RESULTS OF THE BURLINGTON 2013 ASIAN CARP EARLY DETECTION FIELD SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM

RESULTS OF THE BURLINGTON 2013 ASIAN CARP EARLY DETECTION FIELD SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM
RESULTS OF THE BURLINGTON 2013 ASIAN
CARP EARLY DETECTION FIELD SURVEILLANCE
PROGRAM
Dave Marson, Erin Gertzen, and Becky Cudmore
Asian Carp Program
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
867 Lakeshore Road
Burlington, ON L7S 1A1
2014
Canadian Manuscript Report of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3054
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Canadian Manuscript Report of
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2014
RESULTS OF THE BURLINGTON 2013 ASIAN CARP EARLY DETECTION FIELD
MONITORING PROGRAM
by
Dave Marson, Erin Gertzen, and Becky Cudmore
Asian Carp Program
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
867 Lakeshore Road
Burlington, ON L7S 1A1
[email protected]
i
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2014.
Cat. No. Fs97-4/3054E-PDF ISBN 978-1-100-25339-8 ISSN 1488-5379
Correct citation for this publication:
Marson, D., Gertzen, E, and Cudmore, B. 2014. Results of the Burlington 2013 Asian
carp early detection field monitoring program. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
3054: vii + 27 p.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT/RÉSUMÉ ................................................................................................... vi
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1
METHODS ....................................................................................................................... 1
RESULTS ......................................................................................................................... 3
SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................... 5
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................ 6
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 6
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. 2013 Asian Carp Program (including Burlington and Sault Ste. Marie crews)
early detection surveillance sites in lakes Huron and Erie on the Canadian side of the
Great Lakes. ...................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 2. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Grand River .................. 8
Figure 3. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Nanticoke Creek ........... 8
Figure 4. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Long Point Bay ............ 9
Figure 5. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Big Otter Creek ............ 9
Figure 6. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Kettle Creek ............... 10
Figure 7. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Rondeau Bay .............. 10
Figure 8. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Cedar Creek ................ 11
Figure 9. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in the Lower Detroit River
and Canard River ............................................................................................................ 11
Figure 10. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in the Upper Detroit River
......................................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 11. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Ruscom River ........... 12
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Figure 12. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Thames River and
Jeanette’s Creek .............................................................................................................. 13
Figure 13. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Ausable River ........... 13
Figure 14. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Bayfield River .......... 14
Figure 15. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Maitland River ......... 14
Figure 16. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Pine River ................. 15
Figure 17. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Nottawasaga River ... 15
Figure 18. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Sauble River ............. 16
Figure 19. Number of sites sampled in each of the 17 waterbodies sampled during the
2013 Asian Carp Program’s early detection surveillance program ................................ 16
Figure 20. Number of fish species caught in each of the 17 waterbodies sampled during
the 2013 Asian Carp Program’s early detection surveillance program .......................... 17
Figure 21. Number of fishes caught in each of the 17 waterbodies studied during the
2013 Asian Carp Program’s early detection surveillance program ................................ 17
Figure 22. Percentage of sites sampled by each gear type for the 2013 Asian Carp
Program’s early detection surveillance program ............................................................ 18
Figure 23. Number of fish species caught by each gear type used in the 2013 Asian Carp
Program’s early detection surveillance program ............................................................ 18
Figure 24. Percentage of fishes caught by each gear type in 2013 ................................ 19
Figure 25. Boat electrofisher sampling effort, in seconds, for each of the eight
waterbodies sampled in 2013 .......................................................................................... 19
Figure 26. Fyke net sampling effort, in hours, for each of the 10 waterbodies sampled in
2013................................................................................................................................. 20
Figure 27. Seine net sampling effort, in number of hauls, for each of the eight
waterbodies sampled in 2013 .......................................................................................... 20
Figure 28. Trammel net sampling effort, in yards, for each of the 12 waterbodies
sampled in 2013 .............................................................................................................. 21
Figure 29. Number of surrogate fishes caught in each of the 17 waterbodies in 2013 .. 21
iv
Figure 30. Percentage of surrogate fishes caught by each gear type in the 2013 early
detection surveillance program. ...................................................................................... 22
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Summary of species captured during the 2013 Asian Carp Program early
detection surveillance field season.................................................................................. 23
Table 2. Summary of catch data for the 2013 Asian Carp Program .............................. 25
Table 3. Catch data by waterbody for the 2013 Asian Carp Program ........................... 26
Table 4. Summary of catch data by gear type for the 2013 Asian Carp Program.......... 26
Table 5. Sampling type and effort by waterbody for the 2013 Asian Carp Program..... 27
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ABSTRACT
In 2013, a formal, traditional gear-based early detection field surveillance program for
Asian carps in the Great Lakes and its watersheds was started through Fisheries and
Oceans Canada’s Asian Carp Program. The field program uses various fish sampling
techniques and eDNA methods to monitor sites identified as high risk for Grass Carp
(Ctenopharyngodon idella), Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Bighead Carp
(H. nobilis) and Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) arrival and establishment in the
Great Lakes. In the summer and fall of 2013, 195 sites at 17 locations on the Canadian
side of the Great Lakes (lakes Huron and Erie) and their tributaries were sampled by the
Burlington group as part of the early detection program. Using a combination of boat
electrofishing, seining, fyke netting and trammel netting, a total of 15,849 specimens
representing 90 fish species were captured. The most species were caught in the Grand
River and the most individuals were caught in Rondeau Bay. All gear types caught Asian
carp surrogate species, buffalos (Ictiobus spp.) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio),
which occupy similar habitats to Asian carps, supporting that the early detection
surveillance program is using the correct gears and targeting the correct locations and
habitats. One triploid Grass Carp was captured in the Grand River in August with a
trammel net. The established early detection sites will be used as long-term monitoring
sites in subsequent years of the Asian Carp Program. Additional gear types and sites in
lakes Ontario and Superior will be incorporated in 2014.
