C B i

C B i
guide to energy efficiency opportunities in the
Canadian Brewing Industry
Second Edition, 2011
In Collaboration with the Brewers Association of Canada
Disclaimer
Every effort was made to accurately present the information contained in the Guide.
The use of corporate or trade names does not imply any endorsement or promotion of a
company, commercial product, system or person. Opportunities presented in this Guide for
implementation at individual brewery sites do not represent specific recommendations by the
Brewers Association of Canada, Natural Resources Canada or the authors. The aforementioned
parties do not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the implementation of such
opportunities in breweries or elsewhere.
For more information or to receive additional copies of this publication, contact:
Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation
Natural Resources Canada
580 Booth Street, 12th floor
Ottawa ON K1A 0E4
Tel.: 613-995-6839
Fax: 613-992-3161
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: cipec.gc.ca
or
Brewers Association of Canada
100 Queen Street, Suite 650
Ottawa ON K1P 1J9
Tel.: 613-232-9601
Fax: 613-232-2283
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.brewers.ca
Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication
Energy Efficiency Opportunities in the Canadian Brewing Industry
Also available in French under the title:
Les possibilités d’amélioration du rendement énergétique dans l’industrie brassicole canadienne
Issued by the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation.
Cat. No. (online) M144-238/2012E-PDF
ISBN 978-1-100-20439-0
Photos courtesy of the Brewers Association of Canada.
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Second Edition, 2012, supplanting the 1998
original version and the reprint of 2003
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Brewers Association of Canada gratefully acknowledges the financial support and guidance
from Natural Resources Canada (Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC)).
The study could not have been realized without the technical assistance of Lom & Associates Inc.,
which is active in the fields of energy consulting and training, and has specialized practical
knowledge of the Canadian and international brewing industry spanning 33 years. Sincere
appreciation is also extended to the Brewers Association of Canada (BAC) for providing project
leadership and organizational support, and to the Brewing Industry Sector’s Task Force for its
supervision of the document.
The Energy Guide Working Group, created by the BAC in 2009, provided important advice on
the Guide, and its relevance and usefulness to brewers across a range of production sizes. Last but
not least, appreciation is extended to the many brewers whose enthusiastic participation, tips and
ideas were most helpful.
Participating Brewers
*Labatt Breweries of Canada
*Yukon Brewing Company
*Sleeman Breweries Ltd.
Tree Brewing / Fireweed Brewing Corporation
Sierra Nevada Brewing Co.
Wellington County Brewery Inc.
Great Western Brewing Company
*Molson Coors Canada
*Moosehead Breweries Limited
Central City Brewing Co.
*Storm Brewing in Newfoundland Ltd.
Vancouver Island Brewery
Heritage and Scotch Irish Brewing
Wellington County Brewery Inc.
Drummond Brewing Company Ltd.
*BAC Energy Guide Working Group
Note: The authors acknowledge the many sources of information, listed in the Bibliography in the
Appendix 10.1, from which they liberally drew in revising and updating the Guide.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency
Leading Canadians to Energy Efficiency at Home, at Work and on the Road
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD
1. INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1
Profile of brewing in Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2
Brewery processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.0 APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.1
Strategic considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2
Useful synergies – systems integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3
Defining the program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4
Resources and support – Accessing help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4.1 Financial assistance, training and tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4.2 Other resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.3 Tools for self-assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.0 ENERGY AUDITING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.1
Energy audit purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.2
Energy audit stages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.2.1 Initiation and preparation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.2.2Execution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.2.3Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.3
Post-audit activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.0 IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING ENERGY MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES (EMOs). . . . 34
4.1
Identifying energy management opportunities (EMOs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.2
Evaluating and calculating energy savings and other impacts of EMOs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.3
Selecting and prioritizing EMO projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.3.1 Initial scrutiny. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.3.2 Risk assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.3.3 Project costing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.3.4 Economic model for trade-offs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.4
Developing energy management programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
5.0 IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.1
Employee involvement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.2
Effective communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.0 MANAGING ENERGY RESOURCES AND COSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.1
Energy and utilities costs and management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
6.2
Monitoring, measuring consumption and setting targets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.3
Action plans – Development, implementation and monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.4 Monitoring and Targeting (M&T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.0TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.1Fuels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.2Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.2.1 Alternate sources of electrical energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.3
Boiler plant systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.3.1 Boiler efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.3.2 Environmental impacts of boiler combustion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.4
Steam and condensate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
7.5Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
7.6
Refrigeration, cooling systems and heat pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.6.1 Refrigeration and cooling systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.6.2 Industrial heat pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
7.7
Compressed air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7.8
Process gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.9
Utility and process water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
7.10 Shrinkage and product waste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
7.11 Brewery by-products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
7.12Wastewater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.13 Building envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.14 Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
7.15Lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
7.16 Electric motors and pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
7.17Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
7.18 Brewery process-specific energy efficiency opportunities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
8.0 BREWERY EMISSIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.1
Calculating one’s carbon footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
8.2
International carbon footprint calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.0APPENDICES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.1
Glossary of terms and acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.2
Energy units and conversion factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.3 Calculating reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in breweries. . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9.4
Energy efficiency opportunities self-assessment checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
9.5
“Best practices” in energy efficiency as volunteered by small brewers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
9.6
Specific primary energy savings and estimated paybacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
10.0REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
LIST OF FIGURES
1-1 Brewery: Total energy and production output (1990-2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1-2 Brewery: Energy intensity index (1990-2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1-3 Brewery: Energy sources in Terajoules per year (1990-2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2-1 Linear view of an energy management system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2-2 Energy management system at a glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2-3 Categories for energy management opportunities (EMOs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4-1 Economic modeling tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7-1 Load shedding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7-2 Load shifting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7-3 Effect of air temperature on excess air level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7-4 Options for energy efficient pump operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
8-1 Total CO2e emissions in Canadian brewing industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8-2CO2e intensity in Canadian brewing industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
LIST OF TABLES
4-1 Long list of EMO projects (example). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4-2 Cost estimation accuracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6-1 Profit increase from energy savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6-2 Deployment of M&T (example) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6-3 Installation of energy and utilities meters (example). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7-1 Comparison of fuel types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7-2 CCME NOx emission guidelines for new boilers and heaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
7-3 Typical NOx emissions without NOx control equipment in place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7-4 Steam leakage losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7-5 Cost of compressed air leaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
7-6 A U.K. specific water consumption survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
7-7 Water leakage and associated costs and losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
7-8 Energy waste – Process problems and solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
7-9 Minimum thermal resistance of insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7-10 RSI / R insulation values for windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
8-1 Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the emissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
9-1 Greenhouse gas emission factors by combustion source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9-2 Average CO2 emissions for 1998, by unit of electricity produced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
9-3 Primary energy savings and estimated paybacks for process-specific efficiency
measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
9-4Specific primary energy savings and estimated paybacks for efficiency measures
for utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
FOREWORD
Energy Efficiency Opportunities in the Canadian Brewing Industry is a joint project of the Brewers
Association of Canada (BAC) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). It is a revised and
updated second edition of the original with the same title produced by Lom & Associates Inc.,
released in 1998 and reprinted in 2003.
The purpose of this new version is to recognize the current activities undertaken by the Canadian
Brewing Industry and individual companies of all sizes with regard to energy use, greenhouse
gas reductions and the conservation of water. It identifies opportunities for improvements in
these areas together with current data from Canada and abroad. The Guide is also intended to
assist in the development and achievement of voluntary sector energy efficiency targets, under
the auspices of the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC). The BAC is a
member of CIPEC representing the brewing industry sector.
The long-standing and successful Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC)
is a voluntary partnership between the Government of Canada and industry that brings together
industry associations and companies representing more than 98 percent of all industrial energy
use in Canada. Since 1975, CIPEC has been helping companies cut costs and increase profits by
providing information and tools to improve energy efficiency.
Many of the opportunities for achieving substantial energy and financial savings are often
missed, even though advice is available from many sources. Barriers to energy efficiency include
an aversion to new technology and a lack of awareness about the relative efficiency of available
products. There is often inadequate information on the financial benefits or a strong preference
for familiar technologies with an overemphasis on production concerns.
The Brewers Association of Canada has a mandate to work on behalf of the brewing industry and
its members to create a climate for consistent and sound economic performance. By increasing
internal efficiency, through investment in efficient technologies and practices related to energy
and other utility use, companies can reduce their operating costs and improve performance.
In this respect, the Guide offers a rationale for the sound management of energy. This Guide
is also intended to serve as a useful handbook and learning tool for technical staff new to
brewery operations.
The development and release of this revised Guide demonstrates in practice the industry’s deep
commitment to protecting the environment, including the reduction of greenhouse gases, and
the intelligent management of Canada’s resources.
This Guide provides many ideas and tips on how to approach the issue of improving
energy efficiency in brewery operations and what to do to achieve it. It is not a scientific
or theoretical guide, nor does it purport to be an operations manual on energy
management for breweries. It should serve as a practical, one-stop source of information
that will lead facilities in the right direction towards getting the help they need.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
Regardless of the type and size of the operation or its specific circumstances, the Guide
offers ideas that can be adapted to situations or solutions to specific problems. It will
allow companies to successfully implement energy efficiency improvements in the
brewery sector.
Modern energy management involves many inter-related energy-consuming systems.
We suggest that you begin by going through the entire Guide for an initial overall view.
Note
Usage of historically derived measures such as the practically sized hectolitre – hl
(100 Litres) – are commonplace within the brewing industry. The usage of the Canadian
barrel (= 1.1365 hl) is on the wane. For the purpose of standardization and to facilitate
international and inter-industry comparisons, the international SI (metric) system is used
wherever possible throughout this Guide.
Some Brewery Association of Canada (BAC) statistics quoted here are related to one
hectolitre of beer. One hectolitre = 1 hl = 100 L. One kilolitre = 1 kL = 10 hl = 1000 L =
1 m3. Similarly, when a measure of mass is used such as one metric tonne (t), it means
1000 kg, or 2204.6226 lb. = 0.9842206 tons (long) = 1.10233113 ton (short).
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
1
INTRODUCTION
1
INTRODUCTION
2
1.0INTRODUCTION
When the Guide was first published in 1998, it provided the first cohesive description of what can
be done in a Canadian brewery to reduce the enormous energy load that beer production entails.
It obviously filled a need as first edition hard copies were soon gone and a reprint was produced
in 2003.
In March/April 2010 the Brewers Association of Canada (BAC) surveyed a number of small
breweries in Canada and found that even when the opportunities for energy savings are great, they
are not used to good advantage. Some of the reasons included:
•
•
•
•
•
•
lack of support from management
energy issues not seen as a priority
financial, manpower and time constraints, etc.
no defined accountability
lack of information
unaware of opportunities that exist
There is significant potential for increased uptake in energy efficiency practices within the
Canadian brewing industry and this updated Guide should help a practicing brewer or any
industry that is interested in conserving energy to get the necessary information. As before, the
publication’s structure and content assumes that the reader already has basic knowledge of brewery
operations and processes. Yet, it is written in a way that will provide sufficient information even
to members of supporting functions in breweries, both large and small. The point is to generate
good understanding of the energy use issues by all brewery staff and obtain their support in
addressing them effectively. Because modern energy management involves many inter-related
energy-consuming systems, it is suggested that the entire Guide be read first to get an overall view
of its content.
Guide layout
The first section looks at the profile of brewing in Canada as well as brewing processes. This is
followed by a plan to set up a successful energy management approach, including information
on training, tools and resources. It describes the scope of an energy audit and the steps involved,
and provides guidance on selecting and costing projects as well as assessing risks or deficiencies.
Monitoring and measuring energy, the consumption of utilities and target setting is also given
more attention than in the previous Guide. This new version also provides additional information
on the relationship between the use of energy and the generation of greenhouse gases in the
brewing industry.
A significant section of the Guide (Section 7.0 Technical and Process Considerations) is devoted to
potential opportunities to improve energy efficiency in brewery processes, and provides many ideas
and tips on how to approach the issue of improving energy efficiency in brewery operations and
what to do to achieve it.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
INTRODUCTION
Section 7.0 is roughly divided into three categories:
No or low cost (housekeeping) items – payback period of six months or less
3
Medium cost – changes to plant & equipment or buildings required – payback period of 3 years
or less
Capital cost – principal retrofit or new equipment required – payback period of 3 years or more
Throughout the Guide, small brewers’ concerns have been incorporated as well as best practice
tips. Where appropriate and available, references and case studies have been inserted into the text
at logical points. Results from the survey of small brewers and from the technical survey of energy
use among all brewers in Canada have been selected for illustration. The information provides some
insight into the current status of energy conservation effort in Canadian breweries.
Note
Commonly, historically derived measures such as the practically sized hectolitre – hl
(100 Litres) – are used internally in the brewing industry. The usage of the Canadian barrel
(= 1.1365 hl) is on the wane. For reasons of standardization and to facilitate international and
between industry comparisons, the international SI (metric) system is used wherever possible
throughout this Guide.
Some BAC statistics quoted here are related to one hectolitre of beer. One hectolitre = 1 hl =
100 L. One kilolitre = 1 kL = 10 hl = 1000 L = 1 m3. Similarly, when a measure of mass is used
such as one metric tonne [t] = it means 1000 kg, or 2204.6226 lb = 0.9842206 tons (long) =
1.10233113 ton [short]).
Regardless of the type and size of the operation and its specific circumstances, the Guide will offer
ideas that can be adapted to a particular situation or offer a solution to a particular problem. It will
allow companies to successfully implement energy efficiency improvements.
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INTRODUCTION
4
1.1 PROFILE OF BREWING IN CANADA
There are some 160 breweries, large and small, currently operating in Canada. Total production, of
which the share of small breweries (annual output under 200 000 hl) is about 10 percent, is shown in
Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-1 Brewery: Total energy and production output (1990-2008)
9,000
25
8,000
24
7,000
23
6,000
22
5,000
21
4,000
20
19
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99
20
00
20
01
20
02
20
03
20
04
20
05
20
06
20
07
20
08
26
90
10,000
Million Hectolitres
Brewery NAICS 31212
Total Energy and Production Output
(1990–2008)
Terajoules
1
Total Energy(HHV)
Production
NAICS = North American Industry Classification System
Data Sources: Energy Use – Statistics Canada, Industrial Consumption of Energy Survey, Ottawa. December 2009;
Production – Brewers Association of Canada, Ottawa. October 2009.
The cost of energy and utilities typically constitutes 3 to 8 percent of a brewery’s general budget,
depending on brewery size and other variables. Natural gas remains the fuel of choice at 65 percent,
followed by electricity at 24 percent. The use of other fuels such as heavy (bunker) oil and middle
distillates is not widespread. In recent times, electricity consumption seems to be showing an
upward trend. This change appears consistent with other sectors in Canadian manufacturing.
(BAC figures)
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
INTRODUCTION
In Canada, energy conservation efforts were first confined to individual brewing companies. In
1993, the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) established the Brewery
Sector Task Force, which attempted to coordinate efforts and promote information exchange on
how to conserve energy, water and other utilities in breweries. As shown above, the Task Force soon
started to yield results. (Note: Results were, and still remain, skewed due to the influence of large
breweries on the averaging process. Inherent inefficiencies of smaller scale operations cause many
small breweries to have up to twice the specific energy use relative to the output of large breweries.)
5
A well-run brewery would use 8 to 12 kWh electricity, 5 hl water, and 150 megajoules (MJ) fuel
energy per hectolitre (hl) of beer produced. For example, one MJ equals the energy content of about
one cubic foot of natural gas, or the energy consumed by one 100-watt bulb burning for almost
three hours, or one horsepower electric motor running for about 20 minutes. 150 MJ/hl results in
the production of 30 kilogrammes (kg) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions per hl.
Impressive reductions in energy use have been achieved by the Canadian breweries since 1990.
Among the tools to capture this information is the Energy Intensity Index (Figure 1-2). This is a
calculated value that represents how energy intensity changes over time. The current year’s energy
intensity is compared with the base year of 1990.
Figure 1-2 Brewery: Energy intensity index (1990-2008)
Brewery NAICS 31212
Energy Intensity Index (1990–2008)
Base Year 1990 = 1.00
1.10
1.00
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
1990
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Energy Intensity Index
Data Sources: Energy Use – Statistics Canada, Industrial Consumption of Energy Survey, Ottawa. December 2009;
Production – Brewers Association of Canada, Ottawa. October 2009.
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INTRODUCTION
Figure 1-3: Brewery: Energy Sources in Terajoules per year (1990-2008)
6
Brewery NAICS 31212
Energy Sources in Terajoules per year (TJ/yr)
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
Natural Gas
Electricity
1990
Propane
2000
Confidential **
2008
** Confidential includes: Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) and Middle Distillate (LFO)
Data Sources: Energy Use – Statistics Canada, Industrial Consumption of Energy Survey, Ottawa.
December 2009; Production – Brewers Association of Canada, Ottawa. October 2009.
The drop in energy use, by fuel type, is also revealing (see Figure 1-3). The “**Confidential” category
includes Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) and Middle Distillate (Light Fuel Oil – LFO). The drop in natural
gas consumption was the main contributor to reducing the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC)
from the average SEC of 346 MJ/hl in 1990 to 187 MJ/hl in 2008 – an impressive achievement.
This Guide focuses on helping breweries to further reduce their energy and water consumption.
An illustration of the objectives is provided by the most recent (2007) survey of 143 large
breweries (>500 000 hl/y), conducted by Campden BRI, UK, and KWA, Netherlands. Mean energy
consumption was 229 MJ/hl, with the top 10 percent (decile) at 156 MJ/hl. For example, the premerger Anheuser Busch averaged 194; SAB-Miller >150; Asahi and Grupo Modelo, both, 217 MJ/hl.
Utility management is an ongoing concern in any brewery. Since the primary goal is financial
savings, managers must understand economic principles and run their department as if it were
their own business. Nowadays, competitive pressures and narrow profit margins make energy
and utilities management all the more important. While financial gains from energy efficiency
improvements may seem modest in relation to the value of turnover or the overall budget, they can
have a significant bearing on the brewery’s net profit. Energy and utilities costs should be viewed as
an important part of a brewery’s controllable costs; this Guide should help in the task.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
INTRODUCTION
1.2 BREWERY PROCESSES
There are two or three distinct heating and cooling cycles in the beer-making process. The first one,
outside of the scope of this Guide, happens during the drying (called “kilning”) of (usually) barley
malt – the basic ingredient of beer brewing. In the brewery proper the first heating and cooling
cycle happens in the brewhouse in the production of wort. The last heating and cooling cycle, often
omitted in very small breweries, involves pasteurization of finished product. The brewing process is
energy-intensive and uses large volumes of water.
7
Malt, made of malting-grade barley – almost exclusively grown in Canada – is brought to the
brewery and stored in silos. From there, it is retrieved pneumatically or with the use of conveyors
and/or bucket elevators, and is conveyed to the mill room. There, it is crushed into grist of required
composition of fines, coarser particles and husks (the husk is the outer envelope of the malt grain).
Depending on the technology employed, crushing is sometimes preceded by steam conditioning of
the grain; sometimes wet crushing is employed. In the mash tun, the grist is mixed with warm water
(“mashing”) and, through a series of heating steps, its starchy content is hydrolyzed and transformed
into sweet-tasting wort.
Sweet wort is separated from the spent grains (husks) either by straining in a false-bottomed lauter
tun or on frame filters. The residual extract in the spent grains is sparged out with hot water, and the
sweet wort is boiled in a kettle with hops and/or hop extracts. During the boil, a certain percentage
of wort volume must be evaporated. The resulting bitter-tasting wort is separated from trubs (i.e.
coagulated proteins, tannin complexes and coarse insoluble particles from hops and malt) in a
whirlpool vessel, employing a teacup principle. Wort is cooled down, usually by passing through a
plate heat exchanger (in simpler operations an open cooler may be used) to the required pitching
temperature. As well, it is aerated or oxygenated prior to being “pitched” (i.e. inoculated) with
contamination-free pitching yeast on its way to a starter tank or a fermenter.
Brewing yeast metabolizes the usable sugars of the wort into alcohol and carbon dioxide (CO2) and
also into new yeast mass. In the fermenter the metabolism releases a good deal of heat that has to be
removed by chilling. At the end of the fermentation, the resultant green beer is chilled to 0°C and
“racked” (transferred) into the storage tank. The remaining yeast from the fermenter is either used
partly for new pitching or is collected as spent yeast for disposal. A part of the yeast still suspended
in green beer settles in the storage tank or is removed by centrifuging during the transfer. In the
storage tank, it is further chilled, depending on its alcohol content, to as low a temperature as
possible, usually to -1°C to -2°C. After a (flavour) maturation period (called “lagering” or “aging”),
the beer is filtered, carbonated and is ready in the packaging cellar for packaging into bottles, cans
or kegs. Some types of beers, particularly those produced in small/pub breweries, do not get filtered.
The filtration is purely a cosmetic process.
In Canada, virtually all domestic beer bottles are returnable. Therefore, they must be cleaned prior
to reuse. Returned bottles make multiple passes through bottle washers (“soakers”) that consist of
baths and sprays of a hot caustic soda solution. At the exit, bottles are cooled with sprays and rinses
of cold potable water. They then proceed to the filling machine. Cans, always new, are not washed,
just rinsed with cold potable water, as are the non-returnable bottles for export. Kegs are cleaned
with hot water, a caustic solution and steam.
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INTRODUCTION
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In Canada, bottled and canned beers are usually pasteurized. Draught (kegged) beer is usually
unpasteurized, just as bottles and cans in small breweries with limited outside sales may not be
pasteurized. The pasteurization process takes place primarily in tunnel pasteurizers. It consists
of heating the packaged beer to 60°C. Pasteurization kills or inactivates microorganisms that
could bring about beer spoilage. Sprays of progressively warmer water bring the beer up to the
pasteurization temperature in the holding zone of the pasteurizer. The temperature is maintained for
several minutes. Afterwards, sprays of colder water bring it gradually to the usual, rather warm exit
temperature of about 30°C.
Packaged beer is stored in a warehouse before distribution. Warm beer, particularly if the oxygen
content is higher than it should be, does not keep its flavour well over time; its shelf life is shortened
as a result. Therefore, for logistics and flavour reasons, warehousing is brief to avoid the necessity of
cooling the warehouse.
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APPROACHING
ENERGY MANAGEMENT
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APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
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2.0 APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
2.1 STRATEGIC CONSIDERATIONS
All breweries in Canada are faced with ever-increasing competition for the shrinking beer market.
Cost reduction has become one of the drivers for successful survival. Savings in energy and utilities
costs can help the profitability of any brewery. Many of the energy conservation principles espoused
in the first edition of this Guide have become embedded in the energy management of Canadian
breweries. These efforts helped drive the specific energy consumption down by an impressive
59 MJ/hl.
An ad-hoc approach to energy management is not effective. It usually addresses immediate and/or
randomly chosen needs without the benefits of a cohesive, consistent approach. However, out of
necessity, given the scarce resources available, it is practiced by some smaller breweries in Canada,
but it is not limited to them.
To put energy efficiency into perspective, if your energy budget is $1 million, and you
could save just 10 percent through better energy practices, ask yourself: “How many
­hectolitres do I have to sell to earn the $100,000 – net?”
A brewery that is serious about improving energy and utilities effectiveness needs to adopt a
systematic and consistent approach – that of a system, not just of a program. It starts with the
development of an energy policy.
Energy management in a brewery will have two major parts: deployment of management techniques
and process improvements.
To begin, a few major components must be put in place:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Firm commitment of top management
Clearly defined program objectives
Organizational structure and definition of responsibilities
Provision of resources – people and money
Measures and tracking procedures
And regular progress review.
These points are further expanded on in Figure 2-1 and in Section 2.3 – Defining the program.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
2.2 USEFUL SYNERGIES – SYSTEMS INTEGRATION
Shortly after World War II, an American statistician,
Dr. Edward Deming, formulated a principle that has become
the basis of any management system in existence today and
is the foundation of continual improvement. It is expressed
by the words Plan-Do-Check-Act, as shown in the graphical
representation here. Often, the abbreviation PDCA is used.
In a linear view of an energy management system (Figure 2-1),
starting with a policy, these elements include the following
main blocks of activities:
11
CONTINUAL
IMPROVEMENT
CHECK
ACT
PLAN
DO
DEMING’S SPIRAL OF
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT
Figure 2-1: Linear view of an energy management system
Feedback spiral of continual improvement
Energy
policy
Plan
Do
Check
Act
(to improve)
Management
system
Implementation,
operations
Monitoring and
measurement
Management
review
Identify & select
opportunities
Goals, targets,
programs
Corrective &
preventative
actions
Internal audit
Each of those appellations represents a logical step on the road to fulfilling the requirements
and – when those activities are performed well – to reaching an objective. The objective may be
good process and product quality, protection of the environment, reliable accounting system,
well-implemented occupational health and safety, or energy efficiency. Literally hundreds of
international standards and guidelines have been generated in the past decades, primarily though
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), of Geneva, Switzerland. These standards
and guidelines have been produced through international work groups and adopted by individual
countries. They bear the prefix ISO (meaning “the same” in old Greek), followed by an assigned
number and the year of the latest revision. The ISO standards, of prime interest to brewers, are
•
•
•
•
ISO 9001:2008 – management system for quality
ISO 14001:2004 – environmental management system
OHSAS 18001:2007 – occupational health and safety assessment system, and, within the context
of energy efficiency improvements, discussed here, also the draft of the brand new
ISO 50001 – Energy Management Systems Standard
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Among other relevant norms and guidelines are
•
•
HACCP – Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
ISO 31000:2010 – risk management principles, framework and application
Standard
Description
ISO
9001:2008
Management system for quality
In breweries as in any other business, the mantra “Satisfy your customer” drives the
quest for quality. More and more breweries worldwide have adopted the standard,
along with the hundreds of thousands of various businesses worldwide that have
embraced the standard since its introduction in 1987. In many industries, certification
to ISO 9001 has become a requirement and a condition for staying in business.
ISO
14001:2004
Environmental management system
The implementation of an environmental management system (EMS) will result in
continually improving environmental performance.
The specification of the standard is based on the concept that the organization will
periodically review and evaluate its EMS to identify opportunities for improvement.
Although some improvements in environmental performance can be expected on the
basis of the adopted systematic approach of the standard, EMS is primarily a tool that
enables an organization to achieve and systematically control the level of performance
it sets for itself. The organization has the freedom and flexibility to set the boundaries
of its EMS.
The system’s requirements and criteria are also suitable to occupational health and
safety, and the energy efficiency improvement effort.
OHSAS
18001:2007
Occupational health and safety assessment system
The standard has been adopted by many countries, but has not yet become an
international standard. It offers the means to systematically, consistently and
proactively manage workplace hazards to achieve long term goals of ensuring the
health and safety of all employees. Although much broader in its scope, its structure
closely emulates that of ISO 14001.
ISO 50001
Energy Management Systems Standard
In any brewery, energy efficiency enhancement efforts are just one segment in the drive
to improve profits, achieve higher quality operations and products, and demonstrably
implement responsible environmental behaviour throughout the company.
The new energy management system standard enables systematic and consistent
approach to the effort. It is a new tool coming at the right time.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
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Standard
Description
HACCP
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
Since beer is considered a “food,” HACCP applies to its production. HACCP, which
can also be used as a quality management tool, is a food safety program. It is designed
to ensure that at each stage of the production, packaging and distribution processes,
any possible hazard that could impact the product and cause it to be contaminated
and/or become injurious to health has been identified and eliminated. All brewing and
packaging materials, brewing and packaging operations, transportation, warehousing
and retail operations are scrutinized. From the point of view of energy and utilities,
protection from contaminated and/or tainted water, steam, condensate and process
gases must be assured.
13
HACCP works with ISO 9001 as a quality management tool. Where more generic, allencompassing ISO systems have not been implemented, the HACCP is a quality system
in its own right. ISO and HACCP do not have to be run as two separate systems.
The Brewers Association of Canada has developed an HACCP program applicable
specifically to brewers.
Additional information: www.brewers.ca/default_e.asp?id=125
ISO
31000:2010
Risk management principles, framework and application
The eminently useful standard (explained by Canadian Standards Association norm
CSA/Q850-10) is applicable to any situation where hazard exists and risk needs to
be assessed (e.g. investment decisions, environmental aspects, occupational health &
safety, selection of priorities, etc.).
In this context, it is interesting to note that Courage Brewery (U.K.) used a dual risk
assessment of the hazard occurring with control measures in place at a specified
process step compared with the probability of that hazard getting through to the final
product with subsequent control measures in place.
Except for the new ISO 31000:2010, the implementation of all management systems
listed above can be independently audited by accredited bodies (called “Registrars”)
and certified. The certification – synonymously called “registration” – is the
recognition of the compliance to the rigorous requirements of a standard. The
certificate becomes a public document.
All of these programs have something in common: the desire to improve quality in the
broadest sense of the word. Their systematic, structured, consistent and thought-out
approach makes them valuable.
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Replace
programs
with system
approach
Programs are limited in time. Often, various programs are initiated and launched
in a brewery in isolation from others. Sometimes programs that have not been well
planned and/or have not received sufficient support will flounder and die off. “Flavour
of the month,” employees will say.
On the other hand, systems continue to operate indefinitely, using programs to achieve
specific goals within the systems. Programs are made an integral part of the overall
improvement strategy.
Take
advantage of
compatibility
and synergies
The ISO standards listed above are fully compatible. The similar structure of modern
management system standards – by now pretty well perfected – enables systems
integration in a single enterprise-wide management system. For example, the energy
management system need not stand alone. Many of its elements can be integrated
with similar elements in other systems. That is profitable: overall management system
becomes streamlined, simpler and activities interwoven, giving rise to valuable
synergies and higher effectiveness.
Integration
of systems
makes sense
Integrating systems sharing a common philosophy into an overall management
scheme makes sense because doing so offers:
1) Unified management system:
• efficient
• duplication eliminated or reduced
• proactive, predictable, consistent, modifiable, understood
2)Training:
• efficiency and effectiveness
• conflicting training requirements minimized
• multi-disciplined approach
• all-in-one program
3)Resources:
• best utilization of people, energy, and materials in the context of a single overall
management system
4) Improved compliance posture:
• increased confidence by regulators
• tangible demonstration of commitment
5) Savings on costs of:
• materials and labour
• energy
• product-in-process, finished product
• waste
• contingency liability costs
• public relations and goodwill
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
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Advantages
of system
registration
The quantifiable benefits of a management system’s implementation and subsequent
registration can be summarized as follows:
• improved documentation of process procedures and work instructions
• improved communication throughout the organization
• improved product, process or service performance and customer satisfaction
• prevention of errors in all operations
• improved productivity, efficiency and cost reduction
• improved quality of work and employee satisfaction
• public recognition leading to improved market share
15
2.3 DEFINING THE PROGRAM
Figure 2-2 shows the generic at a glance plan of setting up an energy management system. It
represents an ideal, proven scenario, where the various steps are approached in a rational, reasoned
and systematic manner. This system will enable you to launch successful energy management
programs. However, the full description of the strategy may not fit the resource situation in
smaller breweries.
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Figure 2-2: Energy management system at a glance
16
Firm management
commitment
Plan
Do
Check
Act
the system
implement it
that it works
to improve
Review
business plan
Create
awareness
Monitor
progress
Review system’s
effectiveness
Allocate
resources
Train key
resources
Verify
effectiveness
Review orginal
energy policy
Nominate energy
champion
Obtain external
help if required
Correct
deficiencies
Review objectives
and targets
Set energy
policy
Implement
projects
Lock in
the gains
Review energy
programs
Set objectives
Communicate
results
Examine CI *
opportunities
Start the
cycle anew
Set structure
Acknowledge
and celebrate
good work
* CI = Continual Improvement
Assign
responsibilities
Obtain insight
(energy audit)
Identify projects,
set priorities
Develop targets
and action plans
Feedback loop to create the spiral of continual
improvement
© Lom & Associates Inc., 2010
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
Management commitment
Top management’s role is to lead and set the course: change is initiated from above. The close
involvement of top and middle management, with their ongoing and visible commitment, will
demonstrate to everybody that improving energy efficiency in the brewery is a serious and important
issue that is worth supporting. It will greatly improve the energy management system’s effectiveness.
17
Review business plan and allocate resources
This will provide information about the needed or anticipated impact of energy savings on the profit
line as well as the resources required for planning, implementing and maintaining a viable energy
management system.
The amount of time and effort allowed to the persons responsible for implementing the energy
management program will ultimately determine its effectiveness. Therefore, adequate operational
funding is essential. Without such funding, or freeing up people to do the work, not much will
be achieved.
Nominate the energy champion
The energy champion should be a technically competent person who commands the respect and
support of the brewery staff. Besides being a “doer,” the champion should be a good organizer,
facilitator and communicator. The champion should demonstrate high levels of enthusiasm and
deep conviction about the benefits of the energy efficiency program, and be an eloquent advocate
of the cause. To ensure access to senior management, the champion should be an executive-level
appointment. The function will almost always be an add-on to an existing position, and reallocation
and/or sharing of responsibilities may be required.
Set energy policy – create awareness
The launch of the energy management program should be supported by a strong policy statement
from the brewery’s chief executive to the staff. Develop the energy policy in consideration of other
company commitments, policies (quality, production, environment, health and safety, etc.) and
strategic goals.
Soon thereafter, an awareness campaign should be started utilizing a brief presentation, charts,
posters, home mailings, attachments to pay stubs, and other suitable communication means, to
explain the benefits of efficient energy use to the entire brewery. Everyone should be aware of the
broader environmental benefits of energy efficiency improvements: how energy conservation will
lower emissions of greenhouse gases and help fight global warming.
An excellent “Toolkit for Your Industrial Energy Efficiency Awareness Program” is available
on request from NRCan. Send an e-mail to [email protected]
Decide on objectives
The objectives set by the brewery should be clearly defined, measurable and challenging, yet
realistically achievable. They may cover several time horizons – short-term through long-term. They
should be communicated to all, and everyone should be conversant with them.
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Set structure and assign responsibilities
18
The champion chairs the Energy Management Team (EMT) and takes overall personal responsibility
for the implementation and success of the program and accountability for its effectiveness. The
EMT should include representatives from each major energy-using department, from brewing to
packaging and maintenance, and from production operators.
In smaller breweries, all management staff should necessarily have duties related to reducing energy
consumption.
Develop action plans
An action plan is a road map. It serves as a project management and control tool that indicates the
responsibilities, specific tasks, resources (money, people, training, etc.) and timelines for individual
projects and their respective stages. Several project management software applications such as
Microsoft Project Manager are available on the market to facilitate the creation of a project plan.
Gantt charts are used to monitor and control project fulfillment, costs, etc.
When selecting energy efficiency projects for implementation, one is looking for energy
management opportunities (EMOs). Typically, we can divide them into three categories:
•
•
•
Housekeeping
Low cost
Retrofit
We will use this classification, shown in Figure 2-3, to describe the EMOs in Section 7 – Technical
and process considerations.
Figure 2-3: Categories for Energy Management Opportunities (EMOs)
Energy
Management
Opportunities
Housekeeping
This refers to an energy management
action that is repeated on a regular basis
and never less than once per year.
Low cost
This type of energy management action
is done once, and for which the cost is
not considered great.
Retrofit
This energy management action is
done once but the cost is significant.
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APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
Train key resources
Training is expensive and time consuming, yet it pays dividends. Typically, it can be organized
in two stages. The first stage involves specific training for selected employees, i.e. those who will
be involved in the energy management program and/or have greater influence upon energy
consumption than others.
19
Ideally, the second stage may follow in due course. It consists in integrating energy management
training into the existing corporate training matrix to ensure that energy training is regularly
covered. Generic team training, e.g. in conflict management, problem solving, should also be
provided to the EMT members.
NRCan offers a number of specific energy efficiency improvement workshops across
Canada. For information visit Dollars to $ense Energy Management Workshops.
Other sources of training are available through utility companies, etc.;
see Chapter 2.4 – Accessing external help.
Implement projects
Consider one project in relation to another; linking them will help to make your program coherent
and you will benefit from the projects’ synergies. It pays to start with “training” projects that yield,
probably, only modest but quickly obtainable savings – especially projects to correct the obvious
sources of waste found in the initial energy audit. The early successes will encourage the team to
tackle bigger projects and seek greater savings. As confidence grows, they will address areas of less
evident energy consumption such as energy used in the heating and ventilation of the packaging hall.
Take advantage of the various synergies for even greater energy savings.
Communicate the results
The progress of an energy conservation project and the results it brings should be communicated
to the entire brewery. Ensure that communication is brief, and preferably visual (charts, signs,
pictograms, etc.). Talk about it at plant meetings.
Acknowledge and celebrate good work – celebrate success
This is a frequently overlooked, yet very important segment of a program. People crave and value
recognition. A myriad of ways can be employed to recognize the achievement and highlight the
contribution of teams (rather than individuals, which can be divisive): giveaways of thematic
T-shirts, hats, and other merchandise, dinners, picnics, company-sponsored attendance at sporting
events, cruises and so on. There is no end to it. The achievement of a target should be celebrated as
a milestone on the way to continual improvement of energy efficiency in the brewery. The results
may not be definitive yet, but it is the effort that went into a project that is being acknowledged,
unconditionally.
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APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
Monitor progress
20
As with any project, progress towards its completion should be monitored. Results should be
measured against targets and reported at management meetings. This ensures that the project
remains viable and gets the attention needed to prod it along.
Verify effectiveness
In the case where a technical solution has been implemented in a project, the verification of
effectiveness may be as simple as the continuous monitoring of performance. When the project
involves behavioural change (e.g. turning off idle equipment), verification of the measure’s
effectiveness should be performed after some time has elapsed (e.g. a month or two).
Has the project lived up to expectations? Is the implemented energy efficiency improvement
effective? Is it being maintained? To support the credibility of energy management efforts, the
effectiveness of measures taken must be evaluated, so adjustments can be made and future projects
managed better.
Correct deficiencies
This is an obvious step to take when performance does not meet expectations. The plant may use an
ad-hoc approach, or, if they have a formalized quality or environmental system in place, a defined
way of addressing corrective actions. The determination of the systemic root cause of a deficiency is
the most important task, followed by the proper application of corrective measures.
