Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview

Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview
Corrections and
Conditional Release
Statistical
Overview
December, 2004
This document was produced by the Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Portfolio Corrections
Statistics Committee which is composed of representatitves of the Department of Public Safety and
Emergency Preparedness, the Correctional Service of Canada, the National Parole Board
and the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (Statistics Canada).
Public Safety and Emergency
Preparedness Canada
Sécurité publique et
Protection civile Canada
This document is available in French. Ce rapport est disponible en français sous le titre : Aperçu
statistique : le système correctionnel et la mise en liberté sous condition.
This report is also available on the Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada internet
site: www.psepc.gc.ca
Public Works and Government Services Canada
Cat. No. PS4-12/2004E
ISBN: 0-662-38698-1
PREFACE
This document provides a statistical overview of corrections and conditional release within a
context of trends in crime and criminal justice. A primary consideration in producing this overview
was to present general statistical information in a “user friendly” way that will facilitate understanding
by a broad audience. Accordingly, there are a number of features of this document that make it
different from typical statistical reports.
„
First, the visual representation of the statistics is simple and uncluttered, and under each chart
there are a few key points that will assist the reader in extracting the information from the chart.
„
Second, for each chart there is a table of numbers corresponding to the visual representation.
In some instances, the table includes additional numbers, e.g., a five-year series, even though
the chart depicts the data for the most recent year (e.g., Figure A2).
„
Third, rather than using the conventional headings for statistics (e.g., “police-reported crime rate
by year by type of crime”) the titles for each chart and table inform the reader about the matter
at hand (e.g., “Police-reported crime rate has decreased since 1991”).
„
Fourth, notes have been kept to a minimum, that is, only where they were judged to be essential
for the reader to understand the statistics.
„
Finally, the source of the statistics is indicated under each chart so that the interested reader
can easily access more information if desired.
This is the seventh issue of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview. Readers
are advised that in some instances figures have been revised from earlier publications. Also, the
total number of offenders will vary a little depending on characteristics of the data set.
It is hoped that this document will serve as a useful source of statistical information on corrections
and conditional release and assist the public in gaining a better understanding of these important
components of the criminal justice system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Police-reported crime rate peaked in 1991...........................................................................1
Crime rates are higher in the west and are highest in the north............................................3
Canada’s incarceration rate is high relative to other western countries.................................5
The rate of adults charged has declined since 1980.............................................................7
Administration of justice charges account for 20% of charges in adult courts.......................9
Victimization rates for theft of personal property have increased........................................11
The majority of victims of violent crime are under 30..........................................................13
Most adult custodial sentences ordered by the court are short...........................................15
Relatively few crimes result in sentences to federal penitentiaries......................................17
The rate of youth charged peaked in 1991..........................................................................19
The most common youth court case is theft........................................................................21
Probation is the most common youth court disposition.......................................................23
SECTION B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATION
Federal expenditures on corrections have increased.........................................................25
CSC employees are concentrated in custody centres........................................................27
The cost of keeping an inmate in a penitentiary has increased...........................................29
The number of National Parole Board employees..............................................................31
SECTION C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
CONTEXT - CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
OFFENDER POPULATION
Federal offenders under the jurisdiction of Correctional Service of Canada........................33
The number of incarcerated federal offenders has declined...............................................35
Admissions to federal jurisdiction decreased in 2003-04....................................................37
The number of women admitted from the courts to federal jurisdiction
increased in 2003-04..........................................................................................................39
Offender age at admission to federal jurisdiction is increasing...........................................41
The average age of admission is lower for Aboriginal offenders
than for non-Aboriginal offenders......................................................................................43
14% of the federal incarcerated offender population is age 50 or over...............................45
70% of federal offenders are Caucasian.............................................................................47
The religious identification of the offender population is diverse.........................................49
10% of federal offenders have a mental health diagnosis at admission..............................51
The proportion of Aboriginal offenders incarcerated is higher
than for non-Aboriginal offenders........................................................................................53
The majority of federal incarcerated offenders are classified as medium security risk........55
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T)
SECTION C.
OFFENDER POPULATION
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
The number of life and indeterminate sentences has decreased........................................57
70% of federal offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence................................59
The number of Aboriginal offenders under federal jurisdiction is increasing......................61
The number of escapes has fluctuated...............................................................................63
The supervised federal offender population in the community is decreasing......................65
Conditional sentences have increased the provincial/territorial community
corrections population........................................................................................................67
19. The number of offenders on provincial parole has declined................................................69
SECTION D.
CONDITIONAL RELEASE
1. The federal parole grant rate is relatively stable..................................................................71
2. The federal parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders is increasing....................................73
3. Offenders granted full parole serve about 40% of their sentence
prior to starting full parole...................................................................................................75
4. Aboriginal offenders serve a higher proportion of their sentences
before being released on parole.........................................................................................77
5. Women serve a lower proportion of their sentences than men
before being released on parole.........................................................................................79
6. A large majority of federal day paroles are successfully completed....................................81
7. The majority of federal full paroles are successfully completed.........................................83
8. The majority of statutory releases are successfully completed...........................................85
9. Supervised offenders are being convicted of fewer violent offences...................................87
10. The number of unescorted temporary absences has decreased since 1999-2000.............89
SECTION E.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
STATISTICS ON SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE
The number of detention reviews has increased since 1999-2000.....................................91
81% of judicial review hearings result in earlier parole eligibility.........................................93
The number of dangerous offender designations increased in 2003.................................95
Most long term supervision orders are for a 10-year period..............................................97
The number of pardon applications processed has increased............................................99
SECTION A.
CONTEXT - CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL
JUSTICE SYSTEM
1
POLICE-REPORTED CRIME RATE PEAKED IN 1991
Figure A1.
Rate per 100,000 Population
12,000
10,000
Total
8,000
6,000
Property
4,000
Other Criminal Code
2,000
Violent
0
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
The crime rate increased during the 1980’s, decreased throughout the 1990’s, and has increased
in the last 2 years.
Violent crime decreased from 1992 to 1998, and has remained relatively stable since that time.
The property crime rate in 2003 was 24% lower than in 1980.
Note:
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assualt, sexual offences, abduction and robbery.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, possession of stolen goods, and fraud.
These crime statistics are based on crimes that are reported to the police. Since not all crimes are reported to the police, these
figures underestimate actual crime. See Figure A6 for rates based on victimization surveys (drawn from the General Social Survey),
an alternative method of measuring crime.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
2
POLICE-REPORTED CRIME RATE PEAKED IN 1991
Table A1.
Type of Offence
Year
Property
Violent
Other CCC
Total
1980
5,444
636
2,263
8,343
1981
5,759
654
2,322
8,736
1982
5,840
671
2,262
8,773
1983
5,608
679
2,182
8,470
1984
5,501
701
2,185
8,387
1985
5,451
735
2,227
8,413
1986
5,550
785
2,392
8,727
1987
5,553
829
2,575
8,957
1988
5,439
868
2,613
8,919
1989
5,289
911
2,692
8,892
1990
5,612
973
2,900
9,485
1991
6,160
1,059
3,122
10,342
1992
5,904
1,084
3,052
10,040
1993
5,575
1,082
2,881
9,538
1994
5,257
1,047
2,821
9,125
1995
5,292
1,009
2,707
9,008
1996
5,274
1,002
2,656
8,932
1997
4,880
993
2,603
8,475
1998
4,569
982
2,610
8,161
1999
4,276
958
2,518
7,752
2000
4,081
984
2,601
7,666
2001
4,004
984
2,668
7,655
2002
3,975
969
2,765
7,708
2003
4,121
963
3,048
8,132
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
Rates are based on incidents reported per 100,000 population.
Due to rounding, rates may not add to Totals.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
3
CRIME RATES ARE HIGHER IN THE WEST AND ARE HIGHEST IN THE NORTH
Figure A2.
36,865
Northwest Territories
34,774
Nunavut
25,998
Yukon
15,375
Saskatchewan
Manitoba
12,474
British Columbia
12,372
10,272
Alberta
Prince Edward Island
8,619
Nova Scotia
8,552
Canada
8,132
7,117
New Brunswick
Quebec
6,407
Newfoundland & Labrador
6,211
Ontario
6,097
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
Per 100,000 Population, 2003
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
Crime rates are higher in the west and highest in the Territories.
This general pattern has been stable over time.
The Canadian crime rate has increased in the last two years from 7,655 in 2001 to 8,132 in 2003.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
4
CRIME RATES ARE HIGHER IN THE WEST AND ARE HIGHEST IN THE NORTH
Table A2.
Crime Rate
Province/Territory
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
Newfoundland & Labrador
5,641
5,839
5,784
5,995
6,211
Prince Edward Island
7,074
6,854
6,952
7,853
8,619
Nova Scotia
8,380
7,624
7,671
7,739
8,552
New Brunswick
6,852
6,594
6,505
6,687
7,117
Quebec
5,960
6,040
5,853
6,014
6,407
Ontario
6,509
6,409
6,215
6,052
6,097
Manitoba
10,583
10,746
11,359
11,272
12,474
Saskatchewan
12,312
12,948
13,732
13,714
15,375
9,084
8,727
9,090
9,540
10,272
British Columbia
11,639
11,341
11,510
11,652
12,372
Yukon
19,726
23,776
24,671
26,545
25,998
Northwest Territories
24,603
28,475
30,589
32,529
36,865
Nunavut
18,220
20,945
25,394
29,485
34,774
Canada
7,752
7,666
7,655
7,708
8,132
Alberta
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
Rates are based on 100,000 population.
Rates exclude federal and provincial/territorial statutes and traffic offences.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
5
CANADA’S INCARCERATION RATE IS HIGH RELATIVE TO OTHER WESTERN COUNTRIES
Figure A3.
Number of Inmates per 100,000 Population (2002)
New Zealand
155
139
England & Wales
Scotland
126
116
Canada
Australia
115
100
Italy
Germany
95
Austria
92
85
France
73
Sweden
70
Finland
United States 702*
68
Switzerland
64
Denmark
59
Norway
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Source: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; World Prison Population List, Research Findings No. 234, Home Office
Research, United Kingdom.
„
„
„
In 2002, the incarceration rate in Canada was 116 per 100,000 general population.
Canada’s incarceration rate is higher than the rates in most Western European countries but
much lower than the United States, which had an incarceration rate of 702 per 100,000 general
population in 2002.
The incarceration rate decreased in Canada since the mid 1990’s and has remained steady since
2000, whereas most Western European rates have remained stable or increased during the
same time period.
Note:
The incarceration rate, in this figure, is a measure of the number of people (i.e., adults and youth) in custody per 100,000 people in
the general population.
Different practice and variations in measurement in different countries limit the comparability of these figures.
*Figures for the United States are for incarcerated adults only (i.e. youths are excluded)
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
6
CANADA’S INCARCERATION RATE IS HIGH RELATIVE TO OTHER WESTERN COUNTRIES
Table A3.
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
United States*
601
618
649
682
682
699
700
702
New Zealand
123
127
137
150
149
149
145
155
99
107
120
125
125
124
125
139
Scotland
109
101
119
119
118
115
120
126
Canada**
132
131
126
123
118
116
116
116
--
--
95
110
108
108
110
115
Italy
87
85
86
85
89
94
95
100
Germany
81
83
90
96
97
97
95
95
Austria
76
84
86
86
85
84
85
92
France
89
90
90
88
91
89
80
85
Sweden
66
65
59
60
59
64
65
73
Finland
59
58
56
54
46
52
50
70
Switzerland
81
85
88
85
81
79
90
68
Denmark
66
61
62
64
66
61
60
64
Norway
56
52
53
57
56
--
60
59
England & Wales
Australia
Source: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada; World Prison Population List, Research Findings No. 234, Home Office
Research, United Kingdom.
Note:
Rates are based on 100,000 population.
*Figures for the United States are for incarcerated adults only (i.e. youths are excluded)
**Canadian youth custody figures for 1997 to 2001 were adjusted to represent 100% survey coverage. Canadian rates are reported
on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through March 31).
--Figures not available
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
7
THE RATE OF ADULTS CHARGED HAS DECLINED SINCE 1980
Figure A4.
Rate per 100,000 Population
3,000
2,500
2,000
Total Charged
Total Criminal Code
1,500
Property
1,000
Other Criminal Code
500
Violent
0
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
The rate of adults charged declined from 1991 to 1999, increased slightly in 2000 and 2001, and
decreased in 2002 and 2003.
While this was also the pattern for men, rates for women have increased since 1999 after
decreasing during the 1990s.
The rate of women charged with violent crimes has been steadily increasing while the rate of men
charged with violent crimes peaked in 1993 and has since been decreasing.
Note:
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, and robbery.
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen goods and fraud.
Total charged includes adults charged under the Criminal Code as well as adults charged under other Federal Statutes such as the
Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, the Fisheries Act, the Customs Act, the Indian Act and the Employment Insurance Act.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
8
THE RATE OF ADULTS CHARGED HAS DECLINED SINCE 1980
Table A4.
Federal Statutes
Criminal Code
Violent
Property
Other
CCC
Total
CCC
Drugs
Other*
Total
Charged**
1980
301
1,114
728
2,143
338
97
2,578
1981
300
1,175
728
2,203
329
98
2,631
1982
295
1,184
636
2,115
235
86
2,436
1983
347
1,182
645
2,174
218
81
2,473
1984
363
1,122
620
2,104
203
57
2,364
1985
374
1,007
582
1,963
194
41
2,199
1986
405
974
641
2,021
190
43
2,254
1987
439
962
683
2,085
198
40
2,323
1988
462
941
684
2,087
195
43
2,324
1989
489
880
677
2,047
217
44
2,308
1990
529
905
683
2,118
198
38
2,354
1991
582
968
732
2,282
194
40
2,516
1992
587
925
713
2,225
198
50
2,474
1993
596
839
677
2,112
183
51
2,345
1994
573
739
619
1,932
178
42
2,152
1995
530
719
597
1,846
171
36
2,053
1996
523
727
579
1,829
172
29
2,030
1997
510
651
552
1,713
158
26
1,896
1998
494
615
561
1,670
168
24
1,862
1999
479
569
570
1,618
185
30
1,833
2000
496
528
593
1,617
198
26
1,842
2001
517
522
638
1,677
202
28
1,907
2002
499
507
640
1,646
199
29
1,874
2003
481
516
649
1,647
170
24
1,842
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
Rates are based on 100,000 population, 18 years of age and older.
Due to rounding, rates may not add to totals.
*Examples of other Federal Statutes include: the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, the Fisheries Act, the Customs Act, the
Indian Act, and the Employment Insurance Act.
**Total charged excludes provincial statute offences and municipal by-laws.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
9
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE CHARGES ACCOUNT FOR 20% OF CHARGES IN ADULT COURTS
Figure A5.
20.1%
Administration of Justice
10.6%
Impaired Driving
7.9%
Common Assault
7.6%
Theft
6.2%
Fraud
Possession Stolen Property
5.3%
Major Assault
4.3%
4.3%
Uttering Threats
Mischief
3.2%
Possession of Drugs
3.2%
Trafficking
3.1%
Break & Enter
3.0%
2.6%
Weapons Offences
Robbery
1.0%
Sexual Assault
1.0%
Other Crimes Against Persons
0.7%
Criminal Harassment
0.7%
Other Sexual Offences
0.5%
Attempted Murder
0.07%
Homicide & Related
0.06%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
Percentage of all Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges (2002-03)
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
Administration of justice charges (offences related to case proceedings such as failure to appear
in court, failure to comply with a court order, breach of probation, and unlawfully at large) account
for 20.1% of charges.
Apart from charges of administration of justice, impaired driving is the most frequent federal
statute charge in adult courts.