RÉSUMÉ
En 2013, on a mis en oeuvre un programme officiel de surveillance sur le terrain au
moyen d'engins traditionnels pour la détection rapide de la carpe asiatique dans les
Grands Lacs et leurs bassins versants, dans le cadre du Programme sur la carpe asiatique
de Pêches et Océans Canada. Le programme de surveillance sur le terrain s'appuie sur
diverses techniques d'échantillonnage de poissons et de méthodes de prélèvement d'ADN
environnemental pour surveiller les sites réputés à haut risque pour la présence de la
carpe de roseau (Ctenopharyngodon idella), de la carpe argentée (Hypophthalmichthys
molitrix), de la carpe à grosse tête (H. nobilis) et de la carpe noire (Mylopharyngodon
piceus) et leur établissement dans les Grands Lacs. À l'été et à l'automne 2013, 195 sites
en 17 endroits sur le côté canadien des Grands Lacs (lacs Huron et Érié), et leurs
tributaires, ont été échantillonnés par le groupe de Burlington dans le cadre du
Programme de détection rapide. À l'aide d'une combinaison de pêche à l'électricité en
bateau, de pêche à la senne, de pêche au verveux et de pêche au trémail, on a pris au total
15 849 spécimens de 90 espèces de poissons. La plus grande partie des espèces a été
pêchée dans la rivière Grand et la majeure partie des individus a été pêchée dans la baie
de Rondeau. Tous les types d'engins ont pris des espèces de substitution de la carpe
asiatique, soit des buffalos (Ictiobus spp.) et des carpes communes (Cyprinus carpio), qui
occupent des habitats semblables à ceux des carpes asiatiques, ce qui appuie le fait que le
programme de surveillance et de détection rapide utilise les bons engins et cible les bons
endroits et les bons habitats. Une carpe de roseau triploïde a été prise dans la rivière
Grand au mois d'août à l'aide d'un trémail. Les sites de détection rapide établis serviront
vi
de sites de surveillance à long terme au cours des prochaines années pour le Programme
sur la carpe asiatique. D'autres types d'engins et d'autres sites dans les lacs Ontario et
Supérieur seront visés par le programme en 2014.
vii
INTRODUCTION
Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s (DFO) Asian Carp Program aims to prevent the entry and
minimize the impacts of non-indigenous Asian carps to the Great Lakes through
outreach, early warning, response and management. As part of the early warning pillar of
the Program, a traditional gear early detection surveillance field program was developed
and initiated in 2013. Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a key element in the
prevention of their establishment in the aquatic environment, as the sooner a species is
detected in the environment, the more options there are for management to address the
issue (Lodge et al. 2006; Vander Zanden et al. 2010). Using various fish sampling
techniques, the field program monitors sites identified as highest risk for Grass Carp
(Ctenopharyngodon idella), Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Bighead Carp
(H. nobilis) and Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) arrival and establishment in the
Great Lakes (Cudmore et al. 2012). The monitoring sites include nearshore areas and
tributaries on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes. From July to October, 2013, 17
waterbodies in the south-western Ontario watersheds of the Great Lakes were sampled by
the Burlington Asian carp crews for the fish community, Asian carps and surrogate
species (Figure 1).
METHODS
With limited resources, it was important to identify the most suitable areas for detecting
Asian carps. Using environmental conditions and ecological needs of Asian carps,
computer modelling was conducted to identify those tributaries in the Canadian waters of
the Great Lakes that were best suited for these species (Cudmore et al. 2012;
methodology from N. Mandrak, unpublished). High and medium matches were selected
as potential early detection surveillance sample sites.
