2
12.5
-2.7
9.8
13.2
2.6
17.0
0.5
10.7
18.7
10.5
10.3
4.4
18.2
29.8
-1.8
11.7
5.7
5.8
2.1
5.0
2.1
-1.5
8.7
9.1
2.9
4.8
0.7
8.0
7.5
6.1
6.4
5.4
6.0
8.0
4.5
5.2
4.8
2.9
3.6
3.1
0.6
4.1
5.4
7.2
4.3
4.5
4.7
18.5
8.9
-0.8
11.4
6.0
10.9
7.5
5.9
3.7
2.3
2.8
0.1
7.1
2.8
-0.6
2.0
12.5
6.8
14.3
-1.4
7.3
7.2
7.5
8.9
3.2
5.6
8.8
7.3
10.6
1.7
5.6
6.6
5.3
6.2
4.6
10.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
-0.2
0.7
3.7
-2.0
-0.3
-0.8
8.5
0.8
-0.3
0.0
-0.3
14.0
-3.7
3.4
-7.6
-8.9
-0.8
4.2
2.1
1.6
3.2
1.9
4.2
-0.8
1.8
2.0
-6.3
-3.8
-0.4
2.0
1.5
9.6
1.8
1.7
1.1
2.5
4.6
0.2
1.1
1.3
2.3
5.0
2.1
1.8
1.2
1.0
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
141
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.2.1—Part 1
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Hospitals
Other
Institutions
Physicians
Year
A
B
C
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
318.1
379.6
420.1
520.1
626.5
328.4
369.5
401.8
484.3
590.3
26.8
29.5
32.3
38.3
52.6
685.3
799.3
950.9
1,087.3
1,230.7
190.3
219.4
251.0
284.0
307.8
81.7
91.6
102.0
110.8
130.3
957.2
1,110.3
1,303.9
1,482.1
1,668.8
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
749.2
903.4
1,090.8
1,243.1
1,408.5
718.2
743.2
853.4
947.2
992.3
51.5
49.7
67.7
79.4
81.3
1,397.0
1,533.4
1,802.7
1,965.1
2,135.5
347.1
434.9
518.6
609.3
711.7
150.5
177.0
214.3
247.7
271.2
1,894.6
2,145.2
2,535.7
2,822.1
3,118.4
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1,522.6
1,700.1
1,796.9
1,903.1
2,001.1
1,039.4
1,104.9
1,197.1
1,270.4
1,312.8
83.6
76.9
76.6
79.6
84.0
2,435.8
2,672.5
2,917.3
3,182.6
3,470.4
795.5
856.2
918.3
1,003.4
1,096.7
281.8
301.3
358.0
419.6
492.2
3,513.0
3,829.9
4,193.6
4,605.6
5,059.3
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
2,240.3
2,421.4
2,537.8
2,670.0
2,660.6
1,581.4
1,768.3
1,889.9
2,012.9
2,092.0
87.9
90.9
93.8
97.3
102.2
3,756.8
4,061.8
4,272.8
4,500.9
4,781.2
1,177.3
1,237.1
1,295.4
1,376.0
1,479.0
562.1
619.7
679.0
732.6
797.4
5,496.2
5,918.6
6,247.2
6,609.5
7,057.6
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2,382.0
2,248.1
2,327.8
2,335.7
2,476.9
2,112.6
2,105.4
2,132.1
2,210.3
2,396.0
109.1
119.5
121.3
143.3
153.0
5,060.2
5,274.1
5,514.8
5,909.1
6,378.9
1,581.3
1,634.9
1,974.7
2,073.5
2,130.0
838.9
884.0
1,068.8
1,028.1
1,184.0
7,480.5
7,793.0
8,558.2
9,010.7
9,692.9
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2,664.6
2,925.6
3,279.4
3,327.5
3,629.0
2,650.2
2,719.9
2,943.2
3,088.0
3,576.0
175.3
148.5
259.8
196.7
232.4
6,783.6
7,361.2
7,830.0
8,071.3
8,554.7
2,346.1
2,513.3
2,559.9
2,437.6
2,812.1
1,217.1
1,450.6
1,505.9
1,538.4
1,634.3
10,346.8
11,325.0
11,895.8
12,047.3
13,001.1
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
3,833.3
3,974.8
4,158.5
4,446.7
4,843.8
3,587.0
4,129.4
4,493.9
4,765.9
5,208.6
253.9
304.0
244.2
390.3
397.8
9,379.5
9,870.3
10,577.7
11,260.9
11,483.7
2,959.4
3,212.2
3,529.9
3,661.5
3,927.8
1,717.4
2,037.4
1,991.8
2,244.3
2,204.2
14,056.3
15,120.0
16,099.4
17,166.7
17,615.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
5,146.3
5,216.9
5,560.0
5,844.9
6,066.7
5,583.3
5,714.0
5,978.7
6,224.1
6,386.7
291.8
390.5
451.4
476.5
508.2
11,167.1
11,208.2
11,700.4
12,146.7
12,399.8
3,601.3
3,667.6
3,567.2
3,667.8
3,721.7
2,382.5
2,559.2
3,224.4
3,381.8
3,625.2
17,150.9
17,435.0
18,492.1
19,196.3
19,746.8
1976*
1980*
19.3
19.6
12.5
21.7
10.3
-2.0
16.6
13.5
15.3
12.8
12.1
15.5
16.0
13.5
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
8.1
11.7
5.7
5.9
5.2
4.8
6.3
8.3
6.1
3.3
2.9
-8.0
-0.4
3.9
5.5
14.1
9.7
9.2
9.1
9.0
11.8
7.6
7.3
9.3
9.3
3.9
6.9
18.8
17.2
17.3
12.7
9.0
9.5
9.8
9.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
12.0
8.1
4.8
5.2
-0.4
20.5
11.8
6.9
6.5
3.9
4.6
3.5
3.2
3.7
5.1
8.3
8.1
5.2
5.3
6.2
7.4
5.1
4.7
6.2
7.5
14.2
10.3
9.6
7.9
8.8
8.6
7.7
5.6
5.8
6.8
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-10.5
-5.6
3.5
0.3
6.0
1.0
-0.3
1.3
3.7
8.4
6.7
9.5
1.6
18.1
6.7
5.8
4.2
4.6
7.2
7.9
6.9
3.4
20.8
5.0
2.7
5.2
5.4
20.9
-3.8
15.2
6.0
4.2
9.8
5.3
7.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
7.6
9.8
12.1
1.5
9.1
10.6
2.6
8.2
4.9
15.8
14.6
-15.3
75.0
-24.3
18.2
6.3
8.5
6.4
3.1
6.0
10.1
7.1
1.9
-4.8
15.4
2.8
19.2
3.8
2.2
6.2
6.7
9.5
5.0
1.3
7.9
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
5.6
3.7
4.6
6.9
8.9
0.3
15.1
8.8
6.1
9.3
9.2
19.7
-19.7
59.8
1.9
9.6
5.2
7.2
6.5
2.0
5.2
8.5
9.9
3.7
7.3
5.1
18.6
-2.2
12.7
-1.8
8.1
7.6
6.5
6.6
2.6
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
6.2
1.4
6.6
5.1
3.8
7.2
2.3
4.6
4.1
2.6
-26.7
33.9
15.6
5.6
6.6
-2.8
0.4
4.4
3.8
2.1
-8.3
1.8
-2.7
2.8
1.5
8.1
7.4
26.0
4.9
7.2
-2.6
1.7
6.1
3.8
2.9
Dental Services
Other
Subtotal
D
($’ 000,000)
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
142
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.2.1—Part 2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Drugs
Prescribed Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Subtotal
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($’ 000,000)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Subtotal
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D
+E+F+G+H+J
613.1
667.6
721.4
724.7
776.5
305.6
316.0
324.5
392.8
495.5
918.7
983.6
1,045.9
1,117.6
1,272.0
159.6
177.1
178.3
217.4
177.3
-----------
72.2
62.0
90.2
86.2
100.1
23.4
29.5
36.4
43.2
50.3
94.7
91.4
96.6
77.1
79.5
118.2
120.9
132.9
120.3
129.8
2,899.2
3,232.6
3,605.4
4,066.3
4,617.4
833.3
1,110.2
1,240.5
1,289.8
1,312.7
586.3
655.0
715.0
845.9
1,058.6
1,419.6
1,765.2
1,955.5
2,135.6
2,371.3
355.4
379.3
489.1
371.4
364.3
-----------
117.1
186.5
146.6
172.7
250.3
63.0
66.4
73.8
82.1
91.2
87.8
95.2
99.7
105.0
108.6
150.8
161.6
173.4
187.2
199.9
5,456.5
6,334.1
7,312.3
7,958.6
8,786.3
1,447.7
1,698.8
1,800.4
2,034.0
2,292.0
1,235.9
1,399.0
1,621.7
1,784.9
1,975.6
2,683.6
3,097.9
3,422.2
3,818.9
4,267.7
414.4
449.9
480.7
351.0
390.4
-----------
269.2
296.4
280.4
426.3
660.2
102.8
119.7
136.1
164.1
196.1
118.2
133.0
149.9
177.4
212.9
221.0
252.7
286.0
341.5
408.9
9,746.9
10,808.7
11,733.5
12,796.4
14,184.3
2,593.9
2,861.9
3,192.3
3,558.7
3,673.3
2,058.7
2,236.6
2,418.1
2,576.0
2,764.0
4,652.5
5,098.5
5,610.4
6,134.7
6,437.4
383.4
341.7
363.1
366.7
329.6
-----------
665.4
746.8
805.0
1,060.0
1,226.4
226.2
249.8
265.5
275.6
293.2
243.8
270.9
299.3
351.4
375.3
470.0
520.7
564.8
627.0
668.4
15,577.1
16,906.9
18,112.0
19,578.1
20,574.2
4,033.8
4,273.3
4,933.2
5,443.5
5,689.0
2,788.4
2,846.7
2,976.8
3,171.3
3,358.8
6,822.2
7,120.0
7,910.0
8,614.9
9,047.9
439.1
474.0
364.3
427.5
882.1
-----------
1,274.1
1,309.1
1,291.4
1,110.3
1,333.2
319.4
332.1
358.9
557.5
631.0
431.2
409.4
469.0
487.8
567.6
750.6
741.5
827.9
1,045.2
1,198.6
21,370.1
21,910.5
23,533.1
24,897.9
27,180.6
6,429.3
7,102.5
7,943.9
8,848.5
9,594.0
3,420.3
3,536.4
3,684.7
3,762.2
3,930.2
9,849.6
10,638.9
11,628.6
12,610.7
13,524.2
830.6
1,088.8
1,232.5
1,423.5
1,099.2
-----------
1,514.4
1,990.1
2,304.3
2,605.2
2,748.2
706.5
806.5
871.2
994.9
1,078.9
597.0
573.2
732.5
731.6
626.7
1,303.5
1,379.7
1,603.7
1,726.4
1,705.6
29,335.0
32,216.6
35,147.3
37,025.3
39,515.7
10,198.4
11,214.9
11,831.7
12,635.0
13,278.8
4,083.7
4,263.7
4,440.3
4,516.3
4,757.6
14,282.2
15,478.5
16,272.0
17,151.3
18,036.3
1,480.1
2,055.0
1,550.9
1,406.3
1,517.0
-----------
2,734.5
2,721.2
2,982.7
3,292.3
3,296.3
1,100.1
1,174.8
1,202.6
1,203.2
1,261.2
723.4
847.3
916.1
954.9
920.1
1,823.5
2,022.2
2,118.7
2,158.1
2,181.3
42,050.8
45,805.2
47,920.3
50,777.7
53,096.9
15,828.4
15,944.2
16,249.6
16,490.9
16,706.7
4,842.3
5,070.5
5,031.2
5,075.8
5,092.7
20,670.7
21,014.7
21,280.7
21,566.7
21,799.4
2,057.0
2,026.6
2,154.3
2,034.6
2,139.1
-----------
3,507.8
3,789.8
3,681.8
3,757.1
3,915.5
1,261.0
1,225.9
1,241.3
1,284.6
1,317.9
1,592.9
1,736.0
1,487.7
1,436.9
1,533.4
2,853.9
2,961.9
2,729.0
2,721.5
2,851.2
57,261.7
58,549.4
60,328.1
61,821.7
63,413.6
8.9
7.3
3.4
18.3
7.1
11.6
11.0
100.4
-----
-14.1
17.0
26.0
25.4
-3.6
10.4
2.3
16.2
11.5
18.2
10.3
17.3
6.0
13.0
12.7
16.7
13.2
15.9
10.1
10.7
13.2
15.4
10.5
11.6
11.8
13.8
8.6
6.9
-27.0
11.2
-----------
7.6
10.1
-5.4
52.0
54.9
12.7
16.4
13.7
20.6
19.5
8.8
12.5
12.7
18.3
20.0
10.6
14.3
13.2
19.4
19.7
10.9
10.9
8.6
9.1
10.8
13.2
10.3
11.5
11.5
3.2
4.2
8.6
8.1
6.5
7.3
9.0
9.6
10.0
9.3
4.9
-1.8
-10.9
6.3
1.0
-10.1
-----------
0.8
12.2
7.8
31.7
15.7
15.4
10.4
6.3
3.8
6.4
14.5
11.1
10.5
17.4
6.8
14.9
10.8
8.5
11.0
6.6
9.8
8.5
7.1
8.1
5.1
9.8
5.9
15.4
10.3
4.5
0.9
2.1
4.6
6.5
5.9
6.0
4.4
11.1
8.9
5.0
33.2
7.9
-23.1
17.3
106.3
-----------
3.9
2.7
-1.3
-14.0
20.1
9.0
4.0
8.1
55.3
13.2
14.9
-5.1
14.6
4.0
16.4
12.3
-1.2
11.6
26.3
14.7
3.9
2.5
7.4
5.8
9.2
13.0
10.5
11.8
11.4
8.4
1.8
3.4
4.2
2.1
4.5
8.9
8.0
9.3
8.4
7.2
-5.8
31.1
13.2
15.5
-22.8
-----------
13.6
31.4
15.8
13.1
5.5
12.0
14.2
8.0
14.2
8.4
5.2
-4.0
27.8
-0.1
-14.3
8.7
5.9
16.2
7.7
-1.2
7.9
9.8
9.1
5.3
6.7
6.3
10.0
5.5
6.8
5.1
3.9
4.4
4.1
1.7
5.3
5.6
8.4
5.1
5.4
5.2
34.7
38.8
-24.5
-9.3
7.9
-----------
-0.5
-0.5
9.6
10.4
0.1
2.0
6.8
2.4
0.1
4.8
15.4
17.1
8.1
4.2
-3.6
6.9
10.9
4.8
1.9
1.1
6.4
8.9
4.6
6.0
4.6
19.2
0.7
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.8
4.7
-0.8
0.9
0.3
14.6
1.7
1.3
1.3
1.1
35.6
-1.5
6.3
-5.6
5.1
-----------
6.4
8.0
-2.8
2.0
4.2
0.0
-2.8
1.3
3.5
2.6
73.1
9.0
-14.3
-3.4
6.7
30.8
3.8
-7.9
-0.3
4.8
7.8
2.2
3.0
2.5
2.6
(annual percentage change)*
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
143
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.2.2—Part 1
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Hospitals
Other
Institutions
Year
A
B
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
11.0
11.7
11.7
12.8
13.6
11.3
11.4
11.1
11.9
12.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.1
23.6
24.7
26.4
26.7
26.7
6.6
6.8
7.0
7.0
6.7
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.8
33.0
34.3
36.2
36.4
36.1
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
13.7
14.3
14.9
15.6
16.0
13.2
11.7
11.7
11.9
11.3
0.9
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.9
25.6
24.2
24.7
24.7
24.3
6.4
6.9
7.1
7.7
8.1
2.8
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.1
34.7
33.9
34.7
35.5
35.5
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
15.6
15.7
15.3
14.9
14.1
10.7
10.2
10.2
9.9
9.3
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
25.0
24.7
24.9
24.9
24.5
8.2
7.9
7.8
7.8
7.7
2.9
2.8
3.1
3.3
3.5
36.0
35.4
35.7
36.0
35.7
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
14.4
14.3
14.0
13.6
12.9
10.2
10.5
10.4
10.3
10.2
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
24.1
24.0
23.6
23.0
23.2
7.6
7.3
7.2
7.0
7.2
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.9
35.3
35.0
34.5
33.8
34.3
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
11.1
10.3
9.9
9.4
9.1
9.9
9.6
9.1
8.9
8.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
23.7
24.1
23.4
23.7
23.5
7.4
7.5
8.4
8.3
7.8
3.9
4.0
4.5
4.1
4.4
35.0
35.6
36.4
36.2
35.7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
9.1
9.1
9.3
9.0
9.2
9.0
8.4
8.4
8.3
9.0
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.6
23.1
22.8
22.3
21.8
21.6
8.0
7.8
7.3
6.6
7.1
4.1
4.5
4.3
4.2
4.1
35.3
35.2
33.8
32.5
32.9
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
9.1
8.7
8.7
8.8
9.1
8.5
9.0
9.4
9.4
9.8
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.8
0.7
22.3
21.5
22.1
22.2
21.6
7.0
7.0
7.4
7.2
7.4
4.1
4.4
4.2
4.4
4.2
33.4
33.0
33.6
33.8
33.2
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
9.0
8.9
9.2
9.5
9.6
9.8
9.8
9.9
10.1
10.1
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
19.5
19.1
19.4
19.6
19.6
6.3
6.3
5.9
5.9
5.9
4.2
4.4
5.3
5.5
5.7
30.0
29.8
30.7
31.1
31.1
1976*
1980*
7.0
1.2
0.9
2.9
-1.1
-17.0
4.6
-3.9
3.4
-4.6
0.5
-2.3
4.0
-3.9
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
-2.6
0.7
-2.6
-2.9
-5.1
-5.6
-4.1
-0.2
-2.7
-6.8
-7.3
-17.0
-8.2
-4.8
-4.8
2.8
-1.1
0.6
0.0
-1.6
0.8
-2.9
-1.2
0.2
-1.4
-6.3
-3.6
9.4
7.5
5.8
1.6
-1.7
0.9
0.7
-0.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1.9
-0.4
-2.2
-2.7
-5.2
9.7
3.0
-0.2
-1.5
-1.1
-4.7
-4.7
-3.7
-4.1
0.0
-1.4
-0.4
-1.8
-2.6
1.1
-2.2
-3.2
-2.2
-1.7
2.3
4.0
1.6
2.3
-0.2
3.6
-1.1
-0.8
-1.5
-2.1
1.6
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-13.8
-7.9
-3.6
-5.2
-2.9
-2.8
-2.8
-5.7
-2.0
-0.7
2.8
6.8
-5.4
11.6
-2.2
1.9
1.7
-2.6
1.3
-1.1
2.9
0.8
12.5
-0.8
-5.9
1.3
2.8
12.6
-9.1
5.5
2.0
1.6
2.2
-0.5
-1.5
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
-0.3
0.0
2.7
-3.7
2.2
2.5
-6.5
-0.8
-0.4
8.5
6.2
-22.9
60.4
-28.1
10.7
-1.5
-1.2
-2.5
-2.1
-0.7
2.1
-2.5
-6.6
-9.6
8.1
-4.8
8.5
-4.8
-3.0
-0.5
-1.1
-0.3
-3.7
-3.9
1.1
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
-0.7
-4.8
0.0
0.9
4.2
-5.7
5.7
4.0
0.1
4.5
2.7
9.9
-23.2
50.8
-2.5
3.0
-3.4
2.4
0.5
-2.5
-1.1
-0.4
5.0
-2.1
2.6
-1.3
8.9
-6.6
6.3
-6.1
1.6
-1.2
1.8
0.6
-1.9
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
-1.5
-0.9
3.4
2.6
1.2
-0.6
0.1
1.5
1.6
0.0
-32.0
30.9
12.2
3.0
4.0
-9.8
-1.8
1.3
1.3
-0.5
-15.0
-0.4
-5.6
0.3
-1.1
0.2
5.1
22.3
2.3
4.5
-9.7
-0.6
2.9
1.3
0.3
Physicians
Dental Services
Other
C
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Subtotal
D
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
144
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.2.2—Part 2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Drugs
Prescribed Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Subtotal
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
G
H
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Subtotal
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D
+E+F+G+H+J
21.1
20.7
20.0
17.8
16.8
10.5
9.8
9.0
9.7
10.7
31.7
30.4
29.0
27.5
27.5
5.5
5.5
4.9
5.3
3.8
-----------
2.5
1.9
2.5
2.1
2.2
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.1
3.3
2.8
2.7
1.9
1.7
4.1
3.7
3.7
3.0
2.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
15.3
17.5
17.0
16.2
14.9
10.7
10.3
9.8
10.6
12.0
26.0
27.9
26.7
26.8
27.0
6.5
6.0
6.7
4.7
4.1
-----------
2.1
2.9
2.0
2.2
2.8
1.2
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
14.9
15.7
15.3
15.9
16.2
12.7
12.9
13.8
13.9
13.9
27.5
28.7
29.2
29.8
30.1
4.3
4.2
4.1
2.7
2.8
-----------
2.8
2.7
2.4
3.3
4.7
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.7
2.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
16.7
16.9
17.6
18.2
17.9
13.2
13.2
13.4
13.2
13.4
29.9
30.2
31.0
31.3
31.3
2.5
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.6
-----------
4.3
4.4
4.4
5.4
6.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8
3.0
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
18.9
19.5
21.0
21.9
20.9
13.0
13.0
12.6
12.7
12.4
31.9
32.5
33.6
34.6
33.3
2.1
2.2
1.5
1.7
3.2
-----------
6.0
6.0
5.5
4.5
4.9
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.2
2.3
2.0
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.1
3.5
3.4
3.5
4.2
4.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
21.9
22.0
22.6
23.9
24.3
11.7
11.0
10.5
10.2
9.9
33.6
33.0
33.1
34.1
34.2
2.8
3.4
3.5
3.8
2.8
-----------
5.2
6.2
6.6
7.0
7.0
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.7
2.7
2.0
1.8
2.1
2.0
1.6
4.4
4.3
4.6
4.7
4.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
24.3
24.5
24.7
24.9
25.0
9.7
9.3
9.3
8.9
9.0
34.0
33.8
34.0
33.8
34.0
3.5
4.5
3.2
2.8
2.9
-----------
6.5
5.9
6.2
6.5
6.2
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.4
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.7
4.3
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
27.6
27.2
26.9
26.7
26.3
8.5
8.7
8.3
8.2
8.0
36.1
35.9
35.3
34.9
34.4
3.6
3.5
3.6
3.3
3.4
-----------
6.1
6.5
6.1
6.1
6.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.8
3.0
2.5
2.3
2.4
5.0
5.1
4.5
4.4
4.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
-2.4
-9.2
-7.3
0.1
-4.0
-5.6
-0.5
69.6
-----
-23.0
-1.0
13.0
6.1
-13.5
-6.6
-8.3
-1.7
-----
-0.6
5.8
-2.4
3.6
1.7
5.2
2.1
6.8
0.9
-0.1
2.0
4.1
1.8
2.3
0.8
2.5
-2.1
-1.6
-33.0
0.3
-----------
-3.0
-0.7
-12.8
39.4
39.7
1.6
4.9
4.8
10.6
7.8
-1.9
1.5
3.8
8.5
8.3
-0.3
3.1
4.3
9.5
8.0
-----------
3.0
1.7
4.1
3.1
-1.8
-5.1
0.1
0.9
-1.4
2.1
-0.7
1.0
2.7
1.2
-0.1
-10.6
-17.9
-0.8
-6.6
-14.5
-----------
-8.2
3.4
0.6
21.8
10.1
5.1
1.7
-0.8
-4.0
1.2
4.3
2.4
3.2
8.6
1.6
4.7
2.1
1.3
2.7
1.5
-----------
5.7
3.3
7.5
4.3
-4.3
-2.9
-0.4
-2.6
0.7
-3.0
2.0
1.8
3.4
2.9
-3.8
28.3
5.3
-28.4
10.9
89.0
-----------
0.0
0.2
-8.1
-18.7
10.0
4.9
1.4
0.6
46.8
3.7
10.6
-7.4
6.7
-1.7
6.6
8.1
-3.7
4.0
19.3
5.0
-----------
4.7
0.6
2.5
5.7
1.6
-5.6
-5.9
-4.5
-3.1
-2.1
0.9
-1.6
0.2
2.9
0.5
-12.8
19.4
3.8
9.6
-27.6
-----------
5.2
19.7
6.1
7.3
-1.2
3.7
4.0
-1.0
8.4
1.6
-2.5
-12.6
17.1
-5.2
-19.7
0.8
-3.6
6.5
2.2
-7.4
-----------
-0.1
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.5
-2.4
-4.2
-0.5
-4.0
0.7
-0.8
-0.5
0.5
-0.5
0.6
26.5
27.5
-27.9
-14.4
3.2
-----------
-6.5
-8.6
4.8
4.2
-4.3
-4.2
-2.0
-2.2
-5.6
0.2
8.5
7.5
3.3
-1.6
-7.8
0.5
1.8
0.1
-3.9
-3.3
-----------
10.5
-1.5
-1.1
-1.0
-1.2
-5.6
2.4
-3.7
-1.6
-2.2
6.3
-0.6
-1.7
-1.1
-1.5
25.7
-3.6
3.2
-7.8
2.5
-----------
-1.3
5.7
-5.7
-0.4
1.6
-7.3
-4.9
-1.7
1.0
0.0
60.5
6.6
-16.8
-5.8
4.0
21.3
1.5
-10.6
-2.7
2.1
-----------
(annual percentage change)*
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
145
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.2.3—Part 1
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Hospitals
Other
Institutions
Physicians
A
B
C
Dental Services
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Other
Subtotal
D
($’ per capita)
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
13.7
16.2
17.7
21.7
25.9
14.2
15.8
16.9
20.2
24.4
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
2.2
29.6
34.1
40.1
45.4
50.9
8.2
9.4
10.6
11.9
12.7
3.5
3.9
4.3
4.6
5.4
41.4
47.3
55.0
61.9
69.0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
30.6
36.4
43.4
49.0
55.0
29.3
29.9
34.0
37.3
38.7
2.1
2.0
2.7
3.1
3.2
57.0
61.8
71.8
77.5
83.4
14.2
17.5
20.6
24.0
27.8
6.1
7.1
8.5
9.8
10.6
77.3
86.4
101.0
111.2
121.8
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
58.9
65.1
67.9
71.0
73.4
40.2
42.3
45.3
47.4
48.1
3.2
2.9
2.9
3.0
3.1
94.3
102.4
110.3
118.8
127.2
30.8
32.8
34.7
37.4
40.2
10.9
11.5
13.5
15.7
18.0
135.9
146.7
158.6
171.9
185.4
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
80.9
86.4
89.5
93.1
91.7
57.1
63.1
66.6
70.2
72.1
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
135.6
144.9
150.6
156.9
164.9
42.5
44.1
45.7
48.0
51.0
20.3
22.1
23.9
25.5
27.5
198.4
211.1
220.2
230.4
243.4
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
81.3
75.9
77.8
77.5
81.5
72.1
71.1
71.3
73.3
78.8
3.7
4.0
4.1
4.8
5.0
172.7
178.1
184.4
195.9
209.8
54.0
55.2
66.0
68.8
70.1
28.6
29.9
35.7
34.1
38.9
255.3
263.2
286.2
298.8
318.8
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
86.8
94.3
104.5
105.0
113.4
86.4
87.7
93.8
97.5
111.8
5.7
4.8
8.3
6.2
7.3
221.0
237.3
249.6
254.8
267.4
76.4
81.0
81.6
77.0
87.9
39.7
46.8
48.0
48.6
51.1
337.1
365.1
379.2
380.3
406.3
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
118.6
122.0
126.4
133.8
144.0
111.0
126.8
136.6
143.4
154.9
7.9
9.3
7.4
11.7
11.8
