MOLD IN HOUSING Information for First Nations Communities HOUSING MANAGERS’ GUIDE

MOLD IN HOUSING Information for First Nations Communities HOUSING MANAGERS’ GUIDE
MOLD IN HOUSING
Information for First Nations Communities
HOUSING MANAGERS’ GUIDE
CMHC—Home to Canadians
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) has
been Canada’s national housing agency for more than 65 years.
Together with other housing stakeholders, we help ensure
that the Canadian housing system remains one of the best
in the world. We are committed to helping Canadians access
a wide choice of quality, environmentally sustainable and
affordable housing solutions that will continue to create
vibrant and healthy communities and cities across the country.
For more information, visit our website at www.cmhc.ca
You can also reach us by phone at 1-800-668-2642 or
by fax at 1-800-245-9274.
Outside Canada call 613-748-2003 or fax to 613-748-2016.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation supports the
Government of Canada policy on access to information
for people with disabilities. If you wish to obtain this
publication in alternative formats, call 1-800-668-2642.
MOLD IN HOUSING
Information for First Nations Communities
HOUSING MANAGERS’ GUIDE
CMHC offers a wide range of housing-related information. For details, call 1-800-668-2642
or visit our website at www.cmhc.ca
Cette publication est aussi disponible en français sous le titre : La moisissure dans les logements :
Information pour les communautés des Premières nations – Guide du gestionnaire d’habitations
(no de produit 67300).
The information in this publication is a result of current research and knowledge. Readers should evaluate the
information, materials and techniques cautiously for themselves and consult appropriate professional resources
to see if the information, materials and techniques apply to them. The images and text are guides only. Project
and site-specific factors (climate, cost, aesthetics) must also be considered.
Mold in Housing: Information for First Nations Communities—Housing Managers’ Guide
Issued also in French under title : La moisissure dans les logements : Information pour les communautés
des Premières nations – Guide du gestionnaire d’habitations.
Catalogue no.: NH17-56/2-2011E-PDF
ISBN: 978-1-100-18636-8
© 2011 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, all rights reserved. No portion of this book may
be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical,
electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of Canada Mortgage
and Housing Corporation. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, no portion of this book may be
translated from English into any other language without the prior written permission of Canada Mortgage
and Housing Corporation.
Printed in Canada.
Produced by CMHC.
housing managers’ guide
TABLE
OF
CONTENTS
introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
About the Mold in Housing series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
INTRODUCTION TO MOLD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Long-term mold control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
IDENTIFYING THE ROLES OF KEY PEOPLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Home occupants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
First Nations housing departments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Chief and Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Technical service providers and inspectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Environmental health officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Mold cleanup contractors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Renovation contractors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
ASSESSING A SUSPECTED MOLD PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Detecting mold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Estimating the extent of mold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Mold testing and sampling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
IDENTIFYING THE CAUSES OF MOISTURE AND MOLD PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . 10
The importance of humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Moisture damage: what to look for. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Exterior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Basements and crawl spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Bathrooms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Kitchens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
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Table of contents (cont’d)
Laundry areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
All living areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Attic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Mechanical systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
SOLVING THE MOISTURE PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
GETTING THE HOUSE READY FOR CLEANUP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Site and team preparations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Occupant protection during cleanup and renovation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Who is at higher risk from mold? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Occupant protection measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Worker protection measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Minimum worker (or occupant) personal protective equipment (PPE). . . . . . . . 23
Common sense do’s and don’ts for workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
CLEANING UP A SMALL MOLD PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
CLEANING UP A MEDIUM MOLD PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Furniture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Carpets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Drywall (gypsum wallboard). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Whole house cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
CLEANING UP A LARGE MOLD PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Is it worth fixing the house? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
CARING FOR THE HOME AFTER MOLD CLEANUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
HOUSEHOLD INVESTIGATION TOOL FOR MOLD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
FOR MORE INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Support for mold cleanup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Training needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
ii
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housing managers’ guide
introduction
The Housing Managers’ Guide is part of the Mold in
Housing series. The information in this Guide will
help First Nations housing managers recognize when
there is a mold problem in the community and take the
necessary steps to deal with the problem. This Guide
may also be suitable for:
■■
Chief and Council;
■■
First Nations housing committees, maintenance
supervisors, property management/maintenance
officers, construction supervisors, crew leaders,
labourers;
■■
Health providers—community health nurses/
representatives and environmental health officers;
■■
Trades—builders, contractors and renovators; and
■■
Technical service providers (inspectors).
This Guide is part of a series that includes the Home
Occupants’ Guide and the Guide to Mold-Resistant
Renovations and New Construction. Housing managers
should read all three guides.
About the Mold in Housing series
Home Occupants’ Guide—This
first Guide of the series includes
information written for home
occupants and any other individuals
who want to learn basic information
about mold (Product # 67237).
Housing Managers’ Guide—This
second Guide suggests possible roles
of key players and identifies the
training they need to deal with
mold issues. The Guide includes
information on specialized topics
and is directed to technical service
providers and housing managers
(Product # 67299).
Guide to Mold-Resistant Renovations
and New Construction—This
final Guide of the series includes
information on technical and
specialized topics and is directed
to housing managers, builders,
contractors, renovators, technical
service providers and mold
remediation specialists
(Product # 67301).
If you have any questions or comments about
this document or other CMHC publications,
please call 1-800-668-2642.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
iii
housing managers’ guide
INTRODUCTION TO MOLD
Mold is a common problem in houses, both in and outside First Nations .
communities. It can be a minor nuisance or it can have major effects on .
the occupants. Mold in houses does not happen overnight. The solutions are also not .
immediate. To control mold, a plan needs to be put in place that:
■■
deals with existing mold problems;
■■
prevents future mold problems; and
■■
plans for new, mold-resistant construction.
Mold problems indoors are always caused by moisture
or water. Water can come from leaky pipes, water
condensation on cold surfaces or from water seeping
through a wall, foundation, floor or roof. Moisture
can come from the people living in the house and
from daily activities like bathing, cooking and washing
clothes. Additional moisture can also be deliberate,
as in the use of humidifiers or a pot of water on a
wood-burning stove. Moisture can build up indoors
and become a problem if it is not dealt with quickly.
Recognizing the moisture problem in the home is
a critical step in understanding mold problems and
finding solutions.
Water damage under a window
Daily activities, such as cooking, produce moisture
This Guide will help housing managers to better
understand moisture and mold in houses and to help
find the safest and best steps to solve the problem.
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Mold in Housing
Long-term mold control
Cleaning up houses with serious mold problems is not
easy. It may upset the occupants’ lives and take a lot of
work and money. Mold problems come back if they are
not dealt with properly.
■■
provide clear guidelines to people or companies
doing the cleanup or renovation;
■■
understand mold cleanup techniques that work;
To fix mold problems for the long term, a Housing
Manager needs to:
■■
know when and why to use proper mold sampling,
analysis and record keeping;
■■
understand why houses become moldy;
■■
hire trained contractors; and
■■
be able to recognize when a house is moldy;
■■
make sure every house is maintained properly.
■■
act quickly to find and fix moisture and
mold problems;
Water damage on a ceiling
2
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Trained contractors repairing water damage
housing managers’ guide
IDENTIFYING THE ROLES OF KEY PEOPLE
■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
Home occupants, housing departments, environmental health officers .
and community health nurses/representatives are key people in making
sure mold problems get dealt with properly.
Trained contractors and renovators clean up mold, take care of the causes
and restore houses.
Trained technical service providers can provide information, advice .
and supervision which will help make sure that cleanup and renovation .
are done properly.
Housing maintenance staff and occupants can work together to keep .
houses mold-free.
Trained builders construct homes that are moisture- and mold-resistant.
The responsibilities for mold cleanup are usually
shared between the occupants and the community.
Arrangements will vary by community depending on
knowledge and skills. Mold problems are easier to deal
with if all the key players work as a team.
Home occupants can clean up small mold problems before
they get bigger
Home occupants
Home occupants have a very important role to play.
They should:
■■
learn how to recognize mold in their home;
■■
learn about health and indoor air problems caused
by mold;
■■
clean up mold problems before they get bigger; and
■■
maintain their homes to prevent mold.
The Home Occupants’ Guide provides information for
occupants on how to clean up mold and how to prevent
mold from returning. Helping occupants take care of
mold problems is a key part of good community health
and housing management.
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Mold in Housing
First Nations housing departments
First Nations housing departments can play a role by:
■■
providing information on mold to
community members;
■■
providing information to occupants on good
housekeeping (cleaning) practices to prevent mold;
■■
assisting with inspections of houses by technical
service providers or other individuals trained
in mold inspections;
■■
romoting prevention of mold from growing back
p
through good maintenance practices of houses in
the community;
■■
o rganizing information sessions for occupants
on how to recognize and clean up small patches of
mold and help occupants identify when they need
help; and
■■
aking sure any plans for home renovations
m
or new houses built in the community address
moisture problems.
working with the environmental health officer or
community health nurse/representative on occupancy
suggestions if mold is a problem;
In many communities, the housing department is the
key player in mold prevention and remediation.
■■
helping with alternative housing arrangements,
when needed;
Chief and Council
■■
assisting home occupants with what needs to be done
to cleanup mold;
■■
■■
assisting with the renovation specifications for
mold-contaminated houses;
■■
assisting occupants with arranging cleanup,
renovation, inspection and preparing the house
for re-occupancy;
Housing managers are key players in mold prevention
4
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
The Chief and Council can support by:
■■
e nsuring that technical service providers and
inspectors are qualified to investigate houses
for mold problems;
■■
e nsuring housing staff know about renovating and
building houses so they are less likely to get moldy;
■■
eveloping a housing policy that clearly defines the
d
roles and responsibilities for home maintenance and
repair, mold remediation, inspections, etc.; and
■■
s upporting training for home occupants on how to
clean up and prevent mold.
housing managers’ guide
Technical service providers
and inspectors
Technical service providers and inspectors may help
ensure that the mold remediation specifications,
contract and completed work meet the requirements
of the community and occupant.
Technical service providers who are trained in mold
remediation may:
Environmental health officers
Environmental health officers (EHOs) may:
■■
inform health services staff and housing managers
on how mold in houses affects public health;
■■
rovide health information and advice about mold
p
concerns to community members;
■■
r espond to requests for individual health assessments
in homes;
■■
investigate mold-troubled houses;
■■
evelop and provide specifications for workers on
d
mold cleanup, renovation or new construction;
■■
inspect homes to help determine the severity of
mold; and
■■
o versee workers doing the cleanup, renovations and
new construction;
■■
c onduct microbial sampling for mold, or identify
particular mold types, if necessary.
■■
provide technical support on mold issues; and
■■
act as a resource for the community.
Technical service providers and inspectors may investigate
mold-troubled houses and provide valuable expertise
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
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Mold in Housing
Mold cleanup contractors
Mold cleanup contractors are trained to deal with mold
problems. They may:
■■
c lean areas that are not visibly moldy by HEPA
vacuuming;
■■
rovide a detailed description of the mold cleanup
p
and remediation work and cost estimates;
■■
clean the remaining parts of the house as required;
■■
■■
provide a detailed contract for the job;
c lean up work areas and leave the site ready for
reconstruction; and
■■
install temporary protective barriers to isolate the
work site from the rest of the house;
■■
provide a checklist of what has been done.
■■
a rrange for waste disposal and install temporary
ventilation, if needed;
■■
t alk to occupants to determine which furnishings
are to be cleaned and which may have to be
thrown away;
■■
decontaminate furnishings that are reusable;
■■
roperly dispose of furniture and possessions that
p
cannot be cleaned and reused;
■■
econtaminate, wash, rinse and dry areas damaged
d
by moisture and mold;
Mold cleanup contractors should provide a checklist
of the work that has been done
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Renovation contractors
Renovation contractors are involved in the renovation
of houses after a mold cleanup. They may also cleanup
mold if trained to do so. When hired to clean up mold,
renovation contractors should:
■■
rovide a detailed description of the work, cost
p
estimates and a contract for the renovation work to
correct problems with the house and to restore the
house after a mold cleanup; and
■■
r enovate the house to the specifications provided in
the contract.