Information gained from the monitoring of data, the input from the Energy Management Centre
(EMC) and other control systems, the review of results, and the verification of the project’s effectiveness
may indicate that a corrective action is required. The energy management champion is responsible for
arranging the corrective action with the EMT and the personnel from the respective area involved.
The root cause of the deficiency will be determined and the required corrective action will be initiated.
Future energy efficiency projects will benefit from the lessons learned.
Remember to document it, as required. This keeps track of things while the history serves as a
learning tool for avoiding shortcomings in other projects.
Lock in the gains
The above two steps are needed to make the improvement last. Ideally, the solution implemented
should produce ongoing benefits.
Examine continual improvement opportunities
Look for opportunities to implement specific energy conservation measures in other areas – where
the need for them may have been overlooked and conditions are similar. This “feed forward”
mechanism amounts, in fact, to a preventive action.
Looking for other opportunities is the essence of continual improvement, which should
be promoted in the interest of any organization.
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APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
Often one project opens the door to another idea. The energy efficiency improvement program is an
ongoing effort. The EMT and all employees should be encouraged to examine and re-examine other
opportunities for further gains as a matter of course, on an ongoing basis. In some companies, this is
a permanent item on the agenda of EMT meetings.
21
Review the Energy Management System effectiveness
In order to sustain interest, regular reporting on the effectiveness of the energy management system
to the management team is necessary. The energy management updates should be a permanent
agenda item of regular operations management review meetings, in the same way quality, production,
financial and environmental matters are. Results of implemented projects are reviewed, adjustments
are made, conflicts are resolved, financial considerations and resource needs are taken into account.
Review energy policies, objectives and targets, energy efficiency improvement programs and
action plans
This step ensures the continued relevance and currency of the energy policy. Supporting it are
objectives and targets. As they change in time, their review is required to ensure that priorities are
maintained taking into account the existing conditions. Yearly or semi-annually is probably the best
frequency for reviews.
The energy efficiency improvement program and action plans are “living” documents. Their
updating and frequent reviewing are necessary since old projects are implemented and new ones
are initiated, and because business conditions change. The energy management champion leads
this activity, and needs to get input from the EMC and other control systems, subsequently seeking
approval for updates from the management team.
The feedback from the reviews is used in the new cycle of the activities.
2.4 RESOURCES AND SUPPORT – ACCESSING HELP
The following is a list of the resources available for industry. It includes information, programs and
tools offered by the Government of Canada, provincial and territorial governments, major Canadian
municipalities and major electric and gas utilities and companies. Much of this information is available
through Natural Resources Canada’s (NRCan’s) Web site: cipec.gc.ca.
2.4.1 Financial assistance, training and tools
NRCan, CIPEC, and the Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) offer resources and services for industry:
Assistance and training
•
•
•
•
financial assistance for implementation of an ISO 50001 - Energy Management Systems
­Standard project, process integration and computational fluid dynamics studies
tax incentives for investments in systems that generate electricity and/or produce heat
Directory of Energy Efficiency Programs for Industry found across Canada offered by
­provincial, territorial, municipal and electric and gas utility companies
Dollars to $ense Energy Management Workshops and opportunities to have them delivered on
site and customized to meet specific company needs
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APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
Resources and tools
22
•
•
•
•
•
•
Industrial Energy Efficient Equipment web page has valuable information to assist in the
­selection and purchase of energy efficient products for industrial facilities
technical guidebooks
Heads Up CIPEC – an e-newsletter with the latest energy efficiency information
support for benchmarking studies and employee awareness initiatives
Publications – a virtual library with energy-related literature, brochures and pamphlets
tools and calculators
2.4.2 Other resources
The Internet is an inexhaustible source of information for training programs on energy
efficiency offered by colleges and other institutions. As mentioned above, NRCan’s Directory of
Energy Efficiency Programs for Industry provides a list of programs across Canada offered by
provincial territorial, municipal and electric and gas utility companies at the following Web site:
oee.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/industrial/financial-assistance/programs.cfm
2.4.3 Tools for self-assessment
Some tools and programs have been mentioned above. However, there are some other sources of
help for performing a self-assessment:
Steam system assessment tool
Downloadable software package to evaluate energy efficiency improvement projects for steam
systems. It includes an economic analysis capability. Contact: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of
Industrial Technologies, at www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/
Steam system scoping tool
Downloadable software package. Spreadsheet tool to identify energy efficiency opportunities in
industrial steam systems. It includes an economic analysis capability. Contact: U.S. Department of
Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, at www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/
Optimizing the insulation of boiler steam lines
Downloadable software package to determine optimized insulation of boiler steam lines. The
program calculates the most economical thickness of industrial insulation for a variety of operating
conditions. It makes calculations using thermal performance relationships of generic insulation
materials included in the software. Contact: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial
Technologies, at www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/
Pump system assessment tool (PSAT)
Downloadable software package to help industrial users assess the efficiency of pumping system
operations. PSAT uses achievable pump performance from the Hydraulic Institute’s standards
and motor performance data from the MotorMaster+ database to calculate potential energy and
associated cost savings. Contact: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, at
www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/
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APPROACHING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
MotorMaster+
Downloadable software package for energy efficiency motor selection and management, including
a catalog of over 20 000 AC motors. It contains motor inventory management tools, maintenance
log tracking, efficiency analysis, savings evaluation, energy accounting and environmental reporting
capabilities. Contact: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, at www1.eere.
energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/
23
AirMaster+
Downloadable software package. It is a tool to maximize the energy efficiency and performance
of compressed air systems through improved operations and maintenance practices. Contact:
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, at www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/
bestpractices/
ENERGY STAR® Portfolio Manager
Online software tool that helps to assess the energy performance of buildings by providing a
1-100 ranking of a building’s energy performance relative to the national building market. Measured
energy consumption forms the basis of performance ranking. Contact: U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, at www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=business.bus_index
Insulation calculator tool
See 3E Plus Insulation thickness calculator at www.pipeinsulation.org.
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ENERGY AUDITING
3
ENERGY AUDITING
3.0 ENERGY AUDITING
26
Why have energy audits?1 An energy conservation project, yielding a good financial return, should
not be undertaken without an audit.
It is likely that without the systematic approach of the audit, the ad-hoc application of energy
management would result in many missed opportunities and fail to discover beneficial project
synergies.
An energy audit could be formally organized and executed, and its results could be utilized. While
such a path may not be taken – especially by smaller breweries due to their modest means – its
description may, nevertheless, be useful.
3.1 ENERGY AUDIT PURPOSE
An initial energy audit is a key step that establishes the baseline from which future energy efficiency
improvements would be measured. (Other energy audits may be performed later, e.g. to verify
achievements or uncover other incremental energy saving opportunities.)
The purpose of an energy audit is to establish and evaluate energy consumption in a brewery,
and uncover opportunities for energy savings. To maximize value, an audit should address and
express in quantified ways:
•
•
examination and evaluation of the energy efficiency of all energy-consuming systems,
processes and equipment (including energy supply and the building envelope)
indication of process management inefficiencies with negative impact on energy
c­ onsumption
A list of practice-proven steps in energy auditing follows.
3.2 ENERGY AUDIT STAGES
3.2.1 Initiation and preparation
Defining the audit scope
The scope of the audit is established by the brewery’s management.
ISO 14001 defines an audit as “a systematic, documented verification of objectively obtaining and evaluating audit evidence, in conformance with audit criteria and followed by communication of results to the
1
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ENERGY AUDITING
What is to be achieved? The determination of accurate energy consumption baseline? The
quantification of thermal energy losses only? Will the determination of electrical energy, gas, water,
steam and material balances be required? An indication of opportunities for improvements? All
of these?
27
It may help to visualize the audit boundary as a “black box” enclosing the audit area, and then to
focus on the energy streams flowing into and out of the box, and examine what happens to them
within the box. The “black box” can be the entire brewery or a particular operation, e.g. brewing.
Other practical considerations in setting the energy audit scope include the brewery’s staff size, the
staff ’s capability and availability, the outside consultant’s capability, and the funds and time available.
Securing resources and cooperation of the brewery’s personnel is essential. Do not attempt to stretch
the audit scope beyond what could reasonably be accomplished. Wherever possible start small: one
bite at a time. Trying to cover too many facilities/processes with a limited number of resources will
affect the effectiveness of the audit and its results.
The audit scope describes the organizational and physical extent and boundaries of the
audit activities, as well as the manner of reporting. Is the entire facility to be audited, or
only part of it? In the case of the latter, which processes will be used?
The key requirements of the audit objective(s) and scope should be thought through very carefully.
They will determine the breadth and depth of the audit (i.e. the level of detail required for the
breakdown of energy use), as well as its physical coverage. They will also determine the manpower
requirements (i.e. costs) for the audit’s execution.
Selecting auditors
The audit process and its results must be credible.
The determination of the audit scope and objectives will provide an idea of the duration of the audit.
This, in turn, will help to ascertain how many people would be needed and for how long. For smaller
operations, all that is needed is a competent individual with suitable technical training, and good
overall knowledge of the brewery’s operations, auditing process and techniques, and particularly of
an energy audit. It helps if the person likes to work with computers.
The selection of an auditor (auditors) is of paramount importance. Choose people who are available
and have the skills required for what is needed. The person should be objective, have high personal
integrity and sound judgment – and be perceived as such. In addition, the auditor should be an
effective communicator and be able to relate to people easily. The auditor will get much of the
information through personal interviews and discussions with the brewery operators and staff. To gain
the necessary cooperation, the auditor’s ability to establish a good rapport with employees is essential.
Will it be necessary to hire an experienced energy consultant to do the audit or is there such a
person in-house? Often, a company looks at cost as a major factor when choosing someone. On the
surface, employing in-house brewery staff would be considerably less costly than hiring a private
consultant. However, adding the audit task to a person’s regular workload could interfere with
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ENERGY AUDITING
28
routine work, leading to errors. There would inevitably be a learning curve which may mean it could
take twice as much time to complete the audit. As well, staff may be biased or may be oblivious
to certain aspects of their own operations. On the other hand, private consultants probably have
broader experience and knowledge of similar operations or situations which are transferable to
other locations they are auditing. The pros and cons of both sides should be considered.
Assessing budget and audit duration
Consider the physical extent of the audit and review the objectives when assessing its complexity,
and the time and resources it will require. Include the time to prepare for the audit (planning,
getting the tools, gathering the required information), and subsequently to evaluate and analyze
the results, come up with recommendations and prepare the audit report. Estimate the budget in
person-days or person-weeks.
Timing of the audit
Plan and conduct the energy audit with the intention of determining energy inefficiencies
in the brewery processes as well as energy losses in the “waste” streams.
Brewery management must be consulted on this important consideration. You will want the audit to
reflect optimum operating conditions at or near production capacity level, so that the data collected
over the audit period will give you a true picture of the energy efficiency usage in the brewery
operating at its peak. Lower production levels will result in wasting energy.
A time period of one to three week’s duration, when the brewery is operating smoothly, should
be selected. This should result in good averages of energy data collected, ideally free of distortions
caused by abnormal operating conditions in various brewery departments.
Often, when longer data collection periods are chosen, process abnormalities, interruptions, etc., are
bound to happen, which would result in proportionately greater data distortions and higher specific
energy consumption.
Determine the production baseline
Let us suppose that you will be able to collect data over the highest production period.
The brewery will operate at some lower average level for the rest of the year. The average
production rate, divided by the maximum production capacity will produce the nominal
production efficiency, expressed in percent. It is useful to relate the energy consumption
to that basis.
Among other things, you will want to use the audit results to establish energy consumption levels
based on average production. Typically, this information is not normally available in most breweries.
However, it will facilitate the energy management later on with regard to, for example, setting energy
consumption targets, quantifying eventual energy savings, budgeting, capital expenditures planning
as well as help in setting true current costs per production unit (e.g. hectolitre, hl).
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ENERGY AUDITING
Gathering available information
In planning effective use of the audit time, evaluate the existing information to identify
and focus on the major energy end-users.
29
Historical statistics such as cost of fuels and electricity (annually and monthly), purchase of raw
material, supplies, production data, shrinkage and labour data, should be relatively easy to get in
most brewery operations. You will need this information when verifying or calculating the material
and energy balances.
Getting the tools
Just prior to starting the energy audit, check the essentials. Verify the following: the
­contacts on power bars are tightened; there are no hot spots and excessive heat on
the leads, and they are of proper length as specified by the equipment manufacturer;
­equipment is not run on two phases only; the switches are cleaned; and phase reversals
have not ­occurred on (wrongly) installed motors, equipment, etc.
The collected data should be accurate to the maximum extent possible. The main meters on
incoming natural gas lines, electric power supplies and water mains are usually maintained and
calibrated by the respective utilities, and are expected to produce accurate readings. Likewise,
important measurements such as the MCC (motor control centre), power meters or demand meters,
are usually accurate and can be accepted as such, at least initially. Beyond that, the accuracy of other
brewery data is usually questionable and not easy to assess.
Current experience shows that there are too few meters used elsewhere in a typical Canadian
brewery. If there were additional monitoring and measuring instruments available, the first
thing would be to identify and check them. This type of review involves checking the calibration
and maintenance logs, and how their specifications match the applications; and verifying the
temperature and pressure compensations, and their proper installation. If there is insufficient time
to accomplish all these tasks before the audit, the identified deficiencies should be noted down for
later action.
It is also helpful to obtain the facility layout diagram, process flowchart, and the power, water, and
natural gas distribution diagrams. Other audit tools that may be employed to prepare and analyze
data range from hand calculations used for simple crosschecks and spreadsheets used for data
analysis to simulation programs. Software packages to evaluate the audit data, perform simulations
and find optimum solutions are available on the market. To procure them, a utility company and a
number of other sources may be contacted.
Electric power consumed by major equipment needs to be measured. A brewery may consider it
useful to purchase an energy analyzer for its ongoing energy program (complemented by a phase
analyzer, which is necessary for properly observing the sine wave). It would require an investment of
around $7,000. The analyzers can also be rented or borrowed from an electrical utility. Consultants
may have their own sets.
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ENERGY AUDITING
3.2.2Execution
30
Gathering information
Focus the search for energy efficiency opportunities at the point of end use – where the
energy is most expensive.
While measuring and recording energy consumption data, examine current brewery practices and
procedures. Interview the workers and staff. Observe how the job is performed. If necessary and
feasible, ask for a demonstration. Compare information obtained from different sources; verify its
validity. The aim here should be to obtain objective and verifiable information.
Balances
It is useful in the course of an energy audit to establish energy and material (mass) balances. They
serve to account for all energy inputs and outputs (including waste streams), for a given balance
type. They serve to crosscheck and reconcile energy data as one of the means to verify the accuracy
of the audit observations and support its conclusions. They are useful for an evaluation of the impact
of brewery development plans and certain types of energy saving projects.
The balances can be undertaken for the entire brewery or limited to key equipment affected (e.g. the
brewhouse, usage of compressed air, boiler efficiency, etc.). It is useful to use process flow diagrams
and, for factual as well as visual representation, to enter the calculations to the appropriate streams
on the flow diagram.
The balances include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
power balance
natural gas (and/or oil) balance
steam and condensate balance
water balance
material balance (raw material to saleable beer – extract losses)
etc.
Practical production considerations
In the course of auditing gas-fired and oil-fired boilers, the auditors may find that there is often
a lack of controls for the given burner types. In uncontrolled burning, the fuel-air mixture is not
optimized and fuel is wasted, the mixture may be too rich or too lean. In the former case, burner
temperatures are frequently excessive.
The audit may point out several instances in which electrical energy is wasted or why payments for
energy use are needlessly high. A lack of monitoring and/or controlling peak demand and power
factor may often be highlighted. However, these subjects will be dealt with later on in the Guide.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
ENERGY AUDITING
Brewing and production patterns and process practices greatly influence energy
­efficiency and should be examined during the audit.
31
The auditor should also pay attention to the process equipment and how it is used when accounting
for energy losses, e.g. assess washers and pasteurizers, conveyors, ventilation, the state of their repair,
etc. Energy wastage has a major bearing on the brewery’s bottom line.
3.2.3Report
Following the audit’s conclusion, it is usual to report in two ways:
•
•
Verbal report at the close of the audit, highlighting the observations and tentative conclusions
Written report shortly afterwards, once the calculations and verified conclusions have been
made available
The audit report will typically contain:
•
•
•
•
General information, consisting of a description of the objective(s) and scope of the audit; the
location and time (duration) of the audit; a list of personnel and resources used; the brewery
operating conditions at the time of the audit; general observations; difficulties encountered in
completing the measurements and calculations; comments on accuracy, particularly as it pertains to instruments, their maintenance and other identified work that could increase accuracy;
and caveats
Main body of the report with energy usage data, calculations and balances
Conclusions
Recommendations
3.3 POST-AUDIT ACTIVITIES
Understanding the audit results
With the delivery of the audit report, the energy audit is considered completed. The results of
the report reflect a particular slice of time during which the audit was conducted. Although not
absolute, the results can be extrapolated with reasonable accuracy to the average brewery operating
conditions. The management team should review the audit report with this in mind and decide on
the course of action to be taken.
Energy audit results may give the brewery very concrete directions regarding energy management.
There are two possible energy audit outcomes:
• Establishment of a brewery-wide energy management system and program
• Identification of energy efficiency improvement opportunities, indicated by the audit,
for the energy management program to address
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IDENTIFYING
AND PRIORITIZING
ENERGY MANAGEMENT
OPPORTUNITIES EMOs
4
IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING ENERGY MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES (EMOs)
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4.0IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING ENERGY MANAGEMENT
OPPORTUNITIES (EMOs)
4.1 IDENTIFYING ENERGY MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES
(EMOs)
After a certain period, a picture will emerge about what can be done in a brewery to improve the
way it handles energy use. Inputs may include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Results of the initial energy audit
Review of literature, including Web sources
Information about applicable ideas from other breweries and other industries
Consultations with NRCan’s CanmetENERGY2 and Office of Energy Efficiency
Equipment supplier recommendations
Consultant’s advice
Fresh look at the way the brewery manages its production and operations
Ideas and suggestions
This may result in a very long list of EMOs. By type, the EMOs fall into these broad categories:
Organizational
changes
The influence of organizational change on energy conservation is often hidden.
It involves changes in planning and scheduling production that allows for a
partial or an across-the-board levelling of energy use, hence its better utilization.
The point is to try to achieve a more steady-state production output. Granted,
this may be a tall order, but the marketing and sales departments can help
production staff here.
Process changes
Involves improvements in process equipment and technology that results in
reduced energy consumption.
The process change category will probably be the largest and most capitalintensive. Improvements include changes to throughput capacity, improved
quality (product characteristics), process controls, where, typically, efficiency of
energy utilization has not been the driving reason. This can be used to justify
other projects and upgrade activities (e.g. variable speed drives, high efficiency
motors).
Boiler energy
efficiency and
potential fuel
substitution
Entails improvement upgrades to burner systems, monitoring and control of
flue gas composition as well as furnace lining and insulation. It focuses on
maximizing the efficiency of energy use and selecting the best source of energy
(e.g. oil or natural gas). Fuel substitution is a consideration dependent on fuel
market availability (e.g. natural gas in Quebec) and long-term prognosis of cost.
Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology
2
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING ENERGY MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES (EMOs)
Electric power
management
Electrical power management is an area which can improve the profit of the
brewery quite significantly. It consists of the comprehensive monitoring and
control of electrical energy consumption, including peak demand and power
factor management and cogeneration (see Section 6.4 – Monitoring & Targeting).
Heat recovery
Heat recovery includes projects that are best viewed in the context of the entire
brewery; several energy systems may be involved and synergies are possible to
achieve. It involves the reuse of waste heat streams and their integration and
prevention of heat losses in all forms (e.g. heat exchanger, insulation).
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4.2 EVALUATING AND CALCULATING ENERGY SAVINGS
AND OTHER IMPACTS OF EMOS
Energy savings of the identified EMOs should now be evaluated. A simple quantification of the
differences in energy inputs between the present and the improved states – expressed both in kWh
(or MJ) and dollars, on an annualized basis – will do.
The information requires inclusion of capital (and/or operating) costs for modifications/
improvements, and calculation of rate of return on capital invested (ROI). Other implications
(benefits/drawbacks) of the improvement project should also be captured in a quantified way,
whenever possible (e.g. improvement of production capacity by 15 percent, consumption of
compressed air reduced by 20 percent or $xx/year).
Remember that the purpose of the evaluation is to carry out a preliminary ranking of the projects
for further selection. While attempting to use reasonably close estimates, do not expend too much
effort in trying to achieve four-decimal accuracy of the outcomes at this stage – the correctness of
inputs is more important.
To organize all this information into a long list of projects, a table can be constructed as shown
below (Table 4-1). The columns are self-explanatory, except the Benefits-Cost, where annual energy
saved per investment dollar is stated.
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IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING ENERGY MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES (EMOs)
Table 4-1: Long list of EMO projects (example)
36
EMO
project
description
EMO
#
Type
Invest.
capital
$1,000s
Energy
savings
GJ/y
BenefitsCosts
GJ/y/$
ROI
years
Other
implications of
the project
e.g.:
pasteurizer
optimization
35
Ops
50
150 000
3
3.0
Output up
5 percent; heat
reuse in preheating; resize
piping; water
savings 15 percent
Etc.
4.3 SELECTING AND PRIORITIZING EMO PROJECTS
At first glance, the projects offering the highest return on investment should be chosen for
execution. However, it is not that simple. There are other considerations. Project selection and
prioritization is often perceived as a very difficult task. The following is a brief guide, including some
proven decision-making tools to make the task simple enough for anyone to do. They include:
4.3.1 Initial scrutiny
The initial long list of EMO projects should be scrutinized from different angles. In addition to
clearly impractical ideas, which can be rejected out of hand, projects that do not meet the criteria
listed below (brewery-specific) will also be discarded. The following criteria will be examined:
Technical
feasibility
Evaluate all available information such as
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
good engineering practice
experience of others, testimonials
supplier information
literature
consultants
technical uncertainties
performance risks
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Possible
synergies
Can the project be integrated to advantage with others thereby achieving higher
benefits (e.g. an upgrade of pasteurizer heat recovery together with improved space
heating and ventilation)?
37
If so, try to quantify the benefits of the projects interaction, and compare this to
benefits of the individual projects and their sum.
Consider various combinations of projects before settling for an optimum group to
implement jointly.
The approach described here is considered appropriate because it is comprehensive.
However, it is recognized that lack of necessary resources may force a brewery to
implement a project without the time and effort required in comparing it to others.
Once a project is seen as meeting the energy savings requirements, and clears all the
other investment hurdles, there is no reason for delaying it. The advantage of this ­
ad-hoc approach is in the rapid implementation of projects, which start providing
ongoing energy savings fast.
Business risks
See Section 4.3.2 – Risk assessment, below, for details.
Business plan
and priorities
Consider also the brewery’s business plan (usually over several time horizons –
short-, mid- and long-term), business priority objectives, and financial situation.
“The key is not to prioritize what is on your schedule, but to
schedule your priorities.”
Steven Covey
Apply the “first things first” rule: put emphasis on a proactive, preventive approach
to issues and projects, which will allow a departure from the all-too-common
firefighting, the crisis management mode of operations. In other words, ask the
question: “Is this the right thing to do?”
Project’s
profitability
1. Assess the total capital cost of the project, including, for example: equipment
price, modification, installation, certification installation space
2. Estimate the cumulative annual operating savings of the improvement project
such as power, water, natural gas, compressed air, consumables maintenance,
spare parts, labour
(Of these, energy consumption is the most important factor within the context
of energy conservation projects. Note that compressed air, due to the high
energy cost involved in its generation, is treated separately.)
3. Calculate the simple payback period on investment and express it in years
(months, if less than one year).
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Do you calculate the return on capital investment only as a simple payback period? That is
customary, but it is often better to use net present value, or internal rate of return, which is based
on projected, discounted cash flow. It is better because you can include the effect of capital cost
allowances (CCA ). The CCA vary with the type of assets under consideration. For example, the
CCA on machinery is 20 percent and on buildings 5 percent. These calculations will show the rate of
return more accurately.
4.3.2 Risk assessment
All projects involve risk to some degree. Organizations face a wide range of risks such as
•
•
•
•
•
•
Financial: accounting and audit, insurability, credit, insolvency
Organizational: corporate image, human relations
External: market, social change, climate change
Regulatory: regulations, governmental policies
Legal: legislation, statutes, torts, contracts
Operational: production, environment, health & safety, assets
Business risk is a threat that an event, action or inaction will adversely affect an organization’s
ability to achieve its business objective and execute its strategies successfully. Business risk
management is a proactive approach that helps owners and managers to anticipate and respond
effectively to risk. Not all business risks can be eliminated. To assess whether further effort to reduce
risk is meaningful, an acceptable risk tolerance level must be established.
Further information on business risk assessment can be obtained from reading the CAN/
CSA-Q850-10 Standard: Risk management or from the similar, new ISO 31000:2010 – Risk
management principles, framework and application. Balance the perspectives from the point of view
of safety, environment, legal and regulatory, business and public image. Assess the risk by using the
formula (as per CAN/CSA-Q850-10 Standard):
R=ExLxC
Where R = risk, E = exposure, L = likelihood and C = consequences (the sum of individual
consequences in the areas mentioned above, e.g. environment and legal, safety, business impact and
public image/company reputation). Use simple but defined criteria, to assign value to the measure of
risk in each of these categories (e.g. high, medium, low and negligible.)
1. Assess if there is a potential for risk exposure in both undertaking the project and its
a­ bandonment.
2. Determine the tolerable risk level.
3. Include countermeasures in the project design, if possible
4.3.3 Project costing
Note that for initial screening purposes, the “best guess” rough estimates of a project’s capital cost are
generally sufficient. We are interested in the order of magnitude at this pre-feasibility level based on a
preliminary concept. Include a generous allowance for all cost components that should be considered
in the project, such as equipment capital costs, installation costs (mechanical, structural, piping and
civil engineering, site preparation, existing equipment modifications/removal, electrical, etc.). Make
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allowance for indirect costs (such as construction management, contractor’s overhead, owner’s costs,
and consultants) and include generous contingency leeway at this stage. It is understandable that the
anticipated accuracy may be off by 50 percent. Use these results for initial ranking.
39
While it is difficult to predict a brewery’s future operations, energy savings projects must be assessed
in this context: e.g. future production increases, possible process bottlenecks and anticipated process
changes. As the project selection progresses, the preliminary selection can now be subjected to cost
estimations, which make project pricing more formal and better researched. Budgetary quotations
can be obtained from vendors at this stage. All of the project component costs, as above, must now be
carried out in more detail.
When the choices have been narrowed down, greater accuracy for a formal project approval process
is required. It means that detailed engineering of the project must be done, which includes drawings,
schematic electrical, piping and duct diagrams, issuance of formal requests for proposal to multiple
vendors, with all project specifications, etc. The typical relationships and anticipated accuracy levels
are shown in Table 4-2 below.
The task will only be considered complete when more accurate costs of the selected project or
projects are determined and possible trade-offs examined. Choices must be made. There are many
considerations, each of which has a cost attached to it, and an optimum solution must be found.
That optimum solution should then be the subject of project submission approval.
Table 4-2: Cost estimation accuracy
Project stage
Appropriation costs,
%
Indirect costs
(as % of approp. costs)
Contingency cost
(% of total)
Pre-feasibility study
± 40-70
± 30-50
+20
Feasibility study
± 25-30
± 25-35
+ 10-15
Project approval
± 10, ou 0-10
± 20-30
+5
4.3.4 Economic model for trade-offs
If you deal with a complex project with many variables, you may wish to consider computer
modeling (computer simulation). The advantages are speedy answers to multiple scenarios. The
disadvantages include the high cost and skill level required to run a computer-modeling program.
For those disinclined to use computer simulation, another proven, very simple economic modeling
tool is available, courtesy of Reinertsen & Associates of Redondo Beach, CA. Do your product
development math as shown in Figure 4-1 below.
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IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING ENERGY MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES (EMOs)
Figure 4-1: Economic modeling tool
40
Key economic objectives
Project
introduction date
Project
unit costs
Product
performance
Development
expense
Tactical decision rules
Life-cycle profit impact
1% expense overrun $40,000
1% project cost overrun $150,000
1% performance shortfall $100,000
One-month delay $500,000
One simple sensitivity analysis produced these tactical decision rules.
They quantify the effect of a 1% change in expenses, project cost and
performance shortfall as well as the effect of one month delay.
Source: Charts after D. Reinertsen, Machine Design, May 1998
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Creating trade-off rules
Create baseline
model
Model
expense
overrun
Model
cost
overrun
Model
performance
shortfall
Model
schedule
delay
Determine total profit impact on missing objective
Convert to tactical
decision rule
Application trade-off rules
Life-cycle profit impact
Purchase price $300
1% reduction
Installation cost $100
Space $240
Cost
impact
Consumable parts $600
Electricity consumption $100
Inspection time $900
Downtime $1,500
An application economic model helps decide trade-offs among individual project
features or attributes. The various economic drivers – installation cost or downtime –
can be quantified and estimated, and total ownership cost expressed in dollars. This
can be used to calculate the trade-off rules. In this case, reducing inspection time has
9x the impact of lowering electricity consumption.
Source: Charts after D. Reinertsen, Machine Design, May 1998
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The economic modeling tool is based on setting uncomplicated trade-off rules in project
development. It recognizes that every project has four key objectives:
•
•
•
•
Schedule – target date
Project unit cost
Project performance
Development costs
Trade-offs between them should maximize a project’s profitability. The model allows a facility to
make the right investment decisions.
The target date is the date when the project should be fully on stream. The product unit costs are the
implemented costs based on product unit, one hectolitre, etc. The project performance measures the
revenue stream over the projects lifetime from the saving/improved productivity it will achieve. The
development expense is the one-time cost associated with the development of the project.
The next step is to assign a dollar value to 1 percent change of each of those parameters. This is
brewery-specific, something we can set as a rule of thumb very easily. We may now model, for
example, a 50-percent overrun of development (i.e. equipment procurement and installation)
expenses, a 10-percent overrun of production costs, a 10-percent performance shortfall, and a
6-month delay in project commissioning. By applying the dollar values to each of the parameters,
we can quickly see what impact each change will have on the anticipated saving (profit).
The economic model can be applied also to a trade-off between features of the particular equipment,
as the table in the lower right-hand corner above shows. The total project ownership costs must be
estimated (i.e. equipment cost, installation, commissioning, space cost, power, compressed air and
consumables; cleaning, maintenance and labour; cost of breakdowns; spare parts, bad product; cost of
downtime; lost production time and volume; cost of missed sales; etc.). Expressed in dollars, the total
ownership costs help in deciding trade-offs – among different performance/equipment attributes.
Important note: The economic model can also be used by a brewery in evaluating product
development characteristics and possible trade-offs (i.e. substitute appropriate terms
such as market introduction date, product, etc., for those used in the above and relating
to projects).
A few tips on how to implement the economic modeling tool
•
•
Keep the financial model simple: When input data is imprecise, do not fret over the accuracy
of product unit costs; use cumulative profit before taxes instead – this is something that is
generally understood. Focus any extra effort on making the input data as accurate as possible.
Involve the right people: Different team members may have different critical information
needed to construct the model; involve the financial controller for analytical as well as political
reasons.
It requires an effort to make some cultural change: turn away from intuitive
decision-making and toward rational quantification. It’s worth it.
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•
•
•
•
Make the trade-off rules visible: Post the key numbers (e.g. What is one hour of downtime
worth?) so people see them all the time and will use them routinely. Review those numbers
from time to time.
Use the project economic model for decision-making: Be consistent in using it systematically.
Integrate the tactical decision rules in your business process: Make the decision rules a part
of every project (for example, any new-product business plan). Start every project with a
consistently calculated, reviewed set of tactical decision rules.
Don’t develop projects (products, etc.) unless you are ready to do the simple math.
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4.4 DEVELOPING ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
A successful energy management program in a brewery is more than just a sum of EMO projects.
Using all the various inputs we mentioned earlier, one should make ideally a focused effort to prepare
•
•
•
a first-year detailed project plan
a medium-term energy saving plan for the entire brewery
a long-term energy saving plan
Benefits realized from housekeeping projects requiring no capital are immediate and
significant.
•
Plan to improve energy management in general, including the setting up of an energy
m
­ onitoring system.
This can be tailored to the brewery’s circumstances – a very simple sketch for a small brewery as
opposed to a detailed one for a large brewery.
The last point involves an education and awareness campaign to improve housekeeping practices.
Quite assuredly, as mentioned, these will generate energy savings of 10 to 15 percent just through
the elimination of wasteful practices, with no capital investments required.
Setting priorities
Establishing priorities will involve consideration of business needs and some of the decisionmaking tools described in the previous section. It pays to remember one worn-out but true cliché:
One has to walk before one can run. Start the program with projects that will bring in results
quickly and rather easily – harvest the low-hanging fruit. That will be a great source of motivation
to employees – to see that it can be done and that they are successful. It will give members of the
energy management team the confidence to start more complex and long-term projects. You may
want to include in the initial projects those that will correct the obvious sources of waste found in
the initial energy audit.
Remember that without ongoing attention, the low-hanging fruit may grow back and the
initial effort would be wasted.
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Self-assessment provides a cue
44
In the UK, Campden BRI, in collaboration with KWA, developed a self-assessment benchmarking
tool for energy use in breweries. This enables the user to measure how the brewery performs
on energy efficiency compared to other breweries in a group, on the plant as well as the process
unit level. It also enables the brewers to identify potential measures for reducing energy uses, the
potential savings per process unit and the payback time. All this may help the brewers focus on
energy use-reduction work that may have escaped their attention.
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IMPLEMENTING
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
OPPORTUNITIES
5
IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES
5.0 IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES
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5.1 EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT
The energy management program would achieve little without involving every one of the brewery’s
personnel, from managers to operators. The change of culture must involve all. Active participation
and involvement of all employees in energy conservation measures and efficiency improvements are
necessary.
Increase energy
awareness
This is the necessary and a very important initial step.
Stimulate interest
Launch a publicity campaign: use existing means of communication to stimulate
interest (mail special news bulletins directly to employees’ homes, use posters,
information sheets and energy efficiency handbooks for all employees – plenty of
these can be obtained from different sources).
Form a team
Form a team of volunteers from different departments, and give it a catchy slogan
(e.g. The Super Savers, Energy Cost Slashers, Energizer Bunnies, etc.). Launch it
with hoopla.
Focus on simple
things first
Reach for the “low-hanging fruit” to guarantee success at the beginning of a
program and to stimulate participation.
These things come
free
First target the elimination of wasteful practices – zero in on better
“­housekeeping.” Explain simple good housekeeping methods to keep energy
consumption down.
Avoid dilution of
effort
To concentrate on one type of energy at a time, three separate items may be
run, on natural gas, electricity and compressed air, depending on the resources
a­ vailable.
Encourage
Give a pat on the back to encourage, monitor progress and report improvements.
Stick to it
Make the change permanent.
Brainstorming sessions and suggestion programs may help tap into ideas, but they need to be held
on a regular basis in order to yield the desired results. Some maintain that it is better to base these
sessions on teamwork rather than on the initiative of individuals. This minimizes the potential of
divisive personal rivalries.
Another solution is to approach energy efficiency as an opportunity for continual improvement, and
use any of the number of proven techniques to achieve it, e.g. Quality Circles, Kaizen, Total Quality
Management (TQM), etc. Of course, when a management system (as per ISO 9001, ISO 14001,
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OHSAS 18001 or ISO 50001) is implemented, the continual improvement is already embedded
in this standard as a key requirement for the entire organization. Energy efficiency improvement
programs are often selected by the organization to realize its overall objectives and targets (see
Section 4). In one such scenario, the team focuses on working on an identified need of the brewery.
47
Ongoing training also helps. Not every brewery can invest two hours of training per employee per
week as would this Eastern Ontario brewery.
Case study: Training modules for middle management
A brewery decided that training all of their employees in recognizing energy waste and to reduce
wastage was impractical. Hence, only middle management was chosen as they were able to influence
energy usage, directly and by motivating their teams. A training course was designed with outside
help (electric utilities, gas companies, NRCan) and delivered over extended lunch breaks.
It had four two-hour modules with one module per week at a cost of $150/person. The course first
encouraged participants to carry out an energy audit of their homes and subsequently draw parallels
to energy use at their workplace. Different approaches may work as well. They performed a walkabout energy audit of their own department and involved others.
Results: The effort resulted in a 3 percent reduction of the total energy bill, and a payback period
of only three weeks. Before the project, only 10 percent of the workforce regularly took practical
energy saving actions. After the project, that percentage increased to 85 percent.
5.2 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Communication between team members and brewery employees at large is essential to sustain
interest in the energy conservation program.
A well-executed communication plan is essential for ensuring that everybody feels that they are part
of the energy management effort. Regular reports taken from the monitored data encourage staff by
showing progress achieved towards their goals.
Show the information prominently on bulletin boards where people can see them. Someone should
be in charge of posting and updating it regularly. Old news is not interesting. The format, colours,
etc., may be changed from time to time to maintain the visual interest of the information.
Remember: people do not like reading memos. Use simplified graphical, visual representations of the results – charts, diagrams, “thermometers” of fulfillment, etc. Relate it to costs.
Stay away from a dry reporting format – use a representation that people can understand. For
example, express savings in dollars, dollars per employee, or dollars per unit (hl; 1000 of 24-bottle
cases of production, etc.). Show it on a cumulative basis; show how it contributes to the company’s
profit picture.
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The energy management champion should share with the EMT members all of the available
information about energy use and challenge them to explore ways to conserve energy in their
respective areas. Think about using team contests as a tool.
It is just as important to keep the brewery management informed about the activities and progress
made. The objective is to obtain agreement and re-establish support from the management group for
the energy management system with each report.
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MANAGING ENERGY
RESOURCES AND COSTS
6
MANAGING ENERGY RESOURCES AND COSTS
6.0 MANAGING ENERGY RESOURCES AND COSTS
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6.1 ENERGY AND UTILITIES COSTS AND MANAGEMENT
The brewery accountant could be the energy champion’s best friend. All that has to be done is to
explain to the accountant the concepts behind energy bills (see Section 7.2), and show him the
energy implications of production non-quality on the total operational costs. Both fixed and variable
costs may be affected.
The most important step in energy management and conservation is measuring and
­accounting for energy consumption.