290.3
303.0
321.6
338.7
341.5
91.6
98.6
107.3
110.1
116.8
53.2
62.6
60.6
67.5
65.5
435.0
464.2
489.5
516.4
523.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
151.3
151.9
160.0
166.2
170.7
164.2
166.4
172.0
177.0
179.7
8.6
11.4
13.0
13.6
14.3
328.4
326.4
336.7
345.5
348.8
105.9
106.8
102.6
104.3
104.7
70.1
74.5
92.8
96.2
102.0
504.4
507.7
532.1
546.0
555.5
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
1980*
17.8
18.0
11.1
20.1
8.8
-3.2
15.1
12.1
13.8
11.3
10.6
14.0
14.5
12.1
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
7.1
10.6
4.3
4.5
3.3
3.8
5.2
6.9
4.8
1.5
1.9
-8.9
-1.7
2.5
3.6
13.0
8.6
7.7
7.7
7.1
10.8
6.6
5.8
7.9
7.4
3.0
5.9
17.2
15.7
15.2
11.6
7.9
8.1
8.4
7.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
10.3
6.8
3.6
4.1
-1.4
18.7
10.5
5.6
5.3
2.8
3.1
2.3
2.0
2.5
3.9
6.6
6.8
4.0
4.2
5.1
5.7
3.8
3.5
5.1
6.3
12.5
8.9
8.3
6.7
7.7
7.0
6.4
4.3
4.6
5.6
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-11.4
-6.6
2.5
-0.5
5.2
-0.1
-1.4
0.3
2.8
7.5
5.6
8.4
0.6
17.1
5.9
4.7
3.1
3.5
6.3
7.1
5.8
2.3
19.6
4.1
1.9
4.1
4.3
19.7
-4.6
14.2
4.9
3.1
8.7
4.4
6.7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
6.6
8.6
10.8
0.5
8.0
9.6
1.5
7.0
3.9
14.6
13.6
-16.2
73.0
-25.0
17.0
5.4
7.4
5.2
2.1
4.9
9.1
6.0
0.7
-5.7
14.2
1.8
17.9
2.6
1.2
5.2
5.8
8.3
3.9
0.3
6.8
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
4.6
2.9
3.6
5.8
7.7
-0.7
14.2
7.8
4.9
8.0
8.2
18.8
-20.4
58.1
0.7
8.6
4.4
6.1
5.3
0.8
4.2
7.7
8.8
2.6
6.1
4.1
17.7
-3.2
11.5
-2.9
7.1
6.7
5.4
5.5
1.4
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
5.1
0.4
5.3
3.9
2.7
6.0
1.3
3.4
2.9
1.5
-27.5
32.5
14.2
4.3
5.5
-3.8
-0.6
3.2
2.6
1.0
-9.3
0.8
-3.9
1.6
0.4
6.9
6.4
24.5
3.7
6.0
-3.7
0.7
4.8
2.6
1.7
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
146
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.2.3—Part 2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Drugs
Prescribed Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Subtotal
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($’ per capita)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Subtotal
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D
+E+F+G+H+J
26.5
28.5
30.4
30.2
32.1
13.2
13.5
13.7
16.4
20.5
39.7
41.9
44.1
46.6
52.6
6.9
7.6
7.5
9.1
7.3
-----------
3.1
2.6
3.8
3.6
4.1
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.8
2.1
4.1
3.9
4.1
3.2
3.3
5.1
5.2
5.6
5.0
5.4
125.3
137.9
152.0
169.7
190.8
34.0
44.7
49.4
50.8
51.3
23.9
26.4
28.5
33.3
41.3
57.9
71.1
77.9
84.2
92.6
14.5
15.3
19.5
14.6
14.2
-----------
4.8
7.5
5.8
6.8
9.8
2.6
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.6
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.1
4.2
6.2
6.5
6.9
7.4
7.8
222.6
255.2
291.1
313.7
343.1
56.0
65.1
68.1
75.9
84.0
47.8
53.6
61.3
66.6
72.4
103.8
118.7
129.4
142.5
156.4
16.0
17.2
18.2
13.1
14.3
-----------
10.4
11.4
10.6
15.9
24.2
4.0
4.6
5.1
6.1
7.2
4.6
5.1
5.7
6.6
7.8
8.6
9.7
10.8
12.7
15.0
377.2
414.1
443.6
477.6
519.9
93.6
102.1
112.5
124.1
126.7
74.3
79.8
85.2
89.8
95.3
168.0
181.9
197.8
213.9
222.0
13.8
12.2
12.8
12.8
11.4
-----------
24.0
26.6
28.4
37.0
42.3
8.2
8.9
9.4
9.6
10.1
8.8
9.7
10.6
12.3
12.9
17.0
18.6
19.9
21.9
23.1
562.4
603.1
638.5
682.6
709.5
137.7
144.3
164.9
180.5
187.1
95.2
96.1
99.5
105.2
110.5
232.8
240.5
264.5
285.7
297.6
15.0
16.0
12.2
14.2
29.0
-----------
43.5
44.2
43.2
36.8
43.9
10.9
11.2
12.0
18.5
20.8
14.7
13.8
15.7
16.2
18.7
25.6
25.0
27.7
34.7
39.4
729.3
739.9
786.9
825.6
894.0
209.5
229.0
253.2
279.3
299.9
111.4
114.0
117.4
118.8
122.8
320.9
343.0
370.7
398.1
422.7
27.1
35.1
39.3
44.9
34.4
-----------
49.3
64.2
73.5
82.2
85.9
23.0
26.0
27.8
31.4
33.7
19.5
18.5
23.3
23.1
19.6
42.5
44.5
51.1
54.5
53.3
955.9
1,038.5
1,120.3
1,168.9
1,235.0
315.6
344.3
359.8
380.0
394.9
126.4
130.9
135.0
135.8
141.5
442.0
475.2
494.8
515.9
536.3
45.8
63.1
47.2
42.3
45.1
-----------
84.6
83.5
90.7
99.0
98.0
34.0
36.1
36.6
36.2
37.5
22.4
26.0
27.9
28.7
27.4
56.4
62.1
64.4
64.9
64.9
1,301.4
1,406.3
1,457.1
1,527.3
1,578.9
465.5
464.3
467.6
469.0
469.9
142.4
147.6
144.8
144.4
143.3
607.9
611.9
612.3
613.4
613.2
60.5
59.0
62.0
57.9
60.2
-----------
103.2
110.4
105.9
106.9
110.1
37.1
35.7
35.7
36.5
37.1
46.8
50.5
42.8
40.9
43.1
83.9
86.2
78.5
77.4
80.2
1,683.9
1,704.9
1,735.8
1,758.4
1,783.8
(annual percentage change)*
7.5
5.9
2.1
16.8
5.7
10.2
9.5
97.9
-----
-15.2
15.5
24.3
23.7
-4.8
9.0
1.0
14.7
10.0
16.7
9.3
16.2
4.6
11.5
10.7
15.7
12.1
14.4
8.6
8.7
12.1
14.3
9.0
10.2
9.8
12.7
7.5
5.4
-27.9
9.2
-----------
6.6
9.0
-6.6
50.0
52.1
11.7
15.2
12.2
19.0
17.3
7.8
11.4
11.2
16.8
17.9
9.6
13.2
11.7
17.8
17.6
9.9
9.8
7.1
7.6
8.9
11.5
9.0
10.2
10.3
2.1
2.6
7.3
6.8
5.4
6.1
7.4
8.3
8.7
8.1
3.8
-3.3
-11.9
5.0
-0.1
-11.1
-----------
-0.7
10.9
6.5
30.2
14.4
13.7
9.1
5.0
2.7
5.2
12.8
9.8
9.2
16.1
5.6
13.2
9.4
7.2
9.8
5.4
8.2
7.2
5.9
6.9
3.9
8.7
4.8
14.3
9.4
3.7
-0.2
1.0
3.5
5.7
5.1
4.9
3.3
10.0
8.0
4.2
31.8
6.8
-23.9
16.4
104.7
-----------
2.8
1.7
-2.3
-14.7
19.1
7.8
2.9
7.0
54.0
12.3
13.7
-6.1
13.4
3.1
15.4
11.1
-2.2
10.5
25.2
13.7
2.8
1.5
6.3
4.9
8.3
12.0
9.3
10.6
10.3
7.3
0.9
2.3
3.0
1.1
3.4
7.8
6.9
8.1
7.4
6.2
-6.7
29.7
11.9
14.4
-23.6
-----------
12.5
30.0
14.5
12.0
4.4
10.9
12.9
6.8
13.1
7.4
4.2
-5.0
26.4
-1.1
-15.2
7.7
4.7
14.9
6.6
-2.2
6.9
8.6
7.9
4.3
5.7
5.3
9.1
4.5
5.6
3.9
2.9
3.6
3.1
0.6
4.1
4.6
7.5
4.1
4.3
4.0
33.3
37.7
-25.3
-10.3
6.6
-----------
-1.5
-1.3
8.6
9.2
-1.0
1.0
5.9
1.4
-1.0
3.6
14.3
16.2
7.1
3.1
-4.7
5.9
10.0
3.8
0.8
-0.1
5.4
8.1
3.6
4.8
3.4
17.9
-0.3
0.7
0.3
0.2
0.7
3.7
-2.0
-0.3
-0.8
13.3
0.7
0.1
0.2
0.0
34.1
-2.4
5.0
-6.6
4.0
-----------
5.2
7.0
-4.0
0.9
3.1
-1.1
-3.7
0.1
2.3
1.5
71.2
7.9
-15.3
-4.5
5.5
29.4
2.8
-9.0
-1.4
3.6
6.6
1.2
1.8
1.3
1.4
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
147
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.3.1—Part 1
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Other
Hospitals
Other
Institutions
Year
A
B
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
5,136.8
5,977.7
6,372.7
6,861.9
7,487.6
796.6
999.1
1,175.2
1,367.5
1,581.4
1,813.2
2,041.5
2,252.1
2,528.3
2,804.5
56.4
69.8
83.7
104.0
143.8
35.9
40.6
44.9
51.9
58.0
46.7
53.9
60.5
75.5
88.9
139.0
164.4
189.1
231.4
290.7
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
8,585.2
10,127.4
12,001.9
13,174.5
13,936.3
1,821.5
2,146.7
2,531.4
2,794.4
2,923.3
3,236.0
3,775.1
4,353.1
4,973.3
5,444.6
194.9
278.4
270.0
260.7
266.7
67.2
78.7
91.1
105.7
117.7
104.9
126.7
143.0
164.0
181.0
367.1
483.9
504.2
530.3
565.4
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
14,737.7
15,937.1
17,154.2
18,497.2
20,269.0
3,066.5
2,982.4
3,132.1
3,468.3
3,828.5
5,962.1
6,597.9
7,266.2
7,862.5
8,422.7
275.5
287.2
286.3
311.3
350.3
130.4
146.1
157.3
180.8
205.6
214.6
260.7
276.4
296.0
341.5
620.5
693.9
719.9
788.2
897.4
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
20,528.1
21,783.2
22,652.4
22,619.1
22,096.8
5,100.4
5,868.3
6,253.8
6,190.4
6,266.4
9,090.9
10,014.4
10,249.6
10,306.3
10,533.3
371.7
387.9
394.8
407.3
418.6
235.9
265.5
262.2
229.7
221.2
379.8
442.9
470.5
460.6
429.2
987.4
1,096.3
1,127.6
1,097.6
1,069.1
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
21,849.5
21,997.3
22,307.5
23,530.4
24,752.0
6,498.1
6,591.3
6,834.2
7,172.5
7,578.7
10,506.5
10,651.8
11,103.5
11,627.8
12,255.4
408.1
374.0
365.2
352.3
375.5
197.1
196.9
215.1
204.7
219.3
427.6
426.2
448.1
481.1
523.7
1,032.9
997.1
1,028.4
1,038.0
1,118.5
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
26,950.8
28,602.5
30,672.8
32,886.3
35,253.3
8,170.9
8,784.4
9,308.2
9,842.0
10,629.2
13,045.5
14,001.5
14,939.4
16,084.4
17,084.0
391.4
400.0
414.2
401.7
417.3
230.5
247.8
239.9
244.0
250.3
577.2
559.3
521.4
526.9
530.7
1,199.1
1,207.0
1,175.5
1,172.6
1,198.4
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
37,094.4
39,686.0
42,354.8
45,333.0
48,273.4
11,064.6
11,593.5
12,191.8
12,808.0
13,671.1
18,302.7
19,743.2
21,308.7
23,389.6
25,275.8
442.1
495.8
533.1
577.3
663.9
223.0
231.5
239.8
264.3
296.0
469.7
482.8
542.0
619.5
658.5
1,134.8
1,210.1
1,314.9
1,461.1
1,618.5
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
51,587.6
53,707.6
55,020.3
56,397.0
57,471.8
14,407.6
14,717.8
15,187.2
15,465.8
15,818.2
27,153.3
28,862.1
29,882.9
31,358.4
32,752.5
717.8
724.4
761.7
770.2
798.9
311.8
332.4
354.1
377.5
398.1
672.1
713.5
760.4
806.7
836.3
1,701.7
1,770.2
1,876.1
1,954.3
2,033.3
1976*
1980*
16.4
14.7
25.4
15.2
12.6
15.4
23.8
35.5
13.3
15.9
15.4
18.0
18.3
26.3
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
5.8
8.1
7.6
7.8
9.6
4.9
-2.7
5.0
10.7
10.4
9.5
10.7
10.1
8.2
7.1
3.3
4.2
-0.3
8.8
12.5
10.8
12.0
7.7
14.9
13.7
18.5
21.5
6.0
7.1
15.4
9.7
11.8
3.8
9.5
13.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1.3
6.1
4.0
-0.1
-2.3
33.2
15.1
6.6
-1.0
1.2
7.9
10.2
2.3
0.6
2.2
6.1
4.4
1.8
3.2
2.8
14.7
12.6
-1.2
-12.4
-3.7
11.2
16.6
6.2
-2.1
-6.8
10.0
11.0
2.8
-2.7
-2.6
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-1.1
0.7
1.4
5.5
5.2
3.7
1.4
3.7
4.9
5.7
-0.3
1.4
4.2
4.7
5.4
-2.5
-8.4
-2.4
-3.5
6.6
-10.9
-0.1
9.3
-4.9
7.1
-0.4
-0.3
5.2
7.3
8.9
-3.4
-3.5
3.1
0.9
7.7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
8.9
6.1
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.8
7.5
6.0
5.7
8.0
6.4
7.3
6.7
7.7
6.2
4.3
2.2
3.6
-3.0
3.9
5.1
7.5
-3.2
1.7
2.6
10.2
-3.1
-6.8
1.1
0.7
7.2
0.7
-2.6
-0.2
2.2
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
5.2
7.0
6.7
7.0
6.5
4.1
4.8
5.2
5.1
6.7
7.1
7.9
7.9
9.8
8.1
5.9
12.1
7.5
8.3
15.0
-10.9
3.8
3.6
10.2
12.0
-11.5
2.8
12.3
14.3
6.3
-5.3
6.6
8.7
11.1
10.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
6.9
4.1
2.4
2.5
1.9
5.4
2.2
3.2
1.8
2.3
7.4
6.3
3.5
4.9
4.4
8.1
0.9
5.1
1.1
3.7
5.3
6.6
6.5
6.6
5.4
2.1
6.2
6.6
6.1
3.7
5.1
4.0
6.0
4.2
4.0
Physicians
C
Dental Services
Subtotal
D
($’ 000,000)
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
148
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.3.1—Part 2
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Subtotal
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($’ 000,000)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Subtotal
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D
+E+F+G+H+J
158.6
215.8
266.6
327.9
386.4
-----------
158.6
215.8
266.6
327.9
386.4
376.4
367.0
385.4
454.8
547.8
406.8
510.6
598.5
615.4
707.0
271.4
299.9
318.1
320.6
351.7
70.3
75.9
93.1
107.2
123.4
131.2
165.3
193.7
225.4
271.8
201.6
241.2
286.8
332.6
395.2
9,300.3
10,817.2
11,844.6
13,040.5
14,552.3
465.0
566.9
683.6
817.4
942.8
-----------
465.0
566.9
683.6
817.4
942.8
635.3
731.9
905.7
1,065.2
1,139.9
845.4
1,006.1
1,149.7
1,241.4
1,376.5
395.2
445.0
546.6
590.9
647.3
139.5
164.7
184.2
215.1
245.7
351.8
495.0
586.4
677.4
735.1
491.3
659.7
770.6
892.5
980.8
16,841.8
19,942.6
23,446.8
26,080.0
27,956.9
1,118.7
1,319.2
1,492.7
1,702.8
1,970.9
-----------
1,118.7
1,319.2
1,492.7
1,702.8
1,970.9
1,236.9
1,351.5
1,391.1
1,550.7
1,702.4
1,515.7
1,570.2
1,661.0
1,786.6
1,953.6
696.8
734.2
779.6
799.2
864.8
279.0
334.0
316.9
343.9
393.1
861.6
1,009.1
1,142.0
1,364.3
1,609.5
1,140.6
1,343.1
1,458.9
1,708.2
2,002.6
30,095.5
32,529.4
35,055.7
38,163.7
41,911.9
2,277.8
2,604.5
2,904.9
3,041.6
3,086.6
-----------
2,277.8
2,604.5
2,904.9
3,041.6
3,086.6
1,740.3
1,685.8
1,694.9
1,650.2
1,943.2
2,231.4
2,415.8
2,578.8
2,691.5
2,971.0
1,023.9
1,043.1
1,058.4
1,072.3
1,163.5
455.5
466.8
557.1
530.4
518.4
2,080.0
2,552.1
2,664.3
2,741.6
2,937.3
2,535.5
3,019.0
3,221.4
3,272.0
3,455.7
45,515.8
49,530.5
51,741.7
51,941.0
52,585.4
3,366.2
3,331.3
3,598.8
4,007.5
4,551.3
-----------
3,366.2
3,331.3
3,598.8
4,007.5
4,551.3
1,824.0
1,685.9
1,757.6
1,874.0
2,626.8
3,136.7
3,277.7
3,420.9
4,295.3
4,419.2
1,173.2
1,154.6
1,217.0
1,344.0
1,450.9
478.7
467.3
716.1
733.9
693.3
3,001.6
3,017.6
3,224.3
3,545.9
3,837.3
3,480.2
3,484.9
3,940.4
4,279.8
4,530.6
52,867.3
53,171.8
55,208.5
59,169.4
63,283.4
5,295.2
6,064.1
6,807.0
7,565.2
8,261.8
-----------
5,295.2
6,064.1
6,807.0
7,565.2
8,261.8
3,134.9
3,419.9
3,700.5
4,181.5
4,411.9
4,896.3
5,601.8
5,814.6
6,871.5
6,977.8
1,595.5
1,741.1
1,866.8
2,039.4
2,149.6
873.5
1,266.2
1,186.3
1,325.2
1,397.7
4,106.6
4,282.3
4,421.1
4,580.6
4,657.9
4,980.1
5,548.5
5,607.5
5,905.8
6,055.6
69,268.5
74,970.8
79,892.4
86,548.6
92,021.5
8,911.3
9,583.7
10,123.0
10,723.6
11,489.9
-----------
8,911.3
9,583.7
10,123.0
10,723.6
11,489.9
5,116.6
5,185.7
5,704.5
6,761.0
7,241.7
7,814.9
8,467.4
9,055.1
9,488.8
9,818.2
2,351.6
2,413.1
2,571.8
2,477.0
2,505.0
1,452.1
1,718.8
1,918.4
2,403.0
2,335.2
5,002.9
5,339.2
5,799.5
6,438.3
6,798.9
6,455.0
7,057.9
7,717.9
8,841.3
9,134.2
98,245.9
104,940.6
112,342.5
121,283.4
129,027.8
11,736.2
11,981.1
12,008.3
12,093.7
12,136.1
-----------
11,736.2
11,981.1
12,008.3
12,093.7
12,136.1
8,043.7
7,798.3
8,131.0
7,582.1
6,723.2
9,847.2
10,358.7
10,704.4
11,003.9
11,485.8
2,470.3
2,500.4
2,635.8
2,749.7
2,792.1
2,148.0
2,086.3
2,097.9
2,159.8
2,218.3
6,963.7
7,057.2
7,564.2
7,819.8
8,062.2
9,111.7
9,143.5
9,662.2
9,979.6
10,280.6
136,059.3
140,839.7
145,108.2
148,584.6
151,493.7
36.1
20.3
-----
36.1
20.3
-2.5
16.0
25.5
19.6
10.5
12.4
8.0
13.1
25.9
29.4
19.7
24.3
16.3
15.7
18.7
17.9
13.2
14.1
15.7
-----------
18.7
17.9
13.2
14.1
15.7
8.5
9.3
2.9
11.5
9.8
10.1
3.6
5.8
7.6
9.3
7.6
5.4
6.2
2.5
8.2
13.6
19.7
-5.1
8.5
14.3
17.2
17.1
13.2
19.5
18.0
16.3
17.8
8.6
17.1
17.2
7.6
8.1
7.8
8.9
9.8
15.6
14.3
11.5
4.7
1.5
-----------
15.6
14.3
11.5
4.7
1.5
2.2
-3.1
0.5
-2.6
17.8
14.2
8.3
6.7
4.4
10.4
18.4
1.9
1.5
1.3
8.5
15.9
2.5
19.3
-4.8
-2.3
29.2
22.7
4.4
2.9
7.1
26.6
19.1
6.7
1.6
5.6
8.6
8.8
4.5
0.4
1.2
9.1
-1.0
8.0
11.4
13.6
-----------
9.1
-1.0
8.0
11.4
13.6
-6.1
-7.6
4.3
6.6
40.2
5.6
4.5
4.4
25.6
2.9
0.8
-1.6
5.4
10.4
8.0
-7.7
-2.4
53.2
2.5
-5.5
2.2
0.5
6.9
10.0
8.2
0.7
0.1
13.1
8.6
5.9
0.5
0.6
3.8
7.2
7.0
16.3
14.5
12.3
11.1
9.2
-----------
16.3
14.5
12.3
11.1
9.2
19.3
9.1
8.2
13.0
5.5
10.8
14.4
3.8
18.2
1.5
10.0
9.1
7.2
9.3
5.4
26.0
45.0
-6.3
11.7
5.5
7.0
4.3
3.2
3.6
1.7
9.9
11.4
1.1
5.3
2.5
9.5
8.2
6.6
8.3
6.3
7.9
7.5
5.6
5.9
7.1
-----------
7.9
7.5
5.6
5.9
7.1
16.0
1.3
10.0
18.5
7.1
12.0
8.3
6.9
4.8
3.5
9.4
2.6
6.6
-3.7
1.1
3.9
18.4
11.6
25.3
-2.8
7.4
6.7
8.6
11.0
5.6
6.6
9.3
9.4
14.6
3.3
6.8
6.8
7.1
8.0
6.4
2.1
2.1
0.2
0.7
0.4
-----------
2.1
2.1
0.2
0.7
0.4
11.1
-3.1
4.3
-6.8
-11.3
0.3
5.2
3.3
2.8
4.4
-1.4
1.2
5.4
4.3
1.5
-8.0
-2.9
0.6
2.9
2.7
2.4
1.3
7.2
3.4
3.1
-0.2
0.3
5.7
3.3
3.0
5.4
3.5
3.0
2.4
2.0
(annual percentage change)*
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
149
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.3.2—Part 1
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Other
Hospitals
Other
Institutions
Year
A
B
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
55.2
55.3
53.8
52.6
51.5
8.6
9.2
9.9
10.5
10.9
19.5
18.9
19.0
19.4
19.3
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
51.0
50.8
51.2
50.5
49.8
10.8
10.8
10.8
10.7
10.5
19.2
18.9
18.6
19.1
19.5
1.2
1.4
1.2
1.0
1.0
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
2.2
2.4
2.2
2.0
2.0
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
49.0
49.0
48.9
48.5
48.4
10.2
9.2
8.9
9.1
9.1
19.8
20.3
20.7
20.6
20.1
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
45.1
44.0
43.8
43.5
42.0
11.2
11.8
12.1
11.9
11.9
20.0
20.2
19.8
19.8
20.0
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
41.3
41.4
40.4
39.8
39.1
12.3
12.4
12.4
12.1
12.0
19.9
20.0
20.1
19.7
19.4
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
38.9
38.2
38.4
38.0
38.3
11.8
11.7
11.7
11.4
11.6
18.8
18.7
18.7
18.6
18.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
37.8
37.8
37.7
37.4
37.4
11.3
11.0
10.9
10.6
10.6
18.6
18.8
19.0
19.3
19.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
37.9
38.1
37.9
38.0
37.9
10.6
10.5
10.5
10.4
10.4
20.0
20.5
20.6
21.1
21.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1976*
1980*
0.1
-0.9
7.8
-0.5
-3.2
-0.3
6.4
17.1
-2.5
0.2
-0.8
2.0
1.7
9.1
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
-1.8
0.0
-0.1
-1.0
-0.2
-2.6
-10.0
-2.6
1.7
0.5
1.7
2.4
2.2
-0.6
-2.5
-4.1
-3.6
-7.5
-0.1
2.4
3.0
3.6
-0.1
5.6
3.6
10.1
12.4
-1.6
-1.6
5.1
1.9
3.5
-3.7
0.6
3.7
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
-6.7
-2.5
-0.5
-0.5
-3.5
22.7
5.7
2.0
-1.4
0.0
-0.6
1.2
-2.0
0.2
1.0
-2.3
-4.1
-2.6
2.8
1.5
5.6
3.4
-5.5
-12.7
-4.9
2.4
7.2
1.7
-2.5
-8.0
1.3
2.0
-1.5
-3.0
-3.8
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-1.6
0.1
-2.3
-1.6
-1.6
3.1
0.9
-0.1
-2.1
-1.2
-0.8
0.8
0.4
-2.3
-1.5
-3.0
-8.9
-6.0
-10.0
-0.4
-11.4
-0.7
5.2
-11.2
0.2
-0.9
-0.9
1.3
0.2
1.8
-3.9
-4.0
-0.7
-5.8
0.7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
-0.5
-1.9
0.6
-1.0
0.8
-1.5
-0.7
-0.6
-2.4
1.6
-2.8
-0.8
0.1
-0.6
-0.1
-4.8
-5.6
-2.8
-10.5
-2.3
-4.0
-0.7
-9.2
-6.1
-3.5
0.7
-10.5
-12.5
-6.7
-5.3
-2.1
-7.0
-8.6
-7.9
-3.9
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
-1.4
0.2
-0.3
-0.9
0.1
-2.5
-1.9
-1.8
-2.7
0.3
0.3
1.0
0.8
1.7
1.6
-0.8
5.0
0.4
0.3
8.1
-16.5
-2.8
-3.2
2.1
5.3
-17.1
-3.8
4.9
5.9
-0.1
-11.3
-0.2
1.5
2.9
4.1
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
1.3
0.6
-0.6
0.1
-0.1
-0.1
-1.3
0.2
-0.5
0.3
1.9
2.7
0.5
2.5
2.4
2.5
-2.5
2.1
-1.2
1.7
-0.1
3.0
3.4
4.1
3.4
-3.2
2.6
3.4
3.6
1.7
-0.3
0.5
2.9
1.7
2.0
Physicians
Dental Services
C
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Subtotal
D
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
150
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.3.2—Part 2
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Subtotal
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
G
H
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Subtotal
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D
+E+F+G+H+J
1.7
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.7
-----------
1.7
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.7
4.0
3.4
3.3
3.5
3.8
4.4
4.7
5.1
4.7
4.9
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.4
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.9
2.2
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2.8
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.4
-----------
2.8
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.4
3.8
3.7
3.9
4.1
4.1
5.0
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.9
2.3
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.3
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
2.1
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.9
3.3
3.3
3.4
3.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
3.7
4.1
4.3
4.5
4.7
-----------
3.7
4.1
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.1
4.2
4.0
4.1
4.1
5.0
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.7
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.1
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.6
3.8
3.8
4.1
4.2
4.5
4.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
5.0
5.3
5.6
5.9
5.9
-----------
5.0
5.3
5.6
5.9
5.9
3.8
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.7
4.9
4.9
5.0
5.2
5.6
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.1