Note:
Data from this survey are not nationally comprehensive as they do not include New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia and
Nunavut for 2000-01, and do not include Manitoba and Nunavut for 2001-02 and 2002-03. In addition, only Prince Edward Island,
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon report superior court data to the Adult Criminal Court Survey.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
10
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE CHARGES ACCOUNT FOR 20% OF CHARGES IN ADULT COURTS
Table A5.
Criminal Code and Other Federal Statute Charges
2000-2001
2001-2002
2002-2003
Crimes Against the Person
Homicide and Related
Attempted Murder
Robbery
Sexual Assault
Other Sexual Offences
Major Assault (Levels 2 & 3)
Common Assault (Level 1)
Uttering Threats
Criminal Harassment
Weapons Offences
Other Crimes Against Persons
#
181,317
490
489
7,779
8,109
4,966
33,719
62,572
32,842
5,116
19,227
6,008
%
22.50
0.06
0.06
0.97
1.01
0.62
4.18
7.77
4.08
0.63
2.39
0.75
#
227,085
645
747
10,167
9,987
5,365
41,005
79,307
42,309
6,580
23,914
7,059
%
22.88
0.06
0.08
1.02
1.01
0.54
4.13
7.99
4.26
0.66
2.41
0.71
#
241,756
643
763
10,556
10,209
5,658
44,971
82,367
44,255
7,292
27,284
7,758
%
23.19
0.06
0.07
1.01
0.98
0.54
4.31
7.90
4.25
0.70
2.62
0.74
Crimes Against Property
Theft
Break and Enter
Fraud
Mischief
Possession of Stolen Property
Other Property Crimes
209,766
57,221
26,551
58,020
25,861
40,204
1,909
26.03
7.10
3.29
7.20
3.21
4.99
0.24
257,352
77,535
29,469
65,267
32,050
50,824
2,207
25.93
7.81
2.97
6.58
3.23
5.12
0.22
265,615
78,672
30,942
64,931
33,360
54,951
2,759
25.48
7.55
2.97
6.23
3.20
5.27
0.26
Administration of Justice
Fail to Appear
Breach of Probation
Unlawfully at Large
Fail to Comply with Order
Other Administration of Justice
155,110
17,755
50,548
8,549
73,230
5,028
19.25
2.20
6.27
1.06
9.09
0.62
197,120
23,038
66,815
7,424
94,502
5,341
19.86
2.32
6.73
0.75
9.52
0.54
209,853
23,157
72,980
7,876
100,417
5,423
20.13
2.22
7.00
0.76
9.63
0.52
53,214
4,523
4,973
43,718
6.60
0.56
0.62
5.43
63,166
4,069
6,348
52,749
6.36
0.41
0.64
5.31
68,445
4,165
6,280
58,000
6.57
0.40
0.60
5.56
108,276
92,840
15,436
13.44
11.52
1.92
129,270
110,118
19,152
13.02
11.09
1.93
129,147
110,269
18,878
12.39
10.58
1.81
98,127
24,110
20,337
53,680
12.18
2.99
2.52
6.66
118,574
32,794
32,955
52,825
11.95
3.30
3.32
5.32
127,676
33,171
32,089
62,416
12.25
3.18
3.08
5.99
805,810
100.00
992,567
100.00
1,042,492
100.00
Other Criminal Code
Prostitution
Disturbing the Peace
Residual Criminal Code
Criminal Code Traffic
Impaired Driving
Other CC Traffic
Other Federal Statutes
Drug Possession
Drug Trafficking
Residual Federal Statutes
Total Offences
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.
Data from this survey are not nationally comprehensive as they do not include New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia and
Nunavut for 2000-01, and do not include Manitoba and Nunavut for 2001-02 and 2002-03. In addition, only Prince Edward Island,
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon report superior court data to the Adult Criminal Court Survey.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
11
VICTIMIZATION RATES FOR THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY HAVE INCREASED
Figure A6.
Rate of Victimization per 1,000 Population
100
1993
1999
90
75
80
70
60
56
52
51
50
40
30
21
16
20
10
9
10
0
Theft of Personal Property
Sexual Assault
Robbery
Assault
Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1993 and 1999*.
„
„
„
Victimization rates for theft of personal property were higher in 1999 than in 1993.
In 1999, 25% of Canadians aged 15 or older were victims of at least one crime in the previous
year. This was up from 23% in 1993.
In all, there were an estimated 8.3 million victimization incidents in 1999.
Note:
*The next General Social Survey that will include a victimization component is expected in 2005.
Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
12
VICTIMIZATION RATES FOR THEFT OF PERSONAL PROPERTY HAVE INCREASED
Table A6.
Type of Incident
Year
1993
1999
Theft of Personal Property
52
75
Sexual Assault
16
21
Robbery
10
9
Assault
56
51
23%
25%
Total % of Victimization
Source: General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, 1993 and 1999*.
Note:
* The next General Social Survey that will include a victimization component is expected in 2005.
Rates are based on 1,000 population, 15 years of age and older.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
13
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME ARE UNDER 30
Figure A7.
18%
15.9%
16%
14.1%
14%
12%
11.1%
10.4% 10.1%
10%
9.2%
9.2%
8%
6.4%
6%
4.1%
4%
2.6%
2%
0%
2.5%
1.3%
1 to 4
1.3%
5 to 9
0.8%
0.5%
10 to14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 to 69 70 to 74
0.5%
75+
Age of Victim (2003)
Source: Revised Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
More than half (54.1%) of all victims of violent crime reported in 2003 were under the age of 30,
whereas 38.6% of the Canadian population is under the age of 30.
Older Canadians (aged 65 and older), who account for 12.8% of the general population,
represent 1.8% of victims.
Females aged 10 to 19 years were less likely to be victims of violent crime than males of the
same age, while females aged 20 to 44 years were more likely than males of that age to be
victims of a violent crime.
Note:
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, robbery and traffic offences causing bodily
harm and death.
The data are not nationally representative. They were reported by 122 police departments as of December 31, 2003 and they
represent 60.7% of the national volume of crime in 2003.
Excludes 4,341 cases where age was unknown, 1,077 cases where sex was unknown and 198 cases where both age and sex were
unknown.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
14
THE MAJORITY OF VICTIMS OF VIOLENT CRIME ARE UNDER 30
Table A7. (2003)
Age of Victim
Males
Females
Total
Number
%
Number
%
Number
%
1 to 4 years
1,450
1.3
1,418
1.3
2,868
1.3
5 to 9 years
3,085
2.7
2,839
2.5
5,924
2.6
10 to 14 years
11,279
9.9
9,425
8.4
20,704
9.2
15 to 19 years
18,537
16.3
17,311
15.5
35,848
15.9
20 to 24 years
15,238
13.4
16,470
14.7
31,708
14.1
25 to 29 years
11,759
10.3
13,257
11.9
25,016
11.1
30 to 34 years
11,333
10.0
12,123
10.8
23,456
10.4
35 to 39 years
10,829
9.5
11,975
10.7
22,804
10.1
40 to 44 years
10,278
9.0
10,518
9.4
20,796
9.2
45 to 49 years
7,450
6.6
6,869
6.1
14,319
6.4
50 to 54 years
5,049
4.4
4,130
3.7
9,179
4.1
55 to 59 years
3,339
2.9
2,351
2.1
5,690
2.5
60 to 64 years
1,805
1.6
1,192
1.1
2,997
1.3
65 to 69 years
1,089
1.0
729
0.7
1,818
0.8
70 to 74 years
648
0.6
491
0.4
1,139
0.5
75+ years
531
0.5
681
0.6
1,212
0.5
113,699
100.0
111,779
100.0
225,478
100.0
Total
Source: Revised Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
The data are not nationally representative. They were reported by 122 police departments as of December 31, 2003 and they
represent 60.7% of the national volume of crime in 2003.
Excludes 4,341 cases where age was unknown, 1,077 cases where sex was unknown and 198 cases where both age and sex were
unknown.
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
15
MOST ADULT CUSTODIAL SENTENCES ORDERED BY THE COURT ARE SHORT
Figure A8.
80%
69.7%
70%
60%
Length of Prison Sentence for Men
Length of Prison Sentence for Women
54.1%
50%
40%
33.2%
30%
23.7%
20%
10%
5.9%
3.3%
2.9%
1.6%
3.9%
1.7%
0%
1 Month or Less
> 1 to 6 Months
> 6 to 12 Months
>1 Year to < 2 Years
2 Years or More
Length of Sentence (2002-03)
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
Over half (55.6%) of all custodial sentences imposed by adult courts are less than one month.
Prison sentences for men tend to be longer than for women. About two-thirds (69.7%) of women
and just over half of men (54.1%) who are incarcerated upon conviction receive a sentence of
one month or less, and 93.4% of women and 87.3% of men receive a sentence of six months or
less.
Of all convictions that result in custody, only 3.7% result in federal jurisdiction (i.e., a sentence of
two years or more).
Note:
Excludes cases where length of prison sentence was not known.
Data from this survey are not nationally comprehensive as they do not include New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia and
Nunavut for 2000-01, and do not include Manitoba and Nunavut for 2001-02 and 2002-03. In addition, only Prince Edward Island,
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon report superior court data to the Adult Criminal Court Survey.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
16
MOST ADULT CUSTODIAL SENTENCES ORDERED BY THE COURT ARE SHORT
Table A8.
Length of Prison Sentence
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Percentage
1 Month or Less
Women
67.0
66.3
67.2
69.9
69.7
Men
48.2
49.1
50.7
52.5
54.1
Total
49.9
50.6
52.2
54.1
55.6
Women
26.0
25.8
25.1
23.8
23.7
Men
37.9
37.3
35.7
34.4
33.2
Total
36.8
36.2
34.7
33.5
32.3
Women
3.2
3.9
3.6
2.9
3.3
Men
6.4
6.2
6.2
5.9
5.9
Total
6.1
6.0
6.0
5.6
5.6
Women
1.7
1.7
1.9
1.2
1.6
Men
3.3
3.2
3.4
3.0
2.9
Total
3.1
3.1
3.2
2.8
2.8
Women
2.2
2.4
2.2
2.3
1.7
Men
4.2
4.2
4.0
4.2
3.9
Total
4.0
4.0
3.9
4.0
3.7
More Than 1 Month to 6 Months
More Than 6 Months to 12 Months
More Than 1 Year to Less than 2 years
2 Years or More
Source: Adult Criminal Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
Due to rounding, totals may not add to 100 percent.
Excludes cases where length of prison sentence was not known.
Data from this survey are not nationally comprehensive as they do not include New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia and
Nunavut for 2000-01, and do not include Manitoba and Nunavut for 2001-02 and 2002-03. In addition, only Prince Edward Island,
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon report superior court data to the Adult Criminal Court Survey.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
17
RELATIVELY FEW CRIMES RESULT IN SENTENCES TO FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
Figure A9.
Total Number of Offences
Reported to Police 2003:
2,810,2361
Estimated Convictions
in Adult Court 2002-03:
310,0001*
Sentenced Admissions to
Provincial/Territorial Custody 2002-03:
83,8851
Warrant of Committal Admissions to
Federal Jurisdiction 2002-03:
4,2812
Source: 1Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey and Adult Corrections Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics,
Statistics Canada; 2Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
There were about 2.8 million crimes reported to police in 2003.
During 2002-03, 4,281 offenders were sentenced to federal jurisdiction (i.e., two years or more).
Note:
Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through
March 31).
*Data have been estimated in this report to represent 100% survey coverage (from an estimated 90% actual coverage), rounded to
the nearest thousand. This figure only includes provincial court convictions and partial data from superior court.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
18
RELATIVELY FEW CRIMES RESULT IN SENTENCES TO FEDERAL PENITENTIARIES
Table A9.
Total Number of Offences
Reported to Police1
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2,593,565
2,587,891
2,622,453
2,634,551
2,810,236
301,000
285,000
284,000
299,000
310,000
93,045
86,885
80,928
82,875
83,885
4,645
4,350
4,278
4,118
4,281
Estimated Convictions in
Adult Court*1
Sentenced Admissions to
Provincial/Territorial Custody1
Warrant of Committal
Admissions to Federal Facilities2
Source: 1Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Adult Criminal Court Survey and Adult Corrections Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics,
Statistics Canada; 2Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Police data are reported on a calendar year basis whereas court and prison data are reported on a fiscal year basis (April 1 through
March 31).
*Data have been estimated in this report to represent 100% survey coverage (from an estimated 90% actual coverage in 2001-02
and 2002-03 and 80% coverage in previous years), rounded to the nearest thousand.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
19
THE RATE OF YOUTH CHARGED PEAKED IN 1991
Figure A10.
Rate of Youths Charged per 100,000 Youth Population
7,000
6,000
5,000
Total
4,000
Property
3,000
2,000
Other Criminal Code
1,000
Violent
0
1986
1987 1988
1989 1990
1991
1992
1993 1994
1995 1996
1997
1998 1999
2000 2001
2002
2003
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
The rate of youth charged has decreased since 1991.
The rate decreased in 2003 in all major crime categories. This may in part be due to the
implementation of the Youth Criminal Justice Act in April 2003, which places greater emphasis on
diversion.
The decrease in the charge rate in 2003 occurred for both males and females.
Note:
Violent crimes include homicide, attempted murder, assault, sexual offences, abduction, and robbery.
In 2003, over half of all youths charged with violent crimes were charged with assault level 1 (minor assault).
Property crimes include break and enter, motor vehicle thefts, other thefts, possession of stolen goods and fraud.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
20
THE RATE OF YOUTH CHARGED PEAKED IN 1991
Table A10.
Type of Offence
Violent
Year
Property
Other CCC
Total
Female
Male
Total
Female
Male
Total
Female
Male
Total
Female
Male
Total
1986
156
649
409
1,172
5,669
3,478
283
1,526
920
1,612
7,844
4,807
1987
170
717
450
1,099
5,419
3,312
322
1,662
1,008
1,591
7,798
4,770
1988
209
794
509
1,112
5,395
3,306
353
1,760
1,074
1,674
7,949
4,889
1989
246
964
614
1,239
5,455
3,401
387
1,880
1,153
1,872
8,299
5,168
1990
299
1,071
696
1,396
5,906
3,712
381
1,980
1,202
2,076
8,957
5,610
1991
349
1,290
832
1,564
6,367
4,031
473
2,270
1,396
2,386
9,926
6,258
1992
384
1,329
869
1,522
5,622
3,629
504
2,199
1,375
2,409
9,150
5,874
1993
450
1,369
923
1,392
4,951
3,221
484
2,086
1,307
2,326
8,406
5,450
1994
426
1,383
918
1,244
4,514
2,924
442
1,984
1,234
2,112
7,882
5,077
1995
444
1,411
941
1,307
4,323
2,856
493
1,992
1,263
2,244
7,727
5,061
1996
452
1,387
932
1,257
4,186
2,761
522
1,939
1,250
2,231
7,512
4,943
1997
473
1,321
908
1,068
3,640
2,389
535
1,911
1,242
2,076
6,871
4,539
1998
473
1,307
902
999
3,332
2,198
568
1,925
1,266
2,041
6,564
4,365
1999
441
1,247
855
900
2,935
1,945
537
1,875
1,224
1,878
6,056
4,025
2000
476
1,331
915
892
2,795
1,869
567
1,976
1,291
1,935
6,101
4,075
2001
502
1,369
947
902
2,673
1,811
628
2,053
1,359
2,032
6,095
4,117
2002
505
1,313
919
892
2,496
1,715
595
1,940
1,285
1,991
5,749
3,919
2003
437
1,177
816
597
2,136
1,386
502
1,736
1,135
1,537
5,048
3,337
Source: Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
Rates for “Total” are based on 100,000 youth population (12 to 17 years).
Rates for “Females” are based on 100,000 female youth population (12 to 17 years) and rates for “Males” are based on 100,000
male youth population (12 to 17 years).
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
21
THE MOST COMMON YOUTH COURT CASE IS THEFT
Figure A11.
