National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011 Catalogue no. 12-583-X

National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011 Catalogue no. 12-583-X
Catalogue no. 12-583-X
National Occupational
Classification (NOC)
2011
How to obtain more information
For information on the National Occupational Classification (NOC) and its use for programs and services such as,
immigrating to Canada, labour market information, job searches and working in Canada, please contact Human
Resources and Skills Development Canada at noc-cnp@workingincanada.gc.ca.
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Statistics Canada
Standards Division
National Occupational
Classification (NOC)
2011
Published by authority of the Minister responsible for Statistics Canada
© Minister of Industry, 2012
All rights reserved. The content of this electronic publication may be reproduced, in whole or in part,
and by any means, without further permission from Statistics Canada or Human Resources and
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Resources and Skills Development Canada, or Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
(see "Citation", p.12), year of publication, name of product, catalogue number, volume and issue
numbers, reference period and page(s).
February 2012
Catalogue no. 12-583-X
ISBN 978-0-662-45368-0
Frequency: Occasional
Ottawa
Cette publication est également disponible en français.
Note of appreciation
Canada owes the success of its statistical system to a long-standing partnership between
Statistics Canada, the citizens of Canada, its businesses, governments and other institutions.
Accurate and timely statistical information could not be produced without their continued
cooperation and goodwill.
NOC 2011
Acknowledgements
This major, structural revision of the NOC was accomplished under the guidance of Alice Born, Director of
Standards Division, Statistics Canada and Christian Boucher, Director, Labour Market Information (LMI) Division of
the Temporary Foreign Worker and Labour Market Information Directorate, Human Resources and Skills
Development Canada. Subject matter expertise was provided from Statistics Canada by Debra Mair of Standards
Division and Sandra Swain of Labour Statistics Division. From Human Resources and Skills Development Canada,
subject matter expertise was provided by Clara Hamory and Ian McRae of LMI Division. Service Canada's Regional
Labour Market Information Directors, their staff and provincial colleagues, as well as Statistics Canada's Methods
and Standards Committee and its Advisory Committee on Labour and Income Statistics provided important input to
the development of NOC 2011. The many stakeholders who responded to the public online consultation for the
2011 Revision of the NOC, hosted by both departments, provided valuable input which is much appreciated.
The realization of NOC 2011 was dependent on the direct involvement and hard work of a team of occupational
research analysts and assistants from both Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and Statistics
Canada. The overall process also included consultations with an Interdepartmental Committee of representatives
from several government departments that are key users of the NOC. The professionalism and dedication of all
those involved in the revision process is reflected in the results of this project which has unified the two variants of
the classification while maintaining the advantages of both systems. This success is attributable to the co-operation
between these stakeholders and to the partnership between Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
and Statistics Canada.
Statistics Canada's Internet version of this publication was created jointly by Sylvain Boucher and Niloufar
Zanganeh. Their Systems Engineering Division and Administrative and Dissemination Systems Division were
responsible for their systems development of the PDF and HTML versions. Human Resources and Skills
Development Canada's NOC content development was undertaken by the analysts of LMI Division's Occupational
Research unit and Web development by Lyne Philion, Linda Trudel and Jules-André Léger with the help of the
Skills and Labour Market Information team of Innovation, Information and Technology Branch.
Both Statistics Canada and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada wish to acknowledge the valuable
input of other individuals and groups too numerous to name. Research consultants, academics, professional
associations, sector organizations, educators as well as employers and workers throughout the Canadian labour
market provided occupational information and advice that informed this revision process. Their contribution has
ensured that the quality and integrity of NOC 2011 has been maintained and it will continue to be the authoritative
foundational reference and framework for occupational data and descriptive information.
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Statistics Canada - catalogue no. 12-583-X
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Preface
This publication represents the third revision of the National Occupational Classification (NOC) system and the
National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S). The NOC was jointly developed by Human Resources
and Skills Development Canada and Statistics Canada and has been maintained in partnership since the first
edition published in 1991/92. However, until this revision, NOC and NOC-S differed in their major group structures
and, consequently, in their coding systems. The publication of NOC 2011 on this twentieth anniversary of the
classification system reflects the unification of the two versions. With the adoption of NOC 2011 all differences
between the classifications used by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and by Statistics Canada
have been eliminated. Furthermore, this has been accomplished while maintaining the advantages of both former
classification versions.
NOC 2011 would not have been possible without the significant contribution of a number of individuals and groups.
Their commitment to excellence is evident in this revised edition of the foundational system used for describing
occupations in the Canadian labour market and for managing the collection and reporting of occupational statistics.
The collaborative partnership between the two departments has ensured that the quantitative and qualitative
information on occupations is reliable, timely and relevant for a wide range of audiences.
Statistics Canada - catalogue no. 12-583-X
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NOC 2011
Table of contents
Introduction
7
Classification structure
27
Descriptions
44
0 Management occupations ....................................................................................................................................................... 44
1 Business, finance and administration occupations.................................................................................................................. 89
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations ......................................................................................................... 138
3 Health occupations ................................................................................................................................................................ 206
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services................................................................. 245
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport................................................................................................................... 284
6 Sales and service occupations .............................................................................................................................................. 315
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations ................................................................................... 362
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations ...................................................................................... 443
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities ............................................................................................................................ 465
Concordance tables
533
Alphabetical index
534
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Introduction
Background
The National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2011 updates both the National Occupational Classification of
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and Statistics Canada's National Occupational Classification for
Statistics (NOC-S) which was based on it. It is the nationally accepted taxonomy and organizational framework of
occupations in the Canadian labour market. This revision represents the 20th anniversary of the classification and
reflects the unification of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada's NOC and Statistics Canada's
NOC-S. This revised edition eliminates the differences between the two former systems and incorporates the
advantages of both. Through the collaborative partnership between Human Resources and Skills Development
Canada and Statistics Canada the department and the statistical agency introduce the revised and unified National
Occupational Classification - NOC 2011.
As in the past, this revision is based on extensive occupational research, analysis and consultation conducted
across the country. In the decade since its first structural revision in 2001, the labour market has evolved
significantly. Technological innovation, further globalization of the economy and restructuring of the workplace have
impacted many occupations. In addition to content changes, the harmonization of the NOC and the NOC-S has
resulted in a new classification structure.
The NOC is designed to classify occupational information from statistical surveys. It is also used in a range of
contexts to compile, analyze and communicate information about occupations. Occupational information is of critical
importance for the provision of labour market and career intelligence, skills development, occupational forecasting,
labour supply and demand analysis, employment equity and numerous other programs and services. It provides a
standardized framework for organizing the world of work in a manageable, understandable and coherent system.
The basic principle of classification of the NOC is that of kind of work performed. Occupations are identified and
grouped primarily in terms of the work usually performed, this being determined by the tasks, duties, and
responsibilities of the occupation. Factors such as the materials processed or used, the industrial processes and
the equipment used, the degree of responsibility and complexity of work, as well as the products made and services
provided, have been taken as indicators of the work performed when combining jobs into occupations and
occupations into groups.
An occupation is defined as a collection of jobs, sufficiently similar in work performed to be grouped under a
common label for classification purposes. A job, in turn, encompasses all the tasks carried out by a particular
worker to complete their duties.
Structure of NOC 2011
The National Occupational Classification 2011 is a four-tiered hierarchical arrangement of occupational groups with
successive levels of disaggregation. It contains broad occupational categories, major, minor and unit groups.
10 broad occupational categories
Each broad occupational category has a unique one-digit code number and is composed of one or more major
groups.
40 major groups
Each major group has a unique two-digit code number and is composed of one or more minor groups. The first digit
of this code indicates the broad occupational category to which the major group belongs.
140 minor groups
Each minor group has a unique three-digit code number and is composed of one or more unit groups. The first two
digits of this code indicate the major group to which the minor group belongs.
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NOC 2011
500 unit groups
Each unit group has a unique four-digit code. The first three digits of this code indicate the major and minor groups
to which the unit group belongs.
For example:
0
Management occupations
00
Senior management occupations
001
Legislators and senior management
0011
Legislators
0012
Senior government managers and officials
0013
Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services
0014
Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership organizations
0015
Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c.
0016
Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities
The broad occupational category code, designated by a single digit, is repeated at all levels. Major group codes are
created by adding a second digit. This digit appears in the second position at all lower levels in the structure. Minor
group codes add a third digit. Finally, the 4-digit unit group codes contain the digit identifying the broad occupational
category, followed by the digit identifying the major group and the digit identifying the minor group and a last digit
identifying the unit group.
There are approximately 40,000 occupational titles classified in the 500 unit groups of the NOC 2011. Some of
these titles are clearly occupations, such as librarian and chef, while others reflect specializations within an
occupational area, such as music librarian and pastry chef. Still others represent a range of jobs, such as furniture
assembler and sawmill machine operator.
These titles are used to describe the work performed by many individuals holding similar jobs within an
occupational area. The list of titles in the NOC is not meant to be exhaustive, but attempts to cover the most
commonly used and universally understood labels that identify work in the labour market.
Abbreviations
Few abbreviations are used in this classification. Particular attention should be given to the abbreviation n.e.c. (not
elsewhere classified). As an occupational qualifier it is occasionally used in the labels of major, minor and unit
groups to refer to occupations not elsewhere classified; e.g. 065 Managers in customer and personal services,
n.e.c. indicates that this class includes managers in customer and personal services that are not classified
elsewhere in the classification.
Language
The NOC is available separately in both official languages. It is important to note that the French version includes
only titles commonly used in French and proper to the milieu and, therefore, these are not normally translations of
the English titles. The classification structure is the same in both languages.
Unit group labels are presented in gender-neutral format in French identifying the masculine and feminine titles
separated by a slash. Where relevant, this structure is used in English as well. The illustrative example titles are
also presented in gender-neutral format. The NOC descriptions are written using the masculine form as they refer to
all workers within the included occupations. This has been done in order to lighten the text and to reduce reading
burden.
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NOC 2011
Modifying terms
Modifying terms have been added to several job titles, as extensions, to designate the industrial sector or the
domain of expertise. If applicable, this information is preceded by a dash at the end of the title (cashier supervisor retail trade) to distinguish between similar titles. These modifying terms specify where the titles appear in the
classification structure (painter - visual arts; painter - manufacture of motor vehicles). This information should be
considered when coding job titles.
Format of unit group descriptions
Each NOC unit group description consists of several standardized sections which define and describe its content.
Lead statement
This section provides a general description of the content and boundaries of the unit group and indicates the main
activities of occupations within the unit group. It also indicates the kinds of industries or establishments in which the
occupations are found. The list of places of employment is not always exhaustive, but can assist in clarifying the
occupations described and in differentiating them from occupations found in other groups.
Illustrative examples1/ Example titles2
This section is a list of titles commonly used in the labour market. The titles are intended to illustrate the contents
and range of the occupational group. This is not an exhaustive list of titles.
Exclusions1/ Classified elsewhere2
This section clarifies the boundaries of the unit group by identifying related unit groups and similar occupations that
are classified elsewhere. Unit groups or individual occupations are cited in this section when they bear a functional
similarity to the unit group or when similar titles occur.
Main duties
This section lists some of the tasks or duties performed in the occupations in the unit group. Depending on the
contents of the unit group, one of three formats is used.
•
A series of statements that can be applied to all occupations in the unit group. This format
was selected for unit groups that contain a single core occupation, such as 1242 Legal
administrative assistants and 2146 Aerospace engineers. This format was also selected
for unit groups that contain a range of related titles that nevertheless share a set of
common duties, such as 1411 General office support workers and 9417 Machining tool
operators.
•
Two or more sub-sets of occupations with a series of statements that apply to each
component. This format was selected for unit groups that consist of two or more
sub-components which, while similar enough to be in the same unit group, can be
described separately. Examples of unit groups with this format are 3141 Audiologists and
speech-language pathologists and 5125 Translators, terminologists and interpreters.
•
A series of brief descriptive statements that are linked to specific occupations within a
group. This format was selected for unit groups that contain a series of occupations which,
while similar enough to be in the same unit group, can be described separately. Examples
of unit groups with this format include 4423 By-law enforcement and other regulatory
officers, n.e.c. and 5226 Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures,
broadcasting and the performing arts.
1. This heading is used by Statistics Canada.
2. This heading is used by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.
Statistics Canada - catalogue no. 12-583-X
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NOC 2011
For some unit groups, a statement appears at the end of the tasks performed or main duties section, identifying
specializations that exist within the occupational area encompassed by the unit group.
Employment requirements
This section describes the employment requirements for the unit group. Several types of requirements are identified
in this section and are listed in the following order.
•
Type and level of formal education: for example, secondary school, college diploma,
university degree. Efforts were made to be as specific as possible, though many unit
groups have a range of acceptable educational requirements.
•
Specific training: for example, apprenticeship training, on-the-job training, training courses
specific to an occupation.
•
Experience in another occupation: for example, supervisors usually require several years
of experience in the occupation that they supervise.
•
Licences, certificates or registration: for example, regulatory requirements to practice in a
regulated profession, special licenses to operate certain kinds of vehicles.
•
Other requirements: for example, athletic ability or artistic talent.
Note: Some occupations are designated as regulated professions and trades. Regulations are subject to change
and may vary across jurisdictions. The most reliable information on regulatory requirements for occupations is
found on the Web sites of provincial regulatory organizations and licensing authorities.
The Employment requirements section does not attempt to describe personal suitability requirements that are
assessed by employers as part of the hiring process.
Some occupations have very definite employment requirements while for others, there is no consensus or a range
of acceptable requirements exist. To reflect this variation in the labour market, this section describes employment
requirements using the following terminology:
•
"... is required" - to indicate a definite requirement;
•
"... is usually required" - to indicate something that is usually required by the majority of
employers, but not always required by all employers; and
•
"... may be required" - to indicate something that may be required by some employers, but
on a less frequent basis.
Note: For reasons of brevity, in this section the term college includes the following types of post-secondary
institutions: community colleges, CÉGEPS, technical institutes, trade schools and agricultural colleges. Where
relevant, in some provinces, it may also include private training organizations, music conservatories and other
non-degree granting institutions.
Additional information
This section appears in some unit group descriptions. It provides information on the following:
10
•
progression to other occupations (such as supervisory or management positions) based
on transferability of skills from acquired occupational experience;
•
mobility patterns, such as inter- and intra-occupational transferability of skills (for example,
identifying occupations that are part of internal lines of progression or specializations
within a subject matter area);
•
trends and forthcoming changes in the unit group's employment requirements; and
•
other information to clarify and define the unit group.
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Related classifications: NAICS, Class of Worker
The classification of occupations does not stand alone but must be understood as being related to other
classifications, such as the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and that of Class of Worker.
Each of these classifications supplements the NOC 2011 in presenting a rounded picture of the nature of a person's
job.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
The industrial qualifier which may accompany the job title:
a)
Indicates the type of economic activity with which the job is usually associated. (It is
important to note that the assignment of an industrial qualifier does not necessarily limit a
job to that industry. These qualifiers are merely indicative of the possible areas of activity
in which the job may be found.)
b)
Permits the assignment of similar occupational titles to different occupation groups where
the duties vary between industries.
c)
Aids in defining the specific occupations and helps the coder grasp the underlying
principles of this classification.
The industry in which the individual is employed is determined by the kind of economic activity of the establishment.
The establishment is usually a factory, mine, farm, store, other place of business or an institution for which a
number of basic production variables can be compiled.
It is important to note the conceptual differences between an industry classification and an occupation classification.
An establishment can employ individuals performing completely different occupations, and these are classified to
appropriate occupational groups, but the industrial classification of each individual employed in the establishment
should be the same and is determined by the nature of the product made or service rendered. In other words, the
nature of the factory, business or service in which the person is employed does not determine the classification of
the occupation, except to the extent that it enables the nature of the duties to be more clearly defined.
Class of Worker
Class of worker refers to an individual's employment relationship to the business in which he or she works, as
employee or self employed, including unpaid family worker, and thus provides another means of describing the
work. The NOC 2011 does not indicate the class of worker classification for each occupation since many
occupations contain both jobs held by employees and jobs of self-employed individuals. However, a general rule
has been established for coding purposes and is discussed in full under the section on Coding.
NOC 2011
NOC 2011 replaces the National Occupational Classification (NOC) of Human Resources and Skills Development
Canada and Statistics Canada's National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S). These classifications
were revised jointly by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and Statistics Canada every 5 years
according to the census cycle. The maintenance of the classification alternates between minor updates and
structural revisions. Only in 10-year structural revisions are such changes considered as: the creation of new
classes, the collapsing of classes, the moving of classes in the structure or the moving of content between classes.
The 2011 revision represents a major structural realignment. A key objective of this revision was to harmonize the
coding structures and eliminate all other differences between the two classifications, fulfilling a request heard from
users of both the NOC and the NOC-S. The result is the unified NOC 2011 which was developed through the joint
efforts of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and Statistics Canada and will be used by both.
Separate concordance tables explain the revisions to both classification systems that have resulted in the
harmonized classification structure for NOC 2011.
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NOC 2011
In addition to these changes, for NOC 2011, a new variant of the classification has been developed at a high level
of aggregation. It is designed to better support the analysis of highly aggregated data (See: Variant for highly
aggregated data).
Citation
The National Occupation Classification 2011 is a joint product of Statistics Canada and Human Resources and
Skills Development Canada. The appropriate department should be cited when materials are used. The structure,
class labels, class definitions (lead statements), example titles and exclusions were jointly developed and are to be
attributed to both departments. The content of the main duties, employment requirements and additional information
sections as well as the theoretical framework and the accompanying definitions of skill level and skill type are the
intellectual property of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada and are to be attributed to the
department when cited.
Comparison of NOC 2006 and NOC-S 2006 to NOC 2011
The major difference between the NOC and the NOC-S had been the greater use in the NOC of skill level as a
classification criterion. Whereas the NOC organized occupations by 10 skill types and four skill levels, NOC-S relied
more on skill type in defining its major groups. The NOC 2011 uses the organizational structure of the NOC (See:
NOC Classification criteria).
In order to incorporate skill level as an organizational principle, several major groups from NOC-S 2006 were
changed and a new coding structure reflecting the skill type by skill level numerical coding of the NOC was adopted.
The relationship between the major groups of NOC 2011 and NOC-S 2006 is detailed in the concordance tables
(Concordances are forthcoming).
In order to provide at the major group level a comparable level of detail to that which had been provided by the
NOC-S major groups, the number of major groups was increased from the 26 major groups of NOC 2006 to 40
major groups in NOC 2011. The relationship between the major groups of NOC 2011 and NOC 2006 is detailed in
the concordance tables (Concordances are forthcoming ).
The unit group descriptions of NOC 2011 contain all the types of information carried in NOC 2006. In comparison to
NOC-S 2006, users will find additional information on the activities performed by workers in each unit group and a
section related to educational and/or training requirements for entering an occupation. These sections provide
further information on the nature of the jobs included in each unit group, help to code job titles to the correct class
and help identify the relative distinctions between skill levels for occupations.
The NOC and NOC-S had also differed in their treatment of military personnel. The NOC classified military
personnel whose occupations had a civilian counterpart in the group appropriate to that civilian occupation. The
NOC-S classified all military personnel on the basis of rank to one of two unit groups: one for commissioned officers
and one for other ranks. NOC 2011 follows the approach used in NOC-S, with all military personnel being classified
to either 0433 Commissioned officers of the Canadian Forces or 4313 Non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian
Forces. The adoption of the NOC-S approach allowed this difference to be resolved with no impact on the historical
comparability of data.
In this structural revision, various changes were also made at the unit group level to enable the classification to
continue to provide a framework for the provision of relevant and reliable information on the occupational structure
of Canada. New unit groups have been formed either by combining unit groups or parts of unit groups from 2006
and content has been moved between skill types and levels. The full relationship between the unit groups of NOC
2011 and those of NOC and NOC-S 2006 is presented in the concordances, but some highlights are noted here.
Some unit groups were moved to better reflect the skill type of the work performed. For example, Loan officers,
Customer service representatives - financial, and Customer service, information and related clerks all moved from
Business to Sales and service. Public relations and communications professionals moved from Art and culture to
Business. Protective service occupations, including the military, police and firefighters, moved from Sales and
service to Government services. Care providers and educational assistants moved from Sales and service to
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Community and education services. Certain trades, including upholsterers and tailors, moved from Trades and
equipment to Services. As a final example, Power system, station and auxiliary equipment operators moved from
Trades and equipment operators to Utilities.
In other cases, only part of a group was moved. For example, legal assistants moved out of Paralegal and related
occupations, in Law, into Legal administrative assistants, in Business. Advertising and marketing managers moved
out of Sales, marketing and advertising managers, in Sales, into Advertising, marketing and public relations
managers, in Business services. Similarly, Library assistants moved from Library and archive technicians and
assistants, in Education, law and social, community and government services, to Library assistants and clerks, in
Business, finance and administration.
Other unit groups were moved to better reflect the occupation's current skill level. For example, the group for
Non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian Forces was moved from skill level C to skill level B to recognize the
training that occurs post-recruitment. Water and waste treatment plant operators also moved from skill level C to B
due to the changing requirements associated with this occupation. Farmers and farm managers were moved into
management to recognize the significant management component in these occupations.
As was the case with skill type, here also there were cases where only part of a unit group was moved. For
example, midwives were moved from skill level B to skill level A into a new unit group, Allied primary health
practitioners. Pharmacy technicians and physiotherapy assistants moved from skill level C to skill level B, now
included, respectively, in Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health) and Other technical
occupations in therapy and assessment.
Finally, some unit groups were combined. Administrative clerks were merged with General office clerks due to the
increasing similarity in the job titles and work performed in these two unit groups. In other cases, particularly in
manufacturing, unit groups that have been declining in size were combined with related groups.
In addition to these structural changes, the 2011 revision also provided an opportunity to add many new job titles in
order to reflect changing terminology and new technology in the workplace and the rise of new occupations and
specializations. Too numerous to list, these additions included titles ranging from oil and gas contractor to mystery
shopper and from physician assistant to seismic buried facilities locator.
NOC classification criteria
The two major attributes of jobs used as classification criteria in developing the NOC are skill type and skill level. A
description of skill levels is presented first as the definitions of skill types incorporate some information related to the
concept of skill level. Other factors, such as industry and occupational mobility, are also taken into consideration.
Skill level
Skill level is defined generally as the amount and type of education and training required to enter and perform the
duties of an occupation. In determining skill level, the experience required for entry, and the complexity and
responsibilities typical of an occupation are also considered in relation to other occupations.
Four skill level categories are identified in the NOC. Each major, minor and unit group is assigned to one of the skill
levels.
The skill level categories are broad aggregates, reflecting four commonly accepted educational, training or
preparatory routes for entering employment. Requirements for individual unit groups or occupations may overlap
between the boundaries of the skill levels. For example, some occupations can be entered with either a university
degree or a college diploma. When the entry requirements for a unit group or occupation reflect a range of possible
educational and training specifications, skill level placement of the group was determined by considering several
factors. These include the requirements most generally demanded by employers, the minor group context,
complexity of overall responsibilities and knowledge requirements as well as further training and specialization
acquired on the job.
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NOC 2011
The classification describes the educational and training requirements for occupations. However, the education and
experience of particular job incumbents may not correspond exactly to the level described. Individuals may be
over-qualified for their work or they may work in occupations for which the entry requirements have changed after
they became employed.
It is important to note that the skill level categories are not intended to designate socio-economic status or prestige.
Rather they are intended to reflect actual occupational entry requirements. These requirements are expressed in
terms of the formal educational system and other types of training specified by employers.
Management occupations, while considered a skill type, are assigned to the skill level A category. These
occupations are at the top of organizational hierarchies and as such, are characterized by high levels of
responsibility, accountability and subject matter expertise gained through either formal education or extensive
occupational experience. Management occupations span the entire classification structure and are found in all
sectors or areas of the labour market. A range of factors are taken into consideration as determinants for
employment in management occupations.
The skill level categories of the NOC are outlined and defined below.
NOC skill level criteria - education/training and other criteria
Skill level A
•
University degree (bachelor's, master's or doctorate)
Skill level B
•
Two to three years of post-secondary education at community college, institute of
technology or CÉGEP
or
•
Two to five years of apprenticeship training
or
•
Three to four years of secondary school and more than two years of on-the-job training,
occupation-specific training courses or specific work experience
•
Occupations with supervisory responsibilities are also assigned to skill level B.
•
Occupations with significant health and safety responsibilities (e.g., fire fighters, police
officers and licensed practical nurses) are assigned to skill level B.
Skill level C
•
Completion of secondary school and some short-duration courses or training specific to
the occupation or
or
•
Some secondary school education, with up to two years of on-the-job training, training
courses or specific work experience
Skill level D
•
14
Short work demonstration or on-the-job training or
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or
•
No formal educational requirements
Skill level is referenced in the code for all occupations with the exception of management occupations. For all
non-management occupations the second digit of the numerical code corresponds to skill level. Skill levels are
identified as follows: level A - 0 or 1; level B - 2 or 3; level C - 4 or 5; and level D - 6 or 7.
Skill type
Skill type is defined as the type of work performed, although other factors related to skill type are also reflected in
the NOC. One of these factors is similarity with respect to the educational discipline or field of study required for
entry into an occupation. Another factor is the industry of employment where experience within an internal job
ladder or within a specific industry is usually a prerequisite for entry. The 10 skill types, 0 to 9, are presented below
and are also identified in the first digit of the NOC numerical code for all occupations.
The ten broad occupational categories of the NOC are based on skill type
0. Management occupations
This skill type category contains legislators, senior management occupations and middle management occupations.
While management occupations are defined as a skill type, they are also found throughout all other skill type areas
of the classification. The first digit of the code for all management occupations is 0.
These occupations are considered to be at the top of the organizational hierarchy of workplaces or businesses.
Decision-making that affects the organization as a whole, or departments within organizations, is undertaken by
management. As such, management is characterized by high levels of responsibility, accountability and subject
matter expertise. Expertise is acquired through either formal education or extensive occupational experience. For
these reasons all management occupations in the NOC 2011 are also included within skill level A.
1. Business, finance and administration occupations
This category contains occupations that are concerned with providing financial and business services,
administrative and regulatory services and clerical supervision and support services. Some occupations in this
category are unique to the financial and business service sectors; however, most are found in all industries.
Often, occupations at skill levels A and B are supplied from educational programs specific to the profession or
occupation. Some occupations at skill level B are also supplied from experienced workers in related administrative
support occupations.
2. Natural and applied sciences and related occupations
This category contains professional and technical occupations in the sciences, including physical and life sciences,
engineering, architecture and information technology.
Occupations in this skill type category require post-secondary education in an appropriate scientific discipline.
Progression from occupations in skill level B to occupations in skill level A is usually dependent on completion of
additional formal education.
3. Health occupations
This category includes occupations concerned with providing health care services directly to patients and
occupations that provide support to professional and technical staff. Most occupations in this skill type category
require post-secondary education in a related health care program. Progression from occupations in skill level B to
occupations in skill level A is usually dependent on completion of additional formal education. Occupations in skill
level C require short training programs.
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4. Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services
This skill type category includes a range of occupations that are concerned with law, public protective services,
teaching, counselling, conducting social science research, developing government policy, and administering
government and other programs.
Occupations in this skill type category usually require completion of a related post-secondary program. Progression
from occupations in skill level B to occupations in skill level A is not usually possible without completion of additional
formal education.
5. Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
This skill type category includes professional and technical occupations related to art and culture, including the
performing arts, film and video, broadcasting, journalism, writing, creative design, libraries and museums. It also
includes occupations in recreation and sport.
This category is characterized by occupations which are linked by subject matter to formal post-secondary
educational programs but which have, for the most part, a range of acceptable qualifications. Occupations in this
category are also characterized by a requirement for creative talent, such as for designers and performers, or for
athletic ability. Unit groups for occupations that usually require university graduation in a professional discipline,
such as journalism or library science, have been classified in skill level A. Most others have been classified in skill
level B in recognition of the wide range of entry routes that are possible.
6. Sales and service occupations
This skill type category contains sales occupations, personal services and security service occupations, and
occupations related to the hospitality and tourism industries.
Occupations in skill level B of this category can be linked, for the most part, to formal post-secondary or
occupation-specific training programs. Others are characterized by periods of formal on-the-job training other than
apprenticeship. Progression from occupations in skill level C or D to those in skill level B usually require completion
of related training programs. Some progression through experience is possible for supervisory positions.
7. Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations
This skill type category includes construction and mechanical trades, trades supervisors and contractors and
operators of transportation and heavy equipment. These occupations are found in a wide range of industrial
sectors, with many occurring in the construction and transportation industries.
This category includes most of the apprenticeable trades, including all of those related to the construction industry.
Other occupations in this category usually require completion of college or other programs combined with
on-the-job training. Progression to supervisory or self-employed contractor status is possible with experience. There
is limited mobility or transferability of skills among occupations in this category due to specific apprenticeship,
training and licensing requirements for most occupations.
8. Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations
This category contains supervisory and equipment operation occupations in the natural resource-based sectors of
mining, oil and gas production, forestry and logging, agriculture, horticulture and fishing. Most occupations in this
category are industry specific and do not occur outside of the primary industries.
Occupations within skill level B of this category generally require completion of college or other post-secondary
training programs. Some, however, are characterized by industry-based training and progression through
experience
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9. Occupations in manufacturing and utilities
This category contains supervisory and production occupations in manufacturing, processing and utilities.
Occupations in this category are characterized by internal progression and on-the-job training. Workers typically
start out in these occupations at entry-level positions and progress to increasingly higher skilled occupations
through experience. Mobility between employers or industries may be limited by seniority provisions of collective
agreements. The occupations in skill level B of this category are increasingly technical in nature and
post-secondary training programs are required for some.
Industry
Industry and occupation are separate variables which can be cross-tabulated to provide detailed information on
employment. However, many occupations are found almost solely within one particular industry. For example,
mining and automobile assembly occupations occur each within their respective industrial sectors.
During the original research and development of the NOC, it was realized that in many industries, occupational
mobility is determined more by internal job ladders than by functional specialization. In consequence, some unit
groups include workers of a particular skill level within a specific industry. Although the occupational categorisation
resembles in part an industrial categorisation, the variables remain separate and distinct.
Industry was used in the development of classification categories for senior management occupations, for
occupations in natural resources, agriculture and related production and for occupations in manufacturing and
utilities.
Occupational mobility
In developing the NOC, an effort was made to consider mobility or transferability of skills between occupations. The
objective was to develop unit groups where the potential for mobility, or substitution of workers, would be greater
within the group than between groups. Movement within groups usually follows when the group is homogeneous in
skill level and skill type, indicating increased potential for transferability of competencies and development of
specialization. Movement between groups, or inter-occupational mobility, usually reflects a change in skill level
(e.g., vertical mobility) or a change in skill type (e.g., acquisition of new responsibilities and diversified skills).
The degree of occupational mobility that exists for unit groups varies. Many unit group descriptions include a
statement that indicates the potential for, and type of, mobility that characterizes the unit group.
Other classification considerations
In addition to the previously mentioned criteria, other factors were considered in determining the boundaries
between unit groups and the contents of each group. These additional factors were the size of the unit groups and
the codability or operational feasibility of the groups. Codability relates to the ease of accurately coding or assigning
reported job titles from survey respondents to the occupational groups of the classification.
The size (or estimated number of workers) of the unit group was considered for reasons of statistical reliability and
confidentiality. Generally, unit groups which contain fewer than 1,000 Canadian workers have not been delineated.
Because the NOC structure is used to code responses to the National Household Survey and other surveys, it must
provide a set of unit groups that can be used for this operational application. The insufficient precision of some
survey responses and ambiguities of language were given consideration in finalizing the unit groups.
The NOC Matrix
A matrix classifying the NOC major and minor groups has been developed to provide an overview of the entire
classification and to show the organization of the groups by both skill type and skill level.
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There are 10 skill types in the NOC identified as 0 to 9. The vertical columns of the matrix correspond to nine of the
10 skill type categories with the exception of management. Management, the first skill type or 0, is organized across
the top of the matrix and spans all nine skill types as it is found within all occupational sectors or categories. The
first digit of each code identifies the major and minor group as belonging to one of the ten skill type categories, 0 to
9.
The horizontal rows of the matrix correspond to the four skill level categories. Management occupations are by
default included in the skill level A category. For all non-management occupations, the second digit of each code
identifies the major and minor group as belonging to one of the four skill level categories.
Within each cell of the matrix, the major and minor groups that belong to each skill type and skill level category are
listed. Management occupations are the exception, which span all skill type categories and are included in skill level
A. The second digit of management occupations identifies the occupational sector of management, for example 031
Managers in health care. (Matrix is forthcoming)
Issues and conventions of the NOC
Some of the many issues that were encountered in the development of the NOC and the conventions adopted in
response are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Management occupations
Management occupations present a special problem for reliable coding of occupational survey responses. In many
cases there is little indication of the level of responsibility, the size of the enterprise or division managed, or the field
of specialization.
To be of practical use, a classification of managers must be a compromise between the theoretically optimal and the
practical solutions.
Senior management occupations (in major group 00) have been divided on the basis of industry of employment into
six unit groups.
Middle and other management occupations are divided into three major groups, 18 minor groups and 42 unit
groups on the basis of specialization (e.g., Purchasing managers) or industry of employment (e.g., Postal and
courier services managers). In certain cases (e.g., Managers in transportation) groups defined by industry also
contain managers in that specialization regardless of their industry of employment.
Supervisors
Supervisors and foremen/women have generally been classified in skill level B.
In most cases, professional and technical occupations are supervised by managerial or professional personnel
respectively. However, where supervisors are identified for professional and technical groups, they are generally
classified in the same unit groups as the occupations supervised.
Supervisors in the following occupational categories have been classified in supervisor unit groups or minor groups
separate from the workers supervised:
18
•
administrative services occupations
•
nursing occupations
•
sales and service occupations
•
trades and transport and equipment operators
•
occupations in natural resources and agriculture
•
occupations in manufacturing and utilities.
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Most minor and unit groups in the occupational categories listed above have a corresponding supervisory group.
Occasionally, as in minor group 431, Occupations in front-line public protection services, supervision is provided by
managers and there are no corresponding supervisory groups in major group 43.
Trades
All apprenticeable trades are included in skill level B. Their inclusion does not imply an exact equivalence of skill
between all trades, but rather that they occupy a range that lies within the boundaries of this skill level category.
Information on entry requirements is provided within each unit group description.
Inspectors, testers and graders
Generally, inspectors who require post-secondary education have been classified in separate unit groups in skill
level B or with technicians and technologists, also in skill level B. Other non-technical inspectors, testers, graders
and samplers have been included either in separate unit groups covering occupations in processing industries or in
unit groups of assemblers and fabricators in manufacturing industries. This is reflective of patterns of employment
found within industries and the increasing responsibility for quality control that is placed on manufacturing
production workers.
Apprentices and trainees
Apprentices and trainees have been classified in the same unit groups as the occupations for which they are
training. Similarly, interns, residents and articling students are classified with their respective professional groups.
This convention has been adopted of necessity to prevent a proliferation of unit groups of apprentices. It is not
intended to imply equivalence or interchangeability of apprentices or trainees with fully qualified workers.
NOC 2011 coding system
As indicated previously, the first two digits of each code convey meaning with respect to the group's skill type and
skill level category.
For all occupations, including management, the first digit of each code identifies the major, minor and unit group as
belonging to one of the skill type categories. For all non-management occupations, the second digit of each code
identifies the major, minor and unit group as belonging to one of the four skill level categories.
For management occupations, the first two digits also convey meaning. The first digit is always 0 to convey
management, while the second digit conveys the skill type category in which the management occupation is found.
All management occupations are included as part of skill level A.
The following charts summarize and illustrate the meanings embedded in the coding system.
The skill type category is...
when the first digit is...
Management occupations
0
Business, finance and administration occupations
1
Natural and applied sciences and related occupations
2
Health occupations
3
Occupations in education, law and social, community
and government services
4
Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
5
Sales and service occupations
6
Trades, transport and equipment operators and related
occupations
7
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Natural resources, agriculture and related production
occupations
8
Occupations in manufacturing and utilities
9
The skill level category is...
when the second digit is...
Skill Level A
0 or 1
Skill Level B
2 or 3
Skill Level C
4 or 5
Skill Level D
6 or 7
Important note: For management, the first digit is always 0. Senior managers in major group 00 are generally
managers of middle managers, therefore the second digit is also 0. For middle management occupations, the
second digit represents the skill type categories, from 1 to 9, as above. All management occupations are included in
skill level A.
Examples of codes and their meanings:
Code
Meaning
9231
The first digit indicates skill type category 9, Occupations in manufacturing and utilities. The second
digit indicates skill level category B.
6533
The first digit indicates skill type category 6, Sales and service occupations. The second digit indicates
skill level category C.
0212
The first digit 0 always indicates a management occupation, All management occupations are part of
skill level A. The second digit indicates management in skill type category 2, Natural and applied
sciences and related occupations
Variant for highly aggregated data
A variant of NOC 2011 has been developed jointly by Statistics Canada and Human Resources and Skills
Development Canada. It is based on a review of actual practices in the analysis of highly aggregated occupational
data, consideration of the highest aggregation level in the International Standard Classification of Occupations
(ISCO) and consultation with potential users.
The variant consists of 10 groupings, from a. to j., that are a convenient and useful way to summarize and analyse
more detailed classes. The first three classes are homogeneous on skill level. The remaining classes focus on skill
type. All classes consist of entire major groups; no major group is split between classes of the variant.
Variant Aggregation Structure
Variant classes
Major groups included
a. Management
00 Senior management occupations
01-05 Specialized middle management occupations
06 Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services
07-09 Middle management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities
b. Professional
11 Professional occupations in business and finance
21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences
30 Professional occupations in nursing
31 Professional occupations in health (except nursing)
40 Professional occupations in education services
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41 Professional occupations in law and social, community and government services
51 Professional occupations in art and culture
c. Technical and
paraprofessional
22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences
32 Technical occupations in health
42 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services
43 Occupations in front-line public protection services
52 Technical occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
d. Administration
and administrative
support
12 Administrative and financial supervisors and administrative occupations
13 Finance, insurance and related business administrative occupations
14 Office support occupations
15 Distribution, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
e. Sales
62 Retail sales supervisors and specialized sales occupations
64 Sales representatives and salespersons - wholesale and retail trade
66 Sales support occupations
f. Personal and
customer
information
services
63 Service supervisors and specialized service occupations
65 Service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations
67 Service support and other service occupations, n.e.c.
34 Assisting occupations in support of health services
44 Care providers and educational, legal and public protection support occupations
g. Industrial,
construction and
equipment
operation trades
72 Industrial, electrical and construction trades
73 Maintenance and equipment operation trades
h. Workers and
labourers in
transport and
construction
74 Other installers, repairers and servicers and material handlers
75 Transport and heavy equipment operation and related maintenance occupations
76 Trades helpers, construction labourers and related occupations
i. Natural resources, 82 Supervisors and technical occupations in natural resources, agricultural and related
agriculture and
production
related production
occupations
84 Workers in natural resources, agriculture and related production
86 Harvesting, landscaping and natural resources labourers
j. Occupations in
manufacturing and
utilities
92 Processing, manufacturing and utilities supervisors and central control operators
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94 Processing and manufacturing machine operators and related production workers
95 Assemblers in manufacturing
96 Labourers in processing, manufacturing and utilities
Coding
The NOC provides an overall structure for classifying occupations according to kind of work performed. The lists of
example titles are merely indicative of the types of occupations that fit within specific unit groups. The lists of
example titles are not exhaustive nor are they intended to be.
When coding an occupation, all the relevant facts about the job and its environment should be obtained. These
include the kind of work performed, the most important activities or duties, the job titles, the kind of business,
industry or service, and the class of worker described earlier. The more complete and comprehensive the
information the coder is able to assemble about the duties performed by a worker on a particular job, the easier it
will be to determine the appropriate classification.
To code an occupation, it is possible to start with either the classification structure or the search tool.
Using the structure
When using the structure, it is best to exploit the hierarchical nature of the classification. First the broad
occupational category (skill type) which seems most likely to contain the job should be identified. Next the most
appropriate major group within the broad occupational category should be found. Skill level can also provide a
guide to locating major groups by considering titles with terms such as "technical", "supervisor", "helper", and
"labourer". The process should be continued to find the most appropriate minor group within the major group
selected. Finally the most appropriate unit group within the minor group selected should be identified. The unit
group definition should be read carefully before deciding if this unit group offers the best possible classification. In
addition, the example titles listed for the unit group should be examined to ensure that the choice is actually the
best.
Using the NOC search tool
a. First search for the occupation. This can be done by searching using a key part of the occupation title and
reviewing the search results to find the four-digit code that contains the occupation sought. Check whether the title
appears in any other four-digit code listed. If it does, the corresponding industrial qualifiers should be checked and
the one which relates most closely to the one stated by the respondent selected. Using this code, go to the unit
group. Read its definition carefully as well as the list of example titles before deciding whether it is the most
appropriate classification. Also consult the list of Exclusions for similar occupations that are classified elsewhere.
b. If the occupation title cannot be found or if the definition appears inappropriate, enter another title in the search.
Some suggestions are:
1.
Look for the noun form: answering the phone will be a Receptionist or Telephone clerk
2.
Shorten the title: Electronic data processor to Data processor
3.
Find a synonym: Aircraft mechanic for Aircraft maintenance technician
4.
If the title is inverted, look for it in its natural order e.g. Manager, store may be located
using Store manager
c. Also consider such factors as:
22
1.
Job location - tunnel worker; bridge keeper
2.
Kind of machines used - cement-mixer operator; hydraulic riveter
3.
Material used - concrete mason; leather handbag maker
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4.
Subject matter - music cataloguer; press clipper
5.
Activity performed - locomotive inspector; body shop foreman/woman
6.
Job skills - surgical instrument repairer; tool machinist
Coding procedures for problem responses
The procedure described above assumes responses contain sufficient information for coding. Unfortunately,
depending upon the survey methods used, some responses may be problematic. This occurs when the information
in the response is either vague or contradictory. Experience at Statistics Canada suggests the following approaches
to resolving such problems.
Coding vague responses
It is suggested that vague responses be coded only to the level within the classification that is possible. Of course,
before doing so, any information that is available about the respondent should be consulted.
Using education in coding
This is especially useful in coding occupational responses that are vague. The most reliable way of using education
is as an exclusionary edit. Certain occupations require a minimum education and it is possible to exclude vague
responses from being coded to such occupations if the respondent does not have the minimum education required.
Great care must be taken when using education in occupational coding and it should only be used as a last resort.
Coding when the response contains contradictory information
Sometimes the responses will give an occupational title and a description of work performed that are contradictory.
A response "labourer, driving dump truck" is contradictory in terms of the classification, as driving a truck is not
considered elemental work. This response should be coded as a truck driver in 7511 Transport truck drivers.
In general, it is best to let the description of the work performed predominate over occupational titles when coding.
Some occupational titles can be misleading. Titles that have manager as part of the title are sometimes not
managers. For example, project managers and case managers are usually not managers and must be coded based
on a description of their work. Special care must be given to responses that have manager, labourer, or consultant
as part of the title as these terms have a variety of meanings in the workplace.
Coding responses containing two or more occupations
Where two or more occupations are reported in reply to a question on occupation, the first one mentioned should be
coded unless there is additional information to suggest otherwise.
Classification rules
Managers
Managers are usually classified to the broad occupational category 0 Management Occupations. Within this
category the senior managers that are the top of a management hierarchy as denoted by terms such as president,
chief executive officer, etc. are classified in major group 00 Senior management occupations.
Managers with a management specialty, such as human resource management, are classified according to
specialty in major group 01-05 Specialized middle management occupations. However, senior managers with a
specialist responsibility would be classified with senior management in major group 00 Senior management
occupations.
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An attempt has been made to isolate many of the managers of small businesses by classifying managers of retail
stores, restaurants, hotels and similar businesses in a separate major group 06 Middle management occupations in
retail and wholesale trade.
All other managers are classified according to the type of business managed within major group 07-09 Middle
management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities.
Proprietors
As a general rule, the class of worker status, that is, whether the respondent works for wages or is self-employed, is
not considered for classification purposes. An exception is made for proprietors in retail trade, food and
accommodation services and residential home building. These are classified as managers to the following unit
groups:
0621
Retail and wholesale trade managers
0631
Restaurant and food service managers
0632
Accommodation service managers
0712
Home building and renovation managers
Contractors
Contractors are classified in several areas of the classification. General contractors in construction are classified in
unit group 0711 Construction managers. Renovation contractors and home building contractors are classified in unit
group 0712 Home building and renovation managers.
Contractors specializing in a specific trade such as plumbing, electrical, carpentry, etc., are classified together with
supervisors to the appropriate unit group for that trade. That is, a plumbing contractor is classified to unit group
7203 Contractors and supervisors, pipefitting trades.
Supervisors and foremen/women
Supervisors are classified to separate unit groups for supervisors where they exist. These are found in the following
minor groups for supervisors:
121
Administrative services supervisors
621
Retail sales supervisors
631
Service supervisors
720
Contractors and supervisors, industrial, electrical and construction trades and related workers
730
Contractors and supervisors, maintenance trades and heavy equipment and transport operators
821
Supervisors, logging and forestry
822
Contractors and supervisors, mining, oil and gas
825
Contractors and supervisors, agriculture, horticulture and related operations and services
921
Supervisors, processing and manufacturing occupations
922
Supervisors, assembly and fabrication
This unit group for supervisors is found outside of the supervisor minor groups:
3011
Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors
Where a separate unit group does not exist, supervisors are classified with the workers supervised. For example, in
most professional major groups there are no separate unit groups for supervisors, the one exception being unit
group 3011 Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors.
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Technical occupations follow a similar rule and there are no separate unit groups for supervisors in this area.
Even where separate supervisory unit groups exist, "lead hands" are not classified to them as previous research
has indicated that supervision is usually only a minor part of such jobs.
Apprentices
Apprentices are classified within the groups for tradesmen/women. For example an apprentice carpenter is
classified to the appropriate trade group, unit group 7271 Carpenters.
Helpers
Helpers are usually considered as labourers. Most helpers will be found in the building trades such as carpenter's
helper, mason's helper, roofer's helper, etc. These jobs are not to be confused with formal apprenticeships and are
not classified as tradesmen/women but are classified to unit group 7611 Construction trades helpers and labourers.
Labourers
Labourers are classified in separate unit groups in the following major groups:
76
Trades helpers, construction labourers and related occupations
86
Harvesting, landscaping and natural resources labourers
96
Labourers in processing, manufacturing and utilities
Sample questions for obtaining occupation information
The following questions indicate the type of information and the format that could be used to obtain the facts
necessary to classify an occupation.
a. For whom did you work?
•
Name of firm, government agency, etc.
b. What kind of business, industry or service was this?
Please give details. For example: primary school, municipal police, wheat farm, shoe
store.
c. What was your work or occupation?
Please be specific. For example: plumber, fishing guide, wood furniture assembler,
secondary school teacher. (If in the armed forces, give rank).
d. In this work, what were your main activities?
Please give details. For example: installed residential plumbing, guided fishing parties,
made wood furniture products, taught mathematics.
e. In this job or business, were you mainly:
•
Working for wages, salary, tips or commission?
•
Working without pay for your spouse or another relative in a family farm or business?
•
Self-employed without paid help (alone or in a partnership)?
•
Self-employed with paid help (alone or in a partnership)?
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More information on the NOC
For information on the National Occupational Classification (NOC) and its use for programs and services such as,
immigrating to Canada, labour market information, job searches and working in Canada, please contact Human
Resources and Skills Development Canada at noc-cnp@workingincanada.gc.ca.
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Classification structure
0 Management occupations
00 Senior management occupations
001 Legislators and senior management
0011
Legislators
0012
Senior government managers and officials
0013
Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services
0014
Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership
organizations
0015
Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c.
0016
Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities
01-05 Specialized middle management occupations
011 Administrative services managers
0111
Financial managers
0112
Human resources managers
0113
Purchasing managers
0114
Other administrative services managers
012 Managers in financial and business services
0121
Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers
0122
Banking, credit and other investment managers
0124
Advertising, marketing and public relations managers
0125
Other business services managers
013 Managers in communication (except broadcasting)
0131
Telecommunication carriers managers
0132
Postal and courier services managers
021 Managers in engineering, architecture, science and information systems
0211
Engineering managers
0212
Architecture and science managers
0213
Computer and information systems managers
031 Managers in health care
0311
Managers in health care
041 Managers in public administration
0411
Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration
0412
Government managers - economic analysis, policy development and program
administration
0413
Government managers - education policy development and program administration
0414
Other managers in public administration
042 Managers in education and social and community services
0421
Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training
0422
School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education
0423
Managers in social, community and correctional services
043 Managers in public protection services
0431
Commissioned police officers
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0432
0433
Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers
Commissioned officers of the Canadian Forces
051 Managers in art, culture, recreation and sport
0511
Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers
0512
Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts
0513
Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors
06 Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services
060 Corporate sales managers
0601
Corporate sales managers
062 Retail and wholesale trade managers
0621
Retail and wholesale trade managers
063 Managers in food service and accommodation
0631
Restaurant and food service managers
0632
Accommodation service managers
065 Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c.
0651
Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c.
07-09 Middle management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities
071 Managers in construction and facility operation and maintenance
0711
Construction managers
0712
Home building and renovation managers
0714
Facility operation and maintenance managers
073 Managers in transportation
0731
Managers in transportation
081 Managers in natural resources production and fishing
0811
Managers in natural resources production and fishing
082 Managers in agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture
0821
Managers in agriculture
0822
Managers in horticulture
0823
Managers in aquaculture
091 Managers in manufacturing and utilities
0911
Manufacturing managers
0912
Utilities managers
1 Business, finance and administration occupations
11 Professional occupations in business and finance
111 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals
1111
Financial auditors and accountants
1112
Financial and investment analysts
1113
Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers
1114
Other financial officers
28
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112 Human resources and business service professionals
1121
Human resources professionals
1122
Professional occupations in business management consulting
1123
Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations
12 Administrative and financial supervisors and administrative occupations
121 Administrative services supervisors
1211
Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers
1212
Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers
1213
Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers
1214
Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations
1215
Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
122 Administrative and regulatory occupations
1221
Administrative officers
1222
Executive assistants
1223
Human resources and recruitment officers
1224
Property administrators
1225
Purchasing agents and officers
1226
Conference and event planners
1227
Court officers and justices of the peace
1228
Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers
124 Office administrative assistants - general, legal and medical
1241
Administrative assistants
1242
Legal administrative assistants
1243
Medical administrative assistants
125 Court reporters, transcriptionists, records management technicians and statistical officers
1251
Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations
1252
Health information management occupations
1253
Records management technicians
1254
Statistical officers and related research support occupations
13 Finance, insurance and related business administrative occupations
131 Finance, insurance and related business administrative occupations
1311
Accounting technicians and bookkeepers
1312
Insurance adjusters and claims examiners
1313
Insurance underwriters
1314
Assessors, valuators and appraisers
1315
Customs, ship and other brokers
14 Office support occupations
141 General office workers
1411
General office support workers
1414
Receptionists
1415
Personnel clerks
1416
Court clerks
142 Office equipment operators
1422
Data entry clerks
1423
Desktop publishing operators and related occupations
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143 Financial, insurance and related administrative support workers
1431
Accounting and related clerks
1432
Payroll clerks
1434
Banking, insurance and other financial clerks
1435
Collectors
145 Library, correspondence and other clerks
1451
Library assistants and clerks
1452
Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks
1454
Survey interviewers and statistical clerks
15 Distribution, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
151 Mail and message distribution occupations
1511
Mail, postal and related workers
1512
Letter carriers
1513
Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors
152 Supply chain logistics, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
1521
Shippers and receivers
1522
Storekeepers and partspersons
1523
Production logistics co-ordinators
1524
Purchasing and inventory control workers
1525
Dispatchers
1526
Transportation route and crew schedulers
2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations
21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences
211 Physical science professionals
2111
Physicists and astronomers
2112
Chemists
2113
Geoscientists and oceanographers
2114
Meteorologists and climatologists
2115
Other professional occupations in physical sciences
212 Life science professionals
2121
Biologists and related scientists
2122
Forestry professionals
2123
Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists
213 Civil, mechanical, electrical and chemical engineers
2131
Civil engineers
2132
Mechanical engineers
2133
Electrical and electronics engineers
2134
Chemical engineers
214 Other engineers
2141
Industrial and manufacturing engineers
2142
Metallurgical and materials engineers
2143
Mining engineers
2144
Geological engineers
2145
Petroleum engineers
2146
Aerospace engineers
30
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2147
2148
Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers)
Other professional engineers, n.e.c.
215 Architects, urban planners and land surveyors
2151
Architects
2152
Landscape architects
2153
Urban and land use planners
2154
Land surveyors
216 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries
2161
Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries
217 Computer and information systems professionals
2171
Information systems analysts and consultants
2172
Database analysts and data administrators
2173
Software engineers and designers
2174
Computer programmers and interactive media developers
2175
Web designers and developers
22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences
221 Technical occupations in physical sciences
2211
Chemical technologists and technicians
2212
Geological and mineral technologists and technicians
222 Technical occupations in life sciences
2221
Biological technologists and technicians
2222
Agricultural and fish products inspectors
2223
Forestry technologists and technicians
2224
Conservation and fishery officers
2225
Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists
223 Technical occupations in civil, mechanical and industrial engineering
2231
Civil engineering technologists and technicians
2232
Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians
2233
Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians
2234
Construction estimators
224 Technical occupations in electronics and electrical engineering
2241
Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians
2242
Electronic service technicians (household and business equipment)
2243
Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics
2244
Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors
225 Technical occupations in architecture, drafting, surveying, geomatics and meteorology
2251
Architectural technologists and technicians
2252
Industrial designers
2253
Drafting technologists and technicians
2254
Land survey technologists and technicians
2255
Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology
226 Other technical inspectors and regulatory officers
2261
Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians
2262
Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers
2263
Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety
2264
Construction inspectors
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227 Transportation officers and controllers
2271
Air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors
2272
Air traffic controllers and related occupations
2273
Deck officers, water transport
2274
Engineer officers, water transport
2275
Railway traffic controllers and marine traffic regulators
228 Technical occupations in computer and information systems
2281
Computer network technicians
2282
User support technicians
2283
Information systems testing technicians
3 Health occupations
30 Professional occupations in nursing
301 Professional occupations in nursing
3011
Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors
3012
Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses
31 Professional occupations in health (except nursing)
311 Physicians, dentists and veterinarians
3111
Specialist physicians
3112
General practitioners and family physicians
3113
Dentists
3114
Veterinarians
312 Optometrists, chiropractors and other health diagnosing and treating professionals
3121
Optometrists
3122
Chiropractors
3124
Allied primary health practitioners
3125
Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating
313 Pharmacists, dietitians and nutritionists
3131
Pharmacists
3132
Dietitians and nutritionists
314 Therapy and assessment professionals
3141
Audiologists and speech-language pathologists
3142
Physiotherapists
3143
Occupational therapists
3144
Other professional occupations in therapy and assessment
32 Technical occupations in health
321 Medical technologists and technicians (except dental health)
3211
Medical laboratory technologists
3212
Medical laboratory technicians and pathologists' assistants
3213
Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians
3214
Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists
3215
Medical radiation technologists
3216
Medical sonographers
3217
Cardiology technologists and electrophysiological diagnostic technologists, n.e.c.
3219
Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health)
32
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322 Technical occupations in dental health care
3221
Denturists
3222
Dental hygienists and dental therapists
3223
Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants
323 Other technical occupations in health care
3231
Opticians
3232
Practitioners of natural healing
3233
Licensed practical nurses
3234
Paramedical occupations
3236
Massage therapists
3237
Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment
34 Assisting occupations in support of health services
341 Assisting occupations in support of health services
3411
Dental assistants
3413
Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates
3414
Other assisting occupations in support of health services
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services
40 Professional occupations in education services
401 University professors and post-secondary assistants
4011
University professors and lecturers
4012
Post-secondary teaching and research assistants
402 College and other vocational instructors
4021
College and other vocational instructors
403 Secondary and elementary school teachers and educational counsellors
4031
Secondary school teachers
4032
Elementary school and kindergarten teachers
4033
Educational counsellors
41 Professional occupations in law and social, community and government services
411 Judges, lawyers and Quebec notaries
4111
Judges
4112
Lawyers and Quebec notaries
415 Social and community service professionals
4151
Psychologists
4152
Social workers
4153
Family, marriage and other related counsellors
4154
Professional occupations in religion
4155
Probation and parole officers and related occupations
4156
Employment counsellors
416 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers
4161
Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers
4162
Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts
4163
Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants
4164
Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers
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NOC 2011
4165
4166
4167
4168
4169
Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers
Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers
Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers
Program officers unique to government
Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c.
42 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services
421 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services
4211
Paralegal and related occupations
4212
Social and community service workers
4214
Early childhood educators and assistants
4215
Instructors of persons with disabilities
4216
Other instructors
4217
Other religious occupations
43 Occupations in front-line public protection services
431 Occupations in front-line public protection services
4311
Police officers (except commissioned)
4312
Firefighters
4313
Non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian Forces
44 Care providers and educational, legal and public protection support occupations
441 Home care providers and educational support occupations
4411
Home child care providers
4412
Home support workers, housekeepers and related occupations
4413
Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants
442 Legal and public protection support occupations
4421
Sheriffs and bailiffs
4422
Correctional service officers
4423
By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers, n.e.c.
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
51 Professional occupations in art and culture
511 Librarians, archivists, conservators and curators
5111
Librarians
5112
Conservators and curators
5113
Archivists
512 Writing, translating and related communications professionals
5121
Authors and writers
5122
Editors
5123
Journalists
5125
Translators, terminologists and interpreters
513 Creative and performing artists
5131
Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations
5132
Conductors, composers and arrangers
5133
Musicians and singers
5134
Dancers
5135
Actors and comedians
34
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5136
Painters, sculptors and other visual artists
52 Technical occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
521 Technical occupations in libraries, public archives, museums and art galleries
5211
Library and public archive technicians
5212
Technical occupations related to museums and art galleries
522 Photographers, graphic arts technicians and technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion
pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts
5221
Photographers
5222
Film and video camera operators
5223
Graphic arts technicians
5224
Broadcast technicians
5225
Audio and video recording technicians
5226
Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the
performing arts
5227
Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing
arts
523 Announcers and other performers, n.e.c.
5231
Announcers and other broadcasters
5232
Other performers, n.e.c.
524 Creative designers and craftspersons
5241
Graphic designers and illustrators
5242
Interior designers and interior decorators
5243
Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers
5244
Artisans and craftspersons
5245
Patternmakers - textile, leather and fur products
525 Athletes, coaches, referees and related occupations
5251
Athletes
5252
Coaches
5253
Sports officials and referees
5254
Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness
6 Sales and service occupations
62 Retail sales supervisors and specialized sales occupations
621 Retail sales supervisors
6211
Retail sales supervisors
622 Technical sales specialists in wholesale trade and retail and wholesale buyers
6221
Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade
6222
Retail and wholesale buyers
623 Insurance, real estate and financial sales occupations
6231
Insurance agents and brokers
6232
Real estate agents and salespersons
6235
Financial sales representatives
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NOC 2011
63 Service supervisors and specialized service occupations
631 Service supervisors
6311
Food service supervisors
6312
Executive housekeepers
6313
Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services supervisors
6314
Customer and information services supervisors
6315
Cleaning supervisors
6316
Other services supervisors
632 Chefs and cooks
6321
Chefs
6322
Cooks
633 Butchers and bakers
6331
Butchers, meat cutters and fishmongers - retail and wholesale
6332
Bakers
634 Specialized occupations in personal and customer services
6341
Hairstylists and barbers
6342
Tailors, dressmakers, furriers and milliners
6343
Shoe repairers and shoemakers
6344
Jewellers, jewellery and watch repairers and related occupations
6345
Upholsterers
6346
Funeral directors and embalmers
64 Sales representatives and salespersons - wholesale and retail trade
641 Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical)
6411
Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical)
642 Retail salespersons
6421
Retail salespersons
65 Service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations
651 Occupations in food and beverage service
6511
Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses
6512
Bartenders
6513
Food and beverage servers
652 Occupations in travel and accommodation
6521
Travel counsellors
6522
Pursers and flight attendants
6523
Airline ticket and service agents
6524
Ground and water transport ticket agents, cargo service representatives and related clerks
6525
Hotel front desk clerks
653 Tourism and amusement services occupations
6531
Tour and travel guides
6532
Outdoor sport and recreational guides
6533
Casino occupations
654 Security guards and related security service occupations
6541
Security guards and related security service occupations
36
Statistics Canada - catalogue no. 12-583-X
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655 Customer and information services representatives
6551
Customer services representatives - financial institutions
6552
Other customer and information services representatives
656 Other occupations in personal service
6561
Image, social and other personal consultants
6562
Estheticians, electrologists and related occupations
6563
Pet groomers and animal care workers
6564
Other personal service occupations
66 Sales support occupations
661 Cashiers
6611
Cashiers
662 Other sales support and related occupations
6621
Service station attendants
6622
Store shelf stockers, clerks and order fillers
6623
Other sales related occupations
67 Service support and other service occupations, n.e.c.
671 Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations
6711
Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations
672 Support occupations in accommodation, travel and amusement services
6721
Support occupations in accommodation, travel and facilities set-up services
6722
Operators and attendants in amusement, recreation and sport
673 Cleaners
6731
6732
6733
Light duty cleaners
Specialized cleaners
Janitors, caretakers and building superintendents
674 Other service support and related occupations, n.e.c.
6741
Dry cleaning, laundry and related occupations
6742
Other service support occupations, n.e.c.
7 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations
72 Industrial, electrical and construction trades
720 Contractors and supervisors, industrial, electrical and construction trades and related workers
7201
Contractors and supervisors, machining, metal forming, shaping and erecting trades and
related occupations
7202
Contractors and supervisors, electrical trades and telecommunications occupations
7203
Contractors and supervisors, pipefitting trades
7204
Contractors and supervisors, carpentry trades
7205
Contractors and supervisors, other construction trades, installers, repairers and servicers
723 Machining, metal forming, shaping and erecting trades
7231
Machinists and machining and tooling inspectors
7232
Tool and die makers
7233
Sheet metal workers
7234
Boilermakers
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NOC 2011
7235
7236
7237
Structural metal and platework fabricators and fitters
Ironworkers
Welders and related machine operators
724 Electrical trades and electrical power line and telecommunications workers
7241
Electricians (except industrial and power system)
7242
Industrial electricians
7243
Power system electricians
7244
Electrical power line and cable workers
7245
Telecommunications line and cable workers
7246
Telecommunications installation and repair workers
7247
Cable television service and maintenance technicians
725 Plumbers, pipefitters and gas fitters
7251
Plumbers
7252
Steamfitters, pipefitters and sprinkler system installers
7253
Gas fitters
727 Carpenters and cabinetmakers
7271
Carpenters
7272
Cabinetmakers
728 Masonry and plastering trades
7281
Bricklayers
7282
Concrete finishers
7283
Tilesetters
7284
Plasterers, drywall installers and finishers and lathers
729 Other construction trades
7291
Roofers and shinglers
7292
Glaziers
7293
Insulators
7294
Painters and decorators (except interior decorators)
7295
Floor covering installers
73 Maintenance and equipment operation trades
730 Contractors and supervisors, maintenance trades and heavy equipment and transport operators
7301
Contractors and supervisors, mechanic trades
7302
Contractors and supervisors, heavy equipment operator crews
7303
Supervisors, printing and related occupations
7304
Supervisors, railway transport operations
7305
Supervisors, motor transport and other ground transit operators
731 Machinery and transportation equipment mechanics (except motor vehicle)
7311
Construction millwrights and industrial mechanics
7312
Heavy-duty equipment mechanics
7313
Refrigeration and air conditioning mechanics
7314
Railway carmen/women
7315
Aircraft mechanics and aircraft inspectors
7316
Machine fitters
7318
Elevator constructors and mechanics
732 Automotive service technicians
7321
Automotive service technicians, truck and bus mechanics and mechanical repairers
7322
Motor vehicle body repairers
38
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733 Other mechanics and related repairers
7331
Oil and solid fuel heating mechanics
7332
Appliance servicers and repairers
7333
Electrical mechanics
7334
Motorcycle, all-terrain vehicle and other related mechanics
7335
Other small engine and small equipment repairers
736 Train crew operating occupations
7361
Railway and yard locomotive engineers
7362
Railway conductors and brakemen/women
737 Crane operators, drillers and blasters
7371
Crane operators
7372
Drillers and blasters - surface mining, quarrying and construction
7373
Water well drillers
738 Printing press operators and other trades and related occupations, n.e.c.
7381
Printing press operators
7384
Other trades and related occupations, n.e.c.
74 Other installers, repairers and servicers and material handlers
744 Other installers, repairers and servicers
7441
Residential and commercial installers and servicers
7442
Waterworks and gas maintenance workers
7444
Pest controllers and fumigators
7445
Other repairers and servicers
745 Longshore workers and material handlers
7451
Longshore workers
7452
Material handlers
75 Transport and heavy equipment operation and related maintenance occupations
751 Motor vehicle and transit drivers
7511
Transport truck drivers
7512
Bus drivers, subway operators and other transit operators
7513
Taxi and limousine drivers and chauffeurs
7514
Delivery and courier service drivers
752 Heavy equipment operators
7521
Heavy equipment operators (except crane)
7522
Public works maintenance equipment operators and related workers
753 Other transport equipment operators and related maintenance workers
7531
Railway yard and track maintenance workers
7532
Water transport deck and engine room crew
7533
Boat and cable ferry operators and related occupations
7534
Air transport ramp attendants
7535
Other automotive mechanical installers and servicers
76 Trades helpers, construction labourers and related occupations
761 Trades helpers and labourers
7611
Construction trades helpers and labourers
Statistics Canada - catalogue no. 12-583-X
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NOC 2011
7612
Other trades helpers and labourers
762 Public works and other labourers, n.e.c.
7621
Public works and maintenance labourers
7622
Railway and motor transport labourers
8 Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations
82 Supervisors and technical occupations in natural resources, agriculture and related
production
821 Supervisors, logging and forestry
8211
Supervisors, logging and forestry
822 Contractors and supervisors, mining, oil and gas
8221
Supervisors, mining and quarrying
8222
Contractors and supervisors, oil and gas drilling and services
823 Underground miners, oil and gas drillers and related occupations
8231
Underground production and development miners
8232
Oil and gas well drillers, servicers, testers and related workers
824 Logging machinery operators
8241
Logging machinery operators
825 Contractors and supervisors, agriculture, horticulture and related operations and services
8252
Agricultural service contractors, farm supervisors and specialized livestock workers
8255
Contractors and supervisors, landscaping, grounds maintenance and horticulture services
826 Fishing vessel masters and fishermen/women
8261
Fishing masters and officers
8262
Fishermen/women
84 Workers in natural resources, agriculture and related production
841 Mine service workers and operators in oil and gas drilling
8411
Underground mine service and support workers
8412
Oil and gas well drilling and related workers and services operators
842 Logging and forestry workers
8421
Chain saw and skidder operators
8422
Silviculture and forestry workers
843 Agriculture and horticulture workers
8431
General farm workers
8432
Nursery and greenhouse workers
844 Other workers in fishing and trapping and hunting occupations
8441
Fishing vessel deckhands
8442
Trappers and hunters
86 Harvesting, landscaping and natural resources labourers
861 Harvesting, landscaping and natural resources labourers
8611
Harvesting labourers
8612
Landscaping and grounds maintenance labourers
40
Statistics Canada - catalogue no. 12-583-X
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8613
8614
8615
8616
Aquaculture and marine harvest labourers
Mine labourers
Oil and gas drilling, servicing and related labourers
Logging and forestry labourers
9 Occupations in manufacturing and utilities
92 Processing, manufacturing and utilities supervisors and central control operators
921 Supervisors, processing and manufacturing occupations
9211
Supervisors, mineral and metal processing
9212
Supervisors, petroleum, gas and chemical processing and utilities
9213
Supervisors, food, beverage and associated products processing
9214
Supervisors, plastic and rubber products manufacturing
9215
Supervisors, forest products processing
9217
Supervisors, textile, fabric, fur and leather products processing and manufacturing
922 Supervisors, assembly and fabrication
9221
Supervisors, motor vehicle assembling
9222
Supervisors, electronics manufacturing
9223
Supervisors, electrical products manufacturing
9224
Supervisors, furniture and fixtures manufacturing
9226
Supervisors, other mechanical and metal products manufacturing
9227
Supervisors, other products manufacturing and assembly
923 Central control and process operators in processing and manufacturing
9231
Central control and process operators, mineral and metal processing
9232
Petroleum, gas and chemical process operators
9235
Pulping, papermaking and coating control operators
924 Utilities equipment operators and controllers
9241
Power engineers and power systems operators
9243
Water and waste treatment plant operators
94 Processing and manufacturing machine operators and related production workers
941 Machine operators and related workers in mineral and metal products processing and
manufacturing
9411
Machine operators, mineral and metal processing
9412
Foundry workers
9413
Glass forming and finishing machine operators and glass cutters
9414
Concrete, clay and stone forming operators
9415
Inspectors and testers, mineral and metal processing
9416
Metalworking and forging machine operators
9417
Machining tool operators
9418
Other metal products machine operators
942 Machine operators and related workers in chemical, plastic and rubber processing
9421
Chemical plant machine operators
9422
Plastics processing machine operators
9423
Rubber processing machine operators and related workers
943 Machine operators and related workers in pulp and paper production and wood processing and
manufacturing
9431
Sawmill machine operators
9432
Pulp mill machine operators
Statistics Canada - catalogue no. 12-583-X
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NOC 2011
9433
9434
9435
9436
9437
Papermaking and finishing machine operators
Other wood processing machine operators
Paper converting machine operators
Lumber graders and other wood processing inspectors and graders
Woodworking machine operators
944 Machine operators and related workers in textile, fabric, fur and leather products processing and
manufacturing
9441
Textile fibre and yarn, hide and pelt processing machine operators and workers
9442
Weavers, knitters and other fabric making occupations
9445
Fabric, fur and leather cutters
9446
Industrial sewing machine operators
9447
Inspectors and graders, textile, fabric, fur and leather products manufacturing
946 Machine operators and related workers in food, beverage and associated products processing
9461
Process control and machine operators, food, beverage and associated products
processing
9462
Industrial butchers and meat cutters, poultry preparers and related workers
9463
Fish and seafood plant workers
9465
Testers and graders, food, beverage and associated products processing
947 Printing equipment operators and related occupations
9471
Plateless printing equipment operators
9472
Camera, platemaking and other prepress occupations
9473
Binding and finishing machine operators
9474
Photographic and film processors
95 Assemblers in manufacturing
952 Mechanical, electrical and electronics assemblers
9521
Aircraft assemblers and aircraft assembly inspectors
9522
Motor vehicle assemblers, inspectors and testers
9523
Electronics assemblers, fabricators, inspectors and testers
9524
Assemblers and inspectors, electrical appliance, apparatus and equipment manufacturing
9525
Assemblers, fabricators and inspectors, industrial electrical motors and transformers
9526
Mechanical assemblers and inspectors
9527
Machine operators and inspectors, electrical apparatus manufacturing
953 Other assembly and related occupations
9531
Boat assemblers and inspectors
9532
Furniture and fixture assemblers and inspectors
9533
Other wood products assemblers and inspectors
9534
Furniture finishers and refinishers
9535
Plastic products assemblers, finishers and inspectors
9536
Industrial painters, coaters and metal finishing process operators
9537
Other products assemblers, finishers and inspectors
96 Labourers in processing, manufacturing and utilities
961 Labourers in processing, manufacturing and utilities
9611
Labourers in mineral and metal processing
9612
Labourers in metal fabrication
9613
Labourers in chemical products processing and utilities
9614
Labourers in wood, pulp and paper processing
9615
Labourers in rubber and plastic products manufacturing
9616
Labourers in textile processing
9617
Labourers in food, beverage and associated products processing
42
Statistics Canada - catalogue no. 12-583-X
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9618
9619
Labourers in fish and seafood processing
Other labourers in processing, manufacturing and utilities
Statistics Canada - catalogue no. 12-583-X
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Descriptions
0 Management occupations
00 Senior management occupations
001 Legislators and senior management
0011 Legislators
Legislators participate in the activities of a federal, provincial, territorial or local government legislative body or
executive council, band council or school board as elected or appointed members.
Illustrative example(s)
• cabinet minister
• city councillor
• First Nations band chief
• governor general
• lieutenant-governor
• mayor
• Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA)
• Member of Parliament (MP)
• Member of the National Assembly (MNA)
• Member of the Provincial Parliament (MPP)
• premier
• prime minister
• school board trustee
• senator
Exclusion(s)
• Commissioners - government services (see 0012 Senior government managers and officials)
• Elected or appointed officials of health care institutions, educational institutions, unions and voluntary
organizations (see 0014 Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and
membership organizations)
Main duties
Legislators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Enact, amend or repeal laws and regulations
• Participate in developing or amending government policies, programs or procedures
• Represent their government at local, national and international meetings and conferences
• Respond to matters of concern to constituents or the general public
• May serve as minister responsible for a government department or agency and direct senior government
managers and officials in the implementation of government policy and the management of that
department or agency.
Employment requirements
• Election to a legislative body, or appointment to positions such as senator, lieutenant-governor or governor
general, is required.
0012 Senior government managers and officials
Senior government managers and officials plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers,
the major activities of municipal or regional governments or of provincial, territorial or federal departments, boards,
agencies or commissions. They establish the direction to be taken by these organizations in accordance with
legislation and policies made by elected representatives or legislative bodies.
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Illustrative example(s)
• assistant deputy minister
• chairperson, Human Rights Commission
• chief administrative officer - regional municipality
• chief statistician - government services
• city administrator
• deputy minister
• director general - government services
• executive director - government services
• high commissioner
Exclusion(s)
• Legislators (0011)
• Middle managers in government (see 041 Managers in public administration)
Main duties
Senior government managers and officials perform some or all of the following duties:
• Establish objectives for the organization in accordance with government legislation and policy, formulate or
approve and evaluate programs and procedures alone or in conjunction with senior government
committees
• Advise elected representatives on policy questions and refer major policy matters to these representatives
for final decision
• Recommend, review, evaluate and approve documents, briefs and reports submitted by middle managers
and senior staff members
• Ensure appropriate systems and procedures are developed and implemented to provide budgetary control
• Co-ordinate department activities with other senior government managers and officials
• Make presentations to legislative and other government committees regarding policies, programs or
budgets.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma is usually required.
• A graduate degree in a related field may be required.
• Several years of managerial experience in the public or private sector are required.
Additional information
• There is mobility among senior management occupations.
0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services
Senior managers in this unit group are usually appointed by a board of directors, to which they report. They work
either alone or in conjunction with the board of directors to develop and establish objectives for the company, and to
develop or approve policies and programs. They plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle
managers, the operations of their organization in relation to established objectives. They work in establishments
throughout the telecommunications, finance, insurance, real estate, and data processing, hosting and related
services industries as well as other business service industries.
Illustrative example(s)
• bank president
• chief executive officer (CEO) - telephone company
• chief financial officer (CFO) - advertising agency
• chief operating officer - engineering firm
• executive director, credit union
• executive vice-president, real estate agency
• general manager, real estate management company
• president and chief executive officer - financial, communications and other business services
• president, advertising agency
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president, computing service company
regional vice-president, trust company
vice-president, human resources - bank
vice-president, marketing - clerical staff services
vice-president, operations - satellite communication services
Exclusion(s)
Related middle managers are classified in the following minor groups:
• Managers in communication (except broadcasting) (013)
• Managers in engineering, architecture, science and information systems (021)
• Managers in financial and business services (012)
Main duties
Senior managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Determine the company's mission and strategic direction as conveyed through policies and concrete
objectives which are met through the effective management of human, financial and material resources
• Authorize and organize the establishment of major departments and associated senior staff positions
• Allocate material, human and financial resources to implement organizational policies and programs;
establish financial and administrative controls; formulate and approve promotional campaigns; and
approve overall human resources planning
• Select middle managers, directors or other executive staff; delegate the necessary authority to them and
create optimum working conditions
• Represent the organization, or delegate representatives to act on behalf of the organization, in
negotiations or other official functions.
Senior managers in this unit group may specialize in areas such as finance, marketing or human resources or
in a particular service area.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in business administration, commerce, computer science or other discipline related to
the service provided is usually required.
• Several years of experience as a middle manager in financial, communications or other business services
are usually required.
• Specialization in a particular functional area or service is possible through specific university training in that
area or through previous experience.
• Senior managers in finance usually require a professional accounting designation.
Additional information
• There is mobility among senior management occupations.
0014 Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership
organizations
Senior managers in this unit group plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers,
membership and other organizations or institutions that deliver health, education, social or community services.
They formulate policies which establish the direction to be taken by these organizations, either alone or in
conjunction with a board of directors. They are employed in health care organizations, educational services, social
and community services and membership organizations.
Illustrative example(s)
• chairperson, arts and culture association
• chairperson, scientific association
• chief financial officer (CFO), educational institution
• corporate controller, social services institution
• executive director, automobile association
• executive director, health services institution
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executive director, professional association
executive director, voluntary organization
general manager, membership organization
president, business association
president, labour organization
president, music guild
Exclusion(s)
Related middle managers are classified in the following unit groups:
• Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training (0421)
• Government managers - education policy development and program administration (0413)
• Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration (0411)
• Managers in health care (0311)
• Managers in social, community and correctional services (0423)
• Other managers in public administration (0414)
• School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education (0422)
Main duties
Senior managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Establish objectives for the organization or institution and formulate or approve policies and programs
• Authorize and organize the establishment of major departments and associated senior staff positions
• Allocate material, human and financial resources to implement organizational policies and programs;
establish financial and administrative controls; formulate and approve promotional campaigns; and
approve overall personnel planning
• Select middle managers, directors or other executive staff
• Co-ordinate the work of regions, divisions or departments
• Represent the organization, or delegate representatives to act on behalf of the organization, in
negotiations or other official functions.
Senior managers in this unit group may specialize in areas such as finance, marketing, human resources or in
a particular service area.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in business administration, hospital administration, finance or other
discipline related to the service provided is usually required.
• Several years of experience as a middle manager in a related institution or organization are usually
required.
• Specialization in a particular functional area or service is possible through specific university or college
training in that area or through previous experience.
• Senior managers in finance usually require a professional accounting designation.
Additional information
• There is mobility among senior management occupations.
0015 Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c.
Senior managers in this unit group plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, trade,
broadcasting and other service companies not elsewhere classified. They formulate policies which establish the
direction to be taken by these companies, either alone or in conjunction with a board of directors. They work in
establishments in broadcasting and related media services, wholesale trade, retail trade, accommodation and food
service, and other services not elsewhere classified.
Illustrative example(s)
• chief executive officer (CEO), travel agency
• chief financial officer (CFO), professional sports club
• corporate controller, restaurant chain
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general manager, cleaning service
president, department store
regional vice-president, hotel chain
vice-president, engineering - television broadcasting services
vice-president, finance - food wholesaling
vice-president, marketing - grocery store chain
vice-president, operations - radio broadcasting services
Exclusion(s)
Related middle managers are classified in the following unit and minor groups:
• Managers in art, culture, recreation and sport (051)
• Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c. (0651)
• Managers in food service and accommodation (063)
• Retail and wholesale trade managers (062)
Main duties
Senior managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Establish objectives for the company and formulate or approve policies and programs
• Authorize and organize the establishment of major departments and associated senior staff positions
• Allocate material, human and financial resources to implement organizational policies and programs;
establish financial and administrative controls; formulate and approve promotional campaigns; and
approve overall personnel planning
• Select middle managers, directors or other executive staff
• Co-ordinate the work of regions, divisions or departments
• Represent the company, or delegate representatives to act on behalf of the company, in negotiations or
other official functions.
Senior managers in this unit group may specialize in areas such as finance, marketing or human resources or
in the sale of a particular product or provision of a particular service.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in business administration, finance or other discipline related to the
service provided is usually required.
• Several years of experience as a middle manager in trade, broadcasting or other service are usually
required.
• Specialization in a particular functional area or service is possible through specific university or college
training in that area or through previous experience.
• Senior managers in finance usually require a professional accounting designation.
Additional information
• There is mobility among senior management occupations.