2.2
1.0
0.9
1.1
1.0
1.0
4.6
5.2
5.1
5.3
5.6
5.6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
6.4
6.3
6.5
6.8
7.2
-----------
6.4
6.3
6.5
6.8
7.2
3.5
3.2
3.2
3.2
4.2
5.9
6.2
6.2
7.3
7.0
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
0.9
0.9
1.3
1.2
1.1
5.7
5.7
5.8
6.0
6.1
6.6
6.6
7.1
7.2
7.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
7.6
8.1
8.5
8.7
9.0
-----------
7.6
8.1
8.5
8.7
9.0
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.8
4.8
7.1
7.5
7.3
7.9
7.6
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.3
1.3
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.5
5.9
5.7
5.5
5.3
5.1
7.2
7.4
7.0
6.8
6.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
9.1
9.1
9.0
8.8
8.9
-----------
9.1
9.1
9.0
8.8
8.9
5.2
4.9
5.1
5.6
5.6
8.0
8.1
8.1
7.8
7.6
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.0
1.9
1.5
1.6
1.7
2.0
1.8
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.3
6.6
6.7
6.9
7.3
7.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
8.6
8.5
8.3
8.1
8.0
-----------
8.6
8.5
8.3
8.1
8.0
5.9
5.5
5.6
5.1
4.4
7.2
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.6
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.5
1.5
5.1
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
6.7
6.5
6.7
6.7
6.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
17.0
4.0
-----
17.0
4.0
-16.2
0.2
7.9
3.3
-5.0
-2.9
-7.2
-2.3
8.3
11.8
2.9
7.4
-----
10.2
9.1
5.0
4.8
5.4
-----------
10.2
9.1
5.0
4.8
5.4
0.8
1.1
-4.5
2.4
0.0
2.3
-4.2
-1.8
-1.2
-0.4
0.0
-2.5
-1.5
-5.8
-1.5
5.5
10.8
-12.0
-0.3
4.1
8.9
8.4
5.0
9.7
7.4
8.0
8.9
0.8
7.6
6.8
-----------
6.4
5.1
6.8
4.3
0.2
-----------
6.4
5.1
6.8
4.3
0.2
-5.9
-11.0
-3.8
-3.0
16.3
5.2
-0.5
2.2
4.0
9.0
9.0
-6.4
-2.9
0.9
7.2
6.7
-5.8
14.2
-5.2
-3.5
19.0
12.8
-0.1
2.5
5.8
16.6
9.4
2.1
1.2
4.3
-----------
8.5
-1.6
4.0
3.9
6.2
-----------
8.5
-1.6
4.0
3.9
6.2
-6.6
-8.1
0.4
-0.5
31.1
5.0
3.9
0.5
17.2
-3.8
0.3
-2.2
1.5
3.0
0.9
-8.2
-2.9
47.6
-4.4
-11.7
1.6
0.0
2.9
2.6
1.2
0.2
-0.4
8.9
1.3
-1.0
-----------
6.3
5.8
5.3
2.6
2.7
-----------
6.3
5.8
5.3
2.6
2.7
9.0
0.8
1.5
4.3
-0.8
1.2
5.7
-2.6
9.1
-4.5
0.5
0.8
0.6
0.8
-0.9
15.1
33.9
-12.1
3.1
-0.8
-2.2
-3.7
-3.1
-4.4
-4.4
0.4
2.9
-5.2
-2.8
-3.6
-----------
1.0
0.7
-1.3
-1.9
0.7
-----------
1.0
0.7
-1.3
-1.9
0.7
8.6
-5.1
2.8
9.8
0.7
4.9
1.4
-0.1
-2.9
-2.7
2.5
-3.9
-0.4
-10.8
-4.9
-2.7
10.8
4.3
16.0
-8.7
0.6
-0.1
1.5
2.8
-0.7
-0.2
2.4
2.1
6.1
-2.9
-----------
-3.1
-1.4
-2.7
-1.6
-1.6
-----------
-3.1
-1.4
-2.7
-1.6
-1.6
5.3
-6.3
1.2
-8.9
-13.0
-4.9
1.6
0.3
0.4
2.4
-6.5
-2.2
2.3
1.9
-0.4
-12.8
-6.2
-2.4
0.5
0.7
-2.9
-2.1
4.0
1.0
1.1
-5.4
-3.1
2.6
0.9
1.0
-----------
(annual percentage change)*
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
151
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.3.3—Part 1
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Other
Hospitals
Other
Institutions
Year
A
B
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
222.0
254.9
268.6
286.4
309.4
34.4
42.6
49.5
57.1
65.3
78.3
87.1
94.9
105.5
115.9
2.4
3.0
3.5
4.3
5.9
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.2
2.4
2.0
2.3
2.6
3.2
3.7
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.7
12.0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
350.2
408.0
477.8
519.4
544.2
74.3
86.5
100.8
110.2
114.2
132.0
152.1
173.3
196.1
212.6
8.0
11.2
10.8
10.3
10.4
2.7
3.2
3.6
4.2
4.6
4.3
5.1
5.7
6.5
7.1
15.0
19.5
20.1
20.9
22.1
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
570.3
610.6
648.6
690.3
742.9
118.7
114.3
118.4
129.4
140.3
230.7
252.8
274.7
293.4
308.7
10.7
11.0
10.8
11.6
12.8
5.0
5.6
5.9
6.7
7.5
8.3
10.0
10.4
11.0
12.5
24.0
26.6
27.2
29.4
32.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
741.2
777.1
798.6
788.6
762.0
184.1
209.3
220.5
215.8
216.1
328.2
357.3
361.3
359.3
363.2
13.4
13.8
13.9
14.2
14.4
8.5
9.5
9.2
8.0
7.6
13.7
15.8
16.6
16.1
14.8
35.6
39.1
39.7
38.3
36.9
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
745.7
742.9
745.9
780.3
814.1
221.8
222.6
228.5
237.8
249.3
358.6
359.7
371.3
385.6
403.1
13.9
12.6
12.2
11.7
12.3
6.7
6.6
7.2
6.8
7.2
14.6
14.4
15.0
16.0
17.2
35.2
33.7
34.4
34.4
36.8
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
878.2
922.0
977.7
1,038.2
1,101.8
266.2
283.2
296.7
310.7
332.2
425.1
451.4
476.2
507.8
534.0
12.8
12.9
13.2
12.7
13.0
7.5
8.0
7.6
7.7
7.8
18.8
18.0
16.6
16.6
16.6
39.1
38.9
37.5
37.0
37.5
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
1,148.0
1,218.5
1,287.9
1,363.6
1,435.5
342.4
356.0
370.7
385.3
406.5
566.4
606.2
647.9
703.5
751.6
13.7
15.2
16.2
17.4
19.7
6.9
7.1
7.3
8.0
8.8
14.5
14.8
16.5
18.6
19.6
35.1
37.2
40.0
43.9
48.1
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
1,517.0
1,563.9
1,583.1
1,604.1
1,616.7
423.7
428.6
437.0
439.9
445.0
798.5
840.4
859.8
891.9
921.3
21.1
21.1
21.9
21.9
22.5
9.2
9.7
10.2
10.7
11.2
19.8
20.8
21.9
22.9
23.5
50.0
51.5
54.0
55.6
57.2
Physicians
C
Dental Services
Subtotal
D
($’ per capita)
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
1980*
14.8
13.2
23.8
13.7
11.1
13.9
22.2
33.8
11.9
14.4
13.9
16.5
16.7
24.7
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
4.8
7.1
6.2
6.4
7.6
3.9
-3.7
3.6
9.3
8.4
8.5
9.6
8.7
6.8
5.2
2.3
3.2
-1.6
7.4
10.5
9.8
10.9
6.3
13.4
11.7
17.5
20.3
4.6
5.7
13.3
8.7
10.7
2.4
8.1
11.8
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
-0.2
4.9
2.8
-1.2
-3.4
31.2
13.7
5.3
-2.1
0.1
6.3
8.8
1.1
-0.6
1.1
4.5
3.1
0.6
2.0
1.7
13.0
11.2
-2.4
-13.4
-4.8
9.5
15.2
5.0
-3.2
-7.8
8.4
9.7
1.6
-3.7
-3.7
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-2.1
-0.4
0.4
4.6
4.3
2.6
0.4
2.7
4.1
4.8
-1.3
0.3
3.2
3.9
4.5
-3.5
-9.3
-3.3
-4.3
5.7
-11.8
-1.2
8.2
-5.6
6.3
-1.4
-1.4
4.1
6.5
8.0
-4.4
-4.5
2.1
0.1
6.9
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
7.9
5.0
6.0
6.2
6.1
6.8
6.4
4.8
4.7
6.9
5.5
6.2
5.5
6.6
5.2
3.3
1.1
2.4
-4.0
2.9
4.1
6.4
-4.3
0.7
1.6
9.2
-4.2
-7.8
0.1
-0.3
6.2
-0.4
-3.7
-1.2
1.2
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
4.2
6.1
5.7
5.9
5.3
3.1
3.9
4.1
3.9
5.5
6.1
7.0
6.9
8.6
6.8
4.9
11.2
6.5
7.1
13.7
-11.8
3.0
2.6
9.0
10.7
-12.4
2.0
11.2
13.1
5.1
-6.2
5.8
7.6
9.9
9.5
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
5.7
3.1
1.2
1.3
0.8
4.2
1.1
2.0
0.7
1.2
6.2
5.2
2.3
3.7
3.3
6.9
-0.1
3.9
0.0
2.6
4.2
5.6
5.3
5.4
4.3
0.9
5.1
5.3
4.9
2.5
4.0
3.0
4.7
3.0
2.9
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
152
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table A.3.3.3—Part 2
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Subtotal
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($’ per capita)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Subtotal
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D
+E+F+G+H+J
6.9
9.2
11.2
13.7
16.0
-----------
6.9
9.2
11.2
13.7
16.0
16.3
15.6
16.2
19.0
22.6
17.6
21.8
25.2
25.7
29.2
11.7
12.8
13.4
13.4
14.5
3.0
3.2
3.9
4.5
5.1
5.7
7.0
8.2
9.4
11.2
8.7
10.3
12.1
13.9
16.3
401.9
461.3
499.2
544.2
601.3
19.0
22.8
27.2
32.2
36.8
-----------
19.0
22.8
27.2
32.2
36.8
25.9
29.5
36.1
42.0
44.5
34.5
40.5
45.8
48.9
53.8
16.1
17.9
21.8
23.3
25.3
5.7
6.6
7.3
8.5
9.6
14.3
19.9
23.3
26.7
28.7
20.0
26.6
30.7
35.2
38.3
687.0
803.5
933.5
1,028.1
1,091.7
43.3
50.5
56.4
63.5
72.2
-----------
43.3
50.5
56.4
63.5
72.2
47.9
51.8
52.6
57.9
62.4
58.7
60.2
62.8
66.7
71.6
27.0
28.1
29.5
29.8
31.7
10.8
12.8
12.0
12.8
14.4
33.3
38.7
43.2
50.9
59.0
44.1
51.5
55.2
63.7
73.4
1,164.6
1,246.3
1,325.4
1,424.3
1,536.3
82.2
92.9
102.4
106.0
106.4
-----------
82.2
92.9
102.4
106.0
106.4
62.8
60.1
59.7
57.5
67.0
80.6
86.2
90.9
93.8
102.4
37.0
37.2
37.3
37.4
40.1
16.4
16.7
19.6
18.5
17.9
75.1
91.0
93.9
95.6
101.3
91.5
107.7
113.6
114.1
119.2
1,643.3
1,767.0
1,824.0
1,810.9
1,813.3
114.9
112.5
120.3
132.9
149.7
-----------
114.9
112.5
120.3
132.9
149.7
62.2
56.9
58.8
62.1
86.4
107.0
110.7
114.4
142.4
145.3
40.0
39.0
40.7
44.6
47.7
16.3
15.8
23.9
24.3
22.8
102.4
101.9
107.8
117.6
126.2
118.8
117.7
131.8
141.9
149.0
1,804.2
1,795.7
1,846.0
1,962.0
2,081.4
172.5
195.5
217.0
238.8
258.2
-----------
172.5
195.5
217.0
238.8
258.2
102.2
110.2
118.0
132.0
137.9
159.5
180.6
185.3
216.9
218.1
52.0
56.1
59.5
64.4
67.2
28.5
40.8
37.8
41.8
43.7
133.8
138.0
140.9
144.6
145.6
162.3
178.9
178.7
186.4
189.3
2,257.1
2,416.8
2,546.6
2,732.3
2,876.1
275.8
294.2
307.8
322.6
341.7
-----------
275.8
294.2
307.8
322.6
341.7
158.3
159.2
173.5
203.4
215.3
241.9
260.0
275.3
285.4
292.0
72.8
74.1
78.2
74.5
74.5
44.9
52.8
58.3
72.3
69.4
154.8
163.9
176.3
193.7
202.2
199.8
216.7
234.7
265.9
271.6
3,040.5
3,222.0
3,415.9
3,648.1
3,836.8
345.1
348.9
345.5
344.0
341.4
-----------
345.1
348.9
345.5
344.0
341.4
236.5
227.1
234.0
215.7
189.1
289.6
301.6
308.0
313.0
323.1
72.6
72.8
75.8
78.2
78.5
63.2
60.8
60.4
61.4
62.4
204.8
205.5
217.6
222.4
226.8
267.9
266.2
278.0
283.8
289.2
4,001.1
4,101.0
4,175.3
4,226.2
4,261.4
(annual percentage change)*
34.3
18.8
-----
34.3
18.8
-3.8
14.5
23.9
18.0
9.1
10.9
6.6
11.6
24.3
27.8
18.1
22.7
14.8
14.2
17.6
16.8
11.7
12.6
13.7
-----------
17.6
16.8
11.7
12.6
13.7
7.5
8.2
1.6
10.0
7.8
9.1
2.6
4.4
6.2
7.4
6.7
4.3
4.8
1.2
6.3
12.5
18.5
-6.4
7.1
12.3
16.1
16.0
11.7
17.9
15.9
15.2
16.6
7.2
15.6
15.1
6.7
7.0
6.3
7.5
7.9
13.8
13.0
10.2
3.6
0.4
-----------
13.8
13.0
10.2
3.6
0.4
0.7
-4.3
-0.7
-3.7
16.5
12.5
7.0
5.5
3.2
9.2
16.6
0.7
0.3
0.2
7.3
14.1
1.3
17.9
-5.8
-3.3
27.3
21.2
3.2
1.8
6.0
24.7
17.6
5.4
0.5
4.5
7.0
7.5
3.2
-0.7
0.1
7.9
-2.1
7.0
10.4
12.6
-----------
7.9
-2.1
7.0
10.4
12.6
-7.1
-8.5
3.2
5.7
39.0
4.5
3.4
3.3
24.5
2.0
-0.2
-2.6
4.4
9.5
7.1
-8.6
-3.4
51.7
1.6
-6.3
1.1
-0.5
5.8
9.1
7.3
-0.3
-0.9
12.0
7.7
5.0
-0.5
-0.5
2.8
6.3
6.1
15.3
13.3
11.0
10.1
8.1
-----------
15.3
13.3
11.0
10.1
8.1
18.2
7.9
7.0
11.9
4.5
9.8
13.2
2.6
17.0
0.5
8.9
8.0
6.0
8.2
4.4
24.8
43.4
-7.4
10.6
4.4
6.0
3.2
2.1
2.6
0.7
8.9
10.2
-0.1
4.3
1.5
8.4
7.1
5.4
7.3
5.3
6.8
6.7
4.6
4.8
5.9
-----------
6.8
6.7
4.6
4.8
5.9
14.8
0.5
8.9
17.2
5.9
10.9
7.5
5.9
3.7
2.3
8.3
1.8
5.5
-4.7
0.0
2.9
17.4
10.5
23.9
-3.9
6.4
5.9
7.6
9.8
4.4
5.5
8.5
8.3
13.3
2.1
5.7
6.0
6.0
6.8
5.2
1.0
1.1
-1.0
-0.4
-0.8
-----------
1.0
1.1
-1.0
-0.4
-0.8
9.8
-4.0
3.0
-7.8
-12.3
-0.8
4.2
2.1
1.6
3.2
-2.5
0.2
4.2
3.1
0.4
-9.0
-3.8
-0.6
1.8
1.6
1.3
0.3
5.9
2.2
2.0
-1.4
-0.6
4.4
2.1
1.9
4.3
2.5
1.8
1.2
0.8
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
153
Series B
Total Health Expenditure
by Source of Finance,
by Province/Territory and Canada
(Selected Tables)
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table B.1.1
Total Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
264.5
312.8
362.9
412.7
473.3
59.2
62.9
68.7
79.5
96.6
382.5
442.2
469.1
512.5
573.0
277.5
321.9
358.9
404.7
470.0
3,378.8
3,875.2
4,200.7
4,666.6
5,149.6
4,422.8
5,040.8
5,524.6
6,071.9
6,728.0
546.3
629.4
706.0
749.0
823.3
441.2
520.3
587.4
622.4
703.5
992.3
1,158.9
1,272.1
1,465.4
1,781.0
1,383.4
1,628.3
1,831.8
2,044.4
2,288.6
15.9
18.1
18.5
21.3
23.9
35.1
39.0
49.3
56.5
59.0
-----------
12,199.4
14,049.8
15,450.0
17,106.8
19,169.7
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
528.4
621.3
701.2
773.7
751.7
122.3
136.4
152.4
164.5
171.0
657.2
788.8
919.1
1,004.9
1,125.3
562.5
681.2
819.3
894.6
975.1
5,886.5
6,887.8
7,890.5
8,675.3
9,313.7
7,634.1
8,903.0
10,445.2
11,850.0
13,086.0
971.4
1,153.2
1,332.1
1,478.6
1,592.0
815.7
949.0
1,130.0
1,257.6
1,371.3
2,153.1
2,623.7
3,351.7
3,622.1
3,764.2
2,880.0
3,430.4
3,870.2
4,155.7
4,428.9
26.1
28.2
37.1
38.0
37.9
61.1
73.8
110.4
123.5
125.8
-----------
22,298.4
26,276.7
30,759.1
34,038.6
36,743.1
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
785.8
812.5
881.6
930.9
991.6
181.2
187.6
202.9
219.5
239.3
1,232.5
1,376.9
1,560.6
1,585.2
1,751.8
1,026.2
1,091.1
1,194.0
1,291.5
1,400.1
10,031.9
10,537.4
11,268.6
12,279.2
13,290.3
14,442.8
16,097.2
17,866.4
19,819.8
21,970.8
1,726.5
1,889.7
1,980.2
2,069.6
2,257.4
1,528.8
1,703.6
1,767.8
1,837.6
2,052.9
4,070.4
4,448.5
4,499.9
4,830.6
5,349.8
4,637.9
4,984.1
5,341.3
5,839.1
6,509.7
39.7
42.6
44.7
45.8
49.5
138.5
166.9
181.3
211.2
232.9
-----------
39,842.4
43,338.1
46,789.2
50,960.1
56,096.2
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,096.4
1,153.2
1,197.4
1,209.1
1,249.3
256.2
280.6
295.0
311.7
313.7
1,866.9
1,970.0
2,031.6
2,025.0
2,023.4
1,533.5
1,629.3
1,699.8
1,739.1
1,793.0
14,378.1
15,782.2
16,479.8
16,923.2
17,376.1
23,799.1
26,194.3
27,575.2
28,074.9
28,749.1
2,484.3
2,576.0
2,701.9
2,749.1
2,804.9
2,252.2
2,319.8
2,325.4
2,301.9
2,385.2
5,749.4
6,062.5
6,430.7
6,520.4
6,313.4
7,376.3
8,127.4
8,769.7
9,297.4
9,771.3
53.6
62.6
67.5
80.1
94.0
246.8
279.5
279.6
287.1
286.3
-----------
61,092.9
66,437.4
69,853.6
71,519.1
73,159.6
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1,269.4
1,253.4
1,305.4
1,433.4
1,583.3
327.4
339.1
340.3
361.4
378.7
2,061.3
2,089.0
2,364.2
2,552.9
2,677.9
1,819.3
1,813.7
1,857.2
1,924.2
2,076.5
17,518.9
17,344.8
18,016.3
19,157.0
20,173.7
29,286.7
29,693.7
30,795.1
33,125.6
35,439.2
2,915.5
2,972.1
3,100.5
3,286.4
3,700.8
2,442.3
2,490.0
2,656.2
2,778.2
2,977.4
6,092.5
6,320.6
7,082.1
7,619.8
8,701.7
10,113.2
10,378.1
10,832.0
11,414.3
12,279.7
95.8
110.2
103.3
104.1
109.2
295.0
277.7
289.0
309.8
223.1
--------142.6
74,237.4
75,082.3
78,741.5
84,067.3
90,463.9
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
1,687.2
1,802.9
1,926.1
2,061.8
2,138.0
401.4
475.9
505.4
541.0
538.2
2,836.6
3,013.3
3,306.8
3,595.8
3,722.0
2,218.6
2,467.8
2,615.6
2,788.5
2,979.8
21,681.8
23,587.0
24,950.7
26,462.9
27,825.5
39,040.0
41,792.2
45,404.6
49,589.1
53,257.1
4,063.7
4,381.8
4,607.4
4,927.5
5,234.6
3,159.8
3,457.0
3,623.1
3,873.0
4,126.7
9,601.8
10,962.4
11,793.7
12,630.7
13,832.9
13,412.6
14,680.1
15,670.2
16,391.3
17,122.6
123.2
142.7
155.5
156.3
167.5
208.5
240.0
265.7
263.4
284.3
168.5
184.3
215.0
292.7
308.0
98,603.5
107,187.4
115,039.7
123,573.9
131,537.2
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2,236.2
2,345.5
2,560.6
2,737.0
2,995.6
576.0
621.6
654.2
695.6
788.0
4,026.8
4,468.9
4,764.2
5,014.5
5,279.7
3,294.0
3,581.3
3,723.0
3,983.4
4,304.4
29,511.6
31,578.0
33,521.4
35,909.9
38,284.6
56,535.4
60,075.3
63,942.1
67,829.3
71,705.8
5,618.4
5,976.7
6,282.2
6,747.4
7,301.6
4,421.2
4,767.8
5,097.5
5,442.1
5,838.7
15,170.7
16,992.8
18,474.1
20,395.9
21,530.6
18,097.9
19,444.6
20,276.6
22,293.9
22,986.1
185.3
213.5
227.3
237.4
278.7
318.8
344.4
385.0
406.7
439.9
304.6
335.4
354.5
368.1
391.0
140,296.8
150,745.8
160,262.8
172,061.1
182,124.7
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
3,303.9
3,496.3
3,629.9
3,605.2
3,654.2
847.6
934.6
918.4
932.6
944.0
5,803.2
6,008.9
6,073.1
6,184.1
6,364.7
4,509.7
4,675.6
4,686.3
4,719.1
4,797.8
40,566.4
41,925.9
43,455.7
45,142.4
46,138.7
74,789.2
76,690.3
78,173.8
79,414.8
80,709.4
7,688.0
7,903.3
8,334.6
8,382.4
8,541.3
6,290.7
6,636.7
6,835.1
7,118.7
7,255.3
23,950.8
24,677.7
25,762.4
26,711.9
27,821.7
24,448.8
25,224.6
26,290.2
26,821.9
27,299.2
288.8
314.0
333.4
368.8
372.8
432.5
467.4
482.4
518.4
534.1
401.4
433.8
461.1
485.9
474.0
193,321.0
199,389.1
205,436.3
210,406.3
214,907.2
1976*
1980*
18.3
11.6
6.2
26.6
15.6
14.7
16.0
19.7
14.7
14.3
14.0
13.5
15.2
18.0
17.9
16.0
16.8
20.9
17.7
25.8
13.6
9.0
11.3
3.6
-----
15.2
16.3
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
4.5
3.4
8.5
5.6
6.5
5.9
3.5
8.2
8.2
9.0
9.5
11.7
13.3
1.6
10.5
5.2
6.3
9.4
8.2
8.4
7.7
5.0
6.9
9.0
8.2
10.4
11.5
11.0
10.9
10.9
8.4
9.5
4.8
4.5
9.1
11.5
11.4
3.8
4.0
11.7
8.1
9.3
1.2
7.3
10.7
4.7
7.5
7.2
9.3
11.5
4.8
7.2
5.1
2.3
8.2
10.2
20.5
8.6
16.5
10.3
-----------
8.4
8.8
8.0
8.9
10.1
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
10.6
5.2
3.8
1.0
3.3
7.0
9.5
5.1
5.7
0.6
6.6
5.5
3.1
-0.3
-0.1
9.5
6.2
4.3
2.3
3.1
8.2
9.8
4.4
2.7
2.7
8.3
10.1
5.3
1.8
2.4
10.1
3.7
4.9
1.7
2.0
9.7
3.0
0.2
-1.0
3.6
7.5
5.4
6.1
1.4
-3.2
13.3
10.2
7.9
6.0
5.1
8.2
16.8
7.9
18.6
17.4
6.0
13.2
0.1
2.7
-0.3
-----------
8.9
8.7
5.1
2.4
2.3
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1.6
-1.3
4.1
9.8
10.5
4.4
3.5
0.4
6.2
4.8
1.9
1.3
13.2
8.0
4.9
1.5
-0.3
2.4
3.6
7.9
0.8
-1.0
3.9
6.3
5.3
1.9
1.4
3.7
7.6
7.0
3.9
1.9
4.3
6.0
12.6
2.4
2.0
6.7
4.6
7.2
-3.5
3.7
12.0
7.6
14.2
3.5
2.6
4.4
5.4
7.6
1.9
15.1
-6.3
0.8
4.9
3.0
-5.9
4.1
7.2
-28.0
-----------
1.5
1.1
4.9
6.8
7.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
6.6
6.9
6.8
7.0
3.7
6.0
18.6
6.2
7.0
-0.5
5.9
6.2
9.7
8.7
3.5
6.8
11.2
6.0
6.6
6.9
7.5
8.8
5.8
6.1
5.1
10.2
7.0
8.6
9.2
7.4
9.8
7.8
5.1
6.9
6.2
6.1
9.4
4.8
6.9
6.5
10.3
14.2
7.6
7.1
9.5
9.2
9.4
6.7
4.6
4.5
12.7
15.9
8.9
0.5
7.2
-6.5
15.1
10.7
-0.9
7.9
18.1
9.4
16.6
36.1
5.3
9.0
8.7
7.3
7.4
6.4
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
4.6
4.9
9.2
6.9
9.4
7.0
7.9
5.2
6.3
13.3
8.2
11.0
6.6
5.3
5.3
10.5
8.7
4.0
7.0
8.1
6.1
7.0
6.2
7.1
6.6
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.1
5.7
7.3
6.4
5.1
7.4
8.2
7.1
7.8
6.9
6.8
7.3
9.7
12.0
8.7
10.4
5.6
5.7
7.4
4.3
9.9
3.1
10.6
15.2
6.5
4.4
17.4
12.2
8.0
11.8
5.7
8.2
-1.1
10.1
5.7
3.8
6.2
6.7
7.4
6.3
7.4
5.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
10.3
5.8
3.8
-0.7
1.4
7.6
10.3
-1.7
1.5
1.2
9.9
3.5
1.1
1.8
2.9
4.8
3.7
0.2
0.7
1.7
6.0
3.4
3.6
3.9
2.2
4.3
2.5
1.9
1.6
1.6
5.3
2.8
5.5
0.6
1.9
7.7
5.5
3.0
4.1
1.9
11.2
3.0
4.4
3.7
4.2
6.4
3.2
4.2
2.0
1.8
3.6
8.7
6.2
10.6
1.1
-1.7
8.1
3.2
7.4
3.0
2.7
8.1
6.3
5.4
-2.5
6.1
3.1
3.0
2.4
2.1
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
156
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Total Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
475.29
555.99
641.93
726.96
830.23
502.62
529.82
572.56
653.05
785.24
462.74
529.45
558.65
606.81
674.68
409.87
466.84
515.80
578.47
668.42
533.75
605.80
653.12
724.60
796.36
531.61
599.11
649.52
706.71
776.66
533.03
610.01
680.14
719.36
793.65
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
922.34
1,080.88
1,220.41
1,334.99
1,295.66
988.59
1,102.17
1,230.17
1,311.30
1,350.90
770.61
923.01
1,068.72
1,156.14
1,282.96
796.61
964.41
1,156.84
1,250.58
1,352.42
904.64
1,051.94
1,199.29
1,313.98
1,404.53
872.94
1,010.40
1,170.69
1,310.60
1,426.75
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1,356.50
1,409.34
1,532.79
1,618.95
1,720.39
1,419.40
1,460.70
1,578.34
1,698.12
1,840.01
1,392.54
1,548.24
1,746.68
1,766.48
1,938.19
1,418.05
1,504.71
1,640.40
1,768.26
1,904.32
1,505.01
1,570.76
1,661.41
1,795.46
1,918.16
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,896.84
1,989.99
2,064.37
2,084.83
2,174.65
1,962.74
2,153.50
2,255.45
2,358.94
2,351.09
2,052.39
2,152.81
2,209.26
2,191.52
2,182.78
2,071.96
2,185.39
2,272.21
2,322.46
2,389.97
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2,237.14
2,238.91
2,369.01
2,654.75
2,968.31
2,436.16
2,497.61
2,500.34
2,660.92
2,778.63
2,220.76
2,242.84
2,535.39
2,739.44
2,867.64
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
3,195.29
3,453.96
3,707.89
3,977.07
4,133.01
2,940.60
3,482.35
3,690.64
3,939.54
3,903.61
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
4,349.31
4,593.81
5,030.33
5,350.40
5,797.21
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
Sask.
