National Health Expenditure Trends 1975–2008

National Health Expenditure Trends  1975–2008
National Health
Expenditure Trends
1975–2008
N a t i o n a l
H e a l t h
E x p e n d i t u r e
D a t a b a s e
Production of this report is made possible by financial contributions from Health Canada
and provincial and territorial governments. The views expressed herein do not necessarily
represent the views of Health Canada or any provincial or territorial government.
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage
and retrieval system now known or to be invented, without the prior permission in writing from
the owner of the copyright, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages in
connection with a review written for inclusion in a magazine, newspaper or broadcast.
Requests for permission should be addressed to:
Canadian Institute for Health Information
495 Richmond Road, Suite 600
Ottawa, Ontario K2A 4H6
Phone: 613-241-7860
Fax: 613-241-8120
www.cihi.ca
ISBN 978-1-55465-360-7 (PDF)
© 2008 Canadian Institute for Health Information
How to cite this document:
Canadian Institute for Health Information, National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975–2008
(Ottawa, Ont.: CIHI, 2008).
Cette publication est aussi disponible en français sous le titre Tendances des dépenses
nationales de santé, 1975 à 2008.
978-1-55465-362-1 (PDF)
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments ...................................................................................................ix
Highlights ............................................................................................................. xiii
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 1
Overview................................................................................................................ 2
Total Health Expenditure..................................................................................... 2
Total Health Expenditure per Capita ..................................................................... 4
Total Health Expenditure and Economic Growth..................................................... 6
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance ...................................................... 8
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds........................................................... 15
Health Expenditure in the Provinces and Territories .............................................. 26
Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditure Standardized
for Age and Sex .............................................................................................. 31
Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditure by Age and Sex............... 32
Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditures and Fiscal Capacity ........ 40
International Comparisons................................................................................. 47
Methodological Notes............................................................................................. 62
Concepts and Definitions .................................................................................. 62
Major Data Limitations ..................................................................................... 69
Collection and Non-Response ............................................................................ 69
Major Changes From Previous Years .................................................................. 87
Revision History .............................................................................................. 88
Sources of Data .............................................................................................. 90
Data Tables .......................................................................................................... 93
Series A—Summary Data, Canada ..................................................................... 95
Series B—Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory
and Canada (Selected Tables) ........................................................... 123
Series E—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
by Province/Territory and Canada (Selected Tables) ............................. 137
Comprehensive versions of Data Tables, series A to F, are available on the CD-ROM
at the back of this report.
List of Figures
Figure 1
Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2008..................................... 2
Figure 2
Total Health Expenditure, Annual Growth Rates in Constant 1997 Dollars,
Canada, 1976 to 2008 ......................................................................... 3
Figure 3
Total Health Expenditure per Capita, Canada, 1975 to 2008 ..................... 4
Figure 4
Total Health Expenditure per Capita, Annual Growth Rates in Constant
1997 Dollars, Canada, 1976 to 2008 ..................................................... 5
Figure 5
Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product,
Canada, 1975 to 2008 ......................................................................... 6
Figure 6
Health Expenditure and GDP Trends, Constant Dollar Indices
(1975 = 100), Canada, 1975 to 2008 ................................................... 7
Figure 7
Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2008 .............. 8
Figure 8
Public- and Private-Sector Shares of Total Health Expenditure .................... 9
Figure 9
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, Selected Sources of Finance,
Canada, 1988 to 2006 ....................................................................... 14
Figure 10
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 2006 ($’ Billions)....... 15
Figure 11
Total Health Expenditure, Selected Uses of Funds, Canada,
1975 to 2008 ................................................................................... 16
Figure 12
Public and Private Shares of Total Health Expenditure, by Use of Funds,
Canada, 2006 ................................................................................... 17
Figure 13
Hospitals’ Share of Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health
Expenditure and Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2008 ........... 18
Figure 14
Drugs by Source of Finance and Type, Canada, 2006 ($’ Billions) ............ 20
Figure 15
Prescribed Drug Expenditure, Private-Sector Share, Canada,
1975 to 2008 ................................................................................... 21
Figure 16
Other Professionals Expenditure by Source of Finance and Type,
Canada, 2006 ($’ Billions) ................................................................... 22
Figure 17
Public Health Spending as a Percentage of Total Health Expenditure,
Canada, 1975 to 2008 ....................................................................... 25
Figure 18
Public- and Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, 1988 to 2008,
by Province and Territory, Constant (1997) Dollars................................. 28
Figure 19
Age Distribution, Canada, 1998 and 2006 ............................................ 32
Figure 20
Provincial/Terrritorial Government Hospital Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
Canada, 2006 ................................................................................... 34
Figure 21
Provincial/Territorial Government Hospital Expenditure per Capita,
by Age and Sex, Canada, 2006 ........................................................... 35
Figure 22
Provincial/Territorial Government Physician Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
Canada, 2006 ................................................................................... 36
ii
Figure 23
Provincial/Territorial Government Physician Expenditure per Capita,
by Age and Sex, Canada, 2006 ........................................................... 37
Figure 24
Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure,
by Age and Sex, Canada, 2006 ........................................................... 38
Figure 25
Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita,
by Age and Sex, Canada, 2006 ........................................................... 39
Figure 26
Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita in
Constant 1997 Dollars, Canada, 1975 to 2008 ..................................... 40
Figure 27
Provincial/Territorial Government Revenue and Expenditure, Canada,
1993 to 2007 ................................................................................... 42
Figure 28
Provincial/Territorial Debt Charges as a Proportion of Total Provincial/
Territorial Expenditure and Revenue, Canada, 1993 to 2007.................... 43
Figure 29
Provincial/Territorial Government Revenue and Health Expenditure,
Constant Dollar Indices (1993 = 100), Canada, 1993 to 2008................ 44
Figure 30
Provincial/Territorial Government Revenues, Constant Dollar Indices
(1993 = 100), Canada, 1993 to 2007 ................................................. 45
Figure 31
Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure as a Proportion
of Total Provincial/Territorial Government Expenditure and Programs,
Canada, 1993 to 2007 ....................................................................... 46
Figure 32
Total Health Expenditure as a Percent of GDP, 25 Selected
Countries, 2006................................................................................. 49
Figure 33
Public-Sector Health Expenditure as a Percent of GDP,
24 Selected Countries, 2006 ............................................................... 50
Figure 34
Private-Sector Health Expenditure as a Percent of GDP,
25 Selected Countries, 2006 ............................................................... 51
Figure 35
Total Health Expenditure per Capita in U.S. Dollars,
25 Selected Countries, 2006 ............................................................... 52
Figure 36
Public-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita in U.S. Dollars,
24 Selected Countries, 2006 ............................................................... 53
Figure 37
Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita in U.S. Dollars,
25 Selected Countries, 2006 ............................................................... 54
Figure 38
Expenditure on Personal Health Care as a Percent of Total Health
Expenditure, 24 Selected Countries, 2006............................................. 56
Figure 39
Public Share of Total Health Expenditure, 24 Selected Countries, 2006..... 57
Figure 40
Public Share of Expenditure on Medical Services, 24 Selected
Countries, 2006................................................................................. 58
Figure 41
Public Share of Expenditure on Medical Goods, 24 Selected
Countries, 2006................................................................................. 59
iii
Figure 42
Percent of Total Health Expenditure Financed by the Public Sector,
by Source of Finance, 25 Selected Countries, 2006 ............................... 60
Figure 43
Percent of Total Health Expenditure Financed by the Private Sector,
by Source of Finance, 24 Selected Countries, 2006 ............................... 61
Figure 44
Composition of Total Health Expenditures, by Source of Finance .............. 62
iv
List of Text Tables
Table 1
Distribution of Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1975 and 2006 ..................................................................... 10
Table 2
Quebec Drug Insurance Fund, $’ 000,000, 1997 to 2008 ....................... 12
Table 3
Distribution of Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988 and 2006 ..................................................................... 13
Table 4
Hospital Expenditure Summary by Sector of Finance, Canada, 2006......... 19
Table 5
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, by Source of Finance and Use of
Funds, Canada, 2006 ($’ Millions)........................................................ 19
Table 6
Health Expenditure Summary, by Province/Territory and Canada, 2008 ..... 27
Table 7
Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita
Standardized for Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada,
2003 to 2006 ................................................................................... 31
Table 8
Differences From Previously Reported Provincial Government–Sector Data
by Province/Territory and Canada, 1997 to 2005 ($’ Millions) ................. 88
Table 9
Differences From Previously Reported Private-Sector Data by
Province/Territory and Canada, 1994 to 2005 ($’ Millions) ...................... 89
Table 10
Differences From Previously Reported Municipal Government–Sector Data
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2004 to 2005 ($’ Millions) ................. 89
v
List of Data Tables
Series A—Summary Data, Canada
1
Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Summary................... 97
2.1–2.3
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada,
1975 to 2008—Current Dollars............................................................ 99
2.4–2.5
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada,
1975 to 2008—Constant Dollars ....................................................... 102
3.1.1–3.1.3 Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada,
1975 to 2008—Current Dollars.......................................................... 104
3.2.1–3.2.3 Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada,
1975 to 2008—Current Dollars.......................................................... 110
3.3.1–3.3.3 Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada,
1975 to 2008—Current Dollars.......................................................... 116
Series B—Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory and Canada
(Selected Tables)
1.1–1.2
Total Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2008—Current Dollars.......................................................... 125
1.3
Total Health Expenditure as a Percent of Provincial/Territorial GDP,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars ......... 127
2.1–2.2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2008—Current Dollars.......................................................... 128
2.3
Private-Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of Total Health
Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—
Current Dollars ................................................................................ 130
3.1–3.2
Public-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2008—Current Dollars.......................................................... 131
3.3
Public-Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of Total Health
Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—
Current Dollars ................................................................................ 133
4.1–4.2
Provincial/Territorial Government–Sector Health Expenditure, by
Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars ............. 134
4.3
Provincial/Territorial Government–Sector Health Expenditure as a
Proportion of Total Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and
Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars ............................................. 136
vi
List of Data Tables (cont’d)
Series E—Provincial Government Health Expenditure by Selected Uses of Funds,
by Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada (Selected Tables)
1.1–1.2
Estimate of Total Provincial and Territorial Government Health
Expenditures, By Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada,
2006—Current Dollars ...................................................................... 139
List of Data Tables on CD-ROM
Series A—Summary Data, Canada
Series B—Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory and Canada
Series C—Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Source of Finance, Canada
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
D—Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory
D1—Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Province/Territory
D2—Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Province/Territory
D3—Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, by Province/Territory
D4—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure by Use of Funds,
by Province/Territory
Series E—Provincial Government Health Expenditure by Selected Uses of Funds,
by Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada
Series F—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory
and Canada
Appendices A to D
vii
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Acknowledgments
The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) wishes to acknowledge the following
individuals for their contribution to National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008:
•
Mr. Christopher Kuchciak, Manager, Health Expenditures, CIHI
•
Mr. Gilles Fortin, Program Consultant, CIHI
•
Mr. Ruolz Ariste, Program Consultant, CIHI
•
Ms. Jean He, Program Lead, CIHI
•
Ms. Melissa Aggerwal, Senior Analyst, CIHI
•
Ms. Yiqun Yang, Senior Analyst, CIHI
•
Ms. Tianyu Zhang, Analyst, CIHI
•
Mr. Gregory Goutier, Analyst, CIHI
•
Ms. Qin Wang, Student, CIHI
•
Mr. Matthew Pegutter, Student, CIHI
It is only through the contribution of many individuals and organizations that the
production of National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008, is possible.
CIHI expresses its gratitude to:
The National Health Expenditure Expert Advisory Group for its advice and constructive
comments related to national health expenditures:
•
Mr. John Horne, PhD, University of Victoria
•
Mr. Richard Plain, PhD
•
Mr. Robert G. Evans, PhD, University of British Columbia
•
Mr. Hu Lu, Health Canada
•
Ms. Helen McBain, Health Canada
•
Mr. Michael Wolfson, PhD, Statistics Canada
•
Mr. Jeremiah Hurley, PhD, McMaster University
•
Mr. Stephen Law, PhD, Mount Allison University
•
Ms. Caroline Boucher, Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux, Quebec
•
Ms. Francine Anne Roy, Director, Health Resources Information, CIHI
•
Mr. Jean-Marie Berthelot, Vice President, Programs, CIHI
CIHI 2008
ix
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Data suppliers for their provision of data to the National Health Expenditure Database:
•
Health Canada, Statistics Canada and other federal departments reporting health care
financial data
•
The provincial and territorial governments
•
The provincial and territorial workers’ compensation boards and la Commission de la
santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec
•
A.C. Nielsen Canada
•
The insurance industry, whose participation has enhanced our understanding of
expenditures in the private sector:
−
The Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association Inc.
−
Atlantic Blue Cross Care/Medavie
−
Croix Bleue du Québec
−
Green Shield Canada
−
Liberty Health
−
Manitoba Blue Cross (United Health Services Corporation)
−
Saskatchewan Blue Cross Medical Services Incorporated
−
Saskatchewan Group Medical Services
−
Alberta Blue Cross
−
Pacific Blue Cross
•
Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada
•
Provincial and territorial health ministries for providing age and sex distributions for
their respective drug subsidy and additional health benefit programs:
x
−
Newfoundland and Labrador Medical Services Commission
−
Maritime Medical Care facilitated by the Nova Scotia Department of Health, Insured
Programs Management and Clinical Rationalization
−
Atlantic Blue Cross Care facilitated by the New Brunswick Department of Health
and Community Services, Medicare/Prescription Drug Program
−
Régie de l’assurance-maladie du Québec facilitated by the Ministère de la Santé et
des Services sociaux
−
Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Ontario Health Insurance Program
and Drug Programs Branch
−
Manitoba Health and Ministry of Family Services, Employment and Income
Assistance Division
−
Saskatchewan Health, Saskatchewan Drug Plan and Extended Benefits Branch and
Saskatchewan Medical Services Branch
−
Alberta Blue Cross facilitated by Alberta Health and Wellness and Alberta Human
Resources and Employment; Alberta Health and Wellness Extended Health Benefits
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
−
British Columbia Ministry of Health Services, Medical Services Plan and Pharmacare
Planning and Special Projects
−
Yukon Department of Health and Social Services
−
Northwest Territories Department of Health and Social Services
Please note that the analyses and conclusions in the present document do not necessarily
reflect those of the individuals or organizations mentioned above.
CIHI 2008
xi
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Highlights
•
Total health expenditure in Canada, in current dollars,i was estimated at $151.3 billion
in 2006, and is forecast to have reached $161.6 billion in 2007 and $171.9 billion
in 2008.
•
After adjusting for inflation, total health care spending grew at an average annual rate
of 3.8% between 1975 and 1991. From 1991 to 1996, total spending on health care
edged up by the rate of 0.9% per year. It increased by 4.9% annually from 1996 to
2006. The real growth (based on constant 1997 dollars) in health care spending in
Canada is expected to be 3.8% in 2007 and 4.3% in 2008.
•
Total health care spending as a percentage of gross domestic product in Canada fell
each year between 1993 and 1997, to reach 8.9% in 1997. Health expenditure has
grown faster than GDP since 1998, with the result that the total health expenditure–
to-GDP ratio reached 10.5% in 2006. The ratio is forecast to be 10.6% in 2007 and
10.7% in 2008.
•
Since 1997, the public-sector share of total health expenditure has remained relatively
stable at around 70%. It accounted for 69.9% of total expenditure in 2006 and is
forecast to account for 70.1% in 2007 and 70.0% in 2008.
•
In 2006, private health insurers and households (the private sector) spent $45.5 billion.
Private-sector expenditure is forecast to reach $48.4 billion in 2007 and $51.6 billion in
2008. Prescribed drugs and dental care are the greatest components of total private
health spending.
•
From 1988 to 2006, private insurance expenditure grew more rapidly than out-ofpocket expenditure and non-consumption expenditure. Private insurance firms increased
their share of private-sector expenditure from 29.2% to 40.0%, while the out-of-pocket
expenditure proportion dropped from 58.1% to 48.6%.
•
In 2006, at the national level, the categories hospitals and physicians were mainly
financed by the public sector, while drugs and other professionals were financed
primarily by the private sector.
•
Hospitals have traditionally occupied a prominent place in health care provision. In the
mid-1970s, hospitals accounted for approximately 45% of total health expenditure.
During the past 30 years, the share of hospitals in total health expenditure has fallen.
In 2008, hospitals made up the largest component of health care spending, accounting
for 28.0% of total health expenditures. Since 1997, drugs have accounted for the
second-largest share. In 2008, drugs accounted for 17.4% of total health expenditure,
while physicians are expected to make up the third-largest share, with 13.4%.
•
Administration expenditure includes public- and private-sector spending. In 1975,
administration accounted for 2.9% of total public-sector expenditure and 2.5% of total
private-sector expenditure. While the share gradually declined in the public sector to
2.4% in 2006, the private-sector share rose to 6.2%.
i. All figures are in current dollars (unadjusted for inflation) unless otherwise stated.
CIHI 2008
xiii
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
•
Total health expenditure per capita in Canada was estimated at $4,633 in 2006 and is
forecast to be $4,900 in 2007 and $5,170 in 2008.
•
Total health expenditure (including public and private sectors) per capita varies among
the provinces. In 2008, Alberta and Manitoba are forecast to spend more per person on
health care than any other province, at $5,730 and $5,555, respectively. Quebec and
British Columbia are forecast to have the lowest expenditure per capita at $4,653 and
$5,093, respectively.
•
Provincial and territorial government health expenditures account for almost 65%
of total health expenditures in Canada and more than 90% of expenditures by all levels
of government. Provincial and territorial government health expenditures during the
current year, 2008, are forecast to reach $110.7 billion.
•
Provincial and territorial governments’ health expenditure per capita averaged $3,330
in 2008. The highest per capita spending among the provinces is projected to be in
Newfoundland and Labrador ($3,962) and Alberta ($3,817), while the lowest is
forecast to be in Quebec ($3,006) and Ontario ($3,270).
•
Total health expenditure as a percent of provincial GDP ranged from 6.9% in Alberta
and 8.8% in Newfoundland and Labrador to 14.6% in Nova Scotia and 15.3% in
Prince Edward Island in 2008. Among the territories, the ratio of health expenditure to
GDP is 9.4% for the Northwest Territories, 14.9% for the Yukon and 26.8% for
Nunavut in 2008.
•
In 1993, health expenditures were equivalent to 32.7% of total provincial and territorial
government program expenditures (total expenditure less debt charges). Health
expenditures decreased as a percent of government expenditures during the next two
years. In 2007, following strong growth of health expenditures combined with more
modest rates of growth in total program expenditures, the share of program
expenditures allocated to health increased to 39.2%.
•
In 2006, the latest available year for data broken down by age group, health care
spending by provincial and territorial governments was highest for infants and seniors.
Canadians younger than the age of 1 cost an estimated $7,891 per person. From
youths age 1 to adults age 64, spending averaged less than $3,700 per person. There
was a pronounced increase in per capita spending in the senior age groups: $5,369 for
age group 65 to 69, $7,382 for 70 to 74, $9,987 for 75 to 79 and $17,121 for age
80 and older.
•
Canada continues to rank among the world’s top 10 health spenders when
compared to other countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD). Among 25 countries with similar accounting systems, the U.S.
maintained its rank as the highest per capita spender on health care (US$6,714) in
2006, the latest year for which data are available. Canada ranked fifth in per capita
spending (US$3,678).
xiv
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Introduction
Both the public and private sectors finance Canada’s health system. Public-sector funding
includes payments by governments at the federal, provincial/territorial and municipal levels
and by workers’ compensation boards and other social security schemes. Private-sector
funding consists primarily of health expenditures by households and private insurance firms.
The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) tracks health spending by each
source of finance in the National Health Expenditure Database (NHEX). This database
contains a historical series of macro-level health expenditure statistics by province and
territory. CIHI assumed responsibility from Health Canada for the national health accounts,
including NHEX, in 1995.
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008 is CIHI’s 12th annual health
expenditure trends publication and provides detailed, updated information on health
expenditure in Canada. This publication includes:
•
Highlights of national health expenditure;
•
An overview that includes health expenditure trends from 1975 to 2008; 2006 figures,
which are now considered to be an estimate rather than a forecast; and an outlook for
2007 and 2008;
•
An update of provincial/territorial government health expenditure by age and sex,
including four years of expenditure data standardized for age and sex;
•
Updated data tables to 2008; and
•
International comparisons.
Summary-level data tables appear at the end of the publication. More than 300 detailed
data tables in calendar and fiscal year are available in Microsoft Excel on the CD-ROM
affixed to the inside of the back cover of this document or on CIHI’s website.
In order to improve the quality of the data in NHEX, the historical information appearing in
earlier publications has been revised. In particular, a methodological review undertaken by
CIHI and the Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux (MSSS) du Québec resulted in
historical revisions over the period from 1997 to 2004. In 1997, the budgetary structure of
the Quebec public accounts was modified and the Quebec health care system saw
numerous changes, such as decentralization, the redefinition of the roles and mandates of
health institutions and the creation of health and social service centres. To ensure the
reliability of the time series and to improve inter-provincial comparisons, CIHI, in
collaboration with the MSSS, developed a new methodology to determine estimates of
provincial government health spending in Quebec.
A detailed explanation of all revisions can be found in the Methodological Notes section
under Major Changes From Previous Years.
CIHI 2008
1
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Overview
Total Health Expenditure
2006 and Outlook for 2007 and 2008
Total health expenditures in Canada were $151.3 billion in 2006. Expenditures are forecast
to be $161.6 billion in 2007 and $171.9 billion in 2008, an annual increase of 6.8% and
6.4%, respectively. The rates of increase at constant (1997) prices are 3.8% in 2007 and
4.3% in 2008.
Figure 1
Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2008
180.0
160.0
140.0
($’ Billions)
120.0
100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
1975
78
81
Current
84
87
90
93
Year
96
99
02
Constant ($1997)
05
2008
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
2
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Trends—1975 to 2006
Health expenditure in 2006 continued the trend of relatively strong growth that has been
observed since 1997, following six years when annual growth rates averaged 0.9% in real
terms (Figure 1). The modest rates of growth during the early-to-mid-1990s reflected a
flattening of the historic growth curve. From 1975 to 1991, the annual average rate of
growth was 3.8% (Figure 2). From 1991 to 1996, total spending on health care edged up
by the rate of 0.9% per year. It increased by 4.9% from 1996 to 2006. The trend since
1997 appears to be largely due to investment by federal, provincial and territorial
governments after a period of fiscal restraint during the early and mid-1990s.
Figure 2
Total Health Expenditure, Annual Growth Rates in Constant 1997 Dollars,
Canada, 1976 to 2008
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
1976
80
84
88
92
96
00
04
2008
Year
Actual
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
CIHI 2008
3
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Total Health Expenditure per Capita
2006 and Outlook for 2007 and 2008
Total health expenditure per capita in Canada was $4,633 in 2006. Forecasts for 2007 and
2008 are expected to be $4,900 and $5,170 (Figure 3). After adjusting for inflation, real
rates of increase in 2007 and 2008 are expected to be 2.8% and 3.4%, respectively.
Figure 3
Total Health Expenditure per Capita, Canada, 1975 to 2008
$5,500
$5,000
$4,500
$4,000
$3,500
$3,000
$2,500
$2,000
$1,500
$1,000
$500
$0
1975
78
81
84
87
90
93
96
99
02
05
2008
Year
Current
Constant ($1997)
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
4
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Trends—1975 to 2006
Total health expenditure per capita in Canada in constant (1997) dollars increased by an
average annual rate of 2.6% from 1975 to 1991. From 1991 to 1996, expenditure per
capita declined by an annual average rate of two-tenths of one percent per year (Figure 4).
During subsequent years, the average increase rebounded.
Figure 4
Total Health Expenditure per Capita, Annual Growth Rates in Constant 1997
Dollars, Canada, 1976 to 2008
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
-1.0%
1976
80
84
88
92
96
00
04
2008
Year
Actual
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
CIHI 2008
5
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Total Health Expenditure and Economic Growth
2006 and Outlook for 2007 and 2008
Total health expenditure in Canada was 10.5% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2006.
It is forecast to be 10.7% in 2008, reflecting relatively higher growth in total health
expenditure than GDP (Figure 5).
Figure 5
Total Health Expenditure as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product,
Canada, 1975 to 2008
12.0%
11.0%
10.0%
9.0%
8.0%
7.0%
6.0%
1975
78
81
84
87
90
93
96
99
02
05
2008
Year
Actual
Forecast
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Gross Domestic Product,
Statistics Canada.
6
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Trends—1975 to 2008
Total health expenditure as a proportion of GDP was 7.0% in 1975. During the late 1970s,
total health expenditures increased at rates that were almost identical to the rate of growth
in GDP. The two rates of growth diverged during the early 1980s. Real GDP fell during the
1982 recession and did not recover to its pre-recession level until 1984 (Figure 6). Health
expenditure continued to grow during this time. Consequently, the ratio of total health
expenditure to GDP increased sharply, from 6.8% in 1979 to 8.3% in 1983.
Figure 6
Health Expenditure and GDP Trends, Constant Dollar Indices (1975 = 100),
Canada, 1975 to 2008
350
325
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
1975
78
81
84
87
90
93
96
99
02
05
2008
Year
Health Care
GDP
Forecast
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Gross Domestic Product,
Statistics Canada.
Canada experienced another recession from 1990 until 1992. The ratio of total health
expenditure to GDP increased significantly, reaching 10.0% for the first time in 1992.
Total health expenditures in constant dollars then grew more slowly than GDP between
1993 and 1997; consequently, the health-to-GDP ratio fell each year in that period until it
reached 8.9% in 1997. Real health expenditure grew faster than GDP between 1998 and
2006, with the result that the health-to-GDP ratio reached 10.5% in 2006.
See Data Tables A.1 and B.1.3.
CIHI 2008
7
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance
2006 and Outlook for 2007 and 2008
In 2006, governments and government agencies in Canada (the public sector) spent
$105.8 billion. Public-sector expenditure is forecast to be $113.2 billion in 2007 and
$120.3 billion in 2008. The growth rates associated with these increases are 7.0% and
6.2%, respectively. In 2006, private health insurers and households (the private sector)
spent $45.5 billion. Private-sector expenditure is forecast to reach $48.4 billion in 2007
and $51.6 billion in 2008, with expected growth rates of 6.3% in 2007 and 6.7% in 2008.
Since 1997, the public-sector share of total health expenditure has remained relatively
stable at around 70%. It accounted for 69.9% of total expenditure in 2006 and is forecast
to account for 70.1% in 2007 and 70.0% in 2008.
Trends—1975 to 2006
The average annual rate of growth in public-sector health expenditure between 1975
and 1991 was 11.0%. There was a pronounced change in public expenditure trends
following the 1990 to 1992 recession (Figure 7).
Figure 7
Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2008
140.0
120.0
($’ Billions)
100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
1975
78
81
84
87
90
93
96
99
02
05
2008
Year
Public Sector
Private Sector
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
8
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
During this period, governments introduced fiscal restraint measures, which affected
spending for health and social programs. Private-sector growth rates were considerably
higher than the public-sector rates during this period and, as a result, the private-sector
share of total health expenditure increased to 29.9% by 1997. The private-sector share
is estimated to be 30.0% in 2008 (Figure 8).
Figure 8
Public- and Private-Sector Shares of Total Health Expenditure
90.0%
Share
70.0%
50.0%
30.0%
10.0%
1975
78
81
84
87
90
93
96
99
02
05
2008
Year
Public Share
Private Share
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
See Data Tables A.2.1, A.2.2, A.2.4 and A.2.5.
CIHI 2008
9
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance
Health expenditures by governments and government agencies (the public sector) are
financed by three levels of government—provincial and territorial governments; federal
government direct health care spending; and municipal government—and by workers’
compensation boards and the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund. The distribution of publicsector expenditure among these four sources of finance is shown in Table 1.
Provincial/territorial government expenditure was $8.7 billion in 1975, accounting for
93.6% of public-sector expenditure. The other public sources together totalled $0.6 billion,
or 6.4% of the public sector in 1975. The provincial/territorial government share of publicsector spending declined in 1997, when the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund was introduced,
as the portion that is self-financed by premiums was included in the social security funds
sector. By 2006, provincial/territorial government expenditure was $97.1 billion,
accounting for 91.8% of public-sector expenditure.
Table 1
Distribution of Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1975 and 2006
Provincial/Territorial Governments
Federal Direct
Social Security Funds
Municipal Governments
Total Expense
1975
($’ 000,000)
8,709.3
398.3
121.1
71.6
9,300.3
2006
(%)
($’ 000,000)
93.6
97,066.3
4.3
5,615.6
1.3
2,108.9
0.8
995.0
(%)
91.8
5.3
2.0
0.9
100.0
100.0
105,785.8
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Federal Transfers
National health expenditures are reported based on the principle of responsibility for
payment rather than on the source of the funds. It is for this reason that federal health
transfers to the provinces are included in the provincial government sector. There are
now five major programs: the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), Canada Social Transfer,
Health Reform Transfer, Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing.
In September 2004, first ministers signed a 10-year plan to strengthen health care.
This agreement included $41.3 billion in new federal spending, beginning in 2004–2005.
It included funding for the financial recommendations in the report of the Commission on
the Future of Health Care in Canada, wait times, additions to the Medical Equipment Fund,
an increase to the CHT and improvements to Aboriginal and northern health.
The increases in federal transfers will be reflected primarily in increased expenditures by
the provincial and territorial governments during the next several years.
10
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Direct Federal Health Expenditure
In 2006, federal government departments and agencies provided direct health care services
to Canadians worth $5.6 billion, accounting for 3.7% of total health expenditure.
Forecasts indicate that the share of federal direct spending will fall to 3.5% of total
spending in 2008.
Federal departments that had the largest shares of total federal direct health expenditure in
2006 were Health Canada, which funded 75%, the Department of Veterans Affairs (13%),
the Solicitor General of Canada (4%) and the Department of National Defence (3%). The
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, which is included under Health Canada, accounted
for 15% of total federal direct health expenditure.
Social Security Funds
Workers’ compensation boards are included under social security funds, along with a portion
of the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund. Both workers’ compensation boards and the Quebec
Drug Insurance Fund meet the conditions of social security funds. Social security funds are
financially autonomous social insurance schemes that are imposed and controlled by a
government authority. They generally involve compulsory contributions by employees,
employers or both, and the government authority determines the terms on which benefits
are paid to recipients.
Workers’ compensation boards operate under provincial and territorial statute and are
considered agencies of the provincial/territorial governments. They are financed through
compulsory contributions by employers who pay a percentage of their total payroll
depending on the accident experience of each category of employer.
On January 1, 1997, the government of Quebec created a basic drug insurance plan with
the objective of ensuring the population of Quebec has access to drugs as required by
health status. All residents of Quebec must be covered by drug insurance, whether by
private group insurance or by the public plan administered by the RAMQ. The Drug
Insurance Fund is the chosen mechanism to pay all drug and pharmaceutical service costs
provided to subscribers insured by the RAMQ, as well as their children. Since July 1,
2002, the public plan has been financed both by the expenditure allocated to this program
by the Quebec government (provincial government sector) and by the amounts collected
by the Drug Insurance Fund as premiums and proceeds (social security funds sector).
The premium component of the Quebec drug program is considered to be a social security
scheme, while the remaining portion of the program that is paid through the MSSS is
included as a provincial government expenditure.
CIHI 2008
11
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table 2 presents estimates from 1997 to 2008 for the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund.
The premiums are calculated as the difference between the total drug insurance fund,
extracted from RAMQ annual reports, and the fund financed by the MSSS, extracted
from Quebec public accounts.
Table 2
Year
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007f
2008f
Quebec Drug Insurance Fund, $’ 000,000, 1997 to 2008
Financed
Through
Premiums
172.0
218.2
264.0
332.3
379.9
450.4
595.0
642.2
659.2
719.8
738.7
799.0
Financed by Ministère
de la Santé et des
Services Sociaux (Quebec)
697.3
775.0
917.0
1,113.9
1,296.9
1,422.3
1,521.7
1,651.4
1,758.3
1,904.7
2,102.5
2,258.3
Total
869.4
993.2
1,181.0
1,446.2
1,676.8
1,872.7
2,116.7
2,293.6
2,417.5
2,624.5
2,841.2
3,057.3
Note
f = forecast.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
12
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance
Private-sector expenditure in the national health accounts has three distinct components:
household out-of-pocket expenditure, commercial and not-for-profit insurance expenditure
and non-consumption expenditure.ii The distribution of private expenditure between these
three sources of finance is shown in Table 3.
In 1988, the first year for which data at this level of detail were available, out-of-pocket
expenditure accounted for 58.1% of private-sector expenditure. By 2006, the proportion
dropped to 48.6%, as expenditure by insurance firms grew more rapidly. The share of nonconsumption expenditure dropped from 12.7% to 11.4% during the same period (Table 3).
Table 3
Distribution of Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Source of Finance,
Canada, 1988iii and 2006
Source of Finance
Household (Out-of-Pocket)
Private Health Insurance
Non-Consumption
Total Expense
1988
($’ 000,000)
7,434.8
3,735.7
1,625.9
12,796.4
(%)
58.1
29.2
12.7
2006
($’ 000,000)
22,098.2
18,216.7
5,177.8
(%)
48.6
40.0
11.4
100.0
45,492.7
100.0
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
ii.
Non-consumption expenditure includes a number of heterogeneous components, such as hospital
non-patient revenue, capital expenditures for privately owned facilities and health research.
iii.
Private-sector data were revised following a methodology review in the early 1990s. The revised
private-sector data incorporated information estimated directly from insurance, out-of-pocket and
non-consumption sources for 1988 and subsequent years. See Methodological Notes for further details.
CIHI 2008
13
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Private health insurance expenditure has grown more rapidly than the other sources
(Figure 9). Consequently, insurance firms increased their share of private-sector
expenditure from 29.2% in 1988 to 40.0% in 2006. In 2006, growth in health
expenditure for households and health insurance firms was 8.8% and 5.6%, respectively.
Figure 9
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, Selected Sources of Finance, Canada,
1988 to 2006
24,000
20,000
($’ Millions)
16,000
12,000
8,000
4,000
0
1988
1991
1994
1997
2000
2003
2006
Year
Household (Out-of-Pocket)
Private Health Insurance
Non-Consumption
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
14
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds
Health dollars are used to purchase health care goods and services, to provide capital
investment, to administer public and private insurance plans and public health programs
and to fund research. These uses are grouped into nine major categories (uses of funds)
throughout most of the national health expenditure data series. Data table series A.3.1
to A.3.3 report national estimates for 13 categories. Hospitals make up the largest
component of health care spending, accounting for 28.4% of total health expenditures in
2006. Drugs represent the second-largest share (16.7%), while physicians make up the
third-largest share (13.2%) (Figure 10).
Figure 10
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 2006 ($’ Billions)
Hospitals
$43.0; 28.4%
Drugs
$25.3, 16.7%
Capital
$7.2; 4.8%
Administration
$5.4; 3.6%
Physicians
$20.0; 13.2%
Public Health
$9.3; 6.1%
Other Health
Spending;
$9.3; 6.2%
Other Institutions
$15.5; 10.3%
Other
Professionals
$16.3; 10.7%
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
CIHI 2008
15
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Figure 11 shows national expenditures for the three major uses of funds from
1975 to 2008 in billions of current dollars. Since 1997, drugs have accounted for
the second-largest share, after hospitals.
See Data Tables A.3.1 to A.3.3 and C.1.1 to C.4.4.
Figure 11
Total Health Expenditure, Selected Uses of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008
50.0
45.0
40.0
($’ Billions)
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
1975
78
81
84
87
90
93
96
99
02
05
2008
Year
Hospitals
Physicians
Drugs
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
16
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Figure 12 presents the public and private shares at the national level of the nine major uses
of funds in 2006. Hospitals and physicians are the categories financed mainly by the public
sector, while drugs and other professionals are financed primarily by the private sector.
Public and Private Shares of Total Health Expenditure, by Use of Funds,
Canada, 2006
100.0%
Public-Sector Share
69.9%
30.1%
Average
19.3%
Other
Health
Spending
Public
Health
0.0%
28.3%
Capital
38.5%
Drugs
7.0%
Other
Professionals
1.5%
Physicians
24.8%
Other
Institutions
0.0%
Hospitals
20.0%
9.3%
40.0%
52.4%
47.6%
71.7%
61.5%
60.0%
80.7%
93.0%
75.2%
90.7%
80.0%
98.5%
100.0%
Admin.
Figure 12
Private-Sector Share
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
See Data Tables A.3.1 to A.3.3 and C.1.1 to C.4.4.
CIHI 2008
17
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Hospitals
Hospitals have traditionally occupied a prominent place in health care provision. In the
mid-1970s, hospitals accounted for approximately 45% of total health expenditure and for
56% of provincial government health expenditure. During the past 30 years, the share of
hospitals in total health expenditure has fallen (Figure 13).iv In 2006, Canadians spent
$43.0 billion on hospitals, accounting for 28.4% of total expenditure.
Figure 13
Hospitals’ Share of Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health
Expenditure and Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2008
60.0%
55.0%
50.0%
45.0%
40.0%
35.0%
30.0%
25.0%
1975
78
81
84
87
90
93
96
99
02
05
2008
Year
Share of Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure
Share of Total Health Expenditure
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
iv.
A methodological review of Quebec provincial government health expenditures resulted in historical
revisions back to 1997. The methodology for breaking down institutional spending between acute and
long-term care was improved. The revised estimates caused a shift of spending from the hospital category
to the other institutions category. As a result, there is a break in the hospital expenditure series in 1997.
18
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Provincial and territorial government expenditure accounts for 89.2% of hospital income
(Table 4). The private sector is the next-largest source of income.
Table 4
Hospital Expenditure Summary by Sector of Finance, Canada, 2006
Provincial/
Territorial
Total Expenditure ($’ 000,000)
Expenditure per Capita
Share of Total
Other Public
Private
Total
$38,303.7
$679.0
$3,974.8
$42,957.5
$1,173.2
$20.8
$121.7
$1,315.7
89.2%
1.6%
9.2%
100.0%
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Of almost $4.0 billion spent on hospital services by the private sector in 2006, households
and insurance firms together spent about $1.8 billion providing income to hospitals for
patient services.v Non-patient revenue earned from investments, food services, real estate,
parking, rentals, donations and other sources provided the remaining $2.2 billion of the
private sector. The distribution of expenditure financed by insurance, households
(out-of-pocket expenditure) and non-consumption in 2006 is shown in Table 5.
Table 5
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, by Source of Finance and Use of Funds,
Canada, 2006 ($’ Millions)
Hospital Accommodation
Other Institutions*
Physician Care
Other Professionals
Dental Care
Vision Care
Other—Other Professionals
Drugs
Prescribed Drugs
Over-the-Counter Drugs
Personal Health Supplies
Capital
Administration
Other Health Spending
Health Research*
Other Health Care Goods
Other Health Care Services
Total Expense
Households
(Out-of-Pocket)
749.1
3,845.7
298.8
Insurance
1,063.4
NonConsumption
2,162.3
Total
9.2
3,974.8
3,845.7
308.0
4,447.5
2,568.6
1,317.2
5,403.8
644.2
731.8
9,851.2
3,212.8
2,048.9
3,945.5
2,361.5
1,923.0
7,353.5
11,298.9
2,361.5
1,923.0
2,055.0
2,813.4
2,055.0
2,813.4
281.9
359.6
126.3
71.2
22,098.2
18,216.7
960.4
960.4
408.1
430.8
5,177.8
45,492.7
Note
* Forecast for 2006.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
v.
Income to hospitals for patient services includes charges for preferred accommodation, care of
non-residents, chronic care co-payments, uninsured services and other patient services.
CIHI 2008
19
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Drugs
Retail salesvi of prescribed and non-prescribed drugs together constituted the
second-largest category of health expenditure in 2006, at $25.3 billion. Spending on
drugs is forecast to have increased by another 8.8% in 2007, to $27.5 billion, and by
8.3% in 2008, to $29.8 billion.
Prescribed drugs (public sector, 38.5%; private sector, 44.6%) amounted to 83.1% of
total expenditure on drugs in 2006 (Figure 14).
Figure 14
Drugs by Source of Finance and Type, Canada, 2006 ($’ Billions)
Public Sector
(Prescribed
Drugs)
$9.7,
38.5%
Private Sector
(Prescribed and
Non-Prescribed
Drugs) $15.6,
61.5%
Prescribed
$11.3,
44.6%
OTC
$2.4, 9.3%
PX
$1.9, 7.6%
Note
Non-prescribed drugs include over-the-counter drugs (OTC) and personal health supplies (PX).
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
vi. The drug category does not include drugs dispensed in hospitals and, generally, in other institutions.
These are included in the categories of hospitals and other institutions.
20
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
As shown in Figure 15, the private sector accounted for more than 79.5% of expenditure
for prescribed drugs in 1975. This share decreased to 52.3% by 1992. In 2008, it is
expected to be 55.5%.
Figure 15
Prescribed Drug Expenditure, Private-Sector Share, Canada, 1975 to 2008
90.0%
80.0%
Share
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
1975
78
81
84
87
90
93
96
99
02
05
2008
Year
Private Sector
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Physicians
Physician services constituted the third-largest category of total health expenditure in
2006, at $20.0 billion, representing 13.2% of total health expenditure. In 2008, this
category is forecast to have grown by 6.2% from 2007 to reach $23.1 billion, reflecting
13.4% of total expenditure.
Public-sector expenditure on physicians has remained above 98% of total physician
expenditure since 1975.
Households account for almost all private spending for physician services. Insurance of
supplementary charges to patients for medically necessary services was discouraged prior
to the Canada Health Act, and such charges are not permitted under the act. Physician
charges for uninsured services and administrative fees have not been insured as explicit
benefits of most insurance plans, but they may be insured under broad coverage terms
that include care not covered by public plans.
CIHI 2008
21
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Other Professionals
The broad category of other professionals includes primarily care provided by dentists and
denturists, optometrists and opticians, chiropractors, physiotherapists and private duty
nurses. The category of other professionals accounted for $16.2 billion, or 10.7% of total
expenditures in 2006, and has maintained the highest percentage of private spending of all
the major categories (93.0%).
Figure 16
Other Professionals Expenditure by Source of Finance and Type, Canada,
2006 ($’ Billions)
Dentists
$0.5; 2.8%
Vision Care
$0.2; 1.4%
Other
$0.4; 2.8%
Dentists
$9.9;
60.6%
Public Sector
$1.1; 7.0%
Private
Sector
$15.1;
93.0%
Vision Care
$3.2; 19.8%
Other
$2.0; 12.6%
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Dental care and vision care are the major discrete categories of expenditure in the private
sector for other professional services (Figure 16).
Other Institutions
In 2006, the category of other institutions, which includes nursing homes and residential
care facilities, accounted for 10.3% of total expenditures, or $15.5 billion. Other
institutions’ share of total health expenditure is forecast to be 10.1% of total expenditure
in 2007 and 10.0% in 2008.
22
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Public expenditure is the main source of finance for other institutions. In many provinces
public responsibility is split between provincial and/or regional authorities; funding is often
provided both by health and social services departments. In 2006, the public share of other
institutions was 75.2%.
Other Health Spending
The sub-category with the greatest impact on the current category of other health
spending is health research, which accounted for 1.8% of total health expenditure in
Canada.vii The remaining categories include medical transportation, hearing aids and
appliances, voluntary health associations and explicitly identified home care.viii In 2006,
other health expenditures accounted for $9.3 billion, or 6.2% of total health expenditure.
In 2007 and 2008, it is expected that other health spending will have grown by 6.0% and
8.2%, respectively.
Public-sector sources accounted for 80.7% of other health expenditures in 2006, most of
which was for health research, ambulance services and home care.
Administration
The National Health Expenditure Database (NHEX) had included a category of public health
and administration in public-sector expenditure estimates. A study published in June 2002
examined the feasibility of breaking out the category into separate components for public
health and administrative expenditure.ix A complete review of provincial estimates was
carried out during the feasibility study in order to create separate sub-categories for public
health and certain public and private administration costs. The review identified two key
factors that limit the degree of comparability of estimates from public sources and
therefore are responsible for significant variation between the estimates of some provinces.
These factors are:
1) The degree of provincial/territorial detail for certain items in the public health
sub-category was quite variable. Levels of detail for administrative costs also vary
from province to province in public sources.
2) In the absence of a consistent reporting framework, there are limits on the ability
to produce consistent interprovincial/territorial comparisons.
vii.
Research funded by pharmaceutical companies is funded from drug sales and included in the
drugs category.
viii. Certain services that are identified by data sources as home care are included under the broad category
of other—other health spending. Private nursing care in the home, however, would be included in the
other—other professionals category. Home care programs provided by hospitals are included in the
hospitals category. Support services such as domestic maintenance and delivery of meals are considered
to be social services within the current definition of home care and are removed where identified.
ix.
Canadian Institute for Health Information, “Public Health and Administration,” National Health
Expenditures Feasibility Study (Ottawa, Ont.: CIHI, 2002).
CIHI 2008
23
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Results of the review were presented in the 2004 edition of National Health Expenditure
Trends. Following consultation with the NHEX Expert Advisory Group, the original category
of public health and administration has been redefined and separated and is presented in
the data tables of this report.
Administration includes infrastructure costs to operate health departments and prepayment
administration (the administrative expenses of providing health insurance by governments
and private health insurance companies). The administrative expense of non-insured
services is included under the category of service. For example, the administrative costs of
operating hospitals are included under the hospital category; the administrative expense of
operating long-term care programs is included under the other institutions category.
In 1975, administration accounted for 2.9% of total public-sector expenditure and 2.5%
of total private-sector expenditure. The public- and private-sector trends differ over time.
While the share has gradually declined in the public sector to 2.4% in 2006, the privatesector share has risen to 6.2%.
Public Health
NHEX captures public health spending by governments and government agencies and
includes expenditures for items such as food and drug safety, health inspections, health
promotion activities, community mental health programs, public health nursing, measures
to prevent the spread of communicable disease and occupational health to promote and
enhance health and safety at the workplace. The decision to broaden the definition of
public health beyond the ambit of health promotion, disease prevention and health
inspection is consistent with the definition of prevention and public health services
used by the OECD in its manual, A System of Health Accounts (SHA). The SHA is the
framework that Canada’s health accounts is based on.
24
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
In 1975, public health accounted for 3.3% of total expenditure. Growth in this category
has generally been higher than in other categories throughout the series. During the period
when governments practised policies of retrenchment in health care spending, particularly
from 1992 to 1996, growth in public health was at least double the growth in total health
expenditure. This relative difference resulted in the share of total expenditure increasing to
6.1% in 2006. The share is expected to increase to 6.6% in 2008 (Figure 17).
Figure 17
Public Health Spending as a Percentage of Total Health Expenditure,
Canada, 1975 to 2008
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008
Year
Actual
Forecast
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
CIHI 2008
25
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Health Expenditure in the Provinces and Territories
Health expenditure per capita varies among provinces/territories because of different
age distributions.x Population density and geography also affect health expenditure,
particularly in the case of the territories. Other factors that affect health expenditure
include population health needs and the manner in which health care is delivered
(including the balance between institutional and ambulatory care). The manner in which
health care is financed is also an important consideration, including the degree of public
coverage and private insurance for services not included in the Canada Health Act and
the level of remuneration of health personnel.
Health expenditure per capita is highest in the territories because of their large
geographical areas and low population densities (Table 6). In 2008, total health
expenditure per capita in Alberta is expected to reach $5,730, followed by Manitoba
($5,555). The lowest per person expenditures are forecast for Quebec ($4,653),
followed by British Columbia ($5,093).
Health expenditure as a percent of provincial GDP ranges from 6.9% in Alberta to 15.3%
in Prince Edward Island. For the territories, health expenditure–to–territorial GDP ratio is
26.8% for Nunavut, 14.9% for the Yukon and 9.4% for the Northwest Territories.
In 2008, the public sector was responsible for 70.0% of Canadian health expenditure.
It exceeded 79% in the territories and was the lowest in Ontario (68%).
Provincial and territorial governments’ health expenditure per capita averaged $3,330 in
2008. The highest per capita spending among the provinces is projected to be in
Newfoundland and Labrador ($3,962) and Alberta ($3,817), while the lowest is forecast to
be in Quebec ($3,006) and Ontario ($3,270).
Private-sector expenditure averaged $1,553 per capita in 2008. Ontario ($1,702) and
Alberta ($1,619) had the highest spending, while Newfoundland and Labrador ($1,233)
and Saskatchewan ($1,294) had the lowest.
x.
26
Provincial/territorial comparisons in this discussion are based on figures that are not adjusted for variations
in age and sex. For age–sex standardized comparisons see the discussion in the next section.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table 6
Health Expenditure Summary, by Province/Territory and Canada, 2008f
Total
Total
Health
Expenditure Expenditure Exp. as
per Capita
Percent
of GDP
($’ Billions)
($)
(%)
N.L.
2.7
5,395
8.8
P.E.I.
0.7
5,182
15.3
N.S.
5.1
5,451
14.6
N.B.
4.0
5,280
14.1
Que.
36.0
4,653
11.7
Ont.
67.7
5,229
11.3
Man.
6.6
5,555
12.8
Sask.
5.4
5,393
9.1
Alta.
20.1
5,730
6.9
B.C.
22.6
5,093
11.4
Y.T.
0.2
7,837
14.9
N.W.T.
0.4
9,652
9.4
Nun.
0.4
11,379
26.8
Canada
171.9
5,170
10.7
Other
Prov./Terr.
PublicGovernmentSector
Sector Exp.
Exp. per
per Capita
Capita
($)
($)
3,962
200
3,300
410
3,531
336
3,445
266
3,006
305
3,270
257
3,670
465
3,648
452
3,817
294
3,312
221
4,965 1,274
6,306 1,566
8,442 2,262
3,330
287
Total
PublicSector
Exp. per
Capita
($)
4,162
3,710
3,866
3,710
3,310
3,527
4,134
4,099
4,111
3,533
6,239
7,872
10,703
3,617
PrivateSector
Exp. per
Capita
Public
Sector
as Percent
of Total
($)
1,233
1,472
1,585
1,569
1,342
1,702
1,420
1,294
1,619
1,560
1,597
1,780
675
1,553
(%)
77.2
71.6
70.9
70.3
71.2
67.5
74.4
76.0
71.7
69.4
79.6
81.6
94.1
70.0
Note
f = forecast.
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Trends in the Provinces and Territories
The figures in this section present growth of health expenditure per capita at constant
prices. This is to standardize for both population growth and inflation, which have varied
by province/territory during the last two decades.xi
The 1990s witnessed policies of health system reform and public expenditure restraint in
virtually all jurisdictions. Public-sector expenditure per capita declined in all jurisdictions at
some time during this period, although the timing and duration of expenditure reductions
varied. Quebec, Saskatchewan and Alberta experienced sharp declines, while Ontario
experienced declines in each of the four years from 1993 to 1996. Public investment in
health care near the end of the 1990s contributed to significant increases in growth rates
of public health expenditure across Canada. Meanwhile, the private sector experienced
parallel growth in all provinces.
xi. The indices used to measure inflation are the implicit price index for government current expenditure in
the public sector and the consumer price index health component in the private sector. Both indices track
prices separately in each province and territory (see Calculation Methods in the Methodological Notes
section of this report).
CIHI 2008
27
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Figure 18
–
Public- and Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, 1988 to 2008,
by Province and Territory, Constant (1997) Dollars
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island
$3,500
$3,500
$3,000
$3,000
$2,500
$2,500
$2,000
$2,000
$1,500
$1,500
$1,000
$1,000
$500
$500
$0
$0
1988
93
Public
98
Year
Private
03
2008
1988
Forecast
93
98
03
Public
Year
Private
Forecast
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
$3,500
$3,500
$3,000
$3,000
$2,500
$2,500
$2,000
$2,000
$1,500
$1,500
$1,000
$1,000
$500
$500
$0
1988
93
98
03
2008
$0
1988
93
Year
Public
Private
Forecast
Public
Quebec
98
Year
03
2008
Private
Forecast
Ontario
$3,500
$3,500
$3,000
$3,000
$2,500
$2,500
$2,000
$2,000
$1,500
$1,500
$1,000
$1,000
$500
$500
$0
1988
2008
$0
93
98
03
2008
1988
93
Year
Public
Private
Forecast
Public
98
Year
Private
03
2008
Forecast
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Population and Price Indices,
Statistics Canada.
28
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Figure 18
Public- and Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, 1988 to 2008,
by Province and Territory, Constant (1997) Dollars (cont’d)
Manitoba
Saskatchewan
$3,500
$3,500
$3,000
$3,000
$2,500
$2,500
$2,000
$2,000
$1,500
$1,500
$1,000
$1,000
$500
$500
$0
$0
1988
93
98
03
2008
1988
93
98
Year
Public
Private
Public
Forecast
Alberta
2008
Private
Forecast
British Columbia
$3,500
$3,500
$3,000
$3,000
$2,500
$2,500
$2,000
$2,000
$1,500
$1,500
$1,000
$1,000
$500
$500
$0
1988
03
Year
$0
93
98
03
2008
1988
93
Year
Public
Private
98
03
2008
Year
Forecast
Public
Private
Forecast
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Population and Price Indices,
Statistics Canada.
CIHI 2008
29
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Figure 18
Public- and Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita, 1988 to
2008, by Province and Territory, Constant (1997) Dollars (cont’d)
The Yukon
The Northwest Territories
$7,000
$6,000
$6,000
$5,000
$5,000
$4,000
$4,000
$3,000
$3,000
$2,000
$2,000
$1,000
$1,000
$0
$0
1988
93
Public
98
03
1988
2008
93
98
03
2008
Year
Year
Private
Public
Forecast
Private
Forecast
Nunavut
$10,000
$9,000
$8,000
$7,000
$6,000
$5,000
$4,000
$3,000
$2,000
$1,000
$0
1988
93
98
03
2008
Year
Public
Private
Forecast
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Population and Price Indices,
Statistics Canada.
30
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditure
Standardized for Age and Sex
Similarities in provincial and territorial government per capita health expenditures arise
because of universal coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services
under the Canada Health Act. However, each jurisdiction has different population age and
sex profiles, which could lead to systematic differences in total expenditure (even if per
capita expenditure were virtually the same for each age and sex group). Standardizing
expenditure to a common population distribution provides a means to measure
differences that result from utilization and prices.