0016 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities
Senior managers in this unit group plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through middle managers, the
overall operations of goods production, utility, transportation and construction companies. They formulate policies
which establish the direction to be taken by these companies, either alone or in conjunction with other members of
a board of directors. They work in establishments throughout the following industries: fishing, forestry, logging and
agriculture; mining, oil and gas extraction; construction; transportation and warehousing; printing; manufacturing;
and utilities.
Illustrative example(s)
• chief executive officer (CEO) - manufacturing company
• chief financial officer (CFO) - urban transit system
• corporate controller, logging company
• executive vice-president - railway
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general manager, trucking company
president, residential construction company
publishing house general manager
regional vice-president, petroleum production company
vice-president, finance - mining company
vice-president, marketing - airline
vice-president, operations - electric power company
vice-president, sales - pulp and paper manufacturing
Exclusion(s)
Related middle managers are classified in the following unit and minor groups:
• Managers in construction and facility operation and maintenance (071)
• Managers in manufacturing and utilities (091)
• Managers in natural resources production and fishing (0811)
Main duties
Senior managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Establish objectives for the company and formulate or approve policies and programs
• Authorize and organize the establishment of major departments and associated senior staff positions
• Allocate material, human and financial resources to implement company policies and programs; establish
financial and administrative controls; formulate and approve promotional campaigns; and approve overall
personnel planning
• Select middle managers, directors or other executive staff
• Co-ordinate the work of regions, divisions or departments
• Represent the company, or delegate representatives to act on behalf of the company, in negotiations or
other official functions.
Senior managers in this unit group may specialize in areas such as finance, marketing or human resources or
in a particular product area.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in engineering, business administration, commerce or other
discipline related to the company's product is usually required.
• Several years of experience as a middle manager in goods production, utilities, transportation or
construction are usually required.
• Specialization in a particular functional area or product is possible through specific university or college
training in that area or through previous experience.
• Senior managers in finance usually require a professional accounting designation.
Additional information
• There is mobility among senior management occupations.
01-05 Specialized middle management occupations
011 Administrative services managers
0111 Financial managers
Financial managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operation of financial and accounting
departments. They develop and implement the financial policies and systems of establishments. Financial
managers establish performance standards and prepare various financial reports for senior management. They are
employed in financial and accounting departments in companies throughout the private sector and in government.
Illustrative example(s)
• controller - financial services
• director - financial services
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director of accounting
finance director
financial administrator
manager, financial control
manager, financial planning and analysis
manager, internal audit services
treasurer
Exclusion(s)
• Banking, credit and other investment managers (0122)
• Managers of accounting and auditing firms (see 0125 Other business services managers)
• Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services (0013)
Main duties
Financial managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operation of an accounting, audit or other financial
department
• Develop and implement the financial policies, systems and procedures of an establishment
• Prepare or co-ordinate the preparation of financial statements, summaries, and other cost-benefit analyses
and financial management reports
• Co-ordinate the financial planning and budget process, and analyze and correct estimates
• Supervise the development and implementation of financial simulation models
• Evaluate financial reporting systems, accounting procedures and investment activities and make
recommendations for changes to procedures, operating systems, budgets and other financial control
functions to senior managers and other department or regional managers
• Recruit, organize, train and manage staff
• Act as liaison between the organization and its shareholders, the investing public and external financial
analysts
• Establish profitability standards for investment activities and handle mergers and/or acquisitions
• Notify and report to senior management concerning any trends that are critical to the organization's
financial performance.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in business administration, economics, commerce or a related field is required.
• A master's degree in business administration (concentration in finance), or another master's level
management program may be required.
• Several years of experience in accounting, auditing, budgeting, financial planning and analysis or other
financial activities are required.
• Accounting and audit managers may require a recognized accounting designation (CA, CMA or CGA).
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions, such as vice-president of finance, is possible with
experience.
0112 Human resources managers
Human resources managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of human resources and
personnel departments, and develop and implement policies, programs and procedures regarding human resource
planning, recruitment, collective bargaining, training and development, occupation classification and pay and benefit
administration. They represent management and participate actively on various joint committees to maintain
ongoing relations between management and employees. Human resources managers are employed throughout the
private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• administrator, human resources
• manager, employer-employee relations
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manager, employment equity - human resources
manager, human resources
manager, industrial relations
manager, occupational health and safety
manager, pay and benefits
manager, personnel
manager, personnel services
manager, personnel training and development
manager, recruiting
manager, staff relations
Exclusion(s)
• Human resources and recruitment officers (1223)
• Human resources professionals (1121)
Main duties
Human resources managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of human resources or personnel departments
• Plan human resource requirements in conjunction with other departmental managers
• Co-ordinate internal and external training and recruitment activities
• Develop and implement labour relations policies and procedures and negotiate collective agreements
• Administer employee development, language training and health and safety programs
• Advise and assist other departmental managers on interpretation and administration of personnel policies
and programs
• Oversee the classification and rating of occupations
• Organize and conduct employee information meetings on employment policy, benefits and compensation
and participate actively on various joint committees
• Direct the organization's quality management program
• Ensure compliance with legislation such as the Pay Equity Act.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in a field related to personnel management, such as business administration,
industrial relations, commerce or psychology
or
Completion of a professional development program in personnel administration is required.
• Several years of experience as a personnel officer or human resource specialist are required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions is possible with experience.
• Other joint committees led by human resources managers may focus on issues such as alcohol or drug
addiction.
0113 Purchasing managers
Purchasing managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a purchasing department and
develop and implement the purchasing policies of a business or institution. They are employed throughout the
public and private sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• contract manager
• food purchasing manager
• manager, purchasing contracts
• material manager
• procurement director
• purchasing director
• supply chain logistics manager
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Exclusion(s)
• Purchasing agents and officers (1225)
• Retail and wholesale buyers (6222)
• Warehouse managers (see 0714 Facility operation and maintenance managers)
Main duties
Purchasing managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the purchasing activities of an establishment
• Develop purchasing policies and procedures and control purchasing department budget
• Identify vendors of materials, equipment or supplies
• Evaluate cost and quality of goods or services
• Negotiate or oversee the negotiation of purchase contracts
• Participate in the development of specifications for equipment, products or substitute materials
• Review and process claims against suppliers
• Interview, hire and oversee training of staff.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in business administration, commerce or economics is usually
required.
• Purchasing managers responsible for units purchasing specialized materials or business services may
require a related degree or diploma. For example, a bachelor's degree or college diploma in engineering
may be required for purchasing managers responsible for purchasing industrial products.
• The designation Supply Chain Management Professional (S.C.M.P.) or registration in the educational
program of the Purchasing Management Association of Canada may be required.
• Several years of experience as a purchasing agent or officer are required.
0114 Other administrative services managers
This unit group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate departments responsible for
corporate governance and regulatory compliance, records management, security services, admissions and other
administrative services not elsewhere classified. Also included in this unit group are managers responsible for
departments involved in two or more of the following activities: finance, human resources, purchasing, computer
systems or administrative services. Managers in this unit group are employed throughout the public and private
sector.
Illustrative example(s)
• business manager - non-profit organization
• chief, administrative services
• inventory control manager
• manager, administrative services
• manager, security
• manager, support services
• records administrator
• regional administrative manager
Exclusion(s)
• Computer and information systems managers (0213)
• Facility operation and maintenance managers (0714)
• Financial managers (0111)
• Human resources managers (0112)
• Purchasing managers (0113)
Main duties
Managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a department providing a single
administrative service or several administrative services
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• Direct and advise staff engaged in providing records management, security, finance, purchasing, human
resources or other administrative services
• Direct and control corporate governance and regulatory compliance procedures within establishment
• Plan, administer and control budgets for contracts, equipment and supplies
• Prepare reports and briefs for management committees evaluating administrative services
• Interview, hire and oversee training for staff.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in business administration or a related administrative services field
is usually required.
• Several years of experience at a professional level in business administration, finance or administrative
services are usually required.
• An Associate of the Institute of the Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (ACIS), Fellow of the Institute
of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (FCIS) or a Professional Administrator (P Adm) designation
may be required for some occupations in this group.
• Certification in health information management by the Canadian Health Information Management
Association (CHIMA) may be required.
• In Quebec, certification with the Association québécoise des archivistes médicales may be required.
012 Managers in financial and business services
0121 Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers
Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of
departments or establishments that provide insurance, mortgage, real estate and investment services. They are
generally responsible for business development and must ensure that their group reaches performance levels
related to established objectives. They are employed by insurance companies, real estate firms, stockbrokers,
investment dealers, mortgage brokers and security and commodity exchanges.
Illustrative example(s)
• bond sales manager
• brokerage manager - investments
• commodities trading manager
• financial brokerage manager
• insurance claims service manager
• insurance manager
• investment manager - financial brokerage
• mortgage broker manager
• real estate service manager
• securities sales director
• trading floor manager
Exclusion(s)
• Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (0124)
• Banking, credit and other investment managers (0122)
• Financial managers (0111)
• Other business services managers (0125)
• Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services (0013)
Main duties
Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Insurance managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an establishment or
department that provides automobile, fire, life, property or other types of insurance services.
• Real estate service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an
establishment or department that buys, sells and leases residential and commercial property for clients.
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• Mortgage broker managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an establishment
or department that finds lenders or lending institutions on behalf of clients seeking a mortgage.
• Securities managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operation of an establishment or
department that buys and sells stocks, bonds and other forms of investments on behalf of individual or
institutional clients; manage the investments of their own clients.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in business administration, economics or other related field is
usually required.
• Several years of experience within the appropriate industry are usually required.
• Licensure appropriate to the service sold, such as real estate, mortgage, securities or insurance, may be
required.
• In the insurance industry, a recognized professional designation is usually required.
Additional information
• There is no mobility between the different types of managers in this unit group.
• Progression to senior management positions is possible with experience.
0122 Banking, credit and other investment managers
Banking, credit and other investment managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of financial
establishments or operational departments within such establishments, or credit departments in industrial and
commercial establishments. They oversee business development and manage overall performance in accordance
with established strategic directions and policies. Banking managers are employed by banks, trust companies and
credit unions. Credit managers are employed by credit departments in department stores, utility companies, car
dealerships, insurance companies or other industrial or commercial organizations. Other investment managers are
employed by credit card companies, consumer loan companies, mutual fund investment firms, mortgage investment
companies or other financial establishments concerned with extending loans and financing and investments.
Illustrative example(s)
• assistant operations manager - banking, credit and investment
• bank manager
• collection centre manager
• commercial banking manager
• corporate banking centre manager
• credit manager
• credit union manager
• manager, banking operations
• manager, corporate services - banking, credit and investment
• manager, credit card centre
• manager, personal services - banking, credit and investment
• mortgage and consumer credit manager
• operations manager, credit card company
• regional collection manager
• trust company manager
Exclusion(s)
• Mortgage brokerage managers (see 0121 Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers)
• Other business services managers (0125)
• Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services (0013)
Main duties
Banking managers perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the branch operations of a bank, trust company, credit union or
similar financial institution or of a department in such an institution responsible for administering personal
and commercial loans, buying and selling securities, operating investment funds, administering trusts,
settling estates or other related activities
• Ensure the institution's policies and procedures are followed according to established guidelines and make
recommendations for improvement
• Network to develop business relations, promote the sale of loan, investment and other banking services
and attract corporate and individual customers
• Interview corporate and individual customers and respond to customer enquiries
• Analyze, review and approve or reject loan and credit applications in accordance with authorized limits
• Monitor processing of loan applications and credit investigations
• Oversee preparation of monthly financial and branch progress reports
• Recruit personnel and identify their training needs.
Credit managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a credit department in an industrial or
commercial organization
• Administer corporate, commercial and personal loan accounts
• Advise customers on the commercial and personal financial services corresponding to their needs
• Evaluate and review loan and credit applications and collateral and make recommendations
• Approve or reject credit applications, establish credit limits and determine repayment plans or schedules in
accordance with authorized limits
• Ensure collection of overdue or delinquent accounts
• Ensure credit policies and procedures are followed according to established guidelines and applicable
legislation
• Prepare credit and loan reports
• Recruit credit personnel and identify their training needs.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in business administration, commerce, economics or a related field
is usually required.
• A master's degree in business administration, finance or management science may be required for the
management of large commercial loans.
• Completion of company or other management training programs is usually required.
• Several years of experience within the industry, including supervisory experience, are required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions in this field is possible with experience.
0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers
Advertising, marketing and public relations managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of
establishments and departments involved in commercial, industrial and e-business advertising, marketing and
public relations. They are employed by commercial and industrial establishments, government departments, and
advertising, marketing and public relations firms or consulting businesses.
Illustrative example(s)
• advertising director
• advertising manager
• director, communications
• director, media relations
• director, public relations
• fundraising campaign manager
• Internet communications manager
• manager, e-business
• marketing manager
• promotions manager
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• sales and marketing manager
• Web communications manager
• Web marketing manager
Exclusion(s)
• Corporate sales managers (0601)
• Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (1123)
• Retail and wholesale trade managers (0621)
• Retail sales supervisors (6211)
• Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c. (0015)
• Supervisors of Technical Salespersons (see 6221 Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade)
• Wholesale Trade Representatives Supervisors (see 6411 Sales and account representatives - wholesale
trade (non-technical))
Main duties
Advertising, marketing, public relations and e-business managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Advertising managers plan, direct and evaluate the activities of firms and departments that develop and
implement advertising campaigns to promote the sales of products and services.
• Marketing managers establish distribution networks for products and services, initiate market research
studies and analyze their findings, assist in product development, and direct and evaluate the marketing
strategies of establishments.
• Public relations managers direct and evaluate establishments and departments that develop and
implement communication strategies and information programs, publicize activities and events, and
maintain media relations on behalf of businesses, governments and other organizations.
• E-business managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the design, development and
maintenance of Internet and Intranet sites to manage an organization's Internet presence including public
relations, communications and commercial activities.
Employment requirements
Advertising and public relations managers
• A university degree or college diploma in communications, public relations, marketing, journalism or in a
related field
and
Several years of experience in an advertising, public relations or communications officer position or in a
related occupation are required.
Marketing managers
• A university degree or college diploma in business administration or in a related field with a specialization
in sales or marketing
and
Several years of experience as a sales, marketing or public relations representative or in a related
occupation are required.
E-business managers
• A university degree or college diploma in a field related to electronic commerce, Web site content
development, or Internet services
and
Experience in Web site design, interactive media development, data administration or information systems
analysis or experience related to Web site content are usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions is possible with experience.
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0125 Other business services managers
Managers in this unit group plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments that
provide services to business, and ensure the quality of those services and client satisfaction. They work in fields
such as management consulting, market research, personnel and payroll services, contact centre services and
security services.
Illustrative example(s)
• accounting firm manager
• contact centre manager
• employment agency manager
• energy asset joint venture manager
• legal firm manager
• manager, management consulting service
• manager, market research service
• manager, nursing registry
• payroll service manager
• personnel agency manager
• professional services manager - business services
• security service manager
Exclusion(s)
• Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (0124)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Banking, credit and other investment managers (0122)
• Computer and information systems managers (0213)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers (0121)
• Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services (0013)
Main duties
Managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments that provide services to
business such as management consulting, market research, personnel and payroll services, contact
centre services and security services
• Plan, develop and organize the policies and procedures of these establishments
• Develop action plans, provide expertise in response to client needs, and support and advise project teams
• Direct and advise staff in the development and implementation of service quality assessment strategies
• Plan, administer and control budgets for client projects, contracts, equipment and supplies
• Represent the company within various economic and social organizations
• Assist staff with administrative or technical problems
• Hire, train and supervise staff.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in a field related to the business service provided is usually
required.
• Several years of experience in a field related to the business service provided are usually required.
• Licences, certificates or registration may be required for some business services managers. For example,
accounting firm managers usually require accounting certification.
• University studies in business administration may be required.
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013 Managers in communication (except broadcasting)
0131 Telecommunication carriers managers
This unit group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a
telecommunications establishment, department or facility. They are employed by wired, wireless, satellite and other
telecommunications carriers.
Illustrative example(s)
• facilities manager, telecommunications
• installation manager, telecommunications
• manager, telecommunications services
• microwave facilities manager - telecommunications
• network installation manager - telecommunications
• network operations manager - telecommunications
• network services manager - telecommunications
• operations and transmission services manager - telecommunications
• regional manager - telecommunications system
• switching systems director - telecommunications
• telecommunications manager
• telephone company district manager
Exclusion(s)
• Broadcasting managers (see 0512 Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing
arts)
• Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services (0013)
Main duties
Telecommunication carriers managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a telecommunications establishment,
department or facility
• Consult with senior managers to establish policies concerned with the development, operation and
maintenance of telecommunications services
• Direct and control telecommunications traffic volume and flow within assigned areas, through subordinate
supervisors and technical staff
• Analyze and evaluate telecommunications installation, operation and maintenance services and make
recommendations for improvement
• Ensure compliance with telecommunications regulations and directives of government regulatory agencies
• Liaise with representatives of related or connecting companies to resolve joint telecommunications
problems and ensure efficient telecommunications system operations
• Recruit personnel and oversee their training.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in science, electrical engineering or a related field is usually required.
• Several years of experience in a related technical profession, including supervisory experience, are usually
required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions in telecommunications is possible with experience.
0132 Postal and courier services managers
Postal and courier services managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities and operations in
postal facilities and in establishments that provide courier services. They are employed by Canada Post
Corporation and by courier companies.
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Illustrative example(s)
• mail processing plant manager
• manager, collection and delivery operations - postal service
• manager, mail operations
• messenger service manager
• parcel processing plant manager
• post office manager
• postal station superintendent
• production control manager - postal service
Exclusion(s)
• Postmasters (see 1214 Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations)
Main duties
Postal and courier services managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities and operations of postal facilities and courier
service companies, or of operational divisions within Canada Post and courier service companies
• Co-ordinate the duties of supervisors and other staff
• Manage the accurate and expedient movement of mail and parcels through postal and parcel sorting
facilities
• Review effectiveness of assigned operations and implement changes to postal and courier operations
• Prepare and submit budget estimates and administer the expenditures of postal and courier facilities
• Interview, hire and provide training for staff.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma is usually required.
• Several years of supervisory or operational experience within a postal or courier facility are usually
required.
021 Managers in engineering, architecture, science and information systems
0211 Engineering managers
Engineering managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of an engineering department,
service or firm. They are employed by a wide range of private sector and government establishments and by
consulting engineering and scientific research companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• director, engineering research and development
• electrical engineering service manager
• engineering department manager
• engineering manager
• manager, telecommunications engineering service
• production engineering manager
Exclusion(s)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Computer and information systems managers (0213)
• Construction managers (0711)
• Engineers and supervisors of engineers (see 21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences)
• Managers in transportation (0731)
• Manufacturing managers (0911)
• Utilities managers (0912)
Main duties
Engineering managers perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities and operations of an engineering department,
service or firm
• Develop and implement policies, standards and procedures for the engineering and technical work
performed in the department, service, laboratory or firm
• Consult and negotiate with clients to prepare specifications, explain proposals and present engineering
reports and findings
• Assign, co-ordinate and review the technical work of the department or project teams
• Recruit personnel and oversee development and maintenance of staff competence in required areas
• May participate directly in the design, development and inspection of technical projects or in the
engineering work of the department.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in engineering is usually required.
• Extensive experience in an engineering discipline, including supervisory experience, is required.
• Registration as a Professional Engineer (P. Eng.) by a provincial or territorial association of professional
engineers is usually required.
Additional information
• Mobility to other technical managerial positions, or to research or senior management positions is possible
with experience.
0212 Architecture and science managers
Architecture and science managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of an architecture,
landscape architecture, scientific or statistical department, service or firm. They are employed by a wide range of
private sector and government establishments as well as by architectural firms and scientific research companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• architectural manager
• chief actuary
• director of research - forestry
• director of research - manufacturing
• director of research - mining
• director, agricultural chemistry branch
• landscape architecture manager
• manager, life sciences program
• manager, petroleum geology department
• scientific research department manager
• statistical service manager
Exclusion(s)
• Computer and information systems managers (0213)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Managers in natural resources production and fishing (0811)
• Science professionals and supervisors of science professionals (see 21 Professional occupations in
natural and applied sciences)
Main duties
Architecture and science managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities and operations of an architecture, landscape
architecture, scientific research and development laboratory or quality control department, service or firm
• Develop and implement policies, standards and procedures for the architectural, scientific and technical
work performed in the department, service, laboratory or firm
• Assign, co-ordinate and review the technical work of the department or project teams
• Recruit personnel and oversee development and maintenance of staff competence in required areas
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• May participate directly in the design, development and inspection of technical projects or in the theoretical
or applied scientific work of the department
• May consult and negotiate with clients to prepare specifications, explain proposals or present architectural
or scientific research reports and findings.
Employment requirements
• Architecture managers require a degree in architecture, registration as a professional architect and several
years of experience as an architect.
• Landscape architecture managers require a degree in landscape architecture, licensing as a professional
landscape architect and several years of experience as a landscape architect.
• Science and other managers in this unit group require a master's or doctoral degree in a scientific
discipline and several years of experience in a related scientific discipline.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions in the respective fields is possible with experience.
0213 Computer and information systems managers
Computer and information systems managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of
organizations that analyze, design, develop, implement, operate and administer computer and telecommunications
software, networks and information systems. They are employed throughout the public and private sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• computer systems manager
• data centre manager
• data processing director
• EDP (electronic data processing) manager
• information systems manager
• manager, data processing and systems analysis
• manager, management information system (MIS)
• manager, software engineering
• software development manager
• systems development manager
Exclusion(s)
• Computer and information systems supervisors (see 217 Computer and information systems
professionals)
• Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2147)
• Computer programmers and interactive media developers (2174)
• Computer services company presidents (see 0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other
business services)
• Database analysts and data administrators (2172)
• Information systems analysts and consultants (2171)
• LAN managers (see 2281 Computer network technicians)
• Software engineers and designers (2173)
Main duties
Computer and information systems managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of information systems and electronic data
processing (EDP) departments and companies
• Develop and implement policies and procedures for electronic data processing and computer systems
development and operations
• Meet with clients to discuss system requirements, specifications, costs and timelines
• Assemble and manage teams of information systems personnel to design, develop, implement, operate
and administer computer and telecommunications software, networks and information systems
• Control the budget and expenditures of the department, company or project
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• Recruit and supervise computer analysts, engineers, programmers, technicians and other personnel and
oversee their professional development and training.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's or master's degree in computer science, business administration, commerce or engineering is
usually required.
• Several years of experience in systems analysis, data administration, software engineering, network
design or computer programming, including supervisory experience, are required.
031 Managers in health care
0311 Managers in health care
This unit group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the delivery of health care
services, such as diagnosis and treatment, nursing and therapy, within institutions, and in other settings, that
provide health care services. They are employed in hospitals, medical clinics, nursing homes and other health care
organizations.
Illustrative example(s)
• chief of anesthesia
• chief of emergency medicine
• chief of medical staff
• director of clinical medicine
• director of dietetics
• director of laboratory medicine
• director of nursing - medical services
• director of occupational therapy
• director of physiotherapy
• director of surgery
• director, rehabilitation services
• home care services director - medical services
• medical clinic director
• mental health residential care program manager
Exclusion(s)
• Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration (0411)
• Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership organizations
(0014)
Main duties
Managers in health care perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the delivery of health care services within a department of a
health care institution, or in other settings where health care services are provided
• Consult with boards of directors and senior managers to maintain and establish standards for the provision
of health care services
• Develop evaluation systems to monitor the quality of health care given to patients
• Monitor the use of diagnostic services, in-patient beds and facilities to ensure effective use of resources
• Develop and implement plans for new programs, special projects, new material and equipment
acquisitions and future staffing levels in their department or establishment
• Plan and control departmental or establishment budget
• Represent the department or establishment at meetings with government officials, the public, the media
and other organizations
• Supervise health care supervisors and professionals
• Recruit health care staff of the department or establishment.
Managers in health care specialize in administering the provision of specific health care services such as
dietetics, clinical medicine, laboratory medicine, nursing, physiotherapy or surgery.
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Employment requirements
• Administrators of departments such as surgery, clinical medicine or laboratory medicine are usually
required to have the education and training of a specialist physician.
• Administrators of other departments, such as nursing, dietetics or physiotherapy, are usually required to
have the education and training of the medical professionals in that department.
• Several years of experience in the relevant profession, including supervisory experience, are usually
required.
• Certification in the relevant profession is required.
Additional information
• There is little or no mobility between departments in different medical specializations.
• Progression to senior management positions in health care services is possible with experience.
041 Managers in public administration
0411 Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration
Government managers in this unit group plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development and
administration of health care policies, social policies and related programs designed to protect and promote the
health and social welfare of individuals and communities. These managers are employed by government
departments and agencies.
Illustrative example(s)
• city medical officer of health - government services
• director, health information and promotion - government services
• director, immigration and settlement - government services
• health program operations manager - government services
• housing policy and development director - government services
• social services director - government services
• social services planning manager - government services
Exclusion(s)
• Government managers - economic analysis, policy development and program administration (0412)
• Government managers - education policy development and program administration (0413)
• Managers in health care (0311)
• Managers in social, community and correctional services (0423)
• Other managers in public administration (0414)
• Program managers in government (see 416 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers)
• Senior government managers and officials (0012)
Main duties
Government managers in health and social policy development and program administration perform some or
all of the following duties:
• Participate in the development of health or social policies by providing advice to senior government
managers
• Organize departmental unit and establish procedures to meet departmental objectives set by senior
management
• Direct and advise health or social policy researchers, consultants or program officers who conduct
research, prepare documents or administer programs for individuals and communities in areas such as
health and social services, employment and immigration, labour or housing
• Plan, administer and control budgets for research and administration, support services and equipment and
supplies
• Organize and direct committees and working groups to plan, manage or evaluate health and social
services projects and programs
• Interview, hire and provide training for staff.
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Employment requirements
Government managers in health policy development and program administration
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in health science, hospital administration or public administration
or a bachelor's degree in social science is required.
• A graduate degree in a health, social science or an administrative discipline may be required.
• Several years of experience as a health or social policy researcher, consultant or program officer are
usually required.
• For some government managers in health policy development and program administration, certification in
the relevant health profession is required. For example, city medical officers of health must be physicians.
Government managers in social policy development and program administration
• A bachelor's degree or a college diploma in a social science discipline, such as sociology or economics, or
an administrative discipline, such as public administration, is required.
• A graduate degree in a social science or an administrative discipline may be required.
• Several years of experience as a social policy researcher, consultant or program officer are usually
required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions in the health and social policy fields is possible with
experience.
0412 Government managers - economic analysis, policy development and program
administration
Government managers in this unit group plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate economic policy, research and
programs in areas of government activity such as taxation, international trade, labour markets, transportation or
agriculture. They also plan and direct policies and programs to promote industrial and commercial business
development in urban and rural areas. They are employed in government departments and agencies.
Illustrative example(s)
• border services manager
• business development director - government services
• chief, economic analysis - government services
• customs manager - government services
• director, economic policy analysis - government services
• director, excise tax programs - government services
• director, farm products marketing - government services
• economic development director - government services
• energy market analysis director - government services
• forest resource analysis chief - government services
• international trade policy manager - government services
• manager, grain market analysis - government services
• revenue programs manager - government services
• tax policy research manager - government services
• taxation manager
• tourism development manager - government services
• trade development director
Exclusion(s)
• Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants (4163)
• Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts (4162)
• Financial managers (0111)
• Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration (0411)
• Labour policy analysts (see 4164 Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers)
• Program managers in government (see 416 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers)
• Senior government managers and officials (0012)
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Main duties
Government managers in economic analysis and program administration perform some or all of the following
duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development of economic policy research projects and
economic programs
• Participate in the development of departmental policies by providing advice to senior government
managers
• Organize departmental unit and establish procedures to meet departmental objectives set by senior
management
• Direct and advise economists and other professional staff who conduct economic research, prepare
reports or administer programs in areas of government activity such as taxation, international trade, labour,
transportation or agriculture
• Direct and advise economic development officers or other staff administering programs to promote
industrial and commercial business investment in urban or rural areas
• Plan, administer and control research and administration budgets for projects, support services, equipment
or supplies
• Organize and direct committees evaluating departmental or agency projects or programs
• Interview, hire and oversee training and professional development.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in economics, business administration, commerce or public administration is required.
• A master's degree in economics or a related field may be required.
• Several years of experience as an economist, economic development officer or socio-economic
researcher are required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions is possible with experience.
0413 Government managers - education policy development and program administration
Government managers in this unit group plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development and
administration of elementary, secondary and post-secondary education policies and programs. They are employed
by government departments and agencies.
Illustrative example(s)
• director, education curriculum development
• director, education policy analysis and research
• education director
• manager, education program administration
• school inspection director - public administration
Exclusion(s)
• Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training (0421)
• Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration (0411)
• Program managers in government (see 416 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers)
• School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education (0422)
• Senior government managers and officials (0012)
Main duties
Government managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Participate in the development of education policy by providing advice to senior government managers
• Organize departmental unit and establish procedures to meet departmental objectives set by senior
management
• Direct and advise policy researchers or program officers conducting research, preparing documents or
administering educational programs for elementary and secondary school systems
• Plan, administer and control budgets for projects, programs, support services, equipment and supplies
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• Organize and direct committees and working groups to plan, manage or evaluate education projects and
programs
• Interview, hire and provide training for staff.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in education is required.
• A master's degree in a particular educational specialization may be required.
• Several years of combined experience as a school teacher and as a government educational policy
researcher, consultant or program officer are usually required.
• A provincial teaching certificate is usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions in education is possible with experience.
0414 Other managers in public administration
Managers in this unit group plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the development of policies and programs
which govern the daily operations of legislatures and other activities unique to government such as
intergovernmental affairs and elections. They are employed by government departments, agencies and legislative
bodies.
Illustrative example(s)
• clerk of the committee, Legislative Assembly
• director, elections planning
• director, federal-provincial relations
• director, intergovernmental affairs
Exclusion(s)
• Administrative services managers (011)
• Government managers - economic analysis, policy development and program administration (0412)
• Government managers - education policy development and program administration (0413)
• Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration (0411)
• Program managers in government (see 416 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers)
• Senior government managers and officials (0012)
Main duties
Managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Participate in the development of policies and programs by providing advice to senior government
managers of legislatures or departments or agencies involved in activities unique to government
• Organize government unit or agency and establish procedures to meet objectives set by senior
management
• Direct and advise professional and non-professional staff conducting research, preparing documents or
providing administrative support
• Plan, administer and control research and administration budgets for projects, programs, equipment and
supplies
• Organize and direct committees and working groups to plan, manage or evaluate projects and programs
• Interview, hire and provide training for staff.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in a social science discipline, law or business administration is required.
• Several years of experience in government policy development, research or program administration, or in
a professional occupation in social science, law or business administration are usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions in this field is possible with experience.
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042 Managers in education and social and community services
0421 Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training
This unit group includes faculty administrators and registrars of colleges or universities and administrators of
vocational training schools. Faculty administrators manage the academic and related activities of faculties of
colleges or universities. Registrars manage registration activities and academic records systems of colleges or
universities. Administrators of vocational training schools manage the operations of vocational schools specializing
in trades, technology, business or other vocational subjects.
Illustrative example(s)
• community college dean
• dean - university or college
• dean of adult education
• dean, faculty of science
• dean, school of nursing
• dean, school of technology
• manager, aviation school
• manager, business school
• manager, trade school
• registrar, community college
• student activities dean
• university registrar
Exclusion(s)
• Administrators of non-vocational training schools, such as driving schools (see 0651 Managers in
customer and personal services, n.e.c.)
• College and other vocational instructors (4021)
• College rectors (see 0014 Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and
membership organizations)
• School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education (0422)
• University presidents (see 0014 Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and
membership organizations)
• University professors and lecturers (4011)
Main duties
Faculty administrators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate academic and related activities of a college or university faculty
• Recommend and approve faculty appointments
• Recommend curriculum revisions and additions and approve scheduling of courses
• Direct, through subordinate staff, activities such as research and curriculum development
• Plan, administer and control budgets for projects, programs, support services and equipment
• Advise president or rector of university or college
• Participate in activities of various faculty and college committees.
Registrars perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the registration activities and academic records system of a
college or university
• Review registration statistics and consult with faculty officials to develop registration policies
• Direct activities of staff and others engaged in compiling information on courses, schedules and
requirements for admission and graduation.
Administrators of vocational training schools perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a private college or institute specializing in
trades, technology or business
• Develop curriculum for training programs
• Consult with government regulatory and licensing agencies to ensure conformance to provincial standards
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• Plan, administer and control budgets for projects, programs, support services and equipment
• May recruit and hire teachers and other staff
• May teach.
Employment requirements
• Faculty administrators require a graduate degree in a field related to the academic faculty
and
Several years of experience as a university professor or college teacher.
• Registrars require an undergraduate degree in business administration or a related field
and
Several years of experience in registration administration.
• Administrators of vocational training schools usually require an undergraduate degree in business
administration
or
Expertise and certification in a subject of instruction.
Additional information
• There is no mobility among the various types of administrators in this group.
• Progression to some senior management positions in education is possible with experience.
0422 School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education
School principals plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of teachers and other staff of an
elementary or secondary school. They are employed by public and private schools. Administrators of elementary
and secondary education plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the academic affairs of a school system. They
are employed by school boards.
Illustrative example(s)
• administrator, board of education
• chief superintendent - schools
• director of education, correctional institution
• director of school for the hearing impaired
• district school superintendent
• headmaster/mistress, private school
• school principal
• secondary school principal
• superintendent of elementary education
• superintendent of secondary schools
• superintendent of special education
• vice-principal, school
Exclusion(s)
• Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training (0421)
• Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4166)
• Government managers - education policy development and program administration (0413)
• Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership organizations
(0014)
Main duties
School principals perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through department heads or supervisors, the activities of
teachers and support staff
• Review programs to ensure conformance to school board or provincial standards and develop programs
within limits of authority
• Co-ordinate teaching activities of the institution by making personnel assignments, determining class size
and preparing timetables
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• Organize and maintain procedures for the keeping of records
• Prepare and administer institution or program budget
• Direct and co-ordinate school maintenance services and the use of school facilities
• May recruit and hire teachers and other staff
• May teach.
Administrators of elementary and secondary education perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate, through school principals, the academic affairs of a school
district
• Evaluate curriculum, teaching methods and community participation in programs for a school district and
revise programs as required
• Develop and administer programs for the education and training of students and adults
• Make recommendations concerning the annual operating budget of a school district
• Direct or supervise the recruitment, appointment, training, evaluation and promotion of teaching personnel.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in education is required.
• A master's degree in education may be required.
• Several years of experience as a senior teacher or department head are required.
• A teacher's certificate for the province of employment is required.
• School principals may require a principal's certificate.
• Administrators of elementary and secondary education may require a supervisory officer certificate.
Additional information
• There is little mobility between institutional settings, for example, between elementary and secondary
schools.
0423 Managers in social, community and correctional services
This unit group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the programs and activities of
social service and community agencies, correctional institutions, counselling departments, labour organizations,
professional associations, political parties and non-governmental organizations.
Illustrative example(s)
• administrator, child welfare services
• area manager, family services
• association director
• children's aid society director
• correctional institution director
• detention centre director
• director, community centre
• director, correctional treatment and training
• environmental group director
• income maintenance director
• labour organization manager
• membership services manager
• political organization manager
• prison warden
• regional administrator, social services
• social assistance director
• social work director
• trade association manager
• volunteer services director
Exclusion(s)
• Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration (0411)
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• Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership organizations
(0014)
Main duties
Managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the delivery of social and community service programs such as
income maintenance, children's aid and emergency housing services
• Manage the operations and activities of social and community centres, correctional facilities and detention
centres
• Administer the programs of non-governmental organizations involved with social issues such as health
care, human rights, consumer protection, international development and environmental protection
• Administer programs of membership organizations such as political parties, labour organizations, business
and professional associations
• Establish administrative procedures to meet objectives set by board of directors or senior management
• Direct and advise professional and non-professional staff delivering services and programs to the general
public and to the organization or association membership
• Plan, administer and control budgets for programs, equipment and support services
• Represent their respective organizations for the purpose of government liaison and media relations
• Participate in policy development by preparing reports and briefs for management committees and working
groups
• Hire and provide training for professional and non-professional staff.
Employment requirements
• Managers in social, community and correctional services usually require a master's degree in a social
science or administrative discipline
and
Several years of experience in a related occupation, such as a community and social service worker,
social or health policy researcher, consultant or program officer, probation or parole officer, or social
worker.
• Managers of associations and membership organizations require extensive experience in a related
occupation, trade or industry.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions in social, community and correctional services is possible
with additional training and experience.
043 Managers in public protection services
0431 Commissioned police officers
Commissioned police officers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate police force administration and police
activities such as maintaining law and order and detecting and preventing crime. They are employed by municipal,
provincial and federal governments. This unit group includes officers from the rank of staff sergeant to police
commissioner. Commissioned officers in the railway police are also included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• chief superintendent
• deputy police chief
• harbour police chief
• police chief
• police lieutenant
• police superintendent
• railway police chief
• RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police) commissioner
• staff inspector
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Exclusion(s)
• By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers, n.e.c. (4423)
• Police officers (except commissioned) (4311)
• Sheriffs and bailiffs (4421)
Main duties
Commissioned police officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a police force or division of a police force
• Develop and implement police force policies and procedures
• Oversee police investigations and ensure that procedures are conducted in accordance with laws and
regulations
• Assess performance of subordinates and authorize promotions, transfers and disciplinary actions.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A university degree in the social sciences or in business administration may be required.
• Several years of experience as a police officer are required.
0432 Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers
Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate firefighting operations and fire
prevention activities in fire departments. Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers are employed by municipal and
federal governments and by industrial establishments with firefighting services.
Illustrative example(s)
• deputy fire chief
• district fire chief
• fire chief
Exclusion(s)
• Firefighters (4312)
Main duties
Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop, implement and evaluate policies and procedures for the operation of a municipal fire department,
a district fire region or an industrial firefighting service
• Plan, direct and co-ordinate firefighting strategies for fire departments
• Evaluate the type of fire, the extent of damage to buildings and the danger to nearby establishments
• Direct activities at the scene of a fire
• Determine damage estimates and investigate the potential causes of a fire after extinguished
• Develop and oversee the implementation of security and fire prevention campaigns
• Represent the fire department in communications with government, the media and the public
• Direct the training of personnel in firefighting methods
• Co-ordinate and monitor budget and departmental resources.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of a college program in fire protection technology, fire science or a related field is usually
required.
• Completion of a provincial or municipal firefighters training course is required.
• A minimum of ten years of experience as a firefighter is usually required before becoming eligible for a
senior officer position.
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0433 Commissioned officers of the Canadian Forces
This unit group consists of commissioned officers of the Canadian Forces who plan, organize, command and
evaluate the activities of personnel in the Canadian Forces. All ranks of commissioned officers in the Air Force,
Army, and Navy are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
Air Force and Army ranks
• artillery officer
• brigadier general
• colonel
• major
• officer cadet
Navy ranks
• admiral
• commodore
• lieutenant commander
• naval cadet
• search and rescue captain
Exclusion(s)
• Non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian Forces (4313)
Main duties
Commissioned officers of the Canadian Forces perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize and command the activities of Canadian Forces combat units such as armour, artillery and
infantry battalions
• Develop and implement military procedures and policies based on detailed knowledge of units' capabilities
and performance
• Direct subordinates in training and co-ordinate and direct activities of units in accordance with military
practices
• Assume responsibility for welfare, morale and discipline of units
• Review and evaluate unit performance, prepare reports and provide briefings for superiors
• May command and lead units engaged in non-combat operations for disaster relief and humanitarian and
peacekeeping efforts domestically and internationally.
Employment requirements
• A university degree is usually required.
• Completion of military training is required.
• Experience as a non-commissioned member of the armed forces and demonstrated leadership ability may
substitute for a university degree.
• Senior ranks, such as colonel, require several years of experience.
051 Managers in art, culture, recreation and sport
0511 Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers
This unit group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of libraries,
archives, museums, art galleries or departments within such institutions. They are employed in libraries, archives,
museums and non-retail art galleries.
Illustrative example(s)
• archives director
• assistant director of archives
• chief librarian
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museum administrator
Exclusion(s)
• Archivists (5113)
• Conservators and curators (5112)
• Librarians (5111)
• Managers of records management departments (see 0114 Other administrative services managers)
Main duties
Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a library or library system, archive or archive
system, museum or art gallery or a technical department within such an institution
• Develop and administer policies and programs
• Prepare and administer budgets
• Develop, promote and implement public relations and promotional programs
• Prepare funding and grant applications and proposals
• Prepare operational and financial reports, analyses and recommendations
• Recruit and provide training for professional, technical and clerical staff
• May perform the duties of a librarian, archivist or curator in smaller institutions.
Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers may specialize in a specific type of collection.
Employment requirements
Library managers
• A graduate degree in library and information science
and
Several years of experience as a librarian, including supervisory experience are required.
Archive managers
• A graduate degree in archival science or history
and
Several years of experience as an archivist or in historical research, including supervisory experience are
required.
Museum and art gallery managers
• A graduate degree related to a particular collection or a training program in arts administration
and
Several years of experience as a curator, conservator or artist or experience in other related museum and
art gallery work are usually required.
Additional information
• There is mobility between library and archive managers and between museum and art gallery managers.
0512 Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts
Managers in this unit group plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate operations within publishing firms, film,
theatre and record production companies and broadcasting facilities. They are employed by radio and television
stations, by newspaper, periodical and book publishing firms, and by film, theatre, record and video production
companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• ballet company director
• book publishing manager
• broadcasting manager
• copyright manager - publishing
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editor-in-chief
manager, radio station
managing editor
opera company director
publishing manager
radio programming manager
station manager, broadcasting
television station manager
theatre company manager
video production company manager
Exclusion(s)
• Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (5131)
• Publishers (see 0016 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities)
• Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c. (0015)
Main duties
Managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Establish procedures and implement policies in newspaper and publishing firms, in film, theatre, record
and video production companies, and in radio and television stations
• Plan and maintain production schedules for publications, films, broadcasts, and theatre, record and video
productions
• Prepare and control budgets
• Hire and supervise staff
• Consult with government regulatory agencies to evaluate and review programs and policies, and to ensure
conformance with regulations
• Initiate or approve development of articles, books, films, broadcasts, musical recordings and theatre
productions, and liaise with authors, composers, producers and directors.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in communications, broadcasting, journalism or other arts discipline
is usually required.
• Several years of experience within the publishing, film production, broadcasting or theatre industry are
usually required.
0513 Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors
This unit group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of
comprehensive recreational, sports and fitness programs and services, national or provincial sports governing
agencies and professional athletic teams. They are employed by municipalities, community and private recreational
and fitness organizations, sports governing agencies and professional athletic team organizations.
Illustrative example(s)
• director of recreation
• professional football team manager
• professional hockey team manager
• professional track and field team manager
• sports administration director - government
• sports association director
• sports federation director
• sports program director
• YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) programs director
Exclusion(s)
• Coaches (5252)
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• Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness (5254)
• Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4167)
• Sports officials and referees (5253)
Main duties
Managers and directors in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of recreation, sports and fitness programs and
services
• Provide technical and professional advice on recreation, sports and fitness matters
• Prepare budget estimates and develop policies and procedures to implement programs
• Manage the operations of a sports governing agency
• Organize and administer national and provincial training, coaching, officiating and other programs
associated with a particular sport
• Manage the operations of a professional athletic team
• Recruit professional coaches and athletes
• Direct fundraising drives and arrange for sponsorships from public and private organizations
• Develop long range plans and negotiate business contracts.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in recreology, physical education, sports administration or a related field
or
A college diploma in recreation management or sports administration is usually required.
• Several years of experience in an occupation related to recreation and sports administration, consulting or
programming are usually required.
• Some directors of recreation may be required to have a Municipal Recreation Director's Certificate.
• Executive directors of sports governing agencies may be required to have coaching certification in a
particular sport.
06 Middle management occupations in retail and wholesale trade and customer services
060 Corporate sales managers
0601 Corporate sales managers
Corporate sales managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of establishments and
departments involved in commercial, industrial, institutional, e-business and wholesale and retail sales. They are
employed by commercial, industrial and wholesale and retail trade establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• corporate sales manager
• manager, trade expansion
• national accounts manager - sales
• regional sales manager
Exclusion(s)
• Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (0124)
• Retail and wholesale trade managers (0621)
• Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c. (0015)
• Supervisors of technical salespersons (see 6221 Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade)
Main duties
Corporate sales managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan direct and evaluate the activities of sales departments in commercial, industrial, wholesale and retail
and other establishments
• Organize regional and divisional sales operations
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Establish organizational policies and procedures in relation to sales
Determine strategic planning related to new product lines
Lead sales team in building relationships with business clients and manage negotiations of sales contracts
Recruit, organize, train and manage staff
May work with the marketing department to understand and communicate marketing messages to the
field.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in business or in a related field with a specialization in sales
and
Several years of experience as a sales representative or in a related occupation are usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions is possible with experience.
062 Retail and wholesale trade managers
0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers
Retail and wholesale trade managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments
that sell merchandise or services on a retail or wholesale basis. Retail and wholesale trade managers are employed
by retail and wholesale sales establishments or they may own and operate their own store.
Illustrative example(s)
• antique dealer
• assistant manager - retail
• automobile repair shop manager
• bookstore manager
• car dealership manager
• cattle dealer
• clothing store manager
• department store manager
• pleasure boat dealer
• sporting goods store manager
• store manager - retail
• supermarket manager
• variety store manager
Exclusion(s)
• Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (0124)
• Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers (0121)
• Restaurant and food service managers (0631)
• Retail sales supervisors (6211)
Main duties
Retail and wholesale trade managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, direct and evaluate the operations of establishments engaged in wholesale and retail sales or of
departments in such establishments
• Manage staff and assign duties
• Study market research and trends to determine consumer demand, potential sales volumes and effect of
competitors' operations on sales
• Determine merchandise and services to be sold, and implement price and credit policies
• Locate, select and procure merchandise for resale
• Develop and implement marketing strategies
• Plan budgets and authorize expenditures
• Resolve customer complaints
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• Determine staffing requirements and hire or oversee hiring of staff.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A university degree or college diploma in business administration or other field related to the product or
service being sold may be required.
• Several years of related retail sales experience at increasing levels of responsibility are usually required.
Additional information
• There is some mobility between managers in this unit group, depending on the product or service.
063 Managers in food service and accommodation
0631 Restaurant and food service managers
Restaurant and food service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of restaurants,
bars, cafeterias and other food and beverage services. They are employed in food and beverage service
establishments, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• assistant manager, restaurant
• banquet manager
• bar manager
• cafeteria manager
• catering service manager
• dining room manager
• food services manager
• hotel food and beverage service manager
• restaurant manager
• restaurateur - food services
Exclusion(s)
• Dietitians and nutritionists (3132)
• Executive chefs (see 6321 Chefs)
• Food service supervisors (6311)
• Senior managers in food service (see 0015 Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services,
n.e.c.)
Main duties
Restaurant and food service managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a restaurant, bar, cafeteria or other food or
beverage service
• Determine type of services to be offered and implement operational procedures
• Recruit staff and oversee staff training
• Set staff work schedules and monitor staff performance
• Control inventory, monitor revenues and modify procedures and prices
• Resolve customer complaints and ensure health and safety regulations are followed
• Negotiate arrangements with suppliers for food and other supplies
• Negotiate arrangements with clients for catering or use of facilities for banquets or receptions.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college or other program related to hospitality or food and beverage service management
is usually required.
• Several years of experience in the food service sector, including supervisory experience, are required.
• Responsible beverage service certification is usually required for managers of establishments serving
alcoholic beverages.
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Additional information
• Progression to senior management in food service is possible with experience.
0632 Accommodation service managers
Accommodation service managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an accommodation
establishment or of a department within such an establishment. They are employed by hotels, motels, resorts,
student residences and other accommodation establishments, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• assistant manager, hotel
• bed and breakfast operator
• front desk manager - accommodation services
• guest-house operator
• hotel director
• hotel manager
• motel manager
• reservations manager
• seasonal resort manager
• ski resort manager
• tourist home operator
Exclusion(s)
• Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (0124)
• Executive housekeepers (6312)
• Facility operation and maintenance managers (0714)
• Restaurant and food service managers (0631)
• Retail and wholesale trade managers (0621)
Main duties
Accommodation service managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop, implement and evaluate policies and procedures for the operation of the department or
establishment
• Prepare budgets and monitor revenues and expenses
• Participate in the development of pricing and promotional strategies
• Negotiate with suppliers for the provision of materials and supplies
• Negotiate with clients for the use of facilities for conventions, banquets, receptions and other functions
• Recruit and supervise staff, oversee training and set work schedules
• Resolve customer complaints.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in hotel management or other related discipline is usually required
for managers employed by hotel chains or large accommodation establishments.
• Several years of experience within the accommodation industry are usually required and may substitute for
formal educational requirements.
065 Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c.
0651 Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c.
This unit group includes managers of establishments that provide services not elsewhere classified, such as dry
cleaning, hairdressing or residential cleaning. This group also includes managers of schools that provide
non-vocational instruction in driving, languages, music, dance, art, cooking or fashion.
Illustrative example(s)
• barber shop manager
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cooking school manager
driving school manager
dry cleaning service manager
hairdressing salon manager
manager, residential cleaning service
manager, septic tank service
manager, window washing service
pest control service manager
spa manager
Exclusion(s)
• Accommodation service managers (0632)
• Cleaning supervisors (6315)
• Executive housekeepers (6312)
• Other business services managers (0125)
• Retail and wholesale trade managers (0621)
• Retail sales supervisors (6211)
Main duties
Managers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of an establishment providing services such as
dry cleaning, hairdressing or residential cleaning, or a school providing non-vocational instruction in
driving, languages, music, dance, art, cooking or fashion
• Establish or implement policies and procedures for staff
• Plan and control budget and inventory
• Respond to inquiries or complaints and resolve problems
• Manage contracts for advertising or marketing strategies
• Hire, train and supervise staff.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• A college diploma or vocational certificate in the subject of instruction may be required.
• One to three years of experience in the service being offered are usually required.
07-09 Middle management occupations in trades, transportation, production and utilities
071 Managers in construction and facility operation and maintenance
0711 Construction managers
Construction managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a construction company or a
construction department within a company, under the direction of a general manager or other senior manager. They
are employed by residential, commercial and industrial construction companies and by construction departments of
companies outside the construction industry.
Illustrative example(s)
• commercial construction manager
• construction manager
• construction superintendent
• general contractor
• housing construction manager
• industrial construction manager
• pipeline construction manager
• project manager, construction
• residential construction manager
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Exclusion(s)
• Home building and renovation managers (0712)
• Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities (0016)
Main duties
Construction managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate construction projects from start to finish according to schedule,
specifications and budget
• Prepare and submit construction project budget estimates
• Plan and prepare construction schedules and milestones and monitor progress against established
schedules
• Prepare contracts and negotiate revisions, changes and additions to contractual agreements with
architects, consultants, clients, suppliers and subcontractors
• Develop and implement quality control programs
• Represent company on matters such as business services and union contracts negotiation
• Prepare progress reports and issue progress schedules to clients
• Direct the purchase of building materials and land acquisitions
• Hire and supervise the activities of subcontractors and subordinate staff.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in civil engineering or a college diploma in construction technology is usually required.
• A master's degree in project management may be required.
• Several years of experience in the construction industry, including experience as a construction supervisor
or field superintendent, are usually required.
• Extensive experience in the construction industry may substitute for post-secondary education
requirements.
• Professional engineering status or construction trade certification may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions is possible with experience.
0712 Home building and renovation managers
Home building managers or builders own, operate and manage companies engaged in the construction of new
residential homes. Home renovation managers or renovators own, operate and manage companies engaged in the
renovation of existing residential homes.
Illustrative example(s)
• contractor, home renovation
• contractor, residential homes
• home builder
• home renovator
• renovation contractor
Exclusion(s)
• Construction managers (0711)
• Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities (0016)
Main duties
Home building and renovation managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of a residential home building or renovating
company
• Prepare bids for home construction or renovation projects
• Consult with customers, architects and engineers regarding plans and specifications
• Select, employ and supervise trade subcontractors to do specialized work, such as plumbing, heating and
electrical work
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Plan and prepare work schedules and co-ordinate the activities of subcontractors
Inspect work performed by subcontractors to ensure quality and conformity with plans and specifications
Prepare and maintain a directory of suppliers and trade subcontractors
Develop and implement marketing and advertising strategies to promote company's products and services
May perform carpentry or other trade work during home construction or renovation activities.
Employment requirements
• Extensive experience in the home construction industry, including experience as a general supervisor, is
usually required for self-employment as a home builder or a home renovator.
• Leading in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification may be an asset in bidding on and
obtaining building and renovation projects.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions is possible with extensive experience and training in
management.
0714 Facility operation and maintenance managers
Facility operation managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of commercial, transportation
and recreational facilities and the included real estate. Facility operation managers are employed by a wide range of
establishments, such as airports, harbours, canals, shopping centres, convention centres, warehouses and
recreational facilities. Maintenance managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the maintenance
department within commercial, industrial, institutional, recreational and other facilities. Maintenance managers are
employed by a wide range of establishments, such as office buildings, shopping centres, airports, harbours,
warehouses, grain terminals, universities, schools and sports facilities, and by the maintenance and mechanical
engineering departments of manufacturing and other industrial establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• airport manager
• arena manager
• campus maintenance manager
• chief, maintenance support services
• facility operations manager
• harbour master
• head, facilities maintenance
• maintenance manager
• mechanical services superintendent
• plant maintenance superintendent
• recreation facility manager
• shopping centre manager
• superintendent, maintenance and service
• warehouse manager
Exclusion(s)
• Administrative services managers (011)
• Building superintendents (see 6733 Janitors, caretakers and building superintendents)
• Contractors and supervisors, mechanic trades (7301)
• Production operations managers (see 0911 Manufacturing managers)
• Property administrators (1224)
• Transportation operations and freight traffic managers (see 0731 Managers in transportation)
Main duties
Facility operation managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of commercial, transportation and recreational
facilities and the included real estate
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• Oversee the leasing of space in the facility and the included real estate and the development of marketing
strategies
• Plan, organize and direct administrative services such as signage, cleaning, maintenance, parking, safety
inspections, security and snow removal
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate construction projects to modify commercial, transportation and
recreational facilities and real estate
• Oversee the installation, maintenance and repair of real estate infrastructures including machinery,
equipment and electrical and mechanical systems
• Plan and manage the facility's operations budget
• Prepare or oversee the preparation of reports and statistics related to areas of responsibility
• Hire and oversee training and supervision of staff.
Maintenance managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Direct the maintenance and repair of an establishment's machinery, equipment and electrical and
mechanical systems
• Develop and implement schedules and procedures for safety inspections and preventive maintenance
programs
• Co-ordinate cleaning, snow removal and landscaping operations
• Administer contracts for the provision of supplies and services
• Plan and manage a facility's maintenance budget
• Hire and oversee training and supervision of staff.
Employment requirements
• Facility operation managers require completion of a college or university program in business
administration or in a discipline related to facility operation and maintenance
or
An equivalent combination of technical training and experience in administration or maintenance.
• Maintenance managers require completion of a college or university program in electrical or mechanical
engineering or in another discipline related to building maintenance
or
An equivalent combination of technical training and experience in building maintenance.
• Several years of supervisory experience in facility operations or maintenance are usually required.
073 Managers in transportation
0731 Managers in transportation
Managers in transportation operations plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of transportation
companies such as railways, airlines, bus lines, municipal transit systems, shipping lines and trucking companies,
under the direction of a general manager or other senior manager. Managers in transportation freight traffic plan,
organize, direct, control and evaluate companies or departments responsible for the transportation and movement
of goods, under the direction of a general manager or other senior manager. They are employed by transportation,
freight forwarding and shipping companies and by transportation departments of companies in retail and
manufacturing sectors and utilities.
Illustrative example(s)
• bus company manager
• distribution manager - logistics
• flight operations manager
• freight forwarding manager
• marine superintendent
• railway freight manager
• superintendent, rail operations
• traffic manager - transportation
• transport department manager
• transportation manager
• urban transit system manager
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Exclusion(s)
• Airport managers, harbour masters and other managers of transportation facilities (see 0714 Facility
operation and maintenance managers)
• Senior transportation managers (see 0016 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and
utilities)
Main duties
Managers in transportation operations perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a transportation company
• Set operations policies and standards, including determination of safety procedures for the handling of
dangerous goods, and ensure compliance with transport regulations
• Oversee dispatch of vehicles, vessels or aircraft
• Control the company or departmental budget, including acquisitions
• Monitor company's or department's performance, prepare reports for senior management, and plan for
changes to schedules and policies
• Recruit personnel and oversee their training.
Managers in transportation freight traffic perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the activities of companies or departments responsible for
co-ordinating, arranging and monitoring the transportation and movement of goods
• Arrange for shipping documentation and oversee the scheduling and dispatching of goods and the tracking
and tracing of goods in transit
• Set performance goals, oversee the setting of transportation service rates and monitor revenue
• Develop plans and procedures for the transportation and storage of goods
• Negotiate with carriers, warehouse operators and insurance company representatives for services and
preferential rates
• Control the departmental budget
• Recruit personnel and oversee their training.
Employment requirements
Managers in transportation operations
• A bachelor's degree in business administration or engineering is usually required.
• Several years of experience in transportation operations are usually required, including supervisory
experience.
• Extensive experience as a supervisor and operator in a particular transport mode, such as a pilot, train
engineer, vessel master or truck driver, may substitute for formal education.
• Certification as an operator of a particular mode of transportation, such as commercial pilot, vessel master
or truck driver, is usually required.
Managers in transportation freight traffic
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A college diploma or university degree in business or transportation administration may be required.
• Several years of clerical, operational or administrative experience related to freight traffic are required.
Additional information
• There is little or no mobility between managers in transportation operations and managers in transportation
freight traffic.
• There is little or no mobility between transportation managers of land, sea and air transportation
operations.
081 Managers in natural resources production and fishing
0811 Managers in natural resources production and fishing
This unit group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of establishments
in forestry and logging, mining and quarrying, oil and gas drilling, production and servicing operations, and
commercial fishing.
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Illustrative example(s)
• director of mining
• manager, drilling operations
• manager, fishing operations
• manager, forestry operations
• manager, gas field operations
• manager, oil well servicing
• mine manager
• quarry manager
• shore captain - fishing
Exclusion(s)
• Contractors and supervisors, oil and gas drilling and services (8222)
• Directors of research in primary industry (see 0212 Architecture and science managers)
• Fishing masters and officers (8261)
• Managers in agriculture (0821)
• Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities (0016)
• Supervisors, logging and forestry (8211)
• Supervisors, mining and quarrying (8221)
Main duties
Managers in natural resources production and fishing perform some or all of the following duties:
• Oversee and analyze operations in forestry, logging, mining, quarrying, or oil and gas operations or in
services to logging, mining and oil and gas industries, or in commercial fishing
• Recommend operational changes to senior management when necessary to ensure that production
quotas and procedures are met
• Prepare production reports for review by senior management
• Confer with other managers to set production quotas, to plan extraction sites and to develop policies for
the removal of raw materials
• Evaluate efficiency of production sites to determine adequacy of personnel, equipment and technologies
used, and make changes to work schedule or equipment when necessary
• Ensure adherence to safety regulations
• Hire personnel and oversee training needs of staff
• May direct peripheral activities such as the construction of access roads or temporary living quarters.
Employment requirements
• Forestry managers usually require a bachelor's degree in forestry science or forest engineering.
• Mining and quarrying managers usually require a bachelor's degree in mining engineering or earth
sciences.
• Oil and gas managers usually require a bachelor's degree in geology, earth sciences or petroleum
engineering.
• Several years of experience in a supervisory occupation in the particular industry are usually required and
may substitute for formal education requirements.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions in the respective industries is possible with experience.
082 Managers in agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture
0821 Managers in agriculture
Managers in agriculture plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations and functions of farms. They are
responsible for growing crops, raising and breeding livestock, poultry and other animals and marketing farm
products. Managers in this unit group usually own and operate their own establishment.
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Illustrative example(s)
• apiarist
• apple grower
• breeder, domestic animals
• chicken farmer
• dairy farmer
• fruit farmer
• hog breeder
• horse breeder
• maple syrup producer
• market gardener
• potato farmer
• rancher
• seed grower
• sod farmer
• vegetable grower
• vineyard manager
• viticulturist
• wheat farmer
Exclusion(s)
• Agricultural service contractors, farm supervisors and specialized livestock workers (8252)
• Managers in horticulture (0822)
Main duties
Managers in agriculture perform some or all the following duties:
• Manage the overall operations of a farm, ranch or orchard
• Determine the amount and kinds of crops to be grown and livestock to be raised
• Organize and co-ordinate planting, cultivating and crop harvesting activities; raising and breeding of
livestock and poultry
• Hire and manage farm personnel
• Establish a marketing program
• Develop and keep financial and production records
• Purchase farm machinery, livestock, seed, feed and other supplies
• Maintain farm machinery, equipment and buildings
• Perform farming duties.
Managers in agriculture manage farms of various sizes which may specialize in particular crops such as wheat,
apples or potatoes or raise particular livestock such as beef cattle, hogs or chickens.
Employment requirements
• Extensive farming experience, obtained as a farm supervisor or specialized crop or livestock worker or by
working on a farm, is usually required.
• A university degree or college diploma in agricultural management or other field related to crop or livestock
production may be required.
0822 Managers in horticulture
Managers in horticulture plan, organize, direct and control the activities of nursery and greenhouse staff who grow
and market trees, shrubs, flowers and plants.
Illustrative example(s)
• Christmas tree farm operator
• flower grower
• greenhouse manager
• greenhouse operator
• nursery manager
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• nursery operator
• plant grower - nursery
Exclusion(s)
• Nursery and greenhouse workers (8432)
• Turf farmer (see 0821 Managers in agriculture)
Main duties
Managers in horticulture perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct and control the operations of nurseries and greenhouses
• Establish the environmental conditions required to grow trees, shrubs, flowers and plants, and design
planting and care schedules accordingly
• Determine type and quantity of stock to grow
• Supervise staff in planting, transplanting, feeding and spraying stock
• Identify and control insect, disease and weed problems
• Develop marketing plans
• Provide information to customers on gardening and on the care of trees, shrubs, flowers, plants and lawns
• Order materials such as fertilizer, garden and lawn care equipment, and other nursery and greenhouse
related accessories
• Hire and manage staff, oversee training and set work schedules
• Maintain records on stock, finances and personnel.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college program in horticulture is usually required.
• Experience as a nursery or greenhouse supervisor is required.
0823 Managers in aquaculture
Managers in aquaculture manage operations of facilities which cultivate and harvest fish, shellfish or marine plants
for replenishment of wildlife stocks or for commercial sale. They are employed by public or private fish hatcheries
and commercial aquatic farms, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• aquaculture manager
• aquaculture operator
• fish farm operator
• fish farmer
• fish hatchery manager
• fish hatchery operator
• mussel grower
• oyster grower
• salmon grower
• trout farmer
Exclusion(s)
• Aquaculture support workers (see 8613 Aquaculture and marine harvest labourers)
• Aquaculture technicians (see 2221 Biological technologists and technicians)
Main duties
Managers in aquaculture perform some or all of the following duties:
• Manage the overall operation of a fish hatchery, fish farm or other aquatic farm
• Identify requirements of the species and select and oversee preparation of site for species cultivation
• Co-ordinate selection and maintenance of brood stock
• Determine food requirements and structure feeding regimes
• Monitor environment and maintain optimum conditions
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• Conduct and supervise stock examination to identify disease or parasites, and apply prescribed medicinal
substances to control and prevent infection
• Operate and maintain cultivating and harvesting equipment
• Collect and record growth and production data
• Manage and train aquaculture and fish hatchery support workers and supervise technicians and
technologists
• Maintain financial records and establish market strategies, inventory and quality control methods
• May scuba dive to inspect sea farm operations
• May design and construct pens, floating stations and collector strings or fences for sea farms.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• A college diploma in aquaculture or a related field
or
Several years of experience in fishing or aquaculture operations are usually required.
• A commercial aquaculture or fish hatchery licence, permit or lease is required for self-employed
aquaculture managers.
091 Managers in manufacturing and utilities
0911 Manufacturing managers
Manufacturing managers plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a manufacturing
establishment or of a production department within a manufacturing establishment, under the direction of a general
manager or other senior manager. They are employed by manufacturing companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• automobile production manager
• clothing factory manager
• dairy plant manager
• distillery manager
• factory superintendent
• foundry manager
• manufacturing manager
• operations manager, manufacturing
• plant manager, manufacturing
• printing plant manager
• production manager - manufacturing
• textile mill manager
• tire plant manager
Exclusion(s)
• Facility operation and maintenance managers (0714)
• Managers in transportation (0731)
• Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities (0016)
• Utilities managers (0912)
Main duties
Manufacturing managers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate the operations of a manufacturing establishment or the
operations or production department of a manufacturing establishment
• Develop and implement plans to efficiently use materials, labour and equipment to meet production targets
• Plan and manage the establishment of departmental budget
• Develop production schedules and maintain an inventory of raw materials and finished products
• Plan and implement changes to machinery and equipment, production systems and methods of work
• Direct quality control inspection system and develop production reporting procedures
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• Develop equipment maintenance schedules and recommend the replacement of machines
• Hire, supervise and train or oversee training of employees in the use of new equipment or production
techniques.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college or university program in engineering or business administration is usually required.
• Five to ten years of supervisory experience in manufacturing are required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions is possible with experience.
0912 Utilities managers
This unit group includes managers who plan, organize, direct, control
companies or services of heating fuel distribution companies. The services
waste, distribution of water, electricity, natural gas and heating oil to
consumers, waste disposal and waste recycling. Utilities managers are
utilities and in heating fuel distribution companies.
and evaluate the operations of utility
provided include treatment of water and
residential, commercial and industrial
employed in public and private sector
Illustrative example(s)
• director of waste management
• director of water pollution control
• director, distribution systems - utilities
• director, electrical power transmission operations
• director, water supply
• distribution manager, refined petroleum products
• electric power plant manager
• liquid waste facility manager
• manager, electric generating plant
• manager, gas supply operations
• manager, sewage treatment plant
• water filtration plant manager
Exclusion(s)
• Facility operation and maintenance managers (0714)
• Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities (0016)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Water supply managers manage water filtration, purification processes and pumping operations, schedule
and oversee the maintenance of plant equipment and prepare reports on water supply and water quality.
• Electrical power distribution managers manage the operations of electrical power distribution systems
including generating stations, transmission stations and distribution networks. They may also plan and
direct the distribution activities of a municipal electrical power establishment.
• Natural gas supply managers manage the delivery of gas to consumers, monitor supply inventories and
control the recording of injections and withdrawals.
• Petroleum product distribution managers plan and direct the distribution of heating oil products to retail
distributors and regional storage sites.
• Water pollution control managers manage the operations of a sewage treatment plant, schedule and direct
maintenance of plant equipment, and prepare reports on water quality.
• Waste systems managers manage solid or liquid waste collection and disposal systems, train drivers in
how to handle waste and ensure safe operation of disposal facilities.
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Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in an appropriate discipline is required. For example, electrical
engineering is required for managers of transmission lines, and water resource technology for water
supply managers.
• Several years of experience as a supervisor in a related utilities operations department are required.
• Professional engineer certification is usually required for managers of utility operations involved in the
transmission and distribution of electrical power, and natural gas and heating oil.
Additional information
• Progression to senior management positions in the utility industry is possible with experience.
1 Business, finance and administration occupations
11 Professional occupations in business and finance
111 Auditors, accountants and investment professionals
1111 Financial auditors and accountants
Financial auditors examine and analyze the accounting and financial records of individuals and establishments to
ensure accuracy and compliance with established accounting standards and procedures. Accountants plan,
organize and administer accounting systems for individuals and establishments. Articling students in accounting
firms are included in this unit group. Financial auditors and accountants are employed by auditing and accounting
firms throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• accountant
• certified general accountant (CGA)
• certified management accountant (CMA)
• chartered accountant (CA)
• chief accountant
• financial auditor
• income tax expert
• industrial accountant
• internal auditor
Exclusion(s)
• Accounting technicians and bookkeepers (1311)
• Financial managers (0111)
• Program or other non-financial auditors (see 416 Policy and program researchers, consultants and
officers)
Main duties
Financial auditors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine and analyze journal and ledger entries, bank statements, inventories, expenditures, tax returns
and other accounting and financial records, documents and systems of individuals, departments within
organizations, businesses or other establishments to ensure financial recording accuracy and compliance
with established accounting standards, procedures and internal controls
• Prepare detailed reports on audit findings and make recommendations to improve individual or
establishment's accounting and management practices
• Conduct field audits of businesses to ensure compliance with provisions of the Income Tax Act, Canadian
Business Corporations Act or other statutory requirements
• May supervise other auditors or professionals in charge of accounting within client's establishment.
Accountants perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Plan, set up and administer accounting systems and prepare financial information for individuals,
departments within organizations, businesses and other establishments
• Examine accounting records and prepare financial statements and reports
• Develop and maintain cost finding, reporting and internal control procedures
• Examine financial accounts and records and prepare income tax returns from accounting records
• Analyze financial statements and reports and provide financial, business and tax advice
• May act as a trustee in bankruptcy proceedings
• May supervise and train articling students, other accountants or administrative technicians.
Employment requirements
• Chartered accountants require a university degree
and
Completion of a professional training program approved by a provincial institute of chartered accountants
and, depending on the province, either two years or 30 months of on-the-job training
and
Membership in a provincial Institute of Chartered Accountants upon successful completion of the Uniform
Evaluation (UFE).
• Certified general accountants and certified management accountants require a university degree
and
Completion of a training program approved by the Society of Certified General Accountants or Society of
Management Accountants and several years of on-the-job training
and
Certification by the Certified General Accountants Association or the Society of Management Accountants.
• Auditors require education, training and recognition as indicated for chartered accountants, certified
general accountants or certified management accountants
and
Some experience as an accountant.
• Auditors may require recognition by the Institute of Internal Auditors.
• To act as a trustee in bankruptcy proceedings, auditors and accountants must hold a licence as a trustee
in bankruptcy.
• Licensing by the provincial or territorial governing body is usually required for accountants and auditors
practising public accounting.
Additional information
• There is limited mobility among the three professional accounting designations of chartered accountant
(CA), certified general accountant (CGA) and certified management accountant (CMA).
• Progression to auditing or accounting management positions is possible with experience.
1112 Financial and investment analysts
Financial and investment analysts collect and analyze financial information such as economic forecasts, trading
volumes and the movement of capital, financial backgrounds of companies, historical performances and future
trends of stocks, bonds and other investment instruments to provide financial and investment or financing advice for
their company or their company's clients. Their studies and evaluations cover areas such as takeover bids, private
placements, mergers or acquisitions. Financial analysts are employed by a wide range of establishments
throughout the private and public sector, such as banks, brokerage houses, insurance companies, investment
companies, manufacturing firms, trust companies, utility companies and underwriting firms. Investment analysts are
employed primarily by brokerage houses and fund management companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• chartered financial analyst
• financial analyst
• investment analyst
• money market analyst
• portfolio manager
• research associate, financial services
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Exclusion(s)
• Economic development officers (see 4163 Business development officers and marketing researchers and
consultants)
• Economists (see 4162 Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts)
• Financial planners (see 1114 Other financial officers)
• Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers (1113)
Main duties
Financial analysts perform some or all of the following duties:
• Evaluate financial risk, prepare financial forecasts, financing scenarios and other documents concerning
capital management, and write reports and recommendations
• Plan short- and long-term cash flows and assess financial performance
• Analyze investment projects
• Advise on and participate in the financial aspects of contracts and calls for tender
• Follow up on financing projects with financial backers
• Develop, implement and use tools for managing and analyzing financial portfolio
• Prepare a regular risk profile for debt portfolios
• Assist in preparing operating and investment budgets.
Investment analysts perform some or all of the following duties:
• Collect financial and investment information about companies, stocks, bonds and other investments using
daily stock and bond reports, economic forecasts, trading volumes, financial periodicals, securities
manuals, company financial statements and other financial reports and publications
• Examine and analyze financial and investment information collected, including profiles of companies, stock
and bond prices, yields and future trends and other investment information
• Provide investment advice and recommendations to clients, senior company officials, pension fund
managers, securities agents and associates
• Prepare company, industry and economic outlooks, analytical reports, briefing notes and correspondence.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in commerce, business administration or economics
and
On-the-job training and industry courses and programs are usually required.
• A master's degree in business administration (MBA) (concentration in finance) or in finance may be
required.
• The Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation, available through a program conducted by the
Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts in the United States, may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Progression to management positions, such as securities manager, is possible with experience.
1113 Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers
Securities agents and investment dealers buy and sell stocks, bonds, treasury bills, mutual funds and other
securities for individual investors, pension fund managers, banks, trust companies, insurance firms and other
establishments. Brokers buy and sell stocks, bonds, commodity futures, foreign currencies and other securities at
stock exchanges on behalf of investment dealers. They are employed by investment companies, stock brokerage
firms, stock and commodity exchanges and other establishments in the securities industry.
Illustrative example(s)
• agent, securities
• bond dealer
• broker
• commodity broker
• discount broker
• floor trader - commodity exchange
• foreign exchange trader
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
investment dealer
mutual fund broker
mutual fund sales representative
registered investment representative
securities sales agent
securities trader
stockbroker
supervisor, registered representatives
Exclusion(s)
• Financial and investment analysts (1112)
• Financial brokerage managers (see 0121 Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers)
• Other financial officers (1114)
Main duties
Securities agents and investment dealers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop long-term relationships with their clients by preparing investment strategies to help them achieve
their financial goals, offering advice and information on various investments to guide them in managing
their portfolios
• Review financial periodicals, stock and bond reports, business publications and other material, and
develop a network within the financial industry to gather relevant information and identify potential
investments for clients
• Carry out investment orders by buying and selling stocks, bonds, treasury bills, mutual funds and other
securities for individual investors, pension fund managers or companies such as banks, trust companies
and insurance firms
• Monitor clients' investment portfolios and ensure that investment transactions are carried out according to
industry regulations.
Brokers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Buy and sell stocks, bonds, commodity futures, foreign currencies and other securities at stock exchanges
on behalf of investment dealers
• Develop trading strategies by reviewing investment information and monitoring market conditions from the
exchange floor and through contact with trading departments of other investment firms, pension fund
managers and investment company financial analysts
• Make bids and offers to buy and sell securities and complete details of sales on exchange trade tickets
• Prepare reviews of portfolios' positions.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's or master's degree in economics, business or other discipline is usually required.
• Securities sales representatives and brokers require completion of industry investment and sales training
programs and completion of the Canadian Securities course and the Registered Representative Manual
Exam offered by the Canadian Securities Institute.
• Specialized courses are also available for securities sales representatives and brokers who want to trade
in specific investment products such as securities options and futures contracts.
• Licensure by the provincial securities commission in the province of employment is required for securities
agents, investment dealers and brokers.
Additional information
• Progression to related management positions is possible with experience.
1114 Other financial officers
This unit group includes professional occupations in finance not elsewhere classified such as financial planners,
financial examiners and inspectors, financial investigators, financial underwriters, mortgage brokers and trust
officers. They are employed by banks, trust companies, investment firms and governments, or they may be
self-employed.
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Illustrative example(s)
• account manager
• credit adjudicator
• credit unions examiner
• estate and trust administrator
• financial investigator
• financial planner
• financial underwriter
• inspector, financial institutions
• mortgage broker
• trust officer
Exclusion(s)
• Economic development officers (see 4163 Business development officers and marketing researchers and
consultants)
• Economists (see 4162 Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts)
• Financial and investment analysts (1112)
• Managers in financial and business services (012)
• Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers (1113)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Financial planners develop personal financial plans for clients covering cash management, finances,
insurance coverage, investments, retirement and estate planning, taxes and legal matters; analyze clients'
financial records, set goals and develop a financial strategy; advise clients on implementing the financial
plan to help them achieve their goals; may also arrange for the purchase and sale of financial products
and investments depending on the licence held, and monitor the portfolio to ensure its quality and
profitability; and help to expand business and attract new clients.
• Financial examiners and inspectors review and examine banks, trust companies, credit unions, caisses
populaires, credit companies, real estate companies, insurance companies, pension funds, securities
brokers and other financial services and institutions to ensure compliance with governing legislation and
regulations.
• Financial investigators investigate possible unethical conduct or breaches of securities or commodity
futures laws by persons or companies that trade in securities and commodity futures or that provide
related financial services.
• Financial underwriters underwrite new issues of stocks and bonds, negotiate with corporations and
governments to determine the type and terms of new securities issued and prepare offering prospectuses.
• Trust officers administer estate, personal, charitable, corporate and other types of trusts, direct trust
account investments, receive and record investment income and disburse trust funds.
• Mortgage brokers meet with clients to obtain information about income, liabilities and assets, and type,
price and condition of property to be mortgaged, and negotiate mortgage loans with lenders or lending
institutions on behalf of clients.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in business administration, commerce, economics or a related field is usually
required.
• Various training programs and courses are offered by financial institutes and organizations, such as the
Canadian Securities Institute, Institute of Canadian Bankers, Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts,
Investment Funds Institute, Canadian Institute of Financial Planning, and Trust Companies Institute of
Canada, and may be required by employers.
• The designation Personal Financial Planner, awarded by the Financial Planners Standards Council of
Canada, may be required.
• Financial planners who sell regulated financial products and investments, such as annuities, RRSPs and
life insurance, are required to be licensed by the appropriate governing body.
• Financial examiners and inspectors may require a recognized accounting designation.
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• Mortgage brokers require a real estate licence in Quebec and a mortgage broker licence in Newfoundland
and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia.
Additional information
• Progression to financial management positions is possible with experience.
• While these kinds of positions require a high degree of training and qualifications, persons who occupy
them must continually update their skills and pursue professional development.
112 Human resources and business service professionals
1121 Human resources professionals
Human resources professionals develop, implement and evaluate human resources and labour relations policies,
programs and procedures and advise managers and employers on human resources matters. Human resources
professionals are employed throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• business agent, labour organization
• classification officer - human resources
• classification specialist
• compensation research analyst
• conciliator
• consultant, human resources
• employee relations officer
• employment equity officer
• human resources research officer
• job analyst
• labour relations officer
• mediator
• union representative
• wage analyst
Exclusion(s)
• Human resources and recruitment officers (1223)
• Human resources managers (0112)
• Personnel clerks (1415)
• Professional occupations in business management consulting (1122)
• Training officers and instructors (see 4021 College and other vocational instructors)
Main duties
Human resources professionals perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, develop, implement and evaluate human resources and labour relations strategies including policies,
programs and procedures to address an organization's human resource requirements
• Advise managers and employees on the interpretation of human resources policies, compensation and
benefit programs and collective agreements
• Negotiate collective agreements on behalf of employers or workers, mediate labour disputes and
grievances and provide advice on employee and labour relations
• Research and prepare occupational classifications, job descriptions, salary scales and competency
appraisal measures and systems
• Plan and administer staffing, total compensation, training and career development, employee assistance,
employment equity and affirmative action programs
• Manage programs and maintain human resources information and related records systems
• Hire and oversee training of staff
• Co-ordinate employee performance appraisal programs
• Research employee benefit and health and safety practices and recommend changes or modifications to
existing policies.
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Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in human resources management or a related field, such as
business administration, industrial relations, commerce or psychology
or
Completion of a professional development program in human resources administration is required.
• Some employers may require human resources professionals to hold a Certified Human Resources
Professional (CHRP) designation.
Additional information
• Progression to management positions is possible with experience.