The accountant’s initial knowledge of energy matters may be limited to bill paying – a situation
all too common in breweries with little or no energy metering capabilities – resulting in a lack
of interest in energy improvement. However, his or her professional interest may be aroused
when measures to control energy costs are explained. To develop a set of key energy indicators,
essential metering, monitoring and operational controls are required. Seeing the potential of the
measurements and the magnitude of costs, the accountant would most certainly support the energy
improvement drive and help in preparing cost justifications for acquisition of the meters and
controls it would require. The rest is the work of the energy champion.
The ratio of total energy costs to the total of manufacturing costs represents the energy
intensity of the brewery operations.
Here are some of the indicators that every brewery likely has, as a minimum:
•
•
•
Cost of electricity – total
• Consumption charge (time of day/week rates and charges)
• Peak demand charge
• Power factor penalty (if any)
Cost of natural gas (or other fuel)
Cost of water (includes sewer charges)
Energy intensity, the cost of energy per hectolitre, electricity per work hour, and similar global
measurements can be developed from these data. It is not always possible to separate the energy
costs for heating and lighting of offices from the production part of the plant, or how much energy
this or that process system uses. The basic information is not enough for an effective control: one
needs to know how, where, when and why the energy is spent, and how much it costs. For instance,
determining how much energy is wasted in a brewery during the non-production periods and on
weekends may prove to be a revelation. This can be achieved, among other means, by sub-metering
key equipment/operations. Other indicators may be developed:
•
•
•
Energy (gas, oil or electricity) and cost of energy per hectolitre
Average load factor
Average power factor
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•
•
•
Boiler thermal conversion efficiency
Brewhouse energy demand as a percentage of the energy demand of the whole brewery,
Cost of electricity consumed by the compressors, etc.
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These measurements can be used for setting standards against which new energy consumption
(cost) targets can be determined (more on this in Sections 6.3 and 6.4). When accounting for energy
costs one should investigate the impact of production practices on overall costs which will help in
determining optimal solutions. Subsequently, management support and capital funds approvals
should be much easier to obtain for the following:
•
•
Process and equipment changes
Energy loss reduction programs and energy recovery systems
Full cost accounting, in the energy context, is akin to costing internal shrinkage in the
brewery’s energy usage.
Management tips
• C
onsider developing meaningful energy performance indicators specific to
your brewery’s needs.
• Conduct seminars or awareness sessions for all operators to ­explain:
1. energy costs and the means of their control
2. effect of good housekeeping on driving the energy costs down
3. importance of proper operational practices
• Review the indicators regularly at operations management ­meetings.
• Keep employees informed – communicate the results.
• Use the energy cost results in developing and reviewing of business plans,
alternate energy plans and capital projects.
• Use the energy cost indicators as a management tool to improve
p
­ erformance.
6.2 MONITORING, MEASURING CONSUMPTION AND
SETTING TARGETS
This presumes the availability of data. It involves establishing a measurement base, to which the
improvements can be related. Often, one quickly finds that there is only rudimentary measurement
equipment installed (and consequently minimal data available), particularly in smaller breweries.
This is a surmountable obstacle. An energy management program can still be implemented. As the
program picks up steam and shows results, it will be much easier to convince management to invest
in more metering equipment, gauges, sensors and controllers. These will allow data to be generated
for key energy-consuming equipment.
What you can measure, you can control. What you can control, you can improve.
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You may find that you lack essential data because performance has never been measured. Use the
energy audit results or calculate energy requirements to establish benchmarks against which to set
future targets. Measure your current performance against industry standards (some of which are
stated elsewhere in this Guide).
Once a target has been met on a sustained basis over a period of several months, it is time to review
it. It can become the new standard and a new progressive target can be set at a new, progressive
value. Target setting helps to involve the entire workforce in energy efficiency projects by giving
them achievable goals.
Targets should be realistic, measurable and verifiable.
The brewery energy champion should manage the energy management plan as an ongoing program
and coordinate a number of energy saving projects together. Consider interactions – beneficial or
otherwise – between the various projects. You would not want to see one project’s implementation
negating the projected savings of another.
The best approach is to track consumption compared with a set target and past performance and
react to aberrations with corrective and preventive actions, all in view of continual improvement.
Performance analysis must take into account other accompanying factors, e.g. percentage of beer
shrinkage, or production and process variations.
Tracking energy and utility consumption implies that energy costs and the cost of utilities
are viewed as valuable resources that must be prudently utilized to advantage just like
labour and any other variable.
Selecting proper
measurables
Monitoring and measuring consumption requires the careful selection of
­meaningful measurables that allow comparisons over time, using the same
­reference, e.g. kWh/hl of beer sold. The selection of the reference point is
­usually what causes some difficulties. Other base benchmarks could be selected,
e.g. ­consumption of a given resource over hours worked, per employee, per hl
of beer brewed (ex-brewhouse), per hl of beer in the government cellar, per
$1,000 gross revenue, etc. However, these bases may change for a variety of reasons
from year to year; the real improvement (or worsening) may therefore be hard to
determine when the values of the bases shift. The ability to track performance over
time ­requires a standard reference point.
Units of
measure should
not fluctuate
over time
As in other business, breweries can chose the consumption figures related to the
saleable product, i.e. to the hl of beer sold, as a measurement that is the most
comprehensive, encompassing all influences in the brewery. That is valid for steadystate production make-up, relatively unchanging over long periods. When product
make-up fluctuates at the dilution/carbonation volumes (i.e. brand volume sales),
the brewery may wish to relate the consumption to a suitable production stage
upstream (e.g. ex-brewhouse, ex-fermentation).
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Set objectives
and targets
Consider past performance, business and fiscal objectives, technology options
and implications, in setting objectives in energy and utilities management. The
objectives should be in line with the company policy (policies). Setting a target for
appearance’s sake would be counterproductive. A target should aim for continual
improvement and be challenging – substantial yet achievable.
Visualize
performance
reporting
Graphical presentation of the tracked values (regardless of whether it is energy
or productivity or overtime) should include at least the following parameters:
average value for the past year, current target, current monthly performance and
a trend line. The chart is a superb visual tool that conveys information powerfully
and at a glance. The chart can be accompanied by a table, where actual figures and
variations can be augmented by the expression of costs – all of these on year-to-date
(YTD) basis.
Regular review
The performance of managing the consumption should be regularly reviewed
(e.g. monthly), analyzed and reported at business management reviews.
Re-setting
the target
Step by step target-setting helps managers regard energy as a resource that must
be managed with equal attention as with other process inputs such as labour and
raw materials.
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6.3 ACTION PLANS – DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION
AND MONITORING
Action plans
For the energy champion, to be able to implement the energy management plan and the various
EMOs, it will be necessary to work out specific action plans. These will give him the management
and control tool needed to achieve targets effectively and efficiently. The plans will detail, who
will do what, when, and with what resources. This process can only be meaningful and effective
if it involves as broad a base of brewery employees at as many functions and levels as possible.
Responsibilities, accountabilities, resources required and timelines should form a part of an action
plan to reach the objectives and goals. The action plan should include the other energy management
opportunities and tips found for every process under Section 7 – Technical and Process
Considerations. Several project management software programs can be used to create the graphical
representation of the action plans easily.
Start the work early
Do not procrastinate. Delays cause enthusiasm to wane. Begin with projects that are simple and will
boost the team’s confidence. Provide positive reinforcement that helps employees to willingly adopt
new energy-saving practices.
Remember: A dollar saved goes directly to the bottom line.
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54
Encourage team members to keep up with their assigned work and to stick to the implementation
schedule. Meet with the energy management team (EMT) in regular, brief meetings, to review
progress, plan new projects, evaluate established goals and set new goals as required.
Establish ongoing monitoring
It is important to track the energy streams entering the facility and their usage. It will generate data
to provide answers for the following questions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Is progress being made?
Are the energy data accurate?
Can we make prompt corrections of process conditions that have caused sudden excessive
c­ onsumption?
What are the trends in energy usage? (Use that information in the budgeting process.)
What is the cost savings achieved from the data gathered by the energy monitoring system and
what is the return on investment?
Are the implemented energy saving measures living up to the projections? (Problems with
the project’s performance can be identified and techniques for estimating costs and benefits of
­energy efficiency improvements for future projects can be improved.)
Is the equipment performing as per the supplier guarantees?
Can we set future energy use reduction targets and monitor progress toward new goals?
Are there areas in the facility which need a detailed energy audit?
The best way to monitor energy consumption is with metering equipment installed at strategic
points to measure the flow of energy sources such as electricity, and compressed air to each
major user.
Express the energy performance meaningfully
Express measurements in SI units such as MJ or GJ because they enable global comparisons. For
example, state the energy consumption or savings as follows:
Consider expressing energy usage in the global warming context, where 1 MJ = 0.2 kg
CO2 equivalent.
•
•
•
•
•
•
per hl of saleable beer
per investment dollar
per dollar of sales
as power saved (or gas, steam, compressed air); state also its equivalent in dollars
as annual operating cost savings
as capital cost avoidance
Use the measurements that make sense in your brewery’s specific conditions.
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MANAGING ENERGY RESOURCES AND COSTS
Monitoring energy performance helps managers identify wasteful areas of their department and
gives them responsibility for energy use. When monitoring shows that energy consumption is
declining as improvements are being made, attention can be turned to the next area of concern.
55
Lock in the gains – set new targets
Remember that energy management is an issue of technology as well as people.
Energy management needs constant attention otherwise the gains could fade away and the
effort disintegrate. To make the new energy saving measures stick, pay constant attention to the
implemented project until the measure becomes a well-entrenched routine.
If practices and procedures have been changed because of the project, take the time and effort to
document it. This will ensure the future consistency of the practice as well as serve as a training and
audit tool.
6.4 MONITORING AND TARGETING (M&T)
Since its inception, Monitoring and Targeting (M&T) energy and utilities management system has
become a mainstream methodology. Several firms are successfully selling the underlying hardware
and software, applicable in a wide range of industries. In brewing, it was the U.K. Brewers’ Society
(now Brewers and Licensed Retailers Association) that first proposed its use.
It is a disciplined and structured approach, which ensures energy resources are provided and used
as efficiently as possible. The approach is equally applicable to other utilities such as water, CO2,
nitrogen, effluent, etc.
Molson Coors Canada’s brewery in Toronto-Etobicoke was the first to implement M&T in Canada,
with rather spectacular results. These were published (Energy Services, Case Study No. 1, Ontario
Hydro, December, 1994). According to the report, an initial $200,000 investment realized savings
of about $1.5 million on water charges alone in the first year of implementation. Since then, other
breweries in Canada have implemented M&T.
M&T does not imply any changes in the specifications of processes. It does not seek to stress the
importance of energy management to any greater or lesser extent than is warranted by its proportion
of controllable costs. The fundamental principle of M&T is that energy and other utilities are direct
costs that should be monitored and controlled in the same way as other direct production-related
costs such as labour and malt. As such, actual energy use should be included in the management
accounts in the same way as labour or malt is included.
Accountability for controlling energy consumption should rest with the people who use it, namely
the brewery’s departmental managers. The plant controller should also be involved since this is the
person who will want to know how these controllable costs are managed.
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The direct benefits of M&T have been shown in the brewing and other industries to range between
4 percent and 18 percent of fuel and electricity bills. Other intrinsic benefits lie in the beneficial
change in the brewery culture such as increased employee awareness, a sense of ownership, an
improved environmental posture of the brewery, and the application of the newly acquired
energy-saving habits in other aspects of production.
Experience has shown that improvement in ordinary housekeeping practices (i.e. minding the
energy consumption used every day such as switching off unneeded equipment, etc.) typically
produces 10 to 15 percent savings. Achieving the percentages of profit margin increase with
35 percent energy savings, as shown in Table 6-1, is not at all improbable.
Table 6-1: Profit increase from energy savings
and if a plant’s energy cost percentage is:
3%
4%
5%
6%
7%
8%
and energy costs were reduced by 35%, then the
If the original profit
margin is:
Profit margin percentage will increase by the percentage below:
1%
104%
139%
173%
208%
242%
277%
2%
51%
69%
86%
103%
120%
137%
5%
20%
27%
33%
40%
46%
53%
10%
9%
13%
16%
19%
22%
25%
20%
4%
6%
7%
8%
9%
11%
30%
3%
4%
5%
6%
7%
8%
Table adapted after V.A. Munroe
The M&T system’s implementation costs will depend on the extent of meters installed, the coverage
desired and the methods used for recording and analyzing energy use. The scope can be adjusted in
line with the savings expected.
The road to improved energy efficiency begins with a board-level policy to treat energy and
utilities costs as direct costs. The policy is implemented through a proper management structure.
Implementation is assisted by monitoring consumption against standards and setting targets that
have been agreed upon by the managers. All employees must also be on board in order to achieve
the targets.
The M&T process begins with the division of the brewery into energy-accountable centres
(EACs), those that convert energy and those that use it. An EAC should correspond to an existing
management accounting centre such as the brewhouse. For obvious reasons, EACs should not
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MANAGING ENERGY RESOURCES AND COSTS
straddle different managers’ jurisdictions. Within each EAC, energy consumption, e.g. use of
steam, electricity, etc., is monitored. For additional control, energy might be monitored in specific
areas within the EAC. For each item monitored such as boiler efficiency, a suitable index is needed
against which to assess performance. For each index, performance standard needs to be derived
from historical data that take into account the factors (e.g. production) that can significantly affect
efficiency. Again, the managers involved must agree upon the derived standards.
57
Targets are derived just as standards are. They represent improvements in energy use efficiency. To
insure that the process will work, managers whose consumption is targeted must agree that the targets
are realistic. Table 6-2 lists a few possible measurable parameters (specific consumption figures).
Table 6-2: Deployment of M&T (example)
Brewery Process Areas
Measurement
Brewhouse
Consumption/hl cold wort
Fermenting
Consumption/hl cold wort
Cellars/beer processing
Consumption/hl bright beer
Packaging
Consumption/hl shippable beer
Energy centre
Measurement
Refrigeration
Consumption/GJ cooling
Steam production
Consumption/GJ heat
Air compressors
Consumption/Nm3* air
CO2 collection
Consumption/kg treated CO2
Other functions
Consumption/week
* Normal cubic metre
Measuring brewery process areas requires the installation of meters at key points in the system,
especially on equipment with large energy or utility consumption (such as the brew kettle, bottle
washer and can filler).
To generate data, the following matrix of metering equipment should be installed (Table 6-3) as
a minimum:
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Table 6-3: Installation of energy and utilities meters (example):
58
Meters for/in
BH*
F
CP
PKG
EC
REF
STE
CO2
CA
OTH
Cold water
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Hot water
X
X
X
X
X
Steam
X
X
X
X
X
kWh
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Compressed air
CO2
Refrigeration
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
* BH – Brewhouse, F – Fermenting, CP – Cellars/beer processing, PKG – Packaging, EC – Energy centre,
REF – ­Refrigeration, STE – Boilerhouse, CO2 – Carbon dioxide recovery plant, CA – Compressed air, OTH
– Other areas
Experience has shown that the cost of installing meters and associated monitoring equipment will
soon be offset by the gains achieved following the implementation of an M&T program. It takes
about 18 months from the initial decision to investigate the M&T potential to full implementation
of the system.
The M&T concept is sound, and many industrial sectors have benefited substantially from it.
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7
TECHNICAL
AND PROCESS
CONSIDERATIONS
7
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
7.0 TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
60
Energy management must be approached with an open mind to critically evaluate previously accepted practices, some of which may prove to be inefficient. A fresh look, or an
added awareness, combined with a little imagination and/or expert assistance, can pay
large dividends in energy and cost reduction.
This section describes what can be done with energy and water conservation in the brewery
processes. Energy efficiency improvement opportunities (EMOs) and tips are roughly
categorized – as pointed out in the introductory chapter – into three categories as shown below:
Housekeeping, no or low cost (payback period of six months or less)
Medium costs (retrofit of equipment or buildings required; payback period of three years or less)
Capital cost (change in process, new plant or equipment required; payback period of three years or
more). Generally speaking, these energy improvement opportunities can be expected to have the
longest payback.
The dollar division is approximate as it is normally a function of the size, type, and financial
policy of the organization. Also the payback period is only an estimate, based on a project’s type
and complexity.
7.1FUELS
This section and Section 7.3 on boiler plant systems are closely linked and should be read together.
Mainly for reasons of due diligence and emergency preparedness, most Canadian breweries opt to
secure non-interruptible operations by running their boilers on dual fuel, usually natural gas and
oil. There may be exceptions in regions that are not served by natural gas pipelines. In addition, the
ability to burn different fuels provides leverage to negotiate better prices in supply contracts. A third
advantage is in the flexibility of fuel choice over the long-term, should a change in availability or
relative price occur.
The choice of fuel requires careful consideration. Factors such as the price of fuel, the capital cost
of the plant, its current and anticipated future supply operating and maintenance costs, all have to
be evaluated. As most of the boiler plants in Canadian breweries are aging, these considerations
will come into play when deciding between retrofitting and replacing the plant. Table 7-1 may be of
particular interest to brewing companies considering a start-up of new operations.
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Table 7-1: Comparison of fuel types
Fuel Type
Advantages
Disadvantages
Natural gas
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
the most convenient to use
readily available
no storage required
mixes readily with air
burns cleanly
high calorific value
does not produce smoke or soot
because it has no sulfur content
• heat recuperation possible from
flue gases beyond the point at
which condensation starts
• lighter than air
• if leaking, will disperse easily
• safety equipment maintenance
r­ equired
Liquefied
Petroleum
Gas (LPG)
(usually propane;
sometimes butane)
• all the general comments about
natural gas apply equally to LPG
• requires storage facilities (capital
or leasing costs, operational and
maintenance costs, inspections and
testing of storage pressure vessels and
delivery systems)
• special precautions needed in ­relation
to leakages
• heavier than air
• may seep into underground ­tunnels,
ducts
• requires forced dispersion with a fan
(storage siting consideration)
• LPG butane, although slightly
cheaper, liquefies at 0°C
• needs power source for evaporation at
low temperatures
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Heavy oil
Bunker oil No. 6
• cheaper than lighter grades,
sometimes cheaper than gas
• requires storage systems
• capital and maintenance ­intensive
• potential for leakage and soil/water
contamination regular inspections
required
• due to high combustion ­temperatures,
it produces oxides of nitrogen (NOX)
• high sulfur content may preclude
utilization of flue gas economizers due
to corrosion problems arising from
condensation and formation of acids
from sulfur oxides (SOX)
• very viscous, needs insulated and
heated storage tanks and pump/pipe
delivery systems
• the pumping circulation loop must be
kept at a high ­temperature
• thorough atomization in the burner
required
• may produce smoke or soot
• boiler cleaning and burner
maintenance costs
Light oil
(e.g. No. 2 oil)
• partially desulfurized to
0.1-0.3% sulfur content;
• remains fluid to -11°C
•
•
•
•
•
gels in extreme cold
waxes may precipitate in cold weather
may clog filters
requires heat tracing
other properties are similar to
heavy oil
Other fuel considerations
The use of coal, coke and wood is not generally practiced in the brewing industry in Canada. A
brewery in the United States reported using solid combustible waste to supplement its energy needs.
Biogas from the operation of anaerobic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP, predominantly
methane with heavy contamination of CO2) can be used to advantage. Because the volume
generated is dependent on the WWTP operation, it has a supplementary role to the use of other
fuels. Its relatively low volume (if used on a stand-alone basis) is usable for smaller dedicated tasks
such as preheating the return condensate or air intake or for water heating. Due to its wetness,
corrosion of the supply system might become an issue. However, at least one Canadian brewery is
practicing it.
In three Western provinces – the marketplace for natural gas – industry has long been competitive.
Ontario and Quebec have also got used to the deregulated market conditions. Natural gas prices
have risen sharply since 2000. Energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) will be
increasingly important tools for breweries to manage costs. Large users of natural gas are purchasing
gas on the spot market and are using software to manage the task for maximum benefit. While
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TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
escalating gas costs are a major factor in energy budgets, at least one larger company has managed
to offset them by installing combined heat and power (CHP) co-generators for generating their own
electricity and selling a potential surplus to the distribution network. Others may follow suit when
business conditions allow it.
63
When reducing natural gas or fuel oil consumption, the priority is to concentrate on
making the combustion process as efficient as possible. The following points should be
examined.
Gas/oil delivery system
Is the system tight, without obstructions or leaks? Gas lines, many of which may be decades old and
buried underground, may be corroded and may leak. To find out whether they are leaking, record
the gas meter reading during a no-production period and again after a period of 12 to 24 hours.
Provided the gas water heater was not on, there should be zero difference in the reading. Gas
consumption for space heating, etc. can be accounted for by estimating the consumption based on
the plate information. If leaks are detected, work should start on uncovering their source and fixing
them promptly (safety may be involved). Similarly, check the tightness of the oil systems, which
may produce less accurate results and require more time. If suspect, surrounding soil analysis may
provide an answer.
In oil supply systems, ensure that filters are regularly checked, and pumps maintained.
Combustion
Very frequently, adequate controls are lacking for oil and gas furnaces. Poor control of air/gas ratio
results in wasted energy, frequently excessive temperatures and wasted money. More on the topic
can be found in Section 7.3.1 and 7.3.2.
Flue gas analysis will show the true composition. For natural gas, under equilibrium conditions, the
flue gas composition should show close to 12 percent CO2, about 20 to 22 percent of water vapour
and the rest nitrogen. Lower percentages of CO2, and the presence of carbon monoxide (CO) and
hydrogen, indicate poor combustion (reducing fire) and chemical energy losses in the two escaping
gases; a portion of the gas has been wasted. On the other hand, in excess air supply conditions, all
the gas will be burnt, and the analysis will reveal the presence of oxygen. Again, energy was wasted,
this time on heating the extra air passing through the boiler furnace.
Air-tightness of the boiler furnace chamber
Air ingress into the boiler furnace causes significant losses of energy. All that extra air needs to be
heated to maintain the proper furnace chamber temperature. Attention to air elimination from
the steam, boiler and pipes insulation, and steam traps maintenance are also important points in
making the system efficient. Some of the EMOs, specific to steam boilers, are listed below.
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Fuels: Other EMOs and tips
64
Note: Points of interest, particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries, are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
• Inspect gas/oil lines for corrosion and other sources of leaks to ensure no losses are
occurring.
• If underground oil tank or pipes are suspected of leakage, consider contracting
for analysis of surrounding soil: it will cost you, but it may save much more by
­preventing much larger soil decontamination cost.
• Inspect the aboveground fuel oil tank insulation and supply pipes insulation; repair
it without delay.
• The gas company can be approached with a request for a loan of extra gas meters for
sub-metering major gas-burning equipment.
• Avoid heating the entire oil storage tank to the required pumping (circulating)
­temperature. It is a wasteful practice. Control the temperature of oil in the storage
tank to maintain viscosity required for pumping oil; verify it.
• Avoid having too much oil in the circulating loop; a well-designed pumping
system circulates only 10 percent of oil over the maximum demand of the
burners.
• Ensure that electric heat tracing works and is used only when ­necessary.
• If steam is used for tracing, evaluate the cost vis-à-vis electric ­tracing.
• Subject gas suppliers to competitive bids.
• If the boiler is dual fuel-fired, review your gas supply contract and consider an
interruptible supply option that carries a lower gas price.
Medium cost
• Consider installing gas flow meters to manage consumption of major gas using
equipment such as boilers and water heaters.
• Monitor and control the boiler furnace inside pressure.
• Consider using the local gas company as a contractor for maintenance services to
your gas burners.
• Your local oil supply company can help with efficiency testing and off-gas analyses.
7.2ELECTRICITY
Power consumption costs in air compressors and in packaging are by far the most
­important end-use points to control.
Start by examining the components of the electricity bill in an effort to save electricity. Often these
are not fully understood and consequently opportunities of potential savings are lost. A brewery
can leverage this knowledge profitably in managing electricity use on site, and in negotiating with
energy companies in the deregulated electricity market in Canada. When conserving electricity,
focus on where the potential savings are.
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The electricity bill – four possible components
1. Consumption charge: It is the kilowatt hours (kWh) consumed in a given period multiplied
by the set rate, expressed as ¢/kWh. A second consumption charge may apply in time-of-use
and seasonal rates situations. These pricing schemes offer lower rates to customers who can
shift high-demand operations away from the periods when the utility receives its peak demand
for energy. The utility benefits from a more consistent daily load pattern, and the customer
pays less.
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Ways to save:
•
•
Reduce the total electricity consumption (in kWh) in the facility
Shift energy consumption to times when energy costs are lower
2. Demand charge: It is the maximum power level used by the brewery, expressed in kW or
kilovolt-ampere (kVA). It is also referred to as peak demand. Demand varies throughout the
day, independent of what electric equipment is running concurrently. The electricity company
measures demand in 15-minute intervals, every quarter hour. The maximum demand recorded
in the month sets the demand rate (up to $20 or more per kW) to be applied to the electricity
bill for the entire month. The electricity utility finances its investment in supplying the required
power to the brewery. If the brewery has its own transformer, it may negotiate for a discount.
In breweries, there is excellent potential for cost savings from demand control and
load ­shifting.
Some billing practices obscure the penalties involved. For example, if the demand charge
combines the monthly demand with a percentage of maximum monthly demand in the past
12 months, then a brewery is penalized when no production takes place (due to holidays or low
business level).
Considerable savings are possible by simply managing the time when electricity is being used.
One of the main strategies to save power is to reduce the non-productive idle time in
the production. This helps to even out the load.
•
•
Reduce peak demand by
• load-shedding (Figure 7-1), i.e. turning off non-essential electrical equipment
• load-shifting (Figure 7-2), i.e. re-scheduling operations so that some activities take place
during off-peak periods
• process improvements, which reduce electrical power requirements
• negotiating, if the utility allows it, for 60-minute demand-setting period, instead of the
15-minute option
Control demand by demand controllers – devices that reduce potential peaks and flatten out
brewery demand. If you already have a demand controller, examine its function relative to a
frequency of load factor peaks. Demand can be also controlled by staggering operations and
using new-generation power packs, which can split the power among the user centres to
control the demand effectively.
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To achieve good power demand, find a substantial load, which can be taken off line
instantly without creating intolerable production disruption or delay.
Figure 7-1: Load shedding
Figure 7-2: Load shifting
kW
saving
Load (kW)
kW
saving
Load (kW)
7
Etc.
Time
Noon
Etc.
Time
Noon
3. Power factor charge: It is the penalty charged by an electricity company to customers for poor
utilization of power supplied. It is a measure of efficiency and is expressed as a ratio of the power
passing through a circuit (apparently supplied in kVA) to actual power used (work performed,
in kW). Utilities penalize customers having a power factor that is less than at a pre-determined
level, usually 90 percent. Deregulation affected this.
A power factor penalty is often obscured when the demand is billed in kVA, rather
than the maximum kW level.
Sometimes kVA is used in the capacity charge. It is a charge intended as payment for the costs of
supplying the service to the site, and represents the maximum demand from the supply system.
A power factor may be improved by:
•
•
Controlling items that generate inductive loads such as transformers, lighting ­ballasts,
electric induction motors (especially under-loaded ones), etc., which lower the p
­ ower factor.
Installing capacitors in the electric system. The thing to watch for is harmonics from other
equipment that may trip or destroy the protection.
4. Inducements: For example, offering different rates for blocks of consumption based on demand
(e.g. 9 ¢/kWh for the first 100,000 kWh x demand, 6 ¢/kWh for the next block, etc.). This may
penalize single-shift operations and those with a poor load factor. (Load factor is the monthly
consumption divided by the product of maximum demand and the billing period hours.)
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At other times, utilities may offer better rates for off-peak hours in an effort to make a brewery
reschedule its operations (e.g. refrigeration).
Ways to save:
•
•
67
Examine your electricity bill and try to re-negotiate
Examine the economics of a different production schedule
Most industrial and commercial facilities are billed for electricity according to a general-service
rate schedule in which the customer pays for the peak power demand (kW/kVA) and energy
consumption (kWh). Most general-service rate structures also impose financial penalties on plants
with a low power factor.
Some utilities now offer their major customers real-time pricing, a scheme in which each day the
utility gives the customer the rates proposed for each hour of the following day.
Real-time pricing allows the customer to schedule high-consumption activities to
­low-cost times of day and to realize substantial savings.
Software applications are available to estimate energy costs in a variety of situations to help you
arrive at the best mode of use, depending on operational restraints imposed by factors such as
equipment requirements. To find out more about the software and analysis tools available, contact
your electrical utility. (Also, see EMOs further on.)
It is estimated that potential electricity cost savings from demand control or scheduling
are four times greater than those from energy conservation.
Consider using one of the predictive “smart” Demand Side Management (DSM) programs available
on the market. DSM refers to installing efficiency devices to lower or manage the peak electric load
or demand. (Note: DSM programs are also available for natural gas usage.) A network of on-line
electrical metering enables real-time data to be collected from the meters and the computerized
energy management system to predict and control the electricity demand. When the demand
approaches pre-set targets, non-essential operations are cut off and held back to shave off the
peak demand.
Breweries in Canada buy their electricity from public utilities, with the exception of a single
brewery, which employs in-house generation.
Case study: Begin the practice of monitoring electric demand
By charging their customers a cost penalty for peak kilowatt demand during each month, public
utilities are encouraging them to reduce power spikes in their operations. It is costly for them to
maintain sufficient reserves to cope with spiked demand, as they have to by law. Public utilities
customarily measure the demand in a plant over consecutive 15- or 30-minute intervals throughout
the month. The peak kilowatt-hour demand is selected and determines the kilowatt demand rate
that applies to the chosen period (usually daytime hours).
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Peaks in demand are caused by a number of factors, as discussed elsewhere in this Guide. The most
important factors are starting large motors and many motors of any size in a single 15-minute
period. The reason is that at start-up, electric motors can draw between 5 and 7 times their full load
currents. Those current spikes will last until the motor has reached nearly full operating speed.
For fully loaded motors the spike can last anywhere between 30 seconds and 2 minutes. Hence the
importance of a selective, gradual start up of the packaging line in the morning and timing use
of other large power-using equipment to off-peak times.
Solutions: The management side of start-up sequencing can be aided by hardware solutions such as
sequencers on air conditioning systems or soft-start devices on large motors, which are particularly
effective in reducing peak demand by nearly 100 percent. At any rate, installation of a demand meter
with a printout (or telemetry provision) is a necessary tool in the effort to control peak demand.
The demand spike due to starting a fully loaded motor is approximated by the following equation:
DS = demand spike, kW
N = motor size, kW
ƒ= increase in current during start up (e.g. 6 times)
ΔT = time that the increased current is drawn (e.g. 1.5 minutes)
T = time over which the power company measures demand, in minutes
Tr = time remaining in the measurement period (T ΔT)
The reduction in the demand spike from the implementation of the soft start devices will result in
savings equal to the difference (DS –N).
In dollar terms, the savings can be calculated according to the formula:
S = R x (DC/kW-month) x AD where:
S = monthly savings, $/y
R = average demand reduction, %
DC = peak demand charge, $
AD = average demand
Results: In a plant with an average demand of 959 kW and an average peak demand kW charge
of $13.60/kW, and assuming that the peak demand can be reduced by at least 15 percent through
careful control, the savings per annum amount to $23,600.
If the demand meter with a printout is $3,750, then the simple payback is only 0.2 years.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Electricity: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
69
• Involve all employees – the electricity conservation effort must be broad based and
have the support of the operators. An awareness campaign should occur at the start.
• Review the scheduling of brewery operations in view of the factors in the cost of
electricity they consume.
• Establish a baseline of power consumption during plant shutdowns, on Labour Day,
Thanksgiving Day, etc., for energy use tracking.
• Track and trend power consumption based on production and non-production days
to spot the energy wasters. Then, develop procedures and shutdown checklists to
ensure that equipment shutdowns are taking place.
• Identify large consumers of electricity (e.g. refrigeration compressors, air compressors)
and list them together with the related percentage of total electricity usage.
• Consider:
• staggering the starts of the equipment with heavy power consumption or
­rescheduling production to lower demand (e.g. do not start the equipment in the
packaging area all at once at the beginning of the shift; start it up as required and
shut it off as soon as it is finished).
• charging batteries, filling up water reservoirs, and operating other “can wait”
power users during off-peak periods.
• shutting down (even briefly) other non-essential loads at peak demand periods
such as additional aerators in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), heating,
ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, yeast room and fermenting
and storage cellar refrigeration that works in high thermal inertia conditions
(i.e. where substantial time will elapse before a change of temperature of a large
mass occurs such as in the case of large tanks full of chilled beer), etc.
• Verify that motors are correctly sized for the job.
• Install automatic controls for shutting down equipment when not needed.
• Switch off all unneeded equipment (e.g. during lunch breaks, shift change and
­weekends).
• Turn off unnecessary lights.
• Consider installing photocell-driven switches and motion switches where feasible
(packaging halls, corridors, cellars, warehouses, outside lighting, etc.).
• Review motor burnout history and whether circuitries in the brewery need to be
upgraded.
• Maintain and calibrate automatic controls on all equipment.
• Control harmonic distortion passively and upstream; specify it in new equipment
buying standards.
• Use the public utility as a resource: They can make suggestions as to demand
­reduction alternatives, points for metering, way of measuring consumption, possibly
for the loan of a load analyzer, etc.
• Request a load profile from your public utility company.
• Ask your public utility for advice on how to reduce consumption, reduce peak
demand and improve power factor.
• Request from federal, provincial or municipal governments and the public ­utility,
­information on programs and financial incentives that may be available for
­equipment modifications and replacement.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
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TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
• To take the best advantage of tariffs, consider fitting a load analyzer to the brewery
power supply to obtain a pattern of loading and major uses. Compare results with
tariff rates and annual costs. Examine different possible scenarios for optimum results.
• Consider conducting thermographic inspections of the brewery for heat losses, but
also for detection of electrical hot spots, e.g. in a couplings and contacts, which
­indicate mechanical sources of losses.
70
Medium cost
• Replace driven equipment with more energy efficient equipment.
• Replace (especially large) standard electric motors with high-efficiency types
when replacement is necessary.
• If feasible, replace, as a matter of purchasing policy, old worn-out electric motors
with new high-efficiency motors.
• Install variable speed drives, soft-start options and improved controls on electric
motors.
• In pumping systems, minimize wasteful and costly by-pass provisions.
• Increase power factor to 0.95 or better. The power factor is the cosine of the angle
by which the current and voltage differ.
• Reduce the penalty from the electrical utility for inefficient operation by:
• Replacing lightly loaded induction motors with ones correctly sized for the job.
• Installing capacitors. Capacitors create a “leading” power factor to counter
the “lagging” power factor of the equipment and can be installed on the
individual equipment or as a multiple unit to control a part or the whole of the
distribution system.
• Through periodic inspections, verify that the capacitors are working as
­designed. The payback period is usually in the order of 18 months.
• Consider installing power load-shedding software in the Energy Management
Centre (EMC). The software serves as an electricity and process management
tool. It monitors power usage instantaneously and adjusts to a set target for
the maximum level of power it can use. It governs the consumption through a
programmable logic controller (PLC). It can express real and predicted usage
of power in kWh and also in terms of costs, e.g. PowerPlusReporter® software,
­environmental and energy management programs from E2MS company.
Capital cost
• Consider installing and using an internal combustion engine-driven, stand-by
generator for a few hours daily to shave off the peak demand, particularly in
­winter. The tariff savings will be significant.
• Install a computerized automatic system for monitoring and controlling electrical
and thermal energy consumption and utilities (particularly in large breweries).
Use it for the application of monitoring and targeting (M&T) technology.
• When installing an energy management system, choose one with both analytical
and reporting capabilities.
• Consider replacing power capacitors with microprocessor-based LRC tuning
circuits, sized for each specific equipment and power load, to control the power
factor for improved savings.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
7.2.1 Alternate sources of electrical energy
The following are examples of the unconventional energy sources that are gaining recognition
worldwide. It is a non-exhaustive listing as a detailed enumeration on those modes would be beyond
the scope of this Guide. Specific technologies for tapping into these alternative energy sources,
i.e. wind, solar, geothermal, fuel cells, biogas and biomass, although fledgling in most cases, have
already proved their viability. It is an emerging trend that is pursuant to governmental directives
worldwide to wean industries, in part, from conventional energy sources to renewables.
71
Considering them is not necessarily a domain of only the “big” breweries. A small Canadian brewer
is already weighing its options for installing solar electricity panels and geothermal pumps.
Alternate energy sources are already used by Sierra Nevada Brewing Company (SNBC), a small
brewery in the United States. Although the conditions and climate may be different, Canadian
breweries can learn from them. Follows a verbal communication dated May 2010:
“One can generate all the green power in the world, but if that energy is not used efficiently, the
purpose has been defeated. Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. (SNBC) understands this and prioritizes the
importance of energy efficiency. There are a number of projects and installations around the brewery
that improve their energy efficiency.
Heat recovery
SNBC has installed numerous heat recovery applications throughout the brewing process to take
advantage of heat transferred from one process to another. There are heat recovery units on the
brew kettles, the boilers, and each fuel cell unit, and there are plate heat exchangers throughout the
brewery to transfer heat as product is cooled. Current boiler makeup water is roughly 15 percent. 85
percent of the condensate is recovered.
Other efficiencies
Timers, ambient light sensors and motion sensors are placed where applicable. There are also
instances where a motion sensor is coupled with an ambient light sensor, furthering the efficiency;
ballasts and fixtures have been upgraded to be as efficient as possible; skylights have been installed
throughout the plant to take advantage of natural lighting; and software has been installed on
computers to monitor energy usage and shut off computers not in use for a predetermined amount
of time.
Monitoring
Both solar systems, all four fuel cells, utility purchased electricity and electricity sold back to the
grid during overproduction periods are currently being monitored in the system. By tracking energy
production and consumption on a real time basis, we are able to see spikes and dips in energy use
and be better prepared for peak demand charges. We have plans to start monitoring large load
use points within the plant to help with load shedding during peak hours when electricity is the
most expensive.
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TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Solar
72
In December 2008, SNBC completed one of the largest privately owned solar installations in the U.S.
The solar system consists of two layouts – the parking structure array and the roof top array – and
can produce a total of 1.9 MW of DC electricity with over 10 000 individual PV panels.