Total provincial/territorial government expenditure per capita, standardized for age and
sex, is compared in Table 7. The data show both actual and standardized expenditures
from 2003 to 2006 (the latest year for which age–sex data are available). Standardized
expenditures were calculated by multiplying the male and female population of Canada in
each of 19 age groups by the expenditure per capita for each age group in each province
and territory and dividing the product by the population of Canada.
Percentage differences between actual and standardized expenditure tend to be most
pronounced in Alberta, Saskatchewan and the territories. Alberta and the territories have
lower-than-average percentages of their populations older than 65, which accounts for
their increases in per capita expenditure when standardized to the national population.
Quebec and Ontario show little difference between actual and standardized expenditure,
due to their large shares of the total population. Other provinces show lower expenditure
per capita when data are standardized.
Table 7
Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita
Standardized for Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada,
2003 to 2006
2003
Actual
($)
2004
Standardized Percent
($)
Change
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
2,890
2,585
2,425
2,387
2,304
2,477
2,772
2,547
2,621
2,691
3,397
4,776
8,083
2,916
2,488
2,306
2,298
2,272
2,508
2,687
2,389
2,836
2,615
4,600
7,337
11,325
Canada
2,504
2,504
0.9%
-3.8%
-4.9%
-3.7%
-1.4%
1.2%
-3.1%
-6.2%
8.2%
-2.8%
35.4%
53.6%
40.1%
---
2005
Actual
($)
Standardized
($)
Percent
Change
Actual
($)
2,974
2,527
2,521
2,596
2,437
2,635
2,936
2,748
2,840
2,720
3,669
5,275
8,232
2,988
2,429
2,394
2,501
2,396
2,669
2,830
2,578
3,073
2,643
4,907
8,136
11,739
0.5%
-3.9%
-5.0%
-3.6%
-1.7%
1.3%
-3.6%
-6.2%
8.2%
-2.8%
33.7%
54.2%
42.6%
3,092
2,692
2,757
2,837
2,556
2,786
3,150
3,017
3,108
2,905
4,027
5,443
7,469
3,089
2,591
2,611
2,733
2,506
2,824
3,059
2,833
3,365
2,826
5,580
8,510
11,636
2,645
2,645
2,815
2,815
---
2006
Standardized Percent
($)
Change
-0.1%
-3.8%
-5.3%
-3.7%
-1.9%
1.3%
-2.9%
-6.1%
8.3%
-2.7%
38.6%
56.4%
55.8%
---
Actual
($)
Standardized
($)
Percent
Change
3,315
2,799
3,100
3,131
2,691
2,925
3,315
3,246
3,327
3,018
4,575
5,707
8,386
3,290
2,695
2,936
3,011
2,626
2,966
3,245
3,056
3,614
2,939
6,275
8,863
13,558
-0.7%
-3.7%
-5.3%
-3.8%
-2.4%
1.4%
-2.1%
-5.9%
8.6%
-2.6%
37.1%
55.3%
61.7%
2,973
2,973
---
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Population, Statistics Canada.
CIHI 2008
31
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditure by
Age and Sexxii
The population of Canada is aging rapidly by historical standards. The largest concentration
of population is in the middle age groups and moving upward.xiii The baby-boom cohort will
affect the size of the elderly population, which was estimated at about 13% in 2006 and is
projected to grow. Even over the relatively short period from 1998 to 2006, the increase in
older age groups is evident (Figure 19). Future health care costs for an aging population
have been a topical issue for a number of years.
Figure 19
Age Distribution, Canada, 1998 and 2006
10.0%
9.0%
8.0%
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
9 0+
89
8 5–
84
8 0–
7 0– 7
4
7 5–
79
5 0– 5
4
5 5– 5
9
6 0– 6
4
6 5– 6
9
49
4 5–
3 0– 3
4
3 5– 3
9
4 0–
44
1 5– 1
9
2 0– 2
4
2 5– 2
9
14
5 –9
1 0–
1 –4
<1
0.0%
Age Group
1998
2006
Source
Population, Statistics Canada.
The conventional wisdom holds that future demands for health care by an aging population
will strain governments’ ability to fund services covered under the Canada Health Act.
Some Canadian studies suggest that the effects of population growth and aging will
be manageable, however, within the context of a growing economy.
xii.
A detailed explanation of methods and sources used to distribute provincial/territorial government health
expenditure by age and sex is available in the Methodological Notes section of this report.
xiii. Statistics Canada Population Projections. Medium growth estimate. CANSIM II table 052-0001.
32
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
This section briefly looks at provincial and territorial government expenditures by age
and sex. CIHI has collected actual utilization data from national and provincial/territorial
administrative databases for major categories of service delivered by provincial and
territorial governments, from 1996 to 2006. A brief discussion is provided, focusing
on the age and sex distributions in 2006 (for 19 age groupings) for the hospital and
physician categories.
The complete set of estimates for five major categories—hospitals, physicians, drugs, other
institutions and other professionals, from 1996 to 2006—are presented in the Series E
Data Tables of this report.
Hospital and Physician Expenditure by Age and Sex
All residents are insured for hospital and physician plans under provisions of the Canada
Health Act. Provincial and territorial governments account for 89% of total expenditure
for hospitals and 96% for physician services. These two categories accounted for
approximately 59% of provincial and territorial government health expenditure in 2006.
Hospital expenditure for children younger than one year of age was approximately $2.2
billion in 2006, more than total expenditure for all children and teenagers age 1 to 19
($1.7 billion) (Figure 20). Hospital expenditure begins to increase steeply for females in
the 15 to 19 age group and continues to increase until it peaks in the 30 to 34 age group.
Expenditure for males increases slightly in the last five years of the teens and then stays
relatively stable until the 30s. Male expenditure is greater than female expenditure in the
45 to 49 age group and in each subsequent five-year age group until age 79. Expenditure
for males declines sharply after age 79, with expenditure for females higher than
expenditure for males in each age group. Higher total expenditure for females after
age 79 is due to higher female populations.
Persons 65 and older accounted for approximately 50% of provincial/territorial government
hospital expenditure in Canada during 2006. Within this age group, most was spent by
70 to 89 years old (38% of total). Children younger than one accounted for 6%.
CIHI 2008
33
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Figure 20
Provincial/Territorial Government Hospital Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
Canada, 2006
2,400
($’ 000,000)
2,000
1,600
1,200
800
400
<
1
1–
4
5–
9
10
–1
4
15
–1
9
20
–2
4
25
–2
9
30
–3
4
35
–3
9
40
–4
4
45
–4
9
50
–5
4
55
–5
9
60
–6
4
65
–6
9
70
–7
4
75
–7
9
80
–8
4
85
–8
9
90
+
0
Age Group
Male
Female
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
34
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Hospital expenditure per capita exhibits a more striking age pattern than total expenditure.
Expenditure per capita exceeds $6,000 for both male and female infants younger than one,
a level not reached again until the 80 to 84 age group for males and the 85 to 89 age
group for females (Figure 21). The temporary increase in the female expenditure curve
during the 20s and 30s is also noticeable in per capita expenditure, peaking in the age
groups from 25 to 35.
Hospital expenditure per capita is higher for males than for females throughout the senior
age groups.
Figure 21
Provincial/Territorial Government Hospital Expenditure per Capita,
by Age and Sex, Canada, 2006
$10,000
$9,000
$8,000
$7,000
$6,000
$5,000
$4,000
$3,000
$2,000
$1,000
<
1
1–
4
5–
9
10
–1
4
15
–1
9
20
–2
4
25
–2
9
30
–3
4
35
–3
9
40
–4
4
45
–4
9
50
–5
4
55
–5
9
60
–6
4
65
–6
9
70
–7
4
75
–7
9
80
–8
4
85
–8
9
90
+
$0
Age Group
Male
Female
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Population, Statistics Canada.
CIHI 2008
35
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Physician services expenditure for females is slightly less than that for males until age 14,
and it is consistently higher thereafter (Figure 22). Expenditure for females is highest
between the ages of 25 and 59, accounting for 50% of total expenditure for females.
Expenditure for males for the same group accounts for 42% of total expenditure for males.
Figure 22
Provincial/Territorial Government Physician Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
Canada, 2006
1,000
($’ 000,000)
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
<
1
1–
4
5–
9
10
–1
4
15
–1
9
20
–2
4
25
–2
9
30
–3
4
35
–3
9
40
–4
4
45
–4
9
50
–5
4
55
–5
9
60
–6
4
65
–6
9
70
–7
4
75
–7
9
80
–8
4
85
–8
9
90
+
0
Age Group
Male
Female
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
36
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Expenditure per capita for females has a bimodal distribution, peaking at ages 30 to 34
and again at ages 85 to 89, then falling off in the oldest age group (Figure 23).
Figure 23
Provincial/Territorial Government Physician Expenditure per Capita,
by Age and Sex, Canada, 2006
$1,800
$1,600
$1,400
$1,200
$1,000
$800
$600
$400
$200
<
1
1–
4
5–
9
10
–1
4
15
–1
9
20
–2
4
25
–2
9
30
–3
4
35
–3
9
40
–4
4
45
–4
9
50
–5
4
55
–5
9
60
–6
4
65
–6
9
70
–7
4
75
–7
9
80
–8
4
85
–8
9
90
+
$0
Age Group
Male
Female
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Population, Statistics Canada.
Total Provincial/Territorial Government Expenditure by Age and Sexxiv
The distribution of provincial/territorial government health expenditure by age and sex, in
millions of dollars and per capita dollars, is shown in figures 24 and 25. The influence of
hospital and physician expenditure is obvious in the shape of the curves.
Seniors age 65 and older consumed more than 44% of all provincial/territorial
government health spending in 2006, while only comprising 13.2% of the population.
Females accounted for an estimated 55% of all provincial government spending in 2006.
Female seniors consume the most, at more than 25% of total expenditure, while senior
males accounted for approximately 19%. Infants accounted for less than 3% of total
provincial government expenditure.
xiv. Missing data were estimated for this analysis. Refer to Age and Sex Distribution Methods in the
Methodological Notes section of this report for more details.
CIHI 2008
37
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
As in the case for hospital and physician services, there is high spending per capita for
infant care, with costs estimated to be greater than $7,000 per person for both sexes.
From youths age 1 to adults age 49, spending per person slowly increases but does not
exceed $2,000 per person. There is a pronounced increase in per capita spending in the
senior age groups.
Figure 24
Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
Canada, 2006
6,000
($’ 000,000)
4,500
3,000
1,500
<
1
1–
4
5–
9
10
–1
4
15
–1
9
20
–2
4
25
–2
9
30
–3
4
35
–3
9
40
–4
4
45
–4
9
50
–5
4
55
–5
9
60
–6
4
65
–6
9
70
–7
4
75
–7
9
80
–8
4
85
–8
9
90
+
0
Age Group
Males
Females
Source
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
38
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Figure 25
Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita,
by Age and Sex, Canada, 2006
$28,000
$24,000
$20,000
$16,000
$12,000
$8,000
$4,000
<
1
1–
4
5–
9
10
–1
4
15
–1
9
20
–2
4
25
–2
9
30
–3
4
35
–3
9
40
–4
4
45
–4
9
50
–5
4
55
–5
9
60
–6
4
65
–6
9
70
–7
4
75
–7
9
80
–8
4
85
–8
9
90
+
$0
Age Group
Males
Females
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Population, Statistics Canada.
CIHI 2008
39
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditures
and Fiscal Capacity
Provincial and territorial government health expenditures account for almost 64% of total
health expenditures in Canada and more than 90% of expenditures by all levels of
government. Provincial and territorial government health expenditures during the current
year, 2008, are forecast to reach $110.7 billion.
Provincial and territorial government health expenditure per capita in constant 1997 dollars
decreased during each of the four years from 1993 to 1996 (Figure 26). Expenditure per
capita in constant dollars grew more rapidly from 1998 to 2006 than it had at any other
time since 1975. This growth is expected to continue for 2007 and 2008. The 2006
estimate is approximately $11 per capita more than the amount that would have been
realized if the trend before 1993 had continued.
Figure 26
Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure per Capita in Constant
1997 Dollars, Canada, 1975 to 2008
$2,800
$2,600
$2,400
$2,200
$2,000
$1,800
$1,600
$1,400
$1,200
8
2 00
2 00 5
2 00 2
1 99 9
6
1 99
1 99 3
1 99 0
7
1 98
1 98 4
1 98 1
1 97 8
1 97
5
$1,000
Year
Actual
Forecast
Linear (1993–1994 Trend)
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information; Population, Statistics Canada.
40
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Provincial and Territorial Government Financial Trends
This section uses financial trend data from Statistics Canada’s Financial Management
System (FMS) to explore the relationship between health expenditures by the
provincial/territorial governments and their fiscal capacity, as expressed by levels of
expenditure relative to revenues. The FMS provides a breakdown of all public-sector
expenditure by type of organization and type of expenditure.xv The data used here consist
of general government revenues and expenditures.xvi General government expenditure is
consistent with expenditures reported in the public accounts, which are also the source of
data used in the National Health Expenditure Database (NHEX) series.
Revenue and Expenditure
Provincial and territorial government expenditures of $172 billion exceeded revenues
by approximately $21 billion in 1993 (Figure 27). Expenditures increased slowly for two
years, then decreased in 1996. Although expenditure growth resumed during the next two
years, revenues grew more rapidly and, by the year 2000, provincial and territorial general
government revenues exceeded expenditures by approximately $8.4 billion. However, lower
economic growth from 2001 to 2003 led to a decrease in government revenues and the
return of a deficit. Provincial and territorial governments returned to a surplus in 2004,
which increased to $7.6 billion in 2007.
xv.
Financial Management System, Public Institutions Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa.
xvi. Provincial and territorial general government revenue and expenditure was the largest component
(in fiscal 2007–2008) of the series for total revenue and expenditure, which also includes institutional
units controlled or mainly financed by government, such as universities and health service organizations.
For this analysis, fiscal year data have been converted to calendar year.
CIHI 2008
41
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Figure 27
Provincial/Territorial Government Revenue and Expenditure, Canada,
1993 to 2007
320,000
300,000
280,000
260,000
($’ Millions)
240,000
220,000
200,000
180,000
160,000
140,000
120,000
2 00 7
2 00 6
2 00 5
2 00 4
2 00 3
2 00 2
9
1 99
2 00 1
8
1 99
2 00 0
7
1 99
1 99 6
4
1 99
1 99 5
3
1 99
100,000
Year
Revenue
Expenditure
Source
Financial Management System, Statistics Canada.
42
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Provincial and territorial debt charges were 13.8% of total expenditures and 15.8% of
revenues in 1993. During the next three years, debt charges increased to peak at 15.3%
of expenditures in 1996 (Figure 28). During the following 11 years, the improving fiscal
balance, combined with lower interest rates, led to lower debt charges, reaching 9.4% of
expenditures and 9.2% of revenues in 2007.
Figure 28
Provincial/Territorial Debt Charges as a Proportion of Total Provincial/
Territorial Expenditure and Revenue, Canada, 1993 to 2007
20.0%
16.0%
12.0%
8.0%
4.0%
2 00 7
6
2 00
2 00 5
2 00 4
2 00 3
2
2 00
2 00 1
0
2 00
1 99 9
8
1 99
1 99 7
1 99 6
1 99 5
4
1 99
1 99 3
0.0%
Year
Debt as a Proportion of Total Expenditure
Debt as a Proportion of Revenue
Source
Financial Management System, Statistics Canada.
CIHI 2008
43
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Health Expenditures and Provincial and Territorial Revenues
While it is common to compare health expenditure to total expenditure, it can also
be instructive to compare health expenditure to revenue, especially in the context of
changes in provincial and territorial fiscal situations during the last 16 years. Rates of
change in revenue were mixed throughout the period. Prior to 2002, the cumulative rate
of increase in revenues had remained greater than the cumulative rate of increase in health
expenditures (measured from the 1993 base year). By 2007, revenue, at 1997 price levels,
was 49% higher than revenue in 1993, similar to the cumulative increase in health
expenditures (60%) during that period (Figure 29).
Figure 29
Provincial/Territorial Government Revenue and Health Expenditure,
Constant Dollar Indices (1993 = 100), Canada, 1993 to 2008
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
2 00 8
7
2 00
2 00 6
2 00 5
2 00 4
3
2 00
2 00 2
1
2 00
0
2 00
1 99 9
1 99 8
1 99 7
1 99 6
1 99 5
4
1 99
1 99 3
90
Year
Revenue
Health Expenditure
Forecast
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information;
Financial Management System, Statistics Canada.
44
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Provincial and territorial revenues reported in the FMS accounts include own source
revenue from taxation, investments and other sources. Transfers from other levels of
government are the second major category of revenue; they include statutory subsidies,
equalization payments, the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) and the Canada
Health Transfer (CHT). Own source revenues at constant 1997 price levels increased in all
years from 1993 to 2000, then decreased in 2001 and 2002, before rising again over the
next five years (Figure 30). Transfers decreased in constant dollars during the first half of
this period and increased in subsequent years.
Figure 30
Provincial/Territorial Government Revenues, Constant Dollar Indices
(1993 = 100), Canada, 1993 to 2007
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
20
07
20
06
20
05
20
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
20
00
19
99
19
98
19
97
19
96
19
95
19
94
19
93
70
Year
Total
Own Source
Transfers
Source
Financial Management System, Statistics Canada.
In interpreting these trend data, it is important to note that transfers in FMS include
all inter-governmental transfers, including at various times the CHST, Established
Programs Funding and Canada Assistance Plan. The CHST replaced the latter two
transfer mechanisms in fiscal 1996–1997, which in turn was replaced by the CHT
and the Canada Social Transfer in 2004–2005. Amounts transferred under these
programs are often the main focus of discussion about funding for health and social
programs. Federal, provincial and territorial cost-sharing arrangements
CIHI 2008
45
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
for health also include the value of tax points, which would be included as provincial and
territorial government own source revenue in the FMS accounts. As a consequence, it is
not possible to define clearly the relative shares of health funding provided by federal and
provincial/territorial levels of government.
Health Expenditure and Total Program Expenditure
Health expenditures were equivalent to 28.2% of total provincial and territorial government
expenditures in 1993 and 32.7% of program expenditures (total expenditure less debt
charges). Health expenditures decreased as a percent of government expenditures during
the next two years (Figure 31). Following strong growth of health expenditures over the
most recent nine years, combined with more modest rates of growth in total expenditures,
the shares of total and program expenditures allocated to health increased to 35.5% and
39.2%, respectively, in 2007.
Figure 31
Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure as a Proportion of
Total Provincial/Territorial Government Expenditure and Programs, Canada,
1993 to 2007
40.0%
35.0%
30.0%
25.0%
6
f
2 00 7
Year
2 00
2 00 5
2 00 4
2
2 00
2 00 3
1
2 00
9
1 99
2 00 0
8
1 99
1 99 7
1 99 6
1 99 5
4
1 99
1 99 3
20.0%
Health as a Proportion of Total Expenditure
Health as a Proportion of Provincial Programs (Total Expenditure Less Debt Charges)
Note
f = forecast.
Sources
National Health Expenditure Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information;
Financial Management System, Statistics Canada.
46
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
International Comparisons
Comparability of Health Expenditure Across Countries
For the last eight annual updates of the health database maintained by the OECD, member
countries were asked to report health expenditure according to concepts presented in the
OECD manual A System of Health Accounts (SHA), released in May 2000. Countries are at
varying stages of reporting total health expenditure according to the boundary of health
care proposed in the SHA manual. This means that data presented in OECD Health Data
2008 are at varying levels of comparability.xvii This section shows health expenditure
information for the 25 countries that most closely follow the health care boundary
proposed in the OECD manual. The OECD states that the data for those countries are
believed to be fairly comparable, although some deviations from SHA definitions may still
exist among the sub-aggregate variables of total health expenditure.xviii The 25 countries
are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Turkey and
the United States.
Comparability of Health Expenditure Over Time
Since the early 2000s, countries adopted the SHA to report their data for the most recent
years. Many countries have yet to revise their series for earlier years. Breaks in series thus
appear in most countries in the mid-1990s to early 2000s.
The data presented in OECD Health Data 2008 are based on the SHA starting in the
following years:
•
Australia: 1998
•
Austria: 1990
•
Belgium: 2003
•
Canada: 1975
•
Czech Republic: 2003
•
Denmark: 2003
•
Finland: N/A
•
France: 2003
•
Germany: 1992
•
Hungary: 1998
•
Japan: 1995
•
Korea: 1980
•
Luxembourg: 1999
•
Mexico: 1999
xvii.
See OECD Health Data 2008, June edition for more information on country methodologies and
data limitations.
xviii. See Data Comprehensiveness and Boundaries of Health Care in the Methodological Notes.
CIHI 2008
47
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
•
The Netherlands: 1998
•
New Zealand: 2004
•
Norway: 1997
•
Poland: 2002
•
Portugal: 2000
•
Slovak Republic: 2004
•
Spain: 1999
•
Switzerland: 1995
•
Sweden: 2001
•
Turkey: 1999
•
United States: 1999
Due to the change in reporting standards, this section on international comparisons
focuses on data for the most recent year for which data are available.
OECD Definition of Total Health Expenditure
Total expenditure on health is defined by the OECD as the sum of expenditure on
activities that—through application of medical, paramedical and nursing knowledge
and technology—have the goals of:
•
Promoting health and preventing disease;
•
Curing illness and reducing premature mortality;
•
Caring for persons affected by chronic illness who require nursing care;
•
Caring for persons with health-related impairments and disabilities
who require nursing care;
•
Assisting patients to die with dignity;
•
Providing and administering public health; and
•
Providing and administering health programs, health insurance and other
funding arrangements.
Activities such as food and hygiene control, health research and development and
training of health workers are considered health-related, but are not included in total
health expenditure.
Health Expenditure and GDP
A higher level of public and private spending on health reduces the share of GDP that is
left to purchase other goods and services. While there is more than a fivefold variation in
health expenditure per capita between some countries, the share of GDP spent on health
does not vary as widely. This reflects the fact that the level of health expenditure is driven
in part by the level of GDP.
48
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Total Health Expenditure as a Percent of GDP—2006
Canada is among eight countries with the highest ratio of total health expenditure to GDP.
The OECD GDP figures are standardized for international comparability; consequently, the
health expenditure–to-GDP ratios reported by the OECD may differ from those reported by
the national health accounts of member countries. Specific to Canada, the GDP estimate
published by Statistics Canada contains an amount for financial intermediation services
indirectly measured (FISIM). Statistics Canada removes the FISIM from the GDP estimate
provided to the OECD. In addition, there is a time lag between both Statistics Canada’s
revision of the Canadian GDP and CIHI’s revision of national health expenditure data and
their publication in OECD reports.
In 2006, the United States had the highest ratio of total health expenditure to GDP at
15.3%, while Canada was at 10.0% (Figure 32).
Figure 32
Total Health Expenditure as a Percent of GDP, 25 Selected Countries, 2006
Note
(a) Data for 2005.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
CIHI 2008
49
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Public-Sector Health Expenditure as a Percent of GDP—2006
With regard to public-sector spending on health as a percentage of GDP in 2006, Canada
falls within the middle of the countries. Public-sector health expenditure accounted for
8.9% of France’s GDP, the highest proportion among the countries. The ratios of publicsector spending to GDP were similar for the United States, Canada and Switzerland
(Figure 33).
Figure 33
Public-Sector Health Expenditure as a Percent of GDP, 24 Selected
Countries, 2006
Notes
(a) Data for 2005.
(b) Data for 2002.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
50
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Private-Sector Health Expenditure as a Percent of GDP—2006
Private-sector health expenditure represented 8.3% of GDP in the United States in 2006,
by far the highest percentage among the countries. Canada is within a group of five
countries with very similar private-sector health expenditure–to-GDP ratios ranging
between 2.9% and 3.3%; other countries in this group are the Netherlands, Portugal,
Korea and Australia (Figure 34).
Figure 34
Private-Sector Health Expenditure as a Percent of GDP, 25 Selected
Countries, 2006
Notes
(a) Data for 2005.
(b) Data for 2002.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
CIHI 2008
51
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Health Expenditure per Capitaxix
Total Health Expenditure per Capita—2006
Canada, with per capita spending of $3,678, is among the five countries with the highest
spending on health per capita. The United States had the highest health expenditure per
capita ($6,714) in 2006. Health expenditure per capita was rather similar in Canada,
Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark (Figure 35).
Figure 35
Total Health Expenditure per Capita in U.S. Dollars, 25 Selected
Countries, 2006
Note
(a) Data for 2005.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
xix. Health expenditure per capita was converted to U.S. dollars using purchasing power parities (PPPs) for
GDP, which are designed to eliminate differences in price levels between countries—that is, PPPs equalize
the purchasing power of different currencies. OECD Health Data.
52
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Public-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita—2006
Luxembourg has the highest public-sector health expenditure per capita at $3,910, followed
by Norway with $3,780. Canada was within the top nine countries for the level of health
spending by the public sector per capita, at $2,591 (Figure 36).
Figure 36
Public-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita in U.S. Dollars, 24 Selected
Countries, 2006
Notes
(a) Data for 2005.
(b) Data for 2002.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
CIHI 2008
53
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita—2006
Canada, with private-sector spending per capita of $1,087, is among the three countries
with the highest health expenditure per capita funded by the private sector. Private-sector
spending per capita was considerably higher in the United States ($3,640) and Switzerland
($1,713). Private-sector health expenditure per capita in the Netherlands ($1,064),
Australia ($989) and Austria ($858) was close to Canada’s level (Figure 37).
Figure 37
Private-Sector Health Expenditure per Capita in U.S. Dollars, 25 Selected
Countries, 2006
Notes
(a) Data for 2005.
(b) Data for 2002.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
54
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds—2006
Expenditure on medical services and expenditure on medical goods are two major
expenditure categories. Taken together, they represent expenditure on personal health
care and account for more than 80% of total health expenditure in each of the 24 countries
for which the breakdown of total health expenditure is available (the breakdown is not
available for Turkey) (Figure 38).
Expenditure on medical services is composed of expenditure on inpatient care and
expenditure on other medical services.xx Inpatient care is mainly delivered in hospitals
but also in nursing and residential care facilities. Expenditure on other medical services
includes all expenditures on day care, outpatient care (in hospitals, physicians’ and
dentists’ offices, outpatient care centres, etc.), ancillary services provided to outpatients
such as laboratory services and diagnostic imaging and home care.
Expenditure on medical goods (dispensed to outpatients) comprises mostly expenditure on
pharmaceuticals and other medical non-durables, but also, to a lesser extent, expenditure
on therapeutic appliances and other medical durables such as eyeglasses, hearing aids,
artificial limbs, wheelchairs, etc.
Expenditure on medical goods ranged between 17% and 20% of total health expenditure
for a middle group of five countries: Canada, Germany, Belgium, Australia and Finland
(Figure 38). The share of medical goods in total health expenditure was below 17% in
nine countries and above 20% in 10 countries.
xx.
The two components of medical services are not shown separately in the figure, as each component was
not reported consistently among countries. Some countries included, under inpatient care, expenditures
that should have been included under other medical services.
CIHI 2008
55
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Figure 38
Expenditure on Personal Health Care as a Percent of Total Health
Expenditure, 24 Selected Countries, 2006
Note
(a) Data for 2005.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
56
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Public Share of Health Expenditure—2006
Public Share of Total Health Expenditure—2006
Expenditure by the public sector represented more than 80% of total health expenditure
in Luxembourg, the Czech Republic, Norway, Denmark, Japan and Sweden. The share
funded by the public sector was 70% in Canada. The country with the lowest public-sector
share was Mexico at 44% (Figure 39).
Figure 39
Public Share of Total Health Expenditure, 24 Selected Countries, 2006
Notes
(a) Data for 2005.
(b) Data for 2002.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
CIHI 2008
57
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Public Share of Expenditure on Medical Services—2006
In Canada, 79% of expenditures on medical services were financed by the public sector.
The public-sector share ranged between 70% and 80% for a group of nine countries:
Canada, Austria, Germany, New Zealand, Portugal, Hungary, Belgium, Australia and Spain.
The public-sector share was 48% in the United States and 41% in Mexico (Figure 40).
Figure 40
Public Share of Expenditure on Medical Services, 24 Selected
Countries, 2006
Note
(a) Data for 2005.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
58
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Public Share of Expenditure on Medical Goods—2006
Luxembourg (77.5%) had the highest share of expenditure on medical goods (dispensed
to outpatients) financed by the public sector among the countries for which data were
available (data were not available for Turkey). The public sector funded the lowest shares
of expenditure on medical goods in Canada (37%), the United States (30%) and Mexico
(15%) (Figure 41).
Figure 41
Public Share of Expenditure on Medical Goods, 24 Selected Countries, 2006
Note
(a) Data for 2005.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance—2006
Public-Sector Sources of Finance—2006
Figure 42 shows the countries in descending order according to the share of total health
expenditure financed by the public sector, general government.
The public sector includes two sub-sectors: 1) general governments, including central,
state/regional and local government authorities; and 2) social security funds, which are
social insurance schemes covering the entire community or large sections of the
community and that are imposed and controlled by government units.
CIHI 2008
59
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Generally, the level of public-sector financing appears to be unrelated to the choice
of sub-sectors through which the countries provide funding. Expenditures by the public
sector represented more than 80% of total health expenditure in Luxembourg,
the Czech Republic, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands and Japan. In Sweden, Denmark,
New Zealand and Australia, general governments financed all of the public-sector spending.
Canada falls within a group of countries with a public-sector share ranging between 67%
and 80% of total health expenditure. In eight of these countries (France, Germany,
the Slovak Republic, Hungary, Poland, Belgium, Austria and Turkey), social security funds
were the principal source of finance, in contrast to Canada, where about 1% of health
expenditures were financed by social security funds. In Canada, social security funds
include the health care spending by workers’ compensation boards and the Drug Insurance
Fund components of the ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux (MSSS) drug
subsidy program.
Figure 42
Percent of Total Health Expenditure Financed by the Public Sector, by Source
of Finance, 25 Selected Countries, 2006
Notes
(a) Data for 2005.
(c) Data for 2000.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
60
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Private-Sector Sources of Finance—2006
Figure 43 shows countries in descending order according to the share of total health
expenditure financed by private insurance. In 20 countries, private-sector funding is broken
down between private insurance and all other private funds. However, this breakdown is
not available for Turkey, Sweden, the Slovak Republic and Norway. Approximately half of
total health expenditure was financed by the private sector in the United States (54.2%)
and Mexico (55.8%). Private insurance in the United States accounted for more than
one-third of total health expenditure (36.0%), by far the largest proportion of any country.
Canada is included in a group of eight countries (with Australia, Poland, Portugal, Hungary,
Spain, Turkey and the Slovak Republic) where the private sector funded between 25% and
33% of total health expenditure. In Canada, private insurance accounts for 12.6% of total
health expenditure.
Figure 43
Percent of Total Health Expenditure Financed by the Private Sector,
by Source of Finance, 24 Selected Countries, 2006
Notes
(a) Data for 2005.
(b) Data for 2002.
Source
OECD Health Data 2008, June edition.
CIHI 2008
61
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Methodological Notes
Concepts and Definitions
Mandate of the National Health Expenditure Database (NHEX)
The mandate of NHEX is twofold:
1. To support the development and evaluation of health programs in Canada by all levels
of government and within the private sector.
2. To compile information on health expenditures that will accurately portray the
importance of health care as a component of national expenditure.
Variables and Concepts
Health expenditure—includes any type of expenditure for which the primary objective
is to improve or prevent the deterioration of health status.
This definition allows economic activities to be measured according to primary purpose
and secondary effects. Activities that are undertaken with the direct purpose of improving
or maintaining health are included. Other activities are not included, even though they
may impact health. For example, funds aligning with housing and income support
policies which have social welfare goals as their primary purpose are not considered
to be health expenditures, yet they are recognized as powerful factors in determining
population health.
Figure 44
Composition of Total Health Expenditures, by Source of Finance*
Provincial Government Sector
PUBLIC SECTOR
Federal Direct Sector
Other Public Sector
TOTAL
Health
Expenditures
Municipal Government Sector
Social Security
Funds
Workers’
Compensation
Boards
Non-Consumption
PRIVATE SECTOR
Out-of-Pocket
Premiums to Quebec
Drug Insurance Fund
Commercial Insurance Firms
Private Health Insurance
Not-for-Profit Insurance Firms
Note
* The remaining funds in the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund are financed through the Consolidated
Revenue Fund (these expenditures are captured under the provincial government sector).
62
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Source of Finance (Sectors)
National health expenditures are reported based on the principle of responsibility for
payment rather than on the source of the funds. It is for this reason, for example,
that federal health transfers to the provinces/territories are included in the provincial
government sector, since it is the responsibility of provincial/territorial governments to
expend federal transfers on health services. The exception to this principle is that
provincial government health transfers to municipal governments are included in the
provincial government sector.
Public sector—includes health care spending by governments and government agencies.xxi
It is sub-divided into four levels, as described below:
1. The provincial government sector includes health spending from provincial/territorial
government funds, federal health transfers to the provinces/territories and provincial
government health transfers to municipal governments.
2. The federal direct sector refers to direct health care spending by the federal
government in relation to health care services for special groups such as Aboriginal
peoples, the Canadian Forces and veterans, as well as expenditures for health research,
health promotion and health protection. Federal direct health expenditure does not
include federal health transfers to the provinces.
3. The municipal government sector expenditure includes health care spending by
municipal governments for institutional services; public health; capital construction
and equipment; and dental services provided by municipalities in the provinces of
Nova Scotia, Manitoba and British Columbia. Designated funds transferred by provincial
governments for health purposes are not included in the municipal sector, but are
included with provincial government expenditure.
4. Social security funds are social insurance programs that are imposed and controlled by
a government authority. They generally involve compulsory contributions by employees,
employers or both, and the government authority determines the terms on which
benefits are paid to recipients. Social security funds are distinguished from other social
insurance programs, the terms of which are determined by mutual agreement between
individual employers and their employees. In Canada, social security funds include the
health care spending by workers’ compensation boards as well as the premiums paid by
the subscribers of the Quebec Drug Insurance Fund and by persons age 65 or older
insured by this plan.
Health spending by workers’ compensation boards includes what the provincial boards
commonly refer to as medical aid. Non-health related items often reported by the
workers’ compensation boards as medical aid expenditure, such as funeral expenses,
travel, clothing, etc., are removed.
xxi.
Statistics Canada (Public Institutions Division) publishes estimates of government health expenditure as
part of its comprehensive reporting system of all government expenditures, the Financial Management
System (FMS). The FMS public-sector health spending estimates are lower than those reported by CIHI
because different classification methods are applied and a narrower definition of health expenditure is
used in the FMS.
CIHI 2008
63
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
On January 1, 1997, the government of Quebec created a basic drug insurance plan
with the objective of ensuring the population of Quebec has access to drugs as
required by health status. All residents of Quebec must be covered by drug insurance,
whether by private group insurance or by the public plan administered by the Régie de
l’assurance-maladie du Québec (RAMQ). The Drug Insurance Fund is the chosen
mechanism to pay all drug and pharmaceutical service costs provided to subscribers
insured by the RAMQ, as well as their children. Since July 1, 2002, the public plan
has been financed both by the expenditure allocated to this program by the Quebec
government (provincial government sector) and by the amounts collected by the
Drug Insurance Fund as premiums and proceeds (social security funds sector).
Private sector—includes out-of-pocket expenditures made by individuals for health care
goods and services; the health insurance claims paid to individuals by commercial and
not-for-profit insurance firms, as well as the cost of administering those claims; non-patient
revenues received by health care institutions such as donations and investment income;
private spending on health-related capital construction and equipment; and health research
funded by private sources.
Use of Funds (Categories)
Hospitals—institutions where patients are accommodated on the basis of medical need
and are provided with continuing medical care and supporting diagnostic and therapeutic
services. Hospitals are licensed or approved as hospitals by a provincial/territorial
government, or are operated by the government of Canada, and include those providing
acute care, extended and chronic care, rehabilitation and convalescent care, psychiatric
care, as well as nursing stations or outpost hospitals.
Other institutions—include residential care types of facilities (for the chronically ill or
disabled, who reside at the institution more or less permanently) and which are approved,
funded or licensed by provincial or territorial departments of health and/or social services.
Residential care facilities include homes for the aged (including nursing homes), facilities
for persons with physical disabilities, developmental delays, psychiatric disabilities and
alcohol and drug problems, and facilities for emotionally disturbed children. Facilities solely
of a custodial or domiciliary nature and facilities for transients or delinquents are excluded.
Physicians—expenditures include primarily professional fees paid by provincial/territorial
medical care insurance plans to physicians in private practice. Fees for services rendered
in hospitals are included when paid directly to physicians by the plans. Also included are
other forms of professional incomes (salaries, sessional, capitation).
The physician expenditure category does not include the remuneration of physicians on the
payrolls of hospitals or public-sector health agencies; these are included in the appropriate
category, for example, hospitals or other health spending. Physician expenditures generally
represent amounts that flow through provincial/territorial medical care plans.
Provinces/territories differ in terms of what the medical care plans cover. CIHI has not
attempted to make adjustments to physician expenditures to reflect these differences
because only a few provinces, to date, can net out these differences from their data.
64
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Other professionals—services at the aggregate level represent expenditures for the services
of privately practising dentists, denturists, chiropractors, massage therapists, osteopaths,
physiotherapists, podiatrists, psychologists, private duty nurses and naturopaths. Discrete
identification of many of the professions included under other professional services is often
possible only when they are reported by provincial medical care insurance plans.
This category has been disaggregated at the Canada level in the Data Tables to provide
information on the following sub-categories:
•
Dental services—expenditures for professional fees of dentists (includes dental
assistants and hygienists) and denturists, as well as the cost of dental prostheses,
including false teeth, and laboratory charges for crowns and other dental appliances.
•
Vision care services—expenditures for the professional services of optometrists and
dispensing opticians, as well as expenditures for eyeglasses and contact lenses.
•
Other—expenditures for chiropractors, massage therapists, osteopaths,
physiotherapists, podiatrists, psychologists, private duty nurses and naturopaths.
Drugs—at the aggregate level, include expenditures on prescribed drugs and non-prescribed
products purchased in retail stores. Estimates represent the final costs to consumers
including dispensing fees, mark-ups and appropriate taxes. This category has been
disaggregated at the Canada level in the Data Tables to provide information on the
following sub-categories:
•
Prescribed drugs—substances considered to be drugs under the Food and
Drugs Act and which are sold for human use as the result of a prescription from
a health professional.
•
Non-prescribed drugs—include two sub-components: over-the-counter drugs and
personal health supplies.
•
Over-the-counter drugs—therapeutic drug products not requiring a prescription.
•
Personal health supplies—include items used primarily to promote or maintain health,
for example, oral hygiene products, diagnostic items such as diabetic test strips and
medical items such as incontinence products.
The drug category does not include drugs dispensed in hospitals and, generally, in other
institutions. These are included with the category of hospitals or other institutions. The
classification system is consistent with international standards developed by the OECD.
Capital—includes expenditures on construction, machinery, equipment and some software
of hospitals, clinics, first-aid stations and residential care facilities. It is based on full cost
or cash basis accounting principles.
Public health—by governments and government agencies, includes expenditures for items
such as food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion activities, community
mental health programs, public health nursing, measures to prevent the spread of
communicable disease and occupational health to promote and enhance health and
safety at the workplace in public-sector agencies.
CIHI 2008
65
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Administration—expenditures related to the cost of providing health insurance programs by
the government and private health insurance companies and all costs for the infrastructure
to operate health departments. The administrative costs of operating hospitals, drug
programs, long-term care programs and other non-insured health services are not included
under the category of administration, but rather are included under the category of service,
for example, hospitals, other institutions, drugs.
Other health spending—at the aggregate level includes expenditures on home care, medical
transportation (ambulances), hearing aids, other appliances and prostheses,
health research and miscellaneous health care. Some of the sub-categories of the
aggregate category are defined as follows.
•
Health research—expenditures for research activities designed to further knowledge
of the determinants of health, health status or methods of providing health care,
evaluation of health care delivery or of public health programs. The category does
not include research carried out by hospitals or drug companies in the course of
product development. These amounts would be included either with the hospital
or drug categories.
•
Other—expenditures for items such as home care, medical transportation
(ambulances), hearing aids, other appliances, training of health workers and
voluntary health associations.
The definition of home care that is currently in use in NHEX is based on the definition
used by the OECD, under which only the health professional component of home care is
intended to be included. The portion that is commonly referred to as home support is
considered to be a social service expenditure rather than a health expenditure and is
excluded when it can be identified. A home care feasibility study at CIHI investigated the
feasibility of developing a set of estimates that identify both the health professional and
the home support components of home care. The process of updating the data collected
in this study is under way in order to assess the feasibility of reporting this set of
estimates.
Other Terms
Federal transfers—refer to the total of various federal, provincial and territorial health
financing arrangements that may be used to fund the delivery of health and health-related
services. They include at various times the Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social
Transfer, Health Reform Transfer, Canada Health and Social Transfer, Canada Assistance
Plan, Established Programs Financing, Equalization, Territorial Formula Financing and Health
Resource Fund, which supported provincial capital health expenditures from the mid-1970s
to the early 1980s, and transfers by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs to the
territorial governments for the medical care and hospital insurance plans on behalf of
Aboriginal people. More recently, several other targeted transfer mechanisms were created,
including the Diagnostic/Medical Equipment Fund, Public Health and Immunization Fund
and the Wait Times Reduction Fund.
66
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
In April 2004, the federal government restructured its transfers into five major programs:
the Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social Transfer, Health Reform Transfer, Equalization
and Territorial Formula Financing. Effective April 1, 2004, the Canada Health and Social
Transfer was restructured to enhance the transparency and accountability of federal
support for health. The Canada Health and Social Transfer was replaced by the Canada
Health Transfer and the Canada Social Transfer.
•
Canada Health Transfer (CHT)—is provided to each province and territory in support
of health care. CHT funding is provided through cash payments and tax transfers and
supports the government of Canada’s commitment to the five principles of the Canada
Health Act.
•
Canada Social Transfer (CST)—provides support to the provinces and territories for
postsecondary education, social assistance and social services, including early
childhood development and early learning and child care.
•
Health Reform Transfer (HRT)—provides provinces and territories support for health
care reforms targeted to primary health care, home care and catastrophic drug
coverage. The HRT was integrated into the CHT starting in 2005–2006.
•
Equalization—ensures that less prosperous provinces have sufficient revenue to provide
reasonably comparable levels of public services at reasonably comparable levels of
taxation. Equalization payments are unconditional; provinces can spend them according
to their respective priorities. Eligibility to receive equalization funding is determined by
a formula measuring each province’s revenue-raising capacity against a five-province
standard. Currently, eight provinces receive equalization: Newfoundland and Labrador,
Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and British Columbia.
•
Territorial Formula Financing (TFF)—ensures that territorial governments can provide
reasonably comparable levels of public services at reasonably comparable levels of
taxation, taking into account the higher costs in the North. The transfers are based on
a formula that fills the gap between the expenditure requirements and revenue-raising
capacity of the territories.
•
Diagnostic/Medical Equipment Fund—to improve access to publicly funded diagnostic
services, the government of Canada provides provinces and territories with targeted
funding that supports specialized staff training and equipment.
•
Wait Times Reduction Fund—to improve access to health care services, the
government of Canada provides provinces and territories with targeted funding to assist
in reducing wait times.
•
Public Health and Immunization Fund—to improve the public health capacities of the
government of Canada, provides provinces and territories with targeted funding to
support immunization programs.
•
Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST)—on April 1, 1996, the CHST replaced
federal transfers for social assistance under the CAP and for health and postsecondary
education under EPF. The CHST was a block fund provided in the form of both cash
transfers and tax point transfers to all provinces/territories in support of health,
postsecondary education, social assistance and social service programs.
CIHI 2008
67
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Provinces/territories allocated the CHST to health and other social programs according
to their particular priorities while upholding the criteria and conditions of the Canada
Health Act. In 1996–1997, CHST transfers were allocated among the provinces and
territories in the same proportions as provincial/territorial entitlements under the
combined EPF and CAP transfers in 1995–1996.xxii
•
Canada Assistance Plan (CAP)—introduced in 1966 by the federal government to share
in eligible costs incurred by the provinces and territories in providing social assistance
and welfare services to persons in need or persons likely to become in need if these
services were not provided. The 1994 budget limited 1995–1996 CAP transfers for
all provinces/territories at 1994–1995 levels.xxiii
•
Established Programs Financing (EPF)—prior to the introduction of the CHST, the
federal government contributed to the operation of provincial/territorial health insurance
plans according to the provisions of the Federal–Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and
Federal Post-Secondary Education and Health Contributions Act, 1977 (EPF Act). Under
the act, provinces and territories were entitled to equal per capita federal health
contribution increases according to a fixed formula (escalator). Health contributions
to the provinces/territories consisted of both cash and an equalized tax transfer.
The February 26, 1991, federal budget extended a freeze at 1989–1990 levels to
1994–1995. Legislation later provided for EPF entitlements to grow in 1995–1996
in accordance with the escalator, less three percentage points.
Gross domestic product (GDP)xxiv—is the unduplicated value of production originating
within the boundaries of Canada, regardless of the ownership of the factors of production.
Gross domestic product can be valued either at factor cost or at market prices. In this
publication, GDP is valued at market prices and is expressed in terms of the prices actually
paid by the purchaser. It includes all indirect taxes, such as sales and excise taxes,
customs duties and property taxes and also reflects the impact of subsidy payments.
Implicit price indices—see Methodological Notes, Calculation of Constant Dollars.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)xxv—Purchasing Power Parities are the rates of currency
conversion that equalize the purchasing power of different currencies. This means that a
given sum of money, when converted into different currencies at the PPP rates, will buy the
same basket of goods and services in all countries. Thus PPPs are the rates of currency
conversion, which eliminate differences in price levels between countries.
xxii. Health Canada, Canada Health Act Annual Report.
xxiii. Human Resources Development Canada, Cost Shared Programs, Provincial Entitlements Under the Canada
Assistance Plan, February 1996, (unpublished).
xxiv. Statistics Canada, Guide to the Income and Expenditure Accounts, catalogue 13-603E, 1996,
pp. 137 and 139.
xxv. OECD Health Data, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France.
68
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Major Data Limitations
Data contained in NHEX are estimates. The data are collected from diverse sources and
include varying classes of financial information. The data are collected and classified
according to methods established by a review committee. CIHI analysts and external experts
continue to improve the comprehensiveness, accuracy and currency of the data, in order to
provide the most complete and objective estimates possible. A series of feasibility studies
(for example, home care, public health and administration) were conducted to determine the
advisability and possibility of expanding estimates in NHEX for a number of priority issues.
The research papers for these feasibility studies are available on CIHI’s website
(www.cihi.ca). Notwithstanding, national health expenditure data are estimates and should
be used accordingly.
Most private-sector expenditures are estimated from survey data. Prior to 1996, the Family
Expenditure Survey by Statistics Canada,xxvi an important source of private-sector data,
was not carried out annually; therefore, trend data have been imputed for years between
surveys. Private-sector data were revised following a methodology review in the early
1990s. The revised private-sector data incorporated information estimated directly from
new sources for 1988 and subsequent years. Prior years were estimated using trend data.
As a result, readers should use caution when using the private-sector expenditure data for
small provinces and for years prior to 1988.
Collection and Non-Response
The following notes briefly describe some of the major technical points associated with the
compilation of the health expenditure estimates. Additional information can be obtained by
contacting the National Health Expenditure section by phone at 613-241-7860, by fax at
613-241-8120, or by email at [email protected]
Hierarchy of Classification
National health expenditures in Canada are based on a system of classification that
is consistent with international standards developed by the OECD for reporting
health expenditures.
National health expenditures are grouped within the broad categories of personal health
care or other expenditures:
•
Personal health care consists of expenditure for health goods and services used
by individuals.
•
Other expenditures consist of expenditures on behalf of society, such as public health;
expenditures made as investments for purposes of future consumption, such as capital
expenditures; the administrative expenses of planning and managing the health care
system; and research.
xxvi. Family Expenditure in Canada, Statistics Canada Catalogue Number 65-555. Statistics Canada,
Periodical, Ottawa, Ont.
CIHI 2008
69
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Personal health expenditures are classified within categories that describe the type of
health care used. Certain categories overlap. The hierarchy of classification that is used
to allocate overlapping categories of expenditure is:
•
Institutional setting—health care services consumed in hospitals or other institutions are
allocated to the institutional category if the institution purchases the services on behalf
of its patients. For example, physician services and drugs paid through hospital budgets
are classified as hospital expenditures. This allocates expenditure to the supplier
actually paid by patients or their agents in the form of government or insurance
companies. It also reflects data availability.
•
Self-employed provider of service—for example, all expenses of physicians’ practices
are considered to be expenditures for physician services, even though some of these
expenses would be for employment of other health professionals, drugs or personal
health supplies.
•
Type of good and service—drugs, personal health supplies and appliances
are examples.
An exception to the hierarchy of classification is eye care, in which optometrist
services, eyeglasses and contact lenses sold by optometrists are combined as one
category: vision care services.
The definitions and methods used in the preparation of this report are for the most part
based on those adopted in 1994 by the National Health Expenditure Methodology Review
Committee. This committee included representation from Health Canada, Statistics
Canada, the ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux (MSSS), the Canadian
Medical Association and the Canadian Healthcare Association.
International Comparisons: Data Comprehensiveness and Boundaries of
Health Care
The OECD manual A System of Health Accounts provides a comprehensive framework for
reporting expenditures on the entire field of health care activities and proposes common
functional boundaries of health care for international comparisons. However, member
countries do not yet fully report comprehensive data. Also, they may include expenditures
that fall outside the boundaries of health care as defined by the OECD. For OECD Health
Data 2008, countries were asked to provide notes on their departures from OECD/SHA
boundaries. Country notes are presented below. For each country, the list below shows,
under “Excludes,” expenditures that should have been included in total health expenditure
but were not. It shows, under “Includes,” expenditures that should have been excluded
from total health expenditure but were included.
70
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Australia
Excludes:
•
Minor amounts spent on defence force and prison medical services, education of health
professionals outside health institutions and expenditure on school health services.
Austria
•
No departures from OECD/SHA boundaries reported.
Belgium
Excludes:
•
Expenditure by corporations on occupational health services.
•
Expenditure in all other industries’ secondary producers of health care.
Canada
Includes:
•
Expenditure of Canadian hospitals for care provided to non-Canadians.
•
Revenues of Canadian hospitals from ancillary operations (gift shops, parking lots, etc.).
Only profit used to subsidize patient care should be included; however, while hospital
revenues from ancillary operations are reported, profit cannot be determined from
available data.
•
Expenditure of inpatient facilities for alcohol/drug addiction, except for private-sector
expenditure after 1999.
•
Expenditure by the private sector in some long-term residential care facilities providing
mainly room and board and social services (for example, facilities for mental
retardation, emotionally disturbed children) until 1998.
•
Such items as oral hygiene (for example, dentifrice, dental floss, toothbrushes, oral
antiseptics), medicated shampoos, antiperspirants, etc.
Excludes:
•
Expenditure on school health made by provincial ministries of education.
•
Expenditure by private insurers for out-of-country care provided to Canadians.
•
Private-sector expenditure on occupational health care.
•
Expenditures of voluntary health associations (societies dedicated to prevention and
treatment of major diseases such as arthritis, cancer, diabetes, cerebral palsy, lung,
kidney, liver and heart diseases, etc.).
•
Expenditures by public and private insurance plans for motor vehicle insurance, for
health services not covered by the public programs for health care (such as service of
physiotherapists, chiropractors, etc).
CIHI 2008
71
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
•
Expenditure on the systematic evaluation of health care delivery or of public health
programs (non-biomedical research). In Canada, this expenditure is included under
health research and development, a health-related function, rather than under
health administration and insurance.
Czech Republic
Problems with determinations of boundaries for health care, health-related care and nonhealth care.
Includes:
•
Some health-related functions (for example, training of health workers and
health research).
Excludes:
•
Health care provided in social services institutions (for example, long-term
nursing care).
•
Some private sources of finance, including non-profit institutions and corporations.
•
Some out-of-pocket expenditure (out-of-pocket expenditure is probably underestimated).
Denmark
•
No departures from OECD/SHA boundaries reported after 2002.
Finland
Includes:
•
Expenditure on environmental health.
Excludes:
•
Private capital formation of health care provider institutions.
France
•
Data on health expenditure are reported using a detailed analysis that allows for results
that are mostly compatible with the SHA standard.
Germany
Excludes:
•
Expenditure for military health and prison health.
Hungary
Excludes:
•
72
Private services provided abroad and financed by (voluntary) insurance enterprises.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Japan
Excludes:
•
Some expenditure by central and local governments on administration of health
care services.
•
Expenditure made out-of-pocket or by private insurance agents on medical services
not covered by national medical insurance schemes. These include:
− Advanced or experimental medical procedures including clinical trials;
− Acupuncture and other forms of traditional healing;
− Some medical check-ups;
− Upgrade in hotel services for inpatient care; and
− Voluntary dental care.
•
Expenditures made by private insurance companies to supplement co-payments on
health services covered by the national medical insurance schemes.
•
Expenditure made on health insurance to cover medical expenses for residents of Japan
while travelling abroad.
•
Expenditures made by non-profit institutions to finance health care to
disadvantaged citizens.
Korea
•
No information available on departures from OECD/SHA boundaries and classifications.
Luxembourg
•
Total, public and private health care expenditure covers aggregate health care costs
covered by the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, including expenditure in respect of
frontier-zone workers and residents insured by international institutions. Therefore, the
health care expenditure per inhabitant of Luxembourg cannot be correctly calculated
by dividing the health care expenditure by the resident population of Luxembourg.
Mexico
Includes:
•
Figures for total expenditure also include health-related expenditure; consequently for
international comparison these items have to be deducted from total expenditure.
The Netherlands
•
No departures from OECD/SHA boundaries reported.
New Zealand
Excludes:
•
New Zealand has not yet incorporated expenditures for capital items in OECD reporting.