Renovation contractors solve moisture problems
and restore houses
housing managers’ guide
ASSESSING A SUSPECTED MOLD PROBLEM
■■
■■
trained and knowledgeable individual reviews the mold problem .
A
and the condition of the house.
Mold problems can be small, medium or large—each requiring
a different approach.
The Mold Assessment Summary of the Household
Investigation Tool for Mold on page 52 can be used to
help identify the location and extent of a mold problem
in a house. Combined with completed checklists from
other houses, it can also help to document the extent
of the mold problem in the community over time.
Upon completing the Mold Assessment Summary, if
many small mold patches or, one or more medium or
large areas of mold are found, the next step should be
a complete building investigation by a trained and
qualified individual in your community. The Household
Investigation Tool for Mold on page 32 is intended to
guide such investigations.
Detecting mold
In addition to visual and odour checks described in the
Home Occupants’ Guide, there are a few quick checks
that can also be carried out to help detect mold.
Flashlight test
In a darkened room, hold a flashlight against the surface
suspected of being moldy and shine the beam across the
surface from the side. Areas where mold is growing may
show up as a shadow and appear as fine fuzz. This test
works well with light-coloured mold that may not be
easily seen in daylight.
Efflorescence
A common sign of moisture problems affecting
foundation walls is the formation of fuzzy white spots
on the surface of poured concrete and masonry. This
fuzzy growth is called efflorescence. It is made up
of delicate crystals of salts that form when moisture
with high salt content moves through the concrete or
masonry. If this has been happening over a long period
Efflorescence on foundation wall is not mold
Bleach test
Dab a drop of household bleach onto a suspected mold
spot. If the spot loses its colour or disappears within two
hours then it may be mold. If there is no change, it
probably isn’t mold.
Paper swipe test
With a small strip of rough paper (a coffee filter works
well), gently rub the surface of the suspected patch
of mold. If powder rubs off onto the paper, it may be
mold. This test works especially well with dark-coloured
mold. Beware that soot from candles or other combustion
sources is also dark and will also rub off on paper.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
7
Mold in Housing
of time, the salt will build up and can be several
centimetres thick. You can test to see if it is mineral salt
by mixing it with a few drops of household vinegar to
see if it bubbles or dissolves. If this happens, it is salt
deposits and not mold.
Estimating the extent of mold
Use the images below to estimate if the area of mold is
small, medium or large.
square metre) but the total mold area is less than three
square metres (for example, 1 m x 3 m or about the
size of a 4 ft. x 8 ft. sheet of plywood). Patches close
together are considered as one patch.
In many cases, professional help is needed
to take care of medium amounts of mold but
home occupants may be able to attempt the
cleanup with training and proper precautions.
The mold area is small if there are one, two or three
patches of mold and each patch is smaller than one
square metre (1 m x 1 m). Mold on window sills are
usually small areas.
The mold area is large if a single patch of mold is larger
than three square metres (for example, 1 m x 3 m or a
standard piece of 4 ft. x 8 ft. plywood) or if there are
many medium or large patches of mold all through
the house.
Small moldy areas in houses can become bigger
if ignored, so it is important to clean up even
tiny patches of mold.
Large mold areas should be left to contractors
who are trained to deal with mold cleanup.
Many small patches of mold in one area or throughout
the house are a sign of moisture problems that need to
be investigated and corrected right away. However, in
most cases, small areas of mold can be cleaned up by
home occupants or housing maintenance staff using
proper precautions. See “Cleaning up a small mold
problem” on page 24.
The mold area is considered medium if there are more
than three patches of mold (each smaller than one
The Mold Assessment Summary of the Household
Investigation Tool for Mold on page 52 can be used to
record the extent of the mold found in a house. For
each room, the investigator records if the mold problem
is small, medium or large by putting a checkmark
in the appropriate column. The location of the mold
and any other comments are also recorded. Upon
completion of the inspection, the extent of the mold
problem will become apparent based on the number
of “Small,” “Medium” or “Large” mold problems found.
Small mold area
Examples of medium mold areas
Examples of large mold areas
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housing managers’ guide
Mold testing and sampling
Testing for mold in houses is usually not necessary.
Mold must be cleaned up no matter what type is
present. Current methods for testing and sampling
for mold in homes can not be used to relate the results
to health.
Why is testing usually not recommended?
The first thing that comes to many people’s minds when
they suspect a mold problem is to have the air in the
house tested. This means collecting an air sample and
sending it to a laboratory for analysis.
Testing for mold is usually not necessary and should not
be the first step. You don’t need to know what kind of
mold is growing before making a plan to remove it. Air
sampling alone provides no information about the
extent of the mold problem, why it exists, health risks,
or how to fix the problem. Decisions cannot be made
based on laboratory results alone.
Is testing useful?
In some cases, and if properly done by an accredited
laboratory, testing for mold might be useful to help
detect hidden contamination. The types of mold
are identified, and how much there is in the samples
submitted may also be noted. However, it is very rare
for mold or signs of water damage not to be detected
after a home investigation by a qualified individual.
How is testing done?
Air samples or samples of moldy materials are sent
to a laboratory for analysis. Typically, many samples
have to be taken. Testing may have to be done at
different times (seasons) to properly assess the situation.
The samples are typically sent to a laboratory within 24
hours. The results may take several weeks to come back.
The solution is the same for all types of mold and for any area affected: if mold is obvious, it must be removed, .
the area cleaned properly, and the moisture problem that caused mold needs to be fixed. No agency has suggested
a “safe level” of indoor mold.
A complete investigation of the home done by a
qualified and knowledgeable individual can be more
helpful than testing the air. In most cases, a complete
investigation of the home can provide the housing
manager and occupants with the information needed to
understand why mold is growing in the house and what
to do to take care of the problem.
Mold testing is also time-consuming and the wait for
test results can delay cleanup and lead to increased
exposure of the occupants. For these reasons, the time
and resources allocated for mold testing may be better
spent on diagnosing and solving the mold problem.
Mold testing is not usually
recommended—resources
may be better spent fixing
the problem
If testing is done, who collects the samples?
Trained technical service providers, environmental
health officers or community health nurses/
representatives may collect dust samples, scrapings
of moldy material and air samples.
Mold samples can be sent to laboratories accredited
for mold analysis. (See “Mold analysis laboratories”
on page 54 for a list of accredited laboratories).
How are mold sampling methods chosen?
Trained technical service providers, environmental
health officers and other health professionals can select
the sampling method using the guidelines in the
American Industrial Hygiene Association’s (AIHA)
publication entitled Field Guide for the Determination
of Biological Contaminants in Environmental Samples.
The laboratory that performs the analysis can also make
suggestions on sampling methods.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
9
Mold in Housing
IDENTIFYING THE CAUSES OF MOISTURE
AND MOLD PROBLEMS
■■
■■
■■
A thorough house investigation, inside and out, will help identify areas that
are wet or damp, those that show signs of mold and those that smell earthy
or musty. Identify moisture problems—this is a critical step toward understanding
mold problems and finding practical solutions.
Use these practical solutions to correct existing moisture and mold problems. The importance of humidity
Warm air can hold more moisture than cool air.
When warm, moisture-filled air comes into contact
with a cooler surface, the air itself cools. If the air cools
enough, it can’t retain the same amount of moisture,
and the excess moisture collects on the surface as tiny
droplets of liquid water called condensation.
Here are three common situations where excess
moisture in the air leads to moisture problems and
mold growth indoors:
■■
ondensation forms on the interior side of poorlyC
insulated exterior walls or windows during the
Water pipe condensation and plumbing leaks can lead
to mold
10
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
winter. Molds can grow on damp painted or
papered wall surfaces, as well as wooden window
sills. (Winter problem.)
■■
ninsulated cold water pipes drip condensation,
U
causing local moisture damage. This happens most
often along the incoming water line in the basement.
Items beneath these drips may get wet and grow
mold. (Summer problem.)
■■
Fabric, paper, cardboard and leather, have a tendency
to absorb airborne moisture. When stored in humid
conditions, such as in a damp basement, these items
can become moldy. (Basement or garage problem.)
Papers and clutter can absorb moisture and grow mold
housing managers’ guide
Measure the relative humidity in all the homes that you
inspect. To do this you will need a relative-humidity
meter, also known as a hygrometer. Ideally, the indoor
relative humidity during the heating season should be
low enough to prevent condensation on windows.
Cold surfaces, in combination with high humidity,
may experience condensation that can lead to moisture
damage and mold growth. Cold surfaces may be due to:
■■
Missing or inadequate insulation in walls and attics
Indoor relative humidity should be between 30% and
50%. When it is below -10˚C (14˚F) outside, the
relative humidity inside should be 30% but it may have
to be as low as 25% in extremely cold regions, to
prevent condensation on cold surfaces such as windows.
■■
Inefficient, older windows
■■
Thermal bridges (such as structural framing)
■■
Drafts
■■
Wind washing of attic insulation at the eaves
■■
I nadequate heating—blocked heating ducts, covered
baseboard heaters, deactivated space heaters
■■
Cold water pipes
High indoor humidity can be the result of many factors
including:
■■
Many occupants living in one home
■■
Firewood stored indoors
■■
Hang drying clothes indoors
■■
Cooking
■■
Lack of kitchen range hood and bathroom fans
■■
Large number of plants in the home
■■
Water leaks, damp foundation
Indoor humidity should be low enough to prevent
condensation on windows
Moisture damage: what to look for
Although molds require moisture to grow, they do
not need much. An investigation will have to consider
all degrees of moisture damage, ranging from soaking
wet to slightly damp. Materials that are wet are easy to
spot. More problematic are those areas that look and
feel dry but were wet and moldy in the past, and those
that are only slightly damp but may become a problem.
The techniques below can help to detect these less
obvious problems.
Water, as described above, is frequently the cause of
indoor mold growth. Gravity affects the movement of
water: the lowest part of any material subject to a leak
is likely to be the wettest, which is especially true for
the framing members and insulation located in walls
and attics.
■■
I f you locate a leak, carefully trace the routes that
the water has travelled to determine the possible
extent of the water damage and where the water
might be coming from.
■■
loor drains in basements are intentionally installed
F
at the lowest points in the floor. Look around the
drain for tiny dried riverbeds left over from previous
leaks or flooding.
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11
Mold in Housing
■■
■■
ry drip marks may remain after condensed
D
moisture has dripped down the interior side of cold
exterior walls in winter and may indicate thermal
bridges, missing insulation and air leakage points.
ark staining is the most common feature associated
D
with water damage. It is most often seen on wood
and paper products that have become wet. This sort
of staining is more obvious on fibres, such as wood,
cardboard and ceiling tiles.
■■
I tems that appear darker than they should be may be
damp even though they may not feel so to the touch.
■■
oisture damaged materials such as drywall or
M
ceiling tiles can become soft to touch.
■■
usted metal fasteners and other hardware may
R
indicate a moisture problem in the area.
■■
ripping cold water pipes (or white deposits on the
D
underside of pipes) may indicate high humidity levels.
■■
amaged finishes around windows and doors may
D
indicate water leakage between the wall and window
or door.
■■
listers, or air pockets, in painted or wallpapered
B
surfaces may indicate high moisture conditions in
the wall.
■■
fflorescence on basement walls may indicate a damp
E
foundation due to wet soil conditions.
■■
oose or lifting floor tiles and raised joints in
L
laminate flooring may indicate moisture problems
in the floor below, an adjacent wall area or the
ceiling above.