•
•
•
e parking structure array was commissioned in September, 2007. It consists of 2288, 225-watt
Th
SunPower panels and has a potential electricity output of 503 kW DC. This system is equipped
with a sun tracking mechanism which follows the movements of the sun across the sky, adding
30 percent efficiency over a stationary system.
The roof top array was commissioned in December 2008 and includes 7688 185-watt Mitsubishi
panels. The system is capable of providing an additional 1.42 megawatts of DC electricity to the
facility.
SNBC has 28 panels on the company’s daycare which offset the majority of electrical needs to
run the center. There is also a 14 kW system that includes 76 panels installed on SNBC’s rail
transfer facility.
Fuel cells
In 2005, Sierra Nevada was the first brewing operation in the world to install hydrogen fuel cells.
The onsite facility consists of four 300-kW fuel cell energy units that, together, are capable of
generating 1.2 megawatts of electricity. The fuel cells run on natural gas and have the potential to
be more closed looped by running on biogas generated at the Sierra Nevada waste water treatment
facility. Sending the biogas to the fuel cells is currently a work in progress. The fuel cell installation
provides roughly 60 percent of the total electrical needs for the facility and is made 15 percent more
efficient with the installation of steam generating heat recovery units on each cell.
Biogas
SNBC has an onsite waste water treatment facility treating all brewing process water. The treatment
process includes an anaerobic digester which produces a methane rich biogas. SNBC has installed
equipment to collect the biogas for reuse. SNBC is currently utilizing the biogas in their boiler
system and are working on using the gas in the fuel cells. Utilizing biogas generated onsite for
virtually free reduces the amount of natural gas needed and lowers utility bills.”
SNBC is no longer alone. Another brewery, New Belgium Brewing Company of Ft. Collins,
Colorado, has also embraced green technologies to secure their energy needs.
These and similar technologies could be considered by Canadian brewers as well, given the local
conditions, technological and financial (and financing) options and emerging governmental
incentives.
7.3 BOILER PLANT SYSTEMS
Generally, Canadian breweries use steam boilers as steam is the heat transfer medium of choice. One
kg of steam at 3.0 bar(g) (at 143.6°C) contains 2133 kJ of energy when condensing to water, whereas
the energy available from 1 kg of water used, e.g. at 140°C and cooled down to 120°C in the heating
process, is only 85.8 kJ.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Steam boilers of various types are used in larger breweries. Microbreweries or brew pubs tend to use
steam generators capable of producing from a few hundred to 3000 kg of steam per hour (75 kW
to 2.5 MW). Larger breweries with a decentralized steam distribution system, to provide steam
locally, can also use steam generators to their advantage. Boiler design, maintenance and retrofit
are specialized skills best left to expert from reputable suppliers. Their advice should also be sought
when contemplating engineering or operational changes to a system.
73
For Canadian breweries, the cost of fuel to run the boiler plant accounts for a significant portion of
the total energy bill. Therefore, it is important and profitable to concentrate on ways to make boiler
operation and steam distribution more efficient and less costly.
About 23 to 25 percent of the total energy input in the fuel will be lost in the boiler operation:
4 percent typically from the boiler envelope, 18 percent in the flue gases and 3 percent in the form of
blowdown. 75 to 77 percent of thermal energy is contained in the outgoing steam and represents the
boiler’s thermal efficiency.
7.3.1 Boiler efficiency
When trying to reduce gas or oil consumption, concentrate first on tuning up the
­process. Only then, focus on reclaiming the waste heat from flue gas.
There is a fine line between the combustion efficiency and safety in ensuring that only the minimum
excess air is supplied to the burner. Theoretically in combustion, the molecule of fuel is completely
broken down to produce CO2 and water vapour. In practice, to ensure complete fuel combustion,
even the modern, well equipped combustion equipment must operate with excess air. Excess air has
a beneficial effect in speeding up the mixing of fuel and air and provides all fuel with the oxygen
necessary for combustion. It also prevents situations where incompletely burned fuel would create
potentially explosive conditions within the boiler. Conversely, excess air wastes energy by carrying
heat off up the stack.
A simple and direct method for calculating boiler efficiency:
1.Measure steam flow (lb. or kg) over a set period, e.g. one hour. Use steam readings integrator, if
available.
2.Measure the flow of fuel over the same period, using the gas or oil integrator, or by determining
the mass of solid fuel used.
3. Convert both steam and fuel to identical energy units, e.g. BTU or kJ.
4.Calculate the efficiency, using the equation: Efficiency = (steam energy: fuel energy) x 100
As our objective is to increase boiler efficiency, it will be useful to review some of the main causes of
heat loss in boiler operations.
The magnitude of heat loss in flue gas depends on good fuel combustion and is controllable. Flue
gas heat loss is minimized by proper burner setup and maintenance, maximum air/fuel mixing,
and control of combustion air rate and air temperature within an optimal range. Incomplete fuel
combustion results in carbon monoxide (CO). Soot may form on the fire-side surfaces of the boiler,
decreasing its efficiency further still. When oil is incompletely burned, it shows as smoke coming
out of the stack.
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TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
74
Burners are always set to provide some amount of excess air in the flue gas. As excess air incurs a
heat loss, it follows that reducing the oxygen level in the flue gas would reduce the loss.
It is important to realize that air-to-fuel ratio is a mass ratio, not a volume ratio. To control it
means to control it on the basis of kg to kg. The burner controls should compensate for seasonal
temperature variations, and optimally, for day/night variations as well. Sophisticated systems also
compensate for air pressure. The effect of air temperature on excess air in flue gas can be dramatic as
shown in Figure 7-3 below.
Figure 7-3: Effect of air temperature on excess air level
30
25
Excess air, %
7
20
15
10
5
0
4.50
10.00
26.70
37.80
48.90
Temperature, deg. C
Typically, a 1-percent O2 reduction corresponds to a 2.5-percent efficiency gain. Control
of excess air is the most important tool at an operator’s disposal to manage the energy
­efficiency and atmospheric emissions of a boiler system.
The variations in pressure and temperature can be corrected by sophisticated air-fuel control
systems, which can be expensive. To avoid the expense, simpler systems with lower precision are
employed to ensure larger margin of excess air. Since they cannot ensure optimum continuous
operation, it pays to investigate the economics of a high-quality control system.
Carbon monoxide is a sensitive indicator of incomplete combustion. Its levels should be from zero
to a few tens of parts per million (ppm), rather than the environmental limit, usually 400 ppm. Each
boilerhouse should have accurately calibrated analyzers for measuring O2, CO and NOx.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Another way to control blowdown heat loss depends on the quality of make-up water, i.e. chiefly
its dissolved solids content (TDS), the amount of contamination-free condensate returned to the
boiler, and the blowdown regime employed. Blowdown control may be done by opening a valve
manually for a period of time at certain intervals (based on experience or on boiler water analysis)
or continually, by an automatic timer-operated valve, or automatically, based on monitoring of TDS
by a conductivity meter. Obviously, the latter method, with adequate safeguards, will minimize
blowdown heat loss.
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An example of what a poorly managed blowdown can cost:
Consider a 50 000 lb./h, 125-psig steam boiler. The blowdown water contains 330 Btu/lb. If a
continuous blowdown system was set at the usual 5 percent of the maximum boiler rating, then
the blowdown flow would be 2500 lb./h, containing 825 000 Btu. The heat loss is equivalent to
825 cu. ft. /h, or up to 168 000 m3/y natural gas (at 300 d/y operation and $0.45/m3, worth about
$75,600).
7.3.2 Environmental impacts of boiler combustion
The environmental impacts of boiler combustion are worth mentioning briefly here. It is also
mentioned in Section 7.1 under Combustion and examined in detail in NRCan’s guidebook “Boilers
and Heaters – Improving Energy Efficiency.”
The brewery’s boilerhouse faces a double challenge: one economic – getting the best possible value
out of its fuel budget, and the other environmental – keeping emissions as low as possible, to stay
well within the legislated limits. Fortunately, the two objectives are interlinked. The Canadian
Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) published NOx emission guidelines for new
boilers and heaters, see Table 7-2 below.
The guideline provides higher limits for equipment that can be shown to be highly efficient,
therefore burn less fuel. Enforcement of the guideline is a provincial responsibility and provinces
may enact stricter limits. Read the CCME Guideline to find out how it applies to a boiler undergoing
modifications or a boiler overhaul. It is rather important to know what is involved when the brewery
has older equipment. The strategies for achieving compliance with NOx regulations, which are
beyond the scope of this Guide, can be found in NRCan’s “Boilers and Heaters – Improving Energy
Efficiency” at oee.nrcan.gc.ca/Publications/infosource/Pub/cipec/BoilersHeaters_foreword.cfm or at
www.energysolutionscenter.org/boilerburner/Primer/PrimerFrameSet.htm).
Table 7-2 shows the CCME NOx emission guidelines for new boilers and heaters and Table 7-3
shows typical NOx emissions without NOx control equipment in place.
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Table 7-2: CCME* NOx emission guidelines for new boilers and heaters
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Input capacity
NOx emission limit, g/GJ** and (ppm at 3% O2)***
10.5 to 105 GJ/h
(10-100 million Btu/h)
Greater than 105 GJ/h
(>100 million Btu/h)
Natural gas
26 (49.6)
40 (76.3)
Distillate oil
40 (72.3)
50 (90.4)
90 (162.7)
90 (162.7)
110 (198.9)
125 (226.0)
Residual oil with less than 0.35% nitrogen
Residual oil with more than 0.355%
nitrogen
* Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
** g/GJ = grams of NOx emitted per gigajoule of fuel input
*** ppm = parts per million by volume, corrected to 3% O2 in the flue gas (10 000 ppm = 1%)
To correct ppm NOx to 3% O2: NOx at 3% O2 = (NOx measured x 17.9) : (20.9 –O2)
where O2 is oxygen measured in flue gas, dry basis
To convert ppm NOx at 3% O2 to g/GJ:
For natural gas, g/GJ = ppm: 1.907
For fuel oil, g/GJ = ppm: 1.808
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Table 7-3: Typical NOx emissions without NOx control equipment in place
Fuel & boiler type
Typical NOx emissions,
ppm at 3% O2
Natural gas
Fire tube
Packaged water tube
Field-erected water tube
75-115
40-90
45-105
No. 2 oil
Fire tube
Packaged water tube
Field-erected water tube
70-140
90-150
40-115
No. 4 oil
Packaged water tube
Field-erected water tube
160-310
140-190
No. 6 oil
Packaged water tube
Field-erected water tube
200-360
190-330
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Heat recovery in the boilerhouse
Even with well-adjusted burners, the exit temperature of the flue gas may range normally from
175°C (~ 350°F) to 260°C (~ 500°F). It presents the best opportunity for heat recovery. Heat
exchangers for preheating boiler feedwater, called economizers, or combustion air (called air
heaters) can be employed to increase overall boiler efficiency by 3 to 4 percent. With condensing
economizers, the overall boiler efficiency may exceed 90 percent. Application of heat pumps can
increase the heat reclaim efficiency further still.
Heat may be also reclaimed from the blowdown that gets normally drained out. Installation of heat
exchangers can reclaim the sensible heat for heating boiler make-up water and the like.
Case study: Preheat boiler combustion air with stack waste heat
A 300-HP natural gas boiler was drawing air from the outside, which resulted in unnecessary fuel
consumption to heat the combustion air. The boiler used 56 787 Therm per year and was operating
at 82 percent efficiency. A high-quality heat recuperator could recover up to 60 percent of waste
heat, or 6133 Therm per year. At $0.95312 per Therm, the savings amounted to $5,846 annually.
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For natural gas, the following formula is used in the calculations:
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CS = EC x (1 – η) x RC; where
CS = cost savings, $/y
EC = energy consumed, Therm/y
η = boiler efficiency, %
RC = energy recoverable by recuperator, %
Results: The installed cost of the recuperator was $19,980 (at the time), and the simple payback
period was 3.4 years. However, the payback period could be reduced significantly if the operating
time increased through larger production and more shifts.
Case study: Implement periodic inspection and adjustment of combustion of a gas-fired
boiler
The same 300-HP boiler used, as an example in the case study above, excess combustion air that
showed 6.2 percent oxygen in the flue gas and a temperature of 204°C. Optimally, the excess oxygen
should read only 2 percent, which corresponds to 10 percent excess air. This could provide a possible
fuel saving of 3 percent.
Results: Using data from the above case study and a chart plotting excess air (%), stack temperature,
fuel savings (%) and % O2 versus excess air, it is possible to calculate the savings. Savings would
amount to $1,083 annually (at the time). With a $750 purchase of a flue gas analyzer, the simple
payback was 8.2 months.
Boiler efficiency: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
• Keep your boiler clean. Remove deposits on the fireside of the tubes. This fouling
reduces heat transfer dramatically: a mere 0.8 mm thick soot layer reduces heat
transfer by 9.5 percent and a 4.5 mm layer by 65 percent. The flue gas temperature
rises as a result and so does the energy cost due to energy losses.
• Maintain the soot removal mechanisms in good condition (e.g. soot blower ­systems,
brushes, manual lances, etc.).
• Set up a chemical treatment program to reduce scaling and fouling of heating surfaces
and pumping resistance. A scale layer 1 mm thick will increase fuel u
­ sage by 2 percent.
• Analyze the boiler water regularly to verify effective water treatment and ­prevention
of scale depositing.
• Keep unwanted air out. Set up the boiler to achieve optimum combustion ­efficiency
(air/fuel ratio). An insufficient fuel ratio will result in soot formation, decreasing
heat transfer on the fireside of the boiler (if oil is used).
• Prevent ingress of extra air to the combustion chamber.
• Check boiler efficiency regularly and maintain records. (A simple calculation
­involves converting the amount of fuel used in a given period and steam generated
to energy units [kJ or Btu]. Boiler efficiency will be the ratio of the two.)
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
• Check flue gas oxygen and carbon monoxide levels regularly with a manual
(­Chemical Orsat) or automatic flue gas analyzer. The oxygen levels should be in the
following ranges:
• Natural gas: 2.0 percent min. and 2.7 percent max.
• Heavy fuel oil: 3.3 percent min. and 4.2 percent max.
• Light oil: 2.3 percent min. and 3.5 percent max.
• (Note: The above settings are typical for boilers without low excess air combustion equipment. In the case of natural gas, a 1.7 percent minimum value can
be achieved).
• Remember that a 10-percent reduction in excess oxygen will reduce flue gas
­temperature by 2.5 percent and increase boiler efficiency by 1.5 percent.
• Keep blowdown levels and frequency to the absolute minimum, responding to
­regular monitoring of TDS levels.
• Set up a maintenance program for descaling both sides of the heat transfer ­interfaces.
• Monitor steam consumption and stagger loading to avoid demand surges.
• In multiple boiler installations, size the use of boilers optimally to fit the ­production
schedule, existing demand and day of the week and seasons.
• Maintain control settings to prevent overheating.
• Maintain steam pressure to suit demand and avoid excess pressure.
• Attempt to stabilize heating demands by reviewing process demand scheduling so
as to minimize boiler load swings and to maximize boiler efficiencies. Attempt to
maintain full-load boiler operation.
• Avoid dynamic operation. Review brewhouse kettle boil control and steam valve
operation.
• Lower the steam pressure (or water temperature) to what is actually required by processes – suit the supply to the demand and do not oversupply (e.g. if no pasteurization is going on, scale down the steam pressure to only the brewhouse requirements).
• Choose a low-pressure operation during non-production periods or deploy a smaller
boiler only.
• Compress the brewing schedule in the low production periods to avoid stops and
starts of large boilers.
• In summer, block the boilers in by closing king valves: No heating is required and no
steam is distributed, but keeping the boilers hot will considerably increase the life of
firebrick lining and tubes.
• Ensure proper de-aeration of boiler feedwater by checking and maintaining air vents.
• Regularly calibrate measuring equipment and instrumentation, and tune up the
combustion control system.
• Regularly check all the control settings.
• Regularly check and verify boiler efficiency.
• Regularly monitor and compare boiler performance-related data to standards
and targets.
• Regularly apply routine and preventive predictive maintenance programs to the
boiler and heat distribution/ condensate collection systems.
• Review whether there are combustible by-products available inside or in the ­vicinity
of your brewery (e.g. biogas from your anaerobic WWTP, waste ­hydrogen, oxygen,
carbon monoxide [CO] or hydrocarbon streams from a nearby factory) that you
could utilize as no-cost or low-cost boiler fuel supplements.
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Medium cost
• Collect blowdown to generate low-pressure steam for use in heating systems or
for deaerators. Use other heat to preheat make-up water.
• Consider fitting boilers with burners that will mix waste oil with regular boiler
fuel to gain additional energy and reduce disposal costs.
• Add/upgrade measuring, metering and monitoring equipment to the boiler
and heat distribution systems, e.g. for fuel, steam, heating fluid, condensate and
b
­ lowdown flows.
• Optimize the location of sensors: Ensure that sensors and control devices are
­easily accessible for control and maintenance.
• Fit controls with locks, to prevent tampering and unauthorized adjustments.
• Relocate the combustion air intake to a location where the incoming air has the
highest possible temperature year round.
Capital cost
• Consider instituting a metering and targeting (M&T) program to manage better
the thermal energy usage throughout the brewery.
• Consider the economics and means of capturing radiation and convection heat
from the boiler shell for combustion air pre-heating. Evaluate the flue gas heat
recovery system for feedwater preheating and/or boiler air intake. A number of
systems are commercially available.
• Remember that a 20°C drop in flue gas exit temperature will improve boiler
­efficiency by 1 percent.
• Consider installing the latest types of heat-reclamation equipment; economizers
and air heaters for flue gas and heat exchangers/heat pumps for boiler blowdown.
• Consider deploying a heat cascading principle in the brewery, and, if possible,
where high-grade heat supplied from fuel is directed to the brewhouse (the process having the highest temperature requirement) and where the exhaust heat is
used in lower temperature applications (e.g. in the bottle washer).
• Consider investing in high-precision burner controls for continuous correct
­air-fuel ratio management.
• Upgrade the fuel burner: For example, consider employing the fuel direct injection (FDI) technology. A full-time FDI regenerative burner (FFR) reduces NOx
emissions by about 90 percent compared to ordinary regenerative burners. The
compact FFR burner allows simplifications and downsizing, along with significant
energy consumption reduction and a short payback period.
• Install a turbulator in the fire-tube boiler.
• Install local high-efficiency boilers that respond rapidly to load demands.
• Consider removing heat sinks when switching off boilers is necessary: If dense
firebrick is used for lining the furnace, it needs to be installed in adequate thickness to limit the heat conductive losses. However, the large mass of the firebrick
acts as a heat sink and is expensive to heat up. New low-density ceramic fibre materials are used, often in combination with other refractory materials, to remove
these heat sinks and provide superior thermal insulation.
• Consider repositioning upgraded burners in the boiler furnace. A company in
Quebec did this. It improved furnace heat distribution and achieved natural gas
savings at the same time.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
7.4 STEAM AND CONDENSATE SYSTEMS
This section is linked to the description of boiler systems in Section 7.3. They should be read
together.
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Remember: Loss of steam or loss of condensate equals money down the drain.
The major factors in controlling the efficiency of steam distribution and condensate return are:
Optimum steam
pressure
In a balance between capital cost and the overall efficiency of the system, steam
pressure should meet the maximum efficiency required by the equipment in
the system. High pressure results in leakage and flash steam losses; low pressure
generates large surface heat losses during distribution and in the user equipment.
The steam distribution system should be reviewed every few years for adequacy
in light of changes in the brewery such as future expansion plans, changing
technology and needs.
Often, with the passage of time, the steam distribution system is modified. Old
equipment is scrapped and new equipment brought in. However, existing but
unused piping is seldom removed. The first step in any review of pipework is to
remove redundant piping and reduce the length of the piping in use as much
as possible. The diameter of piping must be correctly sized to the use intended.
Large diameter, oversized pipes that carry low volumes of steam may have
heat losses larger than the process load. Undersized pipes have higher pressure
requirements and higher leakage losses.
Careful attention must be given to proper layout and location of drain points to
ensure timely removal of condensate before it can cause problems.
The presence of condensate in steam pipes may cause water hammer, leading to
increased maintenance, poor heat transfer and energy waste.
Insulation
The optimum insulation is a compromise between its cost and the cost of lost
energy. The law of diminishing returns applies when more than the optimum
insulation is contemplated. Doubling the thickness of the insulation results in
a marginal reduction in heat losses. Heat loss that is prevented by insulation
translates into significant fuel savings in the boilerhouse. Attention must be
paid to regular inspections and maintenance of the insulated pipes – both steam
and returning condensate – and their components, valves, expansion joints, etc.
Ingress of water from the outside or from leaks negates the effect of insulation.
The economic consequences of not having pipe insulation installed are shown in
a case study in Section 7.17 Maintenance.
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Leakage
(See Section 7.17 Maintenance)
The hissing sound one often hears in a brewery may also come from a steam leak.
The table below shows how much it may cost when typical leaks in a 7-bar(g)
system are related to the fuel wasted. The cost of several leaks can be easily
assessed by using the current rate the brewery pays for fuel.
Table 7-4: Steam leakage losses
Heat transfer
Leak size
(diameter in mm)
Steam loss
(tonne/year)
#2 fuel oil wasted
(tonne/year)
0.80
12
0.8
1.60
48
3.4
3.20
180
12.6
6.40 (1/4")
732
51.2
9.50
1680
118.0
Water condensate, air films and the presence of scale on the steam side of heat
transfer equipment cause heat losses not readily apparent, yet significant.
As little as 1 percent by volume of air in steam can reduce the heat transfer
efficiency by up to 50 percent.
1 mm of scale build-up can increase fuel consumption by 2 percent.
Insidious and significant heat losses come from water condensate and air films,
as well as from the presence of scale on the steam side of heat transfer equipment.
Steam traps
Steam traps constitute the most common source of concern if poorly selected,
installed or maintained. Steam and condensate may be lost through steam traps.
Condensate and air that is inadequately removed from the steam pipes and
equipment reduces efficiency.
Condensate
recovery
Loss of condensate is literally like throwing money down the drain. If not
returned to the boiler, about 20 percent of the original heat used to generate
the steam may be lost. As well, costs increase for the purchase and treatment of
make-up water and its heating. Additional energy losses occur in the form of
flash steam that develops when the process pressure, under which the condensate
is returned, is released in the condensate return tank. This is called open
condensate return system.
Maximize hot condensate return.
Proper design of steam and condensate return systems is important in order to
eliminate water hammer, reduce losses and maintenance. A closed-loop system
of condensate return delivers steam condensate under pressure to be re-boiled
with practically no losses, requiring less steam to re-boil.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Steam and condensate systems: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
83
• Examine current plant piping drawings, if available, or walk through the facility
and look for opportunities to rationalize and streamline the steam and condensate network. First, ensure that obsolete, unused or redundant piping can be
isolated from the rest of the system. Then plan on removing the parts that are no
longer required.
• Ensure the efficient operation of process equipment, which uses downstream steam
and hot water, by proper production scheduling and maintenance.
• Attempt to operate the downstream steam and hot water by using equipment at
capacity.
• Shut the downstream steam or hot water using equipment when not needed.
• Shut the downstream steam and condensate branch system when not needed.
• Maintain good steam quality: Maintain the program of regular water chemical
treatment, blowdown regime and ensure proper function of feedwater de-­aerating
equipment and air vents on steam piping.
• Repair, replace or add air vents (e.g. thermostatic air vents).
• Regularly check the integrity of the steam and condensate network (heating fluid
supply and return network) and associated equipment. Walk through the facility with appropriate detection equipment (e.g. ultrasonic detector, listening rods,
pyrometer, and stethoscope) and look for and listen for steam leaks.
• Identify and repair steam and condensate leaks.
• Properly insulate steam and condensate return lines and components with efficient
insulation at an economic thickness.
• Add insulation where it is inadequate.
• Inspect the insulation for waterlogging; locate the source of the ­moisture and correct
the problem (e.g. leaking pipe).
• Replace or repair any missing and damaged insulation and/or ­isolation covering.
• Set up a steam trap maintenance program to ensure optimum ­performance, and
reduce downtime of steam systems.
• Review whether the steam and steam condensate recovery network (and heating coils and other steam using equipment) has proper drainage; eliminate water
­hammer, and losses and damage that it generates.
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Medium cost
• Consider flash steam recovery from condensate and consider using the recovered
low-pressure steam elsewhere.
• Consider recovery of heat from higher-pressure condensate.
• Replace steam space heaters with infrared heaters for large areas (shipping docks,
maintenance, etc.) to heat people and not the equipment.
• Suggestion contributed by a brewer: Consider the separation of process and
heating steam and condensate return systems so that heating loops can be isolated
during non-heating periods.
• Consider using steam-powered condensate return pumps instead of electrically
powered ones.
• Collect all possible condensate (this should be as close to 90 percent as possible,
or better).
• Decommission redundant steam and condensate return piping.
• Shorten and/or simplify the existing steam and condensate return piping.
• Overhaul steam pressure-reducing stations.
• Institute a steam trap replacement program.
• Replace incorrectly selected steam traps with the correct type for the service.
Capital cost
• If used in pasteurizers and soakers, consider replacing live steam injection that
loses the condensate from circulation, i.e. consumes de-mineralized make-up
w­ater and necessitates its heating and conversion into steam and dilutes the
­caustic concentration in soaker baths, with heat exchangers.
• Consider installing a closed-loop pressurized condensate return system.
• Have a qualified contractor review, and if necessary, redesign the steam and
­condensate network to optimize it. Re-pipe systems or relocate equipment to
shorten pipe lengths where it makes sense.
7.5INSULATION
The key step: Determine the economic thickness of insulation. It is the thickness that
provides the highest insulation for the lowest cost.
Proper insulation helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. How? Except for nuclear power
and hydro-electricity, energy is produced by burning fossil fuels. Insulating against heat loss
(e.g. pasteurizer) reduces the amount of fuel needed to produce the heat, and emissions. The
reduction may take place locally or, in case of electricity, upstream at the generating station.
We insulate process equipment, ducts, piping and buildings to
•
•
•
•
•
prevent heat gains and losses
maintain consistent process temperatures
prevent burns (and frostbite) to employees
prevent condensation from forming on cold equipment surfaces
maintain comfortable working environments around hot or cold process equipment
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Thermal insulation deteriorates over time. A re-evaluation of long-established systems may show
that the insulation is inadequate or damaged. For larger breweries, an investment in an infrared
thermograph (video camera) may pay for itself in a short time. Alternately, a thermography
consultant may help in discovering areas in need of repair or additional insulation or air leakage
control. The benefits of upgrading or increasing insulation on process equipment and piping are
clear: since the installation and initial insulation of equipment in most Canadian breweries some
years ago, the fuel prices skyrocketed.
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Insulation that depends on air-filled voids to function effectively must be kept dry. Exposure
to moisture, particularly in the case of loose-fibre or open-cell foam insulation type, causes the
displacement of insulating air by moisture/water ingress (e.g. leaking steam or condensate pipes).
Effective cladding of the insulation is just as important as selecting the most effective type of
insulation and installing an economic thickness. Waterproofing is an integral part of any insulating
job. For high-temperature applications, chose a vapour-permeable covering that will allow moisture
to pass outwards.
Base the choice of insulation material on the following criteria:
• Halocarbon-free
• Flammability/resilience
• Performance/price
Water-saturated insulation transfers heat 15 to 20 times faster than when dry.
Choose appropriate types of jacketing/cladding with sealed joints, and where the potential for
mechanical damage is a factor, consider using insulation that is more resilient and has mechanical
protection or can be suitably protected (barriers, bulwarks, shields, bridges, etc.), to minimize
chances of damage.
See insulation mentioned under Section 7.17 Maintenance.
Insulation: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
• Inspect the condition of process insulation regularly (include it in the afternoon or
evening schedule).
• Repair damaged insulation on pipes and vessels with cold or hot ­media, without
delay.
Medium cost
• Insulate non-insulated pipe and ductwork.
• Insulate non-insulated equipment.
• Upgrade existing insulation levels; add insulation to reach ­recommended
t­ hickness.
• Insulate major non-insulated equipment/process areas.
• Hire a thermography consultant to discover areas in need of (­additional)
­insulation or air leakage control.
• Improve insulation of hot water tanks.
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Capital cost
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• Replace fiberglass insulation with closed-cell insulation in areas where
condensation or wetness may permeate the fiberglass one.
• Replace refractory firebrick with ceramic pyrobloc insulation in boiler furnaces.
• Add insulation/exterior cladding to brewery buildings, roofs, crawl spaces, etc.
7.6 REFRIGERATION, COOLING SYSTEMS AND HEAT PUMPS
7.6.1 Refrigeration and cooling systems
It is commonly found that refrigeration systems in service are using 20 percent more
energy than they should.
In a typical brewery in Canada, over 30 percent of electricity is consumed by refrigerating and
cooling systems. Optimizing their function represents a major energy conservation opportunity.
To examine energy efficiency opportunities for a refrigeration system, it is best to start with an
assessment of local temperatures, process requirements, refrigeration equipment and systems. This
will help identify areas of waste and opportunities for improvement. In refrigeration, there are only a
few basic ways to save energy revolving around the following questions:
•
•
•
•
•
Can we do away with some refrigeration needs (even temporarily) based on seasons?
Can we remove and/or reduce some of the refrigeration loads?
Can we raise the refrigeration temperatures?
Can we improve the operation of the refrigeration plant?
Can we reclaim waste heat from the refrigeration plant?
Most brewery stationary engineers are well trained in the operation and maintenance of a boiler
plant, but may be less so for a refrigeration plant. Refrigeration may be operating below the potential
performance level for the following reasons:
•
•
•
•
•
Stationary engineers and operators may lack training in refrigeration efficiency.
Refrigeration plants are relatively complex.
Little or no appreciation of the potential for savings and their magnitude.
A lack of defined performance criteria.
Fault diagnosis is complex and time-consuming.
Savings opportunities arise from effectively controlling factors that affect refrigeration
efficiency and thereby cost.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
In evaluating costs, more than the compressor efficiency should be measured. In the evaluation
of compressor efficiency, its coefficient of performance (COP) is used. This is the ratio of cooling
achieved to power used. It is advantageous to measure the entire system’s efficiency (SCOP), which
includes power to all the auxiliary equipment such as evaporator fans and pumps, condenser fans
and pumps, oil pumps, secondary refrigerant distribution pumps and fans and defrost heaters.
87
Factors affecting refrigeration efficiency include:
Cooling loads
The higher the load, the more cooling is needed, causing operating costs to rise. Part load operation
is the most frequent cause of poor refrigeration plant efficiency. Perhaps for only three months of
the year, the plant operates at or close to the nominal design point. For the rest of the year, lower
ambient temperatures allow lower condensing temperatures. The reduced loads alter the required
compressor capacity. The cooling load has a major influence on the SCOP. Over-cooling of beer or
spaces uses massive amounts of energy.
Compressor efficiency
High efficiency can be maintained by using the best compressors suited for duty at any given time,
by avoiding part-loads and by good compressor maintenance.
Evaporating temperature
Raising the evaporating temperature increases COP and lowers the running costs: raising the
evaporating temperature by 1°C reduces costs by 2 to 4 percent. Higher evaporating temperatures
can be achieved by good controls and taking care of the evaporating surfaces (avoidance of fouling,
superheating, blockages and poor heat transfer).
Condensing temperature
Lowering the condensing temperature reduces the running costs to the same extent as above.
Lowering the condensing temperature by 1°C reduces operating costs by 2 to 4 percent. Lower
condensing temperatures can be achieved by good controls and taking care of the evaporating
surfaces (avoidance of fouling, superheating, blockages and poor heat transfer). See the brewercontributed note on incondensables under Section 9.5.
Auxiliary power
Auxiliary power can account for 25 percent of the total power consumed by the refrigeration
plant and more when the plant is operating at part load. The auxiliary equipment should not be
run excessively; good controls are required. Analyzing the annual cost of refrigeration improves
understanding of the effects of poor operation and maintenance. Various cooling demands should
be examined and costs allocated to the loads to determine major consumers. Controlling these
major loads should be a priority.
As pointed out above, cooling loads should be kept to a minimum. Brewers should distinguish
between process cooling loads and auxiliary cooling loads. Among the process cooling loads,
sensible cooling (e.g. beer and glycol cooling), latent cooling (e.g. vapour condensation) and reactive
heat removal (e.g. metabolic heat of fermentation, yeast autolysis) all take place.
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Common cooling faults include
88
•
•
•
•
cooling from too high a temperature (e.g. pasteurizer beer exit temperature may be too high,
which, incidentally, may also negatively affect flavour)
over-cooling (e.g. hop storage, beer in storage tanks, cellar space)
simultaneous heating and cooling (e.g. poor setting of heating and cooling controls)
air conditioning, poor control of flow rates and temperatures in process beer heat exchangers
The last point can be illustrated by using incoming cold water to cool wort. The wort is then trimcooled with refrigerated glycol. In winter, the water may be cold enough to reduce the use of the
trimming. Yet, for expediency, no adjustments to the trim chiller are made. Instead, the water flow is
throttled down and energy is wasted.
Auxiliary cooling loads include inadequate or waterlogged pipe and vessel insulation, warmer air
infiltration, lighting, fans and pumps in cold spaces, people, lift trucks, etc. Since many auxiliary
loads are “paid for twice” (e.g. lights and fans consume power and generate heat that must be
removed by refrigeration, also using power), their control is as important as, and sometimes more
important, than controlling process loads.
Open cellar doors constitute a major portion of the auxiliary load. In cellars, controlled lighting
by use of motion detectors will keep the lights off as much as possible. As well, excessive use of
fan power in cold areas and excessive use of pump power for circulating refrigerants and chilled
water should be avoided by using such techniques as variable speed controls, flow controls, off/on
switches, sequence controls, flow and pressure controls and so on.
Inadequate or excessive defrosting of the evaporators is also common. Defrosting should be stopped
by using appropriate controls as soon as the ice has been removed. If not, heat is generated and has
to be removed by refrigeration, a “paid-for-twice” case again.
In evaluating individual cooling loads, tests and analysis of options may need to be carried out
to find optimum settings and solutions. Sometimes a small change of parameters may have a
significant effect:
•
•
•
•
•
•
A 1°C increase in condensing temperature will increase costs by 2 to 4 percent.
A 1°C reduction in evaporating temperature will increase costs by 2 to 4 percent.
Gas by-passing expansion valves may add 30 percent or more to your costs.
Incorrect control of compressors may increase costs 20 percent or more.
Poor control of auxiliary equipment can increase costs by 20 percent or more.
Both gains and losses are cumulative.
Brewery operators should guard against the loss of refrigerant to avoid risk to health, safety
and operability of the plant, risk to the environment, high refrigerant replacement costs, poor
performance, and excessive refrigeration plant operating costs.
Case study: Refrigeration fault diagnosis system
A one million hectolitre-per year brewery capitalized on resident expertise and, with the aid of a
consulting firm, developed and installed a Refrigeration Fault Diagnosis Expert System to evaluate
refrigeration plant status and to advise on appropriate remedial action when there is a fault. An
investment of $36,000 for the purchase of a computer, software development and customization, and
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
operator training (dated costs) produced savings that allowed the brewery to recoup its investment
in eight months during the training phase alone.
89
Results: Several of the system’s modules monitor key measurements and data, calculate coefficient of
performances (COP) and analyze faults. Given the ambient temperature, they recommend preferred
actions for establishing the best combination of cooling equipment packages and loads to meet the
current cooling duty. This resulted in a reduction in electricity consumption by 29.5 percent and
savings.
The following three case studies were recently contributed by breweries that experienced various
energy inefficiencies at their plant and made recommendations to resolve the issues.
Case study: Installing a new primary compressor (brewer-contributed study)
A brewery has two 125-HP reciprocating, one 450-HP screw, and one 700-HP screw ammonia
compressors. During two summer months of monitoring, one of the two screws operated at all times
with one reciprocating compressor supplementing the other.
These existing Mycom screw compressors had four major inefficiencies:
•
The compressors are equipped with a 3.6 internal compression volume ratio (VI). This ratio is
mismatched to the average operating conditions, which call for a lower ratio. The compressors
overcompress most of the time, reducing efficiency.
• The compressors utilize standard slide valve capacity control, which is inefficient. When
fully unloaded, the compressors still draw nearly 50 percent input power. This poor part load
performance reduces efficiency.
• There is some question as to the minimum allowable discharge pressure at which the screw
compressors can operate. The Mycom rating software indicates a minimum of around 120 psig.
Lubrication or oil separator performance is often the limitation. This elevated discharge pressure
reduces efficiency.
• The 450-HP TECO motor is rated at 94.0 percent efficiency, while the 700-HP Toshiba is rated
at 95 percent efficiency. If they have been rebuilt, it is feasible that current efficiencies are even
lower. Efficiencies over 96 percent are available for modern premium motors.
Recommendation: the installation of a new primary compressor package to minimize or eliminate
these inefficiencies. The new compressor should have
1) a more appropriate fixed VI;
2) a manually-adjustable VI; or
3) an automatic VI.
It can be equipped with VFD control for improved part load operation, and can be configured for
discharge pressure as low as 90 psi(g). Finally, a premium efficiency motor can be installed on the
package.
Case study: Evaporator fan cycling or two-speed control (brewer-contributed study)
In this brewery, although many of the evaporator coils are managed by the plant PLC system,
evaporator fans operate non-stop except during defrost. All Niagara coils have 2-speed fan motors,
but most are set for high speed and cannot be automatically switched between low and high.
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Recommendation: The measure includes pulling control of all remaining evaporator coils into the
PLC and implementing a fan cycling strategy (or 2-speed in the case of the Niagaras). This may
require additional space temperature probes.
Case study: Implement VFD strategies on condenser fans (brewer-contributed study)
Currently, one of four evaporative condensers utilizes VFD control. Although this provides
some savings, the mix of discrete (cycling) and analog (speed) control makes for challenging
control algorithms. A staggered condenser strategy stages capacity from 120 psig up to 150 psig.
The strategy turns fans on before pumps, resulting in stages of dry condenser operation. This is
extremely inefficient.
Recommendations: This measure includes several major upgrades:
• Install VFD control on all remaining condenser fans.
• Implement optimized pump and fan VFD strategies, including wet operation and simultaneous
fan speed control. In addition, implement a wet bulb approach strategy to best match condenser
capacity to engine room heat rejection.
• Reduce minimum discharge pressure to 90 psig. (Note: This may require some attention to the
existing screw compressors, if it is implemented. Previous short-term experiments have shown
that operation at reduced discharge may be possible).
