2015 HANDBOOK VEGETABLE CROP SOUTHEASTERN VEGETABLE EXTENSION WORKERS

2015 HANDBOOK VEGETABLE CROP SOUTHEASTERN VEGETABLE EXTENSION WORKERS

SOUTHEASTERN VEGETABLE EXTENSION WORKERS

SOUTHEASTERN U.S.

2015

VEGETABLE CROP

HANDBOOK

“Everything you need on the dashboard of your truck.”

North Carolina

Vegetable Growers Association

Handbook Senior Editor:

Auburn University, Auburn, AL

Associate Editors:

North Carolina State University

Cover Photos:

Top Left:

Freezing rain on broccoli

B. Ward, Clemson University

Top Center:

Bed preparation through green manure crop

B. Ward, Clemson University

Top Right:

Southernpeas ready for picking

K. Fontenot, Louisiana State University

Center Large:

High tunnel cucumber production

P. Rollins, Clemson University

Bottom Left:

Adult squash bug

B. Layton, Mississippi State University

This handbook was prepared and reviewed by the following authors at respective institutions:

AUbUrN UNIvErSIty

Entomology

A. Majumdar

Horticulture

J.M. Kemble* and e. Vinson, iii

Plant Pathology

e.J. Sikora

NOrtH CArOLINA StAtE

UNIvErSIty biological and Agricultural Engineering

G.t. Roberson

Center for IPM

C.B. Hicks and F.J. Louws

Entomology

G.G. Kennedy and J.F. Walgenbach

Horticultural Science

R.B. Batts, C. Cantaluppi, M. Clough,

J.M. Davis*, e.R. eure ,C.C. Gunter,

K.M. Jennings, W.R. Jester,

D.W. Monks, N.D. Sanchez,

J.R. Schultheis, A.C. thornton, and t.e. Birdsell

Plant Pathology

L.M. Quesada-ocampo

Soil Science

G.D. Hoyt

UNIvErSIty OF gEOrgIA

Entomology

A.N. Sparks

Horticulture

G.e. Boyhan* and t.W. Coolong

UNIvErSIty OF KENtUCKy

Entomology

R.t. Bessin

Horticulture

S. Saha*

CLEMSON UNIvErSIty

Entomology

P. Smith

Horticulture

R.L. Hassell*, G.A. Miller, and

B. Ward

Plant Pathology

A. Keinath

OKLAHOMA StAtE UNIvErSIty

Entomology

e. Rebek

Horticulture/Weed Science

L. Brandenberger and J. Shrefler*

Plant Pathology

J. Damicone

UNIvErSIty OF tENNESSEE biosystems Eng. & Soil Science

H. Savoy

Entomology

F.A. Hale

Horticulture

C. Sams and A.L. Wszelaki*

Plant Pathology

S.C. Bost

LOUISIANA StAtE UNIvErSIty

AgrICULtUrAL CENtEr

Entomology

A.L. Morgan

Horticulture

K. Fontenot and C. Johnson

Plant Pathology

M.L.L. ivey

Sweet Potato research Station

t. Smith

tExAS A&M SyStEM

Plant Pathology

R.D. French

vIrgINA tECH

Entomology

t.P. Kuhar

Horticulture

R.A. Arancibia

Plant Pathology

S.L. Rideout

Nutrient Management/Soils

M.S. Reiter*

MISSISSIPPI StAtE UNIvErSIty

Entomology

M.B. Layton

Horticulture

R.G. Snyder* and D. Nagel

UNIvErSIty OF FLOrIdA

Plant Pathology

N. Dufault, M. Paret, and G. Vallad

Horticulture

J. Freeman

*State Coordinators the purpose of this book is to provide the best and most up-to-date information available for commercial vegetable growers in the southeastern US: Alabama, Florida, Georgia,

Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, oklahoma, texas, tennessee, South Carolina and Virginia. these recommendations are suggested guidelines for production in the above states. Factors such as markets, weather, and location may warrant modifications and/or different practices or planting dates not specifically mentioned in this book.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States i

UPCOMINg EvENtS FOr 2015

dAtE/tIME

ALAbAMA

LOCAtION

Alabama Fruit & vegetable growers Association Annual Conference and trade Show

6 to 7 Feb Marriott Grand National, opelika, AL

CONtACt/INFO

Jackie Cooper at 334-728-4117 http://www.afvga.aces.edu

gulf Coast Fruit & vegetable Conference

21 Jan Mobile, AL James Miles at 251-574-8445 http://www.aces.edu/counties/Mobile

regional Fruit & vegetable Production Meetings & Field days

tBA (Jan-Mar) Various locations Contact a Commercial Horticulture Regional extension agent http://www.aces.edu/directory/programAgentSearch.php?program=10

FLOrIdA

2015 Ir-4 Southern region Priority Setting Meeting

18 to 19 Aug MayFair Hotel & Spa, 3000 Florida Avenue

Coconut Grove, FL 33133

gEOrgIA

Southeast regional Fruit & vegetable Conference

8 to 11 Jan Westin, Savannah Harbor, 1 Resort Drive

Savannah, GA 31421

georgia Watermelon Associate Conference

30 Jan to 1 Feb Sea Palms Resort, St Simons island, GA

georgia Organics Conference

20 to 21 Feb Athens, GA

Michelle Samuel-Foo at [email protected] or 352-392-1978 x 406

Georgia Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association, 877-994-3842 http://www.gfvga.org

http://www.georgiawatermelonassociation.org

http://georgiaorganics.org

Sunbelt Ag. Expo

20 to 22 oct Moultrie, GA

KENtUCKy

Kentucky Fruit & vegetable Conference and trade Show

5 to 6 Jan from 8AM to 5PM embassy Suites Hotel, 1801 Newton Pike

Lexington, Ky 40511 http://www.sunbeltexpo.com

John Strang at [email protected] or 856-257-5685;

Shubin Saha at [email protected] or 859-257-3374 http://www.kyvga.org

LOUISIANA

LSU AgCenter/Louisiana Fruit & vegetable growers’ Association Spring Commercial Producers Meeting

tBA (early June) Burden Museum and Gardens, 4560 essen Lane,

Baton Rouge LA 70809

Kiki Fontenot at 225-235-9968 or [email protected]

garden Fest

20 June from 8AM to 1PM Burden Museum and Gardens, 4560 essen Lane,

Baton Rouge LA 70809

Jeff Kuehny at 225-763-3990 or [email protected]

LSU AgCenter/Louisiana Fruit & vegetable growers’ Association Fall Commercial Producers Meeting

tBD (early December) Burden Museum and Gardens, 4560 essen Lane,

Baton Rouge LA 70809

Kiki Fontenot at 225-235-9968 or [email protected]

MISSISSIPPI greenhouse tomato Short Course

3 to 4 March eagle Ridge Conference Center, Raymond, MS Rick Snyder at [email protected]

http://greenhousetomatosc.com

Fall Flower & garden Fest

tBA (oct, Friday and Saturday)

9AM to 2PM (both days) truck Crops experiment Station,

2024 experiment Station Road, Crystal Springs, MS

Rick Snyder at [email protected]

Mississippi Fruit & vegetable growers Conference and trade Show in conjunction with the Mississippi Agritourism Association

tBA (Nov) tBD (location) Rick Snyder at [email protected]

http://msucares.com/fallfest

NOrtH CArOLINA

SE Fruit and vegetable Expo

tBA (December) Myrtle Beach, SC Bonnie Hollowman at 919-334-0099 http://www.ncvga.com

greenhouse vegetable growers Annual Meeting

tBA

(end of Oct/Beginning Nov)

Raleigh, NC

Winter vegetable Conference and trade Show

25 to 26 Feb Crowne Plaza Resort, Asheville, NC

Starts noon Wednesday through lunch thursday

Organic growers School

6 to 8 March (Starts Saturday morning through 5PM Sunday)

University of North Carolina - Asheville

Cathy Price at 919-334-0099 http://www.ncagr.gov/markets/assoc/ghvga ellen Sprague at 828-685-3989 or [email protected]

http://www.ncagr.gov/markets/commodit/horticul/tomatoes

Lee Warren at [email protected]

http://organicgrowersschool.org

ii 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

UPCOMINg EvENtS FOr 2015 (cont’d)

dAtE/tIME

NOrtH CArOLINA (cont’d)

LOCAtION

Northern Piedmont Specialty Crops School

6 March Person County extension Center,

304 S. Morgan St., Roxboro, NC

Mountain research Station Field day

tBA (July) Mountain Research Station,

Waynesville, NC

Asparagus twilight Meeting

6 August 980 Flem Clayton Road, Roxboro, NC

tomato and vegetable Field day

tBA (August)

Sweetpotato Field day

tBA (october)

Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station,

Mills River, NC

Cunningham Research Station, Kinston, NC

Cucurbit Field day

tBA (Sept) Central Crops Research Station, Clayton, NC

OKLAHOMA

Oklahoma-Arkansas Annual Horticulture Industries Show

16 to 17 Jan Fort Smith, AR

Oklahoma Organic Conference

27 to 28 Feb oklahoma City, oK

SOUtH CArOLINA

Watermelon and Specialty Melon Field day

9 July from 8:00AM to 2:30PM edisto Research and education Center (eReC),

64 Research Road, Blackville, SC 29817

Southeastern Fruit and vegetable Expo

2 to 3 Dec Kingston Plantation,

Myrtle Beach, SC

vegetable Field day

tBA Clemson University Coastal Research & extension Center,

Charleston, SC

Clemson University 2015 SArE trainings

tBA Various

tENNESSEE

Ut Steak and Potatoes Field day

4 Aug Plateau AgResearch and education Center,

Crossville, tN

Ut Pumpkin Field day

24 Sept (tentative) West tennessee AgResearch and education Center,

Jackson, tN

vIrgINIA virginia biological Farming Conference

30 to 31 Jan Doubletree by Hilton Hotel, Richmond, VA

Eastern Shore Ag Conference and trade Show

10 to 11 Feb eastern Shore Workforce Development Center, Melfa, VA

Hampton roads Fruit & vegetable Meeting

11 Feb Chesapeake, VA

virginia beach Strawberry Walk, School, and trade Show

tBA (last week of Feb) Advanced technology & education Center,

Virginia Beach, VA

virginia tech Eastern Shore ArEC research Field day

tBA (late July) Virginia tech eastern Shore Agricultural,

Research & extension Center, Painter, VA

richmond Area vegetable Meeting

tBA (March) Dorey Park, Henrico, VA

Northern Neck vegetable Conference

11 December Warsaw, VA

CONtACt/INFO

Carl Cantaluppi at [email protected] http://granville.ces.ncsu.edu

Kaleb Rathbone at 828-456-3943 http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/writing/Field_Days

Carl Cantaluppi at [email protected]

http://granville.ces.ncsu.edu

Jeff Chandler at 828-684-3562 http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/writing/Field_Days

Jonathan Schultheis at [email protected]

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/writing/Field_Days travis Birdsell at [email protected]

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/writing/Field_Days

Gilbert Miller at 803-284-3343 or [email protected]

http://www.clemson.edu/public/rec/edisto

Bonnie Holloman at [email protected]

http://www.ncvga.com

Richard Hassell at 843-402-5399 or [email protected]

http://www.clemson.edu/public/rec/coastal

Geoffrey Zehnder at [email protected] http://www.clemson.edu/sustainableag/ag http://plateau.tennessee.edu

http://west.tennessee.edu

http://vabf.org/conference theresa Long at 757-787-1361 ext. 14 or [email protected]

Watson Lawrence at 757-382-6348 or [email protected]

Roy Flanagan, iii at 757-385-4769 or [email protected]

Mark Reiter at 757-414-0724 ext. 16 or [email protected]

Laura Maxey at 804-752-7310 or [email protected]

Stephanie Romelczyk at 804-493-8924 or [email protected]

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States iii

vegetable Production Information Web Sites

ALAbAMA

Alabama SArE Program

http://www.southernsare.org/SARE-in-Your-State/Alabama

Alabama Cooperative Extension System

http://www.aces.edu

Commercial vegetable Information

http://www.aces.edu/dept/com_veg

AU Plant diagnostic Lab

http://www.aces.edu/dept/plantdiagnosticlab

AL IPM Newsletter

http://www.aces.edu/go/273

Certified Horticultural retailer training Program

http://www.aces.edu/anr/chr

vegetable IPM Info

http://www.aces.edu/go/87

ArKANSAS

Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service

http://www.uaex.edu

FLOrIdA

University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

gEOrgIA

University of georgia Cooperative Extension Service

http://extension.uga.edu

Ug Fruits & vegetable Info

http://extension.uga.edu/agriculture/ag-fruits-vegetables

University of georgia College of Agriculture and Environmental

Sciences Publications

http://www.caes.uga.edu/publications

KENtUCKy

University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service

http://ces.ca.uky.edu/ces

LOUISIANA

Louisiana SArE Program

http://www.lasare.agcenter.lsu.edu

LSU AgCenter research & Education

http://www.lsuagcenter.com

LSU Horticulture Pathology

http://www.lsuagcenter.com/hortpathology http://facebook.com/HortPathology

Louisiana Fruit & vegetable growers Association

http://www.facebook.com/LAFVGA

MISSISSIPPI

Mississippi State University Extension Service

http://msucares.com

MS greenhouse tomato Production FAQ

http://msucares.com/crops/comhort/greenhouse.html

MS greenhouse tomato Short Course

http://greenhousetomatosc.com

MISSISSIPPI (cont’d)

Mississippi Commercial Horticulture Information

http://msucares.com/crops/comhort

Organic Fruit and vegetable Production

http://msucares.com/crops/comhort/organic_veg_fruit.html

NOrtH CArOLINA

North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu

Information on Herbs, Organics, & Specialty Crops

http://ncherb.org

NCSU vegetable Pathology

http://go.ncsu.edu/veggiepathology

NCSU Extension Plant Pathology Portal

http://plantpathology.ces.ncsu.edu/

NCSU Plant disease and Insect Clinic

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/plantpath/extension/clinic/

NCSU Entomology Portal

http://entomology.ces.ncsu.edu/

NCSU IPM Portal

http://ipm.ces.ncsu.edu/

North Carolina Pest News

http://ipm.ncsu.edu/current_ipm/pest_news.html

Horticulture Information Leaflets

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil

NC Organic Agriculture Internet resource

http://ncorganic.org

Fresh Produce Safety

http://ncfreshproducesafety.ces.ncsu.edu/

OKLAHOMA

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service

http://www.oces.okstate.edu

OK dept. of Horticulture vegetable Fact Sheets

http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/View/Collection-228

SOUtH CArOLINA

Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service

http://www.clemson.edu/extension

Clemson Coastal research & Education Center

http://www.clemson.edu/public/rec/costal/

tENNESSEE

University of tennessee Extension

https://extension.tennessee.edu

Ut vegetable Production

http://vegetables.tennessee.edu

Ut Organic & Sustainable Crop Production

http://organics.tennessee.edu

Ut Weed Info for HortWeeds

http://hortweeds.tennessee.edu

tExAS texas Agricultural Extension Service

http://agrilifeextension.tamu.edu

vIrgINIA virginia Cooperative Extension

http://www.ext.vt.edu

iv 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

table of Contents

tAbLES FOr gENErAL PrOdUCtION rECOMMENdAtIONS . . . . . . . .1-32

1A. Vegetable Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

1. Soil test interpretations and Recommendations Based on

Soil test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

2. General Fertilizer Suggestions for Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . .6

3. Nutrient Values for Manure Applications and Crop Residues . . .10

4. Percentage equivalents and Conversion Factors for

Major, Secondary, and Micronutrient Fertilizer Sources . . . . . . . .10

5. optimum and Minimum temperatures for transplant

Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

6. Vegetable Seed Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

7. Population of Plants per Acre at Several Between-row and in-row Spacings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

8. Critical Periods of Water Need for Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . .17

9. Available Water-Holding Capacity Based on Soil texture . . . . . .17

10. Soil infiltration Rates Based on Soil texture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

11. Hours Required to Apply 1” of Water Based on Row Spacing . . .18

12. Maximum Application Rate in Minutes for Drip irrigated

Vegetable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

13. Predators and Parasites of Vegetable Pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

14. Recommended Storage Conditions and Cooling Methods for Maximum Postharvest Life of Commercially Grown

Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32

LISt OF INSECt, dISEASE, ANd

WEEd CONtrOL tAbLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v-x gENErAL PrOdUCtION rECOMMENdAtIONS . . . . . . . . . . 1

Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Crop Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Soils and Soil Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Nutrient Management and Maximizing Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

Minimum tillage for Vegetable Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Cover Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 transplant Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Grafting in Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

Disease Control in Plant Beds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

Seed Storage and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

Plant Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

irrigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

Mulches and Row Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Pollination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

How to improve Pest Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

Beneficial insects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

Diagnosing Vegetable Crop Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

Air Pollution injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

What are Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

Basic Principles of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) . . . . . . . . . .30

Postharvest Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

optimizing Commerical Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

Cooling Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

SPECIFIC COMMOdIty rECOMMENdAtIONS . . . . . . . . . . 35

Asparagus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

Basil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

Beans: Lima and Snap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

Beets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Kale, and Kohlrabi . . . . . .42

Carrots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

Cucumbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

eggplant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

Garlic and elephant Garlic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

Greens: Mustard, turnip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

Leeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

Lettuce, endive, and escarole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

Melons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60

okra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63

onions and Green onions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64

Parsley and Cilantro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66

Parsnip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68

Peas: English/Garden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

Peas: Southern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70

Peppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

Potatoes, irish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

Pumpkins and Winter Squash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77

Radishes, Rutabagas, and turnips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81

Spinach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

Summer Squash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

Sweet Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88

Sweetpotato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92

tomatoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

Watermelon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100

PESt MANAgEMENt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Soil Pests: their Detection and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

CALIbrAtINg CHEMICAL APPLICAtION EQUIPMENt . 106-111

Calibrating a Sprayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

Calibrating a Granular Applicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109

Calibrating a Broadcast Spreader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Calibration Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

rEgIStErEd FUNgICIdES, INSECtICIdES, ANd

MItICIdES FOr vEgEtAbLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 rESIStANCE MANAgEMENt ANd tHE INSECtICIdE rESIStANCE ACtION COMMIttEE (IrAC) COdES FOr

MOdES OF ACtION OF INSECtICIdES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 bE SAFE WItH PEStICIdES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113-120

General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Respiratory Protective Devices for Pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Protecting our Groundwater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 toxicity of Chemicals Used in Pest Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Conversion information for Use of Pesticides on Small Areas . . . . .120

Pesticide Dilution tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120

INSECt, dISEASE, ANd WEEd CONtrOL tAbLES . .121-275

EMErgENCy NUMbErS by StAtE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States v

Insect, disease, & Weed Control tables

ALL vEgEtAbLES

table 2-25. table 2-26.

Relative effectiveness of insecticides And Miticides for insect And Mite Control on Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Preharvest intervals (in Days) for Pyrethroid insecticides in Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163

table 2-27. table 2-28. table 2-29. table 2-30. table 3-42. table 3-44. table 3-43. table 3-45. table 3-46. table 3-47. table 3-48. table 3-49. table 3-50. table 3-51. table 3-52. table 3-53. table 3-54.

List of Generic insecticides by Active ingredient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164

Components of insecticide Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164

Alternative (Non-insecticidal) insect Pest Control Strategies in Vegetable Crops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165

insect Control for Greenhouse Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167

efficacy of Fumigants or Fumigant Combinations for Managing Soilborne Nematodes And Diseases, And Weeds . . . . . . . . . .229

Greenhouse Disease Control for tomato And other Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231

Management of Soilborne Nematodes With Non-Fumigant Nematicides (Cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229

Biorational And Biological Products for Greenhouse Disease Management (Cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232

efficacy of Products for Greenhouse Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233

Recommended temperatures And treatment times for Hot Water Disinfestation of Vegetable Seed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234

Selected Products Registered for Seed treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235

Selected Biocontrol Agents And Disinfestants Registered for Seed treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236

Sweetpotato Storage House Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237

Water, Produce And equipment Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237

Generic Fungicides For Use on Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238

Biopesticides And Fungicide Alternatives For Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240

Fungicide Modes of Action For Fungicide Resistance Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241

ASPArAgUS

table 2-1. table 3-2. table 3-3. table 4-1.

bASIL

table 3-2. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171

Alternative Management tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172

bEAN

table 2-2. table 3-4. table 3-5. table 3-6. table 4-2.

bEEt

table 2-3. table 3-31. table 4-3. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172

efficacy of Products for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174

Relative importance of Alternative Management Practices for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245

insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247

brOCCOLI, brUSSEL SPrOUt, CAbbAgE ANd CAULIFLOWEr (COLE CrOPS)

table 2-4. table 3-7. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176

table 3-8. table 3-9. table 4-7. efficacy of Products for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178

Relative importance of Alternative Management Practices for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250

CANtALOUPE (MUSKMELON)

table 2-5. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127

table 4-4. Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248

CArrOt

table 2-6. table 3-31. table 3-32. table 4-5. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213

Relative importance of Alternative Management Practices for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249

vi 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

Insect, disease, & Weed Control tables (cont’d)

CELEry

table 2-7. table 4-6. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250

COLLArd ANd MUStArd grEENS

table 2-8. table 3-18. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191

table 4-12. Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258

COrN, SWEEt

table 2-9. table 3-10. table 4-8.

CUCUrbItS

table 3-11. table 3-12. table 3-13. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180

efficacy of Products for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

Relative importance of Alternative Management Practices for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186

CUCUMbEr

table 2-10. table 4-9.

EggPLANt

table 2-11. table 3-15. table 4-10.

ENdIvE

table 3-16.

gArLIC

table 3-17. table 4-11.

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256

JErUSALEM ArtICHOKE

table 3-19. Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193

LEttUCE

table 2-12. table 3-20. table 4-13.

OKrA

table 2-13. table 3-21. table 4-14. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254

insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255

insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259

insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260

ONION

table 2-14. table 3-22. table 3-29. table 4-15.

PEA

table 2-15. table 3-26. table 4-16. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196

efficacy of Products for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260

PArSLEy Or PArSNIP

table 3-24. table 3-25.

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201

Alternative Management tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202

insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States vii

Insect, disease, & Weed Control tables (cont’d)

PEPPEr

table 2-16. table 3-35. table 3-36. table 3-37. table 4-17. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

efficacy of Products for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208

Relative effectiveness of Alternative Management Practices for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264

POtAtO, IrISH

table 2-17. table 3-30. table 4-18. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266

PUMPKIN ANd WINtEr SQUASH

table 2-18. table 4-19. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267

rAdISH

table 2-19. table 3-31. table 4-20. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262

rOOt vEgEtAbLE

table 3-31. Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213

SPINACH

table 2-20. table 3-33. table 4-21.

SQUASH

table 4-22. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264

SWEEtPOtAtO

table 2-21. table 3-34. table 3-35. table 3-36. table 4-23. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215

efficacy of Products for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218

Relative importance of Alternative Management Practices for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271

tOMAtILLO

table 3-37. Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219

tOMAtO

table 2-22. table 3-38. table 3-52. table 3-53. table 3-54. table 4-24.

tUrNIP

table 2-23. table 3-18. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220

Relative effectiveness of Alternative Management Practices for Foliar Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226

efficacy of Products for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227

Suggested Weekly Spray Schedule for Foliar Disease Control in Fresh-market tomato Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272

insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158

Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191

WAtErMELON

table 2-24. table 3-14. table 4-25. insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159

example Spray Program for Foliar Disease Control in Watermelon Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186

Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274

viii 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

general Production recommendations

vArIEtIES

New varieties and strains of particular varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. Since it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only some of the better performing commercial types are listed in the specific crop section, either alphabetically or in order of relative maturity from early to late. These varieties are believed to be suitable for commercial production under most conditions.

The ultimate value of a variety for a particular purpose is determined by the grower, the variety’s performance under his or her management, and environmental conditions. Strains of a particular variety may perform better than the standard variety under certain conditions. Several years of small trial plantings are suggested for any variety or strain not previously grown. For a true comparison, always include a standard in the same field or planting.

disease resistance or tolerance.

Any particular crop may deviate from the predicted response to a disease. This deviation may be due to different strains and races of disease-causing organisms and environmental conditions. Plant scientists have taken advantage of this natural variation to develop varieties that are resistant or tolerant. Superscripts appearing after the variety names refer to the disease resistance or tolerance and are spelled out in the “Abbreviations” section in the front of this book or following the listed recommended varieties.

Specialty vegetables.

Many producers are considering growing specialty or “gourmet” vegetables of which several are highly perishable crops.

A very limited number of pesticides are registered for many specialty vegetables and herbs. Successful pest control in these crops is dependent on sanitation, seed treatment, crop rotation, planting site, mechanical cultivation, and the use of resistant varieties when available.

Promising perishable crops include asparagus, Belgian endive, dandelion (blanched), kale, Swiss chard, tyfon, herbs, ethnic vegetables, red leaf lettuce, romaine lettuce, scallions, snap peas, and snow peas.

Less perishable types that offer promise are bok choy, Chinese cabbage, endive and escarole (blanched), garlic (pink skin), Japanese melons, leeks, pak choi, pep per, Irish potato (red, blue, yellow, and golden), red radicchio, rhu barb, sweet on ions, and sweetpotatoes (moist and dry types with unusu al color).

Miniature or baby vegetables that can be grown are beets

(harvested less mature), carrots (finger and round types), cucumbers (harvested less mature), eggplant (little fingers type), Jersey

Golden acorn squash (immature with blossom attached), baby lettuce, pickling corn, snap beans (small sieve types harvested less mature), summer squash (immature with blossom attached), and winter squash (Oriental and Little Dumpling).

Before planting a specialty crop, however, growers must de-

termine that specific retail, wholesale, restaurant, or processing markets exist.

CrOP rOtAtION

Crop rotation is an effective and widely used cultural practice to prevent or reduce the buildup of populations of soil-borne plant pathogens. An effective rotation sequence includes crops from different families that are poor or non hosts of the pathogen(s) of concern. In general, the longer the rotation, the better the results; a

3- to 5-year rotation is generally recommended. However, from a practical standpoint this will depend upon the availability of land, the markets, the selection of alternate crops suited to grow in the area, the pathogen(s), and the purpose of the rotation (prevention versus reduction). When used to reduce pathogen populations, rotations of longer than 5 years may be required (see Table 1A).

SOILS ANd SOIL FErtILIty

The best soils for growing vegetables are well-drained, fairly deep, and relatively high in organic matter. These soils should have good structure and have been adequately limed and fertilized for the past few years. Loamy sand and sandy loam soils are gen erally better suited for growing early market crops. Loam and silt loam soils are generally better suited for growing crops for later fresh-market

tAbLE 1A. vEgEtAbLE FAMILIES grass Family

Sweet corn

Popcorn

ornamental Corn

Allium Family

onion

Leek

Garlic

Shallot

Chive

goosefoot Family

Beet

Chard

Spinach

Mustard Family

Kale

Collard

Brussels Sprout

Cabbage

Cauliflower

Broccoli

Kohlrabi

Rutabaga

turnip

Mustard

Upland cress

Radish

Mallow Family

okra

bindweed Family

Sweetpotato

Pea Family

english Pea

Bean (lima, snap)

Cowpea or Southern pea

Soybean

Parsley Family

Carrot

Parsley

Celery

Cilantro

Solanaceae Family

irish Potato

eggplant

tomato

Pepper

gourd Family

Pumpkin

Squash

Watermelon

Cucumber

Muskmelon

Cantaloupe

Composite Family

Chicory

endive & escarole

Dandelion

Lettuce

Artichoke

Jerusalem artichoke

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 1

use or for processing. Deep, well-drained organic soils are ideal for leafy vegetables, bulb and root crops that offer a high return per acre.

The grower who matches the crop to the soil has the best chance of producing a successful crop. For example, if a crop that requires well-drained soil is planted on poorly drained soil, it’s doomed to failure regardless of a grower’s other efforts.

A large percentage of the vegetables grown in mineral soils of the Coastal Plain are grown in soils with essentially no structure.

At best these soils possess weak granular structures. In many areas, sand is preferred because it drains quickly so fields can be worked soon after rains or irrigation without damaging the structure of the soil.

Soil Management.

In a good soil management program, proper liming and fertilization, good tillage practices, crop rotation, annual additions of organic matter with cover crops, and adequate irrigation are all necessary to maintain high levels of production.

Winter cover crops and periodically resting the land with summer cover crops between vegetable plantings are essential in preventing deterioration of the soil struc ture. In soil management, this is vital for maintaining highly productive soils.

Nutrient Management and the Environment.

The sandy soils preferred for vegetable production in the southeastern US result in an aerated root zone and enable timely tillage, planting, and harvesting. The same drainage allows water and dissolved nutrients to move through the soil profile. Even with loams or clays, nutrients retained in surface soil may be carried with sediment or as dissolved run-off to the surface waters. Nitrates and phosphorus remain the two agricultural nutrients of greatest environmental concern. Even agronomically small losses of N & P can impact water quality, especially in eco-sensitive regions. Other issues of potential concern include K fertilizer losses and accumulation of heavy metals such as copper, zinc, etc. supplied with organic amendments.

Ongoing research has documented increased costs and reduced profits, as well as natural resource degradation and human health risks, due to over-fertilization. It is therefore critical that both nutrients and irrigation are managed to optimize vegetable production while minimizing impact on the environment. Careful nutrient management includes at least the following four issues: rate, timing, placement, and source. Land-grant university recommendations are based on calibrated crop response studies that can differ substantially across the region. Producers should consult guidelines prepared specifically for their state for the most appropriate nutrient management recommendations. A well-balanced nutrient management plan represents good stewardship and should satisfy any applicable environmental regulations.

Soil Acidity and Liming.

Many soils in the southeast are naturally acidic, or become acidic with cropping, and need liming to attain optimum production levels. Soil acidity is the term used to express the quantity of hydrogen (H

+

) and aluminum (Al

3+

) cations

(positively charged ions) in soils. Soil pH is determined by using a

1:1 soil-to-water solution. The pH of the solution is measured by a pH meter (potentiometer). Soil pH is an indicator of “soil acidity”.

Combined, the use of the soil pH and soil textural class determines the lime requirement. A pH of 7.0 is defined as neutral, with values below 7.0 being acidic and above 7.0 being basic or alkaline. Root growth and plant development may be severely restricted if acidic catwions, especially aluminum, occupy a large percentage of the negatively charged soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). This negative charge is due to the chemical makeup of the soil clay and organic matter, and means that they can attract positively charged ions. Soils become acidic due to the leaching of calcium (Ca

2+

) and magnesium (Mg

2+

), especially in sandy coastal plain soils. Acidification also occurs when H

+

is added to soils by decomposition of plant residues and organic matter, and during the nitrification of ammonium when added to soils as fertilizer (UAN solutions, urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, anhydrous ammonia), manures, or plant residues. Declines of one pH unit can occur even in properly fertilized beds. The H

+

added to soils reacts with the clay minerals (aluminum silicates) and releases Al

3+

, the most deleterious component of soil acidity. Lime is applied to neutralize soil acidity by releasing a base (HCO

3

, OH

-

) into the soil solution, which reacts with acid (H

+

). Increasing soil pH reduces the concentration of dissolved aluminum, as well as influencing the concentrations of other ions.

Lime recommendations must take into account differences in acidity among soils as well as differences among various crops’ tolerance to acidity. Both the soil pH and some measure of residual or exchangeable acidity are needed to calculate lime recommendations. Although portable soil test kits determine pH rapidly, it is not possible to make an accurate lime recommendation based solely on a pH measurement. Another issue to consider is that different soil laboratories may use different testing methods developed for their particular soil conditions. Due to these differences, producers should consult with their local Extension office about laboratory methods and target pH assumptions used in determining lime recommendations. Consult your state guidelines for a description of the current soil test method and interpretation guidelines.

If soil pH is too high for the desired crop, elemental sulfur (S) is the most effective soil acidulant. The amount of acidity generated by 640 pounds of elemental S is the same as that neutralized by 1 ton of lime. In addition to lime, soil pH can be lowered by applying aluminum sulfate or iron sulfate. Whether trying to increase or decrease the pH of your soil, always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for appropriate rates. A slight pH reduction can be produced by using ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, or urea as a fertilizer source of nitrogen.

Liming materials containing only calcium carbonate (Ca-

CO

3

), calcium hydroxide [CA(OH)

2

], or calcium oxide (CaO) are called calcitic limes. Pure calcium carbonate is used as the standard for liming materials and is assigned a rating of 100 percent.

This rating is also known as the “calcium carbonate equivalent, and is referred to as the CCE. All other liming materials are rated in relationship to pure calcium carbonate. Liming materials with significant amounts of magnesium carbonate (MgCO

3

) are called dolomitic limes. Dolomitic limes should be used on soils low in magnesium, as indicated by the soil test report. It is possible to use a magnesium fertilizer instead of dolomitic lime, but the costs of this source of magnesium are almost always considerably higher.

Because lime dissolves very slowly, it must be finely ground to effectively neutralize soil acidity. Lime laws in most states describe standards for composition and particles sizes.

2 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

The most commonly used liming materials are finely ground dolomitic or calcitic rock. Most agricultural lime is sold in bulk as a damp powder because dry lime is very dusty and difficult to handle and spread. However, lime is occasionally excessively wet.

Lime is sold by the ton, thus be aware that you may be purchasing a substantial amount of water and should adjust lime rates accordingly. Additional liming materials include burnt lime or hydrated lime, pelleted lime, liquid lime, wood ash, ground seashells, and industrial slags. Lime pellets and lime suspensions (liquid lime) can be convenient and fast-acting, but are usually considerably more expensive than ground limestones. Industrial by-product liming materials can be useful soil amendments capable of reducing soil acidity and supply a variety of nutrients including calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and micronutrients. Each lot of such materials should be analyzed as considerable variation in

CCE, fineness, and nutrient composition may occur.

Within a one to three year time-period, lime moves little in the soil and neutralizes acidity only in the zone where it is applied. To be most effective, lime must be uniformly spread and thoroughly incorporated. In practice, rates are adjusted after checking the spreader pattern and making appropriate corrections. If the application is not correct, strips of under-limed soil could result, possibly reducing crop yields. The most commonly used lime incorporation tool is the disk. It will not incorporate lime as well as offset disks that throw the soil more vigorously. The best incorporation implement is a heavy-duty rotary tiller that mixes the soil throughout the root zone.

Lime and Fertilizer.

Lime and fertilizer work together synergistically to produce high yields and better crops. Lime is not a substitute for fertilizer, and fertilizer is not a substitute for lime.

How to Use Plant Nutrient recommendation table #1 and #2.

Use Table 1 to determine the relative levels of phos phorus and potassium in the soil based on the soil test report from the laboratory.

Use Table 2 as a guide in conjunction with specific soil test results.

Plant nutrient recom mendations listed in Table 2 are expressed in terms of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P

2

O

5

), and potash (K

2

O), rather than in specific grades and amounts of fertilizer. When soil test re-

5

and K

2

O sults are not available, use recommended amounts of P

2

O listed under medium phosphorus and medium potassium soil test levels for the crop to be grown. When soil test results are available, the phosphate (P

2

O

5

) and potash (K

2

O) needs for each cropping situation can be determined by selecting the appropriate values under the relative soil test levels for phosphorus and potassium: very low, low, medium, high, or very high.

The cropping and manuring history of the field must be known before a fertilization program can be planned (see Table 3).

This history is very important in planning a nitrogen fertilization program, because a reliable soil test for nitrogen is not available.

Plant nutrient recommendations listed in Table 2 were developed for fields where no manure is being applied and where no legume crop is being turned under prior to the planting of a new crop. If manure and/or legume crops are being used, the plant nutrient recommenda tions listed in Table 2 should be reduced by the amounts of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P

2

O

5

), and potash (K

2

O) being contributed from these sources. See Table 3 for nutrient values for manure applications and legume crop residues.

Once the final fertilizer-plant nutrient needs are known, determine the grade and rate of fertilizer needed to fulfill these requirements. For ex ample, if the final plant nutrient requirements that need to be added as a commercial fertilizer are 50 pounds of nitrogen (N), 100 pounds of phosphate (P

2 potash (K

2

O

5

), and 150 pounds of

O), a fertilizer with a 1-2-3 ratio, such as 5-10-15, 6-12-

18, 7-14-21, is needed. Once the grade of fertilizer is selected, the quantity needed to fulfill the plant nutrient requirements can be deter mined by dividing the percentage of N, P

2

O

5

, or K

2

O contained in the fertilizer into the quantity of the respective plant nutrient needed per acre and multiplying the answer by 100.

For example, if a 5-10-15 fertilizer grade is chosen to supply the 50 pounds of N, 100 pounds of P

2

O

5

, and 150 pounds of

O needed, calculate the amount of 5-10-15 fertilizer needed as K

2 follows: Divide the amount of nitrogen (N) needed per acre (50 pounds) by the percentage of N in the 5-10-15 fertilizer (5 percent), and multiply the answer (10) by 100, which equals 1,000 pounds. This same system can be used for converting any plant nutrient recommendations into grades and amounts.

NUtrIENt MANAgEMENt ANd

MAxIMIzINg PrOdUCtION

Plants remove substances from the soil and air to enable them to grow and reproduce. The specific substances they remove are termed nutrients. Certain of these are generally required in larger quantities, and termed macronutrients. Those needed in smaller quantities, micronutrients, are as important as macronutrients for achieving required metabolic processes in the plant. Most commercial fertilizers include macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus

(P), and/or potassium (K), expressed as a weighted percentage (N-

P-K). Micronutrients may be supplied along with macronutrients.

tAbLE 1. SOIL tESt INtErPrEtAtIONS ANd rECOMMENdAtIONS bASEd ON SOIL tESt rESULtS

Soil test rating relative yield without Nutrient (%) recommendations

Low

Medium

High*

50–75

75–100

100

Annual application to produce maximum response and increase soil fertility.

Normal annual application to produce maximum yields.

Small applications to maintain soil level. Amount suggested may be doubled and applied in alternate years.

Very high* 100 None until level drops back into high range. This rating permits growers, without risk of loss in yields, to benefit economically from high levels added in previous years. Where no P or K is applied, soils should be resampled in 2 years. When phosphorus is extremely high, further additions may limit the availability of Fe and/or Zn.

* Some states recommend that no fertilizer P or K be added when the soil test rating is either “High” or “Very High”, in order to minimize runoff in nutrient-sensitive watersheds

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 3

Nitrogen Management.

Nitrogen is one of the most difficult nutrients to manage in vegetable production systems. Nitrogen is readily leached in sandy textured soils that dominate vegetable production regions of the Southeast US. Nitrogen can be immobilized by soil microbes, volatilized if not quickly incorporated, or lost via denitrification under water-saturated soil conditions. Nitrogen recommendations are based on years of fertilizer trials and yield potential. Nitrogen application timings, application methods, and sources are also commonly tested in state university fertilizer trials and have resulted in recommendations for splitting nitrogen fertilizer application for increased fertilizer use efficiency.

Heavy rainfall, higher than normal yields, and following nonlegume cover crops are just a few examples where nitrogen fertilizer may be immobilized or lost from the production system. When these nitrogen reduction scenarios arise, an additional application of nitrogen is warranted. Leaf tissue testing is the best option when deciding if and how much more nitrogen is needed to meet expected yields and is described below. Leaf tissue testing can help identify any “hidden hunger” that might exist in the crop. A “hid-

den hunger” develops when a crop needs more of a given nutrient but has shown no deficiency symptoms. With most nutrients on most crops, responses can be obtained even though no recognizable symptoms have appeared.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of your Fertility Program—Using

Plant Analysis/Leaf tissue testing.

Plant analysis is the chemical evaluation of essential element concentrations in plant tissue.

Essential elements include those that are required to complete the life cycle of a plant. The elements carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H) are supplied by the atmosphere and water and generally are not considered limiting. Scientists place most emphases on essential elements supplied by soil or feeding solutions. Macronutrients — nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium

(Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) — are required in greatest quantities. Micronutrients — iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc

(Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl)

— are required in very small quantities. Toxicities of micronutrients are equally important and yield limiting as deficiencies. Plant analysis is also effective in diagnosing toxicities of micronutrients.

The interpretation of plant analysis results is based on the scientific principle that healthy plants contain predictable concentrations of essential elements.

State and private soil testing laboratories can provide nitrogen concentrations as well as those of the other macro- and micronutrients of the plant materials to aid in mid-season fertilizer application decisions. A program of periodic leaf tissue sampling and analysis will help you optimize your fertility program and often can allow you to correct deficiencies before symptoms become apparent. The best indicator samples have been identified for most economically important vegetable crops. In turn this has provided the basis for developing data for which we can compare values from our analysis to those of established, recognized values. These are called Suf-

ficiency Ranges or Critical Values. For those crops such as tomatoes which receive the greatest research support, indicator samples have been identified by stage of growth. In tomato we have sufficiency ranges established for plant tissue samples taken at mid-bloom of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth flower clusters.

Critical values

have been defined as the concentration at which there is a 5–10% yield reduction. The use of critical values for practical interpretation has limited value. It is best suited to diagnose severe deficiencies and has little application in identifying hidden hunger. Symptoms are generally visibly evident when nutrient concentrations decrease below the critical value. Critical values play an important role in establishing lower limits of sufficiency ranges.

Sufficiency range

interpretation offers significant advantages over the use of critical values. First, hidden hunger in plants can be identified since the beginning of the sufficiency range is clearly above the critical value. Sufficiency ranges also have upper limits, which provide some indication of the concentration at which the element may be in excess.

Method for Collecting Leaf tissue Samples for Analysis

• Each vegetable crop has a specific corresponding plant part that is collected and used to determine foliar nutrient levels.

Often this corresponds to sampling the most recently matured or fully expanded leaves. Careful sampling ensures the effectiveness of plant analysis as a diagnostic tool. For major crops, best indicator samples have been identified by stage of growth. For young seedlings, the entire plant is sampled

2.5 cm above the soil level. For larger plants, the most recent fully expanded or mature leaf is the best indicator of nutritional status. As some crops, including corn, approach flowering and fruiting, the best indicator of nutritional status is the leaf adjacent to the uppermost fruit (ear leaf). When unfamiliar with sampling protocol for a specific crop, it is generally acceptable to select the most recent mature leaf as the best indicator of nutritional status. Detailed information for sampling most vegetable crops can be found at http:// www.ncagr.gov/agronomi/saaesd/scsb394.pdf.

• Sample from 20 to 30 plants.

• Sample across the field, from different rows, and avoid problem areas (low spots, ridges, washed out areas, etc.).

• Sample when the plants are actively growing (typically between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m.).

• Do not collect samples from water stressed plants.

• Send samples to a laboratory in a paper bag. DO NOT

SEND SAMPLES IN A PLASTIC BAG. Plastic bags will cause your samples to spoil and will impact results. Contact your local Extension office for information on how to submit leaf tissue samples to you state diagnostic labs.

Phosphorus Management.

Crops are very likely to respond to

P fertilization when the soil test indicates that P is deficient—very

low or low. A soil testing deficientmedium will sometimes respond to P fertilization and will sometimes not. Soils testing opti-

mum or exceeds crops needs are unlikely to respond to P fertilizer, but P may be applied to maintain the fertility level in the optimum range. Crops are more likely to respond to P fertilizer when growing conditions are favorable for high yields.

4 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

It is often recommended that a band of P fertilizer be placed near the seed as a starter fertilizer regardless of the P fertility level.

Banded P is especially helpful at low soil test levels. Even at P soil test levels that exceed crop needs, a small amount of banded P may benefit crop establishment. When the soil test level is deficient,

P should generally be applied as a combination of broadcast and banded methods. When the level exceeds crop needs, only a small amount of P should be applied as a band. Many soils test exceeds crop needs category for P due to previous fertilizer and manure applications. When applied in excess of crop removal, P accumulates in the soil. Phosphorus is strongly adsorbed to soil particles and very little is subject to loss via leaching. When the soil test level exceeds crop needs, growers can benefit economically by withholding P fertilizers.

Potassium Management.

Crops are very likely to respond to K fertilizer when the soil test indicates that K is deficientvery low or low. A soil testing deficient—medium in K may or may not respond to K fertilizer. Crops are more responsive to K when growing under drought stress or when growing under favorable conditions. Soils testing optimum or exceeds crop needs are unlikely to respond to K fertilizer, but K may be applied to maintain the soil fertility level in the optimum range.

In general, most of the K fertilizer should be broadcast. When the fertility level is deficient, it may be advantageous to apply a portion of the total K application as a band. There is generally no benefit to applying banded K when soil fertility levels are optimum or exceeds crop needs. Crops remove larger amounts of K than

P from the soil during a growing season. In addition, sandy soils have low reserves of K, and K is susceptible to leaching. Therefore, frequent applications of K are needed to maintain K at an optimum fertility level.

Secondary Nutrients.

Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur

(S) are included in the secondary element group. Calcium may be deficient in some soils that have not been properly limed, where excessive potash fertilizer has been used, and/or where crops are subjected to drought stress. Magnesium is the most likely of these elements to be deficient in vegetable soils. Dolomitic or highmagnesium limestones should be used when liming soils that are low in magnesium. Magnesium should be applied as a fertilizer source on low-magnesium soils where lime is not needed (Table

4). Magnesium may be applied as a foliar spray to supply magnesium to the crop in emergency situations (2 TBSP of Epsom salts per gallon of water).

Sulfur is known to be deficient in vegetable crop soils in coastal plain soils. Sulfur deficiencies may develop as more air pollution controls are installed and with the continued use of highanalysis fertilizers that are low in sulfur content.

Micronutrients.

Boron is the most widely deficient micronutrient in vegetable crop soils. Deficiencies of this element are most likely to occur in the following crops: asparagus, most bulb and root crops, cole crops, and tomatoes. Excessive amounts of boron can be toxic to plant growth. This problem can occur when snap beans

(a sensitive crop) follow sweetpotatoes (a crop where boron is applied late in the season). Do NOT exceed recommendations listed in Table 2.

Manganese deficiency often occurs in plants growing on soils that have been overlimed. In this case, broadcast 20 to 30 pounds or band 4 to 8 pounds of manganese sulfate to correct this. Do not apply lime or poultry manure to such soils until the pH has dropped below 6.5, and be careful not to overlime again.

Molybdenum deficiency of cauliflower (which causes whiptail) may develop when this crop is grown on soils more acid than pH 5.5. An application of 0.5 to 1 pound of sodium or ammonium molybdate per acre will usually correct this. Liming acid soils to a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 will usually prevent the development of molybdenum deficiencies in vegetable crops.

Deficiencies of other micronutrients in vegetable crops in the

Southeast are rare; and when present, are usually caused by overliming or other poor soil management practices. Contact Extension if a deficiency of zinc, iron, copper, or chlorine is suspected.

Sources of fertilizers for the essential plant nutrients are found in

Table 4.

Municipal biosoilds. Biosolids Should Not Be Applied to Land

on Which Crops Will Be Grown That Will Be Entering the Hu-

man Food Chain.

Municipal biosolids are the solid material removed from sewage in treatment processes. Biosolids treated by one of the digestive or similar processes to reduce pathogens is a low-analysis fertil izer suitable for application to nonfood crops under specific soil conditions. It should not be applied to sloping land, to highly leachable soils, to poorly drained soils, to soils with high water tables or near surface water, or to soils having a pH less than 6.2. Check with your local or state department of environmental management for latest regulations. The time required to wait prior to planting a food crop varies from state to state.

Foliar Fertilization.

Foliar feeding of vegetables is usually not needed. Plants usually obtain their nutrients from the soil through their roots. It is known that plants can also absorb a limited amount of some nutrients through aerial organs such as leaves. Properly managed soils are usually able to supply the essential mineral nutrients the crop will need during its development. If, for some reason, one or more soil-supplied nutrients becomes limiting or unavailable during the development of the crop, foliar nutrient applications may then be advantageous but likely only with the micronutrients.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 5

tAbLE 2. gENErAL FErtILIzEr SUggEStIONS FOr vEgEtAbLE CrOPS* (cont’d) recommended Nutrients based on Soil tests

CrOP

ASPArAgUS desirable pH

Nitrogen

(N) lb/acre

Soil Phosphorus Level

Low Med High

Soil Potassium Level very

High Low Med High very

High

P

2

O

5

lb/acre K

2

O lb/acre Nutrient timing and Method

6.5 to 7.0

100

50

50

250

250

0

150

150

0

100

100

0

0

0

0

250

150

100

225

100

125

Apply 2 lb boron (B) per acre every 3 years on most soils.

150

75

75

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast before cutting season.

Sidedress after cutting.

bEAN, Lima

...Single crop 6 to 6.5 70 to 110

25 to 50

20

25 to 40

120

80

40

0

80

40

40

0

40

20

20

0

20

0

20

0

160 120

120

40

0

80

40

0

80

60

20

0

20 total recommended.

0 Broadcast and disk-in.

20 Band-place with planter.

0 Sidedress 3 to 5 weeks after emergence.

bEAN, Snap

6 to 6.5

bEEt

6 to 6.5 50

50

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 4 to 6 weeks after planting.

brOCCOLI

6 to 6.5 125 to 175 200

50 to 100 150

50

25

50

0

100

100

0

0

50

50

0

0

0

0

0

0

200 100

150 100

50

0

0

0

Apply 2 to 3 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

brUSSEL SPrOUtS, CAbbAgE, and CAULIFLOWEr

6 to 6.5

100 to 175 200 100 50 0 200 100

50

50

0

0

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 2 to 3 weeks after planting.

Sidedress every 2 to 3 weeks after initial sidedressing.

50 0 total recommended.

50 to 75

25 to 50

200

0

100

0

50

0

0

0

200

0

100

0

50

0

0

0

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 2 to 3 weeks after planting.

25 to 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sidedress if needed, according to weather.

Apply 2 to 3 lb boron (B) per acre and molybdenum per acre as 0.5 lb sodium molybdate per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

CArrOt

75 to 100

50

25 to 50

150

150

0

100

100

0

50

50

0

0

0

0

150

150

0

100

100

0

Apply 2 to 3 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

6 to 6.5

40 to 80

20 to 40

20 to 40

80

40

40

60

40

20

40

0

40

20

0

20

80

40

40

60

40

20

50 to 80

50

25 to 30

150

150

0

100

100

0

50

50

0

0

0

0

150

150

0

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilzer.

100

100

0

50

50

0

40

0

40

0

0

0

20 total recommended.

0 Broadcast and disk-in.

20 Band-place with planter. total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress if needed.

CUCUMbEr

...Bareground

6 to 6.5

...Plasticulture

80 to160

40 to 100

20 to 30

20 to 30

120 to 150

25

95 to 125

150

125

25

0

150

125

0

100

75

25

0

100

25

0

50

25

0

50

25

25

0

25

0

0

25

0

25

0

200

175

25

0

150

150

0

150

125

25

0

100

100

0

100

75

25

0

50

50

0

25 total recommended.

0 Broadcast and disk-in.

25 Band-place with planter 7 to 14 days after planting.

0 Sidedress when vines begin to run, or apply in irrigation water.

25 total recommended.

0 Broadcast and disk-in.

25 Fertigate

Drip fertilization: See “cucumber” in specific recommendations later in this handbook.

EggPLANt

...Bareground

6 to 6.5

100 to 200 250 150 100 0 250 150 100 0 total recommended.

50 to 100

25 to 50

25 to 50

250

0

0

150

0

0

100

0

0

0

0

0

250

0

0

150

0

0

100

0

0

0

0

0

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks after planting.

Sidedress 6 to 8 weeks after planting.

...Plasticulture

145

50

95

250

250

0

150

150

0

100

100

0

0

0

0

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

240

100

140

170

100

70

100

100

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Fertigate.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Drip fertilization: See “eggplant” in specific recommendations later in this handbook.

* Nitrogen rates should be based on your local fertilizer recommendations.

6 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2. gENErAL FErtILIzEr SUggEStIONS FOr vEgEtAbLE CrOPS* (cont’d) recommended Nutrients based on Soil tests

CrOP desirable pH

Nitrogen

(N) lb/acre

Soil Phosphorus Level

Low Med High

Soil Potassium Level very

High Low Med High very

High

P

2

O

5

lb/acre K

2

O lb/acre

ENdIvE, ESCArOLE, LEAF ANd rOMAINE LEttUCE

Nutrient timing and Method

6 to 6.5

75 to 150 200 150 100 0 200 150 100 0 total recommended.

50 to 100

25 to 50

200

0

150

0

100

0

0

0

200

0

150

0

100

0

0

0

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 3 to 5 weeks after planting.

ICEbErg LEttUCE

6 to 6.5

85 to 175

60 to 80

200

200

150

150

100

100

0

0

200

200

150

150

100

100

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 3 times beginning 2 weeks after planting. 25 to 30 0

LEAFy grEENS, COLLArd, KALE, and MUStArd

6 to 6.5

75 to 80 150

0 0 0 0 0

100 50 0 150 100

50

25 to 30

150

0

100

0

50

0

0

0

150

0

100

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

0

LEEK

6 to 6.5

75 to 125 200 150 100 0 200 150

50 to 75 200 150 100 0 200 150

50

50

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress, if needed.

100

100

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks after planting, if needed. 25 to 50 0 0 0 0 0 0

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

CANtALOUPES & MIxEd MELONS

...Bareground

6 to 6.5

75 to 115

25 to 50

25

25 to 40

150

125

25

0

100

75

25

0

50

25

25

0

25

0

25

0

200

175

25

0

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

150

125

25

0

...Plasticulture

100

75

25

0

25

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 Band-place with planter.

0 Sidedress when vines start to run.

75 to 150

25

125

125

75

75

25

25

25

0

200

100

150

75

100

50

25 total recommended.

25 Broadcast and disk-in.

50 to 100 0 0 0 25 100 75 50 0 Fertigate.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Drip fertilization: See “cantaloupe” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.

OKrA

6 to 6.5

100 to 200 250 150 100

50 to 100 250 150 100

25 to 50 0 0 0

0

0

0

250 150 100

250 150 100

0 0 0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks after planting.

25 to 50 0 0 0 0 0

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

0 0 0 Sidedress 6 to 8 weeks after planting.

Note: Where plastic mulches are being used, broadcast 50 to 100 lb nitrogen (N) per acre with recommended P

2 o

5

and K

2 o and disk incorporate prior to laying mulch. Drip fertilization: See “okra” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.

ONION

...Bulb

6 to 6.5

...Green

125 to 150

50 to 75

75 to 100

200

200

0

100

100

0

50

50

0

0

0

0

200

200

0

100

100

0

50

50

0

0

0

0

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) and 20 lb sulfur (S) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

150 to 175

50 to 75

200

200

100

100

50

50

0

0

200

200

100

100

50

50

0

0

50

50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) and 20 lb sulfur (S) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress twice 4 to 5 weeks apart. total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting.

Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks before harvest.

PArSLEy

6 to 6.5

100 to 175

50 to75

25 to 50

25 to 50

200

200

0

0

150

150

0

0

100

100

0

0

0

0

0

0

200

200

0

0

150

150

0

0

100

100

0

0

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress after first cutting.

Sidedress after each additional cutting.

* Nitrogen rates should be based on your local fertilizer recommendations.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 7

tAbLE 2. gENErAL FErtILIzEr SUggEStIONS FOr vEgEtAbLE CrOPS* (cont’d) recommended Nutrients based on Soil tests

CrOP

PArSNIP desirable pH

Nitrogen

(N) lb/acre

Soil Phosphorus Level

Low Med High

Soil Potassium Level very

High Low Med High very

High

P

2

O

5

lb/acre K

2

O lb/acre Nutrient timing and Method

6 to 6.5

50 to 100

25 to 50

25 to 50

150

150

0

100

100

0

50

50

0

0

0

0

150

150

0

100

100

0

50

50

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

PEA, English

5.8 to 6.5

40 to 60 120 80 40 0 120 80 40 0 total recommended. Broadcast and disk-in before seeding.

PEA, Southern

5.8 to 6.5

16 96 48 0 0 96 48 0 0 Broadcast and disk-in.

PEPPEr

...Bareground

...Plasticulture

6 to 6.5

100 to 130

50

25 to 50

25 to 30

200

0

150

0

100

200 150 100

0 0 0

0

0

0

0

0

200

200 150 100

0 0 0

0

150

0

100

0

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress after first fruit set.

Sidedress later in season, if needed.

100 to 185 320 250

50 200 150

100

100

0

0

350

200

250

150

100

100

40 total recommended.

40 Broadcast and disk-in.

50 to 135 120 100 0 0 150 100 0 0 Fertigate.

Drip fertilization: See “pepper” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.

POtAtO, Irish

... Loams and silt loams

... Sandy loams and loamy sands

rAdISH

5.8 to 6.2

6 to 6.5

100 to 150 110

85 to 135 60

15

150

50

100

50

90

40

50

70

20

50

200 150 100

200 150 100

0 0 0

PUMPKIN and WINtEr SQUASH

6 to 6.5

...Bareground

80 to 90

40 to 50

...Plasticulture

40 to 45

80 to 150

25 to 50

55 to 100

50

150

150

0

0

150

100

100

0

150 100

150 100

0

100

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

0

50

50

50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

200

200

0 0 0

300 200 100

300 200 100

0 0 0

200

200

0

100

100

150 100

Apply 1 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

150

150

150

150

0

50

50

200 150 100

75

75

100

100

0

50

50

50

rUtAbAgA and tUrNIP

6 to 6.5 50 to 75

25 to 50

25 to 50

150

150

0

100

100

0

50

50

0

0

0

0

150

150

0

100

100

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

0

50

50

0

SPINACH

...Fall

6 to 6.5

75 to 125

50 to 75

25 to 50

200 150

200 150

0 0

100

100

0

0

0

0

200 150

200 150

0 0

100

100

0

...overwinter

80 to 120 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

50 to 80

30 to 40

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

50 total recommended.

50 Broadcast and disk-in.

0 Band-place with planter at planting.

50 total recommended.

50 Broadcast and disk-in.

0 Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting.

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

0 Sidedress when vines begin to run.

0 total recommended.

0 Disk in row.

0 Fertigation.

total recommended. Broadcast and disk-in. total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress when plants are 4 to 6 in. tall.

total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress or topdress.

total recommended for spring application to an overwintered crop.

Apply in late February.

Apply in late March.

SQUASH, Summer

6 to 6.5 100 to 130

25 to 50

150

150

100

100

50

50

0

0

150

150

100

100

50

50

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

50

25 to 30

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Sidedress when vines start to run.

Apply through irrigation system.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

Drip fertilization: See “summer squash” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.

* Nitrogen rates should be based on your local fertilizer recommendations.

8 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2. gENErAL FErtILIzEr SUggEStIONS FOr vEgEtAbLE CrOPS* (cont’d) recommended Nutrients based on Soil tests

CrOP

SWEEt COrN desirable pH

Nitrogen

(N) lb/acre

Soil Phosphorus Level

Low Med High

Soil Potassium Level very

High Low Med High very

High

P

2

O

5

lb/acre K

2

O lb/acre Nutrient timing and Method

6 to 6.5

110 to 155

40 to 60

20

50 to 75

160

120

40

0

120

100

20

0

80

60

20

0

20

0

20

0

160

120

40

0

120

100

20

0

80

60

20

0

20 total recommended.

0 Broadcast before planting.

20 Band-place with planter.

0 Sidedress when corn is 12 to 18 in. tall.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Note: on very light sandy soils, sidedress 40 lb N per acre when corn is

6 in. tall and another 40 lb N per acre when corn is 12 to 18 in. tall.

SWEEtPOtAtO

5.8 to 6.2

50 to 80

0

200

150

100

60

50

30

0

0

300

150

200

50

150

30

50 to 80 50 40 20 0 150 150 120

Add 0.5 lb of actual boron (B) per acre 40 to 80 days after transplant.

120 total recommended.

0 Broadcast and disk-in.

120 Sidedress 21 to 28 days after planting.

tOMAtO

... Bareground for

Sandy loams and loamy sands

... Bareground for

Loam and clay

...Plasticulture

6 to 6.5

6 to 6.5

80 to 90 200 150 100 0 300 200

40 to 45

40 to 45

200

0

150

0

100

0

0

0

300

0

200

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

0

100

100

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress when first fruits are set as needed.

75 to 80

50

200

200

150

150

100

100

0

0

250

250

150

150

25 to 30 0 0 0 0 0 0

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

130 to 210 200

50 200

80 to 160 0

150

150

0

100

100

0

0

0

0

420

125

295

325

125

220

100

100

0

275

125

150

0

0

0

0

0

0 total recommended.

Broadcast and plow down.

Sidedress when first fruits are set as needed.

total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Fertigate.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

Drip fertilization: See “tomato” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.

WAtErMELON

...Nonirrigated

...irrigated

6 to 6.5 75 to 90 150 100

50

25 to 40

150 100

0 0

100 to 150 150 100

50 150 100

50

50

0

50

50

0

0

0

0

0

200 150 100

200 150 100

0 0 0

200 150 100

150 150 100

0 total recommended.

0 Broadcast and disk-in.

0 topdress when vines start to run.

0 total recommended.

0 Broadcast and disk-in.

...Plasticulture

25 to 50

25 to 50

125 to 150

0

0

150

0

0

100

0

0

50

25 to 50

100

150

0

100

0

50

0

0

0

100

100

75

75

50

50

0 Disk in row.

0 Fertigation.

Note:excessive rates of N may increase the incidence of hollow heart in seedless watermelon.

Drip fertilization: See “watermelon” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.

* Nitrogen rates should be based on your local fertilizer recommendations.

0

0

0

0

0

200

0

0

150

0

0

100

0 topdress when vines start to run.

0 Topdress at first fruit set.

0 total recommended.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 9

MINIMUM tILLAgE FOr vEgEtAbLE

PrOdUCtION

The development of various types of tillage practices was an integral part of the evolution of modern farming practices. Tillage is helpful in crop production systems for purposes of weed management, incorporation of amendments such as lime and fertilizer, burial of crop residues to facilitate other field operations, disease management and the preparation of a seedbed that is conducive to crop establishment. While the use of tillage practices provides a number of benefits to crop producers, agronomists have also learned that the soil disturbance associated with tillage has some drawbacks. In a nutshell, tillage over time results in the degradation of several soil properties that are important to crop productivity.

One of these properties is organic matter content. Organic matter is important because it contributes appreciably to the water and nutrient holding capacity of soil and to the maintenance of a desirable soil structure. These soil properties, in turn, allow soil to better support the weight of equipment and workers. In warm southern climates the loss of organic matter due to tillage is even more pronounced than in cooler climates. Tilled soil is also less hospitable

tAbLE 3. NUtrIENt vALUES FOr MANUrE APPLICAtIONS ANd CrOP rESIdUES

N

P

2

O

5

K

2

O

N

P

2

O

5

K

2

O

Cattle manure

Poultry manure

Pig manure

Horse manure

5-10

1

25-50

1

5-10

1

6-12

1

7-15

1

Pounds per ton

3

20

2

3

3

10

2

6

Ladino clover sod

Crimson clover sod

Red clover sod

Birdsfoot trefoil

60

50

40

40

Pounds per ton

0

0

0

0

Liquid poultry manure

(5 - 15% solids)

50-100

2

5-10 5-10

Lespedeza

Soybeans

20 0

Alfalfa sod 0 0

tops and roots 40 0

Hairy vetch 50-100 0 0

Grain harvest residue 15 0

1

Lower values for fall - and winter - applied manure and higher values for spring - applied manure. Use these figures only if manure being used has not been analyzed.

2

75% stand = 100 - 0 - 0, 50% stand = 75 - 0 - 0, and 25% stand = 50 - 0 - 0.