In 2013, the focus was on lakes Huron and Erie as those lakes were identified by the
Asian Carp Program as the highest priority of the four Canadian Great Lakes following
the advice stemming from Cudmore et al. (2012).
Overall, 24 early detection sites were identified (Figure 1). Burlington field crews
sampled 17 of these early detection sites (or “waterbodies”) and Sault St. Marie crews
sampled an additional 7 sites. Ground truthing was conducted to confirm site suitability
for Asian carp potential habitat and ability to use traditional fisheries gears.
Four gear types were used to sample the early detection surveillance sites, including a
boat electrofisher, fyke net, seine net and trammel net. The complement of gear types was
used to capture a wide range in sizes of fishes in different habitats such that we would
have the greatest detectability of all four species of Asian carps at different sizes, if
present. Descriptions of each gear type and their total effort are found below.
BOAT ELECTROFISHER
Boat electrofishing for the 2013 early detection surveillance program was conducted
using a 21 foot, Smith-Root, 7.5 gas powered pulsator (GPP), dual boom electrofishing
1
boat. Two netters retrieved stunned fishes and transferred them to a live-well in the boat.
Sampling time was recorded in seconds shocked for each site. Electrofishing effort was
approximately 600 seconds at each site. The electrofisher was used at 45 sites in 8
waterbodies with a total effort of 25,798 seconds of shocking.
FYKE NET SAMPLING
Box mini fyke nets with a 0.32 mm ace mesh size, 0.61 m hoop diameter, 0.61 by 4.6 m
lead length, and 0.61 x 1.2 m wing length were deployed. Fyke nets were set for
approximately 24 hours in shallow water (<2.5 m water depth) over a variety of
vegetation and substrate types. Fyke nets were set by wading in shallow waters and
setting the lead as close to shore as possible. In water depths greater than 0.6 m a float
was added to the net to keep the bag end of the net at the water’s surface. The float was
added to ensure any captured turtles would be able to access the water’s surface for
respiration. Fyke nets were used to sample 93 sites in 10 waterbodies, with a total netting
time of 1,768.46 hours.
SEINE NET SAMPLING
The bag seine net was 9.14 m long and had a 3.18 mm bag mesh size and 4.76 mm wing
mesh size. Seining was done in wadeable and moderately vegetated habitats. In flowing
waters the seine hauls were performed in the direction of flow. Captured fishes were
transferred from the seine into bins filled with water. Water depth and obstructions in
nearshore habitats limited the number of seining sites. The seine net was used to sample
19 sites in 8 waterbodies, with a total effort of 54 seine hauls.
TRAMMEL NET SAMPLING
The trammel net used for the early detection surveillance sampling was 3 m deep and
182.9-274.3 m long with a 7.6 cm bar inner mesh size and 45.7 cm outer walls. The
trammel nets were used to target large-bodied fishes. They were set in areas free of heavy
vegetation for a maximum of two hours. The nets were set by boat and deployed in a
manner to block off an area of suitable habitat by setting both ends of the net onshore.
The first end of the net was deployed onshore and the boat reversed perpendicular to the
shoreline approximately 10-20 m, the boat is then turned and the net deployed parallel to
shore up to the last 10-20 m where the net was again set to shore. The crew then boated
within the blocked-off area revving the engine and pounding the hull of the vessel to
frighten fishes within the enclosed area and increase the likelihood of them encountering
the net. This activity is referred to as pounding, and has been found to be an effective
technique in the Mississippi watershed for driving Asian carps (net sensitive species) into
nets (ACRCC 2014). This method has several advantages to traditional overnight gill-net
sets: it allows for much shorter set-times by increasing the movement of sedentary fishes,
which in turn decreases the stress on captured fishes by removing them from the net
much sooner than in traditional overnight gillnet sets; and it allows for multiple sampling
sites per net in a day. Since the set times are relatively short and fishes are actively driven
into the nets, the effort for trammel netting was recorded as the length of net deployed.
2
The trammel nets were used to sample 38 sites in 12 waterbodies with a total effort of
6,584 m of trammel netting.
FISH AND HABITAT DATA COLLECTION
Fishes captured in the sampling gears were identified, measured and returned to the water
close to where they were collected. Voucher specimens were preserved in 10% formalin
and kept according to vouchering protocols developed by the Biodiversity Science
Section at DFO’s Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (GLLFAS)
(J. Barnucz, pers. comm.). At each sampling site, GPS coordinates and habitat data,
including water and air temperature (°C), dissolved oxygen (mg/L), conductivity
(µS/cm), pH, turbidity (NTU), wind speed (km/hour), water depth (m), distance to shore
(m), substrate percent composition (Wentworth scale), and aquatic vegetation type and
percent cover, were recorded. All data were checked for quality assurance and inputted
into the Biodiversity Science Section’s master fish database.