7.6.2 Industrial heat pumps
Industrial heat pumps (IHP) are process devices that use low grade heat (such as waste process
heat, or water or ground heat) as a heat source and deliver it at higher temperatures for heating or
preheating of an industrial process. Some IHP can also work in reverse as chillers that dissipate
process heat. This relatively new technology, which improves energy efficiency and contributes to
the reduction of primary energy consumption, should be investigated by a brewery reviewing its
heating and refrigeration needs.
Case study: Waste heat recovery with a heat pump
A Canadian Maritime brewery installed a heat pump system to recover hot water for boiler feed
and brewing makeup. The system has four major components: an ammonia condenser, a water ­
pre-heater, a heat pump and water storage tanks.
The ammonia condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger, which uses water to cool ammonia gas
from existing refrigeration equipment. Heat recovered is then used twice: first to preheat the boiler
feed water, and later as a source of energy for a high temperature heat pump. As per its design, the
use of the heat pumps allows process water to heat to a temperature well above the level at which
the heat is recovered from the refrigeration system. A hot water storage tank provides a buffer
between the waste heat supply and hot water demand in the brewery. The use of low-cost waste
heat reduces fuel consumption by $40,000 to $50,000 a year. However, the practical experience has
brought out a lesson: do the design calculations carefully. The heat pump portion of this system was
decommissioned due to higher operating costs of the compressor. Still, the ammonia condenser
portion is used to pre-heat the boiler feed water.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Refrigeration, cooling systems and heat pumps: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
91
• Also refer to Section 7.2.1.
• Operators may not understand refrigeration efficiency issues; educate and train
them first.
• Operation and maintenance issues need to be constantly addressed; an inefficient
operating mode may be more convenient to the operator.
• Review your refrigeration plant regimen frequently as process requirements and
ambient weather conditions change.
• Implement good housekeeping practices.
• Keep the doors to refrigerated areas closed.
• Separate the cold areas from the rest of the brewery by installing doors, plastic
­curtains, rubber swing doors, etc.
• In refrigerated rooms, use as little water as possible. Remember that one gallon of
water needs a ton of refrigeration of energy to evaporate. Channel tank, flushings,
etc. directly to the drain; do not let them spill onto the floor, where they would have
to be hosed down.
• Eliminate ingress of moisture into the cooled space (from ambient air and from
water hoses).
• Use cold cleaning-in-place (CIP) in refrigerated rooms whenever possible. Talk to
your cleaning materials supplier about a suitable cleaner.
• Review electric power tariffs and schedule running the refrigeration plant to avoid
adding to the peak demand periods or set maximum cooling duties for night time.
• Ensure controls for defrosting are set properly and review the setting frequently, for
example, monthly, to take account of changing ambient conditions.
• Ensure that defrosting operates only when necessary and for as short a period as
necessary.
• Review your system controls and correctly set points for evaporating and condensing
temperatures.
• Regularly measure the compressor COP and the overall SCOP, which includes
­auxiliary equipment to control the operation.
• If water for condensers is supplied from cooling towers, ensure they are effectively
maintained (fans, pumps, fouling, etc.) to obtain the lowest water temperature
possible.
• Check buildup of non-condensable gases and air on a regular basis to ensure the
plant operates at high COP.
• Check for the correct head pressure control settings.
• Check for the correct levels of refrigerant in the system for optimum performance;
eliminate leaks.
• Suggestion contributed by a brewer: Consider implementing an oil inventory
management program to track the amount of oil added and drained from the system.
• Suggestion contributed by a brewer: Try to ensure that pressure drop across the oil
separator does not exceed 4 psi; anything above that indicates oil carryover.
• Adjust the cooling plant’s evaporation temperature to about -6°C to 8°C, or to cool
beer to about -2°C. Often the evaporation temperature is set unnecessarily lower.
• Review the state of your instrumentation. Ensure that instruments read correctly
and sensors are not affected by, for example, ice formation; cross-check all values
where possible.
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• Use a structured approach to find and correct faults, using the two basic methods:
performance testing, and monitoring and targeting.
• Install de-stratification ceiling fans in the cellars.
• A regular testing program should be established so problems are quickly
i­ dentified.
• Review your maintenance program to avoid fouling, flow blockages and to ­ensure
good maintenance of pumps, fans and lights, etc.
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Medium cost
• Determine annual costs as the basis for improvement decisions by installing
­electricity meters covering relevant areas:
• compressors
• main auxiliaries (fans and pumps for condenser, evaporator and secondary
refrigerant-air distributing)
• other (secondary) auxiliary equipment (defrosters in cold rooms, lighting)
• Consider installing an automatic purge system for air and non-condensable gases.
• Sequence compressors on the basis of their loads and respective efficiencies.
• Correct sequencing is most important in the case of part-loads. Ensure that only
one compressor operates at part-load. If a choice of compressors exists for partload operation, use a reciprocating compressor instead of a screw or centrifugal
compressor, which has poor part-load performance.
• Avoid the use of compressor capacity control systems, which throttle the inlet gas
flow, raise the discharge pressure or use hot gas bypass.
• Install an automatic suction pressure control system to modulate the suction
­pressure in line with production requirements to yield savings.
• Segregate refrigeration systems according to temperature; optimize the thermodynamic balance of the refrigeration cycle to dedicate equipment to the minimum
required conditions for each process.
• Use low ambient temperatures to provide free cooling to suitable loads during
winter and shoulder seasons.
• Consider installing a thermosiphon (closed loop system) on ammonia cooling
compressors.
• Replace inadequate doors to cold areas; provide door closers to keep warmer air out.
• Install traps to remove oil and water from the ammonia (contaminants in the
­ammonia raise the boiling point) and (suggestion c­ ontributed by a brewer) ensure
routine draining of oil from r­ efrigeration systems, especially on process equipment.
Capital cost
• Replace compressors with the most efficient type available, when justified.
• If a number of evaporators in an integrated system are operating at pressures
considerably higher than the suction line pressure, consider installing a separate
system to enable running a portion of the load at higher operational suction line
pressure and, therefore, higher COP (dual pressure ammonia system).
• Consider thermal storage, i.e. coolant storage (using ice tanks, eutectic salts or
supercooled secondary refrigerant) to maximize the use of night-rate power.
This will also reduce the requirement for additional chiller capacity if increased
­cooling demand is needed.
• Evaluate the utilization of ammonia de-superheating heat recovery for preheating
and reducing the cost of cooling in the condenser or cooling tower.
• Evaluate absorption cooling if excess heat is available. This technology provides
refrigeration without electricity input.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
• Evaluate installing a combustion engine-driven chiller unit as it provides a less
expensive energy input and has better part-load efficiency than electrical motors,
besides affording heat recovery from the engine jacket and exhaust.
• Consider installing split suction for high- and low-temperature requirements.
• Consider replacing shell and tube exchangers with high efficiency plate heat
­exchangers.
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7.7 COMPRESSED AIR
In poorly managed systems, the true cost of electricity used to produce compressed air
may approach $1.00/kWh.
Compressed air is the most expensive utility in a brewery. The brewing industry uses a great deal of
compressed air for production process control purposes. It is a safe and convenient form of energy,
frequently taken for granted and overlooked as a possible savings option. About 8 percent of total
brewery electricity supply is used for compressed air generation, if the plant does not operate a
wastewater treatment plant.
Most brewery employees view compressed air almost as a free and convenient resource and are
not aware that compressed air is the most expensive utility in the plant. Compressed air is an
inefficient medium as some 85 percent of the electrical energy used to produce it is converted into
heat and only the remainder to pneumatic energy. Yet, often it receives little attention. A brewery
typically requires approximately 8 percent of the total brewery electricity supply for compressed air
generation, much more if it operates an aerobic wastewater treatment facility.
Compressed air is widely used in a brewery in process control. It produces a linear actuation for
positioning kegs, bottles and cans onto the filling heads. It produces a linear or rotary motion to
actuate and accurately position control valves. It is used as a means of propelling solids (spent
grains) or pushing liquid from vessels where pumping is not desirable or is difficult. Further uses
include operation of portable agitators and hand tools. It is also used for facilitation of confinedspace and hazardous atmosphere entry, etc. Undesirable uses of compressed are the wasteful, unsafe
and unhealthy practice of blowing dust or debris off surfaces and using it for cooling duties.
The brewery operation that requires the highest pressure should determine the pressure of
compressed air in the system. It is very expensive to produce more pressure than needed. For
example, if only 5 bar(g) pressure is needed but 8 bar(g) pressure is generated in the system, the
costs are unnecessarily 40 percent higher.
Reciprocating piston compressors are the most prevalent type. There are several variations: doubleacting; lubricated; non-lubricated; single cylinder; or multiple-cylinder, two-stage machines. Other
types are screw compressors, rotary vane or rotary lobe machines. The latter, also known as “Roots
Blower,” is designed for low-pressure ratio duties to a maximum of 2 bar(g).
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Leaks are a major source of inefficiency, typically accounting for about 70 percent of the total
wastage but as high as half of the site’s consumption. By the time the compressed air reaches the end
user, it can cost about $1.00 per kWh. Table 7-5 illustrates the results of leakages through holes of
various diameters in a 600 kPa g system, using electricity at $0.07 per kWh.
Table 7-5: Cost of compressed air leaks
Hole diameter
Air leakage
Cost $/month
1 mm
1 L/s
14
3 mm
10 L/s
150
5 mm
27 L/s
417
10 mm
105 L/s
1655
Leakage does not just waste energy, it also affects operating costs. As leakage increases, system
pressure drops, air-using equipment functions less efficiently and production may be affected. The
costly remedy is to increase the generating pressure to compensate for these losses.
Long-term costs of compressed air generation are typically 75 percent electric energy, 15 percent
capital and 10 percent maintenance. Simple cost-effective measures can save up to 30 percent of
electricity costs. Consequently, the effort to make a system energy-efficient is highly effective. The
work should include examinations of compressed air generation, treatment, control, distribution
and end use.
Typically, only a little more than 20 percent of electrical energy used to retrieve and
­compress air is converted into mechanical energy of the compressed air.
Compressed air is, mistakenly, often considered “free” by those using it, because free air is being
used from the atmosphere. The electrical cost of compressed air may run to 70 percent or more
of the total annual system’s operating costs, while maintenance and depreciation may take
15 to 20 percent each. It is clear that compressed air is one technology where energy efficiency
improvements are directly related to financial savings.
Artificial demand is the extra compressed air consumption when operating the system at
higher pressures than necessary.
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TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
On average, savings may be achieved by fixing:
•
•
•
•
leaks (25 percent)
poor applications (20 percent)
air lost in drainage systems (5 percent)
artificial demand (15 percent)
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What remains is the net useful compressed air usage – only 35 percent. The above breakdown
of losses varies with the company involved. In some systems, the leaks alone may account for
60 percent.
The compressed air leak losses can be calculated during a no-consumption period, using the
formula, VL = [VC x t] : T, where VL is the volume of leak loss, VC the capacity of the compressor
at full load in m3/min, t = time in seconds of full-load compressor operation (i.e. total full-load
measuring time) and T = total measured, elapsed time.
The rule of thumb is that leaks should not be higher than 5 percent.
Our investigations should concentrate on the above areas. It should start with a quick, simple
scan of the system. Its purpose is to optimize the existing system, leading to savings in energy
and money. Each part of the system should be investigated for possible improvements and saving
options. However, for best results, do not just consider it as a sum of individual components such as
compressors, dryers, filters, coolers and the auxiliary equipment.
Simple, cost-effective measures can save 30 to 50 percent of generating electricity costs.
Take an overall view and think in terms of pressures versus volumes, rates of change in pressure,
etc., to optimize the system effectively. This approach will result in a considered, thoughtful audit of
the compressed air system, to include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
analyzing demand and matching capacity to demand
controlling peak demand events
correcting poor applications and waste in using compressed air
identifying and correcting leaks
controlling and managing the entire system
optimizing the maintenance program
making users aware about correct practices and savings opportunities
monitoring results, performance and costs of the compressed air system’s operations
Together with a brief description of the various issues, we list some remedial EMOs, and indicate
whether they would likely be in the category of housekeeping items of zero or little cost ($), medium
cost ($$) or retrofit high-cost capital items ($$$).
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Analyze the demand
• Identify critical users and analyze their needs regarding compressed air
pressure, volumetric flow, frequency of use and duration of the usage events.
That will help in designing eventually custom-fitted solutions, and minimize
affecting other users in the system ($).
Control peak
demand
• Provide adequate compressed air storage capacity to reduce cycling;
consider installing additional compressed air tanks ($).
• Consider replacing part of the air distribution network with large-diameter
piping to stabilize air supply and enable reduction of air pressure ($$-$$$).
Correct poor
applications
• Replace vacuum generators using compressed air, pneumatic ­motors,
dusting by blowing compressed air, and open blowing, with other
equipment giving the same results but at lower costs ($-$$). If need be,
install a low-pressure blower for the job.
Eliminate waste
• Generate compressed air at the lowest possible pressure suitable for the
task ($).
• Never generate at too high a pressure only to reduce it to a lower operating
pressure later ($).
• Do not compensate with higher pressure for poorly maintained air tools or
undersized air distribution lines ($).
• Consider using high-efficiency blow nozzles (reducing air consumption by
at least 50 percent) ($).
• Consider using a different nozzle type and configuration when blowing off
water after pasteurization ($-$$).
• Minimize losses of compressed air in various pieces of measuring and
­controlling equipment using it, install section valves ($$).
• Consider dual pressure control for off-shift operation ($$).
• Switch off compressors when not needed ($). Include the weekends, if
p
­ ossible.
Eliminate leaks
• Think of compressed air as you would water, stop the leaks at once ($).
• Use the listening method after normal working hours ($).
• Invest in an ultrasound listening device to identify leaks
(e.g. ­Ultraprobe 2000TM) ($).
• Consider purchasing a compressed air leak tester to detect ­pressure drops
because of leaks and to measure the compressor capacity ($$).
• Consider implementing an automatic leak-measuring process, to be done
on weekends, through a computerized control, regulator and monitoring
system and installation of enough section valves.
Remember: A leakage
reduction program
must be ongoing to be
effective.
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TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Manage system
•
•
•
•
Train operators
• In order to achieve operational savings and quality improvements, users
and operators must understand the system and be aware of its operating
costs ($).
• Delegate responsibility to ensure that the compressed air system has no
leaks ($).
• Request operators to mark leaks manually as soon as discovered for
­maintenance to fix ($).
Monitor
performance
• Install both electricity and air flow meters (vortex), to allow energy
­monitoring ($$).
• Monitor the following parameters on a monthly basis:
• kWh/total number of labour hours in production
• kWh/m3 (i.e. compressor efficiency)
• m3/total number of labour hours in production
• In addition, do likewise in terms of dollar costs.
Require users to justify using the compressed air ($).
Institute metering of the usage by end-point users ($).
Make users fiscally accountable for the compressed air usage ($).
Consider installing “load shaping” – a dedicated demand management
system to handle peaks without affecting the pressure levels, starting
­additional compressors needlessly, or leaving excess compressors running
“just in case” ($$$).
• Use the central control, regulation and monitoring system to start/stop the
compressors at pre-determined times during the week ($$$). (Note: One
such program is the XCEEDTM Compressed Air Management System.)
• Uncontrolled compressed air quality can lead to production downtime.
Implement a regular maintenance, inspection and preventive maintenance
program for the system’s components. In the program, also include the
control and monitoring equipment ($).
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Case study: Lower air pressure in compressors
A 60-HP air compressor was being operated at 760 kPa (110 psi), although the maximum pressure
required from any process machinery was just 620 kPa (90 psi). Consequently, by a simple
adjustment of the pressure regulator, the compressor discharge air pressure could be lowered to
655 kPa (95 psi). The horsepower output would be reduced by 7.5 percent.
Recommendation: Lowering the operating pressure of a compressor reduces its load and operating
brake horsepower. Using an appropriate chart to plot the initial and lowered discharge pressures, an
approximate decrease (in %) of the brake horsepower can be determined.
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Savings are calculated using the formula:
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CS = (HP : η) x LF x H x S x WHP x CF; where
CS = anticipated cost savings for the compressor, $/y
HP = (nominal) horsepower of the compressor (i.e. 60 HP)
η = efficiency of the electric motor driving the compressor, %
S = estimated horsepower reduction (i.e. 7.5 percent)
H = annual operating time in hours
LF = average partial load (e.g. 0.6)
WHP = conversion factor (0.7459 kW/HP)
CF = electricity consumption cost, $/kWh
Results: The simple payback period on savings of $480 per year (at the time) was immediate.
Case study: Repair compressed air leaks
One significant air leak (6 mm diameter) and three small ones (each 2 mm diameter) were found in
the compressed air system, through a plant inspection during a period of non-production. The total
loss was 137 kg air/h. The mass flow out of a hole is calculated using Fliegner’s formula:
m = 1915.2 x k x A x P x (T + 460)-0.5; where
m = mass flow rate
k = nozzle coefficient (e.g. 0.65)
A = area of the hole
P = pressure in the line at the hole
T = temperature of the air in the line
Savings are calculated using the formula:
CS = P x L x HR x LF x CF; where:
CS = cost savings, $/y
P = energy required to raise air to pressure, kWh/kg
L = total leak rate, kg/h
HR = yearly operating time of the compressed air system, h/y
LF = estimated partial load factor (e.g. 0.6)
CF = electricity consumption cost, $/kWh
Results: Fixing the leaks (even temporarily with a clamp over the leak) realized annual savings of
$1,360 (at the time) and a simple payback period of 12 days.
Case study: Redirect air compressor intake to use outside air
A 60-HP air compressor drew air from the engine room where the temperature was 29°C. The
annual average outside air temperature was 10.5°C. Redirecting the air intake to the outside (north
side of the building) resulted in drawing cooler and therefore denser air. The compressor worked
less to obtain a given pressure increase as less reduction of volume of air was required. The power
savings amounted to 7.1 percent.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
The calculation to reduce compressor work from a change in inlet air temperature involves the
following formula:
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WR = (WI – WO) : WI = (TI – TO) : (TI + 460); where
WR = fractional reduction of compressor work
WI = compressor work with indoor inlet
WO = compressor work with outdoor inlet
TI = annual average indoor temperature, °C
TO = annual average outdoor temperature, °C
Savings from using the cooler intake are calculated using the formula:
CS = HP x (1 : η) x LF x H x WHP x CF x WR; where
CS = anticipated cost savings, $/y
HP = horsepower for the operating compressor, HP
η = efficiency of the compressor motor, %
LF = average partial load factor (e.g. 0.6)
H = annual operating time, h
WHP = conversion factor, 0.7459 kW/HP
CF = electricity consumption cost, $/kWh
Results: The annual savings amounted to $445 (at the time). With the cost of installation (PVC
schedule 40 pipe and some rolled fiberglass insulation), the simple payback period was 10 months.
Compressed air: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
• Maintain air filters.
• Eliminate redundant couplings and hoses as potential sources of leaks.
• Remove obsolete compressed air distribution piping (to reduce pressure loss, leaks
and maintenance costs).
• When reciprocating and screw compressors are used in parallel, always maintain
screw compressors at full load. When partial loads are required, shut down the screw
compressor and use the reciprocating compressor instead.
• Avoid using compressed air when low-pressure blower air will do the job
• Ensure the system is dry. Ensure that drainage slopes, drainage points and take-off
points (always on top) prevent internal corrosion of the piping.
• Review all operations where compressed air power is being used and develop a list of
alternative ways.
• Review the compressed air system and air uses annually. Simplify the task by
­developing a checklist.
• Keep all air tools, connectors, and hoses in good repair.
• Commit to a brewery-wide awareness program.
• Draw intake air for both compressing and compressor cooling (if air-cooled) from the
coolest location outside, probably by direct ducting of fresh intake air from the outside.
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TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
• In air-cooled compressors, discharge heated air outdoors during the summer and use
indoors for space heating during winter.
• Check that the system being operated is not faulty (if it requires higher than design
pressure).
• Check that there are no problems with piping causing system pressure drops.
• Ensure that the system is dry: correct slopes of the piping, drainage points, and
take-off points (always on top of piping).
• Beware of piping corrosion; it can lead to pitting and leaks.
• Implement a regular system maintenance and inspection program.
• Invest in a leak detector/air leak tester to measure total volumetric leakage throughout the compressed air system and also the compressor capacity.
• Switch off compressors when production is down. If compressed air is needed for
instrumentation, consider installing a separate compressor for this function; it will
save wear on the main compressors as well.
• When reciprocating compressors and screw compressors are used in parallel, always
maintain screw compressors at full load. When partial loads are required, use the
reciprocating compressor and shut down the screw compressor.
• Minimize the air dryer regeneration cycle by installing a controller based on dew
point measurement.
• Enclose compressors (if applicable) to prevent heat infiltration into buildings, if
not desired.
100
Medium cost
• Replace older, high-maintenance air-engine driven equipment with new, highefficiency type.
• When many users demand relatively low-pressure air, consider the economics of
installing a separate distribution network.
• Install a pre-cooler to cool the inlet air and remove most of the ­moisture.
• Consider installing electronic condensate drain traps (ECDTs) to get rid of the
water in the receiver and piping. No air is wasted when the water is ejected; as
­opposed to the standard practice of cracking open a receiver drain valve for
continuous bleed-off. ECDTs are extremely reliable. The payback period on the
investment ranges from 8 to 24 months.
• Install a large compressed air accumulator tank to reduce compressor cycling.
• Review all operations where compressed air power is being used and develop a
list of alternative ways to perform the same function.
• If compressors are water cooled, look for ways to recover heat from the cooling
water circuit.
• In multiple-compressor installations, schedule the use of machines to suit the
demand, and sequence the machines so that one or more compressors are shut off
rather than have several operating at part-load when the demand is less than full
capacity.
• Make piping changes necessary to shut off production areas, e.g. packaging, when
there is no demand (off shifts, weekends).
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Capital cost
• Install a system pressure regulator to eliminate artificial demand by stabilizing
pressure at the minimum required level for production. Note: typically, 10 percent
energy savings are achieved. (e.g. XCEEDTM Demand Expander).
• Consider installing rotary drum air dryers, where the heat generated by air
­compressor is used to continually regenerate the air dryer desiccant, and no
­compressed air is consumed.
• Consider installing an airtight plastic pipe distribution network to replace old
steel pipes, and eliminate corroded and leaking circuits.
• For smaller or occasional compressed air uses, consider using a combustion
engine-driven compressor unit, which provides a less expensive energy input and
has better part-load efficiency than electrical motors, and affords heat recovery
from exhaust and the engine jacket.
• Check the size of the air distribution network for a “tight” fit, which causes
­excessive pressure losses.
• Consider replacing your compressed air dryers with more efficient type,
e.g. freeze dryer or rotating drum dryer.
• Consider fitting a variable speed drive (VSD) to your fixed-speed compressor
(typically, a payback period of less than 2 years may be obtained).
• Reduce idling losses and ensure the lowest possible generation pressure by
constantly monitoring the end-use pressure and tying it to the compressor
operation.
• Review compressor loading and consider whether installing differently-sized
compressors would even out the loading by fitting the suitably-sized compressors
to the momentary demand.
• Recover heat from the compressors for preheating rather than paying to cool them.
• On older compressors, consider installing a buffer tank to regulate compressor
duty cycle.
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Case study: Is my compressor sized properly to meet demand? (brewer-contributed study)
Most of the literature available on compressed air focuses on reducing leaks and pressure in a
system. Though these elements are important, one of the most basic aspects of a compressed air
system is neglected. Has it been sized correctly to meet demand? Generally, an undersized system
is identified quickly because it provides direct feedback to operations when it does not have enough
air. However an oversized system is not as obvious and can be very costly to operate and maintain.
As a result of a capital replacement project, a brewery completed a detailed investigation on their
compressed air system. The project was initiated as a result of multiple failures throughout the year
that placed their facility at risk of being unable to supply product in a timely fashion. The plan was
to purchase a back-up system. The original system consisted of one 200-HP compressor that could
supply approximately 800 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM). Detailed measurement found that
at peak load, the facility only required 550 SCFM. Since they did not have a surge tank, the system
was effectively blowing off and wasting 30 percent of the air generated.
The end result was a system that was cycling excessively, resulting in increased maintenance and
electricity costs. Since the system was oversized, saving leaks did nothing to actually help the bottom
line. Reducing consumption would have only resulted in more air being blown off and wasted.
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Results: As a result of the measurements and an understanding of their demand, the system was
sized with one 75-HP fixed speed unit and one 75-HP variable speed unit with a large surge tank.
With a good understanding of the load profile, they were able to size the system effectively and
install a system that reduced the electricity used by the compressed air by 30 percent.
Additional information: Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency has supplementary
and useful information on compressed air on their Web site under Industrial Energy Efficient
Equipment at oee.nrcan.gc.ca/industrial/equipment/compressed-air/index.cfm
7.8 PROCESS GASES
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and sometimes nitrogen (N2) are process gases that have many product
quality related uses in breweries. They are used to carbonate or nitrogenate the product. They
prevent oxygen from coming in contact with beer when filling and emptying holding vessels,
pipes and during transfers. They are used for dilution water conditioning, in bottling, canning and
kegging, and lastly when dispensing beer in pubs. In a modern brewery, every process stage past
fermentation has a potential for use, and for release, of carbon dioxide.
Nitrogen, a cheaper gas to purchase than CO2 and easy to generate on site, can be used for most of
the applications above. Nitrogen allows for cleaning of vessels with the biocidal caustic detergents,
where CO2 use is impractical. With CO2, there is danger of the vessel’s collapse and waste of
detergent on account of its neutralization. For beer conditioning, nitrogen is often used in a mixture
(30 to 60 percent) with CO2. Its use in beer produces a much denser and stable foam head with
finer bubbles, as has been practiced by an Irish brewery for decades. However, the decision to use
nitrogen is preceded by production and/or marketing considerations. Due to the lower density of
nitrogen and the fact that the use of oxygen-free gas in the brewery is controlled by volume rather
than by weight, the use of nitrogen can reduce the cost of gas by between 30 to 50 percent of the
equivalent costs for CO2.
CO2 is a product of yeast metabolism during fermentation of wort. Theoretical calculations show
that 52 percent of fermentable sugars in wort will be converted into CO2. This translates to a
theoretical yield of 0.43 kg per degree Plato (°P) attenuated. Therefore, the fermenter yield of CO2
is about 4 kg from one hectolitre of 12°P wort, or about 6 kg/hl from 18°P high-gravity wort. In
practical terms, the collectable quantities will be less, because of losses and absorption of CO2 in
green beer: about 0.16 to 0.24 kg/°P. The gas usage varies between 1.5 kg and 5 kg/hl of finished
product, depending on product mix and the sophistication of CO2 management. To be liquefiable,
CO2 must be at least 99.8 percent pure. However, since oxygen has a most deleterious effect on beer
flavour and physical stability, CO2 for beer carbonation should be essentially oxygen-free.
It should be collected in traditional systems, at 99.98 percent purity, or about 24 hours after the
onset of fermentation, to produce gas with the lowest possible oxygen content, for example 5 ppm.
For this reason, the CO2 is an important brewery utility having a direct and significant influence
on beer quality. That aspect must govern, first of all, its collection, handling and use in a
brewery, including checking for absence of flavour taints in it.
Even from CO2 streams collected with gross air contamination (e.g. 20 percent), it is possible
to recover pure CO2 by means of low-temperature distillation. Collection may start as soon as
the fermenter has been filled. The first gas, mostly air, will be diluted with streams from other
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
fermenters. Low-temperature distillation plants have a better collection efficiency of 0.28 to 0.33 kg
per degree of attenuation. Moreover, the method allows for simplification of pipework, and valving
that can influence the return on investment (ROI).
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CO2 is expensive to purchase and its on-site liquefaction and evaporation is energy-intensive; hence
the potential for substantial savings in both the purchasing and processing cost areas. A brewery can
and should be self-sufficient in terms of its CO2 needs. Examples abound of well-managed breweries
that sell significant surplus of CO2 or use it for their own soft drink production. Good management
of gas production and usage is the prerequisite of the goal of self-sufficiency. The first priority should
be to minimize CO2 use (reduction of wastage); the second, to maximize recovery.
The other source of CO2 in a brewery is boiler flue gas. Equipment is available on the market to
capture, purify and liquefy CO2 (e.g. by the Wittemann company) from flue gas. For beer and soft
drink carbonation, though fermenter-generated CO2 is preferred and, in some countries, legislated.
CO2 from flue gas and the non-liquefiable CO2 from fermenters may find a wide range of uses in a
brewery, among them the neutralization of brewery effluent, vessels’ blanketing, etc.
Process gases: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
• Find out the CO2 mass balance in the brewery. Purchase or rent gas flowmeters.
For the gaseous flow, the thermal mass type with a high turn-down ratio of about
100:1 is suitable; for the liquid flow, a meter utilizing the Coriolis Effect is effective
as it is independent of density, conductivity, viscosity and temperature.
• Detect and eliminate all leaks.
• Shut off gas when not in use, e.g. on the bottle and can fillers.
• Consider blanketing fermenters with CO2 prior to filling to reduce wastage
through venting before collection and to increase yield.
• Review the selection of bowl pressure in the filler. Any reduction of the bowl
­pressure and the reduction of the on/off control limit range (a modulating
­pressure control would help) will produce savings.
• Review the use of gas on the canner (invariably a very large CO2 user) and the
position and state of the nozzles.
• Limit the unnecessary use of CO2 in storage tanks when the gas ­pressure is too
high (0 to 1 bar(g) should be sufficient). A wasteful practice is to increase pressure
while emptying the tank so as to maintain an adequate pump inlet pressure to
prevent cavitation. Instead, rearrange the pipework to ensure a sufficient pressure
at the pump under all conditions.
• Avoid a CO2 collection regime based on time elapsed after filling the fermenter or on
drop in wort gravity. Instead, govern the CO2 collection by measurement of oxygen
content.
• Determining the CO2 collection start when the fermenter temperature rises by 0.5°C
has shown good results. That collection point was ­correlated to 99.5-percent CO2
purity.
• Review the contract with your CO2 supplier; shop around for better prices and service.
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Medium cost
• Install flowmeters in a hierarchical fashion, e.g. a main meter supported by various levels of sub-metering to measure all gas usage.
• Consider cross-connecting tanks to reduce CO2 consumption.
• Evaluate the replacement of CO2 with nitrogen where it makes sense.
• Consider CO2 recovery from storage and buffer tanks.
Capital cost
• Install a compressor and a storage balloon to capture flue gas for use in effluent
pH adjustment/neutralization.
• Eliminate wastage through the use of dead-weight valves when pressurizing tank
before filling. They regulate pressure by venting excess rather than by stopping
supply. Replace with appropriate control system.
• Automate the collection of CO2 gas from all fermenters through on-line gas
purity measurement based on thermal conductivity (for CO2) and/or the use of
paramagnetic or zircon electrochemical detection cells (for oxygen).
• Evaluate the cost of installing an oxygen/nitrogen generator on site (oxygen for
oxygenation of wort, nitrogen for inert gas and nitrogenation use).
• Evaluate the installation of low-temperature distillation equipment.
7.9 UTILITY AND PROCESS WATER
Brewery operations are water-intensive. Specific water consumption (SWC) is a common measure,
expressed as a ratio of hl of water to hl of beer.
Internationally, the Campden BRI together with the Dutch company KWA undertook in recent
years a number of brewery water use surveys. The latest, in 2007, included 130 breweries, all bigger
than 500 000 hl. The SWC range was 2.3 hl/hl (this was the best practice) to 8.8 hl/hl, with the top
10 percent (decile) having the SWC at ≤ 3.5. Table 7-6 shows the results a SWC survey done in the UK.
Table 7-6: A U.K specific water consumption survey
Brewery size, hl/y
Range of SWC
Average SWC
> 500 000
3.04-10.41
4.0
100 000-500 000
3.74-17.28
6.56
< 100 000
3.04-10.41
5.91
Among the “big” international groups (information gleaned from corporate reports), the SWC in
2007 was for SAB-Miller – 4.6, InBev – 5.0 and Anheuser-Busch (pre-merger) – 5.5.
SAB-Miller had set the target to lower the SWC to 3.5 by 2015 by setting a water footprinting project
for individual operations and processes. A-B had 2010 (pre-merger) target SWC of 4.0 hl/hl. In
Canada, SWC reportedly averages around 5.6 hl/hl for larger brewers.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
To put the information in perspective, for a brewery with the SWC of 6.5, the use of water per
hectolitre of beer produced can be approximately:
Water as raw material Heat transfer
Cleaning duties
Other (including losses)
105
1.3 hl/hl or 20 percent
0.7 hl/hl or 10 percent
2.9 hl/hl or 45 percent
1.6 hl/hl or 25 percent
There are two aspects to water management in a brewery: conservation of use, i.e. of
­volume used, and of the heat the water carries.
The effort to manage water should start with preparing water balance. Develop a mass and heat
balance diagram of water use in different areas of the plant. Use the information in preparation
of a water and energy conservation program. The locations and flow rates of all water uses in
the plant can be measured, and if the water meters are not available, as is common in many small
breweries, use estimates. The mains water pressure, known diameter of the mains, sometimes a
five-gallon bucket and a stopwatch can be used as improvised tools to provide a reasonably accurate
picture. Water temperatures should be measured. The information should be analyzed for wasteful,
non-productive usage and excessive flows. A picture should emerge about what stream can be used
and where, whether water reuse is possible and for what uses, and where there is a potential for heat
transfer. With successful launching of water conservation initiatives, justifications may be available
for installing more water flow meters elsewhere in the brewery.
Annual water costs in a brewery are substantially lower than energy costs, but water conservation
is a tangible, high-visibility action to which everybody can relate and which everybody would likely
support. Undoubtedly, there are opportunities for conservation in any brewery. In the processes,
water discharged from one operation could be piped in another, etc. The cost of water in a brewery
has two components: the cost of water purchased and the cost of sewer charges. The brewing
industry was able to reduce the sewer charges by both the amount of water that went into the
product as well as by the brewhouse evaporation loss. (For excessive contamination of the drained
out wastewater, extra effluent surcharges may be applied.)
Leaking valves and taps, loose joints and leaking pipes can cost the brewery a lot of money over
time. Chances are that in a brewery, there may be several leaks at any given time; and the losses add
up (Table 7-7). Associated costs of electricity to operate pumps, fans, water treatment costs, and
maintenance increase the financial losses further.
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Table 7-7: Water leakage and associated costs and losses
106
Leakage rate
Monthly loss
(m3)
Monthly cost
($)*
Yearly loss
(m3)
Yearly cost
($)*
One drop per second
0.13
1
1.6
10
Two drops per second
0.4
2
4.9
20
Drops merging into a stream
2.6
10
31.8
127
1.6 mm diameter stream
9.4
38
113.5
454
3.2 mm diameter stream
29.5
118
354
1416
4.8 mm diameter stream
48.3
193
580
2320
6.4 (1/4") mm dia. stream
105
420
1260
5040
* Approximate cost at $2/m3 purchased water and $2/m3 drained-out water; the figures are rounded off. Use
your actual costs to calculate the potential financial loss in your circumstances.
A brewery may have several systems and uses for water such as process cooling water, potable water,
domestic hot water, boiler feedwater, tunnel pasteurizer water recirculation, soaker (bottle washer),
keg washer, can rinsers, cleaning-in-place (CIP) and rinsing of process equipment; mashing and
sparging; high-gravity beer dilution (particularly for light beers), line and filler flushing, floor
washing, etc. They have in common the similar inefficiencies and, because of the water heat content,
also energy management opportunities. For example, the incoming water temperature may be
only 12°C, yet the temperature of the total brewery effluent may be 28°C. The water should be recirculated as many times as possible through these operations to prevent wastage.
Open systems such as evaporative coolers (i.e. cooling towers) are commonly used for this purpose.
They need additional energy to drive the fans that move the air through as well as water make-up
to compensate for evaporation, drifts and the necessary blowdowns. The water has to be treated to
prevent scale and slime formation and corrosion. Cooling towers cool down returning water to a
level which is usually about 6°C above the ambient wet-bulb temperature.
Closed-loop mechanical water chillers use the refrigerant condensing coil to extract heat. They are
more expensive to install and run but conserve and produce very cold water and eliminate the need
for water conditioning chemicals.
Cooling of air compressors requires close control of the cooling water temperature as well. However,
both undercooling and overcooling can cause serious mechanical damage to an air compressor, and
it is best to consult with the air-compressor manufacturer.
In all projects involving the heat content of water, proper insulation of tanks and pipes is necessary.
Pipes carrying hot or chilled water (or wort or beer) should be well insulated to prevent heat loss
or gain. Chilled-water piping should also have a vapour barrier to prevent condensation from
saturating the open-fibre insulation. The hot water energy potential can provide useful service in
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
other than technological operations (mashing, sparging, washing, pasteurizing, etc.) such as
in-space heating, steam generation, to temper make up air, as well as, through the use of heat
pumps, for air conditioning. Benchmarking tools such as the brand WaterSaver®, are available at
www.bri-advantage.com.
107
Case study: Minimize water usage used for cooling air compressor
A 60-HP air compressor was being cooled by an unrestricted flow of water through the compressor
cooling coils. The water was heated from 18°C to 29°C, and the compressor oil was at 32°C; it was
supposed to operate at 66°C. The two options for reducing water consumption were: install a gate
valve and/or recirculate water through a small cooling tower.
In the case of the gate valve, a small hole calibrated to guarantee the necessary minimum flow rate
acceptable to the compressor manufacturer was drilled through the gate. This guaranteed that the
water would not be accidentally shut off; there was a provision to adjust the future flow rate as
necessary and to flush the line from time to time to remove sediment.
The cooling tower would permit rejection of heat gained by the cooling water and its recirculation.
The flow rate of cooling water could be reduced to the point where the water would exit at 63°C,
allowing the oil to remain at 66°C.
New flow rate formula
The new flow rate is determined by the formula:
NF = {(29°–18°C) : (63°–18°C)} x OF; where
OF = old flow rate, L/h
NF = new flow rate, L/h
Savings are calculated using the formula:
CS = L x HR x CF; where
CS = cost savings, $/y
L = OF – NF, expressed in m3
HR = yearly operating time of the compressor in hours, h/y
CF = cost of water consumption, $/m3
Results: The simple payback period for just the gate valve installation was 1.4 days; for the more
complex cooling tower installation (costing $7,600), it was 1.2 years.