1122 Professional occupations in business management consulting
This unit group includes those who provide services to management such as analyzing the structure, operations,
managerial methods or functions of an organization in order to propose, plan and implement improvements. They
are employed by management consulting firms and throughout the public and private sectors or are self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• business management consultant
• business methods analyst
• consultant, organizational analysis
• health information management consultant
• ISO consultant
• management analyst
• organizational analyst
• records management specialist
• researcher, organization and methods
• senior consultant, operations management
Exclusion(s)
• Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants (4163)
• Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts (4162)
• Financial and investment analysts (1112)
• Financial auditors and accountants (1111)
• Health information management occupations (1252)
• Industrial and manufacturing engineers (2141)
• Other financial officers (1114)
• Records management technicians (1253)
Main duties
Management consultants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Analyze and provide advice on the managerial methods and organization of a public or private sector
establishment
• Conduct research to determine efficiency and effectiveness of managerial policies and programs
• Conduct assessments and propose improvements to methods, systems and procedures in areas such as
operations, human resources, records management and communications
• Conduct quality audits and develop quality management and quality assurance standards for ISO
(International Organization for Standardization) registration
• Plan the reorganization of the operations of an establishment
• May supervise contracted researchers or clerical staff.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in business administration, commerce or a related discipline is
usually required.
• A graduate degree in business administration may be required.
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• Some establishments may require management consultants to be certified by a provincial management
consulting association.
• Certification as a quality auditor may be required for some occupations in this unit group.
• Occupations in health information management consulting may require certification by the Canadian
Health Information Management Association (CHIMA).
Additional information
• Progression to senior and managerial positions is possible with experience.
1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations
This unit group includes specialists in advertising, marketing and public relations who analyse, develop and
implement communication and promotion strategies and information programs, analyse advertising needs and
develop appropriate advertising and marketing plans, publicize activities and events, and maintain media relations
on behalf of businesses, governments and other organizations, and for performers, athletes, writers and other
talented individuals. They are employed by consulting firms, advertising agencies, corporations, associations,
government, social agencies, museums, galleries, public interest groups, and cultural and other organizations, or
they may be self-employed. Agents such as entertainment, literary and sports agents are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• advertising consultant
• communications officer
• communications specialist
• event marketing specialist
• fundraising consultant
• information officer
• literary agent
• media co-ordinator
• media relations officer
• museum educator
• performers agent
• press secretary
• public affairs officer
• public relations consultant
• public relations officer
• publicist
• publicity agent
Exclusion(s)
• Authors and writers (5121)
• Conference and event planners (1226)
• Marketing consultants (see 4163 Business development officers and marketing researchers and
consultants)
• Public relations managers (see 0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers)
Main duties
Specialists in advertising, marketing and public relations perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assess characteristics of products or services to be promoted and advise on the advertising needs of an
establishment
• Advise clients on advertising or sales promotion strategies
• Develop and implement advertising campaigns appropriate for print or electronic media
• Gather, research and prepare communications material for internal and external audiences
• Develop, implement and evaluate communications strategies and programs designed to inform clients,
employees and the general public of initiatives and policies of businesses, governments and other
organizations
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• Conduct public opinion and attitude surveys to identify the interests and concerns of key groups served by
their organization
• Prepare or oversee preparation of reports, briefs, bibliographies, speeches, presentations, Web sites and
press releases
• Develop and organize workshops, meetings, ceremonies and other events for publicity, fundraising and
information purposes
• Prepare and deliver educational and publicity programs and informational materials to increase awareness
of museums, galleries and other tourist attractions
• Initiate and maintain contact with the media
• Arrange interviews and news conferences
• Act as spokesperson for an organization and answer written and oral inquiries
• Co-ordinate special publicity events and promotions for internal and external audiences
• Assist in the preparation of brochures, reports, newsletters and other material
• Represent and act as an agent for talented individuals or individuals with specific occupational expertise
• Prepare or oversee preparation of sports, literary, performance or other contracts.
Literary agents specialize in representing specific types of authors and writers. Performance agents specialize
in representing singers, musicians, actors or other performers. Sports agents specialize in representing specific
athletes or sports teams.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in business marketing, public relations, communications,
journalism, museology or a discipline related to a particular subject matter is usually required.
• Practitioners in public relations may require an APR (Accredited in Public Relations) designation.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions in public relations, communications and fundraising is possible with
additional training and experience.
12 Administrative and financial supervisors and administrative occupations
121 Administrative services supervisors
1211 Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers
Supervisors in this unit group supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in minor groups: General Office
Workers (141) and Office Equipment Operators (142). They are employed throughout the public and private
sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• clerical supervisor
• data entry supervisor
• filing clerks supervisor
• hospital admitting clerks supervisor
• personnel clerks supervisor
• records office supervisor
• registry supervisor
• supervisor, switchboard operators
Exclusion(s)
• Office managers (see 1221 Administrative officers)
• Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers (1212)
• Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers (1213)
• Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations (1214)
• Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations (1215)
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Main duties
Supervisors in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Co-ordinate, assign and review the work of clerks engaged in the following duties: word processing; record
keeping and filing; operating telephones and switchboards; data entry; desktop publishing; and other
activities involving general office and administrative skills
• Establish work schedules and procedures and co-ordinate activities with other work units or departments
• Resolve work-related problems and prepare and submit progress and other reports
• Train workers in job duties, safety procedures and company policies
• Requisition supplies and materials
• Ensure smooth operation of office equipment and machinery, and arrange for maintenance and repair
work
• May perform the same duties as workers supervised.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of college courses related to area supervised is usually required.
• Experience in the occupation supervised is usually required.
1212 Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers
Supervisors in this unit group supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups:
Accounting and Related Clerks (1431), Payroll Clerks (1432), Banking, Insurance and Other Financial Clerks (1434)
and Collectors (1435). They are employed by banks and other financial institutions, insurance companies, and by
other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• accounts payable supervisor
• accounts receivable supervisor
• bank clerks supervisor
• billing supervisor
• bookkeeping supervisor
• collection supervisor
• credit supervisor
• payroll supervisor
• supervisor of accounting
• supervisor, claims adjusters
Exclusion(s)
• Customer and information services supervisors (6314)
• Financial managers (0111)
• Other financial officers (1114)
Main duties
Supervisors in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Implement efficient working processes and co-ordinate, assign and review the work of clerks engaged in
the following duties: administering accounts payable and receivable; processing, verifying and recording
financial documents and forms; administering payrolls; processing, verifying and recording insurance
claims and forms; and collecting user fees and payments on overdue accounts
• Examine and verify accuracy of work and authorize routine payments, credits and other transactions
• Establish work schedules and procedures and co-ordinate activities with other work units or departments
• Resolve work-related problems and prepare and submit progress and other reports
• Identify training needs and train workers in job duties and company policies
• Requisition supplies and materials
• Ensure smooth operation of computer systems and equipment and arrange for maintenance and repair
work
• May perform the same duties as workers supervised.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of a college program or courses in bookkeeping, accounting or a related subject is required.
• Experience in the clerical occupation supervised is required.
1213 Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers
Supervisors in this unit group supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Library
Assistants and Clerks (1451), Correspondence, Publication and Regulatory Clerks (1452) and Survey Interviewers
and Statistical Clerks (1454). They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• advertising clerks supervisor
• correspondence clerks supervisor
• library clerks supervisor
• publication clerks supervisor
• statistical clerks supervisor
• supervisor, survey interviewers
Exclusion(s)
• Librarians (5111)
• Library and public archive technicians (5211)
• Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations (1214)
Main duties
Supervisors in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Co-ordinate, assign and review the work of clerks engaged in the following duties: conducting surveys and
interviews; collecting and compiling statistics; preparing and issuing licenses, passports and other
regulatory documents; reshelving books and performing other tasks in libraries; writing correspondence
including e-mails and preparing material for translation and publication
• Establish work schedules and procedures and co-ordinate activities with other work units or departments
• Resolve work-related problems, monitor services provided by clerks and agents, and prepare and submit
progress and other reports
• Train workers in job duties and company policies
• Requisition supplies and materials
• Ensure smooth operation of computer systems and equipment and arrange for maintenance and repair
work
• May perform the same duties as workers supervised.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of college courses related to area supervised may be required.
• Experience in the clerical occupation supervised is usually required.
1214 Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations
Supervisors in this unit group supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Mail,
Postal and Related Workers (1511), Letter Carriers (1512) and Couriers, Messengers and Door-to-Door Distributors
(1513). They are employed by Canada Post Corporation, courier companies, governments and large corporations.
Illustrative example(s)
• courier service supervisor
• letter carriers supervisor
• mail and postal clerks supervisor
• mail room supervisor
• messenger service supervisor
• postal station supervisor
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• postmaster/mistress
Exclusion(s)
• Postal and courier services managers (0132)
• Shipping and receiving supervisors (see 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling
co-ordination occupations)
Main duties
Supervisors in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Co-ordinate, assign and review the work of postal clerks, letter carriers and couriers engaged in the
collecting, sorting and delivering of mail, parcels and other material
• Establish work schedules and procedures and co-ordinate activities with other work units or departments
• Resolve work-related problems and prepare and submit progress and other reports
• Train workers in job duties, safety procedures and company policies
• Requisition supplies and materials
• Ensure smooth operation of computer systems and equipment and arrange for maintenance and repair
work
• May perform the same duties as workers supervised.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Several years of experience in the occupation supervised are usually required.
1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
Supervisors in this unit group supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups:
Shippers and Receivers (1521), Storekeepers and Partspersons (1522), Production Logistics Co-ordinators (1523),
Purchasing and Inventory Control Workers (1524), Dispatchers (1525) and Transportation Route and Crew
Schedulers (1526). They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• dispatch logistician
• flight crew scheduling supervisor
• freight forwarding logistician
• head dispatcher
• head shipper
• inventory control supervisor
• logistics supervisor - transportation
• parts service supervisor
• production clerks supervisor
• ramp services supervisor - airport
• supervisor, receiving
• supply control co-ordinator
Exclusion(s)
• Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations (1214)
Main duties
Supervisors in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Co-ordinate, assign and review the work of clerks engaged in the following duties: shipping, receiving,
storing, distributing and maintaining inventories of materials, parts and products; processing purchasing
transactions; co-ordinating production work; dispatching crews; scheduling transportation crews and
routes; operating airport ramp servicing vehicles; and other related activities
• Plan, organize and oversee operational logistics of the organization, establish work schedules and
procedures, resolve work-related issues, prepare and submit progress and other reports and co-ordinate
activities with other supply-chain work units or departments
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• Train workers in job duties, safety procedures and company policies
• Requisition supplies and materials
• Ensure smooth operation of computer systems, equipment and machinery and arrange for maintenance
and repair work
• May perform the same duties as workers supervised.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Several years of experience in the occupation supervised are usually required.
122 Administrative and regulatory occupations
1221 Administrative officers
Administrative officers oversee and implement administrative procedures, establish work priorities, conduct
analyses of administrative operations and co-ordinate acquisition of administrative services such as office space,
supplies and security services. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors. Administrative officers
who are supervisors are included in this group.
Illustrative example(s)
• access to information and privacy officer
• administrative officer
• administrative services co-ordinator
• co-ordinator, office services
• forms management officer
• liaison officer
• office administrator
• office manager
• planning officer
• records analyst - access to information
• surplus assets officer
• university admissions officer
Exclusion(s)
• Administrative services managers (see 0114 Other administrative services managers)
• Conference and event planners (1226)
• Executive assistants (1222)
• Property administrators (1224)
Main duties
Administrative officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Oversee and co-ordinate office administrative procedures and review, evaluate and implement new
procedures
• Establish work priorities, delegate work to office support staff, and ensure deadlines are met and
procedures are followed
• Carry out administrative activities associated with admissions to post-secondary educational institutions
• Administer policies and procedures related to the release of records in processing requests under
government access to information and privacy legislation
• Co-ordinate and plan for office services, such as accommodation, relocations, equipment, supplies, forms,
disposal of assets, parking, maintenance and security services
• Conduct analyses and oversee administrative operations related to budgeting, contracting and project
planning and management processes
• Assist in preparation of operating budget and maintain inventory and budgetary controls
• Assemble data and prepare periodic and special reports, manuals and correspondence
• May supervise records management technicians and related staff.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A university degree or college diploma in business or public administration may be required.
• Experience in a senior clerical or executive secretarial position related to office administration is usually
required.
• Project management certification may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Progression to administrative service management positions is possible with experience.
1222 Executive assistants
Executive assistants co-ordinate administrative procedures, public relations activities and research and analysis
functions for members of legislative assemblies, ministers, deputy ministers, corporate officials and executives,
committees and boards of directors. They are employed by governments, corporations and associations.
Illustrative example(s)
• committee clerk
• corporate secretary
• executive assistant
• legislative assistant
Exclusion(s)
• Administrative officers (1221)
• Conference and event planners (1226)
• Executive secretaries (see 1241 Administrative assistants)
Main duties
Executive assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Establish and co-ordinate administrative policies and procedures for officials, committees and boards of
directors
• Analyze incoming and outgoing memoranda, submissions and reports and prepare and co-ordinate the
preparation and submission of summary briefs and reports to executives, committees and boards of
directors
• Prepare agendas and make arrangements for committee, board and other meetings
• Conduct research, compile data, and prepare papers for consideration and presentation by executives,
committees and boards of directors
• Meet with individuals, special interest groups and others on behalf of executives, committees and boards
of directors to discuss issues and assess and recommend various courses of action
• Liaise with departmental and corporate officials and with other organizations and associations on behalf of
executives, committees and boards of directors.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A bachelor's degree in public administration, political science or a related discipline is usually required.
• Experience in a related administrative occupation is usually required.
1223 Human resources and recruitment officers
Human resources and recruitment officers identify and advertise job vacancies, recruit candidates, and assist in the
selection and reassignment of employees. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• human resources officer
• personnel officer
• recruitment specialist
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• staffing analyst
• staffing co-ordinator
Exclusion(s)
• Human resources managers (0112)
• Human resources professionals (1121)
• Personnel clerks (1415)
• Training officers and instructors (see 4021 College and other vocational instructors)
Main duties
Human resources and recruitment officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Identify current and prospective staffing requirements, prepare and post notices and advertisements, and
collect and screen applications
• Advise job applicants on employment requirements and on terms and conditions of employment
• Review candidate inventories and contact potential applicants to arrange interviews and arrange transfers,
redeployment and placement of personnel
• Recruit graduates of colleges, universities and other educational institutions
• Co-ordinate and participate in selection and examination boards to evaluate candidates
• Notify applicants of results of selection process and prepare job offers
• Advise managers and employees on staffing policies and procedures
• Organize and administer staff consultation and grievance procedures
• Negotiate settlements of appeals and disputes and co-ordinate termination of employment process
• Determine eligibility to entitlements, arrange staff training and provide information or services such as
employee assistance, counselling and recognition programs
• May supervise personnel clerks performing filing and record-keeping duties.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in a field related to personnel management such as business
administration, industrial relations, commerce or psychology
or
Completion of a professional development program in personnel administration is usually required.
• Certification as a Certified Human Resources Professional (CHRP) may be required.
• Some experience in a clerical or administrative position related to personnel administration may be
required.
Additional information
• Progression to specialist and management positions is possible with experience.
1224 Property administrators
Property administrators perform administrative duties and co-ordinate activities related to the management and
rental of investment property and real estate on behalf of property and strata property owners. They are employed
by property, real estate and strata services management companies, property development companies and by
government.
Illustrative example(s)
• accommodation officer
• apartment rental agent
• housing project manager
• leasing co-ordinator, property
• property administrator
• property rentals manager
Exclusion(s)
• Building superintendents (see 6733 Janitors, caretakers and building superintendents)
• Facility operation and maintenance managers (0714)
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• Real estate agents and salespersons (6232)
Main duties
Property administrators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Negotiate or approve rental or lease of various properties in a portfolio on behalf of property owners and
ensure that terms of lease agreement are met
• Prepare and administer contracts for provision of property services, such as cleaning and maintenance,
security services and alarm systems
• Co-ordinate the implementation of repairs, maintenance and renovations carried out on buildings and
monitor progress and cost of work for property owners
• Compile and maintain records on operating expenses and income, prepare reports and review rents to
ensure they are at market value
• Ensure that trouble calls received from clients or tenants are acted upon
• Administer damage deposits
• May hire and supervise rental agents, property clerks, building superintendents or other support staff
performing operational, clerical or maintenance duties.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required in all provinces and territories except for British Columbia.
• A language proficiency index is required in British Columbia.
• Property administrators must be a minimum of nineteen years of age in British Columbia.
• Completion of training courses or a vocational program in property or strata management or real estate
may be required.
• Several years of administrative experience as a property clerk, contract clerk, or administrative officer are
usually required.
• Strata property managers must hold a licence in British Columbia.
1225 Purchasing agents and officers
Purchasing agents and officers purchase general and specialized equipment, materials, land or access rights and
business services for use or for further processing by their establishment. They are employed throughout the public
and private sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• contract management officer
• contracts officer
• energy asset surface land analyst
• materiel management officer
• procurement officer
• purchaser, furniture and furnishings
• purchasing agent
• supply officer, government
Exclusion(s)
• Purchasing and inventory control workers (1524)
• Purchasing managers (0113)
• Retail and wholesale buyers (6222)
Main duties
Purchasing agents and officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Purchase general and specialized equipment, materials, land or access rights, or business services for
use or for further processing by their establishment
• Assess requirements of an establishment and develop specifications for equipment, materials and supplies
to be purchased
• Invite tenders, consult with suppliers and review quotations
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• Determine or negotiate contract terms and conditions, award supplier contracts or recommend contract
awards
• Establish logistics of delivery schedules, monitor progress and contact clients and suppliers to resolve
problems
• Negotiate land acquisition or access rights for public or private use, and may conduct field investigations of
properties
• May hire, train or supervise purchasing clerks.
Purchasing agents and officers may specialize in the purchase of particular materials or business services
such as furniture or office equipment.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in business administration, commerce or economics is usually
required.
• Purchasing agents and officers purchasing specialized materials or business services may require a
related university degree or college diploma. For example, a bachelor's degree or college diploma in
engineering may be required for purchasers of industrial products.
• A certificate in purchasing from the Purchasing Management Association of Canada (PMAC) may be
required.
• Previous experience as a purchasing clerk or as an administrative clerk may be required.
• Certification from the International Right of Way Association (IRWA) may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with experience.
1226 Conference and event planners
Conference and event planners plan, organize and co-ordinate conferences, conventions, meetings, seminars,
exhibitions, trade shows, festivals and other events. They are employed by tourism associations, trade and
professional associations, convention and conference centres, governments and by conference and event planning
companies, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• conference and meeting planner
• conference planner
• conference services officer
• convention co-ordinator
• event planner
• festival organizer
• meeting planner
• special events organizer
• trade show planner
Exclusion(s)
• Administrative officers (1221)
• Executive assistants (1222)
• Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (1123)
• Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical) (6411)
Main duties
Conference and event planners perform some or all of the following duties:
• Meet with trade and professional associations and other groups to promote and discuss conference,
convention and trade show services
• Meet with sponsors and organizing committees to plan scope and format of events, to establish and
monitor budgets and to review administrative procedures and progress of events
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• Co-ordinate services for events, such as accommodation and transportation for participants, conference
and other facilities, catering, signage, displays, translation, special needs requirements, audio-visual
equipment, printing and security
• Organize registration of participants, prepare programs and promotional material, and publicize events
• Plan entertainment and social gatherings for participants
• Hire, train and supervise support staff required for events
• Ensure compliance with required by-laws
• Negotiate contracts for services, approve suppliers' invoices, maintain financial records, review final billing
submitted to clients for events and prepare reports.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in business, tourism or hospitality administration is usually required.
• Several years of experience in hospitality or tourism administration or in public relations are usually
required and may substitute for formal education requirements.
• Certification relating to special events, meetings or conference management may be required.
1227 Court officers and justices of the peace
Court officers co-ordinate the administrative and procedural functions of federal, provincial and territorial courts,
such as scheduling trials and overseeing the maintenance of court records. Justices of the peace administer oaths,
issue subpoenas, summonses and warrants and perform other court-related duties such as conducting bail
hearings. They are employed by federal and provincial courts.
Illustrative example(s)
• commissioner of affidavits
• commissioner of marriages
• co-ordinator of court services
• court administrator
• court clerk supervisor
• court officer
• court registrar
• deputy registrar - courts
• judicial administrator
• judicial court administrator
• judicial officer
• justice of the peace
• manager, court services
• registrar of bankruptcy
• Supreme Court registrar
• trial co-ordinator - courts
Exclusion(s)
• Administrative officers (1221)
• Court clerks (1416)
• Paralegal and related occupations (4211)
• Sheriffs and bailiffs (4421)
Main duties
Court officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Co-ordinate administrative services and establish work priorities for court staff
• Schedule court trials and arrange pre-trial conferences and hearings
• Call courts of law to order, read charges and take pleas from defendants
• Record court commencement, trial proceedings and judgements
• Collect and record sheriff fees, transcription fees and other court administrative and services fees
• Oversee the maintenance of judicial court records
• Assist in preparing annual budgets
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• May be justices of the peace.
Justices of the peace perform some or all of the following duties:
• Issue subpoenas, summonses and warrants, including search warrants
• Receive affidavits, declarations and affirmations
• Administer oaths
• Conduct bail hearings
• Release defendants on judges' orders and explain rights and obligations
• Hear evidence at trials on summary conviction offences and may preside over trials of criminal offences at
the discretion of the chief judge of the jurisdiction or as provided for in federal, provincial or territorial
statutes
• Perform civil marriages.
Employment requirements
• Court officers usually require a university degree in law, business or public administration or a college
diploma in public administration or legal studies.
• Completion of a justice registrar, justice of the peace or other court training program is required for court
officers and justices of the peace.
• Several years of experience as a court clerk or in another court service occupation are usually required.
• Justices of the peace in the provinces are appointed by the lieutenant governor in council and, in the
territories, by federally appointed territorial commissioners.
Additional information
• Progression to senior positions such as senior court administrator is possible through experience.
• The duties and responsibilities of justices of the peace vary significantly depending on the level of their
authority. They may be employed part-time on a fee-for-service basis in small communities. Their duties
range from receiving affidavits and similar documents, to presiding in courts and hearing and determining
prosecutions under provincial/territorial and federal laws.
1228 Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers
This unit group includes government officers who administer and enforce laws and regulations related to
immigration, employment insurance, customs and tax revenue. They are employed by government agencies.
Illustrative example(s)
• border services officer
• customs inspector
• customs officer
• employment insurance agent
• employment insurance benefits control officer
• immigration agent - government services
• immigration examining officer
• revenue officer
• tax collection officer
• tax enforcement officer
Exclusion(s)
• Financial auditors and accountants (1111)
• Managers responsible for immigration or employment insurance (see 0411 Government managers - health
and social policy development and program administration)
• Managers responsible for taxation revenue or customs (see 0412 Government managers - economic
analysis, policy development and program administration)
• Other financial officers (1114)
• Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4164)
Main duties
Employment insurance officers perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Determine the eligibility of persons applying for employment insurance benefits
• Ascertain the facts on such issues as reasons for loss of employment and availability for work
• Monitor the payments of benefits throughout the duration of a claim and investigate claimants when there
appears to be fraud or abuse.
Immigration officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Determine admissibility of persons seeking entry into Canada by examining documents and conducting
interviews
• Grant landed-immigrant status, admit persons or order detention or deportation
• Locate and apprehend persons presumed to be infringing on immigration laws
• Assist in the removal of deported people by seeking authorization from receiving countries and securing
necessary travel documents
• Appear as a witness in cases related to immigration appeals.
Border services officers and customs inspectors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Question persons at border points to determine the admissibility of goods and assess duty
• Inspect baggage to detect undeclared merchandise, or contraband
• Inform manufacturers and shippers of customs and laws and procedures
• Observe fabrication of articles affected by customs laws and conduct appraisals
• Board carriers arriving from foreign countries to determine nature of cargo to ensure compliance with
customs and commerce laws
• Inspect goods imported by mail
• May arrest and detain individuals suspected of having committed a criminal offence under the Customs
Act or certain other designated Criminal Code offences until police intervention is possible.
Excise tax revenue officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Audit accounting records to determine income, exemptions, payable taxes, compliance with reporting
regulations and existence of fraud
• Examine accounting systems and internal controls of organizations
• Provide advice on reporting and evaluation methods for goods subject to taxation
• Prepare briefs and assist in searching and seizing records, and in preparing charges for court cases.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma is usually required.
• Several years of related administrative or regulatory experience may be required.
• Completion of specialized government training is required.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions in these fields is possible with experience.
124 Office administrative assistants - general, legal and medical
1241 Administrative assistants
Administrative assistants perform a variety of administrative duties in support of managerial and professional
employers. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• administrative assistant
• executive secretary (except legal and medical)
• office administrative assistant
• private secretary
• secretary (except legal and medical)
• technical secretary
Exclusion(s)
• Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations (1251)
• Executive assistants (1222)
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• Legal administrative assistants (1242)
• Medical administrative assistants (1243)
• Office managers (see 1221 Administrative officers)
Main duties
Administrative assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare, key in, edit and proofread correspondence, invoices, presentations, brochures, publications,
reports and related material from machine dictation and handwritten copy
• Open and distribute incoming regular and electronic mail and other material and co-ordinate the flow of
information internally and with other departments and organizations
• Schedule and confirm appointments and meetings of employer
• Order office supplies and maintain inventory
• Answer telephone and electronic enquiries and relay telephone calls and messages
• Set up and maintain manual and computerized information filing systems
• Determine and establish office procedures
• Greet visitors, ascertain nature of business and direct visitors to employer or appropriate person
• Record and prepare minutes of meetings
• Arrange travel schedules and make reservations
• May compile data, statistics and other information to support research activities
• May supervise and train office staff in procedures and in use of current software.
• May organize conferences
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a one- or two-year college or other program for administrative assistants or secretaries
or
Previous clerical experience is required.
1242 Legal administrative assistants
Legal administrative assistants perform a variety of secretarial and administrative duties in law offices, legal
departments of large firms, real estate companies, land title offices, municipal, provincial and federal courts and
government.
Illustrative example(s)
• administrative assistant - legal
• corporate law legal assistant
• legal assistant
• legal assistant - criminal law
• legal secretary
• litigation legal assistant
• litigation secretary
• real estate secretary
Exclusion(s)
• By-law clerks (see 1452 Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks)
• Court recorders (see 1251 Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations)
• Paralegal and related occupations (4211)
Main duties
Legal administrative assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare and key in correspondence and legal documents, such as deeds, wills, affidavits and briefs, from
handwritten copy, shorthand and machine dictation using computers
• Review and proofread documents and correspondence to ensure compliance with legal procedures and
grammatical usage
• Schedule appointments, meetings and conferences for employer
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• Set up and maintain filing systems, utilizing knowledge of legal records and procedures and frequently
controlling confidential materials and documents
• Open and distribute regular and electronic incoming mail and other material and co-ordinate the flow of
information internally and with other departments or organizations
• Determine and establish office procedures and routines
• May supervise and train other staff in procedures and in the use of current software
• May attend court, meetings or conferences to take notes, minutes and dictation
• May perform other general office work as required including preparing financial statements.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a one- or two-year college or other program for secretaries or legal secretaries is usually
required.
1243 Medical administrative assistants
Medical administrative assistants perform a variety of secretarial and administrative duties in doctor's offices,
hospitals, medical clinics and other medical settings.
Illustrative example(s)
• administrative assistant - medical
• medical secretary
• ward secretary
Exclusion(s)
• Health information management occupations (1252)
• Medical records clerks (see 1411 General office support workers)
• Medical transcriptionists (see 1251 Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations)
Main duties
Medical secretaries perform some or all of the following duties:
• Schedule and confirm medical appointments and receive and communicate messages for medical staff
and patients
• Enter and format electronically based medical reports and correspondence and prepare spreadsheets and
documents for review
• Interview patients in order to complete forms, documents and case histories
• Complete insurance and other claim forms
• Initiate and maintain confidential medical files and records
• Prepare draft agendas for meetings and take, transcribe and distribute minutes
• Prepare financial statements and billing
• Establish and maintain various internal office administrative support procedures such as document
tracking and filing and monthly reporting
• Order supplies and maintain inventory
• Determine and establish office procedures and routines
• May supervise and train other staff in procedures and in use of current software.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a one- or two-year college program or other specialized courses for secretaries or medical
secretaries is usually required.
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125 Court reporters, transcriptionists, records management technicians and statistical officers
1251 Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations
Court reporters record and transcribe verbatim the proceedings of courts, legislative assemblies and committees,
and prepare transcripts for use by judges, tribunals and quasi-judicial panels. They are employed by courts of law,
provincial and federal legislative assemblies and committees, or they may be self-employed. Medical
transcriptionists record, transcribe and edit dictation by physicians and other health care providers, surgical
proceedings, health-related reports and other medical documentation. They are employed by hospitals, medical
clinics and doctors' offices, or they may be self-employed. Closed captioners and other transcriptionists are
included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• closed captioner
• court reporter
• Hansard reporter
• medical transcriptionist
• transcriptionist
Exclusion(s)
• Legal administrative assistants (1242)
• Medical administrative assistants (1243)
Main duties
Court reporters perform some or all of the following duties:
• Record verbatim proceedings of courtroom using electronic stenograph machine or stenomask
• Respond to requests during court sessions to read back verbatim evidence
• Transcribe recorded proceedings in accordance with established formats
• Verify accuracy of transcripts by checking copy against original record of proceedings and accuracy of
rulings by checking with judge
• Research and locate quotes to ensure accuracy
• Respond to requests for transcripts ordered by judges, lawyers or the public
• File and store shorthand notes of court session.
Medical transcriptionists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Transcribe recorded dictation in accordance with established formats or written documentation from
medical reports, correspondence, health records and patient information
• Proofread work for typographical and grammatical errors.
• Edit transcripts for missing or incorrect content and formatting
Employment requirements
• Court reporters require completion of secondary school and usually require completion of a college or
other program in court reporting. They may also require the Chartered Shorthand Reporter (CSR)
certificate.
• Medical transcriptionists require completion of secondary school and usually require completion of a
recognized medical transcription program. They may also require the Certified Medical Transcriptionist
(CMT) certificate.
Additional information
• There is some mobility between occupations in this unit group and other occupations requiring similar
knowledge of legal or medical terminology, such as legal or medical administrative positions.
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1252 Health information management occupations
Health information management technicians and related workers collect, code, record, review and manage health
information. They are employed by hospitals, clinics, workplace health and safety boards, health record consulting
firms and other health care establishments. Health information management technicians and related workers who
are supervisors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• health information management supervisor
• health information management technician
• health records technician
• medical records unit supervisor
Exclusion(s)
• Health information management consultants (see 1122 Professional occupations in business management
consulting)
• Health records administrators (see 0114 Other administrative services managers)
• Health records clerks (see 1411 General office support workers)
• Records management technicians (1253)
Main duties
Health information management technicians and related workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Classify and code diseases according to an established classification system
• Collect, code, cross-reference and store health records and related information
• Abstract, assemble and analyze clinical data and related demographic information from health records
according to established policies and procedures
• Operate information systems to maintain indexes for classification systems and to manage and retrieve
health records information
• Prepare medical, social and administrative statistics
• May supervise other health information management technicians and related workers.
Employment requirements
• Health information management technicians and related workers require completion of a recognized two
year college diploma program in health record technology or health information management.
• Health information management technicians and related workers are eligible to write the Canadian Health
Information Management Association national certification examination which may be required by
employers.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
• Progression to management positions is possible with additional training and experience.
1253 Records management technicians
Records management technicians operate and maintain systems for the collection, classification, retrieval and
retention of records, images, documents and information. Records management technicians are employed
throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• information management technician
• microfilm records searcher
• records classifier
• records digitizing technician
• records technician
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Exclusion(s)
• Health information management occupations (1252)
• Health records clerks (see 1411 General office support workers)
• Library and public archive technicians (5211)
• Records management specialists (see 1122 Professional occupations in business management
consulting)
• Records management supervisors (see 1211 Supervisors, general office and administrative support
workers)
Main duties
Records management technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Implement and update records classification, retention and disposal scheduling plans
• Classify, code, cross-reference, log and store records
• Develop document inventories and maintain indexes for classification systems
• Operate information retrieval systems to research and extract records according to established guidelines
in response to requests
• Label, prepare and transfer information files according to established records management life-cycle
procedures and schedules
• Maintain access lists for security classified records
• Compile statistics and reports on activities within records management services.
Employment requirements
• Records management technicians usually require completion of a two- to three-year college program in
information or records management technology.
• Two to three years experience in a records management environment may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with additional training and experience.
1254 Statistical officers and related research support occupations
Statistical officers and related research support occupations in this unit group provide statistical and research
support services to a wide range of businesses and organizations. These workers conduct statistical routines,
monitor trends, compile data and prepare charts, graphs, summaries and reports in support of organizational
information needs and research activities. They are employed throughout the private and public sectors. Statistical
officers who are also supervisors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• research assistant - generalist (except university)
• research support officer
• social research assistant (except university)
• statistical officer
• technical research assistant (except post-secondary)
Exclusion(s)
• Data entry clerks (1422)
• Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries (2161)
• Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers (416)
• Survey interviewers and statistical clerks (1454)
Main duties
Statistical officers and related research support workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Compile tables, charts, graphs and summarized statistics for integration in research papers and reports
• Process data using statistical software to conduct basic analyses of trends in support of research activities
• Collect, consolidate, cross-tabulate and format data from various sources to prepare draft reports for
review by supervisors or researchers
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• Assist in collection and tracking of data from monitored use of services and provide information to
management and client groups
• May prepare technical documents and monitoring reports on volumetrics and other trend analyses
• May supervise statistical and research support workers.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required. A college diploma or undergraduate degree in a social
science, commerce, statistics or a related field is usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience. Progression to professional occupations
in statistics and research usually requires completion of a post-graduate degree.
13 Finance, insurance and related business administrative occupations
131 Finance, insurance and related business administrative occupations
1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers
Accounting technicians and bookkeepers maintain complete sets of books, keep records of accounts, verify the
procedures used for recording financial transactions, and provide personal bookkeeping services. They are
employed throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• accounting bookkeeper
• accounting technician
• bookkeeper
Exclusion(s)
• Accounting and related clerks (1431)
• Banking, insurance and other financial clerks (1434)
• Financial auditors and accountants (1111)
• Payroll clerks (1432)
Main duties
Accounting technicians and bookkeepers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Keep financial records and establish, maintain and balance various accounts using manual and
computerized bookkeeping systems
• Post journal entries and reconcile accounts, prepare trial balance of books, maintain general ledgers and
prepare financial statements
• Calculate and prepare cheques for payrolls and for utility, tax and other bills
• Complete and submit tax remittance forms, workers' compensation forms, pension contribution forms and
other government documents
• Prepare tax returns and perform other personal bookkeeping services
• Prepare other statistical, financial and accounting reports.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of a college program in accounting, bookkeeping or a related field
or
Completion of two years (first level) of a recognized professional accounting program (e.g., Chartered
Accounting, Certified General Accounting)
or
Courses in accounting or bookkeeping combined with several years of experience as a financial or
accounting clerk are required.
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Additional information
• Progression to professional accounting occupations is possible with additional training.
1312 Insurance adjusters and claims examiners
Insurance adjusters investigate insurance claims and determine the amount of loss or damages covered by
insurance policies. They are employed in claims departments of insurance companies or as independent adjusters.
Insurance claims examiners examine claims investigated by insurance adjusters and authorize payments. They are
employed at head offices or branches of insurance companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• adjuster
• claims examiner
• claims representative
• insurance adjuster
Exclusion(s)
• Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers (1212)
Main duties
Insurance adjusters perform some or all of the following duties:
• Investigate circumstances surrounding insurance claims to determine validity of claim
• Inspect automobile, home or other property damage
• Take statements and consult with claimants, accident witnesses, doctors and other relevant individuals
and examine records or reports
• Determine amount of loss or damages covered by insurance policies
• Negotiate settlement of claims
• Prepare adjustment reports.
Insurance claims examiners perform some or all of the following duties:
• Review, examine, calculate and authorize insurance claims investigated by insurance adjusters
• Examine adjusters' reports and similar insurance claims or precedents to determine extent of insurance
coverage
• Ensure claims are valid and settlements are made according to company practices and procedures
• Consult lawyers, doctors or other relevant individuals to discuss insurance claims
• Approve automobile, fire, life, disability, dental or other insurance claims.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A bachelor's degree, college diploma or some post-secondary education
or
Several years of experience as a clerk in the claims department or other general insurance experience are
required.
• Several years of on-the-job training and completion of insurance industry courses and training programs
are required.
• Independent adjusters require a provincial licence issued by the Superintendent of Insurance in the
province or territory of employment.
Additional information
• Completion of educational programs through the Insurance Institute of Canada or its provincial
counterparts entitles insurance adjusters and claims examiners to professional recognition as a Chartered
Insurance Professional (CIP), and with additional university courses, as a Fellow Chartered Insurance
Professional (FCIP).
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1313 Insurance underwriters
Insurance underwriters review and evaluate insurance applications to determine insurance risks, insurance
premiums and extent of insurance coverage according to company policies. Insurance underwriters are employed
at head and branch offices of insurance companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• group underwriter
• insurance underwriter
• liability underwriter
• property underwriter
Exclusion(s)
• Insurance agents and brokers (6231)
• Insurance managers (see 0121 Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers)
Main duties
Insurance underwriters perform some or all of the following duties:
• Review individual and group applications for automobile, fire, health, liability, life, property, marine, aircraft
and other insurance
• Evaluate new and renewal applications to determine insurance risks, insurance premiums, extent of
insurance coverage and other conditions of the insurance contract using medical reports, rate tables and
other documents and reference materials; adjust premiums, coverage or risk itself to make acceptance of
new and renewal applications possible
• Approve sale of insurance policies and ensure compliance with government regulations
• Provide recommendations on individual or group insurance plan designs
• Provide underwriting advice and answer inquiries from clients and from insurance agents, consultants and
other company personnel
• Prepare underwriting reports and update insurance forms when necessary.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school and some general insurance experience
or
A bachelor's degree, college diploma or some post-secondary education is required.
• Several years of on-the-job training and completion of insurance industry underwriting courses and training
programs are required.
Additional information
• Progression to management positions in the insurance industry is possible with experience.
• Completion of educational programs through the Insurance Institute of Canada or its provincial
counterparts entitles insurance underwriters to professional recognition as a Chartered Insurance
Professional (CIP) and, with additional university courses, as a Fellow, Chartered Insurance Professional
(FCIP).
1314 Assessors, valuators and appraisers
Assessors, valuators and appraisers determine the value of land, businesses, estates and other real property, for
purposes of sale, purchase, taxation or disposal of assets. Appraisers also determine the value of personal and
household items. Assessors, valuators and appraisers are employed by government agencies, real estate firms and
other private companies, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• accredited appraiser
• business valuator
• chartered business valuator (CBV)
• property assessor
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• property valuator
• real estate appraiser
Exclusion(s)
• Financial and investment analysts (1112)
• Financial auditors and accountants (1111)
• Insurance adjusters and claims examiners (1312)
• Jewellery appraisers (see 6344 Jewellers, jewellery and watch repairers and related occupations)
• Land agents and right of way agents (see 1225 Purchasing agents and officers)
• Market analysts (see 4163 Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants)
• Property administrators (1224)
Main duties
Assessors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assess value of land, building, structures, machinery, equipment and property improvements for purposes
of taxation, grants and regional planning and prior to sale or purchase
• Review and analyze data such as past sales, title searches, engineering and alignment maps, soil maps,
subdivision plans, water and sewer plans, leasing cost data and easements
• Explain assessment process to ratepayers.
Assessors may specialize in advising and consulting in a specific field of assessment such as residential,
commercial, industrial, institutional or farm lands.
Valuators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Collect and analyze financial records of a business, such as financial statements, budgets, projections and
sales data, to assess its competitiveness or to estimate its market value
• Prepare reports for estate planning, matrimonial litigation, insurance and business losses
• Appear as an expert witness before courts, security regulators and other regulatory boards and
commissions.
Appraisers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Appraise value of property, building, industrial and commercial machinery and equipment and personal
and household items
• Prepare appraisal reports for lending agencies, insurance companies, government departments, courts,
attorneys, creditors, buyers or auctioneers.
Appraisers may specialize in a specific type of appraisal such as real estate appraisal.
Employment requirements
• Assessors require a college diploma in municipal assessment
and
Accreditation with the municipal assessment association of the province.
• Valuators usually require a bachelor's degree or college diploma in accounting, business or commerce
and
Accreditation with the Canadian Institute of Chartered Business Valuators based on successful completion
of its business and security valuation program.
• Appraisers require a college diploma or vocational training in the field of appraisal
or
Several years of experience in a position related to the field of appraisal.
• In Quebec, membership with l'Ordre des évaluateurs agréés du Québec (OEAQ) is required to use the title
chartered appraiser
• Real estate appraisers usually require several years of experience as a real estate agent, right-of-way
agent or property administrator and may require Canadian residential appraiser certification.
• Appraisers of residential, commercial or industrial property require accreditation with the Appraisal Institute
of Canada.
Additional information
• Progression to management positions in each field is possible with experience.
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1315 Customs, ship and other brokers
Customs brokers clear goods through customs and to their destination on behalf of importer and exporter clients.
Shipbrokers buy and sell cargo space on ships and buy and sell ships, yachts and other watercraft on behalf of
clients. This unit group also includes other brokers, not elsewhere classified, who negotiate commercial
transactions, logistics or other services between parties on behalf of clients. They are employed by customs, ship or
other brokerage establishments or may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• cargo broker
• chartered shipbroker
• customs broker
• gas broker
• licensed customs broker
• shipbroker
Exclusion(s)
• Insurance brokers (see 6231 Insurance agents and brokers)
• Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers (0121)
• Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers (1113)
Main duties
Customs brokers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare and process import/export documents and other forms on behalf of clients according to customs
regulations, laws and procedures
• Sign import/export documents on behalf of client, using power of attorney
• Arrange for payment of duties, taxes, storage and transportation of imported goods and bonds to cover
duty goods
• Quote duty and tax rates on commodities for clients
• Provide advice to clients on export and import restrictions, tariff systems, letters of credit, insurance
requirements and other custom related matters
• May represent client before administrative tribunals or in other dealings with government officials.
Shipbrokers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Buy and sell cargo space on ships on behalf of individuals, companies and governments
• Consult trade publications and other sources to provide information to clients on available cargo space,
destinations, rates and departure locations and times, and arrange ship charters for clients
• Negotiate rates and terms and prepare contracts and other papers
• Buy and sell ships, yachts and other watercraft on behalf of clients
• Inspect vessels, explain features and negotiate price when purchasing or selling for clients
• Arrange for insurance coverage for cargo or for ships
• Arrange for registration and licensing of ships.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Some post-secondary education in commerce or a related field may be required.
• Customs brokers require several years of on-the-job training and completion of a customs brokers training
program through the International Federation of Customs Brokers Association.
• A customs broker licence, issued by the Canada Border Services Agency, is required for an individual or
company to operate a customs brokerage business.
• Shipbrokers selling cargo space on ships usually require several years of on-the-job training or related
experience such as shipping company scheduling experience. Shipbrokers selling watercraft usually
require in-depth experience with, and knowledge of, various watercraft.
• Correspondence courses from the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers are available for shipbrokers.
Additional information
• There is no mobility between the different types of brokers in this unit group.
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14 Office support occupations
141 General office workers
1411 General office support workers
General office support workers prepare correspondence, reports, statements and other material, operate office
equipment, answer telephones, verify, record and process forms and documents such as contracts and requisitions
and perform general clerical duties according to established procedures. They are employed in offices throughout
the public and private sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• administrative clerk
• aircraft records clerk
• file and classification clerk
• filing clerk
• general office worker
• medical records clerk
• office assistant
• office clerk
• records filing-system clerk
• technical records clerk
• ward clerk - hospital
• warranty clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Accounting and related clerks (1431)
• Administrative assistants (1241)
• Administrative officers (1221)
• Court clerks (1416)
• Data entry clerks (1422)
• Personnel clerks (1415)
• Receptionists (1414)
• Records management technicians (1253)
• Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers (1211)
Main duties
General office support workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare correspondence, reports, statements, forms, presentations, applications and other documents
from notes or dictaphone
• Respond to telephone, in person or electronic enquiries or forward to appropriate person
• Provide general information to staff, clients and the public regarding company or program rules,
regulations and procedures
• Photocopy and collate documents for distribution, mailing and filing
• Sort and file documents according to established filing systems, locate and retrieve documents from files
as requested and maintain records of filed and removed materials
• Maintain and prepare reports from manual or electronic files, inventories, mailing lists and databases
• Process incoming and outgoing mail, manually or electronically
• Send and receive messages and documents using fax machine or electronic mail
• Assist with administrative procedures such as budget submissions, contracts administration and work
schedules
• Maintain inventory of office supplies, order supplies as required and arrange for servicing of office
equipment
• May perform basic bookkeeping tasks such as preparing invoices and bank deposits
• May sort, process and verify receipts, expenditures, forms and other documents
• May organize the flow of work for other office support workers.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of secondary school or college business or commercial courses is usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory or office management positions is possible with experience.
• Progression to officer level positions is possible with additional training and experience.
1414 Receptionists
Receptionists greet people arriving at offices, hospitals and other establishments, direct visitors to appropriate
person or service, answer and forward telephone calls, take messages, schedule appointments and perform other
clerical duties. They are employed by hospitals, medical and dental offices and in other offices throughout the public
and private sectors. Telephone operators are included in this group.
Illustrative example(s)
• answering service operator
• appointment clerk
• business receptionist
• dental receptionist
• hospital admitting clerk
• medical receptionist
• office reception clerk
• receptionist
• switchboard operator
• telephone operator
• telephone service assistant
• telereceptionist
• toll operator
Exclusion(s)
• 911 dispatchers (see 1525 Dispatchers)
• Hotel front desk clerks (6525)
• Other customer and information services representatives (6552)
• Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers (1211)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Receptionists greet people coming into offices and other establishments, direct them to the appropriate
contacts or services, provide general information in person and by phone, and may perform clerical duties
and maintain front desk security and security access lists.
• Medical and dental receptionists greet patients, schedule appointments, using manual or computerized
systems, receive and record payment for services, and direct patients to appropriate areas.
• Hospital admitting clerks interview patients to obtain and process information required to provide hospital
and medical services.
• Telephone operators operate telephone systems to advance and complete customers' telephone calls
such as long distance, pay telephone, mobile radio/telephone and person to person calls, arrange
teleconferences, provide relay phone service to persons with disabilities, and may calculate and record
billing information.
• Switchboard operators operate a telephone system or switchboard to answer, screen and forward
telephone calls, take messages and provide information as required, and may perform clerical duties.
• Answering service operators answer telephones and record and relay messages.
• Reception desk clerks in a variety of institutional and commercial settings direct customers to appropriate
areas, record bookings, handle credit card checks, receive payment, issue receipts, arrange tour
reservations and deal with emergency situations.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• On-the-job training may be provided.
Additional information
• Some receptionists are required to be bilingual or multilingual to perform their duties.
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
1415 Personnel clerks
Personnel clerks assist personnel officers and human resources specialists and compile, maintain and process
information relating to staffing, recruitment, training, labour relations, performance evaluations and classifications.
They are employed in personnel departments throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• classification clerk - human resources
• employment clerk
• human resources assistant
• human resources clerk
• labour relations clerk
• personnel services clerk
• staffing clerk
• training clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Human resources and recruitment officers (1223)
• Human resources professionals (1121)
• Payroll clerks (1432)
• Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers (1211)
Main duties
Personnel clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Process, verify and register documentation relating to personnel activities such as staffing, recruitment,
training, grievances, performance evaluations and classifications
• Maintain and update manual and computerized filing and registration systems, and compile and prepare
reports and documents relating to personnel activities
• Respond to telephone and written enquiries from staff and the general public regarding personnel matters
• Arrange for advertising or posting of job vacancies, assist in screening and rating of job applicants, and
conduct reference checks
• Administer and score employment tests, such as keyboarding and proofreading tests
• Arrange for in-house and external training activities.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of college or other courses in personnel administration may be required.
• Some clerical experience may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
• Progression to officer level positions is possible with additional training and experience.
1416 Court clerks
This unit group includes those who perform support functions in courts of law, such as calling court to order,
preparing court dockets and maintaining exhibits. Court clerks are employed by federal, provincial and municipal
courts.
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Illustrative example(s)
• court clerk
• court clerk-crier
• criminal court clerk
• judicial clerk
• provincial court clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Court officers and justices of the peace (1227)
• Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations (1251)
Main duties
Court clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Call courts of law to order; read charges; take pleas from defendants; swear in witnesses and perform
other clerical functions in the courtrooms
• Prepare court files, court dockets and other documents
• Record main court proceedings, including pleas, names of witnesses, dates, times and rulings
• Manage care and custody of court exhibits
• Prepare documents for and participate in jury selection
• Update and maintain court office paper and electronic indexes and files on actions taken by court or in
response to court decisions
• Receive, disburse and account for fines, fees and trust monies
• Assist the public in court offices.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• On-the-job training is provided.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory or court officer positions is possible with experience.
142 Office equipment operators
1422 Data entry clerks
Data entry clerks input coded, statistical, financial and other information into computerized databases, spreadsheets
or other templates using a keyboard, mouse, or optical scanner, speech recognition software or other data entry
tools. They are employed in the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• data control clerk
• data entry operator
• data input clerk
• data processor
• payment entry clerk
Exclusion(s)
• General office support workers (1411)
• Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers (1211)
Main duties
Data entry clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Receive and register invoices, forms, records and other documents for data capture
• Input data into computerized databases, spreadsheets or other templates using a keyboard, mouse, or
optical scanner, speech recognition software or other data entry tools
• Import and/or export data between different kinds of software
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• Verify accuracy and completeness of data
• Identify, label and organize electronic storage media
• Maintain libraries of electronic storage media.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school may be required.
• College or other courses in data entry may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior positions is possible with experience.
1423 Desktop publishing operators and related occupations
Desktop publishing operators use computers to enter copy into a typesetting system or operate typesetting output
equipment to produce text that is ready to print. They are employed by firms that specialize in typesetting,
commercial printing companies, publishing and printing companies and various establishments in the public and
private sectors that have in-house printing departments.
Illustrative example(s)
• braille keyboard operator
• compositor - typesetting
• computer typesetter
• copy marker - typesetting
• desktop compositor
• desktop publishing (DTP) operator
• input operator - typesetting
• markup person
• output operator - typesetting
• photocomposition typesetter
• phototypesetter operator
• typographer
Exclusion(s)
• Copy stylists, mechanical artists and paste-up artists (see 5223 Graphic arts technicians)
• Desktop publishing operator supervisors (see 1211 Supervisors, general office and administrative support
workers)
• Graphic designers and illustrators (5241)
• Pre-flight and file preparation operators (see 9472 Camera, platemaking and other prepress occupations)
• Proofreaders (see 1452 Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Desktop publishing operators operate desktop publishing software and equipment to design, lay out and
produce camera-ready copy and may perform pre-flight operator duties.
• Markup persons mark copy with computer codes and typographic instructions before it is typeset.
• Typesetting input operators input copy, codes or commands and subsequent corrections into typesetting
device or system; operate media conversion equipment to process and format copy transmitted through
telecommunications.
• Typesetting output operators operate and tend typesetting output devices, load and process photosensitive
material and perform routine maintenance.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of a college program in graphic arts, or other training in typography, computer typesetting or
desktop publishing, is usually required.
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Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible through experience.
143 Financial, insurance and related administrative support workers
1431 Accounting and related clerks
Accounting and related clerks calculate, prepare and process bills, invoices, accounts payable and receivable,
budgets and other financial records according to established procedures. They are employed throughout the private
and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• accounting clerk
• accounts payable clerk
• accounts receivable clerk
• audit clerk
• billing clerk
• budget clerk
• costing clerk
• deposit clerk
• finance clerk
• freight-rate clerk
• income tax return preparer
• invoice clerk
• ledger clerk
• tax clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Accounting technicians and bookkeepers (1311)
• Banking, insurance and other financial clerks (1434)
• Collectors (1435)
• Financial auditors and accountants (1111)
• Payroll clerks (1432)
• Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers (1212)
Main duties
Accounting and related clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Calculate, prepare and issue documents related to accounts such as bills, invoices, inventory reports,
account statements and other financial statements using computerized and manual systems
• Code, total, batch, enter, verify and reconcile transactions such as accounts payable and receivable,
payroll, purchase orders, cheques, invoices, cheque requisitions, and bank statements in a ledger or
computer system
• Compile budget data and documents based on estimated revenues and expenses and previous budgets
• Prepare period or cost statements or reports
• Calculate costs of materials, overhead and other expenses based on estimates, quotations, and price lists
• Respond to customer inquiries, maintain good customer relations and solve problems
• Perform related clerical duties, such as word processing, maintaining filing and record systems, faxing and
photocopying.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of college or other courses certified by the Certified General Accountants Association of
Canada, Canadian Securities Institute or Canadian Bookkeepers Association may be required.
• Some accounting clerks must be bondable.
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Additional information
• Progression to supervisory or skilled financial occupations, such as accounts payable supervisor,
bookkeeper or office manager is possible with additional training and experience.
1432 Payroll clerks
Payroll clerks collect, verify and process payroll information and determine pay and benefit entitlements for
employees within a department, company or other establishment. They are employed by payroll administration
companies and by establishments throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• benefits officer
• pay advisor
• pay and benefits administrator
• pay and benefits clerk
• pay clerk
• payroll clerk
• payroll officer
• salary administration officer
Exclusion(s)
• Human resources and recruitment officers (1223)
• Personnel clerks (1415)
• Supervisors of payroll clerks (see 1212 Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers)
Main duties
Payroll clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Maintain records of employee attendance, leave and overtime to calculate pay and benefit entitlements, in
Canadian and other currencies, using manual or computerized systems
• Prepare and verify statements of earnings for employees, indicating gross and net salaries and deductions
such as taxes, union dues, garnishments and insurance and pension plans
• Prepare employee payments and benefit payments by cheque or electronic transfer
• Complete, verify and process forms and documentation for administration of benefits such as pension
plans, leaves, share savings, employment and medical insurance
• Prepare T4 statements and other statements
• Provide information to employees on payroll matters, benefit plans and collective agreement provisions
• Compile statistical reports, statements, and summaries related to pay and benefits accounts
• Prepare and balance period-end reports and reconcile issued payrolls to bank statements.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of college or other courses in accounting, bookkeeping or payroll administration
or
Experience as a financial clerk is usually required.
• Payroll association certification may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
1434 Banking, insurance and other financial clerks
Banking, insurance and other financial clerks compile, process and maintain banking, insurance and other financial
information. They are employed by banks, credit companies, private and public insurance establishments,
investment firms and other financial establishments throughout the private and public sectors.
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Illustrative example(s)
• actuarial clerk
• bank clerk
• credit clerk
• dental claims clerk
• dividend calculation clerk
• insurance clerk - financial sector
• insurance rater
• ledger control clerk
• loan clerk - financial sector
• mortgage clerk
• premium rater - insurance
• real estate clerk
• securities clerk - financial sector
Exclusion(s)
• Accounting technicians and bookkeepers (1311)
• Customer services representatives - financial institutions (6551)
• Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers (1212)
Main duties
Bank clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Compile records of deposits, withdrawals, loan and mortgage payments, cheques and purchase, sale and
exchange of securities
• Process loan and mortgage applications, loan and mortgage payments, retirement savings plan
applications, term deposits, drafts and money orders
• Verify and balance automatic teller machine transactions and ledger entries, calculate service charges and
interest payments and notify customers regarding account discrepancies and captured bank cards
• Answer enquiries and provide information on banking products, policies and services
• May sell drafts, money orders, travellers' cheques and foreign currency, rent safety deposit boxes and
open and close savings, chequing and other accounts.
Insurance clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Process enrolments, cancellations, claims transactions, policy changes and premium payments
• Review insurance applications and verify insurance coverage, premiums paid and other insurance
information
• Calculate insurance premiums, pension benefits and annuity payments
• Compile and maintain claims data, rates and insurance data and records
• Answer enquiries and provide information on insurance products, policies and services.
Other financial clerks in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Compile and maintain rental, sale and other real estate listings
• Compile and maintain stock, bond and other securities listings
• Sort, verify and process real estate, securities and other financial transactions
• Answer enquiries and reply to correspondence.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A business college diploma may be required.
• On-the-job training and short-term training courses or programs specific to the financial establishment are
usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
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1435 Collectors
Collectors collect payments on overdue accounts and bad cheques and locate debtors to make collection
arrangements. They are employed by collection agencies, utility companies, department stores, loan companies,
banks and credit unions, and by financial and licensing departments within governments.
Illustrative example(s)
• bill collector
• collection clerk
• collection officer (except taxation)
• collections investigation officer
• collector
• credit and collection clerk
• locator - collection
• skip tracer - collection
Exclusion(s)
• Accounts receivable clerks (see 1431 Accounting and related clerks)
• Collections supervisors (see 1212 Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers)
• Tax collection officers (see 1228 Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue
officers)
Main duties
Collectors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Notify debtors of overdue payments and accounts by telephone, mail, and registered mail, and continue
the notification process if reply is not received
• Resolve collection issues by making payment arrangements by telephone or visit to debtor
• Recommend further action or discontinuation of service in cases where payment is not forthcoming
• Trace and locate debtors, and may contact debtors' friends, neighbours, relatives and employers to obtain
information
• Answer correspondence, prepare reports and maintain records and files related to collection work
• May work with on-line accounts and systems.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A business college diploma may be required.
• A period of on-the-job training is often provided for collection clerks and collection officers.
• A collections licence issued by the province or territory of employment is usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior or supervisory positions is possible with experience.
145 Library, correspondence and other clerks
1451 Library assistants and clerks
Library assistants and clerks issue and receive library materials, sort and shelve books and provide general library
information to users. They also perform clerical functions. Library clerks are employed by libraries or other
establishments with library services.
Illustrative example(s)
• circulation clerk - library
• interlibrary loan clerk
• library assistant
• library page
• periodicals clerk
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• reference clerk
• shelving clerk - library
Exclusion(s)
• Librarians (5111)
• Library technicians (see 5211 Library and public archive technicians)
• Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers (1213)
Main duties
Library assistants and clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Issue and receive library books and other materials
• Sort and reshelve books and other library materials
• Perform clerical activities such as manual and electronic filing and record payments received
• Maintain journal subscriptions
• Assist library users in accessing library materials and online resources, and in making interlibrary loans.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to more senior positions is possible with experience and post-secondary education related to
library science.
1452 Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks
Clerks in this unit group write correspondence, proofread material for accuracy, compile material for publication,
verify, record and process forms and documents, such as applications, licences, permits, contracts, registrations
and requisitions, and perform other related clerical duties in accordance with established procedures, guidelines
and schedules. They are employed by newspapers, periodicals, publishing firms and by establishments throughout
the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• advertising clerk
• application clerk
• authorization clerk
• by-law clerk
• classified advertising clerk
• contract clerk
• correspondence clerk
• customs clerk
• directory compiler
• documentation clerk
• editorial assistant
• import clerk
• licence clerk
• passport clerk
• press clipper
• proofreader
• publication clerk
• reader
• registration clerk
• registry clerk
• translation clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (1123)
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• Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers (1213)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Classified advertising clerks receive customers' orders for classified advertising, write and edit copy,
calculate advertising costs and bill customers.
• Correspondence clerks write business and government correspondence such as replies to requests for
information and assistance, damage claims, credit and billing enquiries and service complaints.
• Editorial assistants and publication clerks assist in the preparation of periodicals, advertisements,
catalogues, directories and other material for publication; proofread material; verify facts and conduct
research.
• Proofreaders read material prior to publication to detect and mark for correction any grammatical,
typographical or compositional errors within tight deadlines.
• Readers and press clippers read newspapers, magazines, press releases and other publications to locate
and file articles of interest to staff and clients.
• Regulatory clerks compile, verify, record and process applications, licences, permits, contracts,
registrations, requisitions and other forms and documents in accordance with established procedures
using processing systems; and authorize and issue licences, permits, registration papers, reimbursements
and other material after requested documents have been processed and approved.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Additional courses or a diploma in writing, journalism or a related field may be required.
• Previous clerical or administrative experience may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
1454 Survey interviewers and statistical clerks
Survey interviewers contact individuals to gather information for market research, public opinion polls or election
and census enumeration. Statistical clerks code and compile interview and other data into reports, lists, directories
and other documents. Workers in this unit group are employed by market research and polling firms, government
departments and agencies, utility companies, contact centres and other establishments. This unit group also
includes clerks who observe and record information on traffic flow.
Illustrative example(s)
• census enumerator
• coding clerk - statistics
• election enumerator
• interview clerk
• poll clerk
• public opinion interviewer
• statistical clerk
• survey interviewer
• telephone survey clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks (1452)
• Other customer and information services representatives (6552)
• Statistical officers and related research support occupations (1254)
• Telemarketers (see 6623 Other sales related occupations)
Main duties
Survey interviewers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Contact individuals by telephone or in person and explain the purpose of the interview
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• Ask questions following the outlines of questionnaires and surveys
• Record responses on paper or enter responses directly into a computer database through
computer-assisted interviewing systems.
Statistical clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Check information gathered for completeness and accuracy
• Code information according to established coding manuals and enter data onto computers
• Conduct routine statistical analysis of data
• Compile interview and other data into reports and lists.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school may be required.
• Experience in the operation of a computer may be required.
• On-the-job training is usually provided.
• May require driver's licence.
15 Distribution, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
151 Mail and message distribution occupations
1511 Mail, postal and related workers
This unit group includes workers who process and sort mail and parcels in post offices, mail processing plants and
internal mail rooms, and clerks who serve customers and record transactions at sales counters and postal wickets.
Mail, postal and related workers are employed by Canada Post Corporation, courier and parcel express companies
and establishments throughout the public and private sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• bus parcel express clerk
• express mail service clerk
• mail clerk
• mail room clerk
• mail sorter
• postal clerk
• postal counter clerk
• postal wicket clerk
• railway mail clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors (1513)
• Letter carriers (1512)
• Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations (1214)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Postal workers calculate and affix the correct postage on letters, parcels and registered mail and receive
payment from customers; sell stamps, prepaid mail and courier envelopes and money orders; route mail to
the proper delivery stream; sign or obtain signatures from recipients for registered or special delivery mail
and keep records; answer inquiries and complete forms regarding change of address, theft or loss of mail;
and record and balance daily transactions.
• Mail sorters sort mail according to destination; bundle, label, bag and route sorted mail to the proper
delivery stream; and search directories to find the correct address for redirected mail.
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• Mail room clerks receive, process, sort and distribute incoming and outgoing mail, faxes, messages and
courier packages manually or electronically; maintain address databases and produce personalized
mailings; print and photocopy material, and address and stuff envelopes; weigh outgoing mail, calculate
and affix proper postage, and bundle by postal code; and may operate and maintain print shop and mailing
house equipment.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school and some college office administration courses may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory or facility management positions is possible with additional training or
experience.
1512 Letter carriers
Letter carriers sort and deliver mail, record delivery of registered mail and collect money for cash-on-delivery
parcels. Letter carriers are employed by Canada Post Corporation.
Illustrative example(s)
• letter carrier
• postman/woman
• rural mail carrier
Exclusion(s)
• Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors (1513)
• Letter carrier supervisors (see 1214 Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations)
• Mail, postal and related workers (1511)
Main duties
Letter carriers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Organize mail by address and load into mailbag
• Deliver letters, small parcels and other printed matter along established routes
• Deliver telegrams, special delivery and express mail
• Collect payment for cash-on-delivery service
• Record delivery of registered mail
• Leave notices indicating that items could not be delivered and the location where they can be picked up
• Return undeliverable mail to postal station.
Employment requirements
• Some secondary school education is required.
• Two weeks to one month of training is provided by Canada Post Corporation.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with additional training or experience.
1513 Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors
Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors pick up and deliver letters, parcels, packages, newspapers,
flyers and other items within and between establishments. They are employed by courier service companies and
other establishments throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• bank messenger
• courier
• delivery person - courier service
• door-to-door distributor
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• flyer distributor - courier service
• newspaper carrier
• runner - courier service
Exclusion(s)
• Delivery and courier service drivers (7514)
• Letter carriers (1512)
• Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations (1214)
Main duties
Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Pick up messages, letters, envelopes, parcels, airline tickets, legal documents, packages, bonds, cheques,
securities and other items from customers, and hand-deliver them to addresses within an establishment or
in other establishments by walking or cycling within prescribed time periods
• Collect payment for items delivered
• Keep record of items received and delivered using delivery information acquisition devices
• Deliver newspapers, flyers, handbills, telephone directories and similar items to residences and
businesses.
Employment requirements
• Secondary school education may be required.
• Eligibility for bonding may be required.
• Ability to navigate streets and follow directions is usually required.
• Physical fitness is required for some occupations in this unit group.
Additional information
• There is some mobility into other delivery occupations such as delivery drivers.
• There may be mobility to clerical occupations within the company.
• Progression to supervisory positions may be possible with experience.
152 Supply chain logistics, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
1521 Shippers and receivers
Shippers and receivers ship, receive and record the movement of parts, supplies, materials, equipment and stock to
and from an establishment. They are employed in the public sector and by retail and wholesale establishments,
manufacturing companies, and other commercial and industrial establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• freight receiver
• freight shipper
• import freight clerk
• receiver
• shipper
• shipper-receiver
• shipping agent
• shipping and receiving clerk
• supply chain assistant
Exclusion(s)
• Material handlers (7452)
• Purchasing and inventory control workers (1524)
• Storekeepers and partspersons (1522)
• Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations (1215)
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Main duties
Shippers and receivers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Determine method of shipment and arrange shipping; prepare bills of lading, customs forms, invoices and
other shipping documents manually or by computer
• Assemble containers and crates, record contents manually or by computer, pack goods to be shipped and
affix identifying information and shipping instructions
• Oversee loading and unloading of goods from trucks or other conveyances
• Inspect and verify incoming goods against invoices or other documents, record shortages and reject
damaged goods
• Unpack, code and route goods to appropriate storage areas
• Maintain internal, manual or computerized record-keeping systems
• May operate forklift, hand truck or other equipment to load, unload, transport and store goods.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Experience in a related clerical occupation or as a warehouse worker may be required.
• A forklift certificate may be required.
• A driver's licence may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with additional training or experience.
1522 Storekeepers and partspersons
Storekeepers and partspersons sort, store and issue parts and supplies for use by the establishment in which they
work and for sale to the public. They are employed by manufacturing companies, warehouses, retail and wholesale
establishments, mining, forestry and construction companies, repair shops, hospitals and other establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• ammunition storekeeper
• automotive partsperson - retail
• material keeper
• medical supply clerk
• motor vehicle parts clerk
• parts clerk
• parts supplier
• partsperson
• ship storeman/woman
• storekeeper
• tool room attendant
Exclusion(s)
• Parts clerks supervisors (see 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination
occupations)
• Purchasing and inventory control workers (1524)
• Shippers and receivers (1521)
Main duties
Storekeepers and partspersons perform some or all of the following duties:
• Receive and sort incoming parts and supplies
• Store items in an orderly and accessible manner in a warehouse, tool room, supply room or other area
• Process incoming requisitions and issue or distribute parts and supplies for internal usage
• Maintain records of orders and the amount, kind and location of parts and supplies on hand using manual
or computerized inventory system
• Prepare requisition orders to replenish parts and supplies
• Sell spare and replacement parts for motor vehicles, machinery and equipment in a retail setting
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• Advise retail customers or internal users on appropriateness of parts, supplies or materials requested.
Partspersons may specialize in a particular line of parts such as automotive parts, recreational vehicle parts,
marine parts, heavy equipment parts, agricultural machinery parts, heating, ventilating and air conditioning
parts or refrigeration parts.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a three-year apprenticeship program
or
Completion of specialized training in high school and a one-year college program for partspersons may be
required.
• Trade certification for partspersons is available, but voluntary, in all provinces and territories.
• Experience in a related clerical occupation, or as a warehouse worker, may be required for partspersons.
• Red Seal endorsement is also available to qualified partspersons upon successful completion of the
interprovincial Red Seal examination.
Additional information
• The Red Seal endorsement allows for interprovincial mobility.
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with additional training or experience.
1523 Production logistics co-ordinators
Production logistics co-ordinators co-ordinate and expedite the flow of work and materials within an establishment,
prepare work and production schedules and monitor the progress of production and construction projects.
Production clerks are employed by manufacturing and construction companies, printing and publishing companies
and other industrial establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• expediter
• material estimator
• production clerk
• production co-ordinator
• production scheduler
• scheduling clerk
• supply chain co-ordinator - production
• traffic control clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Purchasing and inventory control workers (1524)
• Shippers and receivers (1521)
• Storekeepers and partspersons (1522)
• Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations (1215)
Main duties
Production logistics co-ordinators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Compile detailed worksheets and specifications from customer's order
• Estimate type and quantity of materials and labour required for production, construction and other projects
• Consult with production supervisor to schedule production runs in a cost and time-efficient manner
• Meet regularly with other production clerks, warehouse, production and construction supervisors and
purchasing and inventory clerks to co-ordinate activities between warehouses and production floors or
construction sites
• Co-ordinate and monitor logistics of the movement of parts, supplies and materials within an establishment
and ensure that supplies, materials and products are shipped and received on schedule
• Prepare and maintain various reports on the progress of work, materials used, rates of production and
other production information, using manual or computerized systems.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required and college may be required.
• Previous clerical experience or experience as a production worker may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
1524 Purchasing and inventory control workers
Purchasing and inventory control workers process purchasing transactions and maintain inventories of materials,
equipment and stock. They are employed by retail and wholesale establishments, manufacturing companies,
government agencies and other establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• inventory analyst
• inventory clerk
• inventory control clerk
• inventory planner
• procurement clerk
• purchasing clerk
• purchasing clerk assistant
Exclusion(s)
• Purchasing agents and officers (1225)
• Retail and wholesale buyers (6222)
• Storekeepers and partspersons (1522)
• Supervisors of purchasing and inventory clerks (see 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and
scheduling co-ordination occupations)
Main duties
Purchasing control workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Review requisition orders for accuracy and verify that materials, equipment and stock are not available
from current inventories
• Source and obtain price quotations from catalogues and suppliers and prepare purchase orders
• Calculate cost of orders and charge or forward invoices to appropriate accounts
• Process purchases within purchasing authority
• Contact suppliers to schedule deliveries and to resolve shortages, missed deliveries and other problems
• Prepare and maintain purchasing files, reports and price lists.
Inventory control workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Monitor inventory levels as materials, equipment and stock are issued, transferred within an establishment
or sold to the public using manual or computerized inventory systems
• Compile inventory reports, recording the quantity, type and value of materials, equipment and stock on
hand, using manual or computerized inventory systems
• Prepare requisition orders to replenish materials, equipment and stock
• Maintain stock rotation and dispose of and account for outdated stock
• Enter data for production scheduling, stock replenishment/relocation and inventory adjustments
• Reconcile physical inventories with computer counts.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Courses in purchasing management may be required for purchasing clerks.
• Courses in production and inventory management and ability to operate a computerized inventory system
may be required for inventory clerks.
Additional information
• The duties of purchasing and inventory clerks may overlap in some establishments.
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• Progression to supervisory positions or more senior occupations such as purchasing agent or retail buyer
is possible with additional training or experience.
1525 Dispatchers
Dispatchers operate radios and other telecommunication equipment to dispatch emergency vehicles and to
co-ordinate the activities of drivers and other personnel. They are employed by police, fire and health departments,
other emergency service agencies, taxi, delivery and courier services, trucking and utilities companies, and other
commercial and industrial establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• 911 dispatcher
• alarm system dispatcher
• ambulance dispatcher
• emergency vehicle dispatcher
• inbound/outbound freight co-ordinator
• mobile equipment dispatcher
• radio operator
• taxi dispatcher
• tow truck dispatcher
• truck dispatcher
• utilities maintenance crew dispatcher
Exclusion(s)
• Air traffic controllers and related occupations (2272)
• Bus dispatchers (see 7305 Supervisors, motor transport and other ground transit operators)
• Railway traffic controllers and marine traffic regulators (2275)
• Supervisors of dispatchers (see 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination
occupations)
Main duties
Dispatchers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Receive requests for emergency assistance or service and contact ambulances, police and fire
departments, tow-trucks, and utility crews
• Process and transmit information and instructions to co-ordinate the activities of vehicle operators, crews
and equipment using a variety of computer-aided communications and dispatching equipment
• Dispatch personnel according to written schedules and work orders, or as required by emergency
situations
• Advise vehicle operators of route and traffic problems such as construction, accidents, congestion,
weather conditions, weight and size restrictions and other information
• Operate radio equipment to communicate with ships, aircraft, mining crews, offshore oil rigs, logging
camps and other remote operations
• Monitor personnel workloads and locations
• Maintain vehicle operator work records using computerized or manual methods and ensure time sheets
and payroll summaries are completed accurately
• Maintain computer and manual records of mileage, fuel use, repairs and other expenses, and generate
reports.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Police and emergency dispatchers are required to complete formal on-the-job training. Other dispatchers
usually undergo some informal on-the-job training.
• Police and emergency dispatchers and other radio operators usually require provincial radio operator's
certificates.
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1526 Transportation route and crew schedulers
Transportation route and crew schedulers prepare operational and crew schedules for transportation equipment
and operating personnel. They are employed by municipal transit commissions, truck, delivery and courier
companies, railways, airlines and by other transportation establishments in both the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• bus scheduler
• crew scheduler, transportation
• flight crew scheduler
• schedule analyst
• schedule writer, transportation
• train scheduler
• transit scheduler
• truck scheduler
Exclusion(s)
• Flight schedulers managers (see 0731 Managers in transportation)
• Production schedulers in manufacturing establishments (see 1523 Production logistics co-ordinators)
• Scheduling technicians in manufacturing (see 2233 Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists
and technicians)
• Supervisors of transportation route and crew schedulers (see 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and
scheduling co-ordination occupations)
Main duties
Transportation route and crew schedulers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Review schedule requisitions, passenger counts and cargo, running times, distances, personnel
availability and other pertinent information to establish schedule parameters
• Design new or modify existing schedules using computer software or other methods
• Incorporate into route plan factors such as peak travel periods, holidays, special events and construction
with emphasis on time and cost efficiency
• Assign personnel to equipment and routes and schedule work shifts
• Compile equipment and personnel records, including hours in service, distances, maintenance, repairs
required and other data, to produce operating reports
• May prepare user guides and other public service information.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Several years of experience in an appropriate transportation sector are usually required.
• On-the-job training may be provided.
Additional information
• Mobility between occupations in this group is limited due to the requirement of specific transportation
sector experience.
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
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2 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations
21 Professional occupations in natural and applied sciences
211 Physical science professionals
2111 Physicists and astronomers
Physicists conduct theoretical and applied research to extend knowledge of natural phenomena and to develop new
processes and devices in fields such as electronics, communications, power generation and distribution,
aerodynamics, optics and lasers, remote sensing, biotechnology, medicine and health. They are employed by
electronic, electrical and aerospace manufacturing companies, telecommunications companies, power utilities,
university and government research laboratories, hospitals and by a wide range of other processing, manufacturing,
and research and consulting firms. Astronomers conduct observational and theoretical research to extend
knowledge of the universe. They are employed by government and universities.
Illustrative example(s)
• acoustics physicist
• aerodynamicist
• astronomer
• astrophysicist
• atmospheric physicist
• biophysicist
• cosmologist
• experimental physicist
• health physicist
• medical physicist
• metrologist
• nuclear physicist
• optics physicist
• plasma physicist
• radio astronomer
• research scientist, aerospace
• research scientist, electronics
• research scientist, physics
• research scientist, remote sensing
• solid-state physicist
Exclusion(s)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Atmospheric physicists (see 2114 Meteorologists and climatologists)
• Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2147)
• Geophysicists and physical oceanographers (see 2113 Geoscientists and oceanographers)
Main duties
Physicists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Design and conduct research in experimental and theoretical physics
• Carry out analysis of research data and prepare research reports
• Participate as a member of a research or development team in the design and development of
experimental, industrial or medical equipment, instrumentation and procedures.
Physicists may specialize in fields such as aeronomy and space, acoustics, atomic and molecular physics,
biophysics, condensed matter or solid state physics, electromagnetics, fluids and aerodynamics, health
physics, medical physics, metrology, particle physics, optics and laser physics, nuclear physics and plasma
physics.
Astronomers perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Design and conduct observational surveys, conduct detailed analyses and develop numerical models to
extend knowledge of celestial bodies and cosmic radiation
• Develop or participate in the development of instrumentation and software for astronomical observation
and analysis.
Astronomers may specialize in fields such as astrophysics, observational or optical astronomy and radio
astronomy.
Employment requirements
• Physicists usually require a master's or doctoral degree in a field of physics, engineering physics, or in a
related discipline.
• Astronomers usually require a master's or doctoral degree in astronomy or in a related discipline.
Additional information
• Mobility between specializations within physics and within astronomy is possible with experience.
• Physicists may work closely with and perform some of the duties of engineers.
• Mobility is possible to the fields of meteorology, geophysics and other fields of science.
• Progression to management positions is possible with experience.
2112 Chemists
Chemists conduct research and analysis in support of industrial operations, product and process development,
quality control, environmental control, medical diagnosis and treatment, biotechnology, nanotechnology and other
applications. They also conduct theoretical, experimental and applied research into basic chemical and biochemical
processes to create or synthesize new products and processes. Chemists are employed in research, development
and quality control laboratories; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries; mineral, metal and pulp
and paper industries; and a wide variety of manufacturing, utility, health, educational and government
establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• agricultural chemist
• analytical chemist
• bioanalytical chemist
• biochemist
• chemist
• clinical chemist
• coatings chemist
• electrochemist
• environmental chemist
• food chemist
• inorganic chemist
• medicinal chemist
• nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopist
• oceanographic chemist
• organic chemist
• organic mass spectrometrist
• organometallic chemist
• pharmacological chemist
• physical chemist
• polymer chemist
• quality control chemist
• research chemist
• soil chemist
• textile chemist
• theoretical chemist
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Exclusion(s)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Chemical engineers (2134)
• Geochemists (see 2113 Geoscientists and oceanographers)
• Metallurgists and material scientists (see 2115 Other professional occupations in physical sciences)
• Molecular biologists (see 2121 Biologists and related scientists)
Main duties
Chemists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Analyze, synthesize, purify, modify and characterize chemical or biochemical compounds
• Develop and conduct programs of analysis to ensure quality control of raw materials, chemical
intermediates or final products
• Conduct programs of sample and data collection and analysis to identify and quantify environmental
toxicants
• Conduct research to develop new chemical formulations and processes and devise new technical
applications of industrial chemicals and compounds
• Conduct research to discover, develop, refine and evaluate new products such as those used in
nanomedicine, nanoelectronics and other applications of chemistry
• Conduct fundamental and applied research into the synthesis and properties of chemical compounds and
the mechanisms of chemical reactions
• Investigate chemical aspects of the mechanisms of drug action, the diagnosis and treatment of disease,
organ function and the assessment of health
• Participate in interdisciplinary research and development projects working with chemical engineers,
biologists, microbiologists, agronomists, geologists or other professionals
• Act as technical consultant in a particular field of expertise
• May participate in the commercialization of new products
• May supervise other chemists and chemical technicians and technologists.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in chemistry, biochemistry or a related discipline is required.
• A master's or doctoral degree is usually required for employment as a research chemist.
• Licensing by a provincial association of chemists is required in Quebec, and available but voluntary in
Nova Scotia, Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia.
Additional information
• Mobility between occupations in this group is possible with experience.
• Mobility is possible with experience, to occupations concerned with plant management, technical sales and
the development and management of regulatory programs and teaching professions.
2113 Geoscientists and oceanographers
Geoscientists include geologists, geochemists and geophysicists who conduct programs of exploration and
research to extend knowledge of the structure, composition and processes of the earth, to locate, identify and
extract hydrocarbon, mineral and groundwater resources and to assess and mitigate the effects of development
and waste disposal projects on the environment. Oceanographers conduct programs of exploration and research on
ocean processes and phenomena, biological, chemical and physical characteristics of oceans, interactions with
atmospheric and geological environments and impacts of human activity on oceans and marine ecosystems.