CIHI 2008
73
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Norway
•
No departures from OECD/SHA boundaries reported.
Poland
Excludes:
•
Expenditures on health by private insurers, private employers and private
non-profit institutions.
Portugal
Excludes:
•
Private capital formation.
•
Health expenditures of the military forces, workers of the ministry of justice
and police forces.
Spain
Excludes:
•
Health care incurred in nursing homes and residential care facilities until 2002.
•
Health care incurred by industries in their production process (occupational health care).
•
Private investment in medical facilities includes only hospital capital expenditure.
•
Prevention and public health expenditure includes only public expenditure.
Sweden
Excludes:
•
Private-sector expenditures other than out-of-pocket expenditures of households.
Switzerland
Includes:
•
Figures for medical services include investments. Thus, the sum of personal and
collective health expenditure is greater than the reported total current expenditure.
Turkey
Within OECD Health Data, Turkish health expenditures are reported in an OECDcompatible way.
Includes:
•
74
The Turkish NHA covers Turkish residents’ expenditures for purchases of health care
abroad. However the purchase of health care domestically by non-residents is not
estimated separately and deducted from the total, as this is accepted as non-feasible
and should not significantly change the results.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
United States
Excludes:
•
Estimates of structures investment do not include spending for moveable equipment.
General Methods
The following is intended as a general overview of the methods applied to calculate
estimates of health expenditure in Canada. More detailed information can be obtained
by contacting the National Health Expenditure section by phone at 613-241-7860, by fax
at 613-241-8120, or by email at [email protected]
Provincial/Territorial Government
Data are extracted annually from provincial/territorial government public accounts.
Programs and/or program items are classified into health expenditure categories according
to accepted and standardized methods and definitions used in estimating national health
expenditure. Data from the public accounts are supplemented with information from
provincial/territorial government department annual reports and annual statistical reports
when available, as well as information provided by provincial/territorial government
department officials. Total provincial government health spending figures include spending
for health services reported by the provincial/territorial ministry responsible for health as
well as by other departments that report spending on health according to national health
accounts definitions.
Adjustments for regional health authority and/or hospital deficits or surpluses are not made
in NHEX unless the provincial government assumes them. Once assumed by the provincial
government, they are allocated to the years when the regional health authority and/or
hospitals accumulated them.
During the preparation of this report, CIHI’s estimates of provincial/territorial government
health expenditure were submitted to provincial/territorial departments of health for review.
Figures identified as forecasts are based on the growth rates of major programs reported
in provincial/territorial government main estimates and budgets.
The variations seen in administration, prevention and promotion, and health research in
2006–2007 for Saskatchewan are due to methodological changes in its accounting
system. The methodological changes involved re-classifying Saskatchewan’s health
expenditure data. Partial methodological changes started in 2005–2006, though they
were not reflected in NHEX due to time limitations. Full effects are apparent in the
2006–2007 data in this report.
On April 1, 1999, Nunavut was formed from the eastern part of the Northwest Territories.
The Northwest Territories expenditures for calendar year 1999 include expenditures for
Nunavut for one-quarter of the fiscal year ending March 31, 1999, prior to the formation of
Nunavut. Consequently, expenditure data for the Northwest Territories are not comparable
before and after calendar year 1999.
CIHI 2008
75
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Private Sector
Private-sector data were revised in 1995, following a methodology review that began in
the early 1990s. Private-sector data under the revised methodology incorporated
information estimated directly from new sources for 1988 and subsequent years.
Expenditure amounts prior to 1988 were estimated using trend data. Therefore, readers
should exercise caution when using the private-sector expenditure data for small provinces
and for years prior to 1988.
Health insurance claims by category and premiums are collected from nine not-for-profit
insurance companies and the Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association, which
survey their member companies. The difference between claims and premiums is allocated
to the category of prepayment administration, which relates to the cost of providing health
insurance programs. Currently, health care spending data by insurance companies
providing casualty insurance are not included in the estimates.
Out-of-pocket health expenditures are based on purchased data from the Survey of
Household Spending (SHS), formerly the Family Expenditure Survey, fielded by Statistics
Canada. Only category data from section “P” of the survey on direct costs for health care
are used; the SHS categories of other medicines, drugs and pharmaceuticals (that is, not
prescribed by a doctor) and hospital care are replaced with data from other sources as
described below. National health expenditure estimates are equal to the average expenditure
per household for each category multiplied by the estimated number of households.
The SHS is an annual survey, which began in 1996. Prior to 1996, full surveys that
included both urban and rural areas were carried out in 1986 and 1992. In 1990, a survey
was conducted that included only metropolitan areas. In years when complete surveys are
carried out, data are available for the 10 provinces and for 17 urban centres. The urban
centres include Yellowknife and Whitehorse, which are used to derive estimates of
expenditure in the territories. Metropolitan expenditures per household tend to be
somewhat higher than provincial estimates. All relevant categories were updated in
complete survey years. In years when only urban surveys were carried out, the percentage
changes in urban expenditures within each province or territory were used to update
category estimates from complete survey years.
Between 1992 and 1996, when no surveys were conducted, provincial growth rates of
the Statistics Canada variables of personal expenditure on medical care and dental care;
drug and drug sundries; and other health care were used to impute missing years. Starting
in 2000, the SHS is conducted in the territories only every second year. For 2000, 2002
and each year thereafter, out-of-pocket estimates in the territories for physicians, dental
care, eye care and other professional services, prescribed drugs and other health goods
and services are estimated by CIHI. The SHS category of other medicines, drugs and
pharmaceuticals is replaced with information purchased from the research company
A.C. Nielsen, which tracks consumer sales of non-prescribed drugs sold in Canada at retail.
Each year, A.C. Nielsen, reports retail sales data for two consistent years for more than
76
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
48 non-prescribed drug categories. Data are reported by sales channel,xxvii total dollar
sales volume and regional sales distribution for five regions that include nine provinces.
Newfoundland and Labrador and the territories are not included. The data are processed by
classifying the non-prescribed drug categories as either over-the-counter drugs or personal
health supplies. Regional sales amounts are separated into nine provinces, and estimates
for Newfoundland and Labrador and the territories are calculated using provincial
distributions of direct costs for health care from the SHS. Lastly, appropriate provincial
and federal sales taxes are incorporated into the estimates.
The SHS category of hospital care is not used; instead the out-of-pocket component
of hospital care is estimated based on revenues from patient services from Statistics
Canada’s Annual Return of Health Care Facilities (HS-2) prior to 1994–1995 and the
Canadian MIS Database (CMDB) thereafter.
Private-sector estimates of other institutions are derived from data from Statistics
Canada’s Residential Care Facilities Survey (RCF). Data used from the survey include
income to facilities from co-insurance or self-pay of residents; differential for preferred
accommodation; and sundry earnings.
The non-consumption component of the private sector includes non-patient revenue to
hospitals, including ancillary operations, donations, investment income, etc. These data are
derived from Statistics Canada’s HS-2 prior to 1994–1995 and CIHI’s CMDB thereafter.
The non-consumption portion of the private sector also includes expenditures for
biomedical and health care research by Canadian faculties of medicine derived from
medical education statistics published by the Association of Faculties of Medicine of
Canada. Included are amounts for research funded by national and provincial not-for-profit
foundations such as the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the National Cancer
Institute of Canada and the Canadian Cancer Society, to name only a few. In addition,
funding from local sources, internal university sources, university and unaffiliated hospitals
and foreign sources are also included. The sum of these amounts is provincially distributed
according to the reported distribution of total amounts spent on research by the various
faculties of medicine across the country.
Capital expenditure in the private sector is also included as a non-consumption
component category. Additional information on the calculation of capital can be found
in the Calculation Methods section under Capital Expenditure and in the Forecasting
Method section.
xxvii. As a general rule, Statistics Canada definitions govern the classification of stores by class of trade. Sales
channels include drug stores; food stores with pharmacies; grocery banners; mass merchandiser; and
warehouse clubs, which are estimated from A.C. Nielsen’s household panel data.
CIHI 2008
77
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Federal Direct
Data on federal direct health care spending is estimated from information provided
by federal government organizations supplemented with information from the national
public accounts. Federal government health care spending is generally provided
according to the province in which the expenditure was made. Some data, however,
are provided only at the national level; in these cases they are distributed by the
appropriate provincial/territorial population.
Historically, public health and administration in the federal direct sector have been reported
as one combined category. In an attempt to break out the category into separate
components for public health and administration, an analysis of more detailed data
available from 1988 to 2003 was undertaken. The estimated distribution between the
categories during this period was applied to the historical data from 1975 to 1987 to
produce separate estimates for public health and administration for the entire time series.
Municipal Government
Municipal government health care spending is based on information provided by the Public
Institutions Division of Statistics Canada.
Social Security Funds
In Canada, social security funds include the health care spending by workers’ compensation
boards and the Drug Insurance Fund component of the MSSS drug subsidy program.
The workers’ compensation board data are derived from special tabulations from each
provincial and territorial workers’ compensation board of their medical aid expenditures.
Income replacement and occupational rehabilitation are not included. Items included as
medical aid that do not meet the national health expenditure definition of health
expenditures, such as funeral expenses, clothing expenses, hotel accommodation and nonmedical transportation, are excluded.
The workers’ compensation boards’ data are supplemented after 1996 with the
portion of the RAMQ’s drug program that is not funded by the MSSS. See the
definition of social security funds in the Concepts and Definitions section of this
report for additional information.
Calculation Methods
Calculation of Average Annual Rate of Growth
The average annual rate of growth is the constant annual rate necessary for a value at the
beginning of a period to grow to a value at the end of a period over the number of
compounding years in the period. The formula used to calculate the average annual rate
of growth is:
=e
(ln(value at end of period)—ln(value at beginning of period))/T
Where the constant e equals 2.718, which is the base of the natural logarithm,
and T equals the number of years in the period.
78
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Calculation of Calendar Year
Some information sources provide data in fiscal years. Calendar year data were calculated
by adding three-quarters of one fiscal year to one-quarter of the previous fiscal year.
Calculation of Constant Dollars
Real health expenditure and real per capita health expenditure are presented in constant
1997 dollars. Constant dollar expenditure was calculated using price indices for public and
private expenditures in each province and territory. The indices are the implicit price indices
(IPI) for government current expenditure, which are used to deflate public-sector health
care spending, and the health component of the consumer price index (CPI), which is used
to deflate private-sector health care spending. Statistics Canada developed both sets of
indices. A more complete explanation of the methodology for calculating implicit price
indices is available in Statistics Canada publications.xxviii
In the health expenditure series, public and private expenditures are adjusted separately in
each province using the appropriate index. Adjusted values are summed to obtain Canada
totals at constant dollar values. Consequently, the overall implicit price index of the health
expenditure series reflects the mix of public and private expenditures reported in NHEX.
The government current expenditure index was forecast for the latest year in this report for
the provinces and territories. The forecasts are based on the Conference Board of Canada’s
forecasts of this index for Canada, Ontario and Quebec and CIHI’s forecasts for the
remaining provinces.
The CPI (health) index was forecast to December of the latest year in this report based on
the average of the monthly index up to April of the same year, which was the latest
information available prior to the publication of this report.
Calculation of TOTAL Health Expenditure as a Percentage of Gross
Domestic Product
The GDP at market pricesxxix was used to express total health expenditure as a percentage
of GDP. National GDP figures for Canada were used rather than the sum of
provincial/territorial GDP to calculate the total health expenditure–to-GDP ratio for Canada.
The GDP figures provided by Statistics Canada were revised (upward) in 2001 as part of
their overall revision to the methods for measuring the nation’s economic activity. Revised
GDP figures for Canada were available from 1975 to 2000. Revised provincial and territorial
GDP figures were available from Statistics Canada from 1981 to 1999. No attempt was
made by CIHI to estimate provincial GDP prior to 1981. Forecasts of GDP figures at both the
national and provincial/territorial levels for the latest year were prepared by CIHI by applying
the Conference Board of Canada’s latest available forecasted growth rate of GDP to the
previous year’s GDP figures from Statistics Canada.
xxviii. For example, Guide to the Income and Expenditure Accounts, Statistics Canada catalogue number
13-603E, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ont.
xxix. National Accounts and Environment Division, Statistics Canada.
CIHI 2008
79
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Calculation of per Capita Dollars
Per capita health expenditures were calculated using the most recent revised population
estimates from the Demography Division of Statistics Canada. This takes into account the
results of the census adjustment for net census under-count, non-permanent residents and
returning Canadians. Population figures for the latest year are projections from the
Demography Division of Statistics Canada.
Calculation of TOTAL Health Expenditure
Total health expenditure refers to the sum of the public and the private sectors. Canada
refers to the sum of the 10 provinces and three territories. Total health care spending in
constant 1997 dollars is the sum of public-sector health care spending in constant 1997
dollars and private-sector health care spending in constant 1997 dollars. Canada average is
the sum of provincial/territorial expenditures divided by the sum of provincial/territorial data
of another variable, such as population.
Capital Expenditure
Prior to a major methodology review in 1995, several categories in the private sector
were estimated using a residual method, whereby public-sector spending was subtracted
from an estimated total. The remainder was allocated entirely to the private sector.
Following a major methodology review in the early 1990s, capital expenditure remained
the only category that was estimated this way. In 1998, the method of calculating capital
expenditure was reviewed and revised. Capital expenditure for the private sector and
provincial and municipal government sectors is now estimated from information obtained
from the Investment and Capital Stock Division at Statistics Canada. Capital expenditure in
the federal direct sector is obtained from the national public accounts and federal
departments that provide health services. There are no capital expenditures in the social
security funds sector. The implications of this change are twofold; capital expenditure in all
sectors is based on full cost or cash basis accounting principles; and capital is the only
category of expenditure in which spending is categorized as private or public based on
ownership of the facility in which the investment is made. This convention has been
adopted due to data limitations.
Forecasting Methods
Provincial government–sector health spending forecasts are based on the growth rates of
a consistent set of major health programs of provincial health departments reported in
provincial main estimates and budgets. In the case of territorial government forecasts of
the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, estimates were based on amounts reported in
their main estimates. In other sectors, figures for these two territories were calculated
by developing a forecast for the Northwest Territories including Nunavut. The share of
Nunavut spending in the last year of actual data of the combined total of the Northwest
Territories and Nunavut was used as a proxy to break out the forecasts for the Northwest
Territories and Nunavut for the latest years.
The 2006 figures for capital expenditure in the provincial government sector, the municipal
government sector and the private sector are based on preliminary actual figures from the
Investment and Capital Stock Division of Statistics Canada. The 2007 capital figures are
based on intentions.
80
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Forecasts for the remaining categories in the federal direct, workers’ compensation boards,
municipal government and private sector were made entirely based on econometric
analysis of time series trends. For each series, up to 40 different univariate forecasting
specifications were evaluated, and the best one (based on the root mean square error of
prediction) was selected. The functional forms studied included the exponential smoothing
family (simple, double, Holt, Brown, Winters, damped trend, etc.); time trends; ARIMA
specifications; etc. Logarithmic transformations were used when the data warranted their
use. A LOESS smoothing technique was used as well to help in generating better forecasts
in some cases by capturing recent information in the series.
Forecasts of health expenditures are identified in the figures by special symbols and in the
Data Tables by the letter “f.”
Gross domestic product figures at both the national and provincial/territorial levels were
forecast for the latest year by CIHI by applying the Conference Board of Canada’s
forecasted growth rate of GDP of this year to the previous year’s GDP figures from
Statistics Canada.
The government current expenditure price index forecasts are based on the Conference
Board of Canada’s latest forecasts of this index for Canada, Ontario and Quebec and
CIHI’s forecasts of the remaining provinces.
The CPI (health) index was forecast to December of the latest year based on the average
of the monthly index up to April of the same year, which was the latest information
available prior to the publication of this report.
Age and Sex Distribution Methods
The Series E Data Tables present provincial government health expenditure for selected
categories of spending by sex and age groupings. Total provincial/territorial government
expenditure by age, sex and province/territory is available for 1998 onwards. The five
categories presented are hospitals, other institutions, physicians, other professionals and
drugs. The method of distributing the five categories and total is explained below. The data
reported in Series E of the Data Tables are not age–sex standardized.
Hospitals
The distribution of provincial government hospital expenditure by age and sex is based
on information from CIHI’s Discharge Abstract Database (DAD)xxx and Hospital Morbidity
Database (HMDB). The CIHI Case Mix grouping methodology (CMG) was used to group
patient discharge information into homogenous groups, based on clinical and resource
utilization characteristics. Currently, the CMG can only be grouped back by a maximum of
five years. Therefore, for the period from fiscal 1995–1996 to 1996–1997, the 2001
methodology was employed, while for the period 1997–1998 to 2002–2003, the 2002
methodology was used. The 2003 CMG methodology was used for fiscal years 2003–
2004 to 2005–2006.
xxx.
The Discharge Abstract Database receives information from participating hospitals that represent about
85% of all hospital discharges in Canada. The database contains clinical, demographic and administrative
data for inpatient acute, chronic and rehabilitation care and day surgery.
CIHI 2008
81
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
In the CMG methodology, patients are assigned to a group according to diagnosis and
surgical procedures. Within each group patients are further classified into a complexity
levelxxxi based on the number and type of comorbid diagnoses and the age of the
patient. Once the patient is grouped, a Resource Intensity Weight (RIW)xxxii is assigned.
The assigned RIWs were then aggregated to generate total weighted cases by age and sex.
The provincial government hospital expenditure estimate for each province is allocated to a
given age group based on the weighted cases in that age group relative to total weighted
cases. Weighted case information from DAD and the HMDB is for acute inpatient care
only. Weighted cases for the majority of hospital-based ambulatory care (day surgery,
emergency departments and clinics) are currently only available in one province.
Nevertheless, acute inpatient weighted cases are used as a proxy to distribute the national
health expenditure estimate of hospital expenditure financed by provincial governments,
which includes inpatient and ambulatory care.
CIHI investigated the reasonableness of using the acute inpatient data as a proxy to
distribute comprehensive provincial government hospital expenditures by comparing
1998–1999 weighted cases calculated from Alberta’s Ambulatory Care data set with
the Alberta acute inpatient weighted cases from DAD/HMDB. The analysis showed that
the distribution of ambulatory care weighted cases differs from inpatient weighted cases
primarily in the senior age groups. The impact of including the ambulatory care weighted
cases with the inpatient weighted cases is to lower per capita spending in the senior age
groups from what it would have been based on the inpatient weighted cases only.
Data from DAD/HMDB cover 11 jurisdictions across Canada; the territories are combined
due to the small number of facilities. The Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut
(1999 onward) were distributed according to a combined territorial distribution and further
distributed based on population. Data for Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan from
DAD for 1995–1996 to 1997–1998 represent about 85% of total acute hospitalizations
within each province; however, from 1998–1999 onward DAD represents 100% coverage
in these two provinces. Weighted cases for Quebec are based entirely on the HMDB.
Data for fiscal years 2002–2003 to 2005–2006 in Quebec, as well as for 2003–2004
in Manitoba, were unavailable and have been estimated based on an analysis of the
historical series.
Caution should be exercised when comparing age and sex expenditure estimates across
provinces, particularly with respect to Manitoba. Hospital utilization data in Manitoba are
reported to CIHI differently than in other provinces and territories. In addition to acute
inpatient care, Manitoba’s weighted cases include chronic, rehabilitative and long-term
hospital care, which results in higher weights applied to senior age groups, and ultimately
higher spending in those age groups.
xxxi. Following extensive consultation with experts in the field, it is believed that these data have not been
substantially affected by recent concerns regarding complexity.
xxxii. RIWs are resource allocation algorithms, developed by CIHI for estimating the relative hospital resources
used for a typical case. See www.cihi.ca/cihiweb/dispPage.jsp?cw_page=casemix_riw_e for more
information.
82
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Physicians
The distribution of provincial government physician expenditure by age and sex is based on
information from CIHI’s National Physician Database (NPDB). The NPDB contains data on
the socio-demographic and billing activities of fee-for-service physicians, as well as on the
age and sex of patients. NPDB data are used as a proxy to distribute all physicians’ services
expenditure from NHEX. NHEX includes primarily professional fees, paid by provincial
medical care insurance plans to physicians in private practice, but also includes alternative
payment methods such as salaries, sessional and capitation payments.
Fiscal year 1996–1997 data were unavailable from the NPDB for Nova Scotia and were
estimated using growth rates in the population by age and sex applied to the 1995–1996
fee-for-service data from the NPDB. Data for 1995–1996 were also unavailable from the
NPDB for New Brunswick. Similar to Nova Scotia, they were estimated using growth rates
in the population by age and sex applied to 1994–1995 fee-for-service data from the NPDB.
Yukon fee-for-service data from 1995–1996 onward were used to estimate the Northwest
Territories by applying the Yukon fee-for-service per capita spending by age and sex to
the Northwest Territories population for 1995–1996 onward. Similar to the Northwest
Territories, Nunavut for 1999–2000 onward was estimated using the Yukon data. Data
were collected in fiscal year and converted to calendar year (see Calculation Methods).
Data provided by the NPDB for the latest year are preliminary estimates.
Other Institutions
Statistics Canada’s Residential Care Facilities Survey (RCF) was used to estimate the
provincial/territorial age and sex distribution for other institutions. Facilities for delinquents,
transients and others were excluded from the age–sex distribution. Only facilities financed
to provide a level of care for type II or higher were considered for the estimation. These
levels of care require a minimum of at least one and a half hours a day of medical and/or
professional nursing supervision. Patient counts by age and sex and by predominant
level of care within each facility were used to create the distributions.
In order for a facility’s patient count to be included it was also necessary for the facility
to report both income from provincial/territorial government sources and days of care
for provincial government–funded clients. Within a particular facility type, patient counts
by age and sex were weighted based on the predominant level of care. Weights were
generated using the estimated cost per patient for a particular type of care relative to type
II. That is, type II care was the basis and had a weight of one. Once patient counts by age
and sex, level of care and facility type were assigned weights, the patient counts were
aggregated to create total weighted provincial or territorial patient counts. A distribution
across age and sex was generated and then applied to the appropriate provincial/territorial
NHEX figure for other institutions. The age groups from the RCF, (<10, 11 to 17, 18 to
44, 45 to 64, 65 to 69, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, 85+), were expanded into five-year
age groups by CIHI using population, as well as DAD/HMDB weighted cases.
At the time of publication data were unavailable for Quebec for all years. The weighted
patient counts for Canada (minus Quebec) from the RCF were used as a proxy for Quebec’s
distribution of other institutions expenditure.
CIHI 2008
83
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Drugs
Provincial government prescribed drug expenditure primarily includes drugs that are
dispensed through provincial drug subsidy programs. The level of coverage under these
programs varies across the country. Universal drug plans with first dollar coverage to
all residents are currently not available in any province. Most provincial government
plans provide prescribed drugs to seniors and welfare recipients. British Columbia,
Saskatchewan and Manitoba provide some coverage to all residents with an assortment of
substantial individual deductibles and co-payments. Similarly, Quebec instituted a universal
plan in 1997 that requires Quebec residents to be covered under the provincial plan if a
private group plan, usually available through an employer, is not available.
CIHI requested drug claims that were paid in a given year by age and sex from each
provincial drug subsidy program. Drug claim information by age and sex are currently
unavailable from Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island and Nunavut. Some
data for fiscal year 2005–2006 were obtained from CIHI’s National Prescription Drug
Utilization Information System (NPDUIS) Database.
Data from Nova Scotia consist of the Seniors Pharmacare Program and prescription drug
claims paid by the Department of Community Services through the Income Assistance
Program and Family Benefits Program. Data from the Special Drug Program were
unavailable; expenditure for this plan was distributed using data from the Department
of Community Services.
Data collected from the New Brunswick Prescription Drug Program consist of 10 different
drug plans. Age–sex data were provided for the following plans: Seniors Plan (A), Cystic
Fibrosis Plan (B), Family and Community Social Services (E), Human Resources Development
(F), Organ Transplant (R), Human Growth Hormone (T) and Nursing Home Program (V),
leaving only three plans with no age and sex data: Children in Care (G), HIV (U) and Special
Authorization (SA) (for drugs not normally covered under the provincial formulary). Beginning
in October 1996, claims under SA are included in six other plans (A, B, G, R, T and V) if the
claimant is a beneficiary of one of these plans. In September 1997, this was expanded to
include plans E and F. Minor plans for which age–sex data were not available were
distributed using the overall distribution of plans for which data were available.
The MSSS supplied data on its drug subsidy program in calendar year. The plans included
coverage for seniors, income security recipients and others. Data for 1997 onward also
included a general client group representing recipients whose drug claims are paid through
the self-financed Drug Insurance Fund by the premiums of subscribers to the plan and not
the provincial government. Consequently, the age–sex distribution of this group was not
included with the rest of the provincial government program.xxxiii
xxxiii.
84
See the definition of social security funds in the variables and concepts section of this report for
more information.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
The Ontario Drug Benefits program (ODB) supplied age–sex data, which included combined
prescription drug claims paid by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and the
Ministry of Community Services, as well as data for the Trillium Drug Program, which was
implemented in April 1995. The Special Drug Program does not have an age–sex profile;
its expenditure was therefore applied to the ODB distribution.
Manitoba was unable to provide data for fiscal year 1996–1997 because of the Drug
Programs Information Network (DPIN) conversion from a calendar year to a fiscal year
system. This resulted in a 15-month year from January 1996 to April 1997. The
Department of Health’s Pharmacare plan supplied data on drug claims paid for fiscal year
1997–1998 onward. Data for the Ministry of Family Services, Employment and Income
Assistance Division’s drug plan were supplied for 1997–1998 onward. The figures
reported for Manitoba in 1997 are based on fiscal year data for 1997–1998.
Data supplied by the Saskatchewan Drug Plan and Extended Benefits Branch were in
calendar year.
Alberta Health and Wellness provided expenditure data by age and sex on its prescription
drug programs from 1995–1996 onward. Data were supplied for all four of Alberta’s
prescription drug plans: Seniors, Widow’s Pension, Regular and Palliative Care. Alberta
Human Resources and Employment provided data for its prescription drug expenditure
under the Employment and Income Assistance programs (formerly under Alberta Family
and Social Services) for 1995–1996 to 1998–1999 and 2000–2001 onward.
The age–sex distribution for 1999–2000 Alberta Human Resources and Employment’s
drug plan is based on 1998–1999 data.
British Columbia’s Ministry of Health Services supplied claims paid by age and sex of the
client in calendar year from 1996 onward for each plan administered by the Pharmacare
program. NHEX drug plan expenditures for British Columbia were converted to calendar
year and then applied to the distribution of the appropriate data supplied by the province.
The Yukon Department of Health and Social Services supplied drug expenditure claims
for three administered drug plans: Seniors, Child Drug Plan and Chronic Care Drug Plan.
Data from 1995–1996 to 2004–2005 were provided for each plan, with the exception
of the Child Drug Plan, which was implemented in 1997–1998. The Northwest Territories
Department of Health and Social Services supplied data by age and sex for prescription
drug claims paid for Extended Health Benefits.
The provincial government drug estimate at the program level is allocated to a given age
group based on the value of claims paid in that age group relative to total claims paid. In
provinces with more than one program, the age–sex–distributed programs were combined
to represent a total estimate for the province. Most data were collected in fiscal year and
converted to calendar year (see Calculation Methods).
CIHI 2008
85
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Other Professionals
Expenditure for the category of other professionals accounted for approximately 1% of total
provincial/territorial health expenditure in recent years. Provincial/territorial governments
provide a variety of health services delivered by health professionals other than physicians,
including primarily dentists, optometrists, chiropractors and physiotherapists.
All provinces provide various programs for seniors and children, as well as programs for
income assistance recipients. However, the services provided vary considerably across
Canada. For instance, Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec provide physiotherapy services
to residents, while other provinces do not. Chiropractic services are provided through
provincial insurance plans from Ontario west to British Columbia, but nowhere else in
Canada. Target populations, co-payments and deductibles also vary from province to
province. CIHI requested from each province data for claims that were paid for by
provincial/territorial governments in a given year, by age, sex and type of service provided
by other health care professionals. Details of data availability and estimation methods are
described below.
Data were unavailable from Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Nunavut.
The remaining provinces and territories were able to supply data by age and sex for
approximately 75% or more of other professional services. When a province or territory
was unable to supply 100% of services, CIHI estimated the age and sex distribution for
these services by using data from programs from other provinces with similar coverage
and eligibility levels.
The provincial government expenditure estimates for other professionals at the program
level are allocated to a given age group based on the value of claims paid in that age group
relative to total claims paid. In provinces with more than one program, the age–sex–
distributed programs were combined to represent a total estimate for the provinces’
other professionals expenditure. Most data were collected in fiscal year and converted
to calendar year (see Calculation Methods).
Total Provincial Government Health Expenditure by Age and Sex
To age–sex standardize total provincial government health expenditures, it is necessary
that all categories of expenditure be distributed by age and sex for each province.
Unfortunately, age–sex distributions for all provincial/territorial government expenditures
are currently not available in all provinces and territories. Consequently, CIHI estimated the
missing data using the following methods. The age–sex distributions of drug subsidy
programs for Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island and Nunavut were
estimated for 1998 onward using the distributions of drug subsidy programs in other
provinces with similar target populations and co-payment plans. Newfoundland and
Labrador age–sex distribution was based on New Brunswick’s seniors and Community and
Social Services drug plans (plans A, E and F). Prince Edward Island’s age–sex distribution
for drug expenditure was based on the Nova Scotia Seniors and Community Services drug
plans. Nunavut’s age–sex distribution is based on Northwest Territories data.
86
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
The age–sex distributions of the category of other professionals in Prince Edward Island,
New Brunswick and Nunavut (1999 onward) were estimated for 1998 onward.
The age–sex distributions of these provinces were based on the distributions in other
provinces of other health care provider programs that had similar beneficiaries and copayment plans. Dental expenditure by age and sex in Prince Edward Island was based on
Newfoundland and Labrador Dental Health Plan clients from 3 to 16 years. Similarly, New
Brunswick’s dental expenditure for the youth income assistance plan was based on clients
up to 17 years from the Newfoundland and Labrador dental plan. New Brunswick’s age
and sex distribution for the income assistance optometry plan was based on Saskatchewan
Health’s Supplementary Health Optometry plan. As was the case with Nunavut’s drug
expenditure, Nunavut’s other professionals category expenditure was based on the age–
sex distribution for the Northwest Territories. Quebec’s physiotherapy expenditure is
distributed across a combined age–sex distribution of Ontario and British Columbia’s feefor-service physiotherapy plans.
Capital expenditure was estimated for all provinces and territories by using the general
provincial/territorial populations by age and sex. This method was used based on two
criteria: (1) capital investments in health care institutions typically last for decades and
those who do not use institutional services in a given year may use them in the future;
and (2) given the uncertainty of illness the availability of facilities has a value for all who
potentially would use them if the need arose.
The remaining categories of public health, administration and other health spending were
also estimated using the general provincial/territorial populations by age and sex based on
the following rationale. Public health and health research benefit the entire population and
it would be difficult to attribute them in different proportions to specific age and sex
groups. Prepayment administration expenditures are accounted for mainly by the universal
hospital and physicians’ services plans. The rationale for distributing them according to the
general population rather than based on utilization is because prepayment administration
expenses are made up largely of the costs of registration systems for eligible residents,
which cover the total population, and claims processing costs. The convention of allocating
ambulance expenditure by population distributions is not believed to result in significant
error of the total provincial expenditure distributions due to its small share of the other
health care spending category.
Age–Sex Standardization of Provincial Government Expenditures
For the purpose of age–sex standardization, CIHI used a direct method. Standardized
expenditures by category were calculated by multiplying the male and female population of
Canada in each of the 19 age groups by the expenditure per capita for each age group and
sex by province and territory. Male and female standardized expenditure was aggregated
and then divided by the total Canada population to generate the standardized per capita
spending for a particular category by province and territory.
Major Changes From Previous Years
In the process of compiling the national health expenditure series from year to year new
information becomes available, methods and concepts are refined and data sources are
improved. The data are revised to incorporate these enhancements.
CIHI 2008
87
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Revision History
Provincial Government Sector
Revisions to capital expenditure data are largely responsible for differences in Alberta and
Saskatchewan from previously reported figures.
A methodological review undertaken by CIHI and the MSSS resulted in historical revisions
over the period from 1997 to 2004. Beginning in fiscal 1997–1998, with the reform of
Quebec government accounting, the budgetary structure of the Quebec public accounts
was modified, resulting in a break in the time series. With the exception of drug and
physician expenditures, the new structure of the public accounts rendered the task of
classifying expenditures by use of funds more difficult. To ensure the reliability of the time
series, CIHI analysts, together with MSSS officials, devised a crosswalk between the old
budgetary structure and the new, based on estimates provided by the MSSS, as well as
historical distributions.
During this period, the Quebec health care system saw numerous changes, such as
decentralization, the redefinition of the roles and mandates of health and social services
institutions and the creation of health and social service centres. This both reduced the
precision of estimates based on historical distributions and increased the challenge of
precisely identifying spending by use of funds. For these reasons, and to improve
interprovincial comparisons, CIHI, in collaboration with the MSSS, developed a new
methodology to determine estimates of provincial government health spending in
Quebec. Estimates were enhanced by using more detailed departmental data.
While expenditure amounts in most use of funds categories show a relatively smooth
transition to the post-1997 methodology, there exists a break between 1996 and 1997
in other institutions and, to a lesser extent, in hospitals. Under the new methodology,
analysts are able to identify spending in these categories much more precisely, but it is
currently not feasible to extend this prior to 1997, resulting in a break in the time series.
An examination of the pre-1997 period will be the focus of future work.
Table 8
Year
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
88
Differences From Previously Reported Provincial Government–Sector Data by
Province/Territory and Canada, 1997 to 2005 ($’ Millions)
N.L. P.E.I.
-------------------------------------
N.S.
-------------------
N.B.
-----------------0.8
Que. Ont. Man. Sask.
-13.1 -------24.7 -------10.2 -------0.6 ------0.2 -------1.2 -------2.8 -------4.1 -------2.4 192.2 -1.4 ---
Alta.
----------------6.3
B.C.
----------------5.9
Y.T. N.W.T.
-------------------------------------
Nun. Canada
---13.1
---24.7
---10.2
---0.6
--0.2
---1.2
---2.8
---4.1
--199.9
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Private Sector
Adjustments were made to over-the-counter drugs from 1994 to 2005.
Data from Statistics Canada’s Residential Care Facilities (RCF) survey were used to
estimate the other institutions category from 1994 to 2005.
Table 9
Year
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Differences From Previously Reported Private-Sector Data by
Province/Territory and Canada, 1994 to 2005 ($’ Millions)
N.L. P.E.I.
1.4
0.3
1.3
0.3
1.5
0.3
1.3
0.3
-0.4
2.8
6.4
0.7
0.6
0.2
-2.0
1.7
-4.0 -5.4
2.2
1.4
13.5
3.7
1.2
1.7
N.S. N.B.
1.9
1.4
1.9
1.3
2.2
1.3
2.2
2.0
2.2
6.3
1.6
2.4
12.5 -0.1
7.9 -1.7
2.9
2.9
-5.5
9.1
3.0
2.8
-0.4 -10.3
Que.
Ont. Man. Sask.
16.3
38.4
2.9
2.8
15.8
37.3
2.8
2.7
16.1
41.6
3.1
2.7
15.3
47.5
3.1
3.1
16.1
18.6 -6.7
3.5
16.1
27.4
5.5
6.9
15.1
95.5 -6.9
7.4
12.7 -16.2 31.7 -1.7
11.7
28.9
5.1 -2.3
13.0 -41.8 -5.8 -1.4
13.6 124.5 -9.8
8.6
21.8 -108.8
5.7 -5.6
Alta.
7.7
7.4
7.8
9.1
-2.7
1.8
13.3
-7.0
11.7
39.7
52.8
3.7
B.C.
14.1
13.7
13.9
14.1
13.1
10.1
36.8
-9.0
2.0
25.7
63.3
-4.0
Y.T. N.W.T.
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
-0.2
0.1
1.4
0.1
-0.8
0.1
0.1
0.1
-0.5
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1 13.8
Nun. Canada
--87.5
--84.8
--90.8
--98.3
--52.8
0.1
80.4
0.1 173.8
0.1
16.6
0.1
53.1
0.1
36.9
0.1 276.3
1.9 -79.2
Federal Direct Sector
No historical revisions were made this year.
Municipal Government Sector
Municipal government data are from Statistics Canada’s Financial Management System.
The revisions presented in Table 10 are due to revised revenue and expenditure estimates
by Statistics Canada.
Table 10
Differences From Previously Reported Municipal Government–Sector Data by
Province/Territory and Canada, 2004 to 2005 ($’ Millions)
Year N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Y.T. N.W.T. Nun. Canada
2004 ----0.4 ----4.5 0.1 0.6 ---1.7 ------3.9
2005 ------0.1 ----0.1 0.6 ------0.1
--0.9
Social Security Fund Sector
No historical revisions were made this year.
Age and Sex Expenditure Data
Changes to the age–sex distributions from the previous publication occurred due to
methodology revisions and new information from data sources. For more detailed
information please contact the NHEX section by telephone at 613-241-7860 or by
email at [email protected]
CIHI 2008
89
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Economic and Demographic Data
Statistics Canada recently revised its population estimates. The estimates in this report are
now based on the latest released data of July 2007.
Sources of Data
National health expenditure estimates are compiled based on information from the
following sources.
Provincial Government Sector
•
Provincial public accounts and main estimates.
•
Provincial departments of health annual reports and statistical supplements
where available.
•
Annual reports of various foundations, agencies and commissions.
•
Special tabulations and specific information from various provincial departments
reporting health expenditures.
•
Federal transfers as a part of provincial government spending:
−
EPF, CHST—Federal–Provincial Relations Division, Federal Department of Finance.
−
CAP—Cost Shared Programs Division, Human Resources and Development Canada.
−
Contributions to the governments of the Northwest and Yukon Territories—Public
Accounts of Canada, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.
−
Health Resource Fund—Health Canada.
Federal Direct Sector
•
Public Accounts of Canada.
•
Special tabulations/information from:
−
Health Canada.
−
Department of Veterans Affairs.
−
Department of National Defence.
−
Solicitor General of Canada.
−
Statistics Canada.
−
Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
−
Several organizations that are responsible for administering research funds from the
federal government such as Canada Foundation for Innovation, Canadian Health
Services Research Foundation and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.
Municipal Government Sector
•
90
Special tabulation purchased from the Public Institutions Division of Statistics Canada.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Social Security Funds Sector
•
Special tabulations on medical aid spending provided by the provincial/territorial
workers’ compensation boards.
•
Annual reports of provincial/territorial workers’ compensation boards.
•
Annual report of the Régie de l’assurance-maladie du Québec (RAMQ).
Private Sector
•
•
•
Private insurance component:
−
The not-for-profit portion is captured from special tabulations provided by the notfor-profit insurance companies.
−
The commercial portion is captured by a special tabulation provided by the Canadian
Life and Health Insurance Association.
Out-of-pocket component:
−
Survey of Household Spending, Statistics Canada except for the
following categories:
−
Hospitals—(adjusted revenues from patient services) Annual Return of Health Care
Facilities, fielded by Statistics Canada to 1994–1995, and the CMDB administered
by CIHI from 1995–1996 and onward.
−
Other institutions—Residential Care Facilities Survey fielded by Statistics Canada.
−
Over-the-counter drugs and personal health supplies—Market Review of Selected
Drug Categories at Retail, a special tabulation purchased from A.C. Nielsen Canada.
Non-consumption component:
−
Hospitals—(adjusted revenues from non-patient services) Annual Return of Health
Care Facilities, Part 2 fielded by Statistics Canada to 1994–1995 and the CMDB
from 1995–1996 onward.
−
Capital expenditures—special tabulation purchased from the Investment and Capital
Stock Division of Statistics Canada.
−
Health research—the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, Canadian
Medical Education Statistics, Expenditure for Biomedical and Health Care Research
of Canadian Faculties of Medicine by Source of Funds.
Age and Sex Data
•
CIHI’s DAD and HMDB.
•
CIHI’s NPDB.
•
Special tabulations provided by provincial/territorial government departments
responsible for administering drug and other health benefit programs.
•
Statistic Canada’s Residential Care Facility Survey.
CIHI 2008
91
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Economic and Demographic Data
•
Gross domestic product:
−
Purchased from National Accounts and Environment Division, Statistics Canada,
for all years except the latest.
−
Purchased from the Conference Board of Canada (GDP growth rates) for the
latest year.
•
Population—purchased from the Demography Division, Statistics Canada.
•
Provincial government expenditure—special tabulation purchased from the
Public Institutions Division of Statistics Canada.
•
Price indices:
92
−
Income and Expenditure Accounts Division and Prices Division, Statistics Canada,
for all years except the latest.
−
Purchased from Conference Board of Canada for the latest year.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Data Tables
This section provides summary-level expenditure data. These data tables are organized
as follows:
Series
A—Summary Data, Canada
B—Total Health Expenditure, by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory and Canada
(Selected Tables)
E—Total Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
by Province/Territory and Canada (Selected Tables)
The CD-ROM affixed to the back cover of this report contains more comprehensive Data
Tables in Microsoft Excel. The data tables on the CD are organized as follows:
Series available on the CD-ROM
A—Summary Data, Canada
B—Total Health Expenditure, by Source of Finance, by Province/Territory and Canada
C—Health Expenditure, by Use of Funds, by Source of Finance, Canada
D—Health Expenditure, by Use of Funds, Source of Finance, by Province/Territory
E—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Selected Uses of Funds, by
Age and Sex, by Province/Territory and Canada
F—Provincial/Territorial Government Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and
Canada, in Fiscal Years
Each series generally follows the order below except as indicated. In addition, tables
in A.3, Series C, Series D, Series E, Series F.2 and F.3 are not available in constant
dollar values.
Current dollars
• In millions of dollars.
•
Percentage distribution (use of funds only).
•
Per capita.
•
Sector as a proportion of:
−
GDP (B.1 and F.1 series only).
−
Total health expenditure (B.2 to B.8 series only).
−
Total provincial/territorial government program/expenditure
(B.4 and F.4 series only).
CIHI 2008
93
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Constant dollars
• In millions of 1997 dollars (A, B and F.1 series only).
•
In 1997 dollars per capita (A, B and F.1 series only).
Most sub-series also include a table of annual percentage changes.
In all tables, forecasts are denoted with the letter “f”; the symbol “---” denotes data that
are either unavailable or not applicable.