15.3%
Theft
12.2%
Young Offenders Act*
10.6%
Common Assault
9.2%
Administration of Justice**
8.8%
Break & Enter
Possession Stolen Goods
7.1%
Drug Offences
7.0%
5.8%
Major Assault
5.0%
Mischief
4.6%
Other Crimes Against Persons
Robbery
3.5%
2.0%
Sexual Assault/Sexual Offences
Fraud
1.7%
1.4%
Impaired Driving & Other Traffic
Homicide & Related Offences
0.05%
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
18%
Percentage of Youth Court Cases by Principal Charge (2002-03)
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
Theft is the most common case in youth court.
Murders, homicides and related offences account for 0.05% of all youth cases.
Female young offenders account for 22.8% of all cases, but for 34.0% of common assaults
(Youth Court Survey, Statistics Canada).
Note:
*Young Offenders Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a
youth to leave a place of custody, and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large.
**The Administration of Justice category includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, breach of recognizance, escape
and unlawfully at large.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
22
THE MOST COMMON YOUTH COURT CASE IS THEFT
Table A11.
Type of Case
Number of Youth Court Cases
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Crimes Against the Person
Common Assault
Major Assault
Robbery
Weapons/Firearms/Explosives
Sexual Assault/Sexual Offences
Homicide and Related Offences
Other Crimes Against the Person
24,792
9,671
4,910
3,327
1,588
1,801
37
3,458
23,971
9,019
4,748
3,032
1,539
1,653
51
3,929
24,284
9,229
4,791
2,714
1,610
1,761
38
4,141
24,028
8,708
4,948
2,789
1,518
1,698
31
4,336
24,001
8,968
4,935
2,932
1,539
1,681
44
3,902
Crimes Against Property
40,148
15,234
11,021
7,215
4,393
1,784
501
35,518
13,667
9,088
6,583
3,994
1,730
456
34,694
13,611
8,223
6,452
4,213
1,653
542
33,086
13,103
7,522
6,243
4,128
1,578
512
32,465
12,913
7,415
6,039
4,247
1,411
440
8,154
1,642
6,512
7,551
1,382
6,169
7,917
1,340
6,577
7,698
1,249
6,449
7,790
1,153
6,637
4,443
86
479
1,240
2,638
4,265
74
449
1,238
2,504
4,062
44
419
1,166
2,433
4,218
24
424
1,211
2,559
3,953
25
384
1,225
2,319
15,330
2,725
1,575
10,916
114
16,295
3,107
1,849
11,217
122
16,660
3,773
1,994
10,766
127
16,610
4,058
2,000
10,414
138
16,383
4,137
1,770
10,325
151
92,867
87,600
87,617
85,640
84,592
Theft
Break and Enter
Possession of Stolen Goods
Mischief
Fraud
Other Crimes Against Property
Administration of Justice
Escape/Unlawfully at Large
Other Administration of Justice*
Other Criminal Code
Prostitution
Disturbing the Peace
Impaired Driving/Other CC Traffic
Residual Criminal Code
Other Federal Statutes
Drug Possession
Drug Trafficking
Young Offenders Act**
Residual Federal Statutes
Total
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*“Other Administration of Justice” includes the offences failure to appear, failure to comply, and breach of recognizance.
**Young Offenders Act offences include failure to comply with a disposition or undertaking, contempt against youth court, assisting a
youth to leave a place of custody, and harbouring a youth unlawfully at large.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
23
PROBATION IS THE MOST COMMON YOUTH COURT DISPOSITION
Figure A12.
Youth Court Dispositions
60%
Probation
50%
40%
30%
Custody
20%
Other*
10%
Fine
0%
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
The use of probation for young offenders consistently accounted for over one-half of youth court
dispositions during the period from 1994-95 to 2002-03 and has been increasing in recent years.
Female young offenders are more likely to receive a community disposition whereas males are
more likely to receive a custody disposition.
The percentage of female young offenders in open custody has been stable at approximately
12% since 1994-95, while the percentage in closed custody has increased from 7.7% to 11.4%
in the same period. The percentage of male young offenders in open custody has decreased
from 16.2% in 1994-95 to 13.3% in 2002-03, while the percentage in closed custody has
remained stable at approximately 15% in the same period.
Note:
*"Other" includes community service order, compensation, pay purchaser of stolen goods, compensation in kind, absolute discharge,
detain for treatment (until 1995-96), conditional discharge (as of 1997-98), restitution, prohibition/seizure/forfeiture, essays,
apologies and counselling programs.
Custodial facilities for young offenders may be designated as either "open" or "secure". Open custody facilities closely monitor the
actions and whereabouts of young offenders, but residents are allowed to leave the facility for reasons such as attending school. In
secure custody facilities, often called Youth Detention Centres, the premises are secured and the movement of young offenders is
strictly controlled.
When a case has more than one charge, it is categorized according to the "most serious disposition" that results from the charges.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
24
PROBATION IS THE MOST COMMON YOUTH COURT DISPOSITION
Table A12.
Type of
Disposition
Year
Gender
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Percentage
Probation
Open Custody
Secure Custody
Fine
Other*
Female
56.7
56.6
57.6
57.5
60.6
Male
50.4
51.0
51.3
52.9
56.1
Total
51.7
52.1
52.6
53.8
57.1
Female
12.9
11.9
12.6
11.0
11.5
Male
15.4
14.8
14.9
13.5
13.3
Total
14.9
14.2
14.4
13.0
13.0
Female
10.9
10.7
11.1
11.3
11.4
Male
15.9
15.5
15.9
15.8
15.2
Total
14.9
14.6
15.0
14.9
14.4
Female
4.7
5.3
4.7
4.7
4.6
Male
6.7
6.9
6.5
6.2
5.9
Total
6.3
6.6
6.1
5.9
5.6
Female
14.8
15.6
13.9
15.5
11.8
Male
11.5
11.8
11.4
11.6
9.4
Total
12.2
12.6
11.9
12.4
9.9
Source: Youth Court Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*"Other" includes community service order, compensation, pay purchaser of stolen goods, compensation in kind, absolute discharge,
conditional discharge (as of 1997-98), restitution, prohibition/seizure/forfeiture, essays, apologies and counselling programs.
Custodial facilities for young offenders may be designated as either "open" or "secure". Open custody facilities closely monitor the
actions and whereabouts of young offenders, but residents are allowed to leave the facility for reasons such as attending school. In
secure custody facilities, often called Youth Detention Centres, the premises are secured and the movement of young offenders is
strictly controlled.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
SECTION B.
CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATION
25
FEDERAL EXPENDITURES ON CORRECTIONS HAVE INCREASED
Figure B1.
Dollars (‘000)
1,700,000
1,600,000
Current Dollars
1,500,000
1,400,000
Constant Dollars
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Source: Correctional Service Canada; National Parole Board; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.
„
„
„
„
In 2002-03, expenditures on federal corrections in Canada totalled about $1.57 billion.
Federal expenditures on corrections, in current dollars, increased 23% from 1998-99 to 2002-03,
while in constant dollars the increase over this time period was 11%.
Federal corrections expenditures represent less than 1% of the total federal government
budget.
Provincial/territorial expenditures totalled just over $1.28 billion in 2002-03 (see Adult
Correctional Services Survey, Statistics Canada).
Note:
Federal expenditures on corrections include the spending by the Correctional Service Canada (CSC) and the National Parole Board
(NPB). The expenditures for the CSC include both operating and capital costs. CSC expenditures exclude CORCAN (a Special
Operating Agency that conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be
directly comparable. The Consumer Price Index (1998/99 = 100) was used to calculate constant dollars using annual fiscally
adjusted Consumer Price Index values.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
26
FEDERAL EXPENDITURES ON CORRECTIONS HAVE INCREASED
Table B1.
Year
Current Dollars
Operating
Capital
Constant 1998-99 Dollars
Total Per Capita
$’000
Operating
Capital
Total Per Capita
$’000
$
$
1998-99
NPB
26,100
--
26,100
0.86
26,100
--
26,100
0.86
CSC
1,118,291
137,265
1,255,556
41.51
1,118,291
137,265
1,255,556
41.51
Total
1,144,391
137,265
1,281,656
42.37
1,144,391
137,265
1,281,656
42.37
NPB
28,300
--
28,300
0.93
27,686
--
27,686
0.91
CSC
1,245,428
111,291
1,356,719
44.48
1,218,427
108,878
1,327,305
43.52
Total
1,273,728
111,291
1,385,019
45.41
1,246,113
108,878
1,354,991
44.43
NPB
30,900
--
30,900
1.00
29,432
--
29,432
0.96
CSC
1,239,830
114,597
1,354,427
44.02
1,180,946
109,154
1,290,101
41.93
Total
1,270,730
114,597
1,385,327
45.02
1,210,378
109,154
1,319,533
42.89
NPB
34,500
--
34,500
1.11
32,127
--
32,127
1.03
CSC
1,390,096
130,137
1,520,233
48.91
1,294,475
121,185
1,415,660
45.55
Total
1,424,596
130,137
1,544,733
50.02
1,326,602
121,185
1,447,787
46.58
NPB
36,500
--
36,500
1.16
32,859
--
32,859
1.05
CSC
1,412,455
125,955
1,538,410
48.97
1,271,562
113,391
1,384,953
44.09
Total
1,448,955
125,955
1,574,910
50.13
1,304,421
113,391
1,417,812
45.14
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Source: Correctional Service Canada; National Parole Board; Statistics Canada Consumer Price Index.
Note:
Due to rounding, constant dollar amounts may not add to "Total".
Per capita cost is calculated by dividing the total expenditures by the total Canadian population and thus represents the cost per
Canadian for federal correctional services.
Constant dollars represent dollar amounts calculated on a one-year base that adjusts for inflation allowing the yearly amounts to be
directly comparable. The Consumer Price Index was used to calculate constant dollars over a base year (1998-99=100), using
annual fiscally adjusted Consumer Price Index values.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
27
CSC EMPLOYEES ARE CONCENTRATED IN CUSTODY CENTRES
Figure B2.
As of March 31, 2004.
Custody Centres 79.1%
Correctional Officers 41.6%
Community Supervision 8.0%
(Includes parole officers, program
staff, administrative support, and
other staff)
Administration 13.2%
Headquarters and
Central Services 13.0%
(Includes program staff,
administrative support,
and other staff)
Instructors/Supervisors 2.5%
Program Staff 3.3%
Parole Officers* 4.5%
Health Care Workers 6.1%
Other 7.9%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) has a total staff of about 16,000.
Approximately 80% of CSC staff work in institutions.
Staff employed in community supervision account for 8% of the total.
Note:
*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility to prepare offenders for release.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
28
CSC EMPLOYEES ARE CONCENTRATED IN CUSTODY CENTRES
Table B2.
Service Area
Number of Staff
Percent
2,062
13.0
1,709
10.7
130
0.8
Program Staff
91
0.6
Correctional Officers
18
0.1
Instructors/Supervisors
16
0.1
Parole Officers
10
0.1
Other**
88
0.6
12,585
79.1
Correctional Officers
6,615
41.6
Administrative Support
2,094
13.2
Health Care Workers
977
6.1
Parole Officers*
717
4.5
Program Staff
523
3.3
Instructors/Supervisors
394
2.5
1,265
7.9
1,269
8.0
Parole Officers
698
4.4
Administrative Support
401
2.5
Program Staff
111
0.7
Health Care Workers
34
0.2
Correctional Officers
22
0.1
Instructors/Supervisors
1
0.01
Other**
2
0.01
15,916
100.0
Headquarters and Central Services
Administrative Support
Health Care Workers
Custody Centres
Other**
Community Supervision
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These numbers include all indeterminate, term and casual employees active as of March 31, 2004.
*These parole officers are situated within institutions, with the responsibility to prepare offenders for release.
**The “Other” category represents job classifications such as trades and food services.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
29
THE COST OF KEEPING AN INMATE IN A PENITENTIARY HAS INCREASED
Figure B3.
Federal Average Daily Inmate Cost
Women
500
Both
$464.11
450
$426.27
400
350
Men
$362.95
$316.34
300
250
200
$182.79 $185.44
$217.91 $221.31
$217.96 $222.48
2001-02
2002-03
$192.28 $194.86
150
100
50
0
1999-00
2000-01
Source: Public Accounts of Canada, Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
The federal average daily inmate cost has increased from $185.44 in 1999-00 to $222.48 in
2002-03.
In 2002-03, the annual average cost of keeping an inmate in penitentiary was $81,206 per year,
up from $67,685 per year in 1999-00. In 2002-03, the annual average cost of keeping a male
inmate in penitentiary was $79,555 per year, whereas the annual average cost for maintaining a
woman in penitentiary was $169,399.
It costs substantially less to maintain an offender in the community than in a penitentiary
($20,478 per year versus $81,206 per year).
Note:
The average daily inmate cost includes those costs associated with the operation of the institutions such as salaries, and employee
benefit plan contributions, but excludes capital expenditures and expenditures related to CORCAN (a Special Operating Agency that
conducts industrial operations within penitentiaries).
In 2001-2002, the cost allocation methodology was refined to better reflect expenditures directly related to offenders. In addition, the
cost of maintaining a woman in penitentiary includes the cost of maximum security units for women, co-located within
institutions for men.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
30
THE COST OF KEEPING AN INMATE IN A PENITENTIARY HAS INCREASED
Table B3.
Annual Average Cost per Offender ($)
Categories
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Maximum Security (males only)
96,740
98,904
108,277
110,213
Medium Security (males only)
60,673
63,931
71,894
69,716
Minimum Security (males only)
53,634
57,912
69,178
69,239
115,465
132,475
155,589
169,399
--
55,987
56,630
54,450
67,685
71,125
80,780
81,206
Offenders in the Community
15,317
16,804
18,678
20,478
Total Incarcerated and Community
52,597
56,171
62,115
64,464
Incarcerated Offenders
Women’s Facilities
Exchange of Services Agreements
Incarcerated Average
Source: Public Accounts of Canada, Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Exchange of Services Agreements are agreements that the Correctional Service of Canada has with the provinces and territories to
cover costs associated with the provinces and territories providing services to federal offenders.
The Average Cost per Offender is calculated by dividing the total costs for the year by the average number of offenders in the
institutions over the year. The total cost includes money received from the provinces for maintaining provincial offenders in federal
facilities. The average number of offenders includes the number of provincial offenders maintained in federal facilities.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
31
THE NUMBER OF NATIONAL PAROLE BOARD EMPLOYEES
Figure B4.
Full-Time Equivalents
400
375
355
350
339
309
320
322
1998-99
1999-00
366
337
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1996-97
1997-98
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
The total number of full-time equivalents used by the National Parole Board increased between
1997-98 and 2002-03, but decreased in the last year.
Note:
Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the National Parole Board to 45 full-time members.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
32
THE NUMBER OF NATIONAL PAROLE BOARD EMPLOYEES
Table B4.
Full-Time Equivalents
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
224
222
231
240
289
264
Clemency and Pardons
26
26
26
35
34
28
Corporate Management
70
74
80
80
52
74
320
322
337
355
375
366
Full-time Board Members
44
45
41
42
42
43
Part-time Board Members
16
15
15
14
14
13
Staff
260
262
281
299
319
310
Total
320
322
337
355
375
366
Business Lines
Conditional Release
Total
Type of Employees
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
Section 103 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act limits the National Parole Board to 45 full-time members.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
SECTION C.
OFFENDER POPULATION
33
FEDERAL OFFENDERS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Figure C1.
Total Offender Population as of April 11, 2004.
Unlawfully at Large
2.8%
Escaped
0.7%
Actively Supervised
32.1%
Incarcerated
57.5%
Community
Supervision
Temporarily Detained
4.4%
Deported
2.1%
On Bail
0.3%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Definitions:
Total Offender Population includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their sentences in
federal or provincial institutions and those on temporary absence), offenders who are temporarily detained, actively
supervised, on bail, escaped, unlawfully at large and those that have been deported.