The checklist in Mold in Housing: Home Occupants’
Guide can be used to help identify moisture and mold
problems. Further guidance on finding and diagnosing
moisture and mold problems is provided below. The
process starts with an assessment of the exterior
elements of the property including the site, roof, walls,
windows, doors and foundation. Next, the interior
elements including the attic, ceilings, walls, windows,
doors, floors, foundation, heating and ventilation
systems and occupant-related factors are considered.
The Household Investigation Tool for Mold on page 33
can be used to record your observations.
Exterior
■■
heck site for standing water and the grading around
C
the house. Grading sloped towards the house can
cause water to accumulate next to the foundation.
■■
heck the condition of the roof for any places where
C
water might enter.
■■
I nspect for ice damming in the winter. Ice dams form
when heat from the house warms the roof enough to
melt snow. The water then runs off, only to freeze
when it reaches the cooler part of the roof out
beyond the walls of the house. Eventually, a layer of
ice forms and melting snow is trapped between the
ice and the roof and the water can leak into the attic,
and from there, into the house. Walls and ceilings
below ice dam areas are prone to mold growth. This
needs to be inspected and repaired.
■■
I nspect shingles. Asphalt shingles on a pitched roof
should lie flat. Missing, worn, lifting or curling
shingles should be replaced.
Stains on materials often indicate water damage
12
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
■■
n flat roofs, look for cracking, blistering, open
O
seams or uneven surfaces. Water pooling on a flat
roof should be fixed to prevent it from draining into
the house.
■■
Inspect chimney for spots water could enter.
■■
I nspect eavestroughs, downspouts (which should
extend at least 3 m or 10 ft. from any wall) for
blockages, disconnections or missing sections.
■■
ake sure grading is sloped to direct water away
M
from the house. This includes lawns, gardens,
driveways and walkways around the house.
■■
heck that all window wells are well drained and
C
basement windows are in good condition.
■■
I nspect cladding (wood, vinyl siding, metal siding,
masonry, stucco) for signs of cracking, surface wear,
loose or cracked caulking. Repair any damage found
to keep water out.
■■
I nspect windows closely. Check to make sure the
caulking seal around the windows is solid and has no
gaps or cracks. Check for any signs of staining that
might indicate water is seeping in.
■■
heck for leakage between the frame joints or
C
through joints between the sashes and the frames.
These kinds of leaks can cause wetting that is usually
worse on the wall and floor right below the window.
Check the weatherstripping. Also, check to make
sure windows close properly. Air leaks around
windows can cause condensation, moisture damage
and mold growth. Repair as necessary.
■■
I nspect wooden window sills for mold growth
appearing as powdery black, brown or reddish stains
on painted or unpainted sill surfaces.
Basements and crawl spaces
Basement walls
■■
I nspect interior sides of basement walls (including
cold cellars) for signs of mold, moisture and leaks.
■■
common sign of moisture problems affecting
A
foundation walls is the formation of efflorescence
(see page 8).
■■
heck that any insulation on the basement walls is
C
covered and sealed with air/vapour barriers on the
basement walls and between floor joists.
■■
Check for signs of rotting wood.
Cold cellars
■■
he right conditions for storing food (cool and
T
damp) are also the right conditions for mold growth.
It is not a good idea to keep an indoor cold cellar
unless it can be isolated from the rest of the house
and has an outdoor entrance.
■■
cold cellar that is very moldy can be a source of
A
mold for the whole house.
Clear eavestroughs of debris such as leaves
Rotting wood at the base
of a finished basement wall
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13
Mold in Housing
Basement floors
■■
heck for carpets or vinyl flooring on basement
C
floors. They may have to be removed if wet or damp.
Moisture can come up through the concrete slab
or airborne moisture can accumulate on the cool
concrete and make the carpets and underpads damp
and mold can grow.
■■
heck under raised floors, since the cavities created
C
under these floors are good hiding places for mold.
■■
Inspect the floor for cracks.
■■
atch for signs of flooding, such as staining of the
W
walls and floors or “dry riverbeds” that meet at the
lowest point on the floor (usually the drain).
■■
ote any insects such as pill bugs or sow bugs
N
(which look like tiny armadillos). These can indicate
moisture problems.
Bathrooms
■■
heck that the bathroom fans are operating. The fan
C
should create airflow strong enough to hold a sheet
of tissue paper to the grille when operating. Check
the duct, dampers and outside vent hood for
blockages if the airflow is weak.
■■
I nspect plumbing under the bathroom sink and toilet
for signs of leakage or condensation. Inspect the
condition of the cabinetry under the sink for signs
of moisture damage.
Insects such as pill bugs and silverfishes indicate
moisture problems
14
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
■■
I nspect toilet tanks for condensation in the summer.
Consider replacing the toilet if it is not insulated on
the inside and condensation is a problem. A leaking
flapper valve, which causes the tank to keep filling
with cold water may also cause condensation. To
check, add a few drops of food colouring to the water
inside the toilet tank. Wait 30 minutes. If the water
in the toilet bowl changes colour, the flapper valve
inside the tank may be leaking and should be replaced
with a new flapper made for the toilet model.
■■
I nspect the caulking around the bathtub and shower
stalls. Small gaps or cracks can cause leakage when
the tub or shower are used. Look around the sides of
the tub and on the floor for any signs of leaking and
water damage.
■■
ote any insects such as silverfish, centipedes,
N
springtails and pill bugs. These all indicate
moisture problems.
■■
heck the condition of painted ceilings and walls.
C
Cracked or peeling paint may indicate that there is
too much moisture in the air, leaks in the walls or
roof or too little insulation.
Inspect plumbing under the sink and behind the toilet for
signs of leakage
housing managers’ guide
Kitchens
■■
ake sure the range hood is vented outside and
M
is working.
■■
heck the condition of the outside vent hood to
C
make sure the flapper works easily and does not let
in rainwater.
■■
I nspect the plumbing for the kitchen sink and any
other appliances for signs of leakage or condensation
and for signs of water damage.
■■
heck the laundry tub faucet—dripping will
C
wet the bottom of the laundry tub, adding to
humidity problems.
■■
Check laundry sink plumbing for signs of leakage.
All living areas
■■
Check condition and cleanliness of carpets.
■■
I nspect ceilings and walls for any signs of water
staining or discolouration. Water damage to the
ceiling usually happens as a result of a plumbing leak
or a roof leak. Mold growth from condensation can
also happen on the ceiling in places where the attic
insulation is poor, causing the ceiling to be too cold
in the winter.
■■
ook for water staining or mold growth on exterior
L
walls. It is usually worse in areas where the air is cold
or not flowing well and where wall insulation lacks,
such as in corners near the ceiling or baseboard.
Furnishings can also reduce air circulation against the
wall. Check walls behind hanging pictures, large
pieces of furniture or curtains for signs of
condensation, moisture damage and mold. Use a
flashlight at an angle to look for small patches of
mold and light-coloured mold.
Laundry areas
■■
ake sure dryers are vented directly outside
M
with short, straight runs of aluminum duct with
sealed joints.
■■
heck the duct for lint build-up—this is a fire
C
hazard, prevents effective moisture venting and
can cause the dryer to operate longer than necessary,
wasting energy.
■■
I nspect the plumbing for the clothes washer and
check for leaks. Burst hoses can cause a great deal of
water damage. Make sure the washer drains properly
to the laundry tub or a drain pipe without leaking or
spilling. Check under and behind the washer for
signs of moisture and water damage.
Dripping faucets add to humidity problems
Water staining and mold growth on ceiling tiles
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
15
Mold in Housing
■■
heck for water leaking through the wall beside and
C
beneath windows. Gently push on the wall to feel for
soft spots that may indicate moisture problems.
■■
ift carpets at the edges where they meet the walls
L
and look underneath. Staining on walls, subfloors or
the underside of carpets could indicate water leaks.
■■
heck for cold walls and poor air circulation in
C
closets—they can result in condensation, moisture
damage and mold growth.
■■
heck for a musty smell in the attic, which can
C
indicate dampness. Air leakage into the attic from the
house can cause condensation on cool surfaces in the
attic during winter causing mold growth. It can also
contribute to ice damming. Air leaks from the house
should be sealed.
■■
n ammonia-like smell in the attic may indicate the
A
presence of animals. Pigeons and bats can be very
hazardous when they roost in attics and the fungi
that live in their droppings can cause infectious
diseases in people. If you find birds or bats roosting
in the attic, get professional help to remove them and
to clean up the area.
Attic
■■
■■
S hine your flashlight on the underside of the roof.
Look for stains that may indicate water leaks. Check
closely where the roof bends or changes direction,
since leaks commonly occur in these locations.
ake sure the attic roof insulation is over R-31 as
M
lower R values may allow too much heat to escape
from the house to the attic which contributes to
ice damming. The insulating properties vary from
material to material, but glass fibre insulation should
be about 9 inches (220 mm) thick to provide R-31
insulation value.
Black discolouration of carpeting near baseboards can be
a sign of a mold problem
Discoloration and staining
on the underside of the roof
indicates a water leak
16
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Mechanical systems
Forced-air heating systems
■■
heck that the furnace has been serviced. Annual
C
maintenance service is recommended.
■■
heck the condition of any furnace humidifiers.
C
Poorly-maintained humidifiers increase humidity
levels and can cause mold growth. Standing water in
the humidifier and leakage in the plumbing can be a
source of moisture problems.
Increase airflow in rooms with no air return grilles by
undercutting the door by one inch
housing managers’ guide
■■
ake sure any forced-air system can circulate air
M
freely throughout the house. Undercut room doors
so air can circulate back to central returns, if
required. Continuous fan operation can help
circulate air throughout the house.
■■
lean and replace furnace filters regularly to ensure
C
good airflow through the furnace.
■■
ake sure sufficient heat is provided to the basement
M
to reduce cold spots and the risk of condensation.
■■
I f mold problems are discovered in the basement,
immediately seal the ducts and grilles in the
basement to prevent air from being drawn from
the basement and circulated into the rest of the
house. This is only a temporary measure. In the
winter, provide the basement with an alternate
heat source until the mold problem is solved.
■■
emove floor registers and inspect for dust build-up
R
using a flashlight and mirror to take a look inside.
Vacuum the registers and the return duct regularly.
Arrange for professional duct cleaning if the dust
accumulated inside the ducts is excessive.
Heat recovery ventilator (HRV) or air exchangers
■■
heck outside hoods to make sure they are clean.
C
Check filters inside the unit and clean as necessary.
For HRVs, remove the heat exchange core and check
for cleanliness and blockages.
■■
I nspect condensate drain pans in HRVs for proper
drainage and cleanliness. Check that the condensate
line from the HRV is clean, free-draining and
properly connected to a drainage point.
■■
nsure controls are operating. Check the controls
E
on the unit and any remote controls provided in
bathrooms or in another central location.
■■
heck for strong airflows from the supply air grilles
C
and at the exhaust air grilles.
■■
heck for the last service date and compare with
C
manufacturer’s recommendations.
■■
I f the HRV or air exchanger is connected to a forcedair system, make sure the furnace fan is set to run
continuously to keep air circulating throughout
the house.
Water heater
■■
heck the water heater and the pipes attached to it
C
for leaks or signs of condensation.
■■
heck the water heater drain and pressure relief valve
C
for leaks.
■■
heck pipes for insulation to prevent heat loss
C
from hot water pipes and condensation on cold
water pipes.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
17
Mold in Housing
SOLVING THE MOISTURE PROBLEM
■■
■■
Once the moisture problem is identified and the causes determined, it’s
important to fix the problem before cleaning up the mold.
Sometimes, moisture problems can be complex to diagnose and solve—
trained expertise may be required.
Having identified the moisture problem and its causes,
measures can be put in place to stop or control the
moisture source. The measures may be temporary if
there is a need to renovate the home as a result of the
mold damage and cleanup activities.
completing a cleanup before the moisture problem has
been solved as the mold problems will likely come back
soon after the cleanup has been completed.