94
CIHI 2008
Series A
Summary Data, Canada
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.1
Total Health Expenditure, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Summary
Total Health Expenditure in Current Dollars
Total Health Expenditure in Constant 1997 Dollars Total Health Expenditure as a % of GDP
Year
Total
($’ 000,000)
Per Capita
($)
Total
($’ 000,000)
Per Capita
($)
(%)
1975
12,199.4
527.1
39,684.0
1,714.7
7.0
1976
14,049.8
599.1
40,766.5
1,738.5
7.0
1977
15,450.0
651.2
41,609.5
1,753.8
7.0
1978
17,106.8
713.9
42,940.6
1,791.9
7.0
1979
19,169.7
792.1
44,203.5
1,826.5
6.8
1980
22,298.4
909.5
46,676.2
1,903.9
7.1
1981
26,276.7
1,058.7
48,797.9
1,966.0
7.3
1982
30,759.1
1,224.6
51,097.5
2,034.3
8.1
1983
34,038.6
1,341.8
53,090.1
2,092.9
8.3
1984
36,743.1
1,434.8
55,046.8
2,149.6
8.2
1985
39,841.7
1,541.7
57,475.1
2,224.0
8.2
1986
43,337.3
1,660.4
60,274.4
2,309.3
8.5
1987
46,788.2
1,769.0
61,932.5
2,341.6
8.4
1988
50,959.2
1,901.8
64,632.3
2,412.1
8.3
1989
56,095.5
2,056.2
67,576.6
2,477.0
8.5
1990
61,022.6
2,203.2
69,789.7
2,519.7
9.0
1991
66,289.1
2,364.8
72,597.4
2,589.9
9.7
1992
69,749.2
2,458.8
74,097.1
2,612.1
10.0
1993
71,498.9
2,492.8
74,704.7
2,604.6
9.8
1994
73,109.7
2,521.1
75,258.0
2,595.2
9.5
1995
74,089.2
2,528.4
75,532.7
2,577.7
9.1
1996
74,733.5
2,523.9
75,770.7
2,558.9
8.9
1997
78,758.9
2,633.4
78,758.9
2,633.4
8.9
1998
83,981.1
2,784.8
82,758.8
2,744.3
9.2
1999
90,197.3
2,966.6
87,332.1
2,872.4
9.2
2000
98,431.9
3,207.4
91,919.5
2,995.2
9.1
2001
107,080.1
3,451.8
97,957.1
3,157.7
9.7
2002
115,191.0
3,671.7
102,363.2
3,262.8
10.0
2003
123,921.3
3,912.1
107,327.3
3,388.3
10.2
2004
132,088.3
4,128.4
112,349.4
3,511.4
10.2
2005
141,362.8
4,374.9
116,672.6
3,610.8
10.3
2006
151,278.5
4,633.4
122,280.8
3,745.3
10.5
2007 f
161,576.2
4,899.8
126,954.8
3,849.9
10.6
2008 f
171,908.6
5,170.0
132,383.6
3,981.3
10.7
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
15.2
13.7
2.7
1.4
---
1980
16.3
14.8
5.6
4.2
---
1981
17.8
16.4
4.5
3.3
---
1982
17.1
15.7
4.7
3.5
---
1983
10.7
9.6
3.9
2.9
---
1984
7.9
6.9
3.7
2.7
---
1985
8.4
7.4
4.4
3.5
---
1986
8.8
7.7
4.9
3.8
---
1987
8.0
6.5
2.8
1.4
---
1988
8.9
7.5
4.4
3.0
---
1989
10.1
8.1
4.6
2.7
---
1990
8.8
7.2
3.3
1.7
---
1991
8.6
7.3
4.0
2.8
---
1992
5.2
4.0
2.1
0.9
---
1993
2.5
1.4
0.8
-0.3
---
1994
2.3
1.1
0.7
-0.4
---
1995
1.3
0.3
0.4
-0.7
---
1996
0.9
-0.2
0.3
-0.7
---
1997
5.4
4.3
3.9
2.9
---
1998
6.6
5.7
5.1
4.2
---
1999
7.4
6.5
5.5
4.7
---
2000
9.1
8.1
5.3
4.3
---
2001
8.8
7.6
6.6
5.4
---
2002
7.6
6.4
4.5
3.3
---
2003
7.6
6.5
4.8
3.8
---
2004
6.6
5.5
4.7
3.6
---
2005
7.0
6.0
3.8
2.8
---
2006
7.0
5.9
4.8
3.7
---
2007 f
2008 f
6.8
6.4
5.7
5.5
3.8
4.3
2.8
3.4
-----
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
97
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.2.1
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Provincial
Government
A
Federal
Direct
B
Municipal
Government
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
C
Year
($’ 000,000)
1975
8,709.3
398.3
71.6
121.1
9,300.3
2,899.2
12,199.4
1976
10,129.9
439.7
105.8
141.9
10,817.2
3,232.6
14,049.8
1977
11,102.0
475.2
114.2
153.1
11,844.6
3,605.4
15,450.0
1978
12,269.4
485.6
111.7
173.8
13,040.5
4,066.3
17,106.8
1979
13,696.6
512.8
156.0
186.8
14,552.3
4,617.4
19,169.7
1980
15,794.1
582.1
234.0
231.7
16,841.8
5,456.5
22,298.4
1981
18,655.5
692.7
275.4
319.0
19,942.6
6,334.1
26,276.7
1982
22,002.1
854.8
250.8
339.1
23,446.8
7,312.3
30,759.1
1983
24,510.1
994.9
222.2
352.7
26,080.0
7,958.6
34,038.6
1984
26,243.9
1,106.1
214.5
392.3
27,956.9
8,786.3
36,743.1
1985
28,202.8
1,157.7
273.1
461.3
30,094.9
9,746.9
39,841.7
1986
30,501.5
1,260.8
310.2
456.2
32,528.6
10,808.7
43,337.3
1987
32,821.9
1,349.7
404.6
478.5
35,054.7
11,733.5
46,788.2
1988
35,806.2
1,522.8
303.5
530.3
38,162.8
12,796.4
50,959.2
1989
39,332.1
1,686.6
326.4
566.0
41,911.1
14,184.3
56,095.5
1990
42,469.7
1,970.4
364.6
640.8
45,445.5
15,577.1
61,022.6
1991
46,176.8
2,110.0
374.7
720.8
49,382.2
16,906.9
66,289.1
1992
48,337.8
2,199.9
396.9
702.6
51,637.3
18,112.0
69,749.2
1993
48,572.6
2,280.9
383.7
683.6
51,920.8
19,578.1
71,498.9
1994
48,885.6
2,519.8
446.1
683.9
52,535.5
20,574.2
73,109.7
1995
48,936.4
2,667.0
394.9
720.9
52,719.1
21,370.1
74,089.2
1996
49,095.6
2,606.2
348.1
773.1
52,823.0
21,910.5
74,733.5
1997
51,161.9
2,828.0
318.7
918.3
55,226.8
23,532.1
78,758.9
1998
54,409.0
3,027.5
765.9
1,010.4
59,212.8
24,768.3
83,981.1
1999
58,339.0
3,152.9
565.4
1,141.2
63,198.5
26,998.8
90,197.3
2000
63,639.0
3,614.5
690.3
1,327.5
69,271.2
29,160.7
98,431.9
2001
68,546.3
4,263.1
775.8
1,433.9
75,019.1
32,061.0
107,080.1
2002
73,494.0
4,358.3
2003
79,330.5
4,990.6
921.5
1,743.0
86,985.6
36,935.6
123,921.3
2004
84,620.3
5,059.2
1,056.8
1,864.0
92,600.3
39,488.0
132,088.3
2005
90,945.6
5,288.6
1,074.9
1,965.1
99,274.1
42,088.7
141,362.8
2006
97,066.3
5,615.6
995.0
2,108.9
105,785.8
45,492.7
151,278.5
2007 f
104,167.1
5,804.5
1,015.1
2,219.2
113,205.9
48,370.3
161,576.2
2008 f
110,722.3
6,092.0
1,081.1
2,379.5
120,274.9
51,633.7
171,908.6
1976*
16.3
10.4
47.6
17.2
16.3
11.5
15.2
1980
15.3
13.5
50.0
24.0
1981
18.1
19.0
17.7
37.7
18.4
16.1
17.8
1982
17.9
23.4
-8.9
6.3
17.6
15.4
17.1
1983
11.4
16.4
-11.4
4.0
11.2
8.8
10.7
1984
7.1
11.2
-3.5
11.2
7.2
10.4
7.9
1985
7.5
4.7
27.3
17.6
7.6
10.9
8.4
1986
8.2
-1.1
8.1
10.9
8.8
825.4
1,516.2
80,193.9
34,997.1
115,191.0
(annual percentage change)*
8.9
13.6
15.7
18.2
16.3
1987
7.6
7.1
30.4
4.9
7.8
8.6
8.0
1988
9.1
12.8
-25.0
10.8
8.9
9.1
8.9
1989
9.8
10.8
7.6
6.7
9.8
10.8
10.1
1990
8.0
16.8
11.7
13.2
8.4
9.8
8.8
1991
8.7
7.1
2.8
12.5
8.7
8.5
8.6
1992
4.7
4.3
6.0
-2.5
4.6
7.1
5.2
1993
0.5
3.7
-3.3
-2.7
0.5
8.1
2.5
1994
0.6
10.5
16.2
0.0
1.2
5.1
2.3
1995
0.1
5.8
-11.5
5.4
0.3
3.9
1.3
1996
0.3
-2.3
-11.9
7.2
0.2
2.5
0.9
1997
4.2
8.5
-8.4
18.8
4.6
7.4
5.4
1998
6.3
7.1
140.3
10.0
7.2
5.3
6.6
1999
7.2
4.1
-26.2
12.9
6.7
9.0
7.4
2000
9.1
14.6
22.1
16.3
9.6
8.0
9.1
2001
7.7
17.9
12.4
8.0
8.3
9.9
8.8
2002
7.2
2.2
6.4
5.7
6.9
9.2
7.6
2003
7.9
14.5
11.6
15.0
8.5
5.5
7.6
2004
6.7
1.4
14.7
6.9
6.5
6.9
6.6
2005
7.5
4.5
1.7
5.4
7.2
6.6
7.0
2006
6.7
6.2
-7.4
7.3
6.6
8.1
7.0
2007 f
7.3
3.4
2.0
5.2
7.0
6.3
6.8
2008 f
6.3
5.0
6.5
7.2
6.2
6.7
6.4
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
99
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.2.2
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Provincial
Government
A
Federal
Direct
B
Year
Municipal
Government
C
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
1975
71.4
3.3
0.6
1.0
76.2
23.8
100.0
1976
72.1
3.1
0.8
1.0
77.0
23.0
100.0
1977
71.9
3.1
0.7
1.0
76.7
23.3
100.0
1978
71.7
2.8
0.7
1.0
76.2
23.8
100.0
1979
71.4
2.7
0.8
1.0
75.9
24.1
100.0
1980
70.8
2.6
1.0
1.0
75.5
24.5
100.0
1981
71.0
2.6
1.0
1.2
75.9
24.1
100.0
1982
71.5
2.8
0.8
1.1
76.2
23.8
100.0
1983
72.0
2.9
0.7
1.0
76.6
23.4
100.0
1984
71.4
3.0
0.6
1.1
76.1
23.9
100.0
1985
70.8
2.9
0.7
1.2
75.5
24.5
100.0
1986
70.4
2.9
0.7
1.1
75.1
24.9
100.0
1987
70.1
2.9
0.9
1.0
74.9
25.1
100.0
1988
70.3
3.0
0.6
1.0
74.9
25.1
100.0
1989
70.1
3.0
0.6
1.0
74.7
25.3
100.0
1990
69.6
3.2
0.6
1.1
74.5
25.5
100.0
1991
69.7
3.2
0.6
1.1
74.5
25.5
100.0
1992
69.3
3.2
0.6
1.0
74.0
26.0
100.0
1993
67.9
3.2
0.5
1.0
72.6
27.4
100.0
1994
66.9
3.4
0.6
0.9
71.9
28.1
100.0
1995
66.1
3.6
0.5
1.0
71.2
28.8
100.0
1996
65.7
3.5
0.5
1.0
70.7
29.3
100.0
1997
65.0
3.6
0.4
1.2
70.1
29.9
100.0
1998
64.8
3.6
0.9
1.2
70.5
29.5
100.0
1999
64.7
3.5
0.6
1.3
70.1
29.9
100.0
2000
64.7
3.7
0.7
1.3
70.4
29.6
100.0
2001
64.0
4.0
0.7
1.3
70.1
29.9
100.0
2002
63.8
3.8
0.7
1.3
69.6
30.4
100.0
2003
64.0
4.0
0.7
1.4
70.2
29.8
100.0
2004
64.1
3.8
0.8
1.4
70.1
29.9
100.0
2005
64.3
3.7
0.8
1.4
70.2
29.8
100.0
2006
64.2
3.7
0.7
1.4
69.9
30.1
100.0
2007 f
64.5
3.6
0.6
1.4
70.1
29.9
100.0
2008 f
64.4
3.5
0.6
1.4
70.0
30.0
100.0
1976*
1.0
-4.1
28.2
1.7
1.0
-3.2
---
1980
-0.9
-2.4
28.9
6.6
-0.5
1.6
---
1981
0.2
1.0
-0.1
16.8
0.5
-1.5
---
1982
0.8
5.4
-22.2
-9.2
0.4
-1.4
-----
(annual percentage change)*
1983
0.7
5.2
-20.0
-6.0
0.5
-1.6
1984
-0.8
3.0
-10.6
3.0
-0.7
2.3
---
1985
-0.9
-3.5
17.4
8.5
-0.7
2.3
---
1986
-0.6
0.1
4.4
-9.1
-0.6
1.9
---
1987
-0.3
-0.8
20.8
-2.8
-0.2
0.5
---
1988
0.2
3.6
-31.1
1.8
0.0
0.1
---
1989
-0.2
0.6
-2.3
-3.0
-0.2
0.7
---
1990
-0.7
7.4
2.7
4.1
-0.3
1.0
---
1991
0.1
-1.4
-5.4
3.6
0.0
-0.1
---
1992
-0.5
-0.9
0.7
-7.4
-0.6
1.8
---
1993
-2.0
1.1
-5.7
-5.1
-1.9
5.4
---
1994
-1.6
8.0
13.7
-2.2
-1.0
2.8
---
1995
-1.2
4.4
-12.6
4.0
-1.0
2.5
---
1996
-0.5
-3.1
-12.6
6.3
-0.7
1.6
---
1997
-1.1
3.0
-13.1
12.7
-0.8
1.9
---
1998
-0.3
0.4
125.4
3.2
0.6
-1.3
---
1999
-0.2
-3.0
-31.3
5.2
-0.6
1.5
---
2000
0.0
5.0
11.9
6.6
0.4
-1.0
---
2001
-1.0
8.4
3.3
-0.7
-0.4
1.1
---
2002
-0.3
-5.0
-1.1
-1.7
-0.6
1.5
---
2003
0.3
6.4
3.8
6.9
0.8
-1.9
---
2004
0.1
-4.9
7.6
0.3
-0.1
0.3
---
2005
0.4
-2.3
-5.0
-1.5
0.2
-0.4
---
2006
-0.3
-0.8
-13.5
0.3
-0.4
1.0
---
2007 f
0.5
-3.2
-4.5
-1.5
0.2
-0.5
---
2008 f
-0.1
-1.4
0.1
0.8
-0.1
0.3
---
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
100
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.2.3
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Provincial
Government
A
Federal
Direct
B
Municipal
Government
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
C
Year
($ per capita)
1975
376.32
17.21
3.10
5.23
401.86
125.27
527.13
1976
431.98
18.75
4.51
6.05
461.29
137.85
599.14
1977
467.93
20.03
4.81
6.45
499.22
151.96
651.19
1978
512.01
20.26
4.66
7.25
544.19
169.69
713.87
1979
565.93
21.19
6.45
7.72
601.29
190.79
792.08
1980
644.23
23.74
9.54
9.45
686.97
222.57
1981
751.62
27.91
11.10
12.85
803.48
255.20
1,058.67
1982
875.97
34.03
9.99
13.50
933.49
291.12
1,224.61
1983
966.22
39.22
8.76
13.90
1,028.11
313.74
1,341.85
1984
1,024.85
43.20
8.38
15.32
1,091.74
343.11
1,434.85
1985
1,091.32
44.80
10.57
17.85
1,164.54
377.16
1,541.70
1986
1,168.59
48.30
11.88
17.48
1,246.25
414.11
1,660.36
1987
1,240.96
51.03
15.30
18.09
1,325.38
443.63
1,769.01
1988
1,336.28
56.83
11.33
19.79
1,424.23
477.56
1,901.79
1989
1,441.70
61.82
11.97
20.75
1,536.23
519.92
2,056.15
1990
1,533.34
71.14
13.16
23.13
1,640.78
562.40
2,203.18
1991
1,647.32
75.27
13.37
25.71
1,761.68
603.14
2,364.82
1992
1,704.03
77.55
13.99
24.77
1,820.34
638.49
2,458.83
1993
1,693.50
79.52
13.38
23.83
1,810.23
682.59
2,492.83
1994
1,685.76
86.89
15.38
23.59
1,811.62
709.48
2,521.10
1995
1,670.06
91.02
13.48
24.60
1,799.15
729.30
2,528.45
1996
1,658.03
88.02
11.75
26.11
1,783.90
739.95
2,523.85
1997
1,710.68
94.56
10.66
30.70
1,846.59
786.83
2,633.42
1998
1,804.19
100.39
25.40
33.51
1,963.48
821.31
2,784.79
1999
1,918.80
103.70
18.60
37.54
2,078.63
888.01
2,966.64
2000
2,073.67
117.78
22.49
43.26
2,257.20
950.20
3,207.40
2001
2,209.65
137.42
25.01
46.22
2,418.31
1,033.52
3,451.83
2002
2,342.62
138.92
26.31
48.33
2,556.18
1,115.53
3,671.71
2003
2,504.43
157.55
29.09
55.03
2,746.10
1,166.04
3,912.14
2004
2,644.78
158.12
33.03
58.26
2,894.19
1,234.19
4,128.38
2005
2,814.60
163.67
33.27
60.81
3,072.35
1,302.57
4,374.92
2006
2,972.98
172.00
30.48
64.59
3,240.04
1,393.37
4,633.41
2007 f
3,158.87
176.02
30.78
67.30
3,432.98
1,466.83
4,899.81
2008 f
3,329.85
183.21
32.51
71.56
3,617.14
1,552.83
5,169.97
1976*
14.8
9.0
45.7
15.6
14.8
10.0
13.7
1980
13.8
12.0
48.1
22.4
14.2
16.7
14.8
1981
16.7
17.5
16.2
36.0
17.0
14.7
16.4
1982
16.5
21.9
-10.0
5.0
16.2
14.1
15.7
1983
10.3
15.2
-12.3
3.0
10.1
7.8
9.6
1984
6.1
10.1
-4.4
10.2
6.2
9.4
6.9
1985
6.5
3.7
26.1
16.5
6.7
9.9
1986
7.1
7.8
12.5
-2.1
7.0
9.8
7.7
1987
6.2
5.6
28.7
3.5
6.3
7.1
6.5
1988
7.7
11.4
-26.0
9.4
7.5
7.6
7.5
1989
7.9
8.8
5.6
4.8
7.9
8.9
8.1
1990
6.4
15.1
10.0
11.5
6.8
8.2
7.2
1.5
11.1
909.54
(annual percentage change)*
1991
7.4
5.8
7.4
7.2
7.4
7.3
1992
3.4
3.0
4.7
-3.7
3.3
5.9
4.0
1993
-0.6
2.5
-4.4
-3.8
-0.6
6.9
1.4
1994
-0.5
9.3
15.0
-1.0
0.1
3.9
1.1
1995
-0.9
4.7
-12.4
4.3
-0.7
2.8
0.3
1996
-0.7
-3.3
-12.8
6.1
-0.8
1.5
-0.2
1997
3.2
7.4
-9.4
17.6
3.5
6.3
4.3
1998
5.5
6.2
138.3
9.1
6.3
4.4
5.7
1999
6.4
3.3
-26.8
12.0
5.9
8.1
6.5
2000
8.1
13.6
21.0
15.2
8.6
7.0
8.1
2001
6.6
16.7
11.2
6.9
7.1
8.8
7.6
2002
6.0
1.1
5.2
4.6
5.7
7.9
6.4
2003
6.9
13.4
10.6
13.9
7.4
4.5
6.5
2004
5.6
0.4
13.5
5.9
5.4
5.8
5.5
2005
6.4
3.5
0.7
4.4
6.2
5.5
6.0
2006
5.6
5.1
-8.4
6.2
5.5
7.0
5.9
2007 f
6.3
2.3
1.0
4.2
6.0
5.3
5.7
2008 f
5.4
4.1
5.6
6.3
5.4
5.9
5.5
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
101
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.2.4
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Constant Dollars
Provincial
Government
A
Federal
Direct
B
Municipal
Government
C
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
(in 1997 $’ 000,000)
Year
1975
27,834.3
1,272.1
230.4
389.4
29,726.3
9,957.7
39,684.0
1976
28,659.5
1,247.3
304.7
403.8
30,615.2
10,151.2
40,766.5
1977
28,970.1
1,243.4
304.7
402.6
30,920.8
10,688.7
41,609.5
1978
29,826.1
1,184.5
277.9
425.3
31,713.8
11,226.8
42,940.6
1979
30,367.9
1,140.9
354.1
417.5
32,280.4
11,923.1
44,203.5
1980
31,774.8
1,174.0
482.4
469.8
33,901.0
12,775.2
46,676.2
1981
33,201.3
1,236.2
501.6
572.2
35,511.3
13,286.6
48,797.9
1982
35,100.5
1,370.6
410.0
544.4
37,425.5
13,672.1
51,097.5
1983
37,028.7
1,503.6
342.1
537.8
39,412.2
13,677.9
53,090.1
1984
38,230.8
1,609.6
318.2
574.5
40,733.1
14,313.7
55,046.8
1985
39,681.7
1,629.3
389.1
650.0
42,350.0
15,125.0
57,475.1
1986
41,604.7
1,719.5
423.9
623.4
44,371.5
15,902.9
60,274.4
1987
42,868.1
1,764.7
526.9
625.8
45,785.5
16,147.0
61,932.5
1988
45,077.1
1,918.1
382.4
668.9
48,046.4
16,585.9
64,632.3
1989
47,023.6
2,017.2
389.3
676.5
50,106.7
17,469.9
67,576.6
1990
48,187.1
2,237.4
413.7
727.1
51,565.3
18,224.5
69,789.7
1991
50,300.9
2,304.4
409.0
784.7
53,799.0
18,798.4
72,597.4
1992
51,154.3
2,336.9
420.6
744.6
54,656.3
19,440.8
74,097.1
1993
50,743.2
2,393.3
401.3
715.3
54,253.2
20,451.6
74,704.7
1994
50,294.9
2,599.6
461.7
705.2
54,061.4
21,196.6
75,258.0
1995
49,791.4
2,718.3
403.6
734.5
53,647.7
21,885.0
75,532.7
1996
49,771.3
2,642.4
353.2
784.1
53,550.9
22,219.8
75,770.7
1997
51,161.9
2,828.0
318.7
918.3
55,226.8
23,532.1
78,758.9
1998
53,795.1
2,992.0
754.3
1,001.0
58,542.4
24,216.4
82,758.8
1999
56,801.2
3,065.2
551.7
1,111.4
61,529.5
25,802.6
87,332.1
2000
59,409.5
3,369.1
647.5
1,237.5
64,663.6
27,256.0
91,919.5
2001
62,842.6
3,901.8
716.5
1,312.7
68,773.6
29,183.5
97,957.1
2002
65,157.1
3,856.6
736.4
1,341.8
71,091.8
31,271.4
102,363.2
2003
68,332.7
4,295.6
799.5
1,490.4
74,918.1
32,409.2
107,327.3
2004
71,591.4
4,272.0
896.1
1,574.7
78,334.2
34,015.3
112,349.4
2005
74,567.3
4,328.2
880.5
1,608.5
81,384.5
35,288.1
116,672.6
2006
77,956.0
4,497.8
798.4
1,692.8
84,945.0
37,335.8
122,280.8
2007 f
81,016.7
4,501.5
793.1
1,712.4
88,023.7
38,931.1
126,954.8
2008 f
84,195.8
4,615.8
823.8
1,798.5
91,433.9
40,949.7
132,383.6
1976*
3.0
-2.0
32.2
3.7
3.0
1.9
2.7
1980
4.6
2.9
36.2
12.5
5.0
7.1
5.6
1981
4.5
5.3
4.0
21.8
4.7
4.0
4.5
1982
5.7
10.9
-18.3
-4.9
5.4
2.9
4.7
1983
5.5
9.7
-16.6
-1.2
5.3
0.0
3.9
1984
3.2
7.0
-7.0
6.8
3.4
4.6
3.7
1985
3.8
1.2
22.3
13.1
4.0
5.7
4.4
1986
4.8
5.5
8.9
-4.1
4.8
5.1
4.9
1987
3.0
2.6
24.3
0.4
3.2
1.5
2.8
1988
5.2
8.7
-27.4
6.9
4.9
2.7
4.4
1989
4.3
5.2
1.8
1.1
4.3
5.3
4.6
1990
2.5
10.9
6.3
7.5
2.9
4.3
3.3
1991
4.4
3.0
-1.1
7.9
4.3
3.1
4.0
1992
1.7
1.4
2.8
-5.1
1.6
3.4
2.1
1993
-0.8
2.4
-4.6
-3.9
-0.7
5.2
0.8
1994
-0.9
8.6
15.0
-1.4
-0.4
3.6
0.7
1995
-1.0
4.6
-12.6
4.1
-0.8
3.2
0.4
1996
0.0
-2.8
-12.5
6.8
-0.2
1.5
0.3
1997
2.8
7.0
-9.8
17.1
3.1
5.9
3.9
1998
5.1
5.8
136.7
9.0
6.0
2.9
5.1
1999
5.6
2.4
-26.9
11.0
5.1
6.5
5.5
2000
4.6
9.9
17.4
11.4
5.1
5.6
5.3
2001
5.8
15.8
10.7
6.1
6.4
7.1
6.6
2002
3.7
-1.2
2.8
2.2
3.4
7.2
4.5
2003
4.9
11.4
8.6
11.1
5.4
3.6
4.8
2004
4.8
-0.5
12.1
5.7
4.6
5.0
4.7
2005
4.2
1.3
-1.7
2.2
3.9
3.7
3.8
2006
4.5
3.9
-9.3
5.2
4.4
5.8
4.8
2007 f
3.9
0.1
-0.7
1.2
3.6
4.3
3.8
2008 f
3.9
2.5
3.9
5.0
3.9
5.2
4.3
(annual percentage change)*
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
102
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.2.5
Total Health Expenditure by Source of Finance, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Constant Dollars
Provincial
Government
A
Federal
Direct
B
Municipal
Government
C
Year
Social
Security Funds
Total of
Public Sector
Private
Sector
Total
D
A+B+C+D
E
F
E+F
G
(in 1997 $’ per capita)
1975
1,202.70
54.97
9.96
16.82
1,284.45
430.26
1,714.71
1976
1,222.16
53.19
12.99
17.22
1,305.57
432.89
1,738.46
1977
1,221.03
52.40
12.84
16.97
1,303.25
450.51
1,753.76
1978
1,244.65
49.43
11.60
17.75
1,323.43
468.50
1,791.93
1979
1,254.78
47.14
14.63
17.25
1,333.80
492.65
1,826.46
1980
1,296.08
47.89
19.68
19.16
1,382.81
521.09
1,903.90
1981
1,337.66
49.80
20.21
23.06
1,430.73
535.31
1,966.04
1982
1,397.45
54.57
16.32
21.67
1,490.02
544.33
2,034.35
1983
1,459.72
59.28
13.49
21.20
1,553.68
539.20
2,092.88
1984
1,492.94
62.86
12.42
22.44
1,590.66
558.96
2,149.62
1985
1,535.51
63.05
15.06
25.15
1,638.76
585.27
2,224.03
1986
1,593.98
65.88
16.24
23.88
1,699.98
609.28
2,309.26
1987
1,620.79
66.72
19.92
23.66
1,731.10
610.50
2,341.60
1988
1,682.27
71.58
14.27
24.96
1,793.09
618.98
2,412.07
1989
1,723.63
73.94
14.27
24.80
1,836.64
640.35
2,476.98
1990
1,739.76
80.78
14.94
26.25
1,861.73
657.98
2,519.71
1991
1,794.45
82.21
14.59
27.99
1,919.24
670.62
2,589.86
1992
1,803.31
82.38
14.83
26.25
1,926.77
685.34
2,612.10
1993
1,769.18
83.44
13.99
24.94
1,891.55
713.05
2,604.60
1994
1,734.36
89.64
15.92
24.32
1,864.24
730.94
2,595.18
1995
1,699.23
92.77
13.77
25.06
1,830.84
746.87
2,577.71
1996
1,680.84
89.24
11.93
26.48
1,808.49
750.39
2,558.88
1997
1,710.68
94.56
10.66
30.70
1,846.59
786.83
2,633.42
1998
1,783.83
99.21
25.01
33.19
1,941.25
803.01
2,744.26
1999
1,868.22
100.82
18.15
36.55
2,023.74
848.66
2,872.40
2000
1,935.85
109.78
21.10
40.33
2,107.06
888.13
2,995.19
2001
2,025.79
125.78
23.10
42.32
2,216.98
940.76
3,157.74
2002
2,076.88
122.93
23.47
42.77
2,266.05
996.77
3,262.82
2003
2,157.23
135.61
25.24
47.05
2,365.13
1,023.15
3,388.28
2004
2,237.57
133.52
28.01
49.22
2,448.31
1,063.14
3,511.45
2005
2,307.72
133.95
27.25
49.78
2,518.70
1,092.10
3,610.80
2006
2,387.66
137.76
24.45
51.85
2,601.73
1,143.53
3,745.26
2007 f
2,456.84
136.51
24.05
51.93
2,669.33
1,180.59
3,849.91
2008 f
2,532.10
138.81
24.78
54.09
2,749.78
1,231.52
3,981.29
1.6
0.6
1.4
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
1.6
-3.2
30.5
2.4
1980
3.3
1.6
34.5
11.1
1981
3.2
4.0
2.7
20.3
3.5
2.7
3.3
1982
4.5
9.6
-19.2
-6.0
4.1
1.7
3.5
1983
4.5
8.6
-17.4
-2.2
4.3
-0.9
2.9
1984
2.3
6.0
-7.9
5.8
2.4
3.7
2.7
1985
2.9
0.3
21.2
12.1
3.0
4.7
3.5
1986
3.8
4.5
7.9
-5.0
3.7
4.1
3.8
1987
1.7
1.3
22.7
-0.9
1.8
0.2
1.4
1988
3.8
7.3
-28.4
5.5
3.6
1.4
3.0
1989
2.5
3.3
0.0
-0.7
2.4
3.5
2.7
1990
0.9
9.2
4.7
5.9
1.4
2.8
1.7
1991
3.1
1.8
-2.3
6.6
3.1
1.9
3.7
5.8
4.2
2.8
1992
0.5
0.2
1.6
-6.2
0.4
2.2
0.9
1993
-1.9
1.3
-5.6
-5.0
-1.8
4.0
-0.3
1994
-2.0
7.4
13.8
-2.5
-1.4
2.5
-0.4
1995
-2.0
3.5
-13.5
3.1
-1.8
2.2
-0.7
1996
-1.1
-3.8
-13.4
5.6
-1.2
0.5
-0.7
1997
1.8
6.0
-10.7
16.0
2.1
4.9
2.9
1998
4.3
4.9
134.8
8.1
5.1
2.1
4.2
1999
4.7
1.6
-27.5
10.1
4.2
5.7
4.7
2000
3.6
8.9
16.3
10.3
4.1
4.7
2001
4.6
14.6
9.5
4.9
5.2
5.9
5.4
2002
2.5
-2.3
1.6
1.1
2.2
6.0
3.3
2003
3.9
10.3
7.5
10.0
4.4
2.6
3.8
2004
3.7
-1.5
11.0
4.6
3.5
3.9
3.6
2005
3.1
0.3
-2.7
1.1
2.9
2.7
2.8
2006
3.5
2.8
-10.3
4.2
3.3
4.7
3.7
2007 f
2008 f
2.9
3.1
-0.9
1.7
-1.6
3.0
0.2
4.2
2.6
3.0
3.2
4.3
2.8
3.4
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
4.3
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
103
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.1.1—Part 1
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Year
Hospitals
Other Institutions
Physicians
A
B
C
Dental Services
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Other
Sub-Total
D
($’ 000,000)
1975
5,454.9
1,125.0
1,839.9
741.7
226.1
128.4
1,096.2
1976
6,357.3
1,368.6
2,071.0
869.1
260.1
145.5
1,274.7
1977
6,792.8
1,577.0
2,284.4
1,034.6
295.8
162.6
1,493.0
1978
7,382.0
1,851.8
2,566.7
1,191.3
336.0
186.3
1,713.5
1979
8,114.1
2,171.7
2,857.1
1,374.5
365.8
219.2
1,959.5
1980
9,334.4
2,539.6
3,287.5
1,592.0
414.4
255.4
2,261.7
1981
11,030.7
2,889.9
3,824.8
1,811.8
513.6
303.7
2,629.1
1982
13,092.8
3,384.8
4,420.8
2,072.7
609.8
357.3
3,039.8
1983
14,417.6
3,741.6
5,052.7
2,225.7
715.0
411.6
3,352.4
1984
15,344.8
3,915.5
5,525.9
2,402.3
829.4
452.2
3,683.8
1985
16,260.3
4,105.9
6,045.7
2,711.3
925.9
496.4
4,133.6
1986
17,637.2
4,087.3
6,674.8
2,959.6
1,002.2
562.0
4,523.8
1987
18,951.1
4,329.2
7,342.8
3,203.6
1,075.6
634.3
4,913.5
1988
20,400.3
4,738.7
7,942.1
3,494.0
1,184.2
715.6
5,393.8
1989
22,270.1
5,141.3
8,506.7
3,820.7
1,302.3
833.8
5,956.7
1990
23,866.4
5,748.2
9,245.1
4,139.0
1,402.7
956.6
6,498.3
1991
25,716.3
6,345.2
10,205.5
4,467.5
1,484.8
1,082.7
7,035.0
1992
26,670.3
6,788.4
10,448.5
4,690.2
1,535.0
1,171.6
7,396.8
1993
26,744.3
6,797.2
10,498.9
4,926.9
1,587.0
1,220.4
7,734.3
1994
26,172.3
6,922.9
10,731.6
5,217.1
1,683.0
1,253.7
8,153.8
1995
25,511.6
7,153.2
10,638.0
5,485.2
1,774.4
1,295.7
8,555.3
1996
25,219.7
7,308.6
10,758.8
5,663.4
1,830.1
1,336.7
1997
24,796.1
8,619.6
11,323.8
5,885.8
2,189.2
1,524.8
9,599.8
1998
25,774.7
9,372.7
11,805.3
6,264.6
2,278.1
1,506.9
10,049.7
8,830.2
1999
26,852.7
9,955.4
12,411.3
6,760.7
2,348.8
1,704.3
10,813.7
2000
29,131.2
10,806.5
13,206.9
7,179.5
2,576.4
1,785.7
11,541.6
2001
30,991.9
11,495.0
14,128.7
7,764.5
2,761.1
2,000.3
12,525.8
2002
33,365.1
12,242.9
15,175.9
8,248.1
2,800.0
2,015.8
13,063.9
2003
35,624.8
12,939.1
16,256.6
8,438.8
2,686.1
2,052.4
13,177.2
2004
38,304.7
14,057.3
17,296.9
8,971.6
3,066.9
2,142.5
14,181.0
2005
40,373.6
14,665.4
18,536.6
9,847.0
3,188.0
2,173.4
15,208.4
2006
42,957.5
15,507.1
20,031.0
10,313.4
3,440.2
2,498.2
16,251.9
2007 f
45,456.7
16,365.3
21,733.5
11,209.8
3,673.4
2,567.8
17,451.0
2008 f
48,105.9
17,210.5
23,084.0
12,116.7
3,946.3
2,716.4
18,779.4
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
16.5
21.7
12.6
17.2
15.0
13.3
16.3
1980
15.0
16.9
15.1
15.8
13.3
16.5
15.4
1981
18.2
13.8
16.3
13.8
24.0
18.9
16.2
1982
18.7
17.1
15.6
14.4
18.7
17.7
15.6
1983
10.1
10.5
14.3
7.4
17.3
15.2
10.3
1984
6.4
4.6
9.4
7.9
16.0
9.9
9.9
1985
6.0
4.9
9.4
12.9
11.6
9.8
12.2
1986
8.5
-0.5
10.4
9.2
8.2
13.2
9.4
1987
7.4
5.9
10.0
8.2
7.3
12.9
8.6
1988
7.6
9.5
8.2
9.1
10.1
12.8
9.8
1989
9.2
8.5
7.1
9.3
10.0
16.5
10.4
1990
7.2
11.8
8.7
8.3
7.7
14.7
9.1
1991
7.8
10.4
10.4
7.9
5.8
13.2
8.3
1992
3.7
7.0
2.4
5.0
3.4
8.2
5.1
1993
0.3
0.1
0.5
5.0
3.4
4.2
4.6
1994
-2.1
1.8
2.2
5.9
6.1
2.7
5.4
1995
-2.5
3.3
-0.9
5.1
5.4
3.4
4.9
1996
-1.1
2.2
1.1
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.2
1997
-1.7
17.9
5.3
3.9
19.6
14.1
8.7
1998
3.9
8.7
4.3
6.4
4.1
-1.2
4.7
1999
4.2
6.2
5.1
7.9
3.1
13.1
7.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
8.5
6.4
7.7
6.8
7.5
8.5
6.4
6.5
5.7
8.6
6.4
7.0
7.4
7.1
6.4
6.2
8.1
6.2
2.3
6.3
9.7
7.2
1.4
-4.1
14.2
4.8
12.0
0.8
1.8
4.4
6.7
8.5
4.3
0.9
7.6
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
5.4
6.4
5.8
5.8
4.3
5.7
5.5
5.2
7.2
8.1
8.5
6.2
9.8
4.7
8.7
8.1
4.0
7.9
6.8
7.4
1.4
14.9
2.8
5.8
7.2
6.9
7.4
7.6
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
104
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.1.1—Part 2
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Drugs
Prescribed Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Sub-Total
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($’ 000,000)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Sub-Total
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D+E
+F+G+H+J
771.7
305.6
1,077.3
536.1
406.8
343.6
93.7
226.0
319.7
12,199.4
883.4
316.0
1,199.4
544.1
510.6
361.9
105.4
256.7
362.1
14,049.8
987.9
324.5
1,312.4
563.7
598.5
408.3
129.4
290.3
419.7
15,450.0
1,052.7
392.8
1,445.5
672.2
615.4
406.7
150.4
302.5
452.9
17,106.8
1,162.9
495.5
1,658.4
725.2
707.0
451.8
173.7
351.3
524.9
19,169.7
1,298.4
586.3
1,884.6
990.7
845.4
512.3
202.5
439.5
642.1
22,298.4
1,677.1
655.0
2,332.1
1,111.2
1,006.1
631.5
231.2
590.2
821.3
26,276.7
1,924.1
715.0
2,639.1
1,394.8
1,149.7
693.3
258.0
686.1
944.1
30,759.1
2,107.1
845.9
2,953.0
1,436.6
1,241.4
763.6
297.3
782.4
1,079.7
34,038.6
2,255.6
1,058.6
3,314.2
1,504.1
1,376.5
897.6
336.9
843.7
1,180.6
36,743.1
2,566.5
1,235.9
3,802.3
1,651.2
1,515.7
966.1
381.2
979.8
1,361.0
39,841.7
3,018.0
1,399.0
4,417.1
1,801.4
1,570.2
1,030.6
452.8
1,142.1
1,594.9
43,337.3
3,293.1
1,621.7
4,914.9
1,871.8
1,661.0
1,060.1
452.0
1,291.9
1,743.9
46,788.2
3,736.8
1,784.9
5,521.7
1,901.7
1,786.6
1,225.5
507.1
1,541.7
2,048.8
50,959.2
4,262.9
1,975.6
6,238.5
2,092.8
1,953.6
1,525.0
588.4
1,822.4
2,410.8
56,095.5
4,871.8
2,058.7
6,930.5
2,123.7
2,138.5
1,657.3
667.7
2,146.9
2,814.6
61,022.6
5,468.7
2,236.6
7,705.3
2,027.5
2,316.5
1,780.5
698.6
2,458.9
3,157.5
66,289.1
6,100.7
2,418.1
8,518.8
2,058.0
2,539.6
1,873.5
806.5
2,648.7
3,455.2
69,749.2
6,603.5
2,576.0
9,179.6
2,016.9
2,761.5
2,071.0
793.5
2,901.7
3,695.2
71,498.9
6,760.9
2,764.0
9,524.9
2,272.8
3,059.8
2,298.4
804.2
3,168.8
3,973.0
73,109.7
7,399.0
2,788.4
10,187.4
2,263.1
3,245.0
2,429.9
808.2
3,297.5
4,105.6
74,089.2
7,602.1
2,846.7
10,448.9
2,160.0
3,371.5
2,489.8
819.9
3,326.3
4,146.1
74,733.5
8,534.2
2,975.7
11,509.9
2,122.0
3,510.1
2,516.2
1,089.7
3,671.6
4,761.3
78,758.9
9,455.9
3,171.3
12,627.2
2,301.5
4,400.7
2,455.7
1,165.4
4,028.3
5,193.7
83,981.1
10,241.9
3,358.8
13,600.7
3,508.9
4,769.4
2,760.0
1,142.6
4,382.6
5,525.2
90,197.3
11,729.0
3,420.3
15,149.3
3,965.5
5,427.2
3,101.6
1,405.0
4,697.1
6,102.1
98,431.9
13,179.0
3,536.4
16,715.5
4,508.7
6,235.2
3,731.2
1,918.5
4,829.7
6,748.2
107,080.1
14,794.5
3,684.7
18,479.2
4,936.4
6,524.4
4,215.2
1,908.1
5,279.7
7,187.9
115,191.0
16,482.8
3,762.0
20,244.8
5,609.0
7,637.6
4,784.0
2,151.8
5,496.4
7,648.3
123,921.3
17,963.8
3,930.2
21,894.0
5,518.0
7,768.7
5,082.3
2,296.5
5,688.8
7,985.3
132,088.3
19,268.0
4,084.1
23,352.1
6,605.2
8,678.3
5,369.2
2,381.9
6,192.2
8,574.0
141,362.8
21,036.6
4,284.5
25,321.1
7,249.3
9,255.9
5,371.4
2,674.7
6,658.5
9,333.3
151,278.5
23,063.7
4,478.8
27,542.5
7,189.3
10,354.2
5,587.9
2,771.1
7,124.7
9,895.8
161,576.2
25,141.1
4,686.8
29,827.9
7,031.6
11,275.6
5,887.1
3,097.6
7,609.1
10,706.8
171,908.6
(annual percentage change)*
14.5
3.4
11.3
1.5
25.5
5.3
12.5
13.6
13.2
15.2
11.7
18.3
13.6
36.6
19.6
13.4
16.6
25.1
22.3
16.3
29.2
11.7
23.7
12.2
19.0
23.3
14.1
34.3
27.9
17.8
14.7
9.2
13.2
25.5
14.3
9.8
11.6
16.2
14.9
17.1
9.5
18.3
11.9
3.0
8.0
10.2
15.2
14.0
14.4
10.7
7.0
25.2
12.2
4.7
10.9
17.5
13.3
7.8
9.3
7.9
13.8
16.7
14.7
9.8
10.1
7.6
13.1
16.1
15.3
8.4
17.6
13.2
16.2
9.1
3.6
6.7
18.8
16.6
17.2
8.8
8.0
9.1
15.9
11.3
3.9
5.8
2.9
-0.2
13.1
9.3
13.5
10.1
12.3
1.6
7.6
15.6
12.2
19.3
17.5
8.9
14.1
10.7
13.0
10.0
9.3
24.4
16.0
18.2
17.7
10.1
14.3
4.2
11.1
1.5
9.5
8.7
13.5
17.8
16.8
8.8
12.3
8.6
11.2
-4.5
8.3
7.4
4.6
14.5
12.2
8.6
8.1
10.6
11.6
9.6
5.2
15.4
7.7
9.4
5.2
8.2
6.5
7.8
-2.0
8.7
10.5
-1.6
9.6
6.9
2.5
2.4
7.3
3.8
12.7
1.5
10.8
11.0
1.4
9.2
7.5
2.3
9.4
0.9
7.0
-0.4
6.1
5.7
0.5
4.1
3.3
1.3
2.7
2.1
2.6
-4.6
3.9
2.5
1.4
0.9
1.0
0.9
12.3
4.5
10.2
-1.8
4.1
1.1
32.9
10.4
14.8
5.4
10.8
6.6
9.7
8.5
25.4
-2.4
7.0
9.7
9.1
6.6
8.3
5.9
7.7
52.5
8.4
12.4
-2.0
8.8
6.4
7.4
14.5
12.4
12.3
11.4
9.0
1.8
3.4
4.2
2.1
4.5
11.4
10.3
10.6
9.6
8.1
13.0
13.7
9.5
13.6
-1.6
13.8
14.9
4.6
17.1
1.7
12.4
20.3
13.0
13.5
6.2
23.0
36.6
-0.5
12.8
6.7
7.2
2.8
9.3
4.1
3.5
10.4
10.6
6.5
6.4
4.4
9.1
8.8
7.6
7.6
6.6
7.3
9.2
9.6
9.0
3.9
4.9
4.5
4.6
6.7
8.4
8.8
8.3
19.7
9.8
-0.8
-2.2
11.7
6.7
11.9
8.9
5.6
0.0
4.0
5.4
3.7
12.3
3.6
11.8
8.8
7.5
7.0
6.8
7.4
8.9
6.0
8.2
7.0
7.0
6.8
6.4
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
105
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.1.2—Part 1
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Hospitals
Other Institutions
A
B
1975
44.7
9.2
15.1
6.1
1.9
1.1
1976
45.2
9.7
14.7
6.2
1.9
1.0
9.1
1977
44.0
10.2
14.8
6.7
1.9
1.1
9.7
1978
43.2
10.8
15.0
7.0
2.0
1.1
10.0
1979
42.3
11.3
14.9
7.2
1.9
1.1
10.2
1980
41.9
11.4
14.7
7.1
1.9
1.1
10.1
1981
42.0
11.0
14.6
6.9
2.0
1.2
10.0
1982
42.6
11.0
14.4
6.7
2.0
1.2
9.9
1983
42.4
11.0
14.8
6.5
2.1
1.2
9.8
1984
41.8
10.7
15.0
6.5
2.3
1.2
10.0
1985
40.8
10.3
15.2
6.8
2.3
1.2
10.4
1986
40.7
9.4
15.4
6.8
2.3
1.3
10.4
1987
40.5
9.3
15.7
6.8
2.3
1.4
10.5
1988
40.0
9.3
15.6
6.9
2.3
1.4
10.6
1989
39.7
9.2
15.2
6.8
2.3
1.5
10.6
1990
39.1
9.4
15.2
6.8
2.3
1.6
10.6
1991
38.8
9.6
15.4
6.7
2.2
1.6
10.6
1992
38.2
9.7
15.0
6.7
2.2
1.7
10.6
1993
37.4
9.5
14.7
6.9
2.2
1.7
10.8
1994
35.8
9.5
14.7
7.1
2.3
1.7
11.2
1995
34.4
9.7
14.4
7.4
2.4
1.7
11.5
Year
Physicians
Dental Services
Services
Other
C
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Sub-Total
D
9.0
1996
33.7
9.8
14.4
7.6
2.4
1.8
11.8
1997
31.5
10.9
14.4
7.5
2.8
1.9
12.2
1998
30.7
11.2
14.1
7.5
2.7
1.8
12.0
1999
29.8
11.0
13.8
7.5
2.6
1.9
12.0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
29.6
28.9
29.0
28.7
29.0
11.0
10.7
10.6
10.4
10.6
13.4
13.2
13.2
13.1
13.1
7.3
7.3
7.2
6.8
6.8
2.6
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.3
1.8
1.9
1.7
1.7
1.6
11.7
11.7
11.3
10.6
10.7
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
28.6
28.4
28.1
28.0
10.4
10.3
10.1
10.0
13.1
13.2
13.5
13.4
7.0
6.8
6.9
7.0
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.5
1.7
1.6
1.6
10.8
10.7
10.8
10.9
1976*
1.2
5.6
-2.3
1.8
-0.1
-1.6
1.0
-1.1
0.5
-1.1
-0.4
-2.6
0.2
-0.8
1981
0.3
-3.4
-1.3
-3.4
5.2
0.9
-1.4
1982
1.4
0.1
-1.3
-2.3
1.4
0.5
-1.2
1983
-0.5
-0.1
3.3
-3.0
6.0
4.1
-0.3
1984
-1.4
-3.1
1.3
0.0
7.5
1.8
1.8
1985
-2.3
-3.3
0.9
4.1
3.0
1.2
3.5
1986
-0.3
-8.5
1.5
0.4
-0.5
4.1
1987
-0.5
-1.9
1.9
0.3
-0.6
4.6
0.6
1988
-1.2
0.5
-0.7
0.1
1.1
3.6
0.8
1989
-0.8
-1.4
-2.7
-0.7
-0.1
5.8
0.3
1990
-1.5
2.8
-0.1
-0.4
-1.0
5.5
0.3
1991
-0.8
1.6
1.6
-0.6
-2.6
4.2
-0.3
1992
-1.4
1.7
-2.7
-0.2
-1.7
2.8
-0.1
1993
-2.2
-2.3
-2.0
2.5
0.9
1.6
2.0
1994
-4.3
-0.4
0.0
3.6
3.7
0.5
3.1
1995
-3.8
2.0
-2.2
3.7
4.0
2.0
3.5
2.3
(annual percentage change) #
1980
0.6
1996
-2.0
1.3
0.3
2.4
2.2
2.3
1997
-6.7
11.9
-0.1
-1.4
13.5
8.2
3.2
1998
-2.5
2.0
-2.2
-0.2
-2.4
-7.3
-1.8
1999
-3.0
-1.1
-2.1
0.5
-4.0
5.3
0.2
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
-0.6
-2.2
0.1
-0.7
0.9
-0.5
-2.2
-1.0
-1.8
1.9
-2.5
-1.7
-0.2
-0.4
-0.2
-2.7
-0.6
-1.3
-4.9
-0.3
0.5
-1.5
-5.7
-10.8
7.1
-4.0
3.0
-6.3
-5.4
-2.1
-2.2
-0.2
-3.0
-6.2
1.0
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
-1.5
-0.6
-0.9
-0.5
-2.5
-1.2
-1.2
-1.2
0.1
1.0
1.6
-0.2
2.6
-2.1
1.8
1.6
-2.9
0.8
0.0
1.0
-5.2
7.4
-3.8
-0.6
0.2
-0.1
0.5
1.1
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
106
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.1.2—Part 2
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Drugs
Other Health Spending
Prescribed Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Health
Sub-Total
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
Research
Other
G
H
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Sub-Total
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D+E
+F+G+H+J
6.3
2.5
8.8
4.4
3.3
2.8
0.8
1.9
2.6
100.0
6.3
2.2
8.5
3.9
3.6
2.6
0.8
1.8
2.6
100.0
6.4
2.1
8.5
3.6
3.9
2.6
0.8
1.9
2.7
100.0
6.2
2.3
8.4
3.9
3.6
2.4
0.9
1.8
2.6
100.0
6.1
2.6
8.7
3.8
3.7
2.4
0.9
1.8
2.7
100.0
5.8
2.6
8.5
4.4
3.8
2.3
0.9
2.0
2.9
100.0
6.4
2.5
8.9
4.2
3.8
2.4
0.9
2.2
3.1
100.0
6.3
2.3
8.6
4.5
3.7
2.3
0.8
2.2
3.1
100.0
6.2
2.5
8.7
4.2
3.6
2.2
0.9
2.3
3.2
100.0
6.1
2.9
9.0
4.1
3.7
2.4
0.9
2.3
3.2
100.0
6.4
3.1
9.5
4.1
3.8
2.4
1.0
2.5
3.4
100.0
7.0
3.2
10.2
4.2
3.6
2.4
1.0
2.6
3.7
100.0
7.0
3.5
10.5
4.0
3.5
2.3
1.0
2.8
3.7
100.0
7.3
3.5
10.8
3.7
3.5
2.4
1.0
3.0
4.0
100.0
7.6
3.5
11.1
3.7
3.5
2.7
1.0
3.2
4.3
100.0
8.0
3.4
11.4
3.5
3.5
2.7
1.1
3.5
4.6
100.0
8.2
3.4
11.6
3.1
3.5
2.7
1.1
3.7
4.8
100.0
8.7
3.5
12.2
3.0
3.6
2.7
1.2
3.8
5.0
100.0
9.2
3.6
12.8
2.8
3.9
2.9
1.1
4.1
5.2
100.0
9.2
3.8
13.0
3.1
4.2
3.1
1.1
4.3
5.4
100.0
10.0
3.8
13.8
3.1
4.4
3.3
1.1
4.5
5.5
100.0
10.2
3.8
14.0
2.9
4.5
3.3
1.1
4.5
5.5
100.0
10.8
3.8
14.6
2.7
4.5
3.2
1.4
4.7
6.0
100.0
11.3
3.8
15.0
2.7
5.2
2.9
1.4
4.8
6.2
100.0
11.4
3.7
15.1
3.9
5.3
3.1
1.3
4.9
6.1
100.0
11.9
12.3
12.8
13.3
13.6
3.5
3.3
3.2
3.0
3.0
15.4
15.6
16.0
16.3