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

tAbLE 4. PErCENtAgE EQUIvALENtS ANd CONvErSION FACtOrS FOr MAJOr, SECONdAry, ANd MICrONUtrIENt

FErtILIzEr SOUrCES

Fertilizer

Source Material

Nitrogen Materials

Monoammonium phosphate*

Nitrate of potash*

Nitrate of soda-potash*

Calcium nitrate*

Nitrate of soda

Diammonium phosphate*

Nitrogen solution

Ammonium sulfate*

Nitrogen solution

Nitrogen solution

Ammonium nitrate

Nitrogen solution

Urea

Anhydrous ammonia

Phosphorus Materials

Normal superphosphate* triple superphosphate*

Monoammmonium phosphate*

Diammonium phosphate*

Potassium Materials

Nitrate of soda-potash*

Sulfate of potash-magnesia*

Nitrate of potash*

Sulfate of potash*

Muriate of potash*

Plant Food

Contents,%

11 (N) and 48 (P

2

13 (N) and 44 (K

2 o

5 o)

)

15 (N) and 14 (K

2 o)

15 (N) and 19 (Ca)

16 (N)

18 (N) and 46 (P

2

20 (N) o

5

)

20.5 (N) and 23 (S)

30 (N)

32 (N)

33.5-34.0 (N)

40 (N)

45-46 (N)

82 (N)

20 (P

2 o

5

) and 11 (S)

44-46 (P

2 o

5

11 (N) and 48 (P

18 (N) and 46 (P

)

2

2 o o

5

5

)

)

13 (N) and 14 (K

2

21.8 (K

2

50 (K

2

60 (K

2 o) o) o) and 11.1 (Mg)

13 (N) and 44 (K

2 o) o) and 17 (S)

Lb of Material required to Supply

1 Lb of the Initially

List ed Plant Nutrient

9.1

7.7

7.1

4.6

2.3

2.0

5.0

4.9

3.3

3.1

6.7

6.7

6.3

5.6

3.0

2.5

2.2

1.2

5.0

2.2

2.1

2.2

1.7

Fertilizer

Source Material

Magnesium Materials

epsom salts*

Sulfate of potash-magnesia*

Kieserite*

Brucite

Sulphur Materials

Granulated sulfur

Ammonium sulfate*

Gypsum* epsom salts*

boron Materials

Fertilizer Borate Granular*

Fertilizer Borate-48

Solubor

Fertilizer Borate-68

Manganese Materials

Manganese sulfate*

Manganese sulfate*

Manganese sulfate*

Manganese oxide

Manganese oxide

zinc Materials

Zinc sulfate*

Zinc oxide

Molybdenum Materials

Sodium molybdate

Plant Food

Contents,%

10 (Mg) and 13 (S)

21.8 (K

2 o) and 11.1 (Mg)

18.1 (Mg)

39 (Mg)

90-92 (S)

23 (S) and 20.5 (N)

15-18 (S) and 19-23 (Ca)

13 (S) and 10 (Mg)

14.30 (B)

14.91 (B)

20.50 (B)

21.13 (B)

24.0 (Mn)

25.5 (Mn)

29.1 (Mn)

48.0 (Mn)

55.0 (Mn)

36 (Zn)

73 (Zn)

39.5 (Mo)

Lb of Material required to Supply

1 Lb of the Initially

List ed Plant Nutrient

9.6

9.0

5.5

2.6

1.1

4.3

6.1

7.7

7.0

6.7

4.9

4.7

4.2

3.9

3.4

2.1

1.8

2.8

1.4

2.5

Sodium molybdate

Ammonium molybdate*

46.6 (Mo)

56.5 (Mo)

2.1

1.8

* Supplies more than one essential nutrient.

10 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

to a variety of soil organisms including microbes, insects and other small animals. When present in adequate numbers these are beneficial for various reasons. When minimum tillage is used, soil structure is improved by the release of exudates of various organisms that glue soil particles together into larger, more desirable aggregates, plant roots benefit from the increased presence of pore spaces in the soil such as earthworm channels, and plant diseases may also be reduced by the increased diversity of soil microorganisms.

Adoption of minimum tillage in vegetable production is possible but requires careful planning and preparation. Making a transition to minimum tillage will affect a number of vegetable production field operations. For example, one common objective of minimum tillage is to retain crop residues on the soil surface.

These residues are beneficial for reducing soil erosion but also may interfere with the seeding of crops, particularly small-seeded vegetable crops. Similarly, cultivation, often an important measure for controlling weeds in vegetables, may require different equipment than what the farmer is able to use in conventionally tilled fields.

In general, it may be best to start with those vegetables that are grown similarly to agronomic row crops or to use crops that can be established by transplanting through crop residues. Row crop examples include sweet corn and cowpeas. Examples of vegetables that are easily transplanted include tomato, pepper, squash and watermelon. By starting with these crops there will likely be more minimum-tillage technology available, which will give the grower more flexibility as the transition is made to minimum tillage.

Growers interested in adopting minimum tillage practices should begin by learning about the practices currently employed by agronomic crop producers and others who grow vegetables using reduced tillage. One such practice is to limit tillage and seedbed preparation to a narrow strip where the crop will be planted. This may be done in combination with the use of cover crops that are killed by rolling and crimping prior to tilling the strip. This method has been used successfully for vegetables such as tomatoes and cucurbits.

Additional resources

Reduced Tillage Fact Sheet #1: Zone Tillage. (2007) By

J. Idowu, A. Rangarajan, H. van Es and B. Schindelbeck. http:// www.vegetables.cornell.edu/reducedtillage/ZTFactSheet_1.pdf

Minimum Tillage Vegetable Production in California. (2004) By J.

Mitchell, L. Jackson and G. Miyao. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/ pdf/8132.pdf

No-till Cropping Systems in Oklahoma. (2007) J. Malone, Editor. http://notill.okstate.edu/publications/notillcroppingsystemsoklahoma/index.htm

Reduced Tillage and Cover Cropping Systems for Organic Vegeta-

ble Production. (2007) M. Schonbeck and R. Morris. http://vabf.

files.wordpress.com/2012/03/reducedtillage_sm.pdf

COvEr CrOPS

Many soils that are not productive due to poor physical properties can be restored and made more productive through the continued use of cover crops. Using cover crops can reduce or limit the buildup of many soilborne disease and insect pests that damage vegetable crops.

With intensive cropping, working the soil when it is too wet and excessive traffic from using heavy-tillage equipment all will contribute to severely damaging soils. These practices cause soils to become hard and compact, resulting in poor seed germination, loss of transplants, and shallow root formation of surviving plants.

Such soils can easily form crusts becoming compact, making them difficult to irrigate properly. Combined, all of these practices will yield negative consequences for your soil; poor plant stands, poor crop growth, low yields, and loss of income. In some cases, subsoiling in the row might help improve aeration and drainage but its effect is limited and short term. Continued and dedicated use of cover crops will aid in preventing these conditions.

Cover crops can also be planted in strips for wind protection during the early part of the next growing season. Annual rye seeded before November can be a good choice for use in wind protection. Cover crops reduce nutrient loss during the winter and early spring. When using a cover crop, covers crops should be disked or plowed before they seriously deplete soil moisture.

Seeding dates suggested in the following section are for the central part of the Southeastern United States and will vary with elevation and northern or southern locations. For state specific recommendations for planting dates for cover crops, consult your local Extension office.

Summer Cover Crops

Summer cover crops can be useful in controlling weeds, soil borne diseases, and nematodes. They also provide organic matter and can improve soil tilth while reducing soil erosion. There are many potential summer cover crops available but you will need to find one that will work well in your area and into your overall production scheme. Sudex (sorghum-sudan grass cross) (do not allow to exceed 3 ft. before mowing), southern peas (cowpeas), millet, and

Lab Lab are summer cover crops that provide organic matter, control erosion and will enhance the natural biota of your soil.

Summer cover crops, such as sudangrass or sudex, seeded at

20 to 40 pounds per acre are good green manure crops. Sunhemp and pearl millet also provide a good green manure; can be planted as early as field corn is planted and as late as 15 August. These crops should be clipped, mowed, or disked to prevent seed development that could lead to weed problems. Summer cover crops can be disked and planted to wheat or rye in September or allowed to winter-kill and tilled-in the following spring.

Soil test to determine lime and fertilizer needs. For state specific recommendations for planting dates, seeding dates and management for cover crops, consult your local Extension office.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 11

T

ypes of

s

ummer

C

over

C

rops

: Small grains

SEEdINg rAtES ANd dEPtHS

SORGHUM-SUDANGRASS: broadcast 50 to 60 lbs/A; drill 45 to 50 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ - 1½ in.)

SUDANGRASS: broadcast 40 to 50 lbs/A; drill 35 to 40 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ - 1 in.)

JAPANESE MILLET: broadcast 25 to 35 lbs/A; drill 20 to 25 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ - 1 in.)

GERMAN FOxTAIL MILLET: broadcast 30 to 40 lbs/A; drill 25 to 30 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½-1 in.)

PEARL MILLET: broadcast 10-25 lbs/acre; drill 5 to 15 lbs/acre (seeding depth: ½ - 1 in.)

BUCKWHEAT: broadcast 50 to 100 lbs/A; drill 30 to 90 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ in.)

T

ypes of

s

ummer

C

over

C

rops

: Legumes

SEEdINg rAtES ANd dEPtHS

COWPEAS: broadcast 70 to 120 lbs/A; drill 40 to 50 lbs/A (seeding depth: 1- 1½ in.)

SESBANIA: broadcast 25 to 40 lbs/A; drill 20 to 25 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ - 1 in.)

SOyBEAN: broadcast 80 to 100 lbs/A; drill 60 to 80 lbs/A (seeding depth: 1- 1½ in.)

SUNNHEMP: broadcast 30 to 40 lbs/A; drill 25 to 35 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ - 1 in.)

VELVETBEAN: broadcast 30 to 40 lbs/A; drill 25 to 35 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ - 1½ in.)

LAB LAB: broadcast 50 to 60 lbs/A; drill 40 to 45 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ - 1½ in.)

For further information on summer cove crops, refer to “Summer

Cover Crops” by N. Creamer and K. Baldwin at http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-37.html

Winter Cover Crops

Choosing a grass cover crop is a little easier than choosing a legume. Rye, triticale, barley, wheat, oats, and ryegrass can be planted in the fall; expect to harvest or plow under anywhere from

1/2 ton to 4 tons of dry matter per acre. Soil test to determine lime and fertilizer needs.

T

ypes

o

f

W

inTer

C

over

C

rops

: Small grains

ryE:

Rye is probably used more as a winter cover than any other grain. Rye can be sown from late September through mid-November. Most ryes will grow well in the fall (even late fall) and in late winter/early spring. This makes rye a top choice for farmers who have late-season vegetable crops with little time left before winter to sow a cover. Spring growth provides excellent biomass to turn under for use in early potatoes, Cole crops, etc. Rye also provides a forage source for grazing animals and a straw source if harvested before mature seeds are formed or after rye seed harvest (typical seeding rate: 60-120 lbs/A).

bArLEy:

Barley provides an excellent source of biomass in the spring. It grows shorter than rye, will tiller, and potentially produces as much straw/forage/plow-down as rye. Barley takes longer to catch up with equivalent rye biomass in the spring, and the possibility of winter kill will be greater with barley. Late fall planting of barley will often result in winter kill. Plant in September or early

October for greatest survival (typical seeding rate: 80-120 lbs/A broadcast; 60-110 lbs/A drilled).

WHEAt:

Using wheat as a cover crop works well and provides the additional option of a grain harvest. Wheat can be seeded late

September through mid-November. Wheat needs to be planted in

September or October and probably produces biomass similar to barley but will be a week or two later. It can be grazed before turning under or harvested for grain and the straw removed. Problems may occur if the Hessian fly is abundant, so choose another small grain in areas where Hessian fly is present. (typical seeding rate:

60-120 lbs/A)

OAtS:

Oats can be managed to provide many options for the cover crop and good late spring biomass. Seeding spring oats during

September or October provides a good cover crop that will winterkill in the colder areas but may overwinter in warmer areas. It can be grazed, made into excellent hay, or the grain harvested and oat straw produced. Planting spring oats in the early fall can provide good winter-killed mulch that could benefit perennial vegetables or small fruits. Spring oats have survived through some milder winters; thus, herbicides may be necessary to kill spring oats in perennial plantings (typical seeding rate: 80-120 lbs/A).

ryEgrASS:

This grass has great potential use as a green manure and as a forage/hay material, but ryegrass can potentially become a difficult pest in some farm operations. In the mountain region, ryegrass grows rather slowly in the fall and provides only moderate winter erosion protection, but in late spring it produces an abundant supply of biomass.

Grazing and spring hay from ryegrass can be excellent, and a fine, extensive root system makes it a great source for plow-down.

(typical seeding rate: 5-10 lbs/A drilled; 15-30 lbs/A broadcast)

trItICALE:

Triticale is a small grain resulting from a cross between wheat and rye. Triticale has similar characteristics to wheat, while the plant has the overall vigor and winter-hardiness of rye.

Fall planting of triticale should follow similar recommendations as wheat, sowing 60 to 120 lbs/acre. Triticale biomass can exceed wheat, thus plowing under or killing for no-till culture should occur at an earlier time in the spring.

NOtES on SMALL grAINS:

Determine small grain fertilizer and lime needs based on soil test results. Successful stand establishment generally can be obtained with planting dates later than those of legumes, even as late as early December in coastal plain regions. This permits establishment of the cover crop after a late-fallharvested crops such as sweetpotatoes. Remember, that some soil erosion protection may be sacrificed with late seeding dates. For sandier coastal plain soils, rye is the preferred small grain cover crop. As previously discussed, seeding depth varies from ½ to 1½ inches, depending on soil texture. Planting methods are the same as described for legumes.

types Of Winter Cover Crops: Legumes

A wide range in planting dates exists for most legumes, though best results are obtained with early plantings. Early seeding dates are easy to meet with legume cover crops following spring vegetables.

12 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

Because Cahaba White Vetch possesses little winter hardiness, it is not adapted to western NC and the northern regions of other southeastern states. Freeze damage has also occurred with Austrian Winter Pea in higher elevations (above 2,500 feet). Avoid planting late otherwise you increase the risk of winter kill. For state specific recommendations for planting dates, seeding dates and management for legume cover crops, consult your local Extension office.

SEEdINg rAtES ANd dEPtHS

CRIMSON CLOVER: broadcast 20 to 25 lbs/A; drill 15 to 20 lbs/A (seeding depth: ¼ - ½ in.)

HAIRy VETCH: broadcast 20 to 30 lbs/A; drill 15 to 20 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ - 1½ in.)

CAHABA WHITE VETCH: broadcast 20 to 30 lbs/A; drill 15 to 20 lbs/A (seeding depth: ½ - 1½ in.)

AUSTRIAN WINTER PEA: broadcast 25 to 35 lbs/A; drill 20 to 25 lbs/A (seeding depth: ¾ - 1½ in.)

When seeding, use shallow planting depths for finer-textured, clayey soils and deeper depths for coarse-textured, sandy soils.

Drilling into a conventional seedbed is the most reliable way to obtain a uniform stand. A no-till grain drill can be used successfully; however, provided residue from the previous crop is not excessive and soil moisture is sufficient to allow the drill to penetrate to the desired planting depth. Seeds can be broadcast if the soil has been disked and partially smoothed. Cultipacking after broadcasting will encourage good soil/seed contact. Crimson clover, in particular, responds favorably to cultipacking.

MIxINg grASS ANd LEgUMES:

Planting a single grass or legume may be necessary, but combining a grass and legume together may prove better than either one alone. Grasses provide soil protection during the winter and also produce great forage or plowdown organic matter. Legumes do not grow well during the winter, but late spring growth is abundant and produces high protein forage and nitrogen for the following crop. Crimson clover is a legume to grow in companion with a grass. Crimson clover’s height matches well with barley, wheat, and oats, but may be shaded and outcompeted by rye. Hairy vetch has been sown with grass cover crops for many years, using the grass/vetch combination as a hay or plowdown.

bIOFUMIgAtION ANd COvEr CrOPS:

Biofumigation is the horticultural practice of using naturally produced volatile chemicals or allelochemicals to suppress soil-borne pathogens, pest, and weeds. These allelochemicals (specifically isothiocyanates produced when glucosinolates break down) are produced when crops in the Brassica family decompose in the soil.

Brassica crops have been used extensively as winter cover crops and as “break crops” where the residues are tilled into the soil for their biofumigation effect. They have also been used in rotations, where the Brassica crop is harvested for sale and then the remaining residue is tilled-in for the biofumigation effect. There are several commercially available cover crops that have been used for biofumigation. “Caliente 119” (a mixture of oilseed radish and mustard), oilseed radish, “Caliente Mustard 99”, “Florida Broadleaf mustard”, garden cress, penny cress, “Dwarf Essex” rape, and several Canola varieties have been reported to have biofumigation potential.

In much of the Southeast region of the U.S., these crops can be seeded in fall and over-wintered, or direct seeded in early spring. In either case, the crop should be chopped and tilled-in when it is in the early flowering stage in order to achieve the maximum biofumigation potential. The early flowering stage is the point at which the allelochemical concentrations are their highest. Seeding rates range from 4 to 20 lbs/A and will vary with location and seed size (generally, the smaller the seed size, the lower the rate).

These crops respond and produce more biomass and more biofumigation potential when provided 30 to 90 lbs/A N fertilizer at planting. These crops grow rapidly and can normally be plowed down in 6 to 10 weeks. In areas where the average last spring frost is 1 May or later, only spring planting is recommended. Optimal results occur when the Brassica cover crop is chopped, and tilled completely into the top 6 to 8 inches of soil and then watered in thoroughly. Watering in will help trap the volatile compounds into the soil. Brassica seed meals (specifically Mustard seed meal) may also be utilized for biofumigation. Mustard seed meal is highly concentrated in volatiles and also provides a partial source of organic fertilizer for the following crop. Mustard seed meal can be used as a biofumigant by spreading it like a fertilizer, tilling into the soil, and then watering in in order to trap the volatiles.

PLOWdOWN:

Plowing early defeats the purpose of growing cover crops as little biomass will have been produced by the cover crop.

In the case of legume cover crops, they require sufficient time to develop biomass which an early plowdown would prevent. If you need to plow early, use a grass cover crop (rye) that produces good fall growth and will provide maximum biomass for incorporation.

Allow 3-6 weeks between plowdown and planting.

trANSPLANt PrOdUCtION

These recommendations apply to plants grown under controlled conditions IN GREENHOUSES OR HOTBEDS. (Field-grown plants are covered under the specific crop.) A transplant is affected by factors such as temperature, fertilization, water, and spac ing. A good transplant is one that has been grown under the best possible condi tions.

Table 5 presents optimum and minimum temperatures for seed germination and plant growth, time and spacing (area) requirements, and number of plants per square foot for a number of economically important vegetable crops in the southeastern US.

Commercial Plant-growing Mixes.

A number of commercial media formulations are available for growing transplants. Most of these mixes will produce high-quality transplants when used with good management practices. However, these mixes can vary greatly in composition, particle size, pH, aeration, nutrient content, and waterholding capacity. Avoid formulations having fine particles, as these may hold excessive water and have poor aeration. Have mix formulations tested by your state’s soil test laboratory to determine the pH and the level of nutrients the mix contains.

treatment of Flats.

Flats used in the production of trans plants should be new or as clean as new to avoid damping-off and other

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 13

disease problems. If flats are to be reused, they should be thoroughly cleaned after use and completely submerged in a household bleach solution for at least 5 minutes. Use 5 gallons of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (such as Chlorox) for each 100 gallons of solution required. Permit flats to dry completely prior to use. Never treat flats with creosote or pentachloro phenol.

Plant Containers:

There are a wide variety of containers available for starting seeds for transplants. Most growers start seeds either in flats or in cell packs.

The main advantage of using flats is that more plants can fit into the same space if plants are in flats. However, if you start seeds in flats, you will need to transplant to larger cell packs or to individual pots as the seedlings get bigger.

Seeding directly into cell packs saves time, because transplanting into a larger container later is not necessary. Cell packs come in many different cell sizes; the overall tray size is standardized. For tomatoes and peppers, 72-cell packs work well. For larger-seeded vegetables; such as cucumbers, squash, and watermelons, 48-cell packs work better.

Each vegetable crop has specific cell sizes for containerized transplant production and requires a certain number of weeks before they are ready for transplanting (Table 5). For example: broccoli,

Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, and collards require a 0.8 to

1.0 inch cell and 5 to 7 weeks to reach an adequate size for transplanting; cantaloupe and watermelons require a 1.0 inch cell and 3 to 4 weeks; eggplant and tomato require a 1.0 inch cell and 5 to 7 weeks; pepper requires a 0.5 to 0.8 inch cell and 5 to 7 weeks. Other options are available depending on the crop and your situation.

Seed germination.

Seed that is sown in flats to be “pricked out” at a later date should be germinated in ver miculite (horticultural grade, coarse sand size) or a plug growing mix. However, it is recommended that no fertilizer be included in the mix or the vermicu lite and avoid fertilizing the seedlings until the seed leaves

(cotyledons) are fully expanded and the true leaves are begin ning to unfold. Fertilization should be in the liquid form and at one-half the rate for any of the ratios listed in the following section on “Liq-

Broccoli

Cabbage

Cantaloupe 1

Cauliflower

Cucumber eggplants endive & escarole

Lettuce onions

Peppers

Summer squash

Sweetpotato tomatoes

Watermelon, seeded

Watermelon, seedless

1 Cantaloupe and other melons

70-75

60-65

65-70

70-75

70-75

75-85

65-75

85-90

85-90

°F

Opt. day

65-70

65

70-75

65-70

70-75

70-85

°F

Min. Night

60

60

65

60

65

65

70

40

60

60

65 ambient

60

80

85

5-7

5-6

8-12

5-8

2-3

4-5

5-6

3-5

3-6

Weeks to grow

5-7

5-7

3-5

5-8

2-3

5-8 uid Feeding.” Seedlings can be held for a limited time if fertilization is withheld until 3 to 4 days before “pricking out.” Seed that is sown in pots or other containers and will not be “pricked out” later can be germinated in a mix that contains fertilizer.

To get earlier, more uniform emergence, germinate and grow seedlings on benches or in a floor-heated greenhouse. Germination can be aided by using germination mats which provide heat directly to the trays. With supplemental heating such as this, seedling emergence and uniformity can be enhanced decreasing the amount of time required to produce a transplant. If floor heating or benches is not available, seed the trays, water, and stack them off the floor during germination. Be sure to unstack trays before seedlings emerge.

Heating and venting.

Exhaust from heaters must be vented to the outside. It is also recommended to have an outside fresh air intake for the heaters. Be sure vents and fans are properly designed and positioned to avoid drawing exhaust gases into the greenhouse. Exhaust gases from oil and improperly adjusted gas heating systems can cause yellowing, stunting, and death of seedlings. Do not grow or hold seedlings in an area where pesticides are stored.

Liquid Feeding.

The following materials dissolved in 5 gallons of water and used over an area of 20 square feet are recom mended for use on the transplants if needed:

20-20-20 1.2-1.6 oz/5 gal water

15-15-15 2 oz/5 gal water

15-30-15 2 oz/5 gal water

Rinse leaves after liquid feeding. Fertilizers used for liquid feeding must be 100% water soluble.

When transplanting to the field, use a “starter fertilizer” being sure to follow the manufacture’s recommendations.

Watering.

Keep these mixes moist but not continu al ly wet. Water less in cloudy weather. Watering in the morning allows plant surfaces to dry before night and reduces the possibility of disease development.

Hardening and transplant Height Control.

Proper hardening of transplants, stiffens stems, and hardens the transplants increasing their survival.

There are several methods – chemical and cultural – used to harden transplants and the choice of which to use is often crop-dependent. At this time there is one chemical plant growth regulator available for use in producing vegetable transplants but its use is limited to several Solanaceous crops.

transplant Height Control.

The goal of a transplant producer should be to produce a strong transplant with sturdy growth that can withstand transplanting into the field. Tall, spindly, or overgrown transplants can be difficult to remove from the transplant tray and might become entangled in the transplanting equipment.

There are a few methods available that can aid the producer to control the top growth of developing transplants. One method is to use cold water for irrigation, 33-34°F, which has been shown in some species to control top growth.

Another method is to control the difference between day and night temperatures (DIF). Raising the temperature just before day-

14 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

break (2 hours) or lowering the temperature just after daybreak (2 hours) by 10 F can result in shorter plants. Brushing the plants, or setting up fans so that the plants are moved (brushed by air) is another method. This results in a mechanical stress of the plant stem and can result in shorter plants overall. The intensity and frequency of brushing will have to be adjusted to avoid damage to developing foliage while still achieving height control. In some crops, chemical growth regulators may be labeled for use. Care should be taken with the use of these products, as they are often used in very low rates. Low rates should be used until familiarity with these products is gained by the producer. Always follow the label directions when using any of these growth regulating products. These products will control height but can cause growth stunting once they get to the field.

Chemical Hardening.

Recently, a supplemental label for

Sumagic™ (uniconazole) has been released allowing foliar sprays on the following vegetable transplants: tomato, pepper, ornamental pepper, eggplant, tomatillo, ground cherry, and pepino. But the new label is rather restrictive; the maximum total allowed application is

10 ppm at 2 quarts per 1,000 square feet. This means only one 10ppm spray, two 5-ppm, or four 2.5-ppm sprays are allowed, and so on. The final spray must be made no later than two weeks after the two- to four-leaf stage, about four to six weeks after sowing.

For production of retail tomato transplants in six-packs to

4-inch pots, we recommend an initial uniconazole spray at 1 to 2.5 ppm two weeks after sowing. If additional height control is needed, up to three additional applications of 1 to 2.5 ppm can be made at seven-day intervals. Until we know more about the post-harvest effects and the range of sensitivity each cultivar demonstrates, we recommend growers avoid the use of higher rates in excess of 5 ppm. Uniconazole is a highly active PGR (plant growth regulator), it is critical to emphasize that caution is paramount while implementing uniconazole for vegetable transplant height control.

Cultural Methods for Hardening.

Cultural methods used to harden transplants employ reducing water and altering the ambient temperatures. Combinations of these two methods are often used. By reducing the amount of water used and lowering ambient temperatures, one can cause a “check” in plant growth (a “slow down”) to prepare plants for field setting. Never reduce or limit fertilizer as a means to harden transplants because it will often delay maturity. If ambient temperatures are too low, chilling injury can result causing plant damage and delayed re-growth after transplanting. Caution: Lowering air temperature on some crops, such as cool season crops, might induce bolting.

dIF.

Plant height can be held in check and hardening can be improved by using a process that reduces or increases ambient temperatures in the early morning over the course of several days.

Plants elongate most at daybreak. Raising the temperature before daybreak (2 hours before) or lowering the temperature just after daybreak (2 hours after) by 10°F will cause plants to be shorter and more hardened. This process is called DIF, because you are employing a difference in temperature. DIF can be positive or negative, but positive DIF is more commonly used for hardening transplants. Negative DIF can cause crop injury on cold sensitive crops or bolting on cool season crops.

grAFtINg IN vEgEtAbLE CrOPS

The phase-out of methyl bromide fumigation is driving the search for alternative methods to manage soilborne pathogens in vegetable crops. Although alternative pesticides and other physical treatments are being tested and developed, grafting with resistant rootstocks offers one of the best methods to avoid soilborne disease.

Grafting involves combining a desirable scion which is the fruit bearing portion of a grafted plant with a rootstock which provides resistance to various soilborne pathogens. The scion is generally from a plant that produces highly desirable fruit. As well as managing soilborne diseases, grafting can influence vegetative growth and flowering; affect fruit ripening and fruit quality; enhance abiotic stress resistance; and enhance yield especially under low-temperature conditions.

At present, most research is being conducted on grafting tomato and watermelon. The primary motive for grafting tomato and watermelon (and other cucurbits) is to manage soilborne pests and pathogens when genetic or chemical approaches for management of these diseases are not available. Grafting a susceptible scion onto a resistant rootstock can provide a resistant cultivar without the need to breed a resistant cultivar. Furthermore, grafting allows a rapid response to new pathogens races, and, in the short-term, provides a less expensive and more flexible solution for controlling soilborne diseases than by breeding new, resistant cultivars.

Grafted transplants are more expensive than non-grafted transplants due to labor, material costs (grafting supplies, seed costs of rootstock and scion), and specialized facilities required to produce grafted plants. These specialized facilities include healing chambers and trained personnel both to produce the grafted transplants and to care for them. Potential changes in fruit quality, which occur with some rootstocks, must also be considered. Some commercial transplant producers offer grafting services and with improved grafting techniques and mechanization, costs will being to decrease.

Due to the status of current research, new developments in grafting can be found at http://www.graftingvegetables.org. This site consists of the latest findings on grafting Solanaecous (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, etc.) and Cucurbit (watermelons, melons, etc.) crops. you will find detailed tables listing researched root stocks and their specific attributes.

Cucurbit grafting.

Cucurbit grafting inFrom its research beginning in the 1920’s, Cucurbit grafting in Asia has now become the predominantly practiced growing method; currently 95% of watermelons and Oriental melons are grafted in Japan, Korea and

Taiwan. Grafting has only recently been considered as a practice for Cucurbits in the United States due to transplant costs. Currently those costs are as much as $1.30 per transplant. This is nearly five times the cost of a standard transplant. Grafting presents an option, however, for soilborne pathogen management for diseases such as

Fusarium wilt, Monosporascus Vine Decline, Phytophthora blight, and other soilborne diseases.

Additionally, grafting can enhance tolerance to abiotic stress; increase water and nutrient use efficiency; extend harvest periods; and improve fruit yield and quality in certain Cucurbits. There is a wide array of potential rootstocks: Lagenaria spp. (Bottled Gourd), interspecific squash hybrids, wild watermelon or melon. These rootstocks can produce vigorous plants with resistance to many

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 15

soilborne diseases. Each rootstock type provides advantages under certain environmental conditions.

grafting Methods for Cucurbits.

There are four commonly used methods in production to date: Tongue Approach Graft, Hole

Insertion Graft, One Cotyledon Graft, and Side Graft. Each of these methods are described in detail in the following publica-

tion: R. Hassell, F. Memmott, and D Liere (2008) Grafting meth-

ods for watermelon production in HortScience 43(6):1677-1679.

Only one of these methods is automated (one cotyledon graft method). The other three methods are labor intensive. Remember that grafting is an art that requires attention to detail. The major concern with Cucurbit grafting is the constant threat of regrowth of the rootstock which needs to be removed by hand. Current research by

Hassell and Daley at Clemson University has eliminated any chance of regrowth by destroying the growing point of the rootstock. You can read about this method by acquiring the following publication:

1. Daley, S.L., J. Adelberg, and R. L. Hassell. 2014. Improvement of grafted watermelon transplant survival as a result of size and starch increased over time caused by rootstock fatty alcohol treatment: part 1. HortTechnology 24(3):343-349.

2. Daley, S.L., W. P. Wechter, and R. L. Hassell. 2014. Improvement of grafted transplant survival as a result of size and starch increase over time caused by rootstock fatty alcohol treatment: part ll. HortTechnology 24(3): 350-354.

3. Daley, S.L. and R. L. Hassell. 2014. Fatty alcohol application to control meristematic regrowth in bottle gourd and interspecific hybrid squash rootstocks used for grafting watermelon.

HortScience 49(3):206-264.

Additional information can be found at http://www.graftingvegetables.org

grafting Methods for tomatoes.

There are three primary techniques used for grafting tomatoes, Tongue Approach Grafting,

Cleft Grafting, and Tube (or Clip) Grafting. Cleft grafting and tube grafting are similar in that the shoot of the fruit producing scion is completely cut off from its own roots and attached to the severed stem of the rootstock. The name ‘Tube Grafting’ originated because when the technique was first developed; a tube was used to attach the shot to the root. Clips are now used to make this graft. Tube grafting is quicker and less complicated to do than cleft grafting because it only requires a single, straight cut on both the rootstock and the scion. Also, because fewer intricate cuts are involved, this technique can be used on very small seedlings. Grafting can be performed at various stages of seedling growth. Grafting at the 2-3 true leaf stage is common. With both cleft and tube grafting, the newly grafted plants must be protected from drying out until the graft union is healed. This usually involves covering the plants with a plastic cover or protecting them in some type of healing chamber where temperature and humidity can be regulated. Some method should be employed to reduce light intensity to the grafted plants for several days after the procedure. It is critical to increase the humidity in the chamber to near 100% for the first two days. Humidity must then be reduced incrementally over the next five days to prohibit the formation of adventitious roots from the scion and to properly heal the graft. Tomato grafts heal quickly and the seedlings can be to be acclimated back into the greenhouse after 4-5 days.

With both cleft and tube grafting, it is important that the diameter of the cut ends (of the scion and the rootstock) match up perfectly. If the diameter does not match, the graft may not heal properly, if at all. Rootstock cultivars tend to have different growth habits than scion cultivars so it is important to grow a small amount of rootstock and scion seed at first to determine their growth rate relative to each other. Rootstock cultivars tend to be more vigorous than scion cultivars. Another critical factor is to cut rootstock seedlings below the cotyledons. If the cotyledons are left they will generate suckers that will compete with the scion requiring pruning.

For step by step instructions, go to http://graftvegetables.org/.

dISEASE CONtrOL IN PLANt bEdS

For the best control of all soil-borne diseases, use a good commercial plant-growing mix. If this is not possible, use one of the following procedures:

Preplant.

The only practice that ensures complete sterilization of soil is the use of steam. When steam is used, a temperature of

180°F must be maintained throughout the entire mass of soil for 30 minutes.

A list of recommended procedures to sanitize a greenhouse or soil is listed at in the top of Table 3-44. Further information on sanitizing equipment, storage houses, produce and water can be found in Table 3-51.

Seed treatment.

Seed treatment is important to control seed-borne diseases. Use of untreated seed could lead to diseases in the plant bed which could reduce plant stands or result in diseased transplants and potential crop failure. See section on SEED TREAT-

MENTS beginning on page 234 and Tables 3-47, 3-48, and 3-49 for detailed information on how to properly treat seeds and for materials labeled for use as seed treatments.

Postplant.

Damping-off and foliar diseases can be a problem in plant beds. To prevent these diseases, it may be necessary to apply fungicide sprays especially as plants become crowded in plant beds. Refer to label clear ance before use. The use of sphagnum moss as a top dressing will reduce damping-off because it keeps the surface dry. See the section on GREENHOUSE VEGETABLE

CROP DISEASE CONTROL SCHEDULE on page 231 and Tables 3-44, 3-45, and 3-46.

SEEd StOrAgE ANd HANdLINg

Both high temperature and relative humidity will reduce seed germination and vigor of stored seed. Do not store seed in areas that have a combined temperature and humidity value greater than 100

[e.g., 50°F + 50% relative humidity]. In addition, primed seed does not store well after shipment to the buyer. Therefore, if you do not use all the primed seed ordered in the same season, have the seed tested before planting in subsequent seasons.

Corn, pea, and bean seed are especially susceptible to mechanical damage due to rough handling. Bags of these seed should not be dropped or thrown because the seed coats can crack and seed embryos can be damaged, resulting in a nonviable seed. When treating seed with a fungicide, inoculum, or other chemical, use only gentle agitation to avoid seed damage.

16 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 6. vEgEtAbLE SEEd SIzES

Crop

Asparagus

Seeds/Unit Weight

13,000-20,000/lb

Beans: small seeded lima large seeded lima snap

Beets

Broccoli

Brussels sprouts

Cabbage

Cantaloupes

Carrots

Cauliflower

Collards

Cucumbers eggplants endive, escarole

1,150-1,450/lb

440-550/lb

1,600-2,200/lb

24,000-26,000/lb

8,500-9,000/oz

8,500-9,000/oz

8,500-9,000/oz

16,000-19,000/lb

300,000-400,000/lb

8,900-10,000/oz

7,500-8,500/oz

15,000-16,000/lb

6,000-6,500/oz

22,000-26,000/oz

Crop

Kale

Kohlrabi

Leeks

Lettuce: head leaf

Mustard okra onions: bulb bunching

Parsnips

Parsley

Peas

Peppers

Pumpkins

Seeds/Unit Weight

7,500-8,900/oz

9,000/oz

170,000-180,000/lb

20,000-25,000/oz

25,000-31,000/oz

15,000-17,000/oz

8,000/lb

105,000-144,000/lb

180,000-200,000/lb

192,000/oz

240,000-288,000/lb

1,440-2,580/lb

4,000-4,700/oz

1,900-3,200/lb

Crop

Radishes

Rutabaga

Spinach

Squash: summer winter

Sweet corn: normal and sugary enhanced supersweet (sh2) tomatoes: fresh processing turnip

Watermelons: small seed large seed

Seeds/Unit Weight

40,000-50,000/lb

150,000-192,000/lb

40,000-50,000/lb

3,500-4,800/lb

1,600-4,000/lb

1,800-2,500/lb

3,000-5,000/lb

10,000-11,400/oz

160,000-190,000/lb

150,000-200,000/lb

8,000-10,400/lb

3,200-4,800/lb

tAbLE 7. POPULAtION OF PLANtS PEr ACrE At SEvErAL bEtWEEN-rOW ANd IN-rOW SPACINgS between-row spacing (in.) 2 4 6 8 10 12

In-row spacing (in.)

14 16 18 24 30

7 448,046 224,023 149,349 112,011 89,609 74,674 64,006

12

18

21

24

30

36 (3 ft)

42 (3.5 ft)

48 (4 ft)

60 (5 ft)

72 (6 ft)

84 (7 ft)

96 (8 ft)

261,360 130,680 87,120 65,340 52,272

174,240 87,120 58,080 43,560 34,848

149,349 74,674 49,783 37,337 29,870

130,680 65,340 43,560 32,670 26,136

104,544 52,272 34,848 26,136 20,909

87,120 43,560 29,040 21,780 17,424

74,674 37,337 24,891 18,669 14,934

65,340 32,670 21,780 16,335 13,068

17,424 13,068 10,454

14,520 10,890

12,446 9,334

8,712

7,467

10,890 8,167 6,534

43,560

29,040

24,891

21,780

17,424

14,520

12,446

10,890

8,712

7,260

6,223

5,445

37,337

24,891

21,336

18,669

14,935

12,446

10,668

9,334

7,467

6,223

5,334

4,667

32,670

21,780

18,669

16,335

13,068

10,890

9,334

8,167

6,534

5,445

4,667

4,084

29,040

19,360

16,594

14,520

11,616

9,680

8,297

7,260

5,808

4,840

4,149

3,630

21,780

14,520

12,446

10,890

8,712

7,260

6,223

5,445

4,356

3,630

3,111

2,722

17,424

11,616

9,957

8,712

6,970

5,808

4,978

4,356

3,485

2,904

2,489

2,178

36

14,520

9,680

8,297

7,260

5,808

4,840

4,149

3,630

2,904

2,420

2,074

1,815

48

10,890

7,260

6,223

5,445

4,356

3,630

3,111

2,722

2,178

1,815

1,556

1,361

Crop

Asparagus

Beans, Lima

Beans, Snap

Broccoli

Cabbage

Carrots

Cauliflower

Corn

Cucumbers eggplants

Lettuce

Melons onions, Dry

Pe as, Southern

Peppers

Potatoes, irish

Radishes

Squash, Summer

Sweetpotato tomatoes turnips

Critical Period

Brush

Pollination and pod development

Pod enlargement

Head development

Head development

Root enlargement

Head development

Silking and tasseling, ear development

Flowering and fruit development

Flowering and fruit development

Head development

Flowering and fruit development

Bulb enlargement

Seed enlargement and flowering and english

Flowering and fruit development tuber set and tuber enlargement

Root enlargement

Bud development and flowering

Root enlargement

Early flowering, fruit set, and enlargement

Root enlargement

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 9. AvAILAbLE WAtEr-HOLdINg CAPACIty bASEd

ON SOIL tExtUrE

Soil texture

Coarse sand

Fine sand

Loamy sand

Sandy loam

Fine sandy loam

Loam and silt loam

Clay loam and silty clay loam

Silty clay and clay

Available Water Holding Capacity

(water/inches of soil)

0.02–0.06

0.04–0.09

0.06–0.12

0.11–0.15

0.14–0.18

0.17–0.23

0.14–0.21

0.13–0.18

Soil texture

Coarse sand

Fine sand

Fine sandy loam

Silt loam

Clay loam

Soil Infiltration Rate (inch/hour)

0.75–1.00

0.50–0.75

0.35–0.50

0.25–0.40

0.10–0.30

17

PLANt POPULAtIONS

For vegetable seed sizes and plant populations see Tables 6 and 7.

IrrIgAtION

basic Principles.

Vegetables are 80 to 95% water. Maintaining proper soil moisture levels is important in order to maximize the productivity of vegetable crops. Plant stress caused by too much or too little soil moisture can lead to decreased size and weight of individual fruit and to defects such as: toughness; strong flavor; poor tipfill and podfill; cracking; blossom-end rot; and misshapen fruit.

Saturated soil conditions can reduce soluble solids in cantaloupes and other small melons as well as capsaicin in hot peppers.

It is imperative that soil moisture level be maintained near field capacity at all times during the growing season. Field capacity is the soil moisture status/content/tension when water will no longer drain due to the force of gravity. To maintain field capacity at all times requires good soil drainage (both surface and subsurface), and that your irrigation system is capable of making uniform, fre-

quent, and precisely timed applications (time/length of irrigation determines the amount/depth applied). More than one irrigation cycle per day may be needed to maintain field capacity. This is particularly true for fast growing crops grown in soils with little water holding capacity, such as sandy loams.

Different soil types have different moisture holding capactities. It is important that irrigation events be scheduled properly and based on measured soil moisture contents throughout the soil profile. In some cases, water supplies might not be adequate to meet the crop’s peak demand. In these cases, it is a better use of

tAbLE 11. HOUrS rEQUIrEd tO APPLy 1" WAtEr bASEd ON rOW SPACINg.

drip tube Flow rate row Spacing (Ft.)

gph/100 ft.

11.4

gpm/100 ft.

0.19

4

21.9

5

27.3

6

32.8

8

43.7

13.2

20.4

27.0

40.2

80.4

0.22

0.34

0.45

0.67

1.34

18.9

12.2

9.2

6.2

3.1

23.6

15.3

11.5

7.8

3.9

28.3

18.3

13.9

9.3

4.7

37.8

24.4

18.5

12.4

6.2

10

54.7

47.2

30.6

23.1

15.5

7.8

Available Water Holding Capacity

1

Inch Of Water/Inch Soil Depth

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

drip tubing Flow rate (gpm/100 ft.)

0.2

20

41

61

82

0.3

Maximum Number of Minutes per Application

2

14

27

41

54

0.4

10

20

31

41

0.5

8

16

24

33

0.6

0.10

0.12

0.14

102

122

143

68

82

95

51

61

71

41

49

57

0.16

0.18

163

183

109

122

82

92

65

73

1 Refer to table 9 for Available Water Holding Capacity based on soil texture.

2 Assumes a 10-inch deep root zone and irrigation at 25% soil moisture depletion.

54

61

34

41

48

7

14

20

27 the available water to irrigate only a portion of the planting and sacrifice the remaining area, rather than practicing deficit irrigation on the entire planting. Vegetable crops have a high peak water requirement. To prevent plant stress, irrigation systems should be able to apply a minimum of 2.0 inches per week over the entire field area (6 gpm/acre if operated 24/7).

For sprinkler systems used on vegetable crops, droplet size and application rate are also important. Large droplets resulting from low pressure at the sprinkler head can cause damage to young vegetable plants and can contribute to soil crusting when the soils dry. Water is more readily held in clay soils; however, clay soils have a lower water infiltration rate as compared to sandy soils. Irrigation rate is dependent on soil type, and application rates should follow values in Table 10. Depending on the soil structure, high application rates will result in irrigation water running off the field, contributing to erosion and fertilizer runoff particularly on heavy clay soils.

Even relatively short periods of inadequate soil moisture can adversely affect many crops. Thus, irrigation is beneficial in most years, since rainfall is rarely uniformly distributed even in years with above-average precipitation. Moisture deficiencies occurring early in the crop cycle may delay maturity and reduce yields. Shortages later in the season often lower quality and yield. Over-irrigating, however, especially late in the season, can reduce quality and postharvest life of the crop. Table 8 shows the critical periods of crop growth when an adequate supply of water is essential for the production of high-quality vegetables.

Applying the proper amount of water at the correct time is critical for achieving the optimum benefits from irrigation. The crop water requirement, termed evapotranspiration, or ET, is equal to the quantity of water lost from the plant (transpiration) plus water that evaporated from the soil surface. The ET rate is important in effectively scheduling irrigations. Numerous factors must be considered when estimating ET. The amount of solar radiation, which provides the energy to evaporate moisture from the soil and plant surfaces, is the major factor. Other factors include: crop growth stage; day length; air temperature; wind speed; and humidity level.

Plant factors that affect ET are crop species; canopy size and shape; leaf size, and shape. Soil factors must also be considered.

Soils having high levels of silt, clay, and organic matter have greater water-holding capacities than sandy soils or compacted soils

(Table 9). Soils with high water-holding capacities require less frequent irrigation than soils with low water-holding capacities. When such soils are irrigated less frequently, a greater amount of water must be applied per application.

Another soil factor influencing irrigation practices is the soil infiltration rate. Water should not be applied to soils at a rate greater than the rate at which soils can absorb water. Table 10 lists the typical infiltration rates of several soil types.

Without the use of soil moisture monitoring devices, there is no way to accurately schedule irrigation because all the above factors interact to determine water loss. The following factors should be kept in mind when deciding when and how much to irrigate:

Soils vary greatly in their water-holding capacities and infiltration rates. Silt and clay soils and those high in organic matter can hold much more available water than sandy soils, low in organic matter.

Water loss from plants is much greater on clear, hot windy days

18 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

than on cool, overcast days. During periods of hot, dry weather, ET rates may reach 0.25 inch per day or higher. ET can be estimated by the use of a standard evaporation pan. Check with your local Extension office for information on how to use evaporation pans.

Recent research indicates that maintaining soil moisture levels in a narrow range, just slightly below field capacity (75% to 90% available soil moisture), maximizes crop growth. This may mean that more frequent irrigations of smaller amounts are better than delaying irrigations until the soil moisture reaches a lower level (40% to 50% available soil moisture) and then applying a heavy irrigation.

Plastic mulches reduce evaporation from the soil but also reduce the amount of rainwater that can reach the root zone. Thus, the much of the natural precipitation should be ignored when scheduling irrigations for crops grown under plastic mulch.

drip Irrigation.

Drip irrigation is used to maintain soil moisture whereas other types of irrigation are used more to replace depleted

soil moisture. Drip irrigation is a method of slowly applying water directly to the plant’s root zone. Water is applied frequently, often daily, to maintain favorable soil moisture conditions. Even so, field operations can continue uninterrupted. Water is applied without wetting the foliage, thereby decreasing evaporative losses and decreasing disease pressure due to damp foliage. Additionally, the use of drip irrigation can limit waste and potential contamination from overuse (or unnecessary use) of agricultural chemicals.

In most cases, drip irrigation is considerably more uniform and efficient in its distribution of water to the crop than other irrigation methods. Still, drip irrigated crops can require up to 10% more water than sprinkler or furrow irrigated crops because of increased plant vigor, larger canopies, and heavier fruit setting. In addition, fertilizers applied through the drip irrigation system are conserved.

Drip irrigation is used on a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops. It is especially effective when used with mulches; on sandy soils; and on high value crops, such as cantaloupes, watermelons, squash, peppers, eggplants, and tomatoes. Drip irrigation systems have several other advantages over sprinkler and surface irrigation systems. Low flow rates and operating pressures are typical of drip systems. These characteristics lead to lower energy costs. Once in place, drip systems require little labor to operate, can be automatically controlled, and can be managed to apply the precise amount of water and nutrients needed by the crop. These factors also reduce operating costs. The areas between rows remain dry reducing weed growth between rows and reducing the amount of water lost to weeds.

There are several potential problems unique to drip irrigation systems. Most drip systems require a higher level of management than other irrigation systems. Moisture distribution in the soil is limited with drip systems. In most cases, a smaller soil water reserve is available to plants. Under these conditions, the potential to stress plants is greater than with other types of irrigation systems.

In order to use drip irrigation successfully, the system must be carefully managed and maintained.

The equipment used for drip irrigation systems must be routinely monitored and maintained in order to prevent any challenges.

Drip irrigation tape and tubing can be damaged by insects, rodents, and laborers, and often has a higher initial investment cost than other irrigation system types. Pressure regulation and filtration require equipment not commonly used with sprinkler or surface systems.

The drip system, including a pump, headers, filters, and various connectors, must be checked and be ready to operate before planting. Failure to have the system operational could result in costly delays, poor plant survival, and irregular stands, reducing yield.

Calculating the length of time required to apply a specific depth of water with a drip irrigation system is more difficult than with sprinkler systems. Unlike sprinkler systems, drip systems apply water to only a small portion of the total crop acreage. Usually, a fair assumption to make is that the mulched width approximates the extent of the plant root zone. Although the root zone is confined, the plant canopy is vigorous and water use and loss from evapotranspiration (Et) can far exceed the water applied if application is based on a banded or mulch width basis. Table 11 calculates the length of time required to apply 1-inch of water with drip irrigation based on the drip tape flow rate and crop row spacing. The use of this table requires that the drip system be operated at the pressure recommended by the manufacturer.

Excessive application of water can move nutrients, water and pesticides below the plant root zone. Table 12 has been prepared to calculate the maximum recommended irrigation period for drip irrigation systems. The irrigation periods listed are based on the assumption that 25 percent of the available water in the plant root zone is depleted. Soil texture directly influences the water-holding capacity of soils and the consequential depth reached by irrigation water.

In drip tape systems, water is carried through plastic tubing

(which expands when water flows through it) and distributed along the drip tape through built-in outlets or devices called emitters.

The pressure-reducing flow path also allows the emitter to remain relatively large, allowing particles that could clog an emitter to be discharged.

Although modern emitter design reduces the potential for trapping small particles, emitter clogging can be a common occurrence with drip irrigation systems. Clogging can be attributed to physical, chemical, or biological contaminants. Proper filtration is a must and occasional water treatment might be necessary in order to keep drip systems from clogging. Further information on drip irrigation systems can be obtained from manufacturers, dealers, and your local Extension office.

Chlorination.

Bacteria can grow inside drip irrigation tapes, forming a slime that can clog emitters. Algae present in surface waters can also clog emitters. Bacteria and algae can be effectively controlled by chlorination of the drip system. Periodic treatment

before clogs develop can keep the system functioning efficiently.

The frequency of treatments depends on the quality of the water source. Generally two or three treatments per season are adequate.

Irrigation water containing high concentrations of iron (greater than

1 ppm) can also cause clogging problems due to a type of bacteria that “feeds” on iron. In consuming the dissolved (ferrous) form of iron, the bacteria secrete a slime called ochre, which may combine with other solid particles in the drip tape and plug emitters.

The precipitated (ferric) form of iron, known commonly as rust, can also physically clog emitters. In treating water containing iron, chlorine will oxidize the iron dissolved in water, causing the iron to precipitate so that it can be filtered and removed from the system.

Chlorine treatment should take place upstream of filters in order to remove the precipitated iron and microorganisms from the

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 19

system. Chlorine is available as a gas, liquid, or solid. Chlorine gas is extremely dangerous and caution should be exercised if this method of treatment is chosen. Solid chlorine is available as granules or tablets containing 65% to 70% calcium hypochlorite but might react with other elements in irrigation water to form precipitates which could clog emitters. Liquid chlorine is available in many forms, including household bleach (sodium hypochlorite), and is the easiest and often safest form to use for injection. Stock solutions can be

bought that have concentrations of 5.25%, 10%, or 15% available chlorine. Use chlorine only if the product is labeled for use in irrigation systems.

Since chlorination is most effective at pH 6.5 to 7.5, some commercial chlorination equipment also injects buffers to maintain optimum pH for effective kill of microorganisms. This type of equipment is more expensive, but more effective than simply injecting sodium hypochlorite solution.

The required rate of chlorine injection is dependent on the amount of microorganisms present in the water source, the amount of iron in the irrigation water, and the method of treatment being used. To remove iron from irrigation water, start by injecting 1 ppm of chlorine for each 1 ppm of iron present in the water. For iron removal, chlorine should be injected continuously. Adequate mixing of the water with chlorine is essential. For this reason, be certain to mount the chlorine injector a distance upstream from filters. An elbow between the injector and the filter will ensure adequate mixing.

For treatment of algae and bacteria, a chlorine injection rate that results in the presence of 1 to 2 ppm of “free” chlorine at the end of the furthest lateral will assure that the proper amount of chlorine is being injected. Free, or residual, chlorine can be tested using an inexpensive DPD (diethyl-phenylene-diamine) test kit.

A swimming pool test kit can be used, but only if it measures free chlorine. Many pool test kits only measure total chlorine.

If a chlorine test kit is unavailable, one of the following schemes is suggested as a starting point:

For iron treatment:

• Inject liquid sodium hypochlorite continuously at a rate of

1 ppm for each 1 ppm of iron in irrigation water. In most cases, 3 to 5 ppm is sufficient.

For bacteria and algae treatment:

• Inject liquid sodium hypochlorite continuously at a rate of 5 to 10 ppm where the biological load is high.

• Inject 10 to 20 ppm during the last 30 minutes of each irrigation cycle where the biological load is medium.

• Inject 50 ppm during the last 30 minutes of irrigation cycles two times each month when biological load is low.

• Superchlorinate (inject at a rate of 200 to 500 ppm) once per month for the length of time required to fill the entire system with this solution and shut down the system. After 24 hours, open the laterals and flush the lines.

The injection rates for stock solutions that contain 5.25%,

10% and 15% can be calculated from the following equations:

FOr 5.25% StOCK SOLUtION:

Injection rate of chlorine, gph = [(Desired available chlorination level, ppm ) x (Irrigation flow rate, gpm)] divided by 971.

FOr A 10% StOCK SOLUtION:

Injection rate of chlorine, gph = [(Desired available chlorination level, ppm ) x (Irrigation flow rate, gpm)] divided by 1850.

FOr A 15% StOCK SOLUtION:

Injection rate of chlorine, gph = [(Desired available chlorination level, ppm ) x (Irrigation flow rate, gpm)] divided by 2775.

It is important to note that chlorine will cause water pH to rise.

This is critical because chlorine is most effective in acidic water. If your water pH is above 7.5 before injection, it must be acidified for chlorine injection to be effective.

IMPOrtANt NOtES.

- Approved backflow control valves, low pressure drains, and interlocks must be used in the injection system to prevent contamination of the water source.

- Chlorine concentrations above 30 ppm may kill plants.

Fertilization.

Before considering a fertilization program for mulched-drip irrigated crops, be sure to have the soil pH checked.

If a liming material is needed to increase the soil pH, the material should be applied and incorporated into the soil as far ahead of mulching as practical. For most vege tables, adjust the soil pH to around 6.5. When using drip irrigation in combination with mulch, apply the recommended amount of preplant fertilizer and incorporate it 5 to 6 inches into the soil before laying the mulch. If equipment is available, apply the preplant fertilizer to the soil area that will be covered by the mulch. This is more efficient than a broadcast application to the entire field.

The most efficient method of fertilizing an established mulched crop is through a drip irrigation system, which is installed during the mulching operation. Due to the very small holes or orifices in the drip tape, high quality liquid fertilizers, or water-soluble fertilizers must be used. Since phosphorous is a stable non-mobile soil nutrient and can cause clogging of the drip tape emitters, it is best to apply

100% of the crop’s phosphorous needs pre-plant. Additionally, apply 20 to 40% of the crops’s nitrogen and potassium needs pre-plant.

The remainder of the crop’s nutrient needs can be applied through the drip system with a high quality liquid fertilizer such as 8–0–8,

7–0–7, or 10–0–10. Generally, it is not necessary to add micronutrients through the drip system. Micronutrients can be best and most economically applied pre-plant or as foliar application if needed.

The amount of nutrients to apply through the drip system depends upon the plant’s growth stage. In general, smaller amounts of nutrients are needed early in the plant’s growth with peak demand occurring during fruit maturation. The frequency of nutrient application is most influenced by the soil’s nutrient holding capabilities. Clay soils with a high nutrient holding capacity could receive weekly nutrient applications through the drip system while a sandy soil with low nutrient holding capacity will respond best with a daily fertigation program. Fertigation rates are provided under crop specific recommendations later in this handbook.

MULCHES ANd rOW COvErS

Mulches.

The most widely used mulches for vegetable production are black, white on black, clear and metalized polyethylene mulches.

Black mulch is most widely used for spring applications where both

20 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

elevated soil temperatures and weed control are desired. Clear plastic mulch is used when maximum heat accumulation is desired and weed control is not as critical. White on black plastic (with white-side of plastic facing up) is used for late spring and summer plantings where the benefits of moisture retention and weed control are valued and heat accumulation may be detrimental. Growers often will apply white latex paint to black mulch when double cropping.

Metallized mulch, commonly referred to as reflective or silver mulch, is used to combat aphids and thrips that vector viral diseases. Metalized mulch should reflect a recognizable image (that is, be mirror-like) to be most effective.

Organic mulches such as straw, pine straw, compost, and coarse hay provide weed control and moisture retention and keep soils cooler than bare ground. Using hay often introduces weeds into a field. One benefit of using organic mulches is that they add organic matter to the soil when incorporated after the growing season. When using these mulches, supplemental nitrogen may be needed to compensate for the nitrogen that is lost to soil microbes in the process of breaking down the organic mulch.

Bed formation and moisture are critical to the success of growing vegetables with plastic mulch. Beds should be smooth, free of clods and sticks, and of uniform height. Black plastic mulch warms the soil by conduction, so as much contact as possible should be made between the mulch and soil. Raised beds allow the soil to drain and warm more quickly. Drip tape is commonly laid under the plastic in the same field operation. The soil should be moist when the plastic is applied since it is difficult to add enough water to thoroughly wet the width of the bed when using drip irrigation. Steep slopes may limit row length when using drip tape, normally row lengths should not exceed 300 to 600 feet depending on the specifications of drip tape.

Follow label directions for fumigants and herbicides used with plastic mulches. Fumigants have a waiting period before seeds or transplants can be planted. Transplanters and seeders are available to plant through plastic mulch. In fields with a history of nutsedge, appropriate measures must be taken in order to reduce or eliminate infestations as plastic mulches cannot control nutsedge. Nutsedge will compromise plastic mulch by piercing it.

Fertilization.

Vegetables produced on plastic mulch, but without the ability to supply nutrients through the drip system, should have all of their required fertilizer incorporated into the beds prior to applying the mulch. Broadcasting the fertilizer before bedding has been shown to be an effective method of application since the bedding process moves most of the fertilizer into the bed. Growers using fertigation should follow the recommendations for each specific crop. Fertigation schedules are listed for cantaloupe, cucumber, eggplant, okra, pepper, summer squash, tomato, and watermelon later in this handbook. Also, refer to the previous section on this page for further information on fertilization.

double cropping.

Growers frequently grow two crops on black plastic mulch. The spring crop is killed and removed, then the plastic is generally painted with white latex paint diluted with water (1 part paint to 5 parts water). After painting, a second crop is planted through the mulch. The new crop should be planted into new holes and fertilizer added based on soil test results and the new crop’s nutrient requirements.

degradable mulches.

Photodegradable and biodegradable plastic mulches are available, but usually cost more than conventional films. This additional expense is offset to an extent by reduced disposal costs. They have many of the properties and provide the usual benefits of standard polyethylene mulches. Photodegradable mulches begin to break down after the film has received a predetermined amount of sunlight. When a photodegradable film has received sufficient light, it becomes brittle and develops cracks, tears, and holes. Small sections of film may tear off and be blown around by the wind. Finally, the film breaks down into small flakes and disappears into the soil. The edges covered by the soil retain

their strength and break down very slowly.

Biodegradable plastic mulches are weakened by exposure to sunlight, but are designed to degrade in the soil by microorganisms when soil moisture and temperatures are favorable for biological activity. Biodegradable film will usually be retained on the surface of the soil rather than be blown away from the application site. In addition, all of the biodegradable film will eventually decompose, including the tucked edges buried in the soil. It is recommended that biodegradable mulch be incorporated into the soil at the end of the harvest or growing season. Cover crops can be planted the next day after biodegradable plastic mulch has been rototilled into the soil.

Plastic Mulch removal and disposal

Commercial mulch lifters are available. Plastic can be removed by hand by running a coulter down the center of the row and picking the mulch up from each side. Sanitary landfills may accept plastic mulch in some areas. There are a few recycling projects which accept plastic mulch. Some states allow burning of mulch with a permit.

row covers.

Row covers are used to hasten the maturity of the crop, exclude certain insect pests, and provide a small degree of frost protection. There are two main types of row covers: vented clear or translucent polyethylene that is sup port ed by wire hoops placed at regular (5 to 6 ft) intervals, and float ing row covers that are porous, light weight spunbonded materials placed loosely over the plants. In addition, plastic can be placed loosely over the plants with or without wire supports. Floating covers are more applica ble to the low-growing vine crops. Upright plants like tomatoes and peppers have been injured by abrasion when the floating row cover rubs against the plant or excess temperatures build-up. Erratic spring temperatures require intensive management of row covers to avoid blossom shed and other high temperature injuries.

In particular, clear plastic can greatly increase air temperatures under the cover on warm sunny days, resulting in a danger of heat injury to crop plants. Therefore, vented materials are recommended. Even with vents, clear plastic has pro duced heat injury, especially when the plants have filled a large por tion of the air space in the tunnel. This has not been observed with the translucent materials.

Usually, row covers are combined with plastic mulch.

High tunnels.

High tunnels are unheated polyethylene covered greenhouse structures that provide a larger degree of frost protection than row covers. A properly built high tunnel with one or two layers of plastic, should afford 5-8 °F (supposed to be degree sym-

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 21

bol) of frost protection for growers. As with row covers, high tunnels require intensive management to ensure that they are vented properly when warm spring temperatures can cause excessive heat to build up in tunnels, resulting in damage to the crop. Tomatoes are commonly produced in high tunnels as well as a variety of leafy greens crops, due to the premium prices obtained. Row covers are often combined with the use of high tunnels and plastic mulch.

In some northern regions, high tunnels can provide 3-4 weeks of season extension for spring and fall crops such as tomatoes as well as year-round production of Cole crops and lettuce. High tunnels can reduce the incidence of certain diseases and insects due to protection from rain and changes in light interception, respectively, inside the tunnel; however, traditional greenhouse pests, such as leaf mold, aphids, spider mites, and white flies may be more prevalent in high tunnels. In many states high tunnels are considered a greenhouse structure for the application of pesticides, which may reduce the number of chemicals available compared to field production. Be sure to determine if the pesticides you are applying are acceptable for use in high tunnels in your state.

Extensive information regarding construction, specifics of crop production, soil management, and economics of production for many fruit, vegetable, and cut flowers grown in high tunnels can be found at http://www.hightunnels.org/.

Considerations for Using Mulch, drip Irrigation, and row

Covers.

Each grower considering mulches, drip irrigation, and/ or row covers must weigh the economics involved. The long-term versus short-term opportunities must be considered.

Does the potential increase in return justify the additional costs?

Are the odds in favor of the grower getting the most benefit in terms of earliness and yield from the mulch, drip irrigation, and/or row covers?

Does the market usual ly offer price incen tives for early produce? Will harvesting early allow compet ition against produce from other regions?

For planting on 5 to 6-foot centers, polyethylene mulch costs

$200 to $250 per acre, respectively When using plastic mulch, drip irrigation must also be used. With 5 to 6-foot centers, drip irrigation materials will cost $300 to $350 per acre, respectively. Row covers can cost over $400 per acre. Growers must determine these costs for their situations and calculate their potential returns.

POLLINAtION

European honeybees and native wild bees visit the flowers of several flowering vegetables. Cucumbers, squash, pumpkins, and watermelons have separate male and female flowers, while cantaloupes and other speciality melons have male and hermaphroditic

(perfect or bisexual) flowers. The sticky pollen of the male flowers must be transferred to the female flowers to achieve fruit set. One to two hives of bees per acre will increase the yield of cucurbits.

Lack of ade quate polli na tion usual ly results in small or misshapen fruit in addi tion to low yields. The size and shape of the mature fruit is related to the number of seeds produced by pollination; each seed re quires one or more pollen grains.

Even though bumblebees and other species of wild bees are excellent pollinators, populations of these native pol linators usually are not adequate for large acreages grown for commercial production. Colonies of wild honeybees have been decimated by

Tracheal and Varroa mites and cannot be counted on to aid in pollination. One of the best way to ensure adequate pollination is to own or rent strong colonies of honey bee from a reliable beekeeper.