Geoscientists are employed by petroleum and mining companies, consulting geology, geophysics and engineering
firms and by governments and educational institutions, or they may be self-employed. Oceanographers are
employed by governments, educational institutions and private companies engaged in exploration of seafloor
deposits and seafarming areas, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• development geologist
• environmental geologist
• exploration geologist
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geochemist
geologist
geophysicist
glaciologist
groundwater geologist
hydrogeologist
hydrologist
mine geologist
mineralogist
oceanographer
paleontologist
petroleum geologist
petrologist
sedimentologist
seismologist
stratigrapher
Exclusion(s)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Biologists and related scientists (2121)
• Chemists (2112)
• Geological engineers (2144)
• Managers in natural resources production and fishing (0811)
• Physicists and astronomers (2111)
Main duties
Geoscientists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct theoretical and applied research to extend knowledge of surface and subsurface features of the
earth, its history and the operation of physical, chemical and biological systems that control its evolution
• Plan, direct and participate in geological, geochemical and geophysical field studies, drilling and geological
testing programs
• Plan and conduct seismic, electromagnetic, magnetic, gravimetric, radiometric, radar and other remote
sensing programs
• Plan, direct and participate in analyses of geological, geochemical and geophysical survey data, well logs
and other test results, maps, notes and cross sections
• Develop models and applied software for the analysis and interpretation of data
• Plan and conduct analytical studies of core samples, drill cuttings and rock samples to identify chemical,
mineral, hydrocarbon and biological composition and to assess depositional environments and geological
age
• Assess the size, orientation and composition of mineral ore bodies and hydrocarbon deposits
• Identify deposits of construction materials and determine their characteristics and suitability for use as
concrete aggregates, road fill or for other applications
• Conduct geological and geophysical studies for regional development and advise in areas such as site
selection, waste management and restoration of contaminated sites
• Recommend the acquisition of lands, exploration and mapping programs and mine development
• Identify and advise on anticipated natural risks such as slope erosion, landslides, soil instability,
subsidence, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
• May supervise and co-ordinate well drilling, completion and work-overs and mining activities.
Geologists may specialize in fields such as coal geology, environmental geology, geochronology, hydrogeology,
mineral deposits or mining, petroleum geology, stratigraphy, tectonics, volcanology or in other fields.
Geochemists may specialize in analytical geochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, mineral or petroleum
geochemistry or in other fields.
Geophysicists may specialize in areas, such as petroleum geology, earth physics, geodesy,
geoelectromagnetism, seismology or in other fields.
Oceanographers perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Conduct theoretical and applied oceanographic research programs and expeditions to extend knowledge
of the physical, chemical and biological properties and functioning of oceans
• Plan, direct and participate in sampling and analysis of seawater, plankton, fish, sediments and rocks
• Study physical properties of oceans to develop models, charts and computer simulations of ocean
conditions, such as tides, waves, currents and sediment transport
• Explore ocean floor and submarine geological structures, conduct seismic surveys and study formation of
ocean basins and other structures to map ocean floor, coastal erosion, sediment accumulation and areas
for offshore oil and gas exploration
• Plan and conduct investigations on ocean chemical properties and processes, ocean floor and marine
atmosphere and undersea volcanoes to study impacts of environmental changes
• Study marine life and interaction with physical and chemical environments to assess impacts of pollutants
on marine ecology and to develop ecologically-based methods of seafarming.
Oceanographers may specialize in biological, chemical, geological or physical oceanography, or in other fields
related to the study of oceans.
Employment requirements
• Geoscientists require a university degree in geology, geochemistry, geophysics or a related discipline.
• A master's or doctoral degree in geophysics, physics, mathematics or engineering may be required for
employment as a geophysicist.
• Registration with a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers, geologists, geophysicists
or geoscientists is usually required for employment and is mandatory to practice in Newfoundland and
Labrador, Alberta, British Columbia, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
• Geologists and geophysicists are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited
educational program and after several years of supervised work experience and, in some provinces, after
passing a professional practice examination.
• Oceanographers require a university degree in science, mathematics, statistics or engineering and usually
require a graduate degree in oceanography.
Additional information
• Mobility between specializations in this group is possible with experience.
• Progression to supervisory or higher level positions is possible with experience in this unit group.
• Advancement to management positions in mining, petroleum and other industries is possible with
experience.
2114 Meteorologists and climatologists
Meteorologists and climatologists analyze and forecast weather, provide consultation on atmospheric phenomena
and conduct research into the processes and phenomena of weather, climate and atmosphere. They are employed
by all levels of government, natural resources and utility companies, the media and private consulting firms, or they
may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• air quality meteorologist
• climatologist
• hydrometeorologist
• meteorologist
• operational meteorologist
• weather forecaster
Exclusion(s)
• Announcers who broadcast weather forecasts (see 5231 Announcers and other broadcasters)
Main duties
Meteorologists and climatologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Analyze and interpret data obtained from meteorological stations, radar and satellite imagery and
computer model output
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• Produce weather forecasts and provide weather consulting services for industries such as aviation,
marine, agriculture and tourism, and to the general public
• Disseminate weather forecasts and reports to the general public through a variety of media including radio,
television, print and the Internet
• Conduct research and provide consultation on the processes and determinants of atmospheric
phenomena, weather and climate, atmospheric dispersion, and physical and chemical transformation of
pollutants
• Develop and test mathematical computer models of weather and climate for experimental or operational
use
• Analyze the impact of industrial projects and human activity on the climate and quality of the air and work
with the social science, engineering and economic communities to develop appropriate mitigation
strategies
• Participate in studies of the effect of weather on the environment
• Provide consultation and advice to outside agencies, professionals, or researchers regarding the use and
interpretation of climatological information
• Make scientific presentations, publish reports, articles or popular texts for specialists, users or the general
public
• May engage in the design and development of new equipment and procedures for meteorological data
collection, remote sensing, or for related applications.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's or master's degree in meteorology, atmospheric sciences or in a related field is required.
• A doctoral degree is usually required for employment as a research scientist in meteorology.
• Formal training is provided by Environment Canada for operational meteorologists employed by the federal
government.
• Membership in the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society or, in Quebec, in l'Association
professionelle des météorologistes du Québec is available, but voluntary, for qualified meteorologists.
2115 Other professional occupations in physical sciences
This group includes metallurgists, soil scientists and physical scientists and researchers, not elsewhere classified,
involved in the conduct of theoretical and applied research in fields of physical science. They are employed by
governments, educational institutions and a wide range of industrial establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• astronaut
• ballistics examiner
• materials scientist
• metallurgist
• physical metallurgist
• research scientist - ceramics
• research scientist - composite materials
• soil scientist
Exclusion(s)
• Air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors (2271)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Chemists (2112)
• Metallurgical and materials engineers (2142)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Metallurgists conduct studies into the properties and production of metals and alloys.
• Soil scientists conduct research into the composition, distribution and evolution of soils.
• Materials scientists conduct research into the properties, composition and production of materials such as
ceramics and composite materials.
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• Astronauts command, pilot or serve as crew members of a spacecraft to conduct scientific experiments
and research, and participate in space missions as mission specialists to maintain spacecraft, install and
repair space station equipment and launch and recapture satellites.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in metallurgy, physics, chemistry, or a related physical science discipline is required.
• A master's or doctoral degree is usually required for employment as a research scientist.
• Advanced degrees in a broad range of applied science areas, such as engineering or medicine
or
Licences may be required for some occupations in this unit group.
Additional information
• Mobility between specializations in this group may be possible with experience.
• Mobility is possible with experience, to other fields of physical science or to management or regulatory
program management.
212 Life science professionals
2121 Biologists and related scientists
Biologists and related scientists conduct basic and applied research to extend knowledge of living organisms, to
manage natural resources, and to develop new practices and products related to medicine and agriculture. They
are employed in both laboratory and field settings by governments, environmental consulting companies, resource
and utilities companies, chemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnical companies and health and educational
institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• anatomist
• bacteriologist
• bioinformatician
• biologist
• botanist
• cell biologist
• ecologist
• embryologist
• geneticist
• histologist
• immunologist
• marine biologist
• microbiologist
• molecular biologist
• mycologist
• parasitologist
• pharmacologist
• physiologist
• protozoologist
• toxicologist
• virologist
• zoologist
Exclusion(s)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Biochemists (see 2112 Chemists)
• Specialists in laboratory medicine (see 3111 Specialist physicians)
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Main duties
Biologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan and conduct studies of the environment, and of the population, distribution, structure and functional
characteristics and behaviour of plants and animals
• Conduct ecological and environmental impact studies and prepare reports
• Study, identify and classify plant and animal specimens
• Conduct experiments in plant or animal growth, heredity and breeding
• Prepare reports and plans for management of renewable resources
• May supervise biological technologists and technicians and other scientists.
Microbiologists and cell and molecular biologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct research into the structure, function, ecology, biotechnology and genetics of micro-organisms,
including bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and algae
• Conduct research into the structure and functioning of human, animal and plant tissues and cells
• Conduct studies into the identification, effects and control of human, plant and animal pathogens and
toxins
• Conduct clinical or laboratory studies to test, evaluate and screen drugs, pharmaceuticals and
nanoparticles used in biomedical applications
• Conduct molecular or biochemical studies and experiments in genetic expression, gene manipulation and
recombinant DNA technology to develop new or alternative methods of producing products
• Conduct research in biotechnology to discover, develop and refine, and evaluate new products
• May participate in the commercialization of new products
• May supervise biological technologists and technicians and other scientists
• May conduct biostatistical data analysis using computer modelling techniques.
Biologists and related scientists may specialize at the macroscopic level, in fields such as botany, zoology,
ecology and marine biology or, at the cellular and molecular level, in fields such as genetics, immunology,
pharmacology, toxicology, physiology, pathology, bacteriology, virology, biotechnology and bioinformatics.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in biology or in a related discipline is required for biologists.
• A master's or doctoral degree in biology or a related discipline is required for employment as a research
scientist in biology.
• Post-doctoral research experience is usually required before employment in academic departments or
research institutions.
2122 Forestry professionals
Forestry professionals conduct research, develop plans and administer and direct programs related to the
management and harvesting of forest resources. They are employed by the forest industry, provincial and federal
governments, consulting companies, educational institutions and other industries, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• appraisal forester
• consulting forester
• district forester
• forest engineer
• forester
• forestry superintendent
• regional inventory officer - forestry
• registered professional forester (RPF)
Exclusion(s)
• Forest economists (see 4162 Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts)
• Forestry and woodlands operations managers (see 0811 Managers in natural resources production and
fishing)
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• Managers of government forestry policy and program administration (see 0412 Government managers economic analysis, policy development and program administration)
• Managers of research in forestry (see 0212 Architecture and science managers)
Main duties
Forestry professionals perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan and direct forest surveys and related studies and prepare reports and recommendations
• Establish short- and long-term plans for management of forest lands and forest resources
• Plan and direct woodlands harvesting, reforestation, silviculture and fire prevention and fire suppression
programs, road building, wildlife management, environmental protection and insect and vegetation control
programs
• Negotiate terms and conditions of agreements and contracts for forest harvesting, forest management and
leasing of forest lands
• Monitor contract compliance and results of forestry activities
• Ensure adherence to government regulations and company objectives
• Plan and conduct public relations programs, and education and extension programs related to forestry
• Develop and oversee programs for tree seedling production and woodlands nursery operations
• Conduct advanced research in the areas of tree improvement, nursery seedling production, forest soils,
forest ecology, forest mensuration, forest operations and other areas
• Provide advice and recommendations, as a consultant on forestry issues, to private woodlot owners,
municipal, provincial or federal governments or to companies.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in forestry or forestry engineering is required.
• Certification as a forester or forest engineer by provincially chartered associations is required in provinces
having such associations.
• A two-year practicum of supervised work experience and professional examinations are usually required
before registration.
Additional information
• Supervisory and senior occupations in this unit group require additional experience.
• With experience, mobility is possible to management positions in government and industry.
2123 Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists
Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists provide assistance and advice to farmers on all aspects of
farm management, cultivation, fertilization, harvesting, soil erosion and composition, disease prevention, nutrition,
crop rotation and marketing. They are employed by businesses, institutions and governments that assist the
farming community, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• agricultural consultant
• agricultural extension supervisor
• agricultural livestock specialist
• agricultural representative
• agricultural soil and crop specialist
• agriculturist
• agrologist
• agronomist
• consulting agrologist
• crop specialist
• farm management consultant
• field service adviser - agriculture
• field service agent - agriculture
• growers' advisor
• professional agrologist (P.Ag.)
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Exclusion(s)
• Agricultural engineers (see 2148 Other professional engineers, n.e.c.)
• Agrology technologists and technicians (see 2221 Biological technologists and technicians)
• Biologists and related scientists (2121)
• Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists (2225)
• Managers of agricultural extension and consulting services (see 0212 Architecture and science managers)
• Managers responsible for agricultural economic policy (see 0412 Government managers - economic
analysis, policy development and program administration)
Main duties
Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Provide counselling and advisory services to farmers on crop cultivation and fertilization, harvesting,
animal and poultry care, disease prevention, farm management, farm financing, marketing and other
agricultural subjects
• Prepare and conduct advisory information sessions and lectures for farmers and other groups
• Conduct research, analyze agricultural data and prepare research reports
• Liaise with researchers, educators and government or business managers on matters pertaining to farming
and agriculture
• Maintain records of services provided and the effects of advice given.
Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists may specialize in specific aspects of agriculture such
as animal science, field crops, horticulture, soil science, irrigation or drainage, farm management, marketing,
agricultural economics, land use, and environmental management, appraisal or extension and education.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's or master's degree in agriculture or in a related science is required.
• Membership or eligibility for membership in a provincial institute of agrology is usually required.
• In Quebec, membership in the Ordre professionnel des agronomes is mandatory.
Additional information
• Progression to management positions is possible with experience.
213 Civil, mechanical, electrical and chemical engineers
2131 Civil engineers
Civil engineers plan, design, develop and manage projects for the construction or repair of buildings, earth
structures, powerhouses, roads, airports, railways, rapid transit facilities, bridges, tunnels, canals, dams, ports and
coastal installations and systems related to highway and transportation services, water distribution and sanitation.
Civil engineers may also specialize in foundation analysis, building and structural inspection, surveying, geomatics
and municipal planning. Civil engineers are employed by engineering consulting companies, in all levels of
government, by construction firms and in many other industries, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• bridge engineer
• civil engineer
• construction engineer
• environmental engineer
• geodetic engineer
• geomatics engineer
• highway engineer
• hydraulics engineer
• municipal engineer
• project engineer, construction
• public works engineer
• sanitation engineer
• structural engineer
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surveying engineer
traffic engineer
transportation engineer
water management engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Chemical environmental engineers (see 2134 Chemical engineers)
• Construction managers (0711)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Geological engineers (2144)
• Managers in transportation (0731)
Main duties
Civil engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Confer with clients and other members of the engineering team and conduct research to determine project
requirements
• Plan and design major civil projects such as buildings, roads, bridges, dams, water and waste
management systems and structural steel fabrications
• Develop construction specifications and procedures
• Evaluate and recommend appropriate building and construction materials
• Interpret, review and approve survey and civil design work
• Conduct field services for civil works
• Ensure construction plans meet guidelines and specifications of building codes and other regulations
• Establish and monitor construction work schedules
• Conduct feasibility studies, economic analyses, municipal and regional traffic studies, environmental
impact studies or other investigations
• Monitor air, water and soil quality and develop procedures to clean up contaminated sites
• Conduct technical analyses of survey and field data for development of topographic, soil, hydrological or
other information and prepare reports
• Act as project or site supervisor for land survey or construction work
• Prepare contract documents and review and evaluate tenders for construction projects
• Supervise technicians, technologists and other engineers and review and approve designs, calculations
and cost estimates.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in civil engineering or in a related engineering discipline is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
• Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification is offered by the Canada Green
Building Council and may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• There is considerable mobility between civil engineering specializations at the less senior levels.
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
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2132 Mechanical engineers
Mechanical engineers research, design and develop machinery and systems for heating, ventilating and air
conditioning, power generation, transportation, processing and manufacturing. They also perform duties related to
the evaluation, installation, operation and maintenance of mechanical systems. Mechanical engineers are employed
by consulting firms, by power-generating utilities and in a wide range of manufacturing, processing and
transportation industries, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• acoustics engineer
• automotive engineer
• design engineer - mechanical
• energy conservation engineer
• engineer, power generation
• fluid mechanics engineer
• heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineer
• mechanical engineer
• mechanical maintenance engineer
• nuclear engineer
• piping engineer
• refrigeration engineer
• robotics engineer
• thermal design engineer
• tool engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Industrial and manufacturing engineers (2141)
• Metallurgical and materials engineers (2142)
• Power engineers or stationary engineers (see 9241 Power engineers and power systems operators)
Main duties
Mechanical engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct research into the feasibility, design, operation and performance of mechanisms, components and
systems
• Plan and manage projects, and prepare material, cost and timing estimates, reports and design
specifications for machinery and systems
• Design power plants, machines, components, tools, fixtures and equipment
• Analyze dynamics and vibrations of mechanical systems and structures
• Supervise and inspect the installation, modification and commissioning of mechanical systems at
construction sites or in industrial facilities
• Develop maintenance standards, schedules and programs and provide guidance to industrial maintenance
crews
• Investigate mechanical failures or unexpected maintenance problems
• Prepare contract documents and evaluate tenders for industrial construction or maintenance
• Supervise technicians, technologists and other engineers and review and approve designs, calculations
and cost estimates.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering or in a related engineering discipline is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
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Additional information
• There is considerable mobility between mechanical engineering specializations at the less senior levels.
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Mechanical engineers work closely with civil, electrical, aerospace, chemical, industrial and other
engineers, and mobility is possible between some fields of specialization in these disciplines.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
2133 Electrical and electronics engineers
Electrical and electronics engineers design, plan, research, evaluate and test electrical and electronic equipment
and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of electrical and
electronic equipment, consulting firms, and by a wide range of manufacturing, processing and transportation
industries and government.
Illustrative example(s)
• avionics engineer
• control systems engineer
• design engineer, electrical
• distribution planning engineer, electrical
• electrical engineer
• electrical network engineer
• electronics engineer
• instrumentation and control engineer
• planning engineer, electrical systems
• process control engineer, electrical
• roadway lighting design engineer
• television systems engineer
• test engineer, electronics
Exclusion(s)
• Computer and information systems managers (0213)
• Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2147)
• Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians (2241)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Software engineers and designers (2173)
Main duties
Electrical and electronics engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct research into the feasibility, design, operation and performance of electrical generation and
distribution networks, electrical machinery and components and electronic communications,
instrumentation and control systems, equipment, and components
• Prepare material cost and timing estimates, reports and design specifications for electrical and electronic
systems and equipment
• Design electrical and electronic circuits, components, systems and equipment
• Conduct micro or nanodevices simulations, characterization, process modeling and integration in the
development of new electronic devices and products
• Supervise and inspect the installation, modification, testing and operation of electrical and electronic
systems and equipment
• Develop maintenance and operating standards for electrical and electronic systems and equipment
• Investigate electrical or electronic failures
• Prepare contract documents and evaluate tenders for construction or maintenance
• Supervise technicians, technologists, programmers, analysts and other engineers.
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Electrical and electronics engineers may specialize in a number of areas including electrical design for
residential, commercial or industrial installations, electrical power generation and transmission, and
instrumentation and control systems.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in electrical or electronics engineering or in an appropriate related engineering
discipline is required.
• A master's or doctoral degree in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
• Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification is offered by the Canada Green
Building Council and may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
2134 Chemical engineers
Chemical engineers research, design, and develop chemical processes and equipment, oversee the operation and
maintenance of industrial chemical, plastics, pharmaceutical, resource, pulp and paper, and food processing plants
and perform duties related to chemical quality control, environmental protection and biochemical or biotechnical
engineering. Chemical engineers are employed in a wide range of manufacturing and processing industries,
consulting firms, government, research and educational institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• adhesives engineer
• biochemical engineer
• biotechnical engineer
• chemical engineer, environmental
• chemical process engineer
• industrial hygiene engineer
• industrial waste treatment engineer
• liquid fuels engineer
• petrochemical engineer
• polymer engineer
• process control engineer, chemical
• project engineer, chemical
• pulp and paper engineer
• refinery engineer
• waste treatment engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Agricultural and biomedical engineers (see 2148 Other professional engineers, n.e.c.)
• Chemists (2112)
• Civil environmental engineers (see 2131 Civil engineers)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Metallurgical and materials engineers (2142)
• Petroleum engineers (2145)
• Process control engineers with electrical or electronic specialization (see 2133 Electrical and electronics
engineers)
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Main duties
Chemical engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct economic and technical feasibility studies in areas related to chemical, petroleum, pulp and
paper, food or other processing industries
• Conduct research into the development or improvement of chemical engineering processes, reactions and
materials
• Evaluate chemical process technology and equipment and determine production specifications
• Design and test chemical processing and associated plants and equipment
• Oversee the construction, modification, operation and maintenance of pilot plants, processing units or
processing plants
• Establish and conduct quality control programs, operating procedures and control strategies to ensure
consistency and adherence to standards for raw materials, products and waste products or emissions
• Prepare contract documents and evaluate tenders for the process aspects of industrial construction
• Supervise technicians, technologists and other engineers
• May work in an administrative capacity, for example, in the development of guidelines and specifications
for the handling of dangerous chemicals, environmental protection, or standards for foods, materials and
consumer goods.
Chemical engineers may specialize in the products and processes of a particular industry such as pulp and
paper manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, energy processing, plastics, metal extraction and
refining, or adhesives and coatings production. They may also specialize in functional areas of various
industries such as process control, pollution control or fermentation processes.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in chemical engineering or in a related engineering discipline is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
Additional information
• There is considerable mobility between chemical engineering specializations at the less senior levels.
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
• Chemical engineers work closely with chemists and other scientists and engineers and mobility is possible
between some fields of specialization.
214 Other engineers
2141 Industrial and manufacturing engineers
Industrial and manufacturing engineers conduct studies, and develop and supervise programs to achieve the best
use of equipment, human resources, technology, materials and procedures to enhance efficiency and productivity.
Industrial and manufacturing engineers are employed in consulting firms, manufacturing and processing
companies, in government, financial, health care and other institutions, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• engineer, computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)
• fire prevention engineer
• industrial engineer
• manufacturing engineer
• plant engineer
• production engineer
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• quality control engineer
• safety engineer
• work measurement engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2147)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Mechanical engineers (2132)
• Metallurgical and materials engineers (2142)
• Organizational analysts (see 1122 Professional occupations in business management consulting)
Main duties
Industrial and manufacturing engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan and design plant layouts and facilities
• Study new machinery and facilities and recommend or select efficient combinations
• Develop flexible or integrated manufacturing systems and procedures
• Conduct studies and implement programs to determine optimum inventory levels for production and to
allow optimum utilization of machinery, materials and resources
• Analyze costs of production
• Design, develop and conduct time studies and work simplification programs
• Determine human resource and skill requirements and develop training programs
• Develop performance standards, evaluation systems and wage and incentive programs
• Conduct studies of the reliability and performance of plant facilities and production or administrative
systems
• Develop maintenance standards, schedules and programs
• Establish programs and conduct studies to enhance industrial health and safety or to identify and correct
fire and other hazards
• Evaluate or assess industrial facilities
• Supervise technicians, technologists, analysts, administrative staff and other engineers.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in industrial engineering or in a related engineering discipline is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
Additional information
• Industrial engineers develop and implement organizational and management systems, and manufacturing
engineers design production processes.
• There is considerable mobility between industrial engineering specializations at the less senior levels.
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
2142 Metallurgical and materials engineers
Metallurgical and materials engineers conduct studies of the properties and characteristics of metals and other
non-metallic materials and plan, design and develop machinery and processes to concentrate, extract, refine and
process metals, alloys and other materials such as ceramics, semiconductors and composite materials.
Metallurgical and materials engineers are employed in consulting engineering firms, mining, metal processing and
manufacturing companies, and in government, research and educational institutions.
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Illustrative example(s)
• ceramics engineer
• corrosion engineer
• electrometallurgical engineer
• foundry engineer
• hydrometallurgical engineer
• materials engineer
• metallurgical engineer
• physical metallurgical engineer
• pyrometallurgical engineer
• welding engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Chemical engineers (2134)
• Chemists (2112)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Mining engineers (2143)
• Physical metallurgists and materials scientists (see 2115 Other professional occupations in physical
sciences)
Main duties
Metallurgical and materials engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct studies and design, develop and specify the processes, and machinery to concentrate, extract,
refine and process metals from ores
• Conduct studies on the properties and characteristics of materials and design, develop and specify
processes for moulding, shaping, forming and thermal treatment of metals, alloys and metallic systems,
ceramics, semiconducting and other materials
• Conduct chemical and physical analytical studies, failure analyses and other studies and recommend
material selection, design of materials, corrosion control measures, operational testing and other
procedures
• Co-ordinate production testing and control of metal refining, smelting or foundry operations or non-metallic
materials production operations
• Supervise technologists, technicians and other engineers and scientists.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in metallurgical, materials, ceramic or chemical engineering or in a related
engineering discipline is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
Additional information
• Metallurgical engineers research and develop new alloys and systems for extracting metal from ores;
materials engineers research and develop new non-metallic materials with physical characteristics to meet
specific requirements.
• There is considerable mobility between engineering specializations at the less senior levels.
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Metallurgical and materials engineers work closely with other engineers and scientists and mobility is
possible between some fields of specialization.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
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2143 Mining engineers
Mining engineers plan, design, organize and supervise the development of mines, mine facilities, systems and
equipment; and prepare and supervise the extraction of metallic or non-metallic minerals and ores from
underground or surface mines. Mining engineers are employed by mining companies, consulting engineering
companies, manufacturers, government and in educational and research institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• mine design engineer
• mine development engineer
• mine layout engineer
• mine production engineer
• mine safety engineer
• mine ventilation engineer
• mineral engineer
• mining engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Geological engineers (2144)
• Geoscientists and oceanographers (2113)
• Metallurgical and materials engineers (2142)
• Mine managers (see 0811 Managers in natural resources production and fishing)
• Petroleum engineers (2145)
Main duties
Mining engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct preliminary surveys and studies of ore, mineral or coal deposits to assess the economic and
environmental feasibility of potential mining operations
• Determine the appropriate means of safely and efficiently mining deposits
• Determine and advise on appropriate drilling and blasting methods for mining, construction or demolition
• Design shafts, ventilation systems, mine services, haulage systems and supporting structures
• Design, develop and implement computer applications such as for mine design, mine modelling, mapping
or for monitoring mine conditions
• Plan and design or select mining equipment and machinery and mineral treatment machinery and
equipment in collaboration with other engineering specialists
• Plan, organize and supervise the development of mines and mine structures and the operation and
maintenance of mines
• Prepare operations and project estimates, schedules and reports
• Implement and co-ordinate mine safety programs
• Supervise and co-ordinate the work of technicians, technologists, survey personnel, and other engineers
and scientists.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in mining engineering or in a related engineering discipline is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
Additional information
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Mining engineers work closely with geologists, geological engineers, metallurgical engineers, and other
engineers and scientists, and mobility is possible between some fields of specialization.
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• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
2144 Geological engineers
Geological engineers conduct geological and geotechnical studies to assess suitability of locations for civil
engineering, mining and oil and gas projects; and plan, design, develop and supervise programs of geological data
acquisition and analysis and the preparation of geological engineering reports and recommendations. Geological
engineers are employed in consulting engineering companies, electrical utilities, mining and petroleum companies
and in government and research and educational institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• geological engineer
• geophysical engineer
• hydrogeological engineer - engineering
Exclusion(s)
• Civil engineers (2131)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Geoscientists and oceanographers (2113)
• Land surveyors (2154)
• Mining engineers (2143)
• Petroleum engineers (2145)
Main duties
Geological engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan, develop and co-ordinate programs of geotechnical, geological, geophysical or geohydrological data
acquisition, analysis and mapping to assist in the development of civil engineering, mining, petroleum and
waste management projects or for regional development
• Analyze and prepare recommendations and reports for construction or improvements to foundations of
civil engineering projects such as rock excavation, pressure grouting and hydraulic channel erosion control
• Analyze and prepare recommendations and reports on settlement of buildings, stability of slopes and fills,
and probable effects of landslides and earthquakes to support construction and civil engineering projects
• Conduct theoretical and applied study of groundwater flow and contamination and develop prescriptions
for site selection, treatment and construction
• Plan, develop, co-ordinate and conduct theoretical and experimental studies in mining exploration, mine
evaluation and feasibility studies relative to the mining industry
• Conduct surveys and studies of ore deposits, ore reserve calculations and mine design
• Design, develop and implement computer applications for geophysics, geochemistry, geology, mapping
and related fields
• Supervise technologists, technicians and other engineers and scientists.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in geological engineering or in a related discipline is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, three
or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
Additional information
• There is considerable mobility between engineering specializations at the less senior levels.
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
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• Geological engineers work closely with geologists and other scientists and engineers, and mobility is
possible between some fields of specialization.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
2145 Petroleum engineers
Petroleum engineers conduct studies for the exploration, development and extraction of oil and gas deposits; and
plan, design, develop and supervise projects for the drilling, completion, testing and re-working of oil and gas wells.
They are employed by petroleum producing companies, consulting companies, well logging or testing companies,
government, and research and educational institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• drilling engineer, oil and gas
• petroleum engineer
• petroleum engineer, completion
• production engineer, oil and gas
• reservoir engineer, petroleum
• subsea engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Chemical engineers (2134)
• Contractors and supervisors, oil and gas drilling and services (8222)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Geological engineers (2144)
• Geoscientists and oceanographers (2113)
Main duties
Petroleum engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct feasibility assessment studies for developing new oil and gas fields
• Direct and monitor oil and gas drilling operations
• Develop drilling programs, select sites and specify drilling fluids, bit selection, drill stem testing procedures
and equipment
• Direct and monitor the completion and evaluation of wells, well testing and well surveys
• Design and select artificial lift machinery, and well and surface production equipment and systems, and
specify programs for corrosion control and oil or gas treatment
• Develop specifications for and monitor and supervise well modification and stimulation programs to
maximize oil and gas recovery
• Analyze reservoir rock and fluid data to design optimum recovery methods and to predict reservoir
performance and reserves
• Monitor and forecast oil and gas reservoir performance and recommend oil recovery techniques which
extend the economic life of wells
• Design, develop and co-ordinate the installation, maintenance and operation of subsea well-head and
production equipment.
Petroleum engineers may specialize in drilling, production, reservoir analysis or subsea operations.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in petroleum engineering or in a related engineering discipline is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
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Additional information
• There is mobility between petroleum engineering specializations at the less senior levels.
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
2146 Aerospace engineers
Aerospace engineers research, design and develop aerospace vehicles, aerospace systems and their components,
and perform duties related to their testing, evaluation, installation, operation and maintenance. They are employed
by aircraft and spacecraft manufacturers, air transport carriers, and in government and educational and research
institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• aerodynamics engineer
• aeronautical engineer
• aerospace engineer
• aircraft design engineer
• stress engineer - aerospace
• structural engineer, aerospace
• systems engineer, aerospace
• test engineer, aerospace
Exclusion(s)
• Aircraft maintenance engineers (AME) - avionics (see 2244 Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics
mechanics, technicians and inspectors)
• Aircraft maintenance engineers (AME) (see 7315 Aircraft mechanics and aircraft inspectors)
• Avionics engineers (see 2133 Electrical and electronics engineers)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Mechanical engineers (2132)
• Metallurgical and materials engineers (2142)
Main duties
Aerospace engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Design and develop aerospace vehicles, systems and components such as aircraft, spacecraft, missiles,
satellites and space-based communication systems
• Develop and conduct computer simulations of aerospace vehicles, systems and components using
advanced mathematical modelling
• Prepare specifications for materials and processes to be used in aerospace manufacturing, maintenance,
repair or modification
• Supervise and co-ordinate the manufacturing, assembly, modification, repair and overhaul of aircraft and
spacecraft
• Co-ordinate ground and flight tests of air and spacecraft
• Develop operational specifications, maintenance schedules and manuals for operators
• Develop the technical phases of logistical and operational support for aerospace vehicles and systems
• Investigate and report on structural or other component or system failures, accidents or incidents and
prepare recommendations for corrective action.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering or in a related engineering discipline, such as mechanical
engineering or engineering physics, is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
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• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
Additional information
• There is considerable mobility between aerospace engineering specializations at the less senior levels.
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Aerospace engineers work closely with other scientists and engineers and mobility is possible between
some fields of specialization.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
2147 Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers)
Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) research, plan, design, develop, modify, evaluate
and integrate computer and telecommunications hardware and related equipment, and information and
communication system networks including mainframe systems, local and wide area networks, fibre-optic networks,
wireless communication networks, intranets, the Internet and other data communications systems. They are
employed by computer and telecommunication hardware manufacturers, by engineering, manufacturing and
telecommunications firms, in information technology consulting firms, by governmental, educational and research
institutions and in information technology units throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• computer hardware engineer
• fibre-optic network designer
• hardware circuit board designer
• hardware development engineer
• hardware technical architect
• network test engineer
• systems designer - hardware
• telecommunications hardware engineer
• wireless communications network engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Computer and information systems managers (0213)
• Computer programmers and interactive media developers (2174)
• Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians (2241)
• Electrical and electronics engineers (2133)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Information systems analysts and consultants (2171)
• Software engineers and designers (2173)
• Web designers and developers (2175)
Main duties
Computer and telecommunications hardware engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Analyze user's requirements, and design and develop system architecture and specifications
• Research, design, develop and integrate computer and telecommunications hardware such as
microprocessors, integrated circuit boards and semiconductor lasers
• Develop and conduct design verification simulations and prototype bench tests of components
• Supervise, inspect and provide design support during the manufacturing, installation and implementation
of computer and telecommunications hardware
• Establish and maintain relationships with suppliers and clients
• May lead and co-ordinate teams of engineers, technologists, technicians and drafters in the design and
development of computer and telecommunications hardware.
Network system and data communication engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Research, design and develop information and communication system network architecture
• Research, evaluate and integrate network system and data communication hardware and software
• Assess, document and optimize the capacity and performance of information and communication system
networks
• May lead and co-ordinate teams of design professionals in the development and integration of information
and communication system architecture, hardware and software.
Computer engineers may specialize in a number of areas including analog and digital signal processing, fibre
optics, integrated circuits, lasers, microprocessors, microwaves and radio astronomy.
Employment requirements
• Computer engineers require a bachelor's degree in computer engineering, electrical or electronics
engineering, engineering physics or computer science.
• A master's or doctoral degree in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, three
or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
Additional information
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
2148 Other professional engineers, n.e.c.
This unit group includes agricultural and bio-resource engineers, biomedical engineers, engineering physicists and
engineering scientists, marine and naval engineers, textile engineers and other specialized engineering occupations
which are not classified elsewhere.
Illustrative example(s)
• agricultural engineer
• biomedical engineer
• bio-resource engineer
• engineering physicist
• engineering scientist
• food processing engineer
• marine engineer
• naval architect
• textile engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Biochemical and biotechnical engineers (see 2134 Chemical engineers)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Marine engineer officers - water transport (see 2274 Engineer officers, water transport)
• Physicists (see 2111 Physicists and astronomers)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Agricultural and bio-resource engineers design and develop machinery, structures, equipment and
systems related to agriculture and food processing.
• Biomedical engineers design and develop medical diagnostic and clinical instrumentation, equipment and
procedures; develop devices to assist persons with disabilities; advise hospital administrators on planning,
acquisition and use of medical equipment; and modify and install or supervise installation of equipment.
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• Engineering physicists and engineering scientists conduct research, develop processes, programs and
equipment to expand fundamental knowledge in the applied sciences and engineering and to support
advanced engineering and scientific applications.
• Marine and naval engineers design and develop marine vessels and floating structures and associated
marine power plants, propulsion systems and related systems and equipment and oversee the building,
maintenance and repair of vessels and marine systems.
• Textile engineers design and develop processes, equipment and procedures for the production of fibres,
yarns and textiles.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in an appropriate engineering discipline is required.
• A master's degree or doctorate in a related engineering discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports, and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, and
after three or four years of supervised work experience in engineering and passing a professional practice
examination.
Additional information
• There is limited mobility between the engineering specializations included in this unit group.
• Supervisory and senior positions in this unit group require experience.
• Engineers often work in a multidisciplinary environment and acquire knowledge and skills through work
experience that may allow them to practise in associated areas of science, engineering, sales, marketing
or management.
215 Architects, urban planners and land surveyors
2151 Architects
Architects conceptualize, plan and develop designs for the construction and renovation of commercial, institutional
and residential buildings. They are employed by architectural firms, private corporations and governments, or they
may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• architect
• architectural standards specialist
• chief architect
• consulting architect
• industrial and commercial buildings architect
• residential architect
Exclusion(s)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Database architects (see 2172 Database analysts and data administrators)
• Landscape architects (2152)
• Naval architects (see 2148 Other professional engineers, n.e.c.)
• Software architects (see 2173 Software engineers and designers)
• Structural engineers (see 2131 Civil engineers)
• Technical architects, hardware (see 2147 Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers))
Main duties
Architects perform some or all of the following duties:
• Consult with clients to determine the type, style and purpose of renovations or new building construction
being considered
• Conceptualize and design buildings and develop plans describing design specifications, building materials,
costs and construction schedules
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• Prepare sketches and models for clients
• Prepare or supervise the preparation of drawings, specifications and other construction documents for use
by contractors and tradespersons
• Prepare bidding documents, participate in contract negotiations and award construction contracts
• Monitor activities on construction sites to ensure compliance with specifications
• Conduct feasibility studies and financial analyses of building projects.
Architects may specialize in a particular type of construction such as residential, commercial, industrial or
institutional.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree from an accredited school of architecture
or
Completion of the syllabus of studies from the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC) is required.
• A master's degree in architecture may be required.
• Completion of a three-year internship under the supervision of a registered architect is required.
• Completion of the architect registration examination is required.
• Registration with the provincial association of architects in the province of work is required.
• Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification is offered by the Canada Green
Building Council and may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Progression to senior positions, such as chief architect, is possible with experience.
2152 Landscape architects
Landscape architects conceptualize landscape designs, develop contract documents and oversee the construction
of landscape development for commercial projects, office complexes, parks, golf courses and residential
development. They are employed by government environmental and development agencies, landscape consulting
firms and by architectural and engineering firms, or they are self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• golf course architect
• landscape architect
• landscape planner
Exclusion(s)
• Architects (2151)
• Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists (2225)
• Landscape architecture managers (see 0212 Architecture and science managers)
• Landscape design contractors (see 8255 Contractors and supervisors, landscaping, grounds maintenance
and horticulture services)
• Urban and land use planners (2153)
Main duties
Landscape architects perform some or all of the following duties:
• Confer with clients to determine design needs
• Survey and assess designated sites and develop designs taking into consideration landscape features,
buildings, climate, future usage and other aspects
• Prepare or oversee the preparation of detailed drawings for sites, including features such as trees, shrubs,
gardens, lighting, walkways, patios, decks, benches, fences, retaining walls and fountains
• Prepare or oversee preparation of site plans, reports, sketches, models, photographs, maps, land use
studies and design plans
• Estimate costs, prepare specifications and evaluate tenders for landscape construction projects
• Conduct environmental design studies, including environmental assessment, planning and the
preservation and re-creation of historical sites
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• Conduct community and neighbourhood physical planning studies, participate in multidisciplinary urban
design studies and prepare design guidelines
• May manage and supervise landscape construction work.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in landscape architecture is required.
• A master's degree in landscape architecture may be required.
• In Ontario and British Columbia, landscape architects require a two-year internship and the successful
completion of a provincial registration exam.
• In the remaining provinces and territories, landscape architects usually require two years of landscape
design experience and an interview by their respective provincial associations to receive association
certification.
• Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification is offered by the Canada Green
Building Council and may be required by some employers.
2153 Urban and land use planners
Urban and land use planners develop plans and recommend policies for managing land use, physical facilities and
associated services for urban and rural areas and remote regions. They are employed by all levels of government,
land developers, engineering and other consulting companies, or may work as private consultants.
Illustrative example(s)
• community and urban planner
• environmental planner
• land use planner
• municipal planner
• park planner
• planner
• recreation planner
• regional planner
• urban planner
Exclusion(s)
• Architects (2151)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Land surveyors (2154)
Main duties
Urban and land use planners perform some or all of the following duties:
• Compile and analyze data on demographic, economic, legal, political, cultural, sociological, physical and
other factors affecting land use
• Confer with municipal, provincial and federal authorities, civic leaders, social scientists, lawyers, land
developers, the public and special interest groups to formulate and develop land use or community plans
• Prepare and recommend land development concepts and plans for zoning, subdivisions, transportation,
public utilities, community facilities, parks, agricultural and other land uses
• Prepare plans for environmental protection, such as wildlife preserves, national and provincial parks, and
protection of watersheds
• Present plans to civic, rural and regional authorities and hold public meetings to present plans, proposals
or planning studies to the general public and special interest groups
• Review and evaluate proposals for land use and development plans and prepare recommendations
• Process application for land development permits and administer land use plans and zoning by-laws
• Formulate long-range objectives and policies relative to future land use and the protection of the
environment
• Supervise and co-ordinate work of urban planning technicians and technologists.
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Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in urban and regional planning, geography, architecture, engineering or a related
discipline is required.
• A master's degree in one of these disciplines may be required.
• Membership in the Canadian Institute of Planners is usually required.
• Membership in a provincial planning institute may be required in some provinces.
• Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification is offered by the Canada Green
Building Council and may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Progression to management positions in planning is possible with experience.
2154 Land surveyors
Land surveyors plan, direct and conduct legal surveys to establish the location of real property boundaries, contours
and other natural or human-made features, and prepare and maintain cross-sectional drawings, official plans,
records and documents pertaining to these surveys. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal
governments, private sector land surveying establishments, real estate development, natural resource, engineering
and construction firms, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• commissioned land surveyor
• land surveyor
• legal surveyor
• professional land surveyor
• property surveyor
Exclusion(s)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Engineering technologists and technicians who apply geotechnical and topographical information to land
use and urban planning (see 2231 Civil engineering technologists and technicians)
• Geomatics and survey engineers (see 2131 Civil engineers)
• Hydrographic surveyors (see 2113 Geoscientists and oceanographers)
• Land survey technologists and technicians (2254)
• Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology (2255)
• Urban and land use planners (2153)
Main duties
Land surveyors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop survey plans, methods and procedures for conducting legal surveys
• Plan, direct and supervise or conduct surveys to establish and mark legal boundaries of properties, parcels
of lands, provincial and Canada Lands, Aboriginal land claims, wellsites, mining claims, utility
rights-of-way, roadways and highways
• Survey and lay out subdivisions for rural and urban development
• Determine precise locations using electronic distance measuring equipment and global positioning
systems (GPS)
• Analyze, manage and display data using geographic information systems (GIS) and computer-aided
design and drafting (CAD)
• Record all measurements and other information obtained during survey activities
• Prepare or supervise the preparation and compilation of all data, plans, charts, records and documents
related to surveys of real property boundaries
• Certify and assume liability for surveys made to establish real property boundaries
• Advise, provide consultation and testify as an expert witness on matters related to legal surveys.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in geomatics engineering or survey engineering
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or
A college diploma in survey science or geomatics technology with additional academic credits and
successful completion of equivalent examinations set by a regional board of examiners for land surveyors
is required.
• A one- to three-year articling period is required.
• Successful completion of professional land surveyor examinations is required.
• A federal or provincial land surveyor's licence is required.
Additional information
• Federal statutes require a separate license from the Association of Canada Land Surveyors to survey
areas such as national parks, Aboriginal lands, offshore areas and northern territories.
216 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries
2161 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries
Mathematicians and statisticians research mathematical or statistical theories, and develop and apply mathematical
or statistical techniques for solving problems in such fields as science, engineering, business and social science.
Actuaries apply mathematics, statistics, probability and risk theory to assess potential financial impacts of future
events. Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries are employed by universities, governments, bank and trust
companies, insurance companies, pension benefit consulting firms, professional associations, and science and
engineering consulting firms.
Illustrative example(s)
• actuary
• biostatistician
• consulting actuary
• demographer
• insurance actuary
• mathematician
• statistical analyst
• statistician
Exclusion(s)
• Financial and investment analysts (1112)
• Financial auditors and accountants (1111)
• Financial managers (0111)
• Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers (0121)
• Other financial officers (1114)
• Statistical officers and related research support occupations (1254)
Main duties
Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries perform some or all of the following duties:
• Mathematicians conduct research to extend mathematical knowledge in traditional areas of mathematics
such as algebra, geometry, probability and logic and apply mathematical techniques to the solution of
problems in scientific fields such as physical science, engineering, computer science or other fields such
as operations research, business or management.
• Statisticians conduct research into the mathematical basis of the science of statistics, develop statistical
methodology and advise on the practical application of statistical methodology. They also apply statistical
theory and methods to provide information in scientific and other fields such as biological and agricultural
science, business and economics, physical sciences and engineering, and the social sciences.
• Actuaries apply mathematical models to forecast and calculate the probable future costs of insurance and
pension benefits. They design life, health, and property insurance policies, and calculate premiums,
contributions and benefits for insurance policies, and pension and superannuation plans. They may assist
investment fund managers in portfolio asset allocation decisions and risk management. They also use
these techniques to provide legal evidence on the value of future earnings.
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Employment requirements
• Mathematicians and statisticians usually require a graduate degree in mathematics or statistics.
• Actuaries usually require post-secondary education in actuarial science, mathematics, statistics,
economics, commerce or business administration.
• Actuaries are conferred fellowships through the Canadian Institute of Actuaries upon successful
completion of professional examinations
and
Three years of work experience in the actuarial field as an actuarial assistant or in a related position.
Additional information
• With experience, actuaries may progress to managerial positions in consulting, insurance and finance.
They may also be self-employed.
217 Computer and information systems professionals
2171 Information systems analysts and consultants
Information systems analysts and consultants analyze systems requirements, develop and implement information
systems development plans, policies and procedures, and provide advice on a wide range of information systems
issues. They are employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units
throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• computer systems analyst
• informatics consultant
• informatics security analyst
• information systems business analyst
• information systems quality assurance analyst
• IT (information technology) consultant
• management information systems (MIS) analyst
• systems auditor
• systems consultant
• systems security analyst
Exclusion(s)
• Computer and information systems managers (0213)
• Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2147)
• Computer programmers and interactive media developers (2174)
• Database analysts and data administrators (2172)
• Financial auditors and accountants (1111)
• Professional occupations in business management consulting (1122)
• Software engineers and designers (2173)
• Web designers and developers (2175)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Information systems business analysts and consultants confer with clients to identify and document
requirements, conduct business and technical studies, design, develop, integrate and implement
information systems business solutions, and provide advice on information systems strategy, policy,
management, security and service delivery.
• Systems security analysts confer with clients to identify and document requirements, assess physical and
technical security risks to data, software and hardware, and develop policies, procedures and contingency
plans to minimize the effects of security breaches.
• Information systems quality assurance analysts develop and implement policies and procedures
throughout the software development life cycle to maximize the efficiency, effectiveness and overall quality
of software products and information systems.
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• Systems auditors conduct independent third-party reviews to assess quality assurance practices, software
products and information systems.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in computer science, computer systems engineering, software engineering, business
administration or a related discipline
or
Completion of a college program in computer science is usually required.
• Experience as a computer programmer is usually required.
• Certification or training provided by software vendors may be required by some employers.
2172 Database analysts and data administrators
Database analysts design, develop and administer data management solutions using database management
software. Data administrators develop and implement data administration policy, standards and models. They are
employed in information technology consulting firms and in information technology units throughout the private and
public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• data administrator
• data custodian
• data dictionary administrator
• data warehouse analyst
• database administrator (DBA)
• database analyst
• database architect
• technical architect - database
Exclusion(s)
• Computer and information systems managers (0213)
• Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2147)
• Computer programmers and interactive media developers (2174)
• Information systems analysts and consultants (2171)
• Software engineers and designers (2173)
• Web designers and developers (2175)
Main duties
Database analysts perform some or all of the following duties:
• Collect and document user requirements
• Design and develop database architecture for information systems projects
• Design, construct, modify, integrate, implement and test data models and database management systems
• Conduct research and provide advice to other informatics professionals regarding the selection,
application and implementation of database management tools
• Operate database management systems to analyze data and perform data mining analysis.
• May lead, co-ordinate or supervise other workers in this group.
Data administrators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop and implement data administration policy, standards and models
• Research and document data requirements, data collection and administration policy, data access rules
and security
• Develop policies and procedures for network and/or Internet database access and usage and for the
backup and recovery of data
• Conduct research and provide advice to other information systems professionals regarding the collection,
availability, security and suitability of data
• Write scripts related to stored procedures and triggers
• May lead and co-ordinate teams of data administrators in the development and implementation of data
policies, standards and models.
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Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree, usually in computer science or in mathematics
or
Completion of a college program in computer science is usually required.
• Computer programming experience is usually required.
2173 Software engineers and designers
Software engineers and designers research, design, evaluate, integrate and maintain software applications,
technical environments, operating systems, embedded software, information warehouses and telecommunications
software. They are employed in information technology consulting firms, information technology research and
development firms, and information technology units throughout the private and public sectors, or they may be
self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• application architect
• computer software engineer
• embedded software engineer
• software architect
• software design engineer
• software design verification engineer
• software designer
• software testing engineer
• systems integration engineer - software
• technical architect - software
• telecommunications software engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Computer and information systems managers (0213)
• Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2147)
• Computer programmers and interactive media developers (2174)
• Database analysts and data administrators (2172)
• Electrical and electronics engineers (2133)
• Information systems analysts and consultants (2171)
• Information systems testing technicians (2283)
• Web designers and developers (2175)
Main duties
Software engineers and designers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Collect and document users' requirements and develop logical and physical specifications
• Research, evaluate and synthesize technical information to design, develop and test computer-based
systems
• Develop data, process and network models to optimize architecture and to evaluate the performance and
reliability of designs
• Plan, design and co-ordinate the development, installation, integration and operation of computer-based
systems
• Assess, test, troubleshoot, document, upgrade and develop maintenance procedures for operating
systems, communications environments and applications software
• May lead and co-ordinate teams of information systems professionals in the development of software and
integrated information systems, process control software and other embedded software control systems.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree, usually in computer science, computer systems engineering, software engineering or
mathematics
or
Completion of a college program in computer science is usually required.
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• A master's or doctoral degree in a related discipline may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association of professional engineers is required to approve
engineering drawings and reports and to practise as a Professional Engineer (P.Eng.).
• Engineers are eligible for registration following graduation from an accredited educational program, three
or four years of supervised work experience in engineering, and passing a professional practice
examination.
• Experience as a computer programmer is usually required.
2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers
Computer programmers write, modify, integrate and test computer code for microcomputer and mainframe software
applications, data processing applications, operating systems-level software and communications software.
Interactive media developers write, modify, integrate and test computer code for Internet applications,
computer-based training software, computer games, film, video and other interactive media. They are employed in
computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, and in information technology units
throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• application programmer
• business application programmer
• computer game developer
• computer programmer
• e-business (electronic business) software developer
• interactive media developer
• multimedia developer
• operating systems programmer
• programmer analyst
• scientific programmer
• software developer
• software programmer
• systems programmer
• Web programmer
Exclusion(s)
• Computer network technicians (2281)
• Database analysts and data administrators (2172)
• E-business managers (see 0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers)
• Graphic designers and illustrators (5241)
• Information systems analysts and consultants (2171)
• Information systems testing technicians (2283)
• Software engineers and designers (2173)
• Web designers and developers (2175)
Main duties
Computer programmers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Write, modify, integrate and test software code
• Maintain existing computer programs by making modifications as required
• Identify and communicate technical problems, processes and solutions
• Prepare reports, manuals and other documentation on the status, operation and maintenance of software
• Assist in the collection and documentation of user requirements
• Assist in the development of logical and physical specifications
• May lead and co-ordinate teams of computer programmers
• May research and evaluate a variety of software products.
Interactive media developers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Program animation software to predefined specifications for interactive CDs, DVDs, video game cartridges
and Internet-based applications
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Program special effects software for film and video applications
Write, modify, integrate and test software code for e-commerce and other Internet applications
Assist in the collection and documentation of user requirements
Assist in the development of logical and physical specifications
May lead and co-ordinate teams of interactive media developers
May research and evaluate a variety of interactive media software products.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in computer science or in another discipline with a significant programming
component
or
Completion of a college program in computer science is usually required.
• Specialization in programming for engineering and scientific applications requires specific post-secondary
study or experience.
Additional information
• Progression to information systems analyst, software engineer or Web designer is possible with
experience.
2175 Web designers and developers
Web designers and developers research, design, develop and produce Internet and Intranet sites. They are
employed in computer software development firms, information technology consulting firms, information technology
units throughout the private and public sectors, advertising agencies or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• e-business Web site developer
• Internet site designer
• Internet site developer
• Intranet site designer
• Web designer
• Web developer
• Web manager
• Web site developer
• Webmaster
Exclusion(s)
• Computer network technicians (2281)
• Computer programmers and interactive media developers (2174)
• E-business managers (see 0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers)
• Graphic designers and illustrators (5241)
• Information systems analysts and consultants (2171)
• Information systems testing technicians (2283)
• Network systems engineers (see 2147 Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers))
Main duties
Web designers and developers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Consult with clients to develop and document Web site requirements
• Prepare mock-ups and storyboards
• Develop Web site architecture and determine hardware and software requirements
• Source, select and organize information for inclusion and design the appearance, layout and flow of the
Web site
• Create and optimize content for the Web site using a variety of graphics, database, animation and other
software
• Plan, design, write, modify, integrate and test Web-site related code
• Conduct tests and perform security and quality controls
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• May lead and co-ordinate multidisciplinary teams to develop Web site graphics, content, capacity and
interactivity
• May research and evaluate a variety of interactive media software products.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree, usually in computer science, communications or business
or
Completion of a college program in computer science, graphic arts, Web design or business is required.
• Experience as a computer programmer or graphic designer is usually required.
22 Technical occupations related to natural and applied sciences
221 Technical occupations in physical sciences
2211 Chemical technologists and technicians
Chemical technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work independently in
chemical engineering, chemical and biochemical research and analysis, industrial chemistry, chemical quality
control and environmental protection. They are employed by research and development and quality control
laboratories, consulting engineering companies, in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and a variety of other
manufacturing and processing industries, and by utilities, health, educational and government establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• analytical technician, chemical
• biochemistry technologist
• chemical analyst
• chemical engineering technician
• chemical engineering technologist
• chemical laboratory analyst
• chemical research technician
• chemical technician
• chemical technologist
• food technologist
• formulation technician
• geochemical technician
• industrial hygiene technologist
• mass spectrometer technician
• master dyer - textiles
• paint technician
• pilot plant technician
• quality control technician - chemical processing
• quality control technician - food processing
Exclusion(s)
• Biochemistry technologists working as medical laboratory technologists (see 3211 Medical laboratory
technologists)
• Process technicians who operate the controls of chemical or petrochemical processing plants (see 9232
Petroleum, gas and chemical process operators)
Main duties
Chemical technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Set up and conduct chemical experiments, tests and analyses using techniques such as chromatography,
spectroscopy, physical and chemical separation techniques and microscopy
• Operate and maintain laboratory equipment and apparatus and prepare solutions of gas or liquid,
reagents, and sample formulations
• Compile records and interpret experimental or analytical results
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• Develop and conduct programs of sampling and analysis to maintain quality standards of raw materials,
chemical intermediates and products
• Assist in the development of chemical engineering processes, studies of chemical engineering
procurement, construction, inspection and maintenance and the development of standards, procedures
and health and safety measures
• Operate experimental chemical or petrochemical pilot plants
• Conduct or assist in air and water quality testing and assessments, environmental monitoring and
protection activities, and development of and compliance with standards
• Assist in synthesis of small molecules for the purpose of creating drug candidates
• Assist in the design and fabrication of experimental apparatus.
Chemical technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist in setting up and conducting chemical experiments, tests and analyses
• Operate and maintain laboratory equipment and apparatus and prepare solutions of gas and liquid,
reagents and sample formulations
• Compile records for analytical studies
• Assist in developing and conducting programs of sampling and analysis to maintain quality standards
• Carry out a limited range of other technical functions in support of chemical research, tests and analyses,
and environmental air and water quality monitoring and protection
• Assist in the design and fabrication of experimental apparatus.
Employment requirements
• Chemical technologists usually require completion of a two- or three-year college program in chemical,
biochemical or chemical engineering technology or a closely related discipline.
• Chemical technicians usually require completion of a one- or two-year college program in chemical,
biochemical or chemical engineering technology.
• National certification for chemical technologists and technicians is available through the Canadian Society
for Chemical Technology.
• Certification in chemical engineering technology or in a related field is available through provincial
associations of engineering/applied science technologists and technicians and may be required by
employers.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body is required to use the title "Professional Technologist."
• A period of supervised work experience, usually two years, is required before certification.
Additional information
• Considerable mobility is possible among jobs within this occupational group.
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with experience.
• Some chemical technologists and technicians working in support of fundamental research in chemistry or
biochemistry are university graduates.
2212 Geological and mineral technologists and technicians
Geological and mineral technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work
independently in the fields of oil and gas exploration and production, geophysics, petroleum engineering, geology,
mining and mining engineering, mineralogy, extractive and physical metallurgy, metallurgical engineering and
environmental protection. They are employed by petroleum and mining companies, consulting geology and
engineering firms, and by governments and educational institutions as well as by a variety of manufacturing,
construction and utilities companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• assayer
• geological technician
• geophysical technologist
• groundwater technologist
• log technician
• marine geoscience technologist
• metallurgical technologist
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mineralogy technician
mining engineering technologist
mining technologist
petroleum engineering technologist
petroleum technician
petrology technician
reservoir engineering technician
rock mechanics technician
seismic technician
welding technologist
Exclusion(s)
• Civil engineering technologists and technicians (2231)
• Contractors and supervisors, oil and gas drilling and services (8222)
• Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians (2241)
• Supervisors, mining and quarrying (8221)
• Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology (2255)
• Technologists and technicians whose primary duties are to perform chemical laboratory tests (see 2211
Chemical technologists and technicians)
Main duties
Geological and mineral technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct or direct geological, geophysical, geochemical, hydrographic or oceanographic surveys,
prospecting field trips, exploratory drilling, well logging or underground mine survey programs
• Configure, operate and maintain geophysical survey and well logging instruments and equipment
• Prepare notes, sketches, geological maps and cross sections
• Prepare, transcribe or analyze seismic, gravimetric, well log or other geophysical and survey data
• Assist engineers and geologists in the evaluation and analysis of petroleum and mineral reservoirs
• Prepare or supervise the preparation of rock, mineral or metal samples and perform physical and chemical
laboratory tests
• Conduct or assist in environmental audits, in the design of measures to minimize undesirable
environmental effects of new or expanded mining and oil and gas operations, and in the development of
waste management and other related environmental protection procedures
• May supervise oil and gas well drilling, well completions and work-overs
• May conduct or supervise studies and programs related to mine development, mining methods, mine
ventilation, lighting, drainage and ground control
• May assist engineers and metallurgists in specifying material selection, metal treatments or corrosion
protection systems
• May assist hydrogeologists in evaluating groundwater and well circulation and in report preparation
• May develop specifications for heat treatment of metals or for welding, design welding fixtures,
troubleshoot welding processes or quality problems and supervise welding projects
• May co-ordinate crew members' activities during seismic tests.
Geological and mineral technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Participate in geological, geophysical, geochemical, hydrographic or oceanographic surveys, prospecting
field trips, exploratory drilling, well logging or underground mine survey programs and in environmental
audits and related environmental protection activities
• Operate and maintain geophysical survey and well logging instruments and equipment
• Prepare notes, sketches, geological maps and cross sections
• Assist in preparing, transcribing or analyzing seismic, gravimetric, well log or other geophysical and survey
data
• Assist in the preparation of rock, mineral or metal samples and in conducting physical and chemical
laboratory tests
• Assist in hydrogeological field and laboratory studies and in preparation of reports
• Carry out a limited range of other technical functions in support of geology, geophysics and petroleum and
mining engineering.
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Employment requirements
• Geological and mineral technologists usually require completion of a two- to three-year college program in
geological technology, petroleum technology, petroleum engineering technology, hydrogeology or
groundwater technology, mining technology, mining engineering technology, mineralogy, metallurgical
technology, or welding technology.
• Geophysics technologists usually require completion of a two- to three-year college program in electronics
technology.
• Geological and mineral technicians usually require completion of a one- to two-year college program in a
related field.
• Certification in geological and mineral technology or in a related field is available through provincial
associations of engineering/applied science technologists and technicians and may be required by
employers.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body for professional technologists is required to use the title
"Professional Technologist."
• A period of supervised work experience, usually two years, is required before certification.
Additional information
• There is limited mobility among occupations in this group.
• Mobility may be possible between geophysical technology and electronic technology.
• Mobility may be possible between some occupations in this group and related fields of civil engineering
technology.
222 Technical occupations in life sciences
2221 Biological technologists and technicians
Biological technologists and technicians provide technical support and services to scientists, engineers and other
professionals working in fields such as agriculture, resource management, environmental protection, plant and
animal biology, microbiology, cell and molecular biology and health sciences, or may work independently in these
fields. They are employed in both laboratory and field settings by governments, manufacturers of food products,
chemicals and pharmaceuticals, biotechnology companies, health, research and educational institutions,
environmental consulting companies, and resource and utilities companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• agricultural technician
• agricultural technologist
• agrology technician
• aquaculture technician
• bacteriological technician
• biological laboratory technologist
• botanical technician
• fish hatchery technician
• fisheries technician
• food bacteriological technician
• microbiology quality control technologist
• microbiology technologist (except medical)
• plant breeding technician
• seed technologist
• wildlife biology technician
Exclusion(s)
• Agricultural and fish products inspectors (2222)
• Biochemistry technologists and biochemistry laboratory technicians (see 2211 Chemical technologists and
technicians)
• Biologists and related scientists (2121)
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• Biomedical engineering technologists (see 2241 Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and
technicians)
• Conservation and fishery officers (2224)
• Forestry technologists and technicians (2223)
• Medical laboratory technicians and pathologists' assistants (3212)
• Medical laboratory technologists (3211)
Main duties
Biological technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Set up and conduct biological, microbiological and biochemical tests and laboratory analyses in support of
research and quality control in food production, sanitation, pharmaceutical production, biotechnology and
other fields
• Apply methods and techniques such as microscopy, histochemistry, chromatography, electrophoresis and
spectroscopy
• Perform experimental procedures in agriculture, plant breeding, animal husbandry, biology and biomedical
research
• Conduct field research and surveys to collect data and samples of water, soil, and plant and animal
populations
• Conduct environmental monitoring and compliance activities for the protection of fisheries stock, wildlife
and other natural resources
• Analyze data and prepare reports
• Conduct or supervise operational programs such as fish hatchery, greenhouse and livestock production
programs.
Biological technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist in conducting biological, microbiological and biochemical tests and laboratory analyses
• Perform limited range of technical functions in support of agriculture, plant breeding, animal husbandry,
biology, biomedical research and environmental protection
• Assist in conducting field research and surveys to collect data and samples of water, soil, and plant and
animal populations
• Assist in analysis of data and preparation of reports.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- to three-year college program in a field related to agriculture, biology, microbiology,
wildlife or resource management is usually required for employment as a biological technologist.
• Completion of a one- to two-year college program in a related field is required for employment as a
biological technician.
• Certification with provincial associations is available, but voluntary.
Additional information
• There is limited mobility among occupations in this group.
• Some technologists and technicians working in support of government and academic research in biology
are university graduates.
2222 Agricultural and fish products inspectors
Agricultural and fish products inspectors inspect agricultural and fish products for conformity to prescribed
production, storage and transportation standards. They are employed by government departments and agencies
and by private sector food processing companies. Supervisors of agricultural and fish products inspectors are also
included in this group.
Illustrative example(s)
• agricultural products inspector
• crop certification inspector
• dairy products inspector
• fish inspector
• fish products inspector
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fruit and vegetables inspector
grain inspector
livestock inspector
meat inspector
plant protection inspector
poultry inspector
supervisor, agricultural products inspection
supervisor, fish products inspection
Exclusion(s)
• Biological technologists and technicians (2221)
• Fish graders and meat graders who perform routine quality control duties or tally landed fish (see 9465
Testers and graders, food, beverage and associated products processing)
• Forestry technologists and technicians (2223)
• Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety (2263)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Fish and fish products inspectors inspect fish, fish products, fish handling and processing methods and
prepare reports and ensure that regulations are followed.
• Fruit and vegetables inspectors inspect fresh and frozen fruit and vegetables at inspection centres and
prepare reports on crop production and market conditions.
• Grain inspectors inspect and grade all classes of grain at terminal elevators, monitor the fumigation of
infested grain, and examine storage, handling and transportation equipment to ensure that sanitary
procedures are followed.
• Meat inspectors monitor the operations and sanitary conditions of slaughtering and meat processing plants
and inspect carcasses to ensure they are fit for human consumption.
• Plant protection inspectors certify seed crops, oversee the quarantine, treatment or destruction of plants
and plant products, and the fumigation of plants and plant product imports and exports.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Government inspectors usually require a bachelor's degree or college diploma in agriculture, biology,
chemistry, food processing technology or a related discipline.
• Inspectors (other than government) may require a bachelor's degree or college diploma in a related
discipline.
• Several years of experience in agricultural production or fish processing are usually required.
• Completion of in-house training courses is required.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions in this field is possible with experience.
2223 Forestry technologists and technicians
Forestry technologists and technicians may work independently or perform technical and supervisory functions in
support of forestry research, forest management, forest harvesting, forest resource conservation and environmental
protection. They are employed by the forest industry sector, provincial and federal governments, consulting firms,
and other industries and institutions, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• conservation technician - forestry
• cruising technician - forestry
• enforcement officer - forestry
• extension ranger - forestry
• fire suppression officer - forestry
• forest fire technician
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forest survey technician
forest technician
forestry technician
forestry technologist
resource officer, forest inventory
resource technician - forestry
scaler technician - logging
scaling co-ordinator - logging
silviculture technician
Exclusion(s)
• Biological technologists and technicians (2221)
• Conservation and fishery officers (2224)
• Foresters and forest engineers (see 2122 Forestry professionals)
• Supervisors, logging and forestry (8211)
Main duties
Forestry technologists and technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct, supervise and participate in forest inventory cruises, surveys and field measurements following
accepted scientific and operational procedures
• Assist and perform technical functions in the preparation of forest management and harvest plans using
photogrammetric and mapping techniques and computerized information systems
• Assist in planning and supervise construction of access routes and forest roads
• Implement, supervise and perform technical functions in silvicultural operations involving site preparation,
planting, and tending of tree crops
• Co-ordinate activities such as timber scaling, forest fire suppression, disease or insect control or
pre-commercial thinning of forest stands
• Supervise and perform technical functions in forest harvesting operations
• Monitor activities of logging companies and contractors and enforce regulations such as those concerning
environmental protection, resource utilization, fire safety and accident prevention
• Provide forestry education, advice and recommendations to woodlot owners, community organizations and
the general public
• Develop and maintain computer databases
• Supervise forest tree nursery operations
• Provide technical support to forestry research programs in areas such as tree improvement, seed orchard
operations, insect and disease surveys or experimental forestry and forest engineering research.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a one- to three-year college program in forestry technology or in a renewable resource
program or forest ranger program is usually required.
• Certification by, or registration with, a provincial association as a forestry technologist or technician may be
required.
• Certification or licensing as a scaler is required for some positions.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body for professional technologists is required to use the title
"Professional Technologist."
Additional information
• Mobility may be possible to occupations in natural resource and wildlife management and in parks
management.
2224 Conservation and fishery officers
This unit group includes conservation and fishery officers, inspectors and observers who enforce federal and
provincial regulations established for the protection of fish, wildlife and other natural resources and collect and relay
information on resource management. They are employed by federal and provincial government departments.
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Illustrative example(s)
• conservation officer
• fish and wildlife officer
• fishery officer
• forest ranger - wildlife management
• game officer
• game warden
• natural resources officer
• park ranger
Exclusion(s)
• Biological technologists and technicians (2221)
• Fish inspectors (see 2222 Agricultural and fish products inspectors)
• Forestry technologists and technicians (2223)
Main duties
Conservation and fishery officers, inspectors and observers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Generate public awareness of fish and wildlife conservation and regulations
• Conduct patrols by truck, aircraft, boat, or on foot, to ensure compliance with the provincial and federal
statutes relating to fish, wildlife and the environment
• Investigate complaints, arrest violators, prepare briefs and present evidence in court
• Issue licences, export documents and special permits and collect royalties assessed on fish, wildlife and
timber resources
• Implement and supervise approved techniques in preventing or overcoming damage caused by wildlife
• Perform resource protection duties, such as inspecting fishing gear and equipment and monitoring fishing
activities for compliance with regulations
• Gather resource data by making inventories of fish, collecting water samples and assisting biologists in
scientific research
• Supervise or provide firearms safety training courses and trapper education courses.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college program in renewable resources management, environmental conservation or a
related discipline is usually required.
• On-the-job training and courses related to law enforcement and resource management are provided.
• A class-5 driver's licence, pesticide applicator's licence and explosives licence may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior and supervisory positions is possible with experience.
2225 Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists
This unit group includes those who survey and assess landscapes; draw sketches and build models of landscape
designs; construct and maintain gardens, parks, golf courses and other landscaped environments; advise clients on
issues related to horticulture such as irrigation; breed, cultivate and study plants; and treat injured and diseased
trees and plants. They are employed by landscape designers and contractors, lawn service and tree care
establishments, golf courses, nurseries and greenhouses, and municipal, provincial and national parks, or they may
be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• arborist
• golf course superintendent
• greenskeeper
• horticultural technician
• horticulture specialist
• horticulturist
• hydroponics technician
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landscape architectural technician
landscape designer
landscape gardener
landscape technician
landscaper
lawn care specialist
tree service technician
Exclusion(s)
• Biological technologists and technicians (2221)
• Botanists (see 2121 Biologists and related scientists)
• Contractors and supervisors, landscaping, grounds maintenance and horticulture services (8255)
• Forestry technologists and technicians (2223)
• Landscape architects (2152)
• Managers in horticulture (0822)
• Nursery and greenhouse workers (8432)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Arborists and tree service technicians examine trees and shrubs to diagnose problems and disease, and
apply various treatments such as pruning, spraying, repairing damaged areas and injecting with treatment
solutions.
• Golf course superintendents direct crews who maintain the health and appearance of golf courses and
their surrounding landscapes, plant and move trees, and apply fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides and
pesticides.
• Horticulturists plan and co-ordinate the growth and use of plants for landscaping, ornamental uses and
other purposes.
• Landscape designers and landscape architectural technicians and technologists survey and assess sites,
prepare drawings, sketches and reports and perform other duties to assist landscape architects in
designing landscaped environments.
• Landscape gardeners plant and maintain private and public lawns and gardens.
• Landscapers plan and construct landscaped environments which may include trees, shrubberies, lawns,
fences, decks, patios and other landscape structures.
• Lawn care specialists visit clients, assess the health of lawns, and apply fertilizer, pesticides and other
lawn care products.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a university or college program in agronomy, arboriculture, horticulture, landscaping,
landscape design or landscape technology is usually required.
• Experience as a landscape and grounds maintenance labourer may be required for golf course
superintendents, landscape gardeners and landscapers.
• An apprenticeship program is available for horticulturists, arboriculturists and landscape gardeners.
• A provincial licence to apply chemical fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides and pesticides may be required.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body is required to use the title of Professional Technologist.
223 Technical occupations in civil, mechanical and industrial engineering
2231 Civil engineering technologists and technicians
Civil engineering technologists and technicians provide technical support and services to scientists, engineers and
other professionals, or may work independently in fields such as structural engineering, municipal engineering,
construction design and supervision, highways and transportation engineering, water resources engineering,
geotechnical engineering and environmental protection. They are employed by consulting engineering and
construction companies, public works, transportation and other government departments and in many other
industries.
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Illustrative example(s)
• bridge design technician
• building materials technician
• civil engineering technician
• civil engineering technologist
• construction technologist
• foundation technologist
• highway technician
• municipal engineering assistant
• soil technologist - civil engineering
• specifications writer, construction
• structural design technologist
• structural investigator
Exclusion(s)
• Architectural technologists and technicians (2251)
• Construction estimators (2234)
• Construction inspectors (2264)
• Construction managers (0711)
• Drafting technologists and technicians (2253)
• Land survey technologists and technicians (2254)
• Urban and land use planners (2153)
Main duties
Civil engineering technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop engineering designs and drawings from preliminary concepts and sketches
• Prepare construction specifications, cost and material estimates, project schedules and reports
• Supervise or conduct field surveys, inspections or technical investigations of topography, soils, drainage
and water supply systems, road and highway systems, buildings and structures to provide data for
engineering projects
• Conduct or supervise inspection and testing of construction materials
• May supervise, monitor and inspect construction projects.
Civil engineering technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist in developing engineering specifications and drawings
• Participate in field surveys, inspections or technical investigations of topography, soils, drainage and water
supply systems, road and highway systems, buildings and structures to provide data for engineering
projects
• Perform other technical functions in support of civil engineering activities.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- or three-year college program in civil engineering technology or a closely related
discipline is usually required for civil engineering technologists.
• Completion of a one- or two-year college program in civil engineering technology is usually required for
civil engineering technicians.
• Certification in civil engineering technology or in a related field is available through provincial associations
of engineering/applied science technologists and technicians and may be required for some positions.
• A period of supervised work experience, usually two years, is required before certification.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body for professional technologists is required to use the title
"Professional Technologist."
Additional information
• There is mobility to related occupations, such as drafting technologists and technicians and construction
inspectors and estimators.
• Progression to construction supervisors or construction managers is possible with experience.
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2232 Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians
Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians provide technical support and services or may work
independently in mechanical engineering fields such as the design, development, maintenance and testing of
machines, components, tools, heating and ventilating systems, power generation and power conversion plants,
manufacturing plants and equipment. They are employed by consulting engineering, manufacturing and processing
companies, institutions and government departments.
Illustrative example(s)
• aeronautical technologist
• heating designer
• HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) technologist
• machine designer
• marine engineering technologist
• mechanical engineering technician
• mechanical engineering technologist
• mechanical technologist
• mould designer
• thermal station technician
• tool and die designer
• tool designer
Exclusion(s)
• Drafting technologists and technicians (2253)
• Industrial designers (2252)
• Managers in manufacturing and utilities (091)
• Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade (6221)
Main duties
Mechanical engineering technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare and interpret conventional and computer-assisted design (CAD) engineering designs, drawings,
and specifications for machines and components, power transmission systems, process piping, heating,
ventilating and air-conditioning systems
• Prepare cost and material estimates, project schedules and reports
• Conduct tests and analyses of machines, components and materials to determine their performance,
strength, response to stress and other characteristics
• Design moulds, tools, dies, jigs and fixtures for use in manufacturing processes
• Inspect mechanical installations and construction
• Prepare contract and tender documents
• Supervise, monitor and inspect mechanical installations and construction projects
• Prepare standards and schedules and supervise mechanical maintenance programs or operations of
mechanical plants.
Mechanical engineering technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist in preparing conventional and computer-assisted design (CAD) engineering designs, drawings and
specifications
• Carry out a limited range of mechanical tests and analyses of machines, components and materials
• Assist in the design of moulds, tools, dies, jigs and fixtures for use in manufacturing processes
• Assist in inspection of mechanical installations and construction projects
• Participate in the installation, repair and maintenance of machinery and equipment.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- or three-year college program in mechanical engineering technology is usually
required for mechanical engineering technologists.
• Completion of a one- or two-year college program in mechanical engineering technology is usually
required for mechanical engineering technicians.
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• Certification in mechanical engineering technology or in a related field is available through provincial
associations of engineering/applied science technologists and technicians and may be required for some
positions.
• A period of supervised work experience, usually two years, is required before certification.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body is required to use the title "Professional Technologist."
Additional information
• There is mobility to other related occupations such as technical sales or drafting technologists and
technicians.
• Progression to supervisory occupations such as mechanical construction supervisor, manufacturing
supervisor or operations maintenance manager is possible with experience.
2233 Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians
Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians may work independently or provide
technical support and services in the development of production methods, facilities and systems, and the planning,
estimating, measuring and scheduling of work. They are employed by manufacturing and insurance companies,
government departments, and establishments in other industries.
Illustrative example(s)
• CAD/CAM programmer
• industrial engineering technician
• industrial engineering technologist
• loss prevention technologist - manufacturing
• manufacturing technician
• manufacturing technologist
• planning technician
• plastics manufacturing technician
• pulp and paper manufacturing technologist
• quality assurance technologist
• scheduling technician - manufacturing
• textile technologist
• time study analyst
Exclusion(s)
• Machining, metal forming, shaping and erecting trades (723)
• Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade (6221)
• Textile technologists/technicians working in support of chemical dyeing and finishing and quality control
technologists/technicians in food or chemical industries or laboratories (see 2211 Chemical technologists
and technicians)
Main duties
Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop and conduct production, inventory and quality assurance programs in manufacturing or in other
industries
• Design plant layouts and production facilities
• Develop and carry out work study and related programs
• Develop and carry out industrial health, safety and fire prevention plans and programs and conduct safety
training programs
• Develop applications using CAD/CAM (computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing) for
the control of robots, computer numerical control (CNC) machines and other manufacturing processes and
operations.
Industrial engineering and manufacturing technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist in the design of plant layouts
• Conduct work measurement or other studies
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• Collect and compile operational or experimental data and assist in the development of estimates,
schedules, specifications and reports
• Collect and analyze data and samples in support of quality assurance and industrial health and safety
programs
• Develop manufacturing and processing procedures and variables, set machine or equipment controls,
oversee production and inspect processes.
Technologists and technicians in this unit group may specialize in the development of production processes,
quality assurance programs, plans and schedules in a particular industrial area such as metal fabrication,
plastics, pulp and paper, or textile manufacturing.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- or three-year college program or equivalent in industrial engineering technology, pulp
and paper technology, plastics technology, textile technology, manufacturing technology or a related
discipline is usually required for industrial engineering or manufacturing technologists.
• Completion of a one- or two-year college program in industrial engineering technology or in a related
discipline is usually required for industrial engineering or manufacturing technicians.
• Certification in industrial engineering or manufacturing technology or in a related field is available through
provincial or territorial associations of engineering/applied science technologists and technicians and may
be required for some positions.
• A period of supervised work experience, usually two years, is required before certification.
• A college diploma in manufacturing technology and/or trade certification and experience in machining and
tooling or metalworking is required for CAD-CAM/CNC programmers.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body is required to use the title "Professional Technologist."
Additional information
• There is mobility to related fields such as technical sales.
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with experience.
2234 Construction estimators
Construction estimators analyze costs of and prepare estimates on civil engineering, architectural, structural,
electrical and mechanical construction projects. They are employed by residential, commercial and industrial
construction companies and major electrical, mechanical and trade contractors, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• chief estimator - construction
• construction estimator
• cost estimator - construction
• principal estimator - construction
• professional quantity surveyor
• quantity surveyor - construction
Exclusion(s)
• Architectural technologists and technicians (2251)
• Civil engineering technologists and technicians (2231)
• Civil engineers (2131)
• Construction managers (0711)
Main duties
Construction estimators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare estimates of probable costs of materials, labour and equipment for construction projects based on
contract bids, quotations, schematic drawings and specifications
• Advise on tendering procedures, examine and analyze tenders, recommend tender awards and conduct
negotiations
• Establish and maintain tendering process and set up cost monitoring and reporting systems and
procedures
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• Prepare cost and expenditure statements and forecasts at regular intervals for the duration of a project
• Prepare and maintain a directory of suppliers, contractors and subcontractors
• Liaise, consult and communicate with engineers, architects, owners, contractors and subcontractors, and
prepare economic feasibility studies on changes and adjustments to cost estimates
• Manage and co-ordinate construction projects and prepare construction progress schedules.
Estimators may specialize in estimating costs for structural, electrical or mechanical construction projects.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of a three-year college program in civil or construction engineering technology
or
Several years of experience as a qualified tradesperson in a construction trade such as plumbing,
carpentry or electrical, are required.
• Certification by the Canadian Institute of Quantity Surveyors is usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to more senior positions in this unit group, such as senior estimator or to construction
management positions is possible with experience.
224 Technical occupations in electronics and electrical engineering
2241 Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians
Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical
support and services in the design, development, testing, production and operation of electrical and electronic
equipment and systems. They are employed by electrical utilities, communications companies, manufacturers of
electrical and electronic equipment, consulting firms, and in governments and a wide range of manufacturing,
processing and transportation industries.