Case study: Optimize the hot water system in the brewhouse
In a European brewery with an annual production of one million hectolitres, the wort was cooled
with water in a heat exchanger, then heated to 60°C and used as brewing water. The surplus hot
water was drained. A new $120,000 wort cooler with a larger heat transfer area was installed and
produced 85°C water from the wort cooling. A larger water buffer tank was also installed. The 85°C
water was used for mashing, for make-up water in the bottle washer and as hot water supply for CIP
plants in the brewery.
Results: Reduced water consumption of 40 000 m3 and reduced fuel oil consumption of 340 t/y
generated a simple payback period of approximately three years.
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Case study: Install a cooling tower for a tunnel pasteurizer
108
A 500 000 hectolitre per year brewery, which used an open-loop cooling system for the tunnel
pasteurizer, installed a cooling tower to change to a closed-loop system.
Results: The use of the cooling tower, which required an investment of $45,000, resulted in savings
of 50 000 m3/y and a simple payback period of one year.
Utility and process water: Other energy and water management practices and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
Note: Many of the items below should be part of the preventive maintenance (PM)
or predictive maintenance schedules.
• Examine product scheduling, and vessel and equipment cleaning practices, where
economies in water consumption (e.g. in water reuse or in CIP) can be obtained
­easily.
• Examine water use patterns and reduce water consumption to the minimum
­necessary.
• Maintain the system; stop leaks promptly.
• Reduce pump-operating time where possible.
• Do pump seals leak? Replace leaking seals ASAP.
• Are any pumps fitted with packing-gland seals? Consider replacing these pumps
with new units with mechanical seals.
• To prevent water losses, inspects pipes frequently and repair leaks promptly.
• Instil good housekeeping practices in all employees, e.g. do not run water hoses
or taps uncontrolled (especially in the cooled areas, where the water adds to the
­refrigeration loads).
• Do not let the eyewash fountains run as a drinking water source; provide drinking
fountains instead.
• Ensure that water supply for processes stops during idle periods (e.g. after-filler bottle
crown flush, can rinser, last rinses in the bottle washer, etc.).
• Remove stagnant, redundant branches of the water distribution network.
• Monitor and control the cooling-water temperature so that the minimum quantity of
water required to perform the cooling is used.
• Water pumps should be shut off when the systems they are serving are not operating. This measure will reduce the electricity costs for pumping, and in case of cooling
water, the cost of water treatment.
• Optimize pump impellers (change out) to ensure that duty point is within the
optimum zone on the pump curve.
• Maintain pumps through regular inspection and maintenance to monitor for early
indications of failure.
• Strainers and filters should be checked regularly to ensure that they do not become
clogged; clogged filters cause losses in pipeline pressure.
• Reduce evaporation from tanks by installing (or closing) covers.
• Check and adjust, as necessary, the appropriate water heating set points, aiming at
the minimum required temperature levels. Consider switching off the heating regime
for weekends and holidays.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
• Prevent or minimize water overflow occurrences (especially hot water).
• Maintain proper control over water treatment to ensure that design flows are
­maintained.
• Maintain properly monitoring and controlling equipment.
• Ensure calibration or verification of the temperature and pressure sensors.
• Identify all hoses and ensure that the smallest diameter necessary is used for the
task.
• Review the bottle washer operation.
• Ensure that tunnel pasteurizer operates in a thermally balanced mode.
• Ensure correct function of spray nozzles in the tunnel pasteurizer.
Medium cost
109
• Reuse and/or recirculate cooling waters and process waters imaginatively, e.g. use
pump seal water to serve as air-conditioning.
• Use process or cooling water as a heat-exchange medium in your ventilation or
heating system.
• Consider placing a water/air heat exchanger system inside the brewery, to help
with the heating load in the winter.
• Collect uncontaminated “wasted” water if the rate of its generation exceeds the
rate of the immediate reuse, rather than emptying it down the drain. Install an
inexpensive FRP off-the-shelf tank or a second-hand vessel for the collection
and use of the water later. Size these holding tanks properly. Use these collection
­vessels to even out the supply/demand ratio in your water multiple reuse projects.
• Remove existing design flaws such as bottlenecks, sharp elbows, wrong-sized
valves that restrict flow.
• If pump flows vary consistently, consider using variable speed drives or two
speed motors.
• Collect uncontaminated cooling water for reuse.
• Reuse all rinse water from cleaning operations (with due regard to product
­quality implications, wherever possible, for example the cleaning-in-place (CIP)
last rinse.
• Reduce water heat loss or gain by proper insulation of pipes and vessels.
• Install water system expansion tanks on closed loop systems, to serve two
­purposes: When the water is hot, wastage through relief valves will be prevented.
When the water is cold, the contracted volume would normally demand make-up
water to keep the system filled.
• Reduce friction losses and the associated pressure drops by streamlining and
correct-sizing the water pipes.
• Reduce water leakage/wastage by bringing the water pressure down in areas
where high pressure is not needed.
• Review correct size and choice of water pumps.
• Install water flow regulators for sanitary uses; delayed closing or timed flow taps
on wash hand basins and reduced-flow shower heads.
• Install water meters in different process areas to monitor consumption on
an ongoing basis. Use the data to identify zones, equipment and crews with
­either inconsistent or inefficient performance to correct deficiencies and to set
­progressively tighter consumption targets.
• Install the European-type on-demand gas water heaters for sanitary use (as a
brewery did).
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• Review the areas where high-volume, low-pressure rinsing or flushing makes
sense (e.g. at the bottle filler), and where the use of low-volume, high-pressure
(nozzles) water flow is called for.
• Fit hoses with automatic cut-off valves where appropriate (guns).
• Install delayed closing/timed flow taps on wash basins in the restrooms.
• Consider replacing old hot water boilers with high-efficiency units (about
95 ­percent with condensing heat recovery).
110
Capital cost
• Implement a plant-wide water system with multiple reuses of process water, on a
heat cascading principle.
• Can a once-through system be converted to a circulating system? Revise the water
distribution system to incorporate multiple reuse (recirculation) of process water
wherever possible, employing suitable heat recovery regimes, and implement
the measures.
• Install closed-loop cooling water systems (cooling towers) to eliminate oncethrough cooling water (double costs on water and sewerage).
• Review pump sizing, water pressure requirements and delivery distances versus
the piping diameter. Often, smaller pumps but larger diameter piping – to reduce
friction losses, provide better energy efficiency and make better economic sense
when all costs are considered.
• Upgrade pumps.
• Streamline piping systems. Often, the brewery grew by adding new area or
­processes without much thought given to piping systems. Remove redundant,
unused branches.
• Make water management part of computer-monitored and controlled system of
overall brewery utilities management (M&T technology, described elsewhere in
this Guide).
• Consider employing heat pumps for the combined application of heat extraction
and provision of chilling to process water and other fluids.
• Consider using waste heat to drive wastewater evaporator for sludge disposal
(if you have an on-site wastewater treatment plant, WWTP).
7.10 SHRINKAGE AND PRODUCT WASTE
Have you dollar-quantified all components of poor quality in your brewery?
(Some examples follow.)
Poor quality, which is also represented by reworked, rejected and scrapped product, represents a
massive waste of labour, materials and energy that is rarely quantified in a typical brewery. More
often than not, it is accepted as part of the production cycle, yet the dollar losses may be enormous.
It takes effort to improve things. A well-implemented management system such as using the ISO
9001:2008 international standard principles dealing with quality management systems, the HACCP
norm, and the ISO 14001:2004 environmental management standard, will minimize occurrences of
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
product-in-process being reworked or rejected and finished product being scrapped. Omitting the
serious negative product-quality implications, Table 7-8 shows some examples of energy waste and
the common solutions.
111
Table 7-8: Energy waste – Process problems and solutions
Process problem
Commonly adopted solutions
Contaminated pitching yeast
Dump
Primary or secondary beer outside of
specifications
Blend off; in serious cases (e.g. phenolic taint,
massive microbial contamination) dump
High gravity beer dilution water (oxygen content
higher than specifications or CO2 content outside
of specifications)
Dump or reprocess
Beer in packaging cellar tanks (oxygen content
higher than specification)
Purge with CO2 or blend (return to secondary
storage)
Beer in packaging cellar tanks (CO2 content
outside of specifications)
Carbonate in place, blend or reprocess
Packaged beer outside of specifications or primary
container fault; underpasteurized; seriously
overpasteurized; glass fragments in bottles;
“butterfly” glass; flavour taint from undercured
cans; seriously stained cans; use of wrong labels,
crowns, cans (poor secondary packaging)
Dump
Returns from the trade, recalls
Reinspect, repackage or dump
The above examples involve some of the following losses, often several together:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
unrealized profit, i.e. loss of profit
decreased productivity
increased direct labour expenses and indirect expenses; may include overtime
wasted energy in pumping, heating and cooling of large volumes of water and beer (i.e. wasted
fuel, steam and electricity)
de facto reduction in plant production capacity
wasted CO2
increase in volume and organic loading of brewery effluent
increased effluent surcharges or increased expense in wastewater treatment
wasted raw materials
wasted packaging materials
possible impairment of product quality and market position
demoralizing influence of poor production quality on employees
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
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112
The impact of an individual event may not seem much; but cumulative losses over a period of time
can be quite significant. Breweries should analyze and quantify some recent occurrences of losses
listed above in order to assess the negative impact they have on the brewery on an annual basis.
Shrinkage and product waste: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
• Document process procedures and work instructions, with designations of responsibility and accountability.
• Monitor routinely and quantify losses cumulatively over a period of time, to report
them and to prevent or limit their occurrences.
• Educate all employees about the cost and other negative implications of poor quality
production. Solicit their input and ensure their participation in the remedial and
preventive actions.
Medium cost
• Implement management systems (along ISO 9001, HACCP and/or ISO 14001
standards), alone or in combination to ensure quality production and due care of
environmental issues.
7.11 BREWERY BY-PRODUCTS
The vast majority of Canadian breweries sell their by-products, chiefly spent yeast and spent
grains, in wet state. Rarely do they improve their market value by drying them even though drying
substantially boosts the profit potential.
Brewery by-products: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
•
•
•
•
Medium cost
• Collect and add trubs to the spent grains.
• Collect waste beer for off-site disposal or sale.
Capital cost
• Install/upgrade drying equipment to take advantage of modern, energy-saving
technologies, of which many are suitable for spent-yeast processing and spentgrains drying (spray-drying and ring-drying for spent yeast, fluidized-bed and
tube-shell steam drying for spent grains, etc.)
• Distill alcohol from waste beer and sell it; evaporate the stillage in multiple effect
vacuum evaporators and add to the spent grains.
Collect spent yeast and spent grains with minimum moisture content.
Review the existing contract with spent-yeast and spent-grains haulers.
Investigate more profitable ways of by-product disposal.
Investigate composting or tillage, e.g. diatomaceous earth, wastewater treatment
plant sludge, undistillable waste beer.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
7.12WASTEWATER
Wastewater poses a problem for any brewery. Not only do breweries produce a lot of wastewater, it is
also loaded with organic and inorganic matter making it expensive to treat on site or have it treated
off site. The best performers have a ratio of wastewater discharged to beer produced of 1.5:3.5.
The ratio reflects water contained in the product, evaporation losses in the kettle and evaporative
condensers and water contained in spent grains, trubs and spent yeast.
113
Brewery wastewater has high organic matter content; it is not toxic, does not usually contain
appreciable quantities of heavy metals (possible sources: label inks, labels, herbicides) and is easily
biodegradable. Brewery wastewater is characterized by the following main parameters:
•
•
•
•
•
•
volume (m3)
pH
SS (suspended solids), mg/L
BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand), determined after a 5-day incubation period, mg/L
COD (chemical oxygen demand), mg/L
a host of lesser parameters such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, fats and greases
Municipal treatment plants and municipal treasurers welcome brewery wastewater because it often
offers a chance to collect significant effluent surcharges due to the high biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD5) loading for the treatment plant. The typical range is 1000 to 2500 mg/L BOD5. In any
municipality, the maximum permissible contaminants of wastewater are set by relevant by-laws.
Depending on the location, wastewater may include the following charges:
•
•
•
•
•
•
sewerage – the cost of conveying the liquid determined by volume
treatment charge – determined by volume
BOD5 charge – typically if in excess of 300 mg/L of BOD5
suspended solids (SS) charge – typically if in excess of 350 mg/L of SS
pH charge – typically if outside of range of pH 6.5–10.5 (However, many municipalities
­increasingly prohibit pH outside the range.)
sludge treatment charge
Often, the two pollution indicators, BOD5 and SS, are combined in an effluent surcharge formula,
and others are combined or hidden in areas such as water supply costs. Municipalities, faced
with rising costs for sewer system upkeep are showing little tolerance for pH transgressions that
exhibit wear and tear on the sewer pipes, and are forcing industries to comply with their bylaws.
Therefore, one often finds Canadian breweries installing pH-adjustment systems on their brewery
processes effluent.
pH can be adjusted with the aid of an acid (sulfuric acid is the cheapest one available) or CO2
(bought, or brewery-fermented, or flue-gas-generated). Several systems are commercially
available. Of the two pH change agents, CO2 is the cheapest and safest and cannot overacidify the
brewery effluent.
Due to tighter pollution criteria, storm sewers can be contaminated by spilled oil or fuel from
parked cars, spilled spent yeast or spent grains from loading, and spilled beer from road tankers.
Contaminated storm sewer water can pose serious, costly difficulties with a number of authorities.
Hence, procedures must be implemented to prevent storm sewer water contamination.
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Most Canadian breweries do not have their own wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). They have
to pay either private contractors or municipalities for the treatment of their wastewaters. It is very
costly. However, it is also very costly for those few breweries in Canada with their own WWTP
to process the brewery effluent: the operating costs of staffing the plant, electricity consumption,
treatment chemicals, monitoring and sludge disposal are huge.
Therefore, every brewery should first attempt to eliminate the wastewater pollution at
source. Every measure should be taken to prevent trubs, spent yeast, spilled beer, spent grains,
diatomaceous earth (D.E. or “filter aid”), etc. from reaching the sewer pipe. These actions will
literally prevent pouring money down the drain due to effluent surcharges and product and
by-product losses.
The following BOD5 values, in rough figures, can be found in the main categories of contaminants in
the brewery:
•
•
•
•
Dense liquid spent yeast
High gravity beer Beer (depending on alcohol %)
Trubs 160 000 mg/L BOD5
> 120 000 mg/L BOD5
50 000 to 100 000 mg/L BOD5
45 000 mg/L BOD5
A brewery can save significant sums of money and improve the quality of the effluent it produces by
reducing
•
•
•
•
the “strength” of its effluent (and its volume)
energy consumption associated with pumping, blending and pH adjusting
internal wastage of product-in-process and saleable by-products
the cost of using pH-adjusting materials
For a brewery, savings can range from small amounts of money to million-dollar sums. It is
worthwhile to examine each brewery separately.
Any beer that is not collected ends up in the effluent. Beer is lost through process tank emptying,
water push-throughs in the filter and in beer lines at the fillers, packaging area rejects (low fills,
foam picks, poor labeling, quality defects), exploding bottles in the pasteurizer, beer frozen in
transportation, and returned beer from the trade. This all costs a brewery dearly in many ways.
Minimize in-brewery beer losses by typically 2 to 5 percent of total beer production by
making improvements in product-in-process management.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Wastewater: Other energy and water management opportunities and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
•
•
•
•
•
•
115
Remove hot wort trubs with the minimum amount of high-pressure water.
Dispose of hot wort trubs by mixing them with spent grains.
Prevent leakage of spent-grains liquor from the spent-grains holding tanks.
Investigate opportunities for profitable or less expensive disposal of spent yeast
and waste beer.
If operating a WWTP:
• Review the efficiency of oxygen transfer to the mixed liquor;
• Upgrade the equipment, adjust the aeration rate to suit the load and the
ambient temperature;
• Consider the power demand implications;
• Avoid using high-pressure compressed air for aeration;
• If using sub-surface air dispersion, review the state of membranes (discs,
nozzles);
• Review the efficiency of electric motors and drives as appropriate.
Investigate off-site disposal of waste beer (e.g. to a distillery, feed-lot
o
­ perations, etc.).
Medium cost
• Modify process equipment and/or process procedures to prevent ­effluent
contamination, e.g.
• Collect all waste beer for off-site disposal;
• Reuse last runnings (spargings) as mash-in or lauter tun foundation water
(saving heat, water and some extract as well);
• Collect spent yeast and spent diatomaceous earth, etc.
• Inactivate the collected spent yeast by steam and mix it with spent grains for
disposal (rather than drain it out).
• Use biogas from an anaerobic plant (if installed at a brewery) to ­augment the
brewery’s energy needs. Negotiate with appropriate authorities the ability to
discharge some non-contaminated effluent streams such as pasteurizer and
compressor cooling waters into storm water sewers (assuming that no further
recycling opportunities exist for these streams).
Capital cost
• Install/convert the pH-adjusting station to use CO2 or flue gas.
• Investigate conversion of the current wastewater aeration equipment for a
more efficient system (e.g. replace surface aeration with subsurface aeration by
the hyperparaboloid-shaped mixer/disperser).
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7.13 BUILDING ENVELOPE
Older breweries, erected before 1980 when energy was relatively cheap, are often inadequately
insulated and sealed. Minimum requirements for energy conservation in new buildings are clearly
defined in several documents, e.g. Model National Energy Code for Buildings, 1997, updated for
2011; Ontario Building Code 2006 (amended 2009). Retrofits have to comply with them as well.
It is often nearly impossible to upgrade wall insulation inside buildings, for many reasons. In such
cases, it may be possible to add insulation to the external side of the buildings and cover it with
new weatherproof cladding. See Table 7-9 for the thermal resistance of insulation based on ­
degree-day zones.
Table 7-9: Minimum thermal resistance of insulation
(Based on degree-day zones. Consult your local building permit office for guidance.)
Building element exposed
to the exterior or unheated
space
RSI (R) value required
Zone 1
<5000 degree-days
Zone 2
>5000 degree-days
Electric space
heating Zone 1 & 2
Ceiling below attic or roof
space
5.40 (R31)
6.70 (R38)
7.00 (R40)
Roof assembly without attic
or roof space
3.52 (R20)
3.52 (R20)
3.87 (R22)
Wall other than foundation
wall
3.00 (R17)
3.87 (R22)
4.70 (R27)
Foundation wall enclosing
heated space
1.41 (R8)
2.11 (R12)
3.25 (R19)
Floor other than slab-onground
4.40 (R25)
4.40 (R25)
4.40 (R25)
Slab-on-ground containing
pipes or heating ducts
1.76 (R10)
1.76 (R10)
1.76 (R10)
Slab-on-ground not
containing pipes or heating
ducts
1.41 (R8)
1.41 (R8)
1.41 (R8)
Reference: Ontario Building Code 1997. For illustration only.
Buildings with large south or southwest facing walls can be retrofitted with a type of solar wall
(e.g. by now internationally well-established Canadian-developed SolarWallTM) for even greater
energy efficiency in space heating.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Windows can present both a challenge and an opportunity for energy conservation. Many older
brewery buildings have single-glazed, inadequately sealed windows. They are often dirty, not
cleaned, forgotten by maintenance or cleaning crews (see the influence on lighting). Replacing
them with double or triple-gazed units is expensive. Instead, fitting them with panels of plastic
or glass-fibre may be used to advantage. Also, the glass, exposed to the sun, may be fitted with a
sun-deflecting film, to reduce heat gain (in the summer). Table 7-10 shows the RSI value for various
types of windows.
117
• Double glazing is the minimum standard for Ontario.
• Choose improved sealed units for north-facing and highly exposed widows.
• Low E-coatings work best together with gas fill.
Table 7-10: RSI / R insulation values for windows
Glazing layers
Double – one 12-mm air space
Triple – two 12-mm air spaces
Glazing type
RSI / R value
Conventional, air
RSI 0.35 / R2
Low-W
RSI 0.52 / R2.9
Low-E with argon gas fill
RSI 0.62 / R3.5
Conventional, air
RSI 0.54 / R3
Low-W
RSI 0.69 / R3.9
Low-E with argon gas fill
RSI 0.76 / R4.3
Some facts about glazing:
•
•
•
•
Standard triple glazing adds an extra air space (also weight), and insulation.
Glass coatings reduce heat emissivity and reflection. Low emissivity (low-E) coating reduces
radiant heat through the glass and achieves about the same insulation as uncoated triple glazing.
Gas fill – filling the inner space with argon or krypton, increases the insulation even further.
Triple glazing with both Low-E and gas fill gives the insulating value almost five times as great
as that of a single pane window.
Consider also the state of your brewery doors. They lose the most heat when they are open.
Installation of automatic door closers, vestibules, or revolving doors reduces those losses. Inspect
the loading dock seals for proper fit and damage. Review whether the exterior doors and doors to
chilled areas are insulated and weather-stripped.
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TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Building envelope: Other EMOs and tips
118
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
•
•
•
•
•
Medium cost
• Seal the building first, to reduce air leaks – both infiltration and exfiltration –
through openings such as doors and windows.
• Consider shading or curtaining windows on the inside, or shuttering them on the
outside, to keep the summer heat and winter chill out (watch for building codes
and ASHRAE regulations).
• Plant shrubs and trees around the buildings.
• Install sun shades (sun trellis) over the windows to reduce summer heat gain.
• Review the possibility of installing automatic door closers, vestibules, or revolving
doors.
• Locate the heat exchanger for the flue gases cooling inside the brewery building;
it will help heat it in the winter. An additional benefit: worries about freeze-up or
charging the system with antifreeze are minimized.
• Install an automated damper system on the air compressors to keep the heat in
the building during the winter.
• Install air curtains at loading bays.
• Consider linking exhaust fans in washrooms, kitchen, etc., to the light or
e­ quipment switch.
• Consider reversing the roof exhaust fans in areas where it is possible (e.g. ­relative
absence of dust), in the wintertime, to mix with and temper the outside air to
provide heat to areas below.
• Consider installing double-door vestibules or wind breaks in north-west locations
of the openings.
Capital cost
• Add measuring and monitoring, and control devices.
• Incorporate the building features into the total plant energy management system.
• Evaluate the economics of replacing present insulation type with another type.
Consult with unbiased professionals.
• Consider innovative use of passive or active solar heating technology for space
and/or water heating, especially when combined with improved insulation,
­window design and heat recovery from vented air.
• Consider installing a solar wall (e.g. SolarWall™, Trombe) on the building’s south
or south-west sides to provide effective heating.
• Consider using evaporative cooling of flat roofs to reduce air-­conditioning loads
in summer.
• Review the adequacy of the building envelope’s thermal insulation, particularly
roofs, and correct if required.
• Consider installing a new insulated roof membrane with covering of heatreflecting silver-coloured polymeric paint to lower the heat transmission.
• Consider using heat generated by equipment (e.g. compressors, ­pasteurizers, wort
coolers, economizers, etc.) for building heating in the cold weather.
• Consider upgrading windows.
• Consider upgrading doors and bay doors.
Repair broken windows, skylights and doors.
Check the thickness of insulation in walls and roofs.
Examine all openings for cracks allowing air to leak in and out the building.
Caulk or weather-strip the cracks.
Inspect the loading dock seals for proper fit and damage.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Take advantage of your climate – cellars (brewer-contributed study)
Historically this brewer’s cellar exhaust fans turned on based on CO2 levels in the cellars and turned
off when levels dropped down to acceptable levels. The fresh air make-up came from outside in the
summer and with a damper closed, from inside in the winter so that -20°C air was not freezing lines.
119
Recommendation: They installed an extra damper with minimal automation and were able to
temper make-up air and use outside air all winter long. Supply air to the cellars is consistently
delivered at 1 to 2°C with the bulk of the air coming from outside. This is expected to have a fairly
large impact on refrigeration loads in these areas. The plan is to apply this to other areas. Although
the first approach should be to minimize CO2 leaks in the cellars, processes are difficult to change
with existing infrastructure and delays ensue.
7.14 HEATING, VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
(HVAC)
Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment are not normally major electricity
users in a brewery, but they present many opportunities for savings. Many of these opportunities
involve good housekeeping and therefore require an employee education campaign.
The paradoxical situation, when, in winter, the brewery building’s heating is operating at maximum,
while the loading door is left wide open, is not uncommon. The heat lost from a building in winter
must be overcome by the building’s heating systems, which adds to the brewery’s operating costs.
Typically, a brewery has a lot of waste heat available, which could be used for space heating. The
challenge is how to use it intelligently to create a comfortable working environment.
It helps to begin by creating a heat balance – describing the heat sources and heat sinks in the
brewery, in a quantified way. The ventilation system needs to be included in the equation. Since
neither can be effectively solved in isolation, aim at a synergistic solution. Use some of the ideas
listed below, as well as those described elsewhere in the Guide.
Commonly, breweries have problems with the ventilation of work zones. Usually, there is an
imbalance between fresh air and exhaust air. The problem is often compounded by a locally-dusty
or moisture-saturated atmosphere and sometimes high carbon monoxide (CO) content. For this
reason, the construction of breweries traditionally allowed for ample sizing of roof monitors and
exhaust stacks. That was often done with little thought as to the proper location of these vents, and
to distribution of air make-up.
Excessive air exhaust results in high under-pressure in the building and draught problems. In
production areas inside breweries, the existence of too many exhausts points and the lack of a
system for air supply may have created this negative pressure. At the same time that the production
creates a heat surplus (wasted by the exhausts), additional heat must be supplied by other means to
the fresh make-up air being brought in from the outside in the wintertime. To add to the waste, city
water may be drained out after providing just once-through cooling.
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Here are a few examples of how others have dealt with the problem:
120
Unnecessary exhaust of 10 000 cfm translates to about $3,000/y in heating costs.
A brewery dealt with its ventilation needs in a combined way: flue gases were passed through
scrubber / heat exchanger, and the incoming air was preheated in winter. The incoming ventilation
air system adjusted to the changing needs by regulating the fan’s capacity in the inlet section. This
was regulated by monitoring the air pressure in the incoming air channel. The air exhaust system
had suction points located in the most-needed areas of the plant, with separate fans for each of
the zones. The exhaust fans also had speed regulators. The whole system, connected to a central
monitoring system and controlled by a computer, obtained a balance between the inlet and outlet
sections of the total ventilation system. The energy costs for the plant ventilation were halved as the
result and the incoming air was of higher quality than before.
Do not undermine the functioning of a well-designed ventilation system by leaving doors
and windows open unnecessarily. Otherwise, it will never work.
Another plant opted for a simpler approach, but still divided the plant into separate ventilation
zones. Only the sections where operations were taking place were fully ventilated; others where no
work was going on, had ventilation valves only partly open to allow minor ventilation.
HVAC: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
• Conduct a survey of HVAC in the brewery. Check the temperature of the workplace
for adequacy and adjust as necessary.
• Review the condition of HVAC equipment (function of louvers, control valves,
­temperature controller) and correct as necessary.
• Ensure the HVAC equipment is serviced regularly either by outside contractors or
by the brewery maintenance staff.
Patiently, consistently and persistently try to implement a culture change, i.e. changes
to employee behaviour towards energy management can lead to a virtually cost-less
achievement of substantial savings. Some of the items are listed below:
• Close windows, doors and receiving/shipping bay doors in cold weather.
• Report high ambient temperatures rather than opening windows (so qualified
adjustments can be made).
• Assign someone (e.g. maintenance) to switch-off machinery at the end of the
work week.
• Remove superfluous lights.
• Prevent blockage of radiator and ventilation grids.
• Ensure correct setting of controls on make-up air units. Lower the temperature
setting, if possible.
• Do not leave doors open, e.g. from the corridor into the cellars, ­external doors,
etc. Doing so negates the HVAC settings in the ­brewery and the correct function
of the HVAC equipment.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
• Install locks to thermostats and HVAC controls to prevent tampering and misuse by
unauthorized employees.
• Eliminate heating or cooling of all unused rooms.
• Lower the thermostats for the weekends (say, to 15°C).
• Raise the thermostats a bit in summer and lower them a step in the winter, when
possible (18°C should be a comfortable brewery building temperature).
• Lower the heating temperature in storage areas to as low as possible.
• Use “free cooling” with low-temperature winter air.
• Install setback timers on thermostats controlling space heating ­during non-­
working hours.
• Use destratification ceiling fans in areas with high ceilings such as bottling halls.
(Note: The usual 5' or 6' diameter Casablanca-make fans have lower energy
requirements than central ceiling-level heating/ventilation air handling units. Also,
in a pharmaceutical plant in Alliston, Ontario, very large diameter ceiling fans
(12' to 16') were employed for gentler air circulation, with further energy savings.)
• Check the adequacy of ventilation. Use the minimum acceptable ventilation. Find
out whether the plant is under negative pressure due to too much air being drawn
out or positive pressure from too much supply air being blown in.
• Minimize building exhausts. Close off roof vent stacks in cooler weather/seasons
to minimize heat loss. Make sure the dampers work.
• Shut down exhaust or supply fans during non-working hours.
• Clean/exchange intake air filters regularly.
• Ensure that heating and air-conditioning systems operate only when required.
• When no production is going on, and on weekends, and especially during colder
weather and in winter, reduce the amount of fresh air brought into the plant as
much as possible.
• Turn-off air-conditioning units in the cafeteria and in the offices on weekends.
• After the hot air from compressors has been generated, re-circulate it back into the
building for heating purposes (in winter).
• Keep the doors / loading bays closed to allow the ventilation system to work properly.
• Switch off ventilation and/or heating when not required.
• Shut down dust collection, ventilation and makeup air when not required.
• Assign someone to turn-off the fans, close the vents, etc. at the end of the week.
­Prepare a checklist so nothing is overlooked.
• Conversely, put someone in charge to switch it on at the beginning of the workweek.
• Incapacitate some non-essential exhaust fans during the winter months (take the
fuses out).
• Eliminate leaks and pressure loss points in supply and return air systems.
• Examine your current system. It might be that the original dust collection/exhaust
system was designed to handle larger volumes of air than necessary for ordinary
plant operations. Perhaps some of the fans could be taken off line, at zero cost, for
the immediate benefits of
• reduced maintenance
• lower energy costs
• reduced emissions
• reduced noise
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You can simply verify this by turning the selected fans off and observing the result.
• Pay attention to the upkeep of your baghouse/dust-collection system. Monitor
both its integrity and resistance (i.e. proper functioning) by a differential pressure
gauge (e.g. water column gauge).
• Monitor CO (carbon monoxide) levels regularly, either by manual checking at
head level or by installing an automatic sensor-driven alarm in cellar areas. It will
give an additional indication of the ventilation effectiveness.
• Keep the motors on forklift trucks and other brewery vehicles well tuned to reduce
the excessive release of CO into the brewery ­atmosphere. Such excessive release of
CO would, in turn, increase ventilation demand.
• Do not let the motors on forklift trucks idle; switch them off when not in motion.
• Watch for “short-cutting” of heated make-up air directly to a nearby exhaust fan.
• Delay the start of brewery ventilation at the start of operation until the heat of
bottle-washing, pasteurizing, etc. has warmed up the air inside.
• Where required, cut small openings into large doors to allow the ­passage of
forklift trucks; use transparent curtains to prevent ­continuous blasts of cold air
from the outside.
122
Medium cost
• Install infrared heating for large open areas (replace steam or hot water heating
radiators) to heat people rather than space; in ­addition, radiant heaters do not
require air-handling mechanisms, saving ­further energy.
• Minimize unwanted infiltration of outside air into the brewery also by other
means (reseal cracks, repair or replace doors, link loading bay doors opening to
the activity, etc.)
• Use economical radiant heating directed at workstations rather than general space
heating.
• Install strategically located exhaust hoods over dusty/hot areas. Make sure that
they are amply dimensioned, so the heat or dust does not escape into the general
space.
• Recapture the heat that accumulates high up in the brewery spaces; push it down
in the wintertime (filter it, if required) and control it thermostatically should the
outside temperatures be extremely low.
• Fit the exhaust fans with variable speed drives to match the ­ventilation rate to
the need.
• Investigate whether you can supply outside air directly to a particular operation to
conserve the heated plant make-up air.
• Install high-velocity air curtains at loading bays and other large ­openings.
Capital cost
• Use reflective insulation, or paint flat roofs white over refrigerated areas.
• Install thermostatic air vents.
• Evaluate the application of recently developed regenerative rooftop heat recovery
ventilation systems.
• Replace the general ventilation of the entire area with locally situated, hooded
exhausts from areas that need to be ventilated.
• Consider the provision of fresh air and constant temperature in the brewery
by installing a new ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger. The warm
exhaust air heats the incoming air in the exchanger. The temperature is controlled
by the number of revolutions of the exchanger.
• Consider using heat pumps (or ground heat pumps) for combined heating and
cooling of the brewery facilities.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
7.15LIGHTING
Improving the energy efficiency of lighting is one of the “high visibility, good PR optics” projects in
any industry; everyone can relate to it, and see the results.
123
Bulb efficiency:
Incandescent = 100 percent
Fluorescent = 300 percent
Metal halides = 400 to 600 percent
HP sodium = 450 to 700 percent
LED = higher by several orders of magnitude
The evaluation of lighting systems is mandated by Canada’s 2009 Energy Efficiency Act and
Regulations that set minimum requirements for lamp efficacy and lighting quality. The energy audit
of your brewery should help determine the conformance to the regulations. Public utilities, lighting
products manufacturers and consultants can also provide help.
Our drive to increase lighting energy efficiency should not diminish the requirements of adequate
lighting of the workplaces. The ranges of existing lighting levels in Canadian breweries should
comply with the requirements by the Illuminating Engineers Society, see www.iesna.org/. Often not
realized is that demands on lighting levels’ intensity do increase as workers age.
It is worthwhile to consider this fact for several reasons. Adequate lighting levels that correspond to
the age of the workers have many tangible and intangible benefits that are often overlooked:
•
•
•
•
•
•
improves morale and reduce absenteeism
positively influences quality (i.e. resulting in improved customer satisfaction)
allows for better control of costs by reducing defects and rejects (particularly in packaging, at
pasteurizer bottle inspections, packaging, labeling, etc.)
provides inducement to experienced older workers to stay on rather than retire early
improves housekeeping and safety records (i.e. cleaner, more orderly workplace and lower
­accident and insurance costs)
positively influences the company’s image and the personnel’s self-image
Where applicable, try to take advantage of natural daylight (skylights, windows). Think about ways
to facilitate the window/skylight cleaning.
Focus on improvements to energy-efficient lighting fixtures, rather than on reducing the
lighting intensity in workplaces to reduce lighting costs.
The first step to reduce energy consumption associated with lighting is to survey the lighting in all
locations of the brewery to assess the equipment, use patterns, and adequacy throughout the brewery.
An investment in a lux meter (measuring lighting levels in lumens per m2) will quickly pay off.
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It needs to be mentioned again that measures taken to reduce electricity consumption by lighting
systems helps reduce emissions from thermal electricity-generating stations. Refer to Section 8
dealing with emissions.
Case study: Replace standard fluorescent lighting with energy-efficient tubes
A brewery had 956 standard lamps (75-W, 8 feet), using them, on average, 8 hours a day, 5 days
every week. They had a ballast factor of 1.1, electricity cost of $0.09/kWh and a demand charge of
$13.60/kW per month. The use of high-efficiency lamps, saving 15 W per tube, generated annual
savings of $5,140.
Results: Immediate replacement would result (at a standard cost of $8.42 and a high-efficiency tube
cost of $9.87) in a simple payback period of 1.8 years.
Incremental replacement of only 17 percent of tubes that burn out annually would generate full
annual savings only after six years. However, the incremental replacement generated a first-year
simple payback period of 3 months, second year of 1.6 months, etc., until all savings were completed
in the sixth year.
Lighting: Other EMOs and tips
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
• Also look up items under Section 7.15.
• Educate employees about good housekeeping practices, encourage change of wasteful
habits and encourage employees to shut off lights when not required.
• Assign responsibility for turning lights off at the end of the production day, and
­turning them on prior to the start of shift in each department and in general areas.
• Ask Security or cleaning staff to ensure that lights are turned off.
• Turn off fluorescent lights when they will remain off for at least 15 minutes.
• Turn off high-intensity discharge lights when they will remain off for at least an hour.
• Establish a regular cleaning schedule for lamps and of light fixtures shields,
­particularly in dusty environments (carton cutters, malt grist mill room, etc.).
• Institute a regular lamp-cleaning program that will maintain lumen output and
reduce total lighting requirements.
• Implement a regular re-lamping program.
• When re-lamping, it is most economical to change all the lamps at the same time.
• Reduce or switch off unnecessary outside floodlights and signs.
• Reduce parking lot lighting when not in use.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Lamps get
­dimmer
with age yet
continue to
use the same
power: re-lamp.
• Verify the light level in all brewery areas to ensure adequacy, and eliminate
­excessive lighting levels (e.g. corridors, storage areas).
• Invest in a light meter (lux meter); it will quickly pay for itself
• Examine opportunities for de-lamping of excessively lit areas. When doing so,
­remove the ballasts for fluorescent and high-pressure ­sodium lighting as the
­ballast consumes electricity even when the bulb is removed.
• Examine opportunities for reducing lighting hours.
• Check the condition of the fluorescent tube protector tubing for ­yellowing and dirt.
• Clean skylights, if applicable.
• When installing new lighting, opt for a low-energy, high-efficiency types.
• Use motion detector switches where an operator’s presence is ­intermittent and/or
where feasible (storerooms, cellars, offices, etc.) to reduce power consumption.
• Minimize lighting use in cooled areas as it adds to the heat load.
• Reduce lighting to the minimum safe level. Install motion detector switches on
exterior security lighting.
Medium cost
• Use motion-detector light switches where feasible, e.g. offices, ­storerooms, etc.
• Use a programmable or photocell-governed system or motion-­detector light
switches for general exterior lighting.
• Reposition the lamps placement where it is not effective, e.g. when shining on
top of stacked pallets, bales of hops, on top of tanks, to the pasteurizer or the
soaker, etc.
• Install automatic lighting control by time clock that will switch off lights at
­predetermined times (with overriding provision for local areas).
• Provide adequate task-focused rather than general space lighting, i.e. reduce the
level of general lighting to a minimum and provide task lighting at workstations,
as required.