Another option for pollination is the bumblebee. Bumblebees are becoming a popular grower’s choice over the past decade and are being used more often and more effectively as a pollinator alternative to honeybees. Commercial bee attractants, have not proven to be effective in enhancing pollination. Growers are advised to increase numbers of honeybee or bumblebee colonies and not to rely on such attractants. Bees are essential for commercial production of all vine crops and may improve the yield and quality of fruit in beans, eggplants, peas, and peppers.

Moving honeybees into the crop at the correct time will greatly enhance pollination. Cucurbit flowers are usually open and attractive to bees for only a day or less. The opening of the flower, release of pollen, and commence ment of nectar secretion normally precede bee activity. Pumpkin, squash, cantaloupe, and watermelon flowers normally open around daybreak and close by noon; whereas, cucum bers, and melons generally remain open the entire day. Pollination must take place on the day the flowers open because pollen viability, stigmatic receptivity, and attrac tiveness to bees lasts only that day.

Honeybee activity is determined, to a great extent, by weather and conditions within the hive. Bees rarely fly when the temperature is below 55°F. Flights seldom intensify until the temperature reaches 70°F. Wind speed beyond 15 miles per hour seriously slows bee activity. Cool, cloudy weather and threatening storms greatly reduce bee flights. In poor weather, bees foraging at more distant locations will remain in the hive, and only those that have been foraging nearby will be active. Ideally, colonies should be protected from wind and be exposed to the sun from early morning until evening. Colony entrances facing east or southeast encourage bee flight. The hives should be off the ground and the front entrances kept free of grass and weeds. For best results, hives should be grouped together. A clean water supply should be available within a quarter mile of the hive.

Bumblebees have some advantages compared to honeybees in that the former fly in cool, rainy, and windy weather and often forage to plants earlier in the morning than honeybees, and later in the day when temperatures cool. Bumblebees also have a larger body size than honeybees requiring fewer visits to achieve good pollination and fruit set.

The number of colonies needed for adequate pollination varies with location, attractiveness of crop, density of flowers, length of blooming period, colony strength, and competing blossoms of other plants in the area. In vine crops, recommendations are one to two colonies per acre, with the higher number for higher density plantings. Each honeybee hive or colony should contain at least

40,000 - 50,000 bees. Multiple bee visits of eight or more visits per flower are required to produce marketable fruit.

Bumblebee hives are sold as a quad or four hives per quad. A quad is the minimum order that can be purchased from a supplier.

Generally one bumblebee hive contains 200 to 250 bees and is equivalent to one honeybee hive; however, research that can spe-

22 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

cifically document this is lacking. Thus, one quad of bumblebees

(minimum order, contains 4 bumblebee hives) would provide good pollination for four acres of a Cucurbit crop if the recommendation is to use 1 bumblebee hive per acre. In some instances, two hives per acre or more may be recommended (i.e. triploid watermelon).

In this case, one quad would provide good pollination for two acres. Bumblebee hives should not be placed in direct sunlight so that the bees work more efficiently. No more than two bumblebee quads should be placed in one location so that pollination is more uniform in the field. The quad locations should be at least 650 to

700 feet from each other.

Insecticides applied during bloom are a serious threat to bees visiting flowers. If insecticides must be applied, select an insecticide that will give effective control of the target pest but pose the least danger to bees. Apply these chemicals near evening when the bees are not actively foraging and avoid spraying adjacent crops.

Give the beekeeper 48 hours notice, if possible, when you expect to spray so that necessary precautions can be taken. Avoid leaving puddles of water around chemical mixing areas, as bees pick up water, which may result in bee kills.

As with honeybees, one must carefully plan when to spray insecticides so that the bumblebees are not killed. Because bumblebees are most active from dawn until late morning and from about

4 PM until sunset, the hives need to be closed around 11 AM so that the bumblebees remain in the hive and are protected during a late evening spray application.

The supplier of both honey- and bumblebee colonies need ample notice prior to when the bees are needed for a given crop. Approximately 3 to 4 months notice is usually sufficient so that crop pollinator needs can be met. A written contract between the grower and beekeeper/supplier can prevent misunderstandings and, thus, ensure better pollinator service. Such a contract should specify the number and strength of colonies, the rental/purchase fee, time of delivery, and distribution of bees in the field.

HOW tO IMPrOvE PESt CONtrOL

Failure to control an insect, mite, disease, or weed pest is often blamed on the pesticide when the cause frequently lies elsewhere.

The more common reasons for failure are the following:

1. Delaying applications until pest populations become too large or damaging.

2. Poor coverage caused by insufficient volume, inadequate pressure, or clogged or poorly arranged nozzles.

3. Selecting the wrong pesticide for the target pests.

tHE FOLLOWINg StEPS ArE SUggEStEd FOr MOrE

EFFECtIvE PESt CONtrOL:

1. Scout fields regularly. Know the pest situation and any buildups in your fields. Frequent examina tions (at least once or twice per week) help determine the proper timing of the next pesticide application. Do not apply a pesticide simply because a neighbor does.

2. Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Use an ongoing program of biological, physical, cultural, and chemical methods in an integrated approach to manage pests. IPM involves scouts visiting fields to collect pest population data. Use this updated information to decide whether insecticide applications or other management actions are needed to avoid economic loss from pest damage. Control decisions also are based on many factors, such as:

• The economic action threshold level (when the cost of control equals or exceeds potential crop losses attributed to real or potential damage)

• Other factors are listed in the Recommended Control Guidelines section following

To employ an IPM program successfully, basic practices need to be followed. Whether participating in a univer sity- or grower-supported IPM program, hiring a private consultant, or doing the work personally, the grower still practices:

• frequent and regular examination of fields to assess pest populations

• applying a control measure only when the economic threshold level has been reached

• where possible, employing a cultural practice or a biological control or using a pesticide that is less harmful to natural enemies of the target pest

resistance management.

The way pesticides are used affects the development of resistance. Resis tance develops because intensive pesticide use kills the susceptible individuals in a population, leaving only resistant ones to breed. Adopting the following practices will reduce the development of pest resistance:

1. Rotate crops to a nonhost crop, thus reducing the need for pesticide treatment and, thereby reducing the ratio of resistant to susceptible individuals in the breeding population.

2. Use control guidelines as an important tactic for reducing the pesticide resistance problem. For more informa tion concerning control guidelines, refer to the next section.

3. Spot treat when possible. Early-season insects are often concentrated in areas near their overwintering sites. Diseases often can be first detected in favorable microclimates, such as low or wet areas of the field. Perennial weeds and newly intro duced or resistant annual weeds often occur first in small numbers in a part of a field. Spot treating these areas, rather than the entire field, will reduce problems with resistance.

4. Control pests early, because seedling weeds and immature insects are more susceptible to pesticides and less likely to develop resistance compared to older and more mature crop pests.

5. Do not overspray. Attempts to destroy every pest in the field by multiple applications or by using higher than labeled rates often eliminate the susceptible pests but not the resistant pests.

6. Rotate pesticides to reduce the development of resistance, particularly with pesticides that differ in their mechanism of action.

Rotation among different chemical groups is an excellent method of reducing resistance problems.

7. Use appropriate additives when recommended on the pesticide’s label. For example, adding a crop oil concentrate or a surfactant to certain postemergence herbicides will increase the effectiveness of the herbicides.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 23

Control Pests According to recommended Control guidelines or Schedule.

Control guidelines provide a way to decide whether pesticide applications or other management actions are needed to avoid eco nomic loss from pest damage. Guidelines for pests are generally expressed as a count of a given insect stage or as a crop damage level based on certain sampling techniques. They are intended to reflect the pest population that will cause economic damage and thus would warrant the cost of treatment. Guidelines are usually based on pest populations, field history, stage of crop’s development, variety, weather conditions, life stage of the pest, parasite, and/or predator populations, resistance to chemicals, time of year, and other factors. Specific thresholds are given in this handbook for a number of pests of many crops.

Insect population sampling techniques include:

Visual observation. Direct counts of any insect stages (eggs, larvae, adults, etc.) are accomplished by exam ining plants or plant parts (leaves, stems, flowers, fruits). Counts can be taken on single plants or a pre scribed length of row, which will vary with the crop. Usually, quick moving insects are counted first, followed by those that are less mobile.

Shake cloth (also known as a ground cloth). This sampling procedure consists of using a standard 3-foot by 3-foot shake cloth to assess insect popula tions. Randomly choose a site without disturbing the plants and carefully unroll the shake cloth between two rows. Bend the plants over the cloth one row at a time and beat the plants vigorously to dislodge insects held on stems, leaves, and branches. Count only insects that have landed on the shake cloth. The number of sampling sites per field will vary with the crop.

Sweep net. This sampling procedure uses a standard 15-inch diameter sweep net to assess insect popula tions. While walking along one row, swing the net from side to side with a pendulum-like motion to face the direction of movement.

The net should be rotated 180 degrees after each sweep and swung through the foliage. Each pass of the net is counted as one sweep. The number of sweeps per field will vary with the crop.

Weed population sampling techniques include:

Weed identification. This first step is frequently skipped.

Perennial weeds and certain serious annual weeds should be controlled before they can spread. Common annual weeds need only be controlled if they represent a threat to yield, quality, or harvestability.

Growth stage determination. The ability of weeds to compete with the crop is related to size of the weed and size of the crop. Control of the weed using herbicides or mechanical methods is also dependant on weed size. A decision to control or not to control a weed must be carried out before the crop is affected and before the weed is too large to be controlled easily. It is critical to know the weed history of a field prior to planting as many herbicides need to be applied pre-plant.

Weed population. Weeds compete for light, water, nutrients, and space. The extent of this competition is dependant on population and is usually expressed as weeds per foot of row

or weeds per square meter. Control measures are needed when the weed population exceeds the maximum tolerable population of that species.

Disease monitoring involves determining the growth stage of the crop, observing disease symptoms on plants, and/or the daily weather conditions in the field.

Disease control is often obtained by applying crop protectants on a regular schedule. For many diseases, application must begin at a certain growth stage and must be repeated every 7 to 10 days.

When environmental conditions are favorable for disease development, delaying a spray program will result in a lack of control if the disease has progressed too far. For certain diseases that do not spread rapidly, fields should be scouted regularly.

Predictive systems are available for a few diseases. Temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, and duration of leaf wetness period are monitored, and the timing of fungicide application is determined by predicting when disease development is most likely to occur.

Weather Conditions.

These are important to consider before applying a pesticide. Spray only when wind velocity is less than 10 miles per hour. Do not spray when sensitive plants are wilted during the heat of the day. If possible, make applications when ideal

weather conditions prevail.

Certain pesticides, including biological insecticides (eg. BT’s) and some herbicides, are ineffective in cool weather. Others do not perform well or may cause crop injury when hot or humid conditions are prevalent. Optimum results can frequently be achieved when the air temperature is in the 70°F range during application.

Strive for Adequate Coverage of Plants.

Improved control of aphids can be achieved by adding and arrang ing nozzles so that the application is directed toward the plants from the sides as well as from the tops (also see Alkaline Wa-

ter and Pesticides, which follows). In some cases, nozzles should be arranged so that the application is directed beneath the leaves.

As the season progresses, plant size increases, as does the need for increased spray gallonage to ensure adequate coverage.

Applying insecticide and fungicide sprays with sufficient spray volume and pressure is important. Spray volumes should increase as the crop’s surface area increases. Sprays from highvolume-high-pressure rigs (airblast) should be applied at rates of

40 to 200 gallons per acre at 200 psi or greater. Sprays from lowvolume-low- pressure rigs (boom type) should be applied at rates of 50 to 100 gallons per acre at 20 psi. The addition of a spreadersticker improves coverage and control when wettable powders are applied to smooth-leaved plants, such as cole crops and onions.

Use one sprayer for herbicides and a different sprayer for fungicides and insecticides.

Herbicide sprays should be applied at between 15 and 50 gallons of spray solution per acre using low pressure (20 to 40 psi). Never apply herbicides with a high-pressure sprayer that was designed for insecticide or fungicide application because excessive drift can result in damage to nontarget

24 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

plants in adjacent fields and areas. Do not add oil concentrates, surfactants, spreader-stickers, or any other additive unless speci-

fied on the label, or crop injury is likely.

Select the Proper Pesticide.

Know the pests to be controlled and choose the recommended pesticide and rate of application. When in doubt, consult your local Extension office. The herbicide choice should be based on weed species or cropping systems.

For insects that are extremely difficult to control or are resistant, it is essential to alternate labeled insecticides, especially with different classes of insecticides. Be alert for a possible aphid or mite buildup following the application of certain insecticides such as carbaryl.

Caution:

Proper application of soil systemic insecticides is extremely important. The insecticide should be placed according to the label instructions (which, in general, indicate application should be directed away from the seed) or crop injury may occur.

Be sure to properly identify the disease(s). Many fungicides control specific diseases and provide no control of others. For this reason, on several crops, fungicide combinations are recommended.

Pesticide Compatibility.

To determine if two pesticides are compatible, use the following “jar test” before you tank-mix pesticides or tank-mix pesticides with liquid fertilizers:

1. Add 1 pint of water or fertilizer solution to a clean quart jar, then add the pesticides to the water or fertilizer solution in the same proportion as used in the field.

2. To a second clean quart jar, add 1 pint of water or fertilizer solution. Then add 1/2 teaspoon of an adjuvant to keep the mixture emulsified. Finally, add the pesticides to the water-adjuvant or fertilizer adjuvant in the same proportion as used in the field.

3. Close both jars tightly and mix thoroughly by inverting 10 times. Inspect the mixtures immediately and after standing for 30 minutes. If a uniform mix cannot be made, the mixture should not be used. If the mix in either jar remains uniform for

30 minutes, the combination can be used. If the mixture with adjuvant stays mixed and the mixture without adjuvant does not, use the adjuvant in the spray tank. If either mixture separates but readily remixes, constant agitation is required. If nondispersible oil, sludge, or clumps of solids form, do not use the mixture.

Note:

For compatibility testing, the pesticide can be added directly or premixed in water first. In actual tank-mixing for field application, unless label direc tions specify otherwise, add pesticides to the water in the tank in this order: first, wettable granules or powders, then flowables, emulsifiable concentrates, water solubles, and companion surfactants. If tank-mixed adjuvants are used, these should be added first to the fluid carrier in the tank. Thoroughly mix each product before adding the next product.

Select Correct Sprayer tips.

The choice of a sprayer tip for use with many pesticides is important. Flat fan-spray tips are designed for preemergence and postemergence application of herbicides.

These nozzles produce a tapered-edge spray pattern that overlaps for uniform coverage when properly mounted on a boom.

Standard flat fan-spray tips are designed to operate at low pressures (20-40 psi) to produce small-to medium -sized droplets that do not have excessive drift. Flat fan-nozzle tips are available in brass, plastic, ceramic, stainless steel, and hardened stainless steel.

Brass nozzles are inexpensive and are satisfactory for spraying liquid pesticide formulations. Brass nozzles are least durable, and hardened stainless steel nozzles are most durable and are recommended for wettable powder formulations, which are more abrasive than liquid formulations. When using any wettable powder, it is essential to calibrate the sprayer frequently because, as a nozzle wears, the volume of spray material delivered through the nozzle increases.

Flood-type nozzle tips are generally used for complete fertilizers, liquid N, etc., and sometimes for spraying herbicides onto the soil surface prior to incorporation. They are less suitable for spraying postemergence herbicides or for applying fungicides or insecticides to plant foliage. Coverage of the target is often less uniform and complete when flood-type nozzles are used, compared with the coverage obtained with other types of nozzles. Results with postemergence herbicides applied with flood-type nozzles may be satisfactory if certain steps are taken to improve target coverage. Space flood-type nozzles a maximum of 20 inches apart, rather than the suggested 40-inch spacing. This will result in an overlapping spray pattern. Spray at the maximum pressure recom mended for the nozzle. These techniques will improve target coverage with flood-type nozzles and result in more satisfactory weed control.

Full and hollow-cone nozzles deliver circular spray patterns and are used for application of insecticides and fungicides to crops where thorough coverage of the leaf surfaces is extremely important and where spray drift will not cause a problem. They are used when higher water volumes and spray pressures are recommended. With cone nozzles, the disk size and the number of holes in the whirl plate affect the output rate. Various combinations of disks and whirl plates can be used to achieve the desired spray coverage.

Alkaline Water and Pesticides.

At times applicators have commented that a particular pesticide has given unsatisfac tory results.

Usually, these results can be attributed to poor application, a bad batch of chemical, pest resis tance, weather con ditions, etc. However, another possible reason for unsatisfactory results from a pesticide may be the pH of the mixing water.

Some materials carry a label cautioning the user against mixing the pesticide with alkaline materials. The reason for this caution is that some materials (in par ticular the organophosphate insecticides) undergo a chemical reaction know as “alkaline hydrolysis.” This reaction occurs when the pesticide is mixed with alkaline water; that is, water with a pH greater than 7. The more alkaline the water, the greater the breakdown (i.e., “hydrolysis”).

In addition to lime sulfur, several other materials provide alkaline conditions: caustic soda, caustic potash, soda ash, magnesia or dolomitic limestone, and liquid ammonia. Water sources in agricultural areas can vary in pH from less than 3 to greater than 10.

To check the pH of your water, purchase a pH meter or in most states you can submit a water sample to your state’s soil or water testing lab. If you have a problem with alkaline pH, there are several products available that are called nutrient buffers that will lower the pH of your water.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 25

There are some instances when materials should not be acidified, namely, sprays containing fixed copper fungicides, including:

Bordeaux mixture, copper oxide, basic copper sulfate, copper hydroxide, etc.

bENEFICIAL INSECtS

A number of environmental factors, such as weather, food availability, and natural enemies combine to keep insect populations under control naturally. In some human-altered landscapes, such as in agricultural crop fields, the levels of natural control are often not acceptable to us, and we have to intervene in order to lower pest populations. While some environmental factors, such as weather, cannot be altered to enhance control of pests, others such as populations of natural enemies, can be effected. The practice of taking advantage of and manipulating natural enemies in order to suppress pest populations is called biological control.

Approaches to biological Control.

There are three general approaches to biological control: importation, augmentation, and conservation of natural enemies. Each of these techniques can be used either alone or in combination in a biological control program.

Importation:

Importation of natural enemies, sometimes referred to as classical biological control, is used when a pest of exotic origin is the target of the biocontrol program. Pests are constantly being imported into countries where they are not native, either accidentally, or in some cases, intentionally. Many of these introductions do not result in establishment or if they do, the organism may not become a pest. However, it is possible for some of these introduced organisms to become pests due to a lack of natural enemies to suppress their populations. In these cases, importation of natural enemies can be highly effective.

Once the country of origin of the pest is determined, exploration in the native region can be conducted to search for promising natural enemies. If such enemies are identified, they may be evaluated for potential impact on the pest organism in the native country or alternatively imported into the new country for further study.

Natural enemies are imported into the U.S. only under permit from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. They must first be placed in quarantine for one or more generations to be sure that no undesirable species are accidentally imported (diseases, hyperparasitoids, etc.). Additional permits are required for interstate shipment and field release.

Augmentation:

Augmentation is the direct manipulation of natural enemies to increase their effectiveness. This can be accomplished by one of two general methods or a combination of these methods: mass production and/or periodic colonization of natural enemies.

The most commonly used of these approaches is the first, in which natural enemies are produced in insectaries, then released either inoculatively or inundatively. For example, in areas where a particular natural enemy cannot overwinter, an inoculative release each spring may allow the population to establish and adequately control a pest. Inundative releases involve the release of large numbers of a natural enemy such that their population completely overwhelms the pest.

Augmentation is used where populations of a natural enemy are not present or cannot respond quickly enough to the pest population. Therefore, augmentation usually does not provide permanent suppression of pests, as may occur with importation or conservation methods. An example of the inoculative release method is the use of the parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa Gahan, to suppress populations of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes

vaporariorum (Westwood). The greenhouse whitefly is a ubiquitous pest of vegetable and floriculture crops that is notoriously difficult to manage, even with pesticides. Releases of relatively low densities (typically 0.25 to 2 per plant, depending on the crop) of

Encarsia immediately after the first whiteflies have been detected on yellow sticky cards can effectively prevent populations from developing to damaging levels. However, releases should be made within the context of an integrated crop management program that takes into account the low tolerance of the parasitoids to pesticides.

It is important to bear in mind that Encarsia can provide effective control of greenhouse whitefly, but not sweetpotato whitefly.

Therefore, it is critical to identify which whitefly is present before releasing Encarsia. Another parasitoid, Eretmocerus californicus has shown promise against sweetpotato whitefly.

Because most augmentation involves mass-production and periodic colonization of natural enemies, this type of biological control has lent itself to commercial development. There are hundreds of biological control products available commercially for dozens of pest invertebrates (insects, spidermites, etc.), vertebrates (deer, rodents, etc.), weeds, and plant pathogens. A summary of these products and their target pests is presented in Table 13. The efficacy of these predators and parasites is dependent on many factors. Management of the target pest is more likely than 100% control. It is critical to familiarize yourself with proper usage of these predators and parasites otherwise you may not achieve satisfactory results and obtain inconsistent results. Selection of products and suppliers should be done with care, as with purchasing any product. Review publications for guidelines on how to purchase and utilize natural enemies.

Conservation:

The most common form of biological control is conservation of natural enemies which already exist in a cropping situation. Conservation involves identifying the factor(s) which may limit the effectiveness of a particular natural enemy and modifying these factor(s) to increase the effectiveness of natural enemies. In general, this involves either reducing factors which interfere with natural enemies or providing resources that natural enemies need in their environment. The most common factor that interferes with natural enemy effectiveness is the application of pesticides. Some cultural practices such as tillage or burning of crop debris can also kill natural enemies or make the crop habitat unsuitable. In some crops, accumulation of dust deposits on leaves from repeated tillage or a location near roadways may kill small predators and parasites and cause increases in certain insect and mite pests. In some cases, the chemical and physical defenses that plants use to protect themselves from pests may reduce the effectiveness of biological control.

An example of how conservation can work involves the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). This insect has developed into the most important pest of crucifers in recent years due to the pest’s development of resistance to most pesticides. Two parasitoids, the Ichneumonid wasp Diadegma insulare (Cresson) and the braconid wasp Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjunov), can help reduce dia-

26 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 13. PrEdAtOrS ANd PArASItES OF vEgEtAbLE PEStS (cont’d)

Predators and Parasites

Approx. # North

American Species Pest(s) Controlled or Impacted

WASPS

Aphelinid Wasps *

Aphidiid Wasps *

Braconid Wasps *

1,000

114

1,000

Aphids on some greenhouse and vegetable crops; mummies of parasitized aphids will be black.

Aphid parasites; mummies turn tan or golden.

Caterpillars on Cole crops and irish potatoes, leafminers in greenhouse crops.

Chalcid Wasps *

Cotesia Wasps (Braconid Family) *

Encarsia formosa * encyrtid Wasps eulophid Wasps ichneumonid Wasps *

Mymarid egg Wasps

Pteromalid Wasps

Scelionid egg Wasps tiphiid Wasps trichogramma Wasps *

Thripobius semiluteus (eulophidae Family)*

Vespid Wasps (hornets, yellowjackets, etc.)

FLIES

Aphid Flies (Chamaemyiid Flies)

1,500

200

1

500

3,400

3,100

1,300

3,000

300

225

650

1

200

36

Internal and external parasite of fly and moth larvae and pupae. A few species attack beetles.

Parasites of caterpillars including armyworms, Alfalfa caterpillar, loopers, cabbageworms.

A commercially available Aphelinid wasp, whiteflies on greenhouse/some field crops.

Aphids on some greenhouse crops, Cabbage looper, root maggot.

Colorado Potato Beetle, Mexican Bean beetle, Asparagus beetle, leafminers in field crops.

Caterpillars, eggs, and beetle larvae in: Cole crops, corn, Asparagus whiteflies on Cole crops and tomato.

Lygus bug, Tarnished Plant bug, carrot weevil. Egg parasite of beetles, flies, grasshoppers, leafhoppers and many true bugs (Stink bugs, lygeids). Adults are 1/25 inch in size.

Parasites of beetles, flies, and other wasps, cabbage worm, diamondback moth.

Parasite of true bug and moth eggs.

Parasites of Japanese beetles and tiger beetles.

Moth eggs on Cole crops, peppers, sweet corn, and tomatoes. Because only eggs are parasitized, releases must be timed to coincide with egg laying (use pheromone trap to determine timing).

Controls thrips via parasitism.

Caterpillars, flies, true bugs, beetles, and other wasps are fed to Vespid larvae.

Feed on aphids, mealybugs, and soft scales.

Bombyliid Flies (Bee Flies)

Nemestrinid Flies (tangle Veined Flies)

Phorid Flies (Humpbacked Flies)

Pipunculid Flies (Big-Headed Flies)

250

250

350

100 internal and external parasites of various caterpillars and wasp larvae, beetle larvae, some eggs.

internal parasites of locusts and beetle larvae and pupae.

Internal parasites of ants, bees, caterpillars, moth pupae, and fly larvae.

internal parasites of leafhoppers and planthoppers.

Predatory Midges (Cecidomyiid Flies)*

Pyrgotidae (Pyrgotid Flies)

Syrphid Flies tachinid Flies

10

5

1,000

1,300

Aphids and mites on some greenhouse crops.

internal parasites of June beetles and related Scarab beetles; nocturnal and rarely seen.

Most larvae are predaceous upon aphids, whitefly pupae, and soft-bodied small insects.

Internal parasite of beetle, butterfly, and moth larvae, earwigs, grasshoppers and true bugs. Tachinids lay eggs directly on host or on a leaf that is then eaten by the host insect. Some species parasitize Japanese beetles.

trUE bUgS

Assassin Bugs (Reduviidae)

Big-eyed Bug, Geocoris spp.

Damsel Bugs (Nabidae)

Minute Pirate Bug,

Orius insidiosis (aka Flower Bug)*

Predatory Stink Bug

(Perillus, Podisus spp.)

Spined Soldier Bug,

Podisus maculiventris*

160

25

34

1

14

Generalist predators against small and soft-bodied insects, eggs, and pupae.

Generalist predators feeding on a wide variety of insect eggs and small larvae. Both immature and adults are predaceous and feed on over 60 species of other insects.

Mites, aphids, caterpillars, leafhoppers, and other insects, especially soft-bodied insects.

thrips, spider mites, aphids, small caterpillars small insects in sweet corn, irish potato, and on some greenhouse crops.

Look similar to plant feeding Stink bugs, but feed on caterpillar pests, small insects and insect eggs, and

Colorado Potato beetle (larvae). effective in Solanaceous crops, beans, Cole crops and asparagus.

1 Generalist predator on many vegetables (i.e. irish potato, tomato, sweet corn, Cole crops, beans, eggplant, cucurbits, asparagus, onions). Attacks larvae of european Corn borer, Diamondback moth, Corn earworm,

Beet Armyworm, Fall Armyworm, Colorado Potato beetle, Cabbage Looper, imported Cabbageworm, and

Mexican Bean beetle. A pheromone to attract Spined Soldier Bug is also available.

bEEtLES

Ground Beetles (Carabid Beetles)

Lady Beetles (Coccenelidae)*

Rove Beetles (Staphylinidae)

2,200

400

3,100

Both larvae and adults predaceous, nocturnal. Feed on mites and snails, soil dwelling beetle and fly eggs and pupae, some caterpillars, and other soft bodied insects. Most beneficial in Cole crops, root crops, and onions.

Aphids, mites, whitefly, small insects, and insect eggs in most vegetable crops (especially Irish potatoes, tomatoes, sweet corn and Cole crops. Release purchased lady beetles in evening, in vicinity of pest, and cover with a light sheet or cloth overnight for best predator retention.

Distinguished by short outer wings and exposed abdomens, Rove beetles feed on a variety of eggs, pupae, larvae, and soft bodied insects (aphids, mites, whitefly).

Soft-Winged Flower Beetles (Melyridae)

Soldier Beetles (Cantharids, aka Leather-Winged Beetles)

450

100

Adults and larvae feed on aphids, leafhoppers, and other immature insects. Covered in fine hairs that give the insect a velvety appearance.

All larvae, and some adults, are predaceous. other adults feed on nectar and pollen, so can be attracted by flower plantings. Predators of eggs and larvae of beetles, butterflies moths, aphids, others. Most effective in Cole crops, cucurbits, and sweet corn.

tiger Beetles (Cicindelid Beetles) 40 Adults and larvae prey on a wide variety of insects.

* insects marked with an asterisk represents species that are available commercially for purchase.

For a list of Biological Control (Beneficial Insects) Suppliers, see http://wiki.bugwood.org/Commercially_available_biological_controls

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 27

tAbLE 13. PrEdAtOrS ANd PArASItES OF vEgEtAbLE PEStS (cont’d)

Predators and Parasites

Approx. # North

American Species Pest(s) Controlled or Impacted

OtHEr bENEFICIAL OrgANISMS

Praying Mantis *

Lacewings*

Parasitic nematodes*

Predatory mites

(Phytoseiidae & 3 other families)*

27

6

Flies, crickets, bees, moths. All life stages are predatory. Commercially available mantis are usually tenodera aridifolia, a Chinese species.

Aphids, thrips, small caterpillars, leafhoppers, mealybugs, psyllids, whiteflies, and insect eggs. Release purchased lacewings as soon as target pest is noticed in field to achieve good results.

Cutworms, beetle larvae, root maggots.

Releases most beneficial in strawberries and greenhouse vegetables; avoid carbamates and organophosphates to encourage natural populations in field. Primarily effective against spider mites and thrips.

* insects marked with an asterisk represents species that are available commercially for purchase.

For a list of Biological Control (Beneficial Insects) Suppliers, see http://wiki.bugwood.org/Commercially_available_biological_controls mondback moth populations if excessive pesticide applications are avoided, especially with reductions in the use of pyrethroids. BT products can work well to suit this purpose. Therefore, by simply being selective in the type of pesticide used, and by spraying only when threshold levels are reached, free control can be provided by natural enemies already present in the field.

Incorporating biological Control Into A Pest Management

Program:

Biological control can be an effective, environmentally sound method of managing pests. However, when trying to make the best use of natural enemies in your crop, it may be helpful to consider the following suggestions.

First, make sure you have your pest(s) accurately identified.

Extension can help with this. Consulting your local Extension office is a good practice regardless of which pest control method you use.

Second, determine if natural enemy releases are appropriate for your specific situation. Sometimes knowledge of crop and cultural practices that encourage naturally-occurring biological control agents can allow you to maximize the control they provide.

By conserving these natural enemies, pesticide use (and therefore expense) can be minimized.

Usually, released natural enemies work best as a preventative pest management method. That is, if they are introduced into your crop at the beginning of a pest infestation, they can prevent that population from developing to damaging levels. If you wait until pests have become a problem before releasing natural enemies, the use of natural enemies usually will not work. Therefore, pest problems must be anticipated and planned for by carefully monitoring pest population development. Effective trapping, monitoring, and field scouting should be used to determine when pests appear, and to determine the timing of natural enemy releases.

If you decide to use commercially available biological control agents, you should choose your product and supplier carefully. Once you have received your natural enemies, handle them with care, following all instructions provided by your supplier. The number or rate of natural enemies to release can be determined through consultation with a reliable supplier, as can the timing of application. Because natural enemies are living organisms, adverse conditions (e.g. stormy weather, pesticide residues) can kill them or reduce their effectiveness. Because the actions of natural enemies are not as obvious as those of pesticides, it may be important to work with your supplier to develop a procedure to evaluate the effectiveness of your releases.

Further details of the above suggestions are provided in Table

13. Remember, just because an organism is sold as a “natural” or

“biological” control does not mean it will work as you expect. For example, praying mantids are general “ambush” predators that will eat anything small enough (usually mobile insects) that pass in front of them. They do not specifically attack pests that growers are usually interested in removing. Another example is ladybeetle adults that have been “pre-conditioned.” These ladybeetles will just as readily leave the area that you have treated as ladybeetles that have been collected and not pre-conditioned.

This does not mean that biological control will not work for your situation. There are a number of products and approaches that can provide very satisfactory results.

For the most current information about suppliers of organisms and related products, the purchase of natural enemies, and how to effectively use them, consult with Extension:

dIAgNOSINg vEgEtAbLE CrOP

PrObLEMS

When visiting a vegetable field, follow the steps outlined below to help solve any potential problems. All vegetable problems, such as poor growth, leaf blemishes, wilts, rots, and other problems should be promptly diagnosed. This is necessary for the grower to implement prompt and effective corrective measures or to help reduce the probability of its reoccurrence in following crops or its spread to susceptible neighboring crops.

1. Describe the problem.

2. Determine whether there is a pattern of symptomatic plants in the field.

a. Does the pattern correlate with a certain area in the field, such as a low spot, poor-drainage area, or sheltered area?

b. Does the pattern correlate with concurrent field operations, such as certain rows, time of planting, method of fertilization, or rate of fertilization?

3. Try to trace the history of the problem.

a. On what date were the symptoms first noticed?

b. Which fertilizer and liming practices were used?

c. Which pest-management practices were used to manage diseases, undesirable insects, and weeds — which chemicals (if any), were applied, at what application rates, and what was the previous use of equipment that was used for application?

28 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

d. What were the temperatures, soil moisture conditions, and level of sunlight?

e. What was the source of seed or planting stock?

f. Which crops were grown in the same area during the past 3 or 4 years?

4. Examine affected plants to determine whether the problem is related to insects, diseases, or cultural practices.

a. Do the symptoms point to insect problems? Insect problems are usually restricted to the crop. (A hand lens is usually essential to determine this.)

(1) Look for the presence of insects, webbing, and frass on foliage, stems, and roots.

(2) Look for feeding signs such as chewing, sucking, or boring injuries.

b. Do the symptoms suggest disease problems? These symptoms are usually not uniform; rather, they are specific for certain crops.

(1) Look for necrotic (dead) areas on the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit.

(2) Look for discoloration of the vascular tissue (plant veins).

(3) Look for fungal growth.

(4) Look for virus patterns; often these are similar to injury from 2,4-D or other hormones and nutritional problems.

(5) Examine roots for twisting or galling.

c. Do the symptoms point to cultural problems? Look for the following:

(1) Nutrient deficiencies. (A soil test from good areas and poor areas should be done as well as analysis of nutrient content of leaf tissue from the same areas.)

• Nitrogen—light green or yellow foliage. Nitrogen deficiencies are more acute on lower leaves.

• Phosphorus—purple coloration of leaves; plants are stunted.

• Potassium— yellow or brown leaf margins and leaf curling.

• Magnesium—interveinal chlorosis (yellowing between veins) of mid level or lower leaves.

• Boron—development of lateral growth; hollow, brownish stems; cracked petioles.

• Iron—light green or yellow foliage occurs first and is more acute on young leaves.

• Molybdenum—”whiptail” leaf symptoms on cauliflower and other crops in the cabbage family.

(2) Chemical toxicities.

• Toxicity of minor elements—boron, zinc, manganese.

• Soluble salt injury—wilting of the plant when wet; death, usually from excessive fertilizer application or accumulation of salts from irrigation water.

(3) Soil problems. (Take soil tests of good and poor areas.)

• Poor drainage.

• Poor soil structure, compaction, etc.

• Hard pans or plow pans.

(4) Pesticide injury. (Usually uniform in the area or shows definite patterns, and more than one plant species, such as weeds, are often symptomatic.)

• Insecticide burning or stunting.

• Weed-killer (herbicide) burning or abnormal growth.

(5) Climatic damage.

• High-temperature injury.

• Low-temperature (chilling) injury.

• Lack of water.

• Excessive moisture (lack of soil oxygen).

• Frost or freeze damage.

(6) Physiological damage.

• Air-pollution injury.

• Genetic mutations (this is rare).

In summary, when trying to solve a vegetable crop problem, take notes of problem areas, look for a pattern to the symptoms, trace the history of the problem, and examine the plants and soil closely.

These notes can be used to avoid the problem in the future or to assist others in helping solve their problem. Publi ca tions and bulletins designed to help the grower identi fy specific vegeta ble problems are avail able from Extension.

AIr POLLUtION INJUry

The extent of plant damage by particular pollutants in any given year depends on meteorological factors leading to air stagnation, the presence of a pollution source, and the susceptibility of the plants.

Some pollutants that affect vegetable crops are sulfur dioxide

(SO

2

), ozone (O ammonia (NH

3

).

3

), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), chlorine (Cl), and

Sulfur dioxide.

SO

2

causes acute and chronic plant injury. Acute injury is characterized by clearly marked dead tissue between the veins or on leaf margins. The dead tissue may be bleached, ivory, tan, orange, red, reddish brown, or brown, depending on plant species, time of year, and weather conditions. Chronic injury is marked by brownish red, turgid, or bleached white areas on the leaf blade. Young leaves rarely display damage, whereas fully expanded leaves are very sensitive.

Some crops sensitive to sulfur dioxide are: squash, pumpkin, mustard, spinach, lettuce, endive, Swiss chard, broccoli, bean, carrot, and tomato.

Ozone.

A common symptom of O

3

injury is small stipple like or flecklike lesions visible only on the upper leaf sur face. These very small, irregularly shaped spots may be dark brown to black

(stipplelike) or light tan to white (flecklike). Very young leaves are normally resistant to ozone. Recently matured leaves are most susceptible. Leaves be come more susceptible as they mature, and the lesions spread over a greater portion of the leaf with successive

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 29

ozone exposures. Injury is usually more pronounced at the leaf tip and along the margins. With severe damage, symptoms may extend to the lower leaf surface.

Pest feeding (red spider mite and certain leafhoppers) produces flecks on the upper surface of leaves much like ozone injury. Flecks from insect feeding, however, are usually spread uniformly over the leaf, whereas ozone flecks are concen trated in specific areas. Some older watermelon varieties and red varieties of Irish potatoes and beans are particu larly sensitive to ozone.

Peroxyacetyl nitrate.

PAN affects the under surfaces of newly matured leaves, and it causes bronzing, glazing, or silvering on the lower surface of sensitive leaf areas.

The leaf apex of broadleaved plants becomes sensitive to PAN about 5 days after leaf emergence. Since PAN toxicity is specific for tissue of a particular stage of development, only about four leaves on a shoot are sensitive at any one time. With PAN only successive exposures will cause the entire leaf to develop injury.

Injury may consist of bronzing or glazing with little or no tissue collapse on the upper leaf surface. Pale green to white stipplelike areas may appear on upper and lower leaf surfaces. Complete tissue collapse in a diffuse band across the leaf is helpful in identifying PAN injury.

Glazing of lower leaf surfaces may be produced by the feeding of thrips or other insects or by insecticides and herbicides, but differences should be detectable by careful examination.

Sensitive crops are: Swiss chard, lettuce, beet, esca role, mustard, dill, pepper, Irish potato, spinach, tomato, and canta loupe.

Chlorine.

Injury from chlorine is usually of an acute type, and it is similar in pattern to sulfur dioxide injury. Foliar necrosis and bleaching are common. Necrosis is marginal in some species, but scattered in others either between or along veins. Lettuce plants exhibit necrotic injury on the margins of outer leaves, which often extends into solid areas toward the center and base of the leaf. Inner leaves remain un marked. Crops sensitive to chlorine are: Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard, beet, esca role, mustard, dill, pepper,

Irish potato, spinach, tomato, canta loupe, corn, onion, and radish.

Ammonia.

Field injury from NH

3

has been primari ly due to accidental spillage or use of ammoniated fertilizers under plastic mulch on light sandy soils. Slight amounts of the gas produce color changes in the pigments of vegetable skin. The dry outer scales of red onions may become greenish or black, whereas scales of yellow or brown onions may turn dark brown. In addition, chicken litter may be high in ammonia (NH

3

) and ammonium (NH

4

), and if sufficient time is not allowed between litter application and planting, substantial damage from ammonia toxicity may occur to seeds or seedlings.

WHAt ArE gOOd AgrICULtUrAL

PrACtICES (gAPS)?

Good agricultural practices (GAPs) are basic environmental and operational conditions necessary for the production of safe, wholesome fruits and vegetables. The purpose of GAPs is to give logical guidance in implementing best management practices that will help reduce the risks of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables. Examples of GAPs include worker hygiene and health, manure use, and water quality throughout the production and harvesting process. While the United States has one of the safest food supplies in the world, media attention the past few years on food borne illness outbreaks underscores the importance of good agricultural practices.

Growers, packers, and shippers are urged to take a proactive role in minimizing food safety hazards potentially associated with fresh produce. Being aware of, and addressing, the common risk factors outlined in GAPs will result in a more effective, cohesive response to emerging concerns about the microbial safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, operators should encourage the adoption of safe practices by their partners along the farm-to-table food chain. This includes distributors, exporters, importers, retailers, producer transporters, food service operators, and consumers.

bASIC PrINCIPLES OF gOOd

AgrICULtUrAL PrACtICES (gAPS)

By identifying basic principles of microbial food safety within the realm of growing, harvesting, packing, and transporting fresh produce, growers will be better prepared to recognize and address the principal elements known to give rise to microbial food safety concerns.

1. Prevention of microbial contamination of fresh produce is favored over reliance on corrective actions once contamination has occurred.

2. To minimize microbial food safety hazards in fresh produce, growers, packers, and shippers should use good agricultural and management practices in those areas over which they

have control.

3. Fresh produce can become microbiologically contaminated at any point along the farm-to-table food chain. The major source of microbial contamination with fresh produce is associated with human or animal feces.

4. Whenever water comes in contact with produce, its source and quality dictates the potential for contamination. Minimize the potential of microbial contamination from water used with fresh fruits and vegetables.

5. Practices using animal manure or municipal biosolid wastes should be managed carefully to minimize the potential for microbial contamination of fresh produce.

Worker hygiene and sanitation practices during production, harvesting, sorting, packing, and transport play a critical role in minimizing the potential for microbial contamination of fresh produce.

7. Follow all applicable local, state, and federal laws and regu-

lations, or corresponding or similar laws, regulations or standards for operators outside the U.S., for agricultural practices.

8. Accountability at all levels of the agricultural environment

(farm, packing facility, distribution center, and transport operation) is important to a successful food safety program.

9. There must be qualified personnel and effective monitoring to ensure that all elements of the program function correctly and to help track produce back through the distribution channels to the producer.

30 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

More information and resources on Good Agricultural Practices can be found at the following websites or by contacting your local

Extension office.

SOUrCES

NC Produce Safety

http://ncfreshproducesafety.ces.ncsu.edu/

OK State Produce Safety factsheets

http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/View/Collection-338

Produce Safety Alliance

http://producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu/

FdA Produce Safety Standards

http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/FSMA/ucm304045.htm

USdA Produce Safety

http://www.fns.usda.gov/food-safety/produce-safety-resources

Center for Produce Safety

https://cps.ucdavis.edu/

POStHArvESt HANdLINg

Importance of Temperature Management

Once harvested, a vegetable continues life processes independent of the plant, and as a result, must utilize its own stored energy reserves. Within hours of harvest, crops held at ambient temperatures can suffer irreversible losses in quality, reducing postharvest life.

Additionally, many vegetables, such as greens and lettuce, are cut at harvest, and this wound further increases stress on the tissue.

The relative perishability of a crop is reflected in its respiration rate. Respiration is the process of life by which O chemical energy, water, CO

2

is combined with stored carbohydrates and other components to produce heat,

2

, and other products. The respiration rate varies by commodity; those commodities with high respiration rates utilize the reserves faster and are more perishable than those with lower respiration rates. Therefore, vegetables with higher respiration rates, such as broccoli and sweet corn, must be rapidly cooled to the optimal storage temperature to slow metabolism and extend postharvest life during subsequent shipping and handling operations.

Since the introduction of hydrocooling for celery in the 1920s, rapid cooling (precooling) has allowed produce to be shipped to distant markets while maintaining high quality. Commercial cooling is defined as the rapid removal of field heat to temperatures approaching optimal storage temperature and it is the first line of defense in retarding the biological processes that reduce vegetable quality. Cooling, in conjunction with refrigeration during subsequent handling operations, provides a “cold chain” from packinghouse to supermarket to maximize postharvest life and control diseases and pests. (The term “postharvest life” is purposely used in this text, since “shelf life” has the connotation that the commodity “sits on the shelf”, implying that the product requires no subsequent refrigeration.) Timeliness during handling is also essential in maintaining produce quality: timely and careful harvest and transport to the packinghouse, rapid packing and cooling, and rapid transport to the market or buyer. Everyone involved at each of the many steps during product handling (e.g., shippers, truckers, receivers) must take care to ensure that the refrigerated cold chain is not broken.

Many shippers are well equipped to rapidly cool their crops, and a growing number are incorporating cooling or improving their existing facilities. Simple placement of packed vegetables

in a refrigerated cooler is not sufficient to maintain quality for

product destined for distant markets. Neither should non-cooled vegetables be loaded directly into refrigerated trailers. In both of these situations, the product cools very slowly, at best. Refrigerated trailers are designed to maintain product temperature during transport, and they do not have the refrigeration capacity to quickly remove field heat. Therefore, only produce that has been properly cooled should be loaded, and only into trailers that have been cooled prior to loading.

StOrAgE rEQUIrEMENtS

Horticultural crops may be grouped and stored into two broad categories based on sensitivity to storage temperatures. The degree of chilling sensitivity, and therefore the lowest safe storage temperature, is crop-specific. Those crops that are chilling sensitive should be held at temperatures generally above 50°F (10°C). Storage below this threshold will give rise to a physiological disorder known as chilling injury. Chilling injury symptoms are characterized by development of sunken lesions on the skin, increased susceptibility to decay, increased shriveling, and incomplete ripening (poor flavor, texture, aroma, and color). Vegetables most susceptible to chilling injury include cucumber, eggplant, melons, okra, peppers,

Irish potatoes, summer squash, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes.The extent of chilling symptoms is also dependent on the length of exposure to low temperatures. Short exposure times will result in less injury than longer exposure to chilling temperatures. Those crops not as sensitive to chilling injury may be stored at temperatures as low as 32°F (0°C).

In addition to maintaining storage rooms at proper storage temperatures, the relative humidity should also be controlled to reduce water loss from the crop. Optimal storage recommendations and precooling methods are included for a wide range of vegetable commodities in Table 14.

OPtIMIzINg COMMErCIAL COOLINg

COOLINg CONCEPtS

Cooling is a term that is often used quite loosely. In order to be effective and significantly benefit the shipping life of the product, an appropriate definition of commercial cooling for perishable crops is: the rapid removal of at least 7/8 of the field heat from the crop

by a compatible cooling method. The time required to remove 7/8 of the field heat is known as the 7/8 Cooling Time. Removal of 7/8 of the field heat during cooling is strongly recommended to provide adequate shipping life for shipment to distant markets; also,

7/8 of the heat can be removed in a fairly short amount of time.

Removal of the remaining 1/8 of the field heat will occur during subsequent refrigerated storage and handling with little detriment to the product.

The rate of heat transfer, or the cooling rate, is critical for efficient removal of field heat in order to achieve cooling. As a form of energy, heat always seeks equilibrium. In the case of cooling, the sensible heat (or field heat) from the product is transferred to the cooling medium. The efficiency of cooling is dependent on time, temperature, and contact. In order to achieve maximum cooling, the product must remain in the precooler for sufficient time to remove heat. The cooling medium (air, water, crushed ice) must be maintained at constant temperature throughout the cooling period.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 31

tAbLE 14. rECOMMENdEd StOrAgE CONdItIONS ANd COOLINg MEtHOdS FOr MAxIMUM POStHArvESt LIFE

OF COMMErCIALLy grOWN vEgEtAbLES temperature

Crop °F °C % relative Humidity Approximate Storage Life Cooling Method

1

Asparagus

Bean, green or snap

Bean, lima (butterbean)

Bean, lima, shelled

32-35

40-45

37-41

32

0-2

4-7

3-5

0

95-100

95

95

95-100

2-3 weeks

7-10 days

5-7 days

2-3 days

Hy

Hy, FA

Hy

RooM, FA

Beet, topped

Broccoli

Cabbage, early

32

32

32

0

0

0

98-100

95-100

98-100

4-6 months

10-14 days

3-6 weeks

RooM

Hy,iCe

RooM

Cabbage, Chinese

Carrot, bunched

Carrot, mature, topped

Cauliflower

Collard

Cucumber eggplant endive and escarole

Garlic

Greens, leafy

Kale

Kohlrabi

Leek

Lettuce

Melon

Cantaloupe, 3/4-slip

Mixed melons

Watermelon okra onion, green onion, dry

2

Parsley

32

32

32

32

32

50-55

46-54

32

32

32

32

32

32

32

0

0

0

0

0

10-13

8-12

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

95-100

95-100

98-100

95-98

95-100

95

90-95

95-100

65-70

95-100

95-100

98-100

95-100

98-100

2-3 months

2 weeks

7-9 months

3-4 weeks

10-14 days

10-14 days

1 week

2-3 weeks

6-7 months

10-14 days

2-3 weeks

2-3 months

2-3 months

2-3 weeks

36-41

45-50

50-60

45-50

32

32

32

2-5

6-10

10-15

7-10

0

0

0

95

90-95

90

90-95

95-100

65-70

95-100

15 days

2-3 weeks

2-3 weeks

7-10 days

3-4 weeks

1-8 months

2-2.5 months

Parsnip

Pea, green or english

Southernpea

Pepper, sweet (bell)

Potato, irish

2

32

32

40-41

45-55

40

0

0

4-5

7-13

4

98-100

95-98

95

90-95

90-95

4-6 months

1-2 weeks

6-8 days

2-3 weeks

4-5 months

Pumpkin

Radish, spring

Radish, oriental

Rutabaga

Spinach

Squash, summer

Sweet corn

Squash, winter

Sweetpotato

2 tomato, mature-green

50-55

32

32

32

32

41-50

32

50

55-60

55-70

10-13

0

0

0

0

5-10

0

10

13-16

13-21

50-70

95-100

95-100

98-100

95-100

95

95-98

50-70

85-90

90-95

2-3 months

3-4 weeks

2-4 months

4-6 months

10-14 days

1-2 weeks

5-8 days

Depending on type

4-7 months

1-3 weeks

Tomato, firm-red turnip

46-50

32

8-10

0

90-95

95

4-7 days

4-5 months

1 FA = Forced-air cooling; HY = Hydrocooling; ICE = Package ice, slush ice; ROOM = Room cooling; VAC = Vacuum cooling

2 Curing required prior to long term storage. ‘Curing’ of dry onions actually involves drying the outer bulb scales, reducing the fresh weight by 5-6%.

Hy,VAC

Hy

Hy

Hy,VA

Hy,iCe,VAC

Hy

FA

Hy,iCe,VAC

RooM

Hy,iCe,VAC

Hy,iCe,VAC

RooM

Hy,iCe,VAC

Hy, VAC, iCe

FA,Hy

FA,Hy

RooM, FA

FA

Hy,iCe

RooM

Hy,iCe

RooM

Hy,iCe

FA,Hy

FA, RooM

Hy,RooM,FA

RooM

Hy, FA

RooM

RooM iCe,Hy,VAC

FA,Hy

Hy,iCe,VAC

RooM

RooM

FA,RooM

FA,RooM

FA,RooM

32 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

The cooling medium also must have continuous, intimate contact with the surfaces of the individual vegetables. For reasonable cooling efficiency, the cooling medium temperature should be at least at the recommended storage temperature for the commodity found in Table 14. Inappropriately designed containers with insufficient vent or drain openings or incorrectly stacked pallets can markedly restrict the flow of the cooling medium, increasing cooling time.

COOLINg MEtHOdS

The cooling rate is not only dependent upon time, temperature, and contact with the commodity; it is also dependent upon the cooling method being employed. The various cooling media used to cool produce have different capacities to remove heat.

rOOM COOLINg

The simplest, but slowest, cooling method is room cooling, in which the bulk or containerized commodity is placed in a refrigerated room for several days. Air is circulated by the existing fans past the evaporator coil to the room. Vented containers and proper stacking are critical to minimize obstructions to air flow and ensure maximum heat removal. Room cooling is not considered precooling and is satisfactory only for commodities with low respiration rates, such as mature potatoes, dried onions, and cured sweetpotatoes. Even these crops may require precooling, when harvested under high ambient temperatures.

FOrCEd-AIr COOLINg

The cooling efficiency of refrigerated rooms can be greatly improved by increasing the airflow through the product. This principle led to the development of forced-air, or pressure cooling, in which refrigerated room air is drawn at a high flow rate through specially stacked containers or bins by means of a high capacity fan. This method can cool as much as four times faster than room cooling. Forced-Air cooling is an efficient method for precooling.

In many cases, cold storage rooms can be retrofitted for forced-air cooling, which requires less capital investment than other cooling methods. However, in order to achieve such rapid heat removal, the refrigeration capacity of the room may need to be increased to be able to maintain the desired air temperature during cooling. Portable systems can be taken to the field.

With either room cooling or forced-air cooling, precautions must be taken to minimize water loss from the product. The refrigeration system actually dehumidifies the cold-room air as water vapor in the air condenses on the evaporator coil. This condensation lowers the relative humidity in the room. As a result, the product loses moisture to the air. To minimize water loss during cooling and storage, the ambient relative humidity should be maintained at the recommended level for the particular crop (commercial humidification systems are available) and the product should be promptly removed from the forced-air precooler upon achieving 7/8 Cool-

ing. Forced-air cooling is recommended for most of the fruit-type vegetables and is especially appropriate for vegetables such as peppers and tomatoes.

HydrOCOOLINg

Hydrocooling removes heat at a faster rate than forced-air cooling.

The heat capacity of refrigerated water is greater than that for air, which means that a given volume of water can remove more heat than the same volume of air at the same temperature. Hydrocooling is beneficial in that it does not remove water from the commodity. It is most efficient (and, therefore, most rapid) when individual vegetables are cooled by immersion in flumes or by overhead drench, since the water completely covers the product surfaces.

Cooling becomes less efficient when the commodity is hydrocooled in closed containers, and even less efficient when containers are palletized and hydrocooled. It is important to continuously monitor the hydrocooler water and product temperatures and adjust the amount of time the product is in the hydrocooler accordingly in order to achieve thorough cooling.

Sanitation of the hydrocooling water is critical, since it is recirculated. Decay organisms present on the vegetables can accumulate in the water, inoculating subsequent product being hydrocooled. Cooling water should be changed frequently. Commodities that are hydrocooled must be sufficiently resistant to withstand the force of the water drench. The container must also have sufficient strength so as to resist the application of water. Crops recommended for hydrocooling include sweet corn, snap beans, cucumbers, and summer squash.

CONtACt ICINg

Contact icing has been used for both cooling and temperature maintenance during shipping. Heat from the product is absorbed by the ice, causing it to melt. As long as the contact between the ice and produce is maintained, cooling is fairly rapid and the melted ice serves to maintain a very high humidity level in the package, which keeps the produce fresh and crisp. Non-uniform distribution of ice reduces the cooling efficiency. There are two types of contact icing: top icing and package icing.

Top icing

involves placement of crushed ice over the top layer of product in a container prior to closure. Although relatively inexpensive, the cooling rate can be fairly slow since the ice only directly contacts the product on the top layer. For this reason, it is recommended that top icing be applied after precooling to crops with lower respiration rates such as leafy vegetables and celery but not for fruit of warm-season crops. Prior to shipping, ice is blown on top of containers loaded in truck trailers to aid in cooling and maintenance of higher relative humidity. However, care should be taken to avoid blockage of vent spaces in the load; this restricts airflow, which results in warming of product in the center of the load during shipment. Ice should also be “tempered” with water to bring the temperature to 32°F (0°C) to avoid freezing of the product.

Package Icing.

Crushed ice distributed within the container is known as package icing. Cooling is faster and more uniform than for top icing, but it can be more labor intensive to apply.

A modified version of package icing utilizes a slurry of refrigerated water and finely chopped ice drenched over either bulk or containerized produce or injected into side hand holds. This “slush ice” method has been widely adopted for commodities tolerant to direct contact with water and requiring storage at 32°F (0°C).

The water acts as a carrier for the ice so that the resulting slush, or slurry, can be pumped into a packed container. The rapidly flowing slush causes the product in the container to float momentarily until the water drains out the bottom. As the product settles in the container, the ice encases the individual vegetables by filling air voids,

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 33

thus providing good contact for heat removal. Slush icing is somewhat slower than forced-air cooling, but it does reduce pulp temperatures to 32°F (0°C) within a reasonable amount of time and maintains an environment of high relative humidity. Container selection is critical. The container must be oversized to accommodate sufficient ice to provide cooling. Corrugated fiberboard cartons must be resistant to contact with water (usually impregnated with paraffin wax) and must be of sufficient strength so as not to deform. Shipping operations must also tolerate water dripping from the melting ice during handling and storage. Package icing is successfully used for leafy crops, sweet corn, green onions, and cantaloupes.

vACUUM COOLINg

Vacuum cooling is a very rapid method of cooling, and is most efficient for commodities with a high surface-to-volume ratio such as leafy crops. This method is based on the principle that, as the atmospheric pressure is reduced, the boiling point of water decreases. Containerized or bulk product is thoroughly wetted, placed in a vacuum chamber (tube) and sealed. The pressure in the chamber is reduced until the water on the product surface evaporates at the desired precooling temperature. As water on the product surface evaporates, it removes field heat; the resultant vapor is condensed on evaporator coils within the vacuum tube to increase cooling efficiency. Any water that evaporates from the vegetable tissue is removed uniformly throughout the product. Therefore, it does not tend to result in visible wilting in most cases.

Precautions must be taken so as not to cool the products below their chilling temperature threshold. Vacuum coolers are costly to purchase and operate and are normally used only in high volume operations or are shared among several growers. Commodities that can be cooled readily by vacuum cooling include leafy crops, such as spinach, lettuce, and collards.

SUMMAry

When selecting an appropriate cooling method, several factors must be considered, including: the maximum volume of product requiring precooling on a given day, the compatibility of the method with the commodities to be cooled, subsequent storage and shipping conditions, and fixed/variable costs of the system.

34 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

Specific Commodity Recommendations

For further information about Insect, Disease and Weed Control, see the appropriate control section after these specific commodity recommendations.

ASPArAgUS

vArIEtIES

1

ASPArAgUS

Grande

Guelph Millennium

2

Jersey Giant 2

Jersey King 2

Jersey Knight

2

Jersey Supreme

2

Purple Passion

UC157 F

1

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL

A

A

A

A

2 Male hybrid.

A

A

gA

Soil Preparation.

Be sure to soil test in order to determine liming and fertilizer requirements. The ideal pH for asparagus is between

6.7 and 7.0. Asparagus does not tolerate acidic soils and will not grow well at or below a pH of 6.0. Fungal diseases that contribute to asparagus decline (Fusarium Crown and Root rot) survive better at lower pH. Liming the soil 7.0 – 7.5 will reduce the survivability of Fusarium. Apply 100 lbs/acre of nitrogen. If no soil test is performed, supply sufficient phosphorus and potassium so that the soil contains 250 lbs/acre of available phosphorus and 300 lbs/acre of available potassium. Phosphorus does not move readily in the soil and cannot be incorporated into the soil after the asparagus is planted, so it must be incorporated prior to planting.

Asparagus grows and yields best in a deep, well-drained sandy loam soil, but will tolerate heavier soils as long as the soil has good internal drainage and the water table does not come within four feet of the soil surface as this would interfere with the extensive and deep root system.

Broadcast the fertilizer and plow it under when preparing the land for the planting furrows. Then, each year after harvest is complete, broadcast 100 lbs/acre nitrogen and other nutrients

(if needed). Lime can also be added at this time. For the first four years, soil test yearly to determine if fertility and pH adjustments are necessary. Fertilizing in the spring before spears emerge will not benefit the developing crop since the buds on the crown were formed utilizing nutrients from the previous year. After four years, soil test every two years.

G

G

G

Planting.

An optimal soil temperature of 50ºF is critical for rapid growth by crowns. See “Asparagus Planting Dates” table for suggested dates. Avoid planting crowns into cold soils. Prolonged exposure to cool, wet soils will make crowns more susceptible to

Fusarium Crown and Root Rot. If crowns are received before the

field is ready to plant, crowns must be stored between 33 - 38ºF.

Otherwise, the buds on the crowns will sprout, causing the fleshy crown roots to shrivel and die.

Asparagus crowns and transplants are placed into furrows.

Make furrows 6” deep. On a heavy soil, plant crowns no deeper than 5” and on a light textured soil, no more than 6". Apply fer-

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

tN

t t t t tilizer in the bottom of the furrow before planting crowns. Place crowns in the bottom of the furrow and cover with 1 to 2” of soil.

The fertilizer will not burn the crowns. Although crown orientation is not important, crowns placed with their buds oriented upward will emerge faster. Research shows that pre-plant applications of phosphorus below the crown are an important factor in long-term asparagus production. Omitting the phosphorus placed in the bottom of the furrow will reduce yields in subsequent years as compared to not applying the additional phosphorus.

NOtE:

Asparagus crowns are received in bulk or in bundles of 25 crowns per bundle. After receiving, separate the crowns by size into small, medium, or large. When ready to plant, plant all the smalls together in the same row, all the mediums together, and all the large crowns together. Do not plant a small crown next to a medium or large sized crown. This will cause the larger crown to shade the smaller one, which will then never attain its full growth potential.

Spacing.

Crowns can be spaced 12” to 18” within the row. Research shows that there is no advantage of planting 9” between crowns in the row. Although a larger yield is obtained earlier with

9” spacing, after 4 or 5 years, the yield will be the same as with

18” in row spacing. Also, the closer the crowns are spaced in the row, the more crowns needed, increasing cost (for example, 18” in row x 5 feet between row = 5,808 crowns per acre; 12” crowns in row x 5 feet between row = 8,712 crowns per acre).

Asparagus crowns should not be planted in a solid block; rather, plant the field with drive rows spaced between a block of five rows. In order to obtain optimal spray coverage, an air-blast sprayer is needed to evenly apply insecticides and fungicides into the dense fern canopy from both sides of the five-row block. Boom sprayers usually cannot be set high enough to prevent the knocking over of ferns causing damage.

The furrows can be filled-in completely to soil level after planting without damaging the crowns. Do not drive on or compact the soil over the newly planted furrows, however; or emergence of the spears will be severely delayed or reduced. With good soil moisture, the new spears will break through the soil in 1-2 weeks.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 35

ASPArAgUS PLANtINg dAtES

Planting dates

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

MS

Ky east

Ky Central

2/15–4/15

1/15–3/15

2/15–4/15

3/15–4/30

3/15–4/15

3/20–4/1

3/15–3/25

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

Planting dates

2/15–3/31

4/1–5/31

2/1–3/15

3/1–4/15

3/1–3/31

2/25–3/15

Ky West 3/10–3/20

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

WEEd MANAgEMENt

Weed control is critical in asparagus. If young plants compete with weeds, these young plants will become stressed preventing them from developing good fern growth. Cultivation is not recommended as there are effective herbicides labeled for use. Research shows that even the shallowest of cultivations between asparagus rows cuts and injures roots, predisposing them to Fusarium root rot fungus that eventually will kill the asparagus. Apply a preemergence and post-emergence herbicide over the entire field after planting crowns and again after the old fern growth is mowed each spring. Apply an herbicide three weeks prior to the emergence of new spears and ferns, so that these newly emerging spears and fern growth will not compete with weeds.

Although asparagus is highly salt tolerant and salt can be used to control weeds, salt will causes severe soil crusting; impeding water infiltration and percolation. Additionally, salts can leach horizontally through the soil killing other vegetables adjacent to the asparagus which are not as salt tolerant.

INSECtS ANd dISEASES MANAgEMENt

Cutworms

feed on the spear tips at night before emerging from the soil. They feed on one side of the spear, causing the tip to bend over. Cutworms can easily be managed with approved insecticides.

Asparagus beetle

adults chew on ferns reducing photosynthesis.

Any reduction in leaf area causes a loss of stored food reserves in the crown which is needed for next year’s crop. Asparagus beetles also lay eggs on the spears during harvest and will result in further damage. During this period, the best way to manage the beetle is to pick on a timely basis preventing any spear getting tall and spindly, or allowing them to fern out.

Cercospora Needle blight

is a fungal disease that produces spores that are wind-blown during the summer when hot and humid. Cercospora Needle Blight turns the needles of the fern yellow, then brown, and then they fall off. This severely reduces the photosynthetic capability t the fern to manufacture carbohydrates which are critical for next year’s spears. Spray an approved fungicide to manage Cercospora when reddish-brown, football-shaped lesions on the fern stalks are first noticed. Spray once every 7 to 10 days through September. Neglecting to spray might reduce spear yields up to 40% the following year. Burning the old ferns off instead of mowing them off and letting the residue remain on the ground will not prevent Cercospora. Be prepared to spray, regardless if the old ferns are burned or not.