16.6
4.0
4.2
4.3
4.5
4.2
5.5
5.8
5.7
6.2
5.9
3.2
3.5
3.7
3.9
3.8
1.4
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.7
4.8
4.5
4.6
4.4
4.3
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.2
6.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
13.6
13.9
14.3
14.6
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.7
16.5
16.7
17.0
17.4
4.7
4.8
4.4
4.1
6.1
6.1
6.4
6.6
3.8
3.6
3.5
3.4
1.7
1.8
1.7
1.8
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
-0.6
-10.2
-3.3
-11.9
9.0
-8.5
-2.3
-1.4
-1.7
---
-4.0
1.7
-2.3
17.5
2.8
-2.5
0.3
7.6
5.2
---
(annual percentage change)*
9.6
-5.2
5.0
-4.8
1.0
4.6
-3.1
13.9
8.6
---
-2.0
-6.7
-3.3
7.2
-2.4
-6.2
-4.7
-0.7
-1.8
-----
-1.0
6.9
1.1
-6.9
-2.4
-0.5
4.1
3.1
3.3
-0.8
15.9
4.0
-3.0
2.7
8.9
5.0
-0.1
1.3
---
4.9
7.7
5.8
1.2
1.6
-0.7
4.3
7.1
6.3
---
8.1
4.1
6.8
0.3
-4.8
-1.9
9.2
7.2
7.7
---
1.1
7.4
3.1
-3.8
-2.0
-4.7
-7.6
4.8
1.3
4.2
1.1
3.2
-6.7
-1.2
6.1
3.0
9.6
7.9
---
3.6
0.5
2.6
0.0
-0.7
13.0
5.4
7.4
6.9
---
5.1
-4.2
2.1
-6.7
0.6
-0.1
4.3
8.3
7.3
---
3.3
0.0
2.3
-12.1
-0.3
-1.1
-3.7
5.4
3.3
---
---
6.0
2.8
5.1
-3.5
4.2
0.0
9.7
2.4
4.0
---
5.6
3.9
5.1
-4.4
6.1
7.8
-4.0
6.9
4.3
---
0.1
4.9
1.5
10.2
8.4
8.5
-0.9
6.8
5.1
---
8.0
-0.5
5.5
-1.7
4.6
4.3
-0.8
2.7
2.0
---
1.2
1.9
1.7
-5.4
3.0
1.6
0.6
0.0
0.1
---
6.5
-0.8
4.5
-6.8
-1.2
-4.1
26.1
4.7
9.0
---
3.9
-0.1
2.9
1.7
17.6
-8.5
0.3
2.9
2.3
---
0.8
-1.4
0.3
42.0
0.9
4.6
-8.7
1.3
-0.9
---
4.9
3.3
4.4
3.6
2.2
-6.7
-5.0
-3.1
-5.1
-2.0
2.1
1.4
2.8
1.8
1.5
3.6
4.5
1.8
5.6
-7.7
4.3
5.6
-2.7
8.8
-4.6
3.0
10.6
5.0
5.5
-0.3
12.7
25.5
-7.5
4.8
0.1
-1.8
-5.5
1.6
-3.2
-2.9
1.2
1.7
-1.0
-1.1
-2.0
-----------
0.2
2.0
2.6
2.5
-2.9
-2.0
-2.1
-1.6
-0.3
1.3
1.8
1.8
11.8
2.6
-7.1
-8.1
4.4
-0.3
4.7
2.4
-1.3
-6.5
-2.6
-1.0
-3.1
4.9
-3.0
5.1
1.7
0.5
0.2
0.4
0.3
1.7
-0.7
1.7
---------
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
107
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.1.3—Part 1
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Other Professionals
Year
Hospitals
Other Institutions
Physicians
A
B
C
Dental Services
Vision Care
Services
Other
Sub-Total
D
($’ per capita)
1975
235.70
48.61
79.50
32.05
9.77
5.55
47.37
1976
271.10
58.36
88.32
37.06
11.09
6.20
54.36
1977
286.30
66.47
96.28
43.61
12.47
6.85
62.93
1978
308.05
77.28
107.11
49.71
14.02
7.78
71.51
1979
335.27
89.73
118.05
56.79
15.11
9.06
80.96
1980
380.75
103.59
134.10
64.94
16.90
10.42
92.25
1981
444.42
116.43
154.10
73.00
20.69
12.24
105.93
1982
521.26
134.76
176.01
82.52
24.28
14.23
121.03
1983
568.36
147.50
199.18
87.74
28.19
16.23
132.16
1984
599.23
152.91
215.79
93.81
32.39
17.66
143.86
1985
629.20
158.88
233.94
104.92
35.83
19.21
159.95
1986
675.72
156.60
255.73
113.39
38.40
21.53
173.32
1987
716.52
163.68
277.62
121.12
40.67
23.98
185.77
1988
761.34
176.85
296.40
130.40
44.19
26.71
201.30
1989
816.30
188.45
311.81
140.04
47.74
30.56
218.34
1990
861.68
207.53
333.79
149.43
50.64
34.54
234.62
1991
917.41
226.36
364.07
159.37
52.97
38.63
250.97
1992
940.19
239.31
368.34
165.34
54.11
41.30
260.76
1993
932.45
236.99
366.05
171.78
55.33
42.55
269.66
1994
902.52
238.73
370.07
179.91
58.04
43.23
281.17
1995
870.64
244.12
363.04
187.20
60.56
44.22
291.97
1996
851.70
246.82
363.34
191.26
61.81
45.14
298.21
1997
829.10
288.21
378.63
196.80
73.20
50.98
320.98
1998
854.68
310.80
391.46
207.73
75.54
49.97
333.24
1999
883.20
327.44
408.21
222.36
77.25
56.05
355.67
2000
949.24
352.13
430.35
233.94
83.95
58.19
376.08
2001
999.05
370.55
455.45
250.30
89.01
64.48
403.78
2002
1,063.51
390.24
483.73
262.91
89.25
64.25
416.41
2003
1,124.66
408.48
513.21
266.41
84.80
64.79
416.00
2004
1,197.20
439.36
540.61
280.40
95.85
66.96
443.22
2005
1,249.49
453.87
573.67
304.75
98.66
67.26
470.67
2006
1,315.72
474.96
613.52
315.88
105.37
76.52
497.77
2007 f
1,378.48
496.28
659.07
339.94
111.40
77.87
529.20
2008 f
1,446.73
517.59
694.23
364.40
118.68
81.69
564.77
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
15.0
20.1
11.1
15.7
13.5
11.8
14.8
1980
13.6
15.4
13.6
14.3
11.8
15.0
13.9
1981
16.7
12.4
14.9
12.4
22.4
17.5
14.8
1982
17.3
15.7
14.2
13.0
17.3
16.3
14.3
9.2
1983
9.0
9.5
13.2
6.3
16.1
14.1
1984
5.4
3.7
8.3
6.9
14.9
8.8
8.9
1985
5.0
3.9
8.4
11.8
10.6
8.8
11.2
1986
7.4
-1.4
9.3
8.1
7.2
12.1
8.4
1987
6.0
4.5
8.6
6.8
5.9
11.4
7.2
1988
6.3
8.0
6.8
7.7
8.7
11.4
8.4
1989
7.2
6.6
5.2
7.4
8.0
14.4
8.5
1990
5.6
10.1
7.0
6.7
6.1
13.0
7.5
7.0
1991
9.1
6.7
4.6
11.8
1992
2.5
5.7
1.2
3.7
2.2
6.9
1993
-0.8
6.5
-1.0
9.1
-0.6
3.9
2.3
3.0
3.4
1994
-3.2
0.7
1.1
4.7
4.9
1.6
4.3
1995
-3.5
2.3
-1.9
4.1
4.3
2.3
3.8
1996
-2.2
1.1
0.1
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.1
1997
-2.7
16.8
4.2
2.9
18.4
12.9
7.6
1998
3.1
7.8
3.4
5.6
3.2
-2.0
3.8
1999
3.3
5.4
4.3
7.0
2.3
12.2
6.7
2000
7.5
7.5
5.4
5.2
8.7
3.8
5.7
2001
5.2
5.2
5.8
7.0
6.0
10.8
7.4
2002
6.5
5.3
6.2
5.0
0.3
-0.4
3.1
2003
5.7
4.7
6.1
1.3
-5.0
0.8
-0.1
2004
6.5
7.6
5.3
5.3
13.0
3.4
6.5
2005
4.4
3.3
6.1
8.7
2.9
0.4
6.2
2006
5.3
4.6
6.9
3.7
6.8
13.8
5.8
2007 f
2008 f
4.8
5.0
4.5
4.3
7.4
5.3
7.6
7.2
5.7
6.5
1.8
4.9
6.3
6.7
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
108
3.9
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.1.3—Part 2
Total Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Drugs
Other Health Spending
Prescribed Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Sub-Total
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($ per capita)
Health
Research
Other
H
Sub-Total
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D+E
+F+G+H+J
33.34
13.21
46.55
23.16
17.58
14.85
4.05
9.77
13.82
527.13
37.67
13.48
51.15
23.20
21.77
15.43
4.50
10.94
15.44
599.14
41.64
13.68
55.32
23.76
25.23
17.21
5.46
12.24
17.69
651.19
43.93
16.39
60.32
28.05
25.68
16.97
6.28
12.62
18.90
713.87
48.05
20.48
68.52
29.96
29.21
18.67
7.18
14.51
21.69
792.08
52.96
23.91
76.87
40.41
34.48
20.90
8.26
17.93
26.19
909.54
67.57
26.39
93.96
44.77
40.54
25.44
9.31
23.78
33.09
1,058.67
76.60
28.47
105.07
55.53
45.77
27.60
10.27
27.31
37.59
1,224.61
83.07
33.34
116.41
56.63
48.94
30.10
11.72
30.84
42.56
1,341.85
88.08
41.34
129.42
58.74
53.75
35.05
13.16
32.95
46.10
1,434.85
99.31
47.82
147.13
63.90
58.65
37.38
14.75
37.91
52.66
1,541.70
115.63
53.60
169.23
69.02
60.16
39.48
17.35
43.76
61.11
1,660.36
124.51
61.32
185.82
70.77
62.80
40.08
17.09
48.85
65.93
1,769.01
139.46
66.61
206.07
70.97
66.67
45.74
18.93
57.54
76.46
1,901.79
156.25
72.42
228.67
76.71
71.61
55.90
21.57
66.80
88.37
2,056.15
175.89
74.33
250.22
76.67
77.21
59.84
24.11
77.51
101.62
2,203.18
195.09
79.79
274.88
72.33
82.64
63.52
24.92
87.72
112.64
2,364.82
215.07
85.24
300.31
72.55
89.53
66.05
28.43
93.37
121.80
2,458.83
230.23
89.81
320.05
70.32
96.28
72.20
27.66
101.17
128.83
2,492.83
233.14
95.31
328.46
78.38
105.51
79.26
27.73
109.27
137.00
2,521.10
252.51
95.16
347.67
77.23
110.74
82.93
27.58
112.53
140.11
2,528.45
256.73
96.14
352.87
72.95
113.86
84.08
27.69
112.33
140.02
2,523.85
285.35
99.50
384.85
70.95
117.37
84.13
36.43
122.77
159.20
2,633.42
313.55
105.16
418.71
76.32
145.93
81.43
38.64
133.58
172.22
2,784.79
336.86
110.47
447.34
115.41
156.87
90.78
37.58
144.15
181.73
2,966.64
382.19
111.45
493.64
129.22
176.85
101.06
45.78
153.06
198.84
3,207.40
424.84
114.00
538.84
145.34
201.00
120.28
61.85
155.69
217.53
3,451.83
471.58
117.45
589.03
157.35
207.96
134.36
60.82
168.29
229.11
3,671.71
520.35
118.76
639.12
177.07
241.12
151.03
67.93
173.52
241.45
3,912.14
561.45
122.84
684.29
172.46
242.81
158.84
71.78
177.80
249.58
4,128.38
596.31
126.39
722.70
204.42
268.58
166.17
73.71
191.64
265.35
4,374.92
644.32
131.23
775.54
222.03
283.49
164.52
81.92
203.94
285.86
4,633.41
699.41
135.82
835.23
218.02
313.99
169.45
84.03
216.06
300.09
4,899.81
756.09
140.95
897.04
211.47
339.10
177.05
93.16
228.84
321.99
5,169.97
(annual percentage change)*
13.0
2.1
9.9
0.2
23.9
4.0
11.0
12.1
11.8
13.7
10.2
16.8
12.2
34.9
18.0
11.9
15.1
23.5
20.7
14.8
27.6
10.3
22.2
10.8
17.6
21.8
12.7
32.6
26.4
16.4
13.4
7.9
11.8
24.0
12.9
8.5
10.3
14.9
13.6
15.7
8.4
17.1
10.8
2.0
6.9
9.1
14.1
12.9
13.2
9.6
6.0
24.0
11.2
3.7
9.8
16.4
12.3
6.8
8.3
6.9
12.7
15.7
13.7
8.8
9.1
6.6
12.1
15.1
14.2
7.4
16.4
12.1
15.4
15.0
8.0
2.6
16.0
7.7
7.7
14.4
9.8
2.5
4.4
1.5
-1.5
11.6
7.9
6.5
12.0
8.6
10.9
0.3
6.2
14.1
5.6
10.7
17.6
17.8
16.0
7.5
12.0
8.7
11.0
8.1
7.4
22.2
14.0
16.1
15.6
8.1
12.6
2.6
9.4
0.0
7.8
7.0
11.8
16.0
15.0
7.2
7.3
10.9
7.3
9.9
-5.7
7.0
6.2
3.4
13.2
10.8
10.2
6.8
9.3
0.3
8.3
4.0
14.1
6.4
8.1
7.1
5.4
6.6
-3.1
7.5
9.3
-2.7
8.4
5.8
1.4
1.3
6.1
2.6
11.5
9.6
9.8
0.2
8.0
6.3
1.1
8.3
4.6
4.0
-0.2
5.8
-1.5
5.0
-0.5
3.0
2.3
0.3
1.7
1.0
1.5
-5.6
2.8
1.4
0.4
-0.2
-0.1
-0.2
11.1
3.5
9.1
-2.7
3.1
0.1
31.6
9.3
13.7
4.3
9.9
5.7
8.8
7.6
24.3
-3.2
6.1
8.8
8.2
5.7
7.4
5.1
6.8
51.2
7.5
11.5
-2.8
7.9
5.5
6.5
13.5
0.9
10.4
12.0
12.7
11.3
21.8
6.2
9.4
8.1
11.2
2.3
9.2
12.5
13.7
19.0
35.1
1.7
9.4
7.6
11.0
3.0
9.3
8.3
3.5
11.7
-1.7
8.1
5.3
10.3
1.1
8.5
12.5
15.9
12.4
11.7
3.1
5.4
6.5
7.9
3.4
7.1
-2.6
0.7
5.2
5.7
2.5
3.4
5.5
6.0
6.4
6.2
2.9
5.6
18.5
10.6
4.6
2.7
7.8
6.3
8.1
3.8
7.3
8.6
5.6
-1.0
11.1
6.4
7.7
5.9
8.6
8.1
3.5
3.8
7.7
7.4
-1.8
-3.0
10.8
8.0
3.0
4.5
2.6
10.9
5.9
5.9
5.0
7.3
5.7
5.5
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
109
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.2.1—Part 1
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Year
Hospitals
Other Institutions
Physicians
A
B
C
Dental Services
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Other
Sub-Total
D
($’ 000,000)
1975
318.1
328.4
26.8
685.3
190.3
81.7
957.2
1976
379.6
369.5
29.5
799.3
219.4
91.6
1,110.3
1977
420.1
401.8
32.3
950.9
251.0
102.0
1,303.9
1978
520.1
484.3
38.3
1,087.3
284.0
110.8
1,482.1
1979
626.5
590.3
52.6
1,230.7
307.8
130.3
1,668.8
1980
749.2
718.2
51.5
1,397.0
347.1
150.5
1,894.6
1981
903.4
743.2
49.7
1,533.4
434.9
177.0
2,145.2
1982
1,090.8
853.4
67.7
1,802.7
518.6
214.3
2,535.7
1983
1,243.1
947.2
79.4
1,965.1
609.3
247.7
2,822.1
1984
1,408.5
992.3
81.3
2,135.5
711.7
271.2
3,118.4
1985
1,522.6
1,039.4
83.6
2,435.8
795.5
281.8
3,513.0
1986
1,700.1
1,104.9
76.9
2,672.5
856.2
301.3
3,829.9
1987
1,796.9
1,197.1
76.6
2,917.3
918.3
358.0
4,193.6
1988
1,903.1
1,270.4
79.6
3,182.6
1,003.4
419.6
4,605.6
1989
2,001.1
1,312.8
84.0
3,470.4
1,096.7
492.2
5,059.3
1990
2,240.3
1,581.4
87.9
3,756.8
1,177.3
562.1
5,496.2
1991
2,421.4
1,768.3
90.9
4,061.8
1,237.1
619.7
5,918.6
1992
2,537.8
1,889.9
93.8
4,272.8
1,295.4
679.0
6,247.2
1993
2,670.0
2,012.9
97.3
4,500.9
1,376.0
732.6
6,609.5
1994
2,660.6
2,092.0
102.2
4,781.2
1,479.0
797.4
7,057.6
1995
2,382.0
2,112.6
109.1
5,060.2
1,581.3
1996
2,248.1
2,105.4
119.5
5,274.1
1,634.9
884.0
7,793.0
1997
2,327.8
2,132.1
121.3
5,514.8
1,974.7
1,068.8
8,558.2
1998
2,335.7
2,210.3
143.3
5,909.1
2,073.5
1,028.1
9,010.7
838.9
7,480.5
1999
2,476.9
2,396.0
153.0
6,378.9
2,130.0
1,184.1
9,692.9
2000
2,664.6
2,650.2
175.3
6,783.6
2,346.1
1,217.2
10,346.9
2001
2,925.6
2,719.9
148.5
7,361.2
2,513.3
1,450.8
11,325.2
2002
3,279.4
2,943.2
259.8
7,830.0
2,559.9
1,506.1
11,896.0
2003
3,327.5
3,088.0
197.4
8,033.0
2,441.8
1,539.5
12,014.4
2004
3,629.0
3,576.0
233.4
8,550.0
2,816.3
1,633.4
12,999.7
2005
3,833.3
3,587.0
256.1
9,398.0
2,964.5
1,718.5
14,081.0
2006
3,974.8
3,845.7
308.0
9,851.2
3,212.8
2,048.9
15,113.0
2007 f
4,277.6
4,196.7
329.5
10,709.6
3,426.9
2,095.3
16,231.8
2008 f
4,456.6
4,427.5
364.4
11,588.2
3,687.4
2,209.2
17,484.8
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
19.3
12.5
10.3
16.6
15.3
12.1
16.0
1980
19.6
21.7
-2.0
13.5
12.8
15.5
13.5
1981
20.6
3.5
-3.5
9.8
25.3
17.6
13.2
1982
20.8
14.8
36.1
17.6
19.3
21.1
18.2
1983
14.0
11.0
17.3
9.0
17.5
15.6
11.3
1984
13.3
4.8
2.4
8.7
16.8
9.5
10.5
12.7
1985
8.1
4.8
2.9
14.1
11.8
3.9
1986
11.7
6.3
-8.0
9.7
7.6
6.9
9.0
1987
5.7
8.3
-0.4
9.2
7.3
18.8
9.5
1988
5.9
6.1
3.9
9.1
9.3
17.2
9.8
1989
5.2
3.3
5.5
9.0
9.3
17.3
9.9
1990
12.0
20.5
4.6
8.3
7.4
14.2
8.6
1991
8.1
11.8
3.5
8.1
5.1
10.3
7.7
1992
4.8
6.9
3.2
5.2
4.7
9.6
5.6
1993
5.2
6.5
3.7
5.3
6.2
7.9
5.8
1994
-0.4
3.9
5.1
6.2
7.5
8.8
6.8
1995
-10.5
1.0
6.7
5.8
6.9
5.2
6.0
1996
-5.6
-0.3
9.5
4.2
3.4
5.4
4.2
1997
3.5
1.3
1.6
4.6
20.8
20.9
9.8
1998
0.3
3.7
18.1
7.2
5.0
-3.8
5.3
1999
6.0
8.4
6.7
7.9
2.7
15.2
7.6
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
7.6
9.8
12.1
1.5
9.1
10.6
2.6
8.2
4.9
15.8
14.6
-15.3
75.0
-24.0
18.3
6.3
8.5
6.4
2.6
6.4
10.1
7.1
1.9
-4.6
15.3
2.8
19.2
3.8
2.2
6.1
6.7
9.5
5.0
1.0
8.2
5.6
3.7
7.6
4.2
0.3
7.2
9.1
5.5
9.7
20.3
7.0
10.6
9.9
4.8
8.7
8.2
5.3
8.4
6.7
7.6
5.2
19.2
2.3
5.4
8.3
7.3
7.4
7.7
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
110
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.2.1—Part 2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Sub-Total
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($’ 000,000)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Sub-Total
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D+E
+F+G+H+J
2,899.2
613.1
305.6
918.7
159.6
---
72.2
23.4
94.7
118.2
667.6
316.0
983.6
177.1
---
62.0
29.5
91.4
120.9
3,232.6
721.4
324.5
1,045.9
178.3
---
90.2
36.4
96.6
132.9
3,605.4
724.7
392.8
1,117.6
217.4
---
86.2
43.2
77.1
120.3
4,066.3
776.5
495.5
1,272.0
177.3
---
100.1
50.3
79.5
129.8
4,617.4
833.3
586.3
1,419.6
355.4
---
117.1
63.0
87.8
150.8
5,456.5
1,110.2
655.0
1,765.2
379.3
---
186.5
66.4
95.2
161.6
6,334.1
715.0
1,955.5
489.1
---
146.6
73.8
99.7
173.4
7,312.3
1,240.5
1,289.8
845.9
2,135.6
371.4
---
172.7
82.1
105.0
187.2
7,958.6
1,312.7
1,058.6
2,371.3
364.3
---
250.3
91.2
108.6
199.9
8,786.3
1,447.7
1,235.9
2,683.6
414.4
---
269.2
102.8
118.2
221.0
9,746.9
1,698.8
1,399.0
3,097.9
449.9
---
296.4
119.7
133.0
252.7
10,808.7
1,800.4
1,621.7
3,422.2
480.7
---
280.4
136.1
149.9
286.0
11,733.5
2,034.0
1,784.9
3,818.9
351.0
---
426.3
164.1
177.4
341.5
12,796.4
2,292.0
1,975.6
4,267.7
390.4
---
660.2
196.1
212.9
408.9
14,184.3
2,593.9
2,058.7
4,652.5
383.4
---
665.4
226.2
243.8
470.0
15,577.1
2,861.9
2,236.6
5,098.5
341.7
---
746.8
249.8
270.9
520.7
16,906.9
3,192.3
2,418.1
5,610.4
363.1
---
805.0
265.5
299.3
564.8
18,112.0
3,558.7
2,576.0
6,134.7
366.7
---
1,060.0
275.6
351.4
627.0
19,578.1
3,673.3
2,764.0
6,437.4
329.6
---
1,226.4
293.2
375.3
668.4
20,574.2
4,033.8
2,788.4
6,822.2
439.1
---
1,274.1
319.4
431.2
750.6
21,370.1
4,273.3
2,846.7
7,120.0
474.0
---
1,309.1
332.1
409.4
741.5
21,910.5
4,933.2
2,975.7
7,908.9
364.3
---
1,291.4
358.9
469.0
827.9
23,532.1
5,443.5
3,171.3
8,614.9
427.5
---
1,110.3
427.8
487.8
915.6
24,768.3
5,689.0
3,358.8
9,047.9
882.1
---
1,333.2
449.2
567.6
1,016.8
26,998.8
6,429.3
3,420.3
9,849.6
830.6
---
1,514.4
532.0
597.0
1,129.0
29,160.7
7,102.5
3,536.4
10,638.9
1,088.8
---
1,990.1
650.7
573.2
1,223.9
32,061.0
7,943.9
3,684.7
11,628.6
1,232.5
---
2,304.3
720.9
732.5
1,453.4
34,997.1
8,859.8
3,762.0
12,621.8
1,423.5
---
2,689.4
838.7
734.9
1,573.7
36,935.6
9,623.2
3,930.2
13,553.4
1,099.2
---
2,844.8
920.4
632.2
1,552.6
39,488.0
10,252.7
4,084.1
14,336.8
1,480.1
---
2,876.3
943.3
694.7
1,638.0
42,088.7
11,298.9
4,284.5
15,583.4
2,055.0
---
2,813.4
960.4
838.9
1,799.4
45,492.7
12,584.7
4,478.8
17,063.5
1,475.4
---
2,892.5
1,029.1
874.3
1,903.3
48,370.3
13,963.7
4,686.8
18,650.5
1,310.1
---
2,922.7
1,090.4
926.7
2,017.1
51,633.7
(annual percentage change)*
8.9
3.4
7.1
11.0
---
-14.1
26.0
-3.6
2.3
11.5
7.3
18.3
11.6
100.4
---
17.0
25.4
10.4
16.2
18.2
33.2
11.7
24.3
6.7
---
59.2
5.4
8.5
7.2
16.1
11.7
9.2
10.8
29.0
---
-21.4
11.1
4.7
7.3
15.4
4.0
18.3
9.2
-24.1
---
17.8
11.4
5.4
7.9
8.8
1.8
25.2
11.0
-1.9
---
44.9
11.1
3.4
6.8
10.4
10.3
16.7
13.2
13.8
---
7.6
12.7
8.8
10.6
10.9
17.3
13.2
15.4
8.6
---
10.1
16.4
12.5
14.3
10.9
6.0
15.9
10.5
6.9
---
-5.4
13.7
12.7
13.2
13.0
10.1
11.6
-27.0
---
52.0
20.6
18.3
19.4
9.1
12.7
10.7
11.8
11.2
---
54.9
19.5
20.0
19.7
10.8
13.2
4.2
9.0
-1.8
---
0.8
15.4
14.5
14.9
9.8
10.3
8.6
9.6
-10.9
---
12.2
10.4
11.1
10.8
8.5
11.5
8.1
10.0
6.3
---
7.8
6.3
10.5
8.5
7.1
11.5
6.5
9.3
1.0
---
31.7
3.8
17.4
11.0
8.1
3.2
7.3
4.9
-10.1
---
15.7
6.4
6.8
6.6
5.1
9.8
0.9
6.0
33.2
---
3.9
9.0
14.9
12.3
5.9
2.1
4.4
7.9
---
2.7
4.0
-5.1
-1.2
2.5
15.4
4.5
11.1
-23.1
---
-1.3
8.1
14.6
11.6
7.4
10.3
6.6
8.9
17.3
---
-14.0
19.2
4.0
10.6
5.3
4.5
5.9
5.0
106.3
---
20.1
5.0
16.4
11.1
9.0
13.0
10.5
11.8
11.5
8.6
1.8
3.4
4.2
2.1
4.5
8.9
8.0
9.3
8.5
7.4
-5.8
31.1
13.2
15.5
-22.8
-----------
13.6
31.4
15.8
16.7
5.8
18.4
22.3
10.8
16.4
9.7
5.2
-4.0
27.8
0.3
-14.0
11.0
8.4
18.7
8.3
-1.3
8.0
9.9
9.2
5.5
6.9
6.5
10.2
11.4
11.0
3.9
4.9
4.5
4.6
5.8
8.7
9.5
9.3
34.7
38.8
-28.2
-11.2
---------
1.1
-2.2
2.8
1.0
2.5
1.8
7.1
6.0
9.9
20.8
4.2
6.0
5.5
9.8
5.8
6.0
6.6
8.1
6.3
6.7
8.6
3.9
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
111
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.2.2—Part 1
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Physicians
Dental Services
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Hospitals
Other Institutions
Other
Year
A
B
1975
11.0
11.3
0.9
23.6
6.6
2.8
33.0
1976
11.7
11.4
0.9
24.7
6.8
2.8
34.3
1977
11.7
11.1
0.9
26.4
7.0
2.8
36.2
1978
12.8
11.9
0.9
26.7
7.0
2.7
36.4
1979
13.6
12.8
1.1
26.7
6.7
2.8
36.1
1980
13.7
13.2
0.9
25.6
6.4
2.8
34.7
1981
14.3
11.7
0.8
24.2
6.9
2.8
33.9
1982
14.9
11.7
0.9
24.7
7.1
2.9
34.7
1983
15.6
11.9
1.0
24.7
7.7
3.1
35.5
1984
16.0
11.3
0.9
24.3
8.1
3.1
35.5
1985
15.6
10.7
0.9
25.0
8.2
2.9
36.0
1986
15.7
10.2
0.7
24.7
7.9
2.8
1987
15.3
10.2
0.7
24.9
7.8
3.1
35.7
1988
14.9
9.9
0.6
24.9
7.8
3.3
36.0
1989
14.1
9.3
0.6
24.5
7.7
3.5
35.7
1990
14.4
10.2
0.6
24.1
7.6
3.6
35.3
1991
14.3
10.5
0.5
24.0
7.3
3.7
35.0
1992
14.0
10.4
0.5
23.6
7.2
3.7
34.5
1993
13.6
10.3
0.5
23.0
7.0
3.7
33.8
1994
12.9
10.2
0.5
23.2
7.2
3.9
34.3
1995
11.1
9.9
0.5
23.7
7.4
3.9
35.0
1996
10.3
9.6
0.5
24.1
7.5
4.0
35.6
1997
9.9
9.1
0.5
23.4
8.4
4.5
36.4
1998
9.4
8.9
0.6
23.9
8.4
4.2
36.4
1999
9.2
8.9
0.6
23.6
7.9
4.4
35.9
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
9.1
9.1
9.4
9.0
9.2
9.1
8.5
8.4
8.4
9.1
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.6
23.3
23.0
22.4
21.7
21.7
8.0
7.8
7.3
6.6
7.1
4.2
4.5
4.3
4.2
4.1
35.5
35.3
34.0
32.5
32.9
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
9.1
8.7
8.8
8.6
8.5
8.5
8.7
8.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
22.3
21.7
22.1
22.4
7.0
7.1
7.1
7.1
4.1
4.5
4.3
4.3
33.5
33.2
33.6
33.9
1976*
7.0
0.9
-1.1
4.6
3.4
0.5
4.0
1980
1.2
2.9
-17.0
-3.9
-4.6
-2.3
-3.9
1981
3.9
-10.9
-16.9
-5.4
7.9
1.3
-2.5
1982
4.6
-0.5
17.9
1.8
3.3
4.9
1983
4.7
2.0
7.8
0.2
7.9
6.2
2.3
1984
2.6
-5.1
-7.3
-1.6
5.8
-0.8
0.1
C
(percentage distribution of $' 000,000)
Sub-Total
D
35.4
(annual percentage change)*
1985
-2.6
2.4
-5.6
-7.3
2.8
0.8
-6.3
1.6
1986
0.7
-4.1
-17.0
-1.1
-2.9
-3.6
-1.7
1987
-2.6
-0.2
-8.2
0.6
-1.2
9.4
0.9
1988
-2.9
-2.7
-4.8
0.0
0.2
7.5
0.7
1989
-5.1
-6.8
-4.8
-1.6
-1.4
5.8
-0.9
-1.1
1990
1.9
9.7
-4.7
-1.4
-2.2
4.0
1991
-0.4
3.0
-4.7
-0.4
-3.2
1.6
-0.8
1992
-2.2
-0.2
-3.7
-1.8
-2.2
2.3
-1.5
1993
-2.7
-1.5
-4.1
-2.6
-1.7
-0.2
-2.1
1994
-5.2
-1.1
0.0
1.1
2.3
3.6
1.6
1995
-13.8
-2.8
2.8
1.9
2.9
1.3
2.0
1996
-7.9
-2.8
6.8
1.7
0.8
2.8
1.6
1997
-3.6
-5.7
-5.4
-2.6
12.5
12.6
2.3
1998
-4.7
-1.5
12.2
1.8
-0.2
-8.6
0.0
1999
-2.7
-0.6
-2.1
-1.0
-5.8
5.7
-1.3
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
-0.4
-0.1
2.7
-3.9
2.0
2.4
-6.7
-0.9
-0.6
8.3
6.1
-23.0
60.3
-28.0
10.6
-1.5
-1.3
-2.6
-2.8
-0.4
2.0
-2.6
-6.7
-9.6
7.9
-4.8
8.4
-4.9
-3.1
-0.8
-1.2
-0.4
-3.8
-4.3
1.2
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
-0.9
-4.1
1.2
-2.4
-5.9
-0.8
2.6
-1.2
2.9
11.3
0.6
3.6
3.1
-3.0
2.2
1.4
-1.2
0.3
0.3
0.8
-1.3
10.3
-3.8
-1.2
1.6
-0.7
1.0
0.9
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
112
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.2.2—Part 2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Sub-Total
E
Capital
Public Health
Administration
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
F
G
H
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Sub-Total
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D+E
+F+G+H+J
21.1
10.5
31.7
5.5
---
2.5
0.8
3.3
4.1
100.0
20.7
9.8
30.4
5.5
---
1.9
0.9
2.8
3.7
100.0
20.0
9.0
29.0
4.9
---
2.5
1.0
2.7
3.7
100.0
17.8
9.7
27.5
5.3
---
2.1
1.1
1.9
3.0
100.0
16.8
10.7
27.5
3.8
---
2.2
1.1
1.7
2.8
100.0
15.3
10.7
26.0
6.5
---
2.1
1.2
1.6
2.8
100.0
17.5
10.3
27.9
6.0
---
2.9
1.0
1.5
2.6
100.0
17.0
9.8
26.7
6.7
---
2.0
1.0
1.4
2.4
100.0
16.2
10.6
26.8
4.7
---
2.2
1.0
1.3
2.4
100.0
14.9
12.0
27.0
4.1
---
2.8
1.0
1.2
2.3
100.0
14.9
12.7
27.5
4.3
---
2.8
1.1
1.2
2.3
100.0
15.7
12.9
28.7
4.2
---
2.7
1.1
1.2
2.3
100.0
15.3
13.8
29.2
4.1
---
2.4
1.2
1.3
2.4
100.0
15.9
13.9
29.8
2.7
---
3.3
1.3
1.4
2.7
100.0
16.2
13.9
30.1
2.8
---
4.7
1.4
1.5
2.9
100.0
16.7
13.2
29.9
2.5
---
4.3
1.5
1.6
3.0
100.0
16.9
13.2
30.2
2.0
---
4.4
1.5
1.6
3.1
100.0
17.6
13.4
31.0
2.0
---
4.4
1.5
1.7
3.1
100.0
18.2
13.2
31.3
1.9
---
5.4
1.4
1.8
3.2
100.0
17.9
13.4
31.3
1.6
---
6.0
1.4
1.8
3.2
100.0
18.9
13.0
31.9
2.1
---
6.0
1.5
2.0
3.5
100.0
19.5
13.0
32.5
2.2
---
6.0
1.5
1.9
3.4
100.0
21.0
12.6
33.6
1.5
---
5.5
1.5
2.0
3.5
100.0
22.0
12.8
34.8
1.7
---
4.5
1.7
2.0
3.7
100.0
21.1
12.4
33.5
3.3
---
4.9
1.7
2.1
3.8
100.0
22.0
22.2
22.7
24.0
24.4
11.7
11.0
10.5
10.2
10.0
33.8
33.2
33.2
34.2
34.3
2.8
3.4
3.5
3.9
2.8
-----------
5.2
6.2
6.6
7.3
7.2
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.3
2.0
1.8
2.1
2.0
1.6
3.9
3.8
4.2
4.3
3.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
24.4
24.8
26.0
27.0
9.7
9.4
9.3
9.1
34.1
34.3
35.3
36.1
3.5
4.5
3.1
2.5
---------
6.8
6.2
6.0
5.7
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
3.9
4.0
3.9
3.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
-2.4
-7.3
-4.0
-0.5
---
-23.0
13.0
-13.5
-8.3
---
-9.2
0.1
-5.6
69.6
---
-1.0
6.1
-6.6
-1.7
---
14.8
-3.8
7.1
-8.1
---
37.2
-9.2
-6.5
-7.7
---
-3.2
-5.4
-4.0
11.7
---
-31.9
-3.8
-9.3
-7.1
---
-4.5
8.7
0.3
-30.2
---
8.2
2.3
-3.2
-0.8
---
-7.8
13.4
0.6
-11.2
---
31.3
0.6
-6.3
-3.3
---
-0.6
5.2
2.0
2.5
---
-3.0
1.6
-1.9
-0.3
---
5.8
(annual percentage change)*
2.1
4.1
---
-0.7
4.9
1.5
3.1
---
-2.4
6.8
1.8
-1.6
---
-12.8
4.8
3.8
4.3
---
3.6
0.9
2.3
-33.0
---
39.4
10.6
8.5
9.5
---
1.7
-0.1
0.8
0.3
---
39.7
7.8
8.3
8.0
---
3.0
-5.1
-0.7
-10.6
---
-8.2
5.1
4.3
4.7
---
1.0
-17.9
1.7
2.4
1.7
0.1
-2.1
2.1
---
4.1
0.9
2.7
-0.8
---
0.6
-0.8
3.2
1.3
---
3.1
-1.4
1.2
-6.6
---
---
21.8
3.4
-4.0
8.6
2.7
---
-1.8
2.1
-0.1
-14.5
---
10.1
1.2
1.6
1.5
---
5.7
-2.9
2.0
28.3
---
0.0
4.9
10.6
8.1
---
3.3
-0.4
1.8
5.3
---
0.2
1.4
-7.4
-3.7
---
7.5
-2.7
3.4
-28.4
---
-8.1
0.6
6.7
4.0
---
4.8
1.3
3.5
11.5
---
-18.3
13.3
-1.2
5.1
---
-4.1
-2.8
-3.7
89.3
---
10.2
-3.7
6.8
1.9
---
4.6
0.5
2.5
5.7
1.6
-5.7
-6.0
-4.5
-3.3
-2.3
0.8
-1.8
0.1
2.8
0.4
-12.8
19.2
3.7
9.4
-27.8
-----------
5.2
19.5
6.1
10.6
-1.1
9.7
11.2
1.5
10.2
2.6
-2.6
-12.7
17.1
-4.9
-19.5
2.8
-1.4
8.8
2.6
-7.7
-----------
0.0
2.0
4.8
3.9
-2.5
-2.9
-1.7
-2.0
-0.8
0.6
3.0
2.4
26.3
28.5
-32.5
-16.8
---------
-5.1
-9.5
-3.3
-5.3
-3.8
-5.8
0.8
-0.7
3.1
11.7
-2.0
-0.7
-1.0
1.6
-0.5
-0.7
---------
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
113
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.2.3—Part 1
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Hospitals
Other Institutions
Physicians
A
B
C
Year
Dental Services
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Other
Sub-Total
D
($ per capita)
1975
13.74
14.19
1.16
29.61
8.22
3.53
41.36
1976
16.19
15.76
1.26
34.09
9.36
3.90
47.35
1977
17.71
16.93
1.36
40.08
10.58
4.30
54.96
1978
21.70
20.21
1.60
45.37
11.85
4.62
61.85
1979
25.89
24.39
2.17
50.85
12.72
5.39
68.95
1980
30.56
29.29
2.10
56.98
14.16
6.14
77.28
1981
36.40
29.94
2.00
61.78
17.52
7.13
86.43
1982
43.43
33.98
2.69
71.77
20.65
8.53
100.95
111.25
1983
49.00
37.34
3.13
77.47
24.02
9.76
1984
55.00
38.75
3.17
83.39
27.79
10.59
121.78
1985
58.92
40.22
3.24
94.26
30.78
10.90
135.94
11.54
146.73
1986
65.14
42.33
2.95
102.39
32.80
1987
67.94
45.26
2.90
110.30
34.72
13.54
1988
71.02
47.41
2.97
118.78
37.45
15.66
171.88
1989
73.35
48.12
3.08
127.21
40.20
18.04
185.45
158.55
1990
80.88
57.09
3.17
135.64
42.51
20.29
198.44
1991
86.38
63.08
3.24
144.90
44.13
22.11
211.14
1992
89.46
66.62
3.31
150.63
45.67
23.94
220.23
1993
93.09
70.18
3.39
156.92
47.97
25.54
230.44
1994
91.75
72.14
3.52
164.88
51.00
27.50
243.37
1995
81.29
72.10
3.72
172.69
53.96
28.63
255.29
1996
75.92
71.10
4.03
178.11
55.21
29.85
263.18
1997
77.83
71.29
4.06
184.40
66.03
35.74
286.16
1998
77.45
73.29
4.75
195.95
68.76
34.09
298.79
1999
81.47
78.81
5.03
209.80
70.06
38.95
318.81
2000
86.83
86.36
5.71
221.04
76.45
39.66
337.15
2001
94.31
87.68
4.79
237.29
81.02
46.77
365.08
2002
104.53
93.82
8.28
249.58
81.60
48.01
379.18
2003
105.05
97.49
6.23
253.60
77.09
48.60
379.29
2004
113.42
111.77
7.30
267.23
88.02
51.05
406.30
2005
118.63
111.01
7.92
290.85
91.75
53.18
435.78
2006
121.74
117.79
9.43
301.73
98.40
62.76
462.89
2007 f
129.72
127.26
9.99
324.77
103.92
63.54
492.23
2008 f
134.03
133.15
10.96
348.50
110.90
66.44
525.84
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
17.8
11.1
8.8
15.1
13.8
10.6
14.5
1980
18.0
20.1
-3.2
12.1
11.3
14.0
12.1
11.8
1981
19.1
2.2
-4.7
8.4
23.7
16.2
1982
19.3
13.5
34.5
16.2
17.9
19.6
16.8
1983
12.8
9.9
16.2
7.9
16.3
14.4
10.2
1984
12.2
3.8
1.4
7.7
15.7
8.5
9.5
1985
7.1
3.8
1.9
13.0
10.8
3.0
11.6
1986
10.6
5.2
-8.9
8.6
6.6
5.9
7.9
1987
4.3
6.9
-1.7
7.7
5.8
17.2
8.1
1988
4.5
4.8
2.5
7.7
7.9
15.7
8.4
1989
3.3
1.5
3.6
7.1
7.4
15.2
7.9
1990
10.3
18.7
3.1
6.6
5.7
12.5
7.0
1991
6.8
10.5
2.3
6.8
3.8
8.9
6.4
1992
3.6
5.6
2.0
4.0
3.5
8.3
4.3
1993
4.1
5.3
2.5
4.2
5.1
6.7
4.6
1994
-1.4
2.8
3.9
5.1
6.3
7.7
5.6
1995
-11.4
-0.1
5.6
4.7
4.1
4.9
1996
-6.6
-1.4
8.4
3.1
2.3
4.3
3.1
1997
2.5
0.3
0.6
3.5
19.6
19.7
8.7
1998
-0.5
2.8
17.1
6.3
4.1
-4.6
4.4
1999
5.2
7.5
5.9
7.1
1.9
14.2
6.7
5.8
2000
6.6
9.6
13.6
5.4
9.1
1.8
5.8
2001
8.6
1.5
-16.2
7.4
6.0
17.9
8.3
2002
10.8
7.0
73.0
5.2
0.7
2.6
3.9
2003
0.5
3.9
-24.8
1.6
-5.5
1.2
0.0
2004
8.0
14.6
17.1
5.4
14.2
5.0
7.1
2005
4.6
-0.7
8.6
8.8
4.2
4.2
7.3
2006
2.6
6.1
19.0
3.7
7.3
18.0
6.2
2007 f
6.6
8.0
5.9
7.6
5.6
1.2
6.3
2008 f
3.3
4.6
9.7
7.3
6.7
4.6
6.8
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
114
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.2.3—Part 2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Sub-Total
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($ per capita)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Sub-Total
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D+E
+F+G+H+J
26.49
13.21
39.70
6.90
---
3.12
1.01
4.09
5.11
125.27
28.47
13.48
41.95
7.55
---
2.64
1.26
3.90
5.15
137.85
30.40
13.68
44.08
7.51
---
3.80
1.53
4.07
5.60
151.96
30.24
16.39
46.64
9.07
---
3.60
1.80
3.22
5.02
169.69
32.08
20.48
52.56
7.33
---
4.14
2.08
3.28
5.36
190.79
33.99
23.91
57.91
14.50
---
4.78
2.57
3.58
6.15
222.57
44.73
26.39
71.12
15.28
---
7.51
2.68
3.84
6.51
255.20
49.39
28.47
77.85
19.47
---
5.84
2.94
3.97
6.90
291.12
50.84
33.34
84.19
14.64
---
6.81
3.24
4.14
7.38
313.74
51.26
41.34
92.60
14.22
---
9.77
3.56
4.24
7.81
343.11
56.02
47.82
103.84
16.03
---
10.42
3.98
4.57
8.55
377.16
65.09
53.60
118.69
17.24
---
11.36
4.58
5.10
9.68
414.11
68.07
61.32
129.39
18.18
---
10.60
5.15
5.67
10.81
443.63
75.91
66.61
142.52
13.10
---
15.91
6.12
6.62
12.74
477.56
84.01
72.42
156.43
14.31
---
24.20
7.19
7.80
14.99
519.92
93.65
74.33
167.98
13.84
---
24.02
8.17
8.80
16.97
562.40
102.10
79.79
181.89
12.19
---
26.64
8.91
9.66
18.57
603.14
112.53
85.24
197.78
12.80
---
28.38
9.36
10.55
19.91
638.49
124.07
89.81
213.89
12.79
---
36.96
9.61
12.25
21.86
682.59
126.67
95.31
221.98
11.37
---
42.29
10.11
12.94
23.05
709.48
137.66
95.16
232.82
14.99
---
43.48
10.90
14.72
25.62
729.30
144.32
96.14
240.45
16.01
---
44.21
11.22
13.82
25.04
739.95
164.95
99.50
264.45
12.18
---
43.18
12.00
15.68
27.68
786.83
180.51
105.16
285.67
14.18
---
36.82
14.19
16.17
30.36
821.31
187.12
110.47
297.59
29.01
---
43.85
14.78
18.67
33.44
888.01
209.50
111.45
320.95
27.07
---
49.35
17.34
19.45
36.79
950.20
228.96
114.00
342.96
35.10
---
64.15
20.98
18.48
39.45
1,033.52
253.21
117.45
370.66
39.29
---
73.45
22.98
23.35
46.33
1,115.53
279.70
118.76
398.47
44.94
---
84.90
26.48
23.20
49.68
1,166.04
300.77
122.84
423.61
34.36
---
88.91
28.77
19.76
48.53
1,234.19
317.30
126.39
443.70
45.81
---
89.02
29.19
21.50
50.69
1,302.57
346.07
131.23
477.29
62.94
---
86.17
29.42
25.69
55.11
1,393.37
381.63
135.82
517.45
44.74
---
87.72
31.21
26.51
57.72
1,466.83
419.94
140.95
560.89
39.40
---
87.90
32.79
27.87
60.66
1,552.83
(annual percentage change)*
7.5
2.1
5.7
9.5
---
-15.2
24.3
-4.8
1.0
10.0
5.9
16.8
10.2
97.9
---
15.5
23.7
9.0
14.7
16.7
31.6
10.3
22.8
5.4
---
57.3
4.1
7.2
5.9
14.7
10.4
7.9
9.5
27.4
---
-22.3
9.8
3.4
6.0
14.1
2.9
17.1
8.1
-24.8
---
16.6
10.3
4.4
6.9
7.8
0.8
24.0
10.0
-2.8
---
43.5
10.0
2.5
5.8
9.4
9.3
15.7
12.1
12.7
---
6.6
11.7
7.8
9.6
9.9
16.2
12.1
14.3
7.5
---
9.0
15.2
11.4
13.2
9.8
4.6
14.4
9.0
5.4
---
-6.6
12.2
11.2
11.7
7.1
11.5
8.6
10.2
-27.9
---
50.0
19.0
16.8
17.8
7.6
10.7
8.7
9.8
9.2
---
52.1
17.3
17.9
17.6
8.9
11.5
2.6
7.4
-3.3
---
-0.7
13.7
12.8
13.2
8.2
9.0
7.3
8.3
-11.9
---
10.9
9.1
9.8
9.4
7.2
10.2
6.8
8.7
5.0
---
6.5
5.0
9.2
7.2
10.3
5.4
8.1
-0.1
---
30.2
2.7
16.1
9.8
6.9
2.1
6.1
3.8
-11.1
---
14.4
5.2
5.6
5.4
3.9
8.7
-0.2
4.9
31.8
---
2.8
7.8
13.7
11.1
2.8
4.8
1.0
3.3
6.8
---
1.7
2.9
-6.1
-2.2
1.5
14.3
3.5
10.0
-23.9
---
-2.3
7.0
13.4
10.5
6.3
5.9
9.4
5.7
8.0
16.4
---
-14.7
18.2
3.1
9.7
4.4
3.7
5.1
4.2
104.7
---
19.1
4.1
15.4
10.2
8.1
12.0
0.9
12.5
17.3
9.3
2.3
6.9
29.7
---
30.0
21.0
-5.0
7.2
8.8
10.6
3.0
8.1
7.8
11.9
-6.7
---
---
14.5
9.5
26.4
4.2
17.4
10.0
7.9
7.0
10.5
1.1
7.5
14.4
---
15.6
15.2
-0.6
7.2
4.5
7.5
3.4
6.3
-23.6
---
4.7
8.6
-14.8
-2.3
5.8
5.5
2.9
4.7
33.3
---
0.1
1.5
8.8
4.5
5.5
9.1
3.8
7.6
37.4
---
-3.2
0.8
19.5
8.7
7.0
10.3
3.5
8.4
-28.9
---
1.8
6.1
3.2
4.7
5.3
10.0
3.8
8.4
-11.9
---
0.2
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.9
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
115
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.3.1—Part 1
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Year
Hospitals
Other Institutions
Physicians
A
B
C
Dental Services
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Other
Sub-Total
D
($’ 000,000)
1975
5,136.8
1976
5,977.7
999.1
2,041.5
69.8
40.6
53.9
164.4
1977
6,372.7
1,175.2
796.6
2,252.1
1,813.2
83.7
56.4
44.9
35.9
60.5
46.7
189.1
139.0
1978
6,861.9
1,367.5
2,528.3
104.0
51.9
75.5
231.4
1979
7,487.6
1,581.4
2,804.5
143.8
58.0
88.9
290.7
1980
8,585.2
1,821.5
3,236.0
194.9
67.2
104.9
367.1
1981
10,127.4
2,146.7
3,775.1
278.4
78.7
126.7
483.9
1982
12,001.9
2,531.4
4,353.1
270.0
91.1
143.0
504.2
1983
13,174.5
2,794.4
4,973.3
260.7
105.7
164.0
530.3
1984
13,936.3
2,923.3
5,444.6
266.7
117.7
181.0
565.4
1985
14,737.7
3,066.5
5,962.1
275.5
130.4
214.6
620.5
1986
15,937.1
2,982.4
6,597.9
287.2
146.1
260.7
693.9
1987
17,154.2
3,132.1
7,266.2
286.3
157.3
276.4
719.9
1988
18,497.2
3,468.3
7,862.5
311.3
180.8
296.0
788.2
1989
20,269.0
3,828.5
8,422.7
350.3
205.6
341.5
897.4
1990
21,626.1
4,166.8
9,157.3
382.2
225.4
394.5
1,002.1
1991
23,294.9
4,576.9
10,114.5
405.7
247.7
463.0
1,116.4
1992
24,132.6
4,898.5
10,354.7
417.4
239.6
492.6
1,149.6
1993
24,074.4
4,784.4
10,401.6
426.1
211.0
487.7
1,124.8
1994
23,511.8
4,830.9
10,629.4
435.9
204.1
456.2
1,096.2
1995
23,129.6
5,040.7
10,528.9
425.0
193.1
456.7
1,074.9
1996
22,971.6
5,203.2
10,639.3
389.3
195.3
452.7
1,037.2
1997
22,468.3
6,487.5
11,202.5
371.0
214.5
456.0
1,041.6
1998
23,439.0
7,162.4
11,662.0
355.5
204.7
478.8
1,038.9
1999
24,375.8
7,559.4
12,258.3
381.8
218.8
520.2
1,120.8
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
26,466.5
28,066.2
30,085.8
32,297.3
34,675.8
8,156.3
8,775.1
9,299.6
9,851.0
10,481.4
13,031.6
13,980.2
14,916.2
16,059.2
17,063.4
395.9
403.4
418.1
405.7
421.5
230.3
247.8
240.1
244.2
250.6
568.4
549.5
509.7
512.9
509.2
1,194.7
1,200.7
1,167.9
1,162.8
1,181.3
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
36,540.3
38,982.6
41,179.1
43,649.3
11,078.4
11,661.5
12,168.7
12,783.0
18,280.5
19,723.0
21,403.9
22,719.6
449.0
462.2
500.2
528.5
223.5
227.4
246.5
258.9
455.0
449.3
472.6
507.2
1,127.4
1,138.9
1,219.2