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
On Bail includes offenders on a judicial interim release; they have appealed their conviction or sentence and have been
released to await the results of a new trial.
Actively Supervised includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are
in the community on long-term supervision orders.
Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who
are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
Temporarily Detained includes offenders who are physically held in a provincial detention center or a federal institution
after being suspended for a breach of a parole condition or to prevent a breach of parole conditions.
Deported includes offenders for whom a deportation order has been issued and executed by Immigration Canada.
Escaped includes offenders who have absconded from either a correctional facility or while on a temporary absence
and whose whereabouts are unknown.
Unlawfully at Large includes offenders who have been released to the community on day parole, full parole, statutory
release, or a long term supervision order for whom a warrant for suspension or revocation has been issued, but has not
yet been executed.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
34
FEDERAL OFFENDERS UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICE OF CANADA
Table C1. As of April 11, 2004.
Status
Incarcerated
On Bail
Actively Supervised
Federal Offenders
#
%
12,413
57.5
62
0.3
6,937
32.1
Day Parole
1,053
4.9
Full Parole
3,671
17.0
Statutory Release
2,162
10.0
51
0.2
Long Term Supervision Order
Temporarily Detained, while on:
954
4.4
Day Parole
162
0.8
Full Parole
144
0.7
Statutory Release
639
3.0
9
0.04
Long Term Supervision Order
Deported
448
2.1
Escaped
154
0.7
Unlawfully At Large
615
2.8
21,583
100.0
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
It is possible for an offender under federal jurisdiction to serve his or her sentence in a provincial institution. The data presented
include these offenders as they are still under federal jurisdiction.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
35
THE NUMBER OF INCARCERATED FEDERAL OFFENDERS HAS DECLINED
Figure C2.
Number of Incarcerated Federal Offenders at Fiscal Year* End
15,000
14,500
14,180
14,000
13,443
13,500
13,131
12,816
13,000
12,794
12,663
12,653
12,413
12,500
12,000
11,500
11,000
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
The federal incarcerated population decreased 12.5% from 1996-97 to 2003-04.
The provincial/territorial sentenced offender population in custody decreased from 1996-97 to
2000-01 while the remand population increased during this period.
Note:
The term “incarcerated” refers to those offenders serving a sentence of two years or more who are currently serving their sentence
in a federal or provincial correctional facility. These numbers include those offenders who are in the community on some form of
temporary absence at the time of the count. These numbers do not include those offenders who have had their supervision period
suspended and are temporarily detained, those offenders who are on bail, or those offenders who have escaped and have not yet
been recaptured at the time of the count.
*The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the
following year.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
36
THE NUMBER OF INCARCERATED FEDERAL OFFENDERS HAS DECLINED
Table C2.
Incarcerated Offenders
Provincial/Territorial
Year
Federal
1996-97
2
1
Total
Sentenced
Remand
Other/Temporary
Detention
Total
14,180
13,878
5,734
249
19,861
34,041
1997-98
13,443
12,573
6,109
274
18,956
32,399
1998-99
13,131
12,478
6,472
271
19,221
32,352
1999-00
12,816
11,438
6,665
548
18,651
31,467
2000-01
12,794
10,806
7,428
432
18,666
31,460
2001-02
12,663
10,931
7,980
351
19,262
31,925
2002-03
12,653
10,583
8,730
361
19,674
32,327
2003-04
12,413
--
--
--
--
--
Source: 1Correctional Service Canada; 2Adult Correctional Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
The figures for federal offenders reflect yearly snapshots as of the last day of each fiscal year, whereas editions of this document
prior to 2003 presented monthly averages. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. The figures for provincial
and territorial offenders reflect annual average counts.
--Data not available
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
37
ADMISSIONS TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION DECREASED IN 2003-04
Figure C3.
Number of Admissions
Other*
Revocations
Warrant of Committal
10,000
9,000
135
157
8,000
7,000
175
148
127
155
179
3,158
3,263
163
161
173
3,728
3,306
6,000
3,369
3,315
3,045
3,167
3,295
3,178
5,000
4,000
3,000
4,786
2,000
4,390
4,552
4416
4,645
4,350
4,278
4,118
4,281
4,226
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
1,000
0
1994-95
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
There has been a general decline in admissions over the past 10 years.
The number of warrant of committal admissions to federal jurisdiction has remained stable over
the past four years.
The number of women admitted to federal jurisdiction under warrant of committal increased from
208 in 2002-03 to 237 in 2003-04.
Note:
These numbers refer to the federal jurisdiction admissions during each fiscal year and may be greater than the actual number of
offenders admitted, since an individual offender may be admitted more than once in a given year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to
March 31 of the following year.
*"Other" includes transfers from other jurisdictions (exchange of services), terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and
admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
38
ADMISSIONS TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION DECREASED IN 2003-04
Table C3.
2000-01
1999-00
Type of Admission
Women
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
214
2,940
211
2,939
189
2,761
179
2,835
203
2,724
14
1,182
20
1,108
13
1,155
29
1,238
34
1,265
228
4,122
231
4,047
202
3,916
208
4,073
237
3,989
Warrant of Committal
1st Federal Sentence
All Others
Total
4,350
Revocations
Total
Other*
95
3,063
3,158
15
134
338
4,118
3,129
3,263
140
24
155
Total
Total Admissions
4,278
7,325
7,663
128
155
7,331
7,720
3,039
3,167
13
179
389
4,281
142
150
7,105
7,448
3,153
3,295
8
163
343
4,226
136
3,178
153
12
161
358
7,379
7,737
3,042
161
173
385
7,192
7,577
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*"Other" includes transfers from other jurisdictions through exchange of services, terminations, transfers from foreign countries, and
admissions where a release is interrupted as a consequence of a new conviction.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
39
THE NUMBER OF WOMEN ADMITTED FROM THE COURTS
TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION INCREASED IN 2003-04
Figure C4.
Number of Warrant of Committal Admissions for Women
300
250
232
228
197
200
237
231
202
208
2001-02
2002-03
180
151
148
1994-95
1995-96
150
100
50
0
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2003-04
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
Admissions increased from 1994-95 to 1998-99 and have remained relatively stable since that
time.
Overall, women continue to represent a small proportion of the total number of admissions
(i.e., 5.6% in 2003-04).
As of April 11, 2004, there were 379 women incarcerated in Canada under federal jurisdiction.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
40
THE NUMBER OF WOMEN ADMITTED FROM THE COURTS
TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION INCREASED IN 2003-04
Table C4.
Warrant of Committal Admissions
Total
Admissions
Year
Women
Men
Number
%
Number
%
1994-95
4,635
96.8
151
3.2
4,786
1995-96
4,242
96.6
148
3.4
4,390
1996-97
4,372
96.0
180
4.0
4,552
1997-98
4,219
95.5
197
4.5
4,416
1998-99
4,413
95.0
232
5.0
4,645
1999-00
4,122
94.8
228
5.2
4,350
2000-01
4,047
94.6
231
5.4
4,278
2001-02
3,916
95.1
202
4.9
4,118
2002-03
4,073
95.1
208
4.9
4,281
2003-04
3,989
94.4
237
5.6
4,226
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
41
OFFENDER AGE AT ADMISSION TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION IS INCREASING
Figure C5.
Percentage of Warrant of Committal Admissions
1994-95
2003-04
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Under 18
18 and 19
20 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34
35 to 39
40 to 49
50 to 59
60 to 69
70 and over
Age of Offender on Admission
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
„
In 2003-04, 36.1% of offenders admitted to federal jurisdiction were between the ages of 20 and
29, and 32.5% were between 30 and 39 years of age.
The distribution of age upon admission is similar for both men and women.
The median age of the population upon admission has increased from 30 in 1994-95 to 32 in
2003-04.
The number of offenders between the ages of 40 and 49 at admission has increased from 693
(14.5%) in 1994-95 to 815 (19.3%) in 2003-04, whereas the number of offenders between the
ages of 25 and 29 decreased from 987 (20.6%) in 1994-95 to 688 (16.3%) in 2003-04.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
42
OFFENDER AGE AT ADMISSION TO FEDERAL JURISDICTION IS INCREASING
Table C5.
Age on
Admission
2003-04
1994-95
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
0
16
16
0
6
6
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.1
5
231
236
11
177
188
3.3
5.0
4.9
4.6
4.4
4.4
24
936
960
43
795
838
15.9
20.2
20.1
18.1
19.9
19.8
30
957
987
35
653
688
19.9
20.6
20.6
14.8
16.4
16.3
42
883
925
42
666
708
27.8
19.1
19.3
17.7
16.7
16.8
23
594
617
36
629
665
15.2
12.8
12.9
15.2
15.8
15.7
24
669
693
53
762
815
15.9
14.4
14.5
22.4
19.1
19.3
3
239
242
15
228
243
2.0
5.2
5.1
6.3
5.7
5.8
0
89
89
2
63
65
0.0
1.9
1.9
0.8
1.6
1.5
0
21
21
0
10
10
0.0
0.5
0.4
0.0
0.3
0.2
151
4,635
237
3,989
Under 18
Percent
18 and 19
Percent
20 to 24
Percent
25 to 29
Percent
30 to 34
Percent
35 to 39
Percent
40 to 49
Percent
50 to 59
Percent
60 to 69
Percent
70 and over
Percent
Total
4,786
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
4,226
43
THE AVERAGE AGE OF ADMISSION IS LOWER FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Figure C6.
Percentage of Warrant of Committal Admissions
Aboriginal Offenders
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
0.7%
60-69
1.7%
2.8%
50-59
Age of Offender at Admission
0.3%
0.0%
70+
6.4%
14.3%
40-49
35-39
15.3%
30-34
15.4%
20.3%
15.8%
17.0%
18.8%
25-29
15.7%
24.2%
20-24
18.9%
8.1%
18-19
3.7%
0.4%
Under 18
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0.1%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Percentage of Admissions (2003-04)
Source: Correctional Service Canada.


Of those offenders admitted to federal jurisdiction in 2003-04, 51.5% of Aboriginal offenders were
under the age of 30, compared to 38.4% of non-Aboriginal offenders.
The median age of Aboriginal offenders is 29, compared to a median age of 33 for non-Aboriginal
offenders.
Note:
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
44
THE AVERAGE AGE OF ADMISSION IS LOWER FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Table C6.
Age on
Admission
2003-04
1994-95
NonAboriginal
Total
3
13
16
3
3
6
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.1
41
195
236
60
128
188
6.1
4.7
4.9
8.1
3.7
4.4
172
788
960
179
659
838
25.6
19.1
20.1
24.2
18.9
19.8
155
832
987
139
549
688
23.1
20.2
20.6
18.8
15.7
16.3
130
795
925
114
594
708
19.4
19.3
19.3
15.4
17.0
16.8
75
542
617
113
552
665
11.2
13.2
12.9
15.3
15.8
15.7
69
624
693
106
709
815
10.3
15.2
14.5
14.3
20.3
19.3
19
223
242
21
222
243
2.8
5.4
5.1
2.8
6.4
5.8
5
84
89
5
60
65
0.7
2.0
1.9
0.7
1.7
1.5
2
19
21
0
10
10
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.0
0.3
0.2
671
4,115
740
3,486
Aboriginal
Under 18
Percent
18 and 19
Percent
20 to 24
Percent
25 to 29
Percent
30 to 34
Percent
35 to 39
Percent
40 to 49
Percent
50 to 59
Percent
60 to 69
Percent
70 and over
Percent
Total
4,786
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100 percent.
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
Aboriginal
4,226
NonAboriginal
Total
45
14% OF THE FEDERAL INCARCERATED OFFENDER POPULATION IS AGE 50 OR OVER
Figure C7.
Percentage of Incarcerated Federal Offender Population
24.4%
25%
1997-98
2003-04
Canadian Adult Population
19.7%
19.5%
20%
17.7%
17.3%
16.4%
16.0%
14.9%
15%
13.0% 13.1%
10.2%
10%
8.5%
5%
2.4%
3.3%
1.4% 1.1%
0.6% 0.6%
0%
18-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
70+
Age
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
In 2003-04, 14.1% of incarcerated offenders were above the age of 50 compared to 11.5% in
1997-98.
In 2003-04, 40.8% of the incarcerated federal offender population was between the ages of 35
and 49, while 31.4% of the Canadian population was within this age group.
The community federal offender population was older than the incarcerated population; 24.5% of
offenders in the community were over 50, compared to 14.1% of the incarcerated offenders in
this age group.
Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well as those
on temporary absence.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
46
14% OF THE FEDERAL INCARCERATED OFFENDER POPULATION IS AGE 50 OR OVER
Table C7.
Age
Incarcerated
Community
% of Canadian
adult population*
Total
#
%
#
%
#
%
%
Under 18
5
<0.1
0
0.0
5
<0.1
-
18 and 19
131
1.1
13
0.2
144
0.7
3.5
20 to 24
1,626
13.1
690
8.3
2,316
11.2
8.9
25 to 29
1,853
14.9
1,016
12.2
2,869
13.8
8.6
30 to 34
1,988
16.0
1,095
13.1
3,083
14.9
9.1
35 to 39
2,039
16.4
1,207
14.5
3,246
15.6
10.1
40 to 49
3,023
24.4
2,276
27.3
5,299
25.5
21.3
50 to 59
1,261
10.2
1,283
15.4
2,544
12.3
16.3
60 to 69
414
3.3
558
6.7
972
4.7
10.3
73
0.6
201
2.4
274
1.3
11.8
12,413
100.0
8,339
100.0
20,752
100.0
100.0
70 and over
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada; Statistics Canada.
Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on
temporary absence.
Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are
termporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
The data presented is a snapshot of the offender population as of April 11, 2004.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0
*Annual Demographic Statistics 2003, Statistics Canada.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
47
70% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS ARE CAUCASIAN
Figure C8.
Percentage of Federal Offender Population (as of April 11, 2004)
Hispanic
Other/Unknown
0.6%
2.7%
Aboriginal
16.1%
Asian
4.1%
Caucasian
70.1%
Black
6.4%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
The federal offender population is diverse; however, 70.1% of offenders identify themselves as
Caucasian.
These proportions have changed little in the last three years.
Note:
These data are self-identified by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the
reader should interpret these data with caution.
"Aboriginal" includes offenders who are Inuit, Innu, Métis and North American Indian. "Asian" includes offenders who are Arab, West
Indian, Asiatic, Chinese, East Indian, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South East Asian and South Asian. "Hispanic" includes offenders
who are Hispanic and Latin American.
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their
sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence), offenders who are on community supervision, on
bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory
release, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
48
70% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS ARE CAUCASIAN
Table C8.
Offender Population
2003
2002
2004
#
%
#
%
#
%
3,365
15.2
3,394
15.5
3,474
16.1
Inuit
130
0.6
116
0.5
118
0.5
Métis
949
4.3
961
4.4
948
4.4
2,286
10.3
2,317
10.6
2,408
11.2
975
4.4
934
4.3
878
4.1
Arab/West Asian
145
0.7
150
0.7
133
0.6
Asiatic
317
1.4
254
1.2
210
1.0
Chinese
87
0.4
106
0.5
113
0.5
East Indian
77
0.3
65
0.3
51
0.2
Filipino
50
0.2
48
0.2
40
0.2
4
0.02
6
0.03
9
0.04
10
0.05
13
0.06
15
0.1
South East Asian
174
0.8
189
0.9
205
0.9
South Asian
111
0.5
103
0.5
102
0.5
1,390
6.3
1,404
6.4
1,388
6.4
15,690
70.8
15,394
70.5
15,138
70.1
137
0.6
121
0.6
121
0.6
Hispanic
69
0.3
46
0.2
38
0.2
Latin American
68
0.3
75
0.3
83
0.4
594
2.7
583
2.7
584
2.7
22,151
100.0
21,830
100.0
21,583
100.0
Aboriginal
North American Indian
Asian
Japanese
Korean
Black
Caucasian
Hispanic
Other/Unknown
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These data reflect the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their
sentences in federal or provincial institutions and those on temporary absence), offenders who are on community supervision, on
bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory
release, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
These data are self-identified by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the
reader should interpret these data with caution.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the
following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
49
THE RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFENDER POPULATION IS DIVERSE
Figure C9.