RESULTS
During the 2013 Asian Carp Program’s early detection surveillance sampling by
Burlington crews, a total of 15,849 specimens representing 90 species were captured
(Table 1). The field program included 195 sites (Figures 2 to 18) from 17 waterbodies in
south-western Ontario portion of the Great Lakes basin and tributaries (Table 2; Figure
1). The mean number of fishes caught over the 17 waterbodies was 932.82 and the mean
number of fishes caught per site was 81.27. The maximum number of sites sampled
occurred in the Grand River at 37 (Figure 2), with a minimum number of one site being
sampled in both the Maitland and Sauble rivers by the Burlington crews (Table 3, Figures
15, 18-19). The greatest number of species was caught in the Grand River at 51 species,
with the fewest caught in the Maitland and Sauble rivers at two species each (Figure 20).
The greatest number of fishes was caught in Rondeau Bay at 5,062 individuals, and the
smallest number was caught in the Maitland River at two fishes (Table 3, Figure 21).
Of the four gear types, the fyke net was used at the most number of sites (48% or 93
sites) while the seine net was utilized the least frequently at only 10% or 19 sites (Table
4, Figure 22). The fyke net caught the greatest number of species at 66, while the
trammel net caught the least at 25 species (Table 4, Figure 23). The fyke net captured the
greatest number of fishes at 68% or 10712 fishes, while the trammel net captured the
least at 4% or 577 fishes (Table 4, Figure 24).
BOAT ELECTROFISHER
The electrofisher was used at 45 sites in 8 waterbodies. A total of 2,442 fishes
representing 58 species were captured (Table 4). There was a total sampling effort of
25,798 seconds (average 573 seconds per site), with the greatest effort in the Grand River
at 18,726 seconds and the smallest effort in the Thames River at 1531 seconds (Table 5,
Figure 25). Ongoing mechanical issues with the electrofishing boat generator prevented
sampling as much as was planned for the field season.
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FYKE NET
The fyke net was used to sample 93 sites in 10 waterbodies. A total of 10,208 fishes
representing 65 species were captured (Table 4). The total sampling effort was 1,768.46
hours, with Long Point Bay having the greatest effort at 362.78 hours and the Pine River
having the smallest effort at 75.75 hours (Table 5, Figure 26).
SEINE NET
There were 19 sites sampled in 8 waterbodies by bag seine. A total of 2,374 fishes
representing 53 species were captured (Table 4). Total sampling effort was 54 hauls, with
a maximum effort of 27 hauls in Cedar Creek and a minimum effort of 3 hauls in each of
Big Otter Creek, Long Point Creek, Nanticoke Creek, Ruscom River and the Thames
River. Six hauls were done in each of the Pine River and Rondeau Bay (Table 5, Figure
27).
TRAMMEL NET
The trammel net was used to sample 38 sites in 12 waterbodies. A total of 577 fishes
representing 25 species were captured (Table 4). Total sampling effort was 6,584 m, with
the greatest effort in the Grand River at 2,195 m and the least effort in Cedar Creek and
the Maitland, Nottawasaga and Sauble rivers at 183 m each (Table 5, Figure 28).
SURROGATE SPECIES
All sucker species of the genus Ictiobus (buffalos) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
were designated as surrogate species for Asian carps in the 2013 early detection
surveillance program. A total of 629 surrogate specimens were caught in the 17
waterbodies. The greatest number of surrogates was captured in Cedar Creek at 226
surrogate fishes and the fewest were captured in the Maitland and Nottawasaga rivers at
one surrogate each (Table 3, Figure 29). All four gear types captured surrogates, with the
trammel net catching the most at 53% (or 315 surrogates) and the seine net catching the
least at 10% (or 63 surrogates) (Table 4, Figure 30).
ASIAN CARPS
During the 2013 early detection surveillance field season, DFO’s Asian Carp Program
captured one Grass Carp in a trammel net. This specimen was captured on August 16,
2013 in the Grand River in Dunnville, Ontario. The fish had a total length of 104 cm, a
weight of 14 kg and was triploid (sterile). Site collection data was not collected as upon
capture of the Grass Carp; the field crews and Asian Carp Program immediately initiated
Response Protocols to ensure no further specimens were in the area. After intensive
sampling for Grass Carp, no additional individuals were observed.
4
SUMMARY
In 2013 during the inaugural year of the Asian carp early detection field surveillance
program, Burlington field crews sampled 195 sites at 17 high priority locations on the
Canadian side of the Great Lakes basin. Sault Ste. Marie field crews sampled an
additional 7 high priority locations (Figure 1). The complement of gear types was
important and useful for capturing a range of fish sizes and species in a range of habitat
types. All gear types were able to capture surrogate species (buffalos and Common Carp),
which is critical. This result suggests that the monitoring program is sampling in the
correct locations with the correct gear types. This, along with the capture of a single
Grass Carp in the Grand River, suggests that if any additional Asian carps were present,
the field crews would have likely captured them.