1,294.5
1976*
16.4
25.4
12.6
23.8
13.3
15.4
18.3
1980
14.7
15.2
15.4
35.5
15.9
18.0
26.3
31.8
(annual percentage change)*
1981
18.0
17.9
16.7
42.8
17.1
20.8
1982
18.5
17.9
15.3
-3.0
15.7
12.9
4.2
1983
9.8
10.4
14.2
-3.5
16.0
14.7
5.2
1984
5.8
4.6
9.5
2.3
11.3
10.4
6.6
1985
5.8
4.9
9.5
3.3
10.8
18.5
9.7
1986
8.1
-2.7
10.7
4.2
12.0
21.5
11.8
1987
7.6
5.0
10.1
-0.3
7.7
6.0
3.8
1988
7.8
10.7
8.2
8.8
14.9
7.1
9.5
1989
9.6
10.4
7.1
12.5
13.7
15.4
13.9
1990
6.7
8.8
8.7
9.1
9.6
15.5
11.7
1991
7.7
9.8
10.5
6.1
9.9
17.4
11.4
1992
3.6
7.0
2.4
2.9
-3.3
6.4
3.0
1993
-0.2
-2.3
0.5
2.1
-11.9
-1.0
-2.2
1994
-2.3
1.0
2.2
2.3
-3.3
-6.5
-2.5
1995
-1.6
4.3
-0.9
-2.5
-5.4
0.1
-1.9
1996
-0.7
3.2
1.0
-8.4
1.1
-0.9
-3.5
1997
-2.2
24.7
5.3
-4.7
9.9
0.7
0.4
1998
4.3
10.4
4.1
-4.2
-4.6
5.0
-0.3
1999
4.0
5.5
5.1
7.4
6.9
8.6
7.9
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
8.6
6.0
7.2
7.4
7.4
7.9
7.6
6.0
5.9
6.4
6.3
7.3
6.7
7.7
6.3
3.7
1.9
3.7
-3.0
3.9
5.3
7.6
-3.1
1.7
2.6
9.3
-3.3
-7.2
0.6
-0.7
6.6
0.5
-2.7
-0.4
1.6
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
5.4
6.7
5.6
6.0
5.7
5.3
4.3
5.0
7.1
7.9
8.5
6.1
6.5
2.9
8.2
5.7
-10.8
1.8
8.4
5.0
-10.7
-1.2
5.2
7.3
-4.6
1.0
7.1
6.2
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
116
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.3.1—Part 2
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Sub-Total
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($’ 000,000)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Sub-Total
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D+E
+F+G+H+J
158.6
---
158.6
376.4
406.8
271.4
70.3
131.2
201.6
9,300.3
215.8
---
215.8
367.0
510.6
299.9
75.9
165.3
241.2
10,817.2
266.6
---
266.6
385.4
598.5
318.1
93.1
193.7
286.8
11,844.6
327.9
---
327.9
454.8
615.4
320.6
107.2
225.4
332.6
13,040.5
386.4
---
386.4
547.8
707.0
351.7
123.4
271.8
395.2
14,552.3
465.0
---
465.0
635.3
845.4
395.2
139.5
351.8
491.3
16,841.8
566.9
---
566.9
731.9
1,006.1
445.0
164.7
495.0
659.7
19,942.6
683.6
---
683.6
905.7
1,149.7
546.6
184.2
586.4
770.6
23,446.8
817.4
---
817.4
1,065.2
1,241.4
590.9
215.1
677.4
892.5
26,080.0
942.8
---
942.8
1,139.8
1,376.5
647.3
245.7
735.1
980.8
27,956.9
1,118.7
---
1,118.7
1,236.9
1,515.7
696.8
278.4
861.6
1,140.0
30,094.9
1,319.2
---
1,319.2
1,351.5
1,570.2
734.2
333.2
1,009.1
1,342.3
32,528.6
1,492.7
---
1,492.7
1,391.1
1,661.0
779.6
315.9
1,142.0
1,457.9
35,054.7
1,702.8
---
1,702.8
1,550.7
1,786.6
799.2
343.0
1,364.3
1,707.3
38,162.8
1,970.9
---
1,970.9
1,702.4
1,953.6
864.8
392.3
1,609.5
2,001.9
41,911.1
2,278.0
---
2,278.0
1,740.3
2,138.5
991.9
441.5
1,903.1
2,344.6
45,445.5
2,606.7
---
2,606.7
1,685.8
2,316.5
1,033.6
448.9
2,188.0
2,636.8
49,382.2
2,908.5
---
2,908.5
1,694.9
2,539.6
1,068.6
541.0
2,349.3
2,890.4
51,637.3
3,044.9
---
3,044.9
1,650.2
2,761.5
1,010.9
517.9
2,550.3
3,068.2
51,920.8
3,087.6
---
3,087.6
1,943.2
3,059.8
1,072.0
511.1
2,793.5
3,304.6
52,535.5
3,365.3
---
3,365.3
1,824.0
3,245.0
1,155.8
488.8
2,866.2
3,355.0
52,719.1
3,328.8
---
3,328.8
1,685.9
3,371.5
1,180.8
487.7
2,916.9
3,404.6
52,823.0
3,601.0
---
3,601.0
1,757.6
3,510.1
1,224.8
730.8
3,202.6
3,933.4
55,226.8
4,012.3
---
4,012.3
1,874.0
4,400.7
1,345.4
737.6
3,540.5
4,278.1
59,212.8
4,552.9
---
4,552.9
2,626.8
4,769.4
1,426.7
693.4
3,815.0
4,508.4
63,198.5
5,299.7
6,076.5
6,850.7
7,622.9
8,340.6
-----------
5,299.7
6,076.5
6,850.7
7,622.9
8,340.6
3,134.9
3,419.9
3,703.9
4,185.5
4,418.8
5,427.2
6,235.2
6,524.4
7,637.6
7,768.7
1,587.1
1,741.1
1,910.9
2,094.6
2,237.5
873.0
1,267.8
1,187.3
1,313.1
1,376.0
4,100.1
4,256.5
4,547.2
4,761.5
5,056.7
4,973.1
5,524.3
5,734.5
6,074.6
6,432.7
69,271.2
75,019.1
80,193.9
86,985.6
92,600.3
9,015.3
9,737.7
10,479.0
11,177.4
---------
9,015.3
9,737.7
10,479.0
11,177.4
5,125.1
5,194.3
5,713.9
5,721.5
8,678.3
9,255.9
10,354.2
11,275.6
2,492.9
2,558.0
2,695.3
2,964.3
1,438.6
1,714.3
1,742.0
2,007.2
5,497.4
5,819.6
6,250.5
6,682.5
6,936.0
7,533.9
7,992.5
8,689.7
99,274.1
105,785.8
113,205.9
120,274.9
36.1
---
36.1
-2.5
25.5
10.5
8.0
25.9
19.7
16.3
20.3
---
20.3
16.0
19.6
12.4
13.1
29.4
24.3
15.7
21.9
---
21.9
15.2
19.0
12.6
18.1
40.7
34.3
18.4
20.6
---
20.6
23.7
14.3
22.8
11.8
18.5
16.8
17.6
19.6
---
19.6
17.6
8.0
8.1
16.8
15.5
15.8
11.2
15.4
---
15.4
7.0
10.9
9.5
14.2
8.5
9.9
7.2
18.7
---
18.7
8.5
10.1
7.6
13.3
17.2
16.2
7.6
17.9
---
17.9
9.3
3.6
5.4
19.7
17.1
17.7
8.1
13.2
---
13.2
2.9
5.8
6.2
-5.2
13.2
8.6
7.8
14.1
---
14.1
11.5
7.6
2.5
8.6
19.5
17.1
8.9
15.7
---
15.7
9.8
9.3
8.2
14.4
18.0
17.3
9.8
15.6
---
15.6
2.2
9.5
14.7
12.5
18.2
17.1
8.4
(annual percentage change)*
14.4
---
14.4
-3.1
8.3
4.2
1.7
15.0
12.5
8.7
11.6
---
11.6
0.5
9.6
3.4
20.5
7.4
9.6
4.6
4.7
---
4.7
-2.6
8.7
-5.4
-4.3
8.6
6.2
0.5
1.4
---
1.4
17.8
10.8
6.0
-1.3
9.5
7.7
1.2
9.0
---
9.0
-6.1
6.1
7.8
-4.4
2.6
1.5
0.3
-1.1
-7.6
3.9
2.2
-0.2
1.8
1.5
8.2
---
8.2
4.3
4.1
3.7
49.8
9.8
15.5
4.6
11.4
-1.1
---
---
11.4
6.6
25.4
9.8
0.9
10.6
8.8
7.2
0.2
13.5
---
13.5
40.2
8.4
6.0
-6.0
7.8
5.4
6.7
16.4
14.7
12.7
11.3
9.4
-----------
16.4
14.7
12.7
11.3
9.4
19.3
9.1
8.3
13.0
5.6
13.8
14.9
4.6
17.1
1.7
11.2
9.7
9.8
9.6
6.8
25.9
45.2
-6.4
10.6
4.8
7.5
3.8
6.8
4.7
6.2
10.3
11.1
3.8
5.9
5.9
9.6
8.3
6.9
8.5
6.5
8.1
8.0
7.6
6.7
---------
8.1
8.0
7.6
6.7
16.0
1.4
10.0
0.1
11.7
6.7
11.9
8.9
11.4
2.6
5.4
10.0
4.5
19.2
1.6
15.2
8.7
5.9
7.4
6.9
7.8
8.6
6.1
8.7
7.2
6.6
7.0
6.2
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
117
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.3.2—Part 1
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Physicians
Dental Services
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Hospitals
Other Institutions
Other
Year
A
B
1975
55.2
8.6
19.5
0.6
0.4
0.5
1976
55.3
9.2
18.9
0.6
0.4
0.5
C
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Sub-Total
D
1.5
1.5
1977
53.8
9.9
19.0
0.7
0.4
0.5
1.6
1978
52.6
10.5
19.4
0.8
0.4
0.6
1.8
1979
51.5
10.9
19.3
1.0
0.4
0.6
2.0
1980
51.0
10.8
19.2
1.2
0.4
0.6
2.2
1981
50.8
10.8
18.9
1.4
0.4
0.6
2.4
1982
51.2
10.8
18.6
1.2
0.4
0.6
2.2
1983
50.5
10.7
19.1
1.0
0.4
0.6
2.0
1984
49.8
10.5
19.5
1.0
0.4
0.6
2.0
1985
49.0
10.2
19.8
0.9
0.4
0.7
2.1
1986
49.0
9.2
20.3
0.9
0.4
0.8
2.1
1987
48.9
8.9
20.7
0.8
0.4
0.8
2.1
1988
48.5
9.1
20.6
0.8
0.5
0.8
2.1
1989
48.4
9.1
20.1
0.8
0.5
0.8
2.1
1990
47.6
9.2
20.1
0.8
0.5
0.9
2.2
1991
47.2
9.3
20.5
0.8
0.5
0.9
2.3
1992
46.7
9.5
20.1
0.8
0.5
1.0
2.2
1993
46.4
9.2
20.0
0.8
0.4
0.9
2.2
1994
44.8
9.2
20.2
0.8
0.4
0.9
2.1
1995
43.9
9.6
20.0
0.8
0.4
0.9
2.0
1996
43.5
9.9
20.1
0.7
0.4
0.9
2.0
1997
40.7
11.7
20.3
0.7
0.4
0.8
1.9
1998
39.6
12.1
19.7
0.6
0.3
0.8
1.8
1999
38.6
12.0
19.4
0.6
0.3
0.8
1.8
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
38.2
37.4
37.5
37.1
37.4
11.8
11.7
11.6
11.3
11.3
18.8
18.6
18.6
18.5
18.4
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.3
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
36.8
36.9
36.4
36.3
11.2
11.0
10.7
10.6
18.4
18.6
18.9
18.9
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1976*
0.1
7.8
-3.2
6.4
-2.5
-0.8
1.7
1980
-0.9
-0.5
-0.3
17.1
0.2
2.0
1981
-0.4
-0.5
-1.5
20.6
-1.1
2.0
11.3
1982
0.8
0.3
-1.9
-17.5
-1.6
-4.0
-11.4
1983
-1.3
-0.8
2.7
-13.2
4.3
3.1
-5.4
1984
-1.3
-2.4
2.1
-4.5
3.9
3.0
-0.5
1985
-1.8
-2.6
1.7
-4.0
3.0
10.1
1.9
1986
0.0
-10.0
2.4
-3.6
3.6
12.4
3.5
1987
-0.1
-2.6
2.2
-7.5
-0.1
-1.6
-3.7
1988
-1.0
1.7
-0.6
-0.1
5.6
-1.6
0.6
1989
-0.2
0.5
-2.5
2.4
3.6
5.1
3.7
1990
-1.6
0.4
0.3
0.6
1.1
6.5
3.0
1991
-0.9
1.1
1.6
-2.3
1.1
8.0
2.5
1992
-0.9
2.4
-2.1
-1.6
-7.5
1.7
-1.5
1993
-0.8
-2.9
-0.1
1.5
-12.4
-1.5
-2.7
1994
-3.5
-0.2
1.0
1.1
-4.4
-7.6
-3.7
1995
-2.0
4.0
-1.3
-2.8
-5.7
-0.2
-2.3
1996
-0.9
3.0
0.9
-8.6
0.9
-1.1
-3.7
1997
-6.4
19.3
0.7
-8.8
5.1
-3.6
-4.0
1998
-2.7
3.0
-2.9
-10.6
-11.0
-2.1
-7.0
1999
-2.6
-1.1
-1.5
0.6
0.2
1.8
1.1
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
-0.9
-2.1
0.3
-1.0
0.9
-1.6
-0.7
-0.9
-2.3
-0.1
-3.0
-0.9
-0.2
-0.7
-0.2
-5.4
-5.9
-3.0
-10.5
-2.4
-4.0
-0.6
-9.4
-6.2
-3.6
-0.3
-10.7
-13.2
-7.2
-6.7
-2.8
-7.2
-9.0
-8.2
-4.6
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
-1.7
0.1
-1.3
-0.2
-1.4
-1.2
-2.5
-1.1
-0.1
1.2
1.4
-0.1
-0.7
-3.4
1.1
-0.5
-16.8
-4.5
1.3
-1.1
-16.7
-7.3
-1.7
1.0
-11.0
-5.2
0.0
-0.1
(annual percentage change)*
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
118
9.1
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.3.2—Part 2
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Sub-Total
E
Capital
Public Health
Administration
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
F
G
H
(percentage distribution of $’ 000,000)
Sub-Total
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D+E
+F+G+H+J
1.7
---
1.7
4.0
4.4
2.9
0.8
1.4
2.2
100.0
2.0
---
2.0
3.4
4.7
2.8
0.7
1.5
2.2
100.0
2.3
---
2.3
3.3
5.1
2.7
0.8
1.6
2.4
100.0
2.5
---
2.5
3.5
4.7
2.5
0.8
1.7
2.6
100.0
2.7
---
2.7
3.8
4.9
2.4
0.8
1.9
2.7
100.0
2.8
---
2.8
3.8
5.0
2.3
0.8
2.1
2.9
100.0
2.8
---
2.8
3.7
5.0
2.2
0.8
2.5
3.3
100.0
2.9
---
2.9
3.9
4.9
2.3
0.8
2.5
3.3
100.0
3.1
---
3.1
4.1
4.8
2.3
0.8
2.6
3.4
100.0
3.4
---
3.4
4.1
4.9
2.3
0.9
2.6
3.5
100.0
3.7
---
3.7
4.1
5.0
2.3
0.9
2.9
3.8
100.0
4.1
---
4.1
4.2
4.8
2.3
1.0
3.1
4.1
100.0
4.3
---
4.3
4.0
4.7
2.2
0.9
3.3
4.2
100.0
4.5
---
4.5
4.1
4.7
2.1
0.9
3.6
4.5
100.0
4.7
---
4.7
4.1
4.7
2.1
0.9
3.8
4.8
100.0
5.0
---
5.0
3.8
4.7
2.2
1.0
4.2
5.2
100.0
5.3
---
5.3
3.4
4.7
2.1
0.9
4.4
5.3
100.0
5.6
---
5.6
3.3
4.9
2.1
1.0
4.5
5.6
100.0
5.9
---
5.9
3.2
5.3
1.9
1.0
4.9
5.9
100.0
5.9
---
5.9
3.7
5.8
2.0
1.0
5.3
6.3
100.0
6.4
---
6.4
3.5
6.2
2.2
0.9
5.4
6.4
100.0
6.3
---
6.3
3.2
6.4
2.2
0.9
5.5
6.4
100.0
6.5
---
6.5
3.2
6.4
2.2
1.3
5.8
7.1
100.0
6.8
---
6.8
3.2
7.4
2.3
1.2
6.0
7.2
100.0
7.2
---
7.2
4.2
7.5
2.3
1.1
6.0
7.1
100.0
7.7
8.1
8.5
8.8
9.0
-----------
7.7
8.1
8.5
8.8
9.0
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.8
4.8
7.8
8.3
8.1
8.8
8.4
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.3
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.5
5.9
5.7
5.7
5.5
5.5
7.2
7.4
7.2
7.0
6.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.3
---------
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.3
5.2
4.9
5.0
4.8
8.7
8.7
9.1
9.4
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.5
1.4
1.6
1.5
1.7
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.6
7.0
7.1
7.1
7.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
17.0
---
17.0
-16.2
7.9
-5.0
-7.2
8.3
2.9
---
4.0
---
4.0
0.2
3.3
-2.9
-2.3
11.8
7.4
---
2.9
---
2.9
-2.7
0.5
-4.9
-0.3
18.8
13.4
---
2.6
---
2.6
5.2
-2.8
4.5
-4.9
0.8
-0.6
---
7.5
---
7.5
5.7
-2.9
-2.8
5.0
3.8
4.1
---
(annual percentage change)*
7.6
---
7.6
-0.2
3.4
2.2
6.5
1.2
2.5
---
10.2
---
10.2
0.8
2.3
0.0
5.3
8.9
8.0
---
9.1
---
9.1
1.1
-4.2
-2.5
10.7
8.4
8.9
---
5.0
---
5.0
-4.5
-1.8
-1.5
-12.0
5.0
0.8
---
4.8
---
4.8
2.4
-1.2
-5.8
-0.3
9.7
7.6
---
5.4
---
5.4
0.0
-0.4
-1.5
4.2
7.4
6.8
---
6.6
---
6.6
-5.7
1.0
5.8
3.8
9.0
8.0
---
5.3
---
5.3
-10.9
-0.3
-4.1
-6.4
5.8
3.5
---
6.7
---
6.7
-3.9
4.8
-1.1
15.3
2.7
4.8
---
4.1
---
4.1
-3.2
8.1
-5.9
-4.8
8.0
5.6
---
0.2
---
0.2
16.4
9.5
4.8
-2.5
8.3
6.4
---
8.6
---
8.6
-6.5
5.7
7.4
-4.7
2.2
1.2
---
-1.3
---
-1.3
-7.7
3.7
2.0
-0.4
1.6
1.3
---
3.5
---
3.5
-0.3
-0.4
-0.8
43.3
5.0
10.5
---
3.9
---
3.9
-0.6
16.9
2.5
-5.9
3.1
1.4
---
6.3
---
6.3
31.3
1.5
-0.6
-11.9
1.0
-1.3
---
6.2
5.9
5.5
2.6
2.8
-----------
6.2
5.9
5.5
2.6
2.8
8.9
0.7
1.3
4.2
-0.8
3.8
6.1
-2.1
7.9
-4.5
1.5
1.3
2.7
1.1
0.3
14.9
34.1
-12.4
2.0
-1.6
-1.9
-4.1
-0.1
-3.5
-0.2
0.6
2.6
-2.9
-2.3
-0.5
-----------
0.8
1.4
0.6
0.4
---------
0.8
1.4
0.6
0.4
8.2
-4.9
2.8
-5.8
4.2
0.1
4.5
2.5
3.9
-3.7
-1.5
3.5
-2.5
11.8
-5.0
8.4
1.4
-0.7
0.4
0.6
0.6
1.9
-0.9
2.3
---------
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
119
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.3.3—Part 1
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Year
Hospitals
Other Institutions
Physicians
A
B
C
Dental Services
Other Professionals
Vision Care
Services
Other
Sub-Total
D
($ per capita)
1975
221.96
34.42
78.34
2.44
1.55
2.02
6.00
1976
254.91
42.61
87.06
2.98
1.73
2.30
7.01
1977
268.60
49.53
94.92
3.53
1.89
2.55
1978
286.35
57.07
105.51
4.34
2.17
3.15
9.66
1979
309.38
65.34
115.88
5.94
2.40
3.67
12.01
1980
350.19
74.30
131.99
7.95
2.74
4.28
14.97
1981
408.03
86.49
152.10
11.22
3.17
5.10
19.49
1982
477.83
100.78
173.31
10.75
3.63
5.69
20.07
1983
519.36
110.16
196.05
10.28
4.17
6.46
20.91
1984
544.22
114.16
212.62
10.42
4.59
7.07
22.08
1985
570.29
118.66
230.71
10.66
5.05
8.30
1986
610.59
114.26
252.78
11.00
5.60
9.99
26.58
1987
648.58
118.42
274.73
10.82
5.95
10.45
27.22
1988
690.31
129.44
293.43
11.62
6.75
11.05
29.41
1989
742.95
140.33
308.73
12.84
7.54
12.52
32.89
1990
780.79
150.44
330.62
13.80
8.14
14.24
36.18
1991
831.03
163.28
360.83
14.47
8.84
16.52
39.83
1992
850.73
172.68
365.03
14.71
8.45
17.37
40.53
1993
839.36
166.81
362.65
14.85
7.36
17.01
39.22
1994
810.77
166.59
366.54
15.03
7.04
15.73
37.80
1995
789.34
172.02
359.32
14.50
6.59
15.59
36.68
1996
775.78
175.72
359.30
13.15
6.59
15.29
35.03
1997
751.26
216.92
374.57
12.41
7.17
15.25
34.83
1998
777.23
237.50
386.71
11.79
6.79
15.88
34.45
1999
801.73
248.63
403.18
12.56
7.20
17.11
36.86
7.97
24.01
2000
862.41
265.77
424.63
12.90
7.50
18.52
38.93
2001
904.74
282.87
450.67
13.00
7.99
17.71
38.70
2002
958.98
296.43
475.45
13.33
7.65
16.25
37.23
2003
1,019.61
310.99
506.98
12.81
7.71
16.19
36.71
2004
1,083.78
327.59
533.31
13.18
7.83
15.91
36.92
2005
1,130.86
342.86
565.75
13.89
6.92
14.08
34.89
2006
1,193.97
357.17
604.08
14.16
6.96
13.76
34.88
2007 f
1,248.76
369.02
649.08
15.17
7.47
14.33
36.97
2008 f
1,312.70
384.43
683.27
15.89
7.78
15.25
38.93
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
14.8
23.8
11.1
22.2
11.9
13.9
16.7
1980
13.2
13.7
13.9
33.8
14.4
16.5
24.7
1981
16.5
16.4
15.2
41.1
15.7
19.3
30.2
1982
17.1
16.5
13.9
-4.2
14.4
11.6
3.0
1983
8.7
9.3
13.1
-4.4
14.8
13.5
4.2
1984
4.8
3.6
8.4
1.4
10.3
9.3
5.6
1985
4.8
3.9
8.5
2.3
9.8
17.5
8.7
1986
7.1
-3.7
9.6
3.2
10.9
20.3
10.7
1987
6.2
3.6
8.7
-1.6
6.3
4.6
2.4
1988
6.4
9.3
6.8
7.4
13.4
5.7
8.1
1989
7.6
8.4
5.2
10.5
11.7
13.3
11.8
1990
5.1
7.2
7.1
7.5
8.0
13.8
10.0
1991
6.4
8.5
9.1
4.9
8.6
16.0
10.1
1992
2.4
5.8
1.2
1.7
-4.4
5.1
1.8
1993
-1.3
-3.4
-0.7
1.0
-12.9
-2.1
-3.2
1994
-3.4
-0.1
1.1
1.2
-4.3
-7.5
-3.6
1995
-2.6
3.3
-2.0
-3.5
-6.3
-0.9
-3.0
1996
-1.7
2.1
0.0
-9.4
0.0
-1.9
-4.5
1997
-3.2
23.4
4.2
-5.6
8.8
-0.3
-0.6
1998
3.5
9.5
3.2
-5.0
-5.4
4.1
-1.1
1999
3.2
4.7
4.3
6.5
6.0
7.7
7.0
2000
7.6
6.9
5.3
2.7
4.3
8.3
5.6
2001
4.9
6.4
6.1
0.8
6.4
-4.4
-0.6
-4.2
2002
5.5
2.5
-8.3
-3.8
2003
6.3
4.9
6.6
-3.9
0.8
-0.3
-1.4
2004
6.3
6.0
5.3
4.8
5.2
2.9
1.6
-1.7
0.6
2005
4.3
4.7
6.1
5.5
-11.7
-11.5
-5.5
2006
5.6
4.2
6.8
1.9
0.7
-2.3
0.0
2007 f
4.6
3.3
7.4
7.1
7.3
4.1
6.0
2008 f
5.1
4.2
5.3
4.8
4.2
6.4
5.3
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
120
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table A.3.3.3—Part 2
Public-Sector Health Expenditure by Use of Funds, Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars (cont'd)
Prescribed
Drugs
Drugs
Non-Prescribed
Drugs
Sub-Total
Capital
E
F
Public Health
Administration
G
($ per capita)
Other Health Spending
Health
Research
Other
H
Sub-Total
J
Grand Total
A+B+C+D+E
+F+G+H+J
6.85
---
6.85
16.27
17.58
11.73
3.04
5.67
8.71
401.86
9.20
---
9.20
15.65
21.77
12.79
3.24
7.05
10.29
461.29
11.23
---
11.23
16.25
25.23
13.41
3.92
8.17
12.09
499.22
13.69
---
13.69
18.98
25.68
13.38
4.47
9.41
13.88
544.19
15.97
---
15.97
22.64
29.21
14.53
5.10
11.23
16.33
601.29
18.97
---
18.97
25.91
34.48
16.12
5.69
14.35
20.04
686.97
22.84
---
22.84
29.49
40.54
17.93
6.64
19.94
26.58
27.22
---
27.22
36.06
45.77
21.76
7.33
23.35
30.68
933.49
32.22
---
32.22
41.99
48.94
23.30
8.48
26.70
35.18
1,028.11
36.82
---
36.82
44.51
53.75
25.28
9.59
28.71
38.30
1,091.74
803.48
43.29
---
43.29
47.86
58.65
26.96
10.77
33.34
44.11
1,164.54
50.54
---
50.54
51.78
60.16
28.13
12.76
38.66
51.43
1,246.25
56.44
---
56.44
52.59
62.80
29.48
11.94
43.18
55.12
1,325.38
63.55
---
63.55
57.87
66.67
29.83
12.80
50.92
63.72
1,424.23
72.24
---
72.24
62.40
71.61
31.70
14.38
59.00
73.38
1,536.23
82.24
---
82.24
62.83
77.21
35.81
15.94
68.71
84.65
1,640.78
92.99
---
92.99
60.14
82.64
36.87
16.01
78.05
94.07
1,761.68
102.53
---
102.53
59.75
89.53
37.67
19.07
82.82
101.89
1,820.34
106.16
---
106.16
57.54
96.28
35.25
18.06
88.92
106.97
1,810.23
106.47
---
106.47
67.01
105.51
36.97
17.62
96.33
113.95
1,811.62
114.85
---
114.85
62.25
110.74
39.44
16.68
97.82
114.50
1,799.15
112.42
---
112.42
56.94
113.86
39.88
16.47
98.51
114.98
1,783.90
120.41
---
120.41
58.77
117.37
40.95
24.43
107.09
131.52
1,846.59
133.05
---
133.05
62.14
145.93
44.61
24.46
117.40
141.86
1,963.48
149.75
---
149.75
86.40
156.87
46.93
22.81
125.48
148.28
2,078.63
172.69
---
172.69
102.15
176.85
51.72
28.45
133.60
162.05
2,257.20
195.88
---
195.88
110.24
201.00
56.13
40.87
137.21
178.08
2,418.31
218.36
---
218.36
118.06
207.96
60.91
37.84
144.94
182.79
2,556.18
240.65
---
240.65
132.14
241.12
66.13
41.45
150.32
191.77
2,746.10
260.68
---
260.68
138.11
242.81
69.93
43.01
158.04
201.05
2,894.19
279.01
---
279.01
158.61
268.58
77.15
44.52
170.14
214.66
3,072.35
298.25
---
298.25
159.09
283.49
78.35
52.50
178.25
230.75
3,240.04
317.78
---
317.78
173.27
313.99
81.74
52.83
189.55
242.37
3,432.98
336.15
---
336.15
172.07
339.10
89.15
60.36
200.97
261.33
3,617.14
(annual percentage change)*
34.3
---
34.3
-3.8
23.9
9.1
6.6
24.3
18.1
14.8
18.8
---
18.8
14.5
18.0
10.9
11.6
27.8
22.7
14.2
20.4
---
20.4
13.8
17.6
11.2
16.6
39.0
32.6
17.0
19.2
---
19.2
22.3
12.9
21.4
10.5
17.1
15.4
16.2
10.1
18.4
---
18.4
16.5
6.9
7.0
15.6
14.4
14.7
14.3
---
14.3
6.0
9.8
8.5
13.1
7.5
8.9
6.2
17.6
---
17.6
7.5
9.1
6.7
12.3
16.1
15.2
6.7
16.8
---
16.8
8.2
2.6
4.3
18.5
16.0
16.6
7.0
11.7
---
11.7
1.6
4.4
4.8
-6.4
11.7
7.2
6.3
12.6
---
12.6
10.0
6.2
1.2
7.2
17.9
15.6
7.5
13.7
---
13.7
7.8
7.4
6.3
12.3
15.9
15.2
7.9
13.8
---
13.8
0.7
7.8
13.0
10.8
16.5
15.4
6.8
13.1
---
13.1
-4.3
7.0
3.0
0.5
13.6
11.1
7.4
10.3
---
10.3
-0.7
8.3
2.2
19.1
6.1
8.3
3.3
3.5
---
3.5
-3.7
7.5
-6.4
-5.3
7.4
5.0
-0.6
0.3
---
0.3
16.5
9.6
4.9
-2.4
8.3
6.5
0.1
7.9
---
7.9
-7.1
5.0
6.7
-5.4
1.5
0.5
-0.7
-0.8
-2.1
-8.5
1.1
-1.3
0.7
0.4
7.1
---
7.1
3.2
3.1
2.7
48.3
8.7
14.4
3.5
10.5
-2.1
---
---
10.5
5.7
24.3
2.8
8.9
0.1
9.6
7.9
6.3
12.6
---
12.6
39.0
7.5
5.2
-6.8
6.9
4.5
5.9
15.3
---
15.3
18.2
12.7
10.2
24.7
6.5
9.3
8.6
7.9
13.7
13.4
---
13.4
8.5
43.7
2.7
9.9
7.1
11.5
---
11.5
7.1
3.5
8.5
-7.4
5.6
2.6
5.7
10.2
---
10.2
11.9
15.9
8.6
9.5
3.7
4.9
7.4
8.3
---
8.3
4.5
0.7
5.8
3.7
5.1
4.8
5.4
6.2
7.0
---
7.0
14.8
10.6
10.3
3.5
7.7
6.8
6.9
---
6.9
0.3
5.6
1.6
17.9
4.8
7.5
5.5
6.5
---
6.5
8.9
10.8
4.3
0.6
6.3
5.0
6.0
5.8
---
5.8
-0.7
8.0
9.1
14.3
6.0
7.8
5.4
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
121
Series B
Total Health Expenditure by Source
of Finance, by Province/Territory
and Canada (Selected Tables)
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.1.1
Total Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
1975
264.5
59.2
382.5
277.5
3,378.8
4,422.8
546.3
441.2
992.3
1,383.4
15.9
35.1
---
12,199.4
1976
312.8
62.9
442.2
321.9
3,875.2
5,040.8
629.4
520.3
1,158.9
1,628.3
18.1
39.0
---
14,049.8
1977
362.9
68.7
469.1
358.9
4,200.7
5,524.6
706.0
587.4
1,272.1
1,831.8
18.5
49.3
---
15,450.0
1978
412.7
79.5
512.5
404.7
4,666.6
6,071.9
749.0
622.4
1,465.4
2,044.4
21.3
56.5
---
17,106.8
1979
473.3
96.6
573.0
470.0
5,149.6
6,728.0
823.3
703.5
1,781.0
2,288.6
23.9
59.0
---
19,169.7
1980
528.4
122.3
657.2
562.5
5,886.5
7,634.1
971.4
815.7
2,153.1
2,880.0
26.1
61.1
---
22,298.4
1981
621.3
136.4
788.8
681.2
6,887.8
8,903.0
1,153.2
949.0
2,623.7
3,430.4
28.2
73.8
---
26,276.7
1982
701.2
152.4
919.1
819.3
7,890.5
10,445.2
1,332.1
1,130.0
3,351.7
3,870.2
37.1
110.4
---
30,759.1
1983
773.7
164.5
1,004.8
894.6
8,675.3
11,850.0
1,478.6
1,257.6
3,622.1
4,155.7
38.0
123.5
---
34,038.6
1984
751.7
171.0
1,125.3
975.1
9,313.7
13,086.0
1,592.0
1,371.3
3,764.2
4,428.9
37.9
125.8
---
36,743.1
1985
785.8
181.2
1,232.5
1,026.2
10,031.9
14,442.8
1,726.5
1,528.8
4,070.4
4,637.3
39.7
138.5
---
39,841.7
1986
812.5
187.6
1,376.9
1,091.1
10,537.4
16,097.2
1,889.7
1,703.6
4,448.5
4,983.3
42.6
166.9
---
43,337.3
1987
881.6
202.9
1,560.6
1,194.0
11,268.6
17,866.4
1,980.2
1,767.8
4,499.9
5,340.3
44.7
181.3
---
46,788.2
1988
930.9
219.5
1,585.2
1,291.5
12,279.2
19,819.8
2,069.6
1,837.6
4,830.6
5,838.3
45.8
211.2
---
50,959.2
1989
991.6
239.3
1,751.8
1,400.1
13,290.3
21,970.8
2,257.4
2,052.9
5,349.8
6,509.0
49.5
232.9
---
56,095.5
1990
1,096.4
256.2
1,866.9
1,533.5
14,311.5
23,799.1
2,484.3
2,252.2
5,749.4
7,372.6
53.6
246.8
---
61,022.6
1991
1,153.2
280.6
1,970.0
1,629.3
15,634.6
26,194.3
2,576.0
2,319.8
6,062.5
8,126.7
62.6
279.5
---
66,289.1
1992
1,197.4
295.0
2,031.6
1,699.8
16,376.1
27,575.2
2,701.9
2,325.4
6,430.7
8,769.1
67.5
279.6
---
69,749.2
1993
1,209.1
311.7
2,025.0
1,739.1
16,904.2
28,074.9
2,749.1
2,301.9
6,520.4
9,296.8
79.6
287.1
---
71,498.9
1994
1,249.3
313.7
2,023.4
1,793.0
17,327.9
28,748.7
2,804.9
2,385.2
6,313.4
9,770.7
93.2
286.3
---
73,109.7
1995
1,269.4
327.4
2,061.3
1,819.3
17,372.5
29,286.4
2,915.5
2,442.3
6,092.5
10,112.7
94.9
295.0
---
74,089.2
1996
1,253.4
339.1
2,089.0
1,813.7
16,982.6
29,693.3
2,972.1
2,490.0
6,320.6
10,378.1
109.5
292.1
---
74,733.5
1997
1,305.1
340.3
2,363.8
1,856.8
18,017.3
30,794.8
3,100.5
2,656.2
7,082.1
10,832.0
102.7
307.3
---
78,758.9
1998
1,431.9
361.4
2,544.2
1,924.2
19,133.6
33,083.7
3,281.9
2,776.8
7,605.1
11,407.3
103.7
327.3
---
83,981.1
1999
1,581.2
378.7
2,665.3
2,076.5
20,014.5
35,378.2
3,694.6
2,975.4
8,680.1
12,269.2
108.7
232.3
142.6
90,197.3
2000
1,685.1
401.8
2,824.3
2,218.6
21,615.5
38,981.0
4,045.7
3,155.1
9,615.8
13,382.4
123.6
214.6
168.5
98,431.9
2001
1,801.2
476.4
3,004.5
2,467.8
23,565.9
41,742.3
4,357.6
3,451.1
11,003.2
14,635.9
143.4
246.4
184.3
107,080.1
2002
2003
1,925.3
2,061.4
506.5
542.5
3,304.8
3,597.7
2,619.7
2,794.2
25,054.8
26,667.6
45,422.6
49,634.2
4,591.3
4,918.4
3,624.4
3,866.9
11,855.6
12,690.3
15,640.6
16,425.1
156.5
156.8
273.9
273.6
214.9
292.5
115,191.0
123,921.3
2004
2,137.4
539.8
3,725.2
2,985.0
28,117.7
53,324.4
5,218.5
4,126.7
13,910.1
17,228.2
168.7
298.9
307.9
132,088.3
2005
2006
2,235.8
2,334.5
578.0
614.1
4,029.4
4,493.0
3,300.6
3,575.6
29,894.5
31,762.1
56,714.2
59,985.6
5,607.2
5,874.4
4,425.5
4,739.1
15,269.4
17,023.9
18,482.0
19,963.1
188.7
217.6
333.9
359.4
303.7
336.2
141,362.8
151,278.5
2007 f
2,500.8
664.7
4,805.4
3,777.7
33,899.6
63,909.7
6,194.9
5,091.7
18,603.5
21,151.3
233.7
392.1
351.0
161,576.2
2008 f
2,727.6
720.9
5,101.8
3,963.4
36,021.2
67,678.6
6,625.7
5,365.0
20,133.0
22,554.2
243.6
417.1
356.4
171,908.6
1976*
18.3
6.2
15.6
16.0
14.7
14.0
15.2
17.9
16.8
17.7
13.6
11.3
---
15.2
1980
11.6
26.6
14.7
19.7
14.3
13.5
18.0
16.0
20.9
25.8
9.0
3.6
---
16.3
1981
17.6
11.5
20.0
21.1
17.0
16.6
18.7
16.3
21.9
19.1
7.9
20.9
---
17.8
1982
12.9
11.7
16.5
20.3
14.6
17.3
15.5
19.1
27.7
12.8
31.9
49.5
---
17.1
1983
10.3
8.0
9.3
9.2
9.9
13.4
11.0
11.3
8.1
7.4
2.4
11.9
---
10.7
1984
-2.8
4.0
12.0
9.0
7.4
10.4
7.7
9.0
3.9
6.6
-0.4
1.8
---
7.9
(annual percentage change)*
1985
8.4
11.5
4.8
10.2
1986
3.4
3.5
11.7
6.3
5.0
11.5
9.5
11.4
9.3
7.5
7.2
20.5
---
8.8
1987
8.5
4.5
8.2
5.9
13.3
9.5
9.4
5.2
6.9
7.7
11.0
10.4
4.8
3.8
1.2
8.1
7.2
4.7
5.1
8.6
---
---
8.0
8.4
1988
5.6
8.2
1.6
8.2
9.0
10.9
4.5
4.0
7.3
9.3
2.3
16.5
---
8.9
1989
6.5
9.0
10.5
8.4
8.2
10.9
9.1
11.7
10.7
11.5
8.2
10.3
---
10.1
1990
10.6
7.0
6.6
9.5
7.7
8.3
10.1
9.7
7.5
13.3
8.2
6.0
---
8.8
1991
5.2
9.5
5.5
6.2
9.2
10.1
3.7
3.0
5.4
10.2
16.8
13.2
---
8.6
1992
3.8
5.1
3.1
4.3
4.7
5.3
4.9
0.2
6.1
7.9
7.9
0.1
---
5.2
1993
1.0
5.7
-0.3
2.3
3.2
1.8
1.7
-1.0
1.4
6.0
17.9
2.7
---
2.5
1994
3.3
0.6
-0.1
3.1
2.5
2.4
2.0
3.6
-3.2
5.1
17.1
-0.3
---
2.3
1995
1.6
4.4
1.9
1.5
0.3
1.9
3.9
2.4
-3.5
3.5
1.8
3.0
---
1.3
1996
-1.3
3.5
1.3
-0.3
-2.2
1.4
1.9
2.0
3.7
2.6
15.4
-1.0
---
0.9
1997
4.1
0.4
13.2
2.4
6.1
3.7
4.3
6.7
12.0
4.4
-6.2
5.2
---
5.4
1998
9.7
6.2
7.6
3.6
6.2
7.4
5.8
4.5
7.4
5.3
0.9
6.5
---
6.6
1999
10.4
4.8
4.8
7.9
4.6
6.9
12.6
7.2
14.1
7.6
4.8
-29.0
---
7.4
2000
6.6
6.1
6.0
6.8
8.0
10.2
9.5
6.0
10.8
9.1
13.8
-7.6
18.1
9.1
6.9
11.2
2001
18.6
6.4
7.7
9.4
14.4
9.4
16.0
14.8
9.4
8.8
2002
6.9
6.3
10.0
6.2
6.3
8.8
5.4
5.0
7.7
6.9
9.2
11.2
16.6
7.6
2003
7.1
7.1
8.9
6.7
6.4
9.0
9.3
7.1
6.7
7.0
5.0
0.2
-0.1
36.1
7.6
2004
3.7
-0.5
3.5
6.8
5.4
7.4
6.1
6.7
9.6
4.9
7.6
9.2
5.3
6.6
2005
4.6
7.1
8.2
10.6
6.3
6.4
7.4
7.2
9.8
7.3
11.9
11.7
-1.4
7.0
2006
4.4
6.2
11.5
8.3
6.2
5.8
4.8
7.1
11.5
8.0
15.3
7.6
10.7
7.0
2007 f
7.1
8.2
7.0
5.6
6.7
6.5
5.5
7.4
9.3
6.0
7.4
9.1
4.4
6.8
2008 f
9.1
8.5
6.2
4.9
6.3
5.9
7.0
5.4
8.2
6.6
4.2
6.4
1.5
6.4
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
7.1
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
125
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.1.2
Total Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
Average
($ per capita)
Year
1975
Man.
475.29
502.62
462.74
409.87
533.75
531.61
533.03
480.92
548.65
553.44
726.48
818.67
---
527.13
1976
555.99
529.82
529.45
466.84
605.80
599.11
610.01
558.53
619.96
642.64
804.44
880.95
---
599.14
1977
641.93
572.56
558.65
515.80
653.12
649.52
680.14
621.68
653.15
712.85
810.18
1,103.96
---
651.19
1978
726.96
653.05
606.81
578.47
724.60
706.71
719.36
653.82
724.79
782.10
899.00
1,248.03
---
713.87
1979
830.23
785.24
674.68
668.42
796.36
776.66
793.65
733.15
849.06
859.40
998.00
1,289.33
---
792.08
1980
922.34
988.59
770.61
796.61
904.64
872.94
938.89
843.21
982.07
1,049.86
1,073.08
1,319.09
---
909.54
1981
1,080.88
1,102.17
923.01
964.41
1,051.94
1,010.40
1,112.70
972.49
1,143.63
1,214.75
1,177.79
1,552.38
---
1,058.67
1982
1,220.41
1,230.17
1,068.71
1,156.84
1,199.29
1,170.69
1,272.56
1,144.53
1,415.24
1,347.15
1,517.96
2,228.99
---
1,224.61
1983
1,334.99
1,311.30
1,156.08
1,250.58
1,313.98
1,310.60
1,393.48
1,255.25
1,515.28
1,430.31
1,611.11
2,420.07
---
1,341.85
1984
1,295.66
1,350.90
1,282.93
1,352.42
1,404.53
1,426.75
1,485.30
1,350.41
1,574.92
1,503.55
1,585.31
2,392.39
---
1,434.85
1985
1,356.50
1,419.40
1,392.54
1,418.05
1,505.01
1,553.40
1,595.25
1,490.78
1,693.92
1,559.13
1,630.07
2,546.73
---
1,541.70
1986
1,409.34
1,460.70
1,548.24
1,504.71
1,570.76
1,705.55
1,731.01
1,655.19
1,829.95
1,658.82
1,739.80
3,052.14
---
1,660.36
1987
1,532.79
1,578.34
1,746.68
1,640.40
1,661.41
1,852.54
1,803.40
1,711.73
1,847.76
1,750.82
1,741.02
3,293.37
---
1,769.01
1988
1,618.95
1,698.12
1,766.48
1,768.26
1,795.46
2,013.75
1,878.01
1,787.57
1,968.11
1,874.03
1,720.95
3,792.49
---
1,901.79
1989
1,720.39
1,840.01
1,938.19
1,904.32
1,918.16
2,173.70
2,045.59
2,014.15
2,143.98
2,035.41
1,826.71
4,084.51
---
2,056.15
1990
1,896.84
1,962.74
2,052.39
2,071.96
2,043.36
2,311.07
2,246.92
2,236.27
2,257.18
2,240.37
1,928.76
4,190.00
---
2,203.18
1991
1,989.99
2,153.50
2,152.81
2,185.39
2,213.09
2,511.89
2,321.53
2,313.60
2,338.38
2,409.00
2,164.74
4,586.61
---
2,364.82
1992
2,064.37
2,255.45
2,209.26
2,272.21
2,303.89
2,608.87
2,428.27
2,316.20
2,442.42
2,528.24
2,242.01
4,480.52
---
2,458.83
1993
2,084.83
2,358.94
2,191.52
2,322.46
2,362.48
2,626.67
2,459.81
2,286.26
2,444.45
2,606.03
2,622.42
4,517.40
---
2,492.83
1994
2,174.65
2,351.09
2,182.78
2,389.97
2,409.37
2,657.43
2,497.17
2,362.72
2,337.72
2,658.18
3,140.06
4,394.37
---
2,521.10
1995
2,237.14
2,436.16
2,220.76
2,422.62
2,406.35
2,674.56
2,582.01
2,408.26
2,227.99
2,677.43
3,117.96
4,430.96
---
2,528.45
1996
2,238.91
2,497.61
2,242.84
2,410.86
2,343.43
2,679.17
2,620.42
2,443.36
2,277.57
2,678.72
3,489.34
4,322.99
---
2,523.85
1997
2,368.53
2,500.34
2,534.96
2,467.36
2,476.73
2,742.61
2,728.98
2,609.05
2,502.48
2,743.29
3,230.64
4,536.12
---
2,633.42
1998
2,652.03
2,660.92
2,730.06
2,563.77
2,622.49
2,910.50
2,885.12
2,729.07
2,622.93
2,863.94
3,329.10
4,871.36
---
2,784.79
1999
2,964.36
2,778.63
2,854.15
2,766.37
2,732.99
3,074.66
3,233.84
2,932.30
2,939.15
3,058.63
3,530.29
5,713.59
5,317.71
2,966.64
2000
2001
3,191.26
3,450.70
2,943.87
3,485.98
3,024.29
3,222.38
2,956.07
3,290.91
2,938.07
3,185.88
3,335.87
3,508.45
3,526.10
3,784.95
3,130.79
3,450.65
3,199.99
3,599.64
3,313.13
3,588.60
4,064.50
4,759.73
5,297.76
6,035.40
6,125.90
6,554.35
3,207.40
3,451.83
2002
3,706.44
3,699.16
3,536.42
3,491.37
3,364.98
3,753.30
3,973.14
3,639.39
3,804.36
3,800.49
5,194.39
6,601.59
7,478.39
3,671.71
2003
2004
3,976.16
4,131.72
3,950.30
3,915.68
3,841.61
3,971.55
3,719.57
3,969.24
3,558.20
3,724.70
4,047.62
4,293.33
4,233.12
4,458.12
3,887.42
4,147.85
4,014.16
4,335.82
3,952.75
4,098.23
5,128.99
5,463.63
6,479.52
6,979.29
10,030.09
10,391.13
3,912.14
4,128.38
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
4,348.53
4,577.92
4,939.67
5,394.83
4,182.63
4,448.80
4,794.72
5,181.99
4,304.94
4,805.08
5,144.19
5,451.07
4,393.04
4,772.46
5,038.34
5,279.83
3,934.50
4,151.35
4,402.08
4,652.64
4,513.50
4,721.29
4,991.44
5,229.15
4,775.53
4,984.64
5,220.35
5,554.92
4,470.05
4,799.02
5,107.67
5,393.29
4,654.29
5,050.71
5,355.10
5,730.03
4,338.25
4,620.81
4,828.79
5,092.76
6,077.21
6,970.73
7,542.63
7,836.60
7,814.90
8,475.11
9,197.15
9,651.94
10,117.42
11,060.69
11,282.38
11,378.94
4,374.92
4,633.41
4,899.81
5,169.97
1976*
17.0
5.4
14.4
13.9
13.5
12.7
14.4
16.1
13.0
16.1
10.7
7.6
---
1980
11.1
25.9
14.2
19.2
13.6
12.4
18.3
15.0
15.7
22.2
7.5
2.3
---
(annual percentage change)*
13.7
14.8
1981
17.2
11.5
19.8
21.1
16.3
15.7
18.5
15.3
16.5
15.7
9.8
17.7
---
16.4
1982
12.9
11.6
15.8
20.0
14.0
15.9
14.4
17.7
23.8
10.9
28.9
43.6
---
15.7
9.6
1983
9.4
6.6
8.2
8.1
9.6
12.0
9.5
9.7
7.1
6.2
6.1
8.6
---
1984
-2.9
3.0
11.0
8.1
6.9
8.9
6.6
7.6
3.9
5.1
-1.6
-1.1
---
6.9
1985
4.7
5.1
8.5
4.9
7.2
8.9
7.4
10.4
7.6
3.7
2.8
6.5
---
7.4
7.7
1986
3.9
2.9
11.2
6.1
4.4
9.8
8.5
11.0
8.0
6.4
6.7
19.8
---
1987
8.8
8.1
12.8
9.0
5.8
8.6
4.2
3.4
1.0
5.5
0.1
7.9
---
6.5
7.5
1988
5.6
7.6
1.1
7.8
8.1
8.7
4.1
4.4
6.5
7.0
-1.2
15.2
---
1989
6.3
8.4
9.7
7.7
6.8
7.9
8.9
12.7
8.9
8.6
6.1
7.7
---
8.1
1990
10.3
6.7
5.9
8.8
6.5
6.3
9.8
11.0
5.3
10.1
5.6
2.6
---
7.2
7.3
1991
4.9
9.7
4.9
5.5
8.3
8.7
3.3
3.5
3.6
7.5
12.2
9.5
---
1992
3.7
4.7
2.6
4.0
4.1
3.9
4.6
0.1
4.4
4.9
3.6
-2.3
---
4.0
1993
1.0
4.6
-0.8
2.2
2.5
0.7
1.3
-1.3
0.1
3.1
17.0
0.8
---
1.4
1994
4.3
-0.3
-0.4
2.9
2.0
1.2
1.5
3.3
-4.4
2.0
19.7
-2.7
---
1.1
1995
2.9
3.6
1.7
1.4
-0.1
0.6
3.4
1.9
-4.7
0.7
-0.7
0.8
---
0.3
0.1
-0.5
-2.6
0.2
1.5
-2.4
---
-0.2
1996
2.5
1.0
0.0
11.9
1997
5.8
0.1
13.0
2.3
5.7
2.4
4.1
6.8
9.9
2.4
-7.4
4.9
---
1998
12.0
6.4
7.7
3.9
5.9
6.1
5.7
4.6
1.5
4.8
2.2
4.4
3.0
7.4
---
5.7
1999
11.8
4.4
4.5
7.9
4.2
5.6
12.1
7.4
12.1
6.8
6.0
17.3
---
6.5
2000
2001
7.7
8.1
5.9
18.4
6.0
6.5
6.9
11.3
7.5
8.4
8.5
5.2
9.0
7.3
6.8
10.2
8.9
12.5
8.3
8.3
15.1
17.1
-7.3
13.9
15.2
7.0
8.1
7.6
2002
7.4
6.1
9.7
6.1
5.6
7.0
5.0
5.5
5.7
5.9
9.1
9.4
14.1
2003
7.3
6.8
8.6
6.5
5.7
7.8
6.5
6.8
5.5
4.0
-1.3
-1.8
34.1
6.5
2004
3.9
-0.9
3.4
6.7
4.7
6.1
5.3
6.7
8.0
3.7
6.5
7.7
3.6
5.5
4.3
6.4
2005
2006
5.2
5.3
6.8
6.4
8.4
11.6
10.7
8.6
5.6
5.5
5.1
4.6
7.1
4.4
7.8
7.4
7.3
8.5
5.9
6.5
11.2
14.7
12.0
8.4
-2.6
9.3
6.0
5.9
2007 f
7.9
7.8
7.1
5.6
6.0
5.7
4.7
6.4
6.0
4.5
8.2
8.5
2.0
5.7
2008 f
9.2
8.1
6.0
4.8
5.7
4.8
6.4
5.6
7.0
5.5
3.9
4.9
0.9
5.5
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
126
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.1.3
Total Health Expenditure as a Percent of Provincial/Territorial GDP, by Province/Territory and Canada,
1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
Average
---
---
---
---
---
---
7.0
---
---
---
---
---
---
7.0
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
7.0
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
7.0
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
6.8
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
7.1
9.9
10.7
8.6
6.8
8.5
6.4
4.9
7.6
5.9
7.4
---
7.3
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
1975
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
1976
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
1977
---
---
---
---
---
---
1978
---
---
---
---
---
1979
---
---
---
---
1980
---
---
---
1981
12.1
12.8
Year
Man.
Sask.