Illustrative example(s)
• communications technologist
• electrical engineering technician
• electrical engineering technologist
• electricity distribution network technologist
• electronics design technologist
• electronics engineering technician
• electronics engineering technologist
• electronics manufacturing technician
• electronics manufacturing technologist
• lighting technologist
• metering technologist
• microwave maintenance technician
• production support technician - electronics manufacturing
Exclusion(s)
• Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors (2244)
• Electronic service technicians (household and business equipment) (2242)
• Engineering managers (0211)
• Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics (2243)
• Manufacturing managers (0911)
• Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade (6221)
Main duties
Electrical and electronics engineering technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Design, develop and test power equipment and systems, industrial process control systems,
telecommunication, broadcast, recording and audiovisual systems, micro-electronic systems and circuits,
computers, computer systems and networks, and computer software
• Supervise the building and testing of prototypes according to general instructions and established
standards
• Conduct or supervise the installation, commissioning, and operation of electrical and electronic equipment
and systems other than aircraft electronics or instruments
• Carry out applied research in fields of electrical and electronic engineering and physics under the direction
of scientists or engineers
• Set up and operate specialized and standard test equipment to diagnose, test and analyze the
performance of electrical and electronic components, assemblies and systems
• Write specifications, schedules and technical reports and control schedules and budgets.
Electrical and electronics engineering technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist in the design, development and testing of electrical and electronic components, equipment, and
systems
• Assist in inspection, testing, adjusting and evaluation of incoming electrical, electro-mechanical and
electronic components and assemblies to ensure conformance with product specifications and tolerances
• Conduct life tests (burn-ins) on assemblies and record and analyze results
• Assist in building and testing prototypes to specifications
• Carry out a limited range of technical functions in support of research in electrical and electronic
engineering and physics
• Install, operate and maintain electrical and electronic equipment and systems
• Calibrate electrical or electronic equipment and instruments according to technical manuals and written
instructions
• Collect and compile operational or experimental data and assist in the preparation of estimates, schedules,
budgets, specifications and reports.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- or three-year college program in electrical or electronics engineering technology,
computer engineering technology, telecommunications technology or an equivalent is usually required for
electrical or electronics engineering technologists.
• Completion of a one- or two-year college program in electrical or electronics engineering technology is
usually required for electrical or electronics engineering technicians.
• Certification in electrical or electronics engineering technology or in a related field is available through
provincial associations of engineering/applied science technologists and technicians and may be required
for some positions.
• A period of supervised work experience, usually two years, is required before certification.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body for professional technologists is required to use the title
"Professional Technologist."
Additional information
• There is mobility to other related occupations such as technical sales, electronics service technicians,
instrument technicians and avionics technicians.
• Progression to managerial positions in engineering, production or operations is possible with experience.
2242 Electronic service technicians (household and business equipment)
Electronic service technicians service and repair household and business electronic equipment such as audio and
video systems, computers and peripherals, office equipment and other consumer electronic equipment and
assemblies. They are employed by electronic service and retail establishments, by wholesale distributors and within
service departments of electronic manufacturing companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• alarm system technician
• audio-video service technician
• computer service technician
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electronic service technician apprentice
electronic service technician supervisor
field service technician, electronic products
office equipment service technician
photocopy machine technician
radio and television service technician
satellite antenna servicer
Exclusion(s)
• Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians (2241)
• Telecommunications installation and repair workers (7246)
Main duties
Electronic service technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Install, maintain and repair household and business electronic equipment, such as televisions, radios,
video cassette recorders, stereo equipment, photocopiers, computers and peripherals
• Inspect and test electronic equipment, components and assemblies using multimeters, circuit testers,
oscilloscopes, logic probes and other electronic test instruments, tools and equipment
• Diagnose and locate circuit, component and equipment faults
• Adjust, align, replace or repair electronic equipment, assemblies and components following equipment
manuals and schematics, and using soldering tools and other hand and power tools
• Complete work orders, test and maintenance reports
• May supervise other electronic equipment service technicians.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- to three-year college program in electronics
or
Completion of a four-year apprenticeship program in electronic servicing and repair
or
Completion of high school or college courses in electronics and on-the-job training is required.
• Trade certification for electronics technicians (consumer products) is available, but voluntary, in Ontario,
British Columbia and the Yukon.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
2243 Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics
Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics repair, maintain, calibrate, adjust, and install industrial measuring
and controlling instrumentation. They are employed by pulp and paper processing companies, nuclear and hydro
power generating companies, mining, petrochemical and natural gas companies, industrial instrument and other
manufacturing companies, and by industrial instrument servicing establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• apprentice industrial instrument mechanic
• industrial instrument mechanic
• instrument technician, industrial
• instrumentation technician, industrial
• process control equipment mechanic
Exclusion(s)
• Aircraft instrument technicians (see 2244 Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics,
technicians and inspectors)
• Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians (2241)
• Industrial mechanics (see 7311 Construction millwrights and industrial mechanics)
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Main duties
Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics perform some or all of the following duties:
• Consult manufacturer's manuals, circuit diagrams and blueprints to determine tests and maintenance
procedures for instruments used for measuring and controlling flow, level, pressure, temperature, chemical
composition and other variables in manufacturing and processing
• Inspect and test operation of instruments and systems to diagnose faults using pneumatic, electrical and
electronic testing devices and precision measuring instruments
• Repair and adjust system components, such as sensors, transmitters and programmable logic controllers,
or remove and replace defective parts
• Calibrate components and instruments according to manufacturers' specifications
• Perform scheduled preventive maintenance work and complete test and maintenance reports
• Install control and measurement instruments on existing and new plant equipment and processes
• Consult with and advise process operators.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a four- or five-year apprenticeship program in industrial instrument repair
or
Completion of a two-year college program in industrial instrumentation technology and several years of
work experience are usually required for trade certification.
• Instrumentation and control technician trade certification is available, but voluntary, in all provinces and
territories, except in Quebec.
• Red Seal endorsement is also available to qualified instrumentation and control technicians upon
successful completion of the interprovincial Red Seal examination.
Additional information
• The Red Seal endorsement allows for interprovincial mobility.
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
2244 Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors
This unit group includes mechanics and technicians who install, adjust, repair and overhaul aircraft instrument,
electrical or avionics systems on aircraft. This unit group also includes avionics inspectors who inspect instrument,
electrical and avionics systems following assembly, modification, repair or overhaul. Workers in this unit group are
employed by aircraft manufacturing, maintenance, repair and overhaul establishments and by airlines and other
aircraft operators.
Illustrative example(s)
• aircraft electrical technician
• aircraft electrician
• aircraft instrument mechanic
• aircraft instrument technician
• aircraft maintenance engineer (AME) - avionics
• avionics maintenance technician
• avionics technician
• inspector, avionics
• instrument inspector, aircraft
• instrument overhaul and repair mechanic - avionics
Exclusion(s)
• Aircraft assemblers and aircraft assembly inspectors (9521)
• Aircraft mechanics and maintenance engineers who maintain and inspect aircraft structures, mechanical,
hydraulic or propulsion systems (see 7315 Aircraft mechanics and aircraft inspectors)
• Airworthiness inspectors - government (see 2262 Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers)
• Electrical mechanics (7333)
• Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics (2243)
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Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Aircraft instrument mechanics and technicians repair and overhaul, install, calibrate and test aircraft
instruments.
• Aircraft electrical mechanics and technicians repair and overhaul, modify, install and test aircraft electrical
systems and equipment.
• Avionics mechanics and technicians troubleshoot, repair and overhaul, test, modify, install and inspect
aircraft electronic systems and components including communications, navigation, and autoflight
equipment.
• Avionics inspectors inspect and test aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics systems and ensure that
the installation, maintenance, repair and overhaul of these systems meet Transport Canada and company
standards of performance and safety.
Aircraft mechanics and technicians who work in repair and overhaul shops service and test electrical, electronic
and instrument components.
Avionics mechanics and technicians who work in maintenance hangars troubleshoot, repair, install and inspect
aircraft systems and components.
Employment requirements
• Aircraft instrument and avionics mechanics and technicians require completion of a two- to three-year
college program in avionics or electronics.
• Aircraft electrical mechanics and technicians require completion of a college program as an electrical or
electronic technician.
• Four years of on-the-job or company apprenticeship training is required for all mechanics and technicians
in this unit group.
• Avionics inspectors require completion of a two- to three-year college program in avionics or electronics
and
Three to five years of experience as an avionics mechanic or technician.
• Avionics inspectors, mechanics and technicians who sign maintenance releases and certify airworthiness
require an Aircraft Maintenance Engineer's (AME) licence (category E - avionics) issued by Transport
Canada.
• Industry certification is available from the Canadian Aviation Maintenance Council for some occupations in
this unit group.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body for professional technologists is required to use the title
"Professional Technologist."
Additional information
• Avionics inspectors, maintenance technicians and mechanics may acquire further endorsements to their
AME licence allowing them to inspect and certify a broader range of aircraft and avionics systems.
• An AME licence can be obtained by fulfilling the education and training requirements as stated above and
passing Transport Canada AME examinations.
• Progression to supervisory positions within specific areas of expertise is possible with experience.
225 Technical occupations in architecture, drafting, surveying, geomatics and meteorology
2251 Architectural technologists and technicians
Architectural technologists and technicians may work independently or provide technical assistance to professional
architects and civil design engineers in conducting research, preparing drawings, architectural models,
specifications and contracts and in supervising construction projects. Architectural technologists and technicians
are employed by architectural and construction firms, and governments.
Illustrative example(s)
• architectural design technician
• architectural design technologist
• architectural technician
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• architectural technologist
Exclusion(s)
• Architects (2151)
• Civil engineering technologists and technicians (2231)
• Construction estimators (2234)
• Construction inspectors (2264)
• Construction managers (0711)
• Drafting technologists and technicians (2253)
• Land survey technologists and technicians (2254)
Main duties
Architectural technologists and technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist in the development of architectural designs
• Analyze building codes, by-laws, space requirements, site requirements and other technical documents
and reports
• Prepare manual and CAD (computer-assisted design) drawings, specifications, cost estimates and listings
of quantities of material from conceptual drawings and instructions
• Construct architectural and display models, and 3-D virtual models of architectural designs
• Prepare contract and bidding documents
• May supervise drafters, technicians and technologists on the architectural team
• May supervise construction projects and co-ordinate, monitor and inspect work done by others.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- to three-year college program in architectural technology or a related subject is
usually required.
• Certification in architectural technology or in a related field through provincial associations of architectural
or engineering/applied science technologists and technicians may be required by employers.
• A period of supervised work experience, usually two years, is required before certification.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body for professional technologists is required to use the title
"Professional Technologist."
Additional information
• There is mobility to other related occupations such as drafters, civil engineering technologists and
technicians, construction estimators and construction inspectors.
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
2252 Industrial designers
Industrial designers conceptualize and produce designs for manufactured products. They are employed by
manufacturing industries and private design firms or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• furniture designer
• industrial design consultant
• industrial designer
• industrial products designer
• product designer
Exclusion(s)
• Architectural technologists and technicians (2251)
• Civil engineering design technologists (see 2231 Civil engineering technologists and technicians)
• Electrical and electronics design technologists (see 2241 Electrical and electronics engineering
technologists and technicians)
• Engineering design and drafting technicians and technologists (see 2253 Drafting technologists and
technicians)
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• Graphic designers and illustrators (5241)
• Interior designers and interior decorators (5242)
• Mechanical engineering equipment designers (see 2232 Mechanical engineering technologists and
technicians)
• Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers (5243)
Main duties
Industrial designers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Consult with client, engineers or production specialists to establish product requirements
• Analyze the intended use of product and user preferences
• Conduct research into cost, properties of production materials and methods of production
• Prepare design concepts, sketches or models for approval
• Prepare manufacturing drawings, specifications and guidelines for production and construct prototype of
design
• Consult with engineers and production staff during manufacturing stage.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in industrial design, architecture, engineering
or
A college diploma in industrial design is required.
• Creative ability, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, is required.
Additional information
• There is mobility between positions in this unit group.
• Mobility is possible to other design occupations.
2253 Drafting technologists and technicians
Drafting technologists and technicians prepare engineering designs, drawings and related technical information, in
multidisciplinary engineering teams or in support of engineers, architects or industrial designers, or they may work
independently. They are employed by consulting and construction companies, utility, resource and manufacturing
companies, all levels of government and by a wide range of other establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• architectural draftsperson
• computer-assisted design and drafting technologist
• computer-assisted drafting (CAD) technician
• design and drafting technologist
• drafting technician
• drafting technologist
• draftsperson
• electrical draftsperson
• electromechanical draftsperson
• electronic draftsperson
• engineering design and drafting technologist
• mechanical draftsperson
• steel detailer - drafting
• structural draftsperson
• structural steel drafter-detailer
• supervisor, drafting office
Exclusion(s)
• Architectural design technologists (see 2251 Architectural technologists and technicians)
• Civil engineering design technologists (see 2231 Civil engineering technologists and technicians)
• Electrical and electronics engineering design technologists (see 2241 Electrical and electronics
engineering technologists and technicians)
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• Industrial designers (2252)
• Mechanical engineering design technologists (see 2232 Mechanical engineering technologists and
technicians)
Main duties
Drafting technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop and prepare engineering designs and drawings from preliminary concepts, sketches, engineering
calculations, specification sheets and other data
• Operate computer-assisted design (CAD) and drafting workstations
• Develop and prepare design sketches
• Complete documentation packages and produce drawing sets
• Check and verify design drawings to conform to specifications and design data
• Write technical reports
• Prepare contracts and tender documents
• Prepare construction specifications, costs and material estimates
• Supervise and train other technologists, technicians and drafters.
Drafting technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop and prepare engineering drawings, plans, diagrams or layouts from sketches
• Operate computer-assisted drafting equipment or a conventional drafting station.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a two- to three-year college program in engineering design and drafting technology or in a
related field is usually required for drafting and design technologists.
• Completion of a one- to two-year college program in drafting
or
Completion of a three- to four-year apprenticeship program
or
Four to five years of related experience plus completion of college or industry courses in drafting are
usually required for drafting technicians.
• Trade certification for draftspersons is available, but voluntary in Ontario.
• Certification in engineering design and drafting technology or in a related field through provincial
associations of engineering/applied science technologists and technicians may be required by employers.
• A period of supervised work experience, usually two years, is required before certification.
Additional information
• Mobility is possible to civil, mechanical, electrical or other engineering design technologies through
educational or work specialization.
• Senior and supervisory drafting and design technology workers require experience.
2254 Land survey technologists and technicians
Land survey technologists and technicians conduct or participate in surveys to determine the exact locations and
relative positions of natural features and other structures on the earth's surface, underground and underwater. They
are employed by all levels of government, architectural and engineering firms, and by private sector surveying
establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• engineering survey technologist
• geodetic survey technologist
• geomatics technologist - land surveying
• land survey technician
• legal survey technician
• topographic survey technician
• transit operator - surveying
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Exclusion(s)
• Drafting technologists and technicians (2253)
• Engineering technologists and technicians who apply geotechnical and topographical information to land
use and urban planning (see 2231 Civil engineering technologists and technicians)
• Geological, geophysical, hydrographic and mine survey technologists (see 2212 Geological and mineral
technologists and technicians)
• Land surveyors (2154)
• Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology (2255)
Main duties
Land survey technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist survey engineers or professional surveyors to develop methods and procedures for conducting field
surveys
• Conduct field surveys and operate survey instruments and computer equipment to measure distance,
angles, elevations and contours
• Record measurements and other information obtained during field survey activities
• Determine precise geographic locations using global positioning systems (GPS) equipment
• Analyze latitude, longitude and angles and compute trigonometric and other calculations to plot features,
contours and areas to a specific scale
• Prepare detailed drawings, charts and plans and survey notes and reports
• Supervise and co-ordinate field survey activities.
Land survey technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Participate in field surveys and operate survey instruments and devices
• Keep records, measurements and other survey information in systematic order
• Assist in the calculation, analysis and computation of measurements obtained during field surveys
• Assist in the preparation of detailed drawings, charts and plans.
Land survey technologists and technicians may specialize in one of the following types of surveys: geodetic
survey, topographic survey, legal (cadastral) survey or engineering survey.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a two- to three-year college program in geomatics or land survey technology is usually
required for land survey technologists.
• Completion of a one- to two-year college program in geomatics or land survey technology is usually
required for land survey technicians.
• Certification by provincial associations of technicians and technologists may be required by some
employers.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body for professional technologists is required to use the title
"Professional Technologist."
Additional information
• Mobility is possible between the various occupations in this unit group.
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
• Progression to land surveyor position is possible with completion of professional surveyor examinations
and certification.
• Geomatics is an interdisciplinary field encompassing the collection, analysis and presentation of
geographically referenced data.
2255 Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology
Technical occupations in geomatics include aerial survey, remote sensing, geographic information systems,
cartographic and photogrammetric technologists and technicians, who gather, analyze, interpret and use geospatial
information for applications in natural resources, geology, environmental research and land use planning.
Meteorological technologists and technicians observe weather and atmospheric conditions, record, interpret,
transmit and report on meteorological data, and provide weather information to the agricultural, natural resources
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and transportation industries and the public. Geomatics technologists and technicians are employed by all levels of
government, utilities, mapping, computer software, forestry, architectural, engineering and consulting firms and
other related establishments. Meteorological technologists and technicians are employed by all levels of
government, the media, natural resources, utilities and transportation companies and consulting firms.
Illustrative example(s)
• aerial survey technician
• aerological technician
• avalanche controller
• cartographer
• climate data processor
• climate service technician
• geographic information systems (GIS) technician
• ice observer
• map editor
• mapping technician
• meteorological inspector
• meteorological technician
• officer-in-charge, weather station
• operations technician, weather station
• photogrammetric technologist
• photogrammetrist
• remote sensing (RS) technician
• softcopy photogrammetrist
• surface weather observer
Exclusion(s)
• Airborne geophysical equipment operators (see 2212 Geological and mineral technologists and
technicians)
• Drafting technologists and technicians (2253)
• Engineering technologists and technicians who apply geotechnical and topographical information to land
use and urban planning (see 2231 Civil engineering technologists and technicians)
• Geomatics engineers and surveying engineers (see 2131 Civil engineers)
• Land surveyors (2154)
• Land survey technologists and technicians (2254)
• Meteorologists and climatologists (2114)
Main duties
Aerial survey and remote sensing technologists and technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Operate analog or digital airborne remote sensing equipment such as survey film or digital cameras, laser
or radar sensors and scanners to prepare images, data and graphic reports, maps and charts from
airborne or satellite data
• Develop specialized analog and computer software specific routines to customize and integrate image
analysis
• Inspect quality of recorded images, verify the integrity and accuracy of data contained in remote sensing
image analysis systems, and adjust equipment as required.
Geographic information systems (GIS) technologists and technicians perform some or all of the following
duties:
• Operate specialized computer hardware and software and peripheral equipment to model, manage,
analyze and display geospatial data
• Develop specialized computer software routines, Internet based GIS, database and business applications
to customize geographic information
• Work with external organizations on data transfer and systems compatibility issues
• Perform data entry and editing activities and maintenance operations to systems following pre-determined
calibration procedures
• Integrate external software such as spreadsheets and statistical packages with GIS software
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• Train and provide technical support for GIS users.
Cartographic technologists and technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan map content, format and design and compile required data from aerial photographs, survey notes,
records, reports and other maps
• Generate maps and related graphs and charts using digital mapping techniques, computer interactive
graphics, computer assisted design and drafting (CAD) software, traditional drafting methods and
computer or traditional scribing tools
• Inspect final compositions to ensure completeness and accuracy.
Photogrammetric technologists and technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine and interpret aerial photographs to prepare topographic maps, aerial-photograph mosaics and
related charts
• Operate digitized stereoscopic plotting and computer graphics equipment to provide three-dimensional
optical models of terrain, to trace maps, and to prepare charts and tables
• Monitor recording quality and adjust equipment as required and inspect quality of recorded images.
Meteorological technologists and technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Observe, record and transmit atmospheric and weather information including air pressure, temperature,
humidity, precipitation and cloud, wind and ultraviolet conditions
• Observe, chart and report on ice conditions in navigable waters and snow conditions, and participate in
programs to forecast and control avalanches in mountainous terrain
• Maintain climatological databases, analyze and interpret weather data and participate in the production of
weather maps, charts and reports
• Install, inspect, monitor, calibrate and maintain meteorological equipment and instruments.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Geomatics technologists require completion of a two- to three-year college program in cartography,
photogrammetry, aerial survey, remote sensing, geographic information system or geomatics.
• Geomatics technicians require completion of a one- to two-year college program in cartography,
photogrammetry, aerial survey, remote sensing, geographic information system or geomatics.
• In Quebec, membership in the regulatory body for professional technologists is required to use the title
''Professional Technologist''.
• Meteorological technicians require completion of a one-year meteorological technician program provided
by the Meteorological Service of Canada.
• Further specialized training is available for meteorological technicians, and may be required by some
employers.
Additional information
• Geomatics is an interdisciplinary field encompassing the collection, analysis and presentation of
geographically referenced data.
• Mobility is possible between some occupations in this unit group.
226 Other technical inspectors and regulatory officers
2261 Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians
Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians operate radiographic, ultrasonic, liquid penetrant, magnetic
particle, eddy current and similar testing equipment to detect discontinuities in objects of various compositions and
materials. They are employed by quality control, maintenance and safety departments of manufacturing,
processing, transportation, energy and other companies and by private industrial inspection establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• acoustic emission technician
• aircraft non-destructive inspection technician
• eddy current technician
• industrial radiographer
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
infrared thermographer
liquid penetrant testing technician
NDT (non-destructive testing) maintenance technician
non-destructive inspector
pressure vessel tester
radiographic technician - non-destructive testing
ultrasonic testing technician
visual inspection technician - welding
weld tester
Exclusion(s)
• Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers (2262)
• Radiographic or ultrasonic equipment operating occupations in medical laboratories or hospitals (see 321
Medical technologists and technicians (except dental health))
Main duties
Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Set up and calibrate non-destructive testing equipment
• Conduct tests to ensure quality or detect discontinuities (defects) using ultrasonic, radiographic, liquid
penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current and other non-destructive testing methods
• Establish techniques for proper examination of objects under inspection, ensuring strict adherence to
safety regulations
• Interpret radiographs, cathode ray tube (CRT) or digital readouts, conductivity meters and visual indicators
• Apply testing criteria in accordance with applicable specifications or standards and evaluate results
• Organize and report test results
• May perform specialized inspections using acoustic emission, vibration analysis, infrared thermography
and laser shearography testing methods
• May instruct and supervise trainees.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of two years of an approved post-secondary science or engineering program may be required.
• Additional classroom and on-the-job training is required for certification in non-destructive testing.
• Non-destructive testing certification by Natural Resources Canada is available in three levels and is
usually required by employers.
• Industrial radiographers using a radioactive isotope must pass an examination to be recognized as a
certified exposure device operator by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission.
• Welding inspector certification by the Canadian Welding Bureau is available in three levels and may be
required by employers.
• Boiler and pressure vessel, process pipeline and above-ground storage tank inspector certification is
available from the American Petroleum Institute.
2262 Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers
Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers inspect transportation vehicles such as aircraft, watercraft,
automobiles and trucks and weighing and measuring devices such as scales and meters as well as industrial
instruments, processes and equipment for conformity to government and industry standards and regulations. They
are employed by government agencies and in the private sector.
Illustrative example(s)
• airworthiness inspector
• elevator inspector
• engineering inspector
• inspector, air carrier maintenance
• inspector, air transport
• inspector, electricity and gas meters
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•
•
•
•
•
•
inspector, weights and measures
insurance loss prevention inspector
marine damage surveyor
motor vehicle defects investigator
railway accident investigation officer
regulatory officer, engineering
Exclusion(s)
• Construction inspectors (2264)
• Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety (2263)
• Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians (2261)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Motor vehicles defects investigators conduct motor vehicle and motor vehicle component defect
investigations, examinations, tests and defect-related accident investigations; provide expert advice and
testimony on specific motor vehicle performance problems or defects and recommend improvements in
vehicle inspection and licensing procedures and vehicle safety standards.
• Railway accident investigation officers collect and analyze data from train derailments, collisions, and other
accidents to determine the causes and inspect and evaluate railway property, structures, rolling stock,
signals, track structure and train handling characteristics to ensure compliance to operating standards.
• Airworthiness inspectors conduct initial and regular inspections of establishments and individuals holding
or applying for air carrier operating certificates and establishments engaged in aircraft maintenance, repair
or modification; inspect aircraft, advise of any deficiencies and detain aircraft suspected of being
unairworthy or unsafe.
• Inspectors, weights and measures conduct inspections and tests of a variety of mechanical and electronic
weighing and measuring devices and systems; prepare draft investigative reports of findings and
recommend corrective or enforcement action.
• Oil and gas drilling rig inspectors conduct onshore and offshore inspections of drilling and well servicing
equipment and processes to ensure compliance with regulations and policies and to recommend
improvements and corrective action.
Employment requirements
• University degree or college diploma in an appropriate engineering field
or
Trade qualifications and extensive related work experience are required.
• Appropriate professional engineering or engineering technology certification and licences may be required.
2263 Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety
Inspectors in this unit group evaluate and monitor health and safety hazards and develop strategies to control risks
in the workplace. They inspect restaurants, public facilities, industrial establishments, municipal water systems and
other workplaces to ensure compliance with government regulations regarding sanitation, pollution control, the
handling and storage of hazardous substances and workplace safety. They are employed throughout the private
and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• environmental health officer
• hazardous waste inspector
• health and safety officer
• health standards inspector
• occupational health and safety officer
• pollution control inspector
• public health inspector
• restaurant inspector
• rodent control inspector
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• supervisor, public health inspectors
• water inspector
Exclusion(s)
• By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers, n.e.c. (4423)
• Construction inspectors (2264)
• Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers (2262)
• Occupational hygienists and ergonomists (see 4161 Natural and applied science policy researchers,
consultants and program officers)
Main duties
Inspectors in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Inspect the sanitary conditions of restaurants, hotels, schools, hospitals and other public facilities or
institutions
• Conduct surveys and monitoring programs of the natural environment to identify sources of pollution
• Collect samples of water for analysis; measure physical, biological and chemical workplace hazards; and
conduct safety and environmental audits
• Investigate health and safety related complaints, spills of hazardous chemicals, outbreaks of diseases or
poisonings and workplace accidents
• Inspect workplaces to ensure that equipment, materials and production processes do not present a safety
or health hazard to employees or to the general public
• Develop, implement and evaluate health and safety programs and strategies
• Initiate enforcement procedures to fine or to close an establishment contravening municipal, provincial or
federal regulations
• Provide consultation and deliver training programs to employers, employees and the general public on
issues of public health, environmental protection or workplace safety.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in a discipline such as food science, environmental studies,
chemistry or health and safety is usually required.
• In some establishments, several years of related work experience and the completion of in-house training
courses may substitute for formal education.
• Public health inspectors employed outside Quebec require certification with the Canadian Institute of
Public Health Inspectors.
• Occupational health and safety officers may require certification with the Association for Canadian
Registered Safety Professionals.
2264 Construction inspectors
Construction inspectors inspect the construction and maintenance of new and existing buildings, bridges, highways
and industrial construction to ensure that specifications and building codes are observed and monitor work site
safety. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, construction companies, architectural
and civil engineering consulting firms or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• bridge inspector
• building construction inspector
• construction inspector
• highway construction inspector
• home inspector
• housing construction inspector
• mine inspector, construction
• plumbing inspector
• pre-stressed concrete inspector
• safety officer - construction
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Exclusion(s)
• By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers, n.e.c. (4423)
• Construction estimators (2234)
• Construction managers (0711)
• Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers (2262)
• Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety (2263)
Main duties
Construction inspectors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine plans, drawings, and site layouts for new buildings, building renovations and other proposed
structures
• Inspect construction of buildings, bridges, dams, highways and other types of building and engineering
construction for conformance to drawings, specifications, building codes or other applicable ordinances
• Inspect and test electrical or plumbing installations in buildings to ensure compliance with municipal,
provincial and federal regulations
• Inspect steel framework, concrete forms, reinforcing steel mesh and rods, concrete or pre-stressed
concrete to ensure quality standards and to verify conformance to specifications and building codes
• Inspect construction of sewer systems and pipelines
• Inspect construction sites to ensure that safe working conditions are maintained
• Inspect existing buildings to identify and report on structural defects, fire hazards and other threats to
safety
• Inspect new or resale homes on behalf of clients and assess and provide reports on the physical condition
of property.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A college diploma in construction, civil engineering or architectural technology plus several years of related
work experience
or
Several years of experience as a qualified tradesperson in a construction trade, such as plumbing,
carpentry or electrical trade are required.
• Provincial certification in a skilled trade or as an engineering technologist is usually required.
• Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification is offered by the Canada Green
Building Council and may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Progression to construction management positions is possible with experience.
227 Transportation officers and controllers
2271 Air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors
Air pilots fly fixed wing aircraft and helicopters to provide air transportation and other services such as crop spraying
and aerial surveying. Flight engineers assist air pilots with monitoring, troubleshooting and maintenance of aircraft
systems and with pre- and post-flight inspections. Flying instructors teach flying techniques and procedures to
student and licensed pilots. Air pilots, flight engineers and flight instructors are employed by airline and air freight
companies, flying schools and by other public and private sector aircraft operators.
Illustrative example(s)
• air pilot
• captain - air transport
• check pilot
• chief flying instructor
• chief pilot
• co-pilot
• flight engineer
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•
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flying instructor
helicopter pilot
pilot instructor
relief pilot
second officer - air transport
test pilot
Exclusion(s)
• Air traffic controllers and related occupations (2272)
• Ground school instructors (see 4021 College and other vocational instructors)
Main duties
Air pilots perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct pre-flight inspection of aircraft and check passenger and cargo distribution to ensure that weight
and balance specifications are met
• Co-ordinate flight activities with ground crews and air-traffic control, inform crew members of flight and test
procedures and direct activities of aircraft crew during flights
• Contact control towers for takeoff clearances, arrival instructions and other information
• Conduct in-flight tests and monitor functioning of aircraft equipment and systems during flights, maintain
communications with flight dispatchers and weather forecasters and respond to and report in-flight
emergencies and malfunctions
• Prepare flight evaluation reports
• Train pilots to use new equipment, or prepare them for examinations to re-validate or upgrade existing
licences
• May fly new or experimental planes to examine their flight performance and safety
• May participate in search and rescue operations, forest firefighting, aerial surveying, crop dusting and
other services.
Flight engineers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Inspect aircraft prior to takeoff according to pre-flight checklist and verify passenger and cargo distribution
to ensure that weight and balance specifications are met
• Assist air pilots in monitoring aircraft systems, equipment and functions during flight
• Make in-flight repairs, such as replacing fuses and adjusting instruments, and follow emergency
procedures to compensate for equipment malfunction or failure
• Perform post-flight inspections, record equipment malfunctions and corrective actions taken during flight
and report required repairs to ground maintenance personnel.
Flying instructors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Instruct student pilots in procedures and techniques of flying aircraft and in ground-school subjects such as
navigation, radio procedures and flying regulations
• Train licensed pilots for additional certification.
Employment requirements
Pilots and flight engineers
• Completion of secondary school and graduation from a certified flying or aviation school are required.
• A university degree or college diploma may be required.
• A commercial pilot's licence or an air transport pilot's licence is required.
• Additional licences or endorsements to fly different types of aircraft are required.
• Flight engineers require a flight engineer license issued by Transport Canada.
• Structured training is provided by employers.
Flight instructors
• Completion of secondary school and graduation from a certified flying or aviation school are required.
• A university degree or college diploma may be required.
• A commercial pilot's or an air transport pilot's licence is required.
• Transport Canada ratings and endorsements to provide instructions on different types of aircraft are
required.
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Additional information
• Flight engineers may progress to co-pilot and pilot positions with required hours of flying experience and
completion of licensing and endorsement requirements.
2272 Air traffic controllers and related occupations
Air traffic controllers direct air traffic within assigned airspace, and control moving aircraft and service vehicles at
airports. Flight service specialists provide pilots with flight information essential to aviation safety. Flight dispatchers
authorize airline flights over assigned routes. Air traffic controllers and flight service specialists are employed by
NAV Canada and the Canadian Forces. Flight dispatchers are employed by airline and air services companies and
by the Canadian Forces.
Illustrative example(s)
• air traffic controller (ATC)
• airport air traffic controller
• enroute air traffic controller
• flight dispatcher
• flight service specialist (FSS)
• instrument flight rules air traffic controller
• terminal air traffic controller
• visual flight rules air traffic controller
Exclusion(s)
• Railway traffic controllers and marine traffic regulators (2275)
Main duties
Air traffic controllers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Control flow of air traffic within assigned airspace using radar monitors, radio and other communication
equipment and visual references
• Issue aircraft takeoff and landing instructions to pilots and relay meteorological, navigational and other
information to pilots in flight
• Maintain radio and telephone contact with adjacent control towers, terminal control units and other area
control centres, and co-ordinate movement of aircraft into adjoining areas
• Alert airport emergency services when aircraft are experiencing difficulties and report missing aircraft to
search and rescue services
• Direct activities of all moving aircraft and service vehicles on or near airport runways.
Flight service specialists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Provide pre-flight information concerning current and forecast weather conditions, radio frequencies,
terrain, airports and related data to assist pilots in preparation of flight plans
• Check flight plans for completeness and accuracy and forward flight plans to air traffic services facility
• Respond to radio calls from aircraft preparing for takeoff or landing and supply information such as
weather conditions, wind speed and direction and presence of local air traffic
• Support air traffic control operations by relaying radio requests for flight clearances, arrival and departure
information and position reports
• Alert airport emergency services of aircraft experiencing difficulties and initiate communication searches
when aircraft become overdue
• Observe, record and report weather conditions at airports.
Flight dispatchers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Analyze environmental conditions and assess aircraft for load and fuel capacity and other factors to
determine flight routes
• Brief flight crew before takeoff on weather conditions, status of navigational facilities and airports en route
• Co-sign flight authorization with aircraft captain
• Monitor progress of flight and communicate as required with aircraft during flight
• Delay or cancel flights if conditions warrant
• Prepare and maintain flight plans, flight logs and other reports.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A basic radio telephone operator's licence is required.
• Air traffic controllers and flight service specialists require completion of a NAV Canada training program
which includes structured in-class and on-the-job training.
• Air traffic controllers require an air traffic controller's licence.
• Flight dispatchers may require experience in air traffic control or flight operations and may require a private
pilot's licence.
Additional information
• Air traffic controllers with experience and appropriate NAV Canada endorsements may move to units with
higher volumes of air traffic.
2273 Deck officers, water transport
Deck officers, water transport, operate and command ships or self-propelled vessels to transport passengers and
cargo on oceans and coastal and inland waters, and supervise and co-ordinate the activities of deck crews. This
unit group also includes Canadian Coast Guard deck officers. They are employed by marine transportation
companies and federal government departments.
Illustrative example(s)
• deck officer - water transport
• ferryboat master
• first mate, ship
• master mariner
• navigation officer, Coast Guard vessel
• second mate, ship
• ship pilot
• ship's captain
• ship's mate
• third mate, ship
• tugboat captain
• watchkeeping officer, Coast Guard vessel
Exclusion(s)
• Engineer officers, water transport (2274)
• Fishing masters and officers (8261)
• Shore captains (see 0731 Managers in transportation)
• Water transport deck and engine room crew (7532)
Main duties
Deck officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Command and operate ships or other self-propelled vessels, such as barges or oil rigs, to transport
passengers and cargo
• Command and operate coast guard vessels to provide ice-breaking and search and rescue services, and
to maintain control over ships operating in Canadian waters
• Board vessels at berth or from pilot boats to advise ships' captains on the course to steer for safe passage
into and out of ports, seaways or other waterways under pilotage authority
• Plan and execute safe navigational passage using navigational aids
• Determine geographical position using navigational instruments, maps and charts
• Guide vessels in rivers, canals, and other confined or hazardous waters and waterways
• Maintain vessels' navigational instruments and equipment
• Direct and oversee the loading and unloading of cargo
• Supervise and co-ordinate the activities of deck crews
• Record vessel progress, crew activities, weather and sea conditions in the ship's log.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of deck officer cadet program from an approved nautical institute
or
One to three years of experience as a member of a deck crew is required.
• A deck officer certificate of competency, issued by Transport Canada, is required.
• For ship pilots, a ship pilot licence and a master certificate of competency are required.
Additional information
• Transport Canada administers a deck officer certification program, consisting of several levels.
Progression from one level of certification to the next requires additional experience, training and testing.
• Mobility between employers is possible for positions requiring the same level of certification.
• Progression to management positions in transportation is possible with experience.
2274 Engineer officers, water transport
Engineer officers, water transport, operate and maintain main engines, machinery and auxiliary equipment aboard
ships and other self-propelled vessels, and supervise and co-ordinate the activities of engine room crews. They are
employed by marine transportation companies and federal government departments.
Illustrative example(s)
• chief engineer - water transport
• engineer officer - water transport
• fourth engineer - water transport
• marine engineer officer
• second engineer
• third engineer - water transport
• tugboat engineer
Exclusion(s)
• Deck officers, water transport (2273)
• Managers in transportation (0731)
• Marine and naval engineers (see 2148 Other professional engineers, n.e.c.)
• Marine mechanical engineers (see 2132 Mechanical engineers)
• Water transport deck and engine room crew (7532)
Main duties
Engineer officers, water transport, perform some or all of the following duties:
• Operate main engines, machinery and all auxiliary equipment aboard ships, such as boilers, steering and
deck machinery, motors, pumps, generators and condensers
• Stand engine room watch, monitoring and noting performance of engines, machinery and all auxiliary
equipment
• Inspect and conduct maintenance and emergency repairs to engines, machinery and all auxiliary
equipment
• Supervise and co-ordinate the activities of the engine room crew
• Maintain records and prepare reports on engine performance and failures.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of a three-year cadet program in marine engineering from an approved marine training institute
or
Approximately three years of experience as an engine room crew member and six months of formal
training at an approved marine training institute
or
Approximately three years of experience as an engine mechanic and six months of experience as an
engine room crew member are required for certification as a fourth class marine engineer.
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• A marine engineer officer certificate of competency, issued by Transport Canada, is required.
Additional information
• Fourth Class Marine Engineer certificate is the entry level of a four-level certification program administered
by Transport Canada. Progression from one level of certification to the next requires additional experience,
training and testing.
• Mobility between employers is possible for positions requiring the same level of certification.
• Progression to management positions in transportation is possible with experience.
2275 Railway traffic controllers and marine traffic regulators
Railway traffic controllers co-ordinate passenger and freight train traffic on railways. They are employed by rail
transport companies. Marine traffic regulators monitor and regulate coastal and inland marine traffic within assigned
waterways. They are employed by port, harbour, canal and lock authorities and by the Canadian Coast Guard.
Illustrative example(s)
• chief rail traffic controller
• marine traffic regulator
• rail traffic controller
• train operator
Exclusion(s)
• Harbour masters (see 0714 Facility operation and maintenance managers)
• Subway traffic controllers and light rail transit dispatchers (see 7305 Supervisors, motor transport and
other ground transit operators)
• Supervisors, railway transport operations (7304)
Main duties
Railway traffic controllers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Operate and monitor centralized traffic control systems to co-ordinate and follow railway traffic
• Chart train movements, calculate arrival and departure times and record rail traffic information
• Issue instructions to control the movement of passenger and freight train traffic and on-track mobile
maintenance equipment
• Receive, record and relay train instructions to train crew by hand or radio telephone
• May supervise and train other railway traffic controllers.
Marine traffic regulators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Direct and monitor vessel movements using radar or closed circuit monitors, remote radio systems and
other telecommunication equipment
• Obtain position, course, speed and estimated arrival time of vessels and monitor vessel progress through
traffic zone
• Issue clearance instructions to vessels, advise vessels of traffic volumes and weather conditions, and relay
information to next marine traffic control sector
• Report accidents, distress signals, navigational hazards and other emergencies to authorities
• Maintain radio and telephone contact with adjacent marine control sectors and with vessels within area of
jurisdiction
• Maintain log of vessel movements, size and structure.
Employment requirements
• Railway traffic controllers usually require completion of secondary school and several years of experience
in the railway industry.
• Up to 35 weeks of a combination of classroom and on-the-job training is provided for railway traffic
controllers.
• Railway traffic controllers require a Canadian Rail Operating Rules certificate.
• Marine traffic regulators require completion of secondary school and several months of formal traffic
regulator training.
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Additional information
• There is little mobility between traffic controlling occupations in the railway and marine sectors.
• With experience, railway traffic controllers may progress to supervisory positions in rail transport
operations.
228 Technical occupations in computer and information systems
2281 Computer network technicians
Computer network technicians establish, operate, maintain and co-ordinate the use of local and wide area networks
(LANs and WANs), mainframe networks, hardware, software and related computer equipment. They set up and
maintain Internet and intranet Web sites and Web-server hardware and software, and monitor and optimize network
connectivity and performance. They are employed in information technology units throughout the private and public
sectors. Supervisors of computer network technicians are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• computer network technician
• data centre operator
• Internet Web site technician
• LAN (local area network) administrator
• LAN (local area network) technician
• network administrator
• network support technician
• supervisor, computer network technicians
• system administrator
• Web technician
Exclusion(s)
• Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (0124)
• Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2147)
• Computer programmers and interactive media developers (2174)
• Information systems testing technicians (2283)
• User support technicians (2282)
• Web designers and developers (2175)
Main duties
Computer network technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Maintain, troubleshoot and administer the use of local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs),
mainframe networks, computer workstations, connections to the Internet and peripheral equipment
• Evaluate and install computer hardware, networking software, operating system software and software
applications
• Operate master consoles to monitor the performance of computer systems and networks and to
co-ordinate access and use of computer networks
• Provide problem-solving services to network users
• Install, maintain, troubleshoot and upgrade Web-server hardware and software
• Implement network traffic and security monitoring software, and optimize server performance
• Perform routine network start up and close down and maintain control records
• Perform data backups and disaster recovery operations
• Conduct tests and perform security and quality controls
• Control and monitor e-mail use, Web navigation, and installed software
• Perform shell scripting or other basic scripting tasks
• May supervise other workers in this group.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college or other program in computer science, network administration, Web technology or
a related field is usually required.
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• Certification or training provided by software vendors may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Progression to computer programming, interactive media development, Web development or systems
analysis is possible with experience.
2282 User support technicians
Technicians in this group provide first-line technical support to computer users experiencing difficulties with
computer hardware and with computer applications and communications software. They are employed by computer
hardware manufacturers and retailers, software developers, in call centres and in information technology units
throughout the private and public sectors. Technicians in this group are also employed by independent technical
support companies or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• call centre agent - technical support
• client support representative - systems
• computer help desk representative - systems
• computer help desk supervisor
• hardware installation technician
• hardware technical support analyst
• help desk technician
• software installation technician
• software technical support analyst
• systems support representative
• technical support analyst - systems
• technical support supervisor
• user support technician
Exclusion(s)
• Computer network technicians (2281)
• Computer programmers and interactive media developers (2174)
• Information systems analysts and consultants (2171)
• Information systems testing technicians (2283)
Main duties
User support technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Communicate electronically and in person with computer users experiencing difficulties to determine and
document problems experienced
• Consult user guides, technical manuals and other documents to research and implement solutions
• Emulate or reproduce technical problems encountered by users
• Provide advice and training to users in response to identified difficulties
• Provide business systems, network and Internet support to users in response to identified difficulties
• Collect, organize and maintain a problems and solutions log for use by other technical support analysts
• Participate in the redesign of applications and other software
• May supervise other technical support workers in this group.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college program in computer science, computer programming or network administration is
usually required.
• College or other courses in computer programming or network administration are usually required.
• Certification or training provided by software vendors may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Progression to computer programming, interactive media development, Web development or systems
analysis is possible with experience.
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2283 Information systems testing technicians
Information systems testing technicians execute test plans to evaluate the performance of software applications and
information and telecommunications systems. They are employed in information technology units throughout the
private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• application tester
• application testing technician
• software test co-ordinator
• software tester
• software testing technician
• systems tester
• systems testing technician
• user acceptance tester
Exclusion(s)
• Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers) (2147)
• Computer network technicians (2281)
• Computer programmers and interactive media developers (2174)
• Information systems analysts and consultants (2171)
• Software engineers and designers (2173)
• User support technicians (2282)
• Web designers and developers (2175)
Main duties
Information systems testing technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop and document software testing plans
• Install software and hardware and configure operating system software in preparation for testing
• Execute, analyze and document results of software application tests and information and
telecommunication systems tests
• Develop and implement software and information system testing policies, procedures and scripts.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college program in computer science, computer programming or network administration is
usually required.
• College or other courses in computer programming or network administration are usually required.
• Certification or training provided by software vendors may be required by some employers.
Additional information
• Progression to computer programming, interactive media development, Web development or systems
analysis is possible with experience.
3 Health occupations
30 Professional occupations in nursing
301 Professional occupations in nursing
3011 Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors
Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors co-ordinate and supervise the activities of registered nurses, registered
psychiatric nurses, licensed practical nurses and other nursing personnel in the provision of patient care. They are
employed in health care institutions such as hospitals, clinics and nursing homes, and in nursing agencies.
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Illustrative example(s)
• nursing care co-ordinator
• nursing services co-ordinator
• nursing supervisor
• patient care co-ordinator - nursing
• psychiatric nursing supervisor
• public health nursing supervisor
Exclusion(s)
• Directors of nursing and nursing unit administrators (see 0311 Managers in health care)
Main duties
Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Supervise registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and other nursing personnel
• Evaluate patients' needs and ensure that required nursing care is delivered
• Set up and co-ordinate nursing services in conjunction with other health services
• Ensure quality nursing care is provided and appropriate administrative procedures are followed
• Assist in the establishment of unit policies and procedures
• Administer nursing unit budget and ensure that supplies and equipment are available
• Assist in the selection, evaluation and professional development of nursing personnel
• Collaborate on research projects related to nursing and medical care and multidisciplinary services
• May provide direct patient care.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a university, college or other approved registered nursing, or registered psychiatric nursing,
program is required.
• Courses in management studies or a degree, diploma or certificate in management or administration may
be required.
• Registration as a registered nurse by a provincial or territorial regulatory body is required
or
registration as a registered psychiatric nurse in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and
the Yukon is required.
• Clinical experience as a registered nurse, or as a registered psychiatric nurse, is required.
Additional information
• Progression to management positions, such as director of nursing, is possible with experience.
3012 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses
This unit group includes registered nurses, registered psychiatric nurses and graduates of a nursing program who
are awaiting registration (graduate nurses). They provide direct nursing care to patients, deliver health education
programs and provide consultative services regarding issues relevant to the practice of nursing. They are employed
in a variety of settings including hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres, doctors'
offices, clinics, community agencies, companies and private homes, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• clinical nurse
• community health nurse
• critical care nurse
• emergency care nurse
• intensive care nurse
• nurse researcher
• nursing consultant
• occupational health nurse
• private duty nurse
• public health nurse
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• registered nurse (R.N.)
• registered psychiatric nurse (R.P.N.)
Exclusion(s)
• Nurse practitioners (see 3124 Allied primary health practitioners)
• Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors (3011)
• Nursing service managers (see 0311 Managers in health care)
• Registered practical nurses (see 3233 Licensed practical nurses)
Main duties
General duty registered nurses perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assess patients to identify appropriate nursing interventions
• Collaborate with members of an interdisciplinary health team to plan, implement, co-ordinate and evaluate
patient care in consultation with patients and their families
• Administer medications and treatments as prescribed by a physician or according to established policies
and protocols
• Monitor, assess, address, document and report symptoms and changes in patients' conditions
• Operate or monitor medical apparatus or equipment
• Assist in surgery and other medical procedures
• May supervise licensed practical nurses and other nursing staff
• May develop and implement discharge planning process on admission of patients
• May teach and counsel patients and their families on health-related issues in collaboration with other
health care providers.
Registered nurses may specialize in areas such as surgery, obstetrics care, psychiatric care, critical care,
pediatrics, geriatrics, community health, occupational health, emergency care, rehabilitation or oncology.
• Occupational health nurses develop and implement employee health education programs and provide
registered nursing care in private businesses and industry.
• Community health nurses provide health education and registered nursing care in public health units and
through home visits, manage complex home care cases, participate in community needs assessment and
program development, conduct disease screening and deliver immunization programs.
• Psychiatric nurses provide nursing care, supportive counselling and life skills programming to patients in
psychiatric hospitals, mental health clinics, long-term care facilities and community-based settings.
• Nursing consultants provide consultative services to institutes, associations and health care organizations
regarding issues and concerns relevant to the nursing profession and nursing practice.
• Nursing researchers engaged in research activities related to nursing are self-employed or are employed
by hospitals, public and private organizations and governments.
• Clinical nurses provide leadership, advice and counsel on the provision of research-based care for specific
patient groups within the care of particular health care organizations.
Employment requirements
Registered nurses
• Completion of a university, college or other approved registered nursing program is required.
• Additional academic training or experience is required to specialize in a specific area of nursing.
• A master's or doctoral degree in nursing is usually required for clinical nurse specialists, clinical nurses,
nursing consultants and nursing researchers.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required in all provinces and territories.
Registered psychiatric nurses
• Completion of a university or college registered psychiatric nursing program is required.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and
the Yukon.
Additional information
• Nurses trained exclusively as registered psychiatric nurses (RPN) are regulated in Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. In all other provinces and territories, registered nurses (RN)
may work as psychiatric nurses without separate registration.
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• Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses may progress to supervisory and managerial
positions with experience.
31 Professional occupations in health (except nursing)
311 Physicians, dentists and veterinarians
3111 Specialist physicians
This unit group includes specialist physicians in clinical medicine, in laboratory medicine and in surgery. Specialists
in clinical medicine diagnose and treat diseases and physiological or psychiatric disorders and act as consultants to
other physicians. Specialists in laboratory medicine study the nature, cause and development of diseases in
humans. Specialists in surgery perform and supervise surgical procedures. Specialists in clinical medicine usually
work in private practice or in a hospital while those in laboratory medicine and in surgery usually work in hospitals.
Residents in training to become specialist physicians are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
Specialists in clinical medicine
• anesthetist
• cardiologist
• clinical immunologist-allergist
• dermatologist
• diagnostic radiologist
• emergency physician
• endocrinologist
• gastroenterologist
• geriatrician
• hematologist
• nephrologist
• neurologist
• oncologist
• orthopedist
• pediatrician
• physiatrist
• pneumologist
• psychiatrist
• radiation oncologist
• respirologist
• rheumatologist
Specialists in laboratory medicine
• anatomical pathologist
• general pathologist
• hematopathologist
• medical biochemist - physician
• medical microbiologist
• neuropathologist
Specialists in surgery
• cardiac surgeon
• general surgeon
• neurosurgeon
• obstetrician-gynecologist
• ophthalmologist
• orthopedic surgeon
• otorhinolaryngologist
• pediatric surgeon
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•
•
•
•
plastic surgeon
thoracic surgeon
urologist
vascular surgeon
Exclusion(s)
• Allied primary health practitioners (3124)
• Chiropractors (3122)
• General practitioners and family physicians (3112)
• Managers in health care (0311)
• Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating (3125)
Main duties
Specialists in clinical medicine perform some or all of the following duties:
• Diagnose and treat diseases and physiological or psychiatric disorders
• Order laboratory tests, X-rays and other diagnostic procedures
• Prescribe medication and treatment and refer patients for surgery
• Act as consultants to other physicians
• May conduct medical research.
Specialists in laboratory medicine perform some or all of the following duties:
• Study the nature, cause and development of diseases in humans and the structural and functional
changes caused by diseases
• Conduct microscopic and chemical analyses of laboratory samples and specimens
• Supervise laboratory activities
• Act as consultants to other physicians.
Specialists in surgery perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assess patients' diseases or disorders to determine appropriate surgical procedures
• Perform and supervise surgical procedures to correct physical abnormalities and deficiencies and repair
injuries
• Act as consultants to other physicians.
Employment requirements
Specialist physicians
• A bachelor of science degree
or
In Quebec, completion of a college program and one year of pre-medicine university studies is usually
required.
• Graduation from an approved medical school and specific specialty training are required.
• Completion of the certifying examinations of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
and
Licensing by the provincial or territorial licensing authority are required.
Specialists in clinical medicine
• Four to five years of specialty residency training are required.
• Two years of subspecialty training may also be required.
Specialists in laboratory medicine
• Four to five years of specialty residency training are required.
Specialists in surgery
• Five to six years of specialty residency training are required.
• Two years of subspecialty training may also be required.
Additional information
• Progression to management positions, such as director of laboratory medicine or chief of surgery, is
possible with experience.
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3112 General practitioners and family physicians
General practitioners and family physicians diagnose and treat the diseases, physiological disorders and injuries of
patients. They provide primary contact and continuous care toward the management of patients' health. They
usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, hospitals and clinics. Residents in training to be
general practitioners and family physicians are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• family physician
• general practitioner (GP)
• medical doctor
• resident, general practice
Exclusion(s)
• Allied primary health practitioners (3124)
• Chiropractors (3122)
• Managers in health care (0311)
• Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating (3125)
• Specialist physicians (3111)
Main duties
General practitioners and family physicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine patients and take their histories, order laboratory tests, X-rays and other diagnostic procedures
and consult with other medical practitioners to evaluate patients' physical and mental health
• Prescribe and administer medications and treatments
• Perform and assist in routine surgery
• Provide emergency care
• Provide acute care management
• Vaccinate patients to prevent and treat diseases
• Deliver babies and provide pre-natal and post-natal care
• Advise patients and their families on health care including health promotion, disease, illness and accident
prevention
• Provide counselling and support to patients and their families on a wide range of health and lifestyle issues
• Perform patient advocacy role
• Co-ordinate or manage primary patient care
• Provide continuous care to patients
• Supervise home care services
• Report births, deaths, and contagious and other diseases to governmental authorities.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree
or
In Quebec, completion of a college program and one year of pre-medicine university studies is usually
required.
• Graduation from an approved medical school
and
Two to three years of family medicine residency training are required.
• Completion of the qualifying examinations of the Medical Council of Canada
and
Licensing by the provincial or territorial licensing authority are required.
Additional information
• General practitioners and family physicians may become specialist physicians with additional training.
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3113 Dentists
Dentists diagnose, treat, prevent and control disorders of the teeth and mouth. They work in private practice or may
be employed in hospitals, clinics, public health facilities or universities.
Illustrative example(s)
• dentist
• endodontist
• oral and maxillofacial surgeon
• oral pathologist
• oral radiologist
• orthodontist
• pediatric dentist
• periodontist
• prosthodontist
• public health dentist
Exclusion(s)
• Dental assistants (3411)
• Dental hygienists and dental therapists (3222)
• Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants (3223)
• Denturists (3221)
Main duties
Dentists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine patients' teeth, gums and surrounding tissue to diagnose disease, injury and decay and plan
appropriate treatment
• Restore, extract and replace diseased and decayed teeth
• Perform oral surgery, periodontal surgery and other treatments
• Clean teeth and instruct patients on oral hygiene
• Design bridgework, fit dentures and provide appliances to correct abnormal positioning of the teeth and
jaws, or write fabrication instructions or prescriptions for use by denturists and dental technicians
• Supervise dental hygienists, dental assistants and other staff.
Dentists may specialize in such areas as oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, pediatric dentistry,
periodontics, endodontics, prosthodontics, oral pathology, oral radiology or public health dentistry.
Employment requirements
• One to four years of pre-dentistry university studies or, in Quebec, completion of a college program in
sciences
and
A university degree from a recognized dental program are required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial regulatory body is required.
• Dentists in general practice can move into a specialized practice through advanced training.
• Licensing for specializations is required.
Additional information
• Certification by the National Dental Examining Board of Canada entitles dentists or graduates of approved
dental programs to practise dentistry in any province in Canada provided requirements set out by the
provincial and territorial licensing authorities are met.
3114 Veterinarians
Veterinarians prevent, diagnose and treat diseases and disorders in animals and advise clients on the feeding,
hygiene, housing and general care of animals. Veterinarians work in private practice or may be employed by animal
clinics, farms, laboratories, government or industry.
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Illustrative example(s)
• farm veterinarian
• small animal veterinary specialist
• veterinarian
• veterinary inspector
• veterinary pathologist
• veterinary physiologist
• veterinary surgeon
• zoo veterinarian
Exclusion(s)
• Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians (3213)
• Biologists and related scientists (2121)
Main duties
Veterinarians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Diagnose diseases or abnormal conditions in individual animals, herds and flocks through physical
examinations or laboratory tests
• Treat sick or injured animals by prescribing medication, setting bones, dressing wounds or performing
surgery
• Vaccinate animals to prevent and treat diseases
• Perform routine, emergency and post-mortem examinations
• Advise clients on feeding, housing, behaviour, breeding, hygiene and general care of animals
• Provide a range of veterinary services including obstetrics, dentistry and euthanasia
• May supervise animal health technologists and animal care workers
• May be responsible for overall operation of animal hospital, clinic or mobile service to farms
• May conduct veterinary research related to areas such as animal nutrition, health care products
development and disease prevention and control
• May enforce government regulations in disease control and food production including animal or
animal-based food inspection.
Employment requirements
• Two years of pre-veterinary university studies or completion of a college program in health science
and
A four to five year university degree in veterinary medicine
and
Completion of national certification examinations are required.
• A provincial licence to practice is required.
• Entry into research positions may require post-graduate study.
Additional information
• The duties of veterinarians performing research may be similar to those of some biologists.
312 Optometrists, chiropractors and other health diagnosing and treating professionals
3121 Optometrists
Optometrists examine eyes and diagnose ocular diseases and disorders. They prescribe and fit eyeglasses and
contact lenses and recommend treatments such as exercises to correct vision problems or ocular disorders. They
work in private practice, clinics and community health centres.
Illustrative example(s)
• doctor of optometry (OD)
• optometrist
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Exclusion(s)
• Ocularists (see 3219 Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health))
• Ophthalmologists (see 3111 Specialist physicians)
• Opticians (3231)
• Orthoptists (see 3125 Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating)
Main duties
Optometrists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine patients' eyes, conduct tests and use ophthalmoscopes, biomicroscopes and other specialized
instruments to determine ocular health and visual efficiency
• Prescribe treatment (excluding surgery) to maintain, improve and correct vision and manage other ocular
disorders
• Prescribe and fit eyeglasses and contact lenses
• Educate and advise patients on contact lens use and care, ocular hygiene, preventive care and
maintenance, lighting arrangements, working distances and other safety factors
• Refer patients to ophthalmologists or other physicians and surgeons for treatment of ocular or other
diseases or conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma and macular degeneration.
Optometrists may specialize in fitting visual aids for people who are partially blind, fitting contact lenses or
correcting special vision problems.
Employment requirements
• Three years of university undergraduate studies in mathematics and sciences
and
A four-year university program in optometry are required.
• Licensing by the provincial or territorial regulatory governing body is required.
3122 Chiropractors
Chiropractors diagnose, treat and prevent patients' neuromuscular-skeletal disorders of the spine, nervous system,
pelvis and other body joints by adjusting the spinal column or through other corrective manipulation. Chiropractors
are usually in private practice or in clinics with other health practitioners.
Illustrative example(s)
• chiropractic doctor
• chiropractor
Exclusion(s)
• Chiropractic aides (see 3414 Other assisting occupations in support of health services)
Main duties
Chiropractors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Take patients' case history, conduct examinations, observe patients, and perform X-rays and other tests to
diagnose patient's condition
• Diagnose neuromuscular-skeletal disorders of the spinal column, pelvis, extremities and associated
tissues
• Treat health disorders in a natural manner through adjustments or articular manipulations and
complementary treatments such as electrotherapy, acupuncture, heat therapy and massage with special
attention given to the spine
• Advise patients on alternate treatment modalities such as corrective exercises, posture, lifestyle and
nutrition that have positive effects on the spine, joints, muscles and nervous system.
• Refer patients for medical care when appropriate.
Employment requirements
• A minimum of two years of university undergraduate studies in sciences
and
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Completion of a four- or five-year program at an institution accredited by the Accreditation Commission of
the Council on Chiropractic Education
and
Completion of the examinations of the Canadian Chiropractic Examining Board and of the provincial
licensing body are required.
• Licensing by a regulatory body is required in all provinces and in the Yukon.
3124 Allied primary health practitioners
This unit group includes nurse practitioners, physician assistants and midwives who provide primary health care
and treatment in conjunction with physicians and in collaboration with other health professionals. Nurse
practitioners and physician assistants provide a range of health services to patients delivering preventive and
continuous care toward the management of patients' health. Midwives provide full-course care to women and their
babies during the pre- and post-natal period. Nurse practitioners are employed in community health centres,
hospitals, clinics and rehabilitation centres. Physician assistants usually work in private practice, including group or
team practices, hospitals and clinics. Midwives are employed in hospitals, clinics, birthing centres or in private
practice.
Illustrative example(s)
• anesthesia assistant
• midwife
• nurse practitioner
• nurse practitioner - extended class
• physician assistant
Exclusion(s)
• General practitioners and family physicians (3112)
• Managers in health care (0311)
• Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating (3125)
• Practitioners of natural healing (3232)
• Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses (3012)
• Specialist physicians (3111)
Main duties
Nurse practitioners perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine patients and take their medical histories and consult with physicians and other medical
practitioners to evaluate patients' physical and mental health
• Order laboratory tests, X-rays and other diagnostic procedures
• Inoculate and vaccinate patients
• Advise patients and their families on health care including health promotion, disease, illness and accident
prevention
• Collaborate with members of an interdisciplinary health team such as family physicians, therapists and
nutritionists to plan, implement, co-ordinate and evaluate patient care in consultation with patients and
their families.
Physician assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct patient interviews, physical assessments and take medical histories
• Perform or order diagnostic tests and interpret results
• Formulate and implement treatment plans and monitor patients' progress
• Inoculate and vaccinate patients
• Perform and assist in minor surgery
• Provide health maintenance education
• May participate in research activities.
Midwives perform some or all of the following duties:
• Provide primary, full-course, care to women and their babies during pregnancy, labour, birth and the
post-natal period including monitoring the health of mother and baby
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• Manage labour and spontaneous normal deliveries
• Care for, assess and monitor the health of newborns and refer infants to appropriate medical services as
required
• Provide advice and guidance regarding care for newborns and young infants.
Employment requirements
• Nurse practitioners usually require a master's degree in nursing; or completion of a nursing program with
additional advanced or extended primary health care nursing education; and several years of practice as a
registered nurse.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required for nurse practitioners in all provinces and territories.
• Physician assistants require completion of a university degree in a physician assistant program.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required for physician assistants in Manitoba.
• Midwives require completion of an undergraduate university degree program in midwifery or its equivalent
and a period of supervised practical training.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required for midwives in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia,
New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and the Northwest
Territories.
Additional information
• There is no mobility between these occupations without further training.
3125 Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating
This unit group includes health professionals who diagnose and treat the diseases and injuries of patients and who
are not elsewhere classified. This includes doctors of podiatric medicine, chiropodists and podiatrists, naturopaths,
orthoptists and osteopaths. They work in private practices, clinics and hospitals.
Illustrative example(s)
• chiropodist
• doctor of osteopathy
• doctor of podiatric medicine (D.P.M.)
• foot specialist
• naturopath
• naturopathic doctor (ND)
• orthoptist
• osteopath
• osteopathic physician
• podiatrist
Exclusion(s)
• Chiropractors (3122)
• General practitioners and family physicians (3112)
• Practitioners of natural healing (3232)
• Specialist physicians (3111)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Doctors of podiatric medicine are primary care practitioners who diagnose diseases, deformities and
injuries of the human foot and communicate diagnoses to patients. They treat patients using braces, casts,
shields, orthotic devices, physical therapy, or prescribed medications. Doctors of podiatric medicine may
also perform surgery on the bones of the forefoot and the subcutaneous soft tissues of the foot.
• Chiropodists and diploma or first-degree trained podiatrists diagnose diseases, deformities and injuries of
the human foot and treat patients using braces, casts, shields, orthotic devices, physical therapy and
subcutaneous soft-tissue foot surgery.
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• Naturopaths diagnose patients' diseases and disorders and employ natural methods of healing such as
acupuncture and acupressure, spinal manipulation, reflexology, hydrotherapy, herbal medicines,
biochemical therapy, clinical nutrition, homeopathy and counselling in their treatment.
• Orthoptists work alongside ophthalmologists in the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders by performing
specialized eye tests to measure and assess defective binocular vision or abnormal eye movement in
patients and prescribing treatment such as eye exercises or patching regimens.
• Osteopaths or osteopathic physicians diagnose disorders and injuries of the musculo-skeletal, circulatory
and nervous systems and treat patients with manipulative therapy, medications or surgery.
Employment requirements
Doctors of podiatric medicine (D.P.M.)
• A four-year doctoral degree program in podiatric medicine available in the United States and in Quebec,
normally following completion of a bachelor's degree program, is required.
• A medical residency is required in Alberta and British Columbia.
• A doctor of podiatric medicine (D.P.M.) degree is required to practise podiatry in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta
and British Columbia.
Chiropodists and podiatrists
• A three-year diploma program in chiropody (DCh) obtained in Canada
or
A first-degree program in podiatric medicine (D.Pod.M.) obtained abroad (United Kingdom) is usually
required.
• A licence is required in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British
Columbia.
Naturopaths
• A university degree in pre-medical science is required.
• Completion of a university program in naturopathic medicine, obtained abroad
or
A four-year program in naturopathic medicine from a private institute is required.
• A licence is required in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia.
Orthoptists
• A bachelor's degree and completion of a two-year accredited training program in orthoptics are required.
• Certification with the Canadian Orthoptic Council is available but is required only in Quebec.
• Continuing education is required for recertification with the Canadian Orthoptic Council.
Osteopaths
• A bachelor's degree is required for admission to a doctor of osteopathy program.
• A four-year program in osteopathic medicine leading to a doctor of osteopathy degree
and
A one-year medical residency are required. These qualifications are usually obtained in the United States.
• A licence is required in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia.
Additional information
• Chiropodist and podiatrist titles are used interchangeably in some provinces, although the title podiatrist is
becoming more common. The use of the podiatrist job title does not necessarily refer to doctors of
podiatric medicine (D.P.M.).
• Orthoptists often work as part of a medical team which includes ophthalmologists, opticians and other
ophthalmic medical personnel.
• Orthoptists may also be trained as ophthalmic technicians or technologists.
• Osteopaths may obtain a licence as general practitioners.
• Osteopaths have full scope of practice in New Brunswick, Quebec and Alberta, and limited scope of
practice (to practise osteopathic manipulative medicine) in Ontario and Saskatchewan.
• There are two licences in British Columbia for osteopaths - one allows the doctor of osteopathy full scope
of practice rights, while the other limits practice to osteopathic manipulative medicine.
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313 Pharmacists, dietitians and nutritionists
3131 Pharmacists
Community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists compound and dispense prescribed pharmaceuticals and
provide consultative services to both clients and health care providers. They are employed in retail and hospital
pharmacies, or they may be self-employed. Industrial pharmacists participate in the research, development,
promotion and manufacture of pharmaceutical products. They are employed in pharmaceutical companies and
government departments and agencies.
Illustrative example(s)
• clinical pharmacist
• community pharmacist
• hospital pharmacist
• industrial pharmacist
• pharmacist
• retail pharmacist
Exclusion(s)
• Chemists (2112)
• Chiefs of pharmacy and pharmacy directors (see 0311 Managers in health care)
• Pharmaceutical sales representatives (see 6221 Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade)
• Pharmacologists (see 2121 Biologists and related scientists)
• Pharmacy aides (see 3414 Other assisting occupations in support of health services)
• Pharmacy and drugstore managers (see 0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers)
• Pharmacy technicians (see 3219 Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health))
Main duties
Community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Check prescriptions for proper dosage
• Compound prescribed pharmaceutical products by calculating, measuring and mixing the quantities of
drugs and other ingredients required and filling appropriate containers with correct quantity
• Dispense prescribed pharmaceuticals to customers or to other health care professionals and advise them
on indications, contra-indications, adverse effects, drug interactions and dosage
• Maintain medication profiles of customers including registry of poisons and narcotic and controlled drugs
• Ensure proper preparation, packaging, distribution and storage of vaccines, serums, biologicals and other
drugs and pharmaceuticals
• Order and maintain stock of pharmaceutical supplies
• Advise customers on selection and use of non-prescription medication
• May supervise and co-ordinate the activities of other pharmacists, pharmacy assistants, pharmacy
technicians and other staff.
Industrial pharmacists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Participate in research for the development of new drugs
• Formulate new drug products developed by medical researchers
• Test new drug products for stability and to determine absorption and elimination patterns
• Co-ordinate clinical investigations of new drugs
• Control the quality of drug products during production to ensure that they meet standards of potency,
purity, uniformity, stability and safety
• Develop information materials concerning the uses, properties and risks of particular drugs
• Evaluate labelling, packaging and advertising of drug products
• Promote pharmaceutical products to health professionals.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor of science degree in pharmacy is required.
• Pharmacists also require practical training under the supervision of a pharmacist.
• Licensure is required in all provinces and territories for community and hospital pharmacists.
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3132 Dietitians and nutritionists
Dietitians and nutritionists plan, implement and oversee nutrition and food service programs. They are employed in
a variety of settings including hospitals, home health-care agencies and extended care facilities, community health
centres, the food and beverage industry, the pharmaceutical industry, educational institutions, and government and
sports organizations, or they may work as private consultants.
Illustrative example(s)
• administrative dietitian
• clinical dietitian
• community nutritionist
• consultant dietitian
• dietitian
• dietitian-nutritionist
• nutrition specialist
• nutritionist
• public health dietitian
• public health nutritionist
• registered dietitian (RD)
• research dietitian
Exclusion(s)
• Dietary technicians (see 3219 Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health))
• Directors of dietetics (see 0311 Managers in health care)
• Food service supervisors (6311)
• Home economists (see 4164 Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers)
Main duties
Dietitians and nutritionists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop, administer and supervise nutrition and food preparation and service programs in hospitals,
nursing homes, schools, company cafeterias or similar settings
• Evaluate nutritional status of individuals and provide nutrition guidance and consulting to health
professionals, individuals, dietetic interns, community groups, government and the media
• Aid in the prevention and/or treatment of inadequate nutrition
• Plan, evaluate and conduct nutrition education programs and develop educational materials for various
audiences
• Practice on an individual basis or as a member of an interdisciplinary team to determine nutritional needs
of patients and to plan, implement and evaluate normal and therapeutic menus to maintain and enhance
general health
• Analyze current scientific nutritional studies, conduct research and evaluate program effectiveness to
improve the nutritional value, taste, appearance and preparation of food
• Work within industry in the development, testing and evaluation, and marketing of food and nutrition
products or as a company representative supplying product related information to health professionals
• Confer with other health professionals, community groups, government and the media to provide
consultation and advice in areas of nutrition interpretation, intervention and policy
• Supervise training of dietetic interns.
Dietitians and nutritionists may specialize in areas such as administrative dietetics, clinical dietetics, community
dietetics, public health nutrition or research dietetics.
Employment requirements
• Dietitians require a bachelor's or master's degree in dietetics, nutrition or a related field such as food and
nutritional science or biochemistry
and
A period of supervised practical training.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required in all provinces for dietitians.
• Membership in the national association, Dietitians of Canada, may be required for dietitians to practise.
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• Nutritionists usually require similar education and training as dietitians.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required for nutritionists in Nova Scotia, (as a registered
dietitian-nutritionist) in New Brunswick, Quebec and Alberta.
• Membership with the national association, Dietitians of Canada, and/or a provincial regulatory body is
available for nutritionists who have the same education and practical training as dietitians.
Additional information
• Dietitians and nutritionists may progress to management positions through additional experience.
314 Therapy and assessment professionals
3141 Audiologists and speech-language pathologists
Audiologists diagnose, evaluate and treat individuals with peripheral and central hearing loss, tinnitus and balance
problems. Speech-language pathologists diagnose, assess and treat human communication disorders including
speech, fluency, language, voice and swallowing disorders. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists are
employed in hospitals, community and public health centres, extended care facilities, day clinics, rehabilitation
centres and educational institutions, or may work in private practice. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists
who are supervisors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• audiologist
• certified audiologist
• clinical audiologist
• educational speech-language pathologist
• research audiologist
• speech therapist
• speech-language clinician
Exclusion(s)
• Audiology and speech-language technical and assisting occupations (see 3237 Other technical
occupations in therapy and assessment)
• Braille, lip-reading and sign language instructors (see 4215 Instructors of persons with disabilities)
• Managers in health care (0311)
• Phoniatricians (see 3111 Specialist physicians)
Main duties
Audiologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop and administer audiometric tests and examinations using specialized instruments and electronic
equipment to diagnose and evaluate the degree and type of patients' hearing impairment
• Plan and implement habilitation/rehabilitation programs for patients, including selection, fitting and
adjustment of amplification devices, such as hearing aids, and teaching speech (lip) reading
• Provide information to patients and families regarding the nature, extent, impact and implications of
hearing loss and treatment
• Establish personalized care plans working as a member of an interdisciplinary team
• Conduct research related to hearing and hearing disorders
• May instruct and supervise audiometric technicians, students and other health care personnel.
Speech-language pathologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Administer tests and examinations and observe patients to diagnose and evaluate speech, voice,
resonance, language, cognitive-linguistic and swallowing disorders
• Develop, plan and implement remedial programs to correct speech, voice, language, resonance,
cognitive-linguistic and swallowing disorders
• Establish group and personalized care plans working as a member of an interdisciplinary team
• Provide advice and educational services to patients and families regarding communication and swallowing
disorders
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• Conduct research on speech and other communication disorders and on the development and design of
diagnostic procedures and devices
• May instruct and supervise communicative disorders assistants, students and other health care personnel.
Employment requirements
• Audiologists require a master's degree in audiology.
• Speech-language pathologists require a master's degree in speech-language pathology.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required for audiologists and speech-language pathologists in New
Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia.
• Membership in the national association, Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and
Audiologists, is usually required.
• In some jurisdictions, audiologists may be required to obtain a separate licence to dispense hearing aids.
Additional information
• Progression into management positions, such as chief audiologist or director of speech-language
pathology, is possible with experience.
3142 Physiotherapists
Physiotherapists assess patients and plan and carry out individually designed treatment programs to maintain,
improve or restore physical functioning, alleviate pain and prevent physical dysfunction in patients. Physiotherapists
are employed in hospitals, clinics, industry, sports organizations, rehabilitation centres and extended care facilities,
or they may work in private practice.
Illustrative example(s)
• physical therapist
• physiotherapist
• registered physiotherapist
• research physiotherapist
Exclusion(s)
• Directors of physiotherapy (see 0311 Managers in health care)
• Physical rehabilitation technicians (see 3237 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment)
Main duties
Physiotherapists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assess patients' physical abilities through evaluative procedures such as functional ability tests
• Establish treatment goals with patients based on physical diagnoses
• Plan and implement programs of physiotherapy including therapeutic exercise, manipulations, massage,
education, the use of electro-therapeutic and other mechanical equipment and hydro-therapy
• Evaluate effectiveness of treatment plans and modify accordingly
• Communicate with referring physician and other healthcare professionals regarding patients' problems,
needs and progress
• Maintain clinical and statistical records and confer with other health care professionals
• Develop and implement health promotion programs for patients, staff and the community
• May conduct research in physiotherapy
• May provide consulting or education services.
Physiotherapists may focus their practice in particular clinical areas such as neurology, oncology,
rheumatology, orthopedics, obstetrics, pediatrics, geriatrics, in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular and
cardiopulmonary disorders, burns or sports injuries or in the field of ergonomics.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in physiotherapy and a period of supervised practical training are required.
• A licence or registration with a regulatory body is required to practise physiotherapy in all provinces.
• Completion of the Physiotherapy National Exam, administered by the Alliance of Physiotherapy Regulatory
Boards, may be required.
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Additional information
• Progression to management positions, such as director of physiotherapy, is possible through experience
and additional training.
3143 Occupational therapists
Occupational therapists develop individual and group programs with people affected by illness, injury,
developmental disorders, emotional or psychological problems and ageing to maintain, restore or increase their
ability to care for themselves and to engage in work, school or leisure. They also develop and implement health
promotion programs with individuals, community groups and employers. They are employed in health care facilities,
in schools, and by private and social services agencies, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• clinical occupational therapist
• community occupational therapist
• occupational therapist (OT)
• occupational therapist, case manager
• occupational therapist, research and development
• occupational therapy rehabilitation consultant
Exclusion(s)
• Directors of occupational therapy (see 0311 Managers in health care)
• Orientation and mobility instructors (see 4215 Instructors of persons with disabilities)
Main duties
Occupational therapists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Analyse clients' capabilities and expectations related to life activities through observation, interviews and
formal assessments
• Develop intervention programs to address clients' needs related to self-care, work and leisure activities
• Maintain clients' records
• Establish personalized care plans working as a member of an interdisciplinary team
• Consult and advise on health promotion programs to prevent disabilities and to maximize independent
function in all activities of life
• May supervise support personnel and students and provide training.
Occupational therapists may specialize in working with specific populations such as children or adults, or
persons with distinct problems such as dementia, traumatic brain injury and chronic pain, or provide special
interventions such as return-to-work programs.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in occupational therapy including supervised fieldwork is required
or
Graduation from an occupational therapy program approved by the World Federation of Occupational
Therapists (WFOT) is accepted in some provinces.
• Completion of the national certification examination may be required.
• Licensure with a regulatory body is required in all provinces.
• Membership in the national association, Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists, is required in
some provinces.
• Occupational therapists may obtain expertise in a particular area through additional training or experience.
Additional information
• Occupational therapists may progress to management or administrative positions through further training
and experience.
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3144 Other professional occupations in therapy and assessment
This unit group includes specialized therapists not elsewhere classified who use techniques such as athletic,
movement, art or recreational therapy to aid in the treatment of mental and physical disabilities or injuries. They are
employed by establishments such as hospitals, rehabilitation centres, extended health care facilities, clinics,
recreational centres, nursing homes, industry, educational institutions and sports organizations, or they may work in
private practice.
Illustrative example(s)
• art therapist
• athletic therapist
• certified athletic therapist (CAT)
• certified kinesiologist
• drama therapist
• exercise physiologist
• human kineticist
• kinesiologist
• movement therapist
• music therapist
• recreational therapist
• registered dance therapist (DTR)
Exclusion(s)
• Family, marriage and other related counsellors (4153)
• Occupational therapists (3143)
• Physiotherapists (3142)
• Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4167)
• Technical assistants in therapy and assessment (see 3237 Other technical occupations in therapy and
assessment)
Main duties
Therapists and other professionals in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assess patients and review reports from physicians, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, counsellors, teachers
and other professionals to determine patients' current and potential functioning level
• Prepare individualized and group treatment plans either independently or through a multidisciplinary team
approach, based on health concerns and on recommendations from physicians or other health
professionals
• Design specialized therapy programs to maintain, rehabilitate or enhance movement, musculoskeletal
functioning and performance in sports, work and recreation
• Implement treatment plans by carrying out specialized therapy sessions employing approaches and
techniques such as art, drama and music therapy or dance, recreational, sports or other movement
therapy
• Observe, record observations and analyze patients during treatment sessions, write progress reports on
patient outcomes and consult with other health professionals to evaluate treatment plans
• May provide education to clients regarding health promotion and injury prevention, management and
treatment
• May conduct research in respective field of specialization.
Employment requirements
• Kinesiologists usually require a master's degree in kinesiology or human kinetics.
• Certification for kinesiologists is available through the Canadian Kinesiology Alliance.
• Sport therapists require a bachelor's degree in sport therapy, or a degree in health sciences with a
specialization in sports injury management.
• Art therapists require a bachelor's degree in psychology and a master's degree in art therapy.
• Music therapists require a bachelor's degree in psychology and a master's degree in music therapy.
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• Dance therapists require a bachelor's degree in psychology, and usually require a master's degree in art,
drama or movement therapy.
• Recreational therapists usually require a bachelor's degree in recreation with a specialization in
therapeutic recreation.
• Supervised practical training is usually required for occupations in this unit group.
• Creative or technical ability in the field of specialization is usually required.
• Certification or membership with the appropriate national professional association or provincial counterpart
may be required.