The boat electrofisher was able to sample in highly vegetated and non-wadeable waters
where the seine and trammel net would be less successful because of becoming snagged
and tangled over the vegetation. The seine net was able to capture smaller-bodied fishes,
and should be able to capture young-of-the-year Asian carps, if present. The fyke net
captured fishes of various sizes near leading edges of emergent vegetation beds. The
trammel net targets larger fishes over a large area and was the most successful gear type
at capturing surrogates. These nets catch large quantities of Asian carps in the United
States (ACRCC 2014), where the species are established. These trammel nets would be
very useful during rapid response and eradication efforts for Asian carps.
All gear types will continue to be used in future years of sampling; however, following
the first year of the program we have identified areas where modifications will be
implemented to improve sampling. For boat electrofishing, 2014 sampling will continue
being conducted using a standard 600 second site sampling effort along a straight
transect. Additional targeted sampling will also be conducted at the discretion of the crew
leader. This will allow the crew leader to power on and off the electrofisher to focus
effort in heavy cover, and will not restrict the effort to a straight transect direction. For
fyke nets, turtle exclusion netting will be added to minimize the amount of turtle by-catch
in the nets. Coarse netting (7.6-10.2 cm bar mesh) over the entrance of the net will be
installed to exclude large turtles that enter the nets and consume the fishes trapped inside.
For trammel nets, a larger mesh size (9-10 cm) will be used for the inner panels to allow
small, non-target fishes to pass through the net. Tied-down gill nets will be added into the
sampling program as an alternative to trammel nets in areas that are highly vegetated
(e.g., Long Point Bay and Rondeau Bay). Tied-down gill nets are easier to remove fishes
from quickly, and are easier to fish in heavily vegetated areas since there is less material
for the vegetation to foul. Further, in addition to standard pounding techniques,
electrofishing will be used to help drive fishes in the blocked off area into the trammel
and gill nets. This technique will be helpful in complex habitats, such as log-jams, where
the anodes of the electrofishing boat can be worked into the heavy cover to drive fishes
out. Finally, an additional net type, 1.2 m trap nets, will be included to help catch largebodied fishes in heavily vegetated areas. Since trammel and gill nets cannot be effectively
deployed in heavy vegetation it is essential to deploy a different gear type to sample.
Overall the variety of gear types will enable the program to survey the fish community,
surrogates and Asian carps in the range of habitats they may inhabit.
5
In future years, the early detection sites in lakes Huron and Erie will be revisited and
additional sites in lakes Ontario and Superior will be scouted using the same sampling
methodologies to identify potential additional early detections sites. Overall, the
combination of gear types was important and successful, and will be continued into future
years of the early detection surveillance program because the risk of Asian carp invasion
into the Great Lakes continues to be high.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank the 2013 summer and fall field staff for the Asian Carp Program, including
Justin Barbati, D’Arcy Campbell, Mike Clark, Katarina Doughty, Bradley Doyle,
Michael Gioseffi, Julie Henry, Meagan Kindree, Elizabeth Miller, Alexandra Noel,
Michael Parna, Natalie Rook, Ashna Tanna and Nichole Wiemann. This project was
funded through the DFO Asian Carp Program.
REFERENCES
Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee (ACRCC) Monitoring and Response
Workgroup. 2014. Monitoring and Response Plan for Asian Carp in the Upper
Illinois River and Chicago Area Waterway System.
http://www.asiancarp.us/documents/MRP2014.pdf (accessed 6 October, 2014).
Cudmore, B., Mandrak, N.E., Dettmers, J., Chapman, D.C., and Kolar, C.S. 2012.
Binational Ecological Risk Assessment of Bigheaded Carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)
for the Great Lakes Basin. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2011/114. vi+57 p.
Holm, E., Mandrak, N.E., and Burridge, M.E. 2010. ROM field guide to freshwater fishes
of Ontario. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario. 464 pp.
Lodge, D.M., Williams, S.L., MacIsaac, H., Hayes, K., Leung, B., Reichard, S., Mack,
R.N., Moyle, P.B., Smith, M., Andow, D.A., Carlton, J.T., and McMichael, A.
2006. Biological invasions: recommendations for U.S. policy and management.
Ecol. Appl. 16: 2035–2054.
Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Pérez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N.,
and Williams, J.D. 2003. The "Names of Fishes" list, including recommended
changes in fish names: Chinook salmon for chinook salmon, and Sander to replace
Stizostedion for the sauger and walleye. Fisheries 28: 38-39.
Page, L.M., and Burr, B.M. 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America
north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, MA. 663 pp.