• Where the environment permits it, paint the walls and ceilings with white or
lighter colours and use the light reflectance to improve the brightness of the
w
­ orkplace.
• Replace old ballasts with an energy-efficient type (especially ­important if power
factor is low and the brewery pays penalties as a consequence).
Capital cost
• Replace lower-efficiency lighting with more efficient types (e.g. ­mercury lamps
with HP sodium lamps).
• Replace all standard fluorescent tubes with high-efficiency tubes (T series).
• Replace existing lighting with discharge and low-energy lamps whenever possible.
In high-ceilinged areas, substitute fluorescent or mercury vapour lights for metal
halide or sodium lamps.
• Where conditions permit it, lower the ceiling lamps to increase light intensity on
the floor; it may even lead to a reduction in the number of existing lamps.
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126
7.16 ELECTRIC MOTORS AND PUMPS
Electric motors
The efficiency of older electric motors is generally much lower (as is the power factor) than that of
the new generation of high-efficiency (HE) motors. HE motors have efficiencies above 93 percent
(a function of motor horsepower: the higher the horsepower, the better the efficiency). The summary
replacement of running old motors with HE models is often difficult to justify, unless they run close
to 24 hours a day and the power cost savings provide a good return on the investment. When the
motors need to be replaced or sent for rewinding, HE motors should be purchased instead. Provide
cost-justification based on marginal motor cost difference, when the time comes for rewinding or
replacement of the old motor. This should be encoded in a purchasing policy.
Oversized motors or idling motors waste electricity and cause poor power factors. That is frequently
the case in motors operating baghouses and air compressors, usually among the biggest in the
brewery. These motors, among the hardest working, are especially susceptible to burnouts by electric
induction or equipment harmonics.
Pumps
In breweries, most pumps have electric motors. There are two types of pumps based on operating
principles:
•
•
c entrifugal pumps (dynamic pumps) – add kinetic energy to the liquid to move it along (e.g. for
water, wort, beer, wastewater)
positive displacement pumps – provide for a constant volumetric flow for a given pump speed,
given by the volume of the pump cavities (e.g. for yeast slurry, diatomaceous earth slurry,
w
­ astewater sludge)
The design of a proper pump and its application is a complicated matter. Both pumps and their
drives must be large enough to overcome the resistance of: the pump drive, the conveying pipe
network, the pump seals and the elevation difference between the pump and the end user. All these
factors influence the power requirement of the pump in a significant way. Energy requirements,
and hence operating costs, can be reduced by selecting high-efficiency motors, pumps and drives,
tailored to operating conditions.
Pump seals also add to the frictional resistance of the shaft. The most common are the mechanical
and packing-gland seals. The latter requires up to six times the power requirement increase that the
mechanical seals need. Pump seals not only contribute to losses when they leak but compromise the
integrity of the system and may contribute to oxygen pick-up and/or microbial contamination.
Review the deployment of your pumps. They should be properly sized so as to fit the flow
requirements. See Figure 7-4 for efficient pump operation options. If the review shows that the
pump is capable of producing more flow or head than the process requires, the following measures
can be taken:
•
•
When the flow load fluctuates, install a variable speed drive.
When the flow load is constant, reduce the size of the impeller on a centrifugal pump.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
•
•
ptimize pump impellers (or change out) to ensure that the duty point is within the optimum
O
zone on the pump curve.
Maintain pumps through regular inspection and maintenance to monitor performance for an
early indication of failure.
127
Figure 7-4: Options for energy-efficient pump operation
Flow control needed
Dedicated variable
speed systems
Miscellaneous flow
control systems
Selective pump
switching
Recirculation
Cyclic control
Control valve
Switching and
2-speed motor
Squirrel cage motor &
hydraulic coupling
Squirrel cage motor &
eddy current coupling
Speed-controlled
synchronous motor
Special induction
motor & voltage control
Switched refluctance
motor and valve
Electro-mechanical
drive systems
Squirrel cage
motor & invester
DC motor and
speed control
Commutator motor
Electrical drive
systems
As per CADDET Energy Efficiency Newsletter #2, 1995
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
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128
Case study: Replace standard drive belts on large motors with high-torque drive belts or
energy-efficient cog belts
Every electric motor has some inherent inefficiency. Losses incurred by torque power transmission
on machinery by the use of a standard V-belt, come from slippage, bending, stretching and
compression of the V-belt. Although the V-belt has a maximum efficiency of 94 percent, under
well-maintained conditions it only has about 92-percent efficiency. Replacing V-belts with cog
belts, which slip less and bend more easily, or with belts with teeth in conjunction with replacing
pulleys with sprocketed grooves (i.e. essentially “timing chains”), increases the efficiency of cog
belts, conservatively, by about 2 percent and high-torque drive belts (HTD) by at least 6 percent.
Moreover, cog belts last about 50 percent longer than standard V-belts.
The following formulae are used in the calculations:
PS = anticipated reduction in electricity, kW
ES = anticipated energy savings, kWh/y
HP = total horsepower for the motors using standard V-belts, kW
(1 horsepower = .746 kW)
η = average efficiencies of the motors (e.g. 0.85)
LF = average load factor, %
H = annual operating time, h
S = estimated energy savings (e.g. 2 percent for cog belts, 6 percent for HTDs)
Results: Using the electricity cost of $0.09/kWh and a demand charge of $13.60/kW per month,
16 motors totalling 152.5 HP operating 8 hours a day, 5 days a week, 52 weeks a year, would
have total annual power savings (consumption plus demand charges) of $1,040 for cog belts and
$3,300 for HTD belts. The simple payback period is immediate for cog belts at replacement time.
Assuming an installation cost of $300 per set of pulleys, the simple payback period for HTD in the
above example is 1.5 years.
Case study: Use synthetic lubricants on large motors
A brewery with several large electric motors totalling 347.5 HP, with an average efficiency of
85 percent and an average load factor of 75 percent, with one shift operating using synthetic
lubricants, would see a 10 percent reduction in energy losses. Using the consumption and demand
rates from the previous case study, it is possible to calculate electricity savings of $1,050 per year.
The potential savings in energy consumption involved in switching to synthetic lubricants can be
calculated using the following formulae:
PS = HP x (1 - η) x LF x S
ES = PS x H; where
PS = anticipated reduction in electricity, kW
ES = anticipated energy savings, kWh/y
HP = total horsepower for the compressors and other large motors, kW
η = average efficiency of the motors (e.g. 0.85)
LF = average load factor, %
H = annual operating, h
S = estimated reduction of energy losses through lubrication, %
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Synthetic lubricants carry a price premium. However, they last much longer than petroleum-based
lubricants, which offset the increased costs. The only implementation cost is that of a lubrication
specialist.
129
Results: Assuming a cost of $800, the simple payback period is 9 months.
Case study: Variable voltage, variable frequency inverters
Variable voltage, variable frequency (VVVF) inverters are well established in induction motor
control. A Japanese 2.2 million hl/y brewery investigated the use of VVVF inverters for its
3300 induction motors, used for pumping and other applications. The VVVF inverters allow the
pump-motor speed to be continuously varied to meet load demand. Development of a standardized
motor assessment procedure and detailed evaluation of 450 motors preceded the pilot installation.
Five pumps with an annual electricity consumption of 1501 MWh were selected. After the VVVF
inverters were installed, the annual electricity consumption dropped to 792 MWh.
Results: This resulted in a savings of 709 MWh. The corresponding payback period was 1.9 years on
average (at the time). The project also investigated the effects of noise interference on surrounding
equipment and carried out measures to alleviate any problems that occurred.
Case study: Turn off equipment (motors) when not in use
An audit of a brewery packaging department revealed that many motors were running
unnecessarily. Although demand spikes have to be avoided on restarting, consumption costs can be
reduced by instructing personnel to make sure equipment runs only when necessary or by installing
more sophisticated, automatic process controls.
Energy savings from shutting off motors when not in use can be calculated using the following
formulae:
ES = {(HP x CV) : η} x HR x IL
CS = ES x EC; where
ES = realized energy savings, kWh/y
HP = horsepower of motors left on during the day, HP
CV = conversion factor (0.7459 kW/HP)
η = average efficiency of the motors, %
HR = annual hours of unnecessary idling time, h
IL = idle load horsepower consumption of the motors (e.g. 10 percent)
EC = consumption cost of electricity, $/kWh
CS = cost savings
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
7
7
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Electric motors and pumps: Other EMOs and tips
130
Note: Points of interest particularly (but not exclusively) for small breweries are shown in colour italics.
Housekeeping,
no or low cost
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Medium cost
Verify that motors are correctly sized for the job.
Switch off motors and equipment when not needed.
Install automatic controls for shutting down equipment when not needed.
Review motor burnout history and whether circuitries in the brewery need to be
upgraded.
Use the public utility as a resource: they can make suggestions as to demand
­reduction alternatives, points for metering, the way to measure consumption, and
possibly to loan a load analyzer.
Maintain and calibrate automatic controls on all equipment.
Control harmonic distortion passively and upstream: specify it in new equipment
buying standards.
Check connections in the motor box for signs of overheating.
Perform regular vibration analysis of motors and drives.
Shut down pumps when there is no pumping requirement.
Ensure that packing glands on pumps are correctly adjusted.
Maintain clearance tolerances at pump impellers and seals.
Check and adjust the motor driver regularly for belt tension and ­coupling alignment.
Clean pump impellers and repair or replace, if eroded or pitied.
Implement a program of regular inspection and preventive maintenance for
­motors, and all pump components to minimize failures.
• Replace, as a matter of purchasing policy, old worn-out electric ­motors with new
high-efficiency motors.
• Install variable speed drives and soft-start options on electric motors.
• Consider installing power load-shedding software in the electric motor control
centres. The software serves as an electricity and process management tool.
It monitors power usage instantaneously and adjusts to a set target for the
maximum level of power it can use. It governs the consumption through a PLC.
It can express real and predicted usage of power in kWh per unit of product
and also in terms of costs, e.g. PowerPlusReporter® software, environmental and
energy management programs from E2MS company.
• Consider conducting thermography inspections for electrical hot spots detection,
e.g. in couplings and contacts, which indicate mechanical sources of losses. For
example, Fluke Co.’s heat detection gun can be used.
• Replace packing gland seals with mechanical seals.
• Trim pump impeller to match system flow rate and head requirements.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Capital cost
• Control harmonics that can interfere with and cause burnouts of motors. The
harmonics may cause damage to capacitors installed to control the power
factor, trip fuses, burn motors and overheat ­equipment. It is essential to control
harmonics. Examine your local conditions.
• Consider replacing power capacitors with microprocessor-based LRC tuning
circuits, sized for each specific equipment and power load, to control the power
factor for improved savings. In some establishments power factors close to unity,
of 0.98 to 0.99, are routine.
• When installing an energy management system, choose one with both analytical
and reporting capability.
• Consider installing a power monitoring system, with monitoring and targeting
methodology, to manage electricity consumption in the entire brewery.
• Replace outdated/unsuitable equipment with correctly sized new units.
131
7.17MAINTENANCE
The topic has already been mentioned previously. However, it is important not to overlook the
energy benefits of preventive maintenance.
The costs of having to shut down production, because of equipment breakdown, can quickly add up:
•
•
•
•
loss of sales; loss of customer’s confidence
higher labour costs that may include overtime to make up for lost time
higher overhead costs
extra energy cost to keep the line on stand-by, etc.
If you have not done it already, try to figure out the cost of various components of one hour of
downtime. It is likely that its energy component will be substantial. Planned preventive maintenance
can help reduce the unplanned downtime, and should be a routine part of overall operations.
Preventive maintenance is a very important part of an energy conservation program and energy
efficiency improvements in any brewery. The chances are that the investment in preventive
maintenance will pay off very quickly in both operational and energy savings.
When preparing a preventive maintenance schedule, do not forget to also include hand tools
(particularly compressed-air-driven ones). Apart from extending the useful life of the tools, it will
result in a reduction of compressed air usage (energy).
Predictive maintenance is one directed at avoiding failure within a time specified by an analysis
of historical data. For example, because the bearings on an electric motor fail typically every
15 months, on an average, the predictive maintenance will call for scheduled bearing replacement
every 12 months.
Books have been written on setting up a preventive and predictive maintenance, and professional
software programs for it, with various degrees of sophistication and tie-ins into other general
management modules (such as accounting, purchasing, parts inventory and payroll areas) are
commercially available. While these may be affordable for the bigger breweries, even the small ones
may set up a simple preventive maintenance schedule and program using spreadsheet (Excel) or
even word (Word) processing software.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
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7
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Case study: The importance of maintenance
132
A leak that emits a hissing sound and a hardly visible cloud of steam, e.g. a leaking steam valve, can
result in a loss of approximately 1 kg of steam per hour (kg/h). On an annual basis, this corresponds
to the fuel consumption of approximately 700 kg of oil or enough energy to produce 200 hl of beer
at low consumption.
A leak that emits a hissing sound and a visible cloud of steam, e.g. a leaking seal, can result in a loss
of 3 to 5 kg/h. This corresponds to fuel consumption of 2100 kg to 3500 kg oil per year, which is
enough energy to produce 580 to 1000 hl of beer at low consumption.
Results: The insulation of just 1 m of 89-mm steam pipe used 6000 hours per year will provide
savings of about 450 kg of oil per year, or enough energy to produce about 120 hl of beer.
7.18 BREWERY PROCESS-SPECIFIC ENERGY EFFICIENCY
OPPORTUNITIES
Many examples of energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian breweries have been mentioned
in the preceding text. Technological advances, albeit of no “radical breakthrough” nature, have
been made by many brewery equipment manufacturers in the 12 years since this Guide was first
published. Beer technology is mature and well established all over the world. Radical concepts of the
1960’s and later years such as continual brewing, continual fermentation and continual maturation
of beer, have largely fallen short of expectations.
It is perhaps worthwhile to reflect on not-so-novel but proven technologies. The following is a brief
list of the topics mentioned in the First Edition of the Brewery Guide which may stimulate thinking
about actions that can help a brewery reduce its operating and energy costs and improve the
profitability of its operations.
Combined heat and electrical power generation
In the deregulated Canadian electrical energy market, the combined heat and power generation
(CHP) may be interesting for some breweries. One Canadian brewing company, Labatt Brewery in
London, Ontario, adopted cogeneration, to take advantage of favourable Hydro policies at the time
(1994). The technology is well-established and proven for application in many industries. Different
types of turbines, running on various energy sources (natural gas, oil, but also waste, biomass, diesel
and gasoline) are manufactured by many manufacturers. The power-to heat ratio of generation has
been improving, nearing equity, and the total efficiency in the 80-percent range.
Other breweries may consider making the required large investment and ROI potential of this
attractive technology.
Wort boiling advances
Attempts to optimize energy use and increase production efficiency led to various brewhouse
technology modifications. For example, vessels were stacked up to reduce heat losses and pumping
requirements; continuous mashing, separation and boiling processes were attempted; low pressure
boiling was adopted by some; brew kettles were fitted with steam-heated coils and percolators to
speed up and intensify wort boiling; external wort boilers were employed instead; etc.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Mechanical vapour recompression (MVR) and thermal vapor recompression (TVR) are proven,
energy-efficient methods of brewing that have been employed worldwide. The methods regain a
larger part of the latent vapours heat from the kettle, generated by boiling wort with exclusion of air.
The heat obtained from the recompression of the vapours is reused in the kettle heating. Capitalintensive additions to brewhouse equipment are required, but, depending on local circumstances,
a relatively short return on investment can be obtained. Several major brewhouse equipment
manufacturers (Huppmann, Ziemann, Alfa-Laval and others) offer a variety of systems with varied
degrees of sophistication that are currently in use in dozens of breweries around the world. One
system, which uses a steam eductor, reduces kettle steam consumption by 50 percent and requires
only a relatively small investment.
133
Other systems have been invented, e.g. microwave wort boiling (by Huppmann of Germany).
Nine years ago installation of a Merlin™ thin-layer wort boiling technology, by the Steinecker Group,
was planned by a brewery in Quebec. It claims many technological as well energy consumption
advantages, compared to conventional kettle boiling or low-pressure wort boiling. It appears that
the Merlin™ wort boiling is a promising, state-of-the-art innovation that offers technological and
product quality advantages, energy savings and environmental benefits in reducing the generation of
greenhouse gases, consumption of water and generation of effluent.
Beer flash pasteurization
Flash pasteurization is a not-so-new but seldom-employed method of beer pasteurization in North
America. It can be used both for bottle packaging (often in combination with hot filling) and keg
packaging. For breweries with well-controlled production and operating conditions, it may offer
several major advantages, among them space and capital savings and savings of two-thirds on
energy spent on pasteurization compared to the tunnel pasteurization process.
Tunnel pasteurization
New developments have led to the application of automatic pasteurization unit control systems
by several manufacturers (e.g. KHS, Sander Hansen, Gangloff-Scoma). New types of tunnel
pasteurizers incorporate features designed to reduce water and energy consumption (e.g. “Channel
Pasteurizer” developed by Sander Hansen).
Microfiltration and ultrafiltration
With recent advances in the development of regenerable filtering media (cartridges and membranes)
and separation technologies, microfiltration and ultrafiltration methods can be used. Their possible
applications can include sterile filtration of beer (which obviates the need for energy- and waterintensive pasteurization), beer recovery, cleaning of spent caustic solutions from bottle washers and
CIP systems, beer recovery, water conditioning, etc.
Spent-yeast and spent-grains drying
Several new, tested and proven modern energy-efficient technologies for drying brewery byproducts use different media such as saturated steam, superheated steam or direct gas combustion.
These systems are available to supplant traditional inefficient drum-drying (spent yeast) or directfire drying (spent grains) generally employed by some large North American breweries.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
7
7
TECHNICAL AND PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Vacuum distillation
134
A low-temperature distillation of CO2 allows recovery of pure CO2 from collection streams heavily
contaminated with air. With this method, collection efficiencies can almost double in comparison
with well-managed conventional collection methods and plants. Substantial energy and auxiliary
raw material savings result.
Expert computer control systems
An expert computer system uses specialist knowledge, obtained from a human expert (including
well-experienced employees about to retire), to perform trouble-shooting, problem-solving tasks
such as diagnosis, advice giving, analysis and interpretation. By capturing and formalizing human
expertise, such systems can improve the performance of businesses by
•
•
•
•
cutting the time taken to perform complex tasks, thereby improving productivity
reducing operation times
improving the quality of advice and analyses to enhance both operating efficiency and product
quality
making rare expertise readily available, thereby alleviating skill shortages
Capturing this expertise should be considered before valued, experienced professionals retire from
the brewery. Expert computerized control systems coordinate and optimize process operations.
They are not yet extensively used but are commercially available. Examples of the applications
include refrigeration and manufacturing controls especially linked to the use of brewery utilities.
Their deployment in the monitoring and targeting system puts utility resource management on par
with the management of any other resource in the brewery.
Replacement of PLC by PC process control
Many individual programmable logic controllers (PLC) may have been replaced by fully integrated
personal computer (PC) process control packages. The user profits from consistent, repeatable
process control that eliminates programming of individual PLCs and integrates operations. Process
changes can be executed simply from the PC, even remotely; records and past history are archived;
motors can be turned on and off in response to pre-programmed material and product flows,
levels, pressures, etc. Various packages such as PCbrew™, PCflow™ and PCprocess™ have been made
available. Their application in such areas as the boilerhouse, refrigeration, and packaging can assist
energy saving efforts in the brewery.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
8
BREWERY EMISSIONS
AND CLIMATE CHANGE
8
BREWERY EMISSIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
8.0 BREWERY EMISSIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
136
The Canadian brewing industry annually generates an extremely small fraction of Canada’s total
carbon dioxide emissions which is a chief contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) related to
climate change. In 2008, the sector produced 140 000 tonnes of the CO2 e3, which is a substantial
improvement from the 1990 baseline when total emissions stood at 340 000 tonnes of CO2e
(Figure 8-1).
Figure 8-1: Total CO2e emissions in Canadian brewing industry
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1990
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Total kt CO2e
Breweries can help Canada reach its reduction objective by improving the energy
efficiency in their operations.
The drop in the volume of beer produced in the period 1990 to 2008 (from 23.66 million hl to
22.56 million hl in 2008), coincides with a similar drop in CO2e intensity (Figure 8-2).
Data Sources: Energy Use – Statistics Canada, Industrial Consumption of Energy Survey, Ottawa, December
2008; Brewery production – Brewers Association of Canada, Ottawa, October 2008.
3
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
BREWERY EMISSIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Figure 8-2: CO2e intensity in Canadian brewing industry
137
16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0
1990
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Intensity kt CO2e/000’ kL
The CO2e index also dropped from the base index 1.00 in 1990 down to 0.40 in 2008 – a 60-percent
decrease. This is supported by a 2009 corporate environmental report from Molson Coors Canada,
which indicated a 13-percent drop of CO2e emissions between 2006 and 2007 in Canadian brewing
operations.
However, more needs to be done in our breweries to further reduce energy consumption in all its
forms. Improved energy efficiency reduces greenhouse gas emissions in two ways:
•
•
nergy efficiency measures for on-site combustion systems (e.g. boilers, heaters) reduce
E
emissions in direct proportion to the amount of fuel not consumed.
Reductions in consumption lead to reductions in demand for electricity and, consequently,
reductions in emissions from thermal electricity generating stations.
For an example of how to calculate the amount of reductions in major greenhouse gases
emissions resulting from energy efficiency projects undertaken in your brewery, refer to
Appendix 9.3 – Calculations of emission reductions. Additional treatment of the topic is in
Section 7.3.2 – Environmental impact of boiler combustion.
Breweries must also pay attention to the composition of their air emissions. For example, the
March 2001 air quality standards in Ontario set tougher pollution limits. However, projects
designed to meet emission standards can be capital-intensive. A project, spawned by a regulatory
requirement, can be easier to justify when combining it with an energy management project that
reduces energy usage.
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BREWERY EMISSIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
138
8.1 CALCULATING ONE’S CARBON FOOTPRINT
An offshoot of the concerns with climate change has been an effort to manage carbon dioxide
emissions globally by emissions trading. Emissions trading, also known as cap and trade, is a
market-based approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving
reductions in the emissions of pollutants. In a cap-and-trade system, a government body gives
corporations “allowances” that limit the amount of pollutant (greenhouse gases and air pollutants)
they can emit. Companies that reduce their emissions below their limit or cap have “surplus”
allowances or credits they can either sell or bank for future use.
For economic reasons as well as environmental reasons, it is desirable to know the amount of
emissions produced by the company and its impact on the environment or carbon footprint.
Determining a carbon footprint is a new business in which many companies are now involved.
The Internet has many references to various sites which provide information on how to calculate
one’s footprint such as www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx or www.nature.org/initiatives/
climatechange/calculator/.
Calculating a brewery’s carbon footprint is rather simple. It is necessary to know the annual
consumption of energy in all its forms (electricity, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil by type, propane, diesel
fuel and gasoline for emergency power generators, lift trucks, trucks and cars the brewery operates).
Even the average fuel consumption of staff cars and trucks, total mileage driven while distributing
product whether on business trips by car or airplane. Using the emissions converter (some of the
equivalents are shown in the tables in Appendix 9.3), one calculates the total emissions as metric
tonnes (t) of carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e, and summarizes them.
Table 8-1 demonstrates the relationships in calculating the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the
emissions. The relationship, as well as the simple calculation formula involved (shown below), can
be used with advantage when an energy use reduction project is contemplated in the brewery (e.g. in
a burner retrofit project for the boilers).
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
BREWERY EMISSIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Table 8-1: Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the emissions
Baseline
emissions
139
CDM
project
emissions
GHG
Net
reduction
C02eb
GWPa
0
–
C02
–
0
=
x
1
=
0
–
CH4
–
0
=
x
21
=
0
–
N20
–
0
=
x
310
=
0
–
HFC-23
–
0
=
x
11700
=
0
–
HFC-125
–
0
=
x
2800
=
0
–
HFC-134a
–
0
=
x
1300
=
0
–
HFC-152a
–
0
=
x
140
=
0
–
CF4
–
0
=
x
6500
=
0
–
C2F6
–
0
=
x
9200
=
0
–
SF6
–
0
=
x
23900
=
0
Totals
0
Grand
total
a Global Warming Potential as related to CO2.
b Carbon dioxide equivalent.
Source: BAC/CO2 Equivalent Calculator (Beta), adopted
Note: All units should be converted to metric tonnes before keyed into the calculator. You only need to provide values for the Baseline Emissions and CDM Project Emissions columns. Indicate 0 (zero) for empty
fields. To avoid errors, make sure to hit all the Calculate buttons before hitting Total.
This type of calculation backed up by flue gas analyses, enabled, for example, Great Western Brewing
Company, to demonstrate that the comprehensive review of boilers, particularly the retrofitting of
the burners, brought the NOx emissions down to California standards.
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BREWERY EMISSIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE
140
Simple and rather empirical relationships, which have relevancy to energy efficiency projects in a
brewery, include the following:
Energy equivalency in CO2:
1000 kWh = 720 kg CO2e
1000 kWh = 3600 MJ
720 kg CO2 = 18.4 tree seedlings sequestering that amount of CO2 in 10 years
1 MJ
= 0.2 kg CO2 equivalent
200 MJ/hl beer = 40 kg CO2 equivalent
Sources: www.carbonwatch.com/calculator%20-%20GHG.htm
www.epa.gov/cleanrgy/energy-resources/calculator.html
The value of these conversions will come out when the Energy Management Team popularizes its
work and its beneficial environmental impact.
8.2 INTERNATIONAL CARBON FOOTPRINT CALCULATIONS
There is little data available on carbon footprint for beer brands. Additionally, it is difficult to
compare existing data because of lack of a carbon footprinting standard. The UK PAS2050 standard,
now in draft stage, may become the international standard for carbon footprinting. A comparison
of data published in corporate reports for international brewers shows the carbon footprint – as kg
CO2e per hl – for Asahi 10.5, Fosters 14; Heineken 10.5; InBev 13; Grupo Modelo <16; SAB-Miller
>12. However, the New Belgium Brewing Company’s analysis showed the total carbon footprint
(using their main, Fat Tire brand) – as kg CO2e per hl – of 27.9 for malt production and transport;
5.8 for brewing process; 40 for packaging materials (of which 32.3 was accounted for by glass
production); 12.9 for distribution; 12.3 for storage in the outlet; and 2.4 for waste disposal.4
The Institute of Brewing and Distilling (IBD), Master Brewers Association of the Americans (MBAA) Energy Benchmarking Survey, Carbon Footprinting and Life Cycle Analysis report by Gordon Jackson et al.,
4
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
9
APPENDICES
9
APPENDICES
9.0APPENDICES
142
9.1 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS
Only some of the terms used in the preceding text are explained here. For others, please view
dictionaries, textbooks, professional literature or encyclopedias.
Aerobic
Conditions in which air (oxygen) is present.
Anaerobic
Conditions in which there is no oxygen present.
Barm beer
Also called rest beer. The beer that remains within the mass of harvested yeast
(usually high-gravity, high-alcohol beer) and which centrifugation or filtration
may recover.
Blowdown
The maintenance of Total Dissolved Solids content in boiler water by draining
small quantities either continually or intermittently from the base of the boiler to
remove accumulated solids.
BOD
Biological oxygen demand. The standard test carried out at 20°C over five days,
for the measurement of water pollution in terms of the quantity of dissolved
oxygen (mg/L) needed by microorganisms to break down biodegradable
constituents in the waste water.
Carbon footprint
Environmental impact of operations on the generation of greenhouse gases
(GHG), expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e).
CCA
Capital cost allowances.
CIP
Cleaning-in-place of brewing vessels, mains, road tankers, etc.
COD
Chemical oxygen demand. The measure of oxygen consumption, in mg/L, as
supplied by hot acidified potassium dichromate, required to oxidize waste water
components. It is always higher than BOD5, which, for ­brewery waste water, is
about 60 to 70 percent of COD.
Condensate
Water produced by condensation of steam.
Condensing boiler
A boiler in which the water vapour produced by combustion is ­condensed to
provide additional heat to the incoming water.
Dew point
The temperature at which air becomes saturated with water vapour and moisture
starts to condense at a given pressure.
EAC
Energy-accountable centre, particularly in the context of Monitoring & Targeting
methodology.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
Economizer
A heat exchanger that recovers energy from flue gas.
Emission
(in this context) Pollution at the point of discharge.
Emissions Trading
(also known as cap
and trade)
A market-based approach used to control pollution by providing economic
incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
EMO
Energy management opportunity, to save or conserve energy. The term is
frequently used in this Guide.
EMS
Energy Management System. The part of the overall management system that
includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices,
procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving,
reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy.
EMT
Energy management team.
GHG
Greenhouse gases – gases emitted by operations – that are implicated in global
warming.
GWP
Global Warming Potential (of various types of emission, all relating to CO2e); the
GWP of carbon dioxide, CO2 = 1.0.
HCV
Higher calorific value. The energy released from burning unit mass of fuel and
when the resulting flue gas is condensed (also, gross calorific value or higher
heating value).
High-gravity
brewing
The practice of producing and fermenting wort at a higher concentration of
dissolved solids (i.e. high gravity) than is required to package. The original
gravity is adjusted by dilution with carbonated water prior to packaging, usually
at the final filtration stage.
LCV
Lower calorific value. The energy released when unit mass of a fuel is burned and
the flue gas is not condensed (also, net calorific value or lower heating value).
Make-up water
Water added to a boiler to replace condensate losses.
Mashing
The process of enzymatic hydrolysis that, upon mixing the malt grist with water
and heating it following a pre-set program, converts malt starch into soluble
sugars, producing (sweet) wort.
Maturation
Also called “aging.” Process of developing and stabilizing beer flavour, and of
beer conditioning.
Modular boiler
A boiler that may be combined with others of the same type supplying a
common system. The number of boilers in use at any time depends on the
demand load.
143
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APPENDICES
144
NAICS
North American Industry Classification System; each industry type has a
discreet, assigned code.
Natural gas
Mostly methane, largely unprocessed earth gas.
Oxygen trim
A device that senses the oxygen content in the flue gas and controls the air-tofuel ratio. Sometimes combined into a combustion efficiency monitor.
Pasteurization
The process of heating beer to destroy or inactivate micro-organisms capable of
growing in it.
PDCA
The abbreviation of the words Plan-Do-Check-Act, the principle of continual
improvement, pioneered by Dr. Edward Deming.
Peak demand
The maximum demand of electricity that occurs in a timed period, e.g. 15 or
30 minutes. A public utility may restrict this charge to certain times of the
year (e.g. winter months) when the demand on distribution is at its peak. An
integrating meter that sums up the consumption, records the maximum value
and then resets to zero during every set period measures peak demand.
Power factor
The cosine of the phase angle between potential (volts) and current (amperes).
Public utilities charge customers a cost penalty if the power factor is lower than
a specified value, e.g. 0.93, since difficulties arise in supply and distribution
systems if the power factor is significantly lower than unity.
Residual beer
Beer lost through various processes.
ROI
Return on investment.
Saturated steam
(saturated water)
Steam or water at its saturation temperature.
Saturation
temperature
The temperature at which water will evaporate or steam will condense, at a given
pressure.
Sparging
Washing out of extract remaining in the spent grains by spraying water over it in
the lauter tun.
SEC
Specific energy consumption; usually in MJ/hl.
SWC
Specific water consumption; in hl water to hl beer ratio.
Superheated steam
Steam at a temperature higher than the saturation temperature.
SS
Suspended solids. Solids that can be separated by filtration through a membrane.
VSD
Variable speed drive. A device to modulate the speed of the compressor to enable
its “soft” starts, reduce demand spikes in electricity, and flexibly respond to
compressed air demand.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
9.2 ENERGY UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS
Length metre(m)
Mass
gram(g)
Time
second(s)
TemperatureKelvin (K)
145
Commonly used temperature units: Celsius (C), Fahrenheit (F)
0°C = 273.15°K = 32°F
1°F = 5/9°C 1°C = 1°K
Fahrenheit temperature = 1.8 (Celsius temperature) + 32
Note: To use the name “centigrade” instead of “Celsius” is incorrect and was abandoned in 1948 so
as not to confuse it with a centennial arc degree used in topography.
Multiples:
Fractions:
101 deca(da)10-1deci(d)
102 hecto(h)10-2 centi(c)
103 kilo(k)10-3 milli(m)
106 mega(M)10-6 micro(µ)
109 giga(G)10-9 nano(n)
1012tera(T)
1015peta(P)
Derived SI units:
Volume:hectolitre (hl)
cubic metre (m3)
100 L
1000 L
Mass: kilogram(kg)
Tonne(t)
1000 g
1000 kg
Heat:
joule (J)
Watt (W)
Watt/m2
Watt/m2K
W/mK
Quantity of heat, work, energy
Heat flow rate, power
Heat flow rate
U value
Thermal conductivity
Pressure:Pascal
(Pa)
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
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9
APPENDICES
Conversion factors:
146
Multiply
by
to obtain
metre
3.2808399
feet
metre
39.370079
inches
kg
2.2046226
pounds
tonne (t)
0.9842206
tons (long)
tonne (t)
1.10233113
tons (short)
L
0.219975
gallons (Imperial)
L
0.264173
gallons (US)
L
0.035315
cubic feet
kWh
3.6
MJ
kWh
3412
BTU
MJ
947.8
BTU
BTU
0.001055
MJ
Heat emission or gain
W/m2
0.317
BTU/ft2
Specific heat
kJ/kgK
0.2388
BTU/lb.°F
Heat flow rate
W
3.412
BTU/h
U value, heat transfer coefficient
W/m2K
0.1761
BTU/ft2h°F
Conductivity
W/m K
6.933
BTU in/ft2h°F
Calorific value (mass basis)
kJ/kg
0.4299
BTU/lb.
Calorific value (volume basis)
MJ/m3
26.84
BTU/ft3
Length
Mass
Volume
Energy
Quantity of heat
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
Pressure
bar
14.50
lbf/in2 (psi)
Bar
100
kPa
bar
9869
std. atmosphere
mm Hg (mercury)
133.332
Pa
ft of water
2.98898
kPa
Specific volume
m3/kg
16.02
ft3/lb.
Velocity
m/s
3.281
ft/s
Useful values:
1 Therm
1 ft3 of natural gas
1 US gal #2 oil
1 Imp. gal #2 oil
1 US gal #4 oil
1 Imp. gal #4 oil
1 US gal #6 oil
1 Imp. gal #6 oil
1 boiler horsepower
1 mechanical HP
1 ton refrigeration
1 beer barrel U.K.
1 beer barrel Canadian
1 beer barrel US
1 MJ
1 kcal
1 kWh
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
100 000 Btu
1 000 Btu
140 000 Btu
168 130 Btu
144 000 Btu
172 930 Btu
152 000 Btu
182 540 Btu
33 480 Btu/h
2 545 Btu/h
12 000 Btu
1.6366 hl
1.1365 hl
1.1735 hl
0.278 kW/h
4.18 J
1.168 Mcal
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
147
29.31 kWh
0.2931 kWh
41.03 kWh
49.27 kWh
42.20 kWh
50.68 kWh
44.55 kWh
53.50 kWh
9.812 kW
0.7459 kW
3.5172 kWh
In Canada, the value of 1 Btu (60.5°F) = 1.054615 kJ was adopted for use in the gas and petroleum
industry. The ISO recognizes the value of 1.0545 kJ.
“Rule-of-thumb” conversion – use for quick illustration in propagating the energy conservation
efforts in your plant:
1.0 MJ equals
• the energy content of about one cubic foot of natural gas, or
• the energy consumed by one ordinary incandescent 100 Watt bulb burning for almost three
hours, or
• one horsepower electric motor running for about 20 minutes.
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APPENDICES
148
To convert kBtu/USbarrel to kWh/hl, use the conversion factor 0.25 kWh/hl/kBtu/barrel.
To convert kBtu/USbarrel to GJ/hl, use the conversion factor 0.0009 GJ/hl/kBtu/barrel.
Grid electricity – consider greenhouse gas emissions generation on the average
as 1 kg CO2e/kWh
9.3 CALCULATING REDUCTIONS IN GREENHOUSE GAS
(GHG) EMISSIONS IN BREWERIES
Although the following examples may seem specialized, the method used to calculate emission
reductions applies to any energy management project that reduces consumption of fuel or electricity.
Exercise: Calculate emissions for on-site combustion systems
In a large brewery, the original natural gas burners in the boilers were retrofitted with highefficiency burners. Annual fuel savings are estimated at 5 terajoules (TJ).
What would be the corresponding reductions in CO2, CH4 and NOx emissions? Use the data in
Table 9-1 and the information given below to calculate the amount of CO2, CH4 and NOx produced
by combustion systems. To perform this calculation for your own facilities, obtain precise data from
your natural gas utility.
The emission factors for natural gas are CO2: 49.68 t/TJ; CH4: 0.13-1.27 kg/TJ; NOx: 0.62 kg/TJ. A
range of 0.13-1.27 kg/TJ has been indicated for CH4, so we will assume 0.6 kg/TJ for this calculation.
CO2 reduction
= 5 TJ/yr x 49.68 t CO2/TJ
= 248.4 t/yr
CH4 reduction
= 5 TJ/yr x 0.6 kg CH4/TJ
= 3 kg/yr
NOx reduction
= 5 TJ/yr x 0.62 kg NO2/TJ
= 3.1 kg/yr
Table 9-1: Greenhouse gas emission factors by combustion source
Fuel type
CO2
CH4
NOx
Gaseous fuels
t/ML
t/TJ
kg/GL
kg/TJ
kg/ML
kg/TJ
Natural gas
1.88
49.68
4.8-48
0.13-1.27
0.02
0.62
Still gas
2.07
49.68
–
–
0.02
0.62
Coke oven gas
1.60
86.00
–
–
–
–
Liquid fuels
t/kL
t/TJ
kg/kL
kg/TJ
kg/kL
kg/TJ
Motor gasoline
2.36
67.98
0.24-4.20
6.92-121.11
0.23-1.65
6.6-47.6
LPGs
1.11-1.76
59.84-61.38
0.03
1.18
0.23
9.00-12.50
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
Fuel type
CO2
CH4
NOx
Diesel oil
2.73
70.69
0.06-0.25
1.32-5.7
0.13-0.40
3.36-10.34
Light oil
2.83
73.11
0.01-0.21
0.16-5.53
0.13-0.40
3.36-10.34
Heavy oil
3.09
74.00
0.03-0.12
0.72-2.88
0.13-0.40
3.11-9.59
Petroleum coke
4.24
100.10
0.02
0.38
–
–
Solid fuels
t/t
t/TJ
g/kg
kg/TJ
g/kg
kg/TJ
Anthracite
2.39
86.20
0.02
varies
0.1-2.11
varies
CDN bituminous
1.70-2.52
94.3-83.0
0.02
varies
0.1-2.11
varies
Sub-bituminous
1.74
94.30
0.02
varies
0.1-2.11
varies
Lignite
1.34-1.52
93.8-95.0
0.02
varies
0.1-2.11
varies
Coke
2.48
86.00
–
–
–
–
Fuel wood
1.47
81.47
0.15-0.5
0.01-0.03
0.16
8.89
149
Abbreviations: t = tonne; kg = kilogram; g = gram; ML = megalitre; TJ = terajoule; kL = kilolitre; GL = gigalitre.