Additional information
• There is no mobility between the different occupations in this unit group.
32 Technical occupations in health
321 Medical technologists and technicians (except dental health)
3211 Medical laboratory technologists
Medical laboratory technologists conduct medical laboratory tests, experiments and analyses to assist in the
diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. They are employed in medical laboratories in hospitals, blood
banks, community and private clinics, research facilities and post-secondary educational institutions. Medical
laboratory technologists who are supervisors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• clinical immunology technologist
• cytogenetics technologist - medical laboratory
• histology technologist
• immunohematology technologist
• medical laboratory supervisor
• medical laboratory technologist
• medical technologist - medical laboratory
Exclusion(s)
• Life science technologists in non-medical laboratories (see 2221 Biological technologists and technicians)
• Medical laboratory technicians and pathologists' assistants (3212)
• Physical science technologists in non-medical laboratories (see 2211 Chemical technologists and
technicians)
Main duties
Medical laboratory technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Set up, operate and maintain laboratory equipment
• Conduct chemical analyses of blood, urine, and cerebrospinal and other body fluids
• Study blood cells and other tissues to determine their relation to various physiological and pathological
conditions
• Prepare tissue sections for microscopic examinations using techniques to demonstrate special cellular
tissue elements or other characteristics
• Perform blood group, type and compatibility tests for transfusion purposes
• Establish procedures for the analysis of specimens and for medical laboratory experiments
• Conduct quality control assessment of testing techniques
• May supervise and train other medical laboratory technical staff, students and helpers
• May assist pathologists during autopsies.
Medical laboratory technologists may specialize in areas such as clinical chemistry, clinical microbiology,
hematology, histotechnology, immunohematology, cytotechnology and cytogenetics.
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Employment requirements
• A two- or three-year college program in medical laboratory technology is required
and
A period of supervised practical training may be required.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario,
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.
• Certification by the Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science is usually required by employers.
3212 Medical laboratory technicians and pathologists' assistants
Medical laboratory technicians conduct routine medical laboratory tests and set up, clean and maintain medical
laboratory equipment. They are employed in medical laboratories in hospitals, clinics, research facilities,
post-secondary educational institutions and government research laboratories. Pathologists' assistants assist at
autopsies and examinations of surgical specimens or perform autopsies under a pathologist's supervision. They are
usually employed in hospitals and universities.
Illustrative example(s)
• medical laboratory assistant
• medical laboratory technician
• pathology assistant
• phlebotomist
• phlebotomy aide
Exclusion(s)
• Biological technicians in non-medical laboratories (see 2221 Biological technologists and technicians)
• Chemical technicians in non-medical laboratories (see 2211 Chemical technologists and technicians)
• Medical laboratory technologists (3211)
Main duties
Medical laboratory technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Collect blood, tissue and other samples from patients
• Log patient samples and prepare them for testing
• Set up medical laboratory equipment
• Conduct routine laboratory tests and sample analyses
• Perform quality assurance of testing techniques
• Clean and maintain medical laboratory and medical laboratory equipment.
Pathologists' assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare for autopsies by obtaining patients' medical records and arranging for radiographic examinations
• Assist with or perform autopsies and surgical specimen examinations under pathologists' supervision
• Dissect, examine, weigh and photograph organs and specimens, collect tissue samples for chemical
analysis and record findings
• Discard specimens according to established safety procedures
• Clean and maintain instruments, equipment and supplies
• May prepare bodies for release to funeral homes following completion of autopsies
• May supervise and train junior resident pathologists and morgue attendants.
Employment requirements
• Medical laboratory technicians/assistants require completion of a college certificate program in medical
laboratory science.
• Certification by the Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science may be required for medical
laboratory technicians/assistants.
• Combined laboratory and X-ray technicians require completion of a combined laboratory X-ray technology
program.
• Pathologists' assistants require some post-secondary courses or a university degree in life sciences
and
Specialized on-the-job training.
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3213 Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians
Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians provide technical support to veterinarians by caring for
animals and assisting in the diagnosis and treatment of animal health disorders. They are employed in veterinary
clinics, animal hospitals, animal shelters, humane societies, zoos, animal research laboratories, pharmaceutical
companies and government. Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians who are supervisors are
included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• animal health technician
• animal health technologist
• laboratory animal technician
• registered veterinary technician (RVT)
• veterinarian assistant
• veterinary technician
• veterinary technologist
Exclusion(s)
• Pet groomers and animal care workers (6563)
Main duties
Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Provide nursing care and rehabilitation therapy for animals
• Handle, restrain and care for animals undergoing treatment and surgery
• Produce radiographs, collect and analyse samples and perform other laboratory tests to assist in diagnosis
of animal health problems
• Assist veterinarian with animals before, during and following surgery by preparing surgical equipment,
administering and monitoring anaesthetics and cleaning up after surgery
• Prepare and administer medications and vaccines under direction of a veterinarian
• Administer treatments as prescribed by a veterinarian
• Provide wound and bandage care
• Conduct specialized procedures such as animal identification and hoof trimming
• Educate and advise clients on animal health care including nutrition and home care
• Assist in laboratory research
• Perform routine animal dental procedures and assist veterinarians with animal dentistry
• May perform a variety of office management and clerical duties.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- or three-year animal health/veterinary technology college program is required.
• Successful completion of a national registration examination may be required in some employment
settings.
• Registration with provincial animal health technologists' or veterinary technicians' associations is available,
and is mandatory in some provinces.
Additional information
• With experience, animal health technologists and veterinary technicians may progress to supervisory
positions.
3214 Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists
Respiratory therapists assist physicians in the diagnosis, treatment and care of patients with respiratory and
cardiopulmonary disorders. Clinical perfusionists provide technical support to patients undergoing cardiac surgery
and patients requiring cardio-respiratory support. Cardiopulmonary technologists assist physicians in the technical
aspects of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Respiratory therapists are employed
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in hospitals, extended care facilities, public health centres and respiratory home care companies. Clinical
perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists are primarily employed in hospitals. Respiratory therapists, clinical
perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• cardiopulmonary technologist
• cardiovascular perfusion supervisor
• cardiovascular perfusionist
• certified clinical perfusionist (CCP)
• chief respiratory technologist
• chief, respiratory therapy
• clinical perfusionist
• perfusionist
• registered respiratory therapist (RRT)
• respiratory therapist
• respiratory therapy clinical instructor
Exclusion(s)
• Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health) (3219)
• Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment (3237)
Main duties
Respiratory therapists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Perform diagnostic tests, such as arterial blood gas analysis and cardiopulmonary functions tests
• Operate and monitor respiratory equipment to administer treatments such as oxygen, oxygen-air mixtures,
humidified air or medications
• Operate, monitor, maintain and test a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment
• Assess patients and perform or assist with interventions such as airway maintenance, line insertions,
inductions and intubations
• Perform artificial respiration and external cardiac massage
• Assist with transport of high-risk patients
• Supervise and train students and other respiratory therapists
• Participate in home care programs for chronic respiratory patients and provide patient and family
education
• Participate in research related to cardiac and pulmonary disorders.
Respiratory therapists may specialize in areas such as anaesthesia, critical care, pediatrics, cardiopulmonary
diagnostics and respiratory home care.
Clinical perfusionists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assemble, maintain and operate extracorporeal circulation equipment, intra-aortic balloon pumps and
other heart assist devices to support or temporarily replace patients' cardiopulmonary functions during
open-heart surgery
• Administer blood products, drugs and other substances through heart-lung machines and other devices as
directed by cardiac surgeons and anaesthetists to maintain adequate flow of oxygenated blood to all
organs of the body
• Monitor vital signs to support and maintain patients' physiological functions and metabolic needs during
cardiopulmonary surgery
• Participate in routine maintenance, calibration and inspection of all perfusion related equipment
• Supervise and train student clinical perfusionists and other clinical perfusionists.
Cardiopulmonary technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Perform diagnostic tests, such as pulmonary function and asthma stress, or assist physicians with cardiac
and cardiopulmonary stress tests and bronchoscopies
• Determine patients' blood characteristics such as activated clotting time and oxygen saturation
• Operate, monitor, maintain, calibrate and test diagnostic and therapeutic equipment
• Monitor patients and advise physician of any changes in patients' condition
• Prepare medications and administer inhaler and other treatments under supervision of cardiologist
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• Provide information and care for patients during tests
• Assist with the preparation of cardiac catheterization room, prepare specialized catheters and assist
cardiologists during catheterization
• Perform analysis, programming and monitoring of implanted devices such as pacemakers and
defibrillators during surgery
• Supervise and train students and other cardiopulmonary technologists
• Provide technical support for research.
Employment requirements
• Respiratory therapists require the completion of a three-year college, hospital or university degree program
in respiratory therapy, including clinical training.
• Licensing is required for respiratory therapists in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta.
• Clinical perfusionists require the completion of a respiratory therapy or registered nursing program with a
minimum of one year of work experience as a respiratory therapist or registered nurse
and
Completion of a college or university program in clinical perfusion, including clinical training.
• Certification with the Canadian Society of Clinical Perfusion is required for clinical perfusionists.
• Cardiopulmonary technologists require a two-year college diploma in an allied health discipline such as
respiratory therapy, nursing diploma, or a university degree in a related science
and
Completion of a college post-diploma program in cardiovascular technology and additional training in
pulmonary technology through courses or supervised on-the-job clinical training.
• Registration with the Canadian Association of Cardio-pulmonary Technologists (CACPT) may be required.
Additional information
• Supervisory and instructor positions in this unit group require experience in their respective fields as a
respiratory therapist, clinical perfusionist or cardiopulmonary technologist.
3215 Medical radiation technologists
This unit group includes technologists who operate radiographic and radiation therapy equipment to administer
radiation treatment and produce images of body structures for the diagnosis and treatment of injury and disease.
They are employed in hospitals, cancer treatment centres, clinics, radiological laboratories, colleges and
universities. Medical radiation technologists who are supervisors or instructors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• clinical instructor, radiation therapy
• magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist
• mammography technician
• nuclear medicine clinical instructor
• nuclear medicine technologist
• radiation oncology technologist
• radiation therapist
• radiation therapy technologist (RTT)
• radiography technologist
• radiological technologist
• radiotherapy technician
• supervisor, nuclear medicine technologists
• X-ray (radiology) technician
Exclusion(s)
• Other medical technologists and technicians (see 321 Medical technologists and technicians (except
dental health))
Main duties
Radiological technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Operate X-ray, radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment, computerized tomography (CT) scanners,
mammography units and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners to produce radiographs or
anatomic images of the human body for the diagnosis by radiologists of disease or injury
• Record and process patient data
• Perform basic verification and quality control checks on radiographic and film processing equipment
• Provide appropriate care and monitoring of the patient during the radiographic examination
• Explain procedures, position patient and equipment and apply radiation protection measures
• May train and supervise student radiographers or supervise other radiological technologists.
Radiological technologists may specialize in areas such as computerized tomography, angiography,
mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, interventional radiology, dosimetry, stereotaxy or brachytherapy.
Nuclear medicine technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare and administer radiopharmaceuticals, such as radionuclides and other tracer materials to patients
or to biological samples
• Operate radiation detection equipment, such as gamma cameras, scanners, scintillation counters,
tomodensitometers and ionization chambers, to acquire data for use by nuclear medicine physicians in the
diagnosis of disease
• Perform diagnostic procedures using radioactive materials on biological specimens, such as blood, urine
and faeces
• Record and process results of procedures
• Check equipment to ensure proper operation
• Provide appropriate care and monitoring of the patient during the examination
• Apply radiation protection measures
• May train and supervise student nuclear medicine technologists or supervise other nuclear medicine
technologists.
Radiation therapists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Operate linear accelerators, cobalt 60, X-ray and other radiation therapy equipment to administer radiation
treatment prescribed by radiation oncologists
• Check radiation therapy equipment to ensure proper operation
• Assist radiation oncologists and clinical physicists with preparation of radiation treatment plan
• Assist in the preparation of sealed radioactive materials such as cobalt, radium, cesium and isotopes and
the construction of devices such as plaster casts and acrylic moulds to assist with administration of
radiation treatment
• Provide appropriate care and monitoring of the patient's physical and psychological well-being during the
entire course of treatment
• Explain procedures and side effects of radiation
• May train and supervise student radiotherapy technologists or supervise other radiotherapy technologists.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- to three-year college, hospital or other approved program in diagnostic radiography
or magnetic resonance imaging (for radiological technologists and magnetic resonance technologists),
nuclear medicine technology (for nuclear medicine technologists) or radiation therapy (for radiation
therapists)
or
A bachelor of health sciences in radiography, nuclear medicine or radiation therapy
and
A period of supervised practical training are required.
• Licensure with a regulatory body is required in all provinces.
• Certification by the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists is required in all provinces
except Quebec.
Additional information
• There is no mobility between the three types of medical radiation technologists without further training.
• Experience as a medical radiation technologist is required for supervisors and instructors.
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3216 Medical sonographers
Medical sonographers operate ultrasound equipment to produce and record images of various parts of the body to
aid physicians in monitoring pregnancies and in diagnosing cardiac, ophthalmic, vascular and other medical
disorders. They are employed in clinics and hospitals. Medical sonographers who are supervisors or instructors are
included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• diagnostic medical sonography instructor
• medical sonographer
• medical sonographers supervisor
• registered diagnostic medical sonographer (RDMS)
• ultrasound technologist
Exclusion(s)
• Medical radiation technologists (3215)
Main duties
Medical sonographers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Operate ultrasound imaging equipment that transmits high frequency sound pulses through the body to
produce images of those parts of the body requiring examination
• Monitor examination by viewing images on video screen, to evaluate quality and consistency of diagnostic
images, and make adjustments to equipment, as required
• Record, store and process scanned images by using camera unit connected to ultrasound equipment
• Observe and care for patients throughout examinations to ensure patient safety and comfort
• Prepare examination reports for physicians to aid in the monitoring of pregnancies and the diagnosis of
cardiac, abdominal, ophthalmic, vascular and other disorders
• Perform quality control checks on ultrasound equipment to ensure proper operation and perform minor
repairs and adjustments as required
• May supervise and train student and other medical sonographers.
Medical sonographers may specialize in abdominal, cardiac, cerebral, obstetrical and gynaecological,
ophthalmic, intraluminal or peripheral vascular sonography. They may also specialize in adult or pediatric
echocardiography or neurosonology.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a three- to four-year program in diagnostic medical sonography or ultrasound technology
or
Completion of a two- to three-year program in a related allied health field and a one-year post-diploma
program in diagnostic medical sonography from an accredited institution are required.
• Registration with the Canadian Association of Registered Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound Professionals
and/or the American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers is usually required by employers.
• Registration with l'Ordre des Technologues en Radiologie du Québec is required in Quebec.
Additional information
• Membership in the Canadian Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers is available but voluntary.
3217 Cardiology technologists and electrophysiological diagnostic technologists, n.e.c.
Cardiology technologists operate electrocardiogram and other electronic equipment to record cardiac activity of
patients to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of heart disease. Electrophysiological diagnostic
technologists, not elsewhere classified, operate electroencephalographic, electromyographic and other
electrophysiological diagnostic equipment to assist physicians in diagnosing diseases, injuries and abnormalities.
Cardiology technologists and electrophysiological diagnostic technologists who are supervisors or instructors are
included in this unit group. They are employed in clinics, hospitals and medical laboratories.
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Illustrative example(s)
• cardiac stress technologist
• cardiology supervisor
• cardiology technologist
• electrocardiographic (ECG) technologist
• electrocardiography technologist
• electroencephalograph (EEG) technologist
• electromyography (EMG) technologist
• electroneurodiagnostic (END) technologist
• electroneurophysiology (ENP) technologist
Exclusion(s)
• Cardiovascular perfusionists (see 3214 Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary
technologists)
Main duties
Cardiology technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Operate electrocardiogram and other electronic equipment to record cardiac activity of patients
• Perform cardiovascular procedures and tests, such as electrocardiograms, exercise tolerance tests,
ambulatory monitoring and scanning of tapes, holter arrhythmia scanning, pacemaker analysis and
follow-up
• Record and assess cardiac activity and provide preliminary reports of tests
• Provide patients with care during procedures and tests
• Prepare reports for interpretation by cardiologists
• Reprogram pacemakers according to required standards
• Check, calibrate and perform routine maintenance of cardiology equipment to ensure proper operation
• May analyze tests and notify physician or other health care professionals of abnormalities
• May administer certain drugs under direct supervision of physician
• May document and record pacemaker implant threshold measurements under direct supervision of cardiac
surgeon
• May supervise and train students, other cardiology technologists and nurses.
Electrophysiological technologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Review patient's case history and assess nature of problem to determine procedures and tests required
• Attach diagnostic equipment to patients and ensure their comfort and safety
• Operate diagnostic equipment such as electroencephalographic and evoked potential equipment to record
the electrical activity of the brain and cranial and central nervous systems
• Operate electromyographic equipment to conduct electrophysiological nerve conduction velocity tests and
to assist physicians in conducting electrophysiological tests such as muscle strength and repetitive
stimulation
• Take notes on the recorded graph to identify interference such as poor electrode contact or patient
movement
• Prepare recordings and reports of findings for physicians to aid in the diagnosis of neurological disorders
• Check, calibrate and perform routine maintenance of diagnostic equipment
• Train and supervise students, technicians or other electroencephalograph technologists.
Employment requirements
• Cardiology technologists require completion of a two-year college diploma program in cardiology
technology
and
Supervised practical training.
• Cardiology technologists require registration with the Canadian Society of Cardiology Technologists in all
provinces except Quebec.
• Electroencephalograph and other diagnostic technologists require completion of a two-year college or
hospital-based program in electrophysiology technology
and
Supervised practical training.
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• Registration with the Canadian Board of Electroencephalograph Technologists is available for
electroencephalograph technologists and is usually required by employers.
• Registration with the Association of Electromyography Technologists of Canada is available for
electromyography technologists and is usually required by employers.
3219 Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health)
This unit group includes medical technologists and technicians not elsewhere classified, such as dietary
technicians, pharmacy technicians, ocularists, prosthetists, orthotists, prosthetic technicians and orthotic
technicians. Dietary technicians are employed in health care and commercial food service establishments such as
hospitals, extended care facilities, nursing homes, schools, cafeterias and fast food outlets. Pharmacy technicians
are employed in retail and hospital pharmacies, long-term care facilities and by pharmaceutical manufacturers.
Ocularists are employed in custom ocular prosthetic laboratories, or they may be self-employed. Prosthetists,
orthotists and prosthetic and orthotic technicians are employed in hospitals, clinics, prosthetics and orthotics
laboratories, and prosthetic device manufacturing companies. Prosthetists and orthotists may also be
self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• dietary technician
• food and nutrition technician - dietetics
• ocularist
• ocularist technician
• orthotic technician
• orthotist
• pharmacy technician
• prosthetic technician
• prosthetist
Exclusion(s)
• Other health care technologists and technicians (see 321 Medical technologists and technicians (except
dental health))
• Pharmacy aides (see 3414 Other assisting occupations in support of health services)
• Technologists and technicians in therapy and assessment (see 3237 Other technical occupations in
therapy and assessment)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Dietary technicians assist dietitians or nutritionists to plan and supervise food service operations; plan
menus and diet for individuals or groups under the direction of a dietitian or nutritionist; assist in the
supervision of personnel who prepare and serve food; help patients select menu items; and assist
dietitians with research in food, nutrition and food service systems.
• Pharmacy technicians assist pharmacists to maintain inventories of medications and prescription records
of pharmaceutical products; ensure the information on prescriptions is accurate, enter client information in
databases and prepare medications for clients; compound oral solutions, ointments and creams; bill third
party insurers; and may help with scheduling and workflow.
• Ocularists design, fabricate and fit ocular prostheses and conformers, and may design and fabricate
implants; paint the iris and pupil of artificial eyes; clean and restore ocular prostheses; advise patients
concerning the loss of depth perception and the care and use of ocular prostheses; repair and maintain
fabrication and laboratory equipment; and consult with ophthalmologists concerning insertion of ocular
prostheses.
• Prosthetists and orthotists design, fabricate and fit prosthetic and orthotic appliances such as artificial
limbs, braces or supports; interpret physicians' specifications and examine and measure patients to
develop working sketches of appliances; make and modify plaster casts of areas to receive prostheses or
orthoses; fit, adjust and repair appliances; advise patients in the use and care of prostheses and orthoses;
and supervise and direct the activities of prosthetic and orthotic technicians.
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• Prosthetic and orthotic technicians assemble or build prosthetic and orthotic appliances according to
drawings, measurements and plaster casts using a variety of materials such as metals, plastics and
leathers; repair, rebuild and modify prosthetic and orthotic appliances or orthopaedic footwear; and may
take the body or limb measurements of patients.
Employment requirements
• Dietary technicians require completion of a two- to three-year college program in dietary technology and
supervised practical training.
• Pharmacy technicians usually require completion of a two- to three-year college program in
pharmaceutics.
• Ocularists require completion of the ocularist training program of the American Society of Ocularists and
supervised practical training
or
A five-year supervised practical training program under a certified ocularist.
• Certification by the National Examining Board of Ocularists is usually required.
• Prosthetists and orthotists require a two-year college program in prosthetics and orthotics technology and
three years of supervised practical training.
• Certification by the Canadian Board of Certification of Prosthetists and Orthotists (CBCPO) may be
required.
• Prosthetic and orthotic technicians usually require a two- to three- year college program in prosthetics and
orthotics and one to two years of supervised practical training
or
Completion of secondary school and up to four years of supervised practical training under a certified
prosthetist or orthotist.
• Registration with the Canadian Association of Prosthetists and Orthotists (CAPO) may be required.
Additional information
• Prosthetic and orthotic technicians may become certified prosthetists or orthotists with an additional two
years of experience as a registered prosthetic or orthotic technician and completion of certification
examinations by the Canadian Board of Certification of Prosthetists and Orthotists.
322 Technical occupations in dental health care
3221 Denturists
Denturists examine patients and design, construct and repair removable dentures. Most denturists work in private
practice.
Illustrative example(s)
• dental mechanic
• denturist
• denturologist
Exclusion(s)
• Dental assistants (3411)
• Dental hygienists and dental therapists (3222)
• Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants (3223)
• Dentists (3113)
Main duties
Denturists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Measure patients' jaws to determine size and shape of dentures required
• Make impressions of patients' teeth, gums and jaws
• Design and construct dentures or direct other workers to construct dentures
• Insert, fit and modify new dentures
• Repair dentures
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•
•
•
•
•
Reline, rebase and adjust dentures
Fabricate mouth protectors, anti-snoring prostheses and removable prostheses on implants
May order radiographs
May prepare partial dentures
May perform denture whitening and cleaning.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- or three-year college program in denturism/denturology is required.
• An internship in a registered denture clinic may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial regulatory body is required.
3222 Dental hygienists and dental therapists
Dental hygienists provide dental hygiene treatment and information related to the prevention of diseases and
disorders of the teeth and mouth. They are employed in dentists' offices, hospitals, clinics, educational institutions,
government agencies and private industry. Dental therapists carry out limited dental services related to the
prevention and treatment of diseases and disorders of the teeth and mouth. They are employed by the federal
government and the provincial governments to provide services in rural and remote communities.
Illustrative example(s)
• dental hygienist
• dental nurse
• dental therapist
Exclusion(s)
• Dental assistants (3411)
• Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants (3223)
• Dentists (3113)
• Denturists (3221)
Main duties
Dental hygienists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct an initial dental assessment and consult with dentists on patient care
• Take dental impressions
• Instruct patients regarding oral hygiene procedures
• Clean and stimulate the gums to prevent gum disease
• Remove stains and deposits from teeth to prevent tooth and root decay
• Apply fluoride treatment
• Take and develop X-rays
• May perform restorative and orthodontic procedures under the direction of a dentist
• May supervise dental assistants in their health care functions.
Dental therapists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct dental assessments and consult with dentist on patient care
• Take dental impressions
• Take and develop X-rays
• Remove stains and deposits from teeth to prevent tooth and root decay
• Apply fluoride treatment
• Instruct patients regarding oral hygiene procedures
• Supervise dental assistants in their health care functions
• May drill and fill cavities, extract teeth and replace portions of tooth crown.
Employment requirements
• Dental hygienists are required to complete a college program ranging from one to three years, or other
approved program in dental hygiene recognized by the governing board within the province or territory of
residence.
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• Dental therapists are required to complete a two- to three- year college diploma or equivalent credentials
from an approved dental institution.
or
Complete the dental therapy diploma program offered by the First Nations University of Canada in Prince
Albert, Saskatchewan.
• Licensing by the appropriate provincial or territorial regulatory body is required for dental hygienists.
• Licensure is required for dental therapists in Newfoundland and Labrador, Saskatchewan, the Yukon, the
Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
3223 Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants
Dental technologists and technicians design, prepare and fabricate dentures and dental devices as prescribed by
dentists and other specialists. Dental laboratory assistants assist dental technologists and technicians in preparing
and fabricating dentures and other dental devices. They are employed in dental laboratories. Dental technologists
and technicians who are supervisors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• ceramic denture moulder
• dental laboratory assistant
• dental technician
• dental technician supervisor
• dental technologist
• denture finisher
• denture wax pattern former
• orthodontic band maker
• registered dental technician
• registered dental technologist
Exclusion(s)
• Dental assistants (3411)
• Dental hygienists and dental therapists (3222)
• Denturists (3221)
Main duties
Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Design, fabricate or repair dental devices including full or partial dentures, orthodontic appliances, crowns,
bridges, inlays, onlays, clasps and bands, and implants
• Prepare plaster models and moulds from dental impressions
• Prepare wax bite-blocks and impression trays
• Cast gold or metal alloys for bridges and denture bases
• Pack plastic material in moulds to form full or partial dentures
• Mould wax over denture set-up to form full contours of artificial gums
• Make orthodontic bands from gold, silver, stainless steel or other metals
• Finish metal framework of dentures and polish and buff dentures to obtain natural finish
• May consult with dentists or other specialists on problematic dental cases
• May train and supervise other dental technicians and dental laboratory assistants in fabricating dentures
and other dental devices
• May perform administrative functions for the dental laboratory.
Employment requirements
• Dental technologists and technicians are required to complete a college program in dental technology
or
Four or more years of on-the-job training under the supervision of a registered dental technologist or
technician.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required for dental technologists and technicians in all provinces
except in Manitoba and the territories.
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• Dental laboratory assistants usually require secondary school and up to two years of on-the-job training.
Additional information
• Dental laboratory assistants may progress to dental technologist and technician positions with training,
experience and registration.
323 Other technical occupations in health care
3231 Opticians
Opticians fit clients with prescription eyeglasses or contact lenses, assist clients in the selection of eyeglass frames,
arrange for the production of eyeglasses or contact lenses and mount lenses in eyeglass frames. They are
employed in optical retail outlets or other establishments with optical dispensing departments, or they may be
self-employed. Student opticians and opticians who are managers of optical retail outlets are included in this unit
group.
Illustrative example(s)
• contact lens fitter
• contact lens technician
• dispensing optician
• ophthalmic dispenser
• optician
Exclusion(s)
• Managers of optical retail outlets or of optical dispensing departments who are not opticians (see 0621
Retail and wholesale trade managers)
• Ocularists (see 3219 Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health))
• Ophthalmologists (see 3111 Specialist physicians)
• Optical lab technicians (see 3414 Other assisting occupations in support of health services)
• Optometrists (3121)
Main duties
Opticians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Obtain specifications for eyeglasses or contact lenses from a prescription prepared by an ophthalmologist
or optometrist or by analyzing the client's eyeglasses or contact lenses and by measuring client's eye
curvature, pupillary distance and bridge width, using optical measuring devices
• Assist clients in selecting eyeglasses by advising on lens materials, frames, tints and anti-reflection coating
• Advise on use and care of contact lenses
• Arrange for grinding and polishing of lenses or grind and polish lenses
• Cut and edge lenses and fit lenses into frames
• Adjust finished eyeglasses to fit client
• May supervise or manage the activities of other opticians or student opticians.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a two- or three-year college program in ophthalmic dispensing or optical sciences is
required.
• Licensing by a regulatory body for opticians is required in all provinces.
• Licensing requirements for scope of practice and protected titles related to dispensing and contact lens
certification vary by province.
3232 Practitioners of natural healing
Practitioners of natural healing provide health care to patients using traditional Chinese medicine techniques and
other forms of treatment including acupuncture, herbology or reflexology to promote, maintain and restore the
holistic health of patients. They usually work in private practice, including group or team practices, or are employed
by clinics, health clubs and spas.
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Illustrative example(s)
• acupuncturist
• aromatherapist
• ayurvedic practitioner
• herbalist
• homeopathist
• reflexologist
• traditional Chinese medicine practitioner
Exclusion(s)
• Massage therapists (3236)
• Midwives (see 3124 Allied primary health practitioners)
• Naturopathic and osteopathic physicians (see 3125 Other professional occupations in health diagnosing
and treating)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners diagnose the diseases, physiological disorders and injuries of
patients and treat them using raw herbs and other medicines, dietary supplements or acupuncture.
• Acupuncturists diagnose symptoms, physiological disorders and injuries of patients and treat them by the
insertion of acupuncture needles or through stimulation techniques such as acupressure, moxibustion,
cupping or electrical current.
• Herbalists assess patients and advise them on the use of herbs for the treatment of conditions such as
arthritis, rheumatism, asthma, skin disorders and stomach ailments and may cultivate herbs and
manufacture and sell herbal compounds.
• Homeopaths diagnose illnesses and treat them by administering, in chemical or herbal form, a small
dosage of the illness itself or by suggesting lifestyle changes.
• Reflexologists apply gentle finger pressure to specific spots on the clients' feet or hands to promote
relaxation and better health and well-being.
Employment requirements
• Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners usually require completion of a three- to four-year diploma
program in traditional Chinese medicine from a private institute
or
completion of a program in traditional Chinese medicine from recognized medical schools abroad.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required for traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in Ontario and
British Columbia.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required for acupuncturists in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and British
Columbia.
• Acupuncturists usually require completion of a three-year diploma program in acupuncture from a private
institute
or
completion of some university undergraduate studies in science and training in a related health care
discipline or work experience under the supervision of a registered acupuncturist.
• Other occupations in this unit group usually require completion of training programs specific to their type of
practice and some supervised practical training.
Additional information
• Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners may include acupuncture or herbology as part of their healing
techniques.
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3233 Licensed practical nurses
Licensed practical nurses provide nursing care usually under the direction of medical practitioners, registered
nurses or other health team members. They are employed in hospitals, nursing homes, extended care facilities,
rehabilitation centres, doctors' offices, clinics, companies, private homes and community health centres. Operating
room technicians are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• graduate nursing assistant
• licensed practical nurse (L.P.N.)
• operating room technician
• registered nursing assistant (R.N.A.)
Exclusion(s)
• Home health aides (see 4412 Home support workers, housekeepers and related occupations)
• Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates (3413)
Main duties
Licensed practical nurses perform some or all of the following duties:
• Provide nursing services, within defined scope of practice, to patients based on patient assessment and
care planning procedures
• Perform nursing interventions such as taking vital signs, applying aseptic techniques including sterile
dressing, ensuring infection control, monitoring nutritional intake and conducting specimen collection
• Administer medication and observe and document therapeutic effects
• Provide pre-operative and post-operative personal and comfort care
• Monitor established respiratory therapy and intravenous therapy
• Monitor patients' progress, evaluate effectiveness of nursing interventions and consult with appropriate
members of healthcare team
• Provide safety and health education to individuals and their families.
Operating room technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare patients for surgery by washing, shaving and sterilizing the patients' operative areas
• Assist in surgery by laying out instruments, setting up equipment, assisting surgical teams with gowns and
gloves and passing instruments to surgeons
• Clean and sterilize the operating room and instruments.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a vocational, college or other approved program for licensed practical nurses is required.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required in all provinces and territories.
• Completion of the Canadian Practical Nurse Registration Examination is required in all provinces and
territories except Quebec.
• Operating room technicians require either additional academic training in operating room techniques or
on-the-job training.
Additional information
• Working under the direction of a medical practitioner or registered nurse is not required for licensed
practical nurses in all jurisdictions.
3234 Paramedical occupations
This unit group includes workers who administer pre-hospital emergency medical care to patients with injuries or
medical illnesses and transport them to hospitals or other medical facilities for further medical care. They are
employed by private ambulance services, hospitals, fire departments, government departments and agencies,
manufacturing firms, mining companies and other private sector establishments. Paramedics who are supervisors
are included in this unit group.
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Illustrative example(s)
• advanced care paramedic
• ambulance attendant
• critical care paramedic
• emergency medical attendant (EMA)
• emergency medical technician (EMT)
• emergency medical technician, paramedic
• emergency medical technologist - paramedic (EMT-P)
• paramedic
• primary care paramedic
• supervisor, ambulance services
Exclusion(s)
• Emergency medical responders (see 3413 Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates)
• Other assisting occupations in support of health services (3414)
Main duties
Workers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assess extent of injuries or medical illnesses of trauma victims, patients with respiratory disease and
stress, overdose and poisoning victims, industrial accident victims and other ill or injured individuals to
determine emergency medical treatment
• Administer pre-hospital emergency care to patients such as oxygen therapy, cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR), spinal immobilization, bandaging and splinting
• Establish and maintain intravenous treatment (IV), apply adjunctive equipment for ventilation and
circulation complications, administer medications and provide other advanced emergency treatment to
patients
• Transport patients by air, land or water to hospital or other medical facility for further medical care
• Collaborate with ambulance dispatch centres, hospital staff, police, firefighters and family members to
ensure relevant information is collected and proper treatment is administered
• Document and record nature of injuries and illnesses and treatment provided
• Assist hospital personnel with provision of medical treatment, if necessary
• Maintain ambulances and emergency care equipment and supplies
• May train and supervise other workers in this unit group
• May assist with triage of emergency patients.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a one- to three-year college, hospital-based or other recognized paramedical or emergency
medical technology program is required.
• Licensing by a regulatory body is required in all provinces.
• Those operating emergency vehicles require an appropriate class of licence.
3236 Massage therapists
Massage therapists assess soft tissues and joints of the body for treatment and prevention of dysfunction, injury,
pain and physical disorders. Massage therapists work in private practice, including group or team practices,
hospitals, clinics, extended care facilities, rehabilitation centres and educational institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• massage therapist (MT)
• registered massage practitioner
• registered massage therapist (RMT)
Exclusion(s)
• Medical technologists and technicians (except dental health) (321)
• Other technical occupations in health care (323)
• Physiotherapy assistants (see 3237 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment)
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Main duties
Massage therapists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assess clients by conducting range of motion and muscle tests and propose treatment plans
• Explain procedures, risks and benefits to clients
• Administer massage techniques, treating soft tissues and joints of the body through soft tissue
manipulation, relaxation techniques, hydrotherapy, trigger point therapy, joint pain and lower grade
mobilizations, remedial exercise programs and client self-help programs
• Suggest home care instructions and provide information about techniques for further postural improvement
and stretching, strengthening, relaxation and rehabilitative exercises
• Maintain records of treatments given
• May consult with other health care professionals such as physiotherapists, chiropractors, physicians and
psychologists when developing treatment plans for clients.
Massage therapists may be trained in various specialized massage techniques.
Employment requirements
• Massage therapists usually require completion of an 18- to 24-month or 18- to 36-month program in
massage therapy from an accredited school
and
a period of supervised practical training.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required in Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario and British
Columbia.
3237 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment
This unit group includes workers, not elsewhere classified, who perform various technical therapy and assessment
functions. Some may assist professionals such as audiologists, speech-language pathologists, ophthalmologists,
physiotherapists and occupational therapists. They are employed in hospitals, clinics, extended care facilities,
rehabilitation centres, educational institutions and in the private practices of the professionals they assist.
Illustrative example(s)
• audiology technician
• audiometric assistant
• audiometric technician
• communicative disorders assistant
• hearing instrument practitioner
• occupational therapy assistant
• ophthalmic assistant
• ophthalmic technician
• ophthalmic technologist
• ophthalmologist assistant
• physical rehabilitation technician
• physiotherapy technician
• speech technician
• speech therapy assistant
Exclusion(s)
• Medical technologists and technicians (except dental health) (321)
• Other technical occupations in health care (323)
• Physiotherapy helpers and chiropractic aides (see 3414 Other assisting occupations in support of health
services)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
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• Hearing instrument practitioners examine adult clients to assess hearing loss using diagnostic evaluation
and electro acoustic testing; recommend and dispense appropriate type of hearing instrument; take
earmold impressions for use in the manufacture of hearing devices; fit, adjust and make minor
modifications to hearing instruments; educate clients in appropriate use, care and maintenance of hearing
instruments and perform follow-up examinations and readjustments.
• Audiometric technicians, under the supervision of audiologists, administer tests such as pure tone hearing
screening, impedance tests and noise level measurements using equipment such as audiometers and
sound level meters to determine hearing thresholds of patients; instruct patients on test procedures and
record results; monitor, check and calibrate auditory equipment; may take earmold impressions and fit and
adjust hearing instruments.
• Communicative disorders assistants and speech-language pathology assistants assist speech-language
pathologists during assessment of patients; carry out treatment programs and develop materials for use
with patients, under the supervision of speech-language pathologists; document patient rehabilitation
progress; and check and maintain therapeutic equipment and materials.
• Ophthalmic medical assistants operate ophthalmic testing and measuring instruments to aid
ophthalmologists in assessing patients' vision; record test results; assist ophthalmologists in office surgery;
administer eye drops, ointments and medications as directed by ophthalmologists; clean and maintain
instruments and equipment used during examinations; take patients' general medical and ophthalmic
history; and perform various administrative duties.
• Physiotherapy assistants and occupational therapy assistants, under the direction of physiotherapists
and/or occupational therapists, carry out treatment programs such as thermotherapy, traction,
hydrotherapy and electrotherapeutic techniques to rehabilitate patients with various injuries or disabilities
to maximize their ability to independently manage daily activities.
Employment requirements
• Hearing instrument practitioners require completion of a three-year college diploma in a hearing instrument
specialist program, including a period of supervised training.
• Licensure with a regulatory body is required for hearing instrument practitioners in all provinces except in
Ontario where membership with the Association of Hearing Instrument Practitioners (AHIP) is
required.Hearing instrument practitioners can prescribe and dispense hearing instruments except in
Ontario where dispensing is dependant on a prescription from a physician or audiologist.
• Audiometric technicians and communicative disorders and speech-language pathology assistants require
completion of a 12- to 18-month college program in communicative disorders
or
Some post-secondary education and on-the-job training.
• Ophthalmic medical assistants require completion of a one- to two-year college program or a two-year
hospital-based training program in ophthalmic medical technology
or
A minimum of one year of supervised practical training under an ophthalmologist and completion of an
approved ophthalmic assistant home study program.
• Physiotherapy assistants require completion of a two- to three-year college program in physical
rehabilitation therapy
or
A two-year physical therapy assistant (PTA) program and supervised practical training.
• Occupational therapy assistants require completion of a two-year occupational therapy assistant (OTA)
college program.
Additional information
• Currently, the qualifications of physical rehabilitation technicians are recognized only in the province of
Quebec.
• In most provinces occupational therapy assistants (OTA) and physiotherapy assistants (PTA) receive
training through a single OTA/PTA program in community colleges.
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34 Assisting occupations in support of health services
341 Assisting occupations in support of health services
3411 Dental assistants
Dental assistants assist dentists, dental hygienists and dental therapists during the examination and treatment of
patients and perform clerical functions. Dental assistants work in dentists' offices, community health centres, clinics
and in educational institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• certified dental assistant
• certified intra-oral dental assistant
• dental assistant
• registered dental assistant
Exclusion(s)
• Dental hygienists and dental therapists (3222)
• Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants (3223)
Main duties
Dental assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare patients for dental examination and assist the dentist during the examination
• Sterilize and maintain instruments and equipment
• Prepare dental instruments and filling materials
• Take and develop X-rays
• Polish teeth and clinical crowns and apply fluoride and sealant
• Take preliminary impressions for diagnostic casts
• Fabricate and place temporary crowns and restorations
• Educate patients concerning oral hygiene
• Invoice patients for dental services
• Schedule patient appointments and record dental procedures performed
• Order dental and office supplies
• May perform intra-oral duties such as remove sutures, take and record vital signs, apply desensitizing
agents, topical anaesthetic, anticariogenic agents and apply and remove rubber dams.
Employment requirements
• Completion of an eight-month to one-year college or other program in dental assistance
or
Completion of secondary school with on-the-job training is required.
• Licensing is required to perform intra-oral duties in all provinces. In Quebec, intra-oral duties are not
performed by dental assistants.
Additional information
• In some provinces there are two levels of dental assistants: Level I - chair-side assistant and Level II intra-oral assistant. Progression from Level I to Level II is possible with education, training and licensure.
3413 Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates
Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates assist nurses, hospital staff and physicians in the basic care
of patients. They are employed in hospitals, nursing homes, assisted care facilities for the elderly and other health
care establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• emergency medical responder
• health care aide
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
hospital attendant
long term care aide
nurse aide
nursing attendant
orderly
patient care aide
patient service associate
personal care attendant - medical
psychiatric aide
resident care aide - medical
Exclusion(s)
• Licensed practical nurses (3233)
• Other assisting occupations in support of health services (3414)
• Personal care attendants - home care (see 4412 Home support workers, housekeepers and related
occupations)
Main duties
Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates perform some or all of the following duties:
• Answer call signals; supply and empty bed pans; bathe, dress and groom patients; serve meal trays, feed
or assist in feeding of patients and assist patients with menu selection; weigh, lift, turn, and position
patients; shave patients prior to operations; supervise patients' exercise routines, set up and provide
leisure activities for patients, accompany patients on outside recreational activities and perform other
duties related to patient care and comfort
• Take patients' blood pressure, temperature and pulse; report or record fluid intake and output; observe or
monitor patients' status and document patient care on charts; administer first aid in emergency situations;
collect specimens such as urine, faeces or sputum; administer suppositories, colonic irrigations and
enemas and perform other procedures as directed by nursing and hospital staff
• Transport patients by wheelchair or stretcher for treatment or surgery
• Carry messages, reports, requisitions and specimens between departments
• Make beds and maintain patients' rooms
• Maintain inventory of supplies
• May perform maintenance tasks such as assisting with the set-up and maintenance of traction equipment,
cleaning or sterilizing equipment, maintaining and repairing equipment, and assembling, setting-up and
operating job-related equipment
• May transport patients between care facilities.
Employment requirements
• Some secondary school education and on-the-job training
or
A nursing aide or health care aide college or private institutional program, or a college nursing orderly
program and supervised practical training are required.
• Some health care facilities may also require completion of specialized courses such as CPR
(cardiopulmonary resuscitation), first aid and food handling/sterile processing.
• An appropriate class of driver's licence may be required for medical attendants.
3414 Other assisting occupations in support of health services
This unit group includes workers who provide services and assistance to health care professionals and other health
care staff. They are employed in hospitals, medical clinics, offices of health care professionals, nursing homes,
optical retail stores and laboratories, pharmacies and medical pathology laboratories.
Illustrative example(s)
• autopsy assistant
• blood donor clinic assistant
• cast room technician
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
chiropractic assistant
clinical laboratory helper
lens grinder, ophthalmic
morgue attendant
ophthalmic laboratory technician - retail
optical laboratory assistant
optometrist assistant
orthopedic technologist
rehabilitation assistant
sterile processing technician
therapist assistant - medical
Exclusion(s)
• Medical technologists and technicians (see 321 Medical technologists and technicians (except dental
health))
• Operating room technicians (see 3233 Licensed practical nurses)
• Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment (3237)
• Pathologists' assistants (see 3212 Medical laboratory technicians and pathologists' assistants)
• Pharmacy clerks (see 6421 Retail salespersons)
• Pharmacy technicians (see 3219 Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health))
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Orthopedic technologists assist orthopedic surgeons in the treatment of orthopedic diseases and injuries
by applying and adjusting casts, splints, bandages and other orthopedic devices; assisting in the
application, maintenance and adjustment of traction equipment; cleaning and dressing wounds; and
removing casts, sutures, staples and pins. They also instruct patients and their families and other health
care professionals with respect to orthopedic matters.
• Rehabilitation assistants prepare and maintain equipment and supplies; assist in activities for the
rehabilitation of patients as directed by health care professionals and may perform routine office functions.
• Optical/ophthalmic laboratory technicians and assistants operate laboratory equipment to grind, cut, polish
and edge lenses for eyeglasses according to prescriptions received and fit lenses into frames; make minor
repairs for customers such as replacing frame screws or straightening frames; and maintain and repair
optical laboratory equipment or machinery.
• Pharmacy aides help pharmacists and other pharmacy staff with packaging and labelling of
pharmaceutical products and may help in maintaining prescription records and inventories of medications
and pharmaceutical products.
• Sterile processing technicians operate and maintain sterilization equipment such as instrument washers,
sonic sinks, cart washers and steam autoclaves to clean and disinfect trays, carts, linens, supplies,
instrumentation and equipment for re-use according to standardized safety practices. They reassemble
equipment and assemble packs of sterile supplies and instruments for delivery to hospital departments.
• Blood donor clinic assistants set up and dismantle equipment; prepare and maintain cleanliness of
collection areas; maintain supplies; record information on donors; monitor donors throughout procedure
and assist with post-donation care and donor reaction care as assigned under supervision of a registered
nurse; and label and process donated blood.
• Morgue attendants assist pathologists at autopsies by laying out surgical instruments; preparing solutions
for preservation of specimens; transferring bodies from morgue to examining table; removing organs and
tissue specimens, as instructed by attending pathologist, and placing them in preservative solutions; and
cleaning and sewing up bodies for release to funeral home.
Employment requirements
• Orthopedic technologists usually require completion of secondary school
and
Several months of on-the-job training
or
A college orthopedic technologist program.
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• Registration with the Canadian Society of Orthopaedic Technologists is available and may be required by
employers.
• Health care courses or short-term college programs related to the work of medical therapy assistants, such
as recreational therapy programs, are available and may be required by employers.
• Pharmacy aides require completion of secondary school
and
Several months of on-the-job training.
• Sterile processing technicians require completion of secondary school
and
A six- to nine-month sterile processing college program.
• Completion of secondary school and several months of on-the-job training are usually required for other
assisting occupations in this unit group.
4 Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services
40 Professional occupations in education services
401 University professors and post-secondary assistants
4011 University professors and lecturers
University professors and lecturers teach courses to undergraduate and graduate students and conduct research at
universities. University professors who are heads of departments are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• assistant professor, botany - university
• associate professor, linguistics
• chairperson, food sciences department - university
• chairperson, physics department - university
• computer science professor - university
• department head, geography - university
• English professor - university
• French language professor - university
• lecturer - university
• professor of medicine - university
• university instructor, engineering
• university professor
Exclusion(s)
• College and other vocational instructors (4021)
• Other instructors (4216)
• Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (4012)
Main duties
University professors and lecturers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Teach one or more university subjects to undergraduate and graduate students
• Prepare and deliver lectures to students and conduct laboratory sessions or discussion groups
• Prepare, administer and grade examinations, laboratory assignments and reports
• Advise students on course and academic matters and career decisions
• Direct research programs of graduate students and advise on research matters
• Conduct research in field of specialization and publish findings in scholarly journals or books
• May serve on faculty committees dealing with such matters as curriculum planning and degree
requirements, and perform a variety of administrative duties
• May represent their universities as speakers and guest lecturers
• May provide professional consultative services to government, industry and private individuals.
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University professors and lecturers specialize in a particular subject matter such as biology, chemistry,
anatomy, sociology, business administration or law.
Employment requirements
• A doctoral degree in the field of specialization is required for university professors.
• A master's degree in the field of specialization is required for university lecturers.
• Licences or professional certification may be required for professors teaching future practitioners in certain
professionally regulated fields, such as medicine, engineering, architecture, psychology or law.
Additional information
• University professors who are also practitioners in their field of specialization must have the appropriate
licences or certification.
• Progression to senior positions within a department, faculty or university is possible with experience.
4012 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants
Post-secondary teaching and research assistants assist university professors, community college and CEGEP
teachers and other faculty members in teaching and research activities at universities and colleges.
Illustrative example(s)
• college laboratory assistant
• college teaching assistant
• graduate assistant - university
• post-secondary research assistant
• research assistant, university
Exclusion(s)
• Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants (4413)
• Other instructors (4216)
Main duties
Post-secondary teaching assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Organize reference materials, visual aids and other materials as required by university professors or
college teachers for lectures
• Conduct seminars, discussion groups and laboratory sessions to supplement lectures
• Assist in the preparation and administration of examinations
• Grade examinations, term papers and laboratory reports.
Research assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct literature reviews, surveys, laboratory experiments and other research for use in scholarly
publications
• Compile research results and assist professors in the analysis of results and the preparation of journal
articles or papers.
Post-secondary teaching and research assistants specialize in a subject matter based on their field of study.
Employment requirements
• Enrolment in a university or college program is required.
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402 College and other vocational instructors
4021 College and other vocational instructors
This unit group includes instructors who teach applied arts, academic, technical and vocational subjects to students
at community colleges, CEGEPs, agricultural colleges, technical and vocational institutes, language schools and
other college level schools. This unit group also includes trainers who are employed by private training
establishments, companies, community agencies and governments to deliver internal training or development
courses. College teachers who are heads of departments are included in this group.
Illustrative example(s)
• CEGEP teacher
• college teacher
• commercial art instructor
• community college teacher
• company trainer
• computer training instructor
• department chairperson - college
• department head - CEGEP
• firefighting instructor
• instructor - technology institute
• language school instructor
• lecturer - college
• teacher - institute of technology
• teacher, legal assistant program
• training officer - company
• vocational institute teacher
Exclusion(s)
• Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training (0421)
• Instructors teaching non-academic or non-vocational courses (see 4216 Other instructors)
• Secondary school teachers (4031)
• University professors and lecturers (4011)
Main duties
College and other vocational instructors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Teach students using a systematic plan of lectures, demonstrations, discussion groups, laboratory work,
shop sessions, seminars, case studies, field assignments and independent or group projects
• Develop curriculum and prepare teaching materials and outlines for courses
• Prepare, administer and mark tests and papers to evaluate students' progress
• Advise students on program curricula and career decisions
• Provide individualized tutorial or remedial instruction to students who require it
• Supervise independent or group projects, field placements, laboratory work or hands-on training
• Supervise teaching assistants
• May provide consultation services to government, business and other organizations
• May serve on committees concerned with matters such as budgets, curriculum revision, and course and
diploma requirements.
These instructors specialize in particular fields or areas of study such as visual arts, dental hygiene, welding,
engineering technology, policing, computer software, management and early childhood education.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree, a college diploma or demonstrated expertise in the field of instruction is required.
• A master's degree in the field of instruction may be required.
• A certificate, diploma or degree in adult education may be required.
• For instructors of trades, completion of apprenticeship training and industry or trade certification are
required. Additional courses in teaching or a provincial teaching certificate may be required.
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Additional information
• In Québec, trades training programs are offered in the secondary school system.
• Progression to administrative positions in post-secondary education is possible with experience.
403 Secondary and elementary school teachers and educational counsellors
4031 Secondary school teachers
Secondary school teachers prepare and teach academic, technical, vocational or specialized subjects at public and
private secondary schools. Secondary school teachers who are heads of departments are included in this group.
Illustrative example(s)
• adult education teacher, secondary school
• biology teacher, high school
• commerce teacher - secondary school
• department head, secondary school
• English as a second language teacher, high school
• English teacher, secondary school
• French as a second language teacher, high school
• high school teacher, special education
• history teacher, secondary school
• remedial teacher - secondary school
• secondary school teacher
• supply teacher, high school
• teacher-librarian, high school
• trades instructor - secondary school
• vocational teacher, high school
Exclusion(s)
• College and other vocational instructors (4021)
• Educational counsellors (4033)
• Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants (4413)
• Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4032)
• Junior high school teachers (see 4032 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers)
• Psychoeducators (see 4153 Family, marriage and other related counsellors)
• School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education (0422)
• Teachers of non-academic courses (see 4216 Other instructors)
• Teachers teaching life skills courses to persons with disabilities (see 4215 Instructors of persons with
disabilities)
Main duties
Secondary school teachers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare subject material for presentation to students according to an approved curriculum
• Teach students using a systematic plan of lectures, discussions, audio-visual presentations, and
laboratory, shop and field studies
• Assign and correct homework
• Prepare, administer and correct tests
• Evaluate progress, determine individual needs of students and discuss results with parents and school
officials
• Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help
• Participate in staff meetings, educational conferences and teacher training workshops
• May teach and evaluate students through distance or online courses
• May advise students on course selection and on vocational and personal matters
• May supervise student teachers.
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Secondary school teachers may specialize in such areas as mathematics, English, French, special education
or second language instruction. Secondary school teachers of vocational and trades subjects may specialize in
areas such as hairdressing or auto mechanics.
Employment requirements
• Teachers of academic subjects require a bachelor's degree in education which is often preceded by a
bachelor's degree in the arts or sciences.
• Teachers of vocational or technical subjects require a bachelor's degree in education which is usually
preceded by specialized training or experience in the subject.
• Instructors of trades in Quebec require completion of an apprenticeship training program and industry or
trade certification.
• Department heads usually require several years of teaching experience.
• To specialize in special education or English or French as a second language, additional training is
required.
• A provincial teaching certificate is required.
• Membership in a provincial or territorial teachers' association or federation may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to vice-principal or other administrative positions in the education system is possible with
experience.
4032 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers
Elementary school and kindergarten teachers teach basic subjects such as reading, writing and arithmetic or
specialized subjects such as English or French as a second language at public and private elementary schools.
Illustrative example(s)
• elementary school teacher, English as a second language
• elementary school teacher, French as a second language
• French immersion teacher - elementary school
• kindergarten teacher
• primary school teacher
• remedial teacher - elementary school
• special education teacher - elementary school
• special education teacher - primary school
• supply teacher - elementary school
• teacher-librarian, elementary school
Exclusion(s)
• Early childhood educators and assistants (4214)
• Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants (4413)
• Psychoeducators (see 4153 Family, marriage and other related counsellors)
• School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education (0422)
• Secondary school teachers (4031)
• Teachers of persons with developmental disabilities (see 4215 Instructors of persons with disabilities)
Main duties
Elementary school and kindergarten teachers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare courses for presentation to students according to approved curriculum
• Teach students using a systematic plan of lessons, discussions, audio-visual presentations and field trips
• Lead students in activities to promote their physical, mental and social development and their school
readiness
• Assign and correct homework
• Prepare, administer and correct tests
• Evaluate the progress of students and discuss results with students, parents and school officials
• Identify children's individual learning needs
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• Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help
• Participate in staff meetings, educational conferences and teacher training workshops
• May supervise teachers' aides and student teachers.
Elementary school and kindergarten teachers may specialize in such areas as special education or second
language instruction.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in education is required.
• A bachelor's degree in child development may be required.
• Additional training is required to specialize in special education or second language instruction.
• A provincial teaching certificate is required. Additional certification is required to teach English or French
as a second language.
• Membership in a provincial or territorial teachers' association or federation is usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to education consultant or school principal is possible with experience.
4033 Educational counsellors
Educational counsellors advise current and prospective students on educational issues, career planning and
personal development, and co-ordinate the provision of counselling services to students, parents, teachers, faculty
and staff. They are employed by school boards and post-secondary educational institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• academic counsellor
• career counsellor - education
• school counsellor
• student services counsellor
Exclusion(s)
• Employment counsellors (4156)
• Family, marriage and other related counsellors (4153)
• School psychologists (see 4151 Psychologists)
• Secondary school teachers (4031)
• Social workers (4152)
Main duties
Educational counsellors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Counsel students regarding educational issues such as course and program selection, time tables and
scheduling, school adjustment, attendance problems and study skills
• Counsel students regarding career or vocational issues including career exploration and planning, résumé
preparation, job interview skills and job search strategies and make available to them a wide range of
educational and occupational information
• Co-ordinate co-op and school-to-work transition programs, and the provision of counselling and
information services, such as career information, professional development sessions and exchanges with
other educational institutions, to students, parents, teachers, faculty and staff
• Consult with teachers and parents or faculty and other professionals such as psychologists, speech
therapists and social workers regarding various issues and concerns, and with administrators and
community agencies regarding programs and referrals
• Administer and interpret standardized intelligence, personality, vocational, aptitude and interest tests
• Develop and co-ordinate study skills groups or workshops in high schools, colleges and universities on
topics such as note-taking, test or examination anxiety and preparation strategies and time management
skills
• Visit colleges and secondary schools to provide academic information to prospective students, their
parents and educational counsellors
• Co-ordinate or participate in student orientation programs in colleges or universities
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• Arrange for employers to recruit graduating college and university students, and students for co-op
education work terms
• Counsel students regarding personal and social issues such as substance abuse, depression, sexuality,
eating disorders, anxiety, self-esteem, family problems, relationship and interpersonal skills and anger
management
• Counsel students in crisis situations such as dealing with the death of a friend or family member, suicidal
tendencies and abuse situations
• May supervise peer counselling programs in school settings
• May supervise field experience for graduate students in counselling
• May teach regular classes.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in counselling, career development, education or social sciences is required for
counsellors in school settings.
• A master's degree in counselling psychology or a related field such as educational psychology,
developmental psychology or social work is usually required.
• Educational counsellors in post-secondary settings require an undergraduate degree and may require a
graduate degree. A particular academic specialization may also be required.
• In Quebec, membership in L'Ordre des conseillers et conseillères d'orientation et des psychoéducateurs et
psychoéducatrices du Québec is mandatory to use the title ''counsellor''.
• A teacher's certificate in the province of employment and some teaching experience is usually required for
counsellors in school settings.
• Educational counsellors in colleges and universities may require licensing from a provincial regulatory
body governing psychologists, educational counsellors or social workers.
Additional information
• Elementary school counsellors generally provide more social and personal counselling whereas academic
counselling is provided more by high school counsellors.
• Educational counsellors in colleges, universities and other settings may specialize in academic, career or
personal issues counselling.
41 Professional occupations in law and social, community and government services
411 Judges, lawyers and Quebec notaries
4111 Judges
Judges adjudicate civil and criminal cases and administer justice in courts of law. Judges preside over federal and
provincial courts.
Illustrative example(s)
• chief justice
• county court judge
• Court of Queen's Bench justice
• district court judge
• family court judge
• federal trial court justice
• provincial court of appeal justice
• small claims court judge
• superior court justice
• Supreme Court justice
Exclusion(s)
• Administrative tribunal judges (see 0411 Government managers - health and social policy development
and program administration)
• Citizenship court judges (see 1227 Court officers and justices of the peace)
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• Justices of the Peace (see 1227 Court officers and justices of the peace)
Main duties
Judges perform some or all of the following duties:
• Preside over courts of law, interpret and enforce rules of procedure and make rulings regarding the
admissibility of evidence
• Instruct the jury on laws that are applicable to the case
• Weigh and consider evidence in non-jury trials and decide legal guilt or innocence or degree of liability of
the accused or defendant
• Pass sentence on persons convicted in criminal cases and determine damages or other appropriate
remedy in civil cases
• Grant divorces and divide assets between spouses
• Determine custody of children between contesting parents and other guardians
• Enforce court orders for access or support
• Supervise other judges and court officers.
Judges may specialize in particular areas of law such as civil, criminal or family law.
Employment requirements
• Extensive experience as a lawyer or as a professor of law with continuous membership in the bar
association is usually required.
• Membership in good standing with a provincial or territorial law society or bar association is required.
• Judges are appointed by federal or provincial cabinets.
• Those appointed to more senior positions in a court, such as chief justice, usually have experience as
judges in that court.
4112 Lawyers and Quebec notaries
Lawyers and Quebec notaries advise clients on legal matters, represent clients before administration boards and
draw up legal documents such as contracts and wills. Lawyers also plead cases, represent clients before tribunals
and conduct prosecutions in courts of law. Lawyers are employed in law firms and prosecutor's offices. Quebec
notaries are employed in notary offices. Both lawyers and Quebec notaries are employed by federal, provincial and
municipal governments and various business establishments or they may be self-employed. Articling students are
included in this group.
Illustrative example(s)
• articling law student
• corporate counsel
• Crown attorney
• law partner
• lawyer
• legal advisor
• legislative counsel
• notary (Quebec)
• prosecutor
• solicitor
Exclusion(s)
• Legal department directors (see 0114 Other administrative services managers)
• Legal firm managers (see 0125 Other business services managers)
• Notaries public and trademark agents who are not lawyers (see 4211 Paralegal and related occupations)
• Patent agents who are not lawyers or Quebec notaries (see 4161 Natural and applied science policy
researchers, consultants and program officers)
Main duties
Lawyers and Quebec notaries perform some or all of the following duties:
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•
•
•
•
Advise clients of their legal rights and all matters related to law
Research legal precedents and gather evidence
Plead clients' cases before courts of law, tribunals and boards (lawyers only)
Draw up legal documents such as real estate transactions, wills, divorces and contracts, and prepare
statements of legal opinions
• Negotiate settlements of civil disputes (lawyers only)
• Perform administrative and management functions related to the practice of law
• May act as mediator, conciliator or arbitrator
• May act as executor, trustee or guardian in estate and family law matters.
Lawyers and Quebec notaries may specialize in specific areas of the law such as criminal law (lawyers only),
corporate law, contract law, taxation law, administrative law, international law, commercial law, real estate law,
family and estate law, intellectual property law and labour law.
Employment requirements
Lawyers
• Two to three years of undergraduate studies or, in Quebec, completion of a college program
and
A bachelor's degree from a recognized law school
and
Successful completion of the bar examination and completion of a period of articling are required.
• Licensing by the provincial or territorial law society is required.
Notaries (Quebec)
• A bachelor's degree from a recognized law school and a Diploma of Notarial Law (D.D.N.)
or
A master's degree of law with specialization in notarial law
and
A 32-week vocational training program are required.
• Registration with the Corporation of Notaries is required.
Additional information
• Lawyers wishing to practise in another province or territory may be required to pass examinations set by
the provincial or territorial law society.
415 Social and community service professionals
4151 Psychologists
Psychologists assess and diagnose behavioural, emotional and cognitive disorders, counsel clients, provide
therapy, conduct research and apply theory relating to behaviour and mental processes. Psychologists help clients
work toward the maintenance and enhancement of psychological, physical, intellectual, emotional, social and
interpersonal functioning. Psychologists work in private practice or in clinics, correctional facilities, hospitals, mental
health facilities, rehabilitation centres, community service organizations, businesses, schools and universities, and
in government and private research agencies.
Illustrative example(s)
• clinical psychologist
• experimental psychologist
• psychological associate
• psychologist
• research psychologist
Exclusion(s)
• Family, marriage and other related counsellors (4153)
• Psychiatrists (see 3111 Specialist physicians)
• Psychologists who teach at universities (see 4011 University professors and lecturers)
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• Psychology research assistants, non-university (see 4164 Social policy researchers, consultants and
program officers)
• Psychology research assistants, university (see 4012 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants)
• Psychometrists (see 4169 Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c.)
Main duties
Psychologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine and assess behaviour, diagnose behavioural, emotional and cognitive disorders, counsel clients
and provide therapy
• Help clients manage physical illness and disorders
• Counsel individuals and groups to achieve more effective personal, social and vocational development and
adjustment, and offer mediation services
• Use standard psychological tests for assessment
• Plan intervention programs and conduct program evaluation
• Apply psychological theory and principles regarding behaviour and mental processes such as learning,
language development, memory and perception to develop treatment programs
• Formulate hypotheses and experimental designs, review literature, conduct studies and publish research
papers, educational texts and articles
• Deliver presentations at conferences, workshops or symposia
• Provide consultation services to government and other organizations.
Psychologists may specialize in applied psychology or experimental research. Sub-specialties include
behavioural psychology, child psychology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, educational
psychology, industrial psychology, neuropsychology, social psychology or sports psychology.
Employment requirements
• A doctoral degree in psychology is required in order to use the designation "Psychologist" in Quebec,
Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia.
• A master's degree in psychology is required for the designation "Psychologist" in Newfoundland and
Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories.
• A master's degree in psychology is required in order to use the designation "Psychological Associate" in
Ontario and Manitoba.
• In Prince Edward Island, a doctoral degree is required to work in private practice, or a master's degree
with practice limited to institutions and agencies.
• A period of supervised practical experience is required in most jurisdictions.
• Successful completion of the written Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) is
required in most provinces.
• Oral examinations and board interviews are required in some provinces.
• Registration with a regulatory body is required in all provinces, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.
• Membership in the provincial professional association for psychologists is mandatory in all provinces,
Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.
• Psychologists can become specialized in a particular area through training and experience.
Additional information
• Psychological associates may be granted permission by provincial regulatory authorities to perform duties
normally restricted to psychologists, specifically diagnosing psychological disorders and communicating
diagnoses to clients.
4152 Social workers
Social workers help individuals, couples, families, groups, communities and organizations develop the skills and
resources they need to enhance social functioning and provide counselling, therapy and referral to other supportive
social services. Social workers also respond to other social needs and issues such as unemployment, racism and
poverty. They are employed by hospitals, school boards, social service agencies, child welfare organizations,
correctional facilities, community agencies, employee assistance programs and Aboriginal band councils, or they
may work in private practice.
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Illustrative example(s)
• co-ordinator of social work
• medical social worker
• psychiatric social worker
• social work supervisor
• social worker
Exclusion(s)
• Educational counsellors (4033)
• Family, marriage and other related counsellors (4153)
• Managers in social, community and correctional services (0423)
• Social and community service workers (4212)
Main duties
Social workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Interview clients individually, in families, or in groups, to assess their situation and problems and determine
the types of services required
• Provide counsel and therapy to assist clients in developing skills to deal with and resolve their social and
personal problems
• Plan programs of assistance for clients including referral to agencies that provide financial assistance,
legal aid, housing, medical treatment and other services
• Investigate cases of child abuse or neglect and take authorized protective action when necessary
• Serve as members on interdisciplinary teams of professionals working with client groups
• Act as advocates for client groups in the community, lobby for solutions to problems directly affecting client
groups and develop prevention and intervention programs to meet community needs
• Develop or advise on social policy legislation, conduct social research and assist in community
development
• Provide mediation services and psychosocial assessments
• Evaluate the effectiveness of counselling and social programs
• May provide public education and consultation to professionals or groups regarding counselling services,
issues and methods
• May supervise other social workers.
Social workers may specialize in fields of practice such as child welfare, family services, corrections,
gerontology or addictions.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in social work is required in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward
Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, the Northwest
Territories and Nunavut.
• In Alberta, a bachelor's degree or diploma in social work is required.
• Supervised practical experience is usually required.
• Successful completion of provincial written and oral examinations may be required.
• Registration with a provincial governing body is mandatory to practise as a social worker in Newfoundland
and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and Alberta.
• Use of the titles "Social Worker" and "Registered Social Worker" is regulated in all provinces.
• Membership in a provincial association of social workers is usually required.
4153 Family, marriage and other related counsellors
Family, marriage and other related counsellors assist individuals and groups of clients to identify, understand and
overcome personal problems and achieve personal objectives. They are employed by counselling centres, social
service agencies, group homes, government agencies, family therapy centres, and health care and rehabilitation
facilities, or they may work in private practice.
Illustrative example(s)
• addictions counsellor
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
bereavement counsellor
child and youth counsellor
family counsellor
marriage counsellor
psychoeducator
registered clinical counsellor
registered marriage and family therapist
rehabilitation counsellor
sex therapist
vocational rehabilitation counsellor
Exclusion(s)
• Educational counsellors (4033)
• Employment counsellors (4156)
• Managers in social, community and correctional services (0423)
• Social and community service workers (4212)
• Social workers (4152)
Main duties
Family, marriage and other related counsellors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Interview clients, prepare case histories and assess problems
• Conduct vocational testing and psychometric assessment
• Develop and implement counselling and intervention programs to assist clients in determining goals and
means of attaining them
• Counsel clients, provide therapy and mediation services, and facilitate group sessions
• Liaise with community agencies or partners, and identify additional or alternative services and provide
referrals
• Evaluate the effectiveness of counselling programs and interventions, and clients' progress in resolving
identified problems and movement toward defined objectives
• Follow up on results of counselling programs and clients' adjustments
• Prepare assessment, progress, follow-up and court reports
• May supervise other counsellors, social service staff and assistants
• May provide public education and consultation to other professionals or groups regarding counselling
services, issues and methods
• May provide witness testimony in court proceedings
• May conduct research, publish research papers, educational texts and articles and deliver presentations at
conferences.
• May participate in fundraising activities.
Family, marriage and other related counsellors often specialize in dealing with a specific client group such as
injured workers, or with specific problems, such as drug and alcohol addiction, marital difficulties or behavioural
disorders.
Employment requirements
• A master's degree in the field of counselling, mental health or a related social service discipline is usually
required.
• In Quebec, a master's degree in psychoeducation is required to practise as a psycho-educator.
• An undergraduate degree or college diploma in a social science is required for certain areas of
counselling.
• Membership with a provincial association for marriage and family therapists or clinical counsellors is
required to use the title "Registered Marriage and Family Therapist" or "Registered Clinical Counsellor",
and in Quebec, to use the title "marriage and family therapist (MFT)", "family therapist (FT)" or "marriage
therapist (MT)". Membership with a provincial association may be required by some employers.
• In Quebec, membership in the professional association is mandatory for counsellors and psychoeducators.
• Registered marriage and family therapists and registered clinical counsellors must meet strict criteria
involving post-graduate education and a period of supervised clinical work with clients.
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Additional information
• Counsellors usually become specialized in a particular area through training and experience.
• Progression to social service management positions is possible with additional training and experience.
4154 Professional occupations in religion
Ministers of religion conduct religious services, administer the rites of a religious faith or denomination, provide
spiritual and moral guidance and perform other functions associated with the practice of a religion. Ministers of
religion perform these duties in churches, synagogues, temples or other places of worship. They may also work in
other institutions such as schools, hospitals and prisons.
Illustrative example(s)
• archbishop
• bishop
• cardinal
• chaplain
• evangelist
• granthi
• imam
• minister
• moderator - religion
• pastor
• priest
• rabbi
Exclusion(s)
• Other religious occupations (4217)
Main duties
Ministers of religion perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct regular religious services
• Administer rites of faiths such as marriages and funerals
• Pray and promote spirituality by delivering sermons and other talks
• Provide spiritual and moral guidance to members of a religious faith
• Supervise, plan and administer programs of religious education
• May participate in humanitarian endeavours, social services and welfare activities
• May share in the administrative and financial operation of a religious community
• May provide consultation services to government and other organizations.
Employment requirements
• Educational requirements vary, depending on the religion, and range from the completion of a college or
other program in religious studies to a master's of divinity degree.
• A period of study with a senior minister is usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior positions included in this unit group, within a religious order, is possible with
experience.
4155 Probation and parole officers and related occupations
Probation officers monitor the conduct and behaviour of criminal offenders serving probation terms. Parole officers
monitor the reintegration of criminal offenders serving the remainder of sentences while conditionally released into
the community on parole. Classification officers assess inmates and develop rehabilitation programs for criminal
offenders who are incarcerated in correctional facilities. They are employed by federal and provincial governments
and work in the community and in correctional facilities.
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Illustrative example(s)
• case manager - corrections
• classification officer, correctional institution
• parole officer
• probation officer
• youth worker - corrections
Exclusion(s)
• Correctional service officers (4422)
• Correctional services managers (see 0423 Managers in social, community and correctional services)
• Social and community service workers (4212)
• Social workers (4152)
Main duties
Probation and parole officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Interview offenders, police, family, friends, school authorities and employers to prepare pre-sentence
reports and assess offenders' prospects for successful reintegration into the community
• Plan rehabilitation programs with offenders, establishing rules of conduct, goals and objectives
• Refer offenders to community and social service programs, as required
• Supervise the terms of a probation order and attend court
• Interview probationers and parolees regularly to evaluate their progress in accomplishing goals and
maintaining the terms specified in their probation contracts and rehabilitation plans
• Recommend remedial action or initiate court action when terms of probation or parole are violated
• May perform administrative duties and supervise support staff
• May participate in policy development.
Classification officers, correctional institutions, perform some or all of the following duties:
• Interview inmates to assess adjustment problems and develop suitable rehabilitation programs
• Prepare classification reports recommending type of incarceration and types of interventions considered
most beneficial for the rehabilitation of the inmates
• Plan rehabilitation programs with offenders, identifying needs and setting out goals and objectives
• Liaise with the inmates' families and contacts in the community to maintain established bonds outside of
the institution
• Advise and counsel inmates regarding their problems and evaluate their progress.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in social work, criminology, psychology, sociology or other related social science
discipline is required.
• A master's degree in social work, criminology, psychology or other related social science discipline may be
required.
Additional information
• Progression to correctional service management positions is possible with additional training or
experience.
4156 Employment counsellors
Employment counsellors provide assistance and information to job seeker clients on all aspects of employment
search and career planning. They also provide advice and information to employer clients regarding employment
issues and human resources. Employment counsellors are employed by human resource departments of
establishments, employment service organizations, consulting firms, correctional facilities and by federal and
provincial governments. Supervisors of employment counsellors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• career counsellor - except education
• career development counsellor
• employment counsellor
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• outplacement counsellor
• relocation consultant
• relocation counsellor
Exclusion(s)
• Educational counsellors (4033)
• Employment insurance officers (see 1228 Employment insurance, immigration, border services and
revenue officers)
• Human resources and recruitment officers (1223)
• Job coaches for persons with disabilities (see 4215 Instructors of persons with disabilities)
• Vocational rehabilitation counsellors (see 4153 Family, marriage and other related counsellors)
Main duties
Employment counsellors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Interview clients to obtain employment history, educational background and career goals
• Identify barriers to employment and assist clients with such matters as job readiness skills, job search
strategies, writing résumés and preparing for job interviews
• Assess need for assistance such as rehabilitation, financial aid or further training and refer clients to the
appropriate services
• Provide established workers with information and strategies for maintaining a job or moving within an
organization, dealing with job dissatisfaction, making mid-career changes and adjusting to workplace
transitions
• Collect labour market information for clients regarding job openings, entry and skill requirements and other
occupational information
• Advise employers on human resource and other employment-related issues
• Provide consulting services to community groups and agencies, businesses, industry and other
organizations involved in providing community-based career planning support or resources
• May administer and interpret tests designed to determine the interests, aptitudes and abilities of clients.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in employment counselling, career development or in a related
field, such as human resources development, psychology, education or social services is required.
• A master's degree in counselling psychology or a related field such as educational psychology,
developmental psychology or social work may be required.
• In Quebec, membership in a professional association is mandatory to use the title ''counsellor''.
Additional information
• Mobility to positions in personnel or training is possible.
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible through experience.
416 Policy and program researchers, consultants and officers
4161 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers
Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, prepare
reports, provide consultation and advice and administer programs in a variety of areas related to the natural and
applied sciences. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, computer and office
furniture manufacturers, educational institutions, research organizations, consulting firms, environmental and
conservation organizations, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• certified ergonomist
• emergency management analyst
• emergency preparedness planner
• energy policy analyst
• environmental impact analyst
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
environmental issues lobbyist
ergonomics specialist
fisheries analyst
industrial hygienist
natural resources policy analyst
occupational hygienist
patent agent
program officer, natural and applied sciences
recycling program co-ordinator
scientific consultant
supervisor, environmental program development
technology transfer officer
transportation safety analyst
Exclusion(s)
• Architecture and science managers (0212)
• Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4165)
• Life science professionals (212)
• Other engineers (214)
• Patent lawyers (see 4112 Lawyers and Quebec notaries)
• Physical science professionals (211)
• Professional occupations in engineering (see 213 Civil, mechanical, electrical and chemical engineers)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Ergonomists or human factors specialists conduct research and advise on, and intervene in the physical,
social and psychological interrelationships between persons, their equipment and working or living
environments to ensure that the design, configuration and use of equipment, procedures and
environmental conditions maximize safety, productivity and comfort.
• Occupational or industrial hygienists study, evaluate and control physical, chemical and biological hazards
and stresses in the workplace. They report and document investigations and conclusions, suggest
changes to work environments and processes and provide information to workers and managers or
employers on methods to reduce the risk of injury or illness from specific occupational hazards. They may
also teach safe work procedures, participate in emergency response planning, testify at hearings and
report findings at scientific conferences or in scientific journals.
• Patent agents advise clients on elements of patent law and on the patentability of inventions, conduct
patent searches, prepare patent applications and represent clients before the patent office.
• Technology transfer officers are responsible for transferring and integrating new technologies, usually from
university or government research and development environments, to commercial and industrial
applications and ensure the protection of intellectual property of researchers and developers.
• Science policy and program officers conduct research and advise on policies or develop or administer
programs related to transportation, emergency preparedness, communications, natural resources,
agriculture, the environment, traditional and alternative energy technologies, land use, recycling and other
scientific fields. They promote public awareness and education on such issues as utilization of natural
resources, the environment, and reprocessing and reduction of waste.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in a related scientific or technical discipline is usually required for
occupations in this unit group.
• A master's degree in a related scientific discipline may be required.
• Certification through the Canadian College of Certified Professional Ergonomists is required to use the title
"Canadian Certified Professional Ergonomist (CCPE)". Membership with the Association of Canadian
Ergonomists may be required.
• Occupational hygienists may require certification by the Canadian Registration Board of Occupational
Hygienists or le Conseil d'accréditation en hygiène industrielle du Québec.
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• Patent agents require 12 months of work experience in the patent field and successful completion of
examinations set by the Commissioner of Patents. They may also be required to be listed in the register of
patent agents.
• Occupations in this group that are involved in green building design and technologies development may
require the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification offered by the Canadian
Green Building Council.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory or managerial positions in these fields is possible with experience.
4162 Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts
Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts conduct research, monitor data, analyze information and
prepare reports and plans to resolve economic and business problems and develop models to analyze, explain and
forecast economic behaviour and patterns. They advise on matters such as finance, fiscal and monetary policy,
international trade, agricultural and natural resource commodities and labour and industrial markets. They are
employed by government departments and agencies and throughout the private sector in associations, unions,
research organizations, banks and investment firms.
Illustrative example(s)
• agricultural economist
• economic advisor
• economic analyst
• economic policy analyst
• economist
• economist, natural resources
• energy economist
• financial economist
• industrial economist
• international trade economist
• investment economist
• labour economist
• tax economist
• trade economist
Exclusion(s)
• Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants (4163)
• Economists who teach at universities (see 4011 University professors and lecturers)
• Financial and investment analysts (1112)
• Government managers - economic analysis, policy development and program administration (0412)
• Labour policy analysts (see 4164 Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers)
Main duties
Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct research and develop models to analyze, explain and forecast economic behaviour and patterns,
and devise methods for collection and analysis of data
• Forecast production and consumption of specific products and services based on records of past
production and consumption and general economic and industry-specific conditions
• Prepare forecasts of income and expenditure, interest rates and exchange rates
• Analyze factors which determine economic growth and advise government agencies on policies to
increase economic activities
• Analyze factors which determine labour force participation, employment, wages, unemployment and other
labour market outcomes
• Study mathematical formulae and statistical techniques and apply them to the testing and quantifying of
economic theories and the solution of economic problems
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• Study the nature of money, credit and the operation of banks and other financial institutions to develop
monetary policies and forecasts of financial activity
• Monitor economic data to assess the effectiveness, and advise on the appropriateness, of monetary and
fiscal policies
• Examine problems related to the economic activity of individual companies
• Examine financial methods, production costs and techniques and marketing policies to recommend
possible improvements
• Examine statistical data on the exchange of goods and services among nations
• Forecast production and consumption of renewable resources and supply, consumption and depletion of
non-renewable resources
• Conduct research on market conditions in local, regional or national area to set sales and pricing levels for
goods and services, to assess market potential and future trends and to develop business strategies
• Monitor regional and local economic trends
• Study regulatory processes and provide material in support of legal proceedings with government and
other parties.
Employment requirements
• A master's degree in economics or in a related discipline such as business administration or statistics is
usually required.
• A doctorate in economics may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions in economics is possible with experience.