Table B.1.2
Nun.
Canada
Average
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
480.92
558.53
621.68
653.82
733.15
548.65
619.96
653.15
724.79
849.06
553.44
642.64
712.85
782.10
859.40
726.48
804.44
810.18
899.00
998.00
818.67
880.95
1,103.96
1,248.03
1,289.33
-----------
527.13
599.14
651.19
713.87
792.08
938.89
1,112.70
1,272.56
1,393.48
1,485.30
843.21
972.49
1,144.53
1,255.25
1,350.41
982.07
1,143.63
1,415.24
1,515.28
1,574.92
1,049.86
1,214.75
1,347.15
1,430.31
1,503.55
1,073.08
1,177.79
1,517.96
1,611.11
1,585.31
1,319.09
1,552.38
2,228.99
2,420.07
2,392.39
-----------
909.54
1,058.67
1,224.61
1,341.85
1,434.85
1,553.40
1,705.55
1,852.54
2,013.75
2,173.70
1,595.25
1,731.01
1,803.40
1,878.01
2,045.59
1,490.78
1,655.19
1,711.73
1,787.57
2,014.15
1,693.92
1,829.95
1,847.76
1,968.11
2,143.98
1,559.34
1,659.09
1,751.15
1,874.31
2,035.64
1,630.07
1,739.80
1,741.02
1,720.95
1,826.71
2,546.73
3,052.14
3,293.37
3,792.49
4,084.51
-----------
1,541.72
1,660.39
1,769.04
1,901.82
2,056.18
2,052.87
2,233.99
2,318.49
2,365.14
2,416.07
2,311.07
2,511.89
2,608.87
2,626.67
2,657.46
2,246.92
2,321.53
2,428.27
2,459.81
2,497.17
2,236.27
2,313.60
2,316.20
2,286.26
2,362.72
2,257.18
2,338.38
2,442.42
2,444.45
2,337.72
2,241.49
2,409.20
2,528.43
2,606.22
2,658.36
1,928.76
2,164.74
2,242.01
2,638.01
3,165.61
4,190.00
4,586.61
4,480.52
4,517.40
4,394.37
-----------
2,205.72
2,370.11
2,462.51
2,493.53
2,522.82
2,422.62
2,410.86
2,467.84
2,563.77
2,766.37
2,426.63
2,393.40
2,476.60
2,625.70
2,754.72
2,674.59
2,679.20
2,742.64
2,914.19
3,079.97
2,582.01
2,620.44
2,729.01
2,889.07
3,239.28
2,408.26
2,443.36
2,609.05
2,730.40
2,934.22
2,227.99
2,277.57
2,502.48
2,628.02
2,946.49
2,677.58
2,678.72
2,743.29
2,865.71
3,061.24
3,145.60
3,511.90
3,248.86
3,343.18
3,549.19
4,430.96
4,109.41
4,266.11
4,611.49
5,486.98
--------5,317.99
2,533.50
2,535.63
2,632.85
2,787.65
2,975.41
3,037.42
3,231.81
3,538.55
3,839.51
3,968.19
2,956.07
3,290.91
3,485.93
3,711.97
3,962.26
2,947.08
3,188.73
3,351.01
3,530.88
3,685.99
3,340.92
3,512.64
3,751.81
4,043.95
4,287.91
3,541.74
3,805.98
3,987.05
4,240.87
4,471.92
3,135.42
3,456.55
3,638.10
3,893.51
4,147.82
3,195.32
3,586.31
3,784.49
3,995.33
4,311.76
3,320.61
3,599.43
3,807.68
3,944.61
4,073.12
4,048.47
4,737.37
5,159.07
5,112.72
5,425.66
5,149.06
5,878.03
6,403.74
6,237.18
6,637.98
6,125.90
6,554.35
7,480.36
10,035.17
10,396.19
3,212.99
3,455.29
3,666.88
3,901.18
4,111.15
4,168.03
4,509.12
4,750.15
5,012.53
5,632.24
4,302.20
4,764.95
5,095.02
5,358.13
5,627.48
4,384.26
4,803.14
4,994.54
5,333.53
5,739.54
3,884.11
4,137.65
4,357.53
4,626.67
4,881.08
4,499.28
4,744.69
5,009.49
5,265.18
5,516.81
4,785.06
5,049.90
5,281.96
5,633.24
6,041.43
4,465.69
4,804.74
5,087.11
5,349.31
5,642.45
4,624.18
4,966.68
5,257.25
5,672.22
5,852.15
4,248.08
4,584.17
4,725.40
5,125.72
5,211.46
5,966.11
6,614.97
6,982.89
7,175.09
8,262.60
7,461.96
7,976.28
8,875.88
9,382.60
10,195.96
10,150.44
10,885.59
11,291.94
11,542.58
11,993.76
4,341.93
4,628.29
4,873.00
5,175.43
5,415.77
6,329.66
6,659.21
6,889.91
6,844.85
6,953.11
5,982.80
6,488.80
6,326.89
6,421.51
6,477.32
6,160.04
6,362.17
6,426.14
6,573.36
6,760.99
5,988.68
6,188.46
6,190.61
6,241.83
6,340.00
5,115.97
5,235.72
5,375.48
5,535.32
5,616.45
5,693.86
5,782.03
5,828.65
5,866.07
5,893.87
6,296.81
6,406.05
6,667.50
6,626.31
6,688.67
5,983.02
6,223.76
6,284.89
6,423.04
6,471.79
6,416.70
6,510.93
6,624.87
6,636.38
6,782.87
5,474.53
5,606.54
5,786.57
5,853.78
5,864.66
8,348.02
8,870.76
9,197.25
10,048.16
10,043.92
9,992.88
10,745.55
11,059.53
11,906.11
12,159.55
12,033.72
12,686.27
13,286.47
13,652.95
13,160.40
5,685.03
5,805.85
5,911.10
5,984.54
6,045.23
1976*
1980*
17.0
11.1
5.4
25.9
14.4
14.2
13.9
19.2
13.5
13.6
12.7
12.4
14.4
18.3
16.1
15.0
13.0
15.7
16.1
22.2
10.7
7.5
7.6
2.3
-----
13.7
14.8
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
4.7
3.9
8.8
5.6
6.3
5.1
2.9
8.1
7.6
8.4
8.5
11.2
12.8
1.1
9.7
4.9
6.1
9.0
7.8
7.7
7.2
4.4
5.8
8.1
6.8
8.9
9.8
8.6
8.7
7.9
7.4
8.5
4.2
4.1
8.9
10.4
11.0
3.4
4.4
12.7
7.6
8.0
1.0
6.5
8.9
3.7
6.4
5.5
7.0
8.6
2.8
6.7
0.1
-1.2
6.1
6.5
19.8
7.9
15.2
7.7
-----------
7.4
7.7
6.5
7.5
8.1
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
10.3
4.9
3.7
1.0
4.3
6.7
9.7
4.7
4.6
-0.3
5.9
4.9
2.6
-0.8
-0.4
8.8
5.5
4.0
2.2
2.9
7.0
8.8
3.8
2.0
2.2
6.3
8.7
3.9
0.7
1.2
9.8
3.3
4.6
1.3
1.5
11.0
3.5
0.1
-1.3
3.3
5.3
3.6
4.4
0.1
-4.4
10.1
7.5
4.9
3.1
2.0
5.6
12.2
3.6
17.7
20.0
2.6
9.5
-2.3
0.8
-2.7
-----------
7.3
7.5
3.9
1.3
1.2
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2.9
0.1
5.8
12.1
11.8
3.6
2.5
0.1
6.4
4.4
1.7
1.0
13.0
8.0
4.7
1.4
-0.5
2.4
3.9
7.9
0.4
-1.4
3.5
6.0
4.9
0.6
0.2
2.4
6.3
5.7
3.4
1.5
4.1
5.9
12.1
1.9
1.5
6.8
4.7
7.5
-4.7
2.2
9.9
5.0
12.1
0.7
0.0
2.4
4.5
6.8
-0.6
11.6
-7.5
2.9
6.2
0.8
-7.3
3.8
8.1
19.0
-----------
0.4
0.1
3.8
5.9
6.7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
7.6
8.1
7.4
7.3
3.9
5.8
18.4
6.0
6.7
-0.9
5.9
6.4
9.5
8.5
3.4
6.9
11.3
5.9
6.5
6.7
7.0
8.2
5.1
5.4
4.4
8.5
5.1
6.8
7.8
6.0
9.3
7.5
4.8
6.4
5.4
6.9
10.2
5.3
7.0
6.5
8.4
12.2
5.5
5.6
7.9
8.5
8.4
5.8
3.6
3.3
14.1
17.0
8.9
-0.9
6.1
-6.2
14.2
8.9
-2.6
6.4
15.2
7.0
14.1
34.2
3.6
8.0
7.5
6.1
6.4
5.4
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
5.2
5.6
9.5
6.4
8.4
6.8
8.2
5.3
5.5
12.4
8.4
10.8
6.9
5.2
5.0
10.7
9.6
4.0
6.8
7.6
5.4
6.5
5.3
6.2
5.5
4.9
5.5
5.6
5.1
4.8
7.0
5.5
4.6
6.7
7.2
7.7
7.6
5.9
5.2
5.5
7.2
7.4
5.9
7.9
3.2
4.3
7.9
3.1
8.5
1.7
10.0
10.9
5.6
2.8
15.2
12.4
6.9
11.3
5.7
8.7
-2.4
7.2
3.7
2.2
3.9
5.6
6.6
5.3
6.2
4.6
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
9.2
5.2
3.5
-0.7
1.6
6.2
8.5
-2.5
1.5
0.9
9.5
3.3
1.0
2.3
2.9
4.3
3.3
0.0
0.8
1.6
4.8
2.3
2.7
3.0
1.5
3.2
1.5
0.8
0.6
0.5
4.2
1.7
4.1
-0.6
0.9
6.0
4.0
1.0
2.2
0.8
9.6
1.5
1.8
0.2
2.2
5.0
2.4
3.2
1.2
0.2
1.0
6.3
3.7
9.3
0.0
-2.0
7.5
2.9
7.7
2.1
0.3
5.4
4.7
2.8
-3.6
5.0
2.1
1.8
1.2
1.0
($’ per capita)
Year
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
157
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table B.1.3
Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of (Provincial/Territorial) GDP, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
Average
(percentage)
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
-----------
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
6.8
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
--11.9
12.4
12.8
11.6
--12.7
13.1
12.1
12.3
--9.6
9.7
9.3
9.4
--10.3
11.2
10.7
10.6
--8.4
9.0
9.2
9.0
--6.7
7.4
7.6
7.5
--8.3
9.3
9.7
9.2
--6.3
7.4
7.8
7.9
--4.8
5.8
6.1
6.0
--7.5
8.4
8.6
8.7
--5.6
7.5
8.2
7.9
--7.1
8.4
8.5
8.3
-----------
7.1
7.2
8.0
8.1
8.0
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
11.6
11.1
11.2
10.9
10.9
12.5
11.2
11.5
11.3
11.4
9.6
9.8
10.4
10.0
10.4
10.5
10.0
9.9
10.1
10.4
9.1
8.8
8.6
8.6
8.8
7.5
7.6
7.6
7.6
7.8
9.2
9.8
9.6
9.3
9.5
8.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
10.2
6.0
7.6
7.4
7.5
7.8
8.5
8.6
8.4
8.2
8.4
7.7
6.4
4.7
4.5
4.5
8.2
10.5
10.4
10.2
10.6
-----------
8.0
8.3
8.2
8.2
8.4
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
11.8
11.9
12.3
12.2
12.0
11.7
12.3
12.7
12.5
12.3
10.6
10.8
10.9
10.7
10.5
11.1
11.7
11.8
11.6
11.4
9.2
10.0
10.2
10.2
10.0
8.3
9.1
9.5
9.4
9.0
10.1
10.6
10.9
11.0
10.6
10.5
10.7
10.7
10.0
9.6
7.7
8.2
8.5
7.9
7.1
9.1
9.7
9.8
9.7
9.6
4.7
6.1
5.7
8.4
9.5
11.0
12.5
12.3
11.5
11.4
-----------
8.8
9.5
9.8
9.6
9.3
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
11.7
11.8
12.2
12.6
12.8
12.2
11.9
12.0
12.0
11.9
10.3
10.3
11.2
11.6
11.2
10.8
10.6
10.7
10.7
10.6
9.7
9.4
9.3
9.5
9.3
8.7
8.6
8.4
8.5
8.5
10.6
10.3
10.3
10.4
11.3
9.1
8.5
9.1
9.3
9.5
6.5
6.3
6.5
7.0
7.3
9.4
9.3
9.3
9.7
10.0
8.5
9.1
8.7
9.3
9.6
11.7
10.5
10.1
10.9
9.2
--------17.4
9.0
8.8
8.7
9.0
9.0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
11.9
12.5
11.5
11.2
10.9
11.8
13.8
13.6
14.1
13.4
11.1
11.2
11.8
12.0
12.0
10.8
11.7
12.1
12.3
12.4
9.4
9.9
10.0
10.2
10.2
8.7
9.0
9.3
9.8
10.0
11.7
12.2
12.4
12.9
12.9
9.2
10.2
10.3
10.3
9.9
6.6
7.1
7.7
7.3
7.2
10.0
10.8
11.2
11.0
10.6
9.8
10.8
11.9
11.7
11.6
7.9
7.6
8.3
6.8
6.3
18.8
19.8
21.0
28.4
27.5
9.0
9.4
9.7
9.9
9.9
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
10.1
8.9
8.6
8.7
12.0
13.9
14.2
14.2
14.6
15.9
12.4
13.7
14.1
14.1
15.0
13.0
13.6
13.4
14.0
14.9
10.5
10.9
11.0
11.5
12.1
10.2
10.5
10.7
11.2
12.0
13.2
12.9
12.8
13.0
14.4
9.8
10.2
9.8
8.0
9.7
6.8
6.9
7.1
6.9
8.7
10.4
10.4
10.3
10.9
11.7
11.9
12.6
12.8
11.9
13.2
7.2
7.8
8.3
8.1
10.9
26.1
27.0
25.9
22.9
25.3
9.9
10.1
10.2
10.5
11.6
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
11.4
10.4
10.7
9.8
9.7
16.3
17.4
16.6
16.5
16.3
15.7
15.8
15.8
16.0
15.6
15.0
14.9
14.9
14.8
14.7
12.3
12.1
12.1
12.2
11.9
11.9
11.7
11.6
11.5
11.3
14.5
14.3
14.3
13.9
13.7
9.9
9.0
8.8
8.7
8.6
8.9
8.3
8.3
8.1
8.0
11.9
11.7
12.0
11.8
11.5
12.5
13.2
12.7
13.4
12.7
9.0
9.9
10.3
10.6
10.3
20.7
21.3
21.0
21.1
19.4
11.6
11.3
11.3
11.2
11.0
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
1980*
-----
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
0.0
-4.5
0.7
-2.6
0.4
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
-----
-----
-----
0.0
3.4
-2.1
28.4
-1.3
-1.2
3.7
-----------
0.3
3.3
-0.9
-0.5
2.7
4.5
28.5
-5.9
46.7
13.7
3.9
13.5
-1.5
-6.4
-1.2
-----------
5.2
7.8
2.7
-1.5
-3.6
-1.8
-0.5
-0.7
4.4
3.0
-11.4
7.3
-3.7
5.9
4.1
2.4
-9.7
-4.2
7.9
-15.3
-----------
-3.4
-2.2
-0.5
2.7
0.6
-10.6
8.9
8.2
-5.4
-2.1
0.6
7.7
3.2
-1.0
-3.7
2.2
9.4
10.9
-2.1
-0.6
-14.6
-2.9
9.3
-18.5
-7.2
7.9
5.3
5.7
35.6
-3.1
-0.6
5.2
3.1
2.0
-0.1
-1.2
4.6
-4.8
-17.6
20.4
-5.5
2.8
2.6
-3.1
26.3
-1.9
-0.1
-1.2
6.2
7.3
2.4
5.9
1.5
-7.0
11.2
14.3
8.0
6.5
-2.3
34.9
-5.3
3.5
-4.0
-11.6
10.3
0.2
1.9
1.0
2.1
11.2
2.6
-8.9
-2.9
-1.0
-0.8
1.6
-6.6
-0.2
-1.9
-1.5
1.2
-1.2
1.9
-1.4
-2.5
-5.6
5.9
-4.1
5.4
-4.5
-17.4
9.7
4.2
2.4
-2.7
-17.9
2.8
-1.5
0.4
-7.9
0.0
-2.6
-0.4
-0.9
-1.5
-----
-----
2.3
-10.5
2.5
-1.8
1.3
1.4
2.8
6.0
-3.9
3.5
-0.6
-5.1
-0.4
1.2
3.3
0.9
-3.8
-2.3
-0.4
3.0
0.4
1.5
0.3
0.1
2.1
-0.2
6.6
-2.2
-3.0
2.6
6.0
12.8
1.3
0.6
5.7
0.8
25.9
-2.1
0.7
4.9
-2.5
2.1
-3.1
-1.7
2.3
-3.3
-17.1
-25.5
-6.0
1.7
7.8
0.8
4.0
-1.1
-1.6
2.1
5.4
3.3
-1.9
-1.6
2.5
1.7
0.4
-1.2
-2.1
6.9
5.1
1.1
-2.1
-1.3
4.6
8.5
2.2
0.2
-2.5
6.7
9.9
3.8
-1.2
-3.4
6.2
4.4
2.8
1.3
-3.5
2.5
2.0
0.3
-7.2
-3.1
-1.4
5.7
3.6
-6.1
-11.0
7.9
6.8
1.2
-1.3
-1.6
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-2.4
0.9
3.3
3.6
1.1
-1.0
-2.3
0.9
-0.1
-0.8
-1.4
-0.1
8.5
3.0
-2.9
-5.5
-1.6
1.3
-0.7
-0.3
-3.2
-2.7
-0.8
2.2
-2.0
-3.4
-1.7
-2.3
1.7
-0.2
-0.1
-3.3
0.6
1.0
8.8
-5.1
-7.0
6.4
2.4
2.8
-7.7
-3.4
3.4
7.1
4.9
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
-6.9
5.0
-7.6
-2.8
-2.9
-0.3
16.3
-1.3
4.0
-5.3
-1.3
1.2
5.1
2.0
-0.2
1.5
8.2
3.5
1.5
0.8
0.7
5.2
1.3
1.8
0.5
2.0
3.3
3.2
5.9
2.4
3.3
4.4
1.1
4.4
-0.1
-3.5
11.3
1.0
-0.1
-4.0
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
-7.6
-11.9
-2.7
1.0
37.8
3.9
2.0
-0.1
3.0
9.2
3.7
9.9
2.7
0.6
5.9
5.5
4.2
-1.6
4.9
6.5
2.7
3.2
0.9
4.5
6.0
1.8
2.3
2.3
4.9
7.3
2.3
-1.8
-1.5
1.9
11.0
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
-5.2
-8.2
2.8
-8.8
-1.4
2.3
6.5
-4.6
-0.4
-1.1
4.5
0.6
0.4
1.3
-2.4
0.4
-0.3
-0.6
-0.3
-0.6
1.4
-1.3
0.0
0.7
-2.2
-1.3
-1.4
-1.1
-1.0
-1.4
0.8
-1.4
-0.1
-2.6
-2.0
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
158
-----
-----
-----
-----
-----
-----
-----
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Table B.2.1
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
59.4
86.9
121.8
146.3
164.4
16.0
15.6
16.1
20.9
31.8
81.1
100.8
99.6
109.5
127.8
62.7
67.5
74.5
91.1
118.7
715.5
755.0
772.8
843.2
901.6
1,094.3
1,205.4
1,360.0
1,596.7
1,874.6
122.0
129.7
151.9
160.0
189.0
112.6
126.5
143.7
144.6
159.2
234.6
260.4
293.3
337.7
389.1
388.8
471.2
556.8
599.9
643.4
3.5
4.3
4.5
4.8
5.5
8.7
9.3
10.5
11.7
12.4
-----------
2,899.2
3,232.6
3,605.4
4,066.3
4,617.4
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
178.6
210.8
218.4
234.7
191.8
47.1
49.3
50.4
51.1
49.9
147.8
166.8
199.2
215.9
248.5
147.2
177.7
210.1
232.6
265.6
1,089.0
1,397.1
1,528.6
1,643.1
1,827.6
2,126.9
2,377.6
2,834.2
3,253.5
3,624.8
232.3
287.6
315.1
337.6
367.8
167.2
185.9
204.1
219.1
258.6
493.1
581.5
786.9
720.5
767.5
807.9
879.1
943.1
1,026.9
1,159.2
6.1
6.2
6.8
6.7
6.9
13.2
14.6
15.4
16.9
18.1
-----------
5,456.5
6,334.1
7,312.3
7,958.6
8,786.3
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
197.1
169.6
188.0
197.1
203.9
52.9
49.6
53.3
56.5
64.9
285.3
353.7
395.0
420.3
470.3
274.1
285.9
305.1
330.5
352.4
2,104.4
2,486.1
2,632.2
2,850.8
3,181.7
3,999.5
4,367.1
4,854.5
5,321.9
5,876.9
415.6
463.9
449.9
435.4
484.2
333.2
377.7
395.5
369.3
423.7
831.3
910.6
985.5
1,184.9
1,318.8
1,227.1
1,317.2
1,444.9
1,597.1
1,773.0
6.8
5.6
5.6
5.2
5.3
19.6
21.7
23.9
27.3
29.3
-----------
9,746.9
10,808.7
11,733.5
12,796.4
14,184.3
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
220.6
247.5
269.1
284.2
301.1
70.0
76.8
85.8
93.5
96.7
490.4
518.8
554.5
579.5
610.2
397.4
442.4
466.7
503.0
520.8
3,497.4
3,819.3
4,141.5
4,444.6
4,653.5
6,466.2
7,038.2
7,573.7
8,253.2
8,740.7
533.2
570.0
602.6
660.2
689.2
460.1
490.9
505.8
574.1
606.4
1,422.5
1,505.1
1,584.2
1,719.9
1,785.7
1,986.0
2,159.5
2,291.2
2,427.0
2,533.2
5.0
6.1
6.9
10.6
9.9
28.4
32.3
29.7
28.3
26.8
-----------
15,577.1
16,906.9
18,112.0
19,578.1
20,574.2
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
296.4
279.0
284.5
325.6
332.5
104.6
106.1
110.4
115.9
119.7
621.3
650.8
694.9
766.1
778.2
496.4
488.4
551.4
553.6
607.0
4,663.6
4,727.9
4,976.0
5,050.7
5,616.7
9,411.7
9,655.3
10,314.0
11,095.5
12,094.6
736.1
786.8
848.6
897.7
985.9
621.5
627.7
680.1
674.7
727.0
1,809.0
1,854.2
2,140.1
2,265.9
2,561.6
2,574.3
2,689.4
2,889.4
3,109.8
3,310.3
10.5
18.2
17.3
16.3
16.9
24.7
26.7
26.4
26.0
21.1
--------9.1
21,370.1
21,910.5
23,533.1
24,897.9
27,180.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
368.6
387.4
416.0
470.5
509.2
123.7
147.5
139.8
161.3
162.3
868.2
930.6
1,042.5
1,111.7
1,137.0
638.6
727.8
786.5
840.9
864.5
5,967.6
6,621.7
7,141.5
7,671.5
7,888.1
13,082.2
14,186.0
15,841.5
16,447.8
17,727.8
1,058.2
1,197.1
1,247.1
1,282.1
1,345.3
778.6
875.5
903.8
975.0
1,025.7
2,808.8
3,218.4
3,337.4
3,522.5
3,882.3
3,586.8
3,860.3
4,218.0
4,466.5
4,893.7
24.7
27.5
33.2
32.3
35.5
19.6
26.3
28.7
29.9
30.3
9.3
10.6
11.2
13.3
13.9
29,335.0
32,216.6
35,147.3
37,025.3
39,515.7
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
550.2
561.7
632.7
638.8
681.0
163.2
187.7
188.3
185.1
215.7
1,207.8
1,333.6
1,413.2
1,484.6
1,661.8
984.2
1,054.2
1,075.5
1,141.6
1,299.7
8,567.6
9,109.0
9,561.3
10,259.2
10,765.0
18,760.6
19,991.2
21,052.9
21,821.9
22,649.6
1,429.5
1,547.0
1,599.6
1,726.1
1,828.9
1,055.9
1,167.0
1,221.5
1,228.9
1,352.4
4,129.9
4,835.8
5,118.2
5,546.5
5,821.2
5,098.4
5,902.5
5,915.1
6,611.5
6,673.1
36.6
39.6
51.9
50.3
56.1
50.4
58.3
68.9
62.0
67.4
16.7
17.6
21.0
21.1
25.0
42,050.8
45,805.2
47,920.3
50,777.7
53,096.9
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
758.7
790.2
834.0
848.2
866.6
226.5
245.7
239.5
241.4
247.7
1,868.1
1,824.2
1,832.2
1,874.2
1,943.9
1,368.4
1,358.0
1,383.7
1,441.3
1,469.8
11,971.3
12,127.2
12,958.3
13,219.7
13,552.0
23,762.7
24,525.5
24,735.9
25,270.7
25,736.7
1,999.6
1,963.0
2,069.0
2,098.8
2,156.4
1,509.5
1,529.8
1,580.9
1,634.9
1,666.5
6,337.8
6,564.9
6,709.9
6,951.2
7,264.5
7,306.7
7,455.9
7,795.8
8,030.4
8,284.2
60.0