Sometimes solving the moisture problem is complex,
such as in the case of excavating a foundation to install
damp or waterproofing, new drainage tile, insulation,
free-draining backfill and properly sloped surface
grading. In such cases, the work to fix the moisture
problem may have to be done at the same time as
the cleanup work. However, there is little point in
■■
nsuring water drains away from the foundation
E
and that there are no low areas next to the
foundation walls.
■■
ixing water leaks in roofs, walls, windows
F
and foundations.
■■
S upplying bathroom fans, an exterior vented kitchen
range hood or a heat recovery ventilator to help
control indoor humidity levels.
■■
ixing leaks and dealing with condensation on pipes
F
and plumbing fixtures.
■■
Fixing problems around bathtubs and shower enclosures.
■■
Fixing damp foundations and crawl spaces.
■■
nsuring space heating systems maintain adequate
E
temperatures and air circulation throughout
the house.
Use downspout extensions
or a splash block to
drain water away from
foundations
Fixing damp foundations
and crawl spaces can be
complex and often requires
trained experts
General approaches to solving moisture problems include:
More information on these solutions, and others, are
provided in Mold in Housing: Guide for Mold-Resistant
Renovations and New Construction.
18
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
GETTING THE HOUSE READY FOR Cleanup
■■
Once the moisture problem has been identified and fixed, the house is
ready for cleanup.
■■
A plan is needed to guide every cleanup to help ensure it is done properly.
■■
Prepare the work area according to the size of the cleanup.
■■
Protect occupants and workers from exposure to mold, dust and debris
during cleanup.
Once the moisture problems have been addressed, it is
time to plan the cleanup. Proper preparation is required
to ensure the job is done properly with as little risk and
disruption for the occupants as possible. For small mold
problems, the preparation tasks include determining
whether or not the occupants will clean up the mold,
educating the occupants on mold cleanup and measures
to protect themselves and their families and ensuring
the occupants have the right materials to get the job
done. For medium mold problems, determine if the
occupants can clean up the mold effectively and safely.
With the right knowledge and tools, some occupants
may be able to handle the work. Often, trained
maintenance personnel or other trained individuals
deal with medium mold problems. Large mold
problem may require a contractor who specializes
in mold cleanup.
After the cleanup, a separate contractor may be needed
to renovate and restore the house, deal with the moisture
problems, and make it more mold-resistant.
Agreements must be prepared for both the cleanup
contractor and the renovator that include clear
descriptions of the work to be done, the costs and
the schedule. Go over the plan with the contractors,
their experience can be valuable.
An independent contractor or inspector, trained in
mold remediation, may also be hired to confirm the
plan of action, perform quality assurance inspections
and advise on the remediation and renovation work as
it proceeds.
Agreements with contractors must include
work specifications
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
19
Mold in Housing
Site and team preparations
Depending on the size of area covered by mold,
preparation is needed to make sure that work is done
correctly, on time and on schedule, with as little
disruption to the occupants as possible.
■■
eviewing the work to be done with the contractor,
R
workers, technical service provider and community
health nurse/representative or environmental
health officer.
The preparation may include the following steps:
■■
rganizing the disposal (dumpster, disposal permits,
O
etc.) of the moldy waste and other waste materials
through the closest exit.
■■
I nforming occupants of the cleanup and renovation
work to be done, the expected schedule and anything
else that they may have to do to help get the project
completed as quickly and safely as possible.
■■
rranging a meeting with the environmental health
A
officer/community health nurse/representative,
occupants and contractor to review everyone’s roles
and responsibilities during the mold cleanup.
■■
eviewing with contractors the safety requirements
R
for workers and occupants including making
arrangements to isolate the work area to protect
occupants, as described in the next section.
■■
aking sure that the cost estimate and method for
M
dealing with unforeseen work (work not covered by
the estimate and contract) is current, covers all work
required and is provided in writing.
Arrange meetings with team members to discuss the
work plan
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Isolate the work area to protect
the occupants
housing managers’ guide
Occupant protection during
cleanup and renovation
Depending on the situation, the occupants may have
been exposed to the mold in their house for a long time.
They may be experiencing health effects by the time
the mold problem is recognized. During cleanup and
renovation, the amount of mold, dust and debris in the
air may increase and cause further problems.
Who is at higher risk from mold?
Consider the following when making decisions on the
continued occupancy of the house during the cleanup
and renovation:
■■
eople with breathing difficulties (asthma, tuberculosis
p
or other respiratory disease);
■■
people with a mold allergy or chemical sensitivities;
■■
eople with any sort of immune suppression or
p
immunocompromised condition (HIV, chemotherapy,
transplant, taking certain medications, etc.);
■■
eople with any virus or bacterial infection
p
(bronchitis, pneumonia, severe cold or flu) should
wait before working in moldy areas until at least
three days after they are well.
■■
pregnant women;
■■
infants;
■■
children; and
■■
the elderly.
■■
size of the cleanup;
■■
level of disruption;
■■
hether or not it is possible to isolate the area to
w
be cleaned from the rest of the house; and
■■
Certain individuals may be at higher risk to mold
exposure. Health Canada advises that the following
people should not carry out any of the cleanup activities
or be in or near the work area:
health of the occupants.
If the area to be cleaned is large and it cannot be
isolated from the rest of the house, it may be necessary
to relocate the occupants during the cleanup and
renovation work.
Occupants may have to be relocated if the mold area
is large and can’t be isolated
Occupants at higher risk should stay away from areas close
to mold cleanup activities
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Mold in Housing
Contact your environmental health officer or your
community health nurse/representative for further
information and guidance if higher-risk occupants live
in a house that will undergo mold cleanup and
renovation activities.
■■
aking sure the work is done as quickly and
M
carefully as possible.
■■
esignating a worker access entrance to the
D
work area.
Occupant protection measures
■■
If occupants live in the house during the cleanup, they
must be protected by isolating the work area from the
rest of the living space.
roviding drop clothes to protect floors between the
P
work area and the selected worker access entrance.
■■
Cleaning up the work area at the end of the day.
■■
Storing all materials and tools safely.
Steps typically taken to isolate the cleanup area and to
minimize occupant disruption include:
■■
isposing of waste and contaminated material
D
right away.
aving the work area professionally cleaned once
H
the cleanup and renovation are completed.
■■
S ealing off the area using plastic sheeting taped to
walls, ceiling or floor.
■■
■■
losing and taping doors to non-work areas.
C
Draping plastic sheeting and tape across doorways
without doors.
Worker protection measures
■■
■■
S hutting off the fan/blower on forced air furnaces.
Sealing all duct openings to keep renovation/cleanup
dust from getting into the duct system and to avoid
the air in the work area from escaping into the rest
of the house.
I nstalling an exhaust fan in a window in the room
being cleaned to provide ventilation and help prevent
contamination of other areas of the house.
Seal off the area using plastic sheeting taped to walls, ceiling
and flooring
Contractors must put into practice worker protection
measures as required by provincial/federal regulations.
Contact the provincial ministry of labour for
information on occupational health and safety for
mold cleanups.
All workers should be familiar with their personal
protective equipment, its repair, maintenance and
cleaning requirements and the hazards associated
with handling mold-contaminated materials.
Minimum worker (or occupant) personal
protective equipment (PPE)
For small mold cleanups
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
■■
Safety glasses or goggles.
■■
mask (if possible an N95 respirator or equivalent;
A
this type of mask traps small particles like mold
better than a regular dust mask).
■■
Household rubber gloves.
housing managers’ guide
For medium mold cleanups
■■
alf-face respirator with charcoal cartridges. A good
H
fit is necessary to provide proper protection.
■■
Safety goggles or glasses.
■■
isposable gloves (latex or nitrile) covered with a
D
second pair of standard work gloves for heavy work.
For large mold cleanups
■■
ull-face respirator with disposable filters. A good fit
F
is necessary to provide proper protection.
■■
isposable gloves (latex or nitrile) covered with a
D
second pair of standard work gloves for heavy work.
■■
Disposable coveralls (covering head and shoes).
To minimize exposure to mold, dust and debris, only
the cleanup crew should be in the work area.
Common sense do’s and don’ts for workers
Do encourage workers to:
■■
r emove mold-contaminated clothing and wash hands
before eating;
■■
ash or dispose of gloves when finished working for
w
the day;
■■
store masks in clean plastic bags; and
■■
ash work clothes separately and shower at the end
w
of the working day (to prevent exposing their family
members to the mold).
Workers should not:
■■
assume that mold will not affect them;
■■
eat in a moldy area; and
■■
touch their face or skin with their working gloves.
Make sure occupants have the proper
protective equipment
These workers are wearing proper PPE for large
mold area cleanups
Minimum PPE for a medium area cleanup
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
23
Mold in Housing
CLEANING UP A SMALL MOLD PROBLEM
■■
■■
Occupants can usually be trained to clean up small mold problems using .
the information in the Mold in Housing: Home Occupants’ Guide.
Continue to monitor the house after the work has been done to make
sure the problem has been fixed.
Small mold problems can become larger, more serious
problems if not dealt with quickly and thoroughly.
For small mold problems, the occupants are generally
capable of dealing with the problem themselves.
contained in the Mold in Housing: Home Occupants’
Guide publication can help Housing Managers to
provide occupants with the information they need
to know.
As with any mold problem, it is important to
understand the moisture problem that is causing the
mold to grow and to educate the occupants on how to
control indoor moisture conditions. The information
It is important to monitor the home after the cleanup
has been completed to ensure the mold problem does
not come back.
You can clean a small mold area with a mild
unscented dishwashing detergent
24
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
CLEANING UP A MEDIUM MOLD PROBLEM
■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
Cleanup and safety procedures depend on the area covered by mold, .
where it is located and extent of the damage.
HEPA vacuuming the house can help reduce exposure to mold before,
during and after renovation.
A mold problem may spread to the rest of the house during the cleanup .
if not done properly and conditions are right for mold growth.
Clean moldy furniture, clothes and possessions thoroughly and properly .
before they are returned to a cleaned-up house or moved to another house.
Continue to monitor the house after the work has been done to make sure .
the problem has been fixed.
Medium mold cleanups often require the participation
of trained maintenance staff. However, sometimes
the occupants may want to deal with the cleanup
themselves. In such cases, advise the occupants to follow
the recommendations on how to deal with medium
mold problems in the Mold in Housing: Home
Occupants’ Guide. Make sure they have the proper
protective equipment.
For a medium mold problem, the basic steps include:
■■
S topping and correcting sources of moisture
and leaks.
■■
aking the steps necessary to prevent occupant
T
exposure to mold and cleanup debris.
■■
emoving all wet or damaged materials from the
R
work area.
■■
Deciding what can and cannot be salvaged.
■■
Cleaning up mold on surfaces as described below.
■■
Restoring or renovating the work area.
Furniture
■■
acuum furniture with a HEPA or externally-exhausted
V
vacuum first. Vacuuming before cleaning moldcontaminated surfaces can reduce exposure to mold.
Ordinary vacuum cleaners must not be used for
mold cleanup as they can cause small particles
and mold spores to become re-suspended in
the air.
■■
urniture that has hard, washable surfaces can be
F
scrubbed with unscented dishwashing detergent
mixed with warm water. Sponge it with a clean,
damp rag and dry it quickly.
■■
S urfaces that are likely to be damaged by water may
be cleaned with baking soda. Do a patch test first on
a hidden surface to make sure the material, surface or
finish won’t become discoloured (stained) or affected.
Start by vacuuming
furniture with a HEPA or
externally vented vacuum
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
25
Mold in Housing
■■
Add just enough water to baking soda to make a paste.
Apply the paste to the surface to be cleaned and leave it
on for half an hour or longer. Wipe off or vacuum using
a HEPA or externally-exhausted vacuum. Repeat as
necessary. Air the item out in the sun.