4163 Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants
Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants conduct research, formulate policies
and manage programs to stimulate industrial and commercial business investment or tourism in urban and rural
areas, or to promote commercial or industrial products and services. They are employed by government
departments, international organizations, marketing firms and business associations or may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• business development officer
• community economic development consultant
• economic development officer
• industrial development officer
• market researcher
• marketing analyst
• marketing consultant
• regional development analyst
• tourism development officer
• tourism industry consultant
Exclusion(s)
• Economic development managers (see 0412 Government managers - economic analysis, policy
development and program administration)
• Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts (4162)
• Financial and investment analysts (1112)
• International development or aid officers (see 4164 Social policy researchers, consultants and program
officers)
• Marketing managers (see 0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers)
• Other financial officers (1114)
• Urban and land use planners (2153)
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Main duties
Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants perform some or all of the following
duties:
• Develop policies and administer programs to promote industrial and commercial business investment in
urban and rural areas
• Design market research questionnaires
• Conduct social or economic surveys on local, regional or national areas to assess development potential
and future trends
• Plan development projects and co-ordinate activities with representatives of a wide variety of industrial and
commercial enterprises, community and business associations and government agencies
• Assess business opportunities and develop strategies to attract venture capital
• Respond to enquiries from members of the business community and general public concerning
development opportunities
• Review and evaluate commercial or industrial development proposals and provide advice on procedures
and requirements for government approval
• Conduct surveys and analyze data on the buying habits and preferences of wholesale or retail consumers
• Evaluate customer service and store environments
• Conduct comparative research on marketing strategies for industrial and commercial products
• Develop social and economic profiles of urban and rural areas to encourage industrial and commercial
investment and development.
• Prepare reports, research papers, educational texts or articles
• Plan and develop E-commerce strategies
• Provide consultation on planning and starting of new businesses.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in economics, commerce, business administration or public administration is required.
• Certification as a certified economic developer (Ec.D.) may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with experience.
4164 Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers
Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, develop policy and implement or
administer programs in areas such as consumer affairs, employment, home economics, immigration, law
enforcement, corrections, human rights, housing, labour, family services, foreign aid and international development.
They are employed by government departments and agencies, industry, hospitals, educational institutions,
consulting establishments, professional associations, research institutes, non-government organizations and
international organizations or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• Aboriginal issues lobbyist
• child welfare policy analyst
• community social development officer
• consumer advisor
• home economist
• housing policy analyst
• human rights officer
• international aid and development project officer
• labour policy analyst
• policy analyst, immigration
• policy consultant, employment equity
• program consultant, community policing
• social policy researcher
• social services planner
• social survey researcher (except statistician)
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Exclusion(s)
• Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants (4163)
• Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts (4162)
• Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration (0411)
• Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4165)
• Home economics teachers (see 4031 Secondary school teachers)
• Non-government managers in social policy (see 0423 Managers in social, community and correctional
services)
• Social and community service workers (4212)
• Social workers (4152)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Social policy researchers develop social programs, social legislation, or proposals based on demographic,
social and economic analysis and the evaluation of pilot projects.
• Home economists conduct research, advise consumers on the selection and proper use of food products,
textiles and other consumer goods and teach household management skills. They may also provide
consultative services in the areas of development and promotion of new food products, retail buying, social
program administration and small business endeavours.
• Housing policy analysts identify and assess economic, demographic, and social developments and report
on their implications for housing policy.
• International aid and development project officers plan, organize and administer foreign aid and
international development policies and programs.
• Social survey researchers develop questionnaires, co-ordinate and conduct surveys, analyse data, and
compile and interpret statistics on social issues and policy areas.
• Social services planners conduct research, develop social programs, assess, co-ordinate and develop
awareness of existing social services, and ensure that duplication of services is avoided. They may also
work with land use planners to determine the impact of major land use plans for transportation, housing
and recreational facilities projects.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in a social science or related discipline, or in business
administration is usually required.
• A master's degree in a social science or related discipline or in business administration may be required.
• Home economists require a bachelor's degree in home economics, home economics education, human
ecology, nutrition and food sciences or family and consumer studies.
• Registration is available, but voluntary, for home economists but the use of the designation "Professional
Home Economist" is regulated in New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta, and "Registered
Professional Home Economist" in British Columbia.
• Certified immigration consultants must be registered members of the Canadian Society of Immigration
Consultants.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with experience.
4165 Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers
Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, produce reports and administer
health care policies and programs. They are employed by government departments and agencies, consulting
establishments, universities, research institutes, hospitals, community agencies, educational institutions,
professional associations, non-governmental organizations and international organizations.
Illustrative example(s)
• consultant, drug and alcohol abuse
• consultant, health care
• consultant, mental health programs
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health care planner
health promotion program officer
health services researcher
planning officer, child health care programs
policy development officer, nursing homes
research analyst, health policy
Exclusion(s)
• Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4166)
• Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration (0411)
• Managers in health care (0311)
• Social and community service workers (4212)
• Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4164)
Main duties
Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist in developing government health policy by reviewing relevant literature, conducting interviews,
collecting and analysing statistical data, and providing advice to senior managers and officials on issues
such as health promotion, regulation, standards and financing
• Design and implement health projects or programs
• Maintain, update and manage health information databases
• Compile and analyse statistical information provided by private and public health care institutions and
organizations and produce reports
• Monitor and evaluate health care programs operated by government departments and agencies or private
organizations
• Assess compliance with health standards and identify remedial action if necessary
• Conduct evaluations and assessments of health projects and programs
• Provide consulting services to clients in private establishments or government departments or agencies
• Respond to internal and external program and policy information requests
• Produce newsletters, magazines and other documents to provide information to association or
organization members or the general public
• Present the views of an association or organization to politicians, government officials, the media or the
general public.
Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers may specialize in a particular area of health policy
development, research or program administration such as addiction research.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma in health science, public administration, recreation administration
or hospital administration, or a bachelor's degree in social science, is required.
• A graduate degree in health, social science or an administrative discipline may be required.
• Several years of experience in the health field as a health care professional or as a community or social
service worker are usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with experience.
4166 Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers
Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers conduct research, produce reports and administer
elementary, secondary and post-secondary education policies and programs. They are employed by government
departments, school boards, research institutes, professional associations and educational and other organizations
throughout the public and private sectors, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• co-ordinator, special education
• curriculum developer
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curriculum planner
education consultant
education outreach program co-ordinator
education policy officer
education program co-ordinator
education program officer
education researcher
supervisor, education policy
Exclusion(s)
• College and other vocational instructors (4021)
• Educational counsellors (4033)
• Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4032)
• Government managers - education policy development and program administration (0413)
• Psychology research assistants (non-university) (see 4164 Social policy researchers, consultants and
program officers)
• Secondary school teachers (4031)
Main duties
Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Conduct research, produce reports and administer education policies and programs
• Evaluate curriculum programs and recommend improvements
• Develop the structure, content and objectives of new programs
• Conduct statistical analyses to determine cost and effectiveness of education policies and programs
• Provide ongoing professional development, training and consultative services to teachers and other
professionals throughout the public and private sector
• Develop teaching materials and other resources for program delivery
• Deliver presentations at conferences, workshops and symposia
• May supervise the work of other education policy researchers, consultants or program officers
• May administer specialized testing and assessment programs.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in education or in a discipline such as social science or business administration is
required.
• A master's degree in education may be required.
• Specialized training or certification may be required.
• Several years of experience as a school teacher are usually required.
• A teacher's certificate for the province of employment is usually required when employed by provincial
education ministries.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with experience.
4167 Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers
This unit group includes those who oversee and administer recreation, sports and fitness programs and activities,
provide consulting services, conduct research and develop programs and policies related to recreation, sports and
physical fitness. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments, recreation, sports, fitness
and health care facilities, retirement homes, community centres, sports and fitness consulting firms and
organizations, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• fitness consultant
• fitness policy analyst
• recreation consultant
• recreologist
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sports analyst
sports and recreation consultant
sports consultant
sports policy analyst
sports program supervisor
Exclusion(s)
• Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness (5254)
• Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors (0513)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Recreation, sports and fitness policy analysts conduct research and develop government policies related
to recreation, sports, fitness and athletic safety and standards.
• Sports program consultants provide expert advice and consulting services to sports associations and other
organizations in the design, development and administration of sports programs and activities.
• Fitness program consultants provide expert advice and consulting services to community groups,
corporations, schools and other organizations in the design and development of fitness programs and
activities. They may write proposals and press statements for corporations, industry and the fitness
community.
• Recreation program consultants provide expert advice and consulting services to communities,
corporations, institutions and other organizations in the design and development of recreation programs
and activities.
• Recreation, sports and fitness program supervisors develop, plan and co-ordinate sports, fitness and
recreation programs, and special sporting events.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in recreation administration, sports administration, physical education, kinesiology or
related discipline combined with some work experience in a related field
or
A college diploma in a recreation, sports or fitness program combined with some experience in a related
field is required.
• Recreation, sports and fitness program supervisors require experience as program leaders or instructors in
recreation, sports and fitness. Certification in program specialization, such as fitness or lifesaving, may
also be required.
Additional information
• Mobility among recreation, sports and fitness consultants may be restricted within individual area of
expertise.
• Recreation, sports and fitness program supervisors may progress to recreation, sports and fitness
management positions with experience.
4168 Program officers unique to government
Program officers in this unit group are primarily concerned with the administration and operation of government
institutions, such as Parliament, and activities unique to the operations of government, such as international
relations, federal-provincial affairs, elections and tribunals.
Illustrative example(s)
• attaché
• elections officer
• federal-provincial relations officer
• foreign service officer
• intergovernmental affairs officer
• officer, office of the Speaker
• officer, royal commission
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officer, standing or select committee
protocol officer
returning officer
tribunal officer
Exclusion(s)
• Administrative officers (1221)
• Court officers and justices of the peace (1227)
• Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts (4162)
• Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers (1228)
• Executive assistants (1222)
• Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4164)
Main duties
Program officers unique to government perform some or all of the following duties:
• Advise politicians or diplomats on the social, economic and political effects of government decisions on
other governments in Canada or abroad
• Plan intergovernmental meetings and conferences with officers of other municipal, provincial or federal
governments
• Co-ordinate the logistics and administration of elections within constituencies and ensure that electoral and
voting procedures are followed
• Co-ordinate administrative support services for legislative committees, royal commissions or tribunals
• Participate as a member of a board or tribunal
• Plan logistics and oversee diplomatic protocol of official visits to Canada by foreign politicians and
dignitaries
• Explain Canadian foreign and domestic policies to governments and nationals of foreign countries, and act
on behalf of Canada abroad.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree is usually required.
• A master's degree may be required.
• Several years of experience as a researcher, consultant or program administrator may be required.
• Foreign service officers are accepted on the basis of competitive examination.
4169 Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c.
This unit group includes anthropologists, archaeologists, geographers, historians, linguists, political scientists,
sociologists and other professional occupations in social science not elsewhere classified. They are employed in
universities and throughout the public and private sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• anthropologist
• archaeologist
• geographer
• gerontologist
• historian
• linguist
• political scientist
• psychometrist
• sociologist
Exclusion(s)
• College and other vocational instructors (4021)
• Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts (4162)
• Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries (2161)
• Psychologists (4151)
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• Secondary school teachers (4031)
• Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers (4164)
• University professors and lecturers (4011)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Anthropologists conduct studies of the origin, development and functioning of human societies and
cultures and of human evolution, changing physical characteristics and geographical distribution.
• Archaeologists study artifacts (objects and structures) to reconstruct past economic, social, political and
intellectual life.
• Geographers study and analyse the spatial distribution and interrelationship of physical, biological, cultural
and social patterns.
• Historians conduct research into one or more phases or aspects of past human activity and interpret and
document findings.
• Linguists study the origin, structure and development of languages and apply linguistic theory to problems
in teaching, translation and communications.
• Political scientists conduct research into the theory, origin, development, interrelationships and functioning
of political institutions, political movements and individual political behaviour.
• Psychometricians develop psychological tests, scales and measures, and may administer or apply and
interpret such tests, scales and measures. Psychometrists administer and score psychological tests,
usually under the supervision of a registered psychologist.
• Sociologists study the development, structure, social patterns and interrelationships of human society.
• Other social science professionals included in this group specialize in particular areas of social sciences
and humanities disciplines. These include criminologists (specialists in the study of crime and criminals),
gerontologists (specialists in the phenomena and problems of ageing), graphoanalysts (specialists in
handwriting analysis) and others.
Specialization usually exists within each of these occupations.
Employment requirements
• A master's or doctoral degree in the discipline is usually required.
Additional information
• Specialization within each occupation occurs through specialized university study or through experience.
42 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services
421 Paraprofessional occupations in legal, social, community and education services
4211 Paralegal and related occupations
Paralegals prepare legal documents and conduct research to assist lawyers or other professionals. Independent
paralegals provide legal services to the public as allowed by government legislation, or provide paralegal services
on contract to law firms or other establishments. Notaries public administer oaths, take affidavits, sign legal
documents and perform other activities according to the scope of their practice. Trademark agents advise clients on
intellectual property matters. Paralegals are employed by law firms, by record search companies and in legal
departments throughout the public and private sectors. Independent paralegals are usually self-employed. Notaries
public are employed by government and in the public and private sectors or they may be self-employed. Trademark
agents are employed by law firms and legal departments throughout the public and private sectors, trademark
development and search firms or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• commercial law clerk
• corporate paralegal
• family law paralegal
• independent paralegal
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land titles examiner
legal researcher
notary public
paralegal
real estate law clerk
title searcher
trademark agent
Exclusion(s)
• Articling students, Quebec notaries and trademark lawyers (see 4112 Lawyers and Quebec notaries)
• Legal administrative assistants (1242)
• Patent agents (see 4161 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program
officers)
Main duties
Paralegals perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist lawyers by interviewing clients, witnesses and other related parties, assembling documentary
evidence, preparing trial briefs, and arranging for trials
• Assist lawyers in preparation for mediation and judicial dispute resolutions
• Prepare wills, real estate transactions and other legal documents, court reports and affidavits
• Research records, court files and other legal documents
• Draft legal correspondence and perform general office and clerical duties.
Independent paralegals perform some or all of the following duties:
• Represent clients in small claims court and in other lower court proceedings, at tribunals and before
administrative bodies
• Advise clients and take legal action on landlord and tenant matters, traffic violations, name changes and
other issues within their jurisdictions.
Notaries public perform some or all of the following duties:
• Administer oaths and take affidavits and depositions
• Witness and certify the validity of signatures on documents
• May draft contracts, prepare promissory notes and draw up wills, mortgages and other legal documents
• May arrange probates and administer the estates of deceased persons.
Trademark agents perform some or all of the following duties:
• Advise clients on intellectual property matters and represent clients before the Registrar of Trade-Marks on
matters including prosecution of applications for registration of trademarks
• Advise on the registrability of trademarks, trademark licensing requirements, transfer of intellectual
property and protection of existing trademark rights
• Represent clients at proceedings before the Trade Marks Opposition Board and in related proceedings
• May represent clients internationally in consultation with foreign associates and attorneys.
Employment requirements
• Paralegals in law firms require a bachelor's degree in law or a law college diplomaand in-house training
from a law firm or other legal establishment.
• Independent paralegals require knowledge of legal principles and procedures usually obtained through
industry-sponsored courses and through experience, or through completion of a community college
paralegal program.
• Notaries public are appointed after examination and certification of their qualifications by the governing
judiciary in their province or territory. All appointments have specific limitations on the activities they can
perform and for specific periods of time.
• Notaries public require a provincial licence. In British Columbia, membership in the Society of Notaries
Public is also required.
• To be licensed, trademark agents are required to work in the area of trademark law, including the
preparation and prosecution of trademark applications for registration, for two years
and
To successfully complete the examination conducted jointly by the Intellectual Property Institute of Canada
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and the Registrar of Trade-Marks, Canadian Intellectual Property Office
or
Either one of the above and to be a lawyer entitled to practise in Canada.
• Trademark agents require registration with the federal Trade-Mark Office.
Additional information
• Notaries public usually receive in-house training and perform their duties in rural or remote areas or in the
business offices in which they are employed.
4212 Social and community service workers
Social and community service workers administer and implement a variety of social assistance programs and
community services, and assist clients to deal with personal and social problems. They are employed by social
service and government agencies, mental health agencies, group homes, shelters, substance abuse centres,
school boards, correctional facilities and other establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• Aboriginal outreach worker
• addictions worker
• child and youth worker
• community development worker
• community service worker
• crisis intervention worker
• developmental service worker
• drop-in centre worker
• family service worker
• group home worker
• income maintenance officer - social services
• life skills instructor
• mental health worker
• rehabilitation worker - social services
• social services worker
• veteran services officer
• welfare and compensation officer
• women's shelter supervisor
• youth worker
Exclusion(s)
• Activities leaders - seniors (see 5254 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness)
• Educational counsellors (4033)
• Family, marriage and other related counsellors (4153)
• Instructors of persons with disabilities (4215)
• Managers in social, community and correctional services (0423)
• Social workers (4152)
Main duties
Social and community service workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Review client background information, interview clients to obtain case history and prepare intake reports
• Assess clients' relevant skill strengths and needs
• Assist clients to sort out options and develop plans of action while providing necessary support and
assistance
• Assess and investigate eligibility for social benefits
• Refer clients to other social services or assist clients in locating and utilizing community resources
including legal, medical and financial assistance, housing, employment, transportation, day care and other
services
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• Counsel clients living in group homes and half-way houses, supervise their activities and assist in
pre-release and release planning
• Participate in the selection and admission of clients to appropriate programs
• Implement life skills workshops, substance abuse treatment programs, behaviour management programs,
youth services programs and other community and social service programs under the supervision of social
services or health care professionals
• Meet with clients to assess their progress, give support and discuss any difficulties or problems
• Assist in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment programs by tracking clients' behavioural changes and
responses to interventions
• Advise and aid recipients of social assistance and pensions
• Provide crisis intervention and emergency shelter services
• Implement and organize the delivery of specific services within the community
• Maintain contact with other social service agencies and health care providers involved with clients to
provide information and obtain feedback on clients' overall progress
• Co-ordinate the volunteer activities of human service agencies, health care facilities and arts and sports
organizations
• May maintain program statistics for purposes of evaluation and research
• May supervise social service support workers and volunteers.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college or university program in social work, child and youth care, psychology or other
social science or health-related discipline is usually required.
• Previous work experience in a social service environment as a volunteer or in a support capacity may
replace formal education requirements for some occupations in this unit group.
• Social service workers may be required to be a member of a provincial regulatory body in some provinces.
Additional information
• Progression to professional occupations in social services, such as family and marriage counsellors, social
workers, and probation and parole officers, is possible with additional training and experience.
4214 Early childhood educators and assistants
Early childhood educators plan, organize and implement programs for children between the ages of infancy and 12
years. Early childhood educator assistants provide care for infants and preschool- to school-age children under the
guidance of early childhood educators. Early childhood educators and assistants lead children in activities to
stimulate and develop their intellectual, physical and emotional growth and ensure their security and well-being.
They are employed in child-care centres, daycare centres, kindergartens, agencies for exceptional children and
other settings where early childhood education services are provided. Supervisors of early childhood educators and
assistants are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• child care worker assistant
• child care worker, daycare
• daycare helper
• daycare supervisor
• daycare teacher
• daycare worker
• early childhood assistant
• early childhood education worker
• early childhood educator - preschool
• early childhood educator (E.C.E.)
• early childhood educator assistant
• early childhood program staff assistant
• early childhood supervisor
• preschool helper
• preschool supervisor
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Exclusion(s)
• Child-care centre administrators (see 0423 Managers in social, community and correctional services)
• Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants (4413)
• Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4032)
Main duties
Early childhood educators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop and implement child-care programs that support and promote the physical, cognitive, emotional
and social development of children
• Lead activities by telling or reading stories, teaching songs, taking children to local points of interest and
providing opportunities to express creativity through the media of art, dramatic play, music and physical
activity
• Plan and maintain an environment that protects the health, security and well-being of children
• Assess the abilities, interests and needs of children and discuss progress or problems with parents and
other staff members
• Observe children for signs of potential learning or behavioural problems and prepare reports for parents,
guardians or supervisor
• Guide and assist children in the development of proper eating, dressing and toilet habits
• Establish and maintain collaborative relationships with co-workers and community service providers
working with children
• May plan and organize activities for school-age children in child-care programs before and after regular
school hours
• May supervise and co-ordinate activities of other early childhood educators and early childhood educator
assistants.
Early childhood educator assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Support early childhood educators in carrying out programs that promote the physical, cognitive, emotional
and social development of children
• Engage children in activities by telling stories, teaching songs and preparing crafts
• Prepare snacks and arrange rooms or furniture for lunch and rest periods
• Assist with proper eating, dressing and toilet habits
• Submit written observations on children to early childhood educators or supervisors
• Maintain daycare equipment and assist in housekeeping and cooking duties
• Attend staff meetings to discuss progress and problems of children
• May assist early childhood educators or supervisors in keeping records.
Employment requirements
Early childhood educators
• Completion of a two- to four-year college program in early childhood education
or
A bachelor's degree in child development is required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association for early childhood educators (ECE) is usually required.
Early childhood educator assistants
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Experience in child care is required.
• Completion of an early childhood education assistant certificate program or post-secondary courses in
early childhood education may be required.
• Licensing by a provincial or territorial association for early childhood educators (ECE) may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to senior positions, such as daycare supervisor, is possible with several years of experience
or with experience and advanced ECE qualification levels.
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4215 Instructors of persons with disabilities
Instructors of persons with disabilities teach children and adults using a variety of techniques to facilitate
communication, rehabilitation, social skills and increased independence. They are employed in rehabilitation
centres, specialized educational institutes and throughout the school system.
Illustrative example(s)
• braille instructor
• instructor of persons with a mobility impairment
• instructor of persons who are deaf
• instructor of persons who are hard of hearing
• instructor of persons with a learning disability
• instructor of persons with a visual impairment
• instructor of persons with special needs
• lip-reading instructor
• orientation and mobility instructor
• sign language instructor
• teacher for persons with intellectual disabilities
Exclusion(s)
• Occupational therapy rehabilitation consultants (see 3143 Occupational therapists)
• Special education technicians - social and community services (see 4212 Social and community service
workers)
• Special needs educational assistants (see 4413 Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants)
• Special needs teachers - elementary school (see 4032 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers)
• Special needs teachers - secondary school (see 4031 Secondary school teachers)
• Speech and hearing therapists (see 3141 Audiologists and speech-language pathologists)
Main duties
Instructors of persons with disabilities perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop individualized education and intervention plans based on special needs of client to facilitate their
readaptation and independence objectives
• Assess individuals in areas such as physical limitations, orientation and mobility skills, and cognitive, social
and emotional barriers to establish client rehabilitation or adaptation goals
• Assist individuals with physical, intellectual, visual and hearing disabilities or multiple disorders to develop
life skills and provide job training
• Instruct individuals with disabilities and their families in the use of rehabilitative techniques, prosthetic
devices, wheelchairs and other equipment designed to maximize clients' independence and potential
• Instruct persons with a visual impairment in reading and writing braille and in the use of special equipment
or supports such as human or animal guides, long canes and other adaptive mobility devices
• Instruct persons who are hard of hearing or deaf in lip-reading, finger spelling and sign language according
to individual communication needs
• Instruct persons who are hard of hearing or deaf in the formation and development of sounds for speech
using hearing aids, and other devices and techniques
• Collaborate with specialists, such as rehabilitation counsellors, speech-language pathologists and
occupational therapists, to develop programs for clients' special needs
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college program in special education, rehabilitation, orientation and mobility, visual
impairment, hearing impairment or intellectual disability is required.
• A bachelor's degree in special education or a related field such as social work or psychology may be
required.
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4216 Other instructors
Instructors in this unit group teach courses, such as motor vehicle or motorcycle driving, sailing and navigation,
sewing or other courses, which are outside of educational institutions and not primarily job-related. They are
employed by driving schools, fabric retailers and other commercial establishments or they may be self-employed.
This unit group also includes modelling and finishing school instructors, driver's licence examiners, who are
employed by provincial governments and tutors who provide instruction in elementary or secondary school subjects.
Illustrative example(s)
• driver's licence examiner
• driving instructor
• instructor, modelling and finishing school
• motorcycle driving instructor
• sewing instructor - non-vocational
Exclusion(s)
• College and other vocational instructors (4021)
• Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4032)
• Secondary school teachers (4031)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Driving instructors instruct individuals on proper motor vehicle driving skills and traffic regulations,
demonstrate and explain the handling and mechanical operation of motor vehicles and supervise
individuals during practice driving.
• Driver's licence examiners conduct road test examinations and evaluate the driving ability of applicants for
driver's licences.
• Sewing instructors give instruction to students in techniques and skills of sewing, tailoring and
dressmaking.
• Modelling and finishing school instructors give instruction on comportment, personal development,
make-up application and modelling techniques for fashion shows and magazine advertising.
Employment requirements
• Expertise in the field of instruction must be demonstrated.
• Driving instructors must obtain special licensing as a driving instructor in the province of employment.
• Certification by the Canadian Yachting Association may be required for sailing and navigation instructors.
4217 Other religious occupations
This unit group includes brothers, nuns, monks, religious education workers and others who provide support to
ministers of religion or to a religious community and who perform certain functions associated with the practice of a
religion. They may perform these duties in churches, synagogues, temples or other places of worship or in
institutions such as schools, hospitals and prisons.
Illustrative example(s)
• brother/sister - religion
• cantor
• Christian science practitioner
• deacon
• missionary
• monk
• nun
• pastoral animator
• religious education worker
• Salvation Army field worker
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Exclusion(s)
• Professional occupations in religion (4154)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Assist at services of public worship and religious rites
• Provide religious education, spiritual guidance and moral support to members of a religious community
• Administer programs providing food, clothing and shelter.
Employment requirements
• Requirements range from completion of secondary school education to a university undergraduate degree,
depending on the particular occupation and religion.
• There may be other employment requirements depending on the particular occupation and religion.
43 Occupations in front-line public protection services
431 Occupations in front-line public protection services
4311 Police officers (except commissioned)
Police officers protect the public, detect and prevent crime and perform other activities directed at maintaining law
and order. They are employed by municipal and federal governments and some provincial and regional
governments. This unit group includes railway police.
Illustrative example(s)
• community relations officer - police
• constable
• crime prevention constable
• detective - police
• harbour police officer
• highway patrol officer
• police cadet
• police diver
• police officer
• police sergeant
• railway police officer
• RCMP officer
Exclusion(s)
• By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers, n.e.c. (4423)
• Commissioned police officers (0431)
• Private detectives (see 6541 Security guards and related security service occupations)
• Sheriffs and bailiffs (4421)
Main duties
Police officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Patrol assigned areas to maintain public safety and order and to enforce laws and regulations
• Investigate crimes and accidents, secure evidence, interview witnesses, compile notes and reports and
provide testimony in courts of law
• Arrest criminal suspects
• Provide emergency assistance to victims of accidents, crimes and natural disasters
• Participate in crime prevention, public information and safety programs
• May supervise and co-ordinate the work of other police officers.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of a college program or university degree in law and security or in the social sciences is
usually required.
• A three- to six-month police training program is provided.
• Physical agility, strength, fitness and vision requirements must be met, and psychological or other tests
may also be required.
• Experience as a constable and the completion of specialized courses are required for detectives and
sergeants.
Additional information
• Progression to commissioned police officer positions is possible with additional training and experience.
4312 Firefighters
Firefighters carry out firefighting and fire prevention activities, and assist in other emergencies. They are employed
by municipal, provincial and federal governments and by large industrial establishments that have internal
firefighting services.
Illustrative example(s)
• airport firefighter
• fire captain
• firefighter
• firefighter, shipboard
• industrial firefighter
• lieutenant, firefighters
Exclusion(s)
• Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers (0432)
• Forest firefighters (see 8422 Silviculture and forestry workers)
• Paramedics (see 3234 Paramedical occupations)
Main duties
Firefighters perform some or all of the following duties:
• Respond to fire alarms and other calls for assistance, such as automobile and industrial accidents, bomb
threats and other emergencies
• Rescue victims from burning buildings and accident sites
• Control and extinguish fires using manual and power equipment, such as axes, water hoses, aerial ladders
and hydraulic equipment and various firefighting chemicals
• Administer first aid and other assistance
• Ensure proper operation and maintenance of firefighting equipment
• Prepare written reports on fire incidents
• Inform and educate the public on fire prevention
• Train to maintain high level of physical fitness
• Assist the public, the police and emergency organizations during times of major disasters
• May participate as members of a trauma or emergency response team and provide paramedical aid to
accident victims or ill persons
• May supervise and co-ordinate the work of other firefighters
• May conduct building inspections to ensure compliance with fire code.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a college program in fire protection technology, fire science or a related field may be
required.
• Firefighting and emergency medical care training courses are provided and vary in length depending on
the requirements of different fire departments or services.
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• An apprenticeship training program for firefighters and voluntary trade certification is available in New
Brunswick.
• Experience as a volunteer firefighter may be an advantage.
• Physical agility, strength, fitness and vision requirements must be met.
• Several years of experience are required for senior firefighters, such as lieutenants and captains.
Additional information
• Progression to senior positions such as fire chief is possible with additional training and several years of
experience.
4313 Non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian Forces
This unit group consists of Canadian Forces personnel who are non-commissioned officers (NCOs) or members of
other non-commissioned ranks. They provide collective defence measures to protect Canadian waters, land,
airspace and other interests. All ranks of non-commissioned officers and members in the air force, army, and navy
are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
Air Force and Army ranks
• chief warrant officer
• master corporal
• private
• sergeant
Navy ranks
• able seaman - armed forces
• master seaman
• ordinary seaman - armed forces
• petty officer first class
Exclusion(s)
• Commissioned officers of the Canadian Forces (0433)
Main duties
Personnel in non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian Forces perform some or all of the following duties:
• Operate armoured vehicles, artillery, hand-held weapons and other military combat equipment and
defence systems
• Conduct peacekeeping operations and enforce cease-fire agreements
• Engage in non-combat operations for humanitarian efforts
• Provide assistance in emergency situations, such as civil disorder, natural disasters and major accidents
• Participate in drills and other training in preparation for peacekeeping, combat and natural disaster relief
duties
• Perform administrative and guard duties.
Personnel in this unit group are assigned to specific operations related to reconnaissance, peacekeeping,
disaster relief and combat.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Three months of basic military training are provided.
• Specialized training in the operation and maintenance of military equipment and systems is provided.
Additional information
• Progression to commissioned officer occupations is possible with additional training and experience.
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44 Care providers and educational, legal and public protection support occupations
441 Home care providers and educational support occupations
4411 Home child care providers
Home child care providers care for children on an ongoing or short-term basis. They care for the well-being and
physical and social development of children, assist parents with child care and may assist with household duties.
They provide care primarily in their own homes or in the children's homes, where they may also reside. They are
employed by private households and child-care agencies, or they may be self-employed. Foster parents are
included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• babysitter
• babysitter - fitness centre
• child care provider - private home
• foster parent
• live-in caregiver, child care
• nanny
• parent's helper
Exclusion(s)
• Child care workers - daycare (see 4214 Early childhood educators and assistants)
• Live-in caregivers for seniors and persons with disabilities (see 4412 Home support workers,
housekeepers and related occupations)
Main duties
Home child care providers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Supervise and care for children in employer's or own residence
• Bathe, dress and feed infants and children
• Prepare formulas and change diapers for infants
• Plan, prepare and serve meals for children and may perform other housekeeping duties
• Oversee children's activities, such as meals and rest periods, as instructed by employer
• Maintain a safe and healthy environment in the home
• Instruct children in personal hygiene
• Tend to the emotional well-being of children and support their social development
• Discipline children according to the methods requested by the parents
• Organize and participate in activities such as games, crafts, reading and outings
• Take children to and from school and appointments
• May be required to keep records of daily activities and health information regarding each child.
Foster parents perform some or all of the following duties:
• Care for foster children, usually on an emergency or temporary basis, as a primary guardian under general
direction of foster parent agency
• Consult foster parent agency supervisors for advice and when problems arise
• Administer foster care programs for foster children, as directed by foster parent agency social workers.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school may be required.
• Home child care providers, parent's helpers and foster parents may require completion of a training
program in child care or a related field.
• Child care or household management experience may be required.
• Demonstrated ability to perform work is usually required.
• First aid certification and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) training may be required.
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Additional information
• There is mobility among occupations in this group.
4412 Home support workers, housekeepers and related occupations
Home support workers provide personal care and companionship for seniors, persons with disabilities and
convalescent clients. Care is provided within the client's residence, in which the home support worker may also
reside. They are employed by home care and support agencies, private households, or they may be self-employed.
Housekeepers perform housekeeping and other home management duties in private households and other
non-institutional, residential settings.
Illustrative example(s)
• attendant for persons with disabilities - home care
• family caregiver
• home support worker
• housekeeper
• live-in caregiver - seniors
• personal aide - home support
• personal care attendant - home care
• respite worker - home support
Exclusion(s)
• Home child care providers (4411)
Main duties
Home support workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Provide care and companionship for individuals and families during periods of incapacitation,
convalescence or family disruption
• Administer bedside and personal care to clients such as aid in ambulation, bathing, personal hygiene, and
dressing and undressing
• Plan and prepare meals and special diets, and feed or assist in feeding clients
• May perform routine health-related duties such as changing non-sterile dressings, assisting in the
administration of medications and collecting specimens under the general direction of home care agency
supervisor or nurse
• May perform routine housekeeping duties such as laundry, washing dishes and making beds.
Housekeepers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Perform housekeeping and other home management duties under general direction of employer
• Plan and prepare meals independently or with employer, and may serve meals
• May care for children.
Employment requirements
• Some secondary school education is usually required.
• Home management experience may be required.
• College or other courses in home support may be required.
• First aid certification may be required.
• Completion of a training program in care of the elderly, care of persons with disabilities, convalescent care
or in a related field may be required.
Additional information
• There is mobility among the occupations in this group.
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4413 Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants
Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants support students, and assist teachers and counsellors with
teaching and non-instructional tasks. They assist in areas of personal care, teaching and behaviour management
under the supervision of teachers or other child care professionals. They are employed in public and private
elementary, secondary and special needs schools and treatment centres.
Illustrative example(s)
• educational assistant
• educational resources assistant
• elementary school teacher's aide
• homework assistant
• remedial education aide
• school lunchroom supervisor
• secondary school teacher's assistant
• special education assistant
Exclusion(s)
• Early childhood educators and assistants (4214)
• Elementary school and kindergarten teachers (4032)
• Instructors of persons with disabilities (4215)
• Post-secondary teaching and research assistants (4012)
Main duties
Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist students with integration into the classroom and school setting
• Help students individually or in small groups with assignments and reinforce learning and retention
concepts under the supervision of classroom teacher
• Assist students with special needs using techniques such as sign language, braille and remedial programs
• Monitor and report student progress to classroom teacher
• Accompany and supervise students during activities in school gymnasiums, laboratories, libraries,
resource centres and on field trips
• May assist teacher in the operation of projectors, tape recorders and other audio-visual or electronic
equipment
• May assist in school library or office and perform other duties assigned by school principal
• May monitor students during recess, at noon hour or during the day.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Teacher assistants usually require completion of a 10-month college program in teaching assistance,
educational assistance or other social science program.
• Teacher assistants who help students with special needs usually require specialized training and
experience.
Additional information
• Mobility to other occupations related to child care and adolescent supportive instruction is possible with
experience.
442 Legal and public protection support occupations
4421 Sheriffs and bailiffs
Sheriffs execute and enforce court orders, warrants and writs, participate in seizure and sale of property and
perform courtroom and other related duties. Bailiffs serve legal orders and documents, seize or repossess
properties, evict tenants and perform other related activities. Sheriffs and bailiffs are employed by provincial or
territorial courts, and bailiffs may be employed as officers of the court or in private service as agents for creditors.
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Illustrative example(s)
• bailiff
• deputy sheriff
• sheriff
• sheriff's bailiff
• sheriff's officer
Exclusion(s)
• Correctional service officers (4422)
• Court clerks (1416)
• Police officers (except commissioned) (4311)
Main duties
Sheriffs and bailiffs perform some or all of the following duties:
• Serve statements of claims, summonses, warrants, jury summonses, orders to pay spousal support, and
other court orders
• Serve writs of execution by seizing and selling property and distributing the proceeds according to court
decisions
• Locate property and make seizures and removals under various acts of Parliament
• Provide courthouse security for judges and perimeter security for the courthouse
• Escort prisoners to and from courts and correctional institutions
• Prepare comprehensive reports and affidavits and maintain records
• Attend court, escort witnesses and assist in maintaining order
• Ensure security support services for sequestered juries
• Issue warrants for imprisonment, arrest or apprehension.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A college diploma or bachelor's degree in legal studies is usually required.
• Sheriffs require experience as a deputy sheriff or bailiff and/or in custodial/escort or security work.
• Bailiffs usually require some work experience related to law enforcement as well as knowledge of relevant
statutes and laws.
• Membership in the provincial regulatory body is mandatory in Quebec.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with additional experience and in-house training.
4422 Correctional service officers
Correctional service officers guard offenders and detainees and maintain order in correctional institutions and other
places of detention. They are employed by federal, provincial and municipal governments. Correctional service
officers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• correctional facility guard
• correctional service officer
• detention attendant
• prison guard
• supervisor, correctional officers
Exclusion(s)
• Detention home workers (see 4212 Social and community service workers)
• Managers in social, community and correctional services (0423)
• Social workers (4152)
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Main duties
Correctional service officers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Observe conduct and behaviour of offenders and detainees to prevent disturbances and escapes
• Supervise offenders during work assignments, meals and recreation periods
• Patrol assigned area and report any problems to supervisor
• Observe behaviour of offenders and prepare reports
• Escort detainees in transit and during temporary leaves
• Prepare admission, program, release, transfer and other reports
• May supervise and co-ordinate work of other correctional service officers.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Post-secondary education in correctional services, police studies or criminology may be required.
• Correctional officer recruits must successfully complete the Correctional Service of Canada training course
to be employed by federal institutions.
• Correctional officer recruits are usually required to complete a basic training course to be employed by
provincial/territorial institutions.
• Physical agility, strength and fitness requirements must be met.
• Correctional service supervisors require experience as a correctional service officer.
• First aid certification and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) training are usually required.
4423 By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers, n.e.c.
Officers and inspectors in this unit group enforce by-laws and regulations of provincial and municipal governments.
They are employed by provincial and municipal governments and agencies.
Illustrative example(s)
• animal control officer
• by-law enforcement officer
• commercial transport inspector
• garbage collection inspector
• liquor licence inspector
• parking control officer
• property standards inspector
• taxi inspector
• zoning inspector
Exclusion(s)
• Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers (1228)
• Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers (2262)
• Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety (2263)
• Police officers (except commissioned) (4311)
• Sheriffs and bailiffs (4421)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Animal control officers respond to citizen complaints concerning stray domestic animals, livestock and
wildlife; issue warnings and citations to owners; and impound lost, homeless and dangerous animals.
• By-law enforcement officers enforce municipal and provincial regulations, investigate complaints, and
issue warnings and citations to commercial and residential property owners and occupants.
• Commercial transport inspectors inspect commercial vehicles to ensure compliance with regulations
governing load restrictions, the transportation of hazardous materials and public safety.
• Garbage collection inspectors investigate complaints concerning infractions of garbage collection by-laws.
• Liquor licence inspectors conduct inspections of licensed establishments, advise licencees on laws and
regulations, and report contravention of laws and regulations to provincial liquor control boards and
agencies.
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• Parking control officers enforce parking by-laws on city streets, regional roads and municipal properties.
• Taxi inspectors inspect taxicabs for mechanical reliability, cleanliness, licensing and meter accuracy;
investigate public complaints, issue citations and prepare reports; and give evidence to city councils, taxi
commissions and in court.
• Zoning inspectors investigate properties in violation of zoning and related by-laws, after receiving requests
for licence clearances pertaining to zoning and related by-laws, and on receipt of building permit
applications.
By-law enforcement officers may specialize in the enforcement of one specific by-law.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of a college program or courses in law and security or other related field
or
Experience in a related administrative or regulatory occupation is usually required.
• Zoning inspectors or zoning enforcement officers may require a college diploma as a civil engineering or
architectural technologist or technician and several years of experience in enforcement and/or building
construction or a related field.
• On-the-job training is provided.
5 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
51 Professional occupations in art and culture
511 Librarians, archivists, conservators and curators
5111 Librarians
Librarians select, develop, organize and maintain library collections and provide advisory services for users. They
are employed in libraries or in a department within a library.
Illustrative example(s)
• bibliographer
• cataloguer - library
• cybrarian
• liaison librarian
• librarian
• library consultant
• library supervisor
Exclusion(s)
• Library and public archive technicians (5211)
• Library curators (see 5112 Conservators and curators)
• Library directors and managers (see 0511 Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers)
• Teacher-librarian, elementary school (see 4032 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers)
• Teacher-librarian, high school (see 4031 Secondary school teachers)
Main duties
Librarians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Recommend acquisition of books, periodicals and audio-visual, interactive media and other materials for
inclusion in library collection
• Provide reference services
• Select, classify, catalogue and weed library materials
• Prepare bibliographies, indexes, reading lists, guides and other finding aids
• Develop systems to access library collections
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• Perform manual, on-line and interactive media reference searches to assist users in accessing library
materials and arrange for interlibrary loans
• Develop taxonomies using various information and data sources
• Provide specialized programs for children, seniors and other groups
• Conduct library information and orientation training programs and tours
• Perform related administrative duties and supervise library technicians, assistants and clerks.
Employment requirements
• A master's degree in library science is required.
Additional information
• Progression to library management positions is possible with experience.
5112 Conservators and curators
Conservators restore and conserve artifacts belonging to museums, galleries and owners of cultural property.
Curators recommend the acquisition of museum artifacts and gallery works of art and research their artistic history.
Conservators and curators are employed in museums, art galleries and universities. Conservators may be
self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• art gallery conservator
• assistant curator
• conservator - art objects
• conservator - museum
• curator
• historical artifact conservator
• natural history museum curator
Exclusion(s)
• Curatorial assistants (see 5212 Technical occupations related to museums and art galleries)
• Museum designers (see 5243 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers)
• Museum educators (see 1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations)
• Restaurateurs in food services (see 0631 Restaurant and food service managers)
Main duties
Conservators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine artifacts, determine their condition, suggest methods for treating them and recommend
preventive conservation techniques to their owners
• Restore and conserve paintings, photographs, sculptures, furniture, pottery and other museum and art
gallery artifacts
• Provide advice on display and storage of museum and gallery artifacts to ensure proper maintenance and
preservation
• Research new conservation and restoration techniques
• Provide consultation to museums, art galleries or private individuals
• Supervise conservation technicians and other museum technicians.
Curators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Recommend the acquisition of paintings, photographs, sculptures, documents and other museum and art
gallery artifacts
• Research origins and artistic history of artifacts
• Develop storylines and themes and organize displays and exhibitions
• Co-ordinate the storage of collections and the setting up of displays and exhibitions
• Oversee the conservation, display and circulation of collections
• Supervise curatorial assistants and other museum technicians.
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Conservators and curators may specialize in a particular type of collection or material, such as furniture,
weapons, books, paintings and musical instruments.
Employment requirements
• Conservators require a master's degree in art conservation
or
Completion of a three-year college program in conservation technology and several years of experience in
conservation work.
• Curators require a master's or bachelor's degree in museology, art history or a field related to their specific
area of work.
Additional information
• Progression to museum or art gallery management positions is possible with experience.
5113 Archivists
Archivists manage, process, store and disseminate information contained in an organization's archives. They
acquire, store and research textual material, pictures, maps, architectural documents, electronic materials, films and
videos, and sound recordings and multimedia materials. Archivists are employed in archives, in the public and
para-public sectors and in private sector organizations.
Illustrative example(s)
• archivist
• historical archivist
• multimedia archivist
Exclusion(s)
• Archive assistants (see 5211 Library and public archive technicians)
• Librarians (5111)
• Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers (0511)
Main duties
Archivists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Develop policies and procedures for managing current and semicurrent archives, in particular corporate
cataloguing systems, records scheduling and disposal, and finding aids
• Design programs for managing, disseminating and storing archives of all types (documents, photographs,
maps, audio-visual materials, manuscripts, etc.)
• Plan the computerized management of archives and the management of electronic archives
• Appraise and acquire archival materials to build and develop an archival collection for research purposes
• Authenticate documents and records, and research the origins and significance of archival materials
• Organize noncurrent archives and develop cataloguing and retrieval systems to allow access to archival
materials
• Assist people with their searches.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree with a minor in archival studies
or
A university degree with a certificate in archival studies is required.
• A master's degree in archival studies, archival studies and information science, library science or history
may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to archive management positions is possible with experience.
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512 Writing, translating and related communications professionals
5121 Authors and writers
Authors and writers plan, research and write books, scripts, storyboards, plays, essays, speeches, manuals,
specifications and other non-journalistic articles for publication or presentation. They are employed by advertising
agencies, governments, large corporations, private consulting firms, publishing firms, multimedia/new-media
companies and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• advertising copywriter
• copywriter
• essayist
• interactive media writer
• literary writer
• medical writer
• novelist
• playwright
• poet
• scientific writer
• script writer
• specifications writer
• speech writer
• technical writer
• writer
Exclusion(s)
• Editors (5122)
• Journalists (5123)
• Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations (1123)
• Song writers (see 5132 Conductors, composers and arrangers)
• Translators, terminologists and interpreters (5125)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties of some occupations in this unit group:
Novelists, playwrights, script writers, poets and other creative writers
• Conceive and write novels, plays, scripts, poetry and other material for publication or presentation
• May conduct research to establish factual content and to obtain other necessary information.
Technical writers
• Analyze material, such as specifications, notes and drawings and write manuals, user guides and other
documents to explain clearly and concisely the installation, operation and maintenance of software and
electronic, mechanical and other equipment.
Copywriters
• Study and determine selling features of products and services and write text for advertisements and
commercials.
Authors and writers may specialize in a particular subject or type of writing.
Employment requirements
• Technical writers usually require a university degree in the area of specialization, such as computer
science or engineering.
• Copywriters usually require a university degree or college diploma in French, English, marketing,
advertising or another discipline.
• Creative writing programs are offered by universities and colleges.
• Talent and ability, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, are important hiring criteria.
• Membership in a guild or union related to the occupation may be required.
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5122 Editors
Editors review, evaluate and edit manuscripts, articles, news reports and other material for publication, broadcast or
interactive media and co-ordinate the activities of writers, journalists and other staff. They are employed by
publishing firms, magazines, journals, newspapers, radio and television networks and stations, and by companies
and government departments that produce publications such as newsletters, handbooks, manuals and Web sites.
Editors may also work on a freelance basis.
Illustrative example(s)
• advertising editor
• associate editor
• contributing editor
• copy editor
• editor
• editorial consultant
• literary editor
• manuscript editor
• medical editor
• news editor
• news service editor
• sports editor
• technical editor
Exclusion(s)
• Authors and writers (5121)
• Editorial assistants (see 1452 Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks)
• Film editors (see 5131 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations)
• Journalists (5123)
• Managing editors (see 0512 Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts)
• Map editors (see 2255 Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology)
• Sound editors (see 5225 Audio and video recording technicians)
• Translators-revisers (see 5125 Translators, terminologists and interpreters)
Main duties
Editors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Evaluate suitability of manuscripts, articles, news copy and wire service dispatches for publication,
broadcast or electronic media and recommend or make changes in content, style and organization
• Read and edit copy to be published or broadcast to detect and correct errors in spelling, grammar and
syntax, and shorten or lengthen copy as space or time requires
• Confer with authors, staff writers, reporters and others regarding revisions to copy
• Plan and implement layout or format of copy according to space or time allocations and significance of
copy
• Plan and co-ordinate activities of staff and assure production deadlines are met
• Plan coverage of upcoming events and assign work accordingly
• Write or prepare introductions, marketing and promotional materials, bibliographic references, indexes and
other text
• May negotiate royalties with authors and arrange for payment of freelance staff.
Editors may specialize in a particular subject area, such as news, sports or features, or in a particular type of
publication, such as books, magazines, newspapers or manuals.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in English, French, journalism or a related discipline is usually required.
• Several years of experience in journalism, writing, publishing or a related field are usually required.
• Membership in the Editors Association of Canada may be required.
• Editors who specialize in a specific subject matter may be required to have training in that subject.
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Additional information
• Progression to supervisory and management positions, such as editor-in-chief or managing editor, is
possible with experience.
5123 Journalists
Journalists research, investigate, interpret and communicate news and public affairs through newspapers,
television, radio and other media. Journalists are employed by radio and television networks and stations,
newspapers and magazines. Journalists may also work on a freelance basis.
Illustrative example(s)
• book reviewer
• broadcast journalist
• columnist
• correspondent
• cyberjournalist
• investigative reporter
• journalist
• network reporter
• news commentator
• newspaper critic
• reporter
Exclusion(s)
• Announcers and other broadcasters (5231)
• Authors and writers (5121)
• Editors (5122)
• Photojournalists (see 5221 Photographers)
Main duties
Journalists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Collect local, national and international news through interviews, investigation and observation
• Write news stories for publication and broadcast
• Receive, analyze and verify news and other copy for accuracy
• Arrange for and conduct interviews as part of research and for radio and television programs
• Research and report on developments in specialized fields such as medicine, science and technology
• Prepare regular feature columns and stories on specialized topics
• Write editorials and commentaries on topics of current interest to stimulate public interest and express the
views of a publication or broadcasting station
• Write critical reviews of literary, musical and other artistic works based on knowledge, judgement and
experience.
Journalists may specialize in print, broadcast or Webcast media, in particular issues such as political affairs or
entertainment news, or in a particular geographic area.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in journalism or a related field such as communications is usually
required.
Additional information
• Experienced reporters may advance to editorial positions (print media) or become producers (broadcast
media).
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5125 Translators, terminologists and interpreters
Translators translate written material from one language to another. Interpreters translate oral communication from
one language to another during speeches, meetings, conferences, debates and conversation, or in court or before
administrative tribunals. Terminologists conduct research to itemize terms connected with a certain field, define
them and find equivalents in another language. Sign language interpreters use sign language to translate spoken
language and vice versa during meetings, conversations, television programs or in other instances. Translators,
terminologists and interpreters are employed by government, private translation and interpretation agencies,
in-house translation services, large private corporations, international organizations and the media, or they may be
self-employed. Sign language interpreters work in schools and courts, and for social service agencies, interpretation
services, government services and television stations, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• community interpreter
• conference interpreter
• court interpreter
• interpreter
• legal terminologist
• literary translator
• localiser
• medical terminologist
• sign language interpreter
• terminologist
• translator
• translator adaptor
• translator-reviser
Exclusion(s)
• Authors and writers (5121)
• Editors (5122)
• Language instructors (see 4021 College and other vocational instructors)
• Linguists (see 4169 Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c.)
Main duties
Translators and translator-revisers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Translate a variety of written material such as correspondence, reports, legal documents, technical
specifications and textbooks from one language to another, maintaining the content, context and style of
the original material to the greatest extent possible
• Localize software and accompanying technical documents to adapt them to another language and culture
• Revise and correct translated material
• May train and supervise other translators.
Terminologists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Identify the terminology used in a field of activity
• Conduct terminological research on a given subject or in response to inquiries for the preparation of
glossaries, terminology banks, technological files, dictionaries, lexicons and resource centres, and add to
terminological databases
• Manage, update and circulate linguistic information collected from terminological databases
• Provide consultative services to translators, interpreters and technical writers preparing legal, scientific or
other documents that require specialized terminologies.
Interpreters perform some or all of the following duties:
• Interpret oral communication from one language to another aloud or using electronic equipment, either
simultaneously (as the speaker speaks), consecutively (after the speaker speaks) or whispered (speaking
in a low whisper to one or two persons as the speaker is talking)
• Provide interpretation services in court or before administrative tribunals
• May interpret language for individuals and small groups travelling in Canada and abroad
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• May interpret for persons speaking an Aboriginal or foreign language in a variety of circumstances
• May train other interpreters.
Translators, terminologists and interpreters specialize in two languages, such as French and English, the
official languages of Canada. They may also specialize in another language and one of the official languages.
The main areas of specialization include administrative, literary, scientific and technical translation. Interpreters
may specialize in court, parliamentary or conference interpretation.
Sign language interpreters perform some or all of the following duties:
• Translate sign language to a spoken language and vice versa either simultaneously or consecutively.
Sign language interpreters work in French and Langue des signes québécoise (LSQ) or in English and
American Sign Language (ASL).
Employment requirements
• A university degree in translation with a specialization in translation, interpretation or terminology in two
languages including at least one of the two official languages
or
A university degree in a related discipline such as languages, linguistics, philology and courses in linguistic
transfer and two years' experience as a full-time translator working in two languages, at least one of which
is an official language
or
Five years of experience as a full-time translator working in two languages, at least one of which is an
official language, are required.
• Sign language interpreters require a college training program or a university certificate in sign language
interpretation.
• Certification on dossier or by examination from the Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters
Council may be required for translators, terminologists and interpreters.
• Sign language interpreters may require a certificate or certification evaluation in LSQ or ASL.
• Fluency in three languages is usually required for translators or interpreters working in an international
context.
• Membership in a provincial or territorial association of translators, interpreters and terminologists may be
required.
• Membership in a provincial association of sign language interpreters may be required.
513 Creative and performing artists
5131 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations
This unit group includes producers, directors, choreographers and others who oversee and control the technical
and artistic aspects of film, television, radio, dance and theatre productions. They are employed by film production
companies, radio and television stations, broadcast departments, advertising companies, sound recording studios,
record production companies and dance companies. They may also be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• artistic director - motion picture
• choreographer
• cyber-choreographer
• director - motion picture
• director of photography
• film editor
• filmmaker
• multimedia audio producer
• producer - performing arts
• producer-director
• radio producer
• record producer
• stage director - performing arts
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• technical director - broadcasting
• television producer
Exclusion(s)
• Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts (0512)
• Photographers, graphic arts technicians and technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures,
broadcasting and the performing arts (522)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Film, radio and television producers plan, organize and control the various stages and scheduling involved
in the production of presentations, motion pictures, television shows and radio programs; engage directors
and other production personnel and supervise all technical personnel, and determine the treatment, scope
and scheduling of production; maintain production archives and negotiate royalties.
• Directors interpret scripts and direct the mise-en-scène; select and direct the actors, extras and technical
crew; advise the cast and crew on the interpretation and delivery of the performance; direct rehearsals,
filmings, broadcasts and performances; and confer with crew and specialists throughout production and
post-production to achieve desired presentation.
• Choreographers create dances for film, theatre and television performances that convey stories, ideas and
moods, and direct rehearsals for dancers to achieve desired interpretation.
• Art directors plan, organize and direct the artistic aspects of motion pictures, stage productions and
television shows by overseeing the design of sets, costumes, furnishings and props to create portrayals of
period and setting.
• Film editors edit motion picture film and arrange film segments into sequences to achieve continuity and
desired dramatic, comedic and thematic effects.
• Record producers plan and co-ordinate the production of musical recordings, direct musicians and singers
during rehearsals and recordings and manage technicians involved in duplicating, dubbing and mastering
of recordings.
• Directors of photography co-ordinate and direct the photography of motion pictures, supervise camera
operators and other crews and determine lighting, lenses, camera angles, backgrounds and other
elements to achieve desired visual effect.
Employment requirements
Producers, directors and film editors
• A university degree or college diploma in the performing arts, broadcasting, journalism, business
administration, theatre production or film studies
and
Experience in a technical or production occupation in motion pictures, broadcasting or theatre are usually
required.
Choreographers
• A university degree or college diploma in dance, or a period of study at a school of dance
and
Extensive training with a dance company are usually required.
Record producers
• A university degree or college diploma in music or the recording arts
and
Experience in a technical or production occupation in the recording arts are usually required.
Directors of photography
• A university degree or college diploma in film studies or cinematography
and
Experience in camera operation or another technical occupation in video or motion picture production are
usually required.
Demonstrated creative ability is required for all occupations in this unit group.
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Additional information
• Membership in a related guild or union may be required.
5132 Conductors, composers and arrangers
This unit group includes those who conduct bands and orchestras, compose musical works and arrange
instrumental and vocal compositions. They are employed by symphony and chamber orchestras, bands, choirs,
sound recording companies, and orchestras for ballet and opera performances, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• arranger
• bandmaster
• choir director
• composer
• conductor
• lyricist
• music adapter
• musical director
• orchestrator
• singer-songwriter-composer
• songwriter
Exclusion(s)
• Musicians and singers (5133)
• Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations (5131)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Conductors select and interpret musical works and lead bands, orchestras and choirs during rehearsals
and performances.
• Composers create musical compositions such as television and film scores, theme music, songs,
symphonies and music for interactive products such as video games.
• Arrangers adapt and modify musical compositions to convey desired themes and to suit particular
instrumental and vocal performances.
Conductors, composers and arrangers usually specialize in a particular type of music such as classical,
country, jazz or popular.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in music or completion of a program at a music academy, conservatory or school of
music is usually required.
• A period of specialized study related to conducting, composing or arranging is usually required.
• Experience as a musician is required.
• Musical and creative talent and ability, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, are important hiring criteria.
Additional information
• Composers often work as arrangers.
5133 Musicians and singers
This unit group includes musicians, singers and teachers of vocal and instrumental music. Musicians and singers
perform with orchestras, choirs, opera companies and popular bands in establishments such as concert halls,
lounges and theatres and in film, television and recording studios. Music teachers teach in conservatories,
academies and private homes.
Illustrative example(s)
• accompanist
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
church organist
guitar player
instrumentalist
music teacher - musicians
musician
opera singer
percussionist
recording artist
rock singer
singer
vocalist
Exclusion(s)
• Conductors, composers and arrangers (5132)
• Elementary school music teachers (see 4032 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers)
• Professors of music (see 4011 University professors and lecturers)
• Secondary school music teachers (see 4031 Secondary school teachers)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Musicians play one or more instruments as soloists or as members of a musical group before audiences or
for recording purposes.
• Singers sing musical arrangements as soloists or as members of vocal groups before audiences or for
recording purposes.
• Teachers of music or voice teach technique, interpretation and music theory to students through private or
group lessons.
Musicians and singers usually specialize in specific types of music such as classical, country, ethnic, jazz,
opera or popular music.
Employment requirements
• Musical training from a university or college or through private instruction is usually required.
• Members of orchestras and other professional classical musicians and singers usually require a university
degree in music.
• Musical talent and ability, as demonstrated during an audition, are important hiring criteria.
• Membership in a guild or union related to the occupation or type of performance may be required.
5134 Dancers
This unit group includes dancers and dance teachers. Dancers are employed by ballet and dance companies,
television and film productions and night clubs and similar establishments. Dance teachers are employed by dance
academies and dance schools.
Illustrative example(s)
• ballet dancer
• ballet teacher
• ballroom dancing teacher
• dance instructor
• dancer
• folkloric dancer
• interpretative dancer
• tap dancer
Exclusion(s)
• Choreographers (see 5131 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations)
• Other performers, n.e.c. (5232)
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Main duties
Dancers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Practise and rehearse dance routines under direction or instruction to achieve desired interpretation and
presentation
• Perform dances as soloists or as members of groups before live audiences or for film or television
• Train and exercise to maintain the required levels of ability and fitness
• May choreograph their own performances.
Dance teachers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Teach dance technique and artistic interpretation to amateur and professional individuals and groups
• Teach the techniques, cultural origins and symbolic meanings of Aboriginal, ethnic and folkloric dances
• Teach recreational dancing lessons such as ballroom dancing
• Prepare dance students for specific auditions and performances.
Dancers may specialize in specific types of dance such as ballet, ballroom, folk, jazz or modern.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in dance
or
Graduation from a private dance school or academy may be required.
• Talent and ability, as demonstrated during an audition, are important hiring criteria.
• Dance teachers usually require experience as dancers.
• Membership in a guild or union related to the occupation or type of performance may be required.
5135 Actors and comedians
Actors and comedians perform roles in motion picture, television, theatre and radio productions to entertain a
variety of audiences. They are employed by motion picture, television, theatre and other production companies.
This unit group includes acting teachers employed by private acting schools.
Illustrative example(s)
• acting teacher - private or studio
• actor/actress
• comedian
• drama teacher - private or studio
• narrator
Exclusion(s)
• Announcers and other broadcasters (5231)
• Dancers (5134)
• Drama professors (see 4011 University professors and lecturers)
• Musicians and singers (5133)
• Other performers, n.e.c. (5232)
Main duties
Actors and comedians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Study and rehearse lines, gestures and expressions to interpret a role
• Portray roles in video or motion picture productions, television shows, theatre productions, radio dramas,
commercials and other productions or perform the narration
• Sing or dance as required by specific roles
• Perform comedy acts in nightclubs alone or as members of comedy troupes
• Improvise a role.
Acting teachers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Train students in interpretation of scripts, speech, movement, and dramatic theory
• Prepare acting students for specific auditions and performances.
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Employment requirements
• Demonstrated ability, based on an audition or previous acting roles, is an important hiring criteria.
• Acting programs are offered at universities, colleges and private acting schools.
• Acting teachers usually require experience as actors.
• Membership in a guild or union may be required.
5136 Painters, sculptors and other visual artists
Painters, sculptors and other visual artists create original paintings, drawings, sculptures, engravings and other
artistic works. They are usually self-employed. This group also includes art instructors and teachers, who are
usually employed by art schools.
Illustrative example(s)
• art teacher (except primary, secondary and post-secondary education)
• artist
• artistic painter
• portrait painter
• sculptor
• silkscreen artist
• watercolourist
Exclusion(s)
• Artisans and craftspersons (5244)
• Art teachers (in 4011, 4021, 4031, 4032 - university, post-secondary, secondary and elementary education)
• Graphic designers and illustrators (5241)
Main duties
Painters, sculptors and other visual artists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Painters create drawings, paintings and other artwork using oils, pastels, watercolours, charcoal, ink and
other media.
• Sculptors create sculptures, statues and other three-dimensional artwork by shaping, carving and working
with materials such as clay, ice, paper, stone, wood or metal.
• Art instructors and teachers teach students the techniques and methods of drawing, painting, sculpting
and other forms of artistic expression.
Employment requirements
• Creative ability and talent, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, and knowledge of the safe use of
materials, tools and equipment are required. Art programs are offered at universities, colleges and private
art schools.
• A college diploma in fine arts techniques may be required.
• Art instructors and teachers may be required to have a university degree or college diploma in a field
related to art.
52 Technical occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport
521 Technical occupations in libraries, public archives, museums and art galleries
5211 Library and public archive technicians
Library and public archive technicians assist users in accessing library or archive resources, assist in describing
new acquisitions, participate in archive processing and storage, and conduct reference searches. They are
employed by libraries and public archives.
Illustrative example(s)
• archive technician
• library technician
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• technical indexer - library
Exclusion(s)
• Archivists (5113)
• Librarians (5111)
• Library assistants and clerks (1451)
• Records management technicians (1253)
Main duties
Library technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist library users in accessing books, films, photographs, maps, documents, electronic materials and
other library materials
• Catalogue new library acquisitions under the direction of a librarian
• Perform manual and on-line reference searches and make interlibrary loans for users
• Assist librarians in giving tours and providing children's and other specialized library programs.
Public archive technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Assist in developing inventories, forms and finding aids
• Implement and update classification plans and records scheduling and disposal plans
• Apply standards and policies for storage of records and archival materials
• Codify and classify archival materials
• Put archival materials on microfilm or in databases
• Transfer materials from current to semi-current status or put into permanent storage
• Purge, sort, reduce and sample archives
• Research and retrieve archival materials
• Participate in instructing and assisting users
• Ensure that proper procedures are followed in the use of computerized document management systems.
Employment requirements
• Library technicians usually require completion of a two- to three-year college program in library and
information technology.
• Public archive technicians require completion of a college diploma or certificate program in archive and
document management technology.
5212 Technical occupations related to museums and art galleries
This unit group includes workers who classify and catalogue museum artifacts and gallery works of art, construct
and install exhibits and displays, restore, maintain and store museum and gallery collections, frame artwork, and
perform other functions in support of curatorial and conservation activities. They are employed in museums and
galleries. Picture framers and taxidermists may also be employed in retail settings or may be self-employed. This
unit group also includes museum and other interpreters who conduct guided tours. They are employed by art
galleries, museums, parks, aquariums, zoos, interpretive centres, botanical gardens, cultural centres, nature
sanctuaries, historic and heritage sites, and other locations.
Illustrative example(s)
• art gallery preparator
• conservation technician - museums and art galleries
• curatorial assistant
• heritage interpreter
• museology technician
• museum extension officer
• museum interpreter
• museum objects cataloguer
• museum registrar
• museum technician
• paintings restoration technician
• picture framer - museum and art gallery
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• restoration technician - museum
• taxidermist
Exclusion(s)
• Assistant curators (see 5112 Conservators and curators)
• Museum exhibit designers (see 5243 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers)
• Tour and travel guides (6531)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Conservation and restoration technicians assist in the restoration and conservation of artifacts under the
direction of a conservator.
• Curatorial assistants assist in the research, handling and storage of artifacts.
• Museum interpreters conduct tours of museums, gallery exhibitions and historical, heritage and other sites,
answer inquiries and provide information concerning exhibits or sites.
• Museum extension officers assist with the planning and development of travelling exhibitions and special
events.
• Museology technicians protect and care for cultural artifacts and collections during exhibitions, while in
transit and in storage.
• Museum registrars and cataloguers classify and assign registration numbers to artifacts and supervise
inventory control.
• Preparators construct displays and dioramas, build models, install artifacts in displays and prepare
artifacts for storage and shipping.
• Picture framers fabricate custom frames, measure and cut mats, mat enhancements and glass, and mount
paintings, photographs and other art work.
• Taxidermists prepare and mount skins of birds or animals for preservation, scientific or display purposes.
Technical museum and gallery workers may specialize in a specific type of collection.
Employment requirements
• Registrars, cataloguers and interpreters may require a university degree in a field related to museum and
gallery work.
• For other occupations in this unit group, completion of a college program in museum technology or
conservation technology
or
Other technical or on-the-job training programs related to the work are required.
Additional information
• Museum interpreters may require specific scientific or academic credentials for employment by some
museums, nature centres or other sites.
522 Photographers, graphic arts technicians and technical and co-ordinating occupations in
motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts
5221 Photographers
Photographers operate still cameras to photograph people, events, scenes, materials, products and other subjects.
Photographers are employed by photographic studios, newspapers, magazines, museums and government, or they
may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• aerial photographer
• commercial photographer
• forensic photographer
• industrial photographer
• photographer
• photojournalist
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• portrait photographer
• scientific photographer
Exclusion(s)
• Film and video camera operators (5222)
Main duties
Photographers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Study requirements of a particular assignment and decide on type of camera, film, lighting and background
accessories to be used
• Determine picture composition, make technical adjustments to equipment and photograph subject
• May operate scanners to transfer photographic images to computers
• May operate computers to manipulate photographic images
• May adapt existing photographic images and create new digitized images to be included in
multimedia/newmedia products
• May use delicate instruments, such as optical microscopes attached to cameras
• May process exposed film
• May use airbrush, computer or other techniques to retouch negatives
• Medical photographers may work closely with medical illustrators.
Photographers may specialize in areas such as portrait photography, commercial photography, scientific
photography, forensic photography, medical photography, digitized photography, multimedia photography or
photojournalism.
Employment requirements
• A bachelor's degree in visual arts with specialization in photography
or
Completion of specialized training in photography in high school, college or specialized training schools
or
Extensive on-the-job training under the supervision of a photographer is required.
• Experience in, or knowledge of computerized photography or digital imaging may be required.
• Creative and technical ability, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, are required.
5222 Film and video camera operators
Film and video camera operators operate motion picture and video cameras and related equipment to record news,
live events, films, videos and television broadcasts. They are employed by television networks and stations, motion
picture and video production companies and in-house communications facilities of large corporations.
Illustrative example(s)
• assistant camera operator
• camera operator
• electronic news gathering (ENG) camera operator
• film camera operator
• motion picture camera operator
• studio camera operator
• television camera operator
• video camera operator
Exclusion(s)
• Audio and video recording technicians (5225)
• AV (audiovisual) assistants (see 5227 Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography
and the performing arts)
• Filmmakers and directors of photography (see 5131 Producers, directors, choreographers and related
occupations)
• Photographers (5221)
• Video artists (see 5136 Painters, sculptors and other visual artists)
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• Video transmission operators (see 5224 Broadcast technicians)
Main duties
Film and video camera operators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Meet with director and senior members of camera crew to discuss assignment and determine filming
sequences, camera movements and picture composition
• Select and set up camera equipment to be used and attach lens, filters and film magazine to camera
• Adjust focus, exposure, lighting and other camera settings
• Operate film or video camera to record news, live events, films, videos and television broadcasts
• Label and record contents of exposed film, and complete report sheets
• Test, maintain and store equipment.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college or technical program in broadcasting, audio-visual technology or a related field
and
Experience as an assistant camera operator are usually required.
• Creative and technical ability, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work and experience, may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory or director of photography positions is possible with additional training and
experience.
5223 Graphic arts technicians
Graphic arts technicians assist in conceptualizing a project, interpreting design specifications or sketches, preparing
the page make-up, lay-out and lettering, and preparing production materials for press, electronic or multimedia
publishing. They are employed by publishing, communications, advertising, marketing, printing and multimedia
establishments, and by television and film production companies. They may also be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• animated cartoon technician
• animation painter
• computer graphics technician
• graphics technician
• multimedia graphic design technician
Exclusion(s)
• Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks (1452)
• Desktop publishing specialists (see 1423 Desktop publishing operators and related occupations)
• Graphic designers and illustrators (5241)
• Imprinting technologists (see 9472 Camera, platemaking and other prepress occupations)
Main duties
Graphic arts technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Review the graphic designer's instructions
• Produce or assist in developing and producing design concepts
• Capture elements such as titles, text, drawings, illustrations, graphics, lettering and colour harmonization,
using a computer
• Produce computerized images and drawings
• Digitize images using peripherals and transform them using retouching systems, graphic palettes or
specialized software
• Perform the layout, page make-up and placement using the conceptual mock-ups provided
• Produce proofs and camera-ready materials and prepare film and any other prepress materials
• Paint or ink individual cells of 2-D or 3-D animated drawings according to animator's specifications using
an electronic palette
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• Lay out, draw or paint letters, figures, logos and designs for windows, advertisements, billboards, vehicles,
books and publications using specialized software or painting equipment
• Work in an interdisciplinary environment.
Employment requirements
• A college diploma in commercial or graphic arts, computer graphics or animated design is required.
• Experience or training in multimedia design at a post-secondary, college or technical institution may be
required.
• Creative ability and artistic talent, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, are required.
Additional information
• Progression to graphic designer positions is possible with experience or supplementary training.
5224 Broadcast technicians
Broadcast technicians install, set up, test, operate and repair electronic equipment used to record and transmit live
and taped radio and television programs and to produce audio and video streaming broadcasts for the Internet.
They are employed by radio and television broadcasting networks and stations, by broadcast equipment companies
and by Internet-based communication providers.
Illustrative example(s)
• broadcast engineer
• broadcast technician
• broadcast transmitter operator
• broadcasting switcher
• master control room (MCR) equipment operator - broadcasting
• master control room (MCR) technician - broadcasting
• mobile broadcasting equipment operator
• regional transmitter technician
• short-wave receiving station technician
• video transmission operator
Exclusion(s)
• Audio and video recording technicians (5225)
• Film and video camera operators (5222)
• Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts
(5226)
Main duties
Broadcast technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Monitor broadcast quality of live and taped radio and television programs
• Operate and monitor radio and television broadcasting systems to broadcast, receive signals and to
regulate clarity and range of sounds and colours of recordings or broadcasts
• Operate broadcast equipment to produce audio and video streaming broadcasts for the Internet
• Make emergency repairs to equipment and substitute programs in case of signal failure
• Maintain, install and troubleshoot a wide variety of broadcast hardware and software
• Set up and operate consoles to pick up and select feed sources from different locations and to air radio or
television programs and commercials
• May supervise other broadcast technicians.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college program in broadcast technology or electronics is usually required.
• Senior and supervisory positions in this unit group require experience.
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5225 Audio and video recording technicians
Audio and video recording technicians operate equipment to record, mix and edit sound, music and videotape, for
motion pictures, television and radio programs, videos, recordings and live events. They are employed by
multimedia companies, film, video and concert production companies, sound recording firms, theatre and dance
companies, educational establishments, clubs, hotels, bands, radio stations, television networks and video
production and editing companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• audiovisual (AV) technician
• multimedia sound technician
• postproduction technician
• radio technician
• recording engineer
• recording studio technician
• sound effects editor
• sound engineer
• sound mixer
• sound technician
• video and sound recorder
• video recording technician
Exclusion(s)
• Broadcast technicians (5224)
• Film and video camera operators (5222)
• Film editors (see 5131 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations)
• Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts
(5226)
• Recording studio assistants (see 5227 Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography
and the performing arts)
Main duties
Audio and video recording technicians perform some or all of the following duties:
• Set up, prepare, operate and adjust audio, recording, editing and reproducing equipment to record, edit
and reproduce sound input or feed of pre-recorded material from tapes, records, compact discs, digital
audio devices, and input from live microphones, satellites or microwave trucks for films, videos, radio and
television programs and recordings
• Prepare and operate videotape recording and playback equipment to record videos, television programs,
concerts and live events, and to edit video tape after production
• Operate electronic equipment to generate program titles, credits, sub-titles, graphic backgrounds or
animation for television programs
• Operate audio consoles or computers, tape machines, microphones and sound processing equipment to
mix, combine and edit music and sound at concerts and live events
• Operate dubbing machines to play back edited dialogue, music and sound effect tracks from different
sources, in synchronization with motion picture film
• May supervise and co-ordinate the work of other audio and video recording technicians.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college or other program in recording engineering, audiovisual technology or a related
field
or
Experience as a recording studio assistant is usually required.
• Senior occupations in this unit group, such as recording and sound engineers, require experience.
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5226 Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the
performing arts
This unit group includes a range of technical, co-ordinating and supervisory workers who co-ordinate and perform
specific activities for television, radio and motion picture productions, news broadcasts, theatre and stage
productions, and other live or recorded productions. They are employed by television and radio stations and
networks, recording studios, motion picture and video production companies, concert promoters and theatre, stage
and dance companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• costumier
• gaffer
• key grip
• lighting technician
• make-up artist - motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts
• program co-ordinator - broadcasting
• property master - broadcasting
• settings shop foreman/woman
• special effects technician
• stage manager
• stunt co-ordinator
• theatre technician
Exclusion(s)
• Audio and video recording technicians (5225)
• Broadcast technicians (5224)
• Film and video camera operators (5222)
• Lighting designers (see 5243 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers)
• Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing arts (5227)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Floor managers co-ordinate the work of camera operators and other technical staff, and cue announcers,
actors and performers during news broadcasts and television program tapings.
• Key grips supervise grips, gaffers and stagehands who rig, place, move and dismantle lights, sets,
backdrops, scenery and other stage equipment.
• Gaffers and lighting technicians set up, operate and make repairs to lights and other electrical equipment
in studios and on sets and stages.
• Stunt co-ordinators and special effects technicians design and co-ordinate special effects such as fires,
explosions and crashes.
• Make-up artists apply cosmetic and special effects make-up on actors and other performers.
• Costumiers study scripts to determine the necessary costumes and oversee the acquisition, fitting and
maintenance of costumes.
• Settings shop foremen and forewomen assist in preparing the construction specifications for sets.
• Property masters identify and list the necessary props and place them during rehearsals and
performances.
Employment requirements
• For most occupations in this unit group, completion of a college or university program in broadcasting,
theatre arts or a related field
and
Several years of experience in a related support or assisting occupation in motion pictures, broadcasting
or the performing arts are required.
• Floor managers require a portfolio of work.
• Make-up artists working in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts may require a training
program.
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• Creative ability, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, is required for make-up artists.
• For gaffers, lighting technicians, key grips and other stage technicians, completion of a college program or
other specialized training program in technical production for theatre is required.
• Membership in a related union may be required.
Additional information
• There may be an overlap in duties among occupations in this unit group, depending on the size of the
production or broadcasting studio.
5227 Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing
arts
This unit group includes workers who perform support duties related to broadcasting and to the production of
motion pictures and the performing arts. They are employed by television and radio stations and networks,
recording studios, motion picture and video production companies and by theatre and stage companies. This unit
group also includes projectionists employed by movie theatres.
Illustrative example(s)
• boom grip
• camera crane operator
• dresser - motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts
• lighting assistant
• production assistant
• projectionist
• prompter
• props person
• script assistant
• set builder
• special effects assistant
• spotlight operator
• stagehand
Exclusion(s)
• Audio and video recording technicians (5225)
• Broadcast technicians (5224)
• Film and video camera operators (5222)
• Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts
(5226)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Camera crane operators set up, assemble, adjust, maintain and replace reels and projector equipment;
detect and repair mechanical and electrical problems; and change and install an electronic control panel
using automated equipment.
• Production assistants provide support to the director and producer, and are responsible for various aspects
of production such as preparing schedules, setting up equipment, and making travel arrangements to
various shooting locations.
• Motion picture projectionists check the condition of the copy; set up and load film reels on movie theatre
projection systems, adjust focus, sound levels and other projector and theatre settings; and maintain
projection equipment.
• Props persons and set builders assemble, repair, place, build and oversee props.
• Script assistants distribute scripts to actors; keep detailed notes of all actions, positions and camera
angles; and photograph and date scenes.
• Grips and riggers rig, place, move and dismantle sets, backdrops, scenery and other stage equipment.
• Dressers clean, maintain, transport and store costumes, and assist performers to dress in costumes.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Most occupations in this unit group require completion of college courses in broadcasting, theatre arts or a
related field
or
A period of on-the-job training.
• Certification for projectionists is available, but voluntary, in New Brunswick. In Quebec, projectionists are
regulated under operators of electrical machines, cinema equipment.
• Projectionists are required to be licensed by their province of employment.
Additional information
• There may be an overlap in duties among occupations in this unit group, depending on the size of the
production or broadcasting studio.
• Progression to related technical occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting or the performing arts is
possible with additional training or experience.
523 Announcers and other performers, n.e.c.
5231 Announcers and other broadcasters
Announcers and other broadcasters read news, sports, weather, commercial and public service messages and host
entertainment and information programs for broadcast on radio or television. They are primarily employed by radio
and television stations and networks and by commercial firms that produce advertisements for radio or television.
Illustrative example(s)
• announcer
• broadcaster
• disc jockey - broadcast
• news reader
• radio host/hostess
• sports announcer
• talk show host/hostess
• television host/hostess
• traffic reporter
• weather reporter
Exclusion(s)
• Broadcast journalists who prepare and present their own reports (see 5123 Journalists)
• Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing arts (5227)
Main duties
Announcers and other broadcasters perform some or all of the following duties:
• Select and introduce music, videos and other entertainment material for broadcast, and make commercial
and public service announcements
• Act as host/hostess or master of ceremonies, introduce and interview guests and conduct proceedings of
shows or programs
• Read news, sports and weather for radio and television
• Report on weather conditions using information provided by weather forecasting services
• Report on traffic conditions by maintaining contact with external sources of information or by observing
traffic from air or land vehicle
• May present own material or material prepared by others.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a college radio or television arts program is usually required.
• Practical training, such as work at a college radio station, may be required.
• Talent and ability, as demonstrated during an audition, are important hiring criteria.
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• Membership in a guild or union related to the occupation or type of performance may be required.
Additional information
• Movement to occupations in journalism is possible for those with an educational background in journalism
or a related field.
5232 Other performers, n.e.c.
This unit group includes circus performers, magicians, models, puppeteers and other performers not elsewhere
classified. They are employed by circuses, nightclubs, and theatre, advertising and other production companies, or
they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• acrobat
• busker
• circus performer
• clown
• fashion model
• magician
• puppeteer
• ventriloquist
Exclusion(s)
• Actors and comedians (5135)
• Dancers (5134)
• Musicians and singers (5133)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Buskers entertain passers-by on sidewalks and in parks with magic tricks, juggling acts, short dramatic
works, music and other entertaining displays.
• Circus performers such as trapeze artists, high-wire walkers, clowns and jugglers entertain audiences with
thrilling and humorous acts.
• Magicians and illusionists perform sleight-of-hand tricks, disappearing acts and other illusions.
• Fashion models display clothing and merchandise in commercials, advertisements and fashion shows and
pose for artists and photographers.
• Puppeteers operate puppets and marionettes.
Employment requirements
• Circus performers and acrobats may require a period of study at a circus school.
• Completion of modelling courses is usually required for models.