65.6
75.4
81.1
91.7
66.3
69.6
79.9
92.8
97.3
26.1
29.7
33.6
37.0
36.3
57,261.7
58,549.4
60,328.1
61,821.7
63,413.6
1976*
1980*
46.4
8.6
-2.5
48.2
24.3
15.6
7.8
24.0
5.5
20.8
10.2
13.5
6.3
22.9
12.3
5.0
11.0
26.7
21.2
25.6
23.1
11.5
7.0
6.4
-----
11.5
18.2
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
2.7
-13.9
10.9
4.8
3.4
6.1
-6.3
7.4
6.2
14.8
14.8
24.0
11.7
6.4
11.9
3.2
4.3
6.7
8.3
6.6
15.1
18.1
5.9
8.3
11.6
10.3
9.2
11.2
9.6
10.4
13.0
11.6
-3.0
-3.2
11.2
28.8
13.4
4.7
-6.6
14.7
8.3
9.5
8.2
20.2
11.3
5.9
7.3
9.7
10.5
11.0
-1.2
-17.3
0.4
-7.5
1.2
8.3
10.5
10.0
14.4
7.5
-----------
10.9
10.9
8.6
9.1
10.8
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
8.2
12.2
8.7
5.6
6.0
7.7
9.8
11.6
9.0
3.4
4.3
5.8
6.9
4.5
5.3
12.8
11.3
5.5
7.8
3.5
9.9
9.2
8.4
7.3
4.7
10.0
8.8
7.6
9.0
5.9
10.1
6.9
5.7
9.6
4.4
8.6
6.7
3.0
13.5
5.6
7.9
5.8
5.3
8.6
3.8
12.0
8.7
6.1
5.9
4.4
-4.8
20.9
14.1
52.5
-6.0
-3.3
13.7
-7.9
-4.7
-5.5
-----------
9.8
8.5
7.1
8.1
5.1
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-1.6
-5.9
2.0
14.4
2.1
8.2
1.4
4.1
5.0
3.3
1.8
4.7
6.8
10.2
1.6
-4.7
-1.6
12.9
0.4
9.6
0.2
1.4
5.2
1.5
11.2
7.7
2.6
6.8
7.6
9.0
6.8
6.9
7.9
5.8
9.8
2.5
1.0
8.3
-0.8
7.8
1.3
2.5
15.4
5.9
13.1
1.6
4.5
7.4
7.6
6.4
6.1
73.0
-5.2
-5.4
3.2
-7.8
8.3
-1.4
-1.4
-18.8
-----------
3.9
2.5
7.4
5.8
9.2
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
10.8
5.1
7.4
13.1
8.2
3.3
19.3
-5.2
15.4
0.6
11.6
7.2
12.0
6.6
2.3
5.2
14.0
8.1
6.9
2.8
6.2
11.0
7.9
7.4
2.8
8.2
8.4
11.7
3.8
7.8
7.3
13.1
4.2
2.8
4.9
7.1
12.4
3.2
7.9
5.2
9.7
14.6
3.7
5.5
10.2
8.4
7.6
9.3
5.9
9.6
46.7
10.9
20.8
-2.6
10.0
-7.0
34.1
9.0
4.1
1.4
2.4
14.4
4.9
19.2
4.5
7.9
9.8
9.1
5.3
6.7
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
8.1
2.1
12.6
1.0
6.6
0.6
15.0
0.4
-1.7
16.5
6.2
10.4
6.0
5.1
11.9
13.8
7.1
2.0
6.1
13.9
8.6
6.3
5.0
7.3
4.9
5.8
6.6
5.3
3.7
3.8
6.3
8.2
3.4
7.9
6.0
2.9
10.5
4.7
0.6
10.0
6.4
17.1
5.8
8.4
5.0
4.2
15.8
0.2
11.8
0.9
2.9
8.3
31.2
-3.1
11.5
66.1
15.7
18.2
-10.0
8.6
20.0
5.7
18.9
0.4
18.6
6.4
8.9
4.6
6.0
4.6
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
11.4
4.2
5.5
1.7
2.2
5.0
8.5
-2.5
0.8
2.6
12.4
-2.3
0.4
2.3
3.7
5.3
-0.8
1.9
4.2
2.0
11.2
1.3
6.9
2.0
2.5
4.9
3.2
0.9
2.2
1.8
9.3
-1.8
5.4
1.4
2.7
11.6
1.3
3.3
3.4
1.9
8.9
3.6
2.2
3.6
4.5
9.5
2.0
4.6
3.0
3.2
7.1
9.3
14.9
7.6
13.0
-1.7
5.0
14.8
16.1
4.8
4.5
13.9
13.0
10.1
-1.8
7.8
2.2
3.0
2.5
2.6
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
159
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table B.2.2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
106.65
154.40
215.42
257.68
288.40
135.81
131.42
134.19
171.57
258.31
98.13
120.69
118.59
129.63
150.52
92.57
97.96
107.02
130.17
168.79
113.03
118.03
120.15
130.92
139.42
131.53
143.27
159.90
185.85
216.40
118.99
125.66
146.30
153.65
182.19
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
311.79
366.78
380.15
405.01
330.61
380.69
398.78
407.15
407.23
394.19
173.28
195.17
231.63
248.37
283.28
208.52
251.61
296.65
325.09
368.32
167.36
213.37
232.33
248.87
275.61
243.21
269.83
317.65
359.84
395.21
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
340.16
294.15
326.89
342.81
353.75
414.66
386.13
414.24
437.42
499.18
322.36
397.71
442.14
468.32
520.32
378.68
394.24
419.14
452.46
479.28
315.70
370.59
388.08
416.85
459.21
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
381.55
427.13
463.99
489.99
524.20
535.91
589.69
655.88
707.51
724.66
539.08
566.94
603.05
627.19
658.31
536.96
593.38
623.91
671.67
694.18
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
522.27
498.31
516.33
603.02
623.44
778.40
781.25
811.16
853.14
878.29
669.35
698.71
745.24
822.05
833.35
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
698.00
742.15
800.89
907.53
984.26
905.97
1,078.93
1,020.75
1,174.86
1,176.96
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
1,070.07
1,100.05
1,242.89
1,248.82
1,317.91
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
Canada
Average
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
122.75
135.75
152.08
151.90
165.93
129.69
139.32
150.57
167.03
185.49
155.56
185.95
216.69
229.50
241.59
160.46
192.59
197.19
200.49
229.00
202.70
209.75
236.08
258.67
271.21
-----------
125.27
137.85
151.96
169.69
190.79
224.54
277.48
301.03
318.16
343.13
172.83
190.48
206.74
218.66
254.68
224.89
253.47
332.28
301.41
321.10
294.53
311.30
328.28
353.45
393.53
251.86
257.98
276.32
282.66
287.69
284.92
306.50
311.09
331.49
344.96
-----------
222.57
255.20
291.12
313.74
343.11
430.17
462.71
503.36
540.72
581.43
383.98
424.97
409.78
395.06
438.77
324.93
366.97
383.01
359.28
415.71
345.94
374.58
404.68
482.78
528.50
412.58
438.48
473.72
512.66
554.42
278.89
229.51
219.52
196.03
194.61
361.05
396.69
433.59
490.09
514.33
-----------
377.16
414.11
443.63
477.56
519.92
499.35
540.63
582.66
621.16
647.05
627.92
674.92
716.54
772.16
807.95
482.25
513.71
541.56
590.76
613.62
456.84
489.59
503.84
570.20
600.67
558.47
580.52
601.71
644.78
661.19
603.48
640.15
660.58
680.33
689.18
180.81
210.04
230.03
347.90
334.47
481.64
529.44
476.22
445.89
410.95
-----------
562.40
603.14
638.49
682.59
709.48
660.95
649.20
732.76
737.64
808.66
645.98
652.41
684.03
692.26
766.96
859.52
871.18
918.57
976.12
1,051.12
651.90
693.69
746.91
789.20
862.92
612.84
615.97
668.05
663.07
716.46
661.54
668.13
756.21
781.48
867.37
681.57
694.17
731.75
780.76
825.22
346.09
580.94
543.38
524.83
548.19
370.96
395.82
389.36
387.12
519.53
--------338.68
729.30
739.95
786.87
825.61
893.98
929.70
998.07
1,115.60
1,187.04
1,212.20
850.90
970.56
1,048.19
1,119.37
1,149.59
811.14
895.18
959.14
1,023.60
1,044.92
1,119.54
1,192.33
1,309.00
1,341.31
1,427.33
922.32
1,039.77
1,079.23
1,103.43
1,149.28
772.58
875.38
907.57
980.13
1,030.97
934.74
1,052.90
1,070.93
1,114.22
1,210.13
887.99
946.52
1,024.93
1,074.87
1,164.12
813.55
911.33
1,100.75
1,056.96
1,151.06
484.88
645.24
692.18
708.13
708.29
338.32
378.42
388.44
456.07
469.23
955.88
1,038.53
1,120.32
1,168.87
1,235.05
1,180.97
1,361.15
1,367.51
1,334.23
1,541.88
1,290.40
1,421.96
1,511.32
1,586.31
1,771.24
1,309.94
1,413.92
1,442.86
1,528.56
1,733.09
1,127.61
1,193.54
1,242.90
1,321.81
1,372.48
1,493.03
1,578.89
1,649.37
1,693.90
1,742.58
1,217.48
1,307.09
1,344.94
1,441.09
1,513.25
1,066.47
1,176.05
1,219.00
1,207.97
1,306.95
1,258.82
1,413.42
1,456.52
1,542.52
1,582.24
1,196.74
1,391.55
1,378.50
1,520.09
1,512.95
1,177.29
1,226.25
1,594.46
1,520.26
1,662.00
1,179.43
1,349.98
1,588.85
1,431.00
1,562.00
556.12
572.80
668.43
660.74
766.52
1,301.40
1,406.34
1,457.08
1,527.34
1,578.92
1,453.59
1,505.12
1,583.08
1,610.34
1,648.96
1,598.63
1,705.52
1,650.03
1,662.44
1,699.56
1,982.94
1,931.45
1,938.73
1,992.18
2,064.97
1,817.17
1,797.43
1,827.88
1,906.38
1,942.26
1,509.74
1,514.46
1,602.95
1,620.99
1,649.67
1,809.11
1,849.09
1,844.31
1,866.65
1,879.44
1,637.75
1,591.09
1,655.14
1,659.10
1,688.65
1,435.71
1,434.66
1,453.64
1,475.14
1,486.51
1,697.96
1,732.06
1,725.48
1,726.96
1,771.07
1,636.10
1,657.18
1,715.89
1,752.60
1,779.69
1,734.78
1,852.49
2,078.85
2,210.18
2,469.72
1,531.58
1,599.23
1,831.30
2,131.06
2,214.56
782.92
869.97
968.39
1,039.24
1,008.59
1,683.91
1,704.85
1,735.84
1,758.38
1,783.79
1976*
1980*
44.8
8.1
-3.2
47.4
23.0
15.1
5.8
23.5
4.4
20.0
8.9
12.4
5.6
23.2
10.6
4.2
7.4
21.2
19.5
21.9
20.0
10.0
3.5
5.1
-----
10.0
16.7
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
2.9
-13.5
11.1
4.9
3.2
5.2
-6.9
7.3
5.6
14.1
13.8
23.4
11.2
5.9
11.1
2.8
4.1
6.3
7.9
5.9
14.5
17.4
4.7
7.4
10.2
8.8
7.6
8.8
7.4
7.5
11.9
10.7
-3.6
-3.6
11.1
27.6
12.9
4.4
-6.2
15.7
7.7
8.3
8.0
19.3
9.5
4.8
6.3
8.0
8.2
8.1
-3.1
-17.7
-4.4
-10.7
-0.7
4.7
9.9
9.3
13.0
4.9
-----------
9.9
9.8
7.1
7.6
8.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
7.9
11.9
8.6
5.6
7.0
7.4
10.0
11.2
7.9
2.4
3.6
5.2
6.4
4.0
5.0
12.0
10.5
5.1
7.7
3.4
8.7
8.3
7.8
6.6
4.2
8.0
7.5
6.2
7.8
4.6
9.9
6.5
5.4
9.1
3.9
9.9
7.2
2.9
13.2
5.3
5.7
3.9
3.7
7.2
2.5
8.8
6.1
3.2
3.0
1.3
-7.1
16.2
9.5
51.2
-3.9
-6.4
9.9
-10.1
-6.4
-7.8
-----------
8.2
7.2
5.9
6.9
3.9
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-0.4
-4.6
3.6
16.8
3.4
7.4
0.4
3.8
5.2
2.9
1.7
4.4
6.7
10.3
1.4
-4.8
-1.8
12.9
0.7
9.6
-0.2
1.0
4.8
1.2
10.8
6.4
1.4
5.4
6.3
7.7
6.2
6.4
7.7
5.7
9.3
2.0
0.5
8.5
-0.7
8.1
0.1
1.0
13.2
3.3
11.0
-1.1
1.8
5.4
6.7
5.7
3.5
67.9
-6.5
-3.4
4.5
-9.7
6.7
-1.6
-0.6
34.2
-----------
2.8
1.5
6.3
4.9
8.3
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
12.0
6.3
7.9
13.3
8.5
3.2
19.1
-5.4
15.1
0.2
11.6
7.4
11.8
6.4
2.1
5.2
14.1
8.0
6.8
2.7
5.8
10.4
7.1
6.7
2.1
6.5
6.5
9.8
2.5
6.4
6.9
12.7
3.8
2.2
4.2
7.8
13.3
3.7
8.0
5.2
7.8
12.6
1.7
4.0
8.6
7.6
6.6
8.3
4.9
8.3
48.4
12.0
20.8
-4.0
8.9
-6.7
33.1
7.3
2.3
0.0
-0.1
11.9
2.6
17.4
2.9
6.9
8.6
7.9
4.3
5.7
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
8.7
2.8
13.0
0.5
5.5
0.3
15.3
0.5
-2.4
15.6
6.5
10.2
6.3
5.0
11.7
13.9
7.9
2.0
5.9
13.4
7.9
5.8
4.1
6.3
3.8
4.6
5.8
4.5
2.7
2.9
5.9
7.4
2.9
7.1
5.0
3.4
10.3
3.7
-0.9
8.2
4.0
12.3
3.0
5.9
2.6
2.8
16.3
-0.9
10.3
-0.5
2.3
4.2
30.0
-4.7
9.3
66.5
14.5
17.7
-9.9
9.2
18.5
3.0
16.7
-1.2
16.0
5.4
8.1
3.6
4.8
3.4
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
10.3
3.5
5.2
1.7
2.4
3.7
6.7
-3.3
0.8
2.2
12.0
-2.6
0.4
2.8
3.7
4.9
-1.1
1.7
4.3
1.9
10.0
0.3
5.8
1.1
1.8
3.8
2.2
-0.3
1.2
0.7
8.2
-2.8
4.0
0.2
1.8
9.9
-0.1
1.3
1.5
0.8
7.3
2.0
-0.4
0.1
2.6
8.1
1.3
3.5
2.1
1.5
4.4
6.8
12.2
6.3
11.7
-1.9
4.4
14.5
16.4
3.9
2.1
11.1
11.3
7.3
-2.9
6.6
1.2
1.8
1.3
1.4
Year
Sask.
\
($’ per capita)
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
160
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table B.2.3
Private-Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of Total Health Expenditure,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
22.4
27.8
33.6
35.4
34.7
27.0
24.8
23.4
26.3
32.9
21.2
22.8
21.2
21.4
22.3
22.6
21.0
20.7
22.5
25.3
21.2
19.5
18.4
18.1
17.5
24.7
23.9
24.6
26.3
27.9
22.3
20.6
21.5
21.4
23.0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
33.8
33.9
31.1
30.3
25.5
38.5
36.2
33.1
31.1
29.2
22.5
21.1
21.7
21.5
22.1
26.2
26.1
25.6
26.0
27.2
18.5
20.3
19.4
18.9
19.6
27.9
26.7
27.1
27.5
27.7
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
25.1
20.9
21.3
21.2
20.6
29.2
26.4
26.2
25.8
27.1
23.1
25.7
25.3
26.5
26.8
26.7
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.2
21.0
23.6
23.4
23.2
23.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
20.1
21.5
22.5
23.5
24.1
27.3
27.4
29.1
30.0
30.8
26.3
26.3
27.3
28.6
30.2
25.9
27.2
27.5
28.9
29.0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
23.3
22.3
21.8
22.7
21.0
32.0
31.3
32.4
32.1
31.6
30.1
31.2
29.4
30.0
29.1
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
21.8
21.5
21.6
22.8
23.8
30.8
31.0
27.7
29.8
30.2
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
24.6
23.9
24.7
23.3
22.7
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
Sask.
Nun.
Canada
Average
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
25.5
24.3
24.5
23.2
22.6
23.6
22.5
23.1
23.0
21.8
28.1
28.9
30.4
29.3
28.1
22.1
23.9
24.3
22.3
22.9
24.8
23.8
21.4
20.7
21.0
-----------
23.8
23.0
23.3
23.8
24.1
23.9
24.9
23.7
22.8
23.1
20.5
19.6
18.1
17.4
18.9
22.9
22.2
23.5
19.9
20.4
28.1
25.6
24.4
24.7
26.2
23.5
21.9
18.2
17.5
18.1
21.6
19.7
14.0
13.7
14.4
-----------
24.5
24.1
23.8
23.4
23.9
27.7
27.1
27.2
26.9
26.7
24.1
24.6
22.7
21.0
21.4
21.8
22.2
22.4
20.1
20.6
20.4
20.5
21.9
24.5
24.7
26.5
26.4
27.1
27.4
27.2
17.1
13.2
12.6
11.4
10.7
14.2
13.0
13.2
12.9
12.6
-----------
24.5
24.9
25.1
25.1
25.3
24.3
24.2
25.1
26.3
26.8
27.2
26.9
27.5
29.4
30.4
21.5
22.1
22.3
24.0
24.6
20.4
21.2
21.8
24.9
25.4
24.7
24.8
24.6
26.4
28.3
26.9
26.6
26.1
26.1
25.9
9.4
9.7
10.3
13.2
10.6
11.5
11.5
10.6
9.9
9.4
-----------
25.5
25.4
25.9
27.4
28.1
27.3
26.9
29.7
28.8
29.2
26.6
27.3
27.6
26.4
27.8
32.1
32.5
33.5
33.5
34.1
25.2
26.5
27.4
27.3
26.6
25.4
25.2
25.6
24.3
24.4
29.7
29.3
30.2
29.7
29.4
25.5
25.9
26.7
27.2
27.0
11.0
16.5
16.7
15.7
15.4
8.4
9.6
9.1
8.4
9.5
--------6.4
28.8
29.2
29.9
29.6
30.0
30.6
30.9
31.5
30.9
30.5
28.8
29.5
30.1
30.2
29.0
27.5
28.1
28.6
29.0
28.3
33.5
33.9
34.9
33.2
33.3
26.0
27.3
27.1
26.0
25.7
24.6
25.3
24.9
25.2
24.9
29.3
29.4
28.3
27.9
28.1
26.7
26.3
26.9
27.2
28.6
20.1
19.2
21.3
20.7
21.2
9.4
11.0
10.8
11.4
10.7
5.5
5.8
5.2
4.5
4.5
29.8
30.1
30.6
30.0
30.0
28.3
30.2
28.8
26.6
27.4
30.0
29.8
29.7
29.6
31.5
29.9
29.4
28.9
28.7
30.2
29.0
28.8
28.5
28.6
28.1
33.2
33.3
32.9
32.2
31.6
25.4
25.9
25.5
25.6
25.0
23.9
24.5
24.0
22.6
23.2
27.2
28.5
27.7
27.2
27.0
28.2
30.4
29.2
29.7
29.0
19.7
18.5
22.8
21.2
20.1
15.8
16.9
17.9
15.3
15.3
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.7
6.4
30.0
30.4
29.9
29.5
29.2
23.0
22.6
23.0
23.5
23.7
26.7
26.3
26.1
25.9
26.2
32.2
30.4
30.2
30.3
30.5
30.3
29.0
29.5
30.5
30.6
29.5
28.9
29.8
29.3
29.4
31.8
32.0
31.6
31.8
31.9
26.0
24.8
24.8
25.0
25.2
24.0
23.1
23.1
23.0
23.0
26.5
26.6
26.0
26.0
26.1
29.9
29.6
29.7
29.9
30.3
20.8
20.9
22.6
22.0
24.6
15.3
14.9
16.6
17.9
18.2
6.5
6.9
7.3
7.6
7.7
29.6
29.4
29.4
29.4
29.5
1976*
1980*
23.8
-2.7
-8.2
17.1
7.5
0.8
-7.1
3.7
-8.0
5.7
-3.4
0.0
-7.7
4.2
-4.8
-9.4
-4.9
4.8
2.9
-0.2
8.4
2.3
-3.8
2.7
-----
-3.2
1.6
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
-1.7
-16.8
2.2
-0.7
-2.9
0.1
-9.5
-0.7
-1.9
5.3
4.8
11.0
-1.5
4.7
1.3
-1.9
-1.9
-2.5
0.1
-1.6
6.9
12.5
-1.0
-0.6
3.1
0.0
-2.0
0.2
-1.2
-0.4
4.2
2.0
-7.4
-7.4
2.0
15.6
1.7
0.9
-10.2
2.7
0.2
0.2
7.0
12.0
0.5
1.1
-0.1
2.4
1.1
-0.4
-5.7
-22.9
-4.4
-9.7
-6.5
-1.7
-8.3
1.3
-1.8
-2.6
-----------
2.3
1.9
0.5
0.1
0.7
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
-2.2
6.7
4.7
4.6
2.6
0.6
0.3
6.2
3.1
2.8
-2.2
0.3
3.6
4.8
5.4
3.0
4.8
1.1
5.3
0.4
1.6
-0.5
3.8
4.5
2.0
1.6
-1.1
2.2
7.0
3.4
0.1
3.1
0.8
7.7
2.3
-1.0
3.6
2.8
14.7
1.9
0.4
0.3
-0.8
7.1
7.2
-1.1
-1.3
-1.7
-0.1
-0.7
-12.0
3.5
5.7
28.5
-19.9
-8.7
0.4
-7.9
-7.1
-5.3
-----------
0.8
-0.2
1.9
5.6
2.7
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
-3.2
-4.7
-2.1
4.2
-7.5
3.7
-2.1
3.7
-1.2
-1.4
-0.1
3.4
-5.6
2.1
-3.2
-6.1
-1.3
10.3
-3.1
1.6
-0.6
2.4
1.3
-4.5
5.6
5.7
1.2
3.0
0.0
1.9
2.7
4.8
3.4
-0.2
-2.5
0.1
-0.9
1.6
-5.2
0.5
5.0
-1.2
3.0
-1.6
-1.0
-1.8
1.8
2.9
2.1
-1.1
4.1
50.3
1.1
-6.1
-1.6
-10.5
15.1
-5.2
-8.0
12.8
-----------
2.4
1.4
2.4
-0.9
1.4
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
4.0
-1.6
0.5
5.6
4.4
-2.5
0.6
-10.7
7.8
1.1
5.3
0.9
2.1
-1.9
-1.2
-1.5
2.5
2.0
0.3
-3.8
-1.1
2.0
2.0
1.3
-2.2
-1.8
1.3
2.8
-4.9
0.4
-2.2
4.9
-0.9
-3.9
-1.2
0.9
2.8
-1.5
0.9
-1.3
-0.6
0.4
-3.6
-1.4
0.6
-0.8
-1.7
2.4
1.2
4.9
30.1
-4.3
10.9
-3.1
2.6
-0.5
16.6
-1.5
5.0
-6.0
-13.3
4.5
-10.1
-12.5
-0.7
-1.0
1.0
1.7
-1.9
0.3
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
3.3
-2.7
3.2
-5.5
-2.6
-6.0
6.5
-4.6
-7.5
2.8
-1.8
-0.5
-0.6
-0.2
6.3
3.0
-1.5
-1.9
-0.8
5.4
2.4
-0.6
-1.1
0.2
-1.6
-0.3
0.3
-1.1
-2.3
-1.8
-1.0
1.7
-1.6
0.5
-2.1
-3.9
2.5
-2.1
-5.8
2.6
-3.0
4.5
-2.6
-1.8
-0.6
-1.4
7.8
-3.9
1.7
-2.1
-7.0
-6.1
23.2
-7.2
-5.1
48.1
7.1
5.8
-14.8
0.4
21.4
-4.0
12.5
-3.3
11.6
-0.2
1.4
-1.6
-1.3
-1.2
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
1.0
-1.6
1.7
2.4
0.8
-2.4
-1.6
-0.8
-0.7
1.4
2.3
-5.7
-0.6
0.5
0.8
0.5
-4.3
1.7
3.4
0.3
5.0
-2.0
3.1
-1.8
0.3
0.6
0.7
-1.1
0.6
0.2
3.8
-4.5
-0.1
0.9
0.8
3.6
-3.9
0.3
-0.7
0.0
-2.1
0.5
-2.1
-0.1
0.3
2.9
-1.1
0.3
1.0
1.4
3.3
0.5
8.2
-2.7
11.8
0.0
-2.9
11.3
8.1
1.8
1.8
5.4
6.3
4.4
0.7
1.6
-0.9
0.0
0.1
0.4
Year
Man.