Fusarium Crown and root rot

are the major destructive diseases of asparagus and the ones that usually take fields out of production.

There are no controls once the plants succumb to these diseases.

The main way to prevent infection is to prevent stresses from occurring to the plant. These stresses include: overharvesting; low soil pH; low soil fertility; frost damage to spears; waterlogged soil; and insect, disease, and weed pressures.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

During the second year about 3 weeks before the spears emerge, mow off the dead ferns and spray a tank-mix of an approved preemergence and post-emergence herbicide. Mow the dead ferns off as close to the ground as possible. Do not cut ferns down in the fall because the dead ferns will capture moisture in the winter and will keep the soil temperature about 5 degrees colder than the temperature of bare soil. This colder soil temperature will delay spear emergence in the early spring when warm day temperatures force the growth of new spears in bare soil causing frost injury on spears.

With air temperatures (<70ºF), harvesting might be done once every 2 to 3 days, harvesting a 7” to 9” tall spear with tight tips.

Air temperatures over 70ºF will cause the tips of the spears to open up or “fern out” at a shorter height causing fiber development in the spears making them tough. Fiber development is determined by the tightness of the spear tip but has no bearing on spear toughness. Harvesting under warm temperatures forces the grower to pick shorter, 5” to 7” tall spears before the spear tips fern out. Otherwise, the spears will lack tenderness and quality. This involves harvesting in the morning and evening of the same day as spears elongate rapidly under high temperatures.

Asparagus can be harvested safely for 2 weeks during the second year (the year following initial establishment of crowns),

4 weeks during the third year, 6 weeks during the fourth year, and

8 weeks during the fifth year. It is best to determine when to stop harvesting by looking at the spear diameter. When 3/4 of the spears are pencil-sized in diameter, stop harvesting. This will take some experience to determine.

Asparagus can be harvested with a knife, below the soil, but snapping is preferred. Using a knife results in a tough and fibrous butt being produced that has to be trimmed off. Cutting below the soil with a knife increases the chances of cutting into other buds on the crown that would normally produce more spears. Snapping involves using the thumb and index finger together to gently break the spear just above the soil line. Snapped asparagus contains no fibrous butt that needs to be removed. The harvested spear is all usable.

Do not allow any small spindly spears to grow into ferns while harvesting. These ferns can provide a site for asparagus beetles to lay their eggs, develop into larvae, then into adult beetles.

The field should be free of any tall, spindly spears or fern growth during harvest, except for new spears coming up or ones ready to be harvested.

Harvest asparagus in the morning when the temperatures are cool. Asparagus has a very high respiration rate, just like a fresh cut flower. Place harvested spears into plastic containers that have holes in them to let water pass through. Plunge them into ice-cold water for about 5 minutes. This will remove the field heat out of the spears. Nest, allow containers to drain and put them into plastic bags. Place into refrigerated storage set at 36ºF with 95-100% RH.

Storage life at 36ºF is about 2 weeks, but growers should try to sell the asparagus soon after it is picked, to let the consumer hold it for 2 weeks, if needed. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

36 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

bASIL

vArIEtIES 1 bASIL

Sweet

Genovese

2 italian Large Leaf

3

Nufar

2,3

Aroma ii

2,3

Purple Ruffles

AL

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

Specialty

Lemon

Mrs. Burns

A

A

G

G

L

L

M

M

Sweet thai (Horapha, Hun Que) A G K L M

Cinnamon

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

A G L M

2 Fusarium tolerance/resistance. 3 Suitable for High tunnel production

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

tN

Cultivation.

Sow seed 1/8 inch deep. Basil is an easy to grow tender annual. Plant basil in late spring after all danger of frost

is past. Grow in full sun in warm, well-drained soil, preferably in raised beds. A light sand to silt loam with a pH of 6.4 is best. Basil may be grown in the field from seed or transplants. Trim transplants to encourage branching and plant in the field when about six inches tall (4 to 6 weeks old).

Double-row plantings on 2 to 4 foot wide beds increase yields per acre and helps to shade out weeds. Planting dates may be staggered to provide a continuous supply of fresh leaves throughout the growing season. For fresh-cut basil production, the use of black plastic mulch is highly recommended. Basil will not tolerate moisture stress; provide a regular supply of water through drip or overhead irrigation.

Fertilization.

Do not over fertilize basil. It is generally suggested that 100 pounds each of N, P

2

O

5

, and K

2 ization of salad greens. If more than one harvest is made, sidedress with 15 to 30 pounds N per acre shortly after the first or second cutting.

O per acre be broadcast and incorporated at time of planting or follow guidelines for fertil-

Pest Control.

There are few agricultural chemicals registered for use on basil. To keep weed pressure down, use high plant populations, shallow cultivation, and/or mulch. BT products can be used to control various worms and caterpillars. Genovese, Italian

Large Leaf, and lettuce leaf varieties are susceptible to Japanese beetles. Japanese beetle traps set about 20 feet away from the basil will help prevent damage. Reflective mulches, beneficial insects, insecticidal soaps, traps, and handpicking may give some level of control of other insect pests. Keep foliage as dry as possible by watering early in the day, or by using drip irrigation to reduce fungal disease. Rotate herbs to different parts of the field each year and remove and destroy all plant debris to reduce soil borne disease.

Fusarium Wilt –

Plants infected with this disease usually grow normally until they are 6 to 12 inches tall, then they become stunted and suddenly wilt. Fusarium wilt may persist in the soil for 8 to

12 years. Growers should use Fusarium wilt tested seed or resistant or tolerant varieties.

basil downy Mildew

-

Use clean seed and less susceptible varieties as they become available. Minimize leaf wetness as much as possible. Learn what the disease symptoms look like. Consider applying fungicides when the Cucurbit downy mildew forecasts indicate protection is needed.

Harvesting and Storage –

Leaf yields range from 1 to 3 tons per acre dried or 6 to 10 tons per acre fresh. Foliage may be harvested whenever four sets of true leaves can be left after cutting to initiate growth, but when harvesting for fresh or dried leaves, always cut prior to bloom. Presence of blossoms in the harvested foliage reduces quality. Frequent trimming helps keep plants bushy. For small-scale production of fresh-market basil, the terminal 2- to 3- inch long whorls of leaves may be cut or pinched off once or twice a week. This provides a high-quality product with little stem tissue present. Basil can also be cut and bunched like fresh parsley. A sickle bar type mower with adjustable cutting height is commonly used for harvesting large plantings for fresh and dried production.

The optimum storage temperature for fresh basil is 40° to 45° F with a high relative humidity.

t t t t t t t t

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 37

bEANS: LIMA ANd SNAP

vArIEtIES 1 bEANS - Lima

Bush (small seeded)

Bridgeton

Dixie Butterpea early thorogreen

Henderson Bush

Jackson Wonder

Nemagreen

Bush (large seeded)

Fordhook 242

Dixie Speckled Butterpea

Pole (large seeded)

Christmas Pole

Carolina Sieva

Florida Speckled Butter

King of the Garden

Willow Leaf

bEANS - Snap

Bush (Fresh Market)

Ambra

Bowie

Bronco

Bush Blue Lake 274

Caprice

Carlo

2

Charon

Clarke

Crockett

Dusky

Festina

Grenoble

Hialeah

Hickok

Jade

Lewis

Lynx

Magnum

Nash

Pike

Pony express

Prevail

Renegade

Roma ii (flat pod)

Storm

Strike tapia (flat pod) tenderette terminator

Valentino

Pole

Kentucky Blue

Louisiana Purple Pole

McCaslan

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Spring production only in Georgia.

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A G

3

Not for Coastal Plain areas.

4

Yard long/Asparagus bean.

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

LA

L

L

L

L

L

M

M

M

MS

M

M

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

L

L

L

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

tN

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S t t

38 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

vArIEtIES

1

bEANS - Pole (cont’d)

Rattle Snake

Red Noodle 4

State Half Runner

Stringless Blue Lake

Volunteer/Tennessee Half Runner 3

White Seeded Kentucky Wonder 191

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Spring production only in Georgia.

AL gA

A

A

G

G

A

G

G

3

Not for Coastal Plain areas.

4

Yard long/Asparagus bean.

Ky

K

K

K

L

L

LA

L

MS

M

M

NC

M

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

tN

t t t t t

Seed treatment.

To protect against root rots and damping off, use treated seed or treat with an appropriate protectant at manufacturer’s recommendation. Further information on seed treatments can be found in the SEED TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

Rough handling of seed greatly reduces germination.

MArKEt SNAPS PLANtINg dAtES

AL North

Spring

4/1–7/15

AL South 2/10–4/30

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

5/1–7/15

2/15–4/30

5/1–7/15

4/25–7/25

4/10–8/1

4/1–5/15

3/1–5/31

3/30–5/10

2/10–5/1

3/20–6/15

5/1–8/15

4/1–6/1

4/15–7/1

4/20–6/20

4/1–6/1

Fall

NR

8/15–9/20

NR

7/15–9/15

NR

NR

NR

8/15–9/15

8/15–9/15

8/15–9/1

8/15–9/20

8/1–9/15

NR

8/1–9/1

7/20–8/1

7/15–8/20

NR

PrOCESSINg SNAPS PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

4/1–7/15

2/10–4/30

5/1–7/15

2/15–4/30

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

5/1–7/15

4/25–7/25

4/10–8/1

4/1–5/15

2/10–4/30

4/1–6/15

5/15–7/31

4/1–6/1

4/15–7/1

4/20–8/20

4/1–7/15

Fall

NR

8/15–9/20

NR

7/15–9/15

NR

NR

NR

9/5–9/20

8/15–9/20

NR

NR

8/1–9/1

7/20–8/1

7/15–8/20

NR

LArgE & SMALL LIMAS PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North 4/1–7/1

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

2/10–5/1

5/1–7/1

3/1–5/1

5/10–7/10

5/1–7/20

4/15–7/1

4/1–7/25

3/1–8/15

4/10–6/15

6/1–7/15

4/15–6/1

5/1–6/15

5/1–6/30

4/15–7/15

Fall

NR

8/15–9/20

NR

7/15–9/1

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

7/15–8/1

NR

7/15–8/1

7/1–7/15

7/15–8/20

NR

SOIL ANd FErtILIty

Snapbeans grow best on medium-textured, well drained soils, with a pH of 5.5 to 6.2. Commercial producers generally apply 65 lbs

N/A by banding at planting 2 inches to each side and 3 inches below the seed. Direct contact with seed can cause injury or kill germinating seed.

SPACINg

Snap beans:

With rows 30 to 36 inches apart, plant 5 to 7 seeds per foot. To increase yield plant in rows 18 to 24 inches apart with

4 to 6 seeds per foot. Calibrate planter according to seed size. Sow

1 to 1.5 inches deep in light sandy soil; shallower in heavier soil.

Lima beans, Large Seeded:

Plant in rows 30 to 36 inches apart, 2 seeds per foot, 1 to 1.5 inches deep.

Lima beans, Small Seeded:

Space rows 30 to 36 inches apart,

2 seeds per foot, 0.75 to 1.25 inches deep (deeper if soil is dry).

For mechanically harvested irrigated fields: Rows 18 to 30 inches apart, 4 to 5 inches between plants.

Edamame:

Edamame are green, immature soybeans sold as fresh vegetables with the seeds in the pods. Grown like bush beans, the pods are harvested when the seeds have reached full size but before the pods begin to yellow. Some commonly grown varieties include Midori Giant, Tohya, Lanco, and Envy.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 39

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Seed Maggot:

See the preceding “Seed Treatment” section, or use approved soil systemic insecticides at planting time if probability of pest outbreak is high. Also see the “Maggots” section in Soil

Pests—Their Detection and Control and following “Early Season

Control” section.

Experience has shown that effective insect control with systemics usually lasts from 4 to 6 weeks after application. Frequent field inspections are necessary after this period to determine pest incidence and the need for additional spray controls.

thrips:

Treatments should be applied if thrips are present from cotyledon stage to when the first true leaves are established and/or when first blossoms form.

Mites:

Spot treat areas along edges of fields when white stippling along veins on undersides of leaves is first noticed and 10 mites per trifoliate are present.

Aphids:

Treat only if aphids are well-distributed throughout the field (50% or more of terminals with five or more aphids), when weather favors population increase, and if beneficial species are lacking.

Leafhoppers:

Treat only if the number of adults plus nymphs exceeds 1 to 2 adults per sweep.

tarnished Plant bug (Lygus):

Treat only if the number of adults and/or nymphs exceeds 15 per 50 sweeps from the pin pod stage until harvest.

beet Armyworm (bAW), Cabbage Looper (CL):

Treat if the number of worms (BAW and CL) averages 15 per 3 feet of row.

European Corn borer (ECb)–Snap beans Only:

Treat when moth catches in local blacklight traps average five or more per night. The first application should be applied during the bud–early bloom stage and the second application during the late bloom– early pin stage. Additional sprays may be needed between the pin spray and harvest. Consult a pest management specialist for local black- light trap information and recommended spray intervals.

Corn Earworm (CEW), Fall Armyworm (FAW):

In snap beans, treat every 5 to 7 days if CEW catches in local blacklight traps average 20 or more per night and most corn in the area is mature. The use of pheromone (insect sex attractants) and blacklight traps is very helpful in detecting population build-up of various insects.

For limas, treat when CEW populations exceed one per 6 feet of row from the late flat pod stage to harvest.

For both lima bean types, treatment should be timed when

50% or more of the CEW and/or FAW populations reach a length of 1/2 inch or longer. Treating too early for young CEW/FAW populations will eliminate natural control and may result in the need for additional sprays for reinfestations. See “How to Improve Pest

Control” for insect sampling techniques. Consult a pest management specialist for more refined decision-making.

Whiteflies:

Treat when whiteflies exceed five adults per fully expanded leaflet.

Nematode Management.

Use nematicides listed n the “Nematode

Control in Vegetate Crops” table in the Disease Control section.

Soybean cyst nematode, races I and III, are present in soybeans in some areas. Snap beans are susceptible, but small seeded lima beans are resistant to this nematode. Growers who rotate snap beans with soybeans should be alert to the possibility of problems in infested fields.

WEEd CONtrOL

Since beans are a quickly maturing crop, early weed control is essential. Weeds can reduce yield, quality and the efficiency of the mechanical harvester. Preparing a weed-free seedbed is the first step of a weed control program. A weed-free seed bed allows the bean plants to get off to a quick start without interference from weed growth. Carefully read herbicide labels to make sure that beans can tolerate the material. Be sure to avoid planting beans after other crops for which herbicides with a long residual have been used.

MINIMUM tILLAgE

When planning to use minimum tillage practices, give consideration to bean variety, date of planting, soil fertility practices, insect control, planting equipment, cover crop, and weed species in the field. Minimum tillage might not be suited to all growing areas around the SE US. Soil type and other environmental conductions might limit its success. Consult with your local Extension office for the latest recommendations.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information.

40 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

bEEtS

vArIEtIES 1 bEEtS

Bull's Blood (for greens)

Detroit Dark Red

Red Ace

Ruby Queen

Solo

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

NC

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

tN

t t t t t

Light, well-drained soils are best for root development in beets. Beets are frost tolerant and produce the best commercial quality when grown during cool temperatures (50° to 65°F). Lighter color and wider zoning within the roots occur during periods of rapid growth in warm temperatures. If plants are exposed to 2 or

3 weeks of temperatures below 50°F after several true leaves have formed, seedstalks (undesirable because they will reduce root quality) will form. Cultivars vary in their sensitivity to this problem with newer cultivars generally being less sensitive to it.

Beets are susceptible to boron deficiency and will develop internal black spot if soil boron is not adequate. If boron is deficient, apply 2 to 3 lb. of boron per acre with broadcast fertilizer, or for smaller plantings, apply ½ oz. Borax per 100 square feet of row with initial fertilizer application.

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

Seeding and Spacing.

Optimum germination temperature for beets ranges from 50° to 85°F, but early plantings can be made 4 to 6 weeks before the average last spring frost. Germination takes between 10-14 days, but can be hastened by soaking seed in warm water prior to planting. Sow seed ½ to 3/4 in deep at the rate of 15 to 18 seeds per foot of row. Space rows 15 to 20 inches apart; thin plants to 3 inches apart. Seeds remain viable for 2-3 years when stored properly.

bEEt PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

3/15–5/30

2/1–3/31

4/15–5/30

2/1–3/31

3/20–4/15

3/15–4/10

3/10–4/1

2/1–3/31

2/1–3/31

NR

3/1–4/15

4/1–5/31

2/15–3/31

3/15–5/31

3/15–4/15

3/1–4/1

Fall

8/1–9/15

8/1–9/30

7/15–8/15

8/1–9/30

NR

NR

NR

9/15–11/15

9/15–11/15

NR

8/1–9/15

7/15–8/15

8/15–9/30

7/15–8/31

9/1–9/30

9/15–10/1

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgMENt

dISEASE MANAgEMENt

Seed rot and damping-off may be a problem, especially in early spring plantings when soils are cool. Seeds should be treated with an appropriate fungicide to protect the seed.

Cercospora leaf spot is the most common disease that occurs on beets. Circular spots with reddish brown or purplish margins are the first signs. Spray every 2 to 3 weeks with an appropriate crop protectant.

INSECt MANAgEMENt

The most common insect pests of beets are aphids, leafminers, flea beetles, and webworms. Sanitation and crop rotation should be practiced to avoid pest build ups.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

Market beets are hand-harvested when 1-3/4 to 2 inches in diameter, usually about 50-75 days after planting. Expected yield per

100 row feet is 100 lbs. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 41

brOCCOLI, CAbbAgE, CAULIFLOWEr, COLLArdS, KALE, ANd KOHLrAbI

vArIEtIES 1 brOCCOLI

Early

Batavia

11

Castle Dome

Packman

Windsor

10

Mid-season

emerald Crown emperor ironman

5

Liberty

Patron

2, 10

Premium Crop 10, 12 tlaloc tradition

Late-season

Arcadia

6, 10

BC1691

14

Beaumont

11

Bumey

Destiny 2, 5

Diplomat 10

DuraPak 16

DuraPak 19

14

14 emerald Pride

Fiesta

Greenbelt 5, 6, 8, 10

Heritage

Patriot

5, 10

Marathon

5, 6, 7, 10

Pinnacle triathlon 10

Full-season

Bay Meadows

2

BC1764

Belstar

Gypsy

10

Green Magic

2, 11

Lieutenant

5

CAbbAgE: green

Bayou Dynasty

Blue Dynasty

4, 6, 9

Blue thunder

4, 6, 8, 9

Blue Vantage

4, 6, 8, 9

Bravo

6, 9

Bronco 4, 9

Cheers

6, 8, 9 emblem

4, 6, 9

Hercules

Lynx

4, 6, 9

Platinum Dynasty 4, 6, 9

Royal Vantage

4, 6, 8, 9

Savoy Ace

4, 6, 8

CAbbAgE: green

Silver Dynasty

4, 6, 9

Solid Blue 780 6, 9 thunderhead

4, 6, 9

Vantage Point

4, 6, 8, 9

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Bolting tolerant.

3

Bolting susceptible.

4

Tip burn tolerant.

5

Hollow stem tolerance/resistance.

42

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

K

K

A G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

K

K

A G

6 Black rot tolerance/resistance.

7

Bacterial leaf spot tolerance/resistance.

8

Bacterial speck tolerance/resistance.

9

Fusarium yellows tolerance/resistance.

10

Downy mildew tolerance/resistance.

LA MS NC SC tN

L

L

M

M

N

N

S

S

L

L

L

L

L

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S t t

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

M N S

N S

M

N

N

N

S

S

11 Powdery mildew tolerance/resistance.

12

Suitable for side shoot production.

13

Dinosaur or Tuscan kale.

14

Warm weather tolerance.

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

vArIEtIES

1

CAbbAgE: red

Cardinal 9

Garnet

9

Red Dynasty

4, 6

Red Rookie

Ruby Perfection

6

CAULIFLOWEr

Candid Charm

Cumberland early Snowball

Freedom

Fremont

Graffiti incline

Majestic

Minuteman

Symphony

Snow Crown

Super Snowball

White Magic

COLLArdS

Blue Max 2

Champion

Flash

Georgia Southern 3

Heavi-Crop

Morris Heading top Bunch

2

Vates

KALE

Premier

Siberian

Squire

Vates

Winterbor

KOHLrAbI

early Purple Vienna

Grand Duke

1

Kossak

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Bolting tolerant.

3

Bolting susceptible.

4

Tip burn tolerant.

5

Hollow stem tolerance/resistance.

Seed treatment.

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Check with seed supplier to determine if seed is hot-water treated for black rot control. If not, soak seed at 122°F .

Use a 20-minute soak for broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, and

Chinese cabbage. Soak cabbage for 25 minutes. Note. Hot water seed treatment may reduce seed germination.

Following either treatment above, dry the seed, then treat with a labeled fungicide to prevent damping-off. Further information on seed treatments can be found in SEED TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

brOCCOLI PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

AL North 3/1–7/1

AL South 2/1–3/31

Fall

NR

8/1–9/30

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

gA

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

MS NC

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

tN

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

A

A

G

G

K

K

K

A

A

G K

K

6

Black rot tolerance/resistance.

7

Bacterial leaf spot tolerance/resistance.

8

Bacterial speck tolerance/resistance.

9

Fusarium yellows tolerance/resistance.

10

Downy mildew tolerance/resistance.

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

M N

N

S

S t

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

M

M

N

N

S

S

11

M

Powdery mildew tolerance/resistance.

12

Suitable for side shoot production.

13

Dinosaur or Tuscan kale.

14

Warm weather tolerance.

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S t t t t t t t t t t

brOCCOLI PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

GA North

GA South

3/15–7/1

2/1–3/31

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

4/10–4/30

4/5–4/20

3/30–4/10

1/15–3/15

1/15–3/15

2/15–3/15

1/15–3/10

2/15–4/15

4/1–8/15

3/1–4/10

3/20–4/30

3/25–4/25

3/15–4/5

Fall

7/25-8/15

8/1–9/30

7/1–7/15

7/15–8/1

8/1–8/15

8/1–10/31

8/1–10/31

7/25–8/15

8/5–9/15

8/1–9/15

NR

9/1–9/30

8/15–9/15

8/1–8/31

8/10–8/31 t t t t

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 43

CAbbAgE PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

3/15–7/1

2/1–3/31

3/15–7/1

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

2/1–3/31

4/1–4/15

3/15–3/25

3/01–3/15

1/15–3/15

1/15–3/15

2/5–4/1

1/15–3/15

2/15–4/15

4/1–8/15

2/1–3/31

3/15–4/30

3/25–4/25

3/15–4/15

CAULIFLOWEr PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

3/15–7/1

2/1–3/31

3/15–7/1

2/1–3/31

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

4/10–4/30

4/5–4/20

3/30–4/10

2/1–3/15

2/1–3/15

2/15–3/15

1/15–3/10

2/15–4/15

4/1–8/15

3/1–4/10

3/20–4/30

3/25–4/25

3/15–4/15

COLLArdS PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

2/15–6/30

1/15–5/31

3/15–7/31

2/1–3/31

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

3/15–4/30

3/10–4/25

3/1–4/15

1/15–3/15

1/15–3/15

1/20–4/1

1/15–3/1

2/15–6/30

4/1–8/15

2/1–6/15

3/15–6/30

3/15–5/1

2/15–4/15

44

Fall

NR

8/1–9/30

7/25-8/15

8/1–9/30

7/1–7/15

7/15–8/1

8/1–8/15

7/15–10/31

7/15–10/31

7/25–8/15

8/5–9/15

8/1–9/30

NR

8/15–8/30

7/15–8/30

7/15–8/15

8/1–8/20

Fall

NR

8/1–10/31

7/25-8/15

8/1–10/31

6/20–7/1

7/1–7/15

7/15–8/01

8/1–11/30

8/1–11/30

7/25–8/15

8/5–9/15

8/1–9/15

NR

8/15–9/30

7/15–8/30

7/25–8/15

8/25–9/15

Fall

7/15–10/15

7/15–10/31

7/25-8/15

8/1–10/31

7/1–7/15

7/15–8/1

8/1–8/15

7/15–10/31

7/15–10/31

7/25–8/20

8/10–9/15

8/1–9/15

NR

8/1–10/30

8/1–9/30

7/15–8/15

8/1–8/20

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

KALE PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

3/15–4/30

2/1–3/31

3/15–4/30

2/1–3/31

4/1–4/30

3/20–4/15

3/10–4/10

2/1–3/15

2/1–3/15

1/20–4/1

1/15–3/1

2/15–6/30

4/1–8/15

2/1–6/15

3/15–6/30

3/15–5/1

2/15–4/15

KOHLrAbI PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

3/15–7/1

2/1–3/31

3/15–7/1

2/1–3/31

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

4/10–4/30

4/5–4/20

3/30–4/10

2/1–3/15

2/1–3/15

2/1–3/31

2/15–6/30

4/1–8/15

2/1–6/15

3/15–6/30

3/25–4/25

3/15–4/15

PLAStIC MULCH

Early spring cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli are frequently grown using plastic mulch, with black mulch used in the spring and white on black or black mulch painted white used in the fall.

broccoli.

Field seeding: Space raised beds 36-40 inches apart; seed twin rows per bed 6-12 inches apart within row and 12 inches between row; for bunch broccoli use the shorter within row spacing which will also require a more aggressive pest management program; for organic production single rows per bed can be used and within row spacing increased to as much 6-24 inch spacing to aide in pest prevention and maximum fertilizer management.

Transplants: Space raised beds 36-40 inches apart; set transplants on twin rows per bed 6-12 inches apart within row and 12 inches between row; for bunch broccoli use the shorter within row spacing which will also require a more aggressive pest management program; for organic production single rows per bed can be used and within row spacing increased to as much 6-24 inch spacing to aide in pest prevention and maximum fertilizer management.

Fall

NR

8/1–9/30

NR

8/1–9/30

NR

NR

NR

7/15–10/31

7/15–10/31

8/1–9/30

8/1–9/15

NR

8/1–9/30

8/1–9/15

8/1–8/15

8/15–8/30

Fall

8/1–9/15

8/1–10/31

NR

8/1–10/31

7/1–7/15

7/15–8/1

8/1–8/15

7/15–10/31

7/15–10/31

7/25–8/20

8/10–9/15

8/1–9/15

NR

8/1–10/30

8/1–9/30

8/1–9/1

8/15–9/15

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

Cabbage.

The early cabbage crop is grown from transplants seeded at the rate of 1 ounce for 3,000 plants. Transplants are ready for field planting 4 to 6 weeks after seeding. Storage of pulled, fieldgrown cabbage transplants should not exceed 9 days at 32°F or 5 days at 66°F prior to planting in the field. Precision seeders can be used for direct seeding. However, seed should be sown 15 to 20 days in advance of the normal transplant date for the same maturity date. Early varieties require 85 to 90 days from seeding to harvest, and main-season crops require 110 to 115 days. Set transplants in rows 2 to 3 feet apart and 9 to 15 inches apart in the row for early plantings and 9 to 18 inches apart for late plantings, depending on variety, fertility, and market use.

Cauliflower.

Start seed in greenhouse or protected frames 4 to 6 weeks before planting. Use 1 ounce of seed for 3,000 plants. Set transplants in rows 3 to 4 feet apart, and plants are set 18 to 24 inches apart in the row. Make successive plantings in the field at dates indicated in preceding table.

Collards and Kale.

Seed at the rate of 2 pounds per acre and thin to desired spacing. For precision, air-assist planters use

1

/

3

to ½ pound per acre for twin rows on 3 foot centers, or use half of this rate for single rows on 3 foot centers. When using transplants, set plants in rows 16 to 24 inches apart and 6 to 18 inches apart within the row.

Kohlrabi.

Transplants may be used for a spring crop. Seed 6 weeks before expected transplant date. Use precision seeder for hybrid varieties. Space rows 18 to 24 inches apart and 6 to 8 between plants.

bolting.

Bolting in cabbage, collards and kale, and buttoning in cauliflower, can occur if the early-planted crop is subjected to 10 or more continuous days of temperatures between 35° to 50°F.

However, sensitivity to bolting depends upon the variety.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgMENt

Note:

The use of a spreader-sticker is recommended for cole crops in any case; the heavy wax coating on the leaves reduces deposition of spray materials. These adjuvants allow the spray to spread out and stick to the leaves. Multiple nozzles per row or bed will provide the under leaf coverage and high coverage rates necessary to manage caterpillar pests of cole crops.

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Aphids:

The cabbage aphid can be a serious problem on these crops and should be treated immediately if noticed. Other aphid species are found on these crops and should be treated if the crop is near harvest or their level of infestation is increasing. Often parasitic wasps take out these species if broad-spectrum insecticides use is avoided.

Cabbage root Maggot:

Root maggots and other similar insects such as the seed corn maggot can be a problem in heavier soils in the Southeast especially during cool, damp times of the year. Avoid planting into soils with freshly plowed down crop residue or high levels of organic matter.

Caterpillars:

A number of moth and butterfly larvae feed on cole crops. The major ones are the cabbage looper (CL), the imported cabbageworm (ICW), and the diamondback moth (DBM) referred to as the cabbageworm complex. Other caterpillars found on cole crops are the cross-striped cabbageworm, corn earworm, armyworms, and webworms. Webworms often damage the bud of the young plants and should be treated immediately; very young larvae are much more easily managed than older ones.

Scouting and using a threshold for spray applications is a cost effective method of managing these pests. Broad-spectrum insecticides that reduce the natural enemies in the field should be avoided if at all possible. If the cabbageworm complex is the major group of pests, a threshold of 1 cabbage looper equivalent

(CLE) per 10 plants can be used. A cabbage looper equivalent relates the feeding amounts of the three caterpillars. One cabbage looper is equivalent to 1.5 imported cabbageworms or 5 diamondback moth larvae. (Example: 10 DBM larvae per 10 plants would be like 2 CLEs per 10 plants; this level would require treatment.)

In other areas of the South where armyworms are common pests of cole crops, a threshold of 1 caterpillar (regardless of the kind) per 3 plants has been effectively used as a threshold. The use of a threshold to determine the need for treatment usually reduces the number of sprays per crop without loss of crop quality and improves the profit margin.

Note:

Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) preparations are effective against most of these pests but must be eaten by the larvae. Thorough coverage of the plant particularly the undersurface of the leaf is essential, and the use of a spreader-sticker is strongly recommended.

Note:

Several of these insects are prone to develop resistance to insecticides. Growers must rotate among classes of insecticides for each pest generation. See the section on resistance management.

Nematode Management.

Use nematicides listed in the “Nematode

Control in Vegetate Crops” tables in the Disease Control section.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

Fresh market cabbage should be harvested when heads are firm and weigh 2.5 to 3.0 pounds. Most markets require one to three wrapper leaves to remain. The heads should be dense and free of insect damage. Cabbage for slaw or kraut usually has much larger heads and weighs 3 to 12 pounds.

Broccoli should be harvested when the beads (flower buds) are still tight, but a few outer beads have begun to loosen. The stalks should be 7 inches long from top of the crown to the butt.

Broccoli is usually bunched in 1.5 pound bunches with 2 to 3 heads per bunch. Secure bunches with a rubber band or twist tie.

Kohlrabi should be harvested when the bulbs are 2 to 3 inches in diameter and before internal fibers begin to harden.

Cauliflower is harvested while the heads are pure white and before the curds become loose and ricey. Heads are blanched by tying outer leaves over the heads when heads are 3 to 4 inches in diameter. Blanching takes about 1 week in hot weather and 2 weeks in cooler weather.

Kale is harvested by cutting off the entire plant near ground level, or lower leaves may be stripped from plant. Collards may be harvested at any stage of growth. See Table 14 for further postharvest information on these crops.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 45

CArrOtS

vArIEtIES 1

CArrOtS

Apache

3

Bolero

4

Danvers 126

5

Maverick

6

Narbonne

4

Purple Haze

2, 3

Sugar Snax 54 tastypeel

3

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Purple.

3

Imperator type: 7-8 inches long w/ long conical shape and narrow shoulders.

AL

A

gA

G

Ky LA

L

MS

M

NC

N

A

G

L

L

N

A

A

G

G K

L

L

L

5

4

Nantes type: Smooth, cylindrical over entire length w/ a blunt end.

Danvers type: Tapering root w/ a semi-blunt tip.

M

N

N

N

6

Nantes x imperator type.

Seeding dates.

Small carrot seedlings up to six leaves cannot withstand hard freezes but are somewhat frost tolerant. Optimum temperatures are in the range of 60-70°F, with daytime highs of

75°F and nighttime lows of 55°F ideal. Although the crop can be grown outside this range with little or no effect on tops, temperatures differing drastically from the above can adversely affect root color, texture, flavor, and shape. Lower temperatures in this range may induce slow growth and make roots longer, more slender and lighter in color. Carrots with a root less than one inch in diameter are more susceptible to cold injury than larger roots. Soil temperatures should be above 40°F and below 85°F for best stand establishment.

CArrOt PLANtINg dAtES

AL North

Spring

3/1–4/15

AL South NR

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

3/1–4/15

NR

4/1-4/30

3/20-4/15

3/10-4/10

1/15–2/28

1/15–2/28

2/15–4/1

1/15–3/15

2/15–3/31

4/1–6/15

2/1–3/15

2/15–3/31

3/15-5/1

3/1-4/30

Fall

NR

8/1–11/30

NR

8/1–11/30

NR

NR

NR

9/15–10/15

9/15–10/15

NR

NR

6/15–8/15

7/21-8/15

9/1–9/15

8/1–9/15

NR

NR

SPACINg

Spatial arrangements for planting can differ markedly. Carrots can be planted with vacuum, belt, or plate seeders. Often a special attachment called a scatter plate or spreader shoe is added to the plate planters to scatter the seed in a narrow band. Carrots should be spaced 1½ to 2 inches apart within the row. Carrot seed should be planted no deeper than ¼-½ inch. A final stand of 14 to 18 plants per foot of twin row is ideal. Ideal patterns are twin rows that are 2½ -3½ inches apart. Three or four of these twin

SC

S

S

S

tN

t t t rows are situated on one bed, depending on the width of the bed.

One arrangement is to plant three twin rows on beds that are on

72-inch centers. Another arrangement is to plant four twin rows on a 92-inch bed (center to center). The sets of twin rows are 14 to

18 inches apart. Beds on 72-inch centers will have approximately

48 inches of formed bed. Row spacing wider than 18 inches will reduce total plant stand per acre and thus, will reduce total yield.

Ideal plant populations should be in the range of 400,000 for fresh market carrots and 250,000 for processing carrots.

PLANtINg ANd LANd PrEPArAtION

Beds that are slightly raised are advantageous because they allow for good drainage. Beds should be firmed and not freshly tilled before planting and soil should be firmed over the seed at planting.

A basket or roller attachment is often used to firm the soil over the seed as they are planted. Light irrigation will be required frequently during warm, dry periods for adequate germination.

Windbreaks are almost essential in areas with primarily sandy soils. Sand particles moved by wind can severely damage young carrot plants, reducing stands. Small grain strips planted between beds or at least planted between every few beds can help reduce this sandblasting injury.

Begin by deep turning soils to bury any litter and debris and breaking soils to a depth of 12-14 inches. Compacted soils or those with tillage pans should be subsoiled to break the compacted areas.

If uncorrected, compact soil or tillage pans can result in restriction of root expansion. It is best to apply lime after deep turning to prevent turning up acid soil after lime application. Prepare a good seedbed using bed-shaping equipment. Do not use disks or rototiller to avoid soil compaction. Carrots should be planted on a slightly raised bed (2-3 inches) to improve drainage. After beds are tilled and prepared for seeding, it is best to allow the beds to settle slightly before planting. Avoid other tillage practices that can increase soil compaction. Following in the same tracks for all field

operations will help reduce compaction in planting areas.

46 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

dISEASE MANAgEMENt root-Knot Nematode:

By far, the most destructive problem in carrots is root-knot nematodes. Root-knot nematodes are small eellike worms that live in the soil and feed on plant roots. Since the root of the carrot is the harvested portion of the plant, no root-knot damage can be allowed. Root-knot causes poor growth and distorted or deformed root systems which results in a non marketable root. Root-knot damage also allows entry for other diseases such as Fusarium, Pythium, and Erwinia.

If any root-knot nematodes are found in a soil assay, treatment is recommended. Good success has been obtained using field soil fumigation to eradicate root-knot nematodes in the root zone of carrots. Use nematicides or fumigants listed in the “Nematode

Control in Vegetate Crops” tables in the Disease Control section.

SOIL-bOrNE rOOt dISEASES

Depending on the cropping history of the field, Pythium, Southern Blight, and Sclerotinia may cause problems. It is advisable to avoid fields where these diseases have been identified in the previous crop. Deep turning is also necessary to help prevent root diseases.

Pythium blight

is usually characterized by flagging of the foliage indicating some root damage is occurring. Under wet conditions,

Pythium may cause serious problems to the root causing a white mycelium mat to grow on the infected area which rapidly turns to a watery soft rot. Forking of the root system is also a common symptom associated with Pythium infection. Rotation is considered a major factor in reducing Pythium along with the use of fungicides.

Southern blight:

Southern blight causes serious damage to carrots.

This disease is usually associated with carrots remaining in the field after the soil begins to warm in the spring. This disease causes a yellow top to develop with a cottony white fungal growth associated with the upper part of the carrot root. The top of the root and the surrounding soil may be covered with a white mycelium with tan sclerotia developing as the disease progresses. Southern Blight is best controlled by using rotation and deep turning.

Sclerotinia blight:

Sclerotinia blight causes serious damage to the roots of carrots. This disease is usually worse under wet soil conditions. White mycelium forms around the infected area and later, dark sclerotia develop on the white mycelium which is a good indicator of Sclerotinia rot. This disease causes a progressive watery soft rot of the carrot root tissue and is considered a potential problem in the production of carrots. Rotation and deep turning of the soil are recommended to reduce losses to this disease.

Rhizoctonia:

Rhizoctonia rot causes brown to black lesions to develop on the sides of the carrot root. The disease is much worse under cool, wet conditions. Saturated soil conditions often enhance all soil-borne diseases which are potential problems in carrot production. Rhizoctonia damage can be minimized by using rotation and good cultural practices. Soil fumigation will prevent damage with any of the soil inhabiting fungi.

FOLIAr dISEASES bacterial blight:

Bacterial blight causes irregular brown spots on the leaves and dark brown streaks on the petioles and stems. The lesions on the foliage begin as small yellow areas with the centers becoming dry and brittle, with an irregular halo. The bacterium affects the leaflets, stems and petioles as the disease progresses.

Some of these lesions may crack open and ooze the bacteria. These bacteria may be washed down to the crown of the plant causing brown lesions on the top of the root. The earlier the infection occurs the greater the damage to the root. The bacterium is spread by splashing water and takes about 10-12 days before symptoms appear after inoculation. Disease development progresses rapidly between 77˚ and 86˚ F. Crop rotation is a major factor in controlling Bacterial blight.

Alternaria blight:

Alternaria blight causes small dark brown to black spots with yellow edges forming mostly on the leaf margins.

The spot increases as the disease progresses and in some cases entire leaflets may be killed. In moist weather, the disease can move so rapidly it resembles frost injury. Such conditions can reduce the efficiency of mechanical harvesters which require strong healthy tops to remove the carrot from the soil. Alternaria may also cause damping off of seedlings and a black decay of roots. The spores and mycelium are spread by splashing rains, contaminated soil, or on cultivation tools. The disease can manifest itself in about 10 days after infection. The optimum temperature for Alternaria blight is 82˚ F.

Cercospora Leaf blight:

Cercospora blight causes lesions to form on the leaves, petioles and stems of the carrot plant. The symptoms appear to mimic that of Alternaria blight but can be separated using a compound microscope. Cercosproa blight progresses in warm, wet weather and spots appear in about 10 days after infection. The youngest leaves are usually more susceptible to Cercosproa infection.

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Soil Insects:

Wireworms, white grubs, and the granulate cutworm may be partially controlled with good cultural practices. Soil should be deep turned in sufficient time prior to planting to allow destruction of previous crop residue that may harbor soil insects.

When possible, avoid planting just after crops that are slow to decompose such as tobacco and corn. Avoid planting behind peanuts and root crops such as sweet potatoes and turnips. If a field has a history of soil insect problems, either avoid these or, broadcast incorporate a soil insecticide prior to planting. Plantings in fields that were recently in permanent pasture should be avoided as should fields recently planted to sod/turf, although these are not as critical.

Fields with a history of whitefringed beetle larvae should not be planted to carrots because there are no currently registered insecticides effective on this pest.

Flea beetle larvae can damage roots by feeding from the surface into the cortex. The damage will take on the appearance of narrow “s” shaped canals on the surface. Flea beetle larvae can be prevented easily with soil insecticides.

The seedcorn maggot is an opportunistic pest that takes advantage of crops that are under stress or where there is decaying organic matter. At-planting soil insecticides will prevent the de-

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 47

velopment of maggot infestations for several weeks after planting. Seedcorn maggots cannot be effectively controlled after the infestation begins. If plants become stressed during the period of high root maggot potential, preventive applications of insecticides should be sprayed every seven days until the stress is minimized.

FOLIAr INSECtS

Foliar insect pests may be monitored and insecticides applied as needed. Carrots should be scouted at least once per week for developing populations of foliage pests.

Aphids:

Several species of aphids may develop on carrots. The most common aphids to inhabit carrots are the green peach aphid and the cotton or melon aphid. Often parasitic wasps and fungal diseases will control these aphids. If populations persist and colonize plants rapidly over several weeks and honeydew or sooty mold is observed readily, then foliar insecticides are justified.

Flea beetles:

Fleas beetle adults may cause severe damage to the foliage on occasion. If carrots are attacked during the seedling stage and infestations persist over time, an insecticide application may be necessary. If plants are in the cotyledon to first true leaf stage, treatments should be made if damage or flea beetles are observed on more than 5% of the plants. After plants are well established, flea beetles should be controlled only if foliage losses are projected to be moderate to high, e.g., 15% or more.

vegetable Weevil:

The adult and larvae of the vegetable weevil may attack carrots. The adult and larvae feed on the foliage. Vegetable weevil larvae often will feed near the crown of plants and, if shoulders are exposed at the soil surface, larvae will feed on tender carrots. Treatments are justified if adults or larvae and damage are easily found in several locations.

Armyworms:

The armyworm can cause damage in carrots. Armyworms may move from grain crops or weeds into carrots or adults may lay eggs directly on carrot plants. Armyworms are easily managed with foliar insecticides.

beet Armyworm:

The beet armyworm infests carrots in the late spring. Usually natural predators and especially parasites regulate beet armyworm populations below economically damaging levels.

Whiteflies:

The silverleaf whitefly can be a problem during the early seedling stage of fall plantings. Silverleaf whitefly migrates from agronomic crops and other vegetables during the late summer. Infestation may become severe on carrots grown in these production areas. Often whiteflies may be controlled by several natural enemies and diseases by early fall so, treatments may not be justified. However, if whiteflies develop generally heavy populations, treatment of young plantings is justified.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

Topped: 4 to 5 months at 32°F and 90% to 95% relative humidity.

See Table 14 for further post harvest information.

48 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

CUCUMbErS

vArIEtIES 1

CUCUMbErS

Slicer / Fresh Market

Dasher ii 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10

Daytona

2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

General Lee

4, 5, 6, 10 indy 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 intimidator 2, 3, 4, 6, 10

Poinsett 76

2, 3, 5, 10

Rockingham 2, 3, 5, 6, 10

Slice More 2, 4, 5, 6, 10

Speedway

2, 3, 5, 6, 10

StoneWall

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 talladega 2, 3, 5, 9, 10 thunder 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10

Pickling Types - Multiple Harvest

Calypso 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10

Colt

Fancipak 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10

Pickling Types - Multiple or Once-over Harvest

excursion 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10 expedition 2, 3, 5, 6, 10

Fiesty

Lafayette

Sassy 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Parthenocarpic Types - Seedless Pickling

Puccini

Stravinsky

grEENHOUSE CUCUMbErS

Long Dutch/English Types

Bologna 5, 10, 11

Camaro

5, 13, 14

Cumlaude

3, 5, 10, 14

Discover 3, 5, 10, 14

Verdon 5, 6, 10, 11, 12

Beit Alpha/Mini Types

Delta Star 5, 6, 10, 11, 12

Jawell

5, 6, 14

Katrina

5, 6, 12

Manar 5, 6, 14

Picowell 5

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Anthracnose tolerance/resistance.

3 Angular Leaf Spot tolerance/resistance.

4 Downy Mildew tolerance/resistance.

5 Powdery Mildew tolerance/resistance.

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

Ky

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

6

Cucumber Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance.

7

Papaya Ring Spot Virus tolerance/resistance.

8 Zucchini Yellows Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance.

9 Watermelon Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance.

10 Scab and gummosis tolerance/resistance.

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

tN

t t t t t

M

M

M

M

M

M t

M

M

M

M t t t t

11

Target spot tolerance/resistance.

12

Cucumber vein yellowing virus tolerance/resistance.

13 Low light tolerant.

14 All female (gynoecious).

t t t t t

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S t t t t t t

Field Production.

For earlier cucumber production and higher, more concentrated yields, use gynoecious varieties. A gynoecious plant produces only female flowers. Upon pollination female flowers will develop into fruit. To produce pollen, 10% to 15% pollinizer plants must be planted; seed suppliers add this seed to the gynoecious variety. Both pickling and slicing gynoecious varieties are available. For machine harvest of pickling cucumbers, high plant populations (55,000 per acre or more) concentrate fruit maturity for increased yields.

Planting dates.

For earliness container-grown transplants are planted when daily mean soil temperatures have reached 60°F but most cucumbers are direct seeded. Consult the following table for planting dates for transplants in your area. Early plantings should be protected from winds with hot caps or row covers. Growing on plastic mulch can also enhance earliness.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 49

CUCUMbEr SLICERS PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

4/1–7/15

3/1–4/30

4/15–7/15

3/1–4/30

5/10-6/1

5/5-6/1

4/25-5/15

3/15–5/15

3/1–5/15

4/1–5/15

3/15–5/1

4/15–5/15

5/15–7/31

3/15–5/15

4/15–6/5

5/5-6/15

5/1-6/1

Fall

8/1–8/30

8/1–9/15

8/1–8/30

8/1–9/15

6/1-6/15

6/1-7/1

5/15-7/15

7/15–8/31

8/1–9/15

7/25–8/21

8/14–9/14

7/15–8/15

NR

8/1–8/30

8/1–8/30

7/1-8/10

7/25-8/25

CUCUMbEr PICkLING PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

4/15–7/15

3/1–4/30

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

4/15–7/15

3/1–4/30

5/10-6/1

5/5-6/1

4/25-5/15

4/1–5/15

3/15–5/15

4/1–4/15

4/20–5/20

5/25–7/31

3/15-5/15

4/15–6/15

5/5-6/15

5/1-6/1

Fall

8/1–8/30

8/1–9/15

NR

8/1–9/15

6/1-6/15

6/1-7/1

5/15-7/15

7/15–8/31

8/1–9/15

NR

7/15–8/15

NR

8/1–8/30

8/1–8/30

7/1-8/10

7/25-8/25

Spacing.

Slicers: Space rows 3 to 4 feet apart with plants 9 to 12 inches apart. Pickles: For hand harvest, space 3 to 4 feet apart; for machine harvest, space three rows 24–28 inches apart on a bed.

Plants for hand harvest should be 6 to 8 inches apart in the row;

2 to 4 inches apart for machine harvest. Close spacing increases yields, provides more uniform maturity and reduces weed problems, but require slightly higher fertilizer rates. Seeding for slicers:

1.5 pounds per acre. Seeding for pickles: 2 to 5 pounds per acre.

Mulching.

Fumigated soil aids in the control of weeds and soilborne diseases. Black plastic mulch laid before field planting conserves moisture, increases soil temperature, and increases early and total yield. Plastic and fumigant should be applied on wellprepared planting beds 2 to 4 weeks before field planting. Plastic should be placed immediately over the fumigated soil. The soil must be moist when laying the plastic. Fumigation alone may not provide satisfactory weed control under clear plastic. Herbicides labeled and recommended for use on cucumbers may not provide satisfactory weed control when used under clear plastic mulch on nonfumigated soil. Black plastic can be used without a herbicide.

Fertilizer must be applied during bed preparation. At least 50% of the nitrogen (N) should be in the nitrate (NO

3

) form.

Foil and other reflective mulches can be used to repel aphids that transmit viruses in fall-planted (after July 1) cucumbers. Direct seeding through the mulch is recommended for maximum virus protection. Fumigation will be necessary when there is a history of soilborne diseases in the field. Growers should consider drip irrigation with plastic mulch. For more information, see the section on “Irrigation”.

SUggEStEd FErtIgAtION SCHEdULE FOr CUCUMbEr*

(N:K,1:2) days after planting daily nitrogen daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

Preplant 25.0

45.0

0-14 0.9

1.8 37.6 75.2

15-63

64-77

1.5

0.7

3.0

1.4

110.3

120.1

196.6

216.6

ALtErNAtIvE FErtIgAtION SCHEdULE FOr CUCUMbEr*

(N:K,1:1) days after planting daily nitrogen daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

Preplant 24.0

24.0

0-7 1.0

1.0

31.0

31.0

8-21

22-63

1.5

2.0

64-70 1.5

*Adjust based on tissue analysis.

1.5

2.0

1.5

52.0

136.0

150.0

52.0

136.0

150.0

greenhouse Cucumber Production.

If you plan on growing cucumbers to maturity in the greenhouse, you need to select a greenhouse variety. This is because these varieties have been bred specifically for greenhouse conditions – lower light, higher humidity and temperature, etc., and they have better disease resistance than field types.

Nearly all greenhouse cucumber varieties are gynecious, parthenocarpic hybrids. This means that these varieties produce only female flowers and the fruit are seedless. Since they are all female, no pollination is needed. The seedless characteristic makes the fruit very tender to eat. Greenhouse cucumbers are also thin skinned which makes them more desirable than field varieties. While non-greenhouse types would grow in the greenhouse, the yield and quality would be reduced, and therefore they may not be profitable.

Variety selection is based on yield, fruit size, uniformity, disease resistance, and lack of physiological disorders, as well as the market demand for the type grown. In some markets the long, European types sells better, while in others, the small beit alpha types, also referred to as “minis”, are preferred. For suggestions on varieties, see the variety table above. Insect and disease control methods for greenhouse vegetables can be found in Tables 2-30 (in the Insect section) and 3-44 through 3-46 (in Disease section), respectively.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Cucumber beetle:

Cucumber beetles can transmit bacterial wilt; however, losses from this disease vary greatly from field to field and among different varieties. Pickling cucumbers grown in highdensity rows for once-over harvesting can compensate for at least

10% stand losses. On farms with a history of bacterial wilt infections and where susceptible cultivars are used, foliar insecticides should be used to control adult beetles before they feed extensively

50 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

on the cotyledons and first true leaves. Begin spraying shortly after plant emergence and repeat applications at weekly intervals if new beetles continue to invade fields. Treatments may be required until stems begin vining (usually about 3 weeks after plant emergence), at which time plants are less susceptible to wilt infections.

An alternative control option for cucumber beetles is the use of Admire at planting. Note: Use of Admire at planting can lead to spider mite outbreaks later in the season.

Pickleworm, Melonworm:

Make one treatment prior to fruit set, and then treat weekly.

Aphids:

Aphids transmit several viruses (CMV, WMV, PRSV, etc.) and can delay plant maturity. Thorough spray coverage beneath leaves is important. For further information on aphid controls, see the preceding “Mulching” section. Treat seedlings every 5 to 7 days or as needed.

Mites:

Mite infestations generally begin around field margins and grassy areas. CAUTION: DO NOT mow or maintain these areas after midsummer because this forces mites into the crop. Localized infestations can be spot-treated. Begin treatment when 50% of the terminal leaves show infestation. Note: Continuous use of Sevin or the pyrethroids may result in mite outbreaks.

dISEASE MANAgEMENt

Cucurbit downy Mildew Forecasting System:

Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM) is a devastating foliar Cucurbit disease. While difficult, if not impossible to control, CDM can be prevented by using effective IPM practices. A useful tool for prevention of CDM is the

CDM forecasting system. This program depends on the accurate reporting of CDM in the field as well as the monitoring of over 50 strategically placed sentinel plots. These plots are monitored by Plant

Pathologists at multiple Land Grant Universities throughout the United States and Canada. Forecasts of the epidemic movement of the disease are generated 3 times a week. Risk maps are produced from these forecasts. For forecasts, maps, local contacts and other helpful information please visit our website, http://cdm.ipmpipe.org. If you think you have CDM, please contact your local Extension office.

Phytophthora blight:

To minimize the occurrence of this disease, fields should be adequately drained to ensure that soil water does not accumulate around the base of the plants. Just before plants begin vining, subsoil between rows to allow for faster drainage following rainfall.

belly rot:

Belly rot is a soil-borne disease. Application of appropriate crop protectant at last cultivation may be helpful.

Weed Management:

See the previous “Mulching” section for futher information on weed control under clear plastic mulch.

Nematode Management.

Use nematicides listed in the “Nematode

Control in Vegetate Crops” tables in the Disease Control section.

POLLINAtION

Bees are critical for insuring that pollination and cucumber fruit set occurs. Supplementing a field with bee hives can be especially helpful when native bee populations are low or lacking. Having sufficient bees provides the opportunity to maximize cucumber yields and quality. Lack of sufficient pollination can result in a variety of misshapen fruits; dogbone, crooks, nubs, etc.

Rented honeybee hives are often placed in cucumber fields as plants begins to flower. The timing of hive placement is important because cucumber flowers are not that attractive to honeybees.

If the honeybee hives are placed by cucumber fields prematurely before the crop flowers, the honeybees may forage to wild flowers nearby which are more attractive due to their higher nectar and pollen supply. If this occurs, the honeybees may be predisposed to visit these wild flowers even though cucumber flowers are in full bloom a few days later. Assuming that the honeybee hive is a healthy hive, one hive per acre is recommended for hand-harvested pickling and slicing cucumbers with recommended plant populations of approximately 25,000 to 30,000 plants per acre. For mechanical or once-over harvested pickling cucumbers, the recommended plant populations are generally 55,000 to 60,000 plants per acre. Therefore, two honeybee hives should be placed per acre to account for the increased number of flowers from the increased plant population used for mechanically harvested cucumbers.

When hybrid cucumbers are grown at high plant populations for machine harvest, flowers require 15 to 20 visits for maximum fruit set. Generally, as the number of visits increase, there will be an increase in the numbers of fruit set and an increase in number of seed per fruit, as well as improved fruit shape and fruit weight.

Bumblebees are an effective pollinator alternative to honeybees in cucumber production. Bumblebees have some advantages compared to honeybees; flying under more adverse weather conditions in which it is cool, rainy or windy. They will also visit flowers earlier in the morning than honeybees, and fly later in the afternoon and early evening when the temperatures cool. Because bumblebees have a larger body size than honeybees, fewer flower visits are required by bumblebees in order to achieve good pollination and fruit set.

As with honeybees, bumblebees should be placed in the cucumber field shortly after the crop begins to flower. Bumblebees will typically last for 6 to 12 weeks and will meet the pollination needs of 2 to 3 sequentially planted cucumber crops.

Bumblebee hives are sold as a quad or four hives per quad.

A quad is the minimum order that can be purchased from a supplier. Generally one bumblebee hive contains 200 to 250 bees and is equivalent to one honeybee hive. Thus, one quad of bumblebees (minimum order, contains 4 bumblebee hives) would provide good pollination for four acres of hand-harvested cucumbers. For machine-harvest pickling cucumbers, one quad would provide good pollination for every two acres. Bumblebee hives should not be placed in direct sunlight so that the bees work more efficiently.

No more than two bumblebee quads should be placed in one location so that pollination is more uniform in the field. As with honeybees, one must carefully plan when to spray insecticides so that the bumblebees are not killed. Because bumblebees are most active from dawn until late morning and from about 4 PM to sunset, the hives need to be closed around 11 AM so that the bees in the hive remain protected during a late evening spray application. Bumblebee quads should be located a minimum of 650 to 700 feet away from the other quads in order to maximize pollinator efficiency.

See the section on “Pollination” in the General Production

Recommendations for additional information.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 51

EggPLANt

vArIEtIES 1

EggPLANt

Black Bell

Black Shine

Calliope

2

Casper

3

Classic

Dusky epic

Fairy tale 4

Ghostbuster 3

Green Giant

5

Gretel

3, 6

Hansel 6 ichiban 6

Little Fingers

6

Kermit 6, 7

Night Shadow

Pingtung Long

6

Rosalita

Rosita

Santana

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

White exterior with purple streaks.

3 White exterior.

AL gA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

4

Purple exterior with white stripes.

5

Green exterior.

6 Small diameter fruit.

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

LA

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

NC

M

M

M N

N

N

N

M

M N

N

N

N

7

Green and white exterior.

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S t

Eggplant is a warm-season crop that makes its best growth at temperatures between 70° to 85°F. Temperatures below 65°F result in poor growth and fruit set.

Seed treatment.

Soak seed in hot water at 122°F for 25 minutes.

Dry seed, then treat with an appropriate fungicide to prevent damping-off. Further information on seed treatments can be found in

SEED TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

EggPLANt PLANtINg dAtES

SPrINg

AL North 4/1–7/15

AL South

GA North

3/1–4/30

4/15–7/15

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

3/1–4/30

5/15-6/1

5/10-6/15

5/1-7/1

4/15–5/15

3/15–5/15

4/15-6/15

3/1-4/30

4/15–5/10

5/15–7/15

4/1–4/30

5/1–6/30

4/25-7/15

4/15-6/15

FALL

NR

7/15–8/31

NR

7/15–8/31

NR

NR

NR

7/1–8/15

7/1–8/30

NR

8/1-8/31

8/1–8/15

NR

8/1–8/31

NR

NR

NR

Spacing.

Rows:

4 to 5 feet apart; plants: 2 to 3 feet apart in the row.

Staking.

Staking eggplant improves quality and yield, while reducing decay. Use a 5 foot tomato stake between every other plant and place string along each side of the plants as they grow. This is described in detail in the tomato section of this guide. Side branches of eggplant should be pruned up to the first fruit and 2 main stems should be used. If additional stems grow too large remove them.

The first fruit should be pruned off until the flower is at least 8 inches above the ground, this will allow for straight fruit to form.

transplant Production.

Sow seed in the greenhouse 8 to 10 weeks before field planting. Three to 4 ounces of seed are necessary to produce plants for 1 acre. Optimum temperatures for germination and growth are 70° to 75°F. Seedlings should be transplanted to 2-inch or larger pots or containers anytime after the first true leaves appear, or seed can be sown directly into the pots and thinned to a single plant per pot. Control aphids on seedlings in greenhouse before transplanting to field.

transplanting dates.

Harden plants for a few days at 60° to 65°F and set in field after danger of frost and when average daily temperatures have reached 65° to 70°F.

drip Irrigation and Fertilization.

Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5 and in the absence of a soil test, apply fertilizer to supply 50 pounds per acre of N,P pounds per acre of K

2

2

O

5

and K

2

O, (some soils will require 100

0). Thoroughly incorporate into the soil.

After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system, the soluble fertilizer program should be initiated using the following t t t t t t t t t t t t t

tN

t

52 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

table. On low to low-medium boron soils, also include 0.5 pound per acre of actual boron.

The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field-transplanting the eggplant. Continue fertigating until the last harvest.

SUggEStEd FErtIgAtION SCHEdULE FOr EggPLANt*

(high soil potassium) days after planting daily nitrogen daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

Preplant 50.0

100.0

0-22 0.5

0.5

60.5

110.5

22-49

50-70

71-91

92-112

0.7

1.0

1.1

1.0

0.7

1.0

1.1

2.0

80.1

101.1

124.2

145.2

130.1

151.1

174.2

195.2

ALtErNAtIvE FErtIgAtION SCHEdULE FOr EggPLANt*

(low soil potassium) days after planting daily nitrogen daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

0-22

22-49

50-70

0.5

0.7

1.0

0.5

1.4

2.0

60.5

80.1

101.1

111.0

150.2

192.5

71-91

92-112

1.1

1.0

*Adjust based on tissue analysis.

2.2

2.0

124.2

145.2

238.7

280.7

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Colorado Potato beetle (CPb), Flea beetles (Fb):

CPB has the ability to rapidly develop resistance to insecticides. Refer to

“Eggplant” insecticide section for management options. Control of many early season pests including CPB, FB, whiteflies, and aphids can be accomplished through the use of Admire at planting. The use of row covers can be highly effective for flea beetle management early in the season.

Silverleaf Whitefly:

Treat when an average of 5 or more adults are found per leaf.

Weed Management.

See ”Mulching” section for further information on weed control under clear plastic mulch.

rAtOONINg EggPLANt: PrOdUCINg A FALL CrOP FrOM A

SPrINg PLANtEd CrOP

Ratooning eggplants can be done after the first crop is complete to allow a second crop to develop. Depending on the location, the first crop may be completed by June or July. Plants at this point will appear “topped out,” not producing any more flowers and any subsequent fruits. Mow plants 6 to 8 inches above the soil line, being sure to leave two to three leaf axils. Next, fertilize with 50 to

60 pounds of nitrogen per acre and 80 to 100 pounds of potash per acre (K

2

O). This combination will produce vigorous re-growth and stimulate flowering. Plants will begin producing fruit 4 to 6 weeks after ratooning and should produce eggplants until frost.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

Eggplant may be harvested once the fruit has reached one-half to full size for a given variety. However, harvesting prior to full size may reduce potential yields.

Harvest-ready fruit have a glossy appearance and are firm, without wrinkles. Harvest eggplant fruit before they become over mature.

When over mature, the fruit is dull in color, seeds are hard and dark, and the flesh is characteristically spongy. Although the fruit can often be “snapped” from the plant, they should be clipped with a sharp knife or scissors to prevent damage. When harvesting, cut the stem approximately 1/4 inch from the fruit. Eggplant skin is tender and easily bruised, so handle with care. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 53

gArLIC ANd ELEPHANt gArLIC

vArIEtIES 1 gArLIC

California early 2

Chesnok Red 4

Creole elephant (also called tahiti)

3

German extra Hardy 4 italian 2

Music

4

New york White Neck 2

Spanish Roja 4

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Softneck.

AL

A

A

gA

G

G

Ky

K

K

A

3

Allium ampeloprasum (Broadleaf Wild Leek)

4

Hardneck.

LA

L

L

L

MS

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

tN

t t t

Most garlic that is available from retail markets tends to be softneck types. When selecting softneck garlic for planting be sure to secure a strain of softneck garlic from a local grower who has had success with fall-planted garlic. Unlike many strains sold commercially, such a strain should be well adapted to your area to overwinter. Avoid planting the Creole types of softneck garlic in the northern range (also called Early, Louisiana, White Mexican, etc.), because they are not very winter-hardy and do not keep well.

Both the Italian and Creole types have a white outer skin covering the bulb, but the Italian type has a pink skin around each clove, whereas the skin around each Creole clove is white. Elephant-type garlic (milder than regular garlic and up to four times larger) may not yield very well when fall-planted in areas with severe cold or extensive freezing and thawing cycles, which cause heaving. Elephant garlic has performed well, however, in western North Carolina when it is well-hilled with soil or mulched with straw. The

Italian and Elephant types take about 220 days to mature.

Many of the most productive Italian garlic strains produce seed heads prior to harvest. Whether removed as they form or left intact, they have produced satisfactory yields.

Research in Kentucky and North Carolina has shown that hardneck types of garlic produce superior yields and are more winter-hardy than softneck types. Unlike softneck types, which will produce large numbers of small cloves per bulb; hardneck garlic will produce bulbs with 7-10 large cloves. Hardneck types have a hard “seedstalk” (called a “scape”) that is typically removed prior to harvest. Scapes are sometimes sold at farmers markets as a specialty item.