Vander Zanden, M.J., Hansen, G.J.A., Higgins, S.N., and Kornis, M.S. 2010. A pound of
prevention, plus a pound of cure: early detection and eradication of invasive species
in the Laurentian Great Lakes. J. Great Lakes Res. 36: 199-205.
6
FIGURES
Figure 1. 2013 Asian Carp Program (including Burlington and Sault Ste. Marie crews)
early detection surveillance sites in lakes Huron and Erie on the Canadian side of the
Great Lakes.
7
Figure 2. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Grand River.
Figure 3. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Nanticoke Creek.
8
Figure 4. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Long Point Bay.
Figure 5. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Big Otter Creek.
9
Figure 6. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Kettle Creek.
Figure 7. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Rondeau Bay.
10
Figure 8. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Cedar Creek.
Figure 9. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in the Lower Detroit River
and Canard River.
11
Figure 10. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in the Upper Detroit River.
Figure 11. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Ruscom River.
12
Figure 12. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Thames River and
Jeanette’s Creek.
Figure 13. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Ausable River
(Burlington and Sault Ste. Marie crews).
13
Figure 14. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Bayfield River.
Figure 15. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Maitland River. The
Burlington crew did one seine; other sites were by sampled by Sault-Ste. Marie crews.
14
Figure 16. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Pine River.
Figure 17. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Nottawasaga River
(Burlington and Sault Ste. Marie crews).
15
Figure 18. 2013 Asian carp early detection surveillance sites in Sauble River. The
Burlington crew did one site; other sites were by sampled by Sault-Ste. Marie crews.
40
Boat Electrofishing
Fyke Net
35
Seine Net
Trammel Net
Number of Sites
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Waterbody
Figure 19. Number of sites sampled in each of the 17 waterbodies sampled by gear type
during the 2013 Asian Carp Program’s early detection surveillance program. The total
number of sites sampled in all waterbodies was 195.
16
Number of Fish Species
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Waterbody
Figure 20. Number of fish species caught in each of the 17 waterbodies sampled during
the 2013 Asian Carp Program’s early detection surveillance program. The total number
of species caught in all waterbodies was 90.
Number of Individuals
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Waterbody
Figure 21. Number of fishes caught in each of the 17 waterbodies studied during the
2013 Asian Carp Program’s early detection surveillance program. The total number of
fishes caught in all waterbodies was 15,849.
17
Trammel Net
19%
Boat
Electrofishing
23%
Seine Net
10%
Fyke Net
48%
Figure 22. Percentage of sites sampled by each gear type for the 2013 Asian Carp
Program’s early detection surveillance program. The total number of sites sampled by all
gear types was 195.
70
Number of Fish Species
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Boat Electrofishing
Fyke Net
Seine Net
Trammel Net
Gear Type
Figure 23. Number of fish species caught by each gear type used in the 2013 Asian Carp
Program’s early detection surveillance program. The total number of species caught by
all gear types combined was 90.
18
Trammel Net
4%
Seine Net
13%
Boat
Electrofishing
15%
Fyke Net
68%
Sampling effort (sedonds)
Figure 24. Percentage of fishes caught by each gear type in 2013. The total number of
fishes caught by all gear types was 15,849.
20000
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
Waterbody
Figure 25. Boat electrofisher sampling effort, in seconds, for each of the eight
waterbodies sampled in 2013. The total sampling effort with the boat electrofisher was
52,798 seconds.
19
Sampling effort (hours)
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Waterbody
Figure 26. Fyke net sampling effort, in hours, for each of the 10 waterbodies sampled in
2013. The total sampling effort with the fyke net was 1768.46 hours.
Sampling effort (number of hauls)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Big Otter
Creek
Cedar
Creek
Long Nanticoke Pine River Rondeau Ruscom
Point Bay Creek
Bay
River
Waterbody
Thames
River
Figure 27. Seine net sampling effort, in number of hauls, for each of the eight
waterbodies sampled in 2013. The total sampling effort with the seine net was 54 hauls.
20
Sampling effort (yards of nets)
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Waterbody
Number of Surrogates Caught
Figure 28. Trammel net sampling effort, in yards, for each of the 12 waterbodies
sampled in 2013. The total sampling effort with the trammel net was 7,200 yards (6,584
m).
250
226
200
150
107
100
82
52
50
0
7
15
37
27
3
17
35
1
1
2
11
4
2
Waterbody
Figure 29. Number of surrogate fishes caught in each of the 17 waterbodies in 2013.
Surrogates include all buffalo species (Ictiobus spp.) and Common Carp (Cyprinus
carpio). The total number of surrogate fishes caught was 629.