■■
ery old carpets may have to be discarded no
V
matter what their condition is because they often
accumulate dust that may contain mold spores.
■■
fter the carpeting and underpad have been
A
removed, a HEPA or externally-exhausted vacuum
can be used to clean the floor.
■■
Area rugs may be removed and professionally cleaned.
Carpets
■■
Carpets should be pulled away from walls that are wet.
■■
arpets can be cleaned by vacuuming with a HEPA
C
or externally-exhausted vacuum cleaner.
■■
arpets and underpads that are moldy should be
C
thrown out. Mold in carpets can stay hidden. Water
stains on carpets usually means that there is a mold
problem. Any carpet that has been wet for longer
than 48 hours should be thrown away since it
probably contains mold.
■■
oist or damp carpets that have a musty odour
M
should be removed. Carpets that are not damp but
have a musty odour may be liberally sprinkled with
plenty of baking soda and left overnight. Vacuum
well with a HEPA or externally-exhausted vacuum.
If after cleaning there is still a musty smell, the carpet
may have to be discarded.
Wet carpets and underpads must be dried immediately.
Replace them if they have been wet for more than
48 hours
To reduce the amount of mold in the air when
removing moldy carpeting, work slowly and carefully
to avoid stirring up dust. Roll up the carpet for
disposal if possible. Proper vacuuming technique
Vacuuming can help reduce exposure to mold but it
must be done properly and carefully as follows:
■■
he vacuum is first pushed forward across the object
T
or area being vacuumed and then is slightly lifted and
pulled back across the area being vacuumed to trap
dust in the air immediately above the carpet.
■■
ll areas are vacuumed in four directions if possible
A
but at least in two directions at right angles to
each other.
■■
ach square metre of the object or area should be
E
vacuumed for at least two minutes. This is much
more than for normal vacuuming.
■■
“ Beater” heads should not be used unless they are
designed to prevent the vacuum from stirring up dust
in the room.
Wood
Wood that is visibly rotting should be thrown away and
replaced. Framing and other wood surfaces that only
have surface mold can be cleaned, but the wood should
be dried first.
26
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
■■
oose mold can be vacuumed from the wood
L
surface using a HEPA or externally-exhausted
vacuum cleaner.
■■
he surface of the wood may be cleaned with
T
unscented detergent and water. Rinse with a clean
housing managers’ guide
damp rag and dry quickly. The drying process can be
sped up with fans and open windows (if the relative
humidity outside is low), or with dehumidifiers (keep
windows and doors closed). Do not allow the wood
to be wet for more than a day. Measure the relative
humidity of the air next to the framing. The
conditions are typically dry enough for painting or
refinishing when the wood is dry and the relative
humidity of the air is less than 60%.
■■
I f the mold stains do not come off by cleaning, the
surface of the wood can be sanded and vacuumed
with a vacuum/sander combination until all signs of
mold disappear. It is important to use a HEPA or
central vacuum while sanding to prevent mold spores
from being released into the air. Sanding is only
effective for mold on the surface of the wood. Wood
that is rotten should be replaced.
Drywall (gypsum wallboard)
Mold on the painted surface of drywall can be cleaned
with unscented detergent. If the mold has gone below
the surface of the paint, into the drywall, the moldy
patch of drywall should be cut out and replaced
as follows:
■■
over the moldy area with a piece of 0.15-mm
C
(6-mil) polyethylene (poly) plastic large enough to
overlap the area by at least 200-mm (8-in.)
■■
S eal and secure the edges of the poly with sheathing
or duct tape.
■■
isconnect the power to any electrical circuits close
D
to the work area before cutting away the drywall.
■■
se a utility knife to cut around the border of the
U
taped area and to remove the material. A utility knife
is better at cutting drywall than a saw and it is easier
to control and creates much less dust. Make sure that
the blade is new and set the depth of the cut to the
thickness of the drywall, usually half an inch. Cut in
several passes, slowly and with even pressure. If you
try to cut through the entire thickness all at once or
too quickly, you risk slipping and hurting yourself.
Once you have cut through the drywall thickness,
gently remove the section using a pry-bar (installing
new drywall will be easier if the section you cut out
spans at least two stud or joist surfaces).
■■
ouble bag the moldy material in heavy-duty
D
garbage bags or wrapped in 0.15-mm (6-mil) poly
(plastic) with taped joints. The amount of material in
each bag should be limited so they are easy to lift and
do not rip when lifted. The bags should be placed
immediately in a dumpster or other waste container
until they can be taken to a landfill site.
■■
ash the surrounding area with an unscented
W
detergent solution and dry quickly.
■■
he cavity area behind the cutout should be
T
inspected. If there is mold inside the wall cavity,
more work is needed. Moldy insulation may need
to be removed, the wood framing may need to be
cleaned and more drywall may need to be removed.
New drywall and framing eventually will become
moldy if mold in the cavity is not dealt with and
the source of moisture is not stopped. Delay the
installation of new materials until the source of the
moisture is corrected and the framing is dry. If the
work is not done right away, the cutout area should
be sealed with poly (plastic) and the edges sealed with
tape to prevent mold from escaping into the room.
Always replace wet insulation. Even though
mold does not grow well on insulation materials
like fibreglass and cellulose (unless these
materials remain soaking wet for several days
or weeks), always replace wet insulation. Wet
insulation can wet the wood structure, drywall,
exterior sheathing and lead to mold problems.
Temporarily cover small
mold areas with plastic and
seal the edges
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
27
Mold in Housing
Concrete
■■
oncrete surfaces can be vacuumed using a HEPA
C
vacuum or externally-exhausted vacuum cleaner.
■■
oncrete surfaces can be cleaned up using unscented
C
detergent and water (as described above for cleaning
furniture) and dry quickly.
■■
If the surfaces still look moldy after cleaning:
■■
■■
Whole house cleaning
■■
Dissolve one cup of trisodium phosphate (TSP)
in two gallons (7.57 litres) of warm water. Stir for
two minutes. Note: Do not allow TSP to come in
contact with skin or eyes—wear protective goggles
and rubber gloves.
ecause of the way air moves in a house, a mold
B
problem in one area can spread through the house.
Even spores from mold growing behind walls or
above ceilings can get into the indoor living space
through cracks and holes. If conditions are right,
mold will start to grow in a new place adding to the
overall mold problem. The house should be
completely cleaned from top to bottom after the
mold cleanup and renovations are done.
■■
Saturate the moldy concrete surface with the TSP
solution using a sponge or rag. Keep the surface
wetted for at least 15 minutes.
alls, ceilings and floors can be cleaned with a
W
detergent solution making sure that all work areas
are completely dry. A HEPA or externally-vented
vacuum can be used as a final cleaning step.
■■
eating, ventilating and air-conditioning ducts
H
in a mold-troubled house may contain moldcontaminated dust; all ducts should be cleaned.
Professional duct cleaning is a good option.
■■
ny furnishings or possessions that were removed
A
from the house during the mold cleanup should be
cleaned (if possible) or thrown out. Moldy furniture
could bring mold spores back into the newlycleaned home.
■■
Rinse the concrete surface twice with clean water.
■■
Dry thoroughly and as quickly as possible.
Wash surrounding areas with unscented detergent and
dry quickly
Concrete surfaces can be
cleaned with unscented
detergent or TSP
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Furniture that has been in
a moldy house must be
cleaned or thrown out
housing managers’ guide
CLEANING UP A LARGE MOLD PROBLEM
■■
■■
■■
A large area of mold should be handled by a trained and qualified mold
remediation contractor.
HEPA vacuuming can help reduce exposure to mold before, during and
after renovation.
Precautions must be followed to prevent exposure of occupants to mold
during cleanup.
Large mold problems are managed much in the same
manner as medium mold problems. However, the
extent of large mold problems typically requires the
services of specialized mold cleanup contractors or
well-trained maintenance personnel. To deal with large
mold problems, make sure proper protective equipment
is used and protective measures are put in place to limit
the exposure of the occupants to dust and debris.
For a large mold problem:
■■
orrect the source of moisture as a first step in the
C
mold remediation process. Stop water from leaking
into the house and control moisture generated by
the occupants.
■■
Clean the house using a trained contractor.
■■
I f repair or renovation is in only one or two areas of
the house, build an enclosure of framing and poly
(plastic) sheeting or tarpaulins around the work areas
to protect the occupants.
■■
hen the mold area is very large, use exhaust
W
ventilation while working to prevent renovation
dust and debris from being scattered throughout
the house.
■■
leanup procedures typically follow those outlined
C
for small and medium mold cleanups.
■■
Store all debris in closed containers prior to disposal.
■■
Remove all demolition debris as soon as possible.
■■
Remove construction debris by the end of the job.
■■
lean all surfaces that have been marked or soiled,
C
and fix any damaged areas.
■■
ompletely dry the area before refinishing or
C
renovation work begins.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
29
Mold in Housing
Is it worth fixing the house?
Sometimes damage from mold is so great that you will
have to decide whether or not to fix the house. Judge
each case individually based on the cleanup and
renovation plans and cost estimates.
Examples of houses that may be difficult and expensive
to clean up and renovate to get rid of mold are:
■■
ouses with a large amount of visible mold, where
h
mold may be hidden in every cavity which would
have to be opened, leaving only the structural shell;
■■
o lder houses that have been renovated several times
and have many layers of finishes that would be
difficult to remove and clean;
■■
ouses with one or more additions resulting in
h
hidden cavities, incomplete drainage systems or poor
heating and ventilation that would be difficult and
costly to fix.
Use the cost estimates to decide if a badly-damaged moldy
house is worth renovating
30
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
If the house is not worth renovating, it should be
demolished and the materials discarded. The demolition
crew, whether tearing down the house manually or with
heavy machinery, must wear protective clothing and
equipment. Clouds of spores are likely to be released as
the structure is demolished. Erect temporary fencing
around the site and be sure to notify bystanders and
neighbours when the work is being done. During the
demolition, make sure the site is not accessible to
children or anyone identified with higher risk of health
problems as listed in the section “Who is at higher risk
for mold?” on page 21.
Dispose of materials or furnishings from a condemned
building in such a way that no one can reuse them and
contaminate their house.
The replacement house should be built to improved
standards that are less likely to result in moisture
problems and mold contamination (see Mold in
Housing: Guide to Mold-Resistant Renovations and New
Construction for more information).
housing managers’ guide
CARING FOR THE HOME AFTER MOLD Cleanup
■■
■■
■■
Clean up and safely dispose of construction damage or debris.
Confirm with the environmental health officer or community health .
nurse/representative that the house is suitable for occupancy.
Show the occupant the cleanup and renovation work and how to use .
and maintain any new materials, finishes and equipment.
■■
Inform occupants of steps to take to prevent mold growth.
■■
Prevent moisture problems through good maintenance.
After the mold cleanup and renovations have been
completed, the house should be completely cleaned.
The community health nurse/representative or
environmental health officer may be consulted to
confirm that the house is fit for occupancy. Make sure
that moisture problems have been solved and that there
is no remaining mold in the house.
Have the renovation contractor or another
knowledgeable person explain any new heating or
ventilating equipment or other new features of the
house to the occupants. Leave printed instructions on
maintenance of new or unfamiliar equipment, such as
heat recovery ventilators, with the occupants.
Explain to home occupants
how to use new heating and Regular inspections can help
ventilating equipment
prevent mold
Provide the occupants with a copy of the Mold in
Housing: Information for First Nations Communities—
Home Occupants’ Guide and go over the information
in it with them. This should help the occupants to
recognize and clean up small mold problems.
It is important to help occupants understand their roles
and responsibilities with respect to the operation and
maintenance of their home and to know when and who
to call for help. The occupants should also be advised to
watch constantly for any sign of moisture problems and
mold growth.