Seed pieces for hardneck garlic are often more expensive and harder to find than softneck types, but improved winter hardiness and bulb quality in the spring in Kentucky suggests that these are preferred for production at more northern latitudes. Results from these states might not translate to all areas of the southeastern US.

Consult with your local Extension office to find appropriate cultural information for your area.

Soil Fertility.

Maintain a soil pH of 6.2 to 6.8. Fertilize according to soil test recommendations for garlic. In moderately fertile soils, apply about 75 pounds nitrogen (N) per acre, 150 pounds phosphate

(P

2

O

5

) per acre and 150 pounds potash (K

2

O) per acre and disk about 6 inches deep before planting. When plants are about 6 inches tall (about March 15), topdress with 25 pounds per acre nitrogen and repeat the top dressing about May 1. Apply all top dressings to dry plants at midday to reduce chance of fertilizer burn.

Because sulfur may be partially associated with the extent of pungency, you may wish to use ammonium sulfate for the last top dressing (May 1). If ammonium sulfate is used, make sure pH is

6.5 to 6.8.

Garlic is commonly grown on muck, sandy, or fine textured soils as long as they are loose and friable. Use of organic matter or cover cropping is important.

Planting.

Garlic cloves should be planted during the fall because a chilling requirement must be met for good bulb development. Plant according to the times listed in the following table to ensure that good root systems are established prior to winter. Final bulb size is directly related to the size of the cloves that are planted. Avoid planting the long, slender cloves from the center of the bulb and cloves weighing less than 1 gram.

gArLIC PLANtINg dAtES

Planting dates

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

9/15–11/10

10/1–11/30

9/15–11/10

10/1–11/30

9/1-10/1

9/10-10/15

9/15-11/1

9/1–11/30

9/1–11/30

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

Planting dates

9/15–10/30

9/15–11/10

8/15–10/15

10/1–11/30

8/15–10/15

9/1-11/1

9/15-11/1

Spacing.

Garlic should be planted 4 by 4 inches apart in triple rows or multiple beds 16 to 18 inches apart. Between-row spacing depends on the equipment available. Clove tops should be covered with 1 to 1.5 inches of soil. The cloves must not be so deep that the soil will interfere with the swelling of the bulbs, nor so shallow that rain, heaving from alternate freezing and thawing, and birds will dislodge them. Vertical placement of cloves by hand gives optimal results. Cloves dropped into furrows are likely to lie in all positions and may produce plants with crooked necks. Garlic has also been grown successfully in Kentucky using plastic mulch as this helps reduce weed pressure during the long growing season.

54 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

INSECt MANAgEMENt

thrips:

During hot, dry weather, the population of thrips increases following harvest of adjacent alfalfa or grain. Thrips could therefore present the most serious insect problem on garlic. (See

“Onions” in the Insect Control section of this publication). Read and follow specific label directions for use on garlic; if not listed, do not use. Treat if thrips counts exceed an average of 5 thrips per plant.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

Garlic is ready for harvest in mid-May to mid-June—it must be harvested when around 30% of foliage is starting to yellow or the bulbs will split and be more susceptible to disease. When a few tops fall over, push all of them down and pull a sample. There are only about 10 days to 2 weeks for optimal garlic harvest. Before then, the garlic is unsegmented; much after that period the cloves can separate so widely that the outer sheath often splits and exposes part of the naked clove. Picked at the proper time, each clove should be fully segmented and yet fully covered by a tight outer skin.

Run a cutter bar under the bulbs to cut the extensive root system and partially lift them. The bulbs are usually pulled and gathered into windrows. Tops are placed uppermost in the windrow to protect bulbs from the sun, and the garlic is left in the field for a week or more to dry or cure thoroughly. Curing can also be accomplished in a well-ventilated shed or barn. The bulbs must be thoroughly dried before being shipped or stored. Outdoor curing is not recommended where morning dew can keep it too damp. Bring in for drying immediately from field. Emphasize gentle handling.

Cure for about 6 weeks.

After curing garlic, discard diseased and damaged bulbs.

Clean the remaining bulbs to remove the outer loose portions of the sheath, and trim the roots close to the bulb. Do not tap or bang bulbs together to remove soil. Braid or bunch together by the tops of the bulbs, or cut off the tops and roots and bag the bulbs like dry onions.

When properly cured, garlic keeps well under a wide range of temperatures. Storage in open-mesh sacks in a dry, well-ventilated storage room at 60° to 90°F is satisfactory. However, garlic is best stored under temperature and humidity conditions required for onions [32°to 35°F and 65% relative humidity]. Garlic cloves sprout quickly after bulbs have been stored at temperatures near 40°F, so avoid prolonged storage at this temperature. Garlic stored at above

70% relative humidity at any temperature will mold and begins to develop roots.

Marketing.

New growers should develop a local retail market

(roadside stands, night markets, gourmet restaurants), wholesale shipper, or processing market before planting. The demand for garlic is increasing due to recent reports about the health and medical benefits of garlic. The main markets are New york, Philadelphia,

Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C., Chicago, and St. Louis.

The markets of the northern and eastern United States will take the bulbs trimmed like dry onions and known as “loose garlic.” Frequently, 30 to 50 bulbs are tied in bunches. Bulbs should be graded into three sizes—large, medium, and small. Each string or bunch should contain bulbs of uniform size and of the same variety.

First-class garlic bulbs must be clean and have unbroken outer sheaths. Many of the larger vegetable markets, such as the large chain stores, could retail garlic in the form of clean, uniform cloves, two dozen to a mesh bag. Processors are not particular about having the cloves enclosed in a neat sheath and occasionally accept sprouted bulbs.

Garlic-growing can be very profitable when freshness is stressed and if the tops are braided, tied together, or placed into long, narrow, plastic mesh bags so they can be effectively displayed at roadside or night-market stands

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 55

grEENS: MUStArd & tUrNIP

vArIEtIES 1

MUStArd

Florida Broadleaf

Green Way

Red Giant

Savannah

Southern Giant tendergreen 2

tUrNIP grEENS

Alamo

All top

Just Right

Purple top White Globe

Seven top

Shogoin

Southern Green top Star topper tokyo Cross

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

gA

G

K

K

K

K

K

K

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

SC

S

tN

t t t t t t t t t t t t

2

Spinach-mustard.

Seeding.

Greens can be succession seeded throughout the indicated times liated in the table below. The next seeding date should be made when the previous crop is 50% emerged. Seeds emerge in

3-12 days: emergence is temperature dependent, with rapid emergence in warm weather (fall planting) and slower in cool temps

(spring planting). Rows should be 12-24 inches apart and in-row spacing should be 1-2 inches.

Soils.

Loamy soils will produce greatest yields, but many soil types are suitable. Sandy soils are preferred for cool season and overwintering production. Greens grown in sandy soils are easier to pull from the soil, and easier to clean off soil residue, than those grown in clay soils. Soil pH of 6.0 to 6.5 is desirable.

Fertilizers.

Quality greens require quick, continuous growth. A continual supply of nitrogen is essential for good color and tenderness. Applications of nitrogen at planting followed by additional sidedress applications during the growing season, are essential to produce consistent, high quality greens.

Cultivation.

In addition to adequate nutrition, consistent irrigation is necessary for good leaf formation. Overhead irrigation should be avoided as it causes favorable conditions for the development of several diseases.

MUStArd ANd tUrNIP PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring Fall

AL North

AL South

GA North

2/1–4/30

2/1–5/15

3/15–4/30

8/1–9/15

8/1–10/31

8/1–9/15

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

2/1–5/15

3/15-4/30

3/10-4/25

3/1-4/15

2/1–3/15

2/1–3/15

1/20–4/1

1/15–3/1

8/1–10/31

7/1-7/15

7/15-8/1

8/1-8/15

7/15–10/31

7/15–10/31

7/25–8/20

8/10–9/15

MUStArd ANd tUrNIP PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring Fall

NC east

NC West

2/15–6/30

4/1–8/15

8/1–9/15

NR

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

2/1–6/15

3/15–9/15

4/1-5/30

2/15-4/15

8/1–10/15

NR

7/1-7/30

8/1-8/31

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Aphids:

These insects can be serious pests of greens crops. Frequent examinations of the crops are necessary to avoid undetected infestations. Broad-spectrum insecticides used for caterpillar management can lead to aphid infestations.

Caterpillars:

Many of the same caterpillars that feed on the large

Cole crops (cabbage, collard, etc.) will feed on greens. Action thresholds for greens crops are currently lacking, but low levels of caterpillars can be tolerated during the early stages of growth.

The use of BTs and other soft materials are encouraged in order to maintain natural enemy populations in the crops.

Flea beetles:

These small insects can be serious pests of greens crops. They are often associated with heavier soils and weedy areas. BTs are ineffective against beetle pests. These materials are generally ineffective against these insects although the new neonictinoid insecticides work well with little effect on natural enemies. Treatment should begin when the infestation is first noticed. Frequent use of broad-spectrum insecticides for flea beetle management often leads to resurgence of other pests. Reflective mulches have been found to be effective in repelling flea beetles.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information.

56 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

LEEKS

vArIEtIES 1

LEEKS

Alcazar

Alora

Firena

Lancelot tadorna

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL

A

A

A

A

gA

G

Ky LA MS NC

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

tN

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

transplants.

Transplants are used for early spring plantings. For summer planting, sow in seed beds as indicated in following table.

About 2 pounds of seed are required to provide enough plants to set an acre. Seed should be planted 1/3 to 1/2 inch deep 8 to 12 weeks before field setting. Plants will be ready to set in early August. Plug cells have worked well.

LEEK PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

3/15–4/30

2/1–3/31

3/15–4/30

2/1–3/31

4/1-6/15

3/25-7/1

3/15-7/15

NR

2/15–6/30

4/1–8/15

2/1–6/15

3/15–6/30

4/1-6/30

3/15-8/1

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

Fall

9/15-10/31

NR

9/15–10/31

NR

NR

NR

Field Spacing.

Rows: 20 to 30 inches apart; plants: 4 inches apart in the row. Set plants in trenches 3 to 4 inches deep.

Culture.

Leeks grow slowly for the first 2 or 3 months. To develop a long white stem, start to gradually fill in trenches and then hill soil around stems to 3 or 4 inches.

There has been limited success growing leeks in Kentucky and

Tennessee. They can be grown for direct market sales, but wholesale production is not currently recommended. At this time there are no varieties recommended for these states.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

Spring-transplanted leeks are ready for harvest in July. Fall-transplanted leeks are ready to harvest by July. Fall-planted leeks are ready by November and can be overwinterted. See Table 14 for postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 57

LEttUCE, ENdIvE, ANd ESCArOLE

AL vArIEtIES 1

LEttUCE

Head

Crispino

Great Lakes ithaca

Mighty Joe

Maverick

Raider

Green Leaf

Grand Rapids

Green Star

Nevada

Salad Bowl

Sierra

Slobolt tango tehama

3 tiara two Star

Red Leaf

New Red Fire 4

Red express

4

Red Sails

4

Ruby 4

Cos or Romaine

Coastal Star

Green Forest

Green towers ideal Cos

Musena 3

Parris island Cos

Red eyes Cos

4

Ridgeline

Sunbelt 2

Valley Heart 2

Butterhead

Adriana

Bennett

Buttercrunch

Caliente ermosa esmeralda

Harmony

Nancy

ENdIvE

Galia Frisse

Salad King

ESCArOLE

Florida Deep Heart

Full Heart Batavian

Full Heart 65

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2 Recommended for fall production only (bolting susceptible).

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

G

G

K

K

K

K

K

K

3

Bolting resistant.

4 Red.

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

LA

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

tN

t

Lettuce and endive are cool-season crops. Properly hardened lettuce transplants can tolerate temperatures as low as 20° to 25°F.

Temperatures above 85°F for several days will cause seed stalk formation and bolting in lettuce. Temperatures below 70°F during the seedling stage promote premature stalk formation in endive and escarole.

Seeding and transplanting.

Spring crop. Lettuce transplants are started in frames or greenhouses. Seed for the lettuce crop is sown in heated greenhouses in November to February at the rate of 4 to

6 ounces of seed for 1 acre of plants.

Direct-seeded lettuce is sown in prepared beds as early in the spring as the ground can be worked. Seed should be sown shal-

58 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

low—some of the seed will actually be uncovered and visible.

Pelleted seed should be watered at night during high-temperature periods (soil temperatures above 80°F) until germination occurs.

LEttUCE HEAD PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

4/15–5/30

2/1–3/31

4/15–5/30

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

2/1–3/31

4/1-4/30

3/25-4/15

3/15-4/1

1/15–3/15

1/15–3/15

NR

2/1–4/10

3/1-8/10

2/1-4/15

3/15-5/15

3/15-4/30

3/1-4/15

Fall

8/1–9/15

8/1–9/30

NR

8/1–9/30

NR

NR

NR

9/15–10/30

9/15–10/30

NR

8/25–9/25

NR

NR

NR

8/1-9/1

8/15-9/15

LEttUCE LEAF AND BuTTERHEAD PLANtINg dAtES

Spring Fall

AL North 4/15–5/30 8/1–9/30

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

2/1–4/15

4/15–5/30

2/1–4/15

4/1-4/30

3/25-4/15

3/15-4/1

1/15–3/15

1/15–3/15

3/15-4/30

2/1-4/15

2/1–4/20

3/1-8/25

2/1–4/15

3/1–5/15

3/15-4/30

3/1-4/15

8/1–10/15

8/1–8/30

8/1–10/15

NR

NR

NR

9/15–10/30

9/15–10/30

8/1-9/30

8/1-10/15

8/25–10/1

NR

9/15–11/1

NR

8/1-9/1

8/15-9/15

LEttUCE COS OR ROMAINE PLANtINg dAtES

Spring Fall

AL North 4/15–5/30 8/1–9/15

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

2/1–3/31

4/15–5/30

2/1–3/31

4/1-4/30

3/25-4/15

3/15-4/1

1/15–3/15

1/15–3/15

NR

2/1-4/10

3/15-8/1

2/1-4/15

3/1-5/15

3/15-4/30

3/1-4/15

8/1–9/30

NR

8/1–9/30

NR

NR

NR

9/15–10/30

9/15–10/30

NR

8/25-9/15

NR

9/15-11/1

NR

8/1-9/1

8/15-9/15

ENdIvE/ESCArOLE PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

4/15-5/30

2/1-3/31

4/15-5/30

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

2/1-3/31

4/1-4/30

3/25-4/15

3/15-4/1

1/15–3/15

1/15–3/15

NR

3/20-6/15

5/1-8/15

2/1-4/15

3/1-5/15

3/15-4/30

3/1-4/15

Fall

8/1-9/15

8/1-9/30

NR

8/1-9/30

NR

NR

NR

9/15–10/30

9/15–10/30

NR

8/1-9/15

NR

9/15-11/1

NR

8/1-9/1

8/15-9/15

Mulching.

Using polyethylene mulch can be very beneficial for all types of lettuce and endive, in that the plastic reduces the amount of soil that gets inside the leaves. Use white plastic when air temperature exceeds 85°F. Most leaf lettuce varieties can be planted in

3 or 4 rows to the 30 inch bed top. In row spacing should be 9 to

12 inches and between row spacing should be 9 to 12 inches. Romaine types do best with 2 or 3 rows per bed and 12 to 15 inches in row spacing.

SPACINg

Lettuce:

Head lettuce is planted in rows 2 feet apart with plants

12 to 15 inches apart in the row. Leaf and Butterhead type lettuce are planted 3 to 4 rows per bed with beds spaced 66 to 72 inches on centers. Space plants 9 to 12 inches apart in the row. Use black plastic in spring and white plastic when mean daily temperature at planting is >85°F.

Endive/Escarole:

Plant three to four rows per bed and space beds

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

thrips:

Scout for thrips and begin treatments when observed. Do

Leafhopper:

Control of leafhoppers will prevent spread of lettuce

Corn Earworm (CEW):

Note. Head lettuce seedlings, in the 7 to

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 59

MELONS

vArIEtIES 1

CANtALOUPES and MIxEd MELONS

Eastern

Avatar 4, 5, 7, 8, 9

Ambrosia

2, 3, 6

Ariel

Aphrodite 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11

Atlantis

Athena

4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11

Grand Slam

Jaipur 7, 8, 9, 12

Magenta odyssey

2, 5, 8, 9 tirenno 4,5,7,8,9

Proteo

Western

Carribean Gold 12

Fiji 4,5,7,9,12 infinite Gold

5,7,8,9,12

Magellan 6, 9

Magnum 45 6

Mission

6 origami

4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12

Samoa 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12

XLt-7609K 12

XLt 9000

6, 7, 8, 9, 12 yuma Grande 6, 7, 9

Honey Dew

Honey Max

Rocio 3, 6, 10

Santa Fe

Saturno

6, 7, 9

Silver express

4, 5, 7, 9

Summer Dew 4, 5, 8, 9, 10 temptation 13

Galia

elario esmeralda

Galia

4

Golan 329

Solar Ace

Juan Canary

Golden Beauty 229

6

Golden Lady

Hibrix

Sonora

6, 9

Sugar Nut

Sunbeam 4, 5, 7, 8, 9

Oriental (Asian type)

Sprite (Crisp flesh type) yellow Star 2

Ananas (Persian melons)

Duke

6

Charentais

Versailles

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Local markets only.

3 Downy Mildew tolerance/resistance (DM).

4, 5 Powdery Mildew race 1 or 2 tolerance/resistance (PM).

AL gA Ky LA MS NC SC

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

K

K

K

K

L

L

L

M

M

M N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G

L M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

G K

K

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

A G N

A G

6

Powdery Mildew tolerance/resistance (non-race specific).

7, 8, 9 Fusarium Wilt race 0,1, or 2 tolerance/resistance (FW).

10 Fusarium Wilt tolerance/resistance (non-race specific).

11 tolerant to sulphur.

12 extended shelf-life type.

13

Orange-fleshed honeydew.

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

tN

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

60 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

Melon types.

Most growers and consumers are familiar with cantaloupes and honey dew melons. Cantaloupes turn beige and slip from the vine when ripe and have an orange, sweet flesh. Cantaloupes are typically separated into two categories; eastern and western. Eastern types are sutured, larger and generally have a shorter shelf life (a few days) than western types. Many eastern types are only suited for local markets, while improved eastern varieties such as ‘Athena’ have a longer shelf life and can be shipped to more distant markets. Western types typically are not sutured, are round with a corky beige netting, and usually have a two-week shelf life.

Honeydew melons generally have smooth rinds with some corky striations becoming obvious as the fruit nears or becomes ripe. These fruit do not slip like cantaloupe. Rind color can vary among varieties. Most are an off-white or beige but some have a yellow rind. Flesh color is typically light green, firm, and honey dews are sweeter than cantaloupes. Honey dew melons are typically grown in the southwestern United States in arid, dry climates. In the southeastern United States, honey dew fruit are more susceptible to cracking or splitting open. This is due to the uneven, high moisture conditions often encountered in the southeastern United

States.

Other specialty melons include Galia, Juan Canary, and oriental crisp-flesh types. The Galia type melon rind normally turns from green to golden yellow and will slip from the vine when ripe.

The flesh is soft and white to light green, and the fruit produces a strong odor. The Juan Canary melons have a bright yellow rind when ripe but will not slip from the vine. Flesh color is white to very pale green. The oriental crisp-flesh melons have a crispy white flesh and have white and/or yellow rinds. Some types are more bland, while others are more sweet like the variety Sprite.

Plant Production.

Transplants should be grown in pots or cells that provide a space of at least 1.5 inches by 1.5 inches for each plant.

Smaller pots or cells will restrict root growth and provide less protection to the newly set transplant. If the seed is of good quality with a high germination test, one seed per pot is sufficient. One ounce of melon seed contains 950 to 1,250 seeds.

The required amount of seed can then be estimated using Table 6 and 7 and knowing how many seeds make up an ounce of the desired variety.

Planting and Spacing.

Transplant or seed when daily mean temperatures have reached 60°F. Temperatures below 45°F can stunt plant growth. Consult the following table for planting dates in your area. Early plantings should be protected from wind with row covers or rye strips. Plantings can continue until about 100 days before first frost.

Normal in-row spacing for melons is 1.5 to 2 feet on plastic mulch and 2 to 4 feet on bare ground. Typically, an average of 7.5 to 15 ft

2

should be allocated per plant on plastic mulch. On bare ground, 20 to 25 ft

2 should suffice per plant.

MELON PLANtINg dAtES

AL North

Spring

4/15–6/15

AL South

GA North

3/1–6/30

4/15–6/15

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

3/1–4/30

5/15-6/15

5/10-7/1

4/25-7/15

4/1–6/30

3/15–6/30

4/1–4/10

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

3/1–3/15

4/15–5/15

5/15–7/31

3/15–5/15

4/15–6/5

5/5-6/15

4/15-6/1

*Use transplants for later season plantings.

drip Fertilization.

Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5 and in the absence of a soil test apply fertilizer to supply 25 pounds per acre of N, P

K

2

2

O

5

and K

2

O, (some soils will require 50 pounds per acre of

O), then thoroughly incorporate into the soil. After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system, the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated according to that described in the table below. On low to low-medium boron soils, also include 0.5 pound per acre of actual boron. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field transplanting or direct seeding the muskmelon. Continue fertigating until the last harvest.

Fall*

8/1–8/30

8/1–9/15

NR

8/1–9/15

NR

NR

NR

7/1–7/31

7/1–8/15

NR

NR

7/1–7/15

NR

7/1–7/30

NR

NR

NR

days after planting

Preplant

0-28

29-49

50-77

78-91

daily nitrogen

0.9

1.3

1.5

0.7

daily potash

1.8

2.6

3.0

1.4

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

25.0

50.2

77.5

119.5

50.0

100.4

155.0

239.0

129.3

258.6

SUggEStEd FErtIgAtION SCHEdULE FOr MELON*

(high potassium soil) days after planting daily nitrogen daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

Preplant

0-28

29-49

0.9

1.3

0.9

1.3

25.0

50.2

77.5

50.0

75.2

102.5

50-77

78-91

1.5

0.7

*Adjust based on tissue analysis.

1.5

0.7

119.5

129.3

144.5

154.5

Plastic Mulch.

The use of plastic mulch is especially beneficial when growing melons. It substantially reduces the amount of fruit rots and often results in a 100% increase in yields than if the crop is grown on bare ground. Black embossed plastic mulch is generally used to increase soil temperatures in the spring as well as pro-

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 61

vide weed control, and fertilization and irrigation efficiency. Fruit maturation is usually quickened with the use of plastic. White plastic can be used instead of black plastic mulch when air temperatures exceed 85°F to reduce excessive heat that can occur under black plastic at the later planting dates. Spacing on plastic mulch is typically 5 to 6 feet between rows and 18 to 30 inches in-row. Marketable yields will generally range between 7,000 to 10,000 fruit per acre when grown on black plastic mulch.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

dISEASE MANgEMENt

Cucurbit downy Mildew Forecasting System:

Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM) is a devastating foliar Cucurbit disease. While difficult, if not impossible to control, CDM can be prevented by using effective IPM practices. A useful tool for prevention of CDM is the CDM forecasting system. This program depends on the accurate reporting of CDM in the field as well as the monitoring of over

50 strategically placed sentinel plots. These plots are monitored by

Plant Pathologists at multiple Land Grant Universities throughout the United States and Canada. Forecasts of the epidemic movement of the disease are generated 3 times a week. Risk maps are produced from these forecasts. For forecasts, maps, local contacts and other helpful information please visit our website, http://cdm.

ipmpipe.org. If you think you have CDM, please contact your local Extension office.

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Seed Corn Maggot (SCM):

Use insecticide treated seed or atplanting soil-insecticide treatments to avoid SCM in the early season. SCM problems subside with later plantings.

Cucumber beetle:

Cucumber beetles transmit bacterial wilt, and most cultivars of muskmelons are highly susceptible to this disease. Also adult beetles can cause direct feeding injury to young plants. Foliar insecticides should be used to control adult beetles before they feed extensively on the cotyledons and first true leaves.

Begin spraying shortly after plant emergence and repeat applications at weekly intervals if new beetles continue to invade fields.

Treatments may be required until vining, at which time plants are less susceptible to wilt infections. An alternative control option for cucumber beetles is the use of Admire at planting. Note: Use of

Admire at planting can lead to spider mite outbreaks later in the season.

Pickleworm, Melonworm:

Make one treatment prior to fruit set, and then treat weekly.

Aphids:

Aphids can delay plant maturity. Thorough spray coverage beneath leaves is important. For further information on aphid controls, see the preceding section on “Mulches and Row Covers.”

Treat seedlings every 5 to 7 days or as needed.

Squash bug:

Begin treatments shortly after vining. Treat every 7 to 10 days or as needed.

Leafhoppers:

High numbers of potato leafhoppers cause leaf yellowing (chlorosis) known as hopper burn, which will result in yield loss.

POLLINAtION

Honeybees are important for pollination, high yields, and quality fruit. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours or wait until blooms have closed before application. See section on “Pollination” in the General Production Recommendations.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

Cantaloupes should be harvested at quarter-to half-slip for shipping. Healthy vines and leaves must be maintained until melons are mature to obtain high-quality melons. Harvest daily or twice daily in hot weather. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. Many other types of melons do not slip and judging maturity can be difficult. Many melons will change their water not color. It is critical to be familiar with the unique character of each melon.

62 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

OKrA

vArIEtIES 1

OKrA

Annie oakley ii 2

Cajun Delight

Clemson Spineless 80 emerald

Gold Coast

Lee

1

North and South

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL

A

A

A

A

A

2

A

Dwarf cultivar.

gA

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

tN

t t t t

Okra is a tropical annual which is widely adapted, however, it is very sensitive to frost and cold temperatures and should not be planted until soil has warmed in the spring.

Seeding and Spacing.

Generally only one planting is made. For cooler areas, seed in the greenhouse in cells and transplant to the field through black plastic mulch.

For dwarf varieties, space the rows about 3.5 feet apart; for medium and tall varieties, 4 to 4.5 feet apart. Drill seeds 1 to1.5 inch deep, with 3 or 4 seed per foot of row (5 to 7 pounds per acre). Thin plants when they are 5 inches high. Dwarf varieties should be spaced 12 to 15 inches apart in the row; plants of tall varieties should be spaced 18 to 24 inches apart.

OKrA PLANtINg dAtES

AL North

Spring

4/15–6/15

AL South 3/1–4/30

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

5/1–7/15

3/15–4/30

5/15-7/1

5/10-7/15

4/20-8/1

4/15–5/31

3/15–5/31

4/15–6/1

5/1–5/30

5/25–7/31

5/1-6/30

SC West tN east tN West

5/15–7/15

5/15-6/15

4/15-6/15

Fall

7/15–8/15

8/1–8/30

7/15–8/15

8/1–8/30

NR

NR

NR

7/1–7/31

8/1–7/31

8/1–9/1

8/1–8/30

NR

NR

NR

7/1-7/31

7/25-8/25

ratooning Okra: Producing a Fall Crop from a Spring Planting.

Market price for okra typically declines sharply as the summer progresses. After the market price drops, consider ratooning or cutting back your okra. Ratooning okra will allow the plants to rejuvenate and produce a crop in the fall, when okra prices are generally higher. Cut plants back using a mower, leaving 6 to 12 inches of each plant above the ground. Re-fertilize with 15-0-14,

8-0-24, or 13-0-44 to encourage re-growth and the development of side branches. Fall yields of cutback okra will often exceed that of spring crops or the yields of a crop that is not cut back.

drip Fertilization.

Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5 and in the absence of a soil test apply fertilizer to supply 25 pounds per acre of N, P acre of K

2

2

O

5

and K

2

O, (some soils will require 50 pounds per

O), then thoroughly incorporate into the soil. Apply 1 to

2 pound per acre of actual boron. After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system, the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated according to that described in the tables below. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field transplanting or direct seeding the okra. Continue fertigating until the last harvest.

days after planting

Preplant

0-14

15-28

29-84

85-91

daily nitrogen

0.9

1.3

1.5

0.7

daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

1.8

2.6

3.0

1.4

25.0

50.2

77.5

119.5

129.3

50.0

100.4

155.0

239.0

258.6

days after planting

Preplant

0-14

15-28

daily nitrogen

0.9

1.3

29-84 1.5

85-91 0.7

*Adjust based on tissue analysis.

daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

0.9

1.3

1.5

0.7

25.0

50.2

77.5

119.5

129.3

50.0

75.2

102.5

144.5

154.5

Plastic Mulching.

Polyethylene (black plastic) mulch can offer growers several advantages. Drip irrigation systems must be used with plastic mulch. On plastic mulch, transplant at the three-to four-leaf stage into staggered double rows spaced 15 to 18 inches apart between the double rows. Place plants 12 inches apart.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

An okra pod usually reaches harvesting maturity 4 to 6 days after the flower opens. The pods are 3 to 3.5 inches long at this stage and are tender and free of fiber.

Pick pods at least every second day to avoid the development of large, undesireable pods. Okra should be kept at temperatures between 50° to 55°F and of 85% to 90% relative humidity. Okra pods are subject to chilling injury below 50°F.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 63

ONIONS ANd grEEN ONIONS

vArIEtIES 1 grEEN ONIONS

Beltsville Bunching

2

Crystal White Wax evergreen Bunching

2 ishikura improved

Parade

Southport

2

White Spear

ONIONS (Short day)

Amelia (Wi-129)

Candy Ann (SS 2005)

Caramelo

Century

Georgia Boy

Goldeneye

Granex 33

Honeybee

Mata Hari

4

Miss Megan

Mr. Buck

Nirvana ohoopee Sweet

Red Hunter

Savannah Sweet

Sweet Caroline

Sweet Harvest

Sweet Jasper

Sweet Vidalia texas early Grano 502 texas Grano 1015y yellow Granex

3

ONIONS (Intermediate day)

Candy expression

Hi Ball

1

2

Superstar (white) tough Ball

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Bulbing type.

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

G**

Ky

K

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

3

Also designates a “type” of onion and performance may vary.

4

Red

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

tN

t t t t

** georgia growers note: to be marketed as “Vidalia,” varieties must be on the Georgia Department of Agriculture’s “Recommended Vidalia onion List” and grown in the Vidalia area. All of these varieties can be used for green onions.

Planting and Seeding dates.

In the northern range of the Southeast for dry bulb onions, sets and seed can be planted as soon as soil conditions are favorable in the spring. Plant transplants for bulb onions as indicated in the following table.

Seed for bunching onions can be planted as soon as soil conditions are favorable in the spring and successive plantings can be made throughout the summer in the cooler parts of the Southeast.

On-farm transplant production can be performed in most conditions for dry bulb onion production. In the northern range of the

Southeast it may be preferable to purchase transplants. Transplant production should begin by seeding plantbeds from late August to the end of September. A common method of producing transplants is to seed in high density plantings with 30-70 seed per linear foot.

Four to five rows are planted 12-14 in. apart on beds prepared on six-foot centers.

For dry bulb onion production from transplants follow planting dates recommended in the following table. Onion production from sets has not worked as well because it is difficult to mechanically orient the sets with the growing point up. Hand planting sets, however, works well for smaller operations.

Direct seeding dry bulb onions can save money on labor and materials. See seeding dates in table below. It is recommended that coated or encrusted seed be used with a vacuum planter to insure good seed singulation. It is critical that the beds be properly prepared without any previous plant debris. Preplant fertilizer application of 1/5 to 1/4 of required amount with proper bed moisture is

64 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

recommended. Care should be taken so that the seed is singulating properly, soil is not clogging the seeder, and planting depth is correct (~ 0.25 in.). Watering is required to insure germination and emergence. It may be necessary to apply water more than once a day during periods of hot, dry weather.

Seeding dates for green onions are listed in the table below.

Green onions during winter production will require 12-14 weeks.

Spring production may be shorter. Green onions can also be produced from transplants.

ONION DIRECT SEED PLANtINg dAtES green Onions

AL North

AL South

GA North

NR

8/15-10/15

NR

GA South

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

8/15–10/15

9/15–10/31

10/1–10/31

2/15-3/30

10/15–2/15

8/1–6/15

4/1–8/15

2/15–10/15

3/15–7/30

9/1-9/30

NR

Onions (dry)

NR

10/5-10/25

NR

10/5–10/25

9/15–10/31

10/1–10/31

9/15-10/15

9/15-10/30

9/15–10/31

9/1–9/30

9/15–11/15

NR

NR

NR

ONION TRANSPLANT PLANtINg dAtES

Onions (dry)

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

11/1-12/31

11/1–1/31

11/1-12/31

11/1–1/31

4/1-6/15

3/25-7/1

3/15-7/15

12/15–1/31

12/15–1/31

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

Onions (dry)

12/15–3/1

10/1–2/15

10/1–3/1

9/15–10/15

10/1–11/15

9/15–10/15

9/15/10/15

3/1-3/30

Spacing.

A typical planting arrangement for dry bulb onions is to plant four rows, 12-14 in. apart on beds prepared on six-foot centers. In-row spacing should be 4-6 inches. Row spacing up to 24 in. can be used. For direct seeded onions, set the planter to sow seed with a 3-4 in. in-row spacing.

For green onions, space rows 12 to 16 in. apart and space seed

0.75 to 1.5 inches apart (2-6 pounds per acre). A vacuum planter with a double row planter or a scatter shoe will work well. Seed depth should be 0.25-0.5 inches. Place transplants or sets 1.5 to

2.5 inches deep.

Cultivation.

For bunching onions, hill with 1 to 2 inches of soil to ensure white base.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Soilborne pests are often controlled with a preplant application of a soil insecticide.

Seedcorn Maggot:

An early season problem that is common following winter injury to plants or in fields where planting occurs soon after a cover crop has been plowed under.

Cutworms:

See cutworm section in Soil Pests-Their Detection and

Control.

thrips:

Use a threshold of 5 thrips per plant.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 65

PArSLEy ANd CILANtrO

vArIEtIES 1

PArSLEy

Curly Leaf

Banquet

Forest Green

Moss Curled

Starke

Flat Leaf

Dark Green italian

Giant of italy

Plain italian Green

CILANtrO

Jantar Longstanding

Santo

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

GA

G

G

G

K

K

Ky

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S tN t t t t t

Parsley is a biennial grown as an annual. There are two varietal types of parsley: flat-leaf and curled leaf. Flat leaf parsley tends to be more aromatic than the curled leaf and is used for flavoring in cooking. Curled leaf parsley is more attractive and is primarily used as a garnish. Cilantro is a fast growing annual that is cultivated for its fresh leaves. The seeds of the cilantro plant are referred to as the spice coriander. Parsley and cilantro are best cultivated as cool season crops in the southeast.

Seeding and Spacing.

Neither parsley nor cilantro transplant well due to their taproots which are typical of plants in the Apiaceae.

Direct seeding is recommended and is best achieved when using a precision seeder. Multiple plantings every 1-3 weeks are necessary for a season-long supply. Parsley seed is slow to germinate (12-25 days, temperature dependent). Seed is viable for 3-5 years but its percentage germination reduces quickly after 1 year.

Seed is sown 1/3 to

½ inches deep in a well-prepared seed bed. Seeding rates are from 16 to 24 pounds per acre (1/4 oz. per

100 row feet) for parsley and 15 to 50 pounds per acre (1-2 oz. per

100 row feet) for cilantro. Spacing between single rows is 15 to

18 inches. Parsley and cilantro can be precision seeded into raised beds with 3 to 4 rows per bed. Final in-row spacing should be 6 to

8 inches for parsley and 2 to 5 inches for cilantro. Research has shown that maximum yields can be achieved with more closely spaced plants.

PArSLEy/CILANtrO PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

AL North

Spring

3/15–5/30

Fall

NR

AL South 2/1–3/31 8/1–9/30

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS

NC east

NC West

3/15–5/30

2/1–3/31

5/10-7/10

5/1-7/20

4/15-7/1

2/15–4/15

2/1–4/15

NR

2/15–4/15

4/1–8/15

NR

8/1–9/30

NR

NR

NR

9/15–10/31

9/15–10/31

8/1–9/30

8/1–9/30

NR

PArSLEy/CILANtrO PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

SC east

Spring

NR

Fall

9/1–11/15

SC West NR 8/15–9/30 tN east tN West

4/1-8/1

4/1-5/30

NR

8/1-9/1

Cultivation.

Parsley and cilantro grow best in a well-drained, organic loam soil with soil pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Overhead irrigation is essential for stand establishment. Irrigation during the germination period and the 2-3 weeks following emergence are critical. Too little water at any point will result in diminished leaf yield. Long, warm periods with too little water results in bolting which is undesirable since the plants are grown for their leaves.

In addition, bolting reduces the amount, quality, and flavor of the leaves.

Cilantro cultivars are divided into “temperature sensitive” and

“slow-bolt” groups. When high temperatures and daylight greater than twelve hours occur, temperature sensitive cultivars tend to set flowers in as little as three weeks following germination. Cilantro responds well to growth stimulators (gibberellic acid, folcyteine, extracts of marine algae) to maximize leaf production. Premature bloom can be delayed through the use of these foliar sprays.

Both parsley and cilantro are weak competitors with other plants. Weed control is critical throughout the season and will also make harvest more efficient.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

There are few agricultural chemicals cleared for use on parsley and cilantro. Weed control is important and can best be obtained by using black plastic mulch and cultivation. Parsley and cilantro are prone to leaf blights, leaf spots, and mildews. Any approved fungicides should be sprayed as soon as symptoms appear. Cultural controls include the use of drip irrigation, crop rotation, and limited movement through the fields during wet conditions.

Root and crown rot of parsley is best controlled by a two-year crop rotation with non-susceptible plants. Swallowtail caterpillars feed on parsley and are present in large numbers in late summer months. Row covers while swallowtail butterflies are present may

66 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

reduce damage by blocking butterfly access to plants for egg laying.

Harvesting and Storage.

Parsley and cilantro are usually harvested by hand and bunched with rubber bands or twist ties in the field.

Cutting entire plants 1.25 to 3 inches above the crown may result in secondary growth sufficient to allow for another harvest. Average yield for both parsley and cilantro is 30-40 pounds per 100 row feet of row. Maximum biomass usually occurs at 40-45 days after germination for cilantro and at 75-90 days for parsley. Multiple harvests are more likely with parsley than cilantro. Store parsley and cilantro at 32° F with high humidity. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 67

PArSNIP

vArIEtIES 1

PArSNIP

All American

Harris Model

Javelin

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL

A

A

gA

G

Ky

K

LA MS NC

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

tN

Seeding and Spacing.

Seed as indicated in the following table.

Seeds germinate very slowly (taking up to 18 days). Seed more than one-year-old will not germinate. Parsnips need 120 to 180 days to mature and need to mature during cool weather.

Seed 3 to 5 pounds per acre at a depth of ¼ to 3/8 inch in rows 18 to 30 inches apart. Adjust seeder to sow 8 to 10 seeds per foot of row. Thin seedlings to 2-4 inches apart in the row. This will result in parsnips of similar shape and size to a plump carrot. To produce the huge roots popular in some areas, provide a much greater spacing of up to 12” between plants. Do not transplant parsnips.

Cultivation.

Cultivate parsnips in a similar manner as to carrots.

Do not let the roots dry out too much, as this will lead to cracked, unmarketable roots and bitter flavor.

yield.

Expected yield is 50-75 pounds per 100 row feet or 4 to 4.5 tons per acre.

Harvesting and Storage.

Roots are ready for harvest when tops start to die back in autumn. Parsnips may be dug, topped, and then stored at 32°F at 90 to 95% relative humidity. Roots can be stored up to 6 months. Parsnips left in the ground over winter should be removed before growth starts in the spring. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

Note:

Many people develop a rash after contact with the juice that parsnip leaves exude when crushed or torn, especially when handling leaves in the sun. Consider wearing gloves during harvest and handling; do not display parsnips with leaves still attached as is common for fresh market carrots.

PArSNIP PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

3/15–4/30

2/1–5/15

3/15–4/30

2/1–5/15

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

4/1–6/1

3/20–6/15

3/10–7/1

NR

NR

2/15–4/15

4/1–8/15

2/1–3/31

3/15–4/30

NR

NR

Fall

8/1–9/15

8/1–9/30

8/1–9/15

8/1–9/30

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

8/1–9/30

NR

8/15–10/15

7/15–9/30

NR

NR

Harvesting and Storage.

Parsnips may be dug, topped, and stored at 32°F at 90% to 95% relative humidity. Storage can be up to 6 months. Parsnips left in the ground over winter should be removed before growth starts in the spring. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

68 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

ENgLISH/gArdEN PEAS

vArIEtIES

1

ENgLISH/gArdEN PEAS

Dual

Green Arrow

Knight

Novella oregon Sugar Pod ii

2, 3

Sugar Ann

3

Sugar Bon 3

Sugar Snap

3 tall telephone (Alderman)

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL

A

gA

G

G

G

Ky

K

A G

G

A

A G K

2

Flat podded - snow pea.

3 edible pod type.

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

Garden peas thrive in cool weather and are frost tolerate . Early plantings can be made as soon as soil can be tilled in the spring.

Inoculation of seed can enhance early nodule formation and improve plant development.

Seed treatment.

Use seed already treated with an approved seed treatment, or treat seed with a slurry or dust that contains an approved fungicide.

Seeding and Spacing.

For Garden peas and processing peas, plant

3-4 seeds per foot in rows 6-8 inches apart, requiring seed 80-120 pounds per acre in 30 inch rows. Seed at a depth of no more than one inch unless soil is dry. Use press wheel drill or seeder to firm seed into soil.

Seedlings will emerge in 6 to 14 days, weather dependent. Harvesting usually begins 50-75 days after emergence. Average yield of Garden peas is approximately 20 pounds per 100 row feet.

Cultivation.

Avoid overfertilization. Too much nitrogen will reduce yields. Garden peas need some type of support structure for best performance and speedier picking. Garden peas should not follow beans or another Legume crop.

Harvesting and Storage.

Harvest often. Picking is labor intensive and may need to happen almost daily during peak production periods. Allowing Garden peas to get too large on the vines will greatly reduce production. Larger acreages of Garden peas require mechanical harvesting to be profitable. Leafless type Garden peas, with more tendrils than true leaves, are easier to harvest. Cool Garden peas as soon as possible after picking as their sugars convert to starch at higher temperatures. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

ENgLISH/gArdEN PEAS PLANtINg dAtES

AL North

Spring

3/15–4/30

AL South 2/1–3/31

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east

3/15–4/30

2/1–3/31

3/15-4/15

3/1-4/1

2/20-3/20

11/15–2/1

11/15–2/1

2/10-4/25

1/25-4/5

2/15–4/15

4/1–6/15

2/1–3/15

3/1–4/15

3/15-4/30 tN West 2/15-3/30

Fall

8/1–8/31

8/1–9/30

8/1–8/31

8/1–9/30

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

8/1–9/30

NR

8/15–11/30

8/15–10/30

NR

NR

tN

t t t t t

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 69

PEAS, SOUtHErN

NOtE ON SEEd AvAILAbILty: Seed supply has been limited in recent years and this will likely continue for the next few years.

vArIEtIES

1

PEAS, SOUtHErN

Blackeyes

Bettergro Blackeye

2, 4

California Blackeye #5

2, 5

Magnolia Blackeye 5

Queen Anne 2, 5

Pinkeyes

Coronet

2, 5

Pinkeye Purple Hull 4

Pinkeye Purple Hull - BVR

4

QuickPick Pinkeye

2, 5 texas Pinkeye top Pick Pinkeye 2

Creams

Big Boy (cream/browneye)

5 elite 2, 5

Mississippi Cream

2, 5 tender Cream

2, 5 texas Cream 8 texas Cream 12 top Pick Cream

White Acre-BVR

Crowders

Clemson Purple

Colossus 80

2, 5

Dixie Lee

Hercules

Knuckle Purple Hull

Mississippi Purple

3

Mississippi Shipper 2, 3

Mississippi Silver

3

Purple tip Crowder top Pick Crowder

Zipper Cream 4

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Suitable for mechanical harvest.

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

3

Semi-vining.

5

Bush.

4

Vining

Ky

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

tN

t t t t t t t t

Southern peas originated in India in prehistoric times and moved to Africa, then to America. In India, Southern peas are known by 50 common names and in the United States are called

“Field peas”, “Crowder peas”, “Cowpeas” and “blackeyes”, but

Southern peas is the preferred name. Southern peas require relatively warms soils for good germination.

Seeding and Spacing.

Sow when soil temperature reaches 60°F and continue sowing until 80 days before fall frost. Seeding too early causes poor stands and you may need to replant. Bush types should be seeded 4 to 6 per foot or 30 to 50 pounds of seed per acre. Vining types should be seeded 1 to 2 per foot or 20 to 30 pounds of seed per acre. Plant seeds 3/4 to 1 1/4 inch deep in rows spaced 20 to 42 inches apart depending on cultivation requirements.

Fertility.

Most soils will produce a good crop, but medium fertility with pH of 5.8 to 6.5 is desirable. High fertility produces excessive vine growth and poor yields. Inoculants of specific N fixing bacteria may increase yield especially in soils where Southern peas have not been grown. Crop rotation or fumigation is important for nematode control.

PEAS, SOUtHErN PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

4/15–7/31

3/15–6/15

5/15–7/15

Fall

NR

7/15–8/30

NR

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

3/15–5/15

5/10-6/15

5/5-7/1

4/20-7/15

4/15–7/31

4/1–5/31

4/15–7/15

3/15–6/15

7/15–8/30

NR

NR

NR

7/1–7/31

7/15–8/15

NR

8/1–8/30

70 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States t t t t t t t

PEAS, SOUtHErN PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

NC east

NC West

SC east

3/25–6/15

4/15–7/15

4/1–6/15

SC West tN east tN West

4/15-7/15

5/10-7/15

4/15-7/31

Fall

8/1–8/30

NR

7/15–8/1

NR

NR

NR

Insect Management. Cowpea Curculio:

At first bloom, make three insecticides applications at five-day intervals for curculio control.

Harvesting and Storage.

Depending on variety and weather, harvest will begin 65 to 80 days after seeding and continue for 3 to

5 weeks. Begin harvest when a few pods are beginning to change color and harvest only pods with well formed peas. This is the best stage for shelling and eating.

Southern peas are sold in bushel hampers or mesh bags. Do not use burlap sacks because they are not properly ventilated.

Southern peas weigh 22 to 30 pounds per bushel. One person can harvest 12 to 20 bushels per day if yields are average. Average production is 60 to 200 bushels per acre. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 71

PEPPErS

vArIEtIES 1

PEPPEr (open pollinated)

Bell

Capistrano

Jupiter

Purple Beauty

9

Frying type

Cubanelle

Sweet Banana

HOt/PUNgENt tyPES (open pollinated)

New Mexican/Anaheim type

Anaheim

Cayenne type

Carolina Cayenne

10

Charleston Hot

10

Large Red thick

Long Slim Cayenne

Habenero / Scotch Bonnet type

Habañero

Wax type

Long Hungarian Wax

Surefire

Jalapeño type

Jalapeño M tula

4

PEPPEr (Hybrid)

Bell

Alliance

4, 8bcdf, 11, 13, 14, 15

Aristotle

4, 8bcd

Camelot X3R

8bcd

2, 3, 8bcdf, 11

Declaration enterprise

8bcd excursion ii

Flamingo

4, 8bcd, 13

12, 13

Flavorburst

7

King Arthur

4, 6, 8c, 13

Mecate

4, 7, 8bcd, 13, 15 orobelle

4, 7, 13

Paladin

2, 13

Patriot

4, 8bcdf

Plato

3, 4, 8bcd

8bcd

Polaris

PS 09942815

3, 8b-k

Red Knight

4, 8bcd

Red Lion

Revolution

2, 8bcdf, 11

Sirius

3, 7, 8bc tequila

9, 13

Valencia

7, 13

Vanguard

2, 8bcdef, 11

Wizard

4, 8 bcd

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Phytophthora Root Rot tolerance/resistance.

3 Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus tolerance/resistance (TSWV).

4

Potato Virus Y tolerance/resistance (PVY).

5 Tomato Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance (ToMV).

6

Tobacco Etch Virus tolerance/resistance (TEV).

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

tN

t t t t t t t t

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S t t t t t t t t

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

K

K L

A

A G K

7

Mature yellow fruit or Mature orange fruit.

8a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k Bacterial Leaf Spot resistance for races

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, respectively.

9

Mature Purple fruit.

10

Nematode resistance (N).

11

Cucumber Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance (CMV).

14

M

Pepper Yellow Mosaic virus tolerance/resistance

(PyMV).

N

N

N

M

M

N

N

N

N

12

Fruit mature from White to Red.

S

S

S

S t t t

13

Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) tolerance/resistanace.

15

Pepper Mottle Virus tolerance/resistance (PMV).

72 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

vArIEtIES

1

Frying type

Aruba

Banana Supreme

Biscayne

Gypsy

Key Largo

Ancho/Poblano

Ancho 101

San Juan

San Martin tiburon

HOt/PUNgENt tyPES (Hybrid)

Serrano type

Nazas

5

Cayenne type

Mesilla

4, 6

Super Cayenne

8c, 13

Jalapeño type

Compadre

5, 8cf

Delicias

4, 6 el Rey

8bcd

Grande

4, 6 inferno ixtapa

4, 8bcd

Mitla

4 tormenta

4, 6, 8bcd

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Phytophthora Root Rot tolerance/resistance.

3

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus tolerance/resistance (TSWV).

4 Potato Virus Y tolerance/resistance (PVY).

5

Tomato Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance (ToMV).

6 Tobacco Etch Virus tolerance/resistance (TEV).

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

LA

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

tN

t t t t

A G

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

A

A

G

7 Mature yellow fruit or Mature orange fruit.

L

L

L

L

L

L

8a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k Bacterial Leaf Spot resistance for races

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, respectively.

9 Mature Purple fruit.

10 Nematode resistance (N).

11 Cucumber Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance (CMV).

12 Fruit mature from White to Red.

14

M

M

M

M

N

N

N S

Pepper Yellow Mosaic virus tolerance/resistance

(PyMV). t t t t t

13 Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) tolerance/resistanace.

15 Pepper Mottle Virus tolerance/resistance (PMV).

Peppers are a warm-season crop that grow best at temperatures of 70° to 75°F. This crop is sensitive to temperature extremes.

Poor fruit set and blossom drop can be expected when night temperatures drop below 60° or day temperatures rise above 85°F.

Seed treatment.

If seed is not treated in order to minimize the occurrence of bacterial leaf spot, dip seed in a solution containing

1 quart of household bleach and 4 quarts of water plus 1 teaspoon of surfactant for 15 minutes. Provide constant agitation. Use at the rate of 1 gallon of solution per pound of seed. Prepare a fresh solution for each batch of seed. Wash seed in running water for 5 minutes and dry seed thoroughly. Plant seed soon after treatment.

Further information on seed treatments can be found in SEED

TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

Planting and Spacing.

Space rows 4 to 5 feet apart. Set plants 12 to 18 inches apart in double rows. Select fields with good drainage.

Plant on raised, dome-shaped beds to aid in disease control.

To minimize sunscald when growing pepper on sandy soils and on plastic mulch without drip irrigation, plant varieties that have excellent foliage.

PEPPEr PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

5/15–6/30

3/1–4/30

5/15–6/30

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

3/1–4/30

5/20-6/15

5/10-7/1

5/1-7/15

4/1–5/15

3/1–5/15

4/20–6/30

3/1–4/30

4/15–5/10

5/15–7/15

4/1–5/15

5/1–6/30

5/15-7/1

4/20-6/30

Fall

7/1-8/1

7/15–8/30

7/1-8/1

7/15–8/30

NR

NR

NR

6/15–7/31

6/15–7/31

NR

8/1–8/15

8/1–8/15

NR

7/10–8/1

NR

NR

NR

drip Fertilization.

Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5, and in the absence of a soil test, apply enough fertilizer to supply 50 pounds per acre of N, P

5

and K

2

O, (some soils will require 100 pounds per acre of K

2

2

O

O) then thoroughly incorpotrate into the soil.

After transplanting the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated following that described in the following table. On soils

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 73

testing low-medium for boron, also include 0.5 pound per acre of actual boron. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after transplanting the peppers. Continue fertigating until the last harvest.

days after planting

Preplant

0–14

15–28

29–42

43–56

57–98

daily nitrogen

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.5

1.8

daily potash

0.5

1.4

2.0

3.0

3.6

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

50.0

57.0

66.8

80.8

100.0

107.0

126.6

154.6

101.8

177.4

196.6

347.8

SUggEStEd FErtIgAtION SCHEdULE FOr PEPPEr*

(high soil potassium) days after planting daily nitrogen daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

Preplant 50.0

100.0

0–14 0.5

0.5

57.0

107.0

15–28

29–42

43–56

57–98

0.7

1.0

1.5

1.8

*Adjust based on tissue analysis.

0.7

1.0

1.5

1.8

66.8

80.8

101.8

177.4

116.8

130.8

151.8

227.4

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt green Peach and Melon Aphid:

For best green peach aphid control during periods of drought, apply insecticide 2 to 3 days after irrigation. Thorough spray coverage beneath leaves is critical.

Pepper Maggot:

Pepper maggot flies are active from June 1 to mid-August.

Pepper Weevil (PW):

PW is a pest occasionally imported on older transplants or transplants with flowers or fruit.

European Corn borer (ECb):

European Corn Borer (ECB). The use of pheromone insect traps is recommended, treat when more than ten moths per trap per week are found. Follow table in Insect

Control section of this publication.

Nematode Management.

Use nematicides listed in the “Nematode

Control in Vegetate Crops” tables in the Disease Control section.

vIrUSES

Aphid-transmitted viruses (tMv, Pvx, CMv, tEv, Pvy):

Use tolerant or resistant varieties to control these viruses when available and provided that the fruit quality is consistent with market demands. Use these varieties in areas where these viruses have been prevalent or when high aphid pressure is expected. Generally, these viruses cannot be adequately controlled with insecticide applications, but symptom expression can be delayed through their use combined with the use of reflective mulches.. Because aphids transmit these virus, growers may wish to use yellow trap pans containing water to determine when mass flights of winged aphids occur.

thrips-transmitted virus (tomato Spotted Wilt virus, tSWv):

Use tolerant or resistant varieties. TSWV can be severe on peppers during both greenhouse production of transplants and during field production of the crop. The virus is spread to peppers by thrips.

During transplant production, thrips transmit the virus from infected ornamental plants (flowers). Be sure not to grow any ornamental bedding plants in the same greenhouse as pepper transplants.

Monitor greenhouses and scout fields for thrips. Begin an insecticide program BEFORE a problem is observed.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information.

74 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

IrISH POtAtOES

vArIEtIES 1

POtAtOES

Atlantic

4, 5, 9

Coastal Chip

5, 9

Dark Red Norland

4, 7

Harley Blackwell

4, 8

Katahdin

5

Kennebec

6, 8

La Chipper

5, 6, 7

La Rouge

4

Mountain Rose

3

Norchip

4

Purple Majesty

2

Red LaSoda

5

Red Pontiac

5

Superior

4, 8

Vivaldi

5 yukon Gold

5, 7, 9

Fingerling Types

French Fingerling

Russian Banana

4

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2 Purple flesh when mature.

3 Red flesh when mature.

AL

A

A

gA

G

G K

A

A G

G

G

A G

4

Tolerant/resistant to scab.

5 Susceptible to scab.

G

G

6 Late blight tolerance/resistance.

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

Ky

K

K

L

L

L

LA

L

L

L

MS NC

M N

N

N

N

N

N

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N M

N

N

7 ozone sensitive.

8 tolerant to heat necrosis.

9 Susceptible to heat necrosis.

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

Planting and Spacing.

The recommended planting dates for potatoes are in the following table.

IrISH POtAtO PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

2/15–4/30

1/15–3/31

3/15–4/30

2/1–3/31

3/20-6/15

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

3/15-7/1

3/15-7/15

1/15–2/28

1/15–2/28

1/20–3/15

1/20–3/1

2/15–3/31

4/1–6/15

2/1–3/31

3/15–4/30

3/20-4/30

2/15-3/31

Fall

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

7/15-9/1

7/1-9/15

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

Space seed 7 to 12 inches apart in 34- or 36- inch rows. Use closer spacing for large, cut seed pieces and wider spacing for whole (Bsize) seed. Use close spacing for potatoes being marketed in 5- and

10-pound consumer packs and for Katahdin and Kennebec, which tend to set few tubers and produce oversize tubers.

Seed-Piece treatment.

Use certified seed. Warm potato seed 65°F to 70°F for a period of 2 to 3 weeks before planting to encourage rapid emergence. Do not use seed pieces that weigh less than

1.5 oz each. Plant seed pieces immediately after cutting or store under conditions suitable for rapid healing of the cut surfaces (60° to 70°F plus high humidity). Dust seed pieces immediately after cutting with fungicide. Some fungicide seed-piece treatments are formulated with fir or alder bark. Bark formulations have been effective treatments to reduce seed piece decay. Further information on seed treatments can be found in SEED TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Colorado Potato beetle (CPb):

Rotation to non-solanaceous crops (crops other than potato, tomato, eggplant, and pepper) is extremely important in reducing CPB problems.

The further fields can be planted from last year’s solanaceous crop, the more beneficial it will be in reducing CPB problems.

Avoid the application of late-season sprays to prevent the buildup of insecticide-resistant beetles.

Beginning at plant emergence, sample fields weekly for CPB to determine the need to spray. Select at least 10 sites per field along a V- or W-shaped path throughout the field. At each site, select one stem from each of five adjacent plants and count and record all adults, large larvae (more than half-grown), and small larvae (less than half-grown). As a general guideline, if more than 25 adults or

75 large larvae or 200 small larvae are counted per 50 stems, a treatment is recommended. The amount of yield loss as a result of CPB feeding depends on the age of the potato plant. The Superior variety

(short season) cannot compensate for early season defoliation by overwintered beetles, but, during the last 30 days of the season, Superior can withstand up to 50% defoliation without yield loss.

Note:

Several insecticides may no longer be effective in certain areas due to CPB resistance. Alternate insecticide classes from one year to the next to avoid resistance. Check with the county Extension agent in your area for the most effective control.

Flea beetles and Leafhoppers:

Treatment is suggested if leafhopper counts exceed three adults per sweep or one nymph per 10 leaves. Use of Admire or Platinum at planting will also control flea beetles, leafhoppers, aphids and whiteflies.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 75 t t t t t t t t

tN

t t

European Corn borer (ECb):

Continued treatment for ECB may significantly increase CPB insecticide resistance. However, for proper timing of ECB sprays, consult your local county Extension office for further information.

Potato Aphid and green Peach Aphid:

Insecticide treatments are recommended when aphid counts exceed two per leaf prior to bloom, four aphids per leaf during bloom, and 10 aphids per leaf within two weeks of vine kill.

Potato tuberworm:

Treat when foliage injury is first noted. Potato tuberworms are primarily a problem with late potatoes, in cull piles, or potatoes in storage. Sanitation is very important.

Cutworms:

See “Cutworms” section in Soil Pests-Their Detection and Control. Cutworms are especially troublesome to tubers where soil cracking occurs. Variegated cutworms feed on lower leaves and petioles.

Wireworms:

Wireworms are a generic term used for the larvae of several species of click beetles, which burrow into potato tubers.

In the Southeast U.S., wireworms attacking potato are typically the corn wireworm, or one of five species in the genus Conode-

rus. Wireworm problems are most prevalent when Irish potatoes follow corn, any cereal crop, sod, or pasture. Wireworms do not move quickly from one field to the next, but can remain as larvae in a field for 2-5 years, depending on the species. Since it is difficult and laborious to monitor for a pest that lives in the ground, field history is an important tool for determining the need to treat for wireworms. Treatment must begin at or before planting to be effective. Options include preplant broadcast or at-planting furrow application of an appropriate insecticide. There is no control for wireworms once they have infested potato tubers.

dISEASE MANAgEMENt

Early blight:

Fungicide applications can slow the spread of early blight, but cannot eliminate it, and will be effective only when application begins when airborne spores are first present. Spore formation is most prevalent during repeated wet/ dry cycles, such as caused by overhead irrigation or frequent dew. Minimizing plant stress can reduce damage caused by early blight, especially in younger plants. Early blight spreads more rapidly in young plants than mature ones. If a field is infested with early blight, potatoes may still be harvested if adequate time between vine kill and harvest allows the skins to set and great care is taken not to bruise the tubers in the field. Tubers can be infected during the harvest process, and will decay more rapidly in storage than non- infected tubers. There are some potato cultivars resistant to early blight.

White Mold:

High fertility and frequent rain or overhead irrigation are conditions conducive to white mold, caused by the fungus

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This organism can survive in the soil for three or more years, and impacts other produce crops such as lettuce, beans, broccoli, peppers, and others. Fungicides should be applied as a protectant in fields with a history of white mold. In addition, eliminate canopy wetness by reducing overhead irrigation or aligning rows with prevailing winds to promote rapid evaporation of water in the canopy. Avoid fields with poor air movement or poor drainage. Rotate with a non-susceptible crop for three yields after a heavy infestation of white mold.

Common Scab:

Common scab is characterized by brown lesions on tuber skin that may be slightly raised or sunken in relation to surrounding surface. The causal agent is a bacteria (Streptomyces spp.), which can be seedborne or soilborne.

Scab occurs most commonly in warm dry soils with pH 5.5 to

7.5, and does not affect yield. If lesions are significant, marketability and quality are affected. Scab is difficult to manage. In addition to seed treatments at planting, management strategies include rotation out of the field for 3-4 years, maintaining low soil pH, using resistant varieties, and maintaining high soil moisture during tuber formation.

Late blight:

Caused by the fungal pathogen Phytophthora infes-

tans, late blight is the disease responsible for the Irish potato famine and continues to plague potato crops worldwide. Environmental conditions that favor late blight include frequent rainfall (or overhead irrigation), cool weather (50-75°F), and high humidity. Spread is usually quite rapid and complete defoliation can occur within 2-3 weeks of initial infestation. Infection can occur at any growth stage, and in any plant part including the tuber. Fungicides should be applied protectively; after infection, only systemic fungicides (those that penetrate plant tissue) can inhibit the spread of the disease. Additional management strategies include reducing periods of leaf wetness by decreasing overhead irrigation or increasing air movement. Use resistant cultivars when they are available. A critical strategy is reducing the initial amount of inoculum available in the field.

Use certified disease-free tubers, and dispose of infected tubers and volunteer vines in a pit with at least 2 ft soil coverage to avoid sprouting. Consider fungicide treatment of seed pieces.

In recent years, forecasting and reporting for this disease have become available, particularly valuable since Phy-

tophthora spores can travel long distances on air currents.

One such model is http://www.usablight.org. Use late blight modeling to forecast when disease pressure is most likely to be present and time fungicide sprays accordingly for most efficient use of chemicals.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

Harvest indicators:

Tuber formation of potatoes ends when soil temperatures are consistently over 80°F, regardless of whether or not vine tops have died back. For most “new” potatoes, tubers will be well developed between 65-75 days. Flowering is not a reliable indicator of tuber formation, as some varieties may flower little or not at all. Check for readiness by hand harvesting a few tubers for evaluation.

vine Kill:

Also known as desiccation, many growers chemically

(labeled herbicide application) or physically (rotobeating or chopping) defoliate potato vines once optimum marketable size of tubers has been achieved. This allows the tuber skin to set and mature and helps minimize skinning prior to digging. This technique provides benefits including efficiency in harvest, better control over harvest timing, skin set to reduce harvest injury, and reducing impact of diseases like late blight. Vine killing halts the translocation of nutrients and sugar accumulation from the leaves, triggering the conversion of tuber sugars to starch for storage. Vine killing also weakens the juncture of the tuber and stolon, making tubers fall from the plant more easily. If vine killing is used, harvest of tubers should occur at 2-3 weeks after vines are completely dead. Harvest before this and tuber skin may not have had adequate time to set, while harvesting later increases the chance for rotting organisms to attach the crop in the ground. Care should be taken to monitor this period and harvest at the optimum time to minimize mechanical damage and breakdown. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

76 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

PUMPKINS ANd WINtEr SQUASH

vArIEtIES 1

PUMPKIN

Miniature <2 lbs

Apprentice

Baby Boo

B, H, R

H, V, W, FL

Bumpkin

H, S, FL, PM

Crunchkin

B, H, FL

Gold Dust

H, SB, FL, PM

Gooligan

H, V, W, FL

Jack-Be-Little

V, H, FL

Lil Pump-ke-mon

H, B, FL, W w/ orange stripes

Lil ironsides

B, H, R

Munchkin

V, H, FL

Weeeeone

B, R, PM

(carvable)

Small 2-6 lbs

Cannon Ball

Field trip

V, P, PM

SV, FL-R, PM

Gargoyle

B, WA, R, PM iron Man

V, H, R, PM

Little Giant

S, H, R

Prankster

S, H, R, PM

Small Sugar

V, o

Spookie

V, H, R trickster

SV, H, R

Medium 6-12 lbs

Autumn Gold

S, R

Cotton Candy

V, W, R

Goosebumps ii

V, WA, R

Hybrid Pam

B, H, R

Jamboree

V, BL, FL-o, CMV, PRSV

Jarrahdale

V, BL, FL

Long island Cheese

V, BU, FL

Lumina

V, W, FL-R

Mystic Plus

V, FL-R, PM

Neon

SB, R orange Bulldog

V, H, o-R, PM

Rouge Vif D' etampes

V, RS, FL

Large 12-20 lbs

Appalachian

SB, R-o

Aspen

SB, R-o

Big Autumn

SB, o

Cinderella

V, RS, FL

Dependable

V, R-o, PM

Fairy tale

V, BU, FL

Gold Medal

S, W, R

Knuckle Head

S, WA, R-o

Magic Lantern

S, R, PM

Magic Wand

S, R-FL, PM

Magician

S, R, PM, ZyMV

Merlin

S, R, PM

Pro Gold 510

V, R-o

Sorcerer

S, R

20 Karat Gold

SB, R

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Growth habit:

B Bush growth habit.