21
Boat
Electrofishing
17%
Trammel Net
50%
Fyke Net
23%
Seine Net
10%
Figure 30. Percentage of surrogate fishes caught by each gear type in the 2013 early
detection surveillance program. Surrogates include all buffalo species (Ictiobus spp.) and
Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio). The total number of surrogate fishes caught was 629.
22
TABLES
Table 1. Summary of species captured during the 2013 Asian Carp Program early
detection surveillance field season. Common and scientific names according to Holm et
al. 2010 and Nelson et al. 2003.
Common Name
Alewife
Banded Killifish
Bigmouth Buffalo*
Black Bullhead
Black Crappie
Black Redhorse
Blackchin Shiner
Blacknose Shiner
Blackside Darter
Bluegill
Bluntnose Minnow
Bowfin
Brook Silverside
Brown Bullhead
Brown Trout
buffalo species*
bullhead species
catfish species
Central Stoneroller
Channel Catfish
Chinook Salmon
Coho Salmon
Common Carp*
Common Shiner
crappie species
Creek Chub
darter species
Emerald Shiner
Fathead Minnow
Freshwater Drum
gar species
Ghost Shiner
Gizzard Shad
Golden Redhorse
Golden Shiner
Goldfish
Goldfish x Common Carp hybrid
†
Grass Carp
Scientific Name
Alosa pseudoharengus
Fundulus diaphanus
Ictiobus cyprinellus
Ameiurus melas
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Moxostoma duquesnei
Notropis heterodon
Notropis heterolepis
Percina maculate
Lepomis macrochirus
Pimephales notatus
Amia calva
Labidesthes sicculus
Ameiurus nebulosus
Salmo trutta
Ictiobus sp.
Ameiurus sp.
Ictalurus sp.
Campostoma anomalum
Ictalurus punctatus
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Cyprinus carpio
Luxilus cornutus
Pomoxis sp.
Semotilus atromaculatus
Etheostoma sp.
Notropis atherinoides
Pimephales promelas
Aplodinotus grunniens
Lepisosteus sp.
Notropis buchanani
Dorosoma cepedianum
Moxostoma erythrurum
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Carassius auratus
Carassius auratus X Cyprinus carpio
Ctenopharyngodon idella
Total # Caught
52
49
20
32
700
5
290
28
5
492
1195
60
142
239
3
170
7
11
1
107
9
2
427
10
194
1
1
548
73
93
2
750
1589
39
312
170
26
1
23
Common Name
Greater Redhorse
Green Sunfish
Green Sunfish x Bluegill
herring species
Johnny Darter
Lake Trout
Largemouth Bass
Least Darter
Logperch
Longear Sunfish**
Longnose Gar
Mimic Shiner
minnow species
morone species
Northern Hog Sucker
Northern Pike
Orangespotted Sunfish
pimephales species
Pugnose Minnow
Pugnose Shiner
Pumpkinseed
Pumpkinseed x Bluegill
Quillback
Rainbow Darter
Rainbow Trout
redhorse species
River Chub
Rock Bass
Rosyface Shiner
Round Goby
Rudd
Shorthead Redhorse
Silver Lamprey
Silver Redhorse
Smallmouth Bass
Smallmouth Buffalo*
Spotfin Shiner
Spottail Shiner
Spotted Gar
Spotted Sucker
sucker species
sunfish hybrids
Scientific Name
Moxostoma valenciennesi
Lepomis cyanellus
Lepomis cyanellus X L. macrochirus
Clupeidae
Etheostoma nigrum
Salvelinus namaycush
Micropterus salmoides
Etheostoma microperca
Percina caprodes
Lepomis megalotis
Lepisosteus osseus
Notropis volucellus
Cyprinidae
Morone sp.
Hypentelium nigricans
Esox lucius
Lepomis humilis
Pimephales sp.
Opsopoeodus emiliae
Notropis anogenus
Lepomis gibbosus
Lepomis gibbosus X L. macrochirus
Carpiodes cyprinus
Etheostoma caeruleum
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Moxostoma sp.
Nocomis micropogon
Ambloplites rupestris
Notropis rubellus
Neogobius melanostomus
Scardinius erythrophthalmus
Moxostoma macrolepidotum
Ichthyomyzon unicuspis
Moxostoma anisurum
Micropterus dolomieu
Ictiobus bubalus
Cyprinella spiloptera
Notropis hudsonius
Lepisosteus oculatus
Minytrema melanops
Catostomus sp.
Lepomis hybrid
Total # Caught
1
28
1
200
57
18
2090
13
10
2
58
178
38
24
1
20
55
12
3
7
657
3
31
48
26
10
1
156
1
602
4
38
1
25
19
2
810
193
294
6
188
2
24
Common Name
sunfish species
Tadpole Madtom
Walleye
Warmouth
White Bass
White Crappie
White Perch
White Sucker
Yellow Bullhead
Yellow Perch
Total Fishes Captured
Scientific Name
Lepomis sp.
Noturus gyrinus
Sander vitreus
Lepomis gulosus
Morone chrysops
Pomoxis annularis
Morone americana
Catostomus commersonii
Ameiurus natalis
Perca flavescens
Total # Caught
1415
32
17
12
27
59
241
18
50
190
15,849
* surrogate species for Asian carps
** Longear Sunfish has recently been renamed Northern Sunfish (Lepomis peltastes) in
Ontario (Page and Burr 2011).
†
one triploid Grass Carp was captured in the Grand River
Table 2. Summary of catch data for the 2013 Asian Carp Program.
Catch Data
Total # Fishes Caught
Total number of sites
Total number of waterbodies
195
17
Total species caught
Total fishes caught
90
15,849
Total number of surrogates caught
629
Total number of Asian carps caught
Mean fishes caught per waterbody
1
932.24
Mean fishes caught per site
Minimum fishes caught per waterbody
81.27
2
Maximum fishes caught per waterbody
5062
25
Table 3. Catch data by waterbody for the 2013 Asian Carp Program. Note that the single
triploid Grass Carp caught in the Grand River by the Asian Carp Program was outside of
routine monitoring.
Ausable River
Big Otter Creek
Canard River
Cedar Creek
Total # Fish
Species
7
25
28
48
Total #
Fishes
23
183
230
1133
Total #
Sites
3
5
8
20
Total #
Surrogates
7
15
37
226
Detroit River
Grand River
Jeanette's Creek
Kettle Creek
Long Point Bay
Maitland River
31
51
20
13
43
2
326
2622
657
88
1959
2
16
37
6
6
34
1
27
82
3
52
17
1
Nanticoke Creek
Nottawasaga River
Pine River
Rondeau Bay
Ruscom River
Sauble River
24
14
25
39
24
2
419
402
2120
5062
118
3
5
5
8
25
7
1
35
1
2
11
4
2
Thames River
Total
26
501
15,849
8
195
107
629
Waterbody
Total # Asian
Carps
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Table 4. Summary of catch data by gear type for the 2013 Asian Carp Program. Note that
the single triploid Grass Carp caught in the Grand River by the Asian Carp Program was
outside of routine monitoring.
Gear Type
Boat Electrofisher
Fyke Net
Seine Net
Trammel Net
Total
Total #
Waterbodies
8
10
8
12
Total #
Sites
Total # Fish
Species
45
93
19
38
195
58
66
53
25
Total #
Fishes
2442
10712
2118
577
15,849
Total #
Asian
Carps
Total #
Surrogates
105
146
63
315
629
0
0
0
1
1
26
Table 5. Sampling type and effort by waterbody for the 2013 Asian Carp Program.
Gear Type
Boat Electrofisher
Waterbody
Big Otter Creek
Effort
6,194
Effort Unit
seconds
Boat Electrofisher
Grand River
18,726
seconds
Boat Electrofisher
Boat Electrofisher
Kettle Creek
Long Point Bay
2,371
10,795
seconds
seconds
Boat Electrofisher
Boat Electrofisher
Nanticoke Creek
Pine River
4,237
2,031
seconds
seconds
Boat Electrofisher
Rondeau Bay
6,913
seconds
Boat Electrofisher
Fyke Net
Thames River
Canard River
1,531
136.8
seconds
hours
Fyke Net
Fyke Net
Cedar Creek
Detroit River
190.8
199.5
hours
hours
Fyke Net
Fyke Net
Grand River
Jeanette's Creek
232.13
104.5
hours
hours
Fyke Net
Long Point Bay
362.78
hours
Fyke Net
Fyke Net
Nottawasaga River
Pine River
87.2
75.75
hours
hours
Fyke Net
Fyke Net
Rondeau Bay
Ruscom River
286.5
92.5
hours
hours
Seine Net
Big Otter Creek
3
hauls
Seine Net
Seine Net
Cedar Creek
Long Point Bay
27
3
Seine Net
Seine Net
Nanticoke Creek
Pine River
3
6
hauls
hauls
hauls
Seine Net
Seine Net
Rondeau Bay
Ruscom River
6
3
hauls
hauls
Seine Net
Thames River
3
hauls
Trammel Net
Trammel Net
Ausable River
Big Otter Creek
731.5
365.8
Trammel Net
Trammel Net
Cedar Creek
Detroit River
182.9
914.4
Trammel Net
Grand River
2,194.6
Trammel Net
Trammel Net
Kettle Creek
Long Point Bay
548.6
365.8
Trammel Net
Trammel Net
Maitland River
Nanticoke Creek
182.9
365.8
Trammel Net
Trammel Net
Nottawasaga River
Sauble River
182.9
182.9
metres
metres
Trammel Net
Thames River
365.8
metres
hauls
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
metres
27
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