Cleaned and renovated houses should be monitored
after the work has been completed to ensure that
moisture and mold problems do not return. With
enough available moisture, mold problems will return.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
31
Mold in Housing
HOUSEHOLD INVESTIGATION TOOL FOR MOLD
In some cases where moisture and mold problems
are obvious, immediate action can be taken to fix the
problems and clean up the mold. In other cases, the
nature of the moisture problem and the extent of
the mold may not be so clear. Additionally, when
a number of houses in the community are affected
by mold, there may be a need for a more thorough
approach for recording the house characteristics,
the condition of the home and the presence of mold
so that an effective community-wide remediation
strategy can be created.
The following pages provide guidance on how such
information might be gathered and recorded in a
Household Investigation Tool for Mold. Note that
filling out the Investigation Tool may not be for
everyone. It requires a good knowledge of house
construction, heating and ventilating systems,
inspection techniques and moisture and mold
problems in houses to complete the Investigation
Tool correctly and to understand the results. If
such skills and knowledge does not exist in the
community, consider hiring outside expertise.
The Household Investigation Tool for Mold
can be used as a part of a broader community
self-assessment for mold. The Tool can help
communities to better understand the extent and
causes of mold problems in each house and across
the community. It can help to identify which houses
may need attention first and to organize an effective
remediation strategy. The Tool can also help housing
managers to know and understand what to ask for if
it is necessary to hire outside expertise to conduct a
household mold investigation.
Date: YYYY / MM / DD
1. House Investigator’s Information
Last name: _________________________________________________________ First name: _________________________________________________________________
Title: __________________________________________________________________ Phone: (_________) _______________ -_________________________________________
E-mail: _______________________________________________________________
2. First Nations Community General Information
Community name: ________________________________________________________ GPS location: N _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ . _____
Annual temperature range: _ ___________________________________________ # of people in the community:________________________
Annual relative humidity range (if known):____________________ # of dwellings in the community:_ __________________
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
3. Occupant Information—For Head of Household, please provide
the following information:
Last name:__________________________________________________________ First name:__________________________________________________________________
Address: _____________________________________________________________ Phone: (_________) _______________ -_________________________________________
Email: ________________________________________________________________ L
ength of occupancy in
current dwelling (in years):_________________________________________
Type of ownership:
o First Nations-owned
o Private
o Rental
o Don’t know
Notes: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Building History
Year the house was built (approximately):
Previous mold problems?
Y Y Y Y
o Don’t know
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Previous mold cleanup and renovations? o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
What year? (approximately)
Y Y Y Y
o Don’t know
Describe the work that was done: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Is there a history of:
Location:
Flooding?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Rain, snow leaks?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Plumbing leaks?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Condensation on windows? o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Moisture problems?
o No
o Don’t know
o Yes
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Building Characteristics
Building type: o Single detached
For the first three building types, specify layout:
o Semi-detached o Bungalow (one level)
o Two-storey
o Row house
o Split-level
o Don’t know
o Mobile home
o Apartment unit
o Other (specify): _ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
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Mold in Housing
Structure type:
o Log
o Wood frame
o Concrete (for example, concrete block, insulating concrete forms, etc.)
o Other (for example, steel frame, structural insulated panel, etc.). Specify: _________________________________________
o Don’t know
House site
In general, the ground around the house is:
o Gradually sloping (select one or both): o Away from house o Toward house
o Steeply sloping (select one or both): o Away from house o Toward house
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Standing water around the house or on property? o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Is the site well drained?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Ground cover around the house: o Earth
o Grass
o Don’t know
o Other (describe): _ _________________________________________________
o Flat o Don’t know
Flooding outside?
Proximity to surface water (ocean, lake, river, creek, etc.) in metres:_______________________________________________________
Notes: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. House Exterior
Foundation
Design: o Basement
o Crawl space o Slab-on-grade
Type: o Poured concrete
o Concrete block
o Preserved wood
o Other (specify):_ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
o Don’t know
Condition: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Cracks: o Medium
o Small (hairline)
o None
o Don’t know
o Large
For basement and crawl space foundations:
34
Windows: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Condition:
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
o N/A
Window wells: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Condition:
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
o N/A
Well-drained: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Standing water: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
o Good
o Good
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
Building services sealed: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Evidence of leakage: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Exterior insulation: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Condition:
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
o N/A
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Crawl space vents:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Vents open?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o Good
Foundation wall waterproofing:
For crawl space foundations:
For slab-on-grade foundations:
Elevated to avoid flooding:
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Exterior walls
Cladding type: o Wood
o Brick veneer
o Vinyl
o Stone veneer
o Aluminum
o Stucco
o Other (specify): ______________________________
Condition:
o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
o No
o Don’t know
Evidence of leakage/moisture problems
(stains, peeling paint, etc.): o Yes
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Windows Condition:
o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Condensation on panes:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Cracked or broken panes:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Moisture-damaged frames,
sills or sashes:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Condition of weatherstripping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Evidence of water leakage: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
35
Mold in Housing
Doors
Condition:
o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Cracked or broken doors:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Moisture-damaged frames:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Condition of weatherstripping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Evidence of water leakage: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Roof
Slope: o Flat
Finish/covering:
o Asphalt shingles
o Other (specify): ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Condition:
o Low
o Good
o Medium
o Steep
o Metal
o Cedar
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Eavestroughs:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Downspouts with extensions:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Flashing:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. House Interior
Odours
Odour upon entering the house?
Type of odour:
o Musty/earthy
o Fragrant
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Tobacco o Chemical
smoke
(gas, petroleum)
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Pests
Evidence of pests (rodents, ants,
cockroaches, etc)?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Describe the type of pest: _ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
Attic
Is there an attic?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Attic ventilation: o Gable
o Soffit
o Roof vents
o Ridge vents
o N/A
Insulation:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Evidence of leakage/
moisture problems: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Are house exhaust vents
vented to the attic? o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Is there mold?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Approximate total area of mold (m2): ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Basement
Is there a basement?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Description: o Finished (framing and insulation)
o Partially finished
o Unfinished
o N/A
Used as a living space/bedroom?o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Heated during winter?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Evidence of flooding?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Evidence of condensation
(walls, windows, etc.)?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Evidence of leakage
(efflorescence, stains, etc.)? o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Evidence of standing water?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Storage (select all that apply):
o On floor
o On shelves o Against exterior walls
o No storage
o Don’t know
o N/A
Is the sump pit covered?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Is the sump pit sealed?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Is the sump pit drained?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Does the sump pump function?o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Is there mold?
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
o Yes
Approximate total area of mold (m2): ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
37
Mold in Housing
Heating
Type: o Electric baseboards o Hot water radiators
o Wood stove
o Forced-air
o Other (fireplace, space heaters, etc.)—Specify: _________________________________________________________________________
Energy: o Oil
o Wood
Are the ducts clean?
o Propane o Electricity o Other: _________________________________________________ _
o Yes
o No
For forced-air furnace systems,
is filter clean?
o Yes o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
o Don’t know
o N/A
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Central Ventilation
Is there an HRV or
air exchanger?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Is it serviced regularly?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Is it functioning?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Are filters clean?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Outdoor intake/exhaust
hoods clean?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
o N/A
Notes:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
38
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
8. Room-by-Room Inventory and Assessment
Living Room
Ceiling
Materials
Walls
Floors
Windows/doors
Drywall
Drywall
Unfinished
Wood
Wood
Wood
Carpet
Vinyl
Tile
Panelling
Wood
Aluminum
Other:
Other:
Composite tile
Other:
Sheet flooring
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Mold (m )
2
Heating (air temperature): o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Air circulation: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Housekeeping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Clutter/storage:
o Not cluttered
Odours: o None
o Fragrant o Tobacco smoke
o Partially cluttered o Very cluttered
o Musty/earthy
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Chemical (gas, petroleum)
Other comments/observations: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
39
Mold in Housing
Dining Room
Ceiling
Materials
Walls
Floors
Windows/doors
Drywall
Drywall
Unfinished
Wood
Wood
Wood
Carpet
Vinyl
Tile
Panelling
Wood
Aluminum
Other:
Other:
Composite tile
Other:
Sheet flooring
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Mold (m2)
Heating (air temperature): o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Air circulation: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Housekeeping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Clutter/storage:
o Not cluttered
Odours: o None
o Fragrant o Tobacco smoke
o Partially cluttered o Very cluttered
o Musty/earthy
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Chemical (gas, petroleum)
Other comments/observations: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
40
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
Kitchen
Ceiling
Materials
Walls
Windows/doors Under Sink
Floors
Drywall
Drywall
Unfinished
Wood
Wood
Wood
Carpet
Vinyl
Tile
Panelling
Wood
Aluminum
Other:
Other:
Composite tile
Other:
Sheet flooring
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Type: _________
Type: ________
Type: ________________
Type: ____________
__________________.
_________________.
_________________________.
_____________________.
__________________
_________________
_________________________.
_____________________
Yes
No
Type:
Plumbing Leaks
Condensation
on pipes
Evidence of
moisture damage
on nearby surfaces
N/A
Mold (m2)
________________
_______________
________________________
____________________
______________________________
Is there a range hood fan?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Is it functioning?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Is it vented outside?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Is there an outside hood?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Is there a ceiling fan?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Heating (air temperature):o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Air circulation: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Housekeeping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Clutter/storage:
o Not cluttered
Odours: o None
o Fragrant o Tobacco smoke
o Partially cluttered o Very cluttered
o Musty/earthy
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Chemical (gas, petroleum)
Other comments/observations: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
41
Mold in Housing
Bedroom 1 Description: _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Ceiling
Materials
Walls
Floors
Windows/doors
Drywall
Drywall
Unfinished
Wood
Wood
Wood
Carpet
Vinyl
Tile
Panelling
Wood
Aluminum
Other:
Other:
Composite tile
Other:
Sheet flooring
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Mold (m )
2
Are closets located
next to exterior walls? o Yes o No o Don’t know
Heating (air temperature): o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Air circulation: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Housekeeping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Clutter/storage:
o Not cluttered
Odours: o None
o Fragrant o Tobacco smoke
o N/A
o Partially cluttered o Very cluttered
o Musty/earthy
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Chemical (gas, petroleum)
Other comments/observations: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
42
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
Bedroom 2 Description: _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Ceiling
Materials
Walls
Floors
Windows/doors
Drywall
Drywall
Unfinished
Wood
Wood
Wood
Carpet
Vinyl
Tile
Panelling
Wood
Aluminum
Other:
Other:
Composite tile
Other:
Sheet flooring
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Mold (m )
2
Are closets located
next to exterior walls? o Yes o No o Don’t know
Heating (air temperature): o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Air circulation: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Housekeeping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Clutter/storage:
o Not cluttered
Odours: o None
o Fragrant o Tobacco smoke
o N/A
o Partially cluttered o Very cluttered
o Musty/earthy
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Chemical (gas, petroleum)
Other comments/observations: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
43
Mold in Housing
Bedroom 3 Description: _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Ceiling
Materials
Walls
Floors
Windows/doors
Drywall
Drywall
Unfinished
Wood
Wood
Wood
Carpet
Vinyl
Tile
Panelling
Wood
Aluminum
Other:
Other:
Composite tile
Other:
Sheet flooring
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Mold (m )
2
Are closets located
next to exterior walls? o Yes o No o Don’t know
Heating (air temperature): o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Air circulation: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Housekeeping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Clutter/storage:
o Not cluttered
Odours: o None
o Fragrant o Tobacco smoke
o N/A
o Partially cluttered o Very cluttered
o Musty/earthy
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Chemical (gas, petroleum)
Other comments/observations: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
44
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
Bathroom 1 Description: _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Ceiling
Materials
Walls
Floors
Windows/doors
Drywall
Drywall
Unfinished
Wood
Wood
Wood
Carpet
Vinyl
Tile
Panelling
Wood
Aluminum
Other:
Other:
Composite tile
Other:
Sheet flooring
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Mold (m )
2
Is there an exhaust fan?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Is it functioning?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Is it vented outside?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Is there an outside hood?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Heating (air temperature): o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Air circulation: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Housekeeping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Clutter/storage:
o Not cluttered
Odours: o None
o Fragrant o Tobacco smoke
o Partially cluttered o Very cluttered
o Musty/earthy
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Chemical (gas, petroleum)
Other comments/observations: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
45
Mold in Housing
Bathroom 1 (cont.)