(See Appendix 9.2: Energy units and conversion factors.)
Source: V
oluntary Challenge and Registry Program Participant’s Handbook, August 1995, and its addendum,
issued in March 1996. Data supplied by Environment Canada.
Exercise: Calculate the impact of reductions in electrical consumption
Energy management projects that reduce electricity consumption have a positive effect on the
environment. However, the emission reductions occur at the electrical generating station rather
than at the site of the efficiency improvements. To calculate the emission reduction, use the method
shown above, and then calculate the energy saved at the generating station. This is done by adjusting
the figure representing energy saved at the site to account for losses in the electrical distribution
system.
At a large manufacturing plant in Saskatchewan, fluorescent light fixtures were replaced by metal
halide fixtures and several large electric motors were replaced with high-efficiency motors. The
total annual energy saving was 33 600 MWh. Table 9-2 and the information given below was used
to calculate the corresponding reduction in GHG emissions. To perform this calculation for your
facilities you should obtain precise data from your public utility.
Table 9-2 shows that, in Saskatchewan, the average CO2 emission from electrical power generation
is 0.82 t/MWh. Convert to equivalent energy saving at the generating station using a transmission
efficiency of 96 percent.
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APPENDICES
150
Annual energy savings at generating station:
= 33 600 MWh : 0.96 = 35 000 MWh/yr
CO2 reduction:
= 35 000 MWh/yr x 0.82 t/MWh
= 28 700 t/yr
Table 9-2: Average CO2 emissions for 1998, by unit of electricity provided
t/MWh
t/TJ
Atlantic Provinces
0.25
68.4
Quebec
0.01
2.5
Ontario
0.23
65.2
Manitoba
0.03
8.2
Saskatchewan
0.83
231.7
Alberta
0.91
252.1
British Columbia
0.03
7.4
Northwest and Yukon Territories
0.35
98.5
Canada Average
0.22
61.3
Source: 1996 survey of utilities by the Demand Policy and Analysis Division, Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural ­Resources Canada
9.4 ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES SELF-ASSESSMENT
CHECKLIST
The following is a list of sample questions to answer when establishing the current status in your
brewery.
More questions may be formulated from the EMOs in the preceding sections.
Use the following audit questions as a guide (mark an “X” in the box if an action is required).
Management
q
q
q
q
q
Does the brewery have an energy policy? Are all employees aware of it?
Does the brewery have an energy management system (EMS) in place?
Are employees involved in EMS activities?
Are operators involved with the quality management system?
Have employees been educated/trained about the significance of energy and utilities
­conservation and correct use practices?
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
q
q
q
Are operators involved with the energy and utilities conservation efforts?
Are employees aware of energy and utilities costs and the level of these expenditures in the plant?
Is there a system in place to communicate results of energy and utilities conservation efforts
to employees?
151
Electricity power demand
q
q
q
Is the load profile known?
If not, has the local utility or a consultant been contacted for help?
Is there a system in place to prevent the load from exceeding a given value during peak
b
­ illing hours?
q Can equipment presently being run during peak demand periods be re-scheduled to off-peak
times or to other peak times when load is low?
q Can some non-essential equipment be shut off during peak demand periods by use of timers or
production operators?
Consumption
q
Is there a procedure to shut off production equipment and auxiliary production equipment
when not in use?
q Has it been implemented?
Power factor
q
q
q
q
Is the power factor, as noted on the electrical bills, less than 90 percent?
Is there a billing penalty for poor power factor?
If so, do you monitor how much it costs you?
Have you considered means and equipment to improve the power factor?
Fuels
q
q
Would it be possible to use a cheaper alternative source for thermal energy?
If natural gas is used, have the costs of uninterruptible versus interruptible supply been evaluated?
Fuels/material storage
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Is heating in the area controlled and is temperature being maintained at the minimum
a­ cceptable level for a raw material store?
Are the cold storage rooms adequately insulated and the doors well sealed to minimize heat loss?
Is the passageway to cold storage areas fitted with flexible aprons to isolate it from warmer areas?
Are heated oil tanks and associated piping adequately insulated?
Is the oil heated at the correct temperature?
Are the outside syrup (if used) storage tanks and associated piping adequately insulated?
Is the external insulation watertight?
Boilers and steam distribution
q
q
Is boiler efficiency checked on a regular basis?
Is the efficiency level acceptable for the type of boiler and fuel being used?
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
9
9
APPENDICES
q
152
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Is the boiler fitted with a dual capability to use natural gas or fuel oil to take advantage of
­interruptible gas supply contracts?
In multiple boiler installations, how is the steam demand matched to boiler deployment?
How is steam demand matched to boiler deployment done on weekends and in non-production
periods?
Are the flue gases checked for CO2 and oxygen content on regular basis? Are they within an
a­ cceptable range?
What is the flue gas temperature?
Is a flue gas heat recovery system being used?
Is there any evidence of soot buildup on the boiler’s fireside surface?
Is the flame in the combustion chamber bright and clear and does it fill the combustion chamber without impingement?
How is the blowdown rate controlled? At what intervals?
What is the blowdown rate and is it at the level recommended by water treatment specialists?
Is it based on the dissolved solids content of the boiler water?
Has the dissolved solids content been calibrated to conductivity?
Is there a system in place to recover heat from the blowdown?
Is waste oil from process equipment burned in the boiler?
Is there redundant or oversized steam piping causing excessive heat loss?
Are steam lines, flanges, valves, condensate lines, etc. adequately insulated?
Is there evidence of steam or condensate leaks?
Is the condensate return rate adequate and is it being verified?
Are steam traps the correct type for the application being used?
Is there an adequate maintenance program for the inspection, repair and replacement of
steam traps?
What percentage of traps is found to be faulty?
Is there a program in place to remove scale from heat transfer surfaces of equipment?
Cooling water
q
q
q
q
q
Are there opportunities to reduce the quantity of cooling water being used?
Is a recirculated water-cooling system being used?
Is there any evidence of process cooling water being dumped to the sewer?
Can any parts of the cooling system be converted from single-pass to multi-pass?
Is the flow of cooling water at the various production processes being varied according to
c­ ooling requirements?
q Is the cooling water at production processes shut off when the process stops?
q Can any heat be usefully reused from the cooling system?
q Is there a routine maintenance procedure to de-scale cooling surfaces and cavities?
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
Process water
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Is the water to beer produced ratio measured and reported routinely?
Has water usage in the entire brewery been reviewed?
Have all opportunities for reusing process water been examined from the point of view of
double or multiple reuse?
Have all processes been evaluated for such reuse?
In cleaning operations, is low-pressure, high-volume hosing down used instead of the other way
around where it is possible?
Is high-pressure, small-volume sluicing of the whirlpool trubs practiced?
Are hoses left running in the cellars, wasting water and adding to the refrigeration load?
Is the post-filler water spray station tied in with the filler operation?
Are eye showers left running as a source for cool drinking water?
Is any hot water being put to the drain?
Are there any quantities of perfectly usable water being dumped?
153
Compressed air
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Are there any opportunities to reduce or eliminate compressed air use in any of the processes?
Is it possible to replace any compressed air-operated components with hydraulic or electric
linear power?
Identify the part of the process that requires the highest air pressure.
Can another source of power be used to enable the compressed air system pressure to be
r­ educed?
If not, can it effectively operate at lower air pressures?
Is there a system to control compressor sequencing according to the demand for air?
Are compressors shut down when production is shut down?
Is the intake for the compressors coming from the coldest location?
If air is used to cool the compressors, is it exhausted outdoors during summer and used to heat
during winter?
Is heat being recovered from the compressor cooling water?
Is there evidence of water in the system?
Is there evidence of air leaks?
What is the method used for leak detection?
Is there a routine program for inspection of leaks?
Is compressed air used to blow off debris and dust accumulation from surfaces?
Refrigeration
q
q
Is there a regular inspection and testing program in place for the refrigeration system?
Does it include a review of the system’s controls and set points for evaporating and condensing
temperatures?
q Is there a regular maintenance program in place?
q Are the compressor COP and the overall system COP measured regularly?
q Is the refrigeration plant-operating regimen reviewed frequently to reflect changing beer
­production and weather conditions?
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APPENDICES
154
q
q
q
q
Is the refrigeration equipment operating during peak demand hours?
Is there an inadequate or excessive defrosting of evaporators?
Are they frequently iced-up?
Are there de-stratification fans in high-ceilinged refrigerated areas?
CO2 collection and use
q
q
q
q
q
q
What is the brewery’s CO2 balance: purchase vs. generation?
What is the usage pattern? Is the usage metered and known?
What governs CO2 collection from the fermenters?
How well controlled is the carbonization of beer and dilution water?
Are there many instances of beer or dilution water reprocessing/dumping?
Is alkaline solution-based cleaning done in the CO2 atmosphere?
Emissions
q
q
Have you performed carbon footprinting of your operations?
Are you aware of the values, their financial price and have you considered them for emission
trading?
Electric motors
q
q
q
q
q
Is there a policy to replace old motors with energy-efficient (high-efficiency) motors?
Is there a policy to replace smaller motors with energy-efficient motors?
Is a rewind versus replacement evaluation made when motors fail?
Are there any motors running at less than 50 percent of their rated capacity?
Are motors checked for hot spots (bearings, contacts in connection boxes, etc.)?
Brewery envelope
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Is the wall insulation adequate? Is there evidence of frost or condensation on the inside of
e­ xternal walls?
Is the roof insulation adequate? (Snow melts quickly on a poorly insulated roof.)
Has a thermograph analysis of the building envelope (and of the process insulation) for
­potential heat loss locations been considered?
Are windows single glazed? Is there broken/cracked glass?
Are there gaps between the walls and window frames?
Are east, south or west-facing office windows using reflective glass or fitted with reflective foil or
with shades?
Are external doors being left open for “ventilation”?
Are the employees aware that such a practice negates air conditioning throughout the year?
Are external doors free from drafts when closed?
Are frequently used doors (such as the main entrance) designed to minimize air movement in
and out of the building?
Are doors at loading docks fitted with dock seals?
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
HVAC
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Is HVAC equipment shut down when buildings are unoccupied?
Has the use of a central computerized HVAC and lighting management system been
­
considered?
Are thermostats used to control building temperatures and are the temperature settings
­appropriate for the type of work being carried out?
Are setback temperatures used when buildings are unoccupied?
Are thermostats tamper-proof?
Are paint booths, soakers, and carton shredders fitted with exhaust fans?
Is the fan use coupled with the equipment use?
Is the balance between intake and exhaust air satisfactory?
How do you know?
Is the volume of fresh air intake excessive?
Is there a way to reduce levels when the production is stopped or working at lower levels?
Is there any problem with stratification, particularly in winter?
Has the use of ceiling fans for air circulation been considered?
Can any process heat or exhaust heat be recovered to heat incoming fresh air?
Is there a cheaper alternative energy source for heating?
155
Lighting
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Are lights left on when not needed?
Do observations during non-working times need to be made?
Are there areas that are overlit?
Are there areas that are underlit?
Are dimmers used to match lighting levels to the task being performed?
Is lighting switched off when the building, storage areas, offices, etc., are unoccupied?
Have motion sensor switches been considered?
Can outside security lighting be controlled by motion sensors?
Are lights clean?
When ordering replacement bulbs, are the most energy-efficient bulbs specified?
Do you know what the energy-efficient types are?
Can any of the lighting systems be replaced with more energy-efficient systems?
Mill room
q
q
q
q
q
Are dust extraction systems fitted with variable drives? (Ask this question for any other
m
­ otor-driven equipment.)
Are the dust collectors inspected/cleaned regularly?
Is steam used only when conditioning malt (if used for that)? Any leakage?
Is the setting of grist mills and malt grist composition checked regularly?
Are the mill rollers inspected and re-grooved regularly?
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
9
9
APPENDICES
Brewhouse
156
q
q
q
q
q
Is there adequate ventilation of the brewhouse in the summer?
Has the installation of a kettle stack economizer been considered?
Has the hot water been balanced for the entire brewery?
If a stack scrubber for odour control is being used, is the spray water recycled?
Is there an effective program for cleaning scrubber fill (saddles)?
Wort cooling
q
q
q
Are the heat exchange surfaces de-scaled frequently enough?
How often is the heat exchanger taken apart and inspected?
Has heat reclamation from the wort cooler been considered?
Fermenting and yeast room
q
Is CO2–removing ventilation in the fermenting room tied to actual CO2 readings to prevent
excessive evacuation, especially in the summer?
q Is water use for tank flushing and floor rinsing minimized?
q Is the refrigeration equipment ice-free?
q Is the use of stirrers in the yeast tanks intermittent?
Aging and finished beer cellars
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Is the cellar’s ambient temperature checked regularly?
Are the cellars well insulated?
Is outside air infiltration prevented, especially in the summer?
Conversely, could outside low temperatures be taken advantage of in the winter?
Is beer cooling excessive?
Is the use of water for floor rinsing minimized?
Are stationary beer pumps in the packaging cellar insulated for sound and heat?
Packaging department
q
Is it possible to reorganize operations by moving product packaging from less efficient lines to
more efficient lines in order to shut down a complete line?
q Is the operation of conveyors linked to the operation of the filler?
q Has the optimal pasteurization (number of P.U.) been determined?
Warehouse, shipping and receiving
q
q
q
q
q
Is heating in the area controlled and is the temperature being maintained at the minimum
a­ cceptable level?
Are air seals (curtains, aprons) used around truck loading doors?
Are measures in place to prevent ingress of ambient heat from packaging areas into
r­ efrigerated areas?
Are loading doors closed when not in use?
Can lighting levels be reduced?
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
q
q
Is high-efficiency lighting being used?
If electric forklift trucks are being used, are batteries charged in off-peak times?
157
By-products
q
q
q
How is the waste beer collected and disposed of? Is it eliminated from the wastewater stream?
How is the spent diatomaceous earth (“filter aid”) disposed of?
Can it be segregated from the wastewater stream?
Solid waste
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Is the waste segregated by type (glass, cardboard, wood, etc.)?
Are there separate collection containers available throughout the plant?
Have employees been educated and trained about the issue?
Could some solid waste types be given away (plastic barrels, firewood, contaminated glass for
road building)?
Could some be sold (crown boxes, uncontaminated glass cullet, aluminum cans, metal scrap)?
Could some be recycled (work gloves, protective clothing)?
Has the use of a compactor been evaluated?
Is the solid waste weighed on site before haul-away?
Has the current waste disposal contract been competitively evaluated?
Wastewater and treatment
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
Has there been a review of the separate wastewater streams to quantify their loading with a view
to reduce or eliminate contamination at the source?
Has there been a review of the history and trend of effluent surcharges?
Is the wastewater combined stream metered? If not, has the formula for calculating it been
­reviewed? Does it include brewhouse evaporation?
Is wastewater regularly sampled for pH?
Have suspended solids and oxygen demand been evaluated?
Have the results of municipal sampling been verified in the plant or through independent and
certified laboratories?
Has the use of surplus, non-liquefiable brewery CO2 or flue gases been considered for pH
­control of the brewery effluent?
If treated on site aerobically, is aeration efficient? Is it geared to BOD/COD loading, temperature?
Have fine-bubble diffusion systems been evaluated?
How is sludge disposed of?
If treated anaerobically, can the methane gas be burned off in the boiler or used to preheat
i­ ntake air?
Maintenance
q
q
q
Is there a formalized preventive/predictive maintenance program in place?
Are equipment checklists used for preventive maintenance?
Is there good instrumentation to measure operating parameters (temperature, pressure, flow
rates, compressed air losses, etc.)?
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
9
9
APPENDICES
q
158
q
q
q
q
Is the measuring and monitoring equipment regularly calibrated or its function otherwise
v­ erified?
Are gauges calibrated on a regular basis?
Is operation equipment fitted with automatic time and temperature controls?
Is there sufficient instrumentation and recording equipment to enable employees to set up
equipment correctly and to enable maintenance and engineering staff to troubleshoot?
Are synthetic lubricants used in gearboxes, compressors, etc.?
9.5 “BEST PRACTICES” IN ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS
VOLUNTEERED BY SMALL BREWERS
The list below provides tips and best practices in energy and utility savings as currently
implemented by some small breweries. This is over and above the more detailed case studies found
in the Guide. It is hoped that these examples and the case studies will motivate brewers to make
such efforts to improve their energy efficiency.
Boilers/Steam
•
•
•
The comprehensive review of boilers, particularly the retrofitting of the burners brought the
NOx emissions down to California standards.
The examination of the steam plant standard operations resulted in operating it at a lower
­pressure, and the boilers were further optimized to in-plant use during brewhouse operations
and after the brewing finished.
Consider the separation of process and heating steam and condensate return systems so that
heating loops can be isolated during non-heating periods.
Refrigeration
•
•
•
•
•
The optimization of suction and discharge pressures resulted in substantial savings – currently
being quantified.
The use of Variable Speed Drives (VSD) for ammonia condensers for chilling optimized the
power use.
The energy efficiency measures in refrigeration resulted in 1.6 M kWh savings. Our discharge
pressure is approximately 90 psi all winter, the set point based on wet bulb temperature. VSD
and slide valve control result in optimum compressor efficiency and the VI ratio correction
ensures we are not over-compressing.
Use the heat rejected by your refrigeration system to heat your space, especially if you are in a
cold climate. The refrigeration system has to work in the winter anyway, so the heat rejected can
be “free” except for the capital investment. Not always an easy retrofit, but easy to do at start-up,
and can be an option should equipment replacement or retrofit be necessary.
When designing a plant or investing significant capital, cross cutting is a great opportunity. We
use ammonia waste heat to preheat boiler feedwater and are looking at other opportunities to
expand CO2 from liquid to gas. This is easier done with new infrastructure but the opportunity
is certainly there.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
•
•
Consider implementing an oil inventory management program in refrigeration to track the
amount of oil added and drained from the system. We had an instance in the past where an oil
separator was not doing its job and we were getting far too much oil carrying over to our process equipment.
Incondensables represent a huge loss. A good way to check this is to measure the temperature of
the discharge ammonia from the condenser at the bottom of the discharge elbow and then correlate that to a pressure and compare that to the head pressure you are running; the difference is
what the non-condensable gas is adding.
159
Compressors – Air
•
Compressed air leaks are a killer . . . As soon as you find one, try to find the time to perform the
repairs as soon as possible.
Energy management/people issues
•
•
•
•
For the small, large and medium-sized companies under one corporation, the integration of
energy reduction targets with salaried staff was effective as an important means to improve
engagement and address staff time considerations.
It was suggested that it would be useful for a smaller brewer to pay attention to water and energy
use and where losses are occurring, and that this would provide an important basis for taking
action. However, the lack of baseline data could make it difficult to assess performance.
Two small brewers noted, that for them, a lack of manpower presented a key challenge to an
organized, systematic effort to improve energy efficiency.
The importance of raising awareness was illustrated by a hugely successful employee contest to
identify and fix leaks (compressed air, steam).
Lighting
•
The use of natural lighting complemented by spot lights where required, as well as making use
of outside weather for cooling and heating, provides savings.
Water
•
•
•
•
•
•
By improving the water balance in the brewhouse, we were able to use “saved” hot water to supply the 10 percent of water used for flushing. We expect this will result in a savings in the steam
which is required to heat up cold water. This will also reduce the use of make-up water.
Our keg washing system utilizes a recirculation tank with a strength meter that allows us to
reuse a cleaning solution over and over until the metered strength falls below an established
threshold.
One of the most important ways in which we conserve energy at our brewery is through heat
regeneration in the cooling of our wort. The hot wort is passed through a heat exchanger that
exchanges the heat with cold water that is used for cleaning, brewing and sterilizing.
When cleaning multiple tanks we reuse the cleaning solution between more than one tank to
reduce chemical usage and energy costs from hot water.
Automated CIP, focus on chemical analysis (titration checks), led to reducing water consumption.
Water reuse through recirculation and water recapture led to lowered water to beer ratio in the
brewery – down to the 4.5:1 region.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
9
9
APPENDICES
Buildings/HVAC
160
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Put all exhaust fans on some kind of control, not a manual switch that can be left on. It can be
a spring wound timer, a dehumidistat, or a thermostat – just something that will only allow the
fans to run when needed.
Don’t bring in outdoor air when you don’t need it and don’t exhaust conditioned indoor air
when you don’t need to.
Make the minimal investment in setback thermostats. Keep the office areas cool when not
­occupied (or warm in the summer) and keep the production area cool all the time to reduce
heat loss to outdoors and heat loss from aging tanks to the space.
Keep the heat in one place and the cold elsewhere. Keep all overhead doors well weatherstripped, including the keg fridge door, insulate all hot and cold piping and repair damaged
sections promptly, maintain edge seals on dampers so that they close tightly.
The brewing area is heated in the winter by the ambient heat given off by the brewing process.
Letting climate work for you: opening up cellars to the outside in the winter for free cooling.
Cooling with external air in winter was possible when the temperature gradient was at least 10°C.
Miscellaneous practices
•
•
We are in the process of obtaining energy controllers that will capture and store energy from our
systems during peak performance to be utilized later under less strenuous conditions.
Recycle whenever and wherever you can. We wash dirty bottles in a bottle washer rather than
use new ones, we use folding trays for bottles and cans rather than use glued/stapled trays so
that we can refold them if they are in good shape, we have introduced a refillable beer filling
­system where people bring in a 1.9 litre jug and get it refilled over and over with draught beer
(our customers love it).
9.6 SPECIFIC PRIMARY ENERGY SAVINGS AND ESTIMATED
PAYBACKS
In Section 7, EMOs were divided into three categories, with an estimate of the investment intensity
and payback period. The following tables list the energy savings and payback periods an energy
or plant manager can expect from energy efficient measures undertaken in the brewery process in
Table 9-3 or by improving the efficiency of utilities in Table 9-4. Although a bit dated, and related
to U.S. conditions, these tables are still useful when contemplating one project over another as they
demonstrate expected energy saving results of implemented improvements/reductions. The tables
have been modified to show the effect of primary energy savings expressed in MJ/hl (instead of the
original kBtu/barrel [US]).
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
Table 9-3: Primary energy savings and estimated paybacks for process-specific efficiency measures5
161
Process specific
Process area
Measure
Payback period
in years
Primary energy
savingsA in MJ/hl
Mashing and lauter tun
Waste heat recovery
n/a
Limited data
Use of compression filter
2
17
Vapour condenser
<2 to 5
<1-20
Thermal vapour recompression
>2
14-16
Mechanical vapour
recompression
D
21
Steinecker Merlin system
2
28
High gravity brewing
<1
12-20
Low pressure wort boiling
n/a
29-36
Wort stripping
n/a
18-38
Wort cooling
3
15
Immobilized yeast fermenter
n/a
Limited data
Heat recovery
>2
Limited data
New CO2 recovery systems
>2
Limited data
Microfiltration
2 to 4
Limited data
Membranes (alcohol-free)
4
17
Heat recovery-pasteurization
n/a
1
Flash pasteurization
n/a
5-13
Heat recovery washing
<3
5
Cleaning improvements
3.4
21
Wort boiling and cooling
Fermentation
Processing
Packaging
A
Primary energy savings account for savings in fuel use, electricity use and electricity transmission and
distribution losses. We use a conversion factor of 3.08 from final to primary electricity use, based on average
U.S. power plant heat rates. Energy savings are primarily taken from data from case studies in the literature.
To convert kBtu/US barrel to kWh/hl use the conversion factor 0.25 kWh/hl/kBtu/barrel. To convert kBtu/
US barrel to GJ/hl, use the conversion factor 0.0009 GJ/hl/kBtu/barrel.
Table found in the report “Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for breweries – an
ENERGY STAR® Guide for energy and plant managers’’, by C. Galitsky et al., Ernest Orlando Lawrence
Berkeley National ­Laboratory and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2003.
5
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
9
9
APPENDICES
Table 9-4: Specific primary energy savings and estimated paybacks for efficiency measures for utilities
162
Utilities
Process area
Measure
Payback period
in years
Primary energy
savingsA in MJ/hl
Boilers and steam
distributionB
Maintenance
<1
4
Improved process control
<1
3
Flue gas heat recovery
>3
2
Blowdown steam recovery
2.7
2-3
Steam trap maintenance
<1
3
Automatic steam trap
monitoring
<1
<1
Leak repair
<1
5
Condensate return
>1
17-19
Insulation of steam pipes
1
5-25
Process integration
D
42-76
Variable speed drives
2 to 3
5-22
Downsizing
2
1-2
High efficiency
1 to 2
1-2
Better matching of cooling
capacity and cooling loads
3.6
1-2
Improved operation of
ammonia cooling system
5.5
<1-2
Improved operations and
maintenance
<1
4
System modifications and
improved design
≤3
5-7
Insulation of cooling lines
n/a
Limited data
Motors and systems
using motorsC
Refrigeration and
coolingD
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
APPENDICES
Utilities
B
Process area
Measure
Payback period
in years
Primary energy
savingsA in MJ/hl
Other utilities
Lighting
<2 to 3
2-5
Reduce space heating demand
n/a
7
Anaerobic waste water
treatment
≤5
5-8
Membrane filtration wastewater
<1 to 5
Limited data
Control and monitoring
systems
3.5
<1-33
Combined heat and power
(CHP)
4
60-90
CHP with absorption cooling
5
71
Engine driven chiller systems
2 to 4
11
163
Based on data from two sources (EIA, 1997; Beer Institute, 2000), we assume an average U.S. brewery fuel
usage of 212 kBtu/barrel (53 kWh/hl0, 90-100 percent of the fuel used in the boilers, and an average boiler
conversion ­efficiency of 85 percent).
We estimate a total plant electricity consumption of 122 kBtu/barrel (30.5 kWh/hl, or 110 MJ/hl), (EIA,
1997).
C
D
Results vary widely, depending on plant configuration and size of the brewery.
n/a: Payback period for this measure could not be estimated from available data.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
9
10
REFERENCES
10
REFERENCES
10.0REFERENCES
166
The following sources complemented the development of this guidebook and the use of information
selected from them in the text is gratefully acknowledged. At the same time, the literature listed may
serve as sources of additional or detailed information.
•
Energy Benchmarking Survey, Carbon Footprinting and Life Cycle Analysis, Gordon Jackson et al.,
2009 MBAA Convention paper (using also Brewer’s Guardian of April 2009, 18-20, 30).
•
Implementing Carbon Management Strategy in a Major Brewery With Particular Reference to
Developing Carbon Footprinting; R. Heathcote ad R. Naylor, Monograph of the 35th Symposium
of the European Brewery Convention on Environmental Sustainability, 2008.
•
Product Carbon Footprinting – Beer; A. Fendler, Monograph of the 35th Symposium of the
­ uropean Brewery Convention on Environmental Sustainability, 2008.
E
•
Brewing Greenly – The Barley and Hops Footprint; J. Brooks, Modern Brewery Age Magazine,
October 2008.
•
The Brewers Association of Canada (BAC), production, fuel, energy, carbon dioxide (e)
­emissions and water use statistics, 2009.
•
Energy Consumption and Energy Intensity Indicators in Canadian Breweries, 1990 to 2008, BAC,
2010.
•
Fuel Consumption and Energy Intensity Indicators, 1990 to 2008, BAC, 2010.
•
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Greenhouse Gas Intensity Indicators, 1990 to 2008, BAC, 2010.
•
Brewers of Canada – Microbrewery Benchmark Report, BAC, 2002.
•
The Brewing Sector Task Force of the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation
(CIPEC), reports and statistics, extracted information, 2009.
•
Development of Energy Intensity Indicators for Canadian Industry 1990-2009; The Canadian
Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC), Nyboer et al., Simon Fraser
University; also 1997-2010 bulletins.
•
Energy Efficiency Opportunities in the Canadian Brewing Industry; Lom & Associates Inc.; BAC,
Natural Resources Canada, Office of Energy Efficiency and CIPEC, 1998.
•
CIPEC Energy Efficiency, Planning and Management Guide, Lom & Associates Inc., CIPEC and
NRCan, 2000.
•
Boilers and Heaters: Improving Energy Efficiency; Lom & Associates Inc, Paul Dockrill and Frank
Friedrich of CANMET; CIPEC and NRCan (OEE), 2000.
•
Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries – an ENERGY STAR®
Guide for energy and plant managers; C. Galitsky et al., Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley
­National Laboratory and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2003.
•
British Beer and Pub Association – Thirty years of Environmental Improvement (private
c­ ommunication).
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
REFERENCES
•
Brewery Utilities – Manual of Good Practice; European Brewery Convention, 1997.
•
Benchmarking for World-top Energy Efficiency; Verification Bureau, 2006.
•
2007 Sustainability Report; New Belgium Brewing Company.
•
Sustainable Winemaking in Ontario: Energy Best Practice for Wineries; Wine Council of
O
­ ntario, 2006.
•
Team Up for Energy Savings – Lighting (brochure); CIPEC, 2005.
•
Saving Energy with Tank Insulation; Anon., Wine Business Online, Sept 15, 2003.
•
Presenting an Energy Efficient Project to Management; Anon., Energy Matters, winter 2003,
US Department of Energy.
•
Commercial Earth Energy Systems: A Buyer’s Guide; CanmetEnergy, NRCan, 2002.
•
Monitoring & Targeting at a Brewery; Case Study # 273, Energy Efficiency Office, U.K., 1995.
•
Benchmarking Energy Efficiency World-wide in the Beer Industry 2003; Brewing Research
­International (BRI) and KWA Business Consultants, report # 2308580DR02, 2004.
•
Cost Efficiencies in Brewing; Brick Brewing Co. Ltd, OMAF, OCETA and NRI/IRAP, 2003.
•
Guidance Note for Establishing BAT in the Brewing Industry; CMBC, 2002.
•
Energizing the Bottom Line with Energy Efficiency; Annual Report; CIPEC and NRCan, 2009.
•
Best Practices in Japanese Food Industry – Brewing; Hiroshi Kuroda, The Energy Conservation
Center, Japan, 2007.
•
Pasteurization Options for Breweries, Big Energy Project Innovation Workshop, by Industry,
Tourism, and Resources Ministry of Australia, 2002.
•
Environmental, Health and Safety Guidelines for Breweries; International Finance Corporation of
World Bank Group, 2007.
•
New Belgium Brewery – Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation; Christine Brinker, 2004.
•
Chances and Barriers for Energy Service Companies? An Analysis for the German Brewery Sectors;
J. Schleich et al, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, 2001
•
Heineken Sustainability Report; Heineken NV, 2008.
•
Sustainable Developments for the Brewing Industry; F.R. Sharpe et al., Campden BRI and KWA
Business Advisers, The Institute of Brewing and Distilling Africa Section, 2009 Convention
p
­ roceedings.
•
Reducing Water and Effluent Costs in Breweries; Good Practice Guide GG135, UK ­Environmental
Agency, 1998.
•
Heads Up CIPEC – Biweekly reports on achievements and innovation in Canadian Industry – to
July, 2010, Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada.
167
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
10
10
REFERENCES
168
•
Success Stories, Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, 2009.
•
Annual Report; Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, 2009.
•
The State of Energy Efficiency in Canada in 2008; Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources
Canada.
•
Statistics Canada, selected information, 2000-2008.
•
International Standards for Environmental Management Systems ISO 14001:2004 and ISO
14004:2004; International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
•
International Standards for Quality Management Systems ISO 9001:2008; International
­Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
•
Energy Audit Programs – One Answer to Kyoto Protocol Commitments; Finland, 2000.
•
Excerpts from reports on various energy-using systems and novel brewery-related or breweryusable practices, extracted from the International Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of
Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET), made available through the Office of Energy
Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada.
•
Compressed Air Leakage Reduction Using Electronic Condensate Drain Taps, U.K., 2000.
•
Compressed Air Savings Through Leakage Reduction and the Use of High Efficiency
Nozzles, U.K., 2000.
•
The Performance of a Variable Speed Air Compressor, U.K., 2000.
•
Installation of a Chiller and of Rotary-drum Air Dryers, Canada, 2000.
References used in the First Edition of the Guide, some of which survived in this Second Edition:
•
Beer Pasteurization – Manual of Good Practice; European Brewery Convention, 1995.
•
Best Practice Program, Good Practice Guide 30, Energy Efficient Operation of Industrial Boiler
Plant; Energy Efficiency Office, Department of Energy, UK, 1992.
•
Best Practice Program, Good Practice Guide 42, Industrial Refrigeration Plant: Energy Efficient
Operation and Maintenance; Energy Efficiency Office, Department of Energy, UK.
•
Best Practice Program, Good Practice Guide 126, Compressing Air Costs; Energy Efficiency Office,
Department of Energy, UK, 1991.
•
A Self-assessment Workbook for Small Manufacturers; Rutgers University and Office of Industrial
Technology, US Department of Energy, 1992.
•
Practical Brewery Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points; L. Hargraves, The Brewer, 1996.
•
PC Control Versus PLC Control; M. Coulter, Cemcorp Ltd., 1998.
•
Environmental Management in the Brewing Industry; United Nations Environment Program
(UNEP), 1996.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
REFERENCES
•
Inverter Speed Control Reduces Power Consumption of Electric Pumps at a Brewery; CADDET,
March 1992.
•
Refrigeration Fault Diagnosis System in Joshua Tetley Brewery; U.K., Best Practice reports, Energy
Efficiency Office, Ministry of the Environment, U.K., 1992.
•
Heads Up CIPEC – Focus on Breweries; Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada,
August 1999.
•
Intelligent Energy Management for Small Boiler Plants; Gas Technology Canada, Canada Centre
for Mineral & Energy Technology, March 1998.
•
Analysis reports by the international Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET), made available through the Office of Energy Efficiency,
Natural Resources Canada:
•
Small Scale Cogeneration, 1995
•
Process Heating in the Metals Industry, 1993
•
Process Heating in the Low and Medium Temperature Ranges, 1997
•
Industrial Heat Pumps, 1997
•
Compact Heat Exchangers, 1999
•
Industrial Electric Motor Drive Systems, 1998
•
ow-NOx Technology Assessment and Cost/benefits Analysis, Federal Industrial Boiler
L
Program, Canada Centre for Mineral & Energy Technology, October 1994
•
Tips for Energy Managers; Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada, 1998.
•
Monitoring and Target Setting – Implementation Manual, Energy Efficiency Office of
­Department of Energy, U.K., 1991.
•
Energy Efficiency Opportunities – A series of guidebooks, published by industry associations
and funded by the Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada:
•
The Solid Wood Industries; The Council of Wood Industries, 1997
•
The Canadian Rubber Industry; Tire Technologies Inc., The Rubber Association of Canada,
1997
•
e Canadian Brewing Industry; Lom & Associates Inc, The Brewers Association of CanaTh
da, 1998
•
The Dairy Processing Industry; Wardrop Engineering Inc, The Dairy Council of Canada,
1997
•
In the Kraft Pulp Industry; Agra Simons Ltd., The Pulp and Paper Technical Association of
Canada, 1998
•
Compressed Air Costs Reduced by Automatic Control System; U.K., 1995.
169
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
10
10
REFERENCES
170
•
Ultrasonic Detection of Compressed Air Leaks; Australia, 1999.
•
Heat Recovery From an Air Compressor; New Zealand, 1995.
•
Variable Speed Drive for an Air Compressor Reduces Electricity Consumption; Denmark, 1998.
•
Expanding an Existing Compressed Air Grid With a Low Pressure Section; The Netherlands, 1997.
•
Control Optimization; U.K., 1994.
•
Cascaded Use of Waste Heat From Gas Turbine Cogeneration by Steam Expander; Japan, 1999.
•
Energy Recovery Unit for Wide Range of Industries; New Zealand, 1997.
•
Supersavers: A Workforce-led Initiative to Save Energy and Reduce Waste; U.K., 2000.
•
Energy Monitoring System; Canada, 1999.
•
Expert System Improves Performance of Plant Controlled by Programmable Logic Controllers;
U.K., 1994.
•
Adjustable Speed Drives Improve Ventilation at a Metal Plating Facility; U.S.A., 1996.
•
Demand Side Management (DSM) Technology Benefits Steel Producer; Canada, 1992.
•
Compressed Air System Combined With Cogeneration in Factory; Japan, 1994.
•
How to Succeed – Your Process Integration, Water, Effluent and Energy Study; S. Gennaoui,
­Proceedings of the Canada’s Energy Efficiency Conference 2000.
•
Reports and fact sheets published by the Canada Centre for Mineral & Energy Technology
(CANMET):
•
High Energy-efficient AC Motors (FS10)
•
Adaptive VAR Compensator (FS12)
•
Newsletters by the international Centre for Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET):
•
Compressed Air: Savings of 30 Percent Are Quite Normal; The Netherlands, 1999.
•
Compressed Air Challenge™ Communicates Better Management; U.S.A., 1999.
•
Upgrading Industrial Waste Heat Using a Hybrid Heat Pump; Norway, 2000.
•
Electricity Consumption of Compressed Air Reduced by 60 Percent; Denmark, 1999.
•
Compressed Air System from “Demand Back Through Supply”; Belgium, 1998.
•
P
resentation to the Canadian Soft Drinks Association; V.G. Munroe, Office of Energy
­Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada, 1997.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
REFERENCES
•
CAN/CSA-850-10 Standard: Risk Analysis Requirements and Guidelines; 2010.
•
Do your Product Development Math; Reinertsen & Associates, Machine Design, May 1998.
171
The use of the above-listed sources is also recommended to any reader wishing to obtain further
information.
GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CANADIAN BREWING INDUSTRY
10
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