(percentage)
1982
12.5
13.2
10.0
11.6
9.3
7.5
9.5
7.5
5.9
8.6
7.9
8.6
---
8.1
1983
12.9
12.1
9.7
11.1
9.4
7.7
9.8
7.9
6.2
8.8
8.6
8.6
---
8.3
1984
11.8
12.3
9.8
11.1
9.3
7.6
9.4
8.1
6.0
8.9
8.3
8.5
---
8.2
1985
11.8
12.5
9.9
10.9
9.3
7.6
9.3
8.5
6.1
8.7
8.2
8.4
---
8.2
1986
11.2
11.5
10.3
10.4
9.0
7.7
9.8
9.6
7.7
8.8
6.8
10.8
---
8.5
1987
11.4
11.7
10.8
10.3
8.8
7.7
9.7
9.7
7.5
8.5
5.1
10.8
---
8.4
1988
11.0
11.5
10.4
10.4
8.7
7.7
9.4
9.7
7.6
8.4
4.8
10.6
---
8.3
1989
11.0
11.6
10.7
10.7
9.0
7.9
9.7
10.3
7.9
8.6
4.9
10.9
---
8.5
1990
11.9
11.8
11.0
11.4
9.3
8.4
10.3
10.6
7.8
9.3
5.1
11.3
---
9.0
1991
12.0
12.4
11.2
11.9
10.1
9.3
10.7
10.8
8.3
9.9
6.6
12.8
---
9.7
1992
12.5
12.6
11.2
12.1
10.3
9.6
11.1
11.0
8.6
10.1
6.2
12.9
---
10.0
1993
12.4
12.6
11.0
11.8
10.4
9.6
11.2
10.0
8.0
9.9
9.0
12.7
---
9.8
1994
12.2
12.4
10.8
11.7
10.2
9.2
10.8
9.7
7.2
9.7
10.2
12.0
---
9.5
1995
11.9
12.3
10.7
11.1
9.8
8.9
10.8
9.2
6.6
9.6
9.1
12.3
---
9.1
1996
12.0
12.0
10.7
10.9
9.4
8.8
10.5
8.6
6.4
9.5
9.7
11.6
---
8.9
1997
12.4
12.2
11.6
11.0
9.6
8.6
10.4
9.1
6.6
9.5
9.3
11.4
---
8.9
1998
1999
12.8
13.0
12.1
12.0
11.9
11.6
10.9
10.9
9.7
9.5
8.8
8.6
10.6
11.6
9.4
9.7
7.1
7.4
9.9
10.1
9.5
10.0
12.3
10.1
--19.1
9.2
9.2
2000
12.1
11.9
11.5
11.0
9.6
8.8
11.9
9.3
6.6
10.2
10.4
8.5
20.2
9.1
2001
12.7
13.9
11.6
11.9
10.2
9.2
12.4
10.4
7.3
11.0
11.4
8.3
21.0
9.7
2002
11.7
13.7
12.2
12.4
10.4
9.5
12.6
10.6
7.9
11.3
12.5
9.0
22.6
10.0
2003
11.4
14.3
12.5
12.5
10.6
10.1
13.1
10.6
7.5
11.3
12.1
7.4
29.5
10.2
2004
11.1
13.5
12.4
12.7
10.7
10.3
13.1
10.2
7.3
10.9
12.3
6.9
28.7
10.2
2005
10.4
14.0
12.8
13.6
11.0
10.6
13.5
10.1
6.9
10.9
12.8
8.1
27.5
10.3
2006
9.1
14.3
14.0
14.1
11.2
10.8
13.1
10.3
7.1
11.1
14.0
8.7
28.4
10.5
2007 f
8.6
14.6
14.4
14.3
11.4
11.0
12.8
10.0
7.2
11.1
13.9
8.6
25.6
10.6
2008 f
8.8
15.3
14.6
14.1
11.7
11.3
12.8
9.1
6.9
11.4
14.9
9.4
26.8
10.7
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
0.0
1980
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
3.4
1981
---
---
---
---
---
1982
8.2
8.2
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
3.1
10.8
12.0
17.2
20.1
12.4
33.1
16.8
---
11.1
9.6
0.2
---
2.2
-3.7
-1.7
---
-1.2
---
3.7
3.4
1.1
1983
3.4
-8.2
-3.1
-4.3
2.0
1.8
3.3
4.6
5.1
1.8
1984
-8.7
1.5
1.5
-0.5
-1.7
-1.2
-4.3
2.2
-2.6
1.5
1985
0.2
1.8
1.1
-1.0
0.6
0.9
-0.6
5.9
0.8
-2.5
-1.3
-1.6
1986
-5.1
-8.2
3.3
-4.7
-3.7
1.1
5.3
12.4
25.9
1.7
-17.0
28.8
---
3.1
1987
1.3
1.5
5.3
-1.1
-2.5
0.3
-1.0
1.4
-2.4
-3.1
-25.4
0.6
---
-1.0
0.4
1988
-3.2
-1.7
-4.1
0.6
-0.6
-0.2
-3.2
0.3
0.9
-1.5
-6.2
-1.7
---
-0.7
1989
0.3
1.2
3.7
2.7
2.7
2.0
2.8
5.4
5.1
2.4
1.6
2.5
---
2.6
1990
7.9
1.6
2.3
6.8
4.2
6.8
6.3
3.2
-1.2
7.9
4.6
3.8
---
5.2
1991
1.1
5.3
1.6
4.8
8.0
10.0
4.4
2.2
6.0
6.9
29.2
13.1
---
7.8
1992
4.2
1.1
0.6
1.4
2.6
4.0
3.1
1.1
3.2
1.2
-5.1
0.6
---
2.9
1993
-1.3
0.3
-1.7
-2.3
0.8
-0.6
1.1
-8.4
-6.4
-1.7
45.2
-1.6
---
-1.3
1994
-1.6
-1.4
-1.8
-0.9
-2.5
-3.4
-3.3
-3.0
-10.7
-1.6
13.5
-5.3
---
-3.5
1995
-2.1
-1.1
-1.4
-5.3
-3.6
-3.8
0.1
-5.1
-7.7
-1.6
-11.5
2.5
---
1996
1.0
-2.4
0.2
-1.8
-4.0
-1.3
-3.3
-6.9
-3.2
-0.4
7.1
-5.9
---
-2.3
1997
3.0
1.2
8.4
1.0
1.6
-2.4
-0.3
5.9
3.2
-0.7
-4.4
-1.3
---
-0.1
1998
1999
3.4
1.3
-0.3
-1.1
2.4
-2.8
-1.0
-0.1
2.0
-2.6
2.2
-1.2
1.7
9.1
3.2
2.9
7.0
4.7
4.2
2.9
2.8
5.0
8.1
-17.9
-----
2.9
0.0
2000
-6.7
-0.4
-0.9
1.3
1.2
2.2
2.8
-3.5
-10.4
0.4
3.8
-15.8
5.8
2001
5.0
16.3
1.2
8.0
5.9
4.0
4.3
11.7
9.5
7.6
9.6
-2.8
4.2
2002
-7.9
-1.4
5.2
3.7
2.0
3.3
1.3
1.3
8.2
3.2
9.6
8.9
7.4
3.4
2003
-2.8
4.4
2.2
1.0
2.5
5.9
4.6
0.0
-5.2
-0.4
-2.8
-17.9
30.6
2.2
2004
-2.7
-5.4
-0.5
1.5
0.6
2.5
-0.3
-3.2
-1.6
-2.9
1.4
-6.7
-2.8
0.2
2005
2006
-6.1
-12.4
3.8
1.6
2.8
10.0
7.6
3.4
2.5
2.4
2.4
1.8
2.7
-2.6
-1.0
2.1
-6.4
3.2
-0.3
1.5
3.8
10.0
17.0
7.1
-4.1
3.2
0.5
1.7
-5.5
1.9
2.7
4.8
2.8
1.3
1.4
-1.4
1.2
2.9
2.1
3.1
-2.7
0.6
-3.6
-8.5
0.9
-3.4
0.4
2.8
-1.4
7.4
-1.1
9.6
-9.8
4.6
0.9
1.1
2007 f
2008 f
-3.6
-0.4
5.7
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
127
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.2.1
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
1975
59.4
16.0
81.1
62.7
715.5
1,094.3
122.0
112.6
234.6
388.8
3.5
8.7
---
2,899.2
1976
86.9
15.6
100.8
67.5
755.0
1,205.4
129.7
126.5
260.4
471.2
4.3
9.3
---
3,232.6
1977
121.8
16.1
99.6
74.5
772.8
1,360.0
151.9
143.7
293.3
556.8
4.5
10.5
---
3,605.4
1978
146.3
20.9
109.5
91.1
843.2
1,596.7
160.0
144.6
337.7
599.9
4.8
11.7
---
4,066.3
1979
164.4
31.8
127.8
118.7
901.6
1,874.6
189.0
159.2
389.1
643.4
5.5
12.4
---
4,617.4
1980
178.6
47.1
147.8
147.2
1,089.0
2,126.9
232.3
167.2
493.1
807.9
6.1
13.2
---
5,456.5
1981
210.8
49.3
166.8
177.7
1,397.1
2,377.6
287.6
185.9
581.5
1982
218.4
50.4
199.2
210.1
1,528.6
2,834.2
315.1
204.1
786.9
943.1
6.8
15.4
---
7,312.3
1983
234.7
51.1
215.9
232.6
1,643.1
3,253.5
337.6
219.1
720.5
1,026.9
6.7
16.9
---
7,958.6
1984
191.8
49.9
248.5
265.6
1,827.6
3,624.8
367.8
258.6
767.5
1,159.2
6.9
18.1
---
8,786.3
1985
197.1
52.9
285.3
274.1
2,104.4
3,999.5
415.6
333.2
831.3
1,227.1
6.8
19.6
---
9,746.9
1986
169.6
49.6
353.7
285.9
2,486.1
4,367.1
463.9
377.7
910.6
1,317.2
5.6
21.7
---
10,808.7
1987
188.0
53.3
395.0
305.1
2,632.2
4,854.5
449.9
395.5
985.5
1,444.9
5.6
23.9
---
11,733.5
1988
197.1
56.5
420.3
330.5
2,850.8
5,321.9
435.4
369.3
1,184.9
1,597.1
5.2
27.3
---
12,796.4
1989
203.9
64.9
470.3
352.4
3,181.7
5,876.9
484.2
423.7
1,318.8
1,773.0
5.3
29.3
---
14,184.3
1990
220.6
70.0
490.4
397.4
3,497.4
6,466.2
533.2
460.1
1,422.5
1,986.0
5.0
28.4
---
15,577.1
1991
247.5
76.8
518.8
442.4
3,819.3
7,038.2
570.0
490.9
1,505.1
2,159.5
6.1
32.3
---
16,906.9
1992
269.1
85.8
554.5
466.7
4,141.5
7,573.7
602.6
505.8
1,584.2
2,291.2
6.9
29.7
---
18,112.0
1993
284.2
93.5
579.5
503.0
4,444.6
8,253.2
660.2
574.1
1,719.9
2,427.0
10.6
28.3
---
19,578.1
1994
301.1
96.7
610.2
520.8
4,653.5
8,740.7
689.2
606.4
1,785.7
2,533.2
9.9
26.8
---
20,574.2
1995
296.4
104.6
621.3
496.4
4,663.6
9,411.7
736.1
621.5
1,809.0
2,574.3
10.5
24.7
---
21,370.1
1996
279.0
106.1
650.8
488.4
4,727.9
9,655.3
786.8
627.7
1,854.2
2,689.4
18.2
26.7
---
21,910.5
1997
284.2
110.4
694.5
551.1
4,976.0
10,314.0
848.6
680.1
2,140.1
2,889.4
17.3
26.4
---
23,532.1
1998
324.1
115.9
757.3
553.6
5,000.5
11,054.0
893.3
673.3
2,251.1
3,102.8
16.3
26.0
---
24,768.3
1999
330.4
119.7
765.6
607.0
5,551.0
12,033.6
979.7
725.0
2,539.9
3,299.8
16.9
21.1
9.1
2000
366.4
123.7
856.0
638.6
5,905.4
13,023.2
1,040.4
773.9
2,822.9
3,556.5
24.8
19.6
9.3
29,160.7
2001
385.7
147.5
921.8
727.8
6,561.5
14,136.1
1,173.0
869.6
3,258.1
3,815.4
27.5
26.3
10.6
32,061.0
2002
415.0
139.8
1,035.3
786.5
7,079.2
15,796.5
1,224.8
2003
469.2
161.3
1,106.4
840.9
7,606.9
16,404.9
1,264.5
971.3
3,563.2
4,471.7
32.2
29.9
13.3
36,935.6
2004
507.4
162.3
1,131.0
864.5
7,833.0
17,667.2
1,322.0
1,021.4
3,928.7
4,970.8
35.6
30.3
13.9
39,488.0
2005
548.7
163.2
1,202.5
984.1
8,513.5
18,698.5
1,408.1
1,050.2
4,177.2
5,238.9
36.6
50.5
16.6
42,088.7
2006
2007 f
549.0
583.1
178.3
191.4
1,311.9
1,390.6
1,043.0
1,102.6
9,042.9
9,686.6
19,764.4
20,890.3
1,459.3
1,555.4
1,136.4
1,197.1
4,857.5
5,268.0
6,034.3
6,370.7
39.5
46.0
58.6
69.2
17.6
19.1
45,492.7
48,370.3
2008 f
623.2
204.8
1,483.1
1,178.1
10,391.0
22,026.2
1,694.2
1,287.1
5,688.4
6,909.9
49.7
76.9
21.2
51,633.7
899.0
3,385.4
879.1
4,162.6
6.2
33.2
14.6
28.7
---
11.2
6,334.1
26,998.8
34,997.1
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
46.4
-2.5
24.3
7.8
5.5
10.2
6.3
12.3
11.0
21.2
23.1
7.0
---
11.5
1980
1981
8.6
18.0
48.2
4.8
15.6
12.9
24.0
20.7
20.8
28.3
13.5
11.8
22.9
23.8
5.0
11.2
26.7
17.9
25.6
8.8
11.5
0.7
6.4
10.5
-----
18.2
16.1
9.4
19.2
9.6
5.7
---
15.4
1982
9.8
35.3
7.3
9.7
1983
7.5
1.3
8.4
10.7
7.5
14.8
7.1
7.3
-8.4
8.9
-1.3
9.8
---
8.8
1984
-18.3
3.6
-2.3
2.2
15.1
19.4
14.2
18.2
11.2
11.4
8.9
18.1
6.5
12.9
3.1
7.2
---
10.4
1985
1986
2.7
-13.9
6.1
-6.3
14.8
24.0
3.2
4.3
15.1
18.1
10.3
9.2
13.0
11.6
28.8
13.4
8.3
9.5
5.9
7.3
-1.2
-17.3
8.3
10.5
-----
10.9
10.9
1987
10.9
7.4
11.7
6.7
5.9
11.2
9.7
0.4
10.0
---
1988
4.8
6.2
6.4
8.3
8.3
9.6
-3.2
-6.6
20.2
10.5
-7.5
14.4
---
9.1
1989
3.4
14.8
11.9
6.6
11.6
10.4
11.2
14.7
11.3
11.0
1.2
7.5
---
10.8
1990
1991
8.2
12.2
7.7
9.8
4.3
5.8
12.8
11.3
9.9
9.2
10.0
8.8
10.1
6.9
8.6
6.7
7.9
5.8
12.0
8.7
-4.8
20.9
-3.3
13.7
-----
9.8
8.5
1992
8.7
11.6
6.9
5.5
8.4
7.6
5.7
3.0
5.3
6.1
14.1
-7.9
---
7.1
1993
5.6
9.0
4.5
7.8
7.3
9.0
9.6
13.5
8.6
5.9
52.5
-4.7
---
8.1
1994
6.0
3.4
5.3
3.5
4.7
5.9
4.4
5.6
3.8
4.4
-6.0
-5.5
---
5.1
1995
1996
-1.6
-5.9
8.2
1.4
1.8
4.7
-4.7
-1.6
0.2
1.4
7.7
2.6
6.8
6.9
2.5
1.0
1.3
2.5
1.6
4.5
6.1
73.0
-7.8
8.3
-----
3.9
2.5
-3.0
4.7
8.2
1997
1.9
4.1
6.7
12.8
5.2
6.8
7.9
8.3
15.4
7.4
-5.2
1998
14.0
5.0
9.0
0.5
0.5
7.2
5.3
-1.0
5.2
7.4
-5.4
-1.3
---
5.3
1999
1.9
3.3
1.1
9.6
11.0
8.9
9.7
7.7
12.8
6.3
3.3
-18.8
---
9.0
2000
2001
10.9
5.2
3.3
19.3
11.8
7.7
5.2
14.0
6.4
11.1
8.2
8.5
6.2
12.7
6.7
12.4
11.1
15.4
7.8
7.3
46.7
10.9
-7.0
34.1
2.5
14.4
8.0
9.9
2002
7.6
-5.2
12.3
8.1
7.9
11.7
4.4
3.4
3.9
9.1
20.8
9.0
4.9
9.2
2003
13.1
15.4
6.9
6.9
7.5
3.9
3.2
8.0
5.3
7.4
-2.8
4.1
19.1
5.5
2004
8.1
0.6
2.2
2.8
3.0
7.7
4.5
5.2
10.3
11.2
10.3
1.4
4.4
6.9
2005
2006
8.2
0.0
0.6
9.2
6.3
9.1
13.8
6.0
8.7
6.2
5.8
5.7
6.5
3.6
2.8
8.2
6.3
16.3
5.4
15.2
3.0
7.7
66.5
16.0
19.7
6.0
6.6
8.1
2007 f
6.2
7.4
6.0
5.7
7.1
5.7
6.6
5.3
8.5
5.6
16.7
18.2
8.7
6.3
2008 f
6.9
7.0
6.7
6.8
7.3
5.4
8.9
7.5
8.0
8.5
7.9
11.2
10.5
6.7
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
128
-1.4
---
8.6
7.4
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.2.2
Private-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
Average
($ per capita)
1975
1976
1977
106.65
154.40
215.42
135.81
131.42
134.19
98.13
120.69
118.59
92.57
97.96
107.02
113.03
118.03
120.15
131.53
143.27
159.90
118.99
125.66
146.30
122.75
135.75
152.08
129.69
139.32
150.57
155.56
185.95
216.69
160.46
192.59
197.19
202.70
209.75
236.08
-------
125.27
137.85
151.96
1978
257.68
171.57
129.63
130.17
130.92
185.85
153.65
151.90
167.03
229.50
200.49
258.67
---
169.69
1979
288.40
258.31
150.52
168.79
139.42
216.40
182.19
165.93
185.49
241.59
229.00
271.21
---
190.79
1980
311.79
380.69
173.28
208.52
167.36
243.21
224.54
172.83
224.89
294.53
251.86
284.92
---
222.57
1981
1982
366.78
380.15
398.78
407.15
195.17
231.63
251.61
296.65
213.37
232.33
269.83
317.65
277.48
301.03
190.48
206.74
253.47
332.28
311.30
328.28
257.98
276.32
306.50
311.09
-----
255.20
291.12
1983
405.01
407.23
248.37
325.09
248.87
359.84
318.16
218.66
301.41
353.45
282.66
331.49
---
313.74
1984
330.61
394.19
283.28
368.32
275.61
395.21
343.13
254.68
321.10
393.53
287.69
344.96
---
343.11
1985
340.16
414.66
322.36
378.68
315.70
430.17
383.98
324.93
345.94
412.58
278.89
361.05
---
377.16
1986
1987
294.15
326.89
386.13
414.24
397.71
442.14
394.24
419.14
370.59
388.08
462.71
503.36
424.97
409.78
366.97
383.01
374.58
404.68
438.48
473.72
229.51
219.52
396.69
433.59
-----
414.11
443.63
1988
342.81
437.42
468.32
452.46
416.85
540.72
395.06
359.28
482.78
512.66
196.03
490.09
---
477.56
1989
353.75
499.18
520.32
479.28
459.21
581.43
438.77
415.71
528.50
554.42
194.61
514.33
---
519.92
1990
381.55
535.91
539.08
536.96
499.35
627.92
482.25
456.84
558.47
603.48
180.81
481.64
---
562.40
1991
1992
427.13
463.99
589.69
655.88
566.94
603.05
593.38
623.91
540.63
582.66
674.92
716.54
513.71
541.56
489.59
503.84
580.52
601.71
640.15
660.58
210.04
230.03
529.44
476.22
-----
603.14
638.49
1993
489.99
707.51
627.19
671.67
621.16
772.16
590.76
570.20
644.78
680.33
347.90
445.89
---
682.59
1994
524.20
724.66
658.31
694.18
647.05
807.95
613.62
600.67
661.19
689.18
334.47
410.95
---
709.48
1995
522.27
778.40
669.35
660.95
645.98
859.52
651.90
612.84
661.54
681.57
346.09
370.96
---
729.30
1996
1997
498.31
515.86
781.25
811.16
698.71
744.81
649.20
732.28
652.41
684.03
871.18
918.57
693.69
746.91
615.97
668.05
668.13
756.21
694.17
731.75
580.94
543.38
395.82
389.36
-----
739.95
786.83
1998
600.30
853.14
812.66
737.64
685.38
972.46
785.30
661.74
776.39
779.00
524.56
387.25
---
821.31
1999
619.49
878.29
819.86
808.66
757.99
1,045.82
857.55
714.53
860.03
822.61
548.37
519.57
338.43
888.01
2000
693.97
905.97
916.57
850.90
802.69
1,114.49
906.78
767.94
939.41
880.50
813.89
484.88
338.32
950.20
2001
2002
738.88
798.83
1,078.93
1,020.75
988.65
1,107.86
970.56
1,048.19
887.04
950.78
1,188.14
1,305.28
1,018.88
1,059.91
869.48
902.69
1,065.89
1,086.35
935.51
1,011.46
911.33
1,100.78
645.24
692.07
378.42
388.55
1,033.52
1,115.53
2003
905.01
1,174.34
1,181.36
1,119.42
1,014.97
1,337.80
1,088.30
976.42
1,127.09
1,076.13
1,054.71
708.11
456.01
1,166.04
2004
980.77
1,176.96
1,205.78
1,149.59
1,037.62
1,422.45
1,129.39
1,026.59
1,224.59
1,182.46
1,151.86
708.16
468.60
1,234.19
2005
1,067.26
1,181.22
1,284.76
1,309.81
1,120.48
1,488.09
1,199.27
1,060.73
1,273.26
1,229.72
1,179.36
1,181.96
553.63
1,302.57
2006
2007 f
1,076.55
1,151.78
1,291.53
1,380.72
1,403.07
1,488.66
1,392.12
1,470.62
1,181.92
1,257.86
1,555.60
1,631.57
1,238.24
1,310.73
1,150.80
1,200.90
1,441.15
1,516.42
1,396.74
1,454.41
1,264.21
1,485.61
1,380.97
1,622.91
579.45
615.16
1,393.37
1,466.83
2008 f
1,232.54
1,471.80
1,584.66
1,569.44
1,342.15
1,701.84
1,420.43
1,293.84
1,618.96
1,560.26
1,597.38
1,779.95
675.48
1,552.83
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
44.8
-3.2
23.0
5.8
4.4
8.9
5.6
10.6
7.4
19.5
20.0
3.5
---
1980
8.1
47.4
15.1
23.5
20.0
12.4
23.2
4.2
21.2
21.9
10.0
5.1
---
10.0
16.7
1981
1982
17.6
3.6
4.8
2.1
12.6
18.7
20.7
17.9
27.5
8.9
10.9
17.7
23.6
8.5
10.2
8.5
12.7
31.1
5.7
5.5
2.4
7.1
7.6
1.5
-----
14.7
14.1
7.8
1983
6.5
0.0
7.2
9.6
7.1
13.3
5.7
5.8
-9.3
7.7
2.3
6.6
---
1984
-18.4
-3.2
14.1
13.3
10.7
9.8
7.8
16.5
6.5
11.3
1.8
4.1
---
9.4
1985
1986
1987
2.9
-13.5
11.1
5.2
-6.9
7.3
13.8
23.4
11.2
2.8
4.1
6.3
14.5
17.4
4.7
8.8
7.6
8.8
11.9
10.7
-3.6
27.6
12.9
4.4
7.7
8.3
8.0
4.8
6.3
8.0
-3.1
-17.7
-4.4
4.7
9.9
9.3
-------
9.9
9.8
7.1
1988
4.9
5.6
5.9
7.9
7.4
7.4
-3.6
-6.2
19.3
8.2
-10.7
13.0
---
7.6
1989
3.2
14.1
11.1
5.9
10.2
7.5
11.1
15.7
9.5
8.1
-0.7
4.9
---
8.9
1990
7.9
7.4
3.6
12.0
8.7
8.0
9.9
9.9
5.7
8.8
-7.1
-6.4
---
8.2
1991
1992
11.9
8.6
10.0
11.2
5.2
6.4
10.5
5.1
8.3
7.8
7.5
6.2
6.5
5.4
7.2
2.9
3.9
3.7
6.1
3.2
16.2
9.5
9.9
-10.1
-----
7.2
5.9
1993
5.6
7.9
4.0
7.7
6.6
7.8
9.1
13.2
7.2
3.0
51.2
-6.4
---
6.9
1994
7.0
2.4
5.0
3.4
4.2
4.6
3.9
5.3
2.5
1.3
-3.9
-7.8
---
3.9
1995
-0.4
7.4
1.7
-4.8
-0.2
6.4
6.2
2.0
0.1
-1.1
3.5
-9.7
---
2.8
1996
1997
-4.6
3.5
0.4
3.8
4.4
6.6
-1.8
12.8
1.0
4.8
1.4
5.4
6.4
7.7
0.5
8.5
1.0
13.2
1.8
5.4
67.9
-6.5
6.7
-1.6
-----
1.5
6.3
1998
16.4
5.2
9.1
0.7
0.2
5.9
5.1
-0.9
2.7
6.5
-3.5
-0.5
---
4.4
1999
3.2
2.9
0.9
9.6
10.6
7.5
9.2
8.0
10.8
5.6
4.5
34.2
---
8.1
2000
12.0
3.2
11.8
5.2
5.9
6.6
5.7
7.5
9.2
7.0
48.4
-6.7
0.0
2001
2002
6.5
8.1
19.1
-5.4
7.9
12.1
14.1
8.0
10.5
7.2
6.6
9.9
12.4
4.0
13.2
3.8
13.5
1.9
6.2
8.1
12.0
20.8
33.1
7.3
11.9
2.7
8.8
7.9
2003
13.3
15.0
6.6
6.8
6.8
2.5
2.7
8.2
3.8
6.4
-4.2
2.3
17.4
4.5
2004
8.4
0.2
2.1
2.7
2.2
6.3
3.8
5.1
8.7
9.9
9.2
0.0
2.8
5.8
2005
8.8
0.4
6.6
13.9
8.0
4.6
6.2
3.3
4.0
4.0
2.4
66.9
18.1
5.5
2006
2007 f
0.9
7.0
9.3
6.9
9.2
6.1
6.3
5.6
5.5
6.4
4.5
4.9
3.2
5.9
8.5
4.4
13.2
5.2
13.6
4.1
7.2
17.5
16.8
17.5
4.7
6.2
7.0
5.3
2008 f
7.0
6.6
6.4
6.7
6.7
4.3
8.4
7.7
6.8
7.3
7.5
9.7
9.8
5.9
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
7.0
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
129
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.2.3
Private-Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of Total Health Expenditure,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
Average
(percentage)
1975
1976
1977
22.4
27.8
33.6
27.0
24.8
23.4
21.2
22.8
21.2
22.6
21.0
20.7
21.2
19.5
18.4
24.7
23.9
24.6
22.3
20.6
21.5
25.5
24.3
24.5
23.6
22.5
23.1
28.1
28.9
30.4
22.1
23.9
24.3
24.8
23.8
21.4
-------
23.8
23.0
23.3
1978
35.4
26.3
21.4
22.5
18.1
26.3
21.4
23.2
23.0
29.3
22.3
20.7
---
23.8
1979
34.7
32.9
22.3
25.3
17.5
27.9
23.0
22.6
21.8
28.1
22.9
21.0
---
24.1
1980
33.8
38.5
22.5
26.2
18.5
27.9
23.9
20.5
22.9
28.1
23.5
21.6
---
24.5
1981
1982
33.9
31.1
36.2
33.1
21.1
21.7
26.1
25.6
20.3
19.4
26.7
27.1
24.9
23.7
19.6
18.1
22.2
23.5
25.6
24.4
21.9
18.2
19.7
14.0
-----
24.1
23.8
1983
30.3
31.1
21.5
26.0
18.9
27.5
22.8
17.4
19.9
24.7
17.5
13.7
---
23.4
1984
25.5
29.2
22.1
27.2
19.6
27.7
23.1
18.9
20.4
26.2
18.1
14.4
---
23.9
1985
25.1
29.2
23.1
26.7
21.0
27.7
24.1
21.8
20.4
26.5
17.1
14.2
---
24.5
1986
1987
20.9
21.3
26.4
26.2
25.7
25.3
26.2
25.6
23.6
23.4
27.1
27.2
24.6
22.7
22.2
22.4
20.5
21.9
26.4
27.1
13.2
12.6
13.0
13.2
-----
24.9
25.1
1988
21.2
25.8
26.5
25.6
23.2
26.9
21.0
20.1
24.5
27.4
11.4
12.9
---
25.1
1989
20.6
27.1
26.8
25.2
23.9
26.7
21.4
20.6
24.7
27.2
10.7
12.6
---
25.3
1990
20.1
27.3
26.3
25.9
24.4
27.2
21.5
20.4
24.7
26.9
9.4
11.5
---
25.5
1991
1992
21.5
22.5
27.4
29.1
26.3
27.3
27.2
27.5
24.4
25.3
26.9
27.5
22.1
22.3
21.2
21.8
24.8
24.6
26.6
26.1
9.7
10.3
11.5
10.6
-----
25.5
26.0
1993
23.5
30.0
28.6
28.9
26.3
29.4
24.0
24.9
26.4
26.1
13.3
9.9
---
27.4
1994
24.1
30.8
30.2
29.0
26.9
30.4
24.6
25.4
28.3
25.9
10.7
9.4
---
28.1
1995
23.3
32.0
30.1
27.3
26.8
32.1
25.2
25.4
29.7
25.5
11.1
8.4
---
28.8
1996
1997
22.3
21.8
31.3
32.4
31.2
29.4
26.9
29.7
27.8
27.6
32.5
33.5
26.5
27.4
25.2
25.6
29.3
30.2
25.9
26.7
16.6
16.8
9.2
8.6
-----
29.3
29.9
1998
22.6
32.1
29.8
28.8
26.1
33.4
27.2
24.2
29.6
27.2
15.8
7.9
---
1999
20.9
31.6
28.7
29.2
27.7
34.0
26.5
24.4
29.3
26.9
15.5
9.1
2000
21.7
30.8
30.3
28.8
27.3
33.4
25.7
24.5
29.4
26.6
20.0
9.2
5.5
29.6
2001
2002
21.4
21.6
31.0
27.6
30.7
31.3
29.5
30.0
27.8
28.3
33.9
34.8
26.9
26.7
25.2
24.8
29.6
28.6
26.1
26.6
19.1
21.2
10.7
10.5
5.8
5.2
29.9
30.4
2003
22.8
29.7
30.8
30.1
28.5
33.1
25.7
25.1
28.1
27.2
20.6
10.9
4.5
29.8
2004
23.7
30.1
30.4
29.0
27.9
33.1
25.3
24.7
28.2
28.9
21.1
10.1
4.5
29.9
2005
24.5
28.2
29.8
29.8
28.5
33.0
25.1
23.7
27.4
28.3
19.4
15.1
5.5
29.8
2006
2007 f
23.5
23.3
29.0
28.8
29.2
28.9
29.2
29.2
28.5
28.6
32.9
32.7
24.8
25.1
24.0
23.5
28.5
28.3
30.2
30.1
18.1
19.7
16.3
17.6
5.2
5.5
30.1
29.9
2008 f
22.8
28.4
29.1
29.7
28.8
32.5
25.6
24.0
28.3
30.6
20.4
18.4
5.9
30.0
1976*
23.8
-8.2
7.5
-7.1
-8.0
-3.4
-7.7
-4.8
-4.9
2.9
8.4
-3.8
---
1980
-2.7
17.1
0.8
3.7
5.7
0.0
4.2
-9.4
4.8
-0.2
2.3
2.7
---
1.6
1981
1982
0.4
-8.2
-6.0
-8.5
-6.0
2.5
-0.3
-1.7
9.6
-4.5
-4.1
1.6
4.3
-5.1
-4.4
-7.8
-3.2
5.9
-8.7
-4.9
-6.7
-16.9
-8.6
-29.3
-----
-1.5
-1.4
-1.6
6.4
29.5
29.9
(annual percentage change)*
-3.2
1983
-2.6
-6.2
-0.9
1.4
-2.2
1.2
-3.5
-3.6
-15.3
1.4
-3.6
-1.9
---
1984
-15.9
-6.0
2.8
4.8
3.6
0.9
1.2
8.3
2.5
5.9
3.4
5.3
---
2.3
1985
-1.7
0.1
4.8
-1.9
6.9
0.0
4.2
15.6
0.2
1.1
-5.7
-1.7
---
2.3
1986
1987
-16.8
2.2
-9.5
-0.7
11.0
-1.5
-1.9
-2.5
12.5
-1.0
-2.0
0.2
2.0
-7.4
1.7
0.9
0.2
7.0
-0.1
2.4
-22.9
-4.4
-8.3
1.3
-----
1.9
0.5
1988
-0.7
-1.9
4.7
0.1
-0.6
-1.2
-7.4
-10.2
12.0
1.1
-9.7
-1.8
---
0.1
1989
-2.9
5.3
1.3
-1.6
3.1
-0.4
2.0
2.7
0.5
-0.4
-6.5
-2.6
---
0.7
1990
-2.2
0.6
-2.2
3.0
2.1
1.6
0.1
-1.0
0.4
-1.1
-12.0
-8.7
---
1.0
1991
1992
6.7
4.7
0.3
6.2
0.3
3.6
4.8
1.1
0.0
3.5
-1.1
2.2
3.1
0.8
3.6
2.8
0.3
-0.8
-1.3
-1.7
3.5
5.7
0.4
-7.9
-----
-0.1
1.8
1993
4.6
3.1
4.8
5.3
4.0
7.0
7.7
14.7
7.1
-0.1
29.3
-7.1
---
5.4
1994
2.6
2.8
5.4
0.4
2.1
3.4
2.3
1.9
7.2
-0.7
-19.7
-5.3
---
2.8
1995
-3.2
3.7
-0.1
-6.1
0.0
5.7
2.7
0.1
5.0
-1.8
4.2
-10.5
---
2.5
1996
1997
-4.7
-2.1
-2.1
3.7
3.4
-5.7
-1.3
10.2
3.7
-0.8
1.2
3.0
4.9
3.4
-0.9
1.6
-1.2
3.0
1.8
2.9
50.0
1.0
9.4
-6.3
-----
1.6
1.9
1998
3.9
-1.2
1.3
-3.1
-5.4
-0.2
-0.5
-5.3
-2.0
2.0
-6.3
-7.4
---
-1.3
1999
-7.7
-1.4
-3.5
1.6
6.1
1.8
-2.6
0.5
-1.1
-1.1
-1.4
14.4
---
1.5
2000
4.1
-2.6
5.5
-1.5
-1.5
-1.8
-3.0
0.7
0.3
-1.2
28.9
0.6
-13.2
-1.0
2001
2002
-1.5
0.7
0.6
-10.8
1.2
2.1
2.5
1.8
1.9
1.5
1.4
2.7
4.7
-0.9
2.7
-1.6
0.9
-3.6
-1.9
2.1
-4.4
10.7
16.8
-1.9
4.5
-10.0
1.1
1.5
2003
5.6
7.7
-1.8
0.2
1.0
-5.0
-3.6
1.3
-1.7
2.3
-3.0
4.2
-12.5
-1.9
2004
4.3
1.1
-1.3
-3.8
-2.3
0.2
-1.5
-1.5
0.6
6.0
2.5
-7.2
-0.8
0.3
2005
3.4
-6.0
-1.7
2.9
2.2
-0.5
-0.9
-4.1
-3.1
-1.8
-7.9
49.1
21.3
-0.4
2006
2007 f
-4.2
-0.8
2.8
-0.8
-2.2
-0.9
-2.2
0.1
0.0
0.4
-0.1
-0.8
-1.1
1.1
1.1
-2.0
4.3
-0.8
6.6
-0.4
-6.5
8.6
7.7
8.3
-4.3
4.1
1.0
-0.5
2008 f
-2.0
-1.4
0.5
1.8
1.0
-0.4
1.8
2.0
-0.2
1.7
3.5
4.5
8.9
0.3
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
130
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.3.1
Public-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
1975
205.1
43.2
301.4
214.8
2,663.2
3,328.5
424.4
328.6
757.8
994.5
12.4
26.4
---
9,300.3
1976
225.9
47.3
341.4
254.3
3,120.1
3,835.4
499.7
393.9
898.5
1,157.2
13.7
29.7
---
10,817.2
1977
241.1
52.6
369.5
284.4
3,427.9
4,164.6
554.1
443.7
978.9
1,275.0
14.0
38.8
---
11,844.6
1978
266.4
58.6
403.0
313.6
3,823.4
4,475.1
589.0
477.8
1,127.7
1,444.5
16.6
44.8
---
13,040.5
1979
308.9
64.8
445.1
351.3
4,248.1
4,853.4
634.3
544.3
1,391.9
1,645.2
18.4
46.6
---
14,552.3
1980
349.8
75.2
509.4
415.2
4,797.5
5,507.2
739.1
648.5
1,660.1
2,072.0
20.0
47.9
---
16,841.8
1981
410.4
87.0
622.0
503.5
5,490.7
6,525.4
865.6
763.1
2,042.2
2,551.3
22.0
59.2
---
19,942.6
1982
482.8
101.9
719.9
609.2
6,361.9
7,611.1
1,017.0
925.9
2,564.7
2,927.1
30.4
95.0
---
23,446.8
1983
539.0
113.4
788.9
662.1
7,032.2
8,596.5
1,141.0
1,038.5
2,901.6
3,128.8
31.4
106.6
---
26,080.0
1984
559.9
121.1
876.8
709.6
7,486.1
9,461.2
1,224.3
1,112.7
2,996.8
3,269.7
31.0
107.6
---
27,956.9
1985
588.8
128.3
947.2
752.2
7,927.6
10,443.3
1,310.9
1,195.5
3,239.1
3,410.1
32.9
118.9
---
30,094.9
1986
642.9
138.0
1,023.2
805.3
8,051.3
11,730.2
1,425.8
1,325.9
3,537.9
3,666.0
37.0
145.2
---
32,528.6
1987
693.6
149.7
1,165.5
888.9
8,636.4
13,011.9
1,530.2
1,372.2
3,514.4
3,895.3
39.1
157.4
---
35,054.7
1988
733.8
163.0
1,165.0
961.0
9,428.4
14,497.9
1,634.3
1,468.3
3,645.6
4,241.2
40.6
183.9
---
38,162.8
1989
787.7
174.4
1,281.5
1,047.7
10,108.6
16,093.9
1,773.2
1,629.2
4,031.0
4,736.0
44.2
203.6
---
41,911.1
1990
875.9
186.3
1,376.6
1,136.1
10,814.1
17,332.8
1,951.1
1,792.1
4,326.9
5,386.7
48.5
218.5
---
45,445.5
1991
905.7
203.8
1,451.2
1,186.9
11,815.3
19,156.1
2,006.0
1,828.9
4,557.5
5,967.2
56.5
247.2
---
49,382.2
1992
928.3
209.2
1,477.0
1,233.1
12,234.5
20,001.5
2,099.3
1,819.5
4,846.4
6,477.9
60.6
249.9
---
51,637.3
1993
924.9
218.2
1,445.5
1,236.1
12,459.6
19,821.7
2,088.9
1,727.8
4,800.5
6,869.8
69.0
258.7
---
51,920.8
1994
948.1
217.0
1,413.1
1,272.2
12,674.4
20,008.0
2,115.7
1,778.8
4,527.8
7,237.5
83.3
259.5
---
52,535.5
1995
973.1
222.8
1,440.0
1,323.0
12,708.9
19,874.7
2,179.4
1,820.8
4,283.5
7,538.4
84.4
270.3
---
52,719.1
1996
974.4
233.0
1,438.2
1,325.3
12,254.7
20,038.0
2,185.3
1,862.3
4,466.5
7,688.7
91.3
265.4
---
52,823.0
1997
1,020.8
229.9
1,669.3
1,305.7
13,041.2
20,480.8
2,251.9
1,976.1
4,942.0
7,942.6
85.4
280.9
---
55,226.8
1998
1,107.8
245.5
1,786.8
1,370.6
14,133.1
22,029.7
2,388.6
2,103.5
5,354.0
8,304.5
87.3
301.3
---
59,212.8
1999
1,250.8
259.0
1,899.7
1,469.5
14,463.6
23,344.6
2,714.9
2,250.4
6,140.2
8,969.4
91.8
211.2
133.6
63,198.5
2000
1,318.7
278.1
1,968.4
1,580.0
15,710.1
25,957.7
3,005.3
2,381.2
6,792.9
9,825.9
98.9
194.9
159.2
69,271.2
2001
1,415.5
329.0
2,082.7
1,740.0
17,004.5
27,606.2
3,184.5
2,581.5
7,745.0
10,820.5
115.9
220.0
173.7
75,019.1
2002
1,510.4
366.8
2,269.5
1,833.2
17,975.5
29,626.1
3,366.5
2,725.4
8,470.2
11,478.0
123.4
245.2
203.8
80,193.9
2003
1,592.2
381.2
2,491.4
1,953.3
19,060.7
33,229.2
3,654.0
2,895.7
9,127.1
11,953.4
124.6
243.7
279.2
86,985.6
2004
1,630.0
377.6
2,594.2
2,120.5
20,284.7
35,657.2
3,896.5
3,105.3
9,981.4
12,257.3
133.1
268.5
294.0
92,600.3
2005
1,687.0
414.8
2,826.8
2,316.5
21,381.0
38,015.6
4,199.1
3,375.4
11,092.2
13,243.1
152.1
283.4
287.0
99,274.1
2006
1,785.5
435.8
3,181.1
2,532.6
22,719.2
40,221.1
4,415.1
3,602.7
12,166.4
13,928.8
178.1
300.8
318.6
105,785.8
2007 f
1,917.7
473.3
3,414.8
2,675.0
24,213.0
43,019.3
4,639.5
3,894.5
13,335.5
14,780.7
187.7
322.9
331.9
113,205.9
2008 f
2,104.4
516.2
3,618.7
2,785.3
25,630.1
45,652.5
4,931.5
4,077.9
14,444.6
15,644.3
194.0
340.2
335.2
120,274.9
1976*
10.1
9.5
13.3
18.4
17.2
15.2
17.8
19.9
18.6
16.4
10.9
12.7
---
16.3
1980
13.2
16.0
14.4
18.2
12.9
13.5
16.5
19.2
19.3
25.9
8.3
2.9
---
15.7
1981
17.3
15.7
22.1
21.2
14.4
18.5
17.1
17.7
23.0
23.1
10.1
23.7
---
18.4
1982
17.6
17.1
15.7
21.0
15.9
16.6
17.5
21.3
25.6
14.7
38.2
60.3
---
17.6
1983
11.6
11.3
9.6
8.7
10.5
12.9
12.2
12.2
13.1
6.9
3.3
12.2
---
11.2
1984
3.9
6.8
11.1
7.2
6.5
10.1
7.3
7.1
3.3
4.5
-1.1
1.0
---
7.2
1985
5.2
5.9
8.0
6.0
5.9
10.4
7.1
7.4
8.1
4.3
6.1
10.5
---
7.6
1986
9.2
7.6
8.0
7.1
1.6
12.3
8.8
10.9
9.2
7.5
12.3
22.2
---
8.1
1987
7.9
8.5
13.9
10.4
7.3
10.9
7.3
3.5
-0.7
6.3
5.8
8.4
---
7.8
1988
5.8
8.9
-0.1
8.1
9.2
11.4
6.8
7.0
3.7
8.9
3.8
16.8
---
8.9
1989
7.4
7.0
10.0
9.0
7.2
11.0
8.5
11.0
10.6
11.7
9.1
10.7
---
9.8
1990
11.2
6.8
7.4
8.4
7.0
7.7
10.0
10.0
7.3
13.7
9.7
7.3
---
8.4
1991
3.4
9.4
5.4
4.5
9.3
10.5
2.8
2.1
5.3
10.8
16.4
13.2
---
8.7
(annual percentage change)*
1992
2.5
2.7
1.8
3.9
3.5
4.4
4.7
-0.5
6.3
8.6
7.2
1.1
---
4.6
1993
-0.4
4.3
-2.1
0.2
1.8
-0.9
-0.5
-5.0
-0.9
6.0
14.0
3.5
---
0.5
1994
2.5
-0.6
-2.2
2.9
1.7
0.9
1.3
3.0
-5.7
5.4
20.7
0.3
---
1.2
1995
2.6
2.7
1.9
4.0
0.3
-0.7
3.0
2.4
-5.4
4.2
1.3
4.1
---
0.3
-3.6
0.8
0.3
1996
0.1
4.6
-0.1
0.2
2.3
4.3
2.0
8.2
-1.8
---
0.2
1997
4.8
-1.3
16.1
-1.5
6.4
2.2
3.0
6.1
10.6
3.3
-6.4
5.8
---
4.6
1998
8.5
6.8
7.0
5.0
8.4
7.6
6.1
6.4
8.3
4.6
2.2
7.3
---
7.2
1999
12.9
5.5
6.3
7.2
2.3
6.0
13.7
7.0
14.7
8.0
5.1
-29.9
---
6.7
2000
5.4
7.4
3.6
7.5
8.6
11.2
10.7
5.8
10.6
9.5
7.7
-7.7
19.2
9.6
2001
7.3
18.3
5.8
10.1
8.2
6.4
6.0
8.4
14.0
10.1
17.3
12.9
9.1
8.3
2002
6.7
11.5
9.0
5.4
5.7
7.3
5.7
5.6
9.4
6.1
6.4
11.4
17.3
6.9
2003
5.4
3.9
9.8
6.6
6.0
12.2
8.5
6.2
7.8
4.1
1.0
-0.6
37.0
8.5
2004
2.4
-1.0
4.1
8.6
6.4
7.3
6.6
7.2
9.4
2.5
6.9
10.2
5.3
6.5
2005
3.5
9.9
9.0
9.2
5.4
6.6
7.8
8.7
11.1
8.0
14.2
5.5
-2.4
7.2
2006
5.8
5.1
12.5
9.3
6.3
5.8
5.1
6.7
9.7
5.2
17.1
6.1
11.0
6.6
2007 f
2008 f
7.4
9.7
8.6
9.1
7.3
6.0
5.6
4.1
6.6
5.9
7.0
6.1
5.1
6.3
8.1
4.7
9.6
8.3
6.1
5.8
5.4
3.3
7.4
5.3
4.2
1.0
7.0
6.2
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
131
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.3.2
Public-Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
1975
368.63
366.81
364.61
317.30
420.71
400.07
414.03
1976
401.59
398.40
408.76
368.89
487.77
455.84
484.35
1977
426.51
438.37
440.06
408.78
532.97
489.62
533.84
Year
Man.
Sask.
Canada
Average
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
358.17
418.96
397.88
566.03
615.97
---
401.86
422.78
480.64
456.69
611.85
671.20
---
461.29
469.60
502.58
496.16
612.99
867.88
---
($ per capita)
499.22
1978
469.28
481.48
477.18
448.30
593.68
520.87
565.70
501.92
557.76
552.61
698.51
989.36
---
544.19
1979
541.83
526.92
524.16
499.63
656.94
560.26
611.46
567.22
663.57
617.81
769.00
1,018.11
---
601.29
1980
610.55
607.90
597.33
588.09
737.28
629.73
714.35
670.38
757.18
755.33
821.22
1,034.17
---
686.97
1981
714.10
703.39
727.84
712.80
838.57
740.57
835.22
782.01
890.16
903.45
919.81
1,245.88
---
803.48
1982
840.26
823.02
837.09
860.19
966.96
853.04
971.54
937.79
1,082.96
1,018.87
1,241.64
1,917.90
---
933.49
1983
929.97
904.07
907.72
925.49
1,065.11
950.77
1,075.33
1,036.59
1,213.87
1,076.86
1,328.45
2,088.58
---
1,028.11
1984
965.06
956.70
999.65
984.09
1,128.93
1,031.54
1,142.17
1,095.73
1,253.83
1,110.02
1,297.62
2,047.42
---
1,091.74
1985
1,016.34
1,004.74
1,070.18
1,039.37
1,189.31
1,123.23
1,211.28
1,165.85
1,347.98
1,146.55
1,351.18
2,185.68
---
1,164.54
1986
1,115.18
1,074.57
1,150.53
1,110.46
1,200.16
1,242.85
1,306.04
1,288.21
1,455.36
1,220.34
1,510.29
2,655.45
---
1,246.25
1987
1,205.91
1,164.10
1,304.53
1,221.26
1,273.33
1,349.18
1,393.62
1,328.72
1,443.08
1,277.10
1,521.49
2,859.77
---
1,325.38
1988
1,276.14
1,260.71
1,298.16
1,315.80
1,378.61
1,473.03
1,482.95
1,428.29
1,485.33
1,361.37
1,524.93
3,302.40
---
1,424.23
1989
1,366.63
1,340.84
1,417.87
1,425.04
1,458.95
1,592.27
1,606.82
1,598.43
1,615.48
1,480.99
1,632.10
3,570.18
---
1,536.23
1990
1,515.29
1,426.83
1,513.31
1,535.00
1,544.02
1,683.15
1,764.67
1,779.42
1,698.71
1,636.89
1,747.95
3,708.35
---
1,640.78
1991
1,562.86
1,563.81
1,585.86
1,592.01
1,672.46
1,836.97
1,807.82
1,824.01
1,757.86
1,768.85
1,954.71
4,057.16
---
1,761.68
1992
1,600.38
1,599.57
1,606.22
1,648.30
1,721.23
1,892.32
1,886.70
1,812.37
1,840.71
1,867.66
2,011.98
4,004.30
---
1,820.34
1993
1,594.84
1,651.43
1,564.33
1,650.79
1,741.32
1,854.51
1,869.05
1,716.06
1,799.67
1,925.71
2,274.52
4,071.51
---
1,810.23
1994
1,650.45
1,626.43
1,524.47
1,695.79
1,762.32
1,849.47
1,883.55
1,762.05
1,676.53
1,969.00
2,805.59
3,983.42
---
1,811.62
1995
1,714.87
1,657.77
1,551.41
1,761.67
1,760.37
1,815.04
1,930.11
1,795.42
1,566.45
1,995.86
2,771.86
4,060.01
---
1,799.15
1996
1,740.60
1,716.36
1,544.13
1,761.66
1,691.02
1,807.99
1,926.73
1,827.39
1,609.44
1,984.56
2,908.40
3,927.17
---
1,783.90
1997
1,852.68
1,689.18
1,790.15
1,735.08
1,792.70
1,824.04
1,982.07
1,941.01
1,746.27
2,011.53
2,687.26
4,146.76
---
1,846.59
1998
2,051.73
1,807.78
1,917.40
1,826.14
1,937.11
1,938.04
2,099.82
2,067.33
1,846.54
2,084.95
2,804.53
4,484.12
---
1,963.48
1999
2,344.87
1,900.33
2,034.29
1,957.71
1,975.01
2,028.84
2,376.29
2,217.77
2,079.12
2,236.02
2,981.92
5,194.03
4,979.28
2,078.63
2000
2,497.29
2,037.89
2,107.72
2,105.17
2,135.38
2,221.39
2,619.32
2,362.85
2,260.58
2,432.62
3,250.61
4,812.89
5,787.57
2,257.20
2001
2,711.82
2,407.05
2,233.74
2,320.35
2,298.84
2,320.31
2,766.07
2,581.17
2,533.75
2,653.08
3,848.40
5,390.16
6,175.93
2,418.31
2002
2,907.60
2,678.41
2,428.56
2,443.17
2,414.20
2,448.02
2,913.23
2,736.70
2,718.01
2,789.04
4,093.61
5,909.52
7,089.84
2,556.18
2003
3,071.16
2,775.96
2,660.25
2,600.15
2,543.23
2,709.81
3,144.82
2,911.00
2,887.07
2,876.62
4,074.28
5,771.41
9,574.08
2,746.10
2004
3,150.95
2,738.72
2,765.77
2,819.65
2,687.07
2,870.88
3,328.73
3,121.26
3,111.23
2,915.77
4,311.77
6,271.13
9,922.53
2,894.19
2005
3,281.27
3,001.41
3,020.17
3,083.23
2,814.02
3,025.41
3,576.26
3,409.32
3,381.03
3,108.53
4,897.85
6,632.95
9,563.79
3,072.35
2006
3,501.37
3,157.27
3,402.01
3,380.34
2,969.42
3,165.69
3,746.40
3,648.21
3,609.56
3,224.07
5,706.53
7,094.14
10,481.25
3,240.04
2007 f
3,787.89
3,414.01
3,655.52
3,567.72
3,144.22
3,359.87
3,909.62
3,906.77
3,838.68
3,374.38
6,057.02
7,574.24
10,667.22
3,432.98
2008 f
4,162.29
3,710.20
3,866.41
3,710.39
3,310.49
3,527.31
4,134.49
4,099.44
4,111.07
3,532.50
6,239.22
7,871.99
10,703.46
3,617.14
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
8.9
8.6
12.1
16.3
15.9
13.9
17.0
18.0
14.7
14.8
8.1
9.0
---
14.8
1980
12.7
15.4
14.0
17.7
12.2
12.4
16.8
18.2
14.1
22.3
6.8
1.6
---
14.2
1981
17.0
15.7
21.8
21.2
13.7
17.6
16.9
16.7
17.6
19.6
12.0
20.5
---
17.0
1982
17.7
17.0
15.0
20.7
15.3
15.2
16.3
19.9
21.7
12.8
35.0
53.9
---
16.2
1983
1984
10.7
3.8
9.8
5.8
8.4
10.1
7.6
6.3
10.2
6.0
11.5
8.5
10.7
6.2
10.5
5.7
12.1
3.3
5.7
3.1
7.0
-2.3
8.9
-2.0
-----
10.1
6.2
1985
5.3
5.0
7.1
5.6
5.3
8.9
6.1
6.4
7.5
3.3
4.1
6.8
---
6.7
1986
9.7
7.0
7.5
6.8
0.9
10.6
7.8
10.5
8.0
6.4
11.8
21.5
---
7.0
1987
8.1
8.3
13.4
10.0
6.1
8.6
6.7
3.1
-0.8
4.7
0.7
7.7
---
6.3
1988
1989
5.8
7.1
8.3
6.4
-0.5
9.2
7.7
8.3
8.3
5.8
9.2
8.1
6.4
8.4
7.5
11.9
2.9
8.8
6.6
8.8
0.2
7.0
15.5
8.1
-----
7.5
7.9
1990
10.9
6.4
6.7
7.7
5.8
5.7
9.8
11.3
5.2
10.5
7.1
3.9
---
6.8
1991
3.1
9.6
4.8
3.7
8.3
9.1
2.4
2.5
3.5
8.1
11.8
9.4
---
7.4
1992
2.4
2.3
1.3
3.5
2.9
3.0
4.4
-0.6
4.7
5.6
2.9
-1.3
---
3.3
1993
1994
-0.3
3.5
3.2
-1.5
-2.6
-2.5
0.2
2.7
1.2
1.2
-2.0
-0.3
-0.9
0.8
-5.3
2.7
-2.2
-6.8
3.1
2.2
13.0
23.3
1.7
-2.2
-----
-0.6
0.1
1995
3.9
1.9
1.8
3.9
-0.1
-1.9
2.5
1.9
-6.6
1.4
-1.2
1.9
---
-0.7
1996
1.5
3.5
-0.5
0.0
-3.9
-0.4
-0.2
1.8
2.7
-0.6
4.9
-3.3
---
-0.8
1997
6.4
-1.6
15.9
-1.5
6.0
0.9
2.9
6.2
8.5
1.4
-7.6
5.6
---
3.5
1998
1999
10.7
14.3
7.0
5.1
7.1
6.1
5.2
7.2
8.1
2.0
6.2
4.7
5.9
13.2
6.5
7.3
5.7
12.6
3.6
7.2
4.4
6.3
8.1
15.8
-----
6.3
5.9
2000
6.5
7.2
3.6
7.5
8.1
9.5
10.2
6.5
8.7
8.8
9.0
-7.3
16.2
8.6
2001
8.6
18.1
6.0
10.2
7.7
4.5
5.6
9.2
12.1
9.1
18.4
12.0
6.7
7.1
2002
7.2
11.3
8.7
5.3
5.0
5.5
5.3
6.0
7.3
5.1
6.4
9.6
14.8
5.7
2003
2004
5.6
2.6
3.6
-1.3
9.5
4.0
6.4
8.4
5.3
5.7
10.7
5.9
7.9
5.8
6.4
7.2
6.2
7.8
3.1
1.4
-0.5
5.8
-2.3
8.7
35.0
3.6
7.4
5.4
2005
4.1
9.6
9.2
9.3
4.7
5.4
7.4
9.2
8.7
6.6
13.6
5.8
-3.6
6.2
2006
2007 f
2008 f
6.7
8.2
9.9
5.2
8.1
8.7
12.6
7.5
5.8
9.6
5.5
4.0
5.5
5.9
5.3
4.6
6.1
5.0
4.8
4.4
5.8
7.0
7.1
4.9
6.8
6.3
7.1
3.7
4.7
4.7
16.5
6.1
3.0
7.0
6.8
3.9
9.6
1.8
0.3
5.5
6.0
5.4
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
132
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.3.3
Public-Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of Total Health Expenditure by Province/Territory
and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
Average
(percentage)
1975
77.6
73.0
78.8
77.4
78.8
75.3
77.7
74.5
76.4
71.9
77.9
75.2
---
76.2
1976
72.2
75.2
77.2
79.0
80.5
76.1
79.4
75.7
77.5
71.1
76.1
76.2
---
77.0
1977
66.4
76.6
78.8
79.3
81.6
75.4
78.5
75.5
76.9
69.6
75.7
78.6
---
76.7
1978
1979
64.6
65.3
73.7
67.1
78.6
77.7
77.5
74.7
81.9
82.5
73.7
72.1
78.6
77.0
76.8
77.4
77.0
78.2
70.7
71.9
77.7
77.1
79.3
79.0
-----
76.2
75.9
1980
66.2
61.5
77.5
73.8
81.5
72.1
76.1
79.5
77.1
71.9
76.5
78.4
---
75.5
1981
66.1
63.8
78.9
73.9
79.7
73.3
75.1
80.4
77.8
74.4
78.1
80.3
---
75.9
1982
68.9
66.9
78.3
74.4
80.6
72.9
76.3
81.9
76.5
75.6
81.8
86.0
---
76.2
1983
1984
69.7
74.5
68.9
70.8
78.5
77.9
74.0
72.8
81.1
80.4
72.5
72.3
77.2
76.9
82.6
81.1
80.1
79.6
75.3
73.8
82.5
81.9
86.3
85.6
-----
76.6
76.1
1985
74.9
70.8
76.9
73.3
79.0
72.3
75.9
78.2
79.6
73.5
82.9
85.8
---
75.5
1986
79.1
73.6
74.3
73.8
76.4
72.9
75.4
77.8
79.5
73.6
86.8
87.0
---
75.1
1987
78.7
73.8
74.7
74.4
76.6
72.8
77.3
77.6
78.1
72.9
87.4
86.8
---
74.9
1988
1989
78.8
79.4
74.2
72.9
73.5
73.2
74.4
74.8
76.8
76.1
73.1
73.3
79.0
78.6
79.9
79.4
75.5
75.3
72.6
72.8
88.6
89.3
87.1
87.4
-----
74.9
74.7
1990
79.9
72.7
73.7
74.1
75.6
72.8
78.5
79.6
75.3
73.1
90.6
88.5
---
74.5
1991
78.5
72.6
73.7
72.8
75.6
73.1
77.9
78.8
75.2
73.4
90.3
88.5
---
74.5
1992
77.5
70.9
72.7
72.5
74.7
72.5
77.7
78.2
75.4
73.9
89.7
89.4
---
74.0
1993
1994
76.5
75.9
70.0
69.2
71.4
69.8
71.1
71.0
73.7
73.1
70.6
69.6
76.0
75.4
75.1
74.6
73.6
71.7
73.9
74.1
86.7
89.3
90.1
90.6
-----
72.6
71.9
1995
76.7
68.0
69.9
72.7
73.2
67.9
74.8
74.6
70.3
74.5
88.9
91.6
---
71.2
1996
77.7
68.7
68.8
73.1
72.2
67.5
73.5
74.8
70.7
74.1
83.4
90.8
---
70.7
1997
78.2
67.6
70.6
70.3
72.4
66.5
72.6
74.4
69.8
73.3
83.2
91.4
---
70.1
1998
1999
77.4
79.1
67.9
68.4
70.2
71.3
71.2
70.8
73.9
72.3
66.6
66.0
72.8
73.5
75.8
75.6
70.4
70.7
72.8
73.1
84.2
84.5
92.1
90.9
--93.6
70.5
70.1
2000
78.3
69.2
69.7
71.2
72.7
66.6
74.3
75.5
70.6
73.4
80.0
90.8
94.5
70.4
2001
78.6
69.0
69.3
70.5
72.2
66.1
73.1
74.8
70.4
73.9
80.9
89.3
94.2
70.1
2002
78.4
72.4
68.7
70.0
71.7
65.2
73.3
75.2
71.4
73.4
78.8
89.5
94.8
69.6
2003
2004
77.2
76.3
70.3
69.9
69.2
69.6
69.9
71.0
71.5
72.1
66.9
66.9
74.3
74.7
74.9
75.3
71.9
71.8
72.8
71.1
79.4
78.9
89.1
89.9
95.5
95.5
70.2
70.1
2005
75.5
71.8
70.2
70.2
71.5
67.0
74.9
76.3
72.6
71.7
80.6
84.9
94.5
70.2
2006
76.5
71.0
70.8
70.8
71.5
67.1
75.2
76.0
71.5
69.8
81.9
83.7
94.8
69.9
2007 f
76.7
71.2
71.1
70.8
71.4
67.3
74.9
76.5
71.7
69.9
80.3
82.4
94.5
70.1
2008 f
77.2
71.6
70.9
70.3
71.2
67.5
74.4
76.0
71.7
69.4
79.6
81.6
94.1
70.0
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
-6.9
3.0
-2.0
2.1
2.1
1.1
2.2
1.6
1.5
-1.1
-2.4
1.3
---
1.0
1980
1.4
-8.4
-0.2
-1.2
-1.2
0.0
-1.2
2.8
-1.3
0.1
-0.7
-0.7
---
-0.5
1981
-0.2
3.8
1.7
0.1
-2.2
1.6
-1.3
1.1
1.0
3.4
2.0
2.4
---
0.5
1982
4.2
4.8
-0.7
0.6
1.1
-0.6
1.7
1.9
-1.7
1.7
4.7
7.2
---
0.4
1983
1984
1.2
6.9
3.1
2.7
0.2
-0.8
-0.5
-1.7
0.5
-0.8
-0.4
-0.3
1.1
-0.3
0.8
-1.7
4.7
-0.6
-0.5
-1.9
0.8
-0.7
0.3
-0.8
-----
0.5
-0.7
1985
0.0
-1.4
0.7
-1.7
0.0
-1.3
-3.6
0.0
-0.4
1.3
0.3
---
-0.7
1986
5.6
3.9
-3.3
0.7
-3.3
0.8
-0.6
-0.5
-0.1
0.0
4.7
1.4
---
-0.6
1987
-0.6
0.6
0.3
0.5
0.9
0.3
-0.1
2.4
-0.3
-1.8
-0.8
0.7
-0.2
---
-0.2
1988
1989
0.2
0.8
0.7
-1.8
-1.6
-0.5
0.0
0.6
0.2
-0.9
0.4
0.1
2.2
-0.5
2.9
-0.7
-3.4
-0.2
-0.4
0.2
1.4
0.8
0.3
0.4
-----
0.0
-0.2
-0.3
1990
0.6
-0.2
0.8
-1.0
-0.7
-0.6
0.0
0.3
-0.1
0.4
1.4
1.3
---
1991
-1.7
-0.1
-0.1
-1.7
0.0
0.4
-0.8
-0.9
-0.1
0.5
-0.4
-0.1
---
0.0
1992
-1.3
-2.3
-1.3
-0.4
-1.1
-0.8
-0.2
-0.7
0.3
0.6
-0.6
1.0
---
-0.6
1993
1994
-1.3
-0.8
-1.3
-1.2
-1.8
-2.2
-2.0
-0.2
-1.3
-0.8
-2.7
-1.4
-2.2
-0.7
-4.1
-0.6
-2.3
-2.6
0.0
0.2
-3.4
3.0
0.8
0.6
-----
-1.9
-1.0
1995
1.0
-1.6
0.0
2.5
0.0
-2.5
-0.9
0.0
-2.0
0.6
-0.5
1.1
---
-1.0
1996
1.4
1.0
-1.4
0.5
-1.4
-0.6
-1.6
0.3
0.5
-0.6
-6.2
-0.9
---
-0.7
1997
0.6
-1.7
2.6
-3.8
0.3
-1.4
-1.2
-0.5
-1.2
-1.0
-0.2
0.6
---
-0.8
1998
1999
-1.1
2.2
0.6
0.7
-0.5
1.5
1.3
-0.6
2.0
-2.2
0.1
-0.9
0.2
1.0
1.8
-0.2
0.9
0.5
-0.7
0.4
1.3
0.3
0.7
-1.2
-----
0.6
-0.6
2000
-1.1
1.2
-2.2
0.6
0.6
0.9
1.1
-0.2
-0.1
0.4
-5.3
-0.1
0.9
0.4
2001
0.4
-0.3
-0.5
-1.0
-0.7
-0.7
-1.6
-0.9
-0.4
0.7
1.1
-1.7
-0.3
-0.4
2002
-0.2
4.9
-0.9
-0.8
-0.6
-1.4
0.3
0.5
1.5
-0.7
-2.5
0.2
0.6
-0.6
2003
2004
-1.5
-1.3
-2.9
-0.5
0.8
0.6
-0.1
1.6
-0.4
0.9
2.6
-0.1
1.3
0.5
-0.4
0.5
0.7
-0.2
-0.8
-2.2
0.8
-0.7
-0.5
0.9
0.7
0.0
0.8
-0.1
2005
-1.1
2.6
0.7
-1.2
-0.9
0.2
0.3
1.4
1.2
0.7
2.1
-5.5
-1.0
0.2
1.4
0.3
0.6
-1.1
0.3
0.6
0.9
0.4
-0.2
0.9
0.0
-0.8
0.0
-0.1
-0.4
0.0
0.4
0.2
0.4
-0.4
-0.6
-0.3
0.6
-0.6
-1.6
0.3
0.1
-2.6
0.2
-0.7
1.6
-1.9
-0.9
-1.4
-1.6
-1.0
0.2
-0.2
-0.5
-0.4
0.2
-0.1
2006
2007 f
2008 f
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
133
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.4.1
Provincial/Territorial Government–Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Year
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
1975
199.2
41.5
266.9
203.7
2,531.2
3,143.5
376.7
302.1
694.9
928.2
6.2
15.2
---
8,709.3
1976
219.0
45.4
302.7
242.4
2,972.5
3,612.5
449.3
364.1
811.6
1,082.7
8.8
19.0
---
10,129.9
1977
233.5
50.3
334.6
271.7
3,269.2
3,929.1
497.3
410.8
879.1
1,193.1
10.0
23.4
---
11,102.0
1978
258.3
56.4
370.0
299.1
3,661.8
4,229.4
524.9
445.8
1,020.5
1,363.8
11.4
28.1
---
12,269.4
1979
297.3
62.5
413.1
336.7
4,088.1
4,565.8
569.7
508.5
1,258.2
1,556.5
12.4
27.9
---
13,696.6
1980
336.8
72.6
474.5
395.1
4,607.8
5,164.6
652.8
604.5
1,510.2
1,932.3
13.6
29.3
---
15,794.1
1981
393.4
84.1
572.4
478.2
5,268.2
6,069.9
782.9
709.8
1,871.3
2,374.8
15.0
35.5
---
18,655.5
1982
461.9
98.5
662.7
579.6
6,101.1
7,104.3
915.1
859.0
2,426.3
2,720.3
22.4
51.0
---
22,002.1
1983
515.7
109.5
728.6
627.2
6,740.9
8,019.2
1,021.3
965.6
2,769.4
2,932.2
22.8
57.8
---
24,510.1
1984
534.6
116.5
800.3
671.5
7,165.5
8,826.6
1,102.1
1,022.9
2,843.5
3,074.8
23.5
62.0
---
26,243.9
1985
561.4
123.0
867.5
710.7
7,577.2
9,746.8
1,182.6
1,101.3
3,035.1
3,200.6
24.9
71.9
---
28,202.8
1986
611.2
131.7
917.0
759.2
7,715.3
10,995.1
1,269.6
1,223.4
3,316.8
3,443.3
27.6
91.2
---
30,501.5
1987
660.0
142.5
987.4
837.9
8,257.9
12,203.4
1,364.8
1,264.5
3,308.1
3,660.8
29.4
105.4
---
32,821.9
1988
699.4
153.7
1,071.6
900.8
8,996.9
13,583.0
1,464.7
1,349.3
3,427.8
3,978.3
33.4
147.1
---
35,806.2
1989
751.1
163.1
1,178.9
981.2
9,631.6
15,079.3
1,587.0
1,500.2
3,792.9
4,455.9
36.3
174.6
---
39,332.1
1990
836.0
173.7
1,263.6
1,057.2
10,250.4
16,195.9
1,742.8
1,636.4
4,043.8
5,043.6
38.6
187.9
---
42,469.7
1991
861.0
189.6
1,333.8
1,102.1
11,213.3
17,951.3
1,788.7
1,658.2
4,241.0
5,578.3
45.6
213.9
---
46,176.8
1992
881.0
196.2
1,356.8
1,142.4
11,617.6
18,810.3
1,867.8
1,635.9
4,506.3
6,060.7
49.1
213.6
---
48,337.8
1993
880.9
205.2
1,322.9
1,154.7
11,841.5
18,618.2
1,856.8
1,539.4
4,452.2
6,424.1
58.1
218.4
---
48,572.6
1994
902.6
200.4
1,280.1
1,189.3
12,007.4
18,753.5
1,861.9
1,560.5
4,103.5
6,740.9
71.5
214.0
---
48,885.6
1995
925.5
203.2
1,302.6
1,235.2
12,020.3
18,549.6
1,903.4
1,595.6
3,904.8
7,007.1
68.7
220.6
---
48,936.4
1996
926.0
213.2
1,317.7
1,234.4
11,587.3
18,696.5
1,922.8
1,637.4
4,091.3
7,186.1
67.6
215.3
---
49,095.6
1997
968.2
213.9
1,552.0
1,213.9
12,159.3
19,065.6
1,976.6
1,749.2
4,527.6
7,434.9
69.6
231.1
---
51,161.9
1998
1,050.3
228.8
1,656.5
1,269.5
13,145.9
20,121.8
2,102.8
1,855.2
4,896.0
7,758.4
74.2
249.7
---
54,409.0
1999
1,190.4
240.8
1,749.7
1,369.8
13,403.0
21,592.8
2,395.3
1,995.4
5,641.1
8,390.8
78.4
176.0
115.4
58,339.0
2000
1,246.8
258.7
1,788.1
1,466.6
14,455.8
23,941.2
2,630.8
2,092.9
6,214.9
9,164.8
83.8
158.2
136.3
63,639.0
2001
1,333.7
305.6
1,885.1
1,595.4
15,536.1
25,257.5
2,794.1
2,266.4
7,033.8
10,118.4
96.9
177.2
146.0
68,546.3
2002
1,423.3
344.8
2,061.4
1,678.9
16,410.9
27,252.2
2,964.4
2,391.8
7,730.9
10,763.6
102.1
199.5
170.3
73,494.0
2003
2004
1,498.1
1,538.7
354.9
348.4
2,271.0
2,364.2
1,793.0
1,952.3
17,270.3
18,395.1
30,380.5
32,725.4
3,220.5
3,436.4
2,533.5
2,733.7
8,287.0
9,110.3
11,180.5
11,432.8
103.8
113.3
201.7
225.9
235.8
243.9
79,330.5
84,620.3
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
1,589.7
1,690.2
1,821.8
2,003.3
372.0
386.3
421.2
459.1
2,580.3
2,898.5
3,117.5
3,304.5
2,131.6
2,345.6
2,483.7
2,585.9
19,421.9
20,587.7
21,997.7
23,270.3
35,010.6
37,163.5
39,858.0
42,323.2
3,698.2
3,906.6
4,116.8
4,377.4
2,986.5
3,192.7
3,466.3
3,628.7
10,197.5
11,215.6
12,359.1
13,412.9
12,375.4
13,039.9
13,849.9
14,665.9
125.0
142.8
150.6
154.4
232.5
242.0
259.3
272.5
224.2
254.9
265.1
264.4
90,945.6
97,066.3
104,167.1
110,722.3
1976*
9.9
9.4
13.4
19.0
17.4
14.9
19.3
20.5
16.8
16.6
42.9
24.3
---
16.3
1980
13.3
16.1
14.9
17.3
12.7
13.1
14.6
18.9
20.0
24.1
10.0
4.9
---
15.3
1981
16.8
15.8
20.6
21.0
14.3
17.5
19.9
17.4
23.9
22.9
10.4
21.2
---
18.1
1982
17.4
17.1
15.8
21.2
15.8
17.0
16.9
21.0
29.7
14.5
49.2
43.8
---
17.9
1983
11.7
11.2
10.0
8.2
10.5
12.9
11.6
12.4
14.1
7.8
1.8
13.2
---
11.4
1984
3.7
6.4
9.8
7.1
6.3
10.1
7.9
5.9
2.7
4.9
3.1
7.3
---
7.1
1985
5.0
5.5
8.4
5.8
5.7
10.4
7.3
7.7
6.7
4.1
5.7
16.0
---
7.5
1986
8.9
7.1
5.7
6.8
1.8
12.8
7.4
11.1
9.3
7.6
10.9
26.9
---
8.2
1987
8.0
8.2
7.7
10.4
7.0
11.0
7.5
3.4
-0.3
6.3
6.6
15.7
---
7.6
1988
6.0
7.9
8.5
7.5
8.9
11.3
7.3
6.7
3.6
8.7
13.8
39.5
---
9.1
1989
7.4
6.1
10.0
8.9
7.1
11.0
8.3
11.2
10.7
12.0
8.5
18.7
---
9.8
1990
11.3
6.5
7.2
7.7
6.4
7.4
9.8
9.1
6.6
13.2
6.6
7.6
---
8.0
1991
3.0
9.2
5.6
4.2
9.4
10.8
2.6
1.3
4.9
10.6
18.1
13.8
---
8.7
1992
2.3
3.5
1.7
3.7
3.6
4.8
4.4
-1.3
6.3
8.6
7.6
-0.1
---
4.7
1993
0.0
4.6
-2.5
1.1
1.9
-1.0
-0.6
-5.9
-1.2
6.0
18.3
2.2
---
0.5
1994
2.5
-2.3
-3.2
3.0
1.4
0.7
0.3
1.4
-7.8
4.9
23.0
-2.0
---
0.6
1995
2.5
1.4
1.8
3.9
0.1
-1.1
2.2
2.2
-4.8
3.9
-3.8
3.1
---
0.1
1996
0.1
4.9
1.2
-0.1
-3.6
0.8
1.0
2.6
4.8
2.6
-1.7
-2.4
---
0.3
(annual percentage change)*
1997
4.6
0.3
17.8
-1.7
4.9
2.0
2.8
6.8
10.7
3.5
2.9
7.4
---
4.2
1998
8.5
7.0
6.7
4.6
8.1
5.5
6.4
6.1
8.1
4.3
6.6
8.1
---
6.3
1999
13.3
5.2
5.6
7.9
2.0
7.3
13.9
7.6
15.2
8.2
5.8
-29.5
---
7.2
2000
4.7
7.4
2.2
7.1
7.9
10.9
9.8
4.9
10.2
9.2
6.9
-10.1
18.1
9.1
2001
7.0
18.1
5.4
8.8
7.5
5.5
6.2
8.3
13.2
10.4
15.6
12.0
7.1
7.7
2002
6.7
12.8
9.4
5.2
5.6
7.9
6.1
5.5
9.9
6.4
5.4
12.6
16.6
7.2
2003
5.3
2.9
10.2
6.8
5.2
11.5
8.6
5.9
7.2
3.9
1.7
1.1
38.5
7.9
2004
2.7
-1.8
4.1
8.9
6.5
7.7
6.7
7.9
9.9
2.3
9.1
12.0
3.5
6.7
2005
3.3
6.8
9.1
9.2
5.6
7.0
7.6
9.3
11.9
8.2
10.4
2.9
-8.1
7.5
2006
6.3
3.9
12.3
10.0
6.0
6.1
5.6
6.9
10.0
5.4
14.2
4.1
13.7
6.7
2007 f
7.8
9.0
7.6
5.9
6.8
7.3
5.4
8.6
10.2
6.2
5.4
7.2
4.0
7.3
2008 f
10.0
9.0
6.0
4.1
5.8
6.2
6.3
4.7
8.5
5.9
2.5
5.1
-0.3
6.3
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
134
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.4.2
Provincial/Territorial Government–Sector Health Expenditure, by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
1975
357.93
352.59
322.89
300.87
399.86
377.83
367.52
1976
389.23
382.69
362.38
351.60
464.68
429.35
435.49
1977
413.02
419.05
398.43
390.52
508.29
461.94
1978
454.97
463.11
438.08
427.54
568.59
1979
521.39
508.31
486.44
478.79
1980
587.97
586.87
556.32
1981
684.49
679.49
1982
803.88
1983
Canada
Average
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
329.31
384.21
371.34
281.70
355.89
---
376.32
390.81
434.15
427.31
392.62
427.62
---
431.98
479.07
434.77
451.35
464.30
437.49
523.77
---
467.93
492.26
504.13
468.37
504.73
521.74
480.31
619.68
---
512.01
632.20
527.07
549.20
529.91
599.83
584.48
515.50
610.55
---
565.93
559.50
708.13
590.56
630.94
624.90
688.82
704.40
559.22
632.58
---
644.23
669.77
677.01
804.58
688.88
755.38
727.33
815.66
840.95
628.28
746.47
---
751.62
795.18
770.56
818.37
927.32
796.24
874.17
870.10
1,024.50
946.88
915.40
1,030.57
---
875.97
889.85
872.94
838.29
876.77
1,020.99
886.91
962.48
963.78
1,158.55
1,009.21
965.33
1,132.08
---
966.22
1984
921.49
920.16
912.41
931.38
1,080.57
962.36
1,028.22
1,007.33
1,189.68
1,043.87
983.04
1,178.74
---
1,024.85
1985
969.11
963.16
980.11
982.04
1,136.74
1,048.32
1,092.73
1,073.93
1,263.05
1,076.10
1,020.22
1,320.82
---
1,091.32
1986
1,060.19
1,025.64
1,031.12
1,046.94
1,150.09
1,164.97
1,163.01
1,188.64
1,364.43
1,146.18
1,125.67
1,666.65
---
1,168.59
1987
1,147.48
1,108.04
1,105.10
1,151.22
1,217.52
1,265.35
1,242.92
1,224.38
1,358.38
1,200.20
1,142.60
1,915.62
---
1,240.96
1988
1,216.34
1,189.24
1,194.19
1,233.44
1,315.53
1,380.08
1,329.10
1,312.55
1,396.57
1,276.99
1,255.80
2,641.91
---
1,336.28
1989
1,303.10
1,254.08
1,304.30
1,334.56
1,390.10
1,491.89
1,438.04
1,471.92
1,520.06
1,393.40
1,337.46
3,061.59
---
1,441.70
1990
1,446.22
1,330.38
1,389.08
1,428.37
1,463.53
1,572.74
1,576.21
1,624.80
1,587.56
1,532.63
1,391.27
3,189.46
---
1,533.34
1991
1,485.76
1,455.09
1,457.56
1,478.27
1,587.25
1,721.43
1,612.05
1,653.75
1,635.78
1,653.57
1,578.60
3,510.43
---
1,647.32
1992
1,518.94
1,500.45
1,475.44
1,527.08
1,634.44
1,779.63
1,678.64
1,629.49
1,711.51
1,747.40
1,630.67
3,423.11
---
1,704.03
1993
1,518.87
1,553.24
1,431.70
1,542.11
1,654.93
1,741.91
1,661.38
1,528.88
1,669.10
1,800.79
1,913.85
3,437.35
---
1,693.50
1994
1,571.25
1,502.41
1,381.01
1,585.29
1,669.57
1,733.51
1,657.61
1,545.80
1,519.44
1,833.90
2,406.47
3,284.08
---
1,685.76
1995
1,630.96
1,511.50
1,403.36
1,644.78
1,664.98
1,694.03
1,685.66
1,573.35
1,427.96
1,855.19
2,257.88
3,313.42
---
1,670.06
1996
1,654.16
1,570.44
1,414.75
1,640.82
1,598.94
1,686.95
1,695.29
1,606.75
1,474.25
1,854.82
2,154.16
3,185.91
---
1,658.03
1997
1,757.15
1,571.56
1,664.36
1,613.06
1,671.46
1,698.00
1,739.72
1,718.15
1,599.84
1,882.96
2,187.86
3,411.81
---
1,710.68
1998
1,945.16
1,684.76
1,777.59
1,691.40
1,801.80
1,770.20
1,848.60
1,823.25
1,688.58
1,947.83
2,381.31
3,716.54
---
1,804.19
1999
2,231.77
1,766.59
1,873.69
1,824.87
1,830.19
1,876.60
2,096.54
1,966.46
1,910.13
2,091.76
2,548.64
4,329.58
4,303.32
1,918.80
2000
2,361.22
1,895.21
1,914.73
1,954.06
1,964.90
2,048.82
2,292.92
2,076.82
2,068.22
2,268.96
2,756.05
3,905.37
4,957.08
2,073.67
2001
2,555.02
2,235.93
2,021.76
2,127.56
2,100.32
2,122.90
2,426.92
2,266.09
2,301.09
2,480.95
3,216.74
4,340.56
5,192.98
2,209.65
2002
2003
2,739.98
2,889.64
2,518.06
2,584.72
2,205.82
2,424.96
2,237.56
2,386.72
2,204.06
2,304.34
2,251.87
2,477.50
2,565.29
2,771.76
2,401.67
2,546.87
2,480.77
2,621.32
2,615.43
2,690.62
3,389.07
3,396.58
4,807.91
4,776.28
5,924.44
8,083.36
2,342.62
2,504.43
2004
2,974.49
2,527.34
2,520.53
2,596.05
2,436.76
2,634.83
2,935.66
2,747.68
2,839.73
2,719.63
3,669.06
5,274.70
8,232.34
2,644.78
2005
3,091.99
2,691.96
2,756.79
2,837.15
2,556.17
2,786.26
3,149.72
3,016.57
3,108.31
2,904.86
4,026.97
5,442.73
7,468.92
2,814.60
2006
3,314.52
2,799.04
3,099.88
3,130.66
2,690.84
2,925.03
3,314.87
3,233.02
3,327.49
3,018.31
4,575.35
5,707.04
8,386.30
2,972.98
2007 f
3,598.45
3,038.53
3,337.31
3,312.61
2,856.55
3,112.97
3,469.22
3,477.18
3,557.61
3,161.89
4,858.73
6,081.94
8,520.53
3,158.87
2008 f
3,962.27
3,299.72
3,530.67
3,444.71
3,005.68
3,270.08
3,669.91
3,647.79
3,817.44
3,311.57
4,964.99
6,306.07
8,441.54
3,329.85
Year
Sask.