SB

Semi-bush growth habit.

S

Semi-vining growth habit.

V

Vining growth habit.

Skin features:

BL Blue skin.

BU

Buff skin.

G

Green skin.

H

Hardshell.

W

White skin.

WA

Warts.

RS

Red Skin.

VR Variegated.

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

Ky LA MS NC SC tN

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

L

L M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

G

G

G

S

L

L

G

G K

K

K

K

K

K

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

L

L

L

L

L

K

K

K

K

K

K

L

L

K

Shape:

FL Flat (Cinderella, pancake).

o

oblong.

R

Round.

M

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N t t t

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S t t t

Disease Tolerance/Resistance:

F Fusarium tolerance.

PH

Phytophthora tolerance.

PM

Powdery mildew tolerance.

Vt

Virus tolerance (non-specific).

CMV

Cucumber Mosaic Virus.

WMV

Watermelon Mosaic Virus (Strain 2).

ZyMV

Zucchini yellows Mosaic Virus.

PRSV Papaya Ringspot Virus.

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

77

vArIEtIES 1

PUMPKIN (cont’d)

Extra Large 20-50 lbs

Aladdin SV, R-o, PM

Apollo S, o, PH

Big Max

V, R-o

Camaro

V, R, PM

Cronus V, R, PM

Gold Medallion V, R-o

Gold Rush V, R

Howden Biggie

Gladiator

S, R, PM

V, o

Mammoth Gold V, R

Mustang S, R, PM

Phantom V, R-o

Super Herc

V, R-o, PM

Warlock V, H, R-o, PM

Giant >50 lbs +

Atlantic Giant

V, R-o

First Prize V, o-R

Full Moon V, W, R

New Moon V, o-R

PrizeWinner

V, RS (red-orange skin), FL-R

HArdSHELL SQUASH

Acorn

Autumn Delight

SB, PM

Celebration B, PM table Ace SB table Queen

V taybell PM SB, PM

Buttercup

Buttercup V

Butternut

Avalon

V

Butternut Supreme

S early Butternut SB

Ultra V

Waltham Butternut

V

Hubbard

Golden Hubbard

V true Green improved Hubbard V

Spaghetti

Pasta Hybrid S

Primavera

S

Pinnacle

SB

Stripetti V, VR

Vegetable Spaghetti V

Miscellaneous Types

Bush Delicata

B, PM

Cushaw Green Striped

V

Cushaw orange Striped V

Gold Nugget B

Golden Delicious V

kabocha

Sweet Mama

S

Calabaza

el Dorado V

La estrella V

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Growth habit:

B

Bush growth habit.

SB

Semi-bush growth habit.

S

Semi-vining growth habit.

V

Vining growth habit.

Skin features:

BL

BU

Blue skin.

Buff skin.

G

Green skin.

H

Hardshell.

W White skin.

WA Warts.

RS Red Skin.

VR Variegated.

78

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

K

L

L

L

L

L

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

G K

K

K L

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S t t t

G

G

G

K

K

K

Shape:

FL

Flat (Cinderella, pancake).

o

oblong.

R

Round.

M

M

M

N

N

N

S

S

S t t t

Disease Tolerance/Resistance:

F

Fusarium tolerance.

PH

PM

Phytophthora tolerance.

Powdery mildew tolerance.

Vt

Virus tolerance (non-specific).

CMV Cucumber Mosaic Virus.

WMV Watermelon Mosaic Virus (Strain 2).

ZyMV Zucchini yellows Mosaic Virus.

PRSV Papaya Ringspot Virus.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States t t t t t t t t t t t

tN

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

Seeding and Spacing.

Seed in the field as indicated in the following table:

bush types:

Rows–5 to 6 feet apart; plants–2 to 3 feet apart in row; seed–4 to 6 pounds per acre.

Semi-vine types:

Rows- 6 to 8 feet apart; plants–2 to 4 feet apart in row; seed–2 to 4 pounds per acre.

vine types:

Rows–8 to 10 feet apart; plants–4 to 5 feet apart in row; seed–2 to 4 pounds per acre.

PUMPKIN/HArdSHELL SQUASH PLANtINg dAtES

AL North

Halloween

6/15–7/15

Hardshell Squash

4/15–6/15

AL South 6/15–7/15 3/15–5/15

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

5/1–6/15

6/15–7/15

5/10-6/1

5/5-6/15

6/15-7/15

6/15-7/15

6/20–7/5

6/20–7/5

6/15–7/10

5/25–6/30

NR

NR

6/1-7/15

5/15-6/15

4/15–6/15

3/15–5/15

5/15-6/15

5/10-7/10

4/15–5/15

3/15–5/15

4/15-6/15

3/15-5/15

4/15–5/20

5/25–6/30

3/20–5/1

4/15–6/15

5/15-6/30

4/25–6/30

For Soil Strips between rows of Plastic Mulch.

Use the following land preparation, treatment, planting sequences, and herbicides labeled for pumpkins or squash or crop injury may result.

1. Complete soil preparation and lay plastic and drip irrigation (optional) before herbicide application. In some cases, overhead irrigation can be used if small holes are punched into the plastic.

2. Spray preemergence herbicides on the soil and the shoulders of the plastic strips in bands before weeds germinate.

DO NOT APPLy HERBICIDE TO THE SURFACE OF

THE PLASTIC. Herbicides may wash from a large area of plastic into the plant hole and result in crop injury.

3. Incorporate preemergence herbicide into the soil with 0.5 to 1 inch of rainfall or overhead irrigation within 48 hours of application and BEFORE PLANTING OR TRANS-

PLANTING.

4. Apply selective postemergence herbicides broadcast or in bands to the soil strips between mulch to control susceptible weeds.

Minimum tillage.

No-tillage is the most commonly used minimum tillage practice with pumpkins. No-till planters currently in use with row crop production will plant pumpkin seed but seed plates or feed cups need to match up with seed size. Improper seed plates or cups will break pumpkin seed. Type of winter cover crop residue can affect pumpkin seed depth. Inspect seed placement and adjust for correct depth. Early spring planting with no-tillage in pumpkin may delay growth and days to harvest. Planting after soils warm in the spring will improve vigor (pumpkins are normally planted after soil warms so this may not be a management problem). Use of small grain cover residue may require additional nitrogen fertilizer (20 to 30 lbs N/acre in addition to the normal recommendation) if cover crop is fairly mature when killed. Normal pumpkin nitrogen fertilizer recommendations can be used if a legume cover crop (hairy vetch, winter peas, or crimson clover) is used as residue.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

dISEASE MANgEMENt

Cucurbit downy Mildew Forecasting System:

Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM) is a devastating foliar Cucurbit disease. While difficult, if not impossible to control, CDM can be prevented by using effective IPM practices. A useful tool for prevention of CDM is the CDM forecasting system. This program depends on the accurate reporting of CDM in the field as well as the monitoring of over

50 strategically placed sentinel plots. These plots are monitored by

Plant Pathologists at multtiple Land Grant Universities throughout the United States and Canada. Forecasts of the epidemic movement of the disease are generated 3 times a week. Risk maps are produced from these forecasts. For forecasts, maps, local contacts and other helpful information please visit our website, http://cdm.

ipmpipe.org. If you think you have CDM, please contact your local Extension office.

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Cucumber beetle:

Cucumber beetles cause direct feeding damage to the foliage. Young plants need to be protected with insecticide as soon as they emerge or are transplanted. Cucumber beetles also cause direct damage to pumpkin and winter squash rinds. Fall treatments with foliar insecticides to prevent feeding damage may also reduce incidence of bacterial wilt. While Hubbard squash, butternut squash and processing pumpkins are susceptible to bacterial wilt, Jack-o-lantern pumpkins and most other varieties of squash are rarely susceptible to bacterial wilt.

Squash vine borer:

Pheromone baited sticky traps can be used soon after planting to monitor the activity of the adult moths. Start inspecting plants closely for squash vine borer eggs (1mm [1/25 inch] diameter oval, flattened, dull-red to brownish) as soon as moths are caught in the traps. The first application of insecticide should occur when eggs begin to hatch or just prior to hatching. Applications should be made in afternoons or evenings after flowers close to reduce the spraying of valuable pollinators, especially bees.

If pheromone traps are not used, a preventive treatment should be applied when vines begin to run. Re-apply insecticide every seven days for four weeks. Continue monitoring the pheromone traps into

August to detect the emergence of the new moths. When moths are caught, inspect plants for second-generation eggs, and begin the insecticide applications when eggs first begin to hatch or just prior to hatching.

Aphids:

Aphid feeding can delay plant maturity. Thorough spray coverage, especially on the underside of the leaves is important. Treat seedlings every five to seven days, or as needed. The transmission of plant viruses by aphids has the potential to be the most damaging to the crop. Unfortunately, insecticide use for

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 79

aphids does not reduce the spread of virus. A better approach is the application of Stylet Oil to fill tiny grooves between the leaf cells. When the aphid probes the leaf surface, its stylet must pass through a layer of oil. This reduces the infectivity of the virus resulting in less disease in the squash plant. The application of Stylet

Oil can delay virus infection, but requires application every other day, thorough coverage and high pressure sprays. Also, refer to the preceding “Mulches” section for information on metallized reflective mulch used to repel or disorient aphids that can spread viruses.

Squash bug:

Begin scouting shortly after plant emergence. Treat every 7 to 10 days when adults or nymphs appear. The control of squash bugs is particularly important where yellow vine disease occurs since squash bugs vector the pathogen responsible for this disease.

Spider Mites:

Mite infestations generally begin around field margins and grassy areas. CAUTION: DO NOT mow these areas after midsummer because this forces mites into the crop. Localized infestations can be spot-treated. Note: Continuous use of Sevin or pyrethroid sprays may result in mite outbreaks.

POLLINAtION

Honey bees are important for pollination, high fruit yields, fruit size, and quality. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. Use one hive per acre to get good pollination. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours or wait until blooms have closed before application. See section on “Pollination” in the General Production Recommendations.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

Use clean storage bins and sanitize. Be sure to thoughly clean and santize bins prior to usage and subsequent storage.

Harvest as soon as fruits are mature and prior to frost. Use care in handling fruit to prevent wounds. Cure after harvest at temperatures between 80° to 85°F with a relative humidity of 75% to

80% for 10 days.

Temperatures below 50°F cause chilling injury. The hardshelled varieties, such as Butternut, Delicious, and the Hubbard strains, can be stored for several months. Store at 55°F and 55% relative humidity. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

80 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

rAdISHES, rUtAbAgAS, ANd tUrNIPS

vArIEtIES 1 rAdISH: Salad, daikon, and Icicle types

Cherriette

2

Cherry Belle

2

Cherry Beauty

Champion

2

Crunchy Royal

2 easter egg

2

(mixture of 5 - 6 root colors) early Scarlet Globe

2

Fireball

Red Boy

Red Jewel

2, 7, 8

Red Pearl

2, 7, 8

Red Silk

Ricardo

2

Sparkler

2

(half red, half white root)

White icicle

4

rAdISH: Storage types

April Cross

3 everest

3 omny

3

Long Black Spanish

5

Round Black Spanish

5

rUtAbAgAS

American Purple top

Laurentian

tUrNIPS

Hakurei

6

Purple top White Globe

Royal Crown

Scarlet Queen Red Stems

6

Shogoin tokyo Cross

White egg

White Lady

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2 Garden radish.

3 Daikon radish.

4 icicle radish.

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

5 Spanish radish.

6 Small root type; best when harvested at

2” to 3” diameter.

7

Downy mildew tolerance/resistance.

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

LA

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

L

L

L

L

M N S

L

M

M

N

N

N

M

8 Fusarium wilt tolerance/resistance.

S

S

S

S

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S t t t t t t

tN

t t t t t t t t

Seed treatment.

Soak seed in hot water at 122°F. Soak rutabagas for 20 minutes and turnips for 25 minutes. Dry the seed, then dust with a labeled fungicide to prevent damping-off. Further information on seed treatments can be found in SEED TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

SPACINg ANd SEEdINg

radishes:

Salad or garden radish roots are normally red skinned, round, less than two inches in diameter and grow rapidly, generally taking less than one month from seeding to harvest. Icicle types are elongated root forms of garden radishes. Daikon radishes are

Asian storage radishes that produce large, white cylindrical roots which can exceed twelve inches in length and can weigh over one pound. Spanish radishes have round or elongated large storage roots with black skin. Storage radishes can take up to ninety days from seeding to harvest.

Radishes are a quick-growing, cool-season crop producing its best quality when grown at temperatures of 50° to 65°F. Many radish types are ready for harvest 23 to 28 days after sowing. Radishes must be grown with an adequate moisture supply; otherwise, when growth is checked radishes become hot, tough, and pithy. Warm temperature and longer day-lengths induce seedstalk formation.

Seed radish as early in the spring as soil can be worked, then in order to maintain a continual supply make additional plantings at 8- to 10-day intervals. Space rows 8 to 15 inches apart and sow 12 to 15 seed per foot within a row. This will require 10 to 15 pounds of seed per acre.

rAdISH PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

AL North 2/15–5/15

AL South 1/15–3/31

Fall

8/1–10/15

8/1–10/31

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 81

rAdISH PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

GA North 3/15–5/15

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

2/1–3/31

3/15-5/15

3/10-5/10

3/10-4/1

2/1–3/15

1/15–3/15

3/5-4/30

2/1-3/31

2/15–6/30

4/1–8/15

2/1–6/15

3/15–6/30

4/1-5/30

3/1-5/1

Fall

8/1–9/15

8/1–10/15

8/1-9/1

8/15-9/15

9/15-10/1

8/1–10/30

8/1–10/30

8/1-9/15

8/1-9/30

8/1–9/15

NR

8/1–9/30

8/1–9/15

8/1-9/15

8/1-9/30

rutabagas:

A cool-season crop that develops best at temperatures of 60° to 65°F. Usually considered a fall crop, it can be grown in the spring. Seed at least 90 days before the early freeze date in the fall.

Sow 1.5 to 2 pounds of seed per acre at a depth of 1 inch in rows

30 to 36 inches apart. Thin to 4 to 8 inches in the row when plants are 2 to 3 inches tall.

turnips:

Seed as early in the spring as soil can be worked or at least 70 days before the early freeze date in the fall. Seed in rows 1 to 2 pounds per acre, 0.25 to 0.5 inch deep, in rows 14 to 18 inches apart. Plants should be 2 to 3 inches apart in the row. Seed can also be broadcast at the rate of 2.5 pounds per acre.

tUrNIP (rOOtS) PLANtINg dAtES

AL North

Spring

2/15–5/15

AL South 1/15–3/31

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

3/15–5/15

2/1–3/31

3/15-4/15

3/10-4/10

3/1-4/1

2/1–3/15

1/15–3/15

1/20–4/1

1/15–3/1

2/15–6/30

4/1–8/15

2/1–4/1

3/15–4/30

3/15-5/30

3/1-5/1

Fall

8/1–10/15

8/1–10/30

8/1–9/15

8/1–10/15

7/1-7/15

7/15-8/1

8/1-8/15

7/15–10/31

7/15–10/31

7/25–8/20

8/10–9/15

8/1–9/15

NR

8/1–9/30

8/1–9/15

7/15-8/10

8/1-8/25

rUtAbAgA PLANtINg dAtES

Spring

AL North 2/15–5/15

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

1/15–3/31

3/15–5/15

2/1–3/31

3/15-5/15

3/10-5/10

3/10-4/1

2/1–3/15

1/15–3/15

NR

2/15–4/15

4/1–8/15

2/1–3/31

3/15–4/30

3/15-5/15

3/10-4/1

Fall

8/1–9/15

8/1–10/15

8/1–9/15

8/1–10/15

NR

NR

NR

7/15–10/30

7/15–10/30

NR

8/1–9/30

NR

8/15–10/15

7/15–9/30

NR

NR

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE rutabagas:

Pull and trim tops in field. Bruised, damaged, or diseased rutabagas will not store well. Wash rutabagas in clean water, spray-rinse with clean water, then dry as rapidly as possible before waxing and shipping. Rutabagas can be stored 2 to 4 months at

32°F and at 90% to 95% relative humidity.

turnips:

The crop is dug mechanically and either bunched or topped. Turnips can be stored at 32° to 35°F and at 90% to 95% relative humidity.

For further postharvest information on radish, rutabaga, and turnip, see Table 14.

82 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

SPINACH

vArIEtIES

1

SPINACH

Baker 5

Bloomsdale Long Standing

2, 5

Bolero 5

Chesapeake Hybrid 3, 4, 6

Crescent

7 early Hybrid #7 2, 4, 6

F91- 415 4, 7

F97- 154

4, 7

Greyhound

3, 4

Mig

Melody 3, 4 olympia

4, 5

Regal 4, 5, 7

Seven R 3, 4, 6 teton

4, 5 tigercat

4 tyee 3, 4

Unipak 151 3, 4, 5, 6

Whale

2, 4, 5

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2 Savoy type.

3 Semi-savoy.

A

A

A

AL

A

gA

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

LA

L

L

L

A G K

L

L

L

L

4 Downy mildew tolerance/resistance.

5 Bolting tolerant.

6 Cucumber Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance.

MS NC

N

N

N o o o o

OK

o

SC

S

N S o o o

N S

7 White Rust tolerance/resistance.

S

tN

t t t

Spinach may be divided by use into fresh and processed types.

Spinach cultivars are either upright or spreading in habit and can be further subdivided by leaf type into savoy (wrinkled), crushed, crumpled, long-season, semi-savoy, and smooth varieties. The processing types are usually smooth leaved; the semi-savoy types can be used for both purposes; while the fresh market prefers the savoy types. In addition spinach cultivars can be classified as being fast bolters or slow bolters. Spinach usually matures in 30 to 50 days.

geographic/Climate requirements.

Since spinach is a hardy, cool season plant growing best where temperatures are moderate.

Spinach is frost tolerant and cold hardy to 20°F. Germination is maximized at 41°F (5°C) with emergence taking 23 days. Higher temperatures reduce germination. Spinach may be an early spring, late fall, or winter crop, where the conditions permit surviving winter killing temperatures. Longer day length triggers bolting.

SPINACH PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

AL North

AL South

GA North

3/15–4/30

2/1–3/31

3/15–4/30

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS

NC east

NC West oK

2/1–3/31

3/10-4/10

3/1-4/1

2/15-3/15

2/1–3/15

2/1–3/15

NR

2/15–6/30

4/1–8/15

2/15–4/15

Fall

8/1–9/15

8/15–9/30

8/1–9/15

8/1–9/30

8/1-8/15

8/15-9/1

9/1-9/15

9/1–11/15

9/15–11/15

NR

8/1–9/15

NR

9/1–12/30

SPINACH PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

SC east 2/1–4/1

SC West tN east tN West

3/15–4/15

2/1-3/31

2/1-3/31

Fall

8/15–10/15

8/1–9/30

8/15-10/15

8/15-10/15

Soil and Fertilizer requirements.

Spinach is sensitive to acidic soils, preferring a pH range of from 6.0 to 7.5. Warmer sandy soils are preferred for overwintering spinach. Fertilizer is more important during the slower growing winter periods. Before any fertilizer is worked into a spinach field, careful soil sampling and analysis should be obtained to determine the levels of P and K.

Cultural Practices.

Spinach is usually direct seeded in rows using either precision methods and coated seed or regular drilled uncoated seed. In some areas spinach is simply broadcast on beds.

The rate of germination fluctuates widely depending on methods of seeding but also upon the risk of damping-off. Despite the size of spinach seed, it is sown fairly shallowly, 0.8 to 1 inch (2 to 3 cm), in soil moisture conditions ranging from slightly above permanent wilting to field capacity.

Where spinach is pulled by hand for harvest, it is possible to select the larger, more vigorous plants, leaving space for the slower, crowded plants to grow. Seeding rates for non-clipped: 10 to 14 pounds/acre and for clipped: 18 to 25 pounds/acre. Spacing within rows is generally 12 inches. For smaller stands, sow 1 oz. of seed per 100 row feet. For smaller stands, average yields are 40 lb/100 row feet, 152 cwt/ acre.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 83

Irrigation and drainage.

The spinach plant is shallow rooted and therefore may become water-stressed if irrigation is not available between rain showers. More often than not the first irrigation is necessary to germinate the spinach seed. Since spinach is sensitive to overwatering or waterlogging, provision for drainage either through seedbed preparation or tiling is essential. The large transpiring leaf surface of maturing spinach plants coupled with warm temperatures can readily deplete the available moisture reserves.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Insect pests of spinach include: Aphids, Leaf miners, Cabbage loopers, mites, and Sweet corn maggots. Control methods include crop rotation, destruction of crop residues, and the use of pesticides.

Seed Corn Maggot:

To prevent maggot damage to spring-seeded plants, treat seed with an approved commercially available insecticide or use a broadcast application of a soil-incorporated insecticide. See the “Maggots” section in Soil Pests- Their Detection and

Control.

dISEASE MANAgEMENt

Spinach is vulnerable to attacks by blight (CMV), downy mildew, leaf spot, damping-off, seed rot, nematodes, and root rot. Resistant or tolerant cultivars help to ward off diseases. Where possible the use of the right seed dressing will protect the germinating seed and developing roots. Fumigation may sometimes be necessary, coupled with good rotational practices.

WEEd MANAgEMENt

Weed management is especially important in young spinach stands to reduce competition. Spinach competes poorly with many weeds, and the presence of weeds can significantly reduce yield. Growers should include both cultural and chemical controls for weed management, as no one practice consistently provides control.

Cultural controls include choosing a planting site that has low weed pressure, sanitation, and crop rotation. If field cultivation is necessary prior to planting, it should be shallow so as not to expose buried weed seeds to the sun. Consumer tolerance for weeds in bagged spinach is low; cultivation and hand-weeding are sometimes employed in addition to other controls. Hand-weeding is costly but is often the only option as the plants mature.

As with other leafy greens, herbicide options after seedlings have emerged are limited. I n addition, spinach is sensitive to damage from certain herbicides, and should not be planted if residues may be present in the soil. Preplant application of an appropriate herbicide is recommended. Proper identification of the weeds present in the field is crucial to selection of the best herbicide for the location, as there are few options, and none that address all the weed types that may be present.

Some growers have been able to reduce weed pressure with pre-irrigation, saturation of the field before the spinach seed is planted. This causes a flush of weeds to emerge, which can be eliminated by burning or herbicide application. The spinach seed is planted after the weedy plants have been removed with the expectation of less competition.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 For further postharvest information.

84 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

SUMMEr SQUASH

vArIEtIES 1

SUMMEr SQUASH

Yellow Crook Neck

Destiny iii

3, 4, 5, 6

Dixie

Gentry

Gold Star

6, 8

Medallion

Prelude ii

3, 4, 5

Supersett

2, 4, 5

Yellow Straight Neck

Cheetah

2, 4, 8

Conqueror iii

3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Cougar

4, 5, 7

Daisey enterprise

Fortune

2

Goldbar

Lioness

4, 5, 6, 7

Multipik

2, 4, 5

Solstice

4, 5

Superpik

2, 4, 5

Zucchini

Cash Flow elite esteem 4,5,7,8

Judgement iii 3, 4, 5, 6

Justice iii 3, 4, 5, 6

Leopard

4, 7

Lynx

4, 5, 7

Paycheck 4, 5, 6, 8

Payroll 4, 5, 6, 7

Payload

4,5,6,8

President

Respect

Senator

Spineless Beauty

Spineless Perfection

4, 5, 8

SV6009yG 4,5,6,8 tigress 4, 5, 7 total eclipse

Zephyr

2

(bi-color)

Grey Zucchini

ishtar

Scalloped

Patty Green tint

Peter Pan

Scallopini

1

Sunburst

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

Py - Precocious yellow gene; has a prominent yellow stem.

AL gA Ky LA MS NC SC tN

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

L

L

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

L

L

L

L

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G t

K

K

K

K

K

L

A

A K

A G

3

A

transgenic.

G K

4

Zucchini Yellows Mosaic virus tolerance/resistance.

5

Watermelon Mosaic virus tolerance/resistance.

L

L

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S t

M

N

N

S

S

N

6

N S

Cucumber Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance.

7

Papaya Ringspot Virus tolerance/resistance.

8

Powdery mildew tolerance/resistance.

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 85

Seed treatment.

Check with seed supplier to determine if seed has been treated with an insecticide and/or fungicide. Information on seed treatments can be found in SEED TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

Seeding, transplanting, and Spacing.

Use 4 to 6 pounds of seed per acre. Seed or container-grown transplants are planted when daily mean temperatures have reached 60°F. Seed as indicated in following table. Early plantings should be protected from winds with row covers, rye strips, or wind breaks. Space rows 3 to 6 feet apart with plants 1.5 to 2.5 feet apart in the row.

SUMMEr SQUASH PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

AL North 4/15–8/15

Fall

8/1–8/30

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

3/1–4/30

5/1–8/15

3/1–4/30

5/15-7/15

5/10-8/1

4/20-8/15

3/15–5/15

3/1–5/15

4/15–6/15

2/15–5/1

4/1–5/30

5/15–7/31

3/15-7/30

4/15–7/30

5/10-8/1

4/15-7/15

7/15–9/15

NR

7/15–9/15

NR

NR

NR

7/15–8/31

8/1–9/15

7/25–8/14

8/14–9/14

7/15–8/15

NR

8/1–8/30

7/30–8/15

NR

NR

Mulching.

Plastic mulch laid before field planting conserves moisture, increases soil temperature, reduces mechanical damage to fruit, and increases early and total yield. Plastic should be applied on well-prepared planting beds. The soil must be moist when laying the plastic. Black plastic mulch can be used without a herbicide. In most situations, 50 percent of the nitrogen(N) should be in the nitrate (NO

3

) form.

Reflective, plastic mulches can be used to repel aphids that transmit viruses in fall-planted (after July 1) squash. Direct seeding through the mulch is recommended for maximum virus protection.

Growers should consider drip irrigation. See the section on

“Irrigation” in this handbook.

SUggEStEd FErtIgAtION SCHEdULE FOr SUMMEr

(N:K;1:2) days after planting daily nitrogen daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

Preplant

0–14 0.9

1.8

24.0

36.6

24.0

49.2

8–28 1.3

29–63 1.5

* Adjust based on tissue analysis.

2.6

3.0

54.8

107.3

85.6

190.6

ALtErNAtIvE FErtIgAtION SCHEdULE FOr SUMMEr

(N:K,1:1) days after planting daily nitrogen daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

Preplant 24.0

24.0

0–7

8–21

1.0

1.5

22–63 2.0

*Adjust based on tissue analysis.

1.0

1.5

2.0

31.0

52.0

136.0

31.0

52.5

136.5

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Cucumber beetle:

Cucumber beetles cause direct feeding damage to the foliage. Young plants need to be protected with insecticide as soon as they emerge or are transplanted.

Squash vine borer:

Pheromone baited sticky traps can be used soon after planting to monitor the activity of the adult moths. Start inspecting plants closely for squash vine borer eggs (1mm [1/25 inch] diameter oval, flattened, dull-red to brownish) as soon as moths are caught in the traps. The first application of insecticide should occur when eggs begin to hatch or just prior to hatching.

Applications should be made in afternoons or evenings after flowers close to reduce the spraying of valuable pollinators, especially bees. If pheromone traps are not used, a preventive treatment should be applied when vines begin to run. Re-apply insecticide every seven days for four weeks. Continue monitoring the pheromone traps into August to detect the emergence of the new moths.

When moths are caught, inspect plants for second-generation eggs, and begin the insecticide applications when eggs first begin to hatch or just prior to hatching.

Aphids:

Aphid feeding can delay plant maturity. Thorough spray coverage, especially on the underside of the leaves is important. Treat seedlings every five to seven days, or as needed. The transmission of plant viruses by aphids has the potential to be the most damaging to the crop. Unfortunately, insecticide use for aphids does not reduce the spread of virus. A better approach is the application of Stylet Oil to fill tiny grooves between the leaf cells. When the aphid probes the leaf surface, its stylet must pass through a layer of oil. This reduces the infectivity of the virus resulting in less disease in the squash plant. The application of

Stylet Oil can delay virus infection, but requires application every other day, thorough coverage and high-pressure sprays. Also, refer to the preceding “Mulches” section for information on metallized reflective mulch used to repel or disorient aphids that can spread viruses.

Squash bug:

Begin scouting shortly after plant emergence. Treat every 7 to 10 days when adults or nymphs appear. The control of squash bugs is particularly important where yellow vine disease occurs since squash bugs vector the pathogen responsible for this disease.

Spider Mites:

Mite infestations generally begin around field margins and grassy areas. CAUTION: DO NOT mow these areas after midsummer because this forces mites into the crop. Localized in-

86 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

festations can be spot-treated. Note: Continuous use of Sevin or pyrethroid sprays may result in mite outbreaks.

dISEASE MANgEMENt

Cucurbit downy Mildew Forecasting System:

Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM) is a devastating foliar Cucurbit disease. While difficult, if not impossible to control, CDM can be prevented by using effective IPM practices. A useful tool for prevention of

CDM is the CDM forecasting system. This program depends on the accurate reporting of CDM in the field as well as the monitoring of over 50 strategically placed sentinel plots. These plots are monitored by Plant Pathologists at multiple Land Grant Universities throughout the United States and Canada. Forecasts of the epidemic movement of the disease are generated 3 times a week.

Risk maps are produced from these forecasts. For forecasts, maps, local contacts and other helpful information please visit our website, http://cdm.ipmpipe.org. If you think you have CDM, please contact your local Extension office.

viruses (CMv, WMv, PrSv and zyMv):

Plant infection by viruses often causes squash fruit to be distorted or off-color rendering them unmarketable. Certain yellow-fruited varieties contain the precocious (Py) gene. The varieties are distinguished by their yellow stem. Varieties with the Py gene should be used for late spring or summer plantings since viruses are more prevalent in the summer than spring plantings. The Py varieties can normally mask virus fruit symptoms of certain viruses for several harvests. Use resistant varieties where possible, but even these may not escape virus.

WEEd MANAgEMENt

See the previous “Mulching” section for further information on weed control under clear plastic mulch.

For Seeding into Soil without Plastic Mulch.

Stale bed technique: Prepare beds 3 to 5 weeks before seeding. Allow weed seedlings to emerge and spray with paraquat a week prior to seeding. Then seed beds without further tillage.

For Soil Strips between rows of Plastic Mulch.

Use the following land preparation, treatment, planting sequences, and herbicides labeled for squash, or crop injury may result.

1. Complete soil preparation and lay plastic and drip irrigation before herbicide application.

2. Spray preemergence herbicides on the soil and the shoulders of the plastic strips in bands before weeds germinate. DO NOT

APPLy HERBICIDE TO THE BED SURFACE OF THE

PLASTIC. Herbicides may wash from a large area of plastic into the plant hole and result in crop injury.

3. Incorporate herbicide into the soil with1/2 to 1 inch of rainfall or overhead irrigation within 48 hours of application and BE-

FORE PLANTING OR TRANSPLANTING.

4. Apply selective postemergence herbicides broadcast or in bands to the soil strips between mulch to control susceptible weeds.

POLLINAtION

Honey bees are important for producing high yields and quality fruit. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours or wait until bloom is completed before application. See section on “Pollination” in the General

Production Recommendations.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 87

SWEEt COrN

vArIEtIES 1

COrN, SWEEt

White - Early

Silver Princess (se)

Sweet ice (se)

White out (se)

White - Mid-Season

Alpine (se)

Argent (se)

Avalon (se)

Biscayne (sh

2

)

)

Devotion (sh

2 ice Queen (sh

2

)

)

Munition (sh

2

Snow White (sh

2

)

Summer Sweet 8101R (sh

2

)

WH0809 (sh

2

)

2

Xtra-tender Brand 375A (sh

2

Xtra-tender Brand 372A (sh

2

Xtra-tender Brand 378A (sh

2

)

)

)

White - Late season

Silver King (se)

Silver Queen (su) tahoe (sh

2

)

WSS 0987 (sh

2

)

2

Yellow - Early

Bodacious (se)

Mirai 130y (sh

2

)

Seneca Horizon (su)

Sweet Riser (se)

Xtra-tender Xt 372 (sh

2

Yellow - Mid-Season

)

Bandit (sh

2

)

Garrison (sh

2

)

Gold Queen (su)

GH0851 (se)

2

GSS 0966 (sh

2

)

2

Honey Select (se) incredible (se)

Merit (su)

Passion (sh

2

)

Passion ii (sh

2

)

2, 3

Prime Plus (sh

2

)

Summer Sweet 7210 (sh

2

)

Vision (sh

2

)

Xt H1273 (sh

2

)

Xtra-tender 1178 (sh

2

)

Xtra-tender 1575 (sh

2

Bicolor - Early

)

Lancelot (se)

Precious Gem (se) temptation (se) temptation ii (se) 2, 3

Xtra-tender Brand 270A (sh

2

Bicolor - Mid-Season

)

Awesome (sh

BC 0805 (sh

2

)

2

2

)

Big time (sh

2

)

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

88

AL gA Ky LA MS NC SC tN

A

A G K

N

N S t t

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

L

L

L

L

L

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S t t t

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

K

K

L

L

L

L

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S t t t t

A

A

A

A

L

L

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

G

A G

2

Bt sweet corn (transgenic).

K

N S

3

RoundUp Ready sweet corn (transgenic).

t t t

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

vArIEtIES

1

COrN, SWEEt (cont’d)

Bicolor - Mid-Season (cont’d)

BSS 0977 (sh

2

)

2

BSS 0982 (sh

2

)

2

)

2

Cameo (sh

2

Legion (sh

2

)

Marquette (sh

2

)

Mirai 301BC (sh

2

)

Mirai 350 BC (sh

2

)

Montauk (sh

2

) obsession (sh

2

) obsession ii (sh

2

Providence (sh

Rainier (sh2) 2

2

)

)

2, 3

Summer Sweet 8102R (sh

2

Sweet Chorus (se)

)

Sweet G90 (su)

Sweet Rhythm (se)

Xtra-tender Brand 282A (sh

2

)

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL gA

A G

G

A

A

A

A

A

G

A

A

A

G

G

A G

A

2

Bt sweet corn (transgenic).

Ky

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

LA

L

L

L

MS

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

L

M

M

N

N

N

S

S

S

M N S

3

RoundUp Ready sweet corn (transgenic).

tN

t t t t t t t t t

There are three primary genes contributing to sweetness in sweet corn. They are; normal sugary (su), sugary enhanced (se), and supersweet or shrunken-2 (sh

2

).

Normal sugary sweet corn (su) has been enjoyed for many years. Su sweet corn is known for its creamy texture and mild sugars; however, sugars in these cultivars are rapidly converted into starch if not cooked the day of harvest. These cultivars are commonly sold in farmer’s markets and roadside stands. Examples of cultivars of the normal sugary sweet corn are ‘Silver Queen’ (white kernel), ‘Merit’ (yellow kernel) and ‘Butter and Sugar’ (bicolor kernel).

The sugary enhanced (se) sweet corn gene, known under trade names such as Everlasting Heritage have varying degrees of increased sugar content with a creamier kernel texture as compared to su sweet corn types. This translates into increased sweetness with a smoother kernel texture. Another advantage is that se sweet corn types maintain their quality for a longer period of time than normal sugary sweet corn types (su).

Cultivars of “Supersweet” or “shrunken” sweet corn (sh

2

) derive their name from the appearance of the dried kernel which is much smaller than kernels of su or se sweet corn types. Recently germination of sh

2

sweet corn cultivars has been improved and is now comparable with the su and se types. Seed of supersweet (sh sweet corn cultivars should be handled very gently and the use of

2

) plateless planter is recommended to prevent damage to seed. Many older supersweet cultivars require warm soil (70°F or higher) to germinate since they are less vigorous than the se or su genotypes.

Supersweet sweet corn (sh

2

) cultivars have a crunchier kernel, are sweeter than su and se cultivars, and will delay the conversion of sugar to starch extending their shelf life.

Xtra-tender, Ultrasweet, and Triplesweet are names for the latest development in sweet corn cultivars. These new types of sweet corn combine the genetics of sh

2

, se, and su genotypes.

These cultivars are high in sugar levels, hold well in storage, and have a pericarp which is tender (this improves the eating quality of the sweet corn). Plant these cultivars using the same recommendations as those of the sh

2

types of sweet corn.

Isolation requirements

for the sweet corn genotype are important in order to obtain the highest quality sweet corn. Supersweet (sh

2

) sweet corn must be isolated by a distance of 300 feet or 12 days difference in silking date to avoid cross pollination from field corn, pop corn, normal sugary (su), and/or sugar enhanced (se) types.

Failure to properly isolate the sh

2

genotype will result in it producing starchy, tough kernels. Isolation of sugary enhanced from normal sugary sweet corn types is recommended to maximize quality; however, quality is usually very minimally affected should cross pollination occur. It is recommended that augmented sweet corn types be isolated from all other sweet corn types for best quality.

Another important development in sweet corn cultivar development is the incorporation of the BT gene (called BT sweet corn).

BT sweet corn has been genetically modified by incorporating a small amount of genetic material from another organism through modern molecular techniques. In sweet corn, the incorporated BT genes is particularly effective in providing protection against European corn borer and corn earworm. The protein produced by the

BT gene is very selective, generally not harming insects in other orders (such as beetles, flies, bees, or wasps) but more importantly this protein is safe for consumption by humans, other mammals, fish, and birds. Syngenta Seeds has incorporated the BT gene into several sweet corn cultivars that are sold commercially under the trade name of Attribute followed by a series of numerals to identify the cultivar. Certain restrictions such as isolation, minimum acreage requirements, and destruction of the crop are part of the terms of contract when purchasing BT sweet corn seed.

In general, when selecting a cultivar, be sure to evaluate its acceptance in the market. Plant small acreages of new cultivars to test market their acceptance.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 89

Seed treatment.

Check with seed supplier to ensure seed was treated with an insecticide and fungicide. Information on seed treatments can be found in SEED TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

Seeding and Spacing.

Seed is sown as early as February in more southern regions on light, sandy soils. Use a high vigor seed variety for early plantings. Seed is drilled in the field about 1 inch deep.

Varieties are spaced 30 to 42 inches apart between rows depending on cultural practices, equipment, and seed size. In-row spacings range from 6 to 12 inches apart, with small-eared, early seasons varieties planted closest.

SWEEt COrN PLANtINg dAtES

AL North

Spring

4/15–5/30

AL South 2/1–4/30

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

4/15–4/30

2/1–3/31

5/1-6/15

4/20-7/10

4/10-7/20

3/1–5/15

2/15–5/1

3/20–4/9

2/21–3/14

3/15–4/30

4/15–6/15

3/1–4/15

3/30–5/30

4/15-6/30

4/15-6/15

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

Fall

NR

7/15-8/15

NR

7/15–8/15

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

Mulching.

The use of clear plastic mulch will improve stands, conserve moisture, and produce earlier maturity. Corn is seeded in the usual manner, except 10 to 20 days earlier in double rows

14 inches apart and on 5- to 6-foot centers. Apply herbicide and then cover with clear, 4-foot-wide plastic. Allow plastic to remain over plants for 30 days after emergence, then cut and remove plastic from field. Plants can then be cultured in the usual manner.

A nematode assay is recommended before using this system. If nematodes are present in the soil, control measures are necessary before planting. Use a high vigor seed variety to avoid uneven and reduced stand.

Minimum tillage.

No-tillage is the most commonly used minimum tillage practice with sweet corn. No-till planters currently in use with row crop production will plant sweet corn seed with minimal modifications. Type of winter cover crop residue can affect sweet corn seed depth. Inspect seed placement and adjust for correct depth. Early spring planting with no-tillage in sweet corn may delay growth and days to harvest. Planting after soils warm in the spring will improve vigor. Use of small grain cover residue may require additional nitrogen (20 to 30 lbs N/acre in addition to the normal recommendation) if cover crop is fairly mature when killed. No additional nitrogen above recommendations is required if a legume cover crop (hairy vetch, winter peas, or crimson clover) is used as residue.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

(listed as “Corn, Sweet” in the Pest Management section)

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Corn Earworm (CEW): CEW initiates egg laying when the plants begin to silk and ends when the silks wilt. Eggs are laid singly on the fresh silks. Begin to control CEW when 10% of the ears are silked. Repeat sprays at three to five day intervals until 90% of the silks have wilted. Control is more difficult late in the season.

Direct sprays toward the middle third of the plant. Corn hybrids having a long, tight-fitting shuck appear to suffer less damage than those with loose shucks.

Another management tactic for CEW and European corn borer (ECB) control is the use of BT sweet corn. These hybrids produce their own natural insecticide for control of these pests. However, under high pressure, supplemental sprays may be needed to achieve damage-free ears. Minimum acreage and resistance management practices are required with BTs sweet corn. Some markets may not accept these hybrids.

Corn Flea beetle:

Flea beetles transmit a bacterial wilt disease, known as Stewart’s Wilt, and these beetles are numerous after mild winters. Treat susceptible varieties at spike stage when 6 or more beetles per 100 plants can be found. Repeat every 3 to 5 days as needed. Note: Soil-applied insecticides may be ineffective during the first week of plant growth if soil temperatures are cool. Foliar applications of an insecticide may be necessary during this period.

European Corn borer (ECb):

Thorough spray coverage in whorls and on plants is essential. Many insecticides are highly toxic to bees. Granular formulations, if applied over the whorl, are generally more effective than liquid formulations for ECB control.

Sap beetle (Sb):

Loose-husked varieties tend to be more susceptible to sap beetle attack. Ears damaged by other insects attract SB.

Begin sampling at pollen shed and treat when 5% of the ears have adults and/or eggs. Note: Insecticides used for worm control at silk may not control SB infestations.

Fall Armyworm (FAW):

Direct granules over the plants so that they fall into leaf whorls when FAW first appear and repeat application, if necessary. For foliar spray applications, high-spray gallonage

(50 to 75 gallons per acre) is necessary for effective FAW control.

INSECt MANAgEMENt dECISION-MAKINg

Whorl/tassel Infestation:

In general, insect larval feeding (ECB and FAW) during the whorl stage of sweet corn development has a greater impact on early planted, short-season varieties. For ECB on early plantings, apply first spray or granular application when 15% of the plants show fresh feeding signs. Additional applications may be necessary if infestation remains above 15%. An early tassel treatment is usually more effective than a whorl treatment because larvae are more exposed to the chemicals.

The impact of infestation on mid-and late-season plantings depends on the stage of the plants when the infestation occurs. Treat for FAW during the early whorl stage when more than 15% of the plants are infested. During mid- to late-whorl stages, treatment for both FAW and ECB may be necessary if more than 30% of the plants are infested. Treat fields in early tassel stage if more than

90 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

15% of the emerging tassels are infested with ECB, FAW, or young corn earworm (CEW) larvae.

Ear Infestation:

Direct sampling for CEW, FAW, and ECB during silking is not practical because of the low thresholds for ear damage. Begin treatment when 10% of the ears show silk. If CEW populations are heavy, it may be necessary to begin treatments when the very first silks appear. Silk sprays should continue on a schedule based on area blacklight and pheromone trap counts, geographical location, and time of year. Early in the season, silk sprays may be required on a 3- to 6-day schedule. When CEW populations are heavy, it may be necessary to treat on a 1-to 3-day schedule. Applications during low populations can end up to 5 days before last harvest. During heavy populations and high temperatures, treatments will need to be made according to the legal

“days to harvest” of the chemical.

For best control during heavy populations, maximize the gallonage of water per acre, use a wetting agent, and make applications with a high pressure sprayer (200+ psi) with drop nozzles directed at the silks.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 91

SWEEtPOtAtO

vArIEtIES 1

SWEEtPOtAtO

Beauregard

Bonita 3

Carolina Ruby

Covington evangeline

Hernandez

Japanese/Grand Asia

2

Jewel

Murasaki

2 o’ Henry orleans

White Delite

White Hayman

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

3

Tan skin, white flesh.

AL

A

A

gA

G

A

A

G

G

A

A

G

A

A

K

A

A

2

Purple skin, white flesh, high dry matter.

K

K

K

K

Ky

K

LA

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

SC

S

S

S

tN

t t

variety Selection.

Selection of a variety depends on the intended market. Most varieties require 90 to 150 days to produce maximum yields. Sweetpotatoes are cold sensitive and should not be planted until all danger of frost is past. The optimum temperature to achieve the best growth of sweetpotatoes is between 70°F and

88°F, although they can tolerate temperatures as low as 55°F and as high as 105°F.

Soil.

Well-drained sandy and sandy loam soils will produce the best-shaped sweetpotatoes. Avoid using heavy soils. Soils with high levels of organic matter can promote scurf. Use long rotations to decrease the incidence of scurf and infection from Fusarium wilt. Avoid fields that have produced a crop of sweetpotatoes in the past two years and fields that have high nematode populations and are seriously eroded or grassy. Select a soil that is well drained but not prone to drought. Waterlogged, poorly drained soils prevent roots from obtaining sufficient oxygen, which can cause “souring” of roots.

Fertilizer and Lime.

Get a soil test. The optimum pH range is 5.8 to 6.2. If your soil needs lime, incorporate the appropriate amount several months before planting. This will allow sufficient time for the lime to increase your soil’s pH.

Broadcast or band half of the required nitrogen (N) before planting and then sidedress the remainder at layby when the vines begin to run. An appropriate total seasonal rate of N range for sweetpotato is between 50 and 80 pounds per acre. When applying N, apply between 150 to 200 pounds of potash per acre for the growing season. Some varieties require less N fertilizer than others. For the variety Beauregard, 50 pounds per acre per growing season is sufficient while for the variety Covington, 80 pounds per acre in preferred. Follow the recommended rate of fertilizer because high fertilizer concentrations may result in salt burn and plant damage. Additionally, applying surplus fertilizer can cause excessive vine growth and be a waste of resources due to added costs that will not result in higher yields.

CrOP EStAbLISHMENt

Propagating.

Sweetpotatoes are propagated from sprouts or slips

(vine cuttings). Only purchase certified, disease-free seed stock or slips. Select seed (the word seed refers to the roots used for slip production), that is free from insect and disease damage, that has a uniform flesh with variety appropriate skin color, and that is free from veins. your profitability depends on starting with the highest quality seed stock available. Using quality roots for seed is essential for producing quality sweetpotatoes. Quality sweetpotatoes are not produced from poor-quality seed.

In most years, it is not possible to purchase sufficient certified seed stock to produce slips for your entire planned production.

Thus, seed must be saved from each year’s crop. When possible, isolate your seed planting from that of your commercial planting to minimize viruses. Save seed from the highest quality roots that you produce. Carefully inspect roots for defects (no off-types), disease, insect damage, etc., as listed above. Each year purchase a portion of your required seed stock for slip production as certified seed, supplementing your total need with seed from the previous year’s crop. Certified slips are available from several growers in around the Southeastern US. Consult your local Extension office for information.

Presprouting.

Presprouting is a technique that produces two to three times more slips than seed stock that is not presprouted.

Some refer to presprouting as “waking up” the sweetpotatoes after they have been in storage. Presprouting encourages more prolific sprouting in roots. This can decrease production costs by decreasing the amount of seed stock required. In addition to increasing the number of slips produced, presprouting produces slips faster.

Conditions required for presprouting are similar to those required for curing sweetpotatoes. Presprouting involves placing seed stock in a controlled storage area, such as a curing room. You must be able to control temperature and relative humidity and be able to provide ventilation. Be sure that you are able to replace the air one to two times per day because the roots require a significant amount

92 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

of oxygen to facilitate presprouting. A rule of thumb: if there is not enough oxygen for a match to stay lit, there is likely not enough oxygen for the sweetpotatoes. To presprout, place seed stock in a presprouting room for 21 to 35 days at 70 to 80°F with 90% relative humidity. Spraying the walls and floors with water two times per day can help maintain relative humidity. Mechanical humidifiers (automatic humidifiers, misting systems) can help establish and maintain the required relative humidity. Avoid humidity near 100 percent or wetting of the surface of the roots as this can lead to the development of rots.

bedding.

Provide 4 to 5 pounds of 8-8-8 or 10-10-10 type fertilizer per 100 square feet of bed area. Treat seed with appropriate fungicides to prevent bedding root decay. After presprouting, place roots into beds, being careful not to damage them. Be sure to cover roots completely with 2 to 3 inches of soil. Do not be concerned if a few sprouts are above the soil line. Keep beds moist but not wet.

After planting roots, cover beds immediately with black or clear plastic to warm the soil. Punch holes in plastic for ventilation as needed. Slips are ready to harvest when they have 6 to 10 leaves (8 to 12 inches long) and adventitious roots are initiated (roots projected from the nodes or joints of the stem). Slips from presprouted roots are generally ready one week earlier.

Preparing Slips for transplanting.

To harvest, cut the slips about

1 inch above the bed surface. Cutting is preferred to pulling slips.

Always pull the knife up and away from the soil to prevent contamination from the seedbeds from moving into the production field. Clean knives frequently by dipping them into a 1:1 (v/v) solution of bleach and water. This will also prevent the spread of diseases from the seedbed into the field. Set the slips in the field within three days after harvesting them from the plant beds. About

500 slips can be produced from one bushel of seed. One bushel of seed requires 20 to 30 square feet of bed area.

transplanting.

Avoid planting slips until all danger of frost is past because they are very frost sensitive. Beds should be 4 to 8 inches high and as wide as equipment will allow. Narrow beds tend to dry quickly and may reduce overall yields. High beds will aid in promoting drainage, thus preventing water damage to roots. The most economical method to set a large number of plants is with a mechanical transplanter. Space slips 6 to 16 inches apart within rows spaced 3½ to 4 feet apart on row centers. The number of slips needed per acre will depend on your desired spacings. Be sure to manage water carefully to avoid transplant shock. Slips set more widely apart in-row will facilitate root enlargement, while closer inrow spacing results in increased competition and delay root sizing.

SWEEtPOtAtO PLANtINg dAtES

AL North 5/1–6/30 MS

NC east AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

3/15–5/15

5/15–6/15

4/1–6/15

5/20-6/1

5/10-6/10

5/1-7/15

5/1–6/30

4/15–6/30

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

4/25–5/20

5/1–7/15

5/25–6/30

4/15–6/15

5/1–6/15

5/15-6/30

5/1-6/30

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Lepidoptera Larvae:

Sweetpotato hornworm, corn earworm, southern armyworm, yellowstriped armyworm, beet armyworm, fall armyworm, and soybean looper all feed on foliage leaving small to large holes. In plant beds and newly set fields, damage may be serious. Mid to late season foliar feeding may reduce yields or delay sizing of roots when coupled with plant stress.

After harvest, larvae may continue feeding on sweetpotatoes left in the field and in storage. Apply insecticide to plant beds and in fields as needed. Cuttings should be free of insects before planting. Where worms are abundant at harvest, spray fields 2 to 3 days before digging. Remove harvested sweetpotatoes from the field immediately.

Cucumber beetles (rootworms):

Adults and larvae of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, and the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata feed on sweet potato. Both species are highly mobile and will also feed on several other host plants including, various vegetable plant species, soybeans, and corn. Adult beetles feed on sweet potato foliage, creating irregular holes in the leaves. Adult beetles lay eggs in the soil and larvae developing in the soil feed on developing sweet potato roots.

Feeding on the roots can occur throughout the production season, but damage from these insects increases late season. Feeding injury results in unsightly blemishes on the roots at harvest. The larval stage lasts from 8-30 days depending on the temperature and food supply. Pupae are found just below the soil surface. Adults will emerge in approximately one week. Numerous generations of these insects can develop and injure sweet potatoes throughout the production season. Soil applied insecticides can reduce damage from these insects if applied close to planting. Adults should be scouted weekly during the production season and labeled insecticides should be applied when the number of beetles sampled reaches or exceeds the treatment threshold of 2 beetles/100 sweeps.

tortoise beetle:

Generally, damage by tortoise beetles threatens newly set plants or plants under stress. Leaves of infested plants are riddled with large, round holes. Adults and larvae which feed on sweetpotato foliage include: mottled tortoise beetle, striped tortoise beetle, and argus tortoise beetle, blacklegged tortoise, and golden tortoise beetle. Isolate plant beds and control morningglory.

Monitor movement of ornamental sweetpotatoes which often contain tortoise beetles and other insects. Apply insecticides to young plants if needed. Control beetles in plant beds and fields.

Sweetpotato Weevil:

This is the most serious worldwide pest of sweetpotatoes. Adults and larvae feed on foliage, but prefer stems and roots. Infested sweetpotatoes are riddled with small holes and galleries especially in the stem end. They turn bitter and are unfit for consumption by either humans or livestock. Use only “seed” and plants produced in approved and trapped weevil-free areas. All purchased roots/plants, including those produced out-of-state, must be certified. Use pheromone traps in plant beds, greenhouses, and in fields to detect sweetpotato weevil. Some varietal tolerance exists. Chemical control with weekly or biweekly sprays is difficult; however, sweetpotato weevil is not in commercial production areas in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina or South Caro-

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 93

lina. South Carolina has a strict monitoring and quarantine program in place to maintain these weevil-free production areas.

Sweetpotato Flea beetle:

Adult beetles overwinter in debris, along fence rows, and at the edges of wooded areas. In the spring, eggs are laid in the soil near host plants. There are several generations per year. Adults feed on foliage leaving channels on the upper leaf surfaces. Larvae feed on roots etching shallow, winding, sunken trails on the surface, which enlarge, darken and split. Monitor adults with yellow sticky cups. Control morningglories and weeds along field margins and plow under crop debris. Use resistant or tolerant varieties. Beauregard is very susceptible to flea beetles. In fields with a history of infestation use a preplant or a side-dressed soil insecticide over the foliage up to the last cultivation. Control adults with insecticides.

Whitefringed beetle:

Larvae feed on roots causing damage similar to that of wireworms and white grubs. Only flightless, female adults occur and feed at the base of plants leaving scars on the stem. They also feed and notch leaves. They are most active in

July and August and produce eggs in groups without mating. Avoid infested fields and rotate crops. Only grasses are not suitable as hosts. Monitor for adults or leaf notching. Limited control may be achieved by using tolerant varieties, foliar insecticides applied every two weeks and soil insecticides. Record whitefringed beetle sites and do not plant sweetpotatoes in these locations.

Wireworms:

Tobacco wireworm, southern potato wireworm, corn wireworm leave small, irregular, shallow or deep holes in the surface of sweetpotato roots. Larvae are identified by differences in their last abdominal segment. Wireworm adults (click beetles) lay their eggs in grassy, undisturbed soil. Adults feed on weed seeds

(pigweed) and corn pollen. Avoid land previously in sod or fallow.

Wireworms may be detected prior to planting using corn, wheat, or oatmeal bait stations. If necessary, broadcast and incorporate a preplant insecticide, or use a granular material at root swell. Timed foliar sprays are of limited value, as adults do not feed on sweetpotato and are only controlled when sprays contact adults or larvae move into a treated area. Control weeds and do not allow them to mature to seed. Resistant varieties are available. Avoid planting in fields with corn wireworm. Avoid planting behind corn, grain, and grain sorghum. Tobacco wireworm adults can be monitored with yellow sticky cups. Wireworm adults are attracted to black-light insect traps.

White grubs:

These can cause large, shallow, irregular damage on the surface of sweetpotatoes. Species include Japanese beetle, spring rose beetle, and green June beetle. Adults lay eggs in grassy areas (also see section on wireworms). Pheromone traps are under evaluation. Japanese beetles are attracted to traps. White bucket traps attract spring rose beetles. Use a preplant insecticide and foliar sprays when adults are active.

Fruit Fly

:

Fruit flies may be a nuisance in storage houses when sweetpotatoes decay due to other causes such as souring, chilling, and Rhizopus soft rot. Fruit flies feed on decaying vegetables.

Maggots may be seen in decaying roots. Fruit flies may become established in cull piles and spread to the storage house. They do not cause rots. Harvest, cure and store only sound sweetpotatoes.

Dispose of culls, inspect the storage house and use traps. If necessary, spray with an appropriate insecticide.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

A 3 to 4 month growing season is required for root development.

After the roots are dug, they should be cured in the storage house at 80° to 85°F and 90% relative humidity for 6 to 8 days. After curing, temperature should be lowered to 55°F, but relative humidity should be maintained at 85%. Temperature should never go below

50°F or chilling injury may result, depending on length of exposure. Above 60°F, sprouting will occur and root weight decrease.

See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

94 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tOMAtOES

vArIEtIES 1 tOMAtOES

Fresh Market

Amelia VR

2, 10, 11, 12, 18

Applause

8, 10, 11, 15, 25

Bella Rosa

2, 3, 8, 10, 11, 15, 18

BHN 589 10, 11, 18, 20, 25

BHN 602

2, 10, 11, 12, 18

BHN 640

2, 10, 11, 12, 18

Big Beef

8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18, 25

Carolina Gold

10, 11, 17, 18

Celebrity

25

Crista

2, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18

Defiant PhR 10,11,18,19,24

Floralina

8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 18

Florida 47R

8, 10, 11, 15, 18

Florida 91

3, 8, 10, 11, 15, 18

Mountain Crest

10, 11, 18

Mountain Fresh Plus

10, 11, 14, 18, 19

Mountain Glory

2, 10, 11, 12, 18

Mountain Magic

10, 11, 18, 19, 24

Mountain Majesty

2,10,11,18,25

Mountain Spring

10, 11, 15, 18, 25

Phoenix

3, 8, 10, 11, 15, 18

Primo Red

2, 10, 11, 15, 16

Red Defender

2, 8, 10, 11, 15, 18, 25

Redline

3, 10, 11, 12, 18

Red Morning

2, 10, 11, 12, 18

Red Mountain

2, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18

Rocky top

10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 25

Solar Fire (Fall only)

3,10,11,12,15

Cherry Types

Cherry Grande

8, 10, 11, 15, 18

Marcelino

6

Mountain Belle

10, 18

Sun Gold

17

Grape Types

Cupid

8, 9, 10, 15 elfin

7

Golden Sunshine

22

Jolly elf

11, 18

Navidad

11

Rosa

St. Nick

Smarty

10, 18

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

tomato Spotted Wilt Virus resistance (tSWV).

3

Heat set (heat tolerance).

4

Southern Bacterial Wilt resistance.

5

Local markets only.

6

Super sweet medium sized cherry,superior quality.

7

Determinant grape tomato.

8

Alternaria Stem Canker tolerance/resistance (ASC).

9

Bacterial Speck tolerance/resistance (BSK-0).

AL gA Ky

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

K

K

A

A

G K

A

A

A

A

A

G

G

G

G K

A

A G

A

10, 11, 12

Fusarium Wilt race 1, 2 or 3 tolerance/resistance (F).

13

Fusarium Crown Root Rot tolerance/resistance (FCRR).

14

Nematode resistance (N).

15

Gray Leaf Spot resistance (St).

16

tobacco Mosaic Virus resistance (tMV).

17

yellow fruit.

18

Verticillium Wilt resistance (V).

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

LA MS NC SC tN

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S t t t

L

L

L

L

L t t

M

M

M

N

N

N

N

N

N

S

S

S t

M

M

S t t t

N S

M

M

N

N

S

S t t

M

N

N

N S t

19

early Blight tolerance.

20

tomato Mosaic Virus resistance (toMV).

21

tomato yellow Leaf Curl Virus resistance (tyLCV).

22

orange fruit.

23

Salad size (Campari type).

24

Late blight tolerance/resistance.

25

Suitable for high tunnel production.

26a-e

Cladosporium race A,B, C, D, E tolerance/resistance.

27 Powdery mildew tolerance/resistance.

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 95

vArIEtIES 1 tOMAtOES (cont’d)

Roma Types

BHN 410

9, 10, 11, 18

Granadero 2,10,11,14,18,20,27

Mariana

8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18

Muriel

2, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18

Picus

2, 8, 10, 15, 18

Plum Crimson

10, 11, 12, 18, 19

Plum Regal

2, 10, 11, 18, 19, 24

Pony express

9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18, 20

Greenhouse Types – Beefsteak

Big Dena 10, 11, 13, 16, 18

Geronimo 11, 13, 16, 18, 26a-e, 27

Starbuck

10, 13, 18, 20, 26a-e torero

11, 13, 16, 18, 26a-e, 27 trust 11, 13, 16, 18, 26a-e

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

tomato Spotted Wilt Virus resistance (tSWV).

3

Heat set (heat tolerance).

4

Southern Bacterial Wilt resistance.

5

Local markets only.

6

Super sweet medium sized cherry,superior quality.

7

Determinant grape tomato.

8

Alternaria Stem Canker tolerance/resistance (ASC).

9

Bacterial Speck tolerance/resistance (BSK-0).

AL gA Ky

A

A

G

A

A

A

A

G

G

A

A K

A

A

A G K

10, 11, 12

Fusarium Wilt race 1, 2 or 3 tolerance/resistance (F).

13

Fusarium Crown Root Rot tolerance/resistance (FCRR).

14

Nematode resistance (N).

15

Gray Leaf Spot resistance (St).

16

tobacco Mosaic Virus resistance (tMV).

17

yellow fruit.

18

Verticillium Wilt resistance (V).

K

K

K

K

LA MS NC SC tN

N S

S t

L

N

N

N

S

S t t t t t

L

L

L

L

M

M t

M

M

M N S t

19

early Blight tolerance.

20

tomato Mosaic Virus resistance (toMV).

21

tomato yellow Leaf Curl Virus resistance (tyLCV).

22

orange fruit.

23

Salad size (Campari type).

24

Late blight tolerance/resistance.

25

Suitable for high tunnel production.

26a-e Cladosporium race A,B, C, D, E tolerance/resistance.

27

Powdery mildew tolerance/resistance.

Seed treatment.

To minimize the occurrence of bacterial canker, bacterial spot, and bacterial speck, seed should be treated with chlorine. If seed is not treated with chlorine by the seed company, then dip seed in a solution containing 1 quart of household bleach and 4 quarts of water plus one-half teaspoon of surfactant for 1 minute. Provide constant agitation. Use 1 gallon of solution per pound of seed. Prepare a fresh solution for each batch of seed.

Wash seed in running water for 5 minutes and dry seed thoroughly.

The final rinse should be done with acidified water (1 oz. vinegar per gallon of water). Further information on seed treatments can be found in SEED TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

tOMAtO PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

AL North

Spring

4/15–6/15

AL South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

MS North

MS South

NC east

NC West

SC Coastal island

SC east

SC West

3/1–4/30

4/15–6/15

3/1–4/30

5/15-6/1

5/5-6/15

4/20-7/1

3/15–6/30

3/1–6/30

4/20–6/30

3/1–3/15

4/15–5/10

5/15–7/15

3/1-4/30

3/15–4/30

5/1–6/30

Fall

7/1-8/1

7/15–8/30

7/1-8/1

7/15–8/30

NR

NR

NR

7/1–8/10

7/15–8/15

NR

NR

8/1–8/15

NR

7/1-7/15

7/1–7/15

NR

tOMAtO PLANtINg dAtES (cont’d)

Spring

tN east 5/1-6/30 tN West 4/20-6/20

Fall

NR

NR

Hardening transplants.