Bath/shower surround
Materials
Under Sink
Toilet
Tile
Fibreglass
Plastic
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Sealants:
Sealants:
Sealants:
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
N/A
N/A
N/A
Plumbing:
Plumbing:
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Good
Yes
Good
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Type:
Type: _ ___________________________
Type: _ ___________________________
_ _____________________________________
_ _____________________________________
Leaks
_ _____________________________________
_ _____________________________________
Condensation
Moisture damage
Mold (m2)
__________________________________
46
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
__________________________________
__________________________________
housing managers’ guide
Bathroom 2 Description: _ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Ceiling
Materials
Walls
Floors
Windows/doors
Drywall
Drywall
Unfinished
Wood
Wood
Wood
Carpet
Vinyl
Tile
Panelling
Wood
Aluminum
Other:
Other:
Composite tile
Other:
Sheet flooring
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Mold (m )
2
Is there an exhaust fan?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Is it functioning?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Is it vented outside?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Is there an outside hood?
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Heating (air temperature): o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Air circulation: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Housekeeping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Clutter/storage:
o Not cluttered
Odours: o None
o Fragrant o Tobacco smoke
o Partially cluttered o Very cluttered
o Musty/earthy
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Chemical (gas, petroleum)
Other comments/observations: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
47
Mold in Housing
Bathroom 2 (cont.)
Bath/shower surround
Materials
Under Sink
Toilet
Tile
Fibreglass
Plastic
Other:
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Sealants:
Sealants:
Sealants:
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
N/A
N/A
N/A
Plumbing:
Plumbing:
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Good
Yes
Good
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Type:
Type: _ ___________________________
Type: _ ___________________________
_ _____________________________________
_ _____________________________________
Leaks
_ _____________________________________
_ _____________________________________
Condensation
Moisture damage
Mold (m2)
__________________________________
48
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
__________________________________
__________________________________
housing managers’ guide
Basement
Ceiling
Materials
Walls
Floors
Windows/doors
Drywall
Drywall
Unfinished
Wood
Wood
Wood
Carpet
Vinyl
Tile
Panelling
Wood
Aluminum
Other:
Other:
Composite tile
Other:
Sheet flooring
Other:
Finished
Insulated
Unfinished
Uninsulated
Finished
Unfinished
Condition
Moisture
problems
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
Type: ________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Mold (m )
2
Heating (air temperature): o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Air circulation: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Housekeeping: o Good
o Fair
o Poor
o Don’t know
Clutter/storage:
o Not cluttered
Odours: o None
o Fragrant o Tobacco smoke
o Partially cluttered o Very cluttered
o Musty/earthy
o Dusty
o Stale
o Food
o Chemical (gas, petroleum)
Other comments/observations: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
49
Mold in Housing
9. General Operation, Housekeeping, Maintenance
General
Smoking indoors:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Firewood stored in the house:
o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Wet clothes hung to dry
in the house/basement: o Yes
o No
o Don’t know o N/A
Plants kept inside
the house: o No
o Few (less than 10)
o Many (10 +)
o Don’t know
Humidifier
Used:
o Always
Seasonal use (select all that apply): o Winter
Location (main floor, basement, bedroom, etc):_
o Occasionally
o Never
o N/A
o Spring
o Summer
o Fall
___________________________________________________________________________________
Dehumidifier
Used:
o Always
Seasonal use (select all that apply): o Winter
Location (main floor, basement, bedroom, etc):_
o Occasionally
o Never
o N/A
o Spring
o Summer
o Fall
___________________________________________________________________________________
Bathroom
Exhaust fan used? o Always
o Occasionally
o Never
o N/A
If never, why not? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Kitchen
Exhaust fan used? o Always
o Occasionally
o Never
o N/A
If never, why not? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HRV
Is it used?
o Always
o Occasionally
o Never
o N/A
If never, why not? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
50
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
Thermostat
Temperature Range (approximately): o Lowered at night and during the day
o Lowered when away
o Constant
o Don’t know
Observed setting (in ˚C): _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Most spaces in the house are:
o Maintained at the same temperature o Don’t know
o Some are kept cooler (list them):________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Housekeeping
Is water/moisture quickly cleaned up? o Yes
o No
o Don’t know
Vacuum type: o Central
o HEPA
o Don’t know
Frequency of vacuuming: o Daily
o Never
o Weekly
o Monthly
o Infrequently
Frequency of dusting:
o Weekly
o Monthly
o Infrequently
o Regular
o Daily
o Never
Please note any other observations or comments: __________________________________________________________________________________
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
51
Mold in Housing
10. Mold Assessment Summary
Mold Severity
Small:
If there are one, two or three patches of mold and each
patch is smaller than one square metre (1 m x 1 m).
Mold on window sills are usually small areas.
0.5 m
Medium:
If there are more than three patches of mold (each smaller
than one square metre) but the total mold area is less than
three square metres (e.g. 1 m x 3 m or about the size of a
4 ft. x 8 ft. sheet of plywood). Patches close together are
considered as one patch.
0.5 m
Large:
If a single patch of mold is larger than three square metres.
0.5 m
52
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
Assessment:
Use a checkmark (✓) to identify what size of mold area is found in the following spaces based on
the mold area recorded on the previous pages.
Mold Severity
No mold
Small
Medium
Large
Cannot
estimate
Living room
Dining room
Kitchen
Bedroom 1
Bedroom 2
Bedroom 3
Bathroom 1
Bathroom 2
Attic
(if easily accessible)
Basement
Crawl space
(if easily accessible)
Other:
Total number
of checkmarks
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
53
Mold in Housing
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Support for mold cleanup
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC),
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), Health
Canada, mold analysis laboratories, mold cleanup
contractors and renovation contractors may all provide
support to investigate and solve mold problems.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Through the Housing Quality Initiative (HQI), CMHC
supports First Nations communities by offering:
■■
technical information related to housing;
■■
old, indoor air quality, other information sessions
m
for the community; and
■■
t raining (for example, Let’s Clear the Air, Builders
Course, etc.).
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
INAC helps First Nations financially with their
community housing needs. First Nations should contact
their INAC regional office when urgent safety situations
come up.
Health Canada
Health Canada supports First Nations communities
through special projects, like mold education pamphlets
and housing conferences. Most support for dealing with
mold problems is provided by Health Canada’s
environmental health officers (EHOs) who can be
contacted for mold investigation and sampling. EHOs
share information and advice with members of First
Nations communities.
Mold analysis laboratories
Mold analysis laboratories are available should analysis
be required. Only accredited laboratories should be used
for mold identification. Here is a list of the private
laboratories that are accredited.
54
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
M.B. Laboratories Ltd.
Research Analytical and Testing Services
2062 Henry Ave. West
Sidney, B. C. V8L 5Y1
Phone: 250-656-1334
Fax: 250-656-0443
www.mblabs.com
Mycotaxon Consulting Ltd.
3 Rockwood Ave.
Halifax, N. S. B3N 1X4
Phone: 902-475-1456
Fax: 902-475-1982
Paracel Laboratories
300-2319 St. Laurent Blvd.
Ottawa, Ont. K1G 4J8
Toll-free phone: 1-800-749-1947
Email: [email protected]
www.paracellabs.com
Sporometrics
219 Dufferin Street, Suite 20C
Toronto, Ont. M6K 1Y9
Phone: 416-516-1660
Fax: 416-516-1670
Email: [email protected]
www.sporometrics.com
Inquiries from contractors only.
Université de Montréal
Groupe de Recherches Aeorobiologiques de Montréal
P.O. Box 6128
Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7
Phone: 514-343-8028
University of Alberta Devonian Botanic Garden
Microfungus Collection and Herbarium
Edmonton, Alta. T6G 2R3
Phone: 780-987-4811
Fax: 780-987-4141
http://www.devonian2.ualberta.ca/uamh/index.htm
housing managers’ guide
Training needs
■■
General house design and construction that covers:
All key players need different levels of training to
understand, clean, correct and prevent mold problems.
■■
possible problems with construction and
renovation practices;
Home occupants
■■
design principles for improved housing;
Households can get Mold in Housing: Home Occupants’
Guide from their First Nations housing department.
■■
building science—how heat, air and moisture
flow, understanding the house-as-a-system;
■■
foundations—including frost-protected shallow
and slab-on-grade foundations;
■■
floor, roof and wall systems;
■■
windows and doors;
■■
heating systems;
■■
mechanical ventilation systems—what is needed
and how to achieve it; and
■■
comfort and indoor air quality.
Informed community leaders can guide information
sessions on mold in the community where occupants
have a chance to ask questions. The community health
nurse/representative or environmental health officer is
also a main source of health information.
Home occupants can also read information on mold
published by CMHC. Publications can be sent to the
community (see back cover).
CMHC offers hands-on, practical information sessions
for occupants on how to maintain homes as part of the
Housing Quality Initiative (see inside back cover).
■■
Community housing managers and their staff
These individuals may need the following training to
gain the tools and knowledge necessary to deal with and
prevent mold problems:
Information sessions can teach home occupants
about mold
■■
MHC offers workshops on indoor air quality
C
for First Nations communities (Housing Quality
Initiative [HQI]). Those who attend the training
learn how to improve indoor air quality for existing
houses as well as for new homes. Topics covered
include:
■■
a list of common indoor air quality problems
in the home and their causes;
■■
moisture and mold problems and solutions;
■■
chemical contaminants and solutions; and
■■
mechanical systems including combustion,
heating, ventilation and filtration.
raining on proper ways of dealing with mold
T
problems. CMHC offers workshops on how to take
care of mold. This training explains the steps to
follow while renovating because of mold and how to
protect workers.
Anyone who will be responsible for indoor air quality
investigations may benefit from further training. See the
inside back cover for more information about Housing
Quality Matters training sessions and workshops.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
55
Mold in Housing
Technical service providers
These individuals may benefit from the following training:
■■
■■
I n-depth training in building science and
construction available through the Housing Quality
Initiative (contact your local CMHC Assisted
Housing office), the R-2000 Builder Workshop
(contact your provincial Home Builders’ Association
or Natural Resources Canada) and similar programs.
esidential mechanical ventilation training
R
available through the Heating, Refrigerating
and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada
(see “Organizations” on page 57).
Renovators and builders can benefit from attending
the R-2000 Builder Workshop or similar courses,
residential mechanical ventilation courses, First Nations
builders’ courses, Housing Quality Initiative workshops,
and courses on taking care of mold. Renovators and
builders should work with the community to build
better, mold-resilient homes.
In-depth training in building science and construction is
essential for technical service providers
HOUSING QUALITY MATTERS
for FIRST NATIONS
housing quality matters
for FIRST NATIONS
Introduction to Ventilation Systems
Two Day HRV Installation Workshop
One Day Maintenance Workshop
PARTICIPANT MANUAL
Property Management Planning
65166
PARTICIPANT MANUAL
56
Cleanup contractors and renovators may need
training to carry out proper cleanup activities and
renovations to protect themselves and reduce the risk
of mold exposure for occupants. They should attend
training on the correct way to take care of mold problems.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
Organizations
Assembly of First Nations
Trebla Building
473 Albert Street, Suite 810
Ottawa, Ont. K1R 5B4
Toll-free phone: 1-866-869-6789
Phone: 613-241-6789
Fax: 613-241-5808
www.afn.ca
Canada Mortgage and Housing
Corporation—National Office
700 Montreal Road, Suite 100
Ottawa, Ont. K1A 0P7
Toll-free phone: 1-800-668-2642
Toll-free fax: 1-800-245-9274
TTY: 613-748-2447
www.cmhc.ca
Canadian Home
Builders’ Association
150 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 500
Ottawa, Ont. K1P 5J4
Phone: 613-230-3060
Fax: 613-232-8214
Email: [email protected]
www.chba.ca
Canadian Oil Heat Association
115 Apple Creek Blvd., Suite 202
Markham, Ont. L3R 6C9
Phone: 905-946-0264
Fax: 905-946-0316
www.coha.ca
First Nations National Building
Officers Association
c/o Southern First Nations Secretariat
22361 Austin Line
Bothwell, Ontario N0P 1C0
Phone: 519-692-5868
Email: [email protected]
www.fnnboa.ca
Fist Nations National Housing
Managers Association
www.fnnhma.com
Heating, Refrigerating and Air
Conditioning Institute of Canada
2800 Skymark Avenue,
Building 1, Suite 201
Mississauga, Ont. L4W 5A6
Toll-free phone: 1-800-267-2231
Phone: 905-602-4700
Fax: 905-602-1197
Email: [email protected]
www.hrai.ca
Indian and Northern Affairs
Canada
Terrasses de la Chaudière
10 Wellington, North Tower
Hull, Que. K1A 0H4
Toll-free phone: 1-800-567-9604
TTY: 1-866-553-0554
Email: Info[email protected]
www.ainc-inac.gc.ca
Alberta Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
630 Canada Place
9700 Jasper Avenue
Edmonton, Alta. T5J 4G2
Phone: 780-495-2773
Fax: 780-495- 4088
Atlantic Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
PO Box 160
40 Havelock Street
Amherst, N.S. B4H 3Z3
Phone: 902-661-6200
Fax: 902-661-6237
British Columbia Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
1138 Melville Street, Suite 600
Vancouver, B.C. V6E 4S3
Phone: 604-775-7114 or
604-775-5100
Fax: 604-666-2546
Manitoba Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
365 Hargrave Street, Room 200
Winnipeg, Man. R3B 3A3
Phone: 204-983-4928
Fax: 204-983-7820
Northwest Territories Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
PO Box 1500
Yellowknife, N.W.T. XIA 2R3
Phone: 867-669-2500
Fax: 867-669-2709
Nunavut Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
PO Box 2200
Iqaluit, Nunavut X0A 0H0
Phone: 867-975-4500
Fax: 867-975-4560
Ontario Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
25 St. Clair Avenue East, 8th Floor
Toronto, ON M4T 1M2
Phone: 416-973- 6234
Fax: 416-954-6329
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
57
Mold in Housing
Quebec Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
Place Jacques-Cartier Complex
320 St. Joseph Street East,
Suite 400
Québec, Que. G1K 9J2
Toll-free phone: 1-800-263-5592
Phone: 418-648-7551
Fax: 418-648-2266
Saskatchewan Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
1 First Nation Way, Room 200
Regina, Sask. S4S 7K5
Phone: 306-780-5945
Fax: (306) 780-5733
Yukon Region
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
415C-300 Main Street
Whitehorse, Yukon Y1A 2B5
Phone: 867-667-3888
Fax: 867-667-3108
Natural Resources Canada
Toll-free publications line:
1-800-387-2000
General enquiries: 613-995-0947
Online directory: www2.nrcan.
gc.ca/dpspub/index.cfm
www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca
58
Office of Energy Efficiency
www.oee.nrcan.gc.ca
R-2000 Program
Housing, Buildings and
Regulation Division
Office of the Energy Efficiency
Toll-free phone: 1-800-387-2000
Fax: 613-996-3674
Email: [email protected]
www.oee.nrcan.gc.ca
Service Canada
Canada Enquiry Centre
Ottawa, Ont. K1A 0J9
Toll-free information line:
1-800-O-Canada (1-800-622-6232)
TTY\TDD: 1-800-926-9105
Wood Energy Technology
Transfer Inc. (WETT)
189 Queen Street East, Suite 1
Toronto, Ont. M5A 1S2
Toll-free phone: 1-888-358-9388
Phone: 416-968-7718
Fax: 416-968-6818
Email: [email protected]
www.wettinc.ca
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
housing managers’ guide
Bibliography
American Industrial Hygiene Association. Field Guide for the Determination of Biological Contaminants
in Environmental Samples. Fairfax, Virginia, 1996.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. A Study of Recurring Mold Problems on the Roseau River Reserve,
Manitoba. Ottawa, Ontario, 1998.
About Your House: Fighting Asthma in Your House. Ottawa, Ontario, 2009.
About Your House: Fighting Mold – The Homeowners’ Guide. Ottawa, Ontario, 2008.
About Your House: Measuring Humidity in Your Home. Ottawa, Ontario, 2009.
About Your House: Should You Test the Air in Your Home for Mold? Ottawa, Ontario, 2008.
About Your House: The Importance of Bathroom and Kitchen Fans. Ottawa, Ontario, 2010.
An Investigation of Design Criteria and Appropriate Technologies for Space Heating and Ventilation Systems
for Northern Housing. Ottawa, Ontario, 1996.
Building Materials for the Environmentally Hypersensitive. Ottawa, Ontario, 1995.
Cleaning Up Your House After a Flood. Ottawa, Ontario, 1994.
Clean-up Procedures for Mold in Houses. Ottawa, Ontario, 2005.
Crawl Spaces: How to Avoid Moisture and Soil Gas Problems. Ottawa, Ontario, 1998.
Guide to Fixing your Damp Basement. Ottawa, Ontario, 1992, Revised 2008.
Guide to Mechanical Equipment for Healthy Indoor Environments. Ottawa, Ontario, 2001.
Indoor Air Quality Survey of Northwest Territories Housing. Ottawa, Ontario, 1991.
Sharing Successes in Native Housing. Ottawa, Ontario, 1995.
Canadian Home Builders’ Association. CHBA Builders’ Manual. Ottawa, Ontario, 1994.
Canadian Wood Council. Permanent Wood Foundations. Ottawa, Ontario, 1992.
Health Canada. Environmental Health Directorate. Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings: A Guide
to Recognition and Management. Ottawa, Ontario, 1995.
Health Canada. Environmental Public Health Division. Mould and Your Health: What you need to know for
a healthier home. Information for First Nations Community Members. 2010.
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Guidelines for the Development of First Nations Housing Proposals. Ottawa,
Ontario, 1996.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
59
NOTES
Mold in Housing
60
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
NOTES
housing managers’ guide
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
61
NOTES
Mold in Housing
62
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Housing Quality Matters
Workshops for First Nations
Information and training to better build and maintain homes
Well-built, well-maintained houses are an asset. Canada Mortgage
and Housing Corporation (CMHC) offers on-reserve communities
the knowledge and skills to improve their housing. CMHC has hands-on,
practical information sessions and workshops called Housing Quality
Matters (HQM). The Workshop for First Nations booklet contains
detailed information about these sessions and workshops.
FREE
Product # 65706
HQM courses tailored to housing managers include:
Client Counselling
Are you a member of your community’s housing or finance department? Are
you sometimes asked questions about a housing issue you can’t answer? This
two-day workshop will help you gain more counselling skills and strengthen
the services of the housing department.
housing
Client Counsell
ing
Let’s Clear the Air—Home Assessment
This one-day workshop is designed for housing, construction and
health professionals. You will gain a hands-on, basic understanding of
CMHC’s Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Investigation Procedure.
quality ma
tters
for FIRST NAT
IONS
PARTICIPANT
housing
MANUAL
quality ma
tters
for FIRST NAT
IONS
Introduction to Indoor Air Quality—Leadership
Take the lead in your community and learn the basic information
about maintaining healthy indoor air.
Let’s Clear the
Air – Home Asse
ssme
PARTICIPANT
MANUAL
nt
To order a copy of Housing Quality Matters: Workshops for First Nations, call CMHC at
1-800-668-2642. For more information about Housing Quality Matters workshops, please
contact your local CMHC office or call 1-800-668-2642 to find the CMHC office nearest you.
Mold in Housing
Information for First Nations Communities
HOUSING MANAGERS’ GUIDE
ABOUT YOUR HOUSE
CE 59
Should You Test the Air in Your Home
for Mold?
INTRODUCTION
Molds are microscopic fungi, the
very tiny members of the same
family that includes mushrooms
and yeasts. They grow and
reproduce rapidly. Molds can
be useful—penicillin comes from
one type of mold. Other molds
help humans make some foods
and beverages.
Mold can also be harmful. It can
damage and even ruin materials,
such as paper, cardboard and fabrics.
Mold can affect your health and
your family’s health. Health experts
say that molds can cause allergic
reactions and illnesses, depending
on the type of mold, the amount
and degree of exposure and the health
condition of a home’s occupants.
Pregnant women, infants, the
elderly and people with a respiratory
disease or a weakened immune
system, are at risk when exposed
to mold.
If you suspect there is mold in your
home that is causing health problems,
you can do a preliminary examination
of your home yourself. The Clean
Air Guide and Clean-up Procedures
for Mold in Houses have checklists
that you can use. You may be able
to find the problem yourself. If you
are unsure, you may want to hire
a professional to help you. You do
not want to renovate until you have
verified the problem and the causes.
The first thing that comes to
people’s minds when they suspect
mold is to have the air of the house
tested. This involves collecting an
air sample and sending the sample
to a laboratory for analysis.
TESTING FOR MOLD
Canada Mortgage and Housing
Corporation (CMHC), the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) (http://www.epa.gov/mold/
moldresources.html) and the
American Industrial Hygiene
Association (http://www.aiha.org/
aboutaiha/AIHAMembership/
Documents/Facts%20about%20
Mold.pdf) do not recommend
testing the air for molds in singlefamily dwellings and similar
buildings as a first step. The
recommended first step is having
a trained investigator check your
house for mold.
An experienced investigator can
determine if your house has a mold
problem. An investigation starts
with your home’s background—
is there a history of flooding? Has
the roof or plumbing leaked? The
investigator then checks for visible
signs of mold, the presence of
moldy odours and other indicators.
The inspector determines the extent
of the mold. The larger the affected
areas, the higher the concentration
of mold in the indoor air. The
extent of mold is important
in assessing risks to health. It
determines how the remediation
should be done, who should be
doing it and what kind of isolation
strategies and protective equipment
are needed to protect the workers,
the occupants and their furnishings.
A thorough investigation based on
building-science principles is more
helpful than testing the air. An
air sample test does not pinpoint
A GUIDE TO FIXING YOUR
DAMP BASEMENT
Should You Test the Air in Your Home for Mold?
Testing the air in their homes for mold is usually the first thing people ask for when they
suspect the presence of mold, or have discovered mold growth. This fact sheet explains
why air testing is not recommended and why an investigation by a trained professional
is more useful, as well as what to do if testing is deemed necessary.
FREE
Product # 63911
A Guide to Fixing Your Damp Basement
Learn how to diagnose a prevalent problem in housing: damp basements. Damp
basements can lead to the development of indoor mold, comfort problems and structural
damage. You’ll find in-depth coverage of symptoms, sources and causes, plus solutions
that are clear and precise.
$9.95
Product # 65886
clean-up procedures
for mold in houses
Clean-Up Procedures for Mold in Houses
Discover how to rid your home of mold. Mold can contribute to asthma, allergies and
other health problems. Left untreated, mold growth can also cause structural problems in
a home or damage furnishings. But clean-up must be handled carefully. Learn the correct,
safe procedures to do the job. Includes special precautions for treating surface mold and
whole-house mold, as well as guidance on prevention.
$14.95
67299 25-05-11
Product # 61091
Order your copies today by calling CMHC
at 1-800-668-2642 or download them
from www.cmhc.ca
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