Percentage of Federal Offender Population (as of April 11, 2004).
Orthodox
0.5%
No Religion Declared
19.0%
Protestant
21.1%
Other
6.7%
Native Spirituality
3.2%
Catholic
43.1%
Sikh
0.4%
Muslim
3.5%
Buddhism
1.8%
Jewish
0.7%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
The religious identification of the current federal offender population is diverse. The two most
frequently declared religions are Catholic (43.1%) and Protestant (21.1%). Nineteen percent of
offenders declare no religion.
These proportions have changed little in the last year.
Note:
These data are self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive; therefore, the
reader should interpret these data with caution.
"Catholic" includes offenders who are Catholic, Roman-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Native-Catholic, and Ukrainian-Catholic.
"Orthodox" includes offenders who are Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, and Ukrainian Orthodox. "Protestant" includes offenders
who are Anglican, Baptist, Christian Missionary, Christian Reform, Hutterite, Lutheran, Mennonite, Moravian, Native Spirit Protestant,
Pentecostal, Presbyterian, Protestant, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist, United Church and Worldwide Church. "Other"
includes other declared identifications such as Agnostic, Atheist, Baha'i, Christian Science, Hindu, Jehovah's Witness, Mormon,
Rastafarian, Scientology, Siddha Yoga, Taoism, Wicca and Zoroastrian.
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their
sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence), offenders who are on community supervision, on
bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory
release, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
50
THE RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFENDER POPULATION IS DIVERSE
Table C9.
Offender Population
2003
2002
2004
#
%
#
%
#
%
Catholic
10,106
45.6
9,681
44.3
9,305
43.1
Buddhist
350
1.6
357
1.6
381
1.8
Jewish
159
0.7
157
0.7
156
0.7
Muslim
660
3.0
751
3.4
758
3.5
Native Spirituality
572
2.6
672
3.1
682
3.2
Orthodox
118
0.5
101
0.5
107
0.5
4,807
21.7
4,671
21.4
4,557
21.1
83
0.4
84
0.4
88
0.4
Other
1,488
6.7
1,450
6.6
1,449
6.7
No Religion Declared
3,808
17.2
3,906
17.9
4,100
19.0
22,151
100.0
21,830
100.0
21,583
100.0
Protestant
Sikh
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
The data reflects the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their
sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence), offenders who are on community supervision, on
bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory
release, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
Religious identification is self-declared by offenders while they are incarcerated, and the categories are not comprehensive;
therefore, the reader should interpret these data with caution.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the
following year.
Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
51
10% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS HAVE A MENTAL
HEALTH DIAGNOSIS AT ADMISSION
Figure C10.
Percentage of Warrant of Committal Admissions
25%
20%
Past Psychiatric Hospitalization
15%
Prescribed Medication at Admission
10%
Mental Health Diagnosis at Admission
5%
Psychiatric Outpatient at Admission
0%
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
„
„
The percentage of offenders committed to federal jurisdiction with a mental health diagnosis at
time of admission is increasing.
In 2003-04, 10% of offenders committed to federal jurisdiction had a mental health diagnosis at
time of admission and 5% were receiving outpatient services prior to admission.
In 2003-04, 40% of female offenders compared to 16% of male offenders had previously been
hospitalized for psychiatric reasons.
The percentage of federally incarcerated offenders prescribed medication for psychiatric
concerns at admission has more than doubled from 10% in 1996-97 to 21% in 2003-04.
Female offenders are twice as likely as male offenders to have a mental health diagnosis or to
be prescribed medication for mental health concerns at time of admission.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
52
10% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS HAVE A MENTAL
HEALTH DIAGNOSIS AT ADMISSION
Table C10. (2003-04)
Women
Men
Total
Mental Health Indicator
at Time of Admission
#
%
#
%
#
%
Diagnosis
47
20
372
9
419
10
Prescribed Psychiatric
Medication
105
43
763
19
868
21
Past Psychiatric
Hospitalization
97
40
645
16
742
18
Psychiatric Outpatient
19
8
200
5
219
5
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Data are from the CSC’s Offender Intake Assessment process, where all new admissions are screened at intake for the presence of
dynamic needs factors which may need to be addressed through treatment if the offender is to have a successful return to the
community.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
53
THE PROPORTION OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS INCARCERATED
IS HIGHER THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Figure C11.
Percentage of Federal Offender Population Incarcerated
Aboriginal Offenders
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
80%
70%
60%
70.4%
69.9%
59.6%
67.8%
57.6%
56.8%
70.0%
68.4%
67.4%
57.4%
58.1%
68.1%
58.4%
58.2%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
As of March 31, 2004, the proportion of offenders incarcerated was about 10% greater for
Aboriginal offenders (68.1%) than for non-Aboriginal offenders (58.2%).
Aboriginal women represent 28.5% of all incarcerated women while Aboriginal men represent
18.2% of incarcerated men.
Aboriginal offenders represent 18.5% of the incarcerated population and 12.9% of the
community population. Aboriginal adults represent 2.7% of the Canadian adult population*.
Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the
following year.
*2001 Census.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
54
THE PROPORTION OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS INCARCERATED
IS HIGHER THAN FOR NON-ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS
Table C11.
Incarcerated
Men
#
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Aboriginal
Community
%
#
Total
%
2,092
68.1
979
31.9
3,071
Non-Aboriginal
10,327
58.1
7,452
41.9
17,779
Total
12,419
59.6
8,431
40.4
20,850
2,129
69.1
952
30.9
3,081
Non-Aboriginal
10,176
58.8
7,132
41.2
17,308
Total
12,305
60.4
8,084
39.6
20,389
2,209
70.6
920
29.4
3,129
Non-Aboriginal
10,088
59.1
6,991
40.9
17,079
Total
12,297
60.9
7,911
39.1
20,208
Aboriginal
2,193
68.5
1,009
31.5
3,202
Non-Aboriginal
9,841
58.8
6,897
41.2
16,738
12,034
60.4
7,906
39.6
19,940
88
54.3
74
45.7
162
Non-Aboriginal
287
40.2
427
59.8
714
Total
375
42.8
501
57.2
876
98
55.7
78
44.3
176
Non-Aboriginal
260
39.0
407
61.0
667
Total
358
42.5
485
57.5
843
Aboriginal
104
59.1
72
40.9
176
Non-Aboriginal
252
39.4
388
60.6
640
Total
356
43.6
460
56.4
816
Aboriginal
108
60.3
71
39.7
179
Non-Aboriginal
271
42.8
362
57.2
633
Total
379
46.7
433
53.3
812
Aboriginal
Aboriginal
Total
Women
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Aboriginal
Aboriginal
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, including those temporarily detained
and those paroled for deportation.
The data reflect the number of offenders active at the end of each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the
following year.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
55
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL INCARCERATED OFFENDERS ARE CLASSIFIED
AS MEDIUM SECURITY RISK
Figure C12.
Percentage of Classified Federal Incarcerated Offender Population (as of April 11, 2004)
Aboriginal Offenders
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
All Offenders
80%
66.7%
70%
64.0%
64.5%
60%
50%
40%
30%
21.3%
20%
20.3%
17.4%
15.8%
14.7%
15.2%
10%
0%
Minimum
Medium
Maximum
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
64.5% of federal offenders are classified as medium security risk.
A lower percentage of Aboriginal offenders are classified as minimum security risk compared to
non-Aboriginal offenders (15.8% and 21.3%, respectively).
17.4% of Aboriginal offenders are classified as maximum security risk compared to 14.7% of nonAboriginal offenders
Note:
The data represent the security level of the offender, as of April 11, 2004.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
56
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL INCARCERATED OFFENDERS ARE CLASSIFIED
AS MEDIUM SECURITY RISK
Table C12.
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
Total
Security Risk
Level
#
Minimum
345
15.8
2,021
21.3
2,366
20.3
1,455
66.7
6,074
64.0
7,529
64.5
380
17.4
1,393
14.7
1,773
15.2
2,180
100.0
9,488
100.0
11,668
100.0
Medium
Maximum
Total
Classified
Not yet
Determined*
Total
%
#
%
#
121
624
745
2,301
10,112
12,413
%
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
The data represent the security level of the offender, as of April 11, 2004.
*The "not yet determined" category includes offenders who have not yet been classified.
Incarcerated offenders include male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions, as well
as those on temporary absence.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
57
THE NUMBER OF LIFE AND INDETERMINATE SENTENCES HAS DECREASED
Figure C13.
Number of Warrant of Committal Admissions
200
194
191
200
184
170
162
167
158
143
150
132
100
50
0
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
„
From 1994-95 to 2003-04, the number of admissions to federal jurisdiction with a
life/indeterminate sentence has decreased by 32.0%. In comparison, the number of admissions
overall has decreased by 11.7% since 1994-95.
In 1994-95, the average age at admission for an offender who received a life/indeterminate
sentence was 33. In 2003-04, the average age was 37.
Currently, there are a total of 2,778 offenders incarcerated with a life/indeterminate
sentence. Of these, 2,710 (97.6%) are men and 68 (2.4%) are women; 479 (17.2%) are
Aboriginal and 2,299 (82.8%) are non-Aboriginal.
Offenders serving life/indeterminate sentences represent 20% of CSC’s active offender
population, 63% of this population is incarcerated.
Note:
Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a
sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a
result of a designation, where an application is made to the court, for example to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the
consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.
A warrant of committal is a new admission to federal jurisdiction from the courts.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
58
THE NUMBER OF LIFE AND INDETERMINATE SENTENCES HAS DECREASED
Table C13.
Aboriginal Offenders
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
Total
Year
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
1994-95
1
26
27
9
158
167
10
184
194
1995-96
1
36
37
9
145
154
10
181
191
1996-97
2
31
33
9
158
167
11
189
200
1997-98
0
30
30
5
149
154
5
179
184
1998-99
2
37
39
3
128
131
5
165
170
1999-00
4
26
30
4
128
132
8
154
162
2000-01
2
30
32
8
127
135
10
157
167
2001-02
0
28
28
6
124
130
6
152
158
2002-03
0
31
31
4
108
112
4
139
143
2003-04
0
17
17
2
113
115
2
130
132
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
This table combines offenders serving life sentences and offenders serving indeterminate sentences.
Although life sentences and indeterminate sentences both may result in imprisonment for life, they are different. A life sentence is a
sentence of life imprisonment, imposed by a judge at the time of sentence, for example for murder. An indeterminate sentence is a
result of a designation, where an application is made to the court, for example to declare an offender a Dangerous Offender, and the
consequence of this designation is imprisonment for an indeterminate period.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
59
70% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS ARE SERVING A SENTENCE FOR A VIOLENT OFFENCE*
Figure C14.
Percentage of Federal Offender Population
70%
Aboriginal Offenders
Non-Aboriginal Offenders
65.4%
60%
49.2%
50%
40%
30%
20%
13.4%
16.7%
14.1%
10%
3.4%
15.9%
12.8%
5.0%
4.1%
0%
Murder I
Murder II
Schedule I
Schedule II
Non-Schedule
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
„
„
„
A greater proportion of Aboriginal offenders than non-Aboriginal offenders are serving a
sentence for a violent offence (82.2% versus 67.4%, respectively).
80.2% of Aboriginal women offenders are serving a sentence for a violent offence compared to
50.3% of non-Aboriginal women offenders.
65.4% of all Aboriginal offenders are serving a sentence for a Schedule I offence compared to
49.2% of non-Aboriginal offenders.
5.0% of Aboriginal offenders are serving a sentence for a Schedule II offence compared to 16.7%
of non-Aboriginal offenders.
Of those offenders serving a sentence for Murder, 3.4% are women and 15.0% are Aboriginal.
29.6% of women are serving a sentence for a Schedule II offence compared to 14.2% for men.
Note:
*Violent offence includes Murder I, Murder II, and Schedule I offences.
Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections
and Conditional Release Act).
Schedule II is comprised of serious drug offences, or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and
Conditional Release Act).
In cases where the offender is serving a sentence for more than one offence, the data reflects the most serious offence.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
60
70% OF FEDERAL OFFENDERS ARE SERVING A SENTENCE FOR A VIOLENT OFFENCE*
Table C14. 2004
Offence
Category
Murder I
Non-Aboriginal
Aboriginal
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
Total
Women
Men
Total
1
118
119
20
726
746
21
844
865
0.5
3.6
3.4
3.0
4.2
4.1
2.4
4.1
4.0
22
443
465
90
2,462
2,552
112
2,905
3,017
Percent
11.8
13.5
13.4
13.4
14.1
14.1
13.0
14.0
14.0
Schedule I
127
2,146
2,273
228
8,676
8,904
Percent
67.9
65.3
65.4
33.9
49.8
49.2
41.3
52.2
51.8
Schedule II
25
147
172
229
2,796
3,025
254
2,943
3,197
Percent
13.4
4.5
5.0
34.1
16.0
16.7
29.6
14.2
14.8
Non-Schedule
12
433
445
105
2,777
2,882
117
3,210
3,327
Percent
6.4
13.2
12.8
15.6
15.9
15.9
13.6
15.5
15.4
187
3,287
Percent
Murder II
Total
3,474
672 17,437
18,109
355 10,822 11,177
859 20,724
21,583
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
*Violent offence includes Murder I, Murder II, and Schedule I offences.
Schedule I is comprised of sexual offences and other violent crimes excluding first and second degree murder (see the Corrections
and Conditional Release Act).
Schedule II comprises serious drug offences, or conspiracy to commit serious drug offences (see the Corrections and Conditional
Release Act).
The data reflect the total offender population, which includes male and female federal offenders who are incarcerated (serving their
sentences in federal or provincial institutions, and those on temporary absence), offenders who are on community supervision, on
bail, escaped and unlawfully at large. Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory
release, as well as those who are temporarily detained or paroled for deportation.
These figures are based on the offender population as of April 11, 2004.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
61
THE NUMBER OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS UNDER FEDERAL JURISDICTION IS INCREASING
Figure C15.
Number of Federal Aboriginal Offenders
3,500
Total Aboriginal population
3,000
2,500
Incarcerated population
2,000
1,500
Community population
1,000
500
0
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
From 1996-97 to 2003-04, there has been an increase of 21.7% in the Aboriginal population
under federal jurisdiction.
The number of incarcerated Aboriginal women is steadily increasing, from 62 in 1996-97 to 108
in 2003-04, an increase of 74.2% in the last seven years. The increase for incarcerated
Aboriginal men was 8.9% for the same period, increasing from 2,014 to 2,193.
The number of Aboriginal offenders on community supervision increased from 1996-97 to 200304, an increase of 54.3% in the last seven years, from 700 to 1,080. The Aboriginal community
population is 12.9% of the total community population.
Note:
Incarcerated includes male and female federal offenders serving their sentences in federal or provincial institutions.
Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole, or statutory release, including those
temporarily detained and those paroled for deportation.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
62
THE NUMBER OF ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS UNDER FEDERAL JURISDICTION IS INCREASING
Table C15.
Year
Aboriginal Offenders
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Incarcerated
Atlantic Region
Men
Women
Total
61
2
63
68
5
73
79
5
84
90
5
95
86
6
92
Quebec Region
Men
Women
Total
151
0
151
160
4
164
194
5
199
212
6
218
202
5
207
Ontario Region
Men
Women
Total
295
14
309
278
8
286
297
6
303
304
14
318
289
11
300
Prairie Region
Men
Women
Total
1,254
62
1,316
1,221
66
1,287
1,175
71
1,246
1,212
64
1,276
1,202
66
1,268
Pacific Region
Men
Women
Total
334
6
340
365
5
370
384
11
395
391
15
406
414
20
434
National Total
Men
Women
Total
2,095
84
2,179
2,092
88
2,180
2,129
98
2,227
2,209
104
2,313
2,193
108
2,301
Atlantic Region
Men
Women
Total
31
2
33
29
2
31
28
3
31
24
2
26
27
1
28
Quebec Region
Men
Women
Total
52
1
53
48
0
48
59
0
59
57
0
57
84
2
86
Ontario Region
Men
Women
Total
120
10
130
115
9
124
103
11
114
104
10
114
117
10
127
Prairie Region
Men
Women
Total
598
47
645
606
59
665
578
58
636
551
54
605
573
48
621
Pacific Region
Men
Women
Total
166
8
174
181
4
185
184
6
190
184
6
190
208
10
218
National Total
Men
Women
Total
967
68
1,035
979
74
1,053
952
78
1,030
920
72
992
1,009
71
1,080
3,214
3,233
3,257
3,305
3,381
Community
Total Incarcerated & Community
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
63
THE NUMBER OF ESCAPES HAS FLUCTUATED
Figure C16.
Number of Escapees from Federal Institutions
140
120
118
114
101
100
82
80
71
65
58
58
57
60
48
40
20
0
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
In 2003-04, there were 51 escape incidents involving a total of 57 inmates. Of these 57
escapees, 51 had been recaptured as of October 1, 2004. Sixteen of the escapees were
Aboriginal and two were women.
In 2003-04, of the 57 escapees, 54 escaped from minimum security facilities.
Inmates who escaped from federal institutions in 2003-04 represented less than 0.5% of the
inmate population.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
64
THE NUMBER OF ESCAPES HAS FLUCTUATED
Table C16.
Type of Escapes
Escapes from Multi-level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Escapes from Maximum Security Level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Escapes from Medium Security Level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Escapes from Minimum Security Level Institutions
Number of Escapees
Total Number of Escape Incidents
Total Number of Escapees
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
3
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
3
0
1
3
2
6
0
1
83
70
47
43
48
96
80
56
48
54
87
72
52
43
51
101
82
65
48
57
Source: Security, Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
The data represent the number of escape incidents from federal facilities during each fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to
March 31 of the following year.
An escape incident can involve more than one offender.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
65
THE SUPERVISED FEDERAL OFFENDER POPULATION
IN THE COMMUNITY IS DECREASING
Figure C17.
Federal Community Offender Population Under Active Supervision at Fiscal Year* End
9,000
Total Supervised Community Population
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
Full Parole
4,000
3,000
Statutory Release
2,000
1,000
0
1996-97
Day Parole
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
The federal offender population in the community under active supervision** increased from
1996-97 to 1999-00 but has decreased in the last four years.
The decrease in the total is mainly reflective of a decrease in the number of offenders on full
parole supervision.
Note:
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board whereby offenders are permitted to participate in
community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an
institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board whereby the remainder of the sentence is served
under supervision in the community.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.
*A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of the following year.
**Community supervision includes federal offenders on day parole, full parole or statutory release, as well as those who are
temporarily detained or paroled for deportation. The data presented above do not include offenders whose conditional release has
been suspended, offenders who are on long term supervision orders, or offenders who have been deported.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
66
THE SUPERVISED FEDERAL OFFENDER POPULATION
IN THE COMMUNITY IS DECREASING
Table C17.
Supervision Type of Federal Offenders
Year
Day Parole
Women
Men
Full Parole
Women
Men
Statutory
Release
Women
Men
Percent
Change*
Totals
Women
Men
Both
Both
1996-97
39
843
260
3,725
26
2,101
325
6,669
6,994
-
1997-98
60
1,147
272
3,623
30
2,138
362
6,908
7,270
3.9
1998-99
85
1,300
287
3,881
39
2,112
411
7,293
7,704
6.0
1999-00
83
1,200
334
4,013
35
2,184
452
7,397
7,849
1.9
2000-01
68
1,097
328
3,925
51
2,112
447
7,134
7,581
-3.4
2001-02
55
1,018
298
3,654
56
2,109
409
6,781
7,190
-5.2
2002-03
71
969
267
3,469
54
2,132
392
6,570
6,962
-3.2
2003-04
67
986
259
3,412
42
2,120
368
6,518
6,886
-1.1
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These cases reflect the number of offenders on active supervision at fiscal year end. A fiscal year runs from April 1 to March 31 of
the following year.
The data does not include offenders whose conditional release has been suspended, offenders on long term supervision orders, or
offenders who have been deported.
*Percent change is measured from the previous year.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
67
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES HAVE INCREASED THE
PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS POPULATION
Figure C18.
Average Monthly Offender Counts
Conditional Sentence
120,000
112,729
100,418
102,316
100,955 101,918
109,495
111,844
110,411
113,856
Probation
115,960
103,630
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03
Source: Adult Corrections Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
„
Since the introduction of the conditional sentence as a sentencing option in September 1996, the
number of offenders serving a conditional sentence has increased steadily.
In 2002-03, the total number of offenders on probation averaged 103,073.
Total probation counts have changed little over the past decade.
Note:
A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under
specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two
years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.
Probation count data are not available for Nunavut in 1999-00 and 2000-01, and 2002-03 and for New Brunswick from 2000-01 to
2002-03. Data are not available from the Northwest Territories for all years except 2002-03.
Data reporting for conditional sentences begins in 1997-98 as this was the first full year for which data were available.
For 1998-99 and 1999-00, figures are not available for Prince Edward Island. For 1997-98 to 2002-03, figures are not available for
New Brunswick. For 1997-98 to 2001-02, figures are not available for the Northwest Territories. For 1999-00, 2000-01, and 200203, figures are not available for Nunavut.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
68
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES HAVE INCREASED THE
PROVINCIAL/TERRITORIAL COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS POPULATION
Table C18.
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Probation
Average Monthly Offender
Counts on Conditional
Sentence
1992-93
100,418
--
100,418
1993-94
102,316
--
102,316
1994-95
100,955
--
100,955
1995-96
101,918
--
101,918
1996-97
103,630
--
103,630
1997-98
105,861
6,868
112,729
1998-99
101,868
7,627
109,495
1999-00
102,860
8,984
111,844
2000-01
100,526
9,885
110,411
2001-02
101,915
11,941
113,856
2002-03
103,073
12,887
115,960
Year
Total
Source: Adult Corrections Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
A conditional sentence is a disposition of the court where the offender serves a term of imprisonment in the community under
specified conditions. This type of sentence can only be imposed in cases where the term of imprisonment would be less than two
years. Conditional sentences have been a provincial and territorial sentencing option since September 1996.
Probation count data are not available for Nunavut in 1999-00 and 2000-01, and 2002-03 and for New Brunswick from 2000-01 to
2002-03. Data are not available from the Northwest Territories for all years except 2002-03.
--Data reporting for conditional sentences begins in 1997-98 as this was the first full year for which data were available.
For 1998-99 and 1999-00, figures are not available for Prince Edward Island. For 1997-98 to 2002-03, figures are not available for
New Brunswick. For 1997-98 to 2001-02, figures are not available for the Northwest Territories. For 1999-00, 2000-01, and 200203, figures are not available for Nunavut.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
69
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS ON PROVINCIAL PAROLE HAS DECLINED
Figure C19.
Number of Offenders on Provincial Parole (Average Monthly Counts)
5,000
4,375
4,123
4,000
3,776
3,616
3,489
2,814
3,000
2,434
2,236
2,000
1,761
1,616
1,210
1,000
0
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Source: Adult Corrections Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
„
„
The number of offenders on provincial parole decreased from 1993-94 to 2002-03.
The greatest decline of offenders on provincial parole has occurred in Ontario and Quebec.
Note:
Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. The National Parole Board has jurisdiction over
granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut, and
Northwest Territories.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
70
THE NUMBER OF OFFENDERS ON PROVINCIAL PAROLE HAS DECLINED
Table C18.
Average Monthly Counts on Provincial Parole
Provincial Boards
Year
National
Parole Board*
Total
Percent
Change
Quebec
Ontario
British
Columbia
Total
1992-93
1,332
1,558
303
3,193
583
3,776
--
1993-94
1,804
1,772
284
3,860
515
4,375
15.9
1994-95
1,981
1,405
290
3,676
447
4,123
-5.8
1995-96
1,918
1,011
283
3,212
404
3,616
-12.3
1996-97
1,808
744
594
3,146
343
3,489
-3.5
1997-98
1,640
621
246
2,507
307
2,814
-19.3
1998-99
1,334
574
239
2,147
287
2,434
-13.5
1999-00
1,291
406
203
1,900
336
2,236
-8.1
2000-01
903
322
249
1,474
287
1,761
-21.2
2001-02
846
276
265
1,387
229
1,616
-8.2
2002-03
581
210
223
1,014
196
1,210
-25.1
Source: Adult Corrections Survey, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.
Note:
*The data represent the number of provincial offenders who are released from custody on the authority of the National Parole Board
and supervised by the Correctional Service of Canada.
Provincial parole boards operate in Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia. The National Parole Board has jurisdiction over
granting parole to provincial offenders in the Atlantic and Prairie provinces and to territorial offenders in the Yukon, Nunavut, and
Northwest Territories.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
SECTION D.
CONDITIONAL RELEASE
71
THE FEDERAL PAROLE GRANT RATE IS RELATIVELY STABLE
Figure D1.
Federal Parole Grant Rate (%)
100%
90%
80%
Day Parole
70%
60%
50%
Full Parole
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
„
In 2003-04, the grant rates for day parole and full parole were 74.4% and 45.4%, respectively.
The grant rate for day parole and full parole increased from 1994-95 to 1998-99 and has since
remained relatively stable.
Federal day parole and full parole grant rates are higher for female offenders than for male
offenders.
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the National Parole Board. Not all offenders
apply for parole, and some apply more than once before being granted parole.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which offenders are permitted to participate in
community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an
institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which the remainder of the sentence is served
under supervision in the community.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
72
THE FEDERAL PAROLE GRANT RATE IS RELATIVELY STABLE
Table D1.
Type of
Release
Day Parole
Full Parole
Grant Rate (%)
Denied
Granted
Year
Women
Men
Women
Men
Women
Men
Total
1994-95
104
3,791
34
2,557
75.4
59.7
60.1
1995-96
92
3,069
50
2,172
64.8
58.6
58.7
1996-97
106
2,590
15
1,327
87.6
66.1
66.8
1997-98
176
3,469
29
1,371
85.9
71.7
72.2
1998-99
218
3,583
27
1,273
89.0
73.8
74.5
1999-00
229
3,611
40
1,427
85.1
71.7
72.4
2000-01
224
3,235
27
1,326
89.2
70.9
71.9
2001-02
189
2,981
29
1,228
86.7
70.8
71.6
2002-03
195
2,829
24
1,181
89.0
70.5
71.5
2003-04
212
2,908
25
1,047
89.5
73.5
74.4
1994-95
87
2,115
58
4,321
60.0
32.9
33.5
1995-96
94
1,860
75
3,640
55.6
33.8
34.5
1996-97
111
1,633
32
2,561
77.6
38.9
40.2
1997-98
120
1,860
69
2,642
63.5
41.3
42.2
1998-99
154
1,962
71
2,663
68.4
42.4
43.6
1999-00
194
1,974
85
2,738
69.5
41.9
43.4
2000-01
173
1,641
57
2,407
75.2
40.5
42.4
2001-02
147
1,512
53
2,129
73.5
41.5
43.2
2002-03
110
1,392
57
1,969
65.9
41.4
42.6
2003-04
159
1,452
47
1,890
77.2
43.4
45.4
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the National Parole Board. Not all offenders
apply for parole, and some apply more than once before being granted parole.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which offenders are permitted to participate in
community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an
institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which the remainder of the sentence is served
under supervision in the community.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
73
THE FEDERAL PAROLE GRANT RATE FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS IS INCREASING
Figure D2.
Federal Parole Grant Rate (%)
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
100%
90%
Day Parole
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
Full Parole
30%
20%
10%
0%
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
The day parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased 4.2% from 2002-03 to 2003-04. In
2003-04, the rate was 3.5% higher than that for non-Aboriginal offenders.
The full parole grant rate for Aboriginal offenders increased 6.2% in 2003-04, following a
decrease from 2001-02 to 2002-03. The rate was 5.0% lower than that for non-Aboriginal
offenders in 2003-04.
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the National Parole Board. Not all offenders
apply for parole, and some apply more than once before being granted parole.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which offenders are permitted to participate in
community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an
institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which the remainder of the sentence is served
under supervision in the community.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
74
THE FEDERAL PAROLE GRANT RATE FOR ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS IS INCREASING
Table D2.
Type of
Release
Day Parole
Full Parole
Aboriginal
Year
Number
Granted
Number
Denied
Non-Aboriginal
Grant
Rate (%)
Number
Granted
Number
Denied
Total
Number
Granted/
Grant
Rate (%)
Denied
1994-95
379
348
52.1
3,516
2,243
61.1
6,486
1995-96
280
299
48.4
2,881
1,923
60.0
5,383
1996-97
304
151
66.8
2,392
1,191
66.8
4,038
1997-98
493
205
70.6
3,152
1,195
72.5
5,045
1998-99
530
209
71.7
3,271
1,091
75.0
5,101
1999-00
522
225
69.9
3,318
1,242
72.8
5,307
2000-01
516
188
73.3
2,943
1,165
71.6
4,812
2001-02
466
155
75.0
2,704
1,102
71.0
4,427
2002-03
470
172
73.2
2,554
1,033
71.2
4,229
2003-04
493
144
77.4
2,627
928
73.9
4,192
1994-95
159
568
21.9
2,043
3,811
34.9
6,581
1995-96
137
502
21.4
1,817
3,213
36.1
5,669
1996-97
159
340
31.9
1,585
2,253
41.3
4,337
1997-98
183
426
30.0
1,797
2,285
44.0
4,691
1998-99
208
444
31.9
1,908
2,290
45.4
4,850
1999-00
241
435
35.7
1,927
2,388
44.7
4,991
2000-01
203
356
36.2
1,611
2,108
43.3
4,278
2001-02
180
306
37.0
1,479
1,876
44.1
3,841
2002-03
169
316
34.8
1,333
1,710
43.8
3,528
2003-04
192
275
41.1
1,419
1,662
46.1
3,548
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
The grant rate represents the percentage of pre-release reviews resulting in a grant by the National Parole Board. Not all offenders
apply for parole, and some apply more than once before being granted parole.
Day parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which offenders are permitted to participate in
community-based activities in preparation for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an
institution or half-way house unless otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which the remainder of the sentence is served
under supervision in the community.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
75
OFFENDERS GRANTED FULL PAROLE SERVE ABOUT 40%
OF THEIR SENTENCE PRIOR TO STARTING FULL PAROLE
Figure D3.
Timing of First Parole in the Sentence (%)
50%
First Full Parole
40%
Full Parole Eligibility
30%
First Day Parole
20%
10%
0%
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
The percentage of time served until first full parole was 39.9% in 2003-04. The percentage of
time served until first full parole has fluctuated very little since 1994-95.
In 2003-04, women served an average of 2.4% less of their sentences before first federal full
parole and 5.8% less before first federal day parole than men (37.8% compared to 40.2% and
28.3% compared to 34.1%, respectively).
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts
during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for
full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before
full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the
Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
76
OFFENDERS GRANTED FULL PAROLE SERVE ABOUT 40%
OF THEIR SENTENCE PRIOR TO STARTING FULL PAROLE
Table D3.
Type of Release
Year
First Day Parole
Women
First Full Parole
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
Percentage
1994-95
27.0
35.6
35.3
38.4
39.6
39.6
1995-96
27.2
37.7
37.2
35.9
39.5
39.3
1996-97
27.5
38.3
37.6
35.8
39.5
39.2
1997-98
27.9
34.1
33.7
36.1
40.1
39.8
1998-99
26.2
32.5
32.1
39.2
40.3
40.2
1999-00
24.8
32.2
31.7
37.8
40.6
40.3
2000-01
27.4
32.1
31.7
37.6
40.0
39.8
2001-02
28.1
32.7
32.4
37.1
39.7
39.4
2002-03
27.2
32.2
31.8
37.8
39.4
39.3
2003-04
28.3
34.1
33.7
37.8
40.2
39.9
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts
during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for
full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before
full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the
Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
77
ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS SERVE A HIGHER PROPORTION OF
THEIR SENTENCES BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Figure D4.
Timing of First Parole in the Sentence (%)
50%
40%
Full Parole Eligibility
30%
20%
Day Parole for Aboriginal offenders
Day Parole for non-Aboriginal offenders
Full Parole for Aboriginal offenders
Full Parole for non-Aboriginal offenders
10%
0%
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
„
„
In 2003-04, the percentage of time served until full parole was lower for non-Aboriginal
offenders than for Aboriginal offenders (39.4% versus 43.8%, respectively).
In 2003-04, the percentage of time served until first day parole was less for non-Aboriginal
offenders than it was for Aboriginal offenders (32.5% versus 39.9%, respectively).
Of the 138 Aboriginal offenders released on a first federal full parole in 2003-04, 39.1% of them
were released on accelerated full parole compared to 65.4% of non-Aboriginal offenders.
Of the 285 Aboriginal offenders released on a first federal day parole in 2003-04, 25.6% of them
were released on accelerated day parole compared to 46.0% of non-Aboriginal offenders.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts
during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for
full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before
full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the
Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
78
ABORIGINAL OFFENDERS SERVE A HIGHER PROPORTION OF
THEIR SENTENCES BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Table D4.
Type of Release
First Day Parole
Year
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
First Full Parole
Total
Aboriginal
Non-Aboriginal
Total
Percentage of Sentence Served
1994-95
39.8
34.8
35.3
43.6
39.3
39.6
1995-96
44.7
36.5
37.2
40.1
39.2
39.3
1996-97
43.8
36.8
37.6
40.8
39.0
39.2
1997-98
39.1
32.9
33.7
42.3
39.6
39.8
1998-99
36.2
31.4
32.1
43.5
39.8
40.2
1999-00
35.9
31.0
31.7
42.7
40.1
40.3
2000-01
34.9
31.1
31.7
40.7
39.6
39.8
2001-02
37.8
31.5
32.4
43.5
38.9
39.4
2002-03
36.8
30.9
31.8
42.2
39.0
39.3
2003-04
39.9
32.5
33.7
43.8
39.4
39.9
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts
during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for
full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before
full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the
Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
79
WOMEN SERVE A LOWER PROPORTION OF THEIR SENTENCES
THAN MEN BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Figure D5.
Timing of First Parole in the Sentence (%)
50%
40%
Full Parole Eligibility
30%
20%
Day Parole for female offenders
Day Parole for male offenders
Full Parole for female offenders
10%
0%
1994-95
Full Parole for male offenders
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
„
„
In 2003-04, men served more of their sentences than women prior to beginning their first full
parole supervision period (40.2% compared to 37.8%).
In 2003-04, the percentage of time served until first day parole was less for female offenders than
it was for male offenders (28.3% versus 34.1%, respectively).
Of the 1,140 female offenders released on full parole since 1994-95, 65.9% of them were
released on accelerated full parole compared to 58.9% of the 13,693 male offenders released on
full parole.
Of those offenders released on a first federal day parole since 1997-98, female offenders were
released on accelerated day parole more often than male offenders (63.2% versus 41.1%,
respectively).
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts
during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for
full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before
full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the
Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
80
WOMEN SERVE A LOWER PROPORTION OF THEIR SENTENCES
THAN MEN BEFORE BEING RELEASED ON PAROLE
Table D5.
Type of Release
Year
First Full Parole
First Day Parole
Women
Men
Total
Women
Men
Total
Percentage of sentence served
1994-95
27.0
35.6
35.3
38.4
39.6
39.6
1995-96
27.2
37.7
37.2
35.9
39.5
39.3
1996-97
27.5
38.3
37.6
35.8
39.5
39.2
1997-98
27.9
34.1
33.7
36.1
40.1
39.8
1998-99
26.2
32.5
32.1
39.2
40.3
40.2
1999-00
24.8
32.2
31.7
37.8
40.6
40.3
2000-01
27.4
32.1
31.7
37.6
40.0
39.8
2001-02
28.1
32.7
32.4
37.1
39.7
39.4
2002-03
27.2
32.2
31.8
37.8
39.4
39.3
2003-04
28.3
34.1
33.7
37.8
40.2
39.9
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
Timing of parole in the sentence refers to the percentage of the sentence served at the time the first day parole or full parole starts
during the sentence. In most cases a full parole is preceded by a day parole.
These calculations are based on sentences under federal jurisdiction excluding life sentences and indeterminate sentences.
Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination) normally become eligible for
full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less. Eligibility for day parole is normally at 6 months before
full parole eligibility or at 1/6 of the sentence for cases that meet the accelerated parole review criteria (see Section 125 of the
Corrections and Conditional Release Act).
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
81
A LARGE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL DAY PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Figure D6.
Day Parole Outcomes
100%
90%
Successful Completions
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
Revocations for Breach of Conditions*
10%
Revocations with Offence
0%
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
„
„
The percentage of offenders who successfully completed day parole has been over 80% since
1995-96.
Based upon the year of completion of the supervision period, the total number of federal day
paroles completed was 2,936 in 2003-04, decreasing since 1999-00.
In 2003-04, 3.2% of day paroles ended with a non-violent offence, and 0.4% with a violent
offence.
In 2003-04, the percentage of successful day paroles was higher for men than for women (85.2%
versus 77.1%, respectively).
Note:
A day parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
*Revocation for a Breach of Condition also includes revocation with outstanding charges.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
82
A LARGE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL DAY PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Table D6.
Federal Day Parole
Outcome
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
2,242
80.6
2,035
81.4
1,930
82.7
1,809
82.7
1,775
84.8
885
81.8
872
81.6
746
82.5
714
83.2
711
84.3
3,127
81.0
2,907
81.4
2,676
82.6
2,523
82.8
2,486
84.7
Successful Completions
Regular
Accelerated
Total
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
Regular
342
12.3
318
12.7
285
12.2
296
13.5
250
11.9
Accelerated
109
10.1
94
8.8
96
10.6
85
9.9
92
10.9
Total
451
11.7
412
11.5
381
11.8
381
12.5
342
11.6
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular
146
5.3
116
4.6
94
4.0
65
3.0
56
2.7
82
7.6
100
9.4
58
6.4
56
6.5
39
4.6
228
5.9
216
6.0
152
4.7
121
4.0
95
3.2
50
1.8
32
1.3
26
1.1
18
0.8
12
0.6
6
0.6
3
0.3
4
0.4
3
0.3
1
0.1
56
1.5
35
1.0
30
0.9
21
0.7
13
0.4
Regular
2,780
72.0
2,501
70.1
2,335
72.1
2,188
71.8
2,093
71.3
Accelerated
1,082
28.0
1,069
29.9
904
27.9
858
28.2
843
28.7
Total
3,862 100.0
Accelerated
Total
Revocation with Violent Offence**
Regular
Accelerated
Total
Total
3,570 100.0
3,239 100.0
3,046 100.0
2,936 100.0
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
*Revocation for a Breach of Condition also includes revocation with outstanding charges.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults,
sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
Day parole is a type of conditional release in which offenders are permitted to participate in community-based activities in preparation
for full parole or statutory release. The conditions require offenders to return nightly to an institution or half-way house unless
otherwise authorized by the National Parole Board.
Eligibility for day parole release normally occurs 6 months prior to full parole. Eligibility for accelerated parole review cases occurs
after the offender serves 6 months or 1/6 of the sentence, whichever is greater.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
83
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL FULL PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Figure D7.
Full Parole Outcomes
100%
90%
80%
Successful Completions
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
Revocations for Breach of Conditions*
20%
10%
Revocations with Offence
0%
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
„
„
The percentage of offenders who successfully completed full parole has remained relatively
stable since 1998-99.
Based on the year of completion of the supervision period, the number of federal full paroles
completed increased from 1998-99 to 2000-01 and has decreased in the last three years.
In 2003-04, 7.1% of full paroles ended with a non-violent offence and 0.8% with a violent offence.
In 2003-04, the percentage of successful full paroles was higher for women (82.4%) than for men
(72.1%).
Note:
A full parole is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new offence.
These data do not include offenders serving life or indeterminate sentences as these offenders, by definition, remain under
supervision for life.
*Revocation for a Breach of Condition also includes revocation with outstanding charges.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
84
THE MAJORITY OF FEDERAL FULL PAROLES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Table D7.
Federal Full Parole
Outcome
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
Regular
637
78.2
627
75.2
629
77.8
523
75.5
489
79.5
Accelerated
588
67.0
708
73.2
696
71.3
638
70.6
556
68.2
1,225
72.4
1,335
74.1
1,325
74.3
1,161
72.7
1,045
73.1
Successful Completions
Total
Revocation for Breach of Conditions*
Regular
97
11.9
108
12.9
108
13.4
102
14.7
87
14.1
Accelerated
137
15.6
155
16.0
171
17.5
171
18.9
184
22.6
Total
234
13.8
263
14.6
279
15.6
273
17.1
271
19.0
Revocation with Non-Violent Offence
Regular
61
7.5
74
8.9
49
6.1
52
7.5
32
5.2
Accelerated
134
15.3
95
9.8
102
10.5
89
9.8
70
8.6
Total
195
11.5
169
9.4
151
8.5
141
8.8
102
7.1
Revocation with Violent Offence**
Regular
20
2.5
25
3.0
22
2.7
16
2.3
7
1.1
Accelerated
19
2.2
9
0.9
7
0.7
6
0.7
5
0.6
Total
39
2.3
34
1.9
29
1.6
22
1.4
12
0.8
Regular
815
48.1
834
46.3
808
45.3
693
43.4
615
43.0
Accelerated
878
51.9
967
53.7
976
54.7
904
56.6
815
57.0
Total
Total
1,693 100.0
1,801 100.0
1,784 100.0
1,597 100.0
1,430 100.0
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
*Revocation for a Breach of Condition also includes revocation with outstanding charges.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults,
sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
Full parole is a type of conditional release granted by the National Parole Board in which a portion of the sentence is served under
supervision in the community. Offenders (other than those serving life or indeterminate sentences or subject to judicial determination)
normally become eligible for full parole after serving 1/3 of their sentence or seven years, whichever is less.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
85
THE MAJORITY OF STATUTORY RELEASES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Figure D8.
Statutory Release Outcomes
100%
90%
80%
70%
Successful Completions
60%
50%
40%
Revocations for Breach of Conditions*
30%
20%
Revocations with Offence
10%
0%
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
„
The percentage of offenders who successfully completed statutory release ranged from 56.5%
to 60.3% over the past ten years.
In 2003-04, 8.9% of statutory releases ended with a non-violent offence and 2.3% with a
violent offence.
In 2003-04, the percentage of successful statutory releases was higher for women (64.5%) than
for men (57.9%).
Note:
A statutory release is considered successful if it was completed without a return to prison for a breach of conditions or for a new
offence.
Statutory release refers to a conditional release that is subject to supervision after the offender has served two-thirds of the sentence.
*Revocation for a Breach of Condition also includes revocation with outstanding charges.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
86
THE MAJORITY OF STATUTORY RELEASES ARE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED
Table D8.
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
#
%
Successful
Completions
2,798
57.6
2,958
58.7
3,022
59.2
3,137
57.7
3,082
58.2
Revocations for
Breach of Conditions*
1,277
26.3
1,295
25.7
1,374
26.9
1,614
29.7
1,623
30.6
Revocations with
Non-Violent Offence
625
12.9
618
12.3
559
11.0
539
9.9
474
8.9
Revocations with
Violent Offence**
157
3.2
166
3.3
147
2.9
143
2.6
121
2.3
4,857
100.0
5,037
100.0
5,102
100.0
5,433
100.0
5,300
100.0
Statutory Release
Outcome
Total
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
*Revocation for a Breach of Condition also includes revocation with outstanding charges.
**Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults,
sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
87
SUPERVISED OFFENDERS ARE BEING CONVICTED OF FEWER VIOLENT OFFENCES
Figure D9.
Rates of Convictions for Violent Offences per 1,000 Supervised Offenders
100
90
80
70
Statutory Release
60
50
40
Day Parole
30
20
10
0
1994-95
Full Parole
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
The rate of reconviction for violent offences* while under community supervision has declined
since 1994-95.
Those offenders under discretionary release (full parole and day parole) are less likely to be
convicted of a violent offence while under supervision than those on statutory release.
Note:
*Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults,
sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
The dotted line between 2002-03 and 2003-04 is intended to signify that due to delays in the court process, these numbers
under-represent the actual number of convictions, as verdicts may not have been reached by year-end.
Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and
those who are unlawfully at large.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
88
SUPERVISED OFFENDERS ARE BEING CONVICTED OF FEWER VIOLENT OFFENCES
Table D9.
# of Offenders Convicted for Violent Offences
Year
Rate per 1,000 Supervised Offenders
Day Parole
Full Parole
Statutory
Release
Total
Day Parole
Full Parole
Statutory
Release
1994-95
79
100
165
344
59
20
83
1995-96
63
64
185
312
53
14
83
1996-97
39
53
159
251
38
12
67
1997-98
37
48
155
240
30
12
62
1998-99
35
36
137
208
23
9
55
1999-00
56
42
157
255
36
9
56
2000-01
35
37
166
238
25
8
60
2001-02
30
33
147
210
23
8
51
2002-03
21
24
143
188
16
6
49
2003-04
13
16
121
150
10
4
41
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
Violent offences include murder and Schedule I offences (listed in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act) such as assaults,
sexual offences, arson, abduction, robbery and some weapon offences.
Supervised offenders include offenders who are on parole, statutory release, those temporarily detained in federal institutions, and
those who are unlawfully at large.
Full parole includes those offenders serving determinate and indeterminate sentences.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
89
THE NUMBER OF UNESCORTED TEMPORARY ABSENCES HAS DECREASED SINCE 1999-2000
Figure D10.
Number of Temporary Absences
45,000
40,000
35,000
Escorted Temporary Absences
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
Unescorted Temporary Absences
5,000
0
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
The number of unescorted temporary absences increased from 1996-97 to 1999-00 but has
decreased since that time.
The completion rates for escorted and unescorted temporary absences are consistently over
99%.
Note:
A temporary absence is permission given to an eligible offender to be away from the normal place of confinement for medical,
administrative, community service, family contact, personal development for rehabilitative purposes, or compassionate reasons,
including parental responsibilities.
These numbers exclude temporary absences granted for medical purposes.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
90
THE NUMBER OF UNESCORTED TEMPORARY ABSENCES HAS DECREASED SINCE 1999-2000
Table D10.
Escorted Temporary Absences
Year
Number Number Not
Completed Completed
Unescorted Temporary Absences
Total
Percent
Completed
Number Number Not
Completed Completed
Total
Percent
Completed
1994-95
25,217
9
25,226
99.96
2,825
16
2,841
99.44
1995-96
25,394
8
25,402
99.97
3,648
15
3,663
99.59
1996-97
24,413
10
24,423
99.96
5,066
12
5,078
99.76
1997-98
30,814
9
30,823
99.97
5,676
34
5,710
99.40
1998-99
36,572
19
36,591
99.95
6,693
52
6,745
99.23
1999-00
40,524
33
40,557
99.92
7,312
41
7,353
99.44
2000-01
34,129
11
34,140
99.97
6,511
48
6,559
99.27
2001-02
29,954
9
29,963
99.97
5,111
31
5,142
99.40
2002-03
33,729
13
33,742
99.96
4,788
26
4,814
99.46
2003-04
37,423
11
37,434
99.97
3,996
15
4,011
99.63
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These numbers illustrate the number of temporary absence and work release permits that had an authorized depart date within the
time frame indicated. Since multiple permits can be issued on a single decision, these numbers do not reflect the number of
decisions made regarding temporary absences and work releases. Since an offender may have multiple temporary absences and/or
work releases over a period of time, these numbers do not reflect the number of offenders making use of the temporary absence/work
release program.
These numbers exclude temporary absences granted for medical purposes.
“Not completed” includes temporary absences where offenders have gone unlawfully at large or have been detained by police.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
SECTION E.
STATISTICS ON SPECIAL
APPLICATIONS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE
91
THE NUMBER OF DETENTION REVIEWS HAS INCREASED SINCE 1999-2000
Figure E1.
Number of Initial Detention Reviews
Review Outcome:
Not Detained/Statutory Release
Detained
600
530
500
462
444
400
335
307
300
240
238
1991-92
1992-93
272
256
222
229
1999-00
2000-01
284
303
200
100
0
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
„
„
The number of initial detention reviews reached a peak in 1995-96, then declined until 1999-00
and has increased in the last four years.
Out of 4,122 initial detention reviews since 1991-92, 90.6% have resulted in a decision to detain.
Since 1999-00, 17 women have been referred for detention and 13 were detained.
Since 1999-00, Aboriginal offenders have accounted for 30.3% of all offenders detained. During
this period, Aboriginal offenders accounted for an average of 15.4% of the total federal offender
population, and 17.7% of the incarcerated federal offender population.
Note:
According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the
sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of
sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence, or a sex offence involving a child.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
92
THE NUMBER OF DETENTION REVIEWS HAS INCREASED SINCE 1999-2000
Table E1.
Outcome of Initial Detention Reviews
Statutory Release
Detained
Year
Total
Total
Abor.
NonAbor.
Total
%
Abor.
NonAbor.
Total
%
Abor.
NonAbor.
1991-92
40
144
184
76.7
14
42
56
23.3
54
186
240
1992-93
53
147
200
84.0
12
26
38
16.0
65
173
238
1993-94
76
198
274
89.3
8
25
33
10.7
84
223
307
1994-95
96
314
410
92.3
8
26
34
7.7
104
340
444
1995-96
143
341
484
91.3
13
33
46
8.7
156
374
530
1996-97
106
325
431
93.3
10
21
31
6.7
116
346
462
1997-98
78
234
312
93.1
9
14
23
6.9
87
248
335
1998-99
80
154
234
91.4
3
19
22
8.6
83
173
256
1999-00
80
128
208
93.7
3
11
14
6.3
83
139
222
2000-01
68
147
215
93.9
6
8
14
6.1
74
155
229
2001-02
69
188
257
94.5
2
13
15
5.5
71
201
272
2002-03
80
165
245
86.3
14
25
39
13.7
94
190
284
2003-04
68
211
279
92.1
8
16
24
7.9
76
227
303
1,037
2,696
3,733
90.6
110
279
389
9.4
1,147
2,975
4,122
Total
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
According to the Corrections and Conditional Release Act, an offender entitled to statutory release after serving two-thirds of the
sentence may be held in custody until warrant expiry if it is established that the offender is likely to commit, before the expiry of
sentence, an offence causing death or serious harm, a serious drug offence, or a sex offence involving a child.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
93
81% OF JUDICIAL REVIEW HEARINGS RESULT IN EARLIER PAROLE ELIGIBIILTY
Figure E2.
As of September 26, 2004
Total Number of Offenders with Cases Applicable for Judicial Review
1,547
Total Number of Offenders Eligible for a Judicial Review Hearing
712
Total Number of Court Decisions
145
Earlier Eligibility
118
Granted
Parole
97
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
„
„
Since the first judicial review hearing in 1987, there have been a total of 145 court decisions.
Of these cases, 81.4% of the court decisions resulted in a reduction of the period that must be
served before parole eligibility.
Of offenders eligible to apply for a judicial review, 20.4% have had decisions rendered by the
courts.
Of the 118 offenders who have had their parole eligibility date moved closer, 114 have reached
their revised eligibility date. Of these offenders, 97 have been granted parole, and 74 are
currently being actively supervised in the community*.
A higher percentage of second degree than first degree murder cases have resulted in a
reduction of the period required to be served before parole eligibility.
Note:
*Of the 97 offenders who have been granted parole, 17 offenders have been returned to custody, four offenders are deceased, and
two offenders have been deported.
Judicial review is an application by an offender convicted of murder to the Court for a reduction in the time required to be served
before being eligible for parole. Offenders can apply when they have served at least 15 years of their sentence. Judicial review
procedures apply to offenders convicted of first degree murder, who are required to serve 25 years prior to being eligible for parole,
and to offenders who have been sentenced to life imprisonment for second degree murder, with parole eligibility set at 15 years or
more.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
94
81% OF JUDICIAL REVIEW HEARINGS RESULT IN EARLIER PAROLE ELIGIBIILTY
Table E2.
Province of
Judicial Review
Parole Ineligibility
Reduced by Court
Reduction Denied
by Court
Total
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
1st degree
murder
2nd degree
murder
Newfoundland
0
0
0
0
0
0
Prince Edward Island
0
0
0
0
0
0
Nova Scotia
0
1
1
0
1
1
New Brunswick
1
0
0
0
1
0
Quebec
46
14
3
2
49
16
Ontario
16
0
8
1
24
1
Manitoba
6
3
1
0
7
3
Saskatchewan
6
0
2
0
8
0
Alberta
13
0
5
0
18
0
British Columbia
11
1
4
0
15
1
Sub-total
99
19
24
3
123
22
Total
118
27
145
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These numbers represent total decisions as of September 26, 2004.
Judicial reviews are conducted in the province where the conviction took place. This does not always correspond to the
administrative region in charge of the case.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
95
THE NUMBER OF DANGEROUS OFFENDER DESIGNATIONS INCREASED IN 2003
Figure E3.
Number of Dangerous Offenders Designated per Year*
35
33
31
29
30
27
27
26
25
22
20
15
15
5
8
3
7
8
6
4
10
9
20
21
15
13
10
21
11
9
12
9
5
0
1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
„
„
„
As of September 26, 2004, there have been 410 Dangerous Offender designations since 1978.
Approximately 82% of all Dangerous Offenders (DOs) have at least one current conviction for a
sexual offence.
As of September 26, 2004, there were 331 active DOs. Of these, 314 were incarcerated
(representing slightly more than 2% of the total federal inmate population), one has been
deported and 16 were being supervised in the community.
Of the 331 DOs, 7 offenders have determinate sentences, whereas 324 have indeterminate
sentences.
There are currently no female Dangerous Offenders.
Aboriginal offenders account for 19.6% of Dangerous Offenders and 16.3% of the total inmate
population.
Note:
Dangerous Offender legislation came into effect in Canada on October 15, 1977, replacing the Habitual Offender and Dangerous
Sexual Offender provisions that were abolished. A Dangerous Offender (DO) is an individual given an indeterminate sentence on
the basis of a particularly violent crime or pattern of serious violent offences where it is judged that the offender's behaviour is
unlikely to be inhibited by normal standards of behavioural restraint (see section 752 of the Criminal Code of Canada). Until August
1997, a determinate sentence was possible for those designated as DOs. In addition to the DOs, there remain within
federal jurisdiction 43 Dangerous Sexual Offenders and 7 Habitual Offenders.
*The number of Dangerous Offenders designated per year does not include overturned decisions.
Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as "active"; however, they are still represented in the
above graph which depicts the total number of offenders "designated".
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
96
THE NUMBER OF DANGEROUS OFFENDER DESIGNATIONS INCREASED IN 2003
Table E3.
Province or
Territory of
Designation
Active Dangerous Offenders
All Designations
(# designated
since 1978)
# of Indeterminate
Offenders
# of Determinate
Offenders
Total
Newfoundland
14
9
0
9
Nova Scotia
14
13
0
13
Prince Edward Island
0
0
0
0
New Brunswick
5
4
0
4
Quebec
28
26
0
26
Ontario
162
134
3
137
Manitoba
10
9
0
9
Saskatchewan
29
24
2
26
Alberta
32
23
0
23
110
76
2
78
Yukon
1
1
0
1
Northwest Territories
5
5
0
5
Nunavut
0
0
0
0
410
324
7
331
British Columbia
Total
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
Numbers presented are as of September 26, 2004.
The number of Dangerous Offenders declared per year does not inlude overturned decisions.
Offenders who have died since receiving designations are no longer classified as “active”; however, they are still represented in the
total number of offenders “designated”.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
97
MOST LONG TERM SUPERVISION ORDERS ARE FOR A 10-YEAR PERIOD
Figure E4.
Number of Long Term Supervision Orders Imposed
196
200
150
100
50
35
21
0
0
1
1
3
1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years
13
9
0
5 years
6 years
7 years
8 years
9 years
10 years
Length of Supervision Order
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
„
„
„
„
As of September 19, 2004, the courts had imposed 279 long term supervision orders on federal
offenders. Of these, 70.3% were for a period of 10 years.
There are currently 271 offenders with long term supervision orders, and of these, 212 (78.2%)
have at least one current conviction for a sexual offence.
There are four women with long term supervision orders.
There are currently 78 offenders being supervised in the community on their long term
supervision order. This includes nine offenders temporarily detained, two offenders currently
unlawfully at large, and one offender who has been deported.
Note:
Long Term Supervision Order (LTSO) legislation, which came into effect in Canada on August 1, 1997, allows the court to impose a
sentence of two years or more for the predicate offence and order that the offender be supervised in the community for a further
period not exceeding 10 years.
Six offenders under these provisions have died, one offender has completed his long term supervision period, and one offender has
had his order removed on appeal.
These figures do not include those cases where the order has been imposed more than once on the same sentence or those cases
where the order was removed on appeal and re-applied at a later date.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
98
MOST LONG TERM SUPERVISION ORDERS ARE FOR A 10-YEAR PERIOD
Table E4.
Length of Supervision Order (years)
Current Status
Province or
Territory of
Order
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
Total
Incarcerated
DP, FP, or
SR*
LTSO
period
Total
Newfoundland
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
1
0
3
4
Nova Scotia
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
9
11
8
0
3
11
Prince Edward
Island
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
2
2
New Brunswick
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
3
1
0
4
Quebec
0
1
0
14
4
8
1
42
70
38
3
28
69
Ontario
0
0
1
4
2
6
4
56
73
43
8
18
69
Manitoba
0
0
0
2
0
2
1
9
14
8
2
4
14
Saskatchewan
1
0
1
3
2
1
4
5
17
11
1
5
17
Alberta
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
22
27
18
0
8
26
British Columbia
0
0
0
3
1
2
3
41
50
38
3
7
48
Yukon
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
1
4
4
0
0
4
Northwest
Territories
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
3
3
0
0
3
Nunavut
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
1
1
3
35
9
21
13
196
279
175
18
78
271
Source: Correctional Service Canada.
Note:
These numbers are as of September 19, 2004.
Current Status applies to the current sentence of federal offenders only.
Six offenders under these provisions have died, one offender has completed his long term supervision period, and one offender has
had his order removed on appeal.
These figures do not include those cases where the order has been imposed more than once on the same sentence or those cases
where the order was removed on appeal and re-applied at a later date.
*This category includes offenders whose current status is either supervised on day parole, supervised on full parole, or supervised
on statutory release.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
99
THE NUMBER OF PARDON APPLICATIONS PROCESSED HAS INCREASED
Figure E5.
Cumulative Total of Pardons Granted & Issued
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00
2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04
Source: National Parole Board.
„
„
„
„
The National Parole Board received 16,912 pardon applications in 2003-04.
Over 98% of the accepted applications for pardons were granted last year.
The number of pardon applications processed increased in 2003-04.
Over three million (3,282,193) Canadians have a criminal record* but less than 10% of people
convicted have received a pardon. Since 1970, when the pardon process began, 306,985
pardons have been granted or issued.
Note:
Pardons allow people who were convicted of a criminal offence but have completed their sentence and demonstrated that they are
law-abiding citizens to have their criminal record sealed. A person convicted of a summary offence may apply for a pardon three
years after the completion of the sentence, and a person convicted of an indictable offence may apply after five years.
*Source: Royal Canadian Mounted Police Criminal Records Division, 2001.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
100
THE NUMBER OF PARDON APPLICATIONS PROCESSED HAS INCREASED
Table E5.
Type of Decision
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Granted
3,129
7,495
10,725
7,204
8,761
Issued
2,732
6,700
5,920
7,232
6,832
Denied
44
84
409
286
265
5,905
14,279
17,054
14,722
15,858
Percentage Granted / Issued
99.3
99.4
97.6
98.1
98.3
Revocations
409
80*
20*
369
534
Cessations
234
462
443
533
780
Total Revocations / Cessations
643
542
463
902
1,314
246,116
260,311
276,956
291,392
306,985
7,373
7,915
8,378
9,280
10,594
Total Granted / Issued / Denied
Cumulative Granted / Issued**
Cumulative Revocations / Cessations**
Source: National Parole Board.
Note:
*Revocations in 2000-01 and 2001-02 were lower than usual due to resource re-allocation.
**Cumulative data reflects pardon activity since 1970, when the pardon process was established under the Criminal Records Act.
Pardons are issued for summary offences, upon application, following a three-year conviction-free period after the completion of the
sentence. In cases of indictable offences, pardons are granted at the discretion of the National Parole Board (NPB) following a
five-year period of good conduct after the completion of the sentence. The cessation of a pardon automatically occurs following a
subsequent conviction for an indictable offence, or hybrid offence, with some exceptions, including impaired driving, driving with more
than 80 mg of alcohol in the blood or fail to provide a breath sample. Revocations are at the discretion of the NPB following a
subsequent summary conviction, or for lack of good conduct. The Board may also render a decision of cessation when it is
convinced by new information that the person was not eligible for a pardon at the time it was awarded.
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December, 2004
QUESTIONNAIRE
In order to improve the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview, we are asking our
readers to complete the following voluntary questionnaire:
1. Where did you obtain this copy of the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical
Overview?
2. How did you become aware of it?
3. Did you experience any difficulties in obtaining or accessing the document? ‰ Yes ‰ No
Please elaborate.
4. Have you found the Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview to be a useful
document?
‰ Yes ‰ No
Please elaborate.
5. Are there any tables, figures or bullets that are not clear?
6. Are there any topics you would like to see addressed in future publications of the Corrections
and Conditional Release Statistical Overview that are not currently included?
7. Any further comments?
(See over for return address)
Please return completed questionnaires to:
Dr. Robert Cormier
Chair,
Portfolio Corrections Statistics Committee
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
340 Laurier Avenue West, 10th Floor
Ottawa Ontario
K1A 0P8
Tel: (613) 991-2825
Fax: (613) 990-8295
E-mail: [email protected]
For further information, please visit:
Correctional Service Canada: www.csc-scc.gc.ca
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada: www.statcan.ca
National Parole Board: www.npb-cnlc.gc.ca
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada: www.psepc.gc.ca
Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
December 2004
49569_EngCov.qxp
11/26/2004
9:37 PM
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