(percentage)
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
161
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table B.3.1
Public-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—
Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
205.1
225.9
241.1
266.4
308.9
43.2
47.3
52.6
58.6
64.8
301.4
341.4
369.5
403.0
445.1
214.8
254.3
284.4
313.6
351.3
2,663.2
3,120.1
3,427.9
3,823.4
4,248.1
3,328.5
3,835.4
4,164.6
4,475.1
4,853.4
424.4
499.7
554.1
589.0
634.3
328.6
393.9
443.7
477.8
544.3
757.8
898.5
978.9
1,127.7
1,391.9
994.5
1,157.2
1,275.0
1,444.5
1,645.2
12.4
13.7
14.0
16.6
18.4
26.4
29.7
38.8
44.8
46.6
-----------
9,300.3
10,817.2
11,844.6
13,040.5
14,552.3
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
349.8
410.4
482.8
539.0
559.9
75.2
87.0
101.9
113.4
121.1
509.4
622.0
719.9
789.0
876.9
415.2
503.5
609.2
662.1
709.6
4,797.5
5,490.7
6,361.9
7,032.2
7,486.1
5,507.2
6,525.4
7,611.1
8,596.5
9,461.2
739.1
865.6
1,017.0
1,141.0
1,224.3
648.5
763.1
925.9
1,038.5
1,112.7
1,660.1
2,042.2
2,564.7
2,901.6
2,996.8
2,072.0
2,551.3
2,927.1
3,128.8
3,269.7
20.0
22.0
30.4
31.4
31.0
47.9
59.2
95.0
106.6
107.6
-----------
16,841.8
19,942.6
23,446.8
26,080.0
27,956.9
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
588.8
642.9
693.6
733.8
787.7
128.3
138.0
149.7
163.0
174.4
947.2
1,023.2
1,165.5
1,165.0
1,281.5
752.2
805.3
888.9
961.0
1,047.7
7,927.6
8,051.3
8,636.4
9,428.4
10,108.6
10,443.3
11,730.2
13,011.9
14,497.9
16,093.9
1,310.9
1,425.8
1,530.2
1,634.3
1,773.2
1,195.5
1,325.9
1,372.2
1,468.3
1,629.2
3,239.1
3,537.9
3,514.4
3,645.6
4,031.0
3,410.8
3,666.9
3,896.4
4,242.0
4,736.8
32.9
37.0
39.1
40.6
44.2
118.9
145.2
157.4
183.9
203.6
-----------
30,095.5
32,529.4
35,055.7
38,163.7
41,911.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
875.9
905.7
928.3
924.9
948.1
186.3
203.8
209.2
218.2
217.0
1,376.6
1,451.2
1,477.0
1,445.5
1,413.1
1,136.1
1,186.9
1,233.1
1,236.1
1,272.2
10,880.7
11,962.9
12,338.3
12,478.7
12,722.6
17,332.8
19,156.1
20,001.5
19,821.7
20,008.4
1,951.1
2,006.0
2,099.3
2,088.9
2,115.7
1,792.1
1,828.9
1,819.5
1,727.8
1,778.8
4,326.9
4,557.5
4,846.4
4,800.5
4,527.8
5,390.4
5,967.8
6,478.5
6,870.4
7,238.1
48.5
56.5
60.6
69.5
84.1
218.5
247.2
249.9
258.7
259.5
-----------
45,515.8
49,530.5
51,741.7
51,941.0
52,585.4
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
973.1
974.4
1,020.8
1,107.8
1,250.8
222.8
233.0
229.9
245.5
259.0
1,440.0
1,438.2
1,669.3
1,786.8
1,899.7
1,323.0
1,325.3
1,305.7
1,370.6
1,469.5
12,855.3
12,616.8
13,040.3
14,106.3
14,557.0
19,875.0
20,038.3
20,481.1
22,030.1
23,344.6
2,179.4
2,185.3
2,251.9
2,388.6
2,715.0
1,820.8
1,862.3
1,976.1
2,103.5
2,250.4
4,283.5
4,466.5
4,942.0
5,354.0
6,140.2
7,538.9
7,688.7
7,942.6
8,304.5
8,969.4
85.2
92.0
86.0
87.8
92.4
270.3
250.9
262.6
283.8
201.9
--------133.6
52,867.3
53,171.8
55,208.5
59,169.4
63,283.4
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
1,318.7
1,415.5
1,510.0
1,591.3
1,628.9
277.7
328.5
365.6
379.7
375.9
1,968.4
2,082.7
2,264.3
2,484.1
2,585.0
1,580.0
1,740.0
1,829.1
1,947.6
2,115.2
15,714.2
16,965.3
17,809.2
18,791.3
19,937.4
25,957.7
27,606.2
29,563.0
33,141.3
35,529.3
3,005.5
3,184.7
3,360.2
3,645.4
3,889.3
2,381.2
2,581.5
2,719.3
2,898.0
3,100.9
6,792.9
7,744.0
8,456.3
9,108.3
9,950.6
9,825.8
10,819.7
11,452.1
11,924.8
12,228.9
98.4
115.3
122.3
124.0
132.0
188.9
213.6
237.0
233.5
253.9
159.2
173.7
203.8
279.4
294.1
69,268.5
74,970.8
79,892.4
86,548.6
92,021.5
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
1,686.0
1,783.9
1,928.0
2,098.1
2,314.6
412.8
434.0
465.9
510.4
572.3
2,819.0
3,135.3
3,351.0
3,529.9
3,617.9
2,309.8
2,527.0
2,647.4
2,841.8
3,004.6
20,943.9
22,469.1
23,960.0
25,650.7
27,519.6
37,774.8
40,084.0
42,889.2
46,007.5
49,056.2
4,188.9
4,429.7
4,682.6
5,021.3
5,472.7
3,365.4
3,600.8
3,876.0
4,213.2
4,486.3
11,040.8
12,157.0
13,355.9
14,849.4
15,709.4
12,999.4
13,542.1
14,361.5
15,682.4
16,312.9
148.7
173.9
175.4
187.1
222.7
268.4
286.1
316.1
344.7
372.5
288.0
317.8
333.5
347.0
366.0
98,245.9
104,940.6
112,342.5
121,283.4
129,027.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
2,545.2
2,706.1
2,795.9
2,757.0
2,787.6
621.1
689.0
678.9
691.2
696.3
3,935.1
4,184.7
4,240.9
4,309.9
4,420.8
3,141.3
3,317.6
3,302.6
3,277.8
3,328.0
28,595.1
29,798.6
30,497.4
31,922.7
32,586.7
51,026.5
52,164.7
53,437.9
54,144.2
54,972.7
5,688.4
5,940.3
6,265.6
6,283.6
6,384.9
4,781.2
5,106.9
5,254.2
5,483.8
5,588.8
17,613.0
18,112.8
19,052.5
19,760.8
20,557.2
17,142.1
17,768.7
18,494.3
18,791.5
19,014.9
228.8
248.5
258.0
287.7
281.1
366.2
397.9
402.5
425.6
436.8
375.2
404.1
427.5
448.9
437.6
136,059.3
140,839.7
145,108.2
148,584.6
151,493.7
1976*
1980*
10.1
13.2
9.5
16.0
13.3
14.4
18.4
18.2
17.2
12.9
15.2
13.5
17.8
16.5
19.9
19.2
18.6
19.3
16.4
25.9
10.9
8.3
12.7
2.9
-----
16.3
15.7
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
5.2
9.2
7.9
5.8
7.4
5.9
7.6
8.5
8.9
7.0
8.0
8.0
13.9
-0.1
10.0
6.0
7.1
10.4
8.1
9.0
5.9
1.6
7.3
9.2
7.2
10.4
12.3
10.9
11.4
11.0
7.1
8.8
7.3
6.8
8.5
7.4
10.9
3.5
7.0
11.0
8.1
9.2
-0.7
3.7
10.6
4.3
7.5
6.3
8.9
11.7
6.1
12.3
5.8
3.8
9.1
10.5
22.2
8.4
16.8
10.7
-----------
7.6
8.1
7.8
8.9
9.8
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
11.2
3.4
2.5
-0.4
2.5
6.8
9.4
2.7
4.3
-0.6
7.4
5.4
1.8
-2.1
-2.2
8.4
4.5
3.9
0.2
2.9
7.6
9.9
3.1
1.1
2.0
7.7
10.5
4.4
-0.9
0.9
10.0
2.8
4.7
-0.5
1.3
10.0
2.1
-0.5
-5.0
3.0
7.3
5.3
6.3
-0.9
-5.7
13.8
10.7
8.6
6.0
5.4
9.7
16.4
7.2
14.7
20.9
7.3
13.2
1.1
3.5
0.3
-----------
8.6
8.8
4.5
0.4
1.2
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2.6
0.1
4.8
8.5
12.9
2.7
4.6
-1.3
6.8
5.5
1.9
-0.1
16.1
7.0
6.3
4.0
0.2
-1.5
5.0
7.2
1.0
-1.9
3.4
8.2
3.2
-0.7
0.8
2.2
7.6
6.0
3.0
0.3
3.0
6.1
13.7
2.4
2.3
6.1
6.4
7.0
-5.4
4.3
10.6
8.3
14.7
4.2
2.0
3.3
4.6
8.0
1.4
7.9
-6.5
2.0
5.2
4.1
-7.2
4.6
8.1
-28.9
-----------
0.5
0.6
3.8
7.2
7.0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
5.4
7.3
6.7
5.4
2.4
7.2
18.3
11.3
3.8
-1.0
3.6
5.8
8.7
9.7
4.1
7.5
10.1
5.1
6.5
8.6
7.9
8.0
5.0
5.5
6.1
11.2
6.4
7.1
12.1
7.2
10.7
6.0
5.5
8.5
6.7
5.8
8.4
5.3
6.6
7.0
10.6
14.0
9.2
7.7
9.2
9.5
10.1
5.8
4.1
2.6
6.5
17.1
6.1
1.4
6.4
-6.5
13.1
10.9
-1.5
8.7
19.2
9.1
17.4
37.1
5.3
9.5
8.2
6.6
8.3
6.3
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
3.5
5.8
8.1
8.8
10.3
9.8
5.1
7.3
9.6
12.1
9.1
11.2
6.9
5.3
2.5
9.2
9.4
4.8
7.3
5.7
5.0
7.3
6.6
7.1
7.3
6.3
6.1
7.0
7.3
6.6
7.7
5.7
5.7
7.2
9.0
8.5
7.0
7.6
8.7
6.5
11.0
10.1
9.9
11.2
5.8
6.3
4.2
6.1
9.2
4.0
12.7
16.9
0.9
6.7
19.0
5.7
6.6
10.5
9.1
8.1
-2.1
10.3
5.0
4.1
5.5
6.8
6.8
7.1
8.0
6.4
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
10.0
6.3
3.3
-1.4
1.1
8.5
10.9
-1.5
1.8
0.7
8.8
6.3
1.3
1.6
2.6
4.5
5.6
-0.5
-0.7
1.5
3.9
4.2
2.3
4.7
2.1
4.0
2.2
2.4
1.3
1.5
3.9
4.4
5.5
0.3
1.6
6.6
6.8
2.9
4.4
1.9
12.1
2.8
5.2
3.7
4.0
5.1
3.7
4.1
1.6
1.2
2.8
8.6
3.8
11.5
-2.3
-1.7
8.7
1.2
5.7
2.6
2.5
7.7
5.8
5.0
-2.5
5.4
3.5
3.0
2.4
2.0
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
162
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Public-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—
Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
368.63
401.59
426.51
469.28
541.83
366.81
398.40
438.37
481.48
526.92
364.61
408.76
440.06
477.18
524.16
317.30
368.89
408.78
448.30
499.63
420.71
487.77
532.97
593.68
656.94
400.07
455.84
489.62
520.87
560.26
414.03
484.35
533.84
565.70
611.46
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
610.55
714.10
840.26
929.97
965.06
607.90
703.39
823.02
904.07
956.70
597.33
727.84
837.09
907.77
999.68
588.09
712.80
860.19
925.49
984.09
737.28
838.57
966.96
1,065.11
1,128.93
629.73
740.57
853.04
950.77
1,031.54
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1,016.34
1,115.18
1,205.91
1,276.14
1,366.63
1,004.74
1,074.57
1,164.10
1,260.71
1,340.84
1,070.18
1,150.53
1,304.53
1,298.16
1,417.87
1,039.37
1,110.46
1,221.26
1,315.80
1,425.04
1,189.31
1,200.16
1,273.33
1,378.61
1,458.95
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,515.29
1,562.86
1,600.38
1,594.84
1,650.45
1,426.83
1,563.81
1,599.57
1,651.43
1,626.43
1,513.31
1,585.86
1,606.22
1,564.33
1,524.47
1,535.00
1,592.01
1,648.30
1,650.79
1,695.79
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1,714.87
1,740.60
1,852.68
2,051.73
2,344.87
1,657.77
1,716.36
1,689.18
1,807.78
1,900.33
1,551.41
1,544.13
1,790.15
1,917.40
2,034.29
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2,497.29
2,711.82
2,907.00
3,069.54
3,148.75
2,034.62
2,403.43
2,669.89
2,764.67
2,726.65
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
3,279.24
3,493.76
3,787.44
4,101.58
4,479.30
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
Nun.
Canada
Average
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
358.17
422.78
469.60
501.92
567.22
418.96
480.64
502.58
557.76
663.57
397.88
456.69
496.16
552.61
617.81
566.03
611.85
612.99
698.51
769.00
615.97
671.20
867.88
989.36
1,018.11
-----------
401.86
461.29
499.22
544.19
601.29
714.35
835.22
971.54
1,075.33
1,142.17
670.38
782.01
937.79
1,036.59
1,095.73
757.18
890.16
1,082.96
1,213.87
1,253.83
755.33
903.45
1,018.87
1,076.86
1,110.02
821.22
919.81
1,241.64
1,328.45
1,297.62
1,034.17
1,245.88
1,917.90
2,088.58
2,047.42
-----------
686.97
803.48
933.49
1,028.11
1,091.74
1,123.23
1,242.85
1,349.18
1,473.03
1,592.27
1,211.28
1,306.04
1,393.62
1,482.95
1,606.82
1,165.85
1,288.21
1,328.72
1,428.29
1,598.43
1,347.98
1,455.36
1,443.08
1,485.33
1,615.48
1,146.76
1,220.62
1,277.43
1,361.65
1,481.22
1,351.18
1,510.29
1,521.49
1,524.93
1,632.10
2,185.68
2,655.45
2,859.77
3,302.40
3,570.18
-----------
1,164.56
1,246.28
1,325.41
1,424.26
1,536.26
1,553.52
1,693.36
1,735.83
1,743.98
1,769.02
1,683.15
1,836.97
1,892.32
1,854.51
1,849.50
1,764.67
1,807.82
1,886.70
1,869.05
1,883.55
1,779.42
1,824.01
1,812.37
1,716.06
1,762.05
1,698.71
1,757.86
1,840.71
1,799.67
1,676.53
1,638.00
1,769.05
1,867.85
1,925.89
1,969.18
1,747.95
1,954.71
2,011.98
2,290.11
2,831.14
3,708.35
4,057.16
4,004.30
4,071.51
3,983.42
-----------
1,643.32
1,766.97
1,824.02
1,810.94
1,813.34
1,761.67
1,761.66
1,735.08
1,826.14
1,957.71
1,780.65
1,741.00
1,792.57
1,933.44
1,987.76
1,815.07
1,808.02
1,824.07
1,938.07
2,028.84
1,930.11
1,926.76
1,982.10
2,099.87
2,376.36
1,795.42
1,827.39
1,941.00
2,067.33
2,217.76
1,566.45
1,609.44
1,746.27
1,846.54
2,079.12
1,996.01
1,984.56
2,011.53
2,084.94
2,236.02
2,799.51
2,930.96
2,705.48
2,818.35
3,001.00
4,060.01
3,713.59
3,876.75
4,224.37
4,967.45
--------4,979.32
1,804.21
1,795.68
1,845.98
1,962.04
2,081.42
2,107.72
2,233.73
2,422.95
2,652.47
2,755.99
2,105.17
2,320.35
2,437.73
2,592.61
2,812.67
2,135.94
2,293.54
2,391.87
2,507.29
2,641.07
2,221.39
2,320.31
2,442.81
2,702.64
2,860.59
2,619.42
2,766.22
2,907.82
3,137.45
3,322.64
2,362.85
2,581.17
2,730.52
2,913.38
3,116.84
2,260.58
2,533.41
2,713.56
2,881.11
3,101.63
2,432.62
2,652.91
2,782.74
2,869.73
2,909.00
3,234.92
3,826.04
4,058.32
4,055.76
4,274.60
4,664.19
5,232.80
5,711.56
5,529.05
5,929.69
5,787.58
6,175.93
7,091.92
9,579.09
9,926.96
2,257.11
2,416.75
2,546.57
2,732.30
2,876.10
2,987.06
3,147.97
3,382.63
3,678.30
4,090.35
3,011.79
3,342.99
3,583.70
3,771.82
3,856.24
3,074.32
3,389.22
3,551.68
3,804.97
4,006.45
2,756.49
2,944.11
3,114.63
3,304.86
3,508.59
3,006.24
3,165.80
3,360.12
3,571.28
3,774.23
3,567.58
3,742.81
3,937.02
4,192.15
4,528.18
3,399.22
3,628.69
3,868.11
4,141.34
4,335.49
3,365.36
3,553.26
3,800.73
4,129.70
4,269.92
3,051.34
3,192.61
3,346.89
3,605.63
3,698.51
4,788.82
5,388.72
5,388.43
5,654.84
6,600.60
6,282.52
6,626.30
7,287.03
7,951.60
8,633.96
9,594.32
10,312.78
10,623.50
10,881.84
11,227.25
3,040.53
3,221.95
3,415.92
3,648.09
3,836.85
4,876.07
5,154.09
5,306.83
5,234.51
5,304.15
4,384.17
4,783.28
4,676.86
4,759.07
4,777.76
4,177.10
4,430.72
4,487.41
4,581.18
4,696.03
4,171.51
4,391.03
4,362.74
4,335.45
4,397.74
3,606.23
3,721.27
3,772.54
3,914.33
3,966.77
3,884.75
3,932.94
3,984.34
3,999.42
4,014.42
4,659.06
4,814.95
5,012.35
4,967.20
5,000.02
4,547.31
4,789.10
4,831.25
4,947.89
4,985.29
4,718.74
4,778.87
4,899.40
4,909.42
5,011.80
3,838.43
3,949.35
4,070.68
4,101.18
4,084.96
6,613.24
7,018.27
7,118.40
7,837.98
7,574.20
8,461.30
9,146.32
9,228.24
9,775.05
9,944.99
11,250.81
11,816.30
12,318.07
12,613.71
12,151.81
4,001.12
4,101.00
4,175.26
4,226.16
4,261.44
1976*
1980*
8.9
12.7
8.6
15.4
12.1
14.0
16.3
17.7
15.9
12.2
13.9
12.4
17.0
16.8
18.0
18.2
14.7
14.1
14.8
22.3
8.1
6.8
9.0
1.6
-----
14.8
14.2
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
5.3
9.7
8.1
5.8
7.1
5.0
7.0
8.3
8.3
6.4
7.1
7.5
13.4
-0.5
9.2
5.6
6.8
10.0
7.7
8.3
5.3
0.9
6.1
8.3
5.8
8.9
10.6
8.6
9.2
8.1
6.1
7.8
6.7
6.4
8.4
6.4
10.5
3.1
7.5
11.9
7.5
8.0
-0.8
2.9
8.8
3.3
6.4
4.7
6.6
8.8
4.1
11.8
0.7
0.2
7.0
6.8
21.5
7.7
15.5
8.1
-----------
6.7
7.0
6.3
7.5
7.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
10.9
3.1
2.4
-0.3
3.5
6.4
9.6
2.3
3.2
-1.5
6.7
4.8
1.3
-2.6
-2.5
7.7
3.7
3.5
0.2
2.7
6.5
9.0
2.5
0.5
1.4
5.7
9.1
3.0
-2.0
-0.3
9.8
2.4
4.4
-0.9
0.8
11.3
2.5
-0.6
-5.3
2.7
5.2
3.5
4.7
-2.2
-6.8
10.6
8.0
5.6
3.1
2.2
7.1
11.8
2.9
13.8
23.6
3.9
9.4
-1.3
1.7
-2.2
-----------
7.0
7.5
3.2
-0.7
0.1
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
3.9
1.5
6.4
10.7
14.3
1.9
3.5
-1.6
7.0
5.1
1.8
-0.5
15.9
7.1
6.1
3.9
0.0
-1.5
5.2
7.2
0.7
-2.2
3.0
7.9
2.8
-1.9
-0.4
0.9
6.3
4.7
2.5
-0.2
2.9
5.9
13.2
1.9
1.8
6.2
6.5
7.3
-6.6
2.7
8.5
5.7
12.6
1.4
-0.6
1.4
3.6
7.2
-1.1
4.7
-7.7
4.2
6.5
1.9
-8.5
4.4
9.0
17.6
-----------
-0.5
-0.5
2.8
6.3
6.1
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
6.5
8.6
7.2
5.6
2.6
7.1
18.1
11.1
3.5
-1.4
3.6
6.0
8.5
9.5
3.9
7.5
10.2
5.1
6.4
8.5
7.5
7.4
4.3
4.8
5.3
9.5
4.5
5.3
10.6
5.8
10.2
5.6
5.1
7.9
5.9
6.5
9.2
5.8
6.7
7.0
8.7
12.1
7.1
6.2
7.7
8.8
9.1
4.9
3.1
1.4
7.8
18.3
6.1
-0.1
5.4
-6.1
12.2
9.1
-3.2
7.2
16.2
6.7
14.8
35.1
3.6
8.4
7.1
5.4
7.3
5.3
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
4.1
6.5
8.4
8.3
9.2
9.6
5.4
7.5
8.7
11.2
9.3
11.0
7.2
5.2
2.2
9.3
10.2
4.8
7.1
5.3
4.4
6.8
5.8
6.1
6.2
5.1
5.3
6.1
6.3
5.7
7.4
4.9
5.2
6.5
8.0
9.1
6.8
6.6
7.1
4.7
8.5
5.6
7.0
8.7
3.4
4.9
4.6
4.8
7.7
2.6
12.0
12.5
0.0
4.9
16.7
6.0
5.5
10.0
9.1
8.6
-3.4
7.5
3.0
2.4
3.2
5.7
6.0
6.0
6.8
5.2
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
8.9
5.7
3.0
-1.4
1.3
7.2
9.1
-2.2
1.8
0.4
8.3
6.1
1.3
2.1
2.5
4.1
5.3
-0.6
-0.6
1.4
2.8
3.2
1.4
3.8
1.3
2.9
1.2
1.3
0.4
0.4
2.9
3.3
4.1
-0.9
0.7
4.9
5.3
0.9
2.4
0.8
10.5
1.3
2.5
0.2
2.1
3.8
2.9
3.1
0.7
-0.4
0.2
6.1
1.4
10.1
-3.4
-2.0
8.1
0.9
5.9
1.7
0.2
5.0
4.2
2.4
-3.7
4.3
2.5
1.8
1.2
0.8
Year
Sask.
Table B.3.2
($’ per capita)
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
163
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table B.3.3
Public-Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of Total Health Expenditure by Province/Territory
and Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
Average
(percentage)
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
77.6
72.2
66.4
64.6
65.3
73.0
75.2
76.6
73.7
67.1
78.8
77.2
78.8
78.6
77.7
77.4
79.0
79.3
77.5
74.7
78.8
80.5
81.6
81.9
82.5
75.3
76.1
75.4
73.7
72.1
77.7
79.4
78.5
78.6
77.0
74.5
75.7
75.5
76.8
77.4
76.4
77.5
76.9
77.0
78.2
71.9
71.1
69.6
70.7
71.9
77.9
76.1
75.7
77.7
77.1
75.2
76.2
78.6
79.3
79.0
-----------
76.2
77.0
76.7
76.2
75.9
1980
1981
1982
1983
66.2
66.1
68.9
69.7
61.5
63.8
66.9
68.9
77.5
78.9
78.3
78.5
73.8
73.9
74.4
74.0
81.5
79.7
80.6
81.1
72.1
73.3
72.9
72.5
76.1
75.1
76.3
77.2
79.5
80.4
81.9
82.6
77.1
77.8
76.5
80.1
71.9
74.4
75.6
75.3
76.5
78.1
81.8
82.5
78.4
80.3
86.0
86.3
---------
75.5
75.9
76.2
76.6
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
74.5
74.9
79.1
78.7
78.8
79.4
70.8
70.8
73.6
73.8
74.2
72.9
77.9
76.9
74.3
74.7
73.5
73.2
72.8
73.3
73.8
74.4
74.4
74.8
80.4
79.0
76.4
76.6
76.8
76.1
72.3
72.3
72.9
72.8
73.1
73.3
76.9
75.9
75.4
77.3
79.0
78.6
81.1
78.2
77.8
77.6
79.9
79.4
79.6
79.6
79.5
78.1
75.5
75.3
73.8
73.5
73.6
72.9
72.6
72.8
81.9
82.9
86.8
87.4
88.6
89.3
85.6
85.8
87.0
86.8
87.1
87.4
-------------
76.1
75.5
75.1
74.9
74.9
74.7
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
79.9
78.5
77.5
76.5
75.9
72.7
72.6
70.9
70.0
69.2
73.7
73.7
72.7
71.4
69.8
74.1
72.8
72.5
71.1
71.0
75.7
75.8
74.9
73.7
73.2
72.8
73.1
72.5
70.6
69.6
78.5
77.9
77.7
76.0
75.4
79.6
78.8
78.2
75.1
74.6
75.3
75.2
75.4
73.6
71.7
73.1
73.4
73.9
73.9
74.1
90.6
90.3
89.7
86.8
89.4
88.5
88.5
89.4
90.1
90.6
-----------
74.5
74.6
74.1
72.6
71.9
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
76.7
77.7
78.2
77.3
79.0
68.0
68.7
67.6
67.9
68.4
69.9
68.8
70.6
70.0
70.9
72.7
73.1
70.3
71.2
70.8
73.4
72.7
72.4
73.6
72.2
67.9
67.5
66.5
66.5
65.9
74.8
73.5
72.6
72.7
73.4
74.6
74.8
74.4
75.7
75.6
70.3
70.7
69.8
70.3
70.6
74.5
74.1
73.3
72.8
73.0
89.0
83.5
83.3
84.3
84.6
91.6
90.4
90.9
91.6
90.5
--------93.6
71.2
70.8
70.1
70.4
70.0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
78.2
78.5
78.4
77.2
76.2
69.2
69.0
72.3
70.2
69.8
69.4
69.1
68.5
69.1
69.5
71.2
70.5
69.9
69.8
71.0
72.5
71.9
71.4
71.0
71.7
66.5
66.1
65.1
66.8
66.7
74.0
72.7
72.9
74.0
74.3
75.4
74.7
75.1
74.8
75.1
70.7
70.6
71.7
72.1
71.9
73.3
73.7
73.1
72.8
71.4
79.9
80.8
78.7
79.3
78.8
90.6
89.0
89.2
88.6
89.3
94.5
94.2
94.8
95.5
95.5
70.2
69.9
69.4
70.0
70.0
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
75.4
76.1
75.3
76.7
77.3
71.7
69.8
71.2
73.4
72.6
70.0
70.2
70.3
70.4
68.5
70.1
70.6
71.1
71.3
69.8
71.0
71.2
71.5
71.4
71.9
66.8
66.7
67.1
67.8
68.4
74.6
74.1
74.5
74.4
75.0
76.1
75.5
76.0
77.4
76.8
72.8
71.5
72.3
72.8
73.0
71.8
69.6
70.8
70.3
71.0
80.3
81.5
77.2
78.8
79.9
84.2
83.1
82.1
84.7
84.7
94.5
94.7
94.1
94.3
93.6
70.0
69.6
70.1
70.5
70.8
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
77.0
77.4
77.0
76.5
76.3
73.3
73.7
73.9
74.1
73.8
67.8
69.6
69.8
69.7
69.5
69.7
71.0
70.5
69.5
69.4
70.5
71.1
70.2
70.7
70.6
68.2
68.0
68.4
68.2
68.1
74.0
75.2
75.2
75.0
74.8
76.0
76.9
76.9
77.0
77.0
73.5
73.4
74.0
74.0
73.9
70.1
70.4
70.3
70.1
69.7
79.2
79.1
77.4
78.0
75.4
84.7
85.1
83.4
82.1
81.8
93.5
93.1
92.7
92.4
92.3
70.4
70.6
70.6
70.6
70.5
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
1980*
-6.9
1.4
3.0
-8.4
-2.0
-0.2
2.1
-1.2
2.1
-1.2
1.1
0.0
2.2
-1.2
1.6
2.8
1.5
-1.3
-1.1
0.1
-2.4
-0.7
1.3
-0.7
-----
1.0
-0.5
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
0.6
5.6
-0.6
0.2
0.8
0.0
3.9
0.3
0.7
-1.8
-1.4
-3.3
0.5
-1.6
-0.5
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.0
0.6
-1.7
-3.3
0.3
0.2
-0.9
0.0
0.8
-0.1
0.4
0.1
-1.3
-0.6
2.4
2.2
-0.5
-3.6
-0.5
-0.3
2.9
-0.7
0.0
-0.1
-1.8
-3.4
-0.2
-0.4
0.0
-0.8
-0.4
0.2
1.3
4.7
0.7
1.4
0.8
0.3
1.4
-0.2
0.3
0.4
-----------
-0.7
-0.6
-0.2
0.0
-0.2
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
0.6
-1.7
-1.3
-1.3
-0.8
-0.2
-0.1
-2.3
-1.3
-1.2
0.8
-0.1
-1.3
-1.8
-2.2
-1.0
-1.7
-0.4
-2.0
-0.2
-0.5
0.2
-1.2
-1.5
-0.7
-0.6
0.4
-0.8
-2.7
-1.4
0.0
-0.8
-0.2
-2.2
-0.7
0.3
-0.9
-0.7
-4.1
-0.6
-0.1
-0.1
0.3
-2.3
-2.6
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.0
0.2
1.4
-0.4
-0.6
-3.3
3.0
1.3
-0.1
1.0
0.8
0.6
-----------
-0.3
0.1
-0.6
-2.0
-1.0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1.0
1.4
0.6
-1.2
2.2
-1.6
1.0
-1.7
0.6
0.7
0.0
-1.4
2.6
-0.9
1.4
2.5
0.5
-3.8
1.3
-0.6
0.2
-0.9
-0.5
1.7
-2.0
-2.5
-0.6
-1.4
0.0
-1.0
-0.9
-1.6
-1.2
0.1
0.9
0.0
0.3
-0.5
1.8
-0.2
-2.0
0.5
-1.2
0.7
0.4
0.6
-0.6
-1.0
-0.8
0.4
-0.5
-6.2
-0.2
1.2
0.3
1.1
-1.4
0.6
0.8
-1.2
-----------
-0.9
-0.6
-1.0
0.4
-0.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
-1.1
0.5
-0.1
-1.6
-1.3
1.2
-0.3
4.8
-3.0
-0.5
-2.2
-0.4
-0.9
0.9
0.5
0.6
-1.0
-0.8
-0.1
1.6
0.4
-0.8
-0.8
-0.5
0.9
0.9
-0.7
-1.4
2.6
-0.2
0.8
-1.7
0.3
1.4
0.4
-0.3
-0.9
0.5
-0.3
0.4
0.3
-0.1
1.5
0.6
-0.2
0.3
0.6
-0.8
-0.5
-1.8
-5.5
1.1
-2.6
0.8
-0.7
0.1
-1.7
0.2
-0.6
0.8
0.9
-0.3
0.6
0.7
0.0
0.4
-0.4
-0.7
0.8
-0.1
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
-1.0
0.9
-1.0
1.8
0.8
2.6
-2.6
2.0
3.0
-1.0
0.8
0.2
0.3
0.1
-2.7
-1.2
0.6
0.8
0.3
-2.2
-1.0
0.3
0.5
-0.1
0.6
0.2
-0.1
0.5
1.1
0.9
0.3
-0.6
0.6
-0.2
0.7
1.3
-0.8
0.7
1.8
-0.8
1.2
-1.7
1.1
0.7
0.2
0.6
-3.0
1.7
-0.7
0.9
1.9
1.5
-5.3
2.1
1.4
-5.7
-1.3
-1.2
3.2
-0.1
-1.0
0.2
-0.7
0.2
-0.7
0.1
-0.6
0.7
0.6
0.5
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
-0.3
0.5
-0.5
-0.7
-0.2
0.9
0.6
0.3
0.3
-0.5
-1.0
2.7
0.3
-0.2
-0.3
-0.2
1.9
-0.7
-1.4
-0.1
-1.9
0.8
-1.3
0.8
-0.1
-0.3
-0.3
0.5
-0.3
-0.1
-1.3
1.6
0.0
-0.3
-0.3
-1.1
1.2
-0.1
0.2
0.0
0.8
-0.2
0.8
0.0
-0.1
-1.2
0.5
-0.1
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-0.1
-2.2
0.8
-3.3
0.0
0.5
-2.0
-1.6
-0.4
-0.1
-0.4
-0.5
-0.3
-0.1
-0.7
0.4
0.0
0.0
-0.2
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
164
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table B.4.1
Provincial/Territorial Government–Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
199.2
219.0
233.5
258.3
297.3
41.5
45.4
50.3
56.4
62.5
266.9
302.7
334.6
370.0
413.1
203.7
242.4
271.7
299.1
336.7
2,531.2
2,972.5
3,269.2
3,661.8
4,088.1
3,143.5
3,612.5
3,929.1
4,229.4
4,565.8
376.7
449.3
497.3
524.9
569.7
302.1
364.1
410.8
445.8
508.5
694.9
811.6
879.1
1,020.5
1,258.2
928.2
1,082.7
1,193.1
1,363.8
1,556.5
6.2
8.8
10.0
11.4
12.4
15.2
19.0
23.4
28.1
27.9
-----------
8,709.3
10,129.9
11,102.0
12,269.4
13,696.6
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
336.8
393.4
461.9
515.7
534.6
72.6
84.1
98.5
109.5
116.5
474.5
572.4
662.7
728.7
800.3
395.1
478.2
579.6
627.2
671.5
4,607.8
5,268.2
6,101.1
6,740.9
7,165.5
5,164.6
6,069.9
7,104.3
8,019.2
8,826.6
652.8
782.9
915.1
1,021.3
1,102.1
604.5
709.8
859.0
965.6
1,022.9
1,510.2
1,871.3
2,426.3
2,769.4
2,843.5
1,932.3
2,374.8
2,720.3
2,932.2
3,074.8
13.6
15.0
22.4
22.8
23.5
29.3
35.5
51.0
57.8
62.0
-----------
15,794.1
18,655.5
22,002.1
24,510.2
26,244.0
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
561.4
611.2
660.0
699.4
751.1
123.0
131.7
142.5
153.7
163.1
867.5
917.0
987.4
1,071.6
1,178.9
710.7
759.2
837.9
900.8
981.2
7,577.2
7,715.3
8,257.9
8,996.9
9,631.6
9,746.8
10,995.1
12,203.4
13,583.0
15,079.3
1,182.6
1,269.6
1,364.8
1,464.7
1,587.0
1,101.3
1,223.4
1,264.5
1,349.3
1,500.2
3,035.1
3,316.8
3,308.1
3,427.8
3,792.9
3,200.6
3,443.3
3,660.8
3,978.3
4,455.9
24.9
27.6
29.4
33.4
36.3
71.9
91.2
105.4
147.1
174.6
-----------
28,202.8
30,501.5
32,821.9
35,806.2
39,332.1
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
836.0
861.0
881.0
880.9
902.6
173.7
189.6
196.2
205.2
200.4
1,263.6
1,333.8
1,356.8
1,322.9
1,280.1
1,057.2
1,102.1
1,142.4
1,154.7
1,189.3
10,317.0
11,360.9
11,721.3
11,860.6
12,055.6
16,195.9
17,951.3
18,810.3
18,618.2
18,753.5
1,742.8
1,788.7
1,867.8
1,856.8
1,861.9
1,636.4
1,658.2
1,635.9
1,539.4
1,560.5
4,043.8
4,241.0
4,506.3
4,452.2
4,103.5
5,043.6
5,578.3
6,060.7
6,424.1
6,740.9
38.6
45.6
49.1
58.1
71.5
187.9
213.9
213.6
218.4
214.0
-----------
42,536.3
46,324.4
48,441.6
48,591.6
48,933.8
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
925.5
926.0
968.2
1,050.3
1,190.4
203.2
213.2
213.9
228.8
240.8
1,302.6
1,317.7
1,552.0
1,656.5
1,749.7
1,235.2
1,234.4
1,213.9
1,269.5
1,369.8
12,171.3
11,954.6
12,165.9
13,129.0
13,506.9
18,549.6
18,696.5
19,065.6
20,121.8
21,592.8
1,903.4
1,922.8
1,976.6
2,102.8
2,395.3
1,595.6
1,637.4
1,749.2
1,855.2
1,995.4
3,904.8
4,091.3
4,527.6
4,896.0
5,641.1
7,007.1
7,186.1
7,434.9
7,758.4
8,390.8
68.7
67.6
69.6
74.2
78.4
220.6
200.8
212.8
232.3
166.8
--------115.4
49,087.4
49,448.4
51,150.2
54,374.7
58,433.7
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
1,246.8
1,333.7
1,423.3
1,498.1
1,538.7
258.2
305.1
344.4
354.5
347.8
1,788.1
1,885.1
2,061.4
2,271.0
2,361.6
1,466.6
1,595.4
1,678.9
1,793.0
1,952.4
14,488.2
15,520.7
16,344.6
17,146.0
18,206.8
23,941.2
25,257.5
27,252.2
30,380.5
32,673.3
2,630.8
2,794.1
2,964.4
3,220.5
3,436.4
2,092.9
2,266.4
2,391.8
2,533.5
2,733.7
6,214.9
7,033.8
7,730.9
8,287.0
9,110.3
9,164.8
10,118.4
10,763.6
11,185.5
11,434.5
83.8
96.9
102.1
103.8
113.3
152.1
170.8
191.2
191.3
211.1
136.3
146.0
170.3
235.8
243.9
63,664.9
68,524.0
73,419.1
79,200.3
84,363.7
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
1,590.9
1,690.8
1,832.5
1,990.1
2,203.6
371.3
385.7
414.2
453.7
512.8
2,576.9
2,855.0
3,064.9
3,242.7
3,312.7
2,131.6
2,345.6
2,463.4
2,626.0
2,782.1
19,146.9
20,526.9
21,904.1
23,431.9
25,160.6
34,935.5
37,082.2
39,827.8
42,641.6
45,460.5
3,698.2
3,906.6
4,115.1
4,427.9
4,811.2
2,986.5
3,192.7
3,434.7
3,744.5
3,976.6
10,197.5
11,258.7
12,377.8
13,811.8
14,584.9
12,168.9
12,690.0
13,421.9
14,612.2
15,149.5
122.7
139.2
141.8
154.3
180.9
217.3
226.9
252.5
278.5
290.7
224.2
254.9
263.8
268.7
296.1
90,368.4
96,555.0
103,514.5
111,683.9
118,722.2
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
2,438.1
2,595.8
2,684.5
2,645.1
2,673.5
560.9
625.1
611.6
622.0
627.7
3,625.6
3,862.7
3,912.8
3,982.9
4,090.0
2,926.7
3,100.0
3,078.2
3,051.5
3,098.4
26,284.1
27,468.6
28,084.8
29,479.3
30,069.5
47,602.6
48,880.4
50,076.7
50,792.0
51,597.7
5,024.1
5,249.8
5,542.2
5,594.6
5,656.5
4,264.8
4,561.8
4,690.2
4,928.7
5,000.8
16,504.3
16,950.0
17,839.4
18,530.3
19,272.9
15,955.8
16,560.0
17,233.6
17,524.3
17,721.1
187.7
206.9
215.0
247.0
237.8
287.6
318.3
320.7
347.4
352.2
315.1
343.4
365.4
389.8
374.3
125,977.2
130,722.8
134,655.0
138,134.8
140,772.4
1976*
1980*
9.9
13.3
9.4
16.1
13.4
14.9
19.0
17.3
17.4
12.7
14.9
13.1
19.3
14.6
20.5
18.9
16.8
20.0
16.6
24.1
42.9
10.0
24.3
4.9
-----
16.3
15.3
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
5.0
8.9
8.0
6.0
7.4
5.5
7.1
8.2
7.9
6.1
8.4
5.7
7.7
8.5
10.0
5.8
6.8
10.4
7.5
8.9
5.7
1.8
7.0
8.9
7.1
10.4
12.8
11.0
11.3
11.0
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.3
8.3
7.7
11.1
3.4
6.7
11.2
6.7
9.3
-0.3
3.6
10.7
4.1
7.6
6.3
8.7
12.0
5.7
10.9
6.6
13.8
8.5
16.0
26.9
15.7
39.5
18.7
-----------
7.5
8.2
7.6
9.1
9.8
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
11.3
3.0
2.3
0.0
2.5
6.5
9.2
3.5
4.6
-2.3
7.2
5.6
1.7
-2.5
-3.2
7.7
4.2
3.7
1.1
3.0
7.1
10.1
3.2
1.2
1.6
7.4
10.8
4.8
-1.0
0.7
9.8
2.6
4.4
-0.6
0.3
9.1
1.3
-1.3
-5.9
1.4
6.6
4.9
6.3
-1.2
-7.8
13.2
10.6
8.6
6.0
4.9
6.6
18.1
7.6
18.3
23.0
7.6
13.8
-0.1
2.2
-2.0
-----------
8.1
8.9
4.6
0.3
0.7
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2.5
0.1
4.6
8.5
13.3
1.4
4.9
0.3
7.0
5.2
1.8
1.2
17.8
6.7
5.6
3.9
-0.1
-1.7
4.6
7.9
1.0
-1.8
1.8
7.9
2.9
-1.1
0.8
2.0
5.5
7.3
2.2
1.0
2.8
6.4
13.9
2.2
2.6
6.8
6.1
7.6
-4.8
4.8
10.7
8.1
15.2
3.9
2.6
3.5
4.3
8.2
-3.8
-1.7
2.9
6.6
5.8
3.1
-9.0
6.0
9.1
-28.2
-----------
0.3
0.7
3.4
6.3
7.5
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
4.7
7.0
6.7
5.3
2.7
7.2
18.2
12.9
2.9
-1.9
2.2
5.4
9.4
10.2
4.0
7.1
8.8
5.2
6.8
8.9
7.3
7.1
5.3
4.9
6.2
10.9
5.5
7.9
11.5
7.5
9.8
6.2
6.1
8.6
6.7
4.9
8.3
5.5
5.9
7.9
10.2
13.2
9.9
7.2
9.9
9.2
10.4
6.4
3.9
2.2
6.9
15.6
5.4
1.7
9.1
-8.8
12.2
12.0
0.0
10.4
18.1
7.1
16.6
38.5
3.5
9.0
7.6
7.1
7.9
6.5
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
3.4
6.3
8.4
8.6
10.7
6.8
3.9
7.4
9.5
13.0
9.1
10.8
7.3
5.8
2.2
9.2
10.0
5.0
6.6
5.9
5.2
7.2
6.7
7.0
7.4
6.9
6.1
7.4
7.1
6.6
7.6
5.6
5.3
7.6
8.7
9.3
6.9
7.6
9.0
6.2
11.9
10.4
9.9
11.6
5.6
6.4
4.3
5.8
8.9
3.7
8.3
13.5
1.8
8.9
17.2
2.9
4.4
11.3
10.3
4.4
-8.1
13.7
3.5
1.9
10.2
7.1
6.8
7.2
7.9
6.3
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
10.6
6.5
3.4
-1.5
1.1
9.4
11.4
-2.2
1.7
0.9
9.4
6.5
1.3
1.8
2.7
5.2
5.9
-0.7
-0.9
1.5
4.5
4.5
2.2
5.0
2.0
4.7
2.7
2.4
1.4
1.6
4.4
4.5
5.6
0.9
1.1
7.2
7.0
2.8
5.1
1.5
13.2
2.7
5.2
3.9
4.0
5.3
3.8
4.1
1.7
1.1
3.8
10.2
3.9
14.9
-3.7
-1.1
10.7
0.8
8.3
1.4
6.4
9.0
6.4
6.7
-4.0
6.1
3.8
3.0
2.6
1.9
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
165
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table B.4.2
Provincial/Territorial Government–Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
357.93
389.23
413.02
454.97
521.39
352.59
382.69
419.05
463.11
508.31
322.89
362.38
398.43
438.08
486.44
300.87
351.60
390.52
427.54
478.79
399.86
464.68
508.29
568.59
632.20
377.83
429.35
461.94
492.26
527.07
367.52
435.49
479.07
504.13
549.20
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
587.97
684.49
803.88
889.85
921.49
586.87
679.49
795.18
872.94
920.16
556.32
669.77
770.56
838.34
912.44
559.50
677.01
818.37
876.77
931.38
708.13
804.58
927.32
1,020.99
1,080.57
590.56
688.88
796.24
886.91
962.36
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
969.11
1,060.19
1,147.48
1,216.34
1,303.10
963.16
1,025.64
1,108.04
1,189.24
1,254.08
980.11
1,031.12
1,105.10
1,194.19
1,304.30
982.04
1,046.94
1,151.22
1,233.44
1,334.56
1,136.74
1,150.09
1,217.52
1,315.53
1,390.10
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1,446.22
1,485.76
1,518.94
1,518.87
1,571.25
1,330.38
1,455.09
1,500.45
1,553.24
1,502.41
1,389.08
1,457.56
1,475.44
1,431.70
1,381.01
1,428.37
1,478.27
1,527.08
1,542.11
1,585.29
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1,630.96
1,654.16
1,757.15
1,945.16
2,231.77
1,511.50
1,570.44
1,571.56
1,684.76
1,766.59
1,403.36
1,414.75
1,664.36
1,777.59
1,873.69
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2,361.22
2,555.02
2,739.98
2,889.64
2,974.49
1,891.94
2,232.30
2,515.13
2,581.16
2,522.54
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
3,094.32
3,311.47
3,599.96
3,890.47
4,264.50
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
Canada
Average
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
329.31
390.81
434.77
468.37
529.91
384.21
434.15
451.35
504.73
599.83
371.34
427.31
464.30
521.74
584.48
281.70
392.62
437.49
480.31
515.50
355.89
427.62
523.77
619.68
610.55
-----------
376.32
431.98
467.93
512.01
565.93
630.94
755.38
874.17
962.48
1,028.22
624.90
727.33
870.10
963.78
1,007.33
688.82
815.66
1,024.50
1,158.55
1,189.68
704.40
840.95
946.88
1,009.21
1,043.87
559.22
628.28
915.40
965.33
983.04
632.58
746.47
1,030.57
1,132.08
1,178.74
-----------
644.23
751.62
875.97
966.22
1,024.85
1,048.32
1,164.97
1,265.35
1,380.08
1,491.89
1,092.73
1,163.01
1,242.92
1,329.10
1,438.04
1,073.93
1,188.64
1,224.38
1,312.55
1,471.92
1,263.05
1,364.43
1,358.38
1,396.57
1,520.06
1,076.10
1,146.18
1,200.20
1,276.99
1,393.40
1,020.22
1,125.67
1,142.60
1,255.80
1,337.46
1,320.82
1,666.65
1,915.62
2,641.91
3,061.59
-----------
1,091.32
1,168.59
1,240.96
1,336.28
1,441.70
1,473.04
1,608.15
1,649.04
1,657.60
1,676.27
1,572.74
1,721.43
1,779.63
1,741.91
1,733.51
1,576.21
1,612.05
1,678.64
1,661.38
1,657.61
1,624.80
1,653.75
1,629.49
1,528.88
1,545.80
1,587.56
1,635.78
1,711.51
1,669.10
1,519.44
1,532.63
1,653.57
1,747.40
1,800.79
1,833.90
1,391.27
1,578.60
1,630.67
1,913.85
2,406.47
3,189.46
3,510.43
3,423.11
3,437.35
3,284.08
-----------
1,535.74
1,652.59
1,707.69
1,694.16
1,687.42
1,644.78
1,640.82
1,613.06
1,691.40
1,824.87
1,685.90
1,649.61
1,672.38
1,799.49
1,844.37
1,694.03
1,686.95
1,698.00
1,770.20
1,876.60
1,685.66
1,695.29
1,739.72
1,848.60
2,096.54
1,573.35
1,606.75
1,718.15
1,823.25
1,966.46
1,427.96
1,474.25
1,599.84
1,688.58
1,910.13
1,855.19
1,854.82
1,882.96
1,947.83
2,091.76
2,257.88
2,154.16
2,187.86
2,381.31
2,548.64
3,313.42
2,972.33
3,141.80
3,456.79
4,103.00
--------4,303.32
1,675.21
1,669.94
1,710.29
1,803.05
1,921.92
1,914.73
2,021.76
2,205.82
2,424.96
2,517.84
1,954.06
2,127.56
2,237.56
2,386.73
2,596.12
1,969.30
2,098.24
2,195.17
2,287.75
2,411.82
2,048.82
2,122.90
2,251.87
2,477.50
2,630.64
2,292.92
2,426.92
2,565.29
2,771.76
2,935.66
2,076.82
2,266.09
2,401.67
2,546.87
2,747.68
2,068.22
2,301.09
2,480.77
2,621.32
2,839.73
2,268.96
2,480.95
2,615.43
2,691.83
2,720.03
2,756.05
3,216.74
3,389.07
3,396.58
3,669.06
3,756.67
4,183.20
4,608.66
4,529.92
4,930.13
4,957.08
5,192.98
5,924.44
8,083.36
8,232.34
2,074.52
2,208.94
2,340.23
2,500.32
2,636.76
2,686.79
2,797.34
3,007.74
3,269.87
3,665.12
2,753.10
3,044.18
3,277.67
3,464.91
3,530.91
2,837.18
3,145.84
3,304.81
3,516.01
3,709.64
2,519.99
2,689.62
2,847.38
3,018.99
3,207.84
2,780.28
2,928.72
3,120.27
3,310.01
3,497.58
3,149.72
3,300.78
3,459.93
3,696.74
3,980.85
3,016.57
3,217.44
3,427.71
3,680.65
3,842.97
3,108.31
3,290.70
3,522.39
3,841.15
3,964.27
2,856.38
2,991.73
3,127.93
3,359.57
3,434.73
3,950.29
4,313.19
4,354.18
4,664.76
5,361.90
5,085.46
5,254.63
5,820.81
6,424.72
6,738.11
7,468.92
8,274.16
8,403.32
8,426.27
9,084.35
2,796.74
2,964.49
3,147.49
3,359.34
3,530.40
4,670.86
4,943.96
5,095.49
5,022.01
5,087.08
3,958.88
4,339.86
4,213.02
4,282.77
4,306.78
3,848.51
4,089.80
4,140.29
4,233.56
4,344.62
3,886.44
4,103.02
4,066.36
4,036.11
4,094.37
3,314.77
3,430.29
3,474.09
3,614.72
3,660.35
3,624.09
3,685.32
3,733.72
3,751.81
3,767.96
4,115.00
4,255.23
4,433.62
4,422.58
4,429.57
4,056.26
4,277.98
4,312.60
4,447.04
4,460.76
4,421.68
4,472.06
4,587.46
4,603.71
4,698.70
3,572.78
3,680.70
3,793.17
3,824.62
3,807.01
5,425.69
5,844.84
5,932.51
6,729.83
6,407.27
6,644.98
7,318.07
7,352.93
7,979.49
8,017.84
9,446.79
10,042.32
10,528.76
10,951.94
10,392.73
3,704.64
3,806.41
3,874.48
3,928.94
3,959.86
1976*
1980*
8.7
12.8
8.5
15.5
12.2
14.4
16.9
16.9
16.2
12.0
13.6
12.0
18.5
14.9
18.7
17.9
13.0
14.8
15.1
20.5
39.4
8.5
20.2
3.6
-----
14.8
13.8
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
5.2
9.4
8.2
6.0
7.1
4.7
6.5
8.0
7.3
5.5
7.4
5.2
7.2
8.1
9.2
5.4
6.6
10.0
7.1
8.2
5.2
1.2
5.9
8.0
5.7
8.9
11.1
8.6
9.1
8.1
6.3
6.4
6.9
6.9
8.2
6.6
10.7
3.0
7.2
12.1
6.2
8.0
-0.4
2.8
8.8
3.1
6.5
4.7
6.4
9.1
3.8
10.3
1.5
9.9
6.5
12.1
26.2
14.9
37.9
15.9
-----------
6.5
7.1
6.2
7.7
7.9
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
11.0
2.7
2.2
0.0
3.4
6.1
9.4
3.1
3.5
-3.3
6.5
4.9
1.2
-3.0
-3.5
7.0
3.5
3.3
1.0
2.8
6.0
9.2
2.5
0.5
1.1
5.4
9.5
3.4
-2.1
-0.5
9.6
2.3
4.1
-1.0
-0.2
10.4
1.8
-1.5
-6.2
1.1
4.4
3.0
4.6
-2.5
-9.0
10.0
7.9
5.7
3.1
1.8
4.0
13.5
3.3
17.4
25.7
4.2
10.1
-2.5
0.4
-4.5
-----------
6.5
7.6
3.3
-0.8
-0.4
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
3.8
1.4
6.2
10.7
14.7
0.6
3.9
0.1
7.2
4.9
1.6
0.8
17.6
6.8
5.4
3.8
-0.2
-1.7
4.9
7.9
0.6
-2.2
1.4
7.6
2.5
-2.3
-0.4
0.7
4.3
6.0
1.7
0.6
2.6
6.3
13.4
1.8
2.1
6.9
6.1
7.9
-6.0
3.2
8.5
5.5
13.1
1.2
0.0
1.5
3.4
7.4
-6.2
-4.6
1.6
8.8
7.0
0.9
-10.3
5.7
10.0
18.7
-----------
-0.7
-0.3
2.4
5.4
6.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
5.8
8.2
7.2
5.5
2.9
7.1
18.0
12.7
2.6
-2.3
2.2
5.6
9.1
9.9
3.8
7.1
8.9
5.2
6.7
8.8
6.8
6.5
4.6
4.2
5.4
9.2
3.6
6.1
10.0
6.2
9.4
5.8
5.7
8.0
5.9
5.6
9.1
6.0
6.0
7.9
8.3
11.3
7.8
5.7
8.3
8.5
9.3
5.4
2.9
1.0
8.1
16.7
5.4
0.2
8.0
-8.4
11.4
10.2
-1.7
8.8
15.2
4.8
14.1
36.4
1.8
7.9
6.5
5.9
6.8
5.5
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
4.0
7.0
8.7
8.1
9.6
6.5
4.1
7.5
8.7
12.1
9.3
10.6
7.7
5.7
1.9
9.3
10.9
5.1
6.4
5.5
4.5
6.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
5.7
5.3
6.5
6.1
5.7
7.3
4.8
4.8
6.8
7.7
9.8
6.7
6.5
7.4
4.4
9.5
5.9
7.0
9.0
3.2
5.0
4.7
4.6
7.4
2.2
7.7
9.2
1.0
7.1
14.9
3.2
3.3
10.8
10.4
4.9
-9.3
10.8
1.6
0.3
7.8
6.1
6.0
6.2
6.7
5.1
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
9.5
5.8
3.1
-1.4
1.3
8.0
9.6
-2.9
1.7
0.6
9.0
6.3
1.2
2.3
2.6
4.8
5.6
-0.9
-0.7
1.4
3.3
3.5
1.3
4.0
1.3
3.6
1.7
1.3
0.5
0.4
3.4
3.4
4.2
-0.2
0.2
5.6
5.5
0.8
3.1
0.3
11.5
1.1
2.6
0.4
2.1
4.0
3.0
3.1
0.8
-0.5
1.2
7.7
1.5
13.4
-4.8
-1.4
10.1
0.5
8.5
0.5
4.0
6.3
4.8
4.0
-5.1
4.9
2.7
1.8
1.4
0.8
Year
Sask.
($’ per capita)
(annual percentage change)*
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
166
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table B.4.3
Provincial/Territorial Government–Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of
Total Health Expenditure by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2014—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
Average
(percentage)
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
75.3
70.0
64.3
62.6
62.8
70.2
72.2
73.2
70.9
64.7
69.8
68.4
71.3
72.2
72.1
73.4
75.3
75.7
73.9
71.6
74.9
76.7
77.8
78.5
79.4
71.1
71.7
71.1
69.7
67.9
69.0
71.4
70.4
70.1
69.2
68.5
70.0
69.9
71.6
72.3
70.0
70.0
69.1
69.6
70.6
67.1
66.5
65.1
66.7
68.0
38.8
48.8
54.0
53.4
51.7
43.5
48.5
47.4
49.7
47.4
-----------
71.4
72.1
71.9
71.7
71.4
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
63.7
63.3
65.9
66.7
71.1
59.4
61.7
64.6
66.6
68.1
72.2
72.6
72.1
72.5
71.1
70.2
70.2
70.7
70.1
68.9
78.3
76.5
77.3
77.7
76.9
67.7
68.2
68.0
67.7
67.5
67.2
67.9
68.7
69.1
69.2
74.1
74.8
76.0
76.8
74.6
70.1
71.3
72.4
76.5
75.5
67.1
69.2
70.3
70.6
69.4
52.1
53.3
60.3
59.9
62.0
48.0
48.1
46.2
46.8
49.3
-----------
70.8
71.0
71.5
72.0
71.4
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
71.4
75.2
74.9
75.1
75.7
67.9
70.2
70.2
70.0
68.2
70.4
66.6
63.3
67.6
67.3
69.3
69.6
70.2
69.8
70.1
75.5
73.2
73.3
73.3
72.5
67.5
68.3
68.3
68.5
68.6
68.5
67.2
68.9
70.8
70.3
72.0
71.8
71.5
73.4
73.1
74.6
74.6
73.5
71.0
70.9
69.0
69.1
68.5
68.1
68.5
62.6
64.7
65.6
73.0
73.2
51.9
54.6
58.2
69.7
75.0
-----------
70.8
70.4
70.1
70.3
70.1
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
76.2
74.7
73.6
72.9
72.3
67.8
67.6
66.5
65.8
63.9
67.7
67.7
66.8
65.3
63.3
68.9
67.6
67.2
66.4
66.3
71.8
72.0
71.1
70.1
69.4
68.1
68.5
68.2
66.3
65.2
70.1
69.4
69.1
67.5
66.4
72.7
71.5
70.4
66.9
65.4
70.3
70.0
70.1
68.3
65.0
68.4
68.6
69.1
69.1
69.0
72.1
72.9
72.7
72.5
76.0
76.1
76.5
76.4
76.1
74.7
-----------
69.6
69.7
69.3
67.9
66.9
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
72.9
73.9
74.2
73.3
75.2
62.0
62.9
62.9
63.3
63.6
63.2
63.1
65.6
64.9
65.3
67.9
68.1
65.4
66.0
66.0
69.5
68.9
67.5
68.5
67.0
63.3
63.0
61.9
60.7
60.9
65.3
64.7
63.7
64.0
64.7
65.3
65.8
65.9
66.8
67.0
64.1
64.7
63.9
64.3
64.8
69.3
69.2
68.6
68.0
68.3
71.8
61.3
67.3
71.2
71.8
74.8
72.3
73.6
75.0
74.8
--------80.9
66.1
65.9
65.0
64.7
64.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
73.9
74.0
73.9
72.7
72.0
64.3
64.1
68.1
65.5
64.6
63.0
62.6
62.3
63.2
63.5
66.1
64.6
64.2
64.3
65.5
66.8
65.8
65.5
64.8
65.4
61.3
60.4
60.0
61.3
61.4
64.7
63.8
64.3
65.4
65.6
66.2
65.6
66.0
65.4
66.2
64.7
64.2
65.6
65.6
65.9
68.3
68.9
68.7
68.2
66.8
68.1
67.9
65.7
66.4
67.6
73.0
71.2
72.0
72.6
74.3
80.9
79.2
79.2
80.6
79.2
64.6
63.9
63.8
64.1
64.1
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
71.1
72.1
71.6
72.7
73.6
64.5
62.0
63.3
65.2
65.1
64.0
63.9
64.3
64.7
62.7
64.7
65.5
66.2
65.9
64.6
64.9
65.0
65.3
65.3
65.7
61.8
61.7
62.3
62.9
63.4
65.8
65.4
65.5
65.6
65.9
67.5
67.0
67.4
68.8
68.1
67.2
66.3
67.0
67.7
67.7
67.2
65.3
66.2
65.5
65.9
66.2
65.2
62.4
65.0
64.9
68.2
65.9
65.6
68.5
66.1
73.6
76.0
74.4
73.0
75.7
64.4
64.1
64.6
64.9
65.2
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
73.8
74.2
74.0
73.4
73.2
66.2
66.9
66.6
66.7
66.5
62.5
64.3
64.4
64.4
64.3
64.9
66.3
65.7
64.7
64.6
64.8
65.5
64.6
65.3
65.2
63.6
63.7
64.1
64.0
63.9
65.4
66.4
66.5
66.7
66.2
67.8
68.7
68.6
69.2
68.9
68.9
68.7
69.2
69.4
69.3
65.3
65.7
65.6
65.3
64.9
65.0
65.9
64.5
67.0
63.8
66.5
68.1
66.5
67.0
65.9
78.5
79.2
79.2
80.2
79.0
65.2
65.6
65.5
65.7
65.5
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
1980*
-7.0
1.5
3.0
-8.3
-1.9
0.1
2.6
-1.9
2.4
-1.4
0.8
-0.3
3.5
-2.9
2.2
2.5
0.0
-0.7
-0.9
-1.3
25.9
0.9
11.7
1.3
-----
1.0
-0.9
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
0.5
5.3
-0.5
0.4
0.8
-0.4
3.5
0.0
-0.2
-2.7
-1.0
-5.4
-5.0
6.8
-0.5
0.6
0.5
0.9
-0.6
0.5
-1.8
-3.1
0.1
0.0
-1.1
0.1
1.2
0.0
0.3
0.1
-1.1
-1.9
2.6
2.7
-0.7
-3.4
-0.3
-0.4
2.7
-0.5
-1.3
0.0
-1.4
-3.5
-0.1
-0.6
0.1
-0.8
-0.6
0.5
0.9
3.4
1.4
11.2
0.3
5.3
5.3
6.5
19.8
7.6
-----------
-0.9
-0.6
-0.3
0.2
-0.2
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
0.7
-2.1
-1.5
-1.0
-0.8
-0.5
-0.3
-1.5
-1.0
-2.9
0.6
0.0
-1.4
-2.2
-3.2
-1.6
-1.9
-0.6
-1.2
-0.1
-1.0
0.3
-1.2
-1.5
-1.0
-0.8
0.7
-0.5
-2.8
-1.6
-0.2
-1.0
-0.4
-2.3
-1.7
-0.6
-1.6
-1.6
-4.9
-2.2
-0.8
-0.5
0.2
-2.6
-4.8
-0.1
0.4
0.7
0.0
-0.2
-1.5
1.1
-0.3
-0.3
4.8
1.6
0.5
-0.2
-0.4
-1.8
-----------
-0.7
0.1
-0.5
-2.0
-1.6
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
0.9
1.3
0.4
-1.2
2.6
-2.9
1.3
0.0
0.7
0.4
-0.1
-0.2
4.1
-1.2
0.7
2.4
0.2
-4.0
0.9
0.0
0.1
-0.8
-2.0
1.5
-2.3
-2.9
-0.6
-1.7
-1.9
0.3
-1.6
-0.9
-1.5
0.4
1.2
-0.1
0.7
0.1
1.4
0.4
-1.4
1.0
-1.2
0.5
0.9
0.4
-0.1
-0.9
-1.0
0.5
-5.6
-14.5
9.8
5.8
0.8
0.1
-3.3
1.8
1.8
-0.2
-----------
-1.1
-0.4
-1.4
-0.4
-0.1
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
-1.7
0.1
-0.1
-1.7
-0.9
1.2
-0.4
6.3
-3.9
-1.4
-3.5
-0.8
-0.4
1.3
0.5
0.2
-2.2
-0.7
0.2
1.9
-0.2
-1.5
-0.4
-1.1
1.0
0.6
-1.4
-0.7
2.1
0.1
0.0
-1.5
0.9
1.6
0.4
-1.2
-1.0
0.7
-0.9
1.3
-0.2
-0.9
2.2
0.1
0.4
0.0
0.9
-0.3
-0.7
-2.1
-5.2
-0.3
-3.3
1.1
1.8
-2.4
-2.5
1.1
0.9
2.3
0.0
-2.1
0.0
1.7
-1.7
0.0
-1.0
-0.2
0.4
0.1
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
-1.1
1.3
-0.7
1.6
1.2
-0.2
-3.8
2.1
3.0
-0.2
0.9
-0.2
0.7
0.5
-3.0
-1.2
1.2
1.0
-0.4
-2.0
-0.8
0.2
0.5
-0.1
0.7
0.7
-0.1
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.3
-0.7
0.2
0.2
0.4
2.0
-0.9
0.6
2.1
-1.0
2.1
-1.4
1.1
1.1
0.0
0.7
-2.9
1.4
-1.0
0.6
-2.1
-1.5
-4.4
4.3
-0.2
-8.2
-3.3
-0.5
4.4
-3.5
-7.1
3.3
-2.1
-1.9
3.8
0.4
-0.6
0.8
0.5
0.4
2010
2011
2012
2013 f
2014 f
0.3
0.6
-0.4
-0.8
-0.3
1.7
1.1
-0.4
0.2
-0.3
-0.4
2.9
0.2
0.0
-0.2
0.4
2.2
-0.9
-1.6
-0.1
-1.4
1.1
-1.4
1.0
-0.2
0.4
0.1
0.5
-0.2
0.0
-0.8
1.6
0.1
0.4
-0.8
-0.5
1.4
-0.2
0.9
-0.4
1.7
-0.3
0.8
0.2
-0.1
-1.0
0.6
-0.2
-0.3
-0.6
0.2
1.4
-2.1
3.8
-4.8
0.6
2.4
-2.4
0.8
-1.6
3.6
0.8
0.1
1.2
-1.6
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.2
-0.2
Notes
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979 and 1981 to 1984.
f: Forecast.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
167
Series E
Provincial/Territorial Government
Health Expenditure, by Age and
Sex, by Province/Territory and
Canada (Selected Tables)
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table E.1.1
Estimate of Total Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditures, by Age and Sex,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2012—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
Age Groups
<1
1–4
5–9
10–14
15–19
20–24
25–29
30–34
35–39
40–44
45–49
50–54
55–59
60–64
65–69
70–74
75–79
80–84
85–89
90+
Total
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
Both Sexes
51.4
37.2
44.4
48.1
61.6
72.4
80.7
89.7
95.0
106.6
135.9
165.9
198.2
222.7
243.6
226.9
232.8
227.6
210.6
133.1
13.0
8.1
14.1
28.3
15.7
17.1
18.2
18.9
18.6
22.0
26.9
32.8
36.6
43.2
49.3
48.3
55.4
59.6
47.8
37.6
97.0
59.1
57.9
62.6
90.3
110.1
116.4
126.6
117.4
132.9
183.0
232.1
260.4
287.0
331.3
350.7
338.2
361.3
343.8
254.8
58.3
37.6
58.3
48.5
66.7
79.9
89.4
93.8
98.1
106.8
141.5
180.1
209.7
241.6
268.4
269.3
281.2
293.2
265.6
190.3
703.2
514.3
484.7
438.6
616.7
768.6
959.3
1,096.5
954.7
936.2
1,262.5
1,601.9
1,806.3
2,022.6
2,337.7
2,297.0
2,434.0
2,711.7
2,604.1
1,534.3
1,512.0
830.7
843.6
923.5
1,298.6
1,442.3
1,783.0
2,019.0
1,920.1
2,030.6
2,569.1
3,068.4
3,234.6
3,502.3
3,990.5
3,912.7
4,163.7
4,429.3
4,124.2
2,478.6
155.2
112.4
108.0
140.9
172.4
203.7
220.2
221.0
212.2
226.9
275.5
327.3
360.7
382.2
376.5
365.5
404.2
464.3
457.8
355.3
2,684.5
611.6
3,912.8
3,078.2
28,084.8
50,076.7
5,542.2
146.2
105.1
98.0
106.6
151.4
181.0
212.4
199.9
177.5
196.7
229.4
279.0
307.6
311.5
314.1
316.3
352.3
370.8
369.9
264.5
739.8
385.0
363.0
377.7
533.3
644.3
844.1
882.2
764.4
784.6
924.0
1,092.3
1,209.7
1,185.1
1,246.7
1,190.2
1,271.9
1,368.2
1,221.8
811.1
441.5
286.5
324.5
362.3
521.0
618.3
736.7
796.6
740.7
810.2
945.6
1,131.2
1,215.4
1,314.7
1,299.5
1,226.9
1,282.3
1,314.1
1,125.9
739.8
4.2
7.3
6.5
6.2
8.3
10.3
11.1
11.0
11.3
11.9
13.2
15.8
14.3
14.7
12.3
13.1
12.2
12.2
12.1
7.1
13.1
13.6
9.6
8.9
16.3
20.0
22.7
20.4
18.1
17.9
18.5
20.5
17.3
18.5
13.0
16.0
16.3
16.0
16.2
8.0
23.8
25.1
18.1
16.4
25.3
30.7
30.5
24.7
21.0
20.4
21.8
22.5
18.9
20.8
11.3
12.6
9.2
5.8
4.6
1.7
3,958.7
2,421.9
2,430.4
2,568.6
3,577.7
4,198.7
5,124.5
5,600.3
5,149.2
5,403.7
6,746.9
8,169.9
8,889.7
9,566.8
10,494.3
10,245.5
10,853.7
11,634.1
10,804.5
6,816.0
4,690.2
17,839.4
17,233.6
215.0
320.7
365.4
134,655.0
67.7
49.5
47.0
51.4
81.1
105.3
133.5
125.0
99.6
94.8
118.3
137.5
146.3
146.7
150.7
155.5
187.2
211.8
219.3
183.0
330.4
181.8
171.0
183.1
277.9
371.9
535.5
567.8
449.6
413.8
473.9
545.1
570.0
572.5
595.2
594.0
654.2
771.5
782.1
596.8
200.3
135.4
152.9
176.7
263.6
333.7
442.4
496.7
431.8
433.6
488.0
566.7
590.7
614.4
609.6
585.2
625.8
701.1
695.3
514.2
2.1
4.6
3.3
3.1
4.6
5.9
6.7
6.9
6.7
6.7
6.9
7.5
6.8
6.3
5.2
5.8
6.8
6.9
8.1
5.8
6.5
8.5
5.0
4.5
9.5
12.1
14.6
13.1
10.6
10.0
9.4
9.8
7.7
6.8
5.5
6.7
8.0
7.8
10.7
4.8
11.2
15.5
9.2
8.0
14.2
17.0
17.8
14.7
11.7
11.0
9.5
9.8
8.2
8.5
5.3
4.7
4.3
2.8
2.8
1.0
1,803.2
1,145.3
1,136.9
1,250.6
1,876.5
2,390.8
3,241.3
3,637.0
3,084.6
2,921.8
3,483.4
4,101.4
4,315.3
4,559.4
4,984.3
5,039.5
5,607.0
6,628.0
7,043.9
5,024.9
2,511.1
9,638.1
9,058.0
116.4
171.5
187.0
73,275.1
Female
<1
1–4
5–9
10–14
15–19
20–24
25–29
30–34
35–39
40–44
45–49
50–54
55–59
60–64
65–69
70–74
75–79
80–84
85–89
90+
Total
24.2
17.6
20.6
24.7
32.5
41.9
50.1
55.5
54.5
60.8
77.6
87.0
94.8
105.2
113.3
107.8
121.4
136.2
146.9
102.6
5.9
3.8
4.5
5.4
8.2
10.0
11.4
12.1
10.5
11.7
14.5
15.8
18.2
21.4
23.6
23.6
28.0
35.5
31.8
27.8
44.3
27.9
27.5
30.7
48.6
64.8
74.7
82.8
72.1
73.1
98.0
117.1
128.0
137.0
160.1
185.8
175.7
213.9
238.2
199.9
28.5
18.0
18.4
23.5
36.4
47.8
57.7
60.5
57.4
59.5
74.7
93.6
101.4
118.7
128.9
129.7
150.9
169.8
178.0
140.5
328.3
239.1
229.2
211.5
325.8
435.0
611.4
699.8
561.9
499.3
637.1
798.8
878.4
964.7
1,113.3
1,131.6
1,287.2
1,598.9
1,745.7
1,172.7
686.3
388.5
397.2
449.7
682.3
831.1
1,153.0
1,364.2
1,196.0
1,129.9
1,333.8
1,552.2
1,589.0
1,673.9
1,895.1
1,927.8
2,148.1
2,499.9
2,685.0
1,809.9
67.6
55.0
51.2
78.6
91.8
114.3
132.5
137.8
122.3
117.6
141.8
160.4
175.8
183.4
178.8
181.4
209.5
271.9
300.1
265.9
1,475.3
323.7
2,200.1
1,693.7
15,469.6
27,392.9
3,037.6
Male
<1
1–4
5–9
10–14
15–19
20–24
25–29
30–34
35–39
40–44
45–49
50–54
55–59
60–64
65–69
70–74
75–79
80–84
85–89
90+
Total
27.2
19.6
23.8
23.4
29.1
30.4
30.6
34.2
40.5
45.8
58.4
78.9
103.4
117.5
130.3
119.1
111.4
91.4
63.8
30.4
7.1
4.3
9.6
22.9
7.6
7.1
6.8
6.8
8.1
10.3
12.4
17.0
18.4
21.8
25.7
24.7
27.4
24.1
16.0
9.7
52.7
31.2
30.4
31.9
41.8
45.3
41.7
43.8
45.3
59.9
85.0
115.0
132.4
150.0
171.1
164.9
162.6
147.4
105.5
54.9
29.7
19.6
39.9
25.0
30.4
32.1
31.7
33.3
40.6
47.3
66.9
86.6
108.3
122.9
139.6
139.6
130.3
123.4
87.7
49.8
374.9
275.2
255.5
227.1
290.9
333.6
347.9
396.6
392.8
436.9
625.4
803.1
927.9
1,057.9
1,224.4
1,165.5
1,146.8
1,112.8
858.4
361.6
825.8
442.2
446.4
473.9
616.2
611.1
630.0
654.8
724.1
900.6
1,235.3
1,516.3
1,645.6
1,828.4
2,095.4
1,984.9
2,015.5
1,929.4
1,439.2
668.7
87.6
57.3
56.8
62.4
80.5
89.4
87.7
83.2
90.0
109.3
133.6
166.9
184.9
198.8
197.7
184.0
194.8
192.4
157.8
89.5
78.5
55.6
50.9
55.2
70.2
75.8
78.9
75.0
78.0
101.9
111.1
141.5
161.3
164.7
163.4
160.8
165.0
159.1
150.6
81.5
409.4
203.1
192.0
194.6
255.4
272.3
308.6
314.5
314.8
370.8
450.1
547.1
639.7
612.6
651.6
596.2
617.7
596.7
439.7
214.3
241.2
151.0
171.6
185.6
257.4
284.6
294.2
299.8
308.9
376.6
457.7
564.5
624.7
700.3
689.9
641.7
656.6
613.0
430.6
225.5
2.1
2.7
3.2
3.1
3.7
4.5
4.4
4.1
4.6
5.2
6.3
8.3
7.6
8.4
7.1
7.3
5.4
5.3
4.0
1.4
6.6
5.1
4.6
4.4
6.8
7.9
8.1
7.2
7.5
7.9
9.1
10.6
9.6
11.7
7.5
9.2
8.3
8.2
5.6
3.1
12.6
9.6
8.9
8.4
11.1
13.7
12.7
10.0
9.4
9.4
12.3
12.7
10.7
12.3
6.1
8.0
5.0
2.9
1.8
0.7
2,155.5
1,276.6
1,293.5
1,318.0
1,701.2
1,807.9
1,883.2
1,963.3
2,064.6
2,481.9
3,263.5
4,068.5
4,574.4
5,007.5
5,510.0
5,206.0
5,246.7
5,006.1
3,760.6
1,791.1
1,209.2
287.9
1,712.8
1,384.5
12,615.1
22,683.7
2,504.6
2,179.0
8,201.3
8,175.5
98.6
149.2
178.3
61,379.9
Note
See methodology for age–sex distribution in the Methodological Notes section of this report.
170
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
Table E.1.1 (cont'd)
Estimate of Total Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditures, by Age and Sex,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2012—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Age Groups
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
10,120.04
1,825.44
1,483.62
1,607.14
2,062.41
2,256.74
2,597.46
2,736.03
2,682.25
3,054.34
3,095.77
3,473.81
4,162.30
5,283.30
7,043.71
9,240.08
12,338.23
15,598.15
23,311.71
26,842.27
14,340.74
1,878.38
1,570.28
1,692.14
2,162.70
2,267.52
2,582.30
2,786.93
2,689.86
2,868.61
3,252.06
3,733.91
4,798.73
6,227.94
8,987.31
12,091.26
16,564.19
23,192.92
35,005.97
42,485.37
10,124.95
1,599.69
1,459.65
1,541.00
1,829.72
2,011.70
2,344.73
2,601.31
2,518.48
2,516.26
2,753.51
3,179.34
3,715.75
4,546.14
5,675.15
7,357.33
9,940.67
13,273.68
18,349.11
21,746.74
4,312.60
4,587.46
3,793.17
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
9,519.32 19,607.09 28,923.34
4,344.49
4,983.94
7,504.06
3,312.38
3,152.04
5,084.27
3,065.84
3,255.28
5,218.91
3,637.00
4,699.40
7,645.10
4,193.81
5,490.67
9,478.70
4,149.87
5,969.42 10,135.85
4,133.80
5,481.49
8,840.70
4,266.40
5,655.31
9,671.66
4,505.69
5,682.42
9,223.90
4,506.37
5,611.51 10,878.22
4,746.88
6,132.05 12,875.66
4,881.08
6,795.59 15,204.45
6,605.84 10,513.48 22,309.29
8,206.66 12,521.67 20,734.04
16,400.71 26,042.46 40,904.84
22,837.56 38,070.90 50,535.37
37,072.05 62,610.65 66,304.85
81,811.46 121,149.76 170,824.63
97,771.21 107,444.48 132,088.89
10,487.11
1,576.50
1,319.09
1,360.18
1,615.34
1,746.36
2,141.29
2,352.41
2,242.79
2,270.84
2,543.52
2,999.43
3,659.59
4,619.56
6,367.97
8,545.41
11,691.68
16,231.14
24,590.74
29,206.15
($' per capita)
Both Sexes
<1
1–4
5–9
10–14
15–19
20–24
25–29
30–34
35–39
40–44
45–49
50–54
55–59
60–64
65–69
70–74
75–79
80–84
85–89
90+
11,483.47
1,849.67
1,749.52
1,799.16
2,080.07
2,243.62
2,580.89
2,857.10
2,822.48
2,786.12
3,215.24
3,837.38
4,666.54
5,643.23
7,781.61
10,892.84
15,484.53
22,356.38
36,438.27
42,815.48
8,999.87
1,375.29
1,847.87
3,499.98
1,630.72
1,747.02
2,263.12
2,268.72
2,162.43
2,243.60
2,365.24
2,858.29
3,362.00
4,257.85
6,100.59
8,656.36
12,734.43
20,083.11
25,341.78
32,642.04
11,021.97
1,666.67
1,322.51
1,298.42
1,588.42
1,703.33
2,011.68
2,229.30
2,014.31
2,096.95
2,488.99
2,964.25
3,571.41
4,367.36
6,208.26
9,219.78
12,070.93
17,612.56
27,304.58
31,887.96
8,223.81
1,280.39
1,602.25
1,237.60
1,477.92
1,678.64
1,989.20
2,088.40
2,017.18
2,066.32
2,377.40
2,899.74
3,535.43
4,524.16
6,391.85
8,890.16
12,672.78
17,489.40
25,350.15
31,655.60
7,994.12
1,446.77
1,211.84
1,101.90
1,280.28
1,436.29
1,832.91
1,919.24
1,791.08
1,783.62
2,069.22
2,466.15
3,047.58
3,935.28
5,484.30
7,490.73
10,519.12
14,986.71
24,240.64
28,294.15
10,764.63
1,438.91
1,163.79
1,221.35
1,459.48
1,527.40
1,960.76
2,293.10
2,176.59
2,152.55
2,430.45
2,923.51
3,557.36
4,515.05
6,464.52
8,560.69
11,539.45
15,952.82
23,993.89
28,283.35
9,899.94
1,775.70
1,411.58
1,772.60
1,952.94
2,275.95
2,557.12
2,681.04
2,685.26
2,823.44
3,101.02
3,539.76
4,409.05
5,522.07
6,931.60
9,285.05
13,020.48
18,334.87
27,110.78
35,059.69
Total
5,095.49
4,213.02
4,140.29
4,066.36
3,474.09
3,733.72
4,433.62
5,932.51
7,352.93
10,528.76
3,874.48
13,135.28 9,461.24
9,650.25 19,486.75 28,238.01
1,821.99 1,568.04
5,489.82
6,393.12
9,392.82
1,517.91 1,420.02
3,486.84
3,390.02
5,262.47
1,686.68 1,551.21
3,125.17
3,256.52
5,263.74
2,324.66 1,948.02
4,136.17
5,678.98
8,817.59
2,671.46 2,217.18
5,230.90
6,622.49 10,875.25
3,358.09 2,795.32
5,033.83
8,080.27 11,596.71
3,675.14 3,235.53
5,116.53
7,102.08 10,441.01
3,266.71 2,907.14
4,859.84
6,465.38 11,427.44
3,131.60 2,656.92
4,956.19
6,598.22 10,427.29
3,463.93 2,809.33
4,674.10
5,803.86 10,593.18
3,856.29 3,151.39
4,717.32
6,179.99 12,138.67
4,669.32 3,597.24
4,789.62
6,567.79 14,940.06
6,072.68 4,259.63
5,965.48
8,390.03 19,423.58
8,455.71 5,277.08
7,751.28 12,233.57 19,748.48
11,488.97 6,813.87 16,748.52 20,379.94 33,260.25
15,745.24 9,260.64 24,363.45 35,869.48 52,390.14
22,951.25 12,880.54 40,638.05 58,377.92 55,467.19
35,482.78 18,384.74 96,187.89 128,567.78 184,597.27
43,020.04 21,645.76 119,842.17 98,687.54 203,676.55
9,803.89
1,528.06
1,266.10
1,362.71
1,742.34
2,021.25
2,718.79
3,047.49
2,679.13
2,459.31
2,643.26
3,022.20
3,544.08
4,356.93
5,896.15
7,953.88
11,056.35
15,923.21
24,934.88
29,552.98
Female
<1
1–4
5–9
10–14
15–19
20–24
25–29
30–34
35–39
40–44
45–49
50–54
55–59
60–64
65–69
70–74
75–79
80–84
85–89
90+
11,102.84
1,796.07
1,666.94
1,889.25
2,242.45
2,649.66
3,219.27
3,461.34
3,128.14
3,135.66
3,617.31
4,002.97
4,449.51
5,308.43
7,125.73
10,071.21
15,020.49
22,866.61
40,611.56
44,951.09
8,191.31
1,300.92
1,176.28
1,362.60
1,765.91
2,042.49
2,815.30
2,808.62
2,362.72
2,327.23
2,520.26
2,725.15
3,236.44
4,112.77
5,784.78
8,085.33
11,787.97
20,423.72
25,203.69
32,591.78
10,338.06
1,630.42
1,292.08
1,313.26
1,756.13
2,084.50
2,637.35
2,864.04
2,419.53
2,273.28
2,620.42
2,920.62
3,432.20
4,078.55
5,850.15
9,315.53
11,536.29
17,592.93
28,728.18
33,555.76
Total
5,525.73
4,354.09
4,571.21
8,167.71 7,662.21 10,034.05 8,805.64
1,246.34 1,372.36 1,378.47 1,765.55
1,045.51 1,170.83 1,124.61 1,373.90
1,245.41 1,089.37 1,223.96 2,047.10
1,676.24 1,367.39 1,576.96 2,120.83
2,094.47 1,646.04 1,780.95 2,589.26
2,652.76 2,376.09 2,506.78 3,119.90
2,709.86 2,501.51 3,016.11 3,283.46
2,323.87 2,152.54 2,649.86 3,056.14
2,285.18 1,943.92 2,366.38 2,921.23
2,475.80 2,120.80 2,525.46 3,239.89
2,959.26 2,478.39 2,949.87 3,553.76
3,397.13 2,985.66 3,430.37 4,350.94
4,422.96 3,743.19 4,198.42 5,294.03
6,079.65 5,092.38 5,908.93 6,473.19
8,270.86 6,944.37 7,897.45 8,703.97
12,310.21 9,964.86 10,870.53 12,216.14
17,093.89 14,729.06 15,538.00 18,319.38
26,012.33 24,529.89 24,353.03 27,211.09
32,012.04 28,572.39 28,612.76 35,609.63
4,428.10
3,800.32
4,014.01
4,825.24
9,578.95
1,767.00
1,458.38
1,590.25
2,318.29
2,709.63
3,307.98
3,552.77
3,075.32
2,999.56
3,260.21
3,524.57
4,031.37
5,030.21
6,673.03
8,611.79
12,037.75
15,369.13
21,957.68
25,944.05
4,643.62
5,029.47
3,963.46
6,563.70
8,064.54
11,168.81
4,180.51
9,394.24 19,725.64 29,563.53
3,214.07
3,637.53
5,671.92
3,149.67
2,927.61
4,912.10
3,008.82
3,254.02
5,177.18
3,168.88
3,785.78
6,538.70
3,323.88
4,357.60
8,179.63
3,282.92
4,058.45
8,615.57
3,129.42
3,877.41
7,220.80
3,623.54
4,810.55
8,113.85
4,028.52
4,836.98
8,133.49
4,334.23
5,427.06 11,110.37
4,773.91
6,088.47 13,509.73
4,965.64
6,990.22 15,414.68
7,179.11 12,307.51 24,862.71
8,570.20 12,741.41 21,666.99
16,133.69 32,665.41 47,237.63
21,148.82 40,454.87 49,029.51
33,235.21 67,259.71 81,658.22
62,942.39 109,077.29 153,608.83
55,394.97 124,608.10 87,346.60
11,136.36
1,622.64
1,369.46
1,357.79
1,495.13
1,480.15
1,568.05
1,653.68
1,803.85
2,082.91
2,445.05
2,976.83
3,775.67
4,887.83
6,864.89
9,208.33
12,456.63
16,657.65
23,971.04
28,275.22
Male
<1
1–4
5–9
10–14
15–19
20–24
25–29
30–34
35–39
40–44
45–49
50–54
55–59
60–64
65–69
70–74
75–79
80–84
85–89
90+
11,844.58
1,900.56
1,827.76
1,713.04
1,924.40
1,852.10
1,947.88
2,225.74
2,494.82
2,426.60
2,801.42
3,669.85
4,884.87
5,981.07
8,458.22
11,761.54
16,024.20
21,636.69
29,468.02
36,905.67
9,795.08
1,447.74
2,517.70
5,537.15
1,506.02
1,452.26
1,705.14
1,687.29
1,948.50
2,155.35
2,206.89
2,994.68
3,496.23
4,410.06
6,422.24
9,281.81
13,875.64
19,601.27
25,620.59
32,786.57
11,669.85
1,700.47
1,351.30
1,284.49
1,429.65
1,349.98
1,411.92
1,570.67
1,590.80
1,915.59
2,352.96
3,010.08
3,717.23
4,669.23
6,585.48
9,114.23
12,707.29
17,641.13
24,557.10
26,998.63
8,278.32
1,313.27
2,123.90
1,230.37
1,294.45
1,295.19
1,366.59
1,473.28
1,699.92
1,844.22
2,276.38
2,838.05
3,675.62
4,626.42
6,710.05
9,554.43
13,120.11
18,064.69
24,104.99
30,691.32
8,309.39
1,518.30
1,251.13
1,113.83
1,195.01
1,231.63
1,307.56
1,360.48
1,444.14
1,630.00
2,019.18
2,454.10
3,108.60
4,128.46
5,896.93
8,110.23
11,219.53
15,373.11
23,672.92
27,428.04
11,457.96
1,496.56
1,201.03
1,218.89
1,348.25
1,279.64
1,401.90
1,529.32
1,680.76
1,933.37
2,335.57
2,897.01
3,689.23
4,849.90
7,065.32
9,320.95
12,349.38
16,524.40
23,351.40
27,428.61
10,950.88
1,785.57
1,447.34
1,516.44
1,791.30
1,971.11
2,009.42
2,056.08
2,305.03
2,725.32
2,966.10
3,526.42
4,465.74
5,750.60
7,405.70
9,939.25
14,012.77
18,356.81
26,922.03
33,521.35
10,637.68
1,880.88
1,507.71
1,623.16
1,829.11
1,831.43
1,904.93
1,978.06
2,305.83
3,107.16
2,937.89
3,425.88
4,288.61
5,531.22
7,423.94
9,941.11
12,697.85
15,913.82
25,612.72
29,103.99
15,487.78
1,931.89
1,620.06
1,697.32
2,010.30
1,879.43
1,843.28
1,940.33
2,148.16
2,622.78
3,055.33
3,619.46
4,920.23
6,380.38
9,534.85
12,757.64
17,529.77
23,513.05
34,188.77
41,063.86
10,751.49
1,629.18
1,496.89
1,531.41
1,722.61
1,814.54
1,887.26
1,963.67
2,121.92
2,371.73
2,696.39
3,207.90
3,835.22
4,831.25
6,080.41
7,934.43
10,688.68
13,753.80
18,291.87
21,980.53
Total
4,653.43
4,064.96
3,693.10
3,696.91
3,143.22
3,443.37
4,036.31
3,985.22
4,158.01
3,620.82
5,327.68
6,676.02
9,931.88
3,563.11
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2014.
171
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2014
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172
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How to cite this document:
Canadian Institute for Health Information. National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975
to 2014. Ottawa, ON: CIHI; 2014.
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dépenses nationales de santé, 1975 à 2014.
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