It is usually desirable to harden tender tomato seedlings before planting them in the field. Recent research has shown that hardening tomato plants by exposure to cool temperatures (60° to 65°F/day and 50°to 60°F/night) for a week or more causes catfacing. Harden plants by withholding water. Allow plants to wilt slightly between light waterings. Do not harden transplants by withholding fertilizer.

drip Fertilization.

Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5 and, in the absence of a soil test, apply enough fertilizer to supply 50 pounds per acre of N, P pounds per acre of K

2

2

O

5

and K

2

O, (some soils will require 100

O) then thoroughly incorporate into the soil.

After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system, the soluble fertilizer program should be initiated according to that described in the following table. On soils testing low to low-medium boron, also include 0.5 pound per acre of actual boron.

The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field-transplanting the tomatoes. Continue fertigating until the last harvest.

96 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

SUggEStEd FErtIgAtION SCHEdULE FOr tOMAtO*

(low soil potassium) days after planting daily nitrogen daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

Preplant

0–14

15–28

0.5

0.7

0.5

1.4

50.0

57.0

66.8

125.0

132.0

151.6

29–42

43–56

57–77

1.0

1.5

2.2

2.0

3.0

4.4

80.8

101.8

148.0

179.6

221.5

313.9

78–98 2.5

5.0

200.5

418.9

days after planting

Preplant

daily nitrogen

0–14

15–28

29–42

43–56

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.5

57–77

78–98

2.2

2.5

*Adjust based on tissue analysis.

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.5

2.2

2.5

daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative

Nitrogen Potash

50.0

57.0

66.8

80.8

101.8

148.0

200.5

125.0

132.0

141.8

155.8

176.5

223.0

275.5

Fresh Market.

Yield, fruit size, and fruit quality of fresh market tomatoes are increased by the use of black plastic mulch in combination with drip irrigation. When air temperature exceed 85F use white on black plastic mulch, or paint black plastic with a 5:1 (v/v) mixture of exterior, flat white latex paint and water. Form-raised, dome-shaped beds to aid in disease control. Lay black plastic mulch tightly over the beds.

See the “Drip Irrigation” section of General Production Recommendations for detailed recommendations on fertilizing tomatoes grown with plastic mulch and drip irrigation. Lay black plastic mulch tightly over the beds.

grafting and diseases.

In recent years, grafted tomato plants have emerged as a strategy to combat soilborne diseases, particularly in heirloom varieties. Grafting is used against diseases such as Bacterial wilt, Fusarium wilt, and Verticillium wilt. Grafted plants are more expensive per transplant. For more information, see the section Grafting in Vegetable Crops on pages 15 and 16 in this handbook.

greenhouse tomatoes.

While there are thousands of tomato varieties on the market, only a few are suitable for growing in greenhouses. If you plan on growing tomatoes to maturity in the greenhouse, you need to select a greenhouse variety. This is because these varieties have been bred specifically for greenhouse conditions – lower light, higher humidity and temperature, etc., and have better disease resistance than field types. Nearly all greenhouse varieties are indeterminate hybrids so that they will yield over a long harvest season. While non-greenhouse types would grow in the greenhouse, the yield and quality would be reduced, and therefore they may not be profitable.

Variety selection is based on yield, fruit size, uniformity, disease resistance, and lack of physiological disorders, as well as the market demand for the type of tomato grown. For suggestions on varieties, see the variety table in this section above. Insect and disease control methods for greenhouse vegetables can be found in Tables

2-30 and 3-44 through 3-46 (in Disease section), respectively.

ground Culture.

Space determinate varieties in rows 4 to 5 feet apart with plants 15 to 24 inches apart in the row. For indetermi-

nate varieties, space rows 5 to 6 feet apart with plants 24 to 36 inches apart in the row.

Stake Culture.

Staking tomatoes is a highly specialized production system. The following recommendations are for the short-stake cultural system using determinate cultivars that grow 3 to 4 feet in height or for indeterminate varieties that grow 6 to 7 feet in height.

Use between row spacings of 5 to 6 feet with in-row spacings of

18 to 24 inches. See state specific guides for a full description of staking.

Pruning:

Pruning is practiced to establish a desired balance between vine growth and fruit growth. Little to no pruning results in a plant with a heavy load of smaller fruit. Moderate pruning results in fewer fruits that are larger and easier to harvest. Pruning can result in earlier maturity of the crown fruit and improves spray coverage and pest control.

Removing all suckers up to the one immediately below the first flower cluster is adequate for most determinate cultivars. Removing the sucker immediately below the first flower cluster or pruning above the first flower cluster can result in severe leaf curling and stunting of the plant and should be avoided.

Prune when the suckers are no more than 2 to 4 inches long.

A second pruning may be required to remove suckers that are too small to be easily removed during the first pruning and to remove ground suckers that may develop. Pruning when suckers are too large requires more time and can damage the plants, delay maturity, and increase disease incidence. Do not prune plants when they are wet to avoid spread of diseases. Pruning should be done before the first stringing because the string can slow the pruning process.

Pruning is variety-and fertility-dependent.

Less-vigorous determinate cultivars generally require less pruning. Growers should experiment with several degrees of pruning on a small scale to determine pruning requirements for specific cultivars and cultural practices.

Staking:

Staking improves fruit quality by keeping plants and fruit off the ground and providing better spray coverage. Staked tomatoes are easier to harvest than ground tomatoes.

Staking tomatoes consists of a series of wooden stakes with twine woven around the stakes to train the plants to grow vertically off the ground. Stakes 4 to 4.5-feet long by 1-inch square are driven about 12 inches into the soil between the plants.

Vigorous cultivars may require larger and longer stakes. A stake placed between every other plant is adequate to support most determinate varieties. Placing an additional stake at an angle and tied to the end stake of each section will strengthen the trellis system. Stakes can be driven by hand with a homemade driving tool or with a commercially available, power-driven stake driving tool.

Drive stakes to a consistent depth so that spray booms can be operated in the field without damaging the trellis system.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 97

Select “tomato twine” that is resistant to weathering and stretching and that binds well to the wooden stakes. Tomato twine is available in 3- to 4-pound boxes. Approximately 30 pounds of twine is required per acre. To make tying convenient, use a homemade stringing tool. This tool can be made from a length of metal conduit, schedule 40PVC pipe, broom handle, or wooden dowel.

With conduit, the string is fed through the pipe. With a broom handle or wooden dowel, two small parallel holes, each about 1 inch from the end, must be drilled to feed the string through one hole along the length of the tool and through the other hole. The tool serves as an extension of the worker’s arm (the length cut to the worker’s preference) and helps to keep the string tight.

Proper stringing consists of tying the twine to an end stake passing the string along one side of the plants, and then looping the twine around each stake until the end of a row or section (100-foot sections with alleys may be helpful for harvesting) is reached. The same process is continued on the other side of the row. The string tension must be tight enough to hold the plants upright. Note: If strings are too tight, they can make harvesting fruit difficult and can scar fruit.

The first stringing should be strung 8 to 10 inches above the ground when plants are 12 to 15 inches tall and before they fall over. Run the next string 6 to 8 inches above the preceding string before plants start to fall over. Three to four stringings are required for most determinate varieties. Stringing should be done when the foliage is dry to prevent the spread of diseases.

Heirloom tomatoes.

Heirloom tomatoes are varieties that have been available for 50 years or more, are open pollinated, and grow

“true to type” from seed saved from fruit each year. They are generally indeterminate, requiring trellising and constant pruning.

Most varieties have little disease resistance. The fruit are usually thin-skinned, soft, and tend to crack. Consumers are attracted to heirloom tomatoes because many varieties are very flavorful, colorful, come in many sizes and shapes, and have interesting names.

For the growers, heirloom tomatoes are challenging to produce and difficult to ship, but can bring high prices on the local market.

There are hundreds of varieties of heirloom tomatoes available. Some of the most popular varieties include Brandywine, German Johnson, Mr. Stripey, Cherokee Purple, and Green Zebra.

Because most heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate, they must be grown on a tall, strong trellis. A trellis can be constructed of 3 inch diameter, or larger, posts set 10-15 feet apart within the row.

Use 7-8 ft. long posts, leaving 6-7 ft. above ground. Run a stout wire (12 gauge) across the tops of the posts and secure it with staples. Pieces of twine, long enough to reach the ground, should be tied to the top wire above each plant. The twine can be anchored with a loop to each plant or to a bottom line of twine that is strung about 6 in. off the ground and secured to the posts. Some growers use the standard string and weave-staked culture system for heirloom tomatoes, as described for the determinate tomatoes, but they use 6-ft. long stakes instead of the normal 4-ft. long stakes.

In a trellis system, plants are usually spaced 8-10 in. apart within the row and pruned to a single stem system. A two stem system may also be used, in which the plants should be spaced

18-30 in. apart within the row. If using a standard staking system, plants should be spaced 18-24 in. apart. Once the plants are established, suckers must be removed several times a week. If the main growing point is broken off, a sucker can be trained to take its place.

Because most heirloom tomatoes have little disease resistance, it is important to maintain a good fungicide spray schedule.

For organic production, it might be necessary to grow heirloom tomatoes under high tunnels, especially in areas with high disease pressure. Grafting heirloom varieties onto diseases resistant rootstocks might also increase your success at growing organically.

tOMAtO dISOrdErS

your local county Extension office has bulletins that describes fruit disorders in detail. Here are several common disorders of tomato and their causes: catfacing (cool day and/or night temperatures or very hot dry days), internal browning, graywall and

blotchy ripening, (tobacco mosaic virus, overcast cloudy environment, high N, low K or soil compaction), yellow shoulder (direct sun exposure, worse on green shouldered varieties), sunburn

and sunscald (direct rapid exposure to the sun), weathercheck

(fruit exposed to dew), blossom end rot (low soil calcium and/or soil moisture), cracking (variety, irregular water, growth, and/or nutrition).

SPECIAL NOtES ON PESt MANAgEMENt

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Colorado Potato beetle (CPb), Flea beetles (Fb):

While flea beetles are a common pest of tomato throughout the southeastern US, Colorado potato beetle are most common in areas where significant acreage of potatoes is also grown. Flea beetles are primarily a problem early in the season shortly after planting, and are usually controlled by insecticides applied for other insects. Adults feed on foliage, resulting in small round holes on leaves. In most situations this damage does not affect early season growth or subsequent yields, but control may be necessary when populations are high (20-30% defoliation).

Colorado potato beetle adults and larvae feed on tomato foliage and can cause extensive defoliation if not controlled. CPB feed only on solanaceous plants, and populations tend to be concentrated in areas where potato, eggplant and tomato have previously been grown. Consequently, rotation to non-solanaceous crops is very effective in helping to avoid infestations. Thoroughly scout fields and spray only when necessary. Treatment should be made if populations exceed 15 adults per 10 plants or a combination of 20

CPB larvae and/or adults per 10 plants. Insecticide sprays should be made after most egg masses have hatched, but before larvae become large. CPB have developed resistance to many different insecticides, so knowledge of the resistance status of populations is essential in choosing which insecticides to use.

tomato Fruitworm:

The tomato fruitworm, also known as the corn earworm and cotton bollworm, is potentially the most damaging pest of tomato. However, there are many insecticides that provide excellent control. The key to controlling this insect is to ensure that there is a toxic pesticide residue on the plant during egg laying periods so that larvae are killed shortly after hatching, because larvae feed on leaf tissue for only a short time before boring into fruit.

Tomato fruitworm moth activity can be monitored with pheromone traps and serves as a measure of the adult population within an area.

98 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

Corn that is in the silking stage is a preferred host of fruitworm, but when corn silks begins to dry, moths will switch egg laying to other hosts, including tomato.

Armyworms:

At least three species of armyworms are potential pests of tomato, including the beet armyworm, southern armyworm and yellowstriped armyworm. Infestations are usually sporadic in the more northern regions of the southeastern US, but are an annual problem in more southern areas. In contrast to tomato fruitworm, armyworms will also feed extensively on foliage as well as fruit, and the presence of feeding damage on leaves can help differentiate between fruitworm and armyworm damage. Beet armyworm is notorious for exhibiting resistance to a wide range of insecticides, but the recent registration of newer insecticides has greatly aided the management of this pest.

tomato Pinworm:

The tomato pinworm is more common in the southern compared with northern regions of the southeast, but lateseason infestations are common in northern areas. Moths lay eggs on foliage, and larvae feed within leaves, creating blotchy mines.

As larvae increase in age they bore into stems and/or fruit. The use of pheromone-based mating disruption is an effective control method. Initiate mating disruption at the first sign of mines on foliage. Numerous insecticides also control pinworm.

Stink bugs:

The green and brown stink bug can be important direct pests of tomato, but they are sporadic in occurrence. Stink bugs are most common in smaller fields (i.e., 5 acres or less) that are surrounded by weedy borders, or fields that are adjacent to soybeans. In fact, chemical control of stink bugs is often not necessary in fields that do not fit the previous description. Unfortunately, there is not a good sampling method to assess population densities before damage occurs, and preventive strategies are used. Depending on the surrounding habitat and abundance of stink bugs within an area, one to three applications of an insecticide are necessary to prevent damage.

thrips:

Thrips can cause direct damage to tomato fruit by their feeding or oviposition scars on small fruits, and are also indirect pests of tomato due to their ability to transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The tobacco thrips and western flower thrips are vectors of tomato spotted wilt virus. The majority of virus infections are the result of primary spread (thrips transmitting the virus from surrounding weeds directly to tomatoes or greenhouse infections), and insecticides do not kill thrips quickly enough to prevent inoculation. However, an aggressive early insecticide control program early in the season (3 to 4 weeks after transplanting) and the use of reflective mulches have helped to reduce the incidence of

TSWV in tomatoes. Thrips can also cause direct damage to tomato fruit. This is the result of thrips feeding and/or laying eggs in small fruits before stamens are shed from flowers. This damage appears as small dimples in fruit. Sample thrips in tomato flowers by placing a white index card below flowers and tapping the flowers with a finger. An average of 1 thrips per flower has worked well as a treatment threshold level.

Whiteflies:

The greenhouse whitefly and silverleaf whitefly can both infest tomatoes in the southeast. Generally, the silverleaf whitefly is more common in the southern region and the greenhouse whitefly is more common in the northern region of the southeast. Once whitefly populations of either species become established on a crop, they are very difficult to control. Therefore, preventive control is usually necessary for effective, season-long management. Preventive control can be achieved with soil-applied systemic insecticides applied to the soil or at planting, or the application of other insecticides when populations are low.

Mites:

Mites have become an increasingly important problem on tomatoes and other vegetables grown in the southeast. Twospotted spider mite is the most common mite pest, but the broad mite and carmine spider mite can also infest tomatoes. Mites overwinter on weeds and move into tomatoes in the spring as weeds die. Mites can also move from other crops (including other tomato fields) into tomatoes throughout the season. Localized infestations can be spot treated, but thorough coverage of foliage is important. Mites can be sampled by using a sample of 10 leaflets (terminal leaflet on a leaf from the upper one-third of the plant), from a minimum of 5 sample sites per field. When mites reach an average of 2 mites/leaflet, a miticide should be applied. Note that certain pesticides, such as pyrethroids and some neonictinoids, aggravate mite populations and can lead to high mite densities.

dISEASE MANAgEMENt damping-Off:

Plantbed: Use seed treatment and plant in a diseasefree mix.

vIrUSES

Aphid-transmitted viruses (tMv, Pvx, CMv, tEv, Pvy):

Use tolerant or resistant varieties to control these viruses when available and provided that the fruit quality is consistent with market demands. Use these varieties in areas where these viruses have been prevalent or when high aphid pressure is expected. Generally, these viruses cannot be adequately controlled with insecticide applications, but symptom expression can be delayed through their use combined with the use of reflective mulches.. Because aphids transmit these virus, growers may wish to use yellow trap pans containing water to determine when mass flights of winged aphids occur.

thrips-transmitted viruses (tomato Spotted Wilt virus, tSWv):

Use tolerant or resistant varieties. TSWV can be severe on tomatoes during both greenhouse production of transplants and during field production of the crop. The virus is spread to tomatoes by thrips. During transplant production, thrips transmit the virus from infected ornamental plants (flowers). Be sure not to grow any ornamental bedding plants in the same greenhouse as tomato transplants. Monitor greenhouses and scout fields for thrips. Begin an insecticide program BEFORE a problem is observed.

Nematode Management.

Use nematicides listed in the “Nematode

Control in Vegetate Crops” tables in the Disease Control section.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 99

WAtErMELON

vArIEtIES

1

WAtErMELONS

Diploid, Open-pollinated

AU Producer A, iR

Crimson Sweet MS

Jubilee ii iR

Diploid, Hybrid

Jamboree A, iR

Lemon Krush

A, 2, iR, PM

Mardi Gras

A, iR

Regency A, iR

Royal Sweet A, iR

Sangria A, iR

Sentinel

S

Starbrite

A, S

Summer Flavor 800

Summer Flavor 860

Summer Gold

2, 4 top Gun A, iR

Icebox

Mickylee

R

Sugar Baby S

Triploid

Affirmed

Buttercup 2, S

Captivation

AL

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

gA

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

Ky

K

K

K

K

A

A

A

Crunchy Red A,S

Declaration S

A

A

G K

K exclamation A, iR

Fascination

A, iR imagination

S

Liberty

S

Majestic S

Melody A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Millionaire A, iR orange Crisp

3

Superseedless Brand 7187Hq

A, S

SVR0241WA

A, iR

A

A

A

Sweet Polly traveler A

A, iR

A

A

A tri-X 313 A, S troubadour A A

Triploid Mini (nOTE: many of these varieties only available under contract)

Bambino S extazy

S

Leopard

S

Mielheart

S

Sweet Bite S

Vanessa S

1

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2

yellow flesh fruit.

3

orange flesh fruit.

4

Local markets only.

A

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

K

K

K

K

A

A

G

G

A G

A

Anthracnose tolerance/resistance.

MS

Moderately susceptible to Fusarium wilt race 1.

iR intermediate resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1.

S

Susceptible to Fusarium wilt race 1.

LA

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

MS

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

NC

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

SC

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

M N

N

S

S

N

N

N

S

S

N S

R

Resistant to Fusarium wilt race 1.

PM

Powdery mildew tolerance/resistance.

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

tN

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

100 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

Seed treatment.

Check with seed supplier to determine if seed has been treated with an insecticide or fungicide. Be sure that seeds have been assayed for bacterial fruit blotch. Further information on seed treatments can be found in SEED TREATMENT section starting on page 234.

Plant Production.

Transplants should be grown in containers that provide a space of at least 1.5 inches by 1.5 inches for each plant.

Smaller pots or cells will restrict root growth and provide less protection to the newly set transplant. If the seed is of good quality with high germination, one seed per pot is sufficient. The seed coat of seedless watermelons tends to adhere to the seedling as it emerges, at times slowing growth or reducing stand. Seedless watermelon seed must be planted with the point of the seed facing up

(root end). Temperatures in the greenhouse should be maintained at

80° to 90°F. Growing media should be kept slightly drier than normal until 10 to 15% emergence, then resume normal watering. The required amount of seed can be estimated using Table 6.

Planting.

Transplants: Transplant container-grown plants into plastic mulch when daily mean temperatures have reached 60°F.

Planting dates vary, so consult the following table for your area.

Early plantings should be protected from winds with row covers, rye strips, or windbreaks.

Seedless watermelons must be transplanted since these seed require a specific environment in order to achieve a high percentage of germination. (Seedless watermelons produce inadequate pollen, so a “pollenizer” variety is required to ensure good pollination of seedless watermelons.) Seeded (diploid) or specialized

“pollenizers” must be used for seedless watermelon production.

Several seed companies have developed new varieties for use soley as a pollenizer. These pollenizers can be interplanted into a field totally devoted towards the production of triploid watermelons. Unique, compact growth habits prevent these pollenizers from competing for space with triploid plants.

POLLINAtION ANd PLANtINg ArrANgEMENt

WItH trIPLOIdS

Fruit set and enlargement in watermelon is dependent upon growth regulators from pollen grains and from embryos in the developing seeds within the fruit. Inadequate pollination results in triploid watermelon fruit that are triangular in shape and of inferior quality.

Additionally, inadequate pollination increases the incidence of hollowheart. Triploid watermelon flowers do not produce sufficient, viable pollen which is required to induce fruit set and development. Therefore, pollen from a “normal” (i.e., diploid/seeded) or a special pollenizer watermelon variety must be present. Fields should be interplanted with pollenizer plants or diploid watermelon plants in order to provide sufficient, viable pollen using one of the following methods.

There are two methods that can be used to incorporate pollenizer plants into the field. Method 1: Use of a Dedicated Pol-

lenizer Row. Dedicated row pollenizer plantings place the pollenizer variety in the outside row and then every third or fourth row throughout the field. When using Method 1, it is important to use a pollenizer variety that is marketable because up to one-third of all watermelons produced in the field will be from this seeded variety.

The rind pattern and/or shape of the fruit from the pollenizer must be easily distinguished from that of the fruit from the seedless variety in order to reduce confusion at harvest.

Method 2: Planting Pollenizer Within Each Row. A second method is to plant the pollenizer between every third or fourth plant within each row without changing the plant spacing of the seedless/triploid watermelons. When this method is chosen, the use of a special pollenizer is recommended. However, growers can use a normal diploid/seeded watermelon as a pollenizer. In this case, saleable watermelons are produced from the pollenizer requiring a market.

The use of standard diploid variety when using Method 2 might decrease the overall yields of the triploid plants. When selecting a diploid/seeded pollenizer variety that will also be harvested, growers must take into account market demand, plant vigor, pollen production, disease resistance, and environmental conditions.

Special pollenizer varieties have been developed solely for pollen production and most do not produce marketable fruit. The use of special pollenizers with Method 2 allows the field to be dedicated to the production of seedless watermelons. Many growers prefer special pollenizers because they do not have markets for seeded watermelons. In addition, using a special pollenizer makes harvesting easier for crews who can more easily distinguish between fruit produced from the seeded, special pollenizer and fruit from the seedless watermelon varieties.

With distinguishable from fruit produced by triploids in terms of size. If mini-seedless watermelons are planted; however, their rind pattern must be used to distinguish between fruit produced by the pollenizer and fruit produced by the mini seedless watermelons.

Special Dedicated Pollenizers found to work well in the southeast include: Accomplice (Harris Moran), Ace (Sakata),

Jenny (Nunhems), Minipol (Hazera), Patron (Zeraim Gedera), Polimax (Nunhems), SideKick (Harris Moran), SP-4 (Syngenta), SP-

5 (Syngenta), SP-6 (Syngenta), and Polen Pro (Zeraim Gedera).

Several diploid cultivars are regularly used as pollenizers as well, such as Mickey Lee (various sources), Summer Flavor 800 (Abbott

& Cobb), Stargazer (Seminis), and Estrella (Syngenta). Be sure to follow the seed suppliers’ instructions when using a special pollenizer. New, improved specialized pollenizer varieties are continually being developed with better germination, flowering habit, and/ or disease resistances/tolerances. Do not plant your pollenizer

variety and seedless (triploid) varieties in separate or adjacent blocks. Plant your pollenizer variety within 10 to 15 feet of triploid varieties to assure good pollination. Specialized pollenizer varieties should be placed within 10 feet of triploids as these varieties tend to have less aggressive vining than normal

seeded pollenizers.

It is important that pollen from the diploid pollenizer variety be available when the female blossoms on the triploid plants are open and ready for pollination. As a general rule, the pollenizer variety should be seeded on the same day that the triploid seed is seeded in the greenhouse. Smaller seeded, slower to germinate pollenizers such as SP-5; however, should be planted one week prior to planting triploid seed.

Honeybees are important for high fruit yields and quality.

Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours or wait until bloom is completed before application. See section on “Pollination” in the General Production

Recommendations for further information.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 101

Direct-seeded: Seed when soil temperatures reach 55°F. Seed 3 - 5 pounds of seed per acre. The recommended spacing for watermelons is 6 - 10 feet between rows with 24 - 30 square feet per plant.

WAtErMELON PLANtINg dAtES

AL North 5/15–6/30 MS North

AL South 3/1–6/30 MS South

GA North

GA South

Ky east

Ky Central

Ky West

LA North

LA South

5/15–6/15

3/1–6/30

5/15-6/15

5/5-7/1

4/20-7/15

3/10–6/30

3/1–7/5

NC east

NC West

SC east

SC West tN east tN West

4/15–5/15

2/15–5/1

4/15–6/30

5/25–6/30

4/1–4/30

4/15–6/15

5/5-6/30

4/25-5/30

drip Fertilization and Mulching.

Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5, and in the absence of a soil test, apply enough fertilizer to supply 50 pounds per acre of N, P quire 100 pounds per acre of K the soil.

2

2

O

5

and K

2

O, (some soils will re-

O) then thoroughly incorporate into

After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system, the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated according to that described in the following table. On soils testing low to low-medium boron, also include 0.5 pound per acre of actual boron.

The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field transplanting or direct-seeding the watermelons. Continue fertigating until the last harvest.

growth Stage 1

Preplant

Planting to Vining

Vining to Flowering

Flowering to Fruit Set

days after planting

0 - 14

15 - 28

29 - 49

Fruit Set to initial Ripening 50 - 77

Harvest 78 - 91

*Adjust based on tissue analysis.

daily nitrogen

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

1.0

daily potash

(lb / A)

Cumulative nitrogen potash

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

1.0

35.0

42.0

56.0

86.0

140.0

153.0

35.0

42.0

56.0

86.0

140.0

153.0

¹ Growth Stage can vary from season to season. For optimal results, fertigate watermelons based on their growth stage as opposed to days after planting.

Spacing trials have also been conducted with mini watermelons at various locations across the southeastern US. Generally, a mini watermelon plant requires 10 to 12 square feet per plant.

For example, if rows are spaced on 8 ft. centers, mini watermelon plants should be spaced 15 inches apart within the row.

SPECIAL NOtES FOr PESt MANAgEMENt

dISEASE MANgEMENt

Cucurbit downy Mildew Forecasting System:

Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM) is a devastating foliar Cucurbit disease. While difficult, if not impossible to control, CDM can be prevented by using effective IPM practices. A useful tool for prevention of CDM is the CDM forecasting system. This program depends on the accurate reporting of CDM in the field as well as the monitoring of over

50 strategically placed sentinel plots. These plots are monitored by

Plant Pathologists at multiple Land Grant Universities throughout the United States and Canada. Forecasts of the epidemic movement of the disease are generated 3 times a week. Risk maps are produced from these forecasts. For forecasts, maps, local contacts and other helpful information please visit our website, http://cdm.

ipmpipe.org. If you think you have CDM, please contact your local Extension office.

Fusarium Wilt:

Fusarium wilt of watermelon is widespread throughout the southeastern US. Most varieties of watermelon, other than heirloom varieties, are resistant to race 0. Many seeded

(diploid), hybrid varieties are resistant to race 1, while all round, seedless (triploid) varieties are susceptible to race 1.

All commercial watermelon varieties are susceptible to race 2, which is present in parts of Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina.

The superscripts “S” for susceptible, “MS” for moderately susceptible, “IR” for intermediate resistance, and “R” for resistant are listed next to each recommended variety. These superscripts indicate the reaction of commonly grown diploid and triploid varieties to race 1 of Fusarium wilt. Growers should choose resistant varieties whenever possible, including the pollenizers that they select for seedless watermelon production.

MINI SEEdLESS WAtErMELON

The mini seedless watermelon was introduced in 2003 and the demand for this product is year around. These fruit generally range from 3 to 7 pounds and offer an attractive alternative for the consumer that has limited refrigerator space or a small family. Besides the smaller size, some mini melons have a thinner fruit rind and are marketed as PureHeart. Although there is more edible flesh in mini watermelons marketed under the PureHeart label, these thinner rind mini watermelons might have a higher incidence of internal bruising. These fruit must be handled carefully to minimize bruising. Some varieties of mini seedless watermelons are grown under specific labels such as “PureHeart” but are only available under a contract basis. The varieties Bambino, Extazy, Leopard,

Meilhart, Sweet Bite, and Vanessa are readily available to watermelon producers and are recommended for production in certain states. These varieties have performed well either commercially or in University trials.

INSECt MANAgEMENt

Cucumber beetle:

Watermelons are resistant to bacterial wilt; however, control may be needed to prevent feeding damage to seedlings. Treat when an average of two beetles per plant is found.

Aphids:

Aphids can delay fruit maturation. Thorough spray coverage beneath leaves is important. For further information on aphid controls, see the preceding “Drip Fertilization and Mulching” section. Treat seedlings every 5 to 7 days or as needed.

Mites:

Mite infestations generally begin around field margins and grassy areas. CAUTION: DO NOT mow or maintain these areas after midsummer because this forces mites into the crop. Localized infestations can be spot-treated. Note: Continuous use of Sevin or the pyrethroids may result in mite outbreaks.

HArvEStINg ANd StOrAgE

See Table 14 for postharvest information.

102 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

Soil Pests—their detection and Control

WIrEWOrMS

Wireworms injure vegetable crops by killing seeds or seedlings and tunneling and scarring tubers, roots, or bulbs.

detection:

The above injury to young plants or tubers frequently is sufficient evidence to warrant control measures. Further evidence can be obtained by sampling, using either of the following methods:

Method 1

A technique using baits has been developed for evaluating wireworm potential before planting. The bait stations should be established 2 to 3 weeks before the anticipated planting date. Fields where small grain or grasses have been grown the preceding 2 or 3 years are the best candidates for bait stations.

Because wireworm infestations are often localized within a field, it will be necessary to place the bait stations randomly throughout the field such as placing two bait stations at the highest elevation in the field, then two stations on a slope and finally two stations in the lowest point in the field. One bait station per acre is desirable.

Follow this procedure for baiting:

1. Mix 1 cup of wheat, corn, or oat seed at each station.

2. Bury the bait about 4 inches deep. Cover the ground over each bait station with an 18-inch square of black plastic.

The plastic collects solar heat and speeds germination of the corn and wheat, which entices overwintering wireworms.

3. Mark each station with a flag or stake.

4. Dig up the bait stations in 10 to 14 days and count the number of wireworms.

Method 2

1. Be sure the soil temperature at the 6-inch depth ranges between 45° and 85°F and that soil moisture is equivalent to that desired for planting.

2. Collect soil samples from 20 scattered sites per acre. Each sample should represent a soil profile 12 inches deep and 6 inches in diameter.

3. Sift soil and count wireworms.

Control:

If you find an average of one wireworm per bait station

(Method 1) or if you find five or more wireworms in 20 soil samples (Method 2), a labeled soil insecticide should be used. In some instances, several wireworms may be found in one bait station and none in others. Wireworm infestations tend to concentrate in some locations. It may be possible to limit treatment to areas of the field where the wireworm concentration is heaviest.

When to apply:

Insecticides can be applied either in the spring or fall when the soil temperature at the 6-inch depth is at least 50°F and soil moisture is equivalent to that desired for planting. Frequently, the insecticide is applied immediately before planting.

When early spring planting is required, a fall treatment is suggested.

What to Use:

See the crop protectant section for each crop for appropriate chemical to use.

How to apply:

When intended as a broadcast application, use a low-gallonage sprayer or granule distributor designed for low dosages. Immediately after application, mix insec ticide with soil to a depth of at least 6 inches by disking twice in opposite directions.

In a band treatment as with potatoes, apply an appropriate soil insecticide at planting 3 to 6 inches deep along both sides of the row.

gArdEN CENtIPEdES (SyMPHyLANS)

Garden centipedes are arthropods that are related to insects. They feed on germinating seed and fibrous roots of many plants, including most vegetable species, and on decaying plant material. They are often associated with moist areas of a field and typically establish in spots or field edges. Rotation does not appear to be an effective control. If a spot becomes established, the crops planted into that area have a difficult time growing out of the damage, because the symphylans are continuously grazing on the fibrous roots.

detection:

The first symptom is an area or patch of poorly developing plants, similar to other root problems. Check the soil in these areas so that treatment can be made before planting the next crop, as there is no practical post-planting control. A common practice is to flag off the spot and treat that area with soil insecticides in the following fall or spring. Soil solarization has not been an effective control. It is reasonable to assume that symphylans can be transported in soil on field equipment. Dig up the soil and look for small, slender (less than 0.25 inch) white centipede-like animals that move quickly and try to avoid light. Another method of sampling is to drop the soil into a bucket of water. The symphylans will float to the top. Symphylans have 12 pairs of legs on 14 body segments. Do not confuse the symphylans with true centipedes—centipedes eat other arthropods and are considered beneficial. Symphylans have beaded antennae. Centipedes are not typically white in color and have large Chilicerae with venomous fangs. Dry or cold [less than 45°F] soil will reveal few, if any, symphylans.

When to treat:

If samples are taken in the spring, control is generally warranted if there is an average of over two symphylans per shovelful of soil. Samples taken in September or October may average four or five per shovelful and will warrant treatment before the next crop. Insecticides are generally applied be fore spring planting, and fumigant treatments are usually made in the fall.

Note: Effectiveness of soil-applied insecticides decreases as soil temperature decreases below 55°F.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 103

What to use:

See the crop protectant section for each crop for appropriate materials to apply. Apply fumigants in the same manner as described in the in the “Nematode Control in Vegetate Crops” tables in the Disease Control section. Follow all label direc tions and restrictions when using these materials.

CUtWOrMS

There are a number of cutworm species that attack vegetable plants. Some attack the tuber, spear, or fruit by chewing the edible portion, rendering them unmarketable. Others attack the seedlings or transplants, killing them outright or causing them to be unproductive. Cutworms are attracted to light and can lay eggs on transplants growing in greenhouses that are lighted at night. The cutworm eggs and larvae may be accidentally transferred to the field with the plants.

Most cutworms are night feeders and hide under sod clumps, stones, decaying vegetation, etc., during the day. Weedy or minimum-tillage fields are especially attractive egg-laying sites for cutworm adults (moths). During periods of drought, low-lying areas in fields are more subject to at tack than other areas, presumably because of more desirable conditions.

Control:

Where cutworms are suspected, a broadcast incorporation treatment may be necessary just before plant ing. This treatment should be worked into the soil immediately after applying and just before planting.

Even if a broadcast treatment is used, fields should be scouted for cutworm damage within a week of planting or plant emergence.

If cutworms are actively cutting plants, a postplanting contact treatment maybe necessary. The follow ing procedures may help improve control when a contact insecticide treatment is used:

1. Direct sprays at the base of the plants where cutworms are actively feeding.

2. Increase the amount of water used to at least 30 gallons per acre, especially in dry weather.

3. Spray between midnight and 5 A.M., when cutworms are most active.

4. Cultivate after insecticide application to improve contact with cutworms, especially in dry weather. In all cases, consult the label for application details.

grUbS

Grubs are the larvae of Scarab beetles and can be serious soil pests in vegetable crops. Most vegetables can be attacked, and serious problems have occurred in potatoes, sweetpotatoes, beans, corn and spinach. Grubs cause damage by feeding on the roots and underground parts of the plant from one to several inches below the soil surface. The plants may yellow and wilt, which causes a pattern of patchy growth in fields where plants are dead or dying. If injured plants are pulled up, the roots will be found to have been eaten off, and usually the curve-bodied grubs can be found in the soil.

Adult beetles lay eggs in the soil during June and July. As the soil cools in the fall, the grubs work their way deep into the soil and return to the surface the following spring. Depend ing on the insect, grubs may take from 1 to 3 years to become adults and may cause problems year after year.

Control:

Grub damage is usually associated with grassy or weedy fields. Cleaning fields may help prevent serious grub damage.

Problems may often occur in crops planted to fields that were previously in sod or turfgrass.

No effective insecticides are labeled for grub control in vegetables. However, soil insec ticides that are applied for wireworm control may also be effective in reducing grub populations.

MAggOtS

The two most important maggots can become significant pests during the growing season. The adult of the maggot (a fly) fluctuates in abundance in different areas in different years; because it is impossible to determine when and where maggots will attack and because nothing can be done once the injury is noted, preventive controls are good insurance before planting if there were previous maggot problems.

Seed Corn Maggot:

Seed attacked by seed maggots usually fails to sprout or, if it does, it is weak or sickly. Injury is most severe in wet, cold springs and on land high in organic matter. Manure and other organic matter should be thoroughly worked into the soil in the fall so is not as attractive to the egg laying seed corn maggot flies in the spring.

Control:

Best control is achieved by using a seed treatment. Seed treatment options are listed in the insect control section.

Cabbage root Maggot:

Plants whose roots are attacked by the root maggot will appear riddled with maggot tunnels, and underground fleshy parts of these plants rot. Above ground, plants appear off-color, will wilt, and will seldom reach full growth.

Control:

Seed treatments, transplant water treatments, in-furrow treatments, preplant broadcast, and post-plant treatments may be recommended depending on the crop. Refer to the insect control section for specific recommendations.

SLUgS

Slugs are not insects, but are related to snails. All slugs require damp or humid surroundings for development. During the day, slugs seek shelter under protective debris and will avoid the drying effects of sun and wind. As a result, weed control is a useful management tool to any slug problem.

Control:

Beer traps are very effective in small areas. Place 1/2 inch of beer in a shallow flat pan. Slugs are attracted to the beer and drown upon entering the pan. Baits are often the most effective means of control. Consult your local Extension office for treatment options.

NEMAtOdES

Determine the degree of infestation before applying a nematicide. To do this, collect soil and root samples and submit these samples to your state’s Plant Diagnostic Laboratory or Nematode

Detection Laboratory.

Procedures for submission and sampling are noted below.

Contact your local Extension office for specific information on how to submit your samples.

104 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

HOW tO COLLECt SOIL ANd rOOt SAMPLES FOr NEMAtOdE dEtECtION

Whenever nematode damage is suspected, an examination of both soil and roots is necessary to determine to what extent nematodes are involved.

The following suggestions are made so that samples will be collected properly and arrive at the laboratory in good condition.

Collecting:

If a large area in a field is believed to be involved, collect samples from edges of the affected area. Take a mixture of roots and soil from at least 10 separate sites within the root zone or under at least 10 plants. This can be accomplished by unearthing each plant with a shovel and taking a handful of soil and roots or by using a soil sampling tube (3/4-inch diameter) until 1 quart of soil is obtained.

Samples collected after the host plant is plowed down are very misleading and should not be used. Send only a single blended sample from each field. Do not mix samples from several fields.

Handling:

After collecting and mixing a composite soil and root sample, place it in a plastic freezer bag and close the bag tightly to prevent the sample from drying out. Protect the samples from high or freezing temperatures.

Submitting.

Consult your state’s diagnostic lab for its procedure and form required. The following information may be necessary so that control recommendations, if any, can be made.

Include with each sample:

1. Date collected.

2. Crop to be planted, present crop, and history of affected area.

3. Name and address of person submitting the sample and grower.

4. Plant symptoms.

Selecting a Nematicide:

Dosage, restrictions, and crop specificity are listed on the manufacturer’s label and must be carefully followed to ensure satisfactory results.

Rates for nematicides and multipurpose soil fumigants are provided in the NEMATODE CONTROL IN VEGETABLE

CROPS section of this handbook.

A plastic film seal is needed when methyl bromide or certain other fumigants are used as noted on the product label. These plastic films increase the efficiency of treatments.

Apply fumigant-type nematicides to a depth of 6 to 8 inches.

Immediately after application, soils should be drag ged, rolled, or cultipacked to delay loss of fumigant. A light irrigation through sprinklers will also delay gas escape.

At least 2 to 3 weeks should intervene between the application of the nematicide and the time a crop is planted. See manufacturer’s label recommendations for specific crops and waiting times.

There are many fumigants and nematicides available, consult the disease control section of this handbook for a list of options.

One week after application, work soil to a depth of several inches so that gases may escape. Severe injury or death of sensitive plants, such as tomato, may occur on heavy soils following heavy rains or if increased rates of a fumigant are used.

Because of a reduction of nitrifying bacteria by the nematicide, at least 50% of the nitrogen in the initial fertilizer application should be in the nitrate form.

**Be sure to mark samples: “For Nematode Detection.”

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 105

Calibrating Chemical Application Equipment

PUrPOSE

To determine if the proper amount of chemical is being applied, the operator must measure the output of the application equipment.

This technique is known as calibration. Calibration not only ensures accuracy, a critical factor with regard to many chemicals, but it can also save time and money and benefit the environment.

gEttINg StArtEd

Careful and accurate control of ground speed is important for any type of chemical application procedure. From large self-propelled sprayers and spreaders to small walk-behind or backpack units, precise ground speed is a key for success. Ground speed can be determined by one of two methods. The first method requires a test course and stopwatch. For this procedure, measure a suitable test course in the field and record the time it takes to cover the course with the equipment. The course should be between 100 and 300 feet long. Drive or walk the course at least twice, once in each direction and average the times for greater accuracy. Calculate the speed with Equation 1 below.

Equation 1. ground Speed (MPH) =

Distance x 60

Seconds x 88

The second method is to use a true ground speed indicator such as a tractor-mounted radar or similar system. Do not rely on transmission speed charts and engine tachometers. They are not accurate enough for calibration.

CALIbrAtINg A SPrAyEr:

PrEPArINg tO CALIbrAtE

For calibration to be successful, several items need to be taken care of before going to the field. Calibration will not be worthwhile if the equipment is not properly prepared. Whenever possible, calibration should be performed using water only. If you must calibrate using spray mixture, calibrate the equipment on a site listed on the chemical label and with wind speeds less than 5 MPH. Follow the steps outlined below to prepare spraying equipment for calibration.

1. Inspect the sprayer. Be sure all components are in good working order and undamaged. On backpack sprayers, pay particular attention to the pump, control wand, strainers, and hoses. On boom sprayers, pay attention to the pump, control valves, strainers, and hoses. On airblast sprayers, be sure to inspect the fan and air tubes or deflectors as well. Be sure there are no obstructions or leaks in the sprayer.

2. Check the label of the product or products to be applied and record the following:

• Application Rate, Gallons per Acre (GPA)

• Nozzle Type, droplet size and shape of pattern

• Nozzle Pressure, Pounds per Square Inch (PSI)

• Type of Application, broadcast, band, or directed

3. Next, determine some information about the sprayer and how it is to be operated. This includes:

• T ype of Sprayer: backpack, boom, or airblast. The type of sprayer may suggest the type of calibration procedure to use.

• Nozzle Spacing (inches): for broadcast applications, nozzle spacing is the distance between nozzles.

• Nozzle Spray Width (inches): For broadcast applications, nozzle spray width is the same as nozzle spacing—the distance between nozzles. For band applications, use the width of the sprayed band if the treated area in the band is specified on the chemical label; use nozzle spacing if the total area is specified. For directed spray applications, use the row spacing divided by the number of nozzles per row. Some directed spray applications use more than one type or size of nozzle per row. In this case, the nozzles on each row are added together and treated as one. Spray width would be the row spacing.

In most cases, a backpack sprayer uses a single nozzle. Some sprayers use mini-booms or multiple nozzles. The spray width is the effective width of the area sprayed, being sure to account for overlap. If you are using a sweeping motion from side to side, be sure to use the full width sprayed as you walk forward. If you are spraying on foliage in a row, use the row spacing. Dyes are available to blend with the spray to show what has been covered.

• Spray Swath (feet): The width covered by all the nozzles on the boom of a sprayer. For airblast or other boomless sprayers, it is the effective width covered in one pass through the field.

• Ground Speed, miles per hour (MPH). When using a backpack sprayer, walk a comfortable pace that is easy to maintain. Slow walking speeds will take longer to complete the task while high speeds may be tiresome. Choose a safe, comfortable speed that will enable you to finish the job in a timely manner. On tractor-mounted sprayers, select a ground speed appropriate for the crop and type of sprayer used.

Slow speeds will take longer to complete the task, while high speeds may be difficult to control and unsafe. Choose a safe, controllable speed that will enable you to finish the job in a timely manner. Ground speed can be determined from

Equation 1.

106 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

4. The discharge rate, gallons per minute (GPM), required for the nozzles must be calculated in order to choose the right nozzle size. Discharge rate depends on the application rate; ground speed; and nozzle spacing, spray width, or spray swath.

For applications using nozzle spacing or nozzle spray width (inches), use Equation 2.

Equation 2. discharge rate =

Application Rate x Ground Speed x Nozzle Spray Width

5,940

For applications using the spray swath (feet):

Equation 3. discharge rate =

Application Rate x Ground Speed x Spray Swath

495

5. Choose an appropriate nozzle or nozzles from the manufacturer’s charts and install them on the sprayer. Check each nozzle to be sure it is clean and that the proper strainer is installed with it.

6. Fill the tank half full of water and adjust the nozzle pressure to the recommended setting. Measure the discharge rate for the nozzle. This can be done by using a flow meter or by using a collection cup and stopwatch. The flow meter should read in gallons per minute (GPM). If you are using the collection cup and stopwatch method, the following equation is helpful to convert ounces collected and collection time, in seconds, into gallons per minute.

Equation 4. discharge rate =

ounces Collected x 60

Collection time x 128

7. Whenever possible, calibrate with water instead of spray solution. Do not calibrate with spray solution unless required by the chemical label. Follow all recommendations on the label. If the spray solution has a density different than water, the rate can be corrected using the procedure shown in Calibration Variables.

8. On boom sprayers or sprayers with multiple nozzles, average the discharge rates of all the nozzles on the sprayer.

Reject any nozzle that has a bad pattern or that has a discharge rate 10 percent more or less than the overall average.

Install a new nozzle to replace the rejected one and measure its output. Calculate a new average and recheck the nozzles compared to the new average. Again, reject any nozzle that is 10 percent more or less than the average or has a bad pattern. When finished, select a nozzle that is closest to the average to use later as your “quick check” nozzle.

On backpack sprayers or sprayers with a single nozzle, compare the discharge rate of the nozzle on the sprayer to the manufacturer’s tables for that nozzle size. Reject any nozzle that has a bad pattern or that has a discharge rate 10 percent more or less than the advertised rate. Install a new nozzle to replace the rejected one and measure its output.

Once the sprayer has been properly prepared for calibration, select a calibration method. When calibrating a sprayer, changes are often necessary to achieve the application rates needed. The sprayer operator needs to understand the changes that can be made to the adjust rate and the limits of each adjustment. The adjustments and the recommended approach are:

• Pressure: if the error in application rate is less than 10 percent, adjust the pressure.

• Ground speed: if the error is greater than 10 percent but less than 25 percent, change the ground speed of the sprayer.

• Nozzle size: if the error is greater than 25 percent, change nozzle size. The goal is to have application rate errors less than 5 percent.

Calibration Methods

There are four methods commonly used to calibrate a sprayer:

The

th

acre methods are “time-based methods” which require using a stopwatch or watch with a second hand to ensure accuracy. The area method is based on spraying a test course measured in the field. Each method offers certain advantages. Some are easier to use with certain types of sprayers. For example, the basic and area methods can be used with any type of sprayer. The 128 th

acre and nozzle methods work well for boom and backpack sprayers. Choose a method you are comfortable with and use it whenever calibration is required.

bASIC MEtHOd

1. Accurate ground speed is very important to good calibration with the basic method. For tractor-mounted sprayers, set the tractor for the desired ground speed and run the course at least twice. For backpack sprayers, walk the course and measure the time required. Walk across the course at least twice. Average the times required for the course distance and determine ground speed from Equation 1.

2. Calculate the application rate based on the average discharge rate measured for the nozzles, the ground speed over the test course, and the nozzle spacing, nozzle spray width, or spray swath on the sprayer.

When using nozzle spacing or nozzle spray width measured in inches, use the following equation:

Equation 5. Application rate =

5,940 x Discharge Rate

Ground Speed x Nozzle Spray Width

For spray swath applications measured in feet:

Equation 6. Application rate =

495 x Discharge Rate

Ground Speed x Spray Swath

3. Compare the application rate calculated to the rate required.

If the rates are not the same, choose the appropriate adjustment and reset the sprayer.

4. Recheck the system if necessary. Once you have the accuracy you want, calibration is complete.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 107

NOzzLE MEtHOd

1. Accurate ground speed is very important to good calibration with the nozzle method. For tractor-mounted sprayers, set the tractor for the desired ground speed and run the course at least twice. For backpack sprayers, walk the course and measure the time required. Walk across the course at least twice. Average the times required for the course distance and determine ground speed from Equation 1.

2. Calculate the nozzle discharge rate based on the application rate required the ground speed over the test course, and the nozzle spacing, spray width, or spray swath of the sprayer.

For nozzle spacing or spray width measured in inches.

Equation 7. discharge rate =

Application Rate x Speed x Spray Width

5,940

For spray swath measured in feet:

Equation 8. discharge rate =

Application Rate x Speed x Spray Swath

495

Set the sprayer and determine the average nozzle rate.

3. Compare the rate calculated to the average rate from the nozzles. If the two don’t match, choose the appropriate adjustment and reset the system.

4. Recheck the system if necessary. Once you have the accuracy you want, calibration is complete.

128tH ACrE MEtHOd

1. The distance for one nozzle to cover 128 th

of an acre must be calculated. The nozzle spacing or spray width in inches is used to determine the spray distance. Spray distance is measured in feet. On backpack sprayers, be sure to measure the full width sprayed as you walk forward. Use Equation 9.

Equation 9. Spray distance =

4,084

Spray Width

2. Measure the spray distance on a test course in the field.

Check the ground speed as you travel across the course. Be sure to maintain an accurate and consistent speed. Travel the course at least twice and average the time to cover the course.

3. For backpack sprayers, collect the output from the nozzle for the time measured in step 2. For tractor-mounted sprayers, park the sprayer, select the nozzle closest to the average, and collect the output for the time determined in step

4. Ounces collected will equal application rate in GPA.

4. Compare the application rate measured for the nozzle to the rate determined in step 3. If the rates are not the same, choose the appropriate adjustment and reset the system.

5. Recheck the system if necessary. Once you have the accuracy you want, calibration is complete.

ArEA MEtHOd

1. Determine the distance that can be sprayed by one tank using the full spray swath measured in feet.

Equation 10. tank Spray distance (ft) =

tank Volume (gal) x 43,560

Application Rate (GPA) x Swath (ft)

2. Lay out a test course that is at least 10 percent of the tank spray distance from Step 1. Fill the sprayer tank with water only, mark the level in the tank, set the sprayer as recommended, and spray the water out on the course. Be sure to maintain an accurate and consistent speed.

3. After spraying the test course, carefully measure the volume of water required to refill the tank to the original level.

Calculate the application rate as shown:

Equation 11. Application rate (gPA) =

Volume Sprayed (gal) x 43,560 test Course Distance (ft) x Swath (ft)

4. Compare the application rate measured to the rate required.

If the rates are not the same, choose the appropriate adjustment method and reset the sprayer.

5. Recheck the system. Once you have the accuracy you want, calibration is complete.

108 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

CALIbrAtINg A grANULAr APPLICAtOr:

PrEPArINg tO CALIbrAtE

Granular application calibration is usually done with the chemical to be applied. It is difficult to find a blank material that matches the granular product. Extra care should be taken in handling this product. Minimize worker exposure and take precautions against spills during calibration.

To prepare for calibration, follow these steps:

1. Before calibrating, carefully inspected the equipment to ensure that all components are in proper working order. Check the hopper, the metering rotor, the orifice, and the drop tubes. Be sure there are no leaks or obstructions.

2. Determine the type of application required for the product: ·

Broadcast: treats the entire area (includes band applications based on broadcast rates).

Band: treats only the area under the band.

Row: treats along the length of the row.

3. Determine the application rate needed: ·

Broadcast: pounds per acre. ·

Band: pounds per acre of treated band width. ·

Row: pounds per acre or pounds per 1,000 feet of row length.

4. What type of drive system does the applicator use?

Independent: uses PTO, hydraulic, or electric motor drive.

• Ground Drive: uses ground driven wheel.

5. Regardless of how the application rate is expressed or type of application, calibration is easier if the rate is expressed in terms of pounds per foot of row length. Use one of the following steps to determine the correct row rate in pounds per foot.

For broadcast and row applications

(Application Rate = lb/ac):

Equation 12. row rate, lb/ft =

Application Rate x Row Width (ft)

43,560

For banded applications

(Application Rate = lb/ac of Band Width):

Equation 13. row rate, lb/ft =

Application Rate x Band Width (ft)

43,560

For directed (row) applications

(Application Rate = lb per 1,000 ft):

Equation 14. row rate, lb/ft =

Application Rate

1,000

6. Choose a calibration distance to work with and measure a test course of this distance in the field you will be working in. Choose an area that is representative of field conditions.

The calibration distance should be at least 50 feet but not more than 500 feet. Longer distances are generally more accurate.

7. Calculate the weight of material that should be collected for the calibration distance chosen.

Equation 15. Weight Collected =

Row Rate x Calibration Distance

8. Select a ground speed appropriate for the crop and type of equipment used. Slow speeds take longer to finish the task, while high speeds may be inefficient and unsafe. Consult your equipment manual for a recommended speed. Even ground-driven application equipment can be sensitive to changes in speed. Maintaining an accurate and consistent speed is very important. Choose a safe, controllable speed that will enable you to complete the job in a timely and efficient manner.

9. Set your equipment according to recommendations from the equipment or chemical manufacturer. Most equipment manufacturers and chemical manufacturers provide rate charts to determine the correct orifice setting or rotor speed for each applicator. Fill the hopper at least half full to represent average capacity for calibration.

10. Attach a suitable collection container to each outlet on the applicator. You should be able to collect all material discharged from the applicator. Locate a scale capable of weighing the samples collected in calibration. Some samples may be very small, so a low-capacity scale may be needed. An accurate scale is very important.

Calibration Methods

Two methods for calibrating granular applicators are commonly used. The first is the distance method. This method is preferred by many operators because it applies to any type of granular machine and is easy to perform. The second method is the time

method. This method is similar to sprayer calibration and can be used for applicators driven by PTO, hydraulic, or electric motors.

dIStANCE MEtHOd

1. On the test course selected in the field, collect the output from the applicator in a container as you travel the course and weigh the material collected. Record the time required to travel the course also. Run the course twice, once in each direction, and average the results for both weight and time.

2. Determine the weight of the product that should be collected for the calibration distance.

Equation 16. Weight Collected (lb) =

Row Rate (lb/ft) x Calibration Distance (ft)

3. Compare the weight of the product actually collected to the weight expected for the calibration distance. If the rates differ by more than 10 percent, adjust the orifice, rotor speed, or ground speed and repeat. Bear in mind, speed adjustments are not effective for ground-driven equipment.

4. Repeat the procedure until the error is less than 10 percent.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 109

tIME MEtHOd

1. On the test course selected in the field, record the time required to travel the course. Run the course twice, once in each direction, and average the results. Accurate ground speed is very important to good calibration with the time method.

2. With the equipment parked, set the orifice control as recommended and run the applicator for the time measured to run the calibration distance. Collect and weigh the output of the applicator for this time measurement.

3. Determine the weight of the product that should be collected for the calibration distance.

Equation 17. Weight Collected (lb) =

Row Rate (lb/ft) x Calibration Distance (ft)

4. Compare the weight of the product actually collected during the time it took to cover the calibration distance to the weight expected for the calibration distance. If the rates differ by more than 10 percent, adjust the orifice, rotor speed, or ground speed and repeat. Bear in mind, speed adjustments are not effective for ground-driven equipment.

5. Repeat the procedure until the error is less than 10 percent.

CALIbrAtINg A brOAdCASt SPrEAdEr:

PrEPArINg tO CALIbrAtE

Broadcast spreaders include machines designed to apply materials broadcast across the surface of the field. They include drop, spin-

ner, and pendulum spreading devices. Calibration of a broadcast spreader is usually done using the product to be applied. Blank material is available and can be used, but may be hard to find. Use extra care and preparation when calibrating with the chemical. To begin, follow these steps:

1. Carefully inspect all machine components. Repair or replace any elements that are not in good working order.

2. Determine the type of drive system that is being used: ground drive or independent PTO. This may help determine the method of calibration.

3. Determine the application rate and the bulk density of the product to be applied.

4. Determine the spreader pattern and swath of the spreader.

Check the pattern to ensure uniformity. To check the pattern, place collection pans across the path of the spreader.

For drop spreaders, be sure to place a pan under each outlet.

For centrifugal and pendulum spreaders, space the pans uniformly with one in the center and an equal number on each side. The pattern should be the same on each side of the center and should taper smoothly as you go to the outer edge. The swath would be set as the width from side to side where a pan holds 50 percent of the maximum amount collected in the center pan.

5. Fill the hopper half full to simulate average conditions.

6. Set the ground speed of the spreader.

7. Set the spreader according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and begin calibration.

Calibration Methods

There are two common methods used to calibrate broadcast spreaders. The first method is the discharge method. To use this procedure, collect and measure the total discharge from the spreader as it runs across a test course. The second method, the pan method, is used on centrifugal and pendulum spreaders. The pattern test pans used to determine pattern shape and swath are used to determine the application rate.

dISCHArgE MEtHOd

1. Determine the test distance to use. Longer distances may give better accuracy but may be difficult to manage. A distance of 300 to 400 feet is usually adequate. Use shorter distances if necessary to avoid collecting more material than you can reasonably handle or weigh.

2. Set the ground speed. Be sure to maintain a constant ground speed at all times.

3. If using a ground drive spreader, attach a collection bin to the discharge chute or under the outlets and collect all the material discharged from the spreader as it runs across the test distance. If using an independent drive spreader, record the time required to run the test course. Park the spreader at a convenient location and measure the discharge from the spreader for the time measured on the test distance. The course should be run twice and the times averaged for better accuracy.

4. Calculate the application rate (pounds per acre):

Equation 18. Application rate, lb/ac =

Weight Collected (lb) x 43,560

Distance (ft) x Swath (ft)

5. Compare the application rate measured to the rate required.

Adjust and repeat as necessary.

PAN MEtHOd

1. Place pans in the field across the swath to be spread. Pans should be uniformly spaced to cover the full swath. One pan should be at the center of the swath with equal numbers of pans on each side. Use enough pans, 11 or more, to get a good measurement.

2. Make three passes with the spreader using the driving pattern to be used in the field. One pass should be directly over the center pan and the other passes at the recommended distance, lane spacing, to the left and right of the center pass.

3. Combine the material collected in the pans and determine the weight or volume collected. Divide by the number of pans used to determine the average weight or volume per pan.

4. Calculate the application rate.

110 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

If you are measuring the weight in the pans in grams:

Equation 19. Application rate, lb/ac =

13,829 x Weight (grams)

Pan Area (inches

2

)

If you are measuring the volume in the pans in cubic centimeters (cc):

Equation 20. Application rate, lb/ac =

13,829 x Bulk Density (lb/ft

3

) x Volume (cc)

Pan Area (inches

2

) x 62.4

5. Compare the rate measured to the rate required.

CALIbrAtION vArIAbLES

Several factors can affect proper calibration. The ground speed of any type of PTO-powered machine can make a difference. On the other hand, ground-driven machines are usually only slightly affected by changes in ground speed. If using dry or granular material, product density will affect the discharge rate and may change the pattern for broadcast spreaders. For liquids, calibration can be affected by pressure, nozzle size, density and viscosity of the liquid, and application type—band or broadcast. The following adjustments may help in adjusting these variables.

SPEEd

For PTO-powered equipment or other equipment in which the discharge rate is independent of ground speed, Equation 10 is useful.

Equation 21. New Application rate =

Old Application Rate x (Old Speed/New Speed)

For ground-driven equipment, there should be little or no change in application rate when speed is changed.

PrESSUrE

For liquids in sprayers, the discharge rate changes in proportion to the square root of the ratio of the pressures.

Equation 22. New discharge rate =

Old Discharge Rate x

New Pressure

Old Pressure

bANd APPLICAtION vErSUS brOAdCASt APPLICAtION

Some pesticide application recommendations are based on area of cropland covered. Other recommendations are based on area of land treated in the band covered. Check the label for the product you are using to see how it is listed.

Broadcast application is based on area of cropland covered.

Nozzle spacing is the distance between nozzles. Band applications in which the area of covered cropland is used for calibration and those applications in which multiple nozzles per row are used are both treated like broadcast applications. Divide the row spacing by the number of nozzles used per row to get a nozzle spacing for calibration.

For band applications in which area of treated land—not cropland covered—is specified, use the width of the band at the ground as the spacing for calibration.

dEtErMININg UPPEr ANd LOWEr LIMItS

Upper and lower limits provide a range of acceptable error. To set these limits for a given sample size, use the equations below.

First, however, you must decide upon the degree of accuracy you wish to achieve. Select a percent error: 2 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, or any other level of accuracy.

Equation 24. Upper Limit =

Target Rate x (1 + Percent Error/100%)

Equation 25. Lower Limit =

Target Rate x (1 – Percent Error/100%)

dENSIty

For liquids in sprayers, the discharge rate changes if the specific gravity (S.G.) of the liquid changes. Use water for calibration and adjust as shown below. Calibrate with spray solution only if recommended by the supplier.

New Pressure

Old Pressure

Equation 23. Water discharge rate =

Spray Discharge Rate x

S.G. of Spray Solution

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 111

registered Fungicides, Insecticides, And

Miticides For vegetables

Recommendations of specific chemicals are based upon information on the manufacturer’s label and performance in a limited number of trials. Because environmental conditions and methods of application by growers may vary widely, performance of the chemical will not always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by

Auburn University, Clemson University, Louisiana State University, Mississippi State University, North Carolina State University,

Oklahoma State University, Texas A&M, University of Florida,

University of Georgia, University of Kentucky, University of Tennessee, and Virginia Tech nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label.

Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your local county Extension office.

bE SUrE tO CHECK tHE PrOdUCt LAbEL bEFOrE USINg

ANy PEStICIdE.

rESIStANCE MANAgEMENt ANd tHE

INSECtICIdE rESIStANCE ACtION COM-

MIttEE (IrAC) COdES FOr

MOdES OF ACtION OF INSECtICIdES

Many insecticides affect a particular chemical involved in the function of an insect’s nervous, digestive, respiratory, or other system. Some broad-spectrum insecticides affect chemicals that occur in many places within the insect and have a wide ranging effect on the insect. Usually, these are older insecticides that have been in use for many years. The chemicals that these insecticides affect are often found in other animals as well. This can result in the insecticide having undesirable effects on these other animals

(non-target effects). Also, non-target effects and persistence in nature have contributed to concerns about these older insecticides.

Many new insecticides have been developed over the last decade, specifically to minimize non-target effects and reduce persistence in the environment compared to older insecticides. This limited persistence in the environment also reduces the potential for nontarget effects. However, the primary means of reducing non-target effects has been to make these newer insecticides very specific for a particular chemical (usually an enzyme produced by a single gene) found only in certain insects or groups of insects; thus making the insecticide selective for a particular type of insect. Unfortunately, there is a negative aspect to this specificity. Because only one enzyme is affected, the natural process of mutation can result in genetic modifications that alter the enzyme so that it is unaffected by the insecticide. Insects possessing the modified gene will not be affected by the particular insecticide. These insects will reproduce and, in time with continued exposure to the insecticide, will produce a population of insects that is resistant to the insecticide.

Since most of the new insecticides have been developed to be very specific, resistance will develop much more quickly than with previous insecticides.

Different insecticides affect different enzymes, and insecticides are placed into classes based on which enzymes are affected.

These classes are called Modes of Action (MOA). Although insecticides may have different names, they can have the same mode of action and affect the same enzyme or system. It is the mode of action to which the insect will become resistant. Because of this, an insect management program MUST rotate the modes of action of the insecticides used during the cropping cycle. To prevent the development of resistance, it is important not to apply insecticides with the same mode of action to successive generations of the same insect. Insect development time can vary by species and environmental conditions, and generations often overlap in the field; proper scouting is necessary to determine when modes of action should be rotated. To make it easier to determine an insecticide’s mode of action, the IRAC has developed a numerical code with a different number corresponding to each mode of action. New packaging has been developed with a colored banner on the top of the package and label giving the IRAC code. For example, the insecticide, Movento®, has a new mode of action and the package says:

grOUP 23 INSECtICIdES

Growers can now easily identify the mode of action of a specific insecticide. This will help them to plan their rotation of materials to avoid rapid development of insecticide resistance and help prolong the life of these important new crop protection materials while providing adequate management of their pest problems.