($ per capita)
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
8.7
8.5
12.2
16.9
16.2
13.6
18.5
18.7
13.0
15.1
39.4
20.2
---
14.8
1980
12.8
15.5
14.4
16.9
12.0
12.0
14.9
17.9
14.8
20.5
8.5
3.6
---
13.8
1981
16.4
15.8
20.4
21.0
13.6
16.6
19.7
16.4
18.4
19.4
12.3
18.0
---
16.7
1982
17.4
17.0
15.0
20.9
15.3
15.6
15.7
19.6
25.6
12.6
45.7
38.1
---
16.5
1983
10.7
9.8
8.8
7.1
10.1
11.4
10.1
10.8
13.1
6.6
5.5
9.8
---
10.3
1984
3.6
5.4
8.8
6.2
5.8
8.5
6.8
4.5
2.7
3.4
1.8
4.1
---
6.1
1985
5.2
4.7
7.4
5.4
5.2
8.9
6.3
6.6
6.2
3.1
3.8
12.1
---
6.5
1986
9.4
6.5
5.2
6.6
1.2
11.1
6.4
10.7
8.0
6.5
10.3
26.2
---
7.1
1987
8.2
8.0
7.2
10.0
5.9
8.6
6.9
3.0
-0.4
4.7
1.5
14.9
---
6.2
1988
6.0
7.3
8.1
7.1
8.0
9.1
6.9
7.2
2.8
6.4
9.9
37.9
---
7.7
1989
7.1
5.5
9.2
8.2
5.7
8.1
8.2
12.1
8.8
9.1
6.5
15.9
---
7.9
1990
11.0
6.1
6.5
7.0
5.3
5.4
9.6
10.4
4.4
10.0
4.0
4.2
---
6.4
1991
2.7
9.4
4.9
3.5
8.5
9.5
2.3
1.8
3.0
7.9
13.5
10.1
---
7.4
1992
2.2
3.1
1.2
3.3
3.0
3.4
4.1
-1.5
4.6
5.7
-2.5
---
1993
0.0
3.5
-3.0
1.0
1.3
-2.1
-1.0
-6.2
-2.5
3.1
17.4
0.4
---
-0.6
1994
3.4
-3.3
-3.5
2.8
0.9
-0.5
-0.2
1.1
-9.0
1.8
25.7
-4.5
---
-0.5
1995
3.8
0.6
3.8
-0.3
-2.3
1.8
-6.0
1.2
-6.2
0.9
---
-0.9
1996
1.4
3.9
0.8
-0.2
-4.0
-0.4
0.6
2.1
3.2
0.0
-4.6
-3.8
---
-0.7
1997
6.2
0.1
17.6
-1.7
4.5
0.7
2.6
6.9
8.5
1.5
1.6
7.1
---
3.2
1998
10.7
7.2
6.8
4.9
7.8
4.3
6.3
6.1
5.5
3.4
8.8
8.9
---
5.5
1999
14.7
4.9
5.4
7.9
1.6
6.0
13.4
7.9
13.1
7.4
7.0
16.5
---
6.4
2000
5.8
7.3
2.2
7.1
7.4
9.2
9.4
5.6
8.3
8.5
8.1
-9.8
15.2
8.1
6.6
1.6
1.7
3.3
3.4
2001
8.2
18.0
5.6
8.9
6.9
3.6
5.8
9.1
11.3
9.3
16.7
11.1
4.8
2002
7.2
12.6
9.1
5.2
4.9
6.1
5.7
6.0
7.8
5.4
5.4
10.8
14.1
6.0
2003
5.5
2.6
9.9
6.7
4.5
10.0
8.0
6.0
5.7
2.9
0.2
-0.7
36.4
6.9
2004
2.9
-2.2
3.9
8.8
5.7
6.4
5.9
7.9
8.3
1.1
8.0
10.4
1.8
5.6
2005
4.0
6.5
9.4
9.3
4.9
5.7
7.3
9.8
9.5
6.8
9.8
3.2
-9.3
6.4
5.6
2006
7.2
4.0
12.4
10.3
5.3
5.0
5.2
7.2
7.1
3.9
13.6
4.9
12.3
2007 f
8.6
8.6
7.7
5.8
6.2
6.4
4.7
7.6
6.9
4.8
6.2
6.6
1.6
6.3
2008 f
10.1
8.6
5.8
4.0
5.2
5.0
5.8
4.9
7.3
4.7
2.2
3.7
-0.9
5.4
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
CIHI 2008
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
135
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table B.4.3
Provincial/Territorial Government–Sector Health Expenditure as a Proportion of
Total Health Expenditure by Province/Territory and Canada, 1975 to 2008—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Man.
Year
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
Average
(percentage)
1975
75.3
70.2
69.8
73.4
74.9
71.1
69.0
68.5
70.0
67.1
38.8
43.5
---
71.4
1976
70.0
72.2
68.4
75.3
76.7
71.7
71.4
70.0
70.0
66.5
48.8
48.5
---
72.1
1977
64.3
73.2
71.3
75.7
77.8
71.1
70.4
69.9
69.1
65.1
54.0
47.4
---
71.9
1978
62.6
70.9
72.2
73.9
78.5
69.7
70.1
71.6
69.6
66.7
53.4
49.7
---
71.7
1979
62.8
64.7
72.1
71.6
79.4
67.9
69.2
72.3
70.6
68.0
51.7
47.4
---
71.4
1980
63.7
59.4
72.2
70.2
78.3
67.7
67.2
74.1
70.1
67.1
52.1
48.0
---
1981
63.3
61.7
72.6
70.2
76.5
68.2
67.9
74.8
71.3
69.2
53.3
48.1
---
71.0
1982
65.9
64.6
72.1
70.7
77.3
68.0
68.7
76.0
72.4
70.3
60.3
46.2
---
71.5
1983
66.7
66.6
72.5
70.1
77.7
67.7
69.1
76.8
76.5
70.6
59.9
46.8
---
72.0
1984
71.1
68.1
71.1
68.9
76.9
67.5
69.2
74.6
75.5
69.4
62.0
49.3
---
71.4
1985
71.4
67.9
70.4
69.3
75.5
67.5
68.5
72.0
74.6
69.0
62.6
51.9
---
70.8
1986
75.2
70.2
66.6
69.6
73.2
68.3
67.2
71.8
74.6
69.1
64.7
54.6
---
70.4
1987
74.9
70.2
63.3
70.2
73.3
68.3
68.9
71.5
73.5
68.6
65.6
58.2
---
70.1
1988
75.1
70.0
67.6
69.8
73.3
68.5
70.8
73.4
71.0
68.1
73.0
69.7
---
70.3
1989
75.7
68.2
67.3
70.1
72.5
68.6
70.3
73.1
70.9
68.5
73.2
75.0
---
70.1
1990
76.2
67.8
67.7
68.9
71.6
68.1
70.1
72.7
70.3
68.4
72.1
76.1
---
69.6
1991
74.7
67.6
67.7
67.6
71.7
68.5
69.4
71.5
70.0
68.6
72.9
76.5
---
69.7
1992
73.6
66.5
66.8
67.2
70.9
68.2
69.1
70.4
70.1
69.1
72.7
76.4
---
69.3
1993
72.9
65.8
65.3
66.4
70.1
66.3
67.5
66.9
68.3
69.1
73.0
76.1
---
67.9
1994
72.3
63.9
63.3
66.3
69.3
65.2
66.4
65.4
65.0
69.0
76.6
74.7
---
66.9
1995
72.9
62.0
63.2
67.9
69.2
63.3
65.3
65.3
64.1
69.3
72.4
74.8
---
66.1
1996
73.9
62.9
63.1
68.1
68.2
63.0
64.7
65.8
64.7
69.2
61.7
73.7
---
65.7
1997
74.2
62.9
65.7
65.4
67.5
61.9
63.7
65.9
63.9
68.6
67.7
75.2
---
65.0
1998
73.3
63.3
65.1
66.0
68.7
60.8
64.1
66.8
64.4
68.0
71.5
76.3
---
64.8
1999
75.3
63.6
65.6
66.0
67.0
61.0
64.8
67.1
65.0
68.4
72.2
75.8
---
64.7
2000
74.0
64.4
63.3
66.1
66.9
61.4
65.0
66.3
64.6
68.5
67.8
73.7
80.9
64.7
2001
74.0
64.1
62.7
64.6
65.9
60.5
64.1
65.7
63.9
69.1
67.6
71.9
79.2
64.0
2002
73.9
68.1
62.4
64.1
65.5
60.0
64.6
66.0
65.2
68.8
65.2
72.8
79.2
63.8
2003
2004
72.7
72.0
65.4
64.5
63.1
63.5
64.2
65.4
64.8
65.4
61.2
61.4
65.5
65.8
65.5
66.2
65.3
65.5
68.1
66.4
66.2
67.2
73.7
75.6
80.6
79.2
64.0
64.1
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
71.1
72.4
72.8
73.4
64.4
62.9
63.4
63.7
64.0
64.5
64.9
64.8
64.6
65.6
65.7
65.2
65.0
64.8
64.9
64.6
61.7
62.0
62.4
62.5
66.0
66.5
66.5
66.1
67.5
67.4
68.1
67.6
66.8
65.9
66.4
66.6
67.0
65.3
65.5
65.0
66.3
65.6
64.4
63.4
69.6
67.3
66.1
65.3
73.8
75.8
75.5
74.2
64.3
64.2
64.5
64.4
70.8
(annual percentage change)*
1976*
-7.0
3.0
-1.9
2.6
2.4
0.8
3.5
2.2
0.0
-0.9
25.9
11.7
---
1.0
1980
1.5
-8.3
0.1
-1.9
-1.4
-0.3
-2.9
2.5
-0.7
-1.3
0.9
1.3
---
-0.9
1981
-0.7
3.9
0.5
-0.1
-2.3
0.8
1.0
0.9
1.7
3.2
2.4
0.3
---
0.2
1982
4.0
4.8
-0.6
0.8
1.1
-0.2
1.2
1.6
1.5
1.5
13.0
-3.8
---
0.8
1983
1.2
3.0
0.6
-0.9
0.5
-0.5
0.5
1.0
5.6
0.4
-0.6
1.2
---
0.7
1984
6.7
2.3
-1.9
-1.8
-1.0
-0.3
0.2
-2.8
-1.2
-1.6
3.5
5.3
---
-0.8
0.5
-0.4
1985
0.6
-1.8
0.1
-1.1
---
-0.9
1986
5.3
3.5
-5.4
0.5
-3.1
1.2
-1.9
-0.3
0.0
0.1
3.4
5.3
---
-0.6
1987
-0.5
0.0
-5.0
-1.0
0.9
0.1
0.0
2.6
-0.4
-3.4
-1.4
-1.3
-0.8
-0.6
1.4
0.9
6.5
5.3
---
-0.3
1988
0.4
-0.2
6.8
-0.6
0.0
0.3
2.7
2.7
-3.5
-0.6
11.2
19.8
---
0.2
1989
0.8
-2.7
-0.5
0.5
-1.1
0.1
-0.7
-0.5
-0.1
0.5
0.3
7.6
---
-0.2
-0.7
1990
0.7
-0.5
0.6
-1.6
-1.2
-0.8
-0.2
-0.6
-0.8
-0.1
-1.5
1.6
---
1991
-2.1
-0.3
0.0
-1.9
0.1
0.7
-1.0
-1.6
-0.5
0.3
1.1
0.5
---
0.1
1992
-1.5
-1.5
-1.4
-0.6
-1.1
-0.5
-0.4
-1.6
0.2
0.7
-0.3
-0.2
---
-0.5
1993
-1.0
-1.0
-2.2
-1.2
-1.3
-2.8
-2.3
-4.9
-2.6
0.0
0.3
-0.4
---
-2.0
1994
-0.8
-2.9
-3.2
-0.1
-1.1
-1.6
-1.7
-2.2
-4.8
-0.2
5.0
-1.8
---
-1.6
1995
0.9
-2.9
-0.1
2.4
-0.1
-2.9
-1.6
-0.1
-1.4
0.4
-5.5
0.1
---
-1.2
1996
1.3
1.3
-0.2
0.2
-1.4
-0.6
-0.9
0.7
1.0
-0.1
-14.7
-1.4
---
-0.5
1997
0.4
0.0
4.1
-3.9
-1.1
-1.7
-1.5
0.1
-1.2
-0.9
9.7
2.1
---
-1.1
1998
-1.1
0.7
-0.8
0.9
1.8
-1.8
0.5
1.4
0.7
-0.9
5.6
1.4
---
-0.3
1999
2.6
0.4
0.8
0.0
-2.5
0.4
1.2
0.4
0.9
0.6
0.9
-0.7
---
-0.2
2000
-1.7
1.3
-3.6
0.2
-0.1
0.6
0.3
-1.1
-0.5
0.1
-6.1
-2.7
---
2001
0.1
-0.4
-0.9
-2.2
-1.4
-1.5
-1.4
-1.0
-1.1
0.9
-0.3
-2.4
-2.1
-1.0
2002
-0.2
6.1
-0.6
-0.9
-0.6
-0.8
0.7
0.5
2.0
-0.5
-3.5
1.3
0.0
-0.3
2003
-1.7
-3.9
1.2
0.1
-1.1
2.0
1.4
-0.7
0.1
-1.1
1.5
1.2
1.7
0.3
2004
-0.9
-1.4
0.5
1.9
1.0
0.3
0.6
1.1
0.3
-2.5
1.4
2.5
-1.7
0.1
2005
2006
2007 f
2008 f
-1.2
1.8
0.6
0.8
-0.3
-2.2
0.7
0.5
0.9
0.7
0.6
-0.2
-1.3
1.6
0.2
-0.8
-0.7
-0.2
0.1
-0.4
0.6
0.4
0.7
0.3
0.2
0.8
-0.1
-0.6
1.9
-0.2
1.1
-0.6
2.0
-1.4
0.8
0.3
0.9
-2.4
0.2
-0.7
-1.3
-0.9
-1.9
-1.6
-7.8
-3.3
-1.8
-1.2
-6.8
2.7
-0.4
-1.8
0.4
-0.3
0.5
-0.1
* Refer to electronic tables for annual percentage change for the years 1977 to 1979.
f - Forecast
136
0.0
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
Series E
Provincial/Territorial Government Health
Expenditure, by Age and Sex,
by Province/Territory and Canada
(Selected Tables)
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table E.1.1
Estimate of Total Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditures, by Age and Sex,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2006—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Age
Groups
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($’ 000,000)
Both Sexes
<1
33.0
8.4
72.5
55.6
463.2
1,157.7
95.2
82.8
419.2
294.9
3.0
13.6
20.5
2,719.7
1–4
20.0
6.6
40.1
43.2
300.1
640.4
72.4
69.4
270.2
209.8
4.8
10.7
19.7
1,707.4
5–9
24.0
15.0
43.7
41.4
360.5
683.5
90.8
69.4
290.6
247.6
4.6
7.2
14.4
1,892.8
10–14
25.2
7.8
46.4
45.9
367.3
770.8
87.9
86.0
324.3
295.0
4.6
7.0
12.7
2,080.9
15–19
36.8
10.9
68.5
61.9
456.4
977.9
124.2
117.7
427.3
401.6
6.5
12.2
20.4
2,722.2
20–24
46.0
13.1
89.0
75.3
589.3
1,148.6
146.9
127.2
535.3
496.8
7.5
15.6
20.9
3,311.7
25–29
51.9
12.9
93.3
83.2
696.1
1,392.6
155.0
127.9
596.8
539.8
6.2
16.7
21.5
3,793.9
30–34
58.9
14.1
97.4
90.3
639.3
1,630.3
161.9
120.1
596.5
576.8
6.8
17.5
21.5
4,031.3
35–39
59.9
13.3
102.9
89.6
729.4
1,646.5
155.3
122.9
560.8
618.2
7.5
15.4
16.1
4,137.6
40–44
71.0
15.8
124.1
110.6
902.7
1,866.3
184.5
141.3
623.4
689.8
9.0
14.7
13.6
4,766.7
45–49
87.1
18.2
142.3
128.4
1,039.4
2,016.4
213.7
165.5
693.7
766.3
10.7
15.2
14.5
5,311.6
50–54
104.7
20.7
157.1
146.3
1,156.5
2,107.9
227.2
177.8
694.8
810.9
10.0
13.0
10.8
5,637.6
55–59
119.3
24.5
186.9
164.7
1,286.6
2,260.6
248.4
180.6
687.4
852.4
9.6
12.8
9.3
6,043.1
60–64
119.0
23.6
184.3
158.1
1,294.3
2,190.3
247.1
171.6
619.5
789.4
8.4
12.0
9.6
5,827.0
65–69
125.4
28.8
215.4
163.0
1,499.5
2,666.6
223.3
184.9
668.5
798.2
8.2
9.6
8.1
6,599.4
70–74
148.3
31.0
246.3
182.6
1,844.9
3,101.8
265.3
220.9
733.6
924.7
8.2
13.4
7.3
7,728.5
75–79
157.8
33.0
280.2
213.3
2,186.6
3,462.4
318.5
268.2
793.3
1,056.9
8.8
12.3
5.9
8,797.1
80–84
158.3
36.8
273.8
210.2
1,992.8
3,370.2
356.6
280.4
740.8
1,102.4
7.9
10.5
3.4
8,544.3
85–89
160.0
32.5
265.4
176.9
1,873.3
2,605.4
322.5
296.5
593.8
993.5
8.5
10.3
2.8
7,341.5
90+
83.5
19.5
169.0
104.8
909.4
1,467.3
209.9
181.7
345.7
575.1
1.9
2.1
1.8
4,071.7
Total
1,690.2
386.3
2,898.5
2,345.6
20,587.7
37,163.5
3,906.6
3,192.7
11,215.6
13,039.9
142.8
242.0
254.9
97,066.3
Female
<1
14.3
3.4
33.3
25.7
210.9
538.3
44.5
37.6
194.1
138.5
1.4
5.9
8.9
1,256.7
1–4
9.3
2.6
18.5
16.9
141.7
297.5
34.2
32.8
125.8
98.0
3.1
6.8
11.2
798.2
5–9
11.1
3.1
20.4
19.4
168.9
321.9
50.1
33.3
136.4
117.1
2.5
3.6
7.0
894.7
10–14
12.1
3.8
22.4
22.0
178.1
370.9
42.2
40.5
154.4
140.2
2.4
3.4
6.3
998.7
15–19
21.4
5.9
37.8
32.8
240.5
518.3
66.6
63.4
226.1
203.7
3.6
7.5
12.2
1,440.0
20–24
27.8
8.0
51.2
45.8
339.2
686.3
86.9
76.5
310.2
274.6
4.5
10.0
13.4
1,934.5
25–29
34.7
8.8
63.4
55.5
430.9
931.8
97.9
84.1
376.8
332.2
4.0
11.5
14.6
2,446.2
30–34
39.7
9.5
67.3
57.2
400.4
1,108.2
98.5
77.1
372.8
360.2
4.4
11.3
14.1
2,620.8
35–39
36.7
8.0
63.2
52.1
398.4
1,010.1
87.2
65.7
319.2
360.4
4.4
9.3
9.4
2,424.0
40–44
39.7
8.9
69.1
59.9
455.8
1,016.6
96.0
77.1
331.9
371.0
4.8
8.0
6.9
2,545.8
45–49
46.3
10.2
76.1
68.9
529.7
1,064.6
109.4
87.8
353.3
403.2
5.6
7.9
6.9
2,770.0
50–54
53.9
10.8
79.3
75.1
575.8
1,076.8
115.7
89.9
346.6
407.9
4.9
6.6
5.3
2,848.6
55–59
58.2
12.1
90.8
81.1
618.7
1,112.9
119.2
88.7
336.7
417.1
4.4
6.0
5.0
2,950.9
60–64
54.5
11.3
84.4
73.5
622.6
1,047.3
119.8
82.5
304.5
379.6
4.0
5.5
4.8
2,794.3
65–69
55.3
13.5
103.1
77.1
731.3
1,290.0
110.9
90.4
318.0
382.5
3.8
4.5
3.9
3,184.3
70–74
72.0
14.6
121.9
91.5
951.8
1,535.7
132.3
109.6
353.7
454.2
3.9
6.7
3.3
3,851.2
75–79
82.4
18.6
153.5
118.3
1,219.7
1,834.2
173.2
138.9
406.2
548.8
4.5
6.3
2.6
4,707.3
80–84
99.3
22.4
171.8
126.4
1,255.9
2,007.7
214.6
162.6
428.4
652.1
4.4
5.9
1.6
5,153.3
85–89
114.3
23.5
193.4
122.5
1,343.8
1,768.6
216.8
201.4
390.1
670.6
6.2
7.1
1.5
5,059.7
90+
65.6
14.7
134.4
78.7
693.5
1,097.1
152.4
131.6
253.8
422.4
1.3
1.5
0.9
3,048.0
Total
948.5
213.7
1,655.2
1,300.5
11,507.8
20,634.7
2,168.6
1,771.5
6,038.9
7,134.5
78.1
135.3
139.8
53,727.3
1,463.0
Male
<1
18.6
5.1
39.2
29.9
252.3
619.4
50.8
45.3
225.1
156.4
1.7
7.7
11.5
1–4
10.8
4.0
21.6
26.4
158.4
342.9
38.2
36.6
144.4
111.8
1.8
4.0
8.5
5–9
13.0
11.9
23.4
22.0
191.6
361.6
40.6
36.0
154.2
130.5
2.1
3.7
7.4
998.1
10–14
13.2
4.1
24.0
23.9
189.2
399.9
45.7
45.5
169.9
154.7
2.2
3.5
6.4
1,082.2
15–19
15.4
5.0
30.7
29.1
215.9
459.6
57.5
54.2
201.2
197.9
2.9
4.7
8.2
1,282.3
20–24
18.2
5.1
37.8
29.6
250.0
462.3
59.9
50.7
225.1
222.2
3.1
5.6
7.5
1,377.2
25–29
17.2
4.1
29.9
27.7
265.2
460.8
57.2
43.8
220.0
207.6
2.1
5.3
6.9
1,347.8
30–34
19.2
4.6
30.2
33.1
238.9
522.1
63.4
43.0
223.6
216.6
2.4
6.2
7.4
1,410.5
35–39
23.2
5.3
39.7
37.5
331.0
636.3
68.1
57.2
241.7
257.7
3.1
6.1
6.7
1,713.6
40–44
31.3
6.9
55.0
50.7
446.9
849.7
88.5
64.1
291.5
318.9
4.2
6.7
6.7
45–49
40.8
8.0
66.2
59.5
509.7
951.8
104.3
77.7
340.4
363.0
5.1
7.4
7.6
2,541.5
50–54
50.8
9.9
77.7
71.2
580.7
1,031.0
111.5
87.9
348.2
403.0
5.1
6.4
5.5
2,789.0
55–59
61.1
12.4
96.1
83.6
667.9
1,147.8
129.2
91.9
350.7
435.3
5.2
6.9
4.3
3,092.2
60–64
64.5
12.3
99.9
84.6
671.7
1,143.0
127.3
89.1
315.0
409.7
4.4
6.5
4.7
3,032.8
65–69
70.2
15.3
112.3
85.9
768.3
1,376.6
112.3
94.5
350.5
415.6
4.3
5.1
4.2
3,415.1
70–74
76.4
16.4
124.4
91.1
893.1
1,566.1
133.0
111.4
379.9
470.6
4.3
6.7
4.0
3,877.3
75–79
75.4
14.3
126.7
95.0
966.9
1,628.2
145.3
129.3
387.1
508.1
4.3
6.0
3.3
4,089.9
80–84
59.0
14.4
102.0
83.8
736.9
1,362.6
141.9
117.7
312.5
450.2
3.5
4.5
1.9
3,390.9
909.2
2,220.9
85–89
45.7
9.0
72.1
54.4
529.5
836.8
105.8
95.0
203.8
322.8
2.4
3.2
1.3
2,281.8
90+
17.9
4.8
34.6
26.1
215.9
370.2
57.5
50.1
91.9
152.6
0.6
0.6
1.0
1,023.7
Total
741.7
172.7
1,243.3
1,045.0
9,079.8
16,528.8
1,738.0
1,421.1
5,176.7
5,905.4
64.7
106.7
115.1
43,339.0
Note
See methodology for age–sex distribution in the Methodological Notes section of this report.
CIHI 2008
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
139
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2008
Table E.1.1 Cont.
Estimate of Total Provincial and Territorial Government Health Expenditures, by Age and Sex,
by Province/Territory and Canada, 2006—Current Dollars
N.L.
P.E.I.
N.S.
N.B.
Que.
Ont.
Age
Groups
Man.
Sask.
Alta.
B.C.
Y.T.
N.W.T.
Nun.
Canada
($ per capita)
Both Sexes
<1
7,424.38
6,402.97
8,583.53
8,193.51
5,911.46
8,667.85
6,774.52
6,981.17
9,759.05
7,167.39
9,434.01
19,778.64
29,126.80
7,891.35
1–4
1,072.66
1,196.94
1,155.44
1,548.68
995.57
1,183.88
1,296.73
1,460.59
1,633.87
1,260.15
3,746.59
4,124.69
6,763.83
1,245.29
5–9
938.37
1,903.50
900.17
1,075.64
914.64
905.44
1,208.64
1,130.01
1,409.95
1,099.18
2,543.61
2,179.99
4,213.08
1,025.31
10–14
854.69
846.26
826.34
1,026.04
784.18
920.66
1,051.36
1,236.67
1,457.81
1,135.70
2,138.39
1,921.48
3,925.38
995.83
15–19
1,095.82
1,068.07
1,092.32
1,268.64
961.83
1,148.91
1,459.85
1,546.09
1,786.37
1,427.98
2,739.29
3,531.29
6,442.80
1,253.60
20–24
1,359.75
1,354.65
1,410.25
1,504.05
1,197.78
1,314.18
1,742.81
1,720.43
2,022.88
1,611.82
3,169.51
4,506.36
7,846.51
1,463.84
25–29
1,700.77
1,512.01
1,624.10
1,767.17
1,290.86
1,639.85
1,981.50
2,008.96
2,223.14
1,886.39
3,402.04
4,937.99
8,538.55
1,696.53
30–34
1,870.26
1,671.15
1,663.43
1,831.60
1,266.85
1,828.43
2,099.57
2,058.41
2,371.36
2,002.53
3,421.86
4,874.09
8,171.42
1,809.98
35–39
1,632.16
1,555.53
1,613.36
1,739.59
1,393.87
1,710.28
2,017.68
2,103.33
2,254.42
1,941.02
3,128.93
4,240.19
7,602.01
1,755.30
40–44
1,678.22
1,501.81
1,595.06
1,783.83
1,437.83
1,717.03
2,043.12
1,962.82
2,273.98
1,953.75
3,144.11
4,174.30
7,676.57
1,762.17
45–49
2,009.16
1,692.00
1,819.47
2,047.03
1,601.23
1,966.85
2,342.98
2,173.36
2,515.75
2,150.23
3,488.32
4,934.51
9,212.90
1,984.43
50–54
2,469.64
2,009.66
2,199.97
2,492.84
1,986.65
2,388.02
2,788.64
2,548.76
2,952.11
2,475.18
3,706.58
5,038.98
8,951.14
2,380.49
55–59
3,072.77
2,405.20
2,783.60
3,034.19
2,476.54
2,897.64
3,449.51
3,129.48
3,640.18
2,919.67
4,319.33
6,187.76
9,902.48
2,897.22
60–64
4,021.65
3,261.28
3,610.22
3,935.21
3,071.80
3,739.67
4,632.70
3,941.75
4,599.75
3,673.95
5,483.36
9,100.12
14,564.54
3,676.42
65–69
5,817.79
5,003.38
5,459.07
5,289.80
4,763.59
5,719.00
5,414.26
5,074.76
6,511.43
4,751.72
8,784.72
11,791.35
17,834.35
5,369.08
70–74
8,660.20
6,376.89
7,556.88
7,298.04
6,692.88
8,534.60
6,444.70
12,857.77
24,968.64
33,116.62
75–79
11,650.93
9,052.30
10,792.88
10,353.89
9,919.71
10,175.54
9,835.62
8,882.89
11,108.68
8,690.96
23,052.63
34,206.28
57,414.87
9,986.76
80–84
17,119.46
12,765.07
14,076.50
13,069.19
12,964.47
6,954.64
13,541.26
7,720.44
13,707.80
7,287.27
11,712.38
14,808.94
12,220.74
36,468.74
48,368.92
60,495.41
13,330.74
7,382.23
85–89
30,689.35
19,040.51
21,884.39
19,346.34
23,441.01
20,345.84
21,045.39
19,735.15
21,259.74
19,291.87
97,975.57
111,951.34
91,457.48
21,208.90
90+
34,791.24
21,274.44
26,291.48
21,445.11
22,196.24
22,908.97
24,621.17
20,158.22
24,076.62
21,379.86
34,721.74
41,908.99
96,444.54
22,801.81
Total
3,314.52
2,799.04
3,099.88
3,130.66
2,690.84
2,925.03
3,314.87
3,233.02
3,327.49
3,018.31
4,575.35
5,707.04
8,386.30
2,972.98
Female
<1
6,689.89
5,146.96
8,171.98
7,695.34
5,521.94
8,284.03
6,429.90
6,346.03
9,243.84
6,868.94
8,491.72
18,460.44
24,134.40
7,470.27
1–4
1,008.03
891.83
1,087.99
1,229.75
963.05
1,127.18
1,249.22
1,420.85
1,554.66
1,211.50
4,983.99
5,004.55
7,929.94
1,192.28
5–9
889.69
818.90
855.47
1,036.24
882.51
867.54
1,382.26
1,116.32
1,357.80
1,072.47
2,633.25
2,253.68
4,287.36
992.90
10–14
847.09
855.57
807.96
1,010.18
777.69
907.76
1,033.40
1,192.97
1,433.20
1,112.82
2,188.73
1,962.19
3,960.98
980.33
15–19
1,298.24
1,148.07
1,235.09
1,392.71
1,037.03
1,250.31
1,593.50
1,713.53
1,945.32
1,483.91
3,305.84
4,370.21
7,833.67
1,359.79
20–24
1,641.61
1,654.38
1,659.27
1,888.84
1,414.31
1,597.28
2,126.25
2,157.93
2,429.47
1,825.89
3,880.39
6,045.32
10,003.96
1,750.68
25–29
2,234.63
2,002.45
2,153.27
2,375.09
1,629.86
2,193.60
2,543.03
2,689.94
2,928.65
2,334.73
4,288.30
7,207.22
11,681.81
30–34
2,453.76
2,158.05
2,254.54
2,337.36
1,623.60
2,487.17
2,628.01
2,643.74
3,079.84
2,493.39
4,128.87
6,925.78
10,532.38
2,375.43
35–39
1,924.37
1,824.65
1,960.78
2,026.01
1,558.38
2,091.28
2,316.21
2,246.66
2,664.11
2,243.69
3,491.20
5,122.69
9,267.70
2,069.25
40–44
1,834.21
1,677.85
1,767.88
1,918.90
1,475.10
1,878.02
2,145.01
2,137.46
2,466.12
2,089.23
3,224.82
4,303.03
8,438.85
1,893.09
45–49
2,118.65
1,856.41
1,924.66
2,185.90
1,632.51
2,069.58
2,440.24
2,333.77
2,602.27
2,238.57
3,495.20
5,052.25
10,424.26
2,067.98
50–54
2,513.32
2,060.19
2,169.59
2,526.67
1,955.55
2,401.37
2,825.26
2,608.79
2,988.49
2,466.82
3,825.28
5,321.94
9,927.02
2,382.55
55–59
2,962.57
2,350.14
2,678.51
2,967.55
2,340.90
2,803.40
3,278.97
3,070.98
3,610.35
2,838.48
4,427.73
6,308.69
9,365.75
2,796.42
60–64
3,630.27
3,097.73
3,259.66
3,627.14
2,879.43
3,504.14
4,440.23
3,761.78
4,545.80
3,497.26
5,822.32
10,386.98
14,820.77
3,467.37
65–69
5,061.90
4,595.29
5,064.19
4,884.61
4,429.23
5,308.53
5,165.10
4,789.68
6,072.27
4,475.46
9,777.21
12,610.81
17,682.60
4,996.85
70–74
8,159.63
5,735.81
7,013.41
6,816.74
6,584.63
7,200.56
6,855.79
6,286.00
7,886.66
6,225.90
12,786.79
25,366.02
36,638.74
6,936.74
75–79
10,900.88
9,189.59
10,437.63
9,978.63
9,551.71
9,706.52
9,526.34
8,351.21
10,498.38
8,445.01
22,416.69
78,950.33
9,573.31
80–84
17,868.85
12,624.21
14,616.59
12,827.51
12,939.24
13,278.30
13,493.46
11,474.10
14,415.04
12,287.24
41,965.33
51,737.49
68,938.55
13,202.73
85–89
32,831.99
19,718.27
23,632.79
19,896.01
24,282.12
21,060.77
21,130.75
20,724.75
21,466.92
20,244.14
93,357.37
185,678.98
116,535.12
22,025.30
90+
36,878.12
21,050.20
28,372.39
21,838.82
22,151.65
23,385.09
24,284.11
20,721.32
24,370.54
22,553.51
35,427.04
45,411.75
109,107.70
23,286.47
Total
3,648.81
3,015.49
3,465.29
3,425.13
2,970.74
3,207.42
3,656.55
3,563.98
3,628.47
3,275.40
5,042.60
6,592.28
9,474.96
3,260.40
10,251.78
7,454.05
10,388.15
20,915.14
34,673.91
8,292.90
35,865.47
2,211.00
Male
<1
8,109.03
7,634.42
8,967.10
8,676.80
6,281.86
9,031.52
1–4
1,135.45
1,527.21
1,220.22
1,857.00
1,026.59
1,237.89
1,342.52
1,498.13
1,709.75
1,306.15
2,606.64
3,173.14
5,667.70
1,295.88
5–9
984.19
2,898.09
943.17
1,112.83
944.97
942.08
1,046.45
1,142.97
1,459.56
1,124.31
2,445.35
2,112.93
4,145.96
1,056.21
10–14
861.78
837.82
844.28
1,041.09
790.39
932.96
1,068.50
1,278.28
1,480.93
1,157.26
2,086.73
1,883.69
3,890.82
1,010.57
15–19
900.33
987.84
956.07
1,152.70
889.97
1,052.64
1,330.53
1,387.55
1,636.14
1,374.63
2,256.68
2,695.77
5,095.24
1,152.52
20–24
1,077.71
1,053.75
1,172.04
1,143.35
991.78
1,040.44
1,381.30
1,317.21
1,643.85
1,407.86
2,503.72
3,089.39
5,679.32
1,189.97
25–29
1,148.66
990.19
1,068.50
1,167.24
964.78
1,085.65
1,438.00
1,351.71
1,573.82
1,443.05
2,444.39
2,928.89
5,425.13
1,192.79
30–34
1,253.89
1,135.39
1,049.39
1,332.62
925.91
1,170.44
1,599.86
1,473.34
1,714.01
1,508.61
2,592.35
3,158.92
5,722.80
1,254.94
35–39
1,316.04
1,272.42
1,258.68
1,454.23
1,236.72
1,326.63
1,731.77
1,959.83
1,873.81
1,632.95
2,731.79
3,361.59
6,068.85
1,445.15
40–44
1,514.60
1,321.43
1,420.64
1,646.84
1,401.70
1,557.30
1,942.98
1,787.12
2,088.69
1,816.69
3,055.28
4,031.18
7,026.15
1,632.75
45–49
1,897.77
1,519.04
1,712.01
1,906.73
1,569.97
1,863.41
2,248.93
2,016.74
2,431.83
2,059.94
3,480.70
4,814.00
8,328.30
1,900.73
50–54
2,424.93
1,957.42
2,231.87
2,458.11
2,018.49
2,374.24
2,751.62
2,490.15
2,916.77
2,483.69
3,599.83
4,779.35
8,167.53
2,378.38
55–59
3,185.79
2,461.85
2,890.84
3,101.75
2,617.04
2,995.27
3,623.38
3,188.09
3,669.30
3,001.94
4,232.39
6,086.03
10,597.62
3,000.43
60–64
4,424.20
3,427.45
3,971.32
4,248.82
3,274.58
3,985.09
4,829.65
4,124.34
4,653.14
3,854.38
5,210.19
8,229.17
14,312.17
3,892.66
65–69
6,593.87
5,427.82
5,880.35
5,715.33
5,132.36
6,165.78
5,685.06
5,380.98
6,968.65
5,037.93
8,062.08
11,148.39
17,977.67
5,769.84
70–74
9,191.49
7,084.15
8,177.99
7,854.90
7,397.67
8,308.68
7,774.19
7,147.98
9,241.42
6,670.98
12,923.02
24,582.91
30,696.84
7,885.22
75–79
12,597.99
8,880.07
11,257.15
10,862.24
10,426.45
10,761.31
10,231.50
9,535.27
11,830.33
8,973.25
23,766.30
32,610.22
47,262.44
10,509.15
80–84
15,990.38
12,991.07
13,251.96
13,451.36
13,007.70
13,948.28
14,045.21
12,058.25
15,385.32
12,125.69
31,219.74
44,571.02
54,783.88
13,530.09
85–89
26,379.31
17,464.37
18,259.11
18,212.97
21,547.02
18,983.86
20,872.62
17,921.30
20,874.12
17,574.68
112,489.92
60,068.92
73,345.85
19,598.10
90+
28,825.86
21,991.39
20,460.97
20,337.14
22,340.69
21,605.35
25,561.21
18,814.28
23,300.44
18,688.10
33,348.27
34,465.64
87,234.97
21,471.26
Total
2,966.94
2,570.69
2,718.27
2,828.07
2,403.79
2,635.37
2,968.73
2,897.59
3,033.91
2,756.88
4,114.60
4,876.24
7,359.03
2,680.09
Note
See methodology for age–sex distribution in the Methodological Notes section of this report.
140
7,108.44
7,614.05
Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.
CIHI 2008
www.cihi.ca
www.icis.ca
Taking health information further
À l’avant-garde de l’information sur la santé
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement