2012 ANNUAL REPORT Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

2012 ANNUAL REPORT Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview
2012 ANNUAL REPORT
Corrections and Conditional Release
Statistical Overview
BUILDING A SAFE AND RESILIENT CANADA
Corrections and
Conditional Release
Statistical Overview
2012
This document was produced by the Public Safety Canada Portfolio Corrections Statistics Committee
which is composed of representatives of the
Department of Public Safety Canada, the Correctional Service of Canada,
the Parole Board of Canada, the Office of the Correctional Investigator and
the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada).
Ce rapport est disponible en français sous le titre : Aperçu statistique : Le système correctionnel et la
mise en liberté sous condition.
This report is also available on the Public Safety Canada website: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca
December 2012
Public Works and Government Services Canada
Cat. No.: PS1-3/2012E-PDF
ISSN : 1713-1073
PREFACE
This document provides a statistical overview of corrections and conditional release within a context of
trends in crime and criminal justice. A primary consideration in producing this overview was to present
general statistical information in a “user friendly” way that will facilitate understanding by a broad
audience. Accordingly, there are a number of features of this document that make it different from typical
statistical reports.
■
First, the visual representation of the statistics is simple and uncluttered, and under each chart there
are a few key points that will assist the reader in extracting the information from the chart.
■
Second, for each chart there is a table of numbers corresponding to the visual representation. In
some instances, the table includes additional numbers, e.g., a five-year series, even though the chart
depicts the data for the most recent year (e.g., Figure A2).
■
Third, rather than using the conventional headings for statistics (e.g., “police-reported crime rate by
year by type of crime”) the titles for each chart and table inform the reader about the matter at hand
(e.g., “Police-reported crime rate has decreased since 1998”).
■
Fourth, notes have been kept to a minimum, that is, only where they were judged to be essential for
the reader to understand the statistics.
■
Finally, the source of the statistics is indicated under each chart so that the interested reader can
easily access more information if desired.
This is the 15th issue of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). Readers
are advised that in some instances figures have been revised from earlier publications. Also, the total
number of offenders will vary slightly depending on characteristics of the data set.
It is hoped that this document will serve as a useful source of statistical information on corrections and
conditional release and assist the public in gaining a better understanding of these important components
of the criminal justice system.
PREFACE (CONTINUED)
Regarding police crime data from Statistics Canada, until the late 1980s, the Uniform Crime Reporting
(UCR) survey provided aggregate counts of the number of incidents reported to police and the number of
persons charged by type of offence. With the advent of microdata reporting, the UCR has become an
“incident-based” survey (UCR2), collecting in-depth information about each criminal incident. The update
to this new survey, as well as revisions to the definitions of Violent crime, Property crime, and Other
Criminal Code offences has resulted in data only being available from 1998 to the present. It is worth
noting that the Total Crime Rates presented in the CCRSO differ from those reported by Statistics Canada
in their publications. The Total Crime Rate reported in the CCRSO includes offences (i.e., traffic offences
in the Canadian Criminal Code and offences against federal statutes) that are excluded in rates published
by Statistics Canada.
Like the past three years, the CCRSO excludes information found in earlier editions on the mental health
of federal offenders. No valid and reliable data are available. The Correctional of Service of Canada is in
the process of addressing this issue so as to provide reliable and valid information on the mental health
issues of federal offenders.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Police-reported crime rate has been decreasing since 1998 ........................................................ 01
Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the north .......................................................... 03
Canada’s incarceration rate is high relative to most western European countries ........................ 05
The rate of adults charged has declined since 2001 .................................................................... 07
Administration of justice cases account for 21% of cases in adult courts ..................................... 09
Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short ..................................................... 11
Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries ............................................... 13
The rate of youth charged has declined over the past five years .................................................. 15
The most common youth court case is theft ................................................................................. 17
The most common sentence for youth is probation ...................................................................... 19
SECTION B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATION
Federal expenditures on corrections increased in 2010-11 .......................................................... 21
CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres .................................................................. 23
The cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated has increased .......................................................... 25
The number of Parole Board of Canada employees ..................................................................... 27
The number of employees in the Office of the Correctional Investigator ...................................... 29
Health care is the most common area of offender complaint received by the Office of the
..
Correctional Investigator .............................................................................................................. 31
SECTION C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
CONTEXT - CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
OFFENDER POPULATION
Federal offenders under the jurisdiction of the Correctional Service of Canada ........................... 33
The number of incarcerated federal offenders increased in 2011-12 ........................................... 35
The number of admissions to federal jurisdiction has fluctuated .................................................. 37
The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction has increased
.
over the past decade .................................................................................................................... 39
Almost half of offenders under federal jurisdiction are serving a sentence of 5 years or longer ... 41
Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing ..................................................... 43
The average age at admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders than for non-Aboriginal
offenders…………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
21% of the federal incarcerated offender population is aged 50 or over ....................................... 47
62% of federal offenders are Caucasian ...................................................................................... 49
The religious identification of the offender population is diverse .................................................. 51
The proportion of Aboriginal offenders incarcerated is higher than for
.
non-Aboriginal offenders .............................................................................................................. 53
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
12. The majority of incarcerated federal offenders are classified as medium security risk ................. 55
13. Admissions with a life or indeterminate sentence were stable in 2011-12 .................................... 57
14. Offenders with life or indeterminate sentences represent 23% of the total offender population ... 59
15. 67% of federal offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence ......................................... 61
16. The number of Aboriginal offenders under federal jurisdiction has increased .............................. 63
17. The total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated .............................. 65
18. The number of offender deaths while in custody has fluctuated ................................................... 67
19. The number of escapes has fluctuated ........................................................................................ 69
20. The supervised federal offender population in the community has
remained stable since 2008-09 .................................................................................................... 71
21. Over the last six years, the provincial/territorial community corrections population has
.
increased ...................................................................................................................................... 73
22. The number of offenders on provincial parole has decreased over the past decade .................... 75
SECTION D.
CONDITIONAL RELEASE
1. The federal day and full parole grant rates increased in 2011-12 ................................................. 77
2. The federal full parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased
for the second consecutive year................................................................................................... 79
3. Federal parole hearings involving an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor decreased in 2011-12 ............. 81
4. Proportion of sentence served prior to being released on parole is the highest since 2002-03 .... 83
5. Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences before being released
.
on parole ...................................................................................................................................... 85
6. Female offenders serve a lower proportion of their sentences than male offenders before being
released on parole ................................................................................................................... …..87
7. The majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed ................................................... 89
8. The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed .................................................... 91
9. Statutory releases have the lowest rates of successful completion .............................................. 93
10. Over the past decade, the rate of violent conviction for offenders while under
.
supervision has declined .............................................................................................................. 95
11. The number of offenders granted temporary absences increased in 2011-12.............................. 97
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
SECTION E.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
STATISTICS ON SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE
The number of detention reviews is the lowest since 1997-98 ..................................................... 99
78% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility ................................................. 101
The number of dangerous offender designations has increased in 2011-12 .............................. 103
Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period........................................................ 105
The number of pardon applications processed decreased for a third consecutive year ............. 107
SECTION F.
VICTIMS OF CRIME
1. Victimization rates for theft of personal property have increased ................................................ 109
2. The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30 .................................................................. 111
3. The majority of victims receiving services are victims of violent crime ........................................ 113
4. The number of victims registered with the federal correctional system has increased................ 115
5. Offences causing death is the most common type of offence that harmed the victim registered
with Correctional Services Canada ............................................................................................ 117
6. Release information is the most common type of information provided during
a notification to registered victims with Correctional Services Canada ........................................ 119
7. Parole Board of Canada contacts with victims have decreased ................................................. 121
CONTRIBUTING PARTNERS
Public Safety Canada
Public Safety Canada is Canada’s lead federal department for public safety, which includes emergency
management, national security and community safety. Its many responsibilities include developing
legislation and policies governing corrections, implementing innovative approaches to community justice,
and providing research expertise and resources to the corrections community.
Correctional Service of Canada
The mandate of the Correctional Service of Canada, as set out in the Corrections and Conditional
Release Act, is to contribute to the maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society by carrying out
sentences imposed by courts through the safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders with
sentences of two years or more, and assisting in the rehabilitation of offenders and their reintegration into
the community as law-abiding citizens through the provision of programs in penitentiaries and in the
community.
Parole Board of Canada
The Parole Board of Canada is an independent administrative tribunal responsible for making decisions
about the timing and conditions of release of offenders to the community on various forms of conditional
release. The Board also makes pardon decisions and recommendations respecting clemency through the
Royal Prerogative of Mercy.
Office of the Correctional Investigator
The Office of the Correctional Investigator is an ombudsman for federal offenders. It conducts
investigations into the problems of offenders related to decisions, recommendations, acts or omissions of
the Correctional Service of Canada that affect offenders individually or as a group.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada)
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS) is a division of Statistics Canada. The CCJS is the
focal point of a federal-provincial-territorial partnership, known as the National Justice Statistics Initiative,
for the collection of information on the nature and extent of crime and the administration of civil and
criminal justice in Canada.
SECTION A
CONTEXT - CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL
JUSTICE SYSTEM
1
POLICE-REPORTED CRIME RATE HAS BEEN DECREASING SINCE 1998
Figure A1
Rate per 100,000 population
10,000
9,000
Total*
8,000
7,000
6,000
Property**
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
1998
Violent**
Other Criminal Code**
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
■
The overall crime rate has decreased 25.9% since 1998, from 8,915 per 100,000 to 6,604 in 2011.
Over the same period, there was a 38.2% decrease in the property crime rate, from a rate of 5,696
per 100,000 to 3,520 in 2011. In contrast, the crime rate for drug offences has increased 39.5% since
1998, from 235 per 100,000 population to 328.
The rate of violent crime has fluctuated over the last fourteen years, peaking in 2000 at 1,494 per
100,000 population. Since 2000, the rate of violent crimes has decreased 17.6% to 1,231 in 2011.
In general, the crime rates for traffic offences and other Criminal Code offences have fluctuated since
1998.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against
federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.
**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the
policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these figures underestimate actual
crime. See Figure F1 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey), an alternative method of measuring crime.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
2
POLICE-REPORTED CRIME RATE HAS BEEN DECREASING SINCE 1998
Table A1
Type of offence
Year
Violent**
Property**
Traffic
Other CCC**
Drugs
Other Fed.
Statutes
Total*
1998
1,345
5,696
469
1,051
235
119
8,915
1999
1,440
5,345
388
910
264
128
8,474
2000
1,494
5,189
370
924
287
113
8,376
2001
1,473
5,124
393
989
288
123
8,390
2002
1,441
5,080
379
991
296
128
8,315
2003
1,435
5,299
373
1,037
274
115
8,532
2004
1,404
5,123
379
1,072
306
107
8,391
2005
1,389
4,884
378
1,052
290
97
8,090
2006
1,386
4,808
376
1,049
295
87
8,002
2007
1,352
4,519
402
1,028
307
90
7,697
2008
1,331
4,249
436
1,037
307
99
7,459
2009
1,318
4,110
433
1,015
290
94
7,260
2010
1,287
3,824
419
1,027
320
96
6,973
2011
1,231
3,520
424
1,005
328
96
6,604
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against
federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.
**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the
policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.
Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
3
CRIME RATES ARE HIGHER IN THE WEST AND HIGHEST IN THE NORTH
Figure A2
51,922
Northwest T erritories
41,108
Nunavut
22,878
Yukon
14,184
Saskatchewan
9,771
Manitoba
9,149
British Columbia
8,388
Alberta
Newfoundland & Labrador
7,377
Nova Scotia
7,331
Prince Edward Island
7,154
6,604
Canada
6,022
New Brunswick
5,329
Quebec
4,764
Ontario
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
Per 100,000 population, 2011
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the Territories. This general pattern has been stable
over time.
The Canadian crime rate* dropped from 7,697 in 2007 to 6,604 in 2011.
Note:
*Rates are based on 100,000 population.
Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal
statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition,
the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing
community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable
to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
4
CRIME RATES ARE HIGHER IN THE WEST AND HIGHEST IN THE NORTH
Table A2
Crime Rate*
Province/Territory
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Newfoundland & Labrador
7,052
7,144
7,375
7,692
7,377
Prince Edward Island
6,791
6,892
7,066
7,055
7,154
Nova Scotia
8,218
7,747
7,732
7,814
7,331
New Brunswick
6,307
6,505
6,397
6,341
6,022
Quebec
5,891
5,952
5,846
5,576
5,329
Ontario
5,683
5,456
5,280
5,038
4,764
Manitoba
11,658
10,634
11,260
10,532
9,771
Saskatchewan
15,124
14,551
14,434
14,411
14,184
Alberta
10,059
10,057
9,575
9,101
8,388
British Columbia
11,702
10,800
10,181
9,676
9,149
Yukon Territory
22,982
24,205
25,399
23,094
22,878
Northwest Territories
46,508
47,991
45,770
50,935
51,922
Nunavut
31,974
37,213
39,795
41,675
41,108
Canada
7,697
7,459
7,260
6,973
6,604
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Rates are based on 100,000 population.
Unlike Statistics Canada, the Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal
statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition,
the definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing
community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable
to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
5
CANADA’S INCARCERATION RATE IS HIGH RELATIVE TO MOST WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Figure A3
Number of inmates per 100,000 population
199
New Zealand
England & W ales
155
Scotland
155
133
Australia
117
Canada
110
Italy
104
Austria
102
France
87
Germany
Switzerland
79
Sweden
78
Denmark
74
Norway
73
United States
730
59
Finland
0
50
100
150
200
250
Source: International Centre for Prison Studies: World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition); World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition); World Prison
Population List online (retrieved October 15, 2012 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php).
■
■
Canada’s incarceration rate is higher than the rates in most Western European countries but much
lower than the United States, where the most recent incarceration rate was 730 per 100,000 general
population.
Based on the most up to date information available from the International Centre for Prison Studies,
Canada’s incarceration rate was 117 per 100,000, calculated based on the 2008 population.
Note:
The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in the general population.
Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in
the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Figure A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions
respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2012, the data was retrieved online on October 15,
2012 from www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php which contains the most up-to-date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates
based on the country’s population in 2012 except where noted. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in different countries limit the
comparability of these figures.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
6
CANADA’S INCARCERATION RATE IS HIGH RELATIVE TO MOST WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Table A3
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
20061*
20082*
20113*
20124*
United States
682
699
700
701
714
723
738
756
743b
730a
New Zealand
149
149
145
155
168
168
186
185
199
194
England & Wales
125
124
125
141
142
141
148
153
155
154
Scotland
118
115
120
129
132
136
139
152
155
151
Australia
108
108
110
115
117
120
126
129
133a
129z
Canada
118
116
116
116
108
107
107
116
117c
114b
Italy
89
94
95
100
98
96
104
92
110
109
Austria
85
84
85
100
106
110
105
95
104a
104a
France
91
89
80
93
91
91
85
96
102
102
Germany
97
97
95
98
96
98
95
89
87
83
Switzerland
81
79
90
68
81
81
83
76
79a
76z
Sweden
59
64
65
73
75
81
82
74
78a
70z
Denmark
66
61
60
64
70
70
77
63
74
74z
Norway
56
--
60
59
65
65
66
69
73
73z
Finland
46
52
50
70
71
66
75
64
59
59z
Source: International Centre for Prison Studies: 1 World Prison Population List (Seventh Edition); 2 World Prison Population List (Eighth Edition); 3 World Prison
Population List online (retrieved October 7, 2011 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php), 4 World Prison Population List online (retrieved October
15, 2012 at www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php).
Note:
*Incarceration rates from the World Prison Population List are based on the most recently available data at the time the list was compiled. Due to variations in
the availability of information, the 2006 and 2008 dates reported in Table A3 refer to when the World Prison Population Lists (Seventh and Eighth Editions
respectively) were published, but may not necessarily correspond to the date the data were obtained. For 2012, the data was retrieved online on October 15,
2012 from www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/index.php which contains the most up to date information available. These data reflect incarceration rates
based on the country’s population in the year indicated except where noted: a indicates the estimate was based on the country’s population in 2010, b based on
the 2009 population, c based on the 2008 population, and z based on the 2011 population. Additionally, different practices and variations in measurement in
different countries limit the comparability of these figures. Rates are based on 100,000 population.
-- Figures not available.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
7
THE RATE OF ADULTS CHARGED HAS DECLINED SINCE 2001
Figure A4
Rate per 100,000 adult population
2,500
Total charged*
2,000
1,500
1,000
Property**
500
Violent**
Other Criminal Code**
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
Since 1998, the rate of women charged has increased from 718 women per 100,000 women in the
population to 785. However, the rate for men has decreased from 3,819 men per 100,000 men in the
population to 3,287.
Over the same period, the rate of women charged with violent crimes increased by 25.4%, such that in
2011, 187 women were charged per 100,000 women in the population. In comparison, the rate of men
charged with violent crimes decreased by 8.5% over the past fourteen years. Since reaching a peak of
1,109 men charged per 100,000 men in the population in 2001, the rate has since decreased to 911 in
2011.
Similarly, the rate of women charged with traffic crimes has also increased, from 78 women charged per
100,000 women in the population in 1998, to 88 in 2011. Conversely, the rate of men charged with traffic
crimes has decreased 32.7% since 1998, to 459 men charged per 100,000 men in the population in 2011.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against
federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.
**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the
policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering
threats and criminal harassment.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
8
THE RATE OF ADULTS CHARGED HAS DECLINED SINCE 2001
Table A4
Type of offence
Year
Violent**
Property**
Traffic
Other CCC**
Drugs
Other Fed.
Statutes
Total
Charged*
1998
563
677
374
430
168
24
2,236
1999
590
632
371
396
185
30
2,203
2000
615
591
349
411
198
26
2,190
2001
641
584
349
451
202
28
2,256
2002
617
569
336
460
199
29
2,211
2003
598
573
326
476
172
23
2,168
2004
584
573
314
490
187
30
2,180
2005
589
550
299
479
185
29
2,131
2006
593
533
300
498
198
27
2,149
2007
576
499
298
520
208
28
2,128
2008
574
485
306
538
207
31
2,142
2009
582
488
309
530
200
33
2,142
2010
573
470
293
542
210
32
2,121
2011
543
437
271
521
210
34
2,016
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against
federal statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada.
**The definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the
policing community. As a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not
comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older.
Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering
threats and criminal harassment.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
9
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE CASES ACCOUNT FOR 21% OF CASES* IN ADULT COURTS
Figure A5
Administration of Justice
21.1%
Impaired Driving
12.0%
T heft
10.6%
Common Assault
9.4%
Major Assault
5.2%
Uttering T hreats
4.4%
Drug Possession
4.1%
Mischief
3.7%
Fraud
3.6%
T rafficking
3.1%
Possession of Stolen Property
3.0%
Break & Enter
2.8%
W eapons
2.4%
Robbery
1.0%
Sexual Assault
1.0%
Criminal Harassment
0.8%
Other Crimes Against Persons
0.8%
Other Sexual Offences
0.6%
Homicide & Related
0.07%
Attempted Murder
0.04%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
Percentage of all Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges (2010-11)
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
Administration of justice cases (offences related to case proceedings such as failure to appear in court,
failure to comply with a court order, breach of probation, and unlawfully at large) account for more than
one fifth of cases completed in adult criminal courts.
Apart from administration of justice cases, impaired driving is the most frequent federal statute case in
adult courts.
Note:
*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of
the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the
same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An
offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence”
rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.
Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts
(which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected.
The graph excludes Youth Criminal Justice Act / Young Offenders Act offences. The Adult Criminal Court Survey groups these offences under “Other Federal Statutes”.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements
have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
10
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE CASES ACCOUNT FOR 21% OF CASES* IN ADULT COURTS
Table A5
Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges
Type of Charge
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
#
%
#
%
#
%
95,114
23.93
96,688
23.66
93,347
23.25
Homicide and Related
275
0.07
279
0.07
281
0.07
Attempted Murder
167
0.04
197
0.05
154
0.04
Robbery
4,466
1.12
4,472
1.09
4,118
1.03
Sexual Assault
4,145
1.04
4,092
1.00
3,989
0.99
Other Sexual Offences
2,046
0.51
2,062
0.50
2,286
0.57
Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3)
21,509
5.41
21,909
5.36
20,929
5.21
Common Assault (Level 1)
37,496
9.43
38,609
9.45
37,604
9.37
Uttering Threats
18,578
4.67
18,607
4.55
17,652
4.40
Criminal Harassment
3,185
0.80
3,200
0.78
3,239
0.81
Other Crimes Against Persons
3,247
0.82
3,261
0.80
3,095
0.77
93,056
23.41
98,180
24.03
96,567
24.05
Theft
38,802
9.76
42,472
10.39
42,566
10.60
Break and Enter
11,722
2.95
11,708
2.87
11,244
2.80
Fraud
14,656
3.69
15,196
3.72
14,451
3.60
Mischief
13,952
3.51
14,843
3.63
14,691
3.66
Possession of Stolen Property
11,921
3.00
11,982
2.93
11,843
2.95
2,003
0.50
1,979
0.48
1,772
0.44
83,499
21.01
84,683
20.72
84,697
21.09
Crimes Against the Person
Crimes Against Property
Other Property Crimes
Administration of Justice
Fail to Appear
5,123
1.29
4,764
1.17
4,983
1.24
Breach of Probation
30,581
7.69
31,583
7.73
31,157
7.76
Unlawfully at Large
2,552
0.64
2,529
0.62
2,531
0.63
36,298
9.13
36,824
9.01
37,247
9.28
8,945
2.25
8,983
2.20
8,779
2.19
19,048
4.79
19,475
4.77
18,639
4.64
Weapons
9,933
2.50
10,109
2.47
9,776
2.43
Prostitution
1,632
0.41
1,719
0.42
1,580
0.39
Disturbing the Peace
1,823
0.46
1,756
0.43
1,764
0.44
Residual Criminal Code
5,660
1.42
5,891
1.44
5,519
1.37
58,282
14.66
61,244
14.99
59,452
14.81
Impaired Driving
46,268
11.64
49,462
12.10
48,033
11.96
Other CC Traffic
12,014
3.02
11,782
2.88
11,419
2.84
48,472
12.20
48,371
11.84
48,805
12.16
Drug Possession
15,713
3.95
15,442
3.78
16,363
4.08
Drug Trafficking
12,974
3.26
13,124
3.21
12,457
3.10
Residual Federal Statutes
19,785
4.98
19,805
4.85
19,985
4.98
397,471
100.00
408,641
100.00
401,507
100.00
Fail to Comply with Order
Other Admin. Justice
Other Criminal Code
Criminal Code Traffic
Other Federal Statutes
Total Offences
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Cases completed in adult criminal courts.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and
Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. The table excludes Youth Criminal Justice Act / Young Offenders Act offences. The Adult Criminal Court Survey groups these offences under “Other Federal
Statutes”. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s municipal courts (which account for
approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected. The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the
provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for
these updates. Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
11
MOST ADULT CUSTODIAL SENTENCES ORDERED BY THE COURT ARE SHORT
Figure A6
80%
Length of Prison Sentence for Men
Length of Prison Sentence for Women
70%
66.9%
60%
51.6%
50%
40%
33.9%
30%
24.6%
20%
10%
6.7%
3.8%
3.5%
2.4%
4.3%
2.4%
0%
1 Month or Less
> 1 to 6 Months
> 6 to 12 Months
> 1 Year to < 2 Years
2 Years or More
Length of Sentence (2010-11)
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
Over half (53.3%) of all custodial sentences imposed by adult criminal courts are one month or less.
Prison sentences for men tend to be longer than for women. About two-thirds (66.9%) of women and
just over half of men (51.6%) who are incarcerated upon guilty* finding receive a sentence of one
month or less, and 91.5% of women and 85.5% of men receive a sentence of six months or less.
Of all guilty findings that result in custody, only 4.1% result in federal jurisdiction (i.e., a sentence of
two years or more).
Note:
*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence. This
category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to
editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.
Excludes Youth Criminal Justice Act / Young Offenders Act offences, cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information
on both sentence length and gender were not available, and data on corporations.
Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s
municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These
improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to
account for these updates.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
12
MOST ADULT CUSTODIAL SENTENCES ORDERED BY THE COURT ARE SHORT
Table A6
Length of Prison Sentence
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
%
%
%
%
%
Women
69.6
69.6
67.6
67.7
66.9
Men
52.7
53.5
53.9
53.6
51.6
Total
54.6
55.3
55.5
55.2
53.3
Women
22.1
22.3
24.2
23.3
24.6
Men
32.1
31.6
31.4
31.6
33.9
Total
31.0
30.6
30.6
30.7
32.9
Women
4.1
4.3
4.2
4.4
3.8
Men
7.0
7.0
6.9
6.7
6.7
Total
6.6
6.7
6.6
6.4
6.4
Women
2.1
1.9
1.9
2.2
2.4
Men
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.5
Total
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.4
Women
2.1
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.4
Men
4.6
4.2
4.0
4.4
4.3
Total
4.3
4.0
3.8
4.2
4.1
1 Month or Less
More Than 1 Month to 6 Months
More Than 6 Months to 12 Months
More Than 1 Year to Less Than 2 Years
2 Years or More
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to
editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.
Excludes Youth Criminal Justice Act / Young Offenders Act offences, cases where length of prison sentence and/or sex was not known, data for Manitoba as information
on both sentence length and gender were not available, and data on corporations.
Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In addition, information from Quebec’s
municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These
improvements have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to
account for these updates.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
13
RELATIVELY FEW CRIMES RESULT IN SENTENCES TO FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
Figure A7
Total Number of Offences
Reported to Police 2011:
2,277,2581
Cases with guilty* findings in
Adult Criminal Court 2010-11:
257,4201**
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/
Territorial Custody 2010-11:
74,3561
Warrant of Committal Admissions to
Federal Jurisdiction 2011-12:
5,1152
Source: 1 Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics,
Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
There were about 2.28 million crimes reported to police in 2011.
During 2011-12, 5,115 offenders were sentenced to federal jurisdiction (i.e., two years or more).
Note:
*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence.
This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.
**This figure only includes cases in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal Court
Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec’s municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code
charges in the provinces) is not collected. Data excludes admissions to BC and Nunavut as data has been unavailable since 2009-10.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be
compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person
or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.
Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
14
RELATIVELY FEW CRIMES RESULT IN SENTENCES TO FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
Table A7
Total Number of Offences Reported to
Police1
Cases with guilty* findings in Adult
Criminal Court1**
Sentenced Admissions to Provincial/
Territorial Custody1***
Warrant of Committal
Admissions to Federal Facilities2
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2,534,730
2,485,207
2,448,805
2,379,667
2,277,258
255,487
263,948
266,430
257,420
Not available
71,233
73,151
73,620
74,356
Not available
5,000
4,827
5,219
5,432
5,115
Source: 1 Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey, and Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics,
Statistics Canada; 2 Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*The type of decision group “guilty” includes guilty of the offence, of an included offence, of an attempt of the offence, or of an attempt of an included offence.
This category also includes cases where an absolute or conditional discharge has been imposed.
**This figure only includes cases convicted in provincial court and partial data from Superior Court. Superior Court data are not reported to the Adult Criminal
Court Survey for Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Information from Quebec’s municipal courts (which account for approximately 25% of Criminal Code charges in the provinces) is not collected. Data excludes admissions to BC and Nunavut as data has been unavailable since 2009-10.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Adult Criminal Court Survey used in this report should not be
compared to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person
or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition.
***In order to make comparisons, data exclude Prince Edward Island and Nunavut.
Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
15
THE RATE OF YOUTH CHARGED HAS DECLINED OVER THE PAST FIVE YEARS
Figure A8
Rate of Youth Charged per 100,000 Youth Population
6,000
5,000
Total*
4,000
3,000
Property*
2,000
Violent*
1,000
Other Criminal Code*
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
■
The rate of youth** charged has declined over the past five years.
In 2003, there was a notable decrease in all major crime categories, in part attributable to the implementation of the
Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) in April 2003, which places greater emphasis on diversion.
The rates*** of female youth charged with violent or property crimes have decreased since 2003, by 12.9% and
31.7% respectively. In 2011, the rate of female youth charged was 449 per 100,000 for violent crime and 442 per
100,000 for property crime
Over the same nine year period, the rate*** of male youth charged with violent crime decreased by 12.2% to 1,218
per 100,000 in 2011. Similarly, the rate of male youth charged with property crime declined by 42.9%, to 1,396 per
100,000 in 2011.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal
statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the
definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As
a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in
previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
**For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.
***Rates for females are based on the number of female youth charged per 100,000 female youth population (12 to 17 years) and rates for males are based on the
number of male youth charged per 100,000 male youth population (12 to 17 years).
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats
and criminal harassment.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
16
THE RATE OF YOUTH CHARGED HAS DECLINED OVER THE PAST FIVE YEARS
Table A8
Type of Offence
Year
Violent*
Property*
Traffic**
Other CCC*
Drugs
Other Fed.
Statutes
Total
Charged*
1998
994
2,500
--
870
226
184
4,775
1999
1,060
2,237
--
728
266
209
4,500
2000
1,136
2,177
--
760
317
198
4,589
2001
1,157
2,119
--
840
343
195
4,656
2002
1,102
2,009
--
793
337
235
4,476
2003
953
1,570
--
726
208
204
3,662
2004
918
1,395
--
691
230
222
3,457
2005
924
1,276
--
660
214
212
3,287
2006
917
1,217
--
680
240
216
3,270
2007
945
1,214
75
733
261
239
3,467
2008
915
1,137
75
734
269
260
3,390
2009
898
1,156
69
706
241
263
3,333
2010
872
1,053
63
681
259
271
3,203
2011
835
930
59
650
279
258
3,011
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Unlike Statistics Canada, the Total Crime Rate in the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview includes traffic offences and offences against federal
statutes to provide a measure of all criminal offences. As a result, the Total Crime Rate reported here is higher than that reported by Statistics Canada. In addition, the
definitions for Violent, Property and Other Criminal Code offences have been revised by Statistics Canada to better reflect definitions used by the policing community. As
a result of these changes, comparable data are only available starting in 1998 and the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in
previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
**Data for Youth Charged and Youth Not Charged for Impaired Driving are not available prior to 2007. As a result, comparisons to Total Charged and Other CCC
(including traffic) over time should be made with caution.
For criminal justice purposes, youth are defined under Canadian law as persons aged 12 to 17 years.
Rates for “Total” are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, extortion, robbery, firearms, and other violent offences such as uttering threats
and criminal harassment.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen property, fraud, mischief and arson.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
17
THE MOST COMMON YOUTH COURT CASE IS THEFT
Figure A9
14.8%
T heft
10.7%
Administration of Justice*
10.5%
Youth Criminal Justice Act**
8.2%
Break & Enter
7.9%
Common Assault
7.1%
Drug Offences***
7.0%
Mischief
6.3%
Major Assault
5.9%
Possession of Stolen Property
5.1%
Other Crimes Against Persons
4.8%
Robbery
2.4%
Sexual Assault/Sexual Offences
1.8%
Impaired Driving & Other T raffic
1.2%
Fraud
0.1%
Homicide & Related Offences
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
Percentage of Youth Court Cases by Principal Charge (2010-11)
14%
16%
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
■
Following the enactment of the Youth Criminal Justice Act in 2003, fewer youth are in court.
Theft is the most common case in youth court.
Homicides and related offences account for 0.1% of all youth cases.
Females account for 23% of all cases, but they account for 37% of common assaults****.
Note:
*“Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.
**Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and
harbouring a youth unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.
***“Drug Offences” includes possession and trafficking.
****The data exclude cases where gender is unknown.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the
Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the
same time, and where all of the charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An
offence is selected by applying two rules. First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence”
rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an offence seriousness scale.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements
have resulted in minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
18
THE MOST COMMON YOUTH COURT CASE IS THEFT
Table A9
Type of Case
Number of Youth Court Cases
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
14,793
15,395
15,614
14,823
14,084
70
2,377
1,254
3,618
4,575
2,899
70
2,637
1,140
3,845
4,696
3,007
76
2,768
1,283
3,729
4,767
2,991
70
2,539
1,255
3,561
4,477
2,921
68
2,562
1,289
3,310
4,183
2,672
22,517
8,079
5,162
830
4,159
3,586
701
22,612
8,026
5,203
852
4,362
3,416
753
22,219
8,262
4,855
818
4,330
3,258
696
22,242
8,454
4,835
837
4,253
3,249
614
20,194
7,832
4,331
631
3,716
3,113
571
6,230
566
6,327
592
6,353
527
6,104
420
5,635
423
5,664
5,735
5,826
5,684
5,212
Other Criminal Code
Weapons/Firearms
Prostitution
Disturbing the Peace
Residual Criminal Code
3,187
2,164
19
233
771
3,038
2,064
12
207
755
3,064
2,083
17
232
732
2,967
2,016
10
187
754
2,668
1,813
14
164
677
Criminal Code Traffic
Impaired Driving/Other CC Traffic
1,112
1,112
1,237
1,237
1,170
1,170
1,118
1,118
943
943
Other Federal Statutes
Drug Possession
Drug Trafficking
Youth Criminal Justice Act***
Residual Federal Statutes
9,643
2,445
1,339
5,605
254
10,101
2,725
1,475
5,649
252
10,548
2,919
1,459
5,917
253
9,605
2,556
1,279
5,685
85
9,380
2,551
1,209
5,566
54
57,482
58,710
58,968
56,859
52,904
Crimes Against the Person
Homicide and Attempted Murder
Robbery
Sexual Assault/Other Sexual Offences
Major Assault
Common Assault
Other Crimes Against the Person*
Crimes Against Property
Theft
Break and Enter
Fraud
Mischief
Possession of Stolen Property
Other Crimes Against Property
Administration of Justice
Escape/Unlawfully at Large
Other Administration of Justice**
Total
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*“Other Crimes Against the Person” includes the offences uttering threats and criminal harassment.
**“Other Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.
***Youth Criminal Justice Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a youth to leave a place of custody and harbouring a youth
unlawfully at large. Also included are similar offences under the Young Offenders Act, which preceded the Youth Criminal Justice Act.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared to editions of the Corrections and
Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007. A case is one or more charges against an accused person or corporation, processed by the courts at the same time, and where all of the
charges in the case received a final disposition. Where a case has more than one charge, it is necessary to select a charge to represent the case. An offence is selected by applying two rules.
First, the “most serious decision” rule is applied. In cases where two or more offences have the same decision, the “most serious offence” rule is applied. All charges are ranked according to an
offence seriousness scale.
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics continues to make updates to the offence library used to classify offence data sent by the provinces and territories. These improvements have resulted in
minor changes in the counts of charges and cases as well as the distributions by type of offence. Data presented have been revised to account for these updates.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
19
THE MOST COMMON SENTENCE FOR YOUTH IS PROBATION
Figure A10
Percentage of Youth Court Sentences
60%
50%
Probation
40%
30%
Other Sentence*
20%
Custody
10%
Community Service Order
0%
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
Consistent with the objectives of the YCJA, fewer youth are sentenced to custody. In 2010-11, about
16% of all guilty cases resulted in the youth being sentenced to custody. This compares to 17% of all
guilty cases in 2006-07.
In 2010-11, 48% of youth found guilty were given probation as the most serious sentence. This rate
has remained relatively stable since the implementation of the YCJA in April 2003.
Of the new YCJA sentences, deferred custody and supervision orders were handed down most
frequently. In 2010-11, almost 5% of all guilty cases received such an order as the most serious
sentence.
Note:
*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling
programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This
category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where
sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.
Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more
than one sentence.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared
to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
20
THE MOST COMMON SENTENCE FOR YOUTH IS PROBATION
Table A10
Year
Type of Sentence
Probation
Custody
Community Service Order
Fine
Deferred Custody and
Supervision
Other Sentence*
Gender
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
%
%
%
%
%
Female
50.4
50.4
52.2
50.0
47.5
Male
48.8
50.3
49.3
50.0
47.6
Total
49.4
50.8
50.3
50.3
48.2
Female
13.4
12.9
12.4
12.5
12.6
Male
18.1
17.5
17.0
16.2
17.2
Total
16.6
15.9
15.4
14.8
15.5
Female
8.0
7.9
8.1
9.3
9.5
Male
6.7
7.2
7.5
8.0
8.5
Total
7.3
7.6
7.9
8.9
9.2
Female
3.6
3.9
3.3
2.8
3.2
Male
4.8
4.7
5.2
4.1
3.7
Total
4.6
4.5
4.7
3.7
3.6
Female
2.4
3.2
3.0
4.0
4.3
Male
3.2
3.6
3.8
4.6
4.7
Total
3.0
3.4
3.5
4.3
4.4
Female
22.2
21.7
21.0
21.4
22.9
Male
18.4
16.8
17.3
17.0
18.4
Total
19.2
17.8
18.1
18.0
19.2
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*“Other Sentence” includes absolute discharge, restitution, prohibition, seizure, forfeiture, compensation, pay purchaser, essays, apologies, counselling
programs and conditional discharge, conditional sentence, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand. This
category also includes deferred custody and supervision, intensive support and supervision, attendance at non-residential program(s) and reprimand where
sentencing data under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) are not available.
Unlike previous years, this data represents the most serious sentence and therefore, sanctions are mutually exclusive. However, each case may receive more
than one sentence.
The concept of a case has changed to more closely reflect court processing. Statistics from the Youth Court Survey used in this report should not be compared
to editions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview prior to 2007.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
SECTION B
CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATION
21
FEDERAL EXPENDITURES ON CORRECTIONS INCREASED IN 2010-11
Figure B1
Dollars ('000)
2,750,000
2,500,000
2,250,000
Current dollars
2,000,000
Constant dollars
1,750,000
1,500,000
1,250,000
1,000,000
750,000
500,000
250,000
0
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.
■
■
■
In 2010-11, expenditures on federal corrections in Canada totaled approximately $2.4 billion. This
represents a 29.9% increase from 2006-07.
Federal expenditures on corrections, in constant dollars, increased 27.8% from 2006-07 to 2010-11.
Provincial/territorial expenditures totaled about $1.93 billion in 2010-11. The per capita cost in 201011, adjusted for inflation, was $51.80, representing an increase of 21.0% from the $42.80 per capita
cost in 2006-07 (see Adult Correctional Services Survey, Statistics Canada).
Note:
Federal expenditures on corrections include spending by the Correctional Service Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC), and the Office of the
Correctional Investigator (OCI). The expenditures for the CSC include both operating and capital costs. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special
Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation, thus allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable.
Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
22
FEDERAL EXPENDITURES ON CORRECTIONS INCREASED IN 2010-11
Table B1
Year
Current Dollars
Operating
Capital
Total
$’000
2006-07
CSC
Constant 2002 Dollars
Per capita
Operating
$
$’000
Capital
Total
Per capita
$
1,743,847
124,538
1,868,386
57.35
1,591,101
113,630
1,704,732
52.33
PBC
43,400
--
43,400
1.33
39,599
--
39,599
1.22
OCI
3,156
--
3,156
0.10
2,880
--
2,880
0.09
Total
1,790,403
124,538
1,914,942
58.78
1,633,579
113,630
1,747,210
53.63
2007-08
CSC
1,827,839
140,641
1,968,480
59.78
1,633,458
125,685
1,759,142
53.42
PBC
43,400
--
43,400
1.32
38,785
--
38,785
1.18
OCI
3,132
--
3,132
0.10
2,799
--
2,799
0.09
Total
1,874,371
140,641
2,015,012
61.20
1,675,041
125,685
1,800,726
54.69
2008-09
CSC
2,024,839
197,992
2,222,831
66.72
1,803,062
176,306
1,979,369
59.41
PBC
48,600
--
48,600
1.46
43,277
--
43,277
1.30
OCI
3,854
--
3,854
0.12
3,432
--
3,432
0.10
Total
2,077,293
197,992
2,275,285
68.29
1,849,771
176,306
2,026,078
60.81
2009-10
CSC
2,065,085
200,357
2,265,442
67.17
1,870,439
181,472
2,051,911
60.84
PBC
47,300
--
47,300
1.40
42,842
--
42,842
1.27
OCI
4,375
--
4,375
0.13
3,963
--
3,963
0.12
Total
2,116,760
200,357
2,317,117
68.70
1,917,243
181,472
2,098,715
62.23
2010-11
CSC
2,156,955
22,849
2,379,803
69.73
1,980,276
20,977
2,184,870
64.02
PBC
46,000
46,000
1.35
42,232
42,232
1.24
OCI
4,162
4,162
0.12
3,821
3,821
0.11
2,429,965
71.20
2,026,329
2,230,923
65.37
Total
2,207,117
22,849
20,977
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Parole Board of Canada; Office of the Correctional Investigator; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.
Note:
Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add to “Total”.
Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per Canadian for federal
correctional services.
Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base (2002) that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be directly comparable.
Changes in the Consumer Price Index were used to calculate constant dollars.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
23
CSC EMPLOYEES ARE CONCENTRATED IN CUSTODY CENTRES
Figure B2
As of March 31, 2012
Community Supervision
8.2%
(Includes parole officers,
program staff, administrative
support and other staff)
Custody Centres 75.9%
Correctional Officers 41.0%
Administrative Support 11.5%
Headquarters and Central
Services 15.9%
(Includes program staff,
administrative support and
other staff)
Health Care 5.6%
Parole Officers* 3.6%
Program Staff 5.5%
Instructors/Supervisors 2.2%
Other** 6.5%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) has a total staff of about 18,600.***
Approximately 76% of CSC staff work in institutions.
Staff employed in community supervision account for 8% of the total.
Note:
*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.
**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.
***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended
employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of March 31, 2012.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
24
CSC EMPLOYEES ARE CONCENTRATED IN CUSTODY CENTRES
Table B2
Service Area
Number of Staff
Percent
2,955
2,592
15.9
13.9
Health Care
99
0.5
Program Staff
79
0.4
Correctional Officers
19
0.1
Instructors/Supervisors
12
0.1
2
0.0
152
0.8
14,126
7,629
75.9
41.0
Administration
2,140
11.5
Health Care
1,040
5.6
Program Staff
1,024
5.5
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors**
678
3.6
Instructors/Supervisors
410
2.2
1,205
6.5
1,532
701
8.2
3.8
Administration
396
2.1
Program Staff
339
1.8
Health Care
83
0.4
Correctional Officers
12
0.1
1
0.0
18,613
100.0
Headquarters and Central Services
Administration
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors
Other*
Custody Centres
Correctional Officers
Other*
Community Supervision
Parole Officers/Parole Supervisors
Other*
Total***
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.
**These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility of preparing offenders for release.
***CSC has changed its definition of employee. Previously, the total number of employees included casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended
employees. These categories have been removed from the total as of 2005-06. These numbers represent Indeterminate and Term substantive employment; and Employee Status of Active and Paid Leave as of March 31, 2012.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
25
THE COST OF KEEPING AN INMATE INCARCERATED HAS INCREASED
Figure B3
Federal Average Daily Inmate Cost (current $)
Female
Male
Both
700
600
500
$587
$578
$556
$500
$457
400
300
$248
$255
$272
$278
$292
$300
$303
$312
$304
$313
200
100
0
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Source: Accountability and Financial Reports, Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
The federal average daily inmate cost has increased from $255 in 2006-07 to $313 in 2010-11.
In 2010-11, the annual average cost of keeping an inmate incarcerated was $114,364 per year, up
from $93,030 per year in 2006-07. In 2010-11, the annual average cost of keeping a male inmate
incarcerated was $111,042 per year, whereas the annual average cost for incarcerating a female
inmate was $214,614.
It costs substantially less to maintain an offender in the community than to keep that individual
incarcerated ($31,148 per year versus $114,364 per year).
Note:
The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions,
but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
In 2001-02, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the cost of keeping a woman
incarcerated includes the cost of maximum security units for women co-located within institutions for men.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
26
THE COST OF KEEPING AN INMATE INCARCERATED HAS INCREASED
Table B3
Annual Average Costs per Offender (current $)
Categories
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
121,294
135,870
147,135
150,808
147,418
Medium Security (males only)
80,545
87,498
93,782
98,219
99,519
Minimum Security (males only)
83,297
89,377
93,492
95,038
95,034
166,830
182,506
203,061
211,093
214,614
Exchange of Services Agreements
77,428
77,762
87,866
89,800
90,712
Incarcerated Average
93,030
101,664
109,699
113,974
114,364
Offenders in the Community
23,076
24,825
29,476
29,537
31,148
Total Incarcerated and Community
74,261
81,932
91,498
93,916
96,412
Incarcerated Offenders
Maximum Security (males only)
Women’s Facilities
Source: Accountability and Financial Reports, Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions, such as salaries and employee benefit plan contributions,
but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
In 2001-02, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the cost of keeping a woman
incarcerated includes the cost of maximum security units for women co-located within institutions for men.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
27
THE NUMBER OF PAROLE BOARD OF CANADA EMPLOYEES
Figure B4
Full-Time Equivalents
500
461
450
404
400
375
416
416
2006-07
2007-08
428
442
438
2009-10
2010-11
385
366
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2008-09
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
The total number of full-time equivalents used by the Parole Board of Canada has increased by
22.9% since 2002-03.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
28
THE NUMBER OF PAROLE BOARD OF CANADA EMPLOYEES
Table B4
Full-Time Equivalents
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
288
291
299
297
310
Conditional Release Openness and
Accountability
53
58
64
57
60
Pardon Decisions and Clemency
Recommendations
36
39
40
38
37
Internal Services
39
40
39
46
54
416
428
442
438
461
Full-time Board Members
41
37
40
40
43
Part-time Board Members
22
25
25
21
21
Staff
353
366
377
377
397
Total
416**
428
442
438
461
Strategic Outcome*
Conditional Release Decisions
Total
Type of Employees
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*As of 2006-07, the Receiver General and Treasury Board Secretariat reporting requirements have been changed from Business Line to Strategic Outcome.
Consequently, data regarding Conditional Release Openness and Accountability is unavailable prior to 2006-07.
**The Parole Board of Canada transferred the Information Technology function to the Correctional Service of Canada effective April 1st, 2007. This
represented a reduction of 23 full-time equivalents.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
29
THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE OFFICE OF THE CORRECTIONAL INVESTIGATOR
Figure B5
Full-Time Equivalents
35
32
30
30
27
28
27
25
23
23
23
23
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
24
20
15
10
5
0
2002-03
2003-04
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.
■
■
The total number of full-time equivalents at the Office of the Correctional Investigator has increased
over the past three years.
In 2011-12, 5,789 complaints/inquires* were received by the Office of the Correctional Investigator.
Note:
*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own
initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in
response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by
the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry
or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of
scope, complexity, duration and resources required.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
30
THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE OFFICE OF THE CORRECTIONAL INVESTIGATOR
Table B5
Full-Time Equivalents
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Correctional Investigator
1
1
1
1
1
Senior Management and
Legal Counsel/Advisor
5
5
5
5
5
Investigative Services
13
16
20
20
21
Administrative Services
4
2
2
4
5
23
24
28
30
32
Type of Employees
Total
Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
31
HEALTH CARE IS THE MOST COMMON AREA OF OFFENDER COMPLAINT RECEIVED BY
THE OFFICE OF THE CORRECTIONAL INVESTIGATOR
Figure B6
Ten Most Common Complaints* in 2011-12
730
Health Care
483
Conditions of Confinement
428
Administrative Segregation
408
Institutional T ransfers
386
Cell Property
310
Staff Performance
Grievance Procedures
255
Visits
253
227
Decisions
166
File Information
0
100
200
300
400
500
Number of Complaints
600
700
800
900
1,000
Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.
■
■
■
There were 5,789 complaints/inquires* received at the Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) in
2011-12.
Health care (12.6%), conditions of confinement (8.3%), and administrative segregation (7.4%) accounted for 28.3% of all complaints.
The number of individual complaints processed by the OCI has decreased in recent years because
the OCI has reallocated resources to sharpen its focus on systemic issues and death in custody
investigations.
Note:
*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own
initiative. Complaints are made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in
response to complaints involve a combination of internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by
the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry
or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of
scope, complexity, duration and resources required.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
32
HEALTH CARE IS THE MOST COMMON AREA OF OFFENDER COMPLAINT RECEIVED BY
THE OFFICE OF THE CORRECTIONAL INVESTIGATOR
Table B6
Category of Complaint
Health Care (including Dental)
Conditions of Confinement
Administrative Segregation
Institutional Transfers
Cell Property
Staff Performance
Grievance Procedures
Visits (includes Private Family Visits)
Decisions (General) - Implementation
File Information
Telephone
Correspondence
Programs/Services
Harassment
Financial Matters
Security Classification
Safety/Security of Offender
Number of Complaints*
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
#
#
#
#
#
849
851
821
797
730
350
406
555
520
316
264
315
-- ***
297
189
-- ***
180
-- ***
-- ***
172
373
423
447
416
357
209
311
-- ***
253
195
-- ***
186
-- ***
-- ***
138
-- **
390
393
388
370
236
277
-- ***
152
165
-- ***
163
-- ***
-- ***
102
469
346
369
407
347
284
205
129
202
168
115
188
88
78
135
483
428
408
386
310
255
253
227
166
141
127
122
119
108
92
176
165
137
90
87
-- ***
-- ***
-- ***
112
54
Other****
852
978
1,357
1,087
1,061
Outside OCI’s Terms of Reference
203
216
174
187
232
6,023
5,775
5,282
5,914
5,789
Mental Health
Total
Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator.
Note:
*The Office of the Correctional Investigator (OCI) may commence an investigation on receipt of a complaint by or on behalf of an offender or on its own initiative. Complaints are
made by telephone, letter and during interviews with the OCI's investigative staff at federal correctional facilities. The dispositions in response to complaints involve a combination of
internal responses (where the information or assistance sought by the offender can generally be provided by the OCI's investigative staff) and investigations (where, further to a
review/analysis of law, policies and documentation, OCI investigative staff make an inquiry or several interventions with Correctional Service Canada and submit recommendations to
address the complaint). Investigations vary considerably in terms of scope, complexity, duration and resources required.
OCI has updated the categories of complaints to better reflect their corporate priorities and the changing nature of the complaints that they received in the 2010-11 fiscal year. As a
result, some categories reported in previous years have been changed or removed.
■ **As of 2009-10, the “Conditions of Confinement” category was eliminated to better capture the specific nature of the complaint filed. Therefore, no data are available for
2009-10.
■ ***Previously, Decisions (General) - Implementation, Correspondence, and Mental Health were reported in “Other”, therefore, numbers previous to 2010-11 are not reported.
■ ****“Other” refers to other types of complaints not specified in the table and includes: Cell Placement, Claims Against the Crown, Community Programs/Supervision,
Conditional Release, Death or Serious Injury, Diets, Discipline, Discrimination, Double Bunking, Employment, Financial Matters, Food Services, Health and Safety - Inmate
Worksites/Programs, Hunger Strike, Inmate Requests, Ion Scan/Drug Dog, Methadone, OCI, Official Languages, Operation/Decisions of the OCI, Release Procedures, Religious/Spiritual, Safety/Security - Incompatibles/Worksite, Search and Seizure, Sentence Administration, Temporary Absence, Temporary Absence Decision, Uncategorized,
Urinalysis and Use of Force. In 2010-11, Cell Placement, Conditional Release, Employment, Inmate Requests, OCI, Religious/Spiritual, Safety/Security - Incompatibles/
Worksite, and Temporary Absence were added to the “Other” category, and Correspondence, General Decision/Implementation, and Mental Health were removed.
The number of individual complaints processed by the OCI has decreased in recent years because the OCI has reallocated resources to sharpen its focus on systemic issues and
death in custody investigations.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
SECTION C
OFFENDER POPULATION
33
FEDERAL OFFENDERS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF THE CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Figure C1
Total Offender Population* as of April 15, 2012
Community Supervision 37.7%
Incarcerated
62.3%
Actively Supervised
31.8%
Deported 1.6%
Temporarily Detained
4.3%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Definitions:
Total Offender Population includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial
institutions and those on temporary absence), offenders who are temporarily detained, actively supervised and those that have been deported.
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
Community Supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term
supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
Actively Supervised includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are in the
community on long term supervision orders.
Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a provincial detention centre or a federal institution after being
suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.
Deported includes offenders for whom a deportation order has been enforced by Citizenship and Immigration Canada.
In addition to that total offender population, there are excluded groups such as:
On Bail includes offenders on a judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been released to
await the results of a new trial.
Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence and whose
whereabouts are unknown.
Unlawfully at Large includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory release or a
long term supervision order for whom a warrant for suspension has been issued, but has not yet been executed.
Note:
*The definition of “Offender Population” changed in the 2010 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such,
comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to December 2010 should be done with caution.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
34
FEDERAL OFFENDERS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF THE CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Table C1 (as of April 15, 2012)
Status
Federal Offenders
Incarcerated
Community Supervision
#
%
14,419
62.3
8,737
37.7
Actively Supervised
7,372
31.8
Day Parole
1,154
5.0
Full Parole
3,313
14.3
Statutory Release
2,600
11.2
305
1.3
Long Term Supervision Order
Temporarily Detained, while on:
990
4.3
Day Parole
106
0.5
Full Parole
81
0.3
777
3.4
26
0.1
Statutory Release
Long Term Supervision Order
Deported
Total
375
23,156*
1.6
100.0
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*In addition to this total offender population, 117 offenders were on bail, 120 offenders had escaped, and 441 offenders were unlawfully at large.
It is possible for an offender under federal jurisdiction to serve his or her sentence in a provincial institution. The data presented include these offenders as they
are still under federal jurisdiction.
The definition of “Offender Population” changed in the 2010 edition of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (CCRSO). As such,
comparisons to editions of the CCRSO prior to December 2010 should be done with caution.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
35
THE NUMBER OF INCARCERATED FEDERAL OFFENDERS INCREASED IN 2011-12
Figure C2
Number of Incarcerated Federal Offenders at Fiscal Year* End
14,419
14,500
14,221
14,000
13,581
13,500
13,531
13,286
13,171
13,000
12,652
12,624
12,671
2004-05
2005-06
12,413
12,500
12,000
11,500
11,000
2002-03
2003-04
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
Following consecutive increases from 2003-04 to 2007-08, there was a decrease in 2008-09, followed
by increases thereafter, with an increase of 1.4% in 2011-12.
The provincial/territorial sentenced offender population in custody decreased 6.5% from 2002-03 to
2008-09 while the remand population increased by 55.0% during this period. Since 2005-06, the number of remanded inmates has exceeded the number of sentenced inmates in provincial/territorial custody.**
Note:
*The data reflect the number of offenders incarcerated at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
The term “Incarcerated Federal Offenders” includes male and female offenders and refers to those offenders who are currently serving a sentence of two years
or more in a federal or provincial correctional facility. These numbers include those offenders who are in the community on some form of temporary absence at
the time of the count. These numbers do not include those offenders who have had their supervision period suspended and are temporarily detained.
**Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
36
THE NUMBER OF INCARCERATED FEDERAL OFFENDERS INCREASED IN 2011-12
Table C2
Incarcerated Offenders
Provincial/Territorial2
Year
Federal1
Total
Sentenced
Remand
Other/
Temporary
Detention
Total
2002-03
12,652
10,555
8,703
337
19,595
32,247
2003-04
12,413
9,801
9,149
328
19,278
31,691
2004-05
12,624
9,778
9,619
330
19,727
32,351
2005-06
12,671
9,560
10,875
290
20,725
33,396
2006-07
13,171
9,978
12,128
297
22,403
35,574
2007-08
13,581
9,750
12,931
332
23,013
36,594
2008-09
13,286
9,887
13,502
328
23,717
37,003
2009-10
13,531
10,002
13,691
319
24,012
37,543
2010-11
14,221
10,873
13,033
433
24,339
38,560
2011-12
14,419
--
--
--
--
--
Source: 1Correctional Service Canada.; 2Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders who are currently serving a sentence of two years or more in a federal or provincial correctional
facility. These numbers include those offenders who are in the community on some form of temporary absence at the time of the count. These numbers do not
include those offenders who have had their supervision period suspended and are temporarily detained.
The figures for federal offenders reflect yearly snapshots as of the last day of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
The figures for provincial and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts. Provincial and territorial data exclude Prince Edward Island and Nunavut.
-- Data not available.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
37
THE NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION HAS FLUCTUATED
Figure C3
Other*
Number of Admissions
Revocations
10,000
Warrant of Committal
9,000
8,000
124
161
167
161
3,375
3,300
171
101
133
130
176
7,000
6,000
167
3,243
3,286
3,384
3,265
3,043
2,787
5,219
5,432
2009-10
2010-11
2,674
3,220
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
4,274
4,227
2002-03
2003-04
4,551
4,782
2004-05
2005-06
5,109
5,000
4,827
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
5,115
1,000
0
2011-12
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
After peaking at 8,606 in 2006-07, the number of admissions has decreased by 8.0% to 7,919 in
2011-12.
The number of warrant of committal admissions has fluctuated over the past decade, and decreased
by 5.8% from 2010-11 to 2011-12.
The number of women admitted to federal jurisdiction under warrants of committal increased from 309
in 2007-08 to 346 in 2011-12.
Note:
*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is
interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.
These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an
individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
38
THE NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION HAS FLUCTUATED
Table C3
2007-08
Women
Men
2008-09
Women
Men
2009-10
Women
2010-11
Men
Women
Men
2011-12
Women
Men
Warrant of Committal
1st Federal Sentence
274 3,345
280
3,268
280
3,560
294
3,709
302
3,501
All Others
35 1,346
35
1,244
31
1,348
39
1,390
44
1,268
Subtotal
309 4,691
315
4,512
311
4,908
333
5,099
346
4,769
Total
5,000
Revocations
147 3,237
Total
3,384
Other*
Total
156
11
167
8,551
5,219
3,098
3,265
20
167
467 8,084
Total Admissions
4,827
179
151
7,761
8,263
2,864
3,043
5
171
502
5,432
152
96
7,868
8,363
2,635
2,787
8
101
495
5,115
134
2,674
125
17
133
493
7,859
8,352
2,540
113
130
497
7,422
7,919
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*“Other” includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and admissions where a release is
interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.
These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of offenders admitted, since an
individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
39
THE NUMBER OF WOMEN ADMITTED FROM THE COURTS TO FEDERAL
JURISDICTION HAS INCREASED OVER THE PAST DECADE
Figure C4
Number of Warrant of Committal Admissions for Women
346
350
333
318
309
315
311
2008-09
2009-10
300
274
250
237
236
2003-04
2004-05
204
200
150
100
50
0
2002-03
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
In the last ten years, the number of women admitted to federal jurisdiction increased 69.6% from 204
in 2002-03 to 346 in 2011-12. During the same time period, there was an increase of 17.2% in the
number of men admitted to federal jurisdiction.
The number of women admitted to federal jurisdiction under warrants of committal has increased by
12.0% from 2007-08 to 2011-12.
Overall, women continue to represent a small proportion of the total number of admissions (i.e., 6.8%
in 2011-12).
As of April 15, 2012, there were 603 women incarcerated in Canada under federal jurisdiction.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
40
THE NUMBER OF WOMEN ADMITTED FROM THE COURTS TO FEDERAL
JURISDICTION HAS INCREASED OVER THE PAST DECADE
Table C4
Warrant of Committal Admissions
Year
Total
Women
Men
#
%
#
%
2002-03
204
4.8
4,070
95.2
4,274
2003-04
237
5.6
3,990
94.4
4,227
2004-05
236
5.2
4,315
94.8
4,551
2005-06
274
5.7
4,508
94.3
4,782
2006-07
318
6.2
4,789
93.8
5,107
2007-08
309
6.2
4,691
93.8
5,000
2008-09
315
6.5
4,512
93.5
4,827
2009-10
311
6.0
4,908
94.0
5,219
2010-11
333
6.1
5,099
93.9
5,432
2011-12
346
6.8
4,769
93.2
5,115
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
41
ALMOST HALF OF OFFENDERS UNDER FEDERAL JURISDICTION
ARE SERVING A SENTENCE OF 5 YEARS OR LONGER
Figure C5
Sentence length of federal offender population
7000
5,836
6000
5,260
5000
4000
3,669
3000
2,319
2000
1,686
1,616
1,018
1,008
1000
647
97
0
< than 2 years 2 to < 3 years 3 to < 4 years 4 to < 5 years 5 to < 6 years 6 to < 7 years
7 to < 10
years
10 to < 15
years
15 years or
more
Indeterminate
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
In 2011-12, over half (51.5%) of the offenders under federal jurisdiction were serving sentences of
less than 5 years with 25.2% serving a sentence between two years and less than three years.
Almost one quarter (22.7%) of offenders under federal jurisdiction were serving indeterminate sentences. The total number of offenders with indeterminate sentences has increased 8.8% since 200708 from 4,836 to 5,260 in 2011-12.
Note:
Total Offender Population includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions and
those on temporary absence), offenders who are temporarily detained, actively supervised, and those that have been deported.
Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who
received a new sentence of less than 2 years.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
42
ALMOST HALF OF OFFENDERS UNDER FEDERAL JURISDICTION
ARE SERVING A SENTENCE OF 5 YEARS OR LONGER
Table C5
2007-08
Sentence Length
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
79
0.4
95
0.4
102
0.5
92
0.4
97
0.4
2 years to < 3 years
5,963
27.1
5,796
26.3
5,723
25.7
5,945
26.0
5,836
25.2
3 years to < 4 years
3,155
14.3
3,238
14.7
3,372
15.2
3,562
15.6
3,669
15.8
4 years to < 5 years
2,079
9.4
2,110
9.6
2,165
9.7
2,230
9.8
2,319
10.0
5 years to < 6 years
1,452
6.6
1,476
6.7
1,517
6.8
1,543
6.7
1,616
7.0
6 years to < 7 years
917
4.2
945
4.3
965
4.3
1,011
4.4
1,018
4.4
7 years to < 10 years
1,523
6.9
1,530
7.0
1,557
7.0
1,612
7.1
1,686
7.3
10 years to < 15 years
1,132
5.1
1,072
4.9
1,044
4.7
1,025
4.5
1,008
4.4
879
4.0
824
3.7
742
3.3
701
3.1
647
2.8
4,836
22.0
4,916
22.3
5,053
22.7
5,142
22.5
5,260
22.7
22,002
100
20,330
100
22,240
100
22,863
100
23,156
100
< than 2 years
15 years and more
Indeterminate
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Total Offender Population includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions and
those on temporary absence), offenders who are temporarily detained, actively supervised, and those that have been deported.
Offenders serving a sentence less than 2 years includes offenders transferred from foreign countries or offenders under a long term supervision order who
received a new sentence of less than 2 years.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
43
OFFENDER AGE AT ADMISSION TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION IS INCREASING
Figure C6
Percentage of Warrant of Committal Admissions
2002-03
25%
2011-12
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Under 18
18-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-59
60-69
70 +
Age of Offender at Admission
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
In 2011-12, 37.4% of offenders admitted to federal jurisdiction were between the ages of 20 and 29,
and 27.5% were between 30 and 39 years of age.
The distribution of age upon admission is similar for both men and women.
The median age of the population upon admission is the same in 2011-12 as it was in 2002-03, 32
years of age.
The number of offenders between the ages of 40 and 49 at admission has increased from 803
(18.8%) in 2002-03 to 992 (19.4%) in 2011-12, whereas the number of offenders between the ages of
30 and 34 increased from 702 (16.4%) in 2002-03 to 782 (15.3%) in 2011-12.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
44
OFFENDER AGE AT ADMISSION TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION IS INCREASING
Table C6
2002-03
Age at
Admission
Women
2011-12
Men
#
%
Under 18
0
0.0
1
0.0
18 and 19
5
2.5
210
20 to 24
39
19.1
25 to 29
31
30 to 34
1
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
5.2
215
5.0
11
3.2
147
3.1
158
3.1
801
19.7
840
19.7
57
16.5
889
18.6
946
18.5
15.2
652
16.0
683
16.0
75
21.7
893
18.7
968
18.9
42
20.6
660
16.2
702
16.4
50
14.5
732
15.3
782
15.3
35 to 39
38
18.6
637
15.7
675
15.8
48
13.9
577
12.1
625
12.2
40 to 44
24
11.8
490
12.0
514
12.0
34
9.8
514
10.8
548
10.7
45 to 49
15
7.4
274
6.7
289
6.8
29
8.4
415
8.7
444
8.7
50 to 59
8
3.9
246
6.0
254
5.9
34
9.8
418
8.8
452
8.8
60 to 69
1
0.5
83
2.0
84
2.0
7
2.0
142
3.0
149
2.9
70 and over
1
0.5
16
0.4
17
0.4
1
0.3
42
0.9
43
0.8
4,274
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
346
#
4,769
%
Total
%
4,070
#
Men
#
204
%
Women
%
Total
#
Total
#
5,115
%
45
THE AVERAGE AGE AT ADMISSION IS LOWER FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Figure C7
Percentage of Warrant of Committal Admissions
Aboriginal Offenders
70 +
0.4%
60-69
3.4%
1.0%
50-59
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
1.0%
4.8%
45-49
9.9%
7.3%
40-44
9.0%
11.6%
Age
35-39
10.5%
12.7%
10.4%
16.4%
30-34
15.0%
21.8%
25-29
20-24
18.2%
21.2%
17.8%
18-19
5.2%
Under 18
2.6%
0.0%
30%
20%
10%
0.0%
0%
10%
Percentage of Admissions (2011-12)
20%
30%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
Of those offenders admitted to federal jurisdiction in 2011-12, 48.2% of Aboriginal offenders were
under the age of 30, compared to 38.6% of non-Aboriginal offenders.
The median age of Aboriginal offenders at admission is 30, compared to a median age of 33 for
non-Aboriginal offenders.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
46
THE AVERAGE AGE AT ADMISSION IS LOWER FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Table C7
2002-03
Age at
Admission
Aboriginal
2011-12
NonAboriginal
#
%
Under 18
0
0.0
1
0.0
18 and 19
54
6.7
161
20 to 24
208
25.8
25 to 29
146
30 to 34
1
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
4.6
215
5.0
53
5.2
105
2.6
158
3.1
632
18.2
840
19.7
218
21.2
728
17.8
946
18.5
18.1
537
15.5
683
16.0
224
21.8
744
18.2
968
18.9
140
17.4
562
16.2
702
16.4
168
16.4
614
15.0
782
15.3
35 to 39
112
13.9
563
16.2
675
15.8
107
10.4
518
12.7
625
12.2
40 to 44
83
10.3
431
12.4
514
12.0
119
11.6
429
10.5
548
10.7
45 to 49
29
3.6
260
7.5
289
6.8
75
7.3
369
9.0
444
8.7
50 to 59
24
3.0
230
6.6
254
5.9
49
4.8
403
9.9
452
8.8
60 to 69
8
1.0
76
2.2
84
2.0
10
1.0
139
3.4
149
2.9
70 and over
1
0.1
16
0.5
17
0.4
4
0.4
39
1.0
43
0.8
4,274
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
1,027
#
4,088
%
Total
%
3,469
#
NonAboriginal
#
805
%
Aboriginal
%
Total
#
Total
#
5,115
%
47
21% OF THE FEDERAL INCARCERATED OFFENDER POPULATION IS AGED 50 OR OVER
Figure C8
Percentage of Incarcerated Federal Offender Population (as of April 15, 2012)
2011-12 Incarcerated Federal Offender Population
20%
Canadian Adult Population*
16.2%
14.8%
15%
12.6%
11.7%
12.2%
11.1%
10.2%
10%
8.7%
7.7%
7.0%
7.0%
6.9%
6.6%
7.7%
7.0%
6.8%
5.9%
5.3%
4.7%
5%
3.3%
2.6%
1.9%
1.4%
0.8%
0%
18-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 +
Age
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
In 2011-12, 56.1% of incarcerated federal offenders were under the age of 40.
In 2011-12, 20.6% of the incarcerated federal offender population was aged 50 and over.
The community federal offender population was older than the incarcerated population; 32.6% of
offenders in the community were aged 50 and over, compared to 20.6% of the incarcerated offenders
in this age group.
Note:
*2012 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada.
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absences.
Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision
order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
The data presented is a snapshot of the offender population as of April 15, 2012.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
48
21% OF THE FEDERAL INCARCERATED OFFENDER POPULATION IS AGED 50 OR OVER
Table C8
Age
Incarcerated
Community
Total
% of Canadian
Adult Population*
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
Under 18
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
19.8
18 and 19
119
0.8
7
0.1
126
0.5
2.6
20 to 24
1,681
11.7
623
7.1
2,304
9.9
7.0
25 to 29
2,331
16.2
1,128
12.9
3,459
14.9
7.0
30 to 34
2,140
14.8
1,073
12.3
3,213
13.9
6.9
35 to 39
1,820
12.6
1,000
11.4
2,820
12.2
6.6
40 to 44
1,757
12.2
1,025
11.7
2,782
12.0
6.8
45 to 49
1,602
11.1
1,036
11.9
2,638
11.4
7.7
50 to 54
1,252
8.7
900
10.3
2,152
9.3
7.7
55 to 59
764
5.3
686
7.9
1,450
6.3
7.0
60 to 64
478
3.3
497
5.7
975
4.2
5.9
65 to 69
274
1.9
364
4.2
638
2.8
4.7
70 and over
201
1.4
398
4.6
599
2.6
10.2
14,419
100.0
8,737
100.0
23,156
100.0
100.0
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.
Note:
*2012 Postcensal Estimates, Demography Division, Statistics Canada.
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absences.
Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision
order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
The data presented is a snapshot of the offender population as of April 15, 2012.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
49
62% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS ARE CAUCASIAN
Figure C9
Percentage of Federal Offender Population (as of April 15, 2012)
Hispanic 0.9%
Other 3.4%
Aboriginal 19.3%
Caucasian 62.3%
Asian 5.4%
Black 8.6%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
The federal offender population is diverse; however, 62.3% of offenders identify themselves as
Caucasian.
Since 2006-07, the Aboriginal population has increased from 3,810 to 4,465.
Note:
These data are self-identified by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these
data with caution.
“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.
“Asian” includes offenders who are Arab, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South East Asian and South Asian.
“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.
The data reflects the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or
provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal offenders
on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or
paroled for deportation.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
50
62% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS ARE CAUCASIAN
Table C9
Offender Population
2006-07
2011-12
#
%
#
%
Aboriginal
Inuit
3,810
147
16.9
0.7
4,465
211
19.3
0.9
Métis
1,090
4.8
1,166
5.0
North American Indian
2,573
11.4
3,088
13.3
971
152
4.3
0.7
1,258
298
5.4
1.3
Asiatic
151
0.7
65
0.3
Chinese
118
0.5
161
0.7
East Indian
35
0.2
21
0.1
Filipino
40
0.2
66
0.3
6
0.0
6
0.0
18
0.1
21
0.1
South East Asian
309
1.4
393
1.7
South Asian
142
0.6
227
1.0
1,478
6.6
1,998
8.6
15,440
68.7
14,433
62.3
145
20
0.6
0.1
219
12
0.9
0.1
125
0.6
207
0.9
648
2.9
783
3.4
22,482
100.0
23,156
100.0
Asian
Arab/West Asian
Japanese
Korean
Black
Caucasian
Hispanic
Hispanic
Latin American
Other/Unknown
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These data are self-identified by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these
data with caution.
“Aboriginal” includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian.
“Asian” includes offenders who are Arab, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South East Asian and South Asian.
“Hispanic” includes offenders who are Hispanic and Latin American.
The data reflects the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or
provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal offenders
on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or
paroled for deportation.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
51
THE RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFENDER POPULATION IS DIVERSE
Figure C10
Percentage of Federal Offender Population (as of April 15, 2012)
None 16.3%
Orthodox 0.4%
Unknown 8.1%
Protestant 17.6%
Other 8.5%
Catholic 36.3%
Native Spirituality 4.3%
Muslim 4.7%
Buddhist 2.1%
Sikh 0.8% Jewish 0.8%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
The religious identification of the current federal offender population is diverse. The two most
frequently declared religions are Catholic (36.3%), and Protestant (17.6%).
Religious identification is unknown for 8.1% of offenders, whereas 16.3% stated they have no religion.
Note:
Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these
data with caution.
“Catholic” includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.
“Orthodox” includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.
“Protestant” includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Church of Science, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native
Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist,
Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.
“Other” includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Atheist, Baha’i, Christian Science, Hindu, Independent Spirit, Jehovah’s Witness, Mormon, Rastafarian,
Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Taoism, Unitarian, Pagan, Sufiism, Wicca, Zoroastrian, Krisha and Asatruar Pagan.
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those
on temporary absence) and federal offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory
release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
52
THE RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFENDER POPULATION IS DIVERSE
Table C10
Offender Population
2006-07
2011-12
#
%
#
%
Catholic
9,237
41.1
8,412
36.3
Protestant
4,580
20.4
4,070
17.6
Muslim
857
3.8
1,091
4.7
Native Spirituality
844
3.8
998
4.3
Buddhist
381
1.7
493
2.1
Jewish
172
0.8
188
0.8
Orthodox
115
0.5
104
0.4
Sikh
123
0.5
175
0.8
Other
1,437
6.4
1,976
8.5
None
3,551
15.8
3,770
16.3
Unknown
1,185
5.3
1,879
8.1
22,482
100.0
23,156
100.0
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the reader should interpret these
data with caution.
“Catholic” includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic and Ukrainian-Catholic.
“Orthodox” includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox.
“Protestant” includes offenders who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Church of Science, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native
Spirit, Nazarene Christ, Pentecostal, Philadelphia Church of God, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church, Christ Methodist,
Christ Wesleyan and Worldwide Church.
“Other” includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Atheist, Baha’i, Christian Science, Hindu, Independent Spirit, Jehovah’s Witness, Mormon, Rastafarian,
Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Taoism, Unitarian, Pagan, Sufiism, Wicca, Zoroastrian, Krisha and Asatruar Pagan.
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those
on temporary absence) and federal offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory
release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
53
THE PROPORTION OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS INCARCERATED
IS HIGHER THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Figure C11
Percentage of Federal Offender Population Incarcerated
Aboriginal Offenders
80%
70%
60%
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
70.0%
58.4%
68.1%
58.2%
70.3%
67.9%
59.1%
69.9%
67.5%
58.7%
59.0%
60.0%
69.1%
58.6%
70.0%
58.8%
72.2%
59.9%
71.0%
60.2%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
As of April 15, 2012, the proportion of offenders incarcerated was about 10.8% greater for Aboriginal
offenders (71.0%) than for non-Aboriginal offenders (60.2%).
Aboriginal incarcerated women represent 34.0% of all incarcerated women while Aboriginal
incarcerated men represent 21.5% of all incarcerated men.
In 2011-12, Aboriginal offenders represented 19.3% of the total federal offender population while
Aboriginal adults represent 3.0% of the Canadian adult population*.
Aboriginal offenders accounted for 22.0% of the incarcerated population and 14.8% of the community
population in 2011-12.
Note:
*2006 Census, Statistics Canada.
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
54
THE PROPORTION OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS INCARCERATED
IS HIGHER THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Table C11
Incarcerated
Community
Total
#
%
#
%
2,460
69.9
1,058
30.1
3,518
Non-Aboriginal
10,326
59.3
7,083
40.7
17,409
Total
12,786
61.1
8,141
38.9
20,927
2,629
70.6
1,097
29.4
3,726
Non-Aboriginal
10,399
59.6
7,048
40.4
17,447
Total
13,028
61.5
8,145
38.5
21,173
2,875
72.8
1,072
27.2
3,947
Non-Aboriginal
10,776
60.5
7,041
39.5
17,817
Total
13,651
62.7
8,113
37.3
21,764
2,966
71.5
1,184
28.5
4,150
Non-Aboriginal
10,850
60.7
7,017
39.3
17,867
Total
13,816
62.8
8,201
37.2
22,017
Aboriginal
157
58.1
113
41.9
270
Non-Aboriginal
343
42.6
462
57.4
805
Total
500
46.5
575
53.5
1,075
Aboriginal
164
62.4
99
37.6
263
Non-Aboriginal
339
42.2
465
57.8
804
Total
503
47.1
564
52.9
1,067
Aboriginal
182
63.0
107
37.0
289
Non-Aboriginal
Total
388
570
47.9
51.9
422
529
52.1
48.1
810
1,099
Aboriginal
205
65.1
110
34.9
315
Non-Aboriginal
398
48.3
426
51.7
824
Total
603
52.9
536
47.1
1,139
Men
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Aboriginal
Aboriginal
Aboriginal
Aboriginal
Women
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence.
Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision
order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
55
THE MAJORITY OF INCARCERATED FEDERAL OFFENDERS
ARE CLASSIFIED AS MEDIUM SECURITY RISK
Figure C12
Percentage of Classified Incarcerated Federal Offenders (as of April 15, 2012)
Aboriginal Offenders
80%
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
All Offenders
70%
65.5%
61.4%
62.3%
60%
50%
40%
30%
23.7%
20%
22.0%
18.4%
16.1%
15.0%
15.7%
10%
0%
Minimum
Medium
Maximum
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
Approximately two-thirds (62.3%) of federal offenders are classified as medium security risk.
Compared to non-Aboriginal offenders, a lower percentage of Aboriginal offenders are classified as
minimum security risk (16.1% vs. 23.7%) and a higher percentage are classified as medium (65.5%
vs. 61.4%) and maximum (18.4% vs. 15.0%) security risk.
Note:
The data represent the offender security level decision, as of April 15, 2012.
Incarcerated offenders include male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary
absence.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
56
THE MAJORITY OF INCARCERATED FEDERAL OFFENDERS
ARE CLASSIFIED AS MEDIUM SECURITY RISK
Table C12
Security Risk Level
Minimum
Medium
Maximum
Total
Not Yet Determined*
Total
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
479
16.1
2,444
23.7
2,923
22.0
1,950
65.5
6,335
61.4
8,285
62.3
546
18.4
1,545
15.0
2,091
15.7
2,975
100.0
10,324
100.0
13,299
100.0
196
924
1,120
3,171
11,248
14,419
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
The data represent the offender security level decision, as of April 15, 2012.
*The “Not Yet Determined” category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.
Incarcerated offenders include male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary
absence.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
57
ADMISSIONS WITH A LIFE OR INDETERMINATE SENTENCE WERE STABLE IN 2011-12
Figure C13
Number of Warrant of Committal Admissions
250
194
200
176
150
149
141
168
175
170
171
171
2010-11
2011-12
149
100
50
0
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
From 2002-03 to 2011-12, the number of admissions to federal jurisdiction with a life/indeterminate*
sentence increased by 14.8%, from 149 to 171.
As of April 15, 2012, there were a total of 3,352 offenders incarcerated with a life/indeterminate
sentence. Of these, 3,243 (96.7%) were men and 109 (3.3%) were women; 712 (21.2%) were
Aboriginal and 2,640 (78.8%) were non-Aboriginal.
As of April 15, 2012, 22.7% of the total federal population was serving a life/indeterminate sentence.
Of these offenders, 63.9% were incarcerated and 36.1% were supervised in the community.
Note:
*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life
imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an
application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate
period.
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
58
ADMISSIONS WITH A LIFE OR INDETERMINATE SENTENCE WERE STABLE IN 2011-12
Table C13
Aboriginal Offenders
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
Total
Year
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
2002-03
1
35
36
3
110
113
4
145
149
2003-04
0
22
22
2
117
119
2
139
141
2004-05
1
26
27
5
117
122
6
143
149
2005-06
4
40
44
9
123
132
13
163
176
2006-07
5
33
38
9
121
130
14
154
168
2007-08
4
31
35
4
136
140
8
167
175
2008-09
4
33
37
2
131
133
6
164
170
2009-10
6
41
47
7
140
147
13
181
194
2010-11
3
28
31
6
134
140
9
162
171
2011-12
5
34
39
10
122
132
15
156
171
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.
Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life
imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an
application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate
period.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
59
OFFENDERS WITH LIFE OR INDETERMINATE SENTENCES REPRESENT 23% OF THE TOTAL
OFFENDER POPULATION
Figure C14
Sentence Imposed
Determinate Sentences
77.3%
Life and/or Indeterminate Sentences*
22.7%
Life 20.4%
Indeterminate 2.2%
Life and Indeterminate 0.1%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
As of April 15, 2012, there were 5,254 offenders serving a life sentence and/or an indeterminate
sentence. This represents 22.7% of the total offender population. The majority (63.9%) of these
offenders were in custody. Of the 1,896 offenders who were being supervised in the community, the
majority (81.2%) are serving a life sentence for 2nd Degree Murder.
There are 21 offenders who are serving both a life sentence and an indeterminate sentence*.
There are 498 offenders who are serving an indeterminate sentence as a result of a special
designation. The remaining 4,735 offenders have not received a special designation, but are serving a
life sentence.
96.1% of the 465 Dangerous Offenders with indeterminate sentences were incarcerated and 3.9%
were supervised in the community. In contrast, 40.0% of the 30 Dangerous Sexual Offenders were
incarcerated and all (three) Habitual Offenders were supervised in the community.
Note:
*Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences may both result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a sentence of life
imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example, for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a result of a designation, where an
application is made to the court to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate
period. The Dangerous Sexual Offender and Habitual Offender designations were replaced with Dangerous Offender Legislation in 1977.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
60
OFFENDERS WITH LIFE OR INDETERMINATE SENTENCES REPRESENT 23% OF THE TOTAL
OFFENDER POPULATION
Table C14
Current Status
Offenders under
CSC Jurisdiction
Custody
Community
Incarcerated
Day Parole
Full Parole
Other***
#
%
1st Degree Murder
1,084
4.7
877
35
172
0
2nd
3,431
14.8
1,891
213
1,327
0
220
1.0
112
14
94
0
4,735
20.4
2,880
262
1,593
0
Offenders with a life sentence for:
Degree Murder
Other Offences*
Total
Offenders with indeterminate sentences resulting from the special designation of:
Dangerous Offender
Dangerous Sexual Offender
Habitual Offenders
Total
465
2.0
447
5
13
0
30
0.1
12
1
17
0
3
0.0
0
1
2
0
498
2.2
459
7
32
0
Offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence):
21
0.1
19
0
2
0
5,254
22.7
3,358
269
1,627
0
Offenders Serving
Determinate sentences**
17,902
77.3
11,061
1,003
2,037
3,801
Total
23,156
100.0
14,419
1,272
3,664
3,801
Total offenders with Life and/or
Indeterminate sentence
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*“Other offences” include Schedule 1, Schedule 2 and Non-Schedule types of offences.
**This includes two offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders who are serving determinate sentences.
***“Other” in the Community includes federal offenders on statutory release or on a long term supervision order.
Among the 21 offenders serving an indeterminate sentence (due to a special designation) and a life sentence (due to an offence), there is one Dangerous
Sexual Offender and one Habitual Offender.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
61
67% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS ARE SERVING A SENTENCE FOR A VIOLENT OFFENCE*
Figure C15
Percentage of Federal Offender Population (as of April 15, 2012)
70%
Aboriginal Offenders
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
59.5%
60%
50%
44.6%
40%
30%
18.3%
20%
14.1%
15.1%
14.9%
10%
17.1%
7.5%
3.9%
5.0%
0%
Murder I
Murder II
Schedule I
Schedule II
Non-Schedule
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
■
As of April 15, 2012, a greater proportion of Aboriginal offenders than non-Aboriginal offenders were
serving a sentence for a violent offence (77.6% versus 64.6%, respectively).
73.3% of Aboriginal women offenders were serving a sentence for a violent offence compared to
47.6% of non-Aboriginal women offenders.
Of those offenders serving a sentence for Murder, 4.3% were women and 17.7% were Aboriginal.
A greater proportion of Aboriginal offenders than non-Aboriginal offenders were serving a sentence for
a Schedule I offence (59.5% versus 47.5%, respectively).
7.5% of Aboriginal offenders were serving a sentence for a Schedule II offence compared to 16.2% of
non-Aboriginal offenders.
26.7% of women were serving a sentence for a Schedule II offence compared to 15.7% for men.
Note:
*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.
Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release
Act).
Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
62
67% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS ARE SERVING A SENTENCE FOR A VIOLENT OFFENCE*
Table C15
Offence
Category
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
Total
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
8
168
176
35
892
927
43
1,060
1,103
2.5
4.0
3.9
4.2
5.0
5.0
3.8
4.8
4.8
44
586
630
108
2,708
2,816
152
3,294
3,446
Percent
14.0
14.1
14.1
13.1
15.2
15.1
13.3
15.0
14.9
Schedule I
179
2,478
2,657
249
8,090
8,339
428
10,568
10,996
Percent
56.8
59.7
59.5
30.2
45.3
44.6
37.6
48.0
47.5
Schedule II
43
294
337
261
3,156
3,417
304
3,450
3,754
Percent
13.7
7.1
7.5
31.7
17.7
18.3
26.7
15.7
16.2
41
624
665
171
3,021
3,192
212
3,645
3,857
13.0
15.0
14.9
20.8
16.9
17.1
18.6
16.6
16.7
315
4,150
824
17,867
1,139
22,017
Murder I
Percent
Murder II
Non-Schedule
Percent
Total
4,465
18,691
23,156
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*Violent offences include Murder I, Murder II and Schedule I offences.
Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections and Conditional Release
Act).
Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflect the most serious offence.
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in federal or
provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence) and federal offenders who are on community supervision. Community supervision includes federal
offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision order, as well as those who are temporarily
detained or paroled for deportation.
These figures are based on the offender population as of April 15, 2012.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
63
THE NUMBER OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS UNDER FEDERAL JURISDICTION HAS INCREASED
Figure C16
Number of Federal Aboriginal Offenders
5,000
Total Aboriginal offender population
4,500
4,000
3,500
Aboriginal incarcerated population*
3,000
2,500
2,000
Aboriginal community population**
1,500
1,000
500
0
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
From 2002-03 to 2011-12, the Aboriginal incarcerated population under federal jurisdiction increased
by 37.1%.
The number of incarcerated Aboriginal women increased steadily from 104 in 2002-03 to 205 in
2011-12, an increase of 97.1% in the last ten years. The increase for incarcerated Aboriginal men was
34.3% for the same period, increasing from 2,209 to 2,966.
From 2002-03 to 2011-12, the number of Aboriginal offenders on community supervision increased
30.4%, from 992 to 1,294. The Aboriginal community population accounted for 14.8% of the total community population in 2011-12.
Note:
*Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those on temporary absence.
**Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, statutory release, or in the community supervised on a long term supervision
order, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
64
THE NUMBER OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS UNDER FEDERAL JURISDICTION HAS INCREASED
Table C16
Fiscal Year
Aboriginal Offenders
Incarcerated
Atlantic Region
Quebec Region
Ontario Region
Prairie Region
Pacific Region
National Total
Community
Atlantic Region
Quebec Region
Ontario Region
Prairie Region
Pacific Region
National Total
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Men
Women
120
4
118
5
111
9
109
9
125
17
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
226
14
351
25
1,357
250
10
373
25
1,292
273
12
398
24
1,418
323
10
417
40
1,577
361
11
460
36
1,542
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
99
439
22
2,493
164
89
427
28
2,460
157
100
429
19
2,629
164
94
449
29
2,875
182
111
478
30
2,966
205
Total
2,657
2,617
2,793
3,057
3,171
37
45
50
48
39
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
10
81
1
152
21
6
83
2
142
21
6
103
1
165
18
9
105
6
170
21
8
140
4
167
25
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
543
62
218
21
1,031
574
64
214
20
1,058
534
54
245
20
1,097
526
56
223
15
1,072
595
55
243
18
1,184
Women
Total
115
1,146
113
1,171
99
1,196
107
1,179
110
1,294
3,803
3,788
3,989
4,236
4,465
Men
Total Incarcerated & Community
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Regional statistics for the Correctional Service of Canada account for data relating to the northern territories in the following manner: data for Nunavut are
reported in the Ontario Region, data for the Northwest Territories are reported in the Prairies region, and data for the Yukon Territories are reported in the
Pacific Region.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
65
THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS TO ADMINISTRATIVE SEGREGATION HAS FLUCTUATED
Figure C17
Number of Admissions to Administrative Segregation
9,000
8,000
Men - Voluntary Segregation
Men - Involuntary Segregation
1,446
1,272
5,752
5,886
Women - Voluntary Segregation
Women - Involuntary Segregation
1,358
1,403
1,794
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
6,549
6,293
5,070
2,000
1,000
0
42
33
326
388
2007-08
2008-09
18
11
24
332
384
393
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
Over the past five years, the total number of admissions to administrative segregation has fluctuated between
7,232 and 8,324. Approximately 95% of the total admissions are men, and admissions of Aboriginals account
for approximately 25.4%.
On April 1, 2012, there were 791 offenders in administrative segregation. Of these, 786 were men and 5 were
women. A total of 239 Aboriginal offenders were in administrative segregation.
Just under half (46.6%) of offenders stay in administrative segregation for 30 days or less, and 20.8% stay
between 30 and 60 days. 14.3% of offenders in administrative segregation stay more than 120 days.
All of the women stayed in administrative segregation for less than 30 days.
The number of offenders who stay more than 120 days in administrative segregation is relatively the same for
Aboriginal (14.2%) and non-Aboriginal offenders (14.3%).
Note:
These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated
under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.
Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other
than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.
Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable
grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable
alternative to placement in administrative segregation.
Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and
the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
66
THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ADMISSIONS TO ADMINISTRATIVE SEGREGATION HAS FLUCTUATED
Table C17
Year and Type of
Administrative Segregation
By Gender
Total
326
5,070
5,396
1,255
4,141
5,396
42
1,794
1,836
419
1,417
1,836
Total
368
6,864
7,232
1,674
5,558
7,232
2008-09
Involuntary
388
5,752
6,140
1,461
4,679
6,140
33
1,446
1,479
399
1,080
1,479
Total
421
7,198
7,619
1,860
5,759
7,619
2009-10
Involuntary
332
5,886
6,218
1,556
4,662
6,218
18
1,272
1,290
370
920
1,290
Total
350
7,158
7,508
1,926
5,582
7,508
2010-11
Involuntary
384
6,293
6,677
1,763
4,914
6,677
11
1,403
1,414
436
978
1,414
Total
395
7,696
8,091
2,199
5,892
8,091
2011-12
Involuntary
393
6,549
6,942
1,755
5,187
6,942
24
1,358
1,382
427
955
1,382
417
7,907
8,324
2,182
6,142
8,324
Voluntary
Voluntary
Voluntary
Voluntary
Voluntary
Total
Aboriginal
NonAboriginal
Men
2007-08
Involuntary
Women
By Race
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These reports count admissions, not offenders. Offenders admitted multiple times to segregation are counted once for each admission. Offenders segregated
under paragraph (f), subsection 44(1) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (Disciplinary Segregation) are not included.
Administrative segregation is the involuntary or voluntary separation, when specific legal requirements are met, of an inmate from the general population, other
than pursuant to a disciplinary decision.
Voluntary administrative segregation is when the inmate requests placement in administrative segregation, and the Institutional Head believes, on reasonable
grounds, that the continued presence of the inmate in the general population would jeopardize the inmate's own safety and that there is no reasonable
alternative to placement in administrative segregation.
Involuntary administrative segregation is when the placement meets the requirements of subsection 31(3) of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and
the placement in administrative segregation is not voluntary.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
67
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDER DEATHS WHILE IN CUSTODY HAS FLUCTUATED
Figure C18
Number of Offender Deaths
120
100
Total
80
Other Causes*
60
40
Suicide
20
Homicide
0
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
■
■
■
In the ten-year period from 2001-02 to 2010-11, 530 federal offenders and 327 provincial offenders
have died while in custody.
During this time period, suicides accounted for 17.4% of federal offender deaths and 28.1% of
provincial offender deaths. The suicide rate was approximately 70 per 100,000 for incarcerated
federal offenders, and approximately 43 per 100,000 for incarcerated provincial offenders**. These
rates are significantly higher than Canada’s 2007 rate of 10.2 suicides per 100,000 people.
Between 2001-02 and 2010-11, 5.5% of the federal offender deaths were due to homicide, whereas
homicide accounted for 1.5% of provincial offender deaths. The homicide rate for incarcerated federal
offenders was approximately 22 per 100,000 and 2.3 per 100,000 for incarcerated provincial
offenders**. These rates are significantly higher than the national homicide rate of 1.6 per 100,000
people in 2007.
Note:
*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death
was not stated.
**For the calculation of rates, the total actual in-count numbers between 2001-02 and 2010-11 was used as the denominator.
The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented
were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause
of death.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
68
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDER DEATHS WHILE IN CUSTODY HAS FLUCTUATED
Table C18
Type of Death
Year
Homicide
Suicide
Other*
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
2001-02
1
2.0
13
25.5
37
72.5
51
2002-03
2
4.1
12
24.5
35
71.4
49
2003-04
8
11.9
11
16.4
48
71.6
67
2004-05
3
6.1
9
18.4
37
75.5
49
2005-06
3
6.1
10
20.4
36
73.5
49
2006-07
2007-08
3
1
4.9
2.5
10
5
16.4
12.5
48
34
78.7
85.0
61
40
2008-09
2
3.1
9
13.8
54
83.1
65
2009-10
1
2.0
9
18.4
39
79.6
49
2010-11
5
10.0
4
8.0
41
82.0
50
29
5.5
92
17.4
409
77.2
530
2001-02
0
0.0
17
41.5
24
58.5
41
2002-03
2
7.1
14
50.0
12
42.9
28
2003-04
0
0.0
7
38.9
11
61.1
18
2004-05
0
0.0
12
25.0
36
75.0
48
2005-06
2
4.0
20
40.0
28
56.0
50
2006-07
0
0.0
8
23.5
26
76.5
34
2007-08
0
0.0
6
20.7
23
79.3
29
2008-09
1
3.0
7
21.2
25
75.8
33
2009-10
0
0.0
0
0.0
24
100.0
24
2010-11
0
0.0
1
4.3
22
95.7
23
Total
5
1.5
92
28.1
231
70.3
328
34
4.0
184
21.5
640
74.6
858
Federal
Total
Provincial
Total Federal
and Provincial
Offender Deaths
Source: Adult Correctional Services Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
Note:
*Other causes of death include: natural causes, accidental deaths, death as a result of a legal intervention, other causes of death and where cause of death
was not stated.
Percent calculation include deaths where the cause was unknown. Between 1999-00 and 2010-11, there were 29 deaths in federal custody and 83 deaths in
provincial custody where the cause was unknown.
The data on cause of death are subject to change following an official review or investigation, and should be used/interpreted with caution. The data presented
were provided by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada, and may not reflect the outcome of recent reviews or investigations on cause
of death.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
69
THE NUMBER OF ESCAPES HAS FLUCTUATED
Figure C19
Number of Escapees from Federal Institutions
60
56
50
48
40
37
33
33
31
30
26
24
20
17
16
10
0
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
In 2011-12, there were 15 escape incidents involving a total of 16 inmates. All of the 16 inmates were
recaptured.
In 2011-12, all of the escapees were from minimum security facilities.
Inmates who escaped from federal institutions in 2011-12 represented less than 0.1% of the inmate
population.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
70
THE NUMBER OF ESCAPES HAS FLUCTUATED
Table C19
Type of Escapes
Escapes from Multi-level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Escapes from Maximum Security Level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Escapes from Medium Security Level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Escapes from Minimum Security Level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Total Number of Escape Incidents
Total Number of Escapees
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
29
21
28
14
15
33
23
30
17
16
29
22
29
14
15
33
24
31
17
16
Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following
year.
An escape incident can involve more than one offender.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
71
THE SUPERVISED FEDERAL OFFENDER POPULATION
IN THE COMMUNITY HAS REMAINED STABLE SINCE 2008-09
Figure C20
Federal Community Offender Population Under Active Supervision at Fiscal Year* End
9,000
8,000
Total Supervised Community Population
7,000
6,000
5,000
Full Parole
4,000
3,000
Statutory Release
2,000
Day Parole
1,000
0
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
After increases in the federal offender population in the community under active supervision** from
2004-05 to 2008-09, the number have remained largely stable.
As of April 15, 2012, there were 6,596 men and 471 women on active community supervision.
From 2010-11 to 2011-12, there was an 8.8% decrease in offenders on full parole.
Note:
*A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
**The data presented above do not include offenders temporarily detained following suspension of a conditional release, offenders who were on long term
supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4), offenders paroled for deportation or offenders unlawfully at large.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada .
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada whereby the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
72
THE SUPERVISED FEDERAL OFFENDER POPULATION
IN THE COMMUNITY HAS REMAINED STABLE SINCE 2008-09
Table C20
Supervision Type of Federal Offenders
Year
Day Parole
Women
Men
2002-03
71
969
2003-04
67
2004-05
Full Parole
Women
Statutory Release
%
change*
Totals
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Both
Both
267
3,469
54
2,132
392
6,570
6,962
-3.2
986
259
3,412
42
2,120
368
6,518
6,886
-1.1
90
872
249
3,296
69
1,999
408
6,167
6,575
-4.5
2005-06
75
1,002
285
3,231
64
1,998
424
6,231
6,655
1.2
2006-07
97
973
289
3,243
64
2,116
450
6,332
6,782
1.9
2007-08
102
957
292
3,251
89
2,100
483
6,308
6,791
0.1
2008-09
86
927
322
3,263
103
2,386
511
6,576
7,087
4.4
2009-10
100
988
313
3,271
82
2,347
495
6,606
7,101
0.2
2010-11
69
943
302
3,331
97
2,358
468
6,632
7,100
-0.1
2011-12
112
1,042
240
3,073
119
2,481
471
6,596
7,067
-0.5
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*Percent change is measured from the previous year.
These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
The data presented above do not include offenders temporarily detained following suspension of a conditional release, offenders who were on long term
supervision orders (See Figure/Table E4), offenders paroled for deportation or offenders unlawfully at large.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
73
OVER THE LAST SIX YEARS, THE PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS POPULATION HAS INCREASED
Figure C21
Average Monthly Offender Counts
Conditional Sentences
140,000
Probation
120,000
108,669
110,968
107,212
105,309
105,064
105,741
107,314
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
109,060
112,790
112,894
2009-10
2010-11
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2008-09
Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
The provincial/territorial community corrections population remained fairly stable from 2009-10 to
2010-11.
Since the introduction of the conditional sentence as a sentencing option in September 1996, the
number of offenders serving a conditional sentence had increased steadily until 2002-03. In the years
since, the number of offenders serving a conditional sentence has fluctuated.
In 2010-11, the total number of offenders on probation was 99,907.
Note:
A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of
sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and
territorial sentencing option since September 1996.
To allow for comparisons, the numbers exclude information from Newfoundland & Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, and
Nunavut, as complete statistics for these jurisdictions were not available. As a result of these changes, the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
74
OVER THE LAST SIX YEARS, THE PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL
COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS POPULATION HAS INCREASED
Table C21
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Probation
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Conditional Sentence
Total
2001-02
96,961
11,709
108,669
2002-03
98,280
12,688
110,968
2003-04
94,162
13,050
107,212
2004-05
91,991
13,319
105,309
2005-06
91,663
13,401
105,064
2006-07
92,835
12,907
105,741
2007-08
94,709
12,605
107,314
2008-09
95,874
13,186
109,060
2009-10
99,427
13,363
112,790
2010-11
99,907
12,987
112,894
Year
Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under specified conditions. This type of
sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and
territorial sentencing option since September 1996.
To allow for comparisons, the numbers exclude information from Newfoundland & Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, and
Nunavut, as complete statistics for these jurisdictions were not available. As a result of these changes, the data presented in this year’s report are not comparable to the data reported in previous versions of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
75
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS ON PROVINCIAL PAROLE HAS DECREASED OVER THE PAST DECADE
Figure C22
Number of Offenders on Provincial Parole (Average Monthly Counts)
1,800
1,614
1,600
1,400
1,209
1,200
1,089
1,075
991
986
1,000
1,022
940
868
804
800
600
400
200
0
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada
■
Over the past ten years, there has been a 50.2% decrease in the number of offenders on provincial
parole, from 1,614 in 2001-02 to 804 in 2010-11.
Note:
Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to
offenders serving sentences in British Columbia’s provincial correctional facilities. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to
provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
76
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS ON PROVINCIAL PAROLE HAS DECREASED OVER THE PAST DECADE
Table C22
Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole
Provincial Boards
Year
Quebec
Ontario
British
Columbia*
Total
Parole
Board of
Canada**
2001-02
846
276
265
1,387
227
1,614
-8.2
2002-03
581
210
223
1,014
195
1,209
-25.1
2003-04
550
146
189
885
190
1,075
-11.1
2004-05
517
127
166
810
176
986
-8.3
2005-06
628
152
147
926
163
1,089
10.4
2006-07
593
142
120
855
136
991
-9.0
2007-08
581
205
n/a
785
237
1,022
3.1
2008-09
533
217
n/a
750
190
940
-8.0
2009-10
506
194
n/a
700
168
868
-7.7
2010-11
482
171
n/a
653
151
804
-7.4
Total
Percent
Change
Source: Corrections Key Indicator Report for Adults and Youth, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*On April 1, 2007, the Parole Board of Canada assumed responsibility for parole decisions relating to offenders serving sentences in British Columbia’s
provincial correctional facilities.
**The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the Parole Board of Canada and supervised by the
Correctional Service of Canada.
Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec and Ontario. The Parole Board of Canada has jurisdiction over granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic
and Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
SECTION D
CONDITIONAL RELEASE
77
THE FEDERAL DAY AND FULL PAROLE GRANT RATES INCREASED IN 2011-12
Figure D1
Federal Parole Grant Rate (%)
100%
90%
80%
Day Parole
70%
60%
50%
Full Parole
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
Compared to the grant rates in 2010-11, which were the lowest in the last decade, the federal day and
full parole grant rates increased (2.0% and 6.2% respectively) in 2011-12.
Over the last 10 years, female offenders were more likely to be granted day and full parole than male
offenders.
When compared with the rates in 2002-03, the grant rate for federal day parole decreased to 64.5% (a
6.5% decrease), while the grant rate for federal full parole increased slightly to 22.8% (a 0.6% increase).
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community.
The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole
Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.
Comparison of the grant rates for federal day parole and full parole should be done with caution. On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 eliminated the accelerated
parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, and altering their parole
assessment criteria. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions between 2002-03 to 2010-11 were excluded.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
78
THE FEDERAL DAY AND FULL PAROLE GRANT RATES INCREASED IN 2011-12
Table D1
Type of
Release
Year
Day Parole
Full Parole
Granted
Denied
Grant Rate (%)
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Total
2002-03
119
2,050
17
868
87.5
70.3
71.0
2003-04
113
2,117
18
770
86.3
73.3
73.9
2004-05
169
2,062
22
724
88.5
74.0
74.9
2005-06
128
2,111
25
719
83.7
74.6
75.1
2006-07
143
2,039
31
876
82.2
69.9
70.6
2007-08
162
2,001
22
776
88.0
72.1
73.0
2008-09
134
1,909
24
825
84.8
69.8
70.6
2009-10
150
1,960
40
967
78.9
67.0
67.7
2010-11
134
1,854
40
1,151
77.0
61.7
62.5
2011-12
248
2,489
64
1,445
79.5
63.3
64.5
2002-03
31
540
57
1,942
35.2
21.8
22.2
2003-04
50
551
48
1,864
51.0
22.8
23.9
2004-05
56
545
71
1,724
44.1
24.0
25.1
2005-06
38
533
67
1,924
36.2
21.7
22.3
2006-07
41
523
81
2,035
33.6
20.4
21.0
2007-08
40
489
70
1,990
36.4
19.7
20.4
2008-09
43
495
61
2,017
41.3
19.7
20.6
2009-10
32
459
88
2,078
26.7
18.1
18.5
2010-11
20
436
85
2,207
19.0
16.5
16.6
2011-12
76
643
125
2,307
37.8
21.8
22.8
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community.
The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole
Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.
Comparison of the grant rates for federal day parole and full parole should be done with caution. On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 eliminated the accelerated
parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, and altering their parole
assessment criteria. To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions between 2002-03 to 2010-11 were excluded.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
79
THE FEDERAL FULL PAROLE GRANT RATE FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
INCREASED FOR THE SECOND CONSECUTIVE YEAR
Figure D2
Federal Parole Grant Rate (%)
100%
Aboriginal Offenders
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
90%
Day Parole
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
Full Parole
30%
20%
10%
0%
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
In 2011-12, the federal day and full parole grant rates increased for both Aboriginal and nonAboriginal offenders. However, the grant rates for Aboriginal offenders were lower than for nonAboriginal offenders.
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community.
The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole
Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.
Comparison of the grant rates for federal day and full parole should be done with caution. On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who
in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment,
which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. As a result, the grant rates in 2011-12 are not easily comparable to previous years as the assessment criteria were significantly different for a substantial proportion of the population.
To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions between 2002-03 to 2010-11 have been excluded.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
80
THE FEDERAL FULL PAROLE GRANT RATE FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
INCREASED FOR THE SECOND CONSECUTIVE YEAR
Table D2
Aboriginal
Type of
Release
Year
Day Parole
Full Parole
Non-Aboriginal
Number
Grant
Denied Rate (%)
Total
Number
Granted/
Denied
Number
Granted
Number
Denied
Grant
Rate (%)
Number
Granted
2002-03
415
116
78.2
1,754
769
69.5
3,054
2003-04
426
110
79.5
1,804
678
72.7
3,018
2004-05
430
97
81.6
1,801
649
73.5
2,977
2005-06
487
118
80.5
1,752
626
73.7
2,983
2006-07
437
166
72.5
1,745
741
70.2
3,089
2007-08
396
122
76.4
1,767
676
72.3
2,961
2008-09
380
148
72.0
1,663
701
70.3
2,892
2009-10
394
189
67.6
1,716
818
67.7
3,117
2010-11
360
267
57.4
1,628
924
63.8
3,179
2011-12
446
310
59.0
2,291
1,199
65.6
4,246
2002-03
92
334
21.6
479
1,665
22.3
2,570
2003-04
114
305
27.2
487
1,607
23.3
2,513
2004-05
113
296
27.6
488
1,499
24.6
2,396
2005-06
107
382
21.9
464
1,609
22.4
2,562
2006-07
74
383
16.2
490
1,733
22.0
2,680
2007-08
80
337
19.2
449
1,723
20.7
2,589
2008-09
74
369
16.7
464
1,709
21.4
2,616
2009-10
50
379
11.7
441
1,787
19.8
2,657
2010-11
71
446
13.7
385
1,846
17.3
2,748
2011-12
73
429
14.5
646
2,003
24.4
3,151
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the Parole Board of Canada.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities
in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise
authorized by the Parole Board of Canada. Not all offenders apply for day parole, and some apply more than once before being granted day parole.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which the remainder of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community.
The Parole Board of Canada must review the cases of all offenders for full parole at the time prescribed by legislation, unless the offender advises the Parole
Board of Canada in writing that he/she does not wish to be considered for full parole.
Comparison of the grant rates for federal day and full parole should be done with caution. On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who
in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review. These offenders are now assessed on general reoffending as compared to the APR risk assessment,
which considered the risk of committing a violent offence only. As a result, the grant rates in 2011-12 are not easily comparable to previous years as the assessment criteria were significantly different for a substantial proportion of the population.
To better illustrate historical trends, APR decisions between 2002-03 to 2010-11 have been excluded.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
81
FEDERAL PAROLE HEARINGS INVOLVING AN ABORIGINAL CULTURAL ADVISOR
DECREASED IN 2011-12
Figure D3
Number of Federal Parole Hearings Held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor
800
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
Aboriginal Offenders
99
95
600
85
72
51
53
55
55
400
57
59
617
643
551
600
477
468
200
423
434
412
2010-11
2011-12
361
0
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
In 2011-12, 35.0% (412) of all federal hearings for Aboriginal offenders were held with an Aboriginal
Cultural Advisor.
In 2011-12, there were 412 federal hearings for Aboriginal offenders held with an Aboriginal Cultural
Advisor, compared to 600 in 2006-07.
Fifty-seven (12.2%) of the 469 federal hearings held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor in 2011-12
were for offenders who did not self-identify as Aboriginal.
Note:
The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada
to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal offenders.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
82
FEDERAL PAROLE HEARINGS INVOLVING AN ABORIGINAL CULTURAL ADVISOR
DECREASED IN 2011-12
Table D3
Hearings held with an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor
Aboriginal Offenders
Year
Total
Hearings
#
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
With Cultural
Advisor
#
%
Total
Hearings
#
All Offenders
With Cultural
Advisor
#
%
Total
Hearings
#
With Cultural
Advisor
#
%
2002-03
1,201
477
39.7
4,993
51
1.0
6,194
528
8.5
2003-04
1,260
551
43.7
5,088
72
1.4
6,348
623
9.8
2004-05
1,340
617
46.0
5,040
95
1.9
6,380
712
11.2
2005-06
1,386
643
46.4
5,193
99
1.9
6,579
742
11.3
2006-07
1,342
600
44.7
5,294
85
1.6
6,636
685
10.3
2007-08
1,227
468
38.1
4,773
53
1.1
6,000
521
8.7
2008-09
1,184
423
35.7
4,436
55
1.2
5,620
478
8.5
2009-10
1,135
361
31.8
4,546
59
1.3
5,681
420
7.4
2010-11
1,176
434
36.9
4,412
55
1.2
5,588
489
8.8
2011-12
1,177
412
35.0
4,721
57
1.2
5,898
469
8.0
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
The presence of an Aboriginal Cultural Advisor is an alternative approach to the traditional parole hearing, and was introduced by the Parole Board of Canada
to ensure that conditional release hearings were sensitive to Aboriginal cultural values and traditions. This type of hearing is available to both Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal offenders.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
83
PROPORTION OF SENTENCE SERVED PRIOR TO BEING RELEASED
ON PAROLE IS THE HIGHEST SINCE 2002-03
Figure D4
Timing of First Parole Supervision in the Sentence (%)
50%
First Day Parole
First Full Parole
45%
40%
35%
Full Parole Eligibility
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
In 2011-12, the average proportion of sentence served before the first parole release for offenders
serving determinate sentences increased to 37.8% for day parole and 41.5% for full parole, as compared to 31.6% and 37.8% a year before. The change is in part due to Bill C-59, which eliminated day
parole eligibility at one-sixth of the sentence for first-time federal offenders serving sentences for
schedule II and non-scheduled offences. As a result, these offenders remained incarcerated longer
prior to their first parole release.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
84
PROPORTION OF SENTENCE SERVED PRIOR TO BEING RELEASED
ON PAROLE IS THE HIGHEST SINCE 2002-03
Table D4
Type of Supervision
First Day Parole
Year
Female
Male
First Full Parole
Total
Female
Male
Total
Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2002-03
26.9
31.5
31.1
37.4
39.0
38.8
2003-04
27.5
33.4
33.0
37.5
39.6
39.4
2004-05
28.8
33.3
32.9
37.2
39.6
39.4
2005-06
28.5
32.9
32.5
36.1
39.3
39.0
2006-07
27.4
33.2
32.6
37.2
39.3
39.1
2007-08
30.3
32.3
32.1
37.9
38.4
38.3
2008-09
28.2
32.4
31.9
36.6
38.7
38.4
2009-10
29.5
33.2
32.8
36.1
38.5
38.2
2010-11
29.2
31.8
31.6
36.6
38.0
37.8
2011-12
35.0
38.1
37.8
40.3
41.6
41.5
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders
serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review at 1/6 of their sentence
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
85
ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS SERVE A HIGHER PROPORTION OF
THEIR SENTENCES BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Figure D5
Timing of First Parole Supervision in the Sentence (%)
50%
45%
40%
35%
Full Parole Eligibility
30%
25%
20%
15%
Day Parole for Aboriginal Offenders
Day Parole for Non-Aboriginal Offenders
Full Parole for Aboriginal Offenders
Full Parole for Non-Aboriginal Offenders
10%
5%
0%
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
In 2011-12, the average proportion of time served before the first federal day parole supervision period was lower for non-Aboriginal offenders than for Aboriginal offenders (37.1% versus 41.7%, respectively).
In 2011-12, the average proportion of time served before the first federal full parole supervision period
was lower for non-Aboriginal offenders than for Aboriginal offenders (41.3% versus 43.4%, respectively).
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders
serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review at 1/6 of their sentence.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
86
ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS SERVE A HIGHER PROPORTION OF
THEIR SENTENCES BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Table D5
Type of Supervision
First Day Parole
Year
Aboriginal
NonAboriginal
First Full Parole
Total
Aboriginal
NonAboriginal
Total
Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2002-03
35.6
30.3
31.1
40.8
38.6
38.8
2003-04
38.6
31.9
33.0
42.8
38.9
39.4
2004-05
37.2
32.1
32.9
42.2
39.0
39.4
2005-06
36.8
31.8
32.5
42.3
38.5
39.0
2006-07
37.4
31.9
32.6
41.1
38.9
39.1
2007-08
38.2
31.2
32.1
40.9
38.1
38.3
2008-09
38.0
31.1
31.9
41.1
38.2
38.4
2009-10
38.6
31.9
32.8
41.2
37.9
38.2
2010-11
37.5
30.8
31.6
41.4
37.5
37.8
2011-12
41.7
37.1
37.8
43.4
41.3
41.5
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
87
FEMALE OFFENDERS SERVE A LOWER PROPORTION OF THEIR SENTENCES
THAN MALE OFFENDERS BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Figure D6
Timing of First Parole Supervision in the Sentence (%)
50%
45%
40%
35%
Full Parole Eligibility
30%
25%
20%
15%
Day Parole for Female Offenders
Day Parole for Male Offenders
Full Parole for Female Offenders
Full Parole for Male Offenders
10%
5%
0%
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
In 2011-12, female offenders served an average of 3.1% (+0.6% compared to last year) less of their
sentences before first federal day parole and 1.3% (no change) less of their sentences before first
federal full parole supervision than male offenders (35.0% compared to 38.1% and 40.3% compared
to 41.6%, respectively).
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders
serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review at 1/6 of their sentence.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
88
FEMALE OFFENDERS SERVE A LOWER PROPORTION OF THEIR SENTENCES
THAN MALE OFFENDERS BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Table D6
Type of Supervision
First Day Parole
Year
Female
Male
First Full Parole
Total
Female
Male
Total
Percentage of sentence incarcerated
2002-03
26.9
31.5
31.1
37.4
39.0
38.8
2003-04
27.5
33.4
33.0
37.5
39.6
39.4
2004-05
28.8
33.3
32.9
37.2
39.6
39.4
2005-06
28.5
32.9
32.5
36.1
39.3
39.0
2006-07
27.4
33.2
32.6
37.2
39.3
39.1
2007-08
30.3
32.3
32.1
37.9
38.4
38.3
2008-09
28.2
32.4
31.9
36.6
38.7
38.4
2009-10
29.5
33.2
32.8
36.1
38.5
38.2
2010-11
29.2
31.8
31.6
36.6
38.0
37.8
2011-12
35.0
38.1
37.8
40.3
41.6
41.5
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts during the sentence. In most
cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction, excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3
of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before full parole eligibility.
On March 28, 2011, Bill C-59 (Abolition of Early Parole Act) eliminated the accelerated parole review (APR) process, affecting first-time non-violent offenders
serving sentences for schedule II and non-scheduled offences, who in 2011-12 were no longer eligible for an APR review at 1/6 of their sentence.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
89
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL DAY PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Figure D7
Day Parole Outcomes
100%
90%
Successful Completion
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
10%
0%
2002-03
Revocation with Offence
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
■
Since 2002-03, over 80% of federal day paroles have been successfully completed.
Based on the year of completion of the supervision period, the total number of federal day paroles
completed was 2,595 in 2011-12.
In 2011-12, 1.6% of federal day paroles ended with a non-violent offence and 0.2% with a violent
offence.
In 2011-12, the successful completion rate was higher for male offenders than for female offenders
(87.9% versus 86.1%, respectively).
Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act) , which came into force on June 13, 2012, expanded the number of offences, listed in Schedule I of the CCRA. It
now includes, for example, those convicted of child pornography, aggravated assault of a police officer, or a terrorist offence under the Criminal Code. As a
result, some offences that were previously recorded in the data as non-violent are now considered as violent. This has resulted in higher numbers of revocations with a violent offence and lower numbers of revocations with a non-violent offence than in previous versions of this report.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
90
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL DAY PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Table D7
Federal Day Parole
Outcomes
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
1,697
80.8
1,784
83.9
1,720
86.0
1,750
86.9
1,911
87.4
803
81.1
812
84.1
808
86.4
871
90.2
365
89.5
2,500
80.9
2,596
83.9
2,528
86.1
2,621
88.0
2,276
87.7
Successful Completion
Regular
Accelerated
Total
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
Regular
309
14.7
284
13.4
223
11.2
215
10.7
235
10.7
Accelerated
128
12.9
105
10.9
102
10.9
72
7.5
36
8.8
Total
437
14.1
389
12.6
325
11.1
287
9.6
271
10.4
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular
77
3.7
42
2.0
42
2.1
39
1.9
36
1.6
Accelerated
58
5.9
44
4.6
23
2.5
23
2.4
6
1.5
135
4.4
86
2.8
65
2.2
62
2.1
42
1.6
17
0.8
17
0.8
15
0.8
9
0.4
5
0.2
1
0.1
5
0.5
2
0.2
0
0.0
1
0.2
18
0.6
22
0.7
17
0.6
9
0.3
6
0.2
2,100
68.0
2,127
68.8
2,000
68.1
2,013
67.6
2,187
84.3
990
32.0
966
31.2
935
31.9
966
32.4
408
15.7
3,090
100.0
3,093
100.0
2,935
100.0
2,979
100.0
2,595
100.0
Total
Revocation with Violent Offence**
Regular
Accelerated
Total
Total
Regular
Accelerated
Total
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences. Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act), which came into force on June 13, 2012, expanded the number
of offences in Schedule I (e.g., it now includes child pornography, aggravated assault of a police officer, or a terrorist offence under the Criminal Code). As a
result, some offences that were previously recorded in the data as non-violent are now considered as violent. This has resulted in higher numbers of revocations with a violent offence and lower numbers of revocations with a non-violent offence than in previous versions of this report.
Day parole is a type of conditional release in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory
release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the Parole Board of Canada.
Eligibility for day parole release normally occurs 6 months prior to full parole.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
91
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL FULL PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Figure D8
Full Parole Outcomes
100%
90%
80%
Successful Completion
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
20%
10%
0%
2002-03
Revocation with Offence
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
■
The successful completion rate of federal full paroles increased for the last 5 years.
In 2011-12, 5.0% of federal full paroles ended with a non-violent offence and 0.5% with a violent
offence. That represents a decrease of 3.0% and 0.7% compared to 2007-08.
In 2011-12, the successful completion rate of federal full paroles was higher for female offenders than
for male offenders (82.7% versus 78.2%, respectively).
Based on the year of completion of the supervision period, the number of federal full paroles
completed was 1,279 in 2011-12.
Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
These data do not include offenders serving life or indeterminate sentences as these offenders, by definition, remain under supervision for life.
Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act) , which came into force on June 13, 2012, expanded the number of offences, listed in Schedule I of the CCRA. It
now includes, for example, those convicted of child pornography, aggravated assault of a police officer, or a terrorist offence under the Criminal Code. As a
result, some offences that were previously recorded in the data as non-violent are now considered as violent. This has resulted in higher numbers of revocations with a violent offence and lower numbers of revocations with a non-violent offence than in previous versions of this report.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
92
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL FULL PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Table D8
Federal Full Parole
Outcomes*
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
Regular
412
77.4
386
80.2
353
79.5
360
80.2
334
82.5
Accelerated
575
68.8
633
70.3
625
73.3
664
74.5
687
77.0
Total
987
72.1
1,019
73.8
978
75.4
1,024
76.4
1,021
78.7
86
16.2
59
12.3
53
11.9
55
12.2
55
13.6
Accelerated
169
20.2
186
20.7
162
19.0
168
18.9
149
16.7
Total
255
18.6
245
17.7
215
16.6
223
16.6
204
15.7
Successful Completion
Revocation for Breach of Conditions**
Regular
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular
24
4.5
28
5.8
31
7.0
26
5.8
14
3.5
Accelerated
85
10.2
76
8.4
62
7.3
54
6.1
51
5.7
109
8.0
104
7.5
93
7.2
80
6.0
65
5.0
10
1.9
8
1.7
7
1.6
8
1.8
2
0.5
7
0.8
5
0.6
4
0.5
5
0.6
5
0.6
17
1.2
13
0.9
11
0.8
13
1.0
7
0.5
Regular
532
38.9
481
34.8
444
34.2
449
33.5
405
31.2
Accelerated
836
61.1
900
65.2
853
65.8
891
66.5
892
68.8
1,368
100.0
1,381
100.0
1,297
100.0
1,340
100.0
1,297
100.0
Total
Revocation with Violent Offence***
Regular
Accelerated
Total
Total
Total
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Excludes offenders serving indeterminate sentences because they do not have a warrant expiry date and technically speaking, can only successfully complete
full parole upon [their] death.
**Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
***Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences. Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act), which came into force on June 13, 2012, expanded the number
of offences in Schedule I. As a result, some offences that were previously recorded in the data as non-violent are now considered as violent.. This has resulted
in higher numbers of revocations with a violent offence and lower numbers of revocations with a non-violent offence than in previous versions of this report.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the Parole Board of Canada in which a portion of the sentence is served under supervision in the
community. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for full parole after
serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
93
STATUTORY RELEASES HAVE THE LOWEST RATES OF SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION
Figure D9
Statutory Release Outcomes
100%
90%
80%
70%
Successful Completion
60%
50%
40%
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
30%
20%
10%
0%
2002-03
Revocation with Offence
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
Over the past ten years, the successful completion rate of statutory releases has fluctuated, ranging
from 56.1% to 61.7%.
In 2011-12, 8.1% of statutory releases ended with a non-violent offence and 1.9% with a violent
offence. That represents a decrease of 2.5% and 1.7% compared to 2007-08.
In 2011-12, the successful completion rate of statutory releases was higher for female offenders than
for male offenders (70.3% versus 61.3% respectively).
Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.
Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act) , which came into force on June 13, 2012, expanded the number of offences, listed in Schedule I of the CCRA. It
now includes, for example, those convicted of child pornography, aggravated assault of a police officer, or a terrorist offence under the Criminal Code. As a
result, some offences that were previously recorded in the data as non-violent are now considered as violent. This has resulted in higher numbers of revocations with a violent offence and lower numbers of revocations with a non-violent offence than in previous versions of this report.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
94
STATUTORY RELEASES HAVE THE LOWEST RATES OF SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION
Table D9
Statutory Release
Outcomes
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
Successful
Completion
3,318
56.7
3,484
58.9
3,711
60.9
3,458
61.9
3,446
61.7
Revocation for Breach of
Conditions*
1,704
29.1
1,718
29.1
1,666
27.3
1,484
26.6
1,579
28.3
Revocation with
Non-Violent Offence
622
10.6
562
9.5
574
9.4
523
9.4
451
8.1
Revocation with Violent
Offence**
210
3.6
148
2.5
146
2.4
119
2.1
105
1.9
5,854
100.0
5,912
100.0
6,097
100.0
5,584
100.0
5,581
100.0
Total
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Revocation for Breach of Conditions includes revocation with outstanding charges.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences. Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act), which came into force on June 13, 2012, expanded the number
of offences in Schedule I (e.g., it now includes child pornography, aggravated assault of a police officer, or a terrorist offence under the Criminal Code). As a
result, some offences that were previously recorded in the data as non-violent are now considered as violent. This has resulted in higher numbers of revocations with a violent offence and lower numbers of revocations with a non-violent offence than in previous versions of this report.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
95
OVER THE PAST DECADE, THE RATE OF VIOLENT CONVICTION FOR OFFENDERS
WHILE UNDER SUPERVISION HAS DECLINED
Figure D10
Rate of Conviction for Violent Offences per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
100
90
80
70
60
Statutory Release
50
40
30
Day Parole
20
10
Full Parole
0
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
The rate of conviction for violent offences** while under community supervision has declined since
2002-03.
Those offenders under discretionary release (full parole and day parole) are less likely to be convicted
of a violent offence while under supervision than those on statutory release.
Note:
*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at
large.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences. Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act), which came into force on June 13, 2012, expanded the number
of offences in Schedule I (e.g., it now includes child pornography, aggravated assault of a police officer, or a terrorist offence under the Criminal Code). As a
result, some offences that were previously recorded in the data as non-violent are now considered as violent. This has resulted in higher numbers of revocations with a violent offence and lower numbers of revocations with a non-violent offence than in previous versions of this report.
The dotted line between 2010-11 and 2011-12 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, these numbers under-represent the actual number
of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
96
OVER THE PAST DECADE, THE RATE OF VIOLENT CONVICTION FOR OFFENDERS
WHILE UNDER SUPERVISION HAS DECLINED
Table D10
# of Offenders Convicted for Violent Offences
Year
Rate per 1,000 Supervised Offenders*
Day Parole
Full Parole
Statutory
Release
Total
Day Parole
Full Parole
Statutory
Release
2002-03
23
33
222
278
18
8
76
2003-04
19
25
212
256
15
6
71
2004-05
31
36
198
265
25
9
66
2005-06
16
28
178
222
12
7
58
2006-07
25
21
213
259
19
6
67
2007-08
18
22
210
250
14
6
67
2008-09
22
17
148
187
18
4
44
2009-10
17
15
146
178
13
4
45
2010-11
9
18
119
146
8
5
37
2011-12**
6
9
105
120
5
3
30
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and those who are unlawfully at
large.
**Due to delays in the court processes, the numbers under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.
Day and full parole include those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.
Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults, sexual offences, arson,
abduction, robbery and some weapon offences. Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act), which came into force on June 13, 2012, expanded the number
of offences in Schedule I (e.g., it now includes child pornography, aggravated assault of a police officer, or a terrorist offence under the Criminal Code). As a
result, some offences that were previously recorded in the data as non-violent are now considered as violent. This has resulted in higher numbers of revocations with a violent offence and lower numbers of revocations with a non-violent offence than in previous versions of this report.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
97
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS GRANTED TEMPORARY ABSENCES
INCREASED IN 2011-2012
Figure D11
Number of Offenders
4,000
3,500
3,000
Escorted Temporary Absences
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
Unescorted Temporary Absences
500
Work Releases
0
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
The number of offenders receiving escorted and unescorted temporary absences increased in 201112.
The number of offenders receiving work releases has decreased by 39.0%, from 595 in 2002-03 to
363 in 2011-12.
The successful completion rates for work releases, escorted and unescorted temporary absences are
consistently over 99%.
Note:
A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community
service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.
A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff
member or other authorized person or organization.
These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one
work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
98
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS GRANTED TEMPORARY ABSENCES
INCREASED IN 2011-12
Table D11
Temporary Absences
Year
Work Releases
Escorted
# of Offenders
Unescorted
# of Permits
# of Offenders
# of Permits
# of Offenders
# of Permits
2002-03
2,722
34,189
725
4,910
595
1,352
2003-04
2,691
38,112
715
4,133
495
1,051
2004-05
2,519
35,277
526
3,600
330
763
2005-06
2,571
37,141
505
3,058
355
997
2006-07
2,532
39,791
502
4,169
339
724
2007-08
2,518
41,630
469
3,804
301
615
2008-09
2,336
36,397
436
3,805
239
652
2009-10
2,217
35,884
391
3,351
244
1,039
2010-11
2,285
40,216
354
3,113
316
1,293
2011-12
2,675
44,182
406
3,813
363
711
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical, administrative, community
service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons, including parental responsibilities.
A work release is a structured program of release of specified duration for work or community service outside the penitentiary, under the supervision of a staff
member or other authorized person or organization.
These numbers depict the number of offenders who received at least one temporary absence permit (excluding those for medical purposes) or at least one
work release. An offender may be granted more than one temporary absence permit or work release over a period of time.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
SECTION E
STATISTICS ON SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF
CRIMINAL JUSTICE
99
THE NUMBER OF INITIAL DETENTION REVIEWS IS THE LOWEST SINCE 1997-98
Figure E1
Number of Initial Detention Reviews
Not Detained
400
Detained
350
335
303
300
272
284
261
256
247
250
222
265
267
278
253
250
229
214
200
150
100
50
0
1997-98
1999-00
2001-02
2003-04
2005-06
2007-08
2009-10
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
■
The annual number of initial detention reviews has been fluctuating since 2000-01.
Out of 3,936 initial detention reviews since 1997-98, 92.5% have resulted in a decision to detain. In
2011-12, 96.7% of the initial detention reviews resulted in the decision to detain, the highest rate in
the last 15 years.
Since 1997-98, male offenders accounted for 98.6% of all referrals for detention. During the same
time period, 54 female offenders have been referred for detention and 48 were detained.
In 2011-12, Aboriginal offenders accounted for 22.2% of incarcerated offenders serving determinate
sentences while they accounted for 41.1% of offenders referred for detention and 41.5% of offenders
detained.
Note:
According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in
custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a
serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
100
THE NUMBER OF INITIAL DETENTION REVIEWS IS THE LOWEST SINCE 1997-98
Table E1
Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews
Detained
Year
Statutory Release
Total
Total
Abor.
Non Abor.
Total
%
Abor.
Non Abor.
Total
%
Abor.
Non Abor.
1997-98
81
231
312
93.1
9
14
23
6.9
90
245
335
1998-99
76
158
234
91.4
3
19
22
8.6
79
177
256
1999-00
83
125
208
93.7
3
11
14
6.3
86
136
222
2000-01
69
146
215
93.9
6
8
14
6.1
75
154
229
2001-02
73
184
257
94.5
2
13
15
5.5
75
197
272
2002-03
81
164
245
86.3
14
25
39
13.7
95
189
284
2003-04
72
207
279
92.1
8
16
24
7.9
80
223
303
2004-05
69
156
225
91.1
6
16
22
8.9
75
172
247
2005-06
75
158
233
89.3
11
17
28
10.7
86
175
261
2006-07
65
157
222
88.8
4
24
28
11.2
69
181
250
2007-08
84
163
247
93.2
7
11
18
6.8
91
174
265
2008-09
101
155
256
95.9
5
6
11
4.1
106
161
267
2009-10
96
165
261
93.9
2
15
17
6.1
98
180
278
2010-11
111
128
239
94.5
4
10
14
5.5
115
138
253
2011-12
86
121
207
96.7
2
5
7
3.3
88
126
214
1,222
2,418
3,640
92.5
86
210
296
7.5
1,308
2,628
3,936
Total
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the sentence may be held in
custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a
serious drug offence or a sex offence involving a child.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
101
78% OF JUDICIAL REVIEW HEARINGS RESULT IN EARLIER PAROLE ELIGIBILITY
Figure E2
As of April 15, 2012
Total Number of Offenders with Cases Applicable for Judicial Review
1,576
Total Number of Offenders Eligible Now or In the Future for a Judicial Review Hearing
828
Total Number of Court Decisions
192
Earlier Eligibility
149
Released on
Parole
138
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
Since the first judicial review hearing in 1987, there have been a total of 192 court decisions.
Of these cases, 77.6% of the court decisions resulted in a reduction of the period that must be served before
parole eligibility.
Of the 828 offenders eligible to apply for a judicial review, 318 have already served 15 years of their sentence
whereas 510 have not.
Of the 149 offenders who have had their parole eligibility date moved closer, 147 have reached their revised
Day Parole eligibility date. Of these offenders, 138 have been released on parole, and 100 are currently being
actively supervised in the community*.
A higher percentage of second degree (87%) than first degree (76.3%) murder cases have resulted in a
reduction of the period required to be served before parole eligibility.
Note:
*Of the 38 offenders no longer under active supervision, 14 are incarcerated, 17 are deceased, two are being temporarily detained, one is unlawfully at large,
and four have been deported.
Judicial review is an application to the court for a reduction in the time required to be served before being eligible for parole. Judicial review procedures apply to
offenders who have been sentenced to imprisonment for life without eligibility for parole until more than fifteen years of their sentence has been served.
Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
102
78% OF JUDICIAL REVIEW HEARINGS RESULT IN EARLIER PAROLE ELIGIBILITY
Table E2
Province/Territory
of Judicial Review
Parole Ineligibility
Reduced by Court
Reduction Denied
by Court
Total
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
Northwest Territories
0
0
0
0
0
0
Nunavut
0
0
0
0
0
0
Yukon
0
0
0
0
0
0
Newfoundland & Labrador
0
0
0
0
0
0
Prince Edward Island
0
0
0
0
0
0
Nova Scotia
1
1
1
0
2
1
New Brunswick
1
0
0
0
1
0
Quebec
59
15
5
2
64
17
Ontario
20
0
18
1
38
1
Manitoba
7
3
1
0
8
3
Saskatchewan
6
0
3
0
8
0
Alberta
18
0
6
0
24
0
British Columbia
17
1
6
0
23
1
129
20
40
3
169
23
Sub-total
Total
149
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These numbers represent total decisions as of April 15, 2012.
Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
43
192
103
THE NUMBER OF DANGEROUS OFFENDER DESIGNATIONS HAS INCREASED IN 2011-12
Figure E3
Number of Dangerous Offenders Designated per Year*
40
35
35
32
30
30
27
27
25
24
23
21
20
19
11
10
11
9
7
6
5
8
6
9
8
10
9
28
27
23
20 20
18
16
15
15
27
18
16
8
5
3
0
1978-79
1980-81
1982-83
1984-85
1986-87
1988-89
1990-91
1992-93
1994-95
1996-97
1998-99
2000-01
2002-03
2004-05
2006-07
2008-09
2010-11
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
■
As of April 15, 2012, there have been 579 offenders designated as Dangerous Offenders (DOs) since
1978. Seventy-five percent (75%) have at least one current conviction for a sexual offence.
There are 486 DOs currently active, and all of them have indeterminate sentences.
Of the 486 active DOs, 466 were incarcerated (representing approximately 3% of the total federal
inmate population), one has been deported, one has escaped, and 18 were being supervised in the
community.
There are currently two female offenders with a Dangerous Offender designation.
Aboriginal offenders account for 26.7% of DOs and 19.3% of the total federal offender population.
Note:
*The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.
Three offenders who received Dangerous Offender designations did not have a designation date entered in their file, and are therefore not represented in the
graph. However, they are counted in the total number of offenders who received a designation.
Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the above graph, which depicts
the total number of offenders ‘”designated”.
Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous Sexual Offender provisions
that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate sentence on the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of
serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender’s behaviour is unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 752
of the Criminal Code of Canada). Until August 1997, a determinate sentence was possible for those designated as DOs. In addition to the DOs, there remain
within federal jurisdiction 31 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and nine Habitual Offenders.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
104
THE NUMBER OF DANGEROUS OFFENDER DESIGNATIONS HAS INCREASED IN 2011-12
Table E3
Province/Territory
of Designation
All Designations
(# designated
since 1978)
Active Dangerous Offenders
# of Indeterminate
Offenders
# of Determinate
Offenders
Total
Newfoundland & Labrador
11
8
0
8
Nova Scotia
17
14
0
14
Prince Edward Island
0
0
0
0
New Brunswick
8
7
0
7
Quebec
65
61
0
61
Ontario
237
197
0
197
Manitoba
14
13
0
13
Saskatchewan
52
45
0
45
Alberta
48
40
0
40
117
91
0
91
Yukon
1
1
0
1
Northwest Territories
8
8
0
8
Nunavut
1
1
0
1
579
486
0
486
British Columbia
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Numbers presented are as of April 15, 2012.
The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not include overturned decisions.
Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the total number of offenders
“designated”.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
105
MOST LONG TERM SUPERVISION ORDERS ARE FOR A 10-YEAR PERIOD
Figure E4
Number of Long Term Supervision Orders Imposed
600
545
500
400
300
200
92
100
53
27
0
0
1
4
4
1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years
42
0
5 years
6 years
7 years
8 years
9 years
10 years
Length of Supervision Order
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
As of April 15, 2012, the courts have imposed 768 long term supervision orders. Of these, 71.0%
were for a period of 10 years.
There are currently 680 offenders with long term supervision orders, and of these, 463 (68.1%) have
at least one current conviction for a sexual offence.
There are currently ten women with long term supervision orders.
There are currently 339 offenders being supervised on their long term supervision order. This includes
305 offenders supervised in the community, 26 offenders temporarily detained, three offenders who
have been deported, and five offenders unlawfully at large.
Note:
Long Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a sentence of two years or
more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further period not exceeding 10 years.
Thirty-five offenders under these provisions have died and 51 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
106
MOST LONG TERM SUPERVISION ORDERS ARE FOR A 10-YEAR PERIOD
Table E4
Length of Supervision Order (years)
Province or Territory
of Order
Current Status
Incarcerated
DP, FP
or SR*
LTSO
period
LTSO**
interrupted
Total
6
1
1
2
1
5
11
15
2
0
11
0
13
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
6
9
4
0
5
0
9
8
25
9
153
242
86
15
100
11
212
10
6
14
17
164
214
72
8
97
17
194
0
1
1
2
1
27
32
9
2
19
0
30
0
1
10
8
5
7
33
65
31
6
19
2
58
0
0
0
7
1
0
1
46
55
17
3
25
1
46
British Columbia
0
0
0
10
3
5
5
86
109
34
5
52
3
94
Yukon
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
7
10
4
1
5
0
10
Northwest Territories
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
3
0
0
3
0
3
Nunavut
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
3
6
4
1
1
0
6
Total
1
4
4
92
27
53
42
545
768
264
42
339
35
680
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10 Total
Newfoundland &
Labrador
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
Nova Scotia
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
Prince Edward Island
0
0
0
1
0
0
New Brunswick
0
1
0
1
0
Quebec
0
3
0
44
Ontario
0
0
3
Manitoba
0
0
Saskatchewan
1
Alberta
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole (DP), full parole (FP) or statutory release (SR).
**This category includes offenders convicted of a new offence while on the supervision portion of an LTSO. When this occurs, the LTSO supervision period is
interrupted until the offender has served the new sentence to its warrant expiry date. At that time, the LTSO supervision period resumes where it left off.
These numbers are as of April 15, 2012.
Thirty-five offenders under these provisions have died and 51 offenders have completed their long term supervision period.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
107
THE NUMBER OF PARDON APPLICATIONS PROCESSED
DECREASED FOR A THIRD CONSECUTIVE YEAR
Figure E5
Total Number of Granted, Issued, and Denied Pardon Decisions
Denied
50,000
Issued
Granted
45,000
800
40,000
35,000
9,311
30,000
25,000
20,000
175
437
10,332
7,889
30,317
15,000
293
2,693
10,000
16,250
14,514
5,000
9,393
276
3270
0
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
The number of pardon applications processed decreased from 12,379 in 2010-11 to 3,546 in 2011-12.
Of these applications, 92.2% pardons were granted, the lowest rate in the last five years.
On June 29, 2010, Bill C-23A amended the CRA by extending the ineligibility periods for certain applications for pardon. Additionally, the bill resulted in significant changes to program operations. The
process was modified to include additional inquiries and new, more exhaustive investigations by staff
for some applications and required additional review time by Board members. New concepts of merit
and disrepute to the administration of justice form part of the statute. As a result of these new changes, application processing time increased.
Approximately 3.8 million Canadians have a criminal record*, but less than 11.0% of people convicted
have received a pardon. Since 1970, when the pardon process began, 456,600 pardons have been
granted or issued.
Note:
*Source: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Criminal Records Division, 2009.
Pardons allow people who were convicted of a criminal offence but have completed their sentence and demonstrated that they are law-abiding citizens to have
their criminal record sealed. A person convicted of a summary offence may apply for a pardon three years after the completion of the sentence, and a person
convicted of an indictable offence may apply after five years. The amendment to the Criminal Records Act on June 30, 2010, removed the discretion of the
Board to issue pardons for summary convictions.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
108
THE NUMBER OF PARDON APPLICATIONS PROCESSED
DECREASED FOR A THIRD CONSECUTIVE YEAR
Table E5
Type of Decision
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Granted
14,514
30,317
16,250
9,393
3,270
Issued
10,332
9,311
7,889
2,693
—
Denied
175
800
437
293
276
25,021
40,428
24,576
12,379
3,546
99.3
98.0
98.2
97.6
92.2
34
123
194
71
1,132
Cessations
547
584
727
1,055
907
Total Revocations/Cessations
581
707
921
1,126
2,039
377,477
417,105
441,244
453,330
456,600
14,585
15,292
16,213
17,339
19,378
Total Granted/Issued/Denied
Percentage Granted/Issued
Revocations*
Cumulative Granted/Issued**
Cumulative Revocations/Cessations**
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*Revocations fluctuate due to resource re-allocation to deal with backlogs.
**Cumulative data reflects pardon activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act.
The amendment to the Criminal Records Act on June 30, 2010, removed the discretion of the Board to issue pardons for summary convictions. In cases of
indictable offences, pardons are granted at the discretion of the Parole Board of Canada (PBC) following a five-year period of good conduct after the completion of the sentence. The cessation of a pardon automatically occurs following a subsequent conviction for an indictable offence or hybrid offence, with some
exceptions, including impaired driving, driving with more than 80 mg of alcohol in the blood or fail to provide a breath sample. Revocations are at the discretion
of the PBC following a subsequent summary conviction, or for lack of good conduct. The Board may also render a decision of cessation when it is convinced by
new information that the person was not eligible for a pardon at the time it was awarded.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
SECTION F
VICTIMS OF CRIME
109
VICTIMIZATION RATES FOR THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY HAVE INCREASED
Figure F1
Rate of Victimization per 1,000 Population
120
1999
2004
2009
108
100
93
81
80
75
80
75
60
40
21
21
24
20
9
11
13
0
Theft of Personal Property
Sex ual Assault
Robbery
Assault*
Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004 and 2009.
■
■
Victimization rates for theft of personal property were higher in 2009 than in 1999.
Since 1999, the rates of victimization for assault have remained stable.
Note:
*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.
Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
110
VICTIMIZATION RATES FOR THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY HAVE INCREASED
Table F1
Year
Type of Incident
1999
2004
2009
Theft of Personal Property
75
93
108
Sexual Assault
21
21
24
Robbery
9
11
13
Assault*
81
75
80
Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1999, 2004 and 2009.
Note:
*Assault data includes incidents of spousal violence. In previous editions of this document, the victimization data excluded incidents of spousal violence.
Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older, across the 10 provinces.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
111
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME ARE UNDER 30
Figure F2
16%
15.2%
15.0%
14%
12.4%
12%
10.1%
10%
8.9%
8.3%
8%
6.9%
7.4%
6%
5.3%
4%
3.1%
2.0%
2%
1.8%
1.0%
1.0%
0.6%
0.9%
0%
0 to 4
5 to 9
10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 to 69 70 to 74
75+
Age of Victim (2011)
Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
More than half (52.6%) of all victims of violent crime reported in 2011 were under the age of 30,
whereas 36.9% of the Canadian population is under the age of 30*.
Females aged 15 to 44 years were more likely than males of that age to be victims of a violent crime.
Canadians aged 65 and older, who account for 14.1% of the general population*, represent 2.5% of
victims of violent crime.
Note:
*Population estimates are as of July 1, 2010.
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, robbery and traffic offences causing bodily harm and death.
The data excludes 3,285 cases where age was unknown, 748 cases where sex was unknown and 1,161 cases where both age and sex were unknown. The
data represents 99% national coverage.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
112
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME ARE UNDER 30
Table F2 (2011)
Age of Victim
Males
Females
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
0 to 4 years
1,799
1.0
2,014
1.0
3,813
1.0
5 to 9 years
3,810
2.1
3,634
1.9
7,444
2.0
10 to 14 years
12,966
7.2
12,683
6.6
25,649
6.9
15 to 19 years
27,126
15.0
29,763
15.5
56,889
15.2
20 to 24 years
25,539
14.1
30,564
15.9
59,103
15.0
25 to 29 years
21,707
12.0
24,641
12.8
46,348
12.4
30 to 34 years
17,380
9.6
20,323
10.6
37,703
10.1
35 to 39 years
15,136
8.4
17,902
9.3
33,038
8.9
40 to 44 years
14,930
8.3
16,199
8.4
31,129
8.3
45 to 49 years
14,207
7.9
13,552
7.0
27,759
7.4
50 to 54 years
10,685
5.9
8,964
4.7
19,649
5.3
55 to 59 years
6,591
3.6
4,999
2.6
11,590
3.1
60 to 64 years
4,042
2.2
2,805
1.5
6,847
1.8
65 to 69 years
2,223
1.2
1,455
0.8
3,678
1.0
70 to 74 years
1,156
0.6
1,006
0.5
2,162
0.6
75 and over
1,602
0.9
1,724
0.9
3,326
0.9
180,899
100.0
192,228
100.0
373,127
100.0
Total
Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
The data excludes 3,285 cases where age was unknown, 748 cases where sex was unknown and 1,161 cases where both age and sex were unknown. The
data represents 99% national coverage.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
113
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS RECEIVING SERVICES ARE VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME
Figure F3
Number of victims receiving formal assistance on May 27, 2010
Not reported
5,000
Men
Women
262
4,500
4,000
917
3,500
3,000
160
2,500
379
2,000
3,323
1,500
73
1,000
59
1,922
357
500
0
3
8
70
154
77
95
Homicide
Other offences
causing death
Sexual assault
Other violent
offences
295
113
496
421
81
197
Other criminal
offences
Other incidents
Unknown
Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2009/2010; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
■
■
■
■
On May 27, 2010, the Victim Services Survey snapshot day, 9,462 victims received formal assistance
from a victim service office. This represents a decrease of 3.5% from 9,808 on May 28, 2008. Of the
9,071 where the crime was known, the majority, 81% were victims of a violent crime.
Of the 8,784 cases in which gender of the victim was noted, women accounted for 75.2% of the
victims who received formal assistance from a victim service office, and men represented 24.8%.
Of the 6,411 women who received formal assistance where the type of crime was known, 85.7% were
victims of violent crime. A total of 1,922 women (30.0%) were victims of sexual assault. Of the 2,095
men who received formal assistance where the type of crime was known, 68.9% were victims of
violent crime.
Based on data gathered in the 2009/2010 Victim Services Survey, 911 service providers indicated
they had assisted close to 410,000 victims of crime from April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010. According
to the respondents providing this information, the number of women receiving assistance from a victim
service provider was three times higher than the number of men.
Note:
Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a
ministry responsible for justice matters. Some survey respondents in New Brunswick in 2009/2010 were unable to provide data on the number of clients served
on snapshot day, and instead provided data on their active caseload on that day.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
114
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS RECEIVING SERVICES ARE VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME
Table F3
Gender of Victim
Type of Crime
Women
Men
Not Reported
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
156
2.8
61
3.2
9
1.4
226
2.8
63
1.1
51
2.7
1
0.2
115
1.4
Sexual assault
1,632
29.1
298
15.7
95
15.1
2,025
24.9
Other violent offences
3,029
54.0
853
45.0
330
52.3
4,212
51.8
Other criminal offences*
396
7.1
429
22.6
118
18.7
943
11.6
Other Incidents**
330
5.9
205
10.8
78
12.4
613
7.5
5,606
100.0
1,897
100.0
631
100.0
8,134
100.0
335
—
104
—
1,235
—
1,674
—
Snapshot on May 28, 2008
Homicide
Other offences causing death
Total without unknown
Unknown type of crime
Total
5,941
2,001
1,866
9,808
Snapshot on May 27, 2010
Homicide
154
2.4
70
3.3
3
0.5
227
2.5
95
1.5
77
3.7
8
1.4
180
2.0
Sexual assault
1,922
30.0
379
18.1
160
28.3
2,461
27.1
Other violent offences
3,323
51.8
917
43.8
262
46.4
4,502
49.6
Other criminal offences*
496
7.7
357
17.0
73
12.9
926
10.2
Other Incidents**
421
6.6
295
14.1
59
10.4
775
8.5
6,411
100.0
2,095
100.0
565
100.0
9,071
100.0
197
—
81
—
113
—
391
—
Other offences causing death
Total without unknown
Unknown type of crime
Total
6,608
2,176
678
9,462
Source: Victim Services in Canada, 2007/2008; Victim Services in Canada 2009/2010; Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*Other criminal offences include arson, property crimes, traffic offences, and other Criminal Code offences.
**Other incidents include those of a non-criminal nature as well as those that are still under investigation to determine if they are criminal offences.
Victim services are defined as agencies that provide direct services to primary or secondary victims of crime, and that are funded in whole or in part by a
ministry responsible for justice matters. Some survey respondents in New Brunswick in 2009/2010 were unable to provide data on the number of clients served
on snapshot day, and instead provided data on their active caseload on that day.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
115
THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS REGISTERED WITH THE
FEDERAL CORRECTIONAL SYSTEM HAS INCREASED
Figure F4
Number of Registered Victims* (as of March 31 of each year)
8,000
7,395
6,940
7,000
6,366
5,816
6,000
5,294
5,000
4,979
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Source: PRIME-Victims: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
Since 2006-07, there has been a 48.5% increase in the number of victims registered with the
Correctional Service of Canada and the Parole Board of Canada combined, from 4,979 to 7,395.
Of the 23,156 offenders under federal jurisdiction in 2011-12, 17.3% (4,006) have registered victims.
Since 2006-07, the number of notifications** made to registered victims has more than tripled. In 2011
-12, the Correctional Service of Canada provided 46,678 notifications to registered victims.
Note:
*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional
Release Act entitles them.
Unlike last year’s edition of the CCRSO, this year data is reported by fiscal year from April 1 to March 31.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
116
THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS REGISTERED WITH THE
FEDERAL CORRECTIONAL SYSTEM HAS INCREASED
Table F4
Number of Offenders with
Registered Victims
Number of Registered
Victims*
Number of Notifications**
to Registered Victims
2006-07
3,147
4,979
13,829
2007-08
3,295
5,294
16,281
2008-09
3,412
5,816
28,065
2009-10
3,654
6,366
37,462
2010-11
3,874
6,940
41,979
2011-12
4,006
7,395
46,678
Year
Source: PRIME-Victims: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**A notification is a contact with a registered victim, by phone or mail, to provide information to which sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional
Release Act entitles them.
Unlike last year’s edition of the CCRSO, this year data is reported by fiscal year from April 1 to March 31.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
117
OFFENCES CAUSING DEATH ARE THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF OFFENCE** THAT HARMED
THE VICTIMS REGISTERED* WITH CORRECTIONAL SERVICES CANADA
Figure F5
Offences of Victimization** 2011-12
Offences Causing Death
57.1%
Sexual Offences
28.6%
Assaults
13.5%
Involving Violence or Threats
9.6%
Property Crimes
7.2%
Other Offences
6.1%
Deprivation of Freedom
3.7%
Attempts to Cause Death
3.3%
Driving Offences
Not Recorded
1.7%
0.1%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Source: PRIME-Victims: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
■
Of the 7,395 registered victims*, 86% are victims of a violent crime***.
Over half (4,220) of registered victims* were victims of an offence that caused death.
Victims of sexual offences (2,114) accounted for 28.6% of the registered victims*.
Victims of assault (998) and victims of offences involving violence or threats (707) accounted for
13.5% and 9.6% of the registered victims.
Note:
*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence; therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the actual number of Registered
Victims. The percentages represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence.
***Violent crimes include assault, attempt to cause death, offences causing death, sexual offences and offences involving violence or threats.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
118
OFFENCES CAUSING DEATH ARE THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF OFFENCE THAT HARMED
THE VICTIMS REGISTERED* WITH CORRECTIONAL SERVICES CANADA
Table F5
Type of Offence**
That Harmed Victim*
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
1,800
30.9
2,936
46.1
3,804
54.8
4,220
57.1
Sexual Offences
958
16.5
1,579
24.8
2,098
30.2
2,114
28.6
Assaults
499
8.6
879
13.8
998
14.4
998
13.5
Involving Violence or Threats
315
5.4
525
8.2
680
9.8
707
9.6
Property Crimes
223
3.8
417
6.6
509
7.3
534
7.2
Other Offences
450
7.7
217
3.4
396
5.7
452
6.1
Attempts to Cause Death
105
1.8
182
2.9
233
3.4
241
3.3
Deprivation of Freedom
166
2.9
215
3.4
251
3.6
273
3.7
65
1.1
100
1.6
123
1.8
125
1.7
3,087
53.1
1,301
20.4
61
0.9
10
0.1
Offences Causing Death
Driving Offences
Offence Not Recorded
Total Number of Victims**
5,816
6,366
6,940
7,395
Source: PRIME-Victims: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*In order to register to receive information under sections 26 and 142 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a
victim that appears in section 2, or subsections 26(3) or 142(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of
Canada by completing a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**Some victims were harmed by more than one offence, therefore the number of Offences of Victimization are higher than the number of Registered Victims.
The percentages in the table represent the number of registered victims who were harmed by that offence and do not add up to 100%.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
119
RELEASE INFORMATION IS THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF INFORMATION PROVIDED DURING A
NOTIFICATION TO REGISTERED VICTIMS* WITH CORRECIONAL SERVICES CANADA
Figure F6
25,135
Release Dates
Release Destination
23,857
Release Conditions
21,843
Institutional Location
14,711
Release Decisions
14,194
10,874
Travel Permits
In/Out of Custody Information
6,856
Sentencing Information
2,977
Scheduled Hearing Dates
1,109
Judicial Review**
976
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
Frequency of Type of Information Disclosed
Source: PRIME-Victims: Correctional Service Canada.
■
■
■
In 2011-12, release dates (20.5%), release destination (19.5%), and release conditions (17.8%), were
the most frequent pieces of information about offenders that was provided during a notification to
registered victims*.
Other common pieces of information provided to registered victims* during notification in 2011-12
were institutional location (12.0%), release decisions (11.6%), and travel permits (8.9%).
There has been almost a fourfold increase in the number of pieces of information provided to
registered victims* during notifications from 25,076 in 2007-08 to 122,532 in 2011-12.
Note:
Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.
As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply
for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the
data.
*In order to register to receive information under section 26 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that
appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing
a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**New type of information now released to victims as of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
120
RELEASE INFORMATION IS THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF INFORMATION PROVIDED DURING A
NOTIFICATION TO REGISTERED VICTIMS* WITH CORRECTIONAL SERVICES CANADA
Table F6
Year
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
Sentencing Information
1,624
2,357
2,366
2,714
2.977
Institutional Location
3,305
4,820
7,758
13,770
14,711
In/Out of Custody
2,506
4,288
5,613
6,993
6,856
105
103
65
1,264
1,109
Release Dates
5,194
11,654
19,298
22,315
25,135
Release Destination
4,991
11,161
18,546
20,906
23,857
Release Conditions
2,289
5,623
11,311
15,492
21,843
Release Decisions
1,327
2,541
6,808
12,073
14,194
Travel Permits
3,735
7,611
9,343
10,136
10,874
—
—
—
—
976
25,076
50,158
81,108
106,113
122,532
Scheduled Hearing Dates
Judicial Review**
TOTAL
Source: PRIME-Victims: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Disclosure means a type of information identified in section 26 of the CCRA that has been disclosed to a registered victim during a notification.
As of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6, Correctional Services Canada now provides information to some victims who are not registered which requires providing information to family members of murdered victims where the offender is still eligible to apply for Judicial Review including when the offender does not apply
for a Judicial Review within the allotted time period, as well as the next date the offender can apply. Notification to unregistered victims are excluded for the
data.
*In order to register to receive information under section 26 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, a person must meet the definition of a victim that
appears in section 2 or subsection 26(3) of the Act. Victims can register with the Correctional Service of Canada or the Parole Board of Canada by completing
a Victims Request for Information form, though a signed letter of request can be considered as meeting this requirement.
**New type of information now released to victims as of December 2, 2011 as per Bill S6.
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
121
PAROLE BOARD OF CANADA CONTACTS WITH VICTIMS HAVE DECREASED
Figure F7
25,000
22,181
21,434
20,457
20,000
22,483
21,449
20,039
16,711
15,263
15,000
14,013
15,479
14,270
12,718
11,177
9,883
10,000
8,043
5,000
0
1997-98
1999-00
2001-02
2003-04
2005-06
2007-08
2009-10
2011-12
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
■
■
■
■
In 2011-12, the Parole Board of Canada (PBC) had 21,449 contacts* with victims**, a decrease of
4.6% (1,034 fewer contacts) compared to 2010-11. Since 1997-98, there has been a 167% increase
in the number of contacts with victims by the PBC.
Most of the contacts with victims were with victims of violence, such as victims of sexual assault, or
the family members of murdered victims.
The majority of victims surveyed in 2003 and 2009 expressed satisfaction with the quality and
timeliness of the information provided by PBC staff.
In 2011-12, victims made 223 presentations at 140 hearings.
Note:
*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.
**Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act) , which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2
of the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a
relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the
person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender’s act, whether or not the offender is
prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26
(3) and 142(3).
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
122
PAROLE BOARD OF CANADA CONTACTS WITH VICTIMS HAVE DECREASED
Table F7
Year
Total Number of Contacts*
1997-98
8,043
1998-99
9,883
1999-00
11,177
2000-01
12,718
2001-02
14,013
2002-03
14,270
2003-04
15,263
2004-05
15,479
2005-06
16,711
2006-07
21,434
2007-08
20,457
2008-09
20,039
2009-10
22,181
2010-11
22,483
2011-12
21,449
Source: Parole Board of Canada.
Note:
*A victim contact refers to each time the Parole Board of Canada has contact with a victim by mail, fax, or by telephone.
Bill C-10 (Safe Streets and Communities Act) , which came into force on June 13, 2012, resulted in changes to the categories of victims defined in section 2 of
the CCRA. An actual victim is a person who survived a crime 2(1). If the person is dead, ill or otherwise incapacitated, a) a spouse/common law 2(1)(a), b) a
relative/dependant 2(1)(b), c) anyone who is responsible for the care of the person 2(1)(c), d) anyone who is responsible for the care of a dependant of the
person 2(1)(d) are considered as victims. If physical or emotional harm was done to a person as a result of the offender’s act, whether or not the offender is
prosecuted or convicted of the act, and if the person made a complaint to the police or the Crown attorney, the person is recognized as a victim per CCRA 26
(3) and 142(3).
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
123
QUESTIONNAIRE
In order to improve the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview, we are asking our
readers to complete the following voluntary questionnaire.
1. Where did you obtain this copy of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview?
2. How did you become aware of it?
3. Did you experience any difficulties in obtaining or accessing the document?
Please elaborate.
 Yes  No
4. Have you found the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview to be a useful
document?
 Yes  No Please elaborate.
5. Are there any tables, figures, bullets or notes that are not clear?
6. Are there any topics you would like to see addressed in future publications of the Corrections and
Conditional Release Statistical Overview that are not currently included?
7. Any additional comments?
(See over for return address)
Public Safety Canada
December 2012
Please return completed questionnaires to:
Dr. Guy Bourgon
Chair
Portfolio Corrections Statistics Committee
Public Safety Canada
340 Laurier Avenue West, 10th Floor
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P8
Telephone: 613-991-2033
Fax: 613-990-8295
E-mail: [email protected]
For further information, please visit:
Correctional Service Canada: www.csc-scc.gc.ca
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada: www.statcan.gc.ca
Parole Board of Canada: www.pbc-clcc.gc.ca
Office of the Correctional Investigator: www.oci-bec.gc.ca
Public Safety Canada: www.publicsafety.gc.ca
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