• Training for other occupations in this unit group is often obtained under the guidance of a practitioner.
• Talent and ability, as demonstrated during an audition, are important hiring criteria.
• Membership in a guild or union related to the occupation or type or performance may be required.
Additional information
• There is little mobility between the different occupations in this unit group.
524 Creative designers and craftspersons
5241 Graphic designers and illustrators
Graphic designers conceptualize and produce graphic art and visual materials to effectively communicate
information for publications, advertising, films, packaging, posters, signs and interactive media such as Web sites
and CDs. They are employed by advertising and graphic design firms, by establishments with advertising or
communications departments and by multimedia production companies, or they may be self-employed. Graphic
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designers who are also supervisors, project managers or consultants are included in this unit group. Illustrators
conceptualize and create illustrations to represent information through images. They are almost solely
self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• 3D animation artist
• advertising designer
• animator - animated films
• bank note designer
• cartoonist
• commercial artist
• graphic artist
• graphic designer
• graphic designer - multimedia
• illustrator
• layout designer
• medical illustrator
• multimedia illustrator
• scientific illustrator
Exclusion(s)
• Advertising managers (see 0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers)
• Graphic arts technicians (5223)
• Interior designers and interior decorators (5242)
• Painters, sculptors and other visual artists (5136)
Main duties
Graphic designers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Consult with clients to establish the overall look, graphic elements and content of communications
materials in order to meet their needs
• Determine the medium best suited to produce the desired visual effect and the most appropriate vehicle
for communication
• Develop the graphic elements that meet the clients' objectives
• Prepare sketches, layouts and graphic elements of the subjects to be rendered using traditional tools,
multimedia software and image processing, layout and design software
• Estimate cost of materials and time to complete graphic design
• Use existing photo and illustration banks and typography guides or hire an illustrator or photographer to
produce images that meet clients' communications needs
• Establish guidelines for illustrators or photographers
• Co-ordinate all aspects of production for print, audio-visual or electronic materials, such as Web sites, CDs
and interactive terminals
• Co-ordinate sub-contracting
• Work in a multidisciplinary environment
• Supervise other graphic designers or graphic arts technicians.
Illustrators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Consult with clients to determine the nature and content of illustrations in order to meet their
communications needs
• Develop and produce realistic or representational sketches and final illustrations, by hand or using
computer-assisted design (CAD) software, for printed materials such as books, magazines, packaging,
greeting cards and stationery
• Assist in developing storyboards for electronic productions such as multimedia, interactive and digital
products and television advertising and productions
• Produce 2-D and 3-D animated drawings or computer illustrations
• May adapt existing illustrations.
Illustrators may specialize in a particular field such as illustrations for children, advertising, editorials, humour,
or medical, scientific or technical illustration, or multimedia design.
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Employment requirements
• A university degree in visual arts with specialization in graphic design, commercial art, graphic
communications or cartooning
or
Completion of a college diploma program in graphic arts is required.
• Experience or training in multimedia design at a post-secondary, college or technical institution may be
required.
• In addition to the arts, training in biology, engineering, architecture or a scientific field is usually required for
medical, technical and scientific illustrators.
• Creative ability and artistic talent, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, are required for graphic
designers and illustrators.
Additional information
• Progression to management or senior design positions is possible with experience.
• The title "registered graphic designer" is recognized by law in Ontario.
5242 Interior designers and interior decorators
Interior designers and interior decorators conceptualize and produce aesthetic, functional and safe designs for
interior spaces in residential, commercial, cultural, institutional and industrial buildings. They are employed by
architectural and interior design firms, retail establishments, construction companies, hospitals, airlines, hotel and
restaurant chains, and other establishments, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• aircraft interior designer
• interior decorator
• interior design technician
• interior designer
• kitchen designer
• office space planner
• project manager, interior design
• retail space planner
Exclusion(s)
• Graphic designers and illustrators (5241)
• Industrial designers (2252)
• Lighting designers (see 5243 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers)
• Painters and decorators (except interior decorators) (7294)
• Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers (5243)
Main duties
Interior designers and interior decorators perform some or all of the following duties:
• Consult with clients to determine needs, preferences, safety requirements and purpose of space
• Develop detailed plans and 3-D models showing arrangement of walls, dividers, displays, lighting and
other fixtures using computer-assisted design (CAD) software and graphics software
• Develop plans, elevations, cross sections and detailed drawings, and advise on selection of colours,
finishes and materials, floor and wall coverings, window treatments, interior and exterior lighting, furniture
and other items, taking into account ergonomic and occupational health standards
• Estimate costs and materials required and may advise on leasing, real estate and marketing
• Prepare plans and specifications for the final interior designs in accordance with current practices and
codes
• Work in a multidisciplinary environment
• May direct site work crews and subcontractors.
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Interior designers are experts in the area of interior architecture, construction materials and building codes.
They may specialize in designing interiors for residential, commercial, institutional, cultural and industrial
buildings and for aircraft, ships or trains, trade shows and exhibitions. Interior decorators may specialize in
decorating residential or commercial interior spaces, home staging, colour consulting and home organizing.
Employment requirements
Interior designers
• A university degree or college diploma in interior design is usually required.
• The National Council for Interior Design Qualification (NCIDQ) examination may be required after six years
of combined study and experience.
• Certification by a provincial institute or association is required to use the designation Interior Design
Consultant (IDC) in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British
Columbia.
Interior decorators
• A college certificate or diploma in interior decoration is usually required.
• Membership in the Canadian Decorators' Association is available to qualified decorators.
5243 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers
Designers in this unit group conceptualize and produce designs for film, television, theatre and video productions,
garments and textiles, displays and exhibits, and for other creative items such as jewellery and trophies. Theatre
designers are employed by performing arts and broadcasting companies and by festivals; fashion designers are
employed by clothing and textiles companies or may be self-employed; and exhibit designers are employed by
museums and retail establishments. Other creative designers in this unit group are employed by manufacturing
establishments or may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• clothing designer
• costume designer
• couturier - haute couture
• display designer
• fabric designer
• fashion designer
• fur designer
• jewellery designer
• lighting designer
• museum exhibit designer
• shoe designer
• trophy designer
• window display designer
Exclusion(s)
• Diorama makers - museums and galleries (see 5212 Technical occupations related to museums and art
galleries)
• Graphic designers and illustrators (5241)
• Industrial designers (2252)
• Interior designers and interior decorators (5242)
• Patternmakers - textile, leather and fur products (5245)
• Tailors, dressmakers, furriers and milliners (6342)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Theatre designers design and create settings, scenic environments, properties, costumes and lighting for
theatre, film and video productions, operas and ballets.
• Fashion designers design and create clothing and accessories for men, women and children.
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• Exhibit designers plan and develop permanent and temporary or moveable exhibits and displays for
museum exhibitions, trade shows, conventions, retail spaces and other exhibitions.
Theatre designers may specialize in costume, lighting or set design; fashion designers may specialize in
men's, women's or children's apparel or in different lines such as sportswear, footwear or formal wear.
Employment requirements
• A university degree in fine arts or visual arts with specialization in theatre design, clothing design or exhibit
design
or
Completion of a college or art school program in theatre design, clothing design or exhibit design is
required.
• Creative ability, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, is required.
• Use of computer-aided design (CAD) software may be required.
Additional information
• Designers may advance to supervisory and management positions.
5244 Artisans and craftspersons
This unit group includes those who use manual and artistic skills to design and make ornamental objects, pottery,
stained glass, jewellery, rugs, blankets, other handicrafts and artistic floral arrangements. Makers of musical
instruments are also included in this unit group. Most craftspersons are self-employed. Artistic floral arrangers are
usually employed in florist shops and floral departments of retail establishments, or may be self-employed. Craft
instructors are also included in this unit group and are employed by artisan guilds, colleges, private studios and
recreational organizations.
Illustrative example(s)
• artistic floral arranger
• carver
• craft instructor (except education)
• craftsperson
• glass blower
• lace weaver - arts and crafts
• leather worker
• metal arts worker
• potter
• screen printing artisan
• silversmith
• stained glass artist
• stringed instrument maker
• totem pole carver
• weaver - arts and crafts
Exclusion(s)
• Cabinetmakers (7272)
• Fabric-making occupations in manufacturing (see 9442 Weavers, knitters and other fabric making
occupations)
• Jewellers, jewellery and watch repairers and related occupations (6344)
• Painters, sculptors and other visual artists (5136)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Carvers use hand tools and woodworking machines to produce carvings from wood, stone and other
materials and to carve ornamental designs into wooden furniture and other objects.
• Glass blowers design and create glass objects using blowpipes and artisan's hand tools and equipment.
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• Metal arts workers design metal jewellery, utensils, implements, wall hangings and other objects and
create them from gold, silver, copper, pewter and other metals.
• Potters design ornamental and ceramic functional earthenware pieces and create them using clay, moulds,
potter's wheels and other equipment, glazing materials and kilns.
• Stained glass artists design stained glass windows, lampshades and other objects and cut, paint, fire and
assemble pieces of stained glass to create such products.
• Instrument makers construct instruments applying their knowledge of wood, ebonite, metal properties and
other materials and instrument design using hand and power tools.
• Weavers use hands or loom to interlace strips of flexible material such as wool, cotton, silk, grasses, bark
and rawhide to make baskets, wreaths, wall hangings, clothing, rugs, blankets and other objects.
• Craft instructors prepare craftmaking lessons, gather the required working materials and demonstrate and
teach craftmaking techniques.
• Artistic floral arrangers design bouquets, corsages, sprays, wreaths and other floral arrangements and
select natural and artificial flowers, foliage and decorative accessories to create arrangements or other
floral items to suit customers' requirements.
Employment requirements
• Skills are often learned through apprenticeship with a master craftsperson.
• Training programs are offered by artisan guilds, colleges and private studios.
• Creative ability and talent, as demonstrated by a portfolio of work, and knowledge of safe handling of
material, tools and equipment are required.
• A college diploma in fine craft techniques may be required.
5245 Patternmakers - textile, leather and fur products
Patternmakers in this unit group create master patterns for the production of garments, footwear and other textile,
leather or fur products. They are employed by pattern manufacturers, textile, leather or fur products manufacturers,
or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• dress patternmaker
• embroidery patternmaker
• fur garment patternmaker
• garment patternmaker
• leather products patternmaker
• shoe patternmaker
• textile products patternmaker
Exclusion(s)
• Supervisors, textile, fabric, fur and leather products processing and manufacturing (9217)
Main duties
Patternmakers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Examine sketches, samples of articles and specifications of designs to determine number, size and shape
of pattern parts and assess the amount of cloth required to make a product
• Draw, lay out and cut master patterns of products
• Outline parts of patterns on paper and mark patterns to indicate details such as the placement of pockets
and pleats on garments, decorative stitching on shoe parts or eyelets on canvas products
• Create pattern size variations from master patterns using computer or drafting instruments, or forward
patterns to computer operator to create pattern size variations
• Lay out master patterns on fabric and cut sample patterns
• Mark size, identification, style and sewing instructions on sample patterns.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• College courses in design and patternmaking
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or
One to two years of on-the-job training are required.
• Courses in computer-assisted patternmaking may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
525 Athletes, coaches, referees and related occupations
5251 Athletes
Athletes participate in competitive sports events on an amateur or professional basis. They play team sports such
as hockey, baseball, football and lacrosse; or compete in individual sports such as skiing, figure skating, boxing or
track and field; or in games such as poker or chess. Athletes are employed by professional team organizations or
they may be self-employed. This unit group also includes competitors such as chess players and poker players.
Illustrative example(s)
• athlete
• baseball player
• boxer
• figure skater
• football player
• golfer
• harness race driver
• hockey player
• jockey
• professional athlete
• skier
• sprinter
• track athlete
Exclusion(s)
• Coaches (5252)
• Sports instructors (see 5254 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness)
• Sports officials and referees (5253)
Main duties
Athletes perform some or all of the following duties:
• Train under the direction of a coach or trainer to qualify for competition
• Attend scheduled practice and training sessions
• Participate in local, regional, provincial, national or international competitions and sporting events
• Assess performance after an event to identify strengths and weaknesses.
Employment requirements
• Demonstrated ability in a particular sport, or type of game, is required.
• Extensive training under the supervision of a coach is required.
• Certification with a particular sports federation may be required.
• A background combining athletic training and college or university studies is strongly recommended.
5252 Coaches
Coaches prepare and train individual athletes or teams for competitive events. They are employed by national and
provincial sports organizations, professional and amateur sports teams, sports clubs and universities or they may
be self-employed. This unit group also includes sports scouts who identify and recruit athletes for professional
sports teams. They are employed by professional sports organizations.
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Illustrative example(s)
• coach
• figure skating coach
• football scout
• gymnastics coach
• head coach
• hockey coach
• hockey scout
• national team coach
• soccer coach
• sports scout
• swimming coach
• volleyball coach
Exclusion(s)
• Athletes (5251)
• Athletic therapists (see 3144 Other professional occupations in therapy and assessment)
• Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness (5254)
• Sports officials and referees (5253)
Main duties
Coaches perform some or all of the following duties:
• Identify strengths and weaknesses of athletes or teams
• Plan, develop and implement training and practice sessions
• Nurture and develop athletes' potential skills and abilities
• Develop, plan and co-ordinate competitive schedules and programs
• Motivate and prepare athletes or teams for competitive events or games
• Formulate competitive strategies, develop game plans and direct athletes and players during games or
athletic events
• Analyse and evaluate athletes' or teams' performances and modify training programs.
Sports scouts perform some or all of the following duties:
• Identify and recruit developing athletes for professional sports teams
• Observe and evaluate prospective athletes' skills and performance, and review their past records
• File reports on scouting assessments and recommendations with professional team employers.
Employment requirements
Coaches
• Completion of the National Coaching Certificate program is usually required for individual and team sports
coaches in all sports.
• National Coaching Certificate Level 3 is usually required for provincial coaches.
• National Coaching Certificate Level 4 is usually required for coaches of national team athletes.
• A degree in physical education may be required.
• Experience in and technical knowledge of the sport is required.
Sports scouts
• Experience in and technical knowledge of the sport is required.
5253 Sports officials and referees
Sports officials and referees observe and enforce rules and regulations governing sporting events, athletic games
and sports competitions. They are employed by national, provincial and local sporting commissions, organizations
and leagues.
Illustrative example(s)
• athletics judge
• clerk of the course - racetrack
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
figure skating judge
goal judge
harness racing starter
racetrack timer
referee
sports linesman/woman
sports official
umpire
Exclusion(s)
• Coaches (5252)
• Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness (5254)
Main duties
Sports officials and referees perform some or all of the following duties:
• Officiate at sporting events or athletic competitions to maintain standards of play and to ensure that game
rules and safety regulations are observed
• Record lapsed time and keep scores during events or competitions
• Judge the performance of competitors, award points, impose penalties for infractions and determine
results
• Compile scores and other athletic records
• Establish and maintain rapport with coaches, players and organizing committees
• Verify credentials of athletes or animals engaged in sports or related special events, and respond to written
protests.
Employment requirements
• Sports officials require certification by and registration with a sport governing body or commission.
• Sports referees require completion of an officiating program offered by a sport governing body.
5254 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness
Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness lead and instruct groups and individuals in
recreational, sports, fitness or athletic programs. They are employed by community centres, sports and fitness
clubs, outdoor centres, resorts, recreational facilities, health care facilities, retirement homes, correctional
institutions, government departments, private businesses, tourism associations and similar establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• aerobics instructor
• camp counsellor
• certified personal trainer
• day camp leader
• fitness appraiser
• fitness instructor
• gymnastics teacher
• lifeguard
• personal trainer
• playground worker
• recreation program leader
• recreation technician
• riding instructor
• ski instructor
• ski patrol
• swimming instructor - sports
Exclusion(s)
• Other instructors (4216)
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• Recreation and sports supervisors (see 4167 Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers,
consultants and program officers)
• Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors (0513)
Main duties
Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan and carry out recreational, athletic, fitness and sports activities
• Assemble supplies and sports and game equipment
• Demonstrate and instruct athletic, fitness or sports activities and techniques
• Instruct groups and individuals in arts, crafts and similar activities and lead groups and individuals in
recreational or leisure programs
• Attend to clients with special needs
• Provide lifestyle awareness information
• Conduct therapeutic recreational or athletic activities
• Monitor recreational, sports or fitness activities to ensure safety and provide emergency or first aid
assistance when required
• Enforce safety rules and regulations
• Assist with co-ordination of special events
• Schedule activities, keep logs, maintain records and prepare reports
• May train and supervise staff
• May maintain and repair sports equipment.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a college program in recreation or physical education
or
extensive experience in a specific recreational or sports program activity is usually required.
• Certification is usually required in a specific area of recreational, sports or fitness activity, such as ski
instructor or personal trainer, or in first aid or emergency care.
• Demonstrated ability in a particular recreational, sports or fitness discipline is required.
• Fitness appraiser certification may be required for fitness appraisers.
6 Sales and service occupations
62 Retail sales supervisors and specialized sales occupations
621 Retail sales supervisors
6211 Retail sales supervisors
Retail sales supervisors supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Retail
Salespersons and Sales Clerks (6421), Cashiers (6611), Grocery Clerks and Store Shelf Stockers (6622) and Other
Elemental Sales Occupations (6623). They are employed by stores and other retail businesses, wholesale
businesses that sell on a retail basis to the public, rental service establishments and businesses involved in
door-to-door soliciting and telemarketing.
Illustrative example(s)
• department store supervisor
• head cashier
• liquor store supervisor
• produce department supervisor
• rental service supervisor
• route supervisor, retail sales
• telemarketing supervisor
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Exclusion(s)
• Retail and wholesale trade managers (0621)
• Service supervisors (631)
• Supervisors of technical salespersons (see 6221 Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade)
Main duties
Retail sales supervisors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Supervise and co-ordinate sales staff and cashiers
• Assign sales workers to duties and prepare work schedules
• Authorize payments by cheque and the return of merchandise
• Sell merchandise to customers
• Resolve problems that arise, such as customer complaints and supply shortages
• Maintain specified inventory and order merchandise
• Prepare reports regarding sales volumes, merchandising and personnel matters
• Hire and train or arrange for the training of new sales staff.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Previous retail sales experience as a retail salesperson or sales clerk, cashier, telemarketer, door-to-door
salesperson or rental agent is required.
Additional information
• Progression to management positions in retail trade is possible with additional training or experience.
622 Technical sales specialists in wholesale trade and retail and wholesale buyers
6221 Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade
Technical sales specialists, wholesale trade, sell a range of technical goods and services, such as scientific,
agricultural and industrial products, electricity, telecommunications services and computer services, to governments
and to commercial and industrial establishments in domestic and international localities. They are employed by
establishments that produce or provide technical goods and services, such as pharmaceutical companies, industrial
equipment manufacturing companies, grain elevators, computer services firms, engineering firms and hydroelectric
companies, or they may be self-employed technical sales specialists/agents who contract their services to other
companies. Technical sales specialists who are supervisors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• aircraft sales representative
• communication equipment sales representative
• construction equipment sales representative
• electricity sales representative
• grain elevator district manager
• grain elevator operator
• heavy equipment sales representative
• industrial supplies sales representative
• medical instruments sales agent
• sales engineer, technical support
• software sales representative
• technical sales representative
• technical sales supervisor
• technical support specialist - wholesale trade
Exclusion(s)
• Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (0124)
• Retail salespersons (6421)
• Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical) (6411)
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Main duties
Technical sales specialists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Promote sales to existing clients
• Identify and solicit potential clients
• Assess clients' needs and resources and recommend the appropriate goods or services
• Provide input into product design where goods or services must be tailored to suit clients' needs
• Develop reports and proposals as part of sales presentation to illustrate benefits from use of good or
service
• Estimate costs of installing and maintaining equipment or service
• Prepare and administer sales contracts
• Consult with clients after sale to resolve problems and to provide ongoing support
• Troubleshoot technical problems related to equipment
• May train customers' staff in the operation and maintenance of equipment
• May conduct sales transactions through Internet-based electronic commerce
• May supervise the activities of other technical staff and sales specialists.
Technical sales specialists usually specialize in a particular line of goods or services.
Employment requirements
• A university degree or college diploma in a program related to the product or service is usually required.
• Experience in sales or in a technical occupation related to the product or service may be required.
• Fluency in a specific foreign language, and/or foreign work or travel experience may be required for
technical sales specialists seeking employment with companies that import or export technical goods or
services.
• Technical sales supervisors require experience as a technical sales specialist.
Additional information
• Extensive company training programs for technical sales specialists may be provided by employers.
• Progression to sales management positions is possible with additional training or experience.
6222 Retail and wholesale buyers
Retail and wholesale buyers buy merchandise for resale by retail or wholesale establishments and are usually
responsible for the merchandising operations of retail or wholesale establishments. Retail and wholesale buyers
who are supervisors and those who are assistants are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• appliance buyer
• assistant buyer
• buyer - retail
• buyer - wholesale
• chief buyer
• clothing buyer
• food buyer
• merchandiser
• produce buyer
• taster and buyer, beverages
Exclusion(s)
• Purchasing agents and officers (1225)
Main duties
Retail and wholesale buyers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Purchase merchandise for resale by retail or wholesale establishments
• Review requirements of establishment and determine quantity and type of merchandise to purchase
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• Study market reports, trade periodicals and sales promotion materials and visit trade shows, showrooms,
factories and product design events
• Select the merchandise which best fits the establishment's requirements
• Interview suppliers and negotiate prices, discounts, credit terms and transportation arrangements
• Oversee distribution of merchandise to outlets and maintain adequate stock levels
• Establish and maintain contact with suppliers
• May supervise the work of other retail buyers.
Retail and wholesale buyers may specialize in a particular merchandise line.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A university degree or college diploma in business, marketing or a related program is usually required.
• Previous work experience in retail or wholesale establishments is usually required.
• Supervisors and senior buyers require experience in the occupation supervised or in a particular
merchandise line.
Additional information
• Retail and wholesale buyers may specialize through experience or product-related training courses.
• Progression to management positions in retail trade, sales, marketing or advertising is possible with
additional training or experience.
623 Insurance, real estate and financial sales occupations
6231 Insurance agents and brokers
Insurance agents and brokers sell life, automobile, property, health and other types of insurance to individuals,
businesses and public institutions. Insurance agents are employed by individual insurance companies or are
independent representatives of specific insurance companies. Insurance brokers are employed by brokerage firms,
or may work in partnerships or hold sole proprietorship. Supervisors of insurance agents are included in this unit
group.
Illustrative example(s)
• insurance agent
• insurance broker
• insurance sales representative
• insurance sales supervisor
Exclusion(s)
• Insurance managers (see 0121 Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers)
• Insurance underwriters (1313)
• Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers (1212)
Main duties
Insurance agents and brokers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Sell automobile, fire, health, life, property, marine, aircraft and other types of insurance to clients
• Establish client insurance coverage, calculate premiums and establish method of payment
• Provide information concerning group and individual insurance packages, the range of risk coverage,
benefits paid and other policy features
• Ensure appropriate forms, medical examinations and other policy requirements are completed
• Monitor insurance claims and respond to clients' enquiries
• Identify and solicit potential clientele.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• On-the-job training and insurance industry courses and training programs are provided and are required
for employment.
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• Licensure by the insurance governing body in the province or territory of employment is required.
Additional information
• Progression to insurance management positions is possible through experience.
• Completion of educational programs through the Insurance Institute of Canada or its provincial counterpart
entitles agents to professional recognition as an Associate of the Insurance Institute of Canada (A.I.I.C.) or
Fellow of the Insurance Institute of Canada (F.I.I.C.).
• Completion of educational courses through the Canadian Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors
allows for various levels of professional designations for insurance and financial advisors.
6232 Real estate agents and salespersons
Real estate agents and salespersons act as agents for the sale or purchase of houses, apartments, commercial
buildings, land and other real estate and are employed in the real estate industry.
Illustrative example(s)
• commercial real estate agent
• real estate agent
• real estate broker
• real estate sales representative
• residential real estate agent
• supervisor, real estate agents
Exclusion(s)
• Assessors, valuators and appraisers (1314)
• Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers (0121)
• Mortgage brokers (see 1114 Other financial officers)
• Rental agents (see 1224 Property administrators)
• Right-of-way agents (see 1225 Purchasing agents and officers)
Main duties
Real estate agents and salespersons perform some or all of the following duties:
• Solicit property sales listings from prospective vendors
• Assist vendors in selling property by establishing asking price, advertising the property, listing the property
with listing services and conducting open houses for prospective buyers
• Assist prospective buyers in selecting, visiting, inspecting and making offers of purchase on real estate
properties
• Advise clients on market conditions, prices, mortgages, legal requirements and related matters
• Draw up sales agreements for approval of purchaser and seller
• May rent or lease properties on behalf of clients.
Real estate agents and salespersons may specialize in residential, commercial, industrial/institutional or rural
real estate sales.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• Completion of a real estate training course is required.
• Provincial or territorial licensure in the province or territory of employment is required.
Additional information
• Real estate agents and salespersons normally work on a commission basis.
• Real estate agents may operate independently by obtaining a broker's licence in accordance with the
regulations of the province of employment. A broker's licence is required to become a manager in real
estate.
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6235 Financial sales representatives
Financial sales representatives sell basic deposit, investment and loan products and services to individuals and
businesses. They work in banks, credit unions, trust companies and similar financial institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• credit officer
• financial services officer
• financial services representative
• loan officer
• mortgage officer
• sales associate - personal banking
Exclusion(s)
• Banking, insurance and other financial clerks (1434)
• Credit and loan managers (see 0122 Banking, credit and other investment managers)
• Customer services representatives - financial institutions (6551)
• Other financial officers (1114)
Main duties
Financial sales representatives perform some or all of the following duties:
• Open new personal and non-personal accounts, and provide access to automated banking machine,
telephone banking and online banking services
• Interview applicants for personal, mortgage, student and business loans
• Promote the sale of deposit, investment, credit and loan products and services
• Assist clients by proposing solutions to address financial objectives such as business expansion, debt
management, investment and other financial goals
• Research and evaluate loan applicant's financial status, references, credit and ability to repay the loan
• Complete credit and loan documentation
• Submit credit and loan applications to branch or credit manager with recommendations for approval or
rejection; or approve or reject applications within authorized limits ensuring that credit standards of the
institution are respected
• Prepare statements on delinquent accounts and forward irreconcilable accounts for collector action
• Review and update credit and loan files
• Act as joint custodian for cash and securities.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school and extensive general banking experience is usually required.
• A bachelor's degree or college diploma related to commerce or economics may be required.
• A mutual funds license is usually required.
• Registration with the securities regulatory authority in the province or territory of employment is usually
required.
• Completion of a loan or credit training program, ranging from six to twelve months, is usually required.
• Various training programs and courses are offered by the Institute of Canadian Bankers and may be
required by employers.
• Financial services officers who sell regulated financial products and investments are required to be
licensed by the appropriate governing body.
Additional information
• Progression to higher levels of financial planning and wealth management is possible with experience.
• Progression to credit and loan management positions is possible with experience.
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63 Service supervisors and specialized service occupations
631 Service supervisors
6311 Food service supervisors
Food service supervisors, supervise, direct and co-ordinate the activities of workers who prepare, portion and serve
food. They are employed by hospitals and other health care establishments and by cafeterias, catering companies
and other food service establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• cafeteria supervisor
• canteen supervisor
• catering supervisor
• food service supervisor
Exclusion(s)
• Banquet captains (see 6513 Food and beverage servers)
• Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses (6511)
• Restaurant and food service managers (0631)
Main duties
Food service supervisors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Supervise, co-ordinate and schedule the activities of staff who prepare, portion and serve food
• Estimate and order ingredients and supplies required for meal preparation
• Prepare food order summaries for chef according to requests from dieticians, patients in hospitals or other
customers
• Establish methods to meet work schedules
• Maintain records of stock, repairs, sales and wastage
• Train staff in job duties, and sanitation and safety procedures
• Supervise and check assembly of regular and special diet trays and delivery of food trolleys to hospital
patients
• Ensure that food and service meet quality control standards
• May participate in the selection of food service staff and assist in the development of policies, procedures
and budgets
• May plan cafeteria menus and determine related food and labour costs.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a community college program in food service administration, hotel and restaurant
management or related discipline
or
Several years of experience in food preparation or service are required.
6312 Executive housekeepers
Executive housekeepers direct and control the operations of housekeeping departments within hotels, hospitals and
other establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• assistant executive housekeeper
• executive housekeeper
• hospital executive housekeeper
• hotel executive housekeeper
• housekeeping director
• housekeeping manager
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Exclusion(s)
• Accommodation service managers (0632)
• Facility operation and maintenance managers (0714)
• Housekeeping supervisors (see 6315 Cleaning supervisors)
Main duties
Executive housekeepers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Establish and implement operational procedures for the housekeeping department
• Plan and co-ordinate the activities of housekeeping supervisors and their crews
• Co-ordinate the inspection of assigned areas to ensure that health regulations, safety standards and
departmental policies are being met
• Select and purchase equipment and supplies, and maintain inventory
• Arrange for maintenance and repair of equipment and machinery
• Hire, train and supervise housekeeping staff
• Maintain financial records and prepare budgets, payroll and employee schedules.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• A university degree or college diploma in hospital management, hotel management or business
administration is usually required.
• Extensive experience as a cleaning supervisor may substitute for formal education requirements.
6313 Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services supervisors
Supervisors in this unit group supervise and co-ordinate the activities of hotel accommodation service clerks, casino
workers, reservation clerks and other travel and accommodations workers not elsewhere classified. They are
employed by service establishments throughout the public and private sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• dealers supervisor, casino
• hotel clerk supervisor
• reservations supervisor
• tour guide supervisor
• travel clerk supervisor
Exclusion(s)
• Accommodation service managers (0632)
• Food service supervisors (6311)
Main duties
Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services supervisors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Co-ordinate, assign and review the work of hotel, motel and other accommodation services clerks, casino
workers, reservation clerks and other travel and accommodations workers not elsewhere classified
• Establish work schedules and procedures and co-ordinate activities with other work units or departments
• Resolve work-related problems and prepare and submit progress and other reports
• Hire and train staff in job duties, safety procedures and company policies
• Requisition supplies and materials
• Ensure smooth operation of computer systems, equipment and machinery, and arrange for maintenance
and repair work
• May perform the same duties as workers supervised.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of college courses related to the area supervised may be required.
• Experience in the occupation supervised is usually required.
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Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with additional training or experience.
6314 Customer and information services supervisors
Supervisors in this unit group supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups:
Customer Service Representatives - Financial Institutions (6551) and Other Customer and Information Services
Representatives (6552). They are employed by banks, trust companies, credit unions and similar financial
institutions, retail establishments, contact centres, insurance, telephone and utility companies and other
establishments throughout the private and public sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• contact centre supervisor
• current accounts supervisor
• customer service representatives supervisor - financial services
• customer service supervisor (except financial services)
• information clerks supervisor
• supervisor, call centre agents
Exclusion(s)
• Banking, credit and other investment managers (0122)
• Other business services managers (0125)
• Retail and wholesale trade managers (0621)
• Retail sales supervisors (6211)
• Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers (1212)
Main duties
Supervisors in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Co-ordinate, assign and review the work of clerks engaged in the following duties: providing information
and customer service; and serving customers in banks, trust companies and other financial institutions
• Examine and verify accuracy of work and authorize routine deposits and withdrawals
• Establish work schedules and procedures and co-ordinate activities with other work units or departments
• Resolve work-related problems and prepare and submit progress and other reports
• Identify training needs and train workers in job duties and company policies
• Requisition supplies and materials
• Ensure smooth operation of computer systems and equipment and arrange for maintenance and repair
work
• May perform the same duties as workers supervised.
Employment requirements
• Experience in the occupation supervised is required.
• Completion of college or industry courses related to bookkeeping and customer services may be required.
6315 Cleaning supervisors
Cleaning supervisors supervise and co-ordinate the activities of workers in the following unit groups: Light Duty
Cleaners (6661), Specialized Cleaners (6662), and Janitors, Caretakers and Building Superintendents (6663).
Cleaning supervisors are employed by hospitals and other health care institutions, hotels, motels, schools and other
educational institutions, commercial and industrial establishments, home and office cleaning establishments and by
various specialized cleaning companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• building cleaning supervisor
• carpet cleaning supervisor
• cleaning supervisor
• head custodian
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• housekeeping supervisor
• window washing supervisor
Exclusion(s)
• Building maintenance supervisors (see 7205 Contractors and supervisors, other construction trades,
installers, repairers and servicers)
• Executive housekeepers (6312)
• Specialized cleaners (6732)
Main duties
Cleaning supervisors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Supervise and co-ordinate the work of light duty, industrial or specialized cleaners and janitors
• Inspect sites or facilities to ensure established safety and cleanliness standards are met
• Recommend or arrange for additional services required such as painting, repair work, renovations or
replacement of furnishings and equipment
• Hire and train cleaning staff
• Prepare work schedule and co-ordinate activities with those of other departments
• Prepare budget, estimate costs and keep financial records
• Receive payment for specialized cleaning jobs
• May perform certain cleaning duties.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Previous experience in a particular area of cleaning is usually required.
• Previous supervisory experience may be required.
6316 Other services supervisors
Supervisors in this unit group supervise and co-ordinate the activities of dry cleaning, laundry, ironing, pressing and
finishing workers, theatre ushers and attendants, sports and recreation club workers, commissionaires, security
guards and other service workers not elsewhere classified. They are employed by service establishments
throughout the public and private sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• campground supervisor
• dry cleaning supervisor
• foreman/woman - laundry and dry cleaning
• laundry supervisor
• parking lot supervisor
• production supervisor, dry cleaning
• supervisor, clubhouse attendants
• supervisor, commissionaires
• supervisor, security guards
• supervisor, ski lift attendants
• supervisor, theatre attendants
• supervisor, ticket takers
Exclusion(s)
• Cleaning supervisors (6315)
• Executive housekeepers (6312)
• Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c. (0651)
• Retail sales supervisors (6211)
Main duties
Supervisors in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Co-ordinate, assign and review the work of dry cleaning, laundry, ironing, pressing and finishing workers,
theatre ushers and attendants, sports and recreation club workers, commissionaires, security guards and
other service workers not elsewhere classified
• Establish work schedules and procedures and co-ordinate activities with other work units or departments
• Resolve work-related problems and prepare and submit progress and other reports
• Hire and train staff in job duties, safety procedures and company policies
• Requisition supplies and materials
• Ensure smooth operation of computer systems, equipment and machinery, and arrange for maintenance
and repair work
• Monitor quality and production levels
• May perform the same duties as workers supervised.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of college courses related to the area supervised may be required.
• Experience in the occupation supervised is usually required.
• Certification or licensing may be required for some occupations in this group (i.e., supervisors of
commissionaires or security guards).
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with additional training or experience.
632 Chefs and cooks
6321 Chefs
This unit group includes various types of chefs who plan and direct food preparation and cooking activities and who
prepare and cook meals and specialty foods. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and other health
care institutions, central food commissaries, clubs and similar establishments, and on ships.
Illustrative example(s)
• chef
• corporate chef
• executive chef
• executive sous-chef
• head chef
• master chef
• pastry chef
• saucier
• sous-chef
• specialist chef
Exclusion(s)
• Cooks (6322)
• Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations (6711)
• Restaurant and food service managers (0631)
Main duties
Executive chefs perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan and direct food preparation and cooking activities of several restaurants in an establishment,
restaurant chains, hospitals or other establishments with food services
• Consult with clients regarding weddings, banquets and specialty functions
• Plan menus and ensure food meets quality standards
• Estimate food requirements and may estimate food and labour costs
• Supervise activities of sous-chefs, specialist chefs, chefs and cooks
• Arrange for equipment purchases and repairs
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• Recruit and hire staff
• May prepare and cook food on a regular basis, or for special guests or functions.
Sous-chefs perform some or all of the following duties:
• Supervise activities of specialist chefs, chefs, cooks and other kitchen workers
• Demonstrate new cooking techniques and new equipment to cooking staff
• May plan menus and requisition food and kitchen supplies
• May prepare and cook meals or specialty foods.
Chefs and specialist chefs perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare and cook complete meals or specialty foods, such as pastries, sauces, soups, salads, vegetables
and meat, poultry and fish dishes, and create decorative food displays for special events such as banquets
• Instruct cooks in preparation, cooking, garnishing and presentation of food
• Create new recipes
• Supervise cooks and other kitchen staff
• May plan menus
• May requisition food and kitchen supplies.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Cook's trade certification, which is available in all provinces and territories, or equivalent credentials,
training and experience, are required.
• Executive chefs usually require management training and several years of experience in commercial food
preparation, including two years in a supervisory capacity
and
Experience as a sous-chef, specialist chef or chef.
• Sous-chefs, specialist chefs and chefs usually require several years of experience in commercial food
preparation.
• Red Seal endorsement for cooks is also available to qualified chefs upon successful completion of the
interprovincial Red Seal examination.
• Chef de cuisine certification, administered by the Canadian Culinary Institute of the Canadian Federation
of Chefs and Cooks (CFCC), is available to qualified chefs.
Additional information
• The Red Seal endorsement allows for interprovincial mobility.
• There is some mobility among the various types of chefs in this unit group.
• Executive chefs may progress to managerial positions in food preparation establishments.
6322 Cooks
Cooks prepare and cook a wide variety of foods. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and other
health care institutions, central food commissaries, educational institutions and other establishments. Cooks are
also employed aboard ships and at construction and logging campsites. Apprentice cooks are included in this unit
group.
Illustrative example(s)
• apprentice cook
• cook
• dietary cook
• first cook
• grill cook
• hospital cook
• institutional cook
• journeyman/woman cook
• licensed cook
• line cook
• second cook
• short order cook
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Exclusion(s)
• Chefs (6321)
• Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations (6711)
Main duties
Cooks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare and cook complete meals or individual dishes and foods
• Prepare and cook special meals for patients as instructed by dietitian or chef
• Schedule and supervise kitchen helpers
• Oversee kitchen operations
• Maintain inventory and records of food, supplies and equipment
• May set up and oversee buffets
• May clean kitchen and work area
• May plan menus, determine size of food portions, estimate food requirements and costs, and monitor and
order supplies
• May hire and train kitchen staff.
Cooks may specialize in preparing and cooking ethnic cuisine or special dishes.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a three-year apprenticeship program for cooks
or
Completion of college or other program in cooking
or
Several years of commercial cooking experience are required.
• Trade certification is available, but voluntary, in all provinces and territories.
• Red Seal endorsement is also available to qualified cooks upon successful completion of the
interprovincial Red Seal examination.
Additional information
• The Red Seal endorsement allows for interprovincial mobility.
• There is mobility among the various types of cooks in this group.
• Progression to supervisory or more senior positions, such as chef, is possible with experience and training.
633 Butchers and bakers
6331 Butchers, meat cutters and fishmongers - retail and wholesale
Butchers, meat cutters and fishmongers, retail and wholesale, prepare standard cuts of meat, poultry, fish and
shellfish for sale in retail or wholesale food establishments. They are employed in supermarkets, grocery stores,
butcher shops and fish stores or may be self-employed. Butchers who are supervisors or heads of departments are
included in this group.
Illustrative example(s)
• butcher apprentice
• butcher, retail
• fishmonger - retail
• head butcher - wholesale
• meat cutter - retail or wholesale
• supermarket meat cutter
Exclusion(s)
• Fish cutters (see 9463 Fish and seafood plant workers)
• Industrial butchers and meat cutters, poultry preparers and related workers (9462)
• Seafood sales clerks (see 6421 Retail salespersons)
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Main duties
Butchers, meat cutters and fishmongers in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Cut, trim, and otherwise prepare standard cuts of meat, poultry, fish and shellfish for sale at self-serve
counters or according to customers' orders
• Grind meats and slice cooked meats using powered grinders and slicing machines
• Prepare special displays of meat, poultry, fish and shellfish
• Shape, lace and tie roasts and other meats, poultry or fish and may wrap prepared meats, poultry, fish and
shellfish
• Manage inventory, keep records of sales and determine amount, product line and freshness of products
according to company and customer requirements
• Ensure food storage conditions are adequate
• May supervise other butchers, or meat cutters or fishmongers.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school may be required.
• Completion of a college or other meat-and-fish-cutting training program, or a three-year meat cutting
apprenticeship may be required.
• On-the-job training in food stores is usually provided for retail butchers, meat cutters and fishmongers.
• Trade certification is available, but voluntary, in Quebec and British Columbia.
6332 Bakers
Bakers prepare bread, rolls, muffins, pies, pastries, cakes and cookies in retail and wholesale bakeries and dining
establishments. They are employed in bakeries, supermarkets, catering companies, hotels, restaurants, hospitals,
and other institutions, or they may be self-employed. Bakers who are supervisors are included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• baker
• baker apprentice
• bakery supervisor
• bread baker
• head baker
Exclusion(s)
• Baking machine operators (see 9461 Process control and machine operators, food, beverage and
associated products processing)
• Pastry chefs (see 6321 Chefs)
Main duties
Bakers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Prepare dough for pies, bread, rolls and sweet goods, batters for muffins, cookies and cakes and icings
and frostings according to recipes or special customer orders
• Operate machinery
• Bake mixed doughs and batters
• Frost and decorate cakes or other baked goods
• Ensure quality of products meets established standards
• Draw up production schedule to determine type and quantity of goods to produce
• Purchase baking supplies
• May oversee sales and merchandising of baked goods
• May hire, train and supervise baking personnel and kitchen staff.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a three- or four-year apprenticeship program for bakers
or
Completion of a college or other program for bakers is usually required.
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• On-the-job training may be provided.
• Trade certification is available, but voluntary, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward
Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories
and Nunavut.
• Red Seal endorsement is also available to qualified bakers upon successful completion of the
interprovincial Red Seal examination.
Additional information
• The Red Seal endorsement allows for interprovincial mobility.
634 Specialized occupations in personal and customer services
6341 Hairstylists and barbers
Hairstylists and barbers cut and style hair and perform related services. They are employed in hairstyling or
hairdressing salons, barber shops, vocational schools, health care establishments and theatre, film and television
establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• barber
• barber apprentice
• hair colour technician
• hairdresser
• hairdresser apprentice
• hairstylist
• hairstylist apprentice
• wig stylist
Exclusion(s)
• Estheticians, electrologists and related occupations (6562)
• Hairdressing teachers (see 4021 College and other vocational instructors)
Main duties
Hairstylists perform some or all of the following duties:
• Suggest hair style compatible with client's physical features or determine style from client's instructions
and preferences
• Cut, trim, taper, curl, wave, perm and style hair
• Apply bleach, tints, dyes or rinses to colour, frost or streak hair
• Analyze hair and scalp condition and provide basic treatment or advice on beauty care treatments for
scalp and hair
• Clean and style wigs and hair pieces
• Apply hair extensions
• May shampoo and rinse hair
• May perform receptionist duties and order supplies
• May judge in competitions
• May train or supervise other hairstylists, hairstylist apprentices and helpers.
Barbers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Cut and trim hair according to client's instructions or preferences
• Shave and trim beards and moustaches
• May shampoo hair and provide other hair treatment, such as waving, straightening and tinting and may
also provide scalp conditioning massages
• May book appointments and order supplies
• May train and supervise other barbers and barber apprentices.
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Employment requirements
Hairstylists
• Some secondary school education is required.
• Completion of a two- or three-year hairstyling apprenticeship program or completion of a college or other
program in hairstyling combined with on-the-job training is usually required.
• Several years of experience may replace formal education and training.
• Employers may require applicants to provide a hairstyling demonstration before being hired.
• Trade certification for hairstylists is compulsory in Nova Scotia, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and
Alberta, and available, but voluntary, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, New
Brunswick, Quebec, British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
• Red Seal endorsement is also available to qualified hairstylists upon successful completion of the
interprovincial Red Seal examination.
Barbers
• Some secondary school education is required.
• Completion of a two-year apprenticeship or other barber program is usually required.
• On-the-job training may be substituted for formal education.
• Trade certification for barbers is available, but voluntary, in British Columbia and the Yukon.
• Red Seal endorsement is also available to barbers, as qualified hairstylists, upon successful completion of
the interprovincial Red Seal examination.
Additional information
• The Red Seal endorsement allows for interprovincial mobility.
6342 Tailors, dressmakers, furriers and milliners
Tailors, dressmakers and furriers make, alter and repair tailored clothing, dresses, coats and other
made-to-measure garments. Milliners make, alter and repair hats. This unit group also includes alterationists who
fit, alter and repair garments. They are employed by clothing retailers, clothing alteration shops, dry cleaners and
garment manufacturing companies or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• alterationist, garments
• alterations dressmaker
• custom furrier
• custom tailor
• furrier
• milliner
• seamstress
• tailor
Exclusion(s)
• Couturier - haute couture (see 5243 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Tailors make made-to-measure garments, such as suits and coats according to customers' and clothing
manufacturers' specifications and fit; design patterns to fit measurements; mark, cut and sew fabric; and
may alter and repair garments as required.
• Dressmakers make women's garments; select and modify commercial patterns to customers' and clothing
manufacturers' specifications and fit, mark, cut and sew fabric; and may alter and repair garments as
required.
• Furriers make, alter, restyle and repair natural fur garments and accessories.
• Milliners design, lay out, cut, sew and press fabric, leather and other materials into hats and related
accessories.
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• Alterationists fit, alter and repair garments according to customers' requests by hand or using sewing
machines.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school may be required.
• Tailors and dressmakers require demonstrated ability to sew, style and fit men's or women's garments and
may require completion of college or other courses in tailoring or dressmaking.
• Furriers require several years of experience in selecting pelts and making, fitting, styling and altering fur
garments and accessories.
• Milliners require demonstrated ability to sew, style and fit hats and caps.
• Alterationists require demonstrated ability to sew, alter and repair garments.
6343 Shoe repairers and shoemakers
Shoe repairers repair footwear and shoemakers make specialized and custom shoes and boots. They are
employed in shoe repair shops or custom shoemaking establishments, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• bootmaker
• custom shoemaker
• orthopedic shoemaker
• shoe repairer
• shoemaker
Exclusion(s)
• Labourers in shoe manufacturing (see 9619 Other labourers in processing, manufacturing and utilities)
• Workers who cut fabric or leather to form shoe parts on a production basis (see 9445 Fabric, fur and
leather cutters)
• Workers who operate sewing machines to make shoes on a production basis (see 9446 Industrial sewing
machine operators)
Main duties
Shoemakers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Discuss type of footwear to be made and obtain measurements from customer
• Select patterns and leather or other material and outline and cut patterns
• Select or assemble lasts, fasten insoles to lasts and sew or glue other parts into place
• Trim, dress and otherwise finish boots or shoes
• Estimate custom footwear costs and receive payment from customers
• May supervise other shoemakers and shoe repairers.
Shoe repairers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Repair soles, heels and other parts of footwear using sewing, buffing and other shoe repair machines,
materials and equipment
• Repair belts, luggage, purses and similar products
• Estimate footwear repair costs and take payment.
Employment requirements
• Some secondary school may be required.
• Several months of on-the-job training is provided for shoe repairers.
• Extensive on-the-job training is provided for shoemakers.
• Shoemakers may require experience as shoe repairers.
Additional information
• Shoe repairers may progress to shoemakers with experience.
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6344 Jewellers, jewellery and watch repairers and related occupations
Jewellers and related workers in this unit group fabricate, assemble, repair and appraise fine jewellery. Watch
repairers and related workers in this unit group repair, clean, adjust and fabricate parts for clocks and watches.
They are employed by jewellery, clock and watch manufacturers and retail stores, by jewellery and watch repair
shops or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• clock repairer
• diamond cutter
• gem cutter
• gemologist
• pearl cutter
• precious stone setter
• watch repairer
Exclusion(s)
• Jewellery and clock and watch production assemblers (see 9537 Other products assemblers, finishers and
inspectors)
• Silversmiths and jewellery artisans (see 5244 Artisans and craftspersons)
Main duties
Jewellers and related workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Fabricate and repair precious and semi-precious metal jewellery, such as rings, brooches, pendants,
bracelets and lockets
• Examine, cut, shape and polish diamonds using optical instruments, lathes and laps
• Examine, cut, shape and polish precious and synthetic gems using optical instruments, cutting disks and
laps
• Appraise gemstones and diamonds to differentiate between stones, identify rare specimens and to detect
peculiarity affecting stone values
• Set precious and semi-precious stones in jewellery mountings, according to specifications
• May supervise other jewellers.
Jewellers may specialize in certain kinds of jewellery, such as gold or silver, or in particular operations, such as
fabrication or repair.
Watch repairers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Fabricate or fit parts to make watches and clocks
• Examine clocks and watches, disassemble and check for defective and misaligned parts or rust
• Replace or repair worn or broken parts
• Test, adjust and regulate timepiece movements
• Clean all parts using special cleaning and rinsing solutions and ultrasonic or mechanical cleaning
machines to remove dirt and dried lubricants
• May supervise other watch repairers.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of a college or other program, or apprenticeship training in watch or jewellery repair or
gemology is usually required.
• A watch repairer certificate is compulsory in Quebec and Ontario.
• Experience as a jewellery, clock or watch assembler may be required.
Additional information
• Mobility is possible among the various jewellery occupations in this unit group.
• There is little mobility between the jewellery occupations and the watch repairers in this unit group.
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6345 Upholsterers
Upholsterers cover furniture, fixtures and similar items with fabric, leather or other upholstery materials. They are
employed by furniture, aircraft, motor vehicle and other manufacturing companies, furniture retail outlets and repair
shops or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• aircraft interior technician
• automobile upholsterer
• custom upholsterer
• furniture upholsterer
• upholsterer
• upholstery repairer
Exclusion(s)
• Furniture and fixture assemblers and inspectors (9532)
• Furniture finishers and refinishers (9534)
• Supervisors of upholsterers in furniture manufacturing (see 9224 Supervisors, furniture and fixtures
manufacturing)
• Upholsterer helpers (see 9619 Other labourers in processing, manufacturing and utilities)
Main duties
Upholsterers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Discuss upholstery fabric, colour, and style with customers and provide cost estimate for upholstering
furniture or other items
• Lay out, measure and cut upholstery materials according to sketches or design specifications
• Replace worn-out webbing, springs and other furniture parts using hand and power tools
• Operate sewing machines or sew upholstery materials by hand to seam cushions and join sections of
covering materials
• Install padding and underlays and fasten covering materials to furniture frames
• Tack, glue or sew ornamental trim, braids or buttons on upholstered items
• Lay out, cut, fabricate and install upholstery in aircrafts, motor vehicles, railway cars, boats and ships
• May repair furniture frames and refinish wood surfaces
• May make upholstery patterns from sketches, customer descriptions or blueprints
• May install, fabricate, maintain and repair interior components of aircraft, such as seats, coverings, drapes,
cargo nets, flooring, closets, bins and panels.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of college or other specialized courses or an apprenticeship program in furniture upholstering
and repair
or
Several years of on-the-job training, including working as an upholsterer helper are usually required.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
6346 Funeral directors and embalmers
Funeral directors co-ordinate and arrange all aspects of funeral services. Embalmers prepare the remains of
deceased persons for public visitation and burial. Funeral directors and embalmers are employed by funeral homes.
Illustrative example(s)
• apprentice embalmer
• embalmer
• funeral director
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• mortician
Exclusion(s)
• Bereavement counsellors (see 4153 Family, marriage and other related counsellors)
• Funeral home attendants (see 6742 Other service support occupations, n.e.c.)
• Funeral service general managers (see 0015 Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services,
n.e.c.)
Main duties
Funeral directors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Consult with the family of the deceased regarding the nature of the funeral service, the disposition of the
remains and funeral costs
• Transfer, or arrange for the transfer of, the remains from the place of death to the funeral home
• Inform survivors of benefits for which they may be eligible
• Issue death notices to newspapers
• Oversee the preparation of the remains, plan and schedule funeral services, co-ordinate burials and
cremations and complete legal documents
• Discuss and negotiate prearranged funerals with clients
• Manage funeral home operations including hiring and directing staff, maintaining financial records,
preparing accounts and ordering merchandise
• Supervise embalmers, funeral home attendants and other funeral home staff
• May perform same duties as embalmers.
Embalmers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Preserve, sanitize and prepare human remains for funeral services
• Perform cosmetic and restorative work on human remains
• Supervise funeral home attendants and other funeral home staff.
Employment requirements
• Completion of a one- to two-year college program and a twelve- to twenty-month practical apprenticeship
program during or following the educational program is usually required for funeral directors.
• Completion of a two- to three-year college program and a twelve- to twenty-month practical apprenticeship
program during or following the educational program
or
Completion of a three-year college program is required for embalmers.
• Funeral directors require licensure in most provinces and territories.
• Funeral directors may be required to be licensed embalmers depending on provincial requirements.
• Embalmers require licensure in all provinces.
64 Sales representatives and salespersons - wholesale and retail trade
641 Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical)
6411 Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical)
Sales representatives, wholesale trade (non-technical), sell non-technical goods and services to retail, wholesale,
commercial, industrial, professional and other clients domestically and internationally. They are employed by
establishments that produce or provide goods and services such as petroleum companies, food, beverage and
tobacco producers, clothing manufacturers, motor vehicles and parts manufacturers, hotels, business services
firms, and transportation companies. Auctioneers are included in this unit group. Sales representatives, wholesale
trade who are supervisors are also included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• advertising time sales representative
• food products sales representative
• freight sales agent
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
graphic design sales representative
hotel accommodations sales executive
liquor sales representative
magazine sales representative
oil distributor
security services sales consultant
supervisor, wholesale trade representatives
transfer company agent
Exclusion(s)
• Advertising, marketing and public relations managers (0124)
• Retail salespersons (6421)
• Royalties manager (see 0512 Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts)
• Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade (6221)
Main duties
Sales representatives, wholesale trade (non-technical), perform some or all of the following duties:
• Promote sales to existing clients
• Identify and solicit potential clients
• Provide clients with presentations on the benefits and uses of goods or services
• Estimate or quote prices, credit or contract terms, warranties and delivery dates
• Prepare or oversee preparation of sales or other contracts
• Consult with clients after sale or signed contracts to resolve problems and to provide ongoing support
• Review and adapt to information regarding product innovations, competitors and market conditions
• Represent companies that export and import products or services to and from foreign countries
• May conduct sales transactions through Internet-based electronic commerce
• May supervise the activities of other sales representatives.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A university degree or completion of a college or other program may be required.
• Experience in sales or in an occupation related to the product or service is usually required.
• Fluency in a foreign language and/or foreign country work or travel experience may be required for sales
representatives seeking employment with companies that import or export goods or services.
• Supervisors and senior sales representatives require experience.
• Voluntary certification is available from the Canadian Professional Sales Association.
Additional information
• Progression to sales management positions is possible with additional training or experience.
642 Retail salespersons
6421 Retail salespersons
Retail salespersons sell, rent or lease a range of technical and non-technical goods and services directly to
consumers. They are employed by stores and other retail businesses, as well as wholesale businesses that sell on
a retail basis to the public.
Illustrative example(s)
• audio equipment salesperson
• automobile salesperson
• car rental agent
• clothing salesperson
• computer salesperson - retail
• counter clerk - retail
• department store clerk
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•
•
•
•
•
•
furniture salesperson
hardware store clerk
jewellery salesperson
retail sales associate
retail sales clerk
retail salesperson
Exclusion(s)
• Cashiers (6611)
• Retail stock clerks (see 6622 Store shelf stockers, clerks and order fillers)
• Sales clerk supervisors (see 6211 Retail sales supervisors)
Main duties
Retail salespersons perform some or all of the following duties:
• Greet customers and discuss type, quality and quantity of merchandise or services sought for purchase,
rental or lease
• Advise customers on use and care of merchandise, and provide advice concerning specialized products or
services
• Estimate or quote prices, credit terms, trade-in allowances, warranties and delivery dates
• Prepare merchandise for purchase, rental or lease
• Prepare sales, rental or leasing contracts and accept cash, cheque, credit card or automatic debit payment
• Assist in display of merchandise
• Maintain sales records for inventory control
• Operate computerized inventory record keeping and re-ordering systems
• May conduct sales transactions through Internet-based electronic commerce.
Retail salespersons may specialize and act as consultants in home entertainment systems, computers and
other products and services.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school may be required.
• A university degree or college diploma may be required by some employers.
• Specific subject matter courses or training may be required.
• Demonstrated sales ability and product knowledge are usually required for retail salespersons who sell
complex or valuable merchandise, such as automobiles, antiques or computers.
Additional information
• Technical or sales training programs may be provided by employers.
• Progression to retail supervisory positions is possible with additional training or experience.
65 Service representatives and other customer and personal services occupations
651 Occupations in food and beverage service
6511 Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses
Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses greet patrons and escort them to tables, and supervise and co-ordinate the
activities of food and beverage servers. They are employed in restaurants, hotel dining rooms, private clubs,
cocktail lounges and similar establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• chief host/hostess - food services
• dining room host/hostess
• maître d'
• restaurant host/hostess
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Exclusion(s)
• Food and beverage servers (6513)
• Food service supervisors (6311)
Main duties
Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses perform some or all of the following duties:
• Receive and record patrons' reservations and assign tables
• Greet patrons at entrance of dining room, restaurant, or lounge and escort them to tables or other seating
areas
• Speak with patrons to ensure satisfaction with food and service, and attend to complaints
• Order necessary dining room supplies and equipment
• Inspect dining and serving areas and equipment
• Supervise and co-ordinate activities of food and beverage servers and other serving staff
• Accept payment from patrons for food and beverage
• Maintain financial statements and records and ensure safe-keeping
• Prepare work schedules and payrolls
• Interview candidates for food and beverage server positions and train new employees
• May be responsible for marketing and advertising the dining establishment.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Several weeks of on-the-job training are usually required.
• Maîtres d'hôtel require experience as a formal or captain waiter/waitress or other food service experience.
6512 Bartenders
Bartenders mix and serve alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. They are employed in restaurants, hotels, bars,
taverns, private clubs, banquet halls and other licensed establishments. Supervisors of bartenders are included in
this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• bar attendant
• bar steward
• bartender
• head bartender
Exclusion(s)
• Bar manager (see 0631 Restaurant and food service managers)
• Food and beverage servers (6513)
Main duties
Bartenders perform some or all of the following duties:
• Take beverage orders from serving staff or directly from patrons
• Mix liquor, soft drinks, water and other ingredients to prepare cocktails and other drinks
• Prepare mixed drinks, wine, draft or bottled beer and non-alcoholic beverages for food and beverage
servers or serve directly to patrons
• Collect payment for beverages and record sales
• Maintain inventory and control of bar stock and order supplies
• Clean bar area and wash glassware
• Ensure compliance with provincial/territorial liquor legislation and regulations
• May train and supervise other bartenders and bar staff
• May hire and dismiss staff.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school may be required.
• Completion of college or other program in bartending
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or
Completion of courses in mixing drinks is usually required.
• Responsible beverage service certification may be required.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions in food and beverage service is possible with experience.
6513 Food and beverage servers
Food and beverage servers take patrons' food and beverage orders and serve orders to patrons. They are
employed in restaurants, hotels, bars, taverns, private clubs, banquet halls and similar establishments.
Illustrative example(s)
• banquet server
• captain waiter/waitress
• chief wine steward
• cocktail waiter/waitress
• food and beverage server
• formal service waiter/waitress
• waiter/waitress
• wine steward
Exclusion(s)
• Food service supervisors (6311)
• Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses (6511)
• Restaurant and food service managers (0631)
Main duties
Food and beverage servers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Greet patrons, present menus, make recommendations and answer questions regarding food and
beverages
• Take orders and relay to kitchen and bar staff
• Recommend wines that complement patrons' meals
• Serve food and beverages
• Prepare and serve specialty foods at patrons' tables
• Present bill to patrons and accept payment
• Order and maintain inventory of wines and wine glassware
• Perform sensory evaluation of wines.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school may be required.
• Formal waiters/waitresses may require completion of a one- or two-year apprenticeship program
or
College or vocational school courses.
• Apprenticeship training programs for food and beverage servers are available in Saskatchewan and British
Columbia. Trade certification is available but voluntary in those provinces.
• On-the-job training is usually provided.
• Wine stewards may require courses in wine selection and service
or
Experience as a captain waiter/waitress or formal waiter/waitress.
• Responsible beverage service certification is usually required for employees serving alcoholic beverages.
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652 Occupations in travel and accommodation
6521 Travel counsellors
Travel counsellors advise clients on travel options and tour packages, make bookings and reservations, prepare
tickets and receive payment. They are employed in travel agencies, transportation and tourism firms and hotel
chains.
Illustrative example(s)
• reservation agent - travel agency
• travel agent
• travel consultant
Exclusion(s)
• Airline ticket agents (see 6523 Airline ticket and service agents)
• Convention co-ordinators (see 1226 Conference and event planners)
• Travel agency managers (see 0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers)
Main duties
Travel counsellors perform some or all of the following duties:
• Provide travel information to clients regarding destinations, transportation and accommodation options and
travel costs, and recommend suitable products
• Plan and organize vacation travel for individuals or groups
• Make transportation and accommodation reservations using computerized reservation and ticketing
system
• Sell single fare tickets and package tours to clients
• Promote particular destinations, tour packages and other travel services
• Investigate new travel destinations, hotels and other facilities and attractions
• Provide travel tips regarding tourist attractions, foreign currency, customs, languages and travel safety.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• A college diploma or vocational training in travel or tourism is usually required.
• Certification with the Canadian Institute of Travel Counsellors (CITC) may be required. This certification is
granted after completion of a 60 credit requirement obtained through any combination of work experience,
training and education, and successful completion of the advanced exam.
Additional information
• Progression to managerial positions is possible with experience.
6522 Pursers and flight attendants
Airline pursers and flight attendants ensure the safety and comfort of passengers and crew members during flights.
Ship pursers attend to the safety and comfort of passengers aboard ships. Airline pursers and flight attendants are
employed by airline companies. Ship pursers are employed by tour boat or cruise ship companies.
Illustrative example(s)
• flight attendant
• flight service director
• passenger service director - water transportation
• purser, airline
• ship purser
Exclusion(s)
• Food and beverage servers on trains (see 6513 Food and beverage servers)
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• Passenger service attendants - except air travel (see 6721 Support occupations in accommodation, travel
and facilities set-up services)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Flight attendants greet passengers, explain and demonstrate safety procedures, check the general
condition of the aircraft cabin, ensure that all necessary supplies are on board, attend to safety of
passengers during take-offs, landings and emergencies, serve food and beverages to passengers and
make flight announcements.
• Flight pursers, customer service directors and passenger service directors co-ordinate the activities of
flight attendants, provide service to passengers during flight and complete reports.
• Ship pursers supervise ship attendants, arrange activities for passengers and conduct ship's business,
such as signing on crew, maintaining payroll records, assisting passengers in preparing customs
declarations and supervising baggage storage.
Employment requirements
• Flight attendants and flight pursers require the completion of secondary school and a training program
approved by Transport Canada.
• Flight pursers/customer service directors require experience as a flight attendant.
• Ship pursers may require experience as a ship attendant.
• Flight attendants and ship pursers usually require experience working with the public.
Additional information
• There is little mobility between airline pursers and ship pursers.
• It is an advantage for pursers and flight attendants to speak more than one language.
6523 Airline ticket and service agents
Airline ticket and service agents issue tickets, provide fare quotations, make reservations, conduct passenger
check-in, trace missing baggage, arrange for cargo shipments and perform other related customer service duties to
assist airline passengers. Airline ticket and service agents are employed by airline companies. Load planners, who
plan the positioning of cargo on aircraft, are also included in this unit group.
Illustrative example(s)
• airline baggage agent
• airline cargo agent
• baggage tracer, airline
• client service representative - airline
• counter services agent, airline
• customer service agent, airline
• load planner, airline
• passenger agent, airline
• passenger service representative
• reservation agent, airline
• station agent, airline
• ticket agent, airline
Exclusion(s)
• Airline cargo and baggage handlers (see 7534 Air transport ramp attendants)
• Ground and water transport ticket agents, cargo service representatives and related clerks (6524)
• Supervisors of airline sales and service agents (see 6316 Other services supervisors)
• Travel counsellors (6521)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
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• Airline passenger and ticket agents help customers plan travel time and routes, prepare and issue tickets,
assign seats, prepare boarding passes, check baggage, attend boarding gates, assist pre-boarding
passengers and provide information on fares and flight schedules and routes.
• Airline baggage agents trace lost, delayed or misdirected baggage for customers.
• Airline cargo agents weigh cargo and compute freight costs, calculate charges for services and insurance,
process bills of lading, cargo manifests and other documents, trace lost or misdirected cargo and maintain
shipping and other records.
• Airline reservation agents reserve seats for tour companies, travel agencies, wholesalers and the general
public using computerized systems, provide information on airline passengers and process mileage points.
• Airline station agents complete pre-flight documents regarding passenger and cargo load, catering count,
special requests and other flight information and relay operational messages to operations control and
downline stations. They also perform duties of ticket, baggage and cargo agents.
• Airline load planners calculate load weights for compartments of aircraft using charts and computers and
plan load to distribute and balance cargo.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Several weeks of on-the-job and classroom training are provided for all occupations in this unit group.
• Airline station agents usually require experience as a ticket, baggage or cargo agent.
• Load planners require a restricted radio operator's licence and usually require airline operations
experience.
Additional information
• Depending on the size of the airline or airport, the duties of workers in this unit group may overlap.
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
6524 Ground and water transport ticket agents, cargo service representatives and related clerks
Ticket agents, cargo service representatives and related clerks (except airline), quote fares and rates, make
reservations, issue tickets, process cargo shipment, check baggage and perform other related customer service
duties to assist travellers. They are employed by bus and railway companies, freight forwarding and shipping
companies, boat cruise operators and other public transit establishments and by travel wholesalers.
Illustrative example(s)
• bus ticket agent
• cargo customer service representative - railway
• counter service agent, railway
• railway passenger agent
• reservations clerk - cruise line
• reservations clerk, railway
• ticket agent (except airline)
Exclusion(s)
• Airline ticket and service agents (6523)
• Supervisors of ticket and cargo agents and related clerks in this unit group (see 6316 Other services
supervisors)
• Travel counsellors (6521)
Main duties
Ticket agents in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Answer customer inquiries, quote fares and assist clients in planning travel times and routes
• Reserve seats for tour companies, travel agencies, wholesalers and the general public
• Issue tickets, handle cash transactions and check baggage
• Receive and record bookings for package tours from retail travel agencies and supply information
regarding available vacancies when working for wholesale travel companies.
Cargo service representatives in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
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• Quote fare and rates for cargo shipment
• Compute shipment costs including charges for services and insurance using rate tables and schedules
and prepare and maintain shipping and other documents
• Check in passenger baggage and sort for loading by baggage handlers or may load baggage directly into
buses, railway cars or cruise ships
• Trace lost or misdirected passenger baggage or cargo shipment.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Up to 10 weeks of training may be provided.
Additional information
• Ticket agents and cargo service representatives may perform the same duties depending on the size and
location of the operations.
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible through experience.
6525 Hotel front desk clerks
Hotel front desk clerks make room reservations, provide information and services to guests and receive payment for
services. They are employed by hotels, motels and resorts.
Illustrative example(s)
• guest services agent - hotel
• hotel front desk clerk
• night clerk
• reservations clerk - hotel
• room clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Supervisors, hotel front desk clerk (see 0632 Accommodation service managers)
• Travel counsellors (6521)
Main duties
Hotel front desk clerks perform some or all of the following duties:
• Maintain an inventory of vacancies, reservations and room assignments
• Register arriving guests and assign rooms
• Answer enquiries regarding hotel services and registration by letter, by telephone and in person, provide
information about services available in the community and respond to guests' complaints
• Compile and check daily record sheets, guest accounts, receipts and vouchers using computerized or
manual systems
• Present statements of charges to departing guests and receive payment.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school or equivalent is usually required.
• Completion of a two-year apprenticeship program, or a college program in front desk operations or hotel
management may be required.
• Guest service trade certification is available, but voluntary, in all provinces and the Yukon from the Tourism
Education Council.
Additional information
• Progression to senior positions such as accommodations manager is possible with additional training and
experience.
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653 Tourism and amusement services occupations
6531 Tour and travel guides
Tour and travel guides escort individuals and groups on trips, on sightseeing tours of cities and on tours of historical
sites and establishments such as famous buildings, manufacturing plants, cathedrals and theme parks. They also
provide descriptions and background information on interesting features. Tour and travel guides are employed by
tour operators, resorts and other establishments or may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• adventure travel site interpreter
• bicycle tour guide
• calèche driver
• factory tour guide
• industrial site interpreter
• tour guide
• travel guide
Exclusion(s)
• Museum guides and historical and heritage interpreters (see 5212 Technical occupations related to
museums and art galleries)
• Outdoor sport and recreational guides (6532)
• Tour operators (see 0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers)
Main duties
Tour guides perform some or all of the following duties:
• Transport or escort individuals or groups on tours of cities, waterways and industrial and other
establishments
• Describe points of interest, answer questions and supply information
• Provide historical and cultural facts related to the site
• May collect admission fees and sell souvenirs.
Travel guides perform some or all of the following duties:
• Escort individuals and groups on vacation and business trips
• Ensure that reservations for transportation and accommodations are confirmed and that prepared
itineraries are met
• Visit and describe points of interest and plan and carry out recreational activities
• Resolve problems with itineraries, service and accommodations.
Employment requirements
• On-the-job training is provided.
• Knowledge of both official languages or an additional language may be required for some positions in this
group.
6532 Outdoor sport and recreational guides
Outdoor sport and recreational guides organize and conduct trips or expeditions for sports enthusiasts, adventurers,
tourists and resort guests. They are employed by private companies and resorts or may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• canoeing guide
• dude wrangler
• fishing guide
• hot air balloonist
• hunting guide
• mountain climbing guide
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• outdoor guide
• outfitter
• rafting guide
Exclusion(s)
• Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness (5254)
• Tour and travel guides (6531)
Main duties
Outdoor sport and recreational guides perform some or all of the following duties:
• Plan itinerary for trip or expedition and arrange transportation or transport individuals or group to site
• Assemble and inspect necessary equipment and supplies, such as camping gear, rafts, life jackets, fishing
tackle and food
• Lead or escort individuals or groups and advise on safety and emergency measures, techniques and the
use of equipment
• Provide instruction for activities such as canoeing, rafting and mountain climbing
• Advise on specific regulations such as hunting and fishing laws and boating regulations, follow
environmental guidelines and prevent violations
• Provide first aid in emergency situations
• May prepare meals for group and set up camp.
Employment requirements
• Knowledge of a particular terrain or body of water, demonstrated ability in the guided activity and relevant
licences are required for employment in this group.
• Hot air balloon pilots require completion of 10 hours of ground school, 16 hours of pilot-in-command
experience and a Balloon Pilot Licence issued by Transport Canada.
• Certification in first aid and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) may be required.
Additional information
• Outdoor sport and recreational guides usually work on a seasonal basis.
6533 Casino occupations
Casino workers operate gaming tables, maintain slot machines, accept keno wagers, pay out winning bets and
jackpots and collect losing bets. They are employed by casinos.
Illustrative example(s)
• croupier
• keno runner, casino
• keno writer
Exclusion(s)
• Amusement ride, sports facility and bingo hall workers (see 6722 Operators and attendants in amusement,
recreation and sport)
• Supervisors of casino workers (see 6313 Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services
supervisors)
Main duties
Casino workers perform some or all of the following duties:
• Operate gaming tables and games such as roulette, blackjack, keno, baccarat and poker
• Explain rules of games to patrons and ensure that rules are followed
• Accept keno wagers and issue computerized tickets for selection
• Determine winners or announce winning numbers
• Calculate and pay out winning bets and jackpots, collect losing bets and maintain related reports
• Fill slot machines with coins and assist patrons experiencing difficulties with machines
• Perform minor adjustments to slot machines.
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Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• On-the-job training is provided for gaming table dealers.
• Security clearance is required for all casino workers.
• Casino gaming licences are usually required for all casino employees.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience in all activities related to gaming.
654 Security guards and related security service occupations
6541 Security guards and related security service occupations
This unit group includes workers who guard and implement security measures to protect property against theft,
vandalism and fire, control access to establishments, maintain order and enforce regulations at public events and
within establishments, conduct private investigations for clients or employers and provide other protective services
not elsewhere classified. They are employed by public or private security agencies, residential complexes,
educational, cultural, financial and health institutions, retail establishments, businesses and industry, investigation
service companies, transportation facilities, and organizations throughout the private and public sectors, or they
may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• airport security guard
• alarm investigator
• armoured car guard
• automatic teller machine (ATM) guard
• bodyguard (except police)
• commissionaire
• corporate security officer
• gate attendant - security
• house detective
• night guard
• postal inspection officer
• preboarding security guard
• private investigator
• private security officer
• retail loss prevention officer
• security guard
• store detective
• theft prevention officer
Exclusion(s)
• Correctional service officers (4422)
• Managers of security agencies (see 0125 Other business services managers)
• Police officers (except commissioned) (4311)
• Supervisors of security guards and related occupations (see 6316 Other services supervisors)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Security guards control access to establishments, operate security control-room equipment and patrol
assigned areas to guard against theft, vandalism and fire, enforce regulations to maintain order and
resolve conflicts and to monitor establishment activities; ensure safety and emergency procedures are
followed; issue passes and direct visitors to appropriate areas, check age identification of patrons, and
perform security checks of passengers and luggage at airports.
• Armoured car guards drive and guard armoured trucks, pick-up and deliver cash and valuables to banks,
automated teller machines and retail establishments.
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• Corporate security officers investigate unlawful acts of employees or patrons of establishments and
recommend security systems such as electronic detection devices and access devices.
• Private investigators conduct investigations to locate missing persons and obtain information for use in civil
and criminal litigation matters or for other purposes; they may also conduct polygraph tests (integrity
surveys) for clients.
• Retail loss prevention officers prevent and detect shoplifting and theft in retail establishments.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• A college diploma in law and security or police technology may be required.
• Training is provided for airport security guards and establishment-specific training may be provided for
security occupations in this unit group.
• Security guards carrying firearms require a licence.
• Armoured car drivers require a Valid Possession and Acquisition License (PAL) and a Firearms Acquisition
Certificate (FAC) for both restricted and non-restricted firearms.
• In Quebec, a permit issued by the Sûreté du Québec is required to work as a private detective or security
officer.
• Corporate security officers may require experience as a police officer.
• Private investigators require provincial licensure.
• Responsible beverage service certification is usually required for security staff in establishments serving
alcoholic beverages.
655 Customer and information services representatives
6551 Customer services representatives - financial institutions
Customer service representatives in this unit group process customers' financial transactions and provide
information on related banking products and services. They are employed by banks, trust companies, credit unions
and similar financial institutions.
Illustrative example(s)
• bank teller
• credit union teller
• financial customer service representative
• foreign exchange teller - financial services
Exclusion(s)
• Banking, insurance and other financial clerks (1434)
• Other customer and information services representatives (6552)
• Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers (1212)
• Supervisors of financial customer service representatives (see 6314 Customer and information services
supervisors)
Main duties
Customer service representatives in this unit group perform some or all of the following duties:
• Process customer cash deposits and withdrawals, cheques, transfers, bills and credit card payments,
money orders, certified cheques and other related banking transactions
• Obtain and process information required for the provision of services, such as opening accounts and
savings plans and purchasing bonds
• Sell travellers' cheques, foreign currency and money orders
• Answer enquiries and resolve problems or discrepancies concerning customers' accounts
• Inform customers of available banking products and services to address their needs.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is required.
• A college diploma in business administration may be required.
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• On-the-job training is provided.
Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
6552 Other customer and information services representatives
This unit group includes customer and information services representatives who answer enquiries and provide
information regarding an establishment's goods, services and policies and who provide customer services such as
receiving payments and processing requests for services. They are employed by retail establishments, contact
centres, insurance, telephone and utility companies and other establishments throughout the private and public
sectors.
Illustrative example(s)
• accounts information clerk
• bus information clerk
• complaints clerk - customer service
• contact centre agent - customer service
• courtesy desk clerk
• customer service representative - call centre
• enquiries clerk
• information clerk - customer service
• lost-and-found clerk
• order desk agent
• public relations clerk
• tourist information clerk
Exclusion(s)
• Customer and information services supervisors (6314)
• Customer service representatives in banks and other financial institutions (see 6551 Customer services
representatives - financial institutions)
• General ticket and information agents (see 6523 Airline ticket and service agents)
• Receptionists (1414)
• Retail salespersons (6421)
• Ticket and information clerks (except airline) (see 6524 Ground and water transport ticket agents, cargo
service representatives and related clerks)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Customer service representatives in retail establishments answer, in person or on the phone, enquiries
from customers and investigate complaints regarding the establishment's goods, services and policies;
arrange for refunds, exchange and credit for returned merchandise; receive account payments; and
receive credit and employment applications.
• Contact centre agents take customer orders for goods or services; promote goods or services; respond to
enquiries and emergencies; investigate complaints and update accounts.
• Customer service representatives in insurance, telephone, utility and similar companies explain the type
and cost of services offered; order services; provide information about claims or accounts; update
accounts; initiate billing and process claim payments; and receive payment for services.
• Information services representatives provide information to customers and the public concerning goods,
services, schedules, rates, regulations and policies in response to telephone and in-person enquiries.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Completion of some college or other post-secondary programs may be required.
• Clerical or sales experience may be required.
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Additional information
• Progression to supervisory positions is possible with experience.
656 Other occupations in personal service
6561 Image, social and other personal consultants
Image, social and other personal consultants advise clients on their personal appearance, speaking style, manners
or other behaviours in order to improve personal or business images. They are employed by beauty salons, fashion
boutiques, modelling schools, image consulting companies, weight loss centres or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• colour consultant, fashion
• etiquette consultant
• fashion and wardrobe consultant
• image consultant
• make-up consultant
• public speaking consultant
• wardrobe consultant
• wedding consultant
• weight loss consultant
Exclusion(s)
• Cosmeticians and manicurists (see 6562 Estheticians, electrologists and related occupations)
• Hairstylists and barbers (6341)
• Modelling school instructors (see 4216 Other instructors)
• Other personal service occupations (6564)
Main duties
The following is a summary of the main duties of some occupations in this unit group:
• Image consultants advise clients on hair colour, hairstyles, make-up, clothing and accessories; may advise
on posture, general appearance and manners, and provide courses and seminars on business and social
etiquette.
• Make-up consultants advise clients on type, colour and application of make-up.
• Colour consultants advise clients on choice of colours for clothing that will complement their appearance.
• Wedding consultants advise clients on the selection of wedding gowns, floral arrangements, banquet
facilities, wedding invitations and other items related to weddings.
• Weight loss consultants administer commercial weight loss programs, advise clients on diet and exercise
and provide related support services.
Employment requirements
• Completion of secondary school is usually required.
• Specialized training courses are available for colour consultants, make-up and skin care consultants,
weight loss consultants and most other occupations in this unit group.
• Experience and expertise in fashion, art, modelling or related fields is usually required.
6562 Estheticians, electrologists and related occupations
Workers in this unit group provide facial and body treatments designed to enhance an individual's physical
appearance. They are employed in beauty salons, electrolysis studios, scalp treatment and hair replacement clinics
and other similar establishments and in cosmetic departments of retail establishments such as pharmacies and
department stores, or they may be self-employed.
Illustrative example(s)
• beauty treatment operator
• cosmetician
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electrologist
electrolysis technician
esthetician
hair replacement technician
manicurist
pedicurist
scalp treatment specialist
tattoo artist
Exclusion(s)
• Hairstylists and barbers (6341)
• Image, social and other personal consultants (6561)
• Make-up artists (see 5226 Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting
and the performing arts)
Main duties
The following is a summary of main duties for some occupations in this unit group:
• Estheticians give facial and other body treatments using specialized products and techniques.
• Cosmeticians advise customers on the use of make-up and other beauty products and apply make-up to
customers; may specialize in applying makeup to models or other individuals for special occasions.
• Electrologists remove unwanted hair permanently from client's face or body using needle only specialized
electrical hair removal equipment, laser and other equipment.
• Manicurists and pedicurists clean, shape and polish fingernails and toenails and provide related
treatments.
• Scalp treatment specialists apply medicated lotions to treat scalp conditions and hair loss.
• Tattoo artists apply permanent designs to customer's skin, using electric needles and chemical dyes; may
also apply temporary designs to customer's skin.
• Hair replacement technicians (non-medical) prepare and