More information about insecticide resistance and a concise chart of all of the IRAC codes can be found at the website: www.irac-online.org.

112 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

gENErAL INFOrMAtION

LAWS ANd rEgULAtIONS

Be sure to check current state and federal laws and regu lations regarding the proper use, storage, and disposal of pesticides before applying any chemicals. For restricted-use pesticides, an applicator is required to be certified or to work under the direct supervision of a certified individual. dditional information on Worker Protection

Standards (WPS) can be found at http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/htc.html.

CErtIFICAtION–PEStICIdE APPLICAtOrS

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of

1972 (FIFRA) requires each state to set up a program to certify.

This certification is designed to show that users of pesticides know how to use pesticides safely in order that they do not endanger the user, fellow humans, or the environment. Users of pesticides are classified as either private applicators or commercial applicators.

The certification process is somewhat different for each group. The definitions of private and commercial applicators are as follows:

Private Applicator:

Any person who uses, or supervises the use of a restricted-use pesticide for the purpose of raising some type of agricultural commod ity. The application can be done on land owned or rented by the applicator or the applicator’s employer.

However, any applications done on a “for-hire” basis are considered commercial applications. Examples of private applicators are dairy farmers, vegetable or fruit growers, greenhouse growers, and ranchers.

Commercial Applicator:

Any person who uses, or supervises the use of, pesticides on a “for-hire” basis; any person who applies pesticides for nonagricultural purposes; any person who applies pesticides as a part of his or her job with any governmental agency

(public operator). Examples of commercial applicators are: exterminators; landscapers; tree services; aerial applicators; weedcontrol firms; and owners of apartments, motels, nursing homes, restaurants, etc., who do their own pest control work.

For detailed information on certification of pesticide applicators, call your state’s Department of Agriculture or your local Extension office for information.

HANdLINg PEStICIdES

Before opening a pesticide container, all applicators should carefully read the label, and accurately follow all directions and precautions specified on the labeling. In order to handle and apply pesticides safely, it is essential to use the proper personal protective equipment (PPE). For the custom or professional applicator, which includes both private and commercial applicators, safety equipment should at least consist of the PPE listed on the product label.

Your physician should be advised of the types of pesticides used in your work. Before the start of the spray season, each applicator should have a baseline blood cholinesterase level determined if you will be applying any organophosphate or carbamate insecticides.

When applying pesticides, be sure to have a decontamination site as required by the EPA’s Worker Protection Standards

(WPS) and a supply of clean water and liquid detergent available for drenching and washing in case of an accident. A single drop of certain pesticides in the eye is extremely hazardous. Be prepared to wash a con taminated eye with clean water for 15 minutes.

Only an experienced applicator wearing the protective clothing and safety equipment required by the manufac turer should handle highly toxic pesticides, such as Guthion, Lannate, and Temik.

APPLyINg PEStICIdES

Before using a pesticide, read and obey all labeling instructions. Always have the label readily available when applying a pesticide.

not handle or apply pesticides if you have a headache or do not feel well. Never smoke, eat or drink while using pesti-

cides. Avoid inhaling pesticide sprays, dusts, and vapors.

If hands, skin, or other body parts become contaminated or exposed, wash the area immediately with clean water and a liquid detergent. If clothing becomes contaminated, remove it immediately. Wash contaminated clothing separately. After each spraying or dusting, bathe and change clothing; always begin the day with clean clothing.

Always have someone present or in close contact when using highly toxic pesticides -those with the signal word DANGER plus the skull and crossbones symbol.

APPLy tHE COrrECt dOSAgE

• To avoid excessive residues on crops for feed and food

• To achieve optimum pest control and minimum danger to desirable organisms

• To avoid chemical damage to the crops

• To obtain the most economical control of pests.

Use pesticides for only those crops specified on the label, and use only those that have state and federal registration. Avoid drift to nontarget areas. Dusts drift more than sprays; airblast sprays drift more than boom sprays. When cleaning or filling application equipment, do not contaminate streams, ponds, or other water supplies. Keep a record of all pesticides used.

trEAtEd ArEAS

Be sure all treated areas are posted so as to keep out unauthorized personnel. This should be a regular procedure for greenhouse operators .

rEENtry PErIOd

Persons must not be allowed to enter the treated area until after sprays have dried or dusts have settled and until suffi cient time has passed to ensure that there is no danger of excessive exposure.

This time period is listed on the pesticide label as the Restricted

Entry Interval (REI). In no case during the reentry period are farm workers allowed to enter the treated area to engage in activity requiring substantial contact with the treated crop. PPE is required for any early entry into the treated area and is only allowed for trained applicators.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 113

FArM WOrKEr SAFEty

Federal pesticide legislation sets an interval during which unprotected persons may not reenter areas treated with certain pesticides to ensure that there is no danger to excessive exposure.

These intervals (days to reentry) are listed on each pesticide’s label. Points for special attention are:

1. No pesticide shall be applied while any person not involved in the application is in the field being treated.

2. No owner shall permit any worker not wearing protective clothing (that is, PPE) to enter a field treated with pesticides until sprays have dried or dusts have settled, unless they are exempted from such. Protective clothing: hat or head covering; woven, long-sleeved shirt and long-legged pants; and shoes and socks. Additional safety equipment may be needed.

3. Pesticides classified in EPA Category 1 have a reentry time of at least 24 hours.

4. If the label states a longer reentry time or has more stringent requirements than indicated here, the label restrictions must be followed. Existing safety standards specified on the label remain in force.

5. When workers are expected to be working in the vicinity of a field treated or to be treated with a pesticide, a timely

(written or oral) warning to such workers shall be given.

a. For all pesticides, workers must be warned by posting a bulletin board at all point(s) where workers might assemble. This bulletin board should include a map of the farm which designates the different areas of the farm that might be treated and listing of the following information:

i. Location and name of crop treated

ii. Brand and common chemical name of pesticide applied.

b. Date of application c. Date of safe reentry into treated area d. When a pesticide having a reentry time greater than

7 days is applied, warning signs must be posted for the duration of the reentry time. The signs must be clearly readable at a distance of 25 feet and printed in

English and the language of the worker, if other than

English.

e. The sign must contain the words:

Danger

Name of the pesticide

Treatment date

Do not enter until

6. The sign must not be removed during the reentry time, but must be removed before workers are allowed to have contact with the treated plants.

For additional information on these and other state farm worker safety regulations, contact the Pesticide Control Program office or the Cooperative Extension pesticide office in your state.

StOrAgE

Pesticides should always be stored in their original con tainers and kept tightly closed. For the protection of others, especially firefighters, the storage area should be posted as Pesticide Storage and kept securely locked.

Herbicides, especially hormone-like weedkillers such as 2,4-

D, should not be stored with other pesticides—primarily insecticides and fungicides—to prevent the accidental substitution of the herbicide for these chemicals.

Store the pesticides in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area that is not accessible to children and others who do not know and understand the safe and proper use of pesticides. Pesticides should be stored under lock and key. Special precautions may be needed in case of a fire in these storage areas.

Any restricted use pesticide (RUP) or container contaminated by restricted pesticides must be stored in a secure, locked enclosure while unattended. This enclosure must bear a warning that pesticides are stored there. In many states, it is illegal to store any pesticide in any container other than its original container.

Keep an inventory of all pesticides held in storage and locate the inventory list in an accessible place away from the storage site so that it may be referred to in case of an emergency at the storage site.

Keep your local fire department informed of the location of all pesticide storages. Fighting a fire that includes smoke from burning pesticides can be extremely hazardous to firefighters. Firefighters should be cautioned to avoid breathing any smoke from such a fire. A fire with smoke from burning pesticides may endanger the people of the immediate area or community. The people of an area or community may have to be evacuated if the smoke from a pesticide fire-drifts in their direction. To obtain Prefire Planning Guides, contact the US National Response Team (NRT) at at http://www.

nrt.org or at http://ipm.ncsu.edu (under “Information for Pesticide

Applicators/Dealers”).

Pesticide Formulation general Signs of deterioration

eC evidence of separation is such as a sludge or sediment

Milky appearance does not occur when water is added.

oils Milky appearance does not occur when water is added.

WP, SP, WGD

D, G, WDG excessive lumping; powder does not suspend in water.

excessive lumping or caking.

turer.

After freezing, place pesticides in warm storage [50°-80°F] and shake or roll container every few hours to mix product or eliminate layering. If layering persists or if all crystals do not completely dissolve, do not use the product. If in doubt, call the manufac-

PEStICIdE trANSPOrt

Containers must be well-secured to prevent breakage or spillage. An adequate supply of absorbent material, a shovel, and a fire extinguisher must be available. While under transport, pesticides must be stored in a separate compart ment from the driver. All pesticide containers and equipment must be secured to the vehicle so as to prevent removal by unauthorized person(s) when the vehicle is unattended. The door or hatch of any service vehicle tank containing a pesticide must be equipped with a cover that will prevent spillage when the vehicle is in motion.

114 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

The above requirements do not apply if the pesticide is being transported within the application equipment tank.

For additional information on pesticide transport, contact the state Pesticide Control Program office or Extension.

dISPOSAL

Pesticides should not be disposed of in sanitary landfills or by incineration, unless these locations and equipment are especially designed and licensed for this purpose by the state.

The best method to dispose of a pesticide is to use it in accordance with current label registrations. The triple rinse-and-

drain (see below) procedure or the pressure-rinse procedure (see below) is the recommended method to prepare pesticide containers for safe disposal. This method can save money as well as protect the environment.

Crush or puncture the container for disposal in a sanitary landfill or deposit in landfills that accept industrial waste, or deliver the intact container to a drum reconditioner or recycling plant. Check with the landfill operator prior to taking empty containers for disposal. For additional information on the disposal of pesticides themselves or unrinsed containers or rinsate, call the state agency responsible for hazardous wastes. See back cover for telephone numbers.

triple rinse–and–drain Method.

To empty a pesticide container for disposal, drain the con tainer into the spray tank by holding the container in a vertical position for 30 seconds. Add water to the pesticide container. Agitate the container thoroughly, then drain the liquid (rinsate) into the spray tank by holding in a vertical position for 30 seconds. Repeat two more times. Puncture or otherwise create a hole in the bottom of the pesticide container to prevent its reuse.

Pressure rinse Method.

An optional method to rinse small pesticide containers is to use a special rinsing device on the end of a standard water hose. The rinsing device has a sharp probe to puncture the container and several orifices to provide multiple spray jets of water. After the container has been drained into the sprayer tank

(container is upside down), jab the pointed pressure rinser through the bottom of the inverted container. Rinse for at least 30 seconds.

The spray jets of water rinse the inside of the container and the pesticide residue is washed down into the sprayer tank for proper use. Thirty seconds of rinse time is equivalent to triple rinsing. An added benefit is that the container is rendered unusable.

PrOtECt OUr ENvIrONMENt

• Do not burn pesticides. The smoke from burning pesticides is dangerous and can pollute air.

• Do not dump pesticides in sewage disposal or storm sewers because this will contaminate water.

• Avoid using excess quantities of pesticides. Calibrate sprayers to make sure of the output.

• Adjust equipment to keep spray on target. Chemicals offtarget pollute and can do harm to fish, wildlife, honey bees, and other desirable organisms.

Keep pesticides out of ponds, streams, and water supplies, except those intended for such use. A small amount of drift can be hazardous to food crops and to wildlife. Empty and clean sprayers away from water areas (such as ponds, lakes, streams, etc.)

Protect bees and other beneficial insects by choosing the proper chemical and time of day for application. See additional precautions in section ”Protecting Our Groundwater.”

MINIMIzE SPrAy drIFt

• Avoid spraying when there is strong wind.

• Use large orifice nozzles at relatively low pressure.

• Use nozzles that do not produce small droplets.

• Adjust boom height as low as practical.

• Do not spray at high travel speeds.

• Spray when soil is coolest and relative humidity is highest.

• Use nonvolatile pesticides.

• Use drift control additives when permitted by the pesticide label.

PEStICIdE POISONINg

If any of the following symptoms are experienced during or shortly after using pesticides: headache, blurred vision, pinpoint pupils, weakness, nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and discomfort in the chest, seek medical assistance immediately. Be sure to take a copy of the pesticide label. For minor symptoms, call the appropriate

Poison Control Center in your state. See back cover for emergency telephone numbers. Prompt action and treatment may save a life.

IN CASE OF AN ACCIdENt

Remove the person from exposure:

• Get away from the treated or contaminated area immediately

• Remove contaminated clothing.

• Wash with soap and clean water.

• Call a physician and the state Poison Control Center or

Agency. See back cover for emergency telephone numbers.

• Be prepared to give the active ingredient name (common name)

PEStICIdE SPILLS

Keep a supply of absorbent on hand to scatter over liquid spills in the storage room. Sawdust or janitorial sweeping compound works well in absorbing the liquids in a cleanup. Use a respirator and rubber gloves to clean up spills; cover the contaminated surface with household lye, trisodium phosphate, or liquid detergent. Let it soak a couple of hours and reabsorb the solution from the floor. This procedure is recommended for cleaning truck beds that are contaminated. Specific information concerning pesticide cleanup can be obtained by calling the manufacturer directly.

The phone numbers for emergencies are listed on every product label. Information can also be obtained by calling CHEMTREC at

800/424-9300. Report pesticide spills to the proper state agency.

See back cover for telephone numbers.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 115

rESPIrAtOry PrOtECtIvE dEvICES FOr

PEStICIdES

For many toxic chemicals, the respiratory (breathing) system is the quickest and most direct route of entry into the circulatory system. From the blood capillaries of the lungs, these toxic substances are rapidly transported throughout the body.

Respiratory protective devices vary in design, use, and protective capability. In selecting a respiratory protective device, the user must first consider the degree of hazard associated with breathing the toxic substance, and then understand the specific uses and limitations of the available equipment. Select a respirator that is designed for the intended use, and always follow the manufacturer’s instructions concerning the use and maintenance of that particular respirator. Different respirators may be needed for application of different chemicals or groups of chemicals. Select only equipment approved by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The NIOSH approval numbers begin with the letters TC. NOTE: The label will specify which respirator is needed for that particular pesticide.

tyPES OF rESPIrAtOrS

Respiratory protective devices can be categorized into three classes: air-purifying, supplied-air, and self-contained. Because most pesticide contaminants can be removed from the atmosphere by air-purifying devices, we will look at these in greatest detail.

Air-purifying devices include chemical cartridge respirators, mechanical filters, gas masks (also referred to as canister filter respirators), and battery powered respirators. They can be used only in atmospheres containing sufficient oxygen to sustain life.

• Chemical cartridge respirators provide respiratory protection against certain gases and vapors in concentrations not greater than 0.1% by volume, provided that this concentration does not exceed an amount that is immediately dangerous to life and health. They are for use only when exposure to high continual concentrations of pesticide is unlikely, such as when mixing pesticides outdoors. They are available either as halfmasks, covering only the nose and mouth, or as fullfacepiece respirators for both respiratory and eye protection.

• Mechanical filter respirators (dust masks) provide respiratory protection against particulate matter such as mists, metal fumes, and nonvolatile dusts. They are available either as disposable or reusable halfmasks that cover the nose and mouth, or as reusable full-facepieces. Dust masks should never be used when mixing or applying liquids because splashed or spilled liquids, or pesticide vapors can be absorbed by the mask.

• Many respiratory protective devices are combinations of chemical cartridge and mechanical filter (prefilter) respirators. These can provide respiratory protection against both gases and particulate matter.

• Full-face piece respirators provide respiratory protection against particulate matter, and/or against certain specific gases and vapors, provided that their concentration does not exceed an amount that is immediately dangerous to life and health. Gas masks, like full-facepieces, cover the eyes, nose, and mouth, but will last longer than cartridges when continuously exposed to some pesticides. A gas mask will not, however, provide protection when the air supply is low. A special respirator with a self-contained air supply should be worn in these situations.

• Battery powered air-purifying respirators equipped with pesticide filters/cartridges are also effective in filtering out pesticide particles and vapors. They are available as halfmasks, full-face masks, hoods, and protective helmets, and are connected by a breathing hose to a battery powered filtration system. This type of filtration system has the additional advantage of cooling the person wearing it. But, like other air purifying devices, this system does not supply oxygen and must be worn only when the oxygen supply is not limited.

Chemical cartridge respirators protect against light concentrations of certain organic vapors. However, no single type of cartridge is able to remove all kinds of chemical vapors. A different type of chemical cartridge (or canister) must be used for different contaminants. For example, cartridges and canisters that protect against certain organic vapors differ chemically from those that protect against ammonia gases. Be sure that the cartridge or canister is approved for the pesticide you intend to use. Cartridge respirators are not recommended for use against chemicals that possess poor warning properties. Thus, the user’s senses (smell, taste, irritation) must be able to detect the substance at a safe level if cartridge respirators are to be used correctly.

The effective life of a respirator cartridge or canister depends on the conditions associated with its use—such as the type and concentration of the contaminants, the user’s breathing rate, and the humidity. Cartridge longevity is dependent on its gas and vapor adsorption capacity. When the chemical cartridge becomes saturated, a contaminant can pass through the cartridge, usually allowing the user to smell it. At this point, the cartridge must be changed immediately. There are times when the mechanical prefilter also needs to be changed. A prefilter should be replaced whenever the respirator user feels that breathing is becoming difficult. Dispose of all spent cartridges to avoid their being used inadvertently by another applicator who is unaware of their contaminated condition.

Chemical cartridge respirators cannot provide protection against extremely toxic gases such as hydrogen cyanide, methyl bromide, or other fumigants. Masks with a self-contained air supply are necessary for these purposes.

USE ANd CArE OF rESPIrAtOrS

Respirators are worn as needed for protection when handling certain pesticides. The use of respirators is now regulated requiring a health screening prior to their use by a health professional.

This is due in part to the Fumigant re-registration decisions by

EPA. These prerequisites are outlined in the OSHA Respiratory

Protection Act. Prior to using a respirator, read and understand the instructions on the cartridge or canister and all supplemental information about its proper use and care. Be sure the filter is approved for protection against the pesticide intended to be used. Respirators labeled only for protection against particulates must not be used for gases and vapors. Similarly, respirators labeled only for protection against gases and vapors should not be used for particulates. Remember, cartridges and filters do not supply oxygen. Do

116 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

not use them where oxygen may be limited. All respirators must be inspected for wear and deterioration of their components before and after each use. Special attention should be given to rubber or plastic parts which can deteriorate. The facepiece, valves, connecting tubes or hoses, fittings, and filters must be maintained in good condition.

All valves, mechanical filters, and chemical filters (cartridges or canisters) should be properly positioned and sealed. Fit the respirator on the face to ensure a tight but comfortable seal. Facial hair will prevent a tight seal and consequently OSHA regulations prohibit the use of a respirator when the user has a beard or facial hair. Two tests can be done to check the fit of most chemical cartridge respirators. The first test requires that you place your hand tightly over the outside exhaust valve. If there is a good seal, exhalation should cause slight pressure inside the facepiece. If air escapes between the face and facepiece, readjust the headbands until a tight seal is obtained. Readjusting the headbands may at times not be sufficient to obtain a good seal. It may be necessary to reposition the facepiece to prevent air from escaping between the face and facepiece. The second test involves covering the inhalation valve(s) by placing a hand over the cartridge(s). If there is a good seal, inhalation should cause the facepiece to collapse. If air enters, adjust the headbands or reposition the facepiece until a good seal is obtained.

Get to fresh air immediately if any of the following danger signals are sensed:

• Contaminants are smelled or tasted

• Eyes, nose, or throat become irritated

• Breathing becomes difficult

• The air being breathed becomes uncomfortably warm

• Nauseous or dizzy sensations are experienced

Cartridges or filters may be used up or abnormal conditions may be creating contaminant concentrations which exceed the capaci ty of the respirator to remove the contamination.

After each use of the respirator, remove all mechanical and chemical filters. Wash the facepiece with soap and warm water, and then immerse it in a sanitizing solution such as household bleach (two tablespoons per gallon of water) for two minutes, followed by a thorough rinsing with clean water to remove all traces of soap and bleach. Wipe the facepiece with a clean cloth and allow to air dry.

Store the respirator facepiece, cartridges, canisters, and mechani cal filters in a clean, dry place, preferably in a tightly sealed plastic bag. Do not store respirators with pesticides or oth-

er agricultural chemi cals.

Handle respirators with the same care given to other protective equipment and clothing.

Protection of our groundwater by the agricultural community is essential.

Groundwater collects under our soils in aquifers that are comprised of layers of sand, gravel, or fractured bedrock which, by their nature, hold water. This water comes from rainfall, snowfall, etc., that moves down through the soil layers to the aquifer. The depth of the aquifer below the surface depends on many factors.

Where it is shallow, we see lakes, ponds and wetlands. In areas where it is deep, we find arid regions.

FACtOrS tHAt AFFECt MOvEMENt OF WAtEr ANd

CONtAMINANtS

The depth of aquifers, in conjunction with soil types, influences how much surface water reaches the aquifer. Their depth also affects how quickly water and contaminants reach an aquifer. Thus, shallow water tables tend to be more vulnerable to contamination than deeper ones.

This tendency, however, depends on the soil type. Soils with high clay or organic matter content may hold water longer and retard its movement to the aquifer.Conversely, sandy soils allow water to move downward at a fast rate. High levels of clay and/or organic content in soils also provide a large surface area for binding contaminants that can slow their movement into groundwater. Soil texture also influences downward water movement. Finer textured soils have fewer spaces between particles than coarser ones, thus decreasing movement of water and contaminants.

CHEMIStry PLAyS A rOLE

The characteristics of an individual pesticide affect its ability to reach groundwater. The most important characteristics are solubility in water, adsorption to soils, and persistence in the environment.

Pesticides that are highly soluble in water have a higher potential for contaminating groundwater than those that are less soluble. The water solubility of a chemical indicates how much chemical will dissolve in water and is measured in parts per million (ppm). Those chemicals with a water solubility greater than 30 ppm may create problems. Be sure to read the Environmental Precautions on each pesticide label.

A chemical’s ability to adhere to soil particles plays an important role. Chemicals with a high affinity for soil adsorption are less likely to reach the aquifer. Adsorption is also affected by the amount of organic matter in the soil. Soils with high organic matter content are less vulnerable than those with low organic matter content.

Finally, how persistent a chemical is in the environment may affect its ability to reach groundwater. Those that persist for a long time may be more likely to cause contamination than materials that breakdown quickly. Persistence is measured by the time it takes half of a given pesticide to degrade. This is called the chemical’s half-life. Chemicals with an overall estimated half-life longer than

3 weeks pose a threat to groundwater.

PrOtECtINg OUr grOUNdWAtEr

Groundwater is the water contained below the topsoil. This water is used by 90% of the rural population in the United States as their sole source of drinking water. Contamination of the water supply by pesticides and other pollutants is becoming a serious problem. One source of contamination is agricultural practices.

HOW tO PrEvENt CONtAMINAtION OF grOUNd WAtEr

Examine the chemical properties of the pesticides used. If using materials that persist for long periods of time, are very water soluble, or are not tightly held by the soil, then your groundwater

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 117

may become contaminated. Another material may be selected that has a shorter persistence, lower water solubility, or higher potential for soil adsorption. The following chart assists with these decisions.

1. Determine the local soil and geologic circumstances. If in an area with a shallow water table or the soil is low in organic matter or sandy in nature, there is a greater risk of contaminating your groundwater. In these cases, choose a pesticide that has a low water solubility and is not persistent.

2. Evaluate management practices. These practices maybe the most important factors in determining the risk of contaminating groundwater. If the same materials are used year after year, or many times a season, the potential for contamination can be increased due to the amount of pesticide in the soil. The timing of pesticide applications has an effect on groundwater contamination. If applications during periods of high rainfall or heavy irriga tion are made, it is more likely that contamination may occur.

Also, the water table in the spring may be higher than at other times. Early season applications, therefore, may pose a greater chance for groundwater contamination.

3. The method of application may have an effect. Direct injection, incorporation, and chemigation all increase the chance of contamination. If using these techniques, be sure to follow the procedures listed on the material’s label.

4. The location of wells can be important. If the sprayer loading area or pesticide storage building is too close to a well, the risk of contamination may be greater. Wells should be located a minimum distance from all pesticide storage and loading areas. This distance differs between states but is generally between 50 and 100 ft. In the event of an accident, this distance should prevent contamination. This minimum distance should also be followed for field irrigation wells. If they are too close to application areas, contamination might occur.

5. Check the condition of any wells in the vicinity of sprayer loading areas, pesticide storage areas, or field applications. If they have cracked casings trouble is being invited. Cracks in a well casing provide a direct point of entry for pesticide-contaminated water that is in the soil.

6. Use some type of anti back-flow device in any system used for chemigation or to fill the sprayer with water. in the event of a pump shutoff or other failure, if any back-f low into the water system occurs, these devices will prevent pesticides from entering the well. Many state laws require that anti back-flow devices be placed on all sprayer water intake systems prior to the water entering the tank. The use of an air gap only is no longer acceptable in some states.

7. Care and maintenance of equipment is also an important consideration. If the equipment does not function properly, over-delivery may occur, which increases the chance of groundwater contamination. Prior to the beginning of the season, inspect all of the working parts of the sprayer or chemigation system. Check the pump to ensure that it is working properly. For both sprayers and chemigation systems, check the water lines for clogs and leaks. For sprayers, check the nozzles for wear and clogs. Clogged, leaking, or worn lines and nozzles can cause pesticides to be delivered in too high an amount or into unwanted areas. Be sure to calibrate equipment. Uncalibrated equipment can cause over-delivery as well. Equipment should be calibrated at the beginning of the season, periodically during the remainder of the season, and any time changes or adjustments are made to the equipment.

8. Apply materials only when needed. The use of pesticides, when not needed, can increase the threat of contamination. Check irrigation practices as well. Do not irrigate immediately after a pesticide application, unless required by a pesticide’s label. The increased water content in the soil might speed up the downward movement of a pesticide.

rEMEMbEr, grOUNdWAtEr

MUSt bE PrOtECtEd.

118 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tOxICIty OF CHEMICALS USEd IN PESt

CONtrOL

The danger in handling pesticides does not depend exclusively on toxicity values. Hazard is a function of both toxicity and the amount and type of exposure. Some chemicals are very hazardous from dermal (skin) exposure as well as oral (ingestion). Although inhalation values are not given, this type of exposure is similar to ingestion. A compound may be highly toxic but present little hazard to the applicator if the precautions are followed carefully.

Toxicity values are expressed as acute oral LD

50 in terms of milligrams of the substance per kilogram (mg/kg) of test animal body weight required to kill 50 percent of the population. The acute dermal LD

50 is also expressed in mg/kg. These acute values are for a single exposure and not for repeated exposures such as may occur in the field. Rats are used to obtain the oral LD

50 and the test animals used to obtain the dermal values are usually rabbits.

CAtEgOrIES OF tOxICIty

1

Categories

i ii

Signal Word

Danger-Poison

Warning

Ld

50

value (mg/kg)

Oral

0 – 50

50-500

dermal

0 – 200

200-2,000 iii iV

Caution

None 2

500-5,000

5,000

2,000-20,000

5,000 20,000

1 ePA accepted categories.

2 No signal word required based on acute toxicity; however, products in this category usually display “Caution.”

Next, multiply given LD

50 by body weight in kg. Note: LD

50 numbers are given by the manufacturer.

Example: LD

50 of 11 x 45 kg = 495 mg

Next, to convert milligrams (mg) to ounces (oz), multiply mg by 0.000035. Example: 495 mg x 0.000035 = 0.017 oz.

The following is a chart of LD

50

figures converted to ounces for three commonly used products in the agricultural industry.

Ld

50

11

30 body Weight in Pounds

60 100 150

Ounces

200

0.005

0.010

0.017

0.026

0.035

insecticide

Furadan

Herbicide

Micro-Tech/Partner

Fungicide

Chlorothalonil

1,800

10,000

0.9

4.9

1.7

9.5

2.8

15.7

4.3

23.8

5.7

31.5

Read all labels and become familiar with the symptoms of pesticide poisoning. For help in a pesticide emergency, seek immediate medical attention and call the appropriate poison information number on the back cover of this book.

tOxICIty ANd Ld

50

CALCULAtIONS WEIgHt

CONvErSIONS

1 ounce (oz) = 28 grams (gr)

1 pound (lb) = 454 grams (gr)

1 gram (gr) = 1,000 milligrams (mg)

1,000 mg = 0.035 oz

1 mg = 0.000035 oz

tO bOdy WEIgHt IN KILOgrAMS (Kg)

(lb) (kg)

25 = 11.25

50 = 22.5

75 = 33.75

100 = 45

To determine an exact weight, multiply known body weight in pounds by 0.45. Example: 100 lb x 0.45 = 45 kg

All the following calculations use a body weight of 100 pounds. To determine the LD

50

, first convert body weight to kilograms; to do this multiply weight in lb by 0.45.

Example: 100 x 0.45 = 45 kg

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 119

CONvErSION INFOrMAtION FOr USE OF

PEStICIdES ON SMALL ArEAS

LIQUId MAtErIALS recommended rate per acre

1 pint

1 quart

2 quarts

1 gallon

25 gallons

50 gallons

75 gallons

100 gallons

Approximate rate

per 1,000 sq. ft.

¾ tablespoons

1½ tablespoons

3 tablespoons

6 tablespoons

4½ pints

8 pints

7 quarts

9 quarts

Approximate rate per 100 sq. ft.

¼ teaspoon

½ teaspoon

1 teaspoon

2 teaspoons

1 cup

1 pint

1½ pints

1 quart

For dry materials, such universal conversions are not possible because these materials vary widely in density. You can use volume measurements such as teaspoons, tablespoons, and cups, but you must first weigh a tablespoon of each product so that you will know what volume measurement to use to obtain the desired weight. Remember that there are 43,560 square feet in an acre. To convert a per-acre rate to 1,000 square feet, divide the per-acre rate by 43.56. To convert a per-acre rate to 100 square feet, divide the per-acre rate by 435.6.

Example: A rate of 2 pounds of Dithane DF per acre is desired for a planting of 1,000 square feet. Divide the per-acre rate of 907 grams (453.6 grams per pound) by 43.56 to get 20.8 grams. Since

Dithane DF weighs about 10 grams per tablespoon, you would need two tablespoons. Knowing the weight per tablespoon for each product you work with, you can use a tablespoon for measuring, rather than weighing.

PEStICIdE dILUtION tAbLES

The following tables provide quantity of either liquid or wettable powder concentrates to use per acre to give desired dosage of an active ingredient per acre.

HOW tO USE tHESE tAbLES

Example: Reading the product label, you determine that you need to apply 0.50 lbs of actual Guthion per acre to treat a specific problem. You have Guthion 2L liquid that contains 2 lb. of Active

Ingredient per gallon of product. Referring to the “Liquid Concentrate” table” find “2 lb” in the first column. Next locate the “0.50” column in the heading across the top of the table. These two columns intersect at “2.0 pints”. Thus, you need to add 2 pints of

Guthion 2L in enough water to treat one acre. The other two tables work the same way.

tAbLE OF MEASUrES

3 teaspoons (tsp) = 1 tablespoon

2 tablespoons (tbl) = 1 fluid once

16 tablespoons (tbl) = 1 cup

8 fluid ounces (fl oz) = 1 cup

2 cups (c) = 1 pint

2 pints (pt) = 1 quart

4 quarts (qt) = 1 gallon

LIQUId CONCENtrAtE –

AMOUNt tO USE IN PINtS PEr ACrE

Pounds

A.I. /gallon

1 lb.

Pounds per acre of A.I. (Active Ingredient) recommended

0.125

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

1.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

16.0

24.0

32.0

1½ lb.

2 lb.

3 lb.

4 lb.

5 lb.

6 lb.

7 lb.

8 lb.

9 lb.

10 lb.

6.7

0.5

0.34

0.25

0.20

0.17

0.14

0.125

0.25

0.11

0.22

0.10

0.20

1.3

1.0

0.67

0.50

0.40

0.34

0.30

2.6

2.0

1.3

1.0

0.80

0.67

0.60

0.50

0.45

0.40

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.5

1.2

1.0

0.90

0.75

0.67

0.60

5.3

4.0

2.7

2.0

1.6

1.3

1.1

1.0

0.90

0.80

10.6

8.0

5.3

4.0

3.2

2.6

2.3

2.0

1.8

1.6

16.0

12.0

8.0

6.0

4.8

4.0

3.4

3.0

2.7

2.4

21.3

16.3

10.7

8.0

6.4

5.3

4.6

4.0

3.6

3.2

WEttAbLE POWdEr –

AMOUNt tO USE IN POUNdS PEr ACrE

%A.I.

15%

Pounds per acre of A.I. (Active Ingredient) recommended

0.125

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

13/16 1¾ 3⅓ 5 6½ 13 20 26½

25%

40%

50%

75%

½

5/16

¼

3/16

½

1

2

1

11/16

3

1

4

2

1⅓

8

5

4

2⅔

12

6

4

16

10

8

dUSt Or grANULES–

AMOUNt tO USE IN POUNdS PEr ACrE

Pounds per acre of A.I. (Active Ingredient) recommended

%A.I.

2½%

5%

10%

20%

25%

0.125

0.25

5 10

2½ 5

5/8

½

1

0.50

20

10

5

2

0.75

30

15

3

10

5

4

1.0

40

20

20

10

8

2.0

80

40

3.0

120

60

30

15

12

4.0

160

100

40

20

16

Insect Control for Commercial vegetables

Read the pesticide label before application. High pressure (200 psi) and high volume (50 gallons per acre) aid in vegetable insect control. Ground sprays with airblast sprayers or sprayers with hollow cone drop nozzles are suggested. Incorporate several methods of control for best results. In recent years, the number of generic products has increased significantly. For brevity, these generic products typically are not listed within each section. The trade names listed are intended to aid in identification of products and are neither intended to promote use of specific trade names nor to discourage use of generic products. A list of active ingredients and generic brand names appears in a separate table at the end of this section.

Insecticides are placed into IRAC MOA classes based on their mode of action (insecticides in the same MOA class have the same mode of action). Effective insecticide resistance management involves the use of alternations, rotations, or sequences of different insecticide MOA classes. To prevent the development of resistance, it is important not to apply insecticides with the same MOA to successive generations of the same insect.

tAbLE 2-1. INSECt CONtrOL FOr ASPArAgUS

Insect

Aphid

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

dimethoate 400, MoA 1B

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

1 pt

2 pt

Asparagus beetle,

Japanese beetle,

Grasshopper malathion, MoA 1B

(various) 57 eC pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus dimethoate 400, MoA 1B malathion, MoA 1B

(various) 57 eC methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV

2.75 oz

2 to 4 lb

1.25 to 2.5 lb

1 to 2 qt

1 pt

2 pt

1.5 pt

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

Beet armyworm,

Cutworm, yellow-striped armyworm pyrethroid, MoA 3 spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11A

(Dipel) DF chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67SC

cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(exirel) 0.83eC

methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV

(Lannate) 90 SP spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinosad, MoA 5

(entrust 2SC)

4 to 8 fl oz

0.5 to1 lb

3.5 to 5 fl oz

7 to 13.5 fl oz

1.5 to 3 pt

0.5 to 1 lb

4 to 8 fl oz

4 to 6 fl oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hr

48 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

180 Do not exceed 5 pt per acre per year.

1 Aphid colonies appear by early September. the use of carbamates may result in aphid buildup.

— For aphid control on ferns after harvest.

1

180

1

1

60

0

1

1

1

60

60

Low rate to be used on seedlings or spears. Do not apply more often than once every 3 days. With established beetle populations, three consecutive weekly sprays are required.

Manage beetles and grasshoppers in the fall.

Do not exceed 5 pt per acre per year.

Apply as needed.

Let a row on edge of field near overwintering sites of asparagus beetles fern out. this will attract and hold beetles for that directed insecticide spray (trap and destroy).

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

For asparagus beetle only. this use is only for asparagus ferns; do not apply within 60 days of spear harvest.

Do not make applications within 25 ft of water sources.

this use is only for asparagus ferns; do not apply within 60 days of spear harvest. this use is only for asparagus ferns; do not apply within 60 days of spear harvest. OMrI approved.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 121

tAbLE 2-2. INSECt CONtrOL FOr bEANS (cont’d)

Insect

Aphid

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

acetamiprid MoA4A

(Assail) 30SG dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2F

Foliar treatment

Admire Pro 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F pyrethroid, MoA 3

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

2.5 to 5.3 oz

0.5 to 1 pt

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

1.2 fl oz

3.5 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

7

0

21

7 on foliage as needed. Re-entry interval of 48 hr.

See label for soil application instructions. Also controls leafhoppers and thrips.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

thrips spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2 SC acephate, MoA 1B

(orthene) 97 Pe acetamiprid MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG pyrethroid, MoA 3

4 to 5 fl oz

0.5 to 1 lb

2.5 to 5.3 oz

24 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1 (succulent)

7 (dried)

14

7

Lima beans may be treated and harvested the same day. Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Corn earworm, european corn borer, Lesser cornstalk borer, Looper methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 90 SP

(Lannate) 2.4 LV novaluron MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinosad, MoA 5

(Blackhawk) chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4 SC novaluron MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinosad, MoA 5

(Blackhawk) pyrethroid, MoA 3

Cowpea curculio pyrethroid, MoA 3

0.5 lb

1.5 pt

12 fl oz

5 to 6 fl oz

2.5 to 3.3 oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

2 to 3 fl oz

6 to 12 fl oz

4.5 to 6 fl oz

1.7 to 3.3 oz

48 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

1

1

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

1

1 (succulent)

14 (dried)

1

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

3 (succulent)

28 (dried) effective against immature thrips only.

Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season on succulent beans or more than 12 fl oz on dried beans.

Do not apply more than 20 oz per acre per season on succulent beans or more than 8.3 oz on dried beans.

1-day PHi for podded and succulent, 14 for dry beans.

Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season on succulent beans or more than 12 fl oz on dried beans.

Do not apply more than 20 oz per acre per season on succulent beans or more than 8.3 oz on dried beans.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals. Control may be poor in areas where resistant populations occur, primarily in the Gulf Coast areas.

Cucumber beetle,

Bean leaf beetle,

Japanese beetle

Cutworm

Grasshopper carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

80 S

XLR Plus pyrethroid, MoA 3 carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

80 S

XLR Plus pyrethroid, MoA 3 pyrethroid, MoA 3

4 lb

2.5 lb

1 qt

2 to 2.5 lb

1.25 to 1.875 lb

1 qt

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

3 (succulent)

21 (dried)

3 (succulent)

21 (dried)

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Leafminer cryomazine, MoA 17

(trigard) 75 WP naled, MoA 1B (Dibrom) 8 eC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinosad, MoA 5

(Blackhawk)

2.66 oz

1 pt

4 to 8 fl oz

2.5 to 3.3 oz

12 hrs

48 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

7

1

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

3 (succulent)

28 (dried

Re-entry interval is 48 hr.

Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season on succulent beans or more than 12 fl oz on dried beans.

Do not apply more than 20 oz per acre per season on succulent beans or more than 8.3 oz on dried beans.

122 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-2. INSECt CONtrOL FOr bEANS (cont’d)

Insect

Lygus bug

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

pyrethroid, MoA 3

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

3 (succulent)

21 (dried)

See

table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

on foliage when pods begin to form.

Mexican bean beetle carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

80 S

XLR Plus dimethoate, MoA 1B

(Dimethoate) 4 eC acetamiprid MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG pyrethroid, MoA 3

3 lb

1.875 lb

1.5 qt

1 pt

2.5 to 5.3 oz

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

7

3 (succulent)

21 (dry)

Do not apply if bees are visiting area to be treated when crops or weeds are in bloom.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

on foliage as needed. Use low rate on young plants.

Potato leafhopper carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus dimethoate, MoA 1B

(Dimethoate) 4 eC novaluron MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC phorate, MoA 1B

(thimet) 20 G acetamiprid MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 90 SP

(Lannate) 2.4 L phorate, MoA 1B

(thimet) 20 G pyrethroid, MoA 3

1 to 2 lb

0.625 to 1.25 lb

1 qt

1 pt

9 to 12 oz

4.9 to 9.4 oz/

1,000 ft row

2.5 to 5.3 oz

4 lb

2.5 lb

1 qt

0.5 to 1 pt

0.5 lb

1.5 to 3 pt

4.9 to 9.4 oz/

1,000 ft row

48 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

48 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

0

1

60

7

3 (succulent)

21 (dry)

7

1

1 to 3

60

48-hr re-entry interval.

Controls immature stages only.

Drill granules to the side of seed at planting. Avoid contact with seed.

on foliage as needed.

Do not graze before 3 days or use for hay before 7 days.

Seedcorn maggot,

Wireworm

Spider mite

Use seed pretreated with insecticide for seedcorn maggot control.

bifenthrin MoA 3

(empower) 1.15G

chlorpyrifos MoA 1B

(Lorsban) 4e phorate, MoA 1B

(thimet) 20 G pyrethroid, MoA 3

3.5 to 8.7 lb

2 pts

4.9 to 9.4 oz/

1,000 ft row

9 days

24 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

9

60

Drill granules to the side of seed at planting. Avoid contact with seed.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and their reentry and pre-harvest intervals.

Seed can be purchased pretreated. Pretreated seed will not control wireworms.

Apply preplant broadcast incorporated in the top 1 to 3 inches of soil.

Can be applied preplant broadcast incorporated in the top 1 to 3 inches of soil, or at planting as a t-band application. For at planting application, apply 1.8 fl oz per 1000 ft of row at

30-inch row spacing. Apply the spray in a 3 to 5 inch wide band over the row behind the planting shoe and in front of the press wheel to achieve shallow incorporation. Do not make more than one application per year or apply more than 1 lb a.i. per acre.

Drill granules to the side of seed at planting. Avoid contact with seed.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Stink bug,

Kudzu bug bifenazate MoA UN

(Acramite) 4 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

16 to 24 fl oz 12 hrs

12 hrs

3

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Whiteflies naled, MoA 1B

(Dibrom) 8 eC acetamiprid MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG buprofezin, MoA 16

(Courier) 40 SC

1.5 pt/100 gal water

4.0 to 5.3 oz

9 to 13.6 fl oz

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

7

14 For use on snap beans only.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 123

tAbLE 2-2. INSECt CONtrOL FOr bEANS (cont’d)

Insect

Whiteflies

(cont’d)

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F

1.2 fl oz

3.5 fl oz spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento)

4 to 5 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

See label for soil application instructions.

21

7

1 (succulent)

7 (dry)

PHi is 1 day for succulent beans and 7 days for dry beans.

tAbLE 2-3. INSECt CONtrOL FOr bEEt

Insect

Aphid

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

flonicamid, MOA 9A

(Beleaf) 50SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F sulfoxaflor, MOA 4C

(transform) 50WG thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

2 to 2.8 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

Precautions and remarks

4.4 to 10.5 fl oz

10 to 24 fl oz

1.2 fl oz

3.5 fl oz

0.75 to 1.5 oz

1.7 to 2.17 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

21

7

7

See label for soil application instructions. Will also control flea beetle.

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 12 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

Armyworm,

Beet webworm

(Actara) 25 WDG chlorantraniliprole MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC methoxyfenozide MoA 18

(intrepid) 2F spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

Spinosad, MoA 5 (Blackhawk)

Blister beetle, Flea beetle carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

80 S

XLR pyrethroid, MoA 3

Leafminer spinetoram, MoA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC

1.5 to 3 oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

6 to 16 fl oz

6 to 8 fl oz

1.7 to 3.3 oz

3 lb

1.875 lb

1 qt

6 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

7

7

3

7

7

1

7

Do not apply more than 32 fl oz per acre per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Control will be improved with addition of a spray adjuvant.

124 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-4. INSECt CONtrOL FOr brOCCOLI, brUSSELS SPrOUt, CAbbAgE, CAULIFLOWEr (cont’d)

Insect

Aphid

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50WD dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 30SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2 SC thiamethoxam MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Platinum) 75SG

Foliar treatment

(Actara) 25WDG

Amount of

Formulation Per

Acre

2 to 3 oz

4.8 to 6.4 oz (soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz (foliar)

0.5 to 1 pt

2 to 2.8 oz

4.4 to 10.5 fl oz

10 to 24 fl oz

1.3 fl oz

3.75 fl oz

2.75 oz

4 to 5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

1.5 to 3.0 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

21 (soil)

7 (foliar)

7

0

21

7

7

1

30

0

Precautions and remarks

Soil application at planting only.

Do not follow soil applications of Admire with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. See label for soil application instructions. imidacloprid also controls whiteflies.

Imidacloprid also controls whiteflies. Not effective against flea beetle.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 3.67 oz per acre per season. Thiamethoxam also controls whiteflies and certain thrips species.

Diamondback moth,

Cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm,

Corn earworm, Crossstriped cabbageworm,

Cabbage webworm,

Armyworm

Insecticide-resistant Diamondback moth populations, widespread in the Southeastern u.S., may not be controlled with some registered insecticides. To manage resistance, avoid transplants from Georgia and Florida and avoid repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides destroys natural enemies and often aggravates diamondback moth problems. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before initiating treatments.

4 hrs 0 Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11A

(Dipel) 2X

(Dipel) 4 L

(Javelin) WG

(Xentari) WDG

8 oz

1 to 2 qt

0.5 to 1 lb

0.5 to 1 lb on foliage every 7 days. on summer or fall plantings, during periods when eggs and larvae are present. this usually occurs when true leaves appear; on other plantings, it may occur later.

A spreader-sticker will be helpful.

Not effective against Cabbage Webworm

chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

3.5 to 5 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

3

NA

Foliar or soil application. See label for soil application instructions.

Verimark is for soil application only. Apply at planting only. See label for application options.

(exirel) 0.83Se

7 to 17 fl oz 12 hrs 1 exirel is for foliar application only. Use higher rates for cabbage looper.

emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

3.2 to 4.8 oz

2 to 2.4 fl oz

2.5 to 3.5 oz

6 to 12 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

7

1

3

7

1

Add a wetting agent to improve spray. Do not apply more than

14 oz (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. the minimum interval between sprays is 3 days.

Use lower rates when targeting eggs or small larvae, and use higher rates when larvae are large. Make no more than three applications, or 24 fl oz per acre per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals. Not for use where diamondback moth is a concern.

Flea beetle acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50WDG cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

2 to 3 oz

4.8 to 6.4 oz (soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz (foliar)

6.75 to 13.5 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

7

7 (foliar)

1

Soil applications may only be made at planting.

Verimark is for at planting soil application only. See label for application options.

(exirel) 0.83Se

13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 hrs 1 exirel is for foliar application only.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 125

tAbLE 2-4. INSECt CONtrOL FOr brOCCOLI, brUSSELS SPrOUt, CAbbAgE, CAULIFLOWEr (cont’d)

Insect

Flea beetle

(cont’d)

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Amount of

Formulation Per

Acre

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

1

Precautions and remarks

See label for soil application options.

Harlequin bug, Stink bug

Root maggot thrips

Whitefly

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B pyrethroid, MoA 3

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

0.5 to 1 pt

21 clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50WDG

4.8 to 6.4 oz (soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz (foliar)

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

NA

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Soil application at planting only.

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35 SL pyrethroid, MoA 3 chlorpyrifos, MoA 1B

(Lorsban) 4 eC

(Lorsban) 75 WG chlorpyrifos, MoA 1B

(Lorsban) 4 eC

(Lorsban) 15 G diazinon, MoA 1B

(Diazinon 50 W) 50 WP dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6F

(various) 2F

(various) 1.6 F methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC

3 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

2 pt/100 gal

1.33 lb

1.6 to 2.75 oz/

1,000 ft row

4.6 to 9.2 oz/ 1,000 ft row

0.25 to 0.5 lb/

50 gal

0.5 to 1 pt

1.3 fl oz

3.0 fl oz

3.75 fl oz

1.5 fl oz

6 to 12 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

24 hrs

24 hrs

4 days

48 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

7 (foliar)

1

7

7

1

7

Do not exceed 6 oz of Venom per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Directed spray to transplants: Spray the base of the plant immediately after transplanting, using a minimum of 40 gal per acre.

Direct seeded: apply in a 4-in. wide band behind planter shoe and in front of press wheel for shallow incorporation.

Direct seeded: place across seed row in 4-in. band behind planter shoe and in front of press wheel. transplant water: Apply in transplant water or drench water at

4 to 6 oz per plant at transplanting.

Check label for rates for other formulations. Foliar applications only.

Make no more than three applications, or 24 fl oz, per acre per season.

spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

Where whitefly resistance is an issue (or any other insect with a high potential for resistance to Group 4A MOA insecticides), a foliar-applied

Group 4A insecticide program and a soil-applied Group 4A program should not be used in the same season. Also, if using a foliar-applied program, avoid using a block of more than three consecutive applications of any products belonging to Group 4A insecticides.

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG

2.5 to 4.0 oz 12 hrs 7 Use spreader stick to improve control.

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SC

6 to 10 fl oz

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

7 to 8.5 fl oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

1

21

7

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method.

Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or through drip irrigation.

Do not exceed 25.5 fl oz per acre per season.

4 to 5 fl oz 24 hrs 1 Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2 SC pyriproxyfen, MoA 7

(Knack) 0.86eC

spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento)

8 to 10 fl oz

4 to 5 fl oz

12 hrs

24 hrs

7

1

Only treat whole fields, and do not any crop other than those that Knack is registered within 30 days after the last application.

Use a spreader-penetrator adjuvant.

126 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-5. INSECt CONtrOL FOr CANtALOUPE, MUSKMELON (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation Precautions and remarks

Insecticide applications in cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Aphid acetamiprid MoA 4A 2.5 to 4.0 oz 12 hrs 0 Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.

(Assail) 30SG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar)

12 hrs 7 (foliar) Soil application at planting only.

48 hrs dimethoate, MoA 1B

(Dimethoate e267) 2e

(Dimethoate e267) 2.67e

flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

2 pt

1.5 pt

2 to 2.8 oz

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

2.75 oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

3

0

21

0

30

Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface side-dress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip, or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application methods. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies.

Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed

5.5 oz per acre per season.

Platinum is for soil application and may be applied to directseeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 8 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

Armyworm,

Cabbage looper

(Actara) 25WDG

Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11A

(Crymax) WDG,

(Dipel) 2X

(Xentari) WDG pyrethroid, MoA 3 chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

1.5 to 3 oz

0.5 to 1.5 lb

8 oz

0.5 to 1 lb

3.5 to 5 fl oz

5 to 13.5 fl oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

0

0

1

1

Actara is for foliar application only.

on foliage as needed.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals. Not recommended for armyworm.

Coragen may be used for foliar or drip chemigation.

Verimark is for soil application only. it may be applied to the soil at planting at 6.75 to 13.5 oz, or via drip chemigation at

5 to 10 fl oz. Do not make more than two soil or chemigation applications per season. See label for application options.

(exirel) 0.83Se

7 to 17 fl oz 12 hrs exirel is for foliar application only. Use higher rates for cabbage looper.

Cucumber beetle flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30WDG methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83eC

spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC acetamiprid MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG pyrethroid, MoA 3 carbaryl MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG

1.5 fl oz

4 to 10 fl oz

9 to 12 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

2.5 to 5.3 oz

2 lb

1.25 lb

1 qt

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar)

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

3

1

3

0

3

Use higher rates against large larvae.

Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

21 (foliar) Soil application at planting only.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 127

tAbLE 2-5. INSECt CONtrOL FOr CANtALOUPE, MUSKMELON (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days) Precautions and remarks

Insecticide applications in cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Cucumber beetle

(cont’d) dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

12 hrs

1

Do not make both a soil and foliar application, use one or the other. At planting applications are most effective against cucumber beetle.

Leafminer

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2F abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC cyromazine, MoA 17

(trigard) 75 WS chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B

Pickleworm, Melonworm pyrethroid, MoA 3

Spider mite thrips carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

(exirel) 0.83Se

flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC bifenazate, MoA UN

(Acramite) 50 WS etoxazole, MoA 10B

(Zeal) 72 WSP fenpyroximate MoA 21

(Portal) 0.4eC

spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SC dimethoate 4eC, MoA 1B dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

2.7 oz

2 to 3.5 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

1 pt

2 lb

1.25 lb

1 qt

2 to 3.5 fl oz

5 to 13.5 fl oz

7 to 13.5 fl oz

1.5 fl oz

4 to 10 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

1.75 to 3.4 fl oz

0.75 to 1.0 lb

2 to 3 oz

2 pt

7 to 8.5 fl oz

1 pt

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

6 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

7

3

7

3

3

1

1

1

3

7

3

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

7

0

1

3

3

21

21

3

1

1

21

3

Must be applied to the soil. See label for information on approved application methods. Will also control aphids and whiteflies.

Do not use more than six applications per season.

For foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

See

table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

on foliage when worms appear in blossoms. Repeat as needed. Protect pollinators. Rarely a problem before July.

For foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Verimark is for soil application only. it may be applied to the soil at planting at 6.75 to 13.5 oz, or via drip chemigation at

5 to 10 fl oz. Do not make more than two soil or chemigation applications per season. See label for application options.

exirel is for foliar application only.

Do not make more than one application per season.

Does not kill adults

Do not make more than two applications per season.

on foliage as needed.

Do not follow soil applications of Venom with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or through drip irrigation.

128 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-5. INSECt CONtrOL FOr CANtALOUPE, MUSKMELON (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days) Precautions and remarks

Insecticide applications in cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Whiteflies

Where whitefly resistance is an issue (or any other insect with a high potential for resistance to Group 4A MOA insecticides), a foliar applied Group 4A insecticide program and a soil-applied Group 4A program should not be used in the same season. Also, if using a foliarapplied program, avoid using a block of more than three consecutive applications of any products belonging to Group 4A insecticides.

acetamiprid, MoA 4A (Assail) buprofezin, MoA 16

(Courier) 40 SC

1.1 to 2.3 oz

9 to 13.6 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

0

7 Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than twice per crop cycle.

cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

10 fl oz 4 hrs 1

Verimark is for soil application only. it may be applied to the soil at planting at 6.75 to 13.5 oz, or via drip chemigation at 5 to 10 fl oz. See label for application options.

Wireworm

(exirel) 0.83Se

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pyriproxyfen, MoA 7C

(Knack) 0.86 eC spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SG thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25WDG diazinon, MoA 1B

(Diazinon) AG 500

13.5 to 20.5 fl oz

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

7 to 10.5 oz

16 to 24 fl oz

8 to 10 oz

7 to 8.5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 fl oz

3 to 5.5 oz

3 to 4 qt

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

3 days

1

1

21

21

7

7

30

0

— exirel is for foliar application only. Use an adjuvant for best results.

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or through drip irrigation.

Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench or hill drench; subsurface sidedress; or by chemigation using low pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application methods. W ill also control aphids and cucumber beetles.

Do not make more than two applications per season, and do not make applications closer than 14 days apart.

Apply against adults, before nymphs are present. Do not exceed 3 applications per season.

Platinum is for soil application and may be applied to directseeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

Actara is for foliar application.

Broadcast on soil before planting and thoroughly work into upper 6 in. of soil.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 129

tAbLE 2-6. INSECt CONtrOL FOr CArrOt

Insect

Aphid

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

4.4 to 10.5 fl oz

10 to 24 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

21

Precautions and remarks

Must be applied to the soil. May be applied via chemigation into the root zone through low-pressure drip, trickle, micro-sprinkler, or equivalent equipment; in-furrow spray or shanked-in 1 to 2 in. below seed depth during planting; or in a narrow band (2 in. or less) 1 to 2 in. directly below the eventual seed row in a bedding operation 14 or fewer days before planting. Higher rates provide longer lasting control. S ee label for information on approved application methods and rate per 100 row feet for different row spacings.

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG

1.2 fl oz

3.5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

1.5 to 3 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

30

7

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seeding, immediately after seeding with sufficient water to ensure incorporation into the root zone, or through trickle irrigation.

Actara is applied to foliage. Do not exceed 4 oz Actara per acre per season.

Armyworm, Parsleyworm,

Leafhopper flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50SG sulfoxaflor, MOA 4C

(transform) 50WG pyrethroid, MoA 3

Leafminer

Wireworm carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV

(Lannate) 90 SP methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC diazinon, MoA 1B

(Diazinon) (AG 500)

2 to 2.8 fl oz

0.75 to 1.5 oz

1.25 lb

1 qt

3.5 to 5 fl oz

0.75 to 1.5 pt

0.25 to 0.5 lb

4 to 10 fl oz

6 to 8 fl oz

6 to 8 fl oz

4 qt

12 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

48 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

3 days

3

7

7

1

1

1

3

3

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

on foliage as needed.

Coragen may be used for foliar or drip chemigation.

Use higher rates against large larvae.

Radiant will not control leafhoppers. Do not make more than 4 applications per year.

Broadcast and incorporate preplant.

130 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-7. INSECt CONtrOL FOr CELEry

Insect

Aphid, Flea beetle

Armyworm, Corn earworm, Looper

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 30SG spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 WDG methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

2 to 2.8 oz

4 to 5 fl oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

2.4 to 4.8 oz

3 pt

4 to 10 fl oz pyrethroid, MoA 3

5 to 10 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

21

Precautions and remarks

Apply via chemigation into the root zone, as an in-furrow spray at planting on/or below the seed, or as a post-seeding or transplant drench.

0

24 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

3

1

7

7

7

1

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Not for flea beetle. Requires surfactant.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Do not make more than two sequential applications without rotating to another product with a different mode of action.

Methomyl may induce leafminer infestations.

For early season applications only to young crop and small plants. For mid- to late-season applications and to heavier infestations and under conditions in which thorough coverage is more difficult. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per application, and do not exceed 64 fl oz per season. See Rotational Crop

Restrictions on label.

See table 2-26 for registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Use higher rates for armyworms.

Leafminer spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.15eC

chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cryomazine, MoA 17

(trigard 75WP) spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

5 to 7.5 fl oz

2.66 oz

6 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

7

1

7

1

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

tAbLE 2-8. INSECt CONtrOL FOr COLLArd ANd MUStArd grEENS (cont’d)

Insect

Aphid

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG clothianidin,

(Belay) 50 WDG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

2 to 3 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

7 (foliar)

Precautions and remarks

Soil application at planting only.

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar)

2 to 2.8 fl oz 12 hrs 0 flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F

4.4 to 10.5 fl oz

10 to 24 fl oz

3.8 fl oz

2.75 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

21

7

7

See label for soil application instructions. Admire Pro will also control flea beetle.

pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC

4 to 5 fl oz 24 hrs 1 Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 131

tAbLE 2-8. INSECt CONtrOL FOr COLLArd ANd MUStArd grEENS (cont’d)

Insect

Diamondback moth,

Caterpillars, including

Cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm, Crossstriped cabbageworm,

Cabbage webworm,

Armyworm

Flea beetle

Grasshopper

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Insecticide-resistant Diamondback populations may not be controlled with some registered insecticides. To manage resistance, avoid transplants from Georgia and Florida, and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time. use of pyrethroid insecticides destroys natural enemies and aggravates diamondback moth problems. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are initiated.

Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11A

(Crymax) WDG

(Dipel) 2 X, DF

(Dipel)

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

0.5 to 1.5 lb

8 oz

1 pt

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

0

Precautions and remarks

Use a spreader/sticker. Do not apply insecticides with the same mode of action more than twice to any generation of diamondback moth. After two applications, rotate to an insecticide with a different mode of action.

(Xentari) WDG chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG

0.5 to 1 lb

3.5 to 4 fl oz

2.4 to 4.8 oz

2 to 2.4 fl oz

3.5 oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

14

1

3

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Do not apply Avaunt more than twice to any generation of diamondback moth. After two applications, rotate to an insecticide with a different mode of action. Do not make more than

6 applications (4 in GA), or exceed 14 oz per season per crop.

5 to 10 fl oz 4 hrs 1 spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG pyrethroid, MoA 3 pyrethroid, MoA 3

3 lb

1.875 lb

1 qt

2 to 4 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

14

7

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals. May flare diamond back moth populations.

Harlequin bug, Stink bug acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG

3 to 4 oz

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar)

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

7 (foliar) Soil application at planting only.

pyrethroid, MoA 3 12 hrs See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Root maggot thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Actara) 25WDG chlorpyrifos, MoA 1B

(Lorsban) 4 eC

3 to 5.5 oz

1.6 to 2.75 fl oz

12 hrs

24 hrs

7

— For directed-seeded crops, apply as a 4-in. band over the row after planting. For transplanted crops, apply as a directed spray immediately after transplanting.

Whitefly

(Lorsban) 75WDG 1.1 to 1.8/

1,000 ft row

2.5 to 4.0 oz 12 hrs 7 acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG pyriproxyfen, MoA 7C

(Knack) 0.86 eC spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SC spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2 SC

8 to 10 fl oz

7 to 8.5 fl oz

4 to 5 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

7

7

1

Apply against adults, before nymphs are present. Use a spreader stick to improve control.

Do not apply Knack more than twice per season or exceed

0.134 lb per acre per season.

Do not make more than 3 applications or apply more than 25.5 fl oz per season.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

132 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-9. INSECt CONtrOL FOr COrN, SWEEt

Insect

Corn earworm, Fall armyworm, european corn borer

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

transgenic sweet corn varieties expressing Bt protein

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

pyrethroid, MoA 3

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

3.5 to 5 fl oz 4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days) Precautions and remarks

Highly effective against european corn borer. Additional insecticide applications may be required to prevent damage to the ear tips.

Check label for variety limitations and grazing restrictions. Apply as needed until first tassel shoots appear in whorl. To protect ears, spray when tassel shoots first appear, 3 days later, then every 2 to 3 days for 5 applications. Following the fifth application, apply at 2- to 3-days until harvest. Corn tasseling after July

1 may require daily applications from first silk through 60% dry silk followed by applications at 2-day intervals until harvest to ensure worm-free ears. Corn earworms and fall armyworms present in the late whorl stage must be controlled before tassel emergence to prevent migration to ears.

1 chlorantraniliprole MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC flubendiamide MOA 28

(Belt) 4 SC methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 90 SP

(Lannate) 2.4 LV indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG

2.0 to 3.0 oz

4 to 6 oz

0.75 to 1.5 pt

2.5 to 3.5 oz

3 to 6 fl oz

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

1

0

3

1

Do not use methomyl for european corn borer control.

For control of fall armyworm and european corn borer in whorl stage only. Do not apply more than 14 oz Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. Minimum interval between sprays is 3 days. Make no more than 4 applications per season.

Do not apply more than 36 oz per acre per year.

Cutworm spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinosad, MoA 5 (Blackhawk) pyrethroid, MoA 3

1.7 to 3.3 oz 4 hrs

12 hrs

Flea beetle, Grasshopper,

Japanese beetle,

Rootworm beetle

Sap beetle pyrethroid, MoA 3 pyrethroid, MoA 3

12 hrs

12 hrs

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Southern corn billbug,

Rootworm, Wireworm carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus

Seed treatments

clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Poncho 600)

2 lb

1.25 lb

1 qt

1.13 fl oz/

80,000 seeds

12 hrs 2

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

infestations usually associated with prior ear damage. Populations build on over mature and damaged fruit and vegetables.

Sanitation is important.

Seed treatments are applied by commercial seed treaters only.

Not for use in hopper bins, slurry mixes, or any other type of onfarm treatment.

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Gaucho 600) 4 to 8 oz per cwt seed pyrethroid, MoA 3 chlorpyrifos, MoA 1B

(Lorsban) 4 e terbufos, MoA 1B

(Counter) 15 G

4 pt

banded:

6.5 to 13 lb

(40 in. row spacing) oR

8 to 16 oz/1,000 ft row

In-Furrow:

6.5 lb

(40 in. row) oR

8 oz/10 ft row

12 hrs

24 hrs 0

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Preplant incorporation treatment. For postemergence treatment use 2 to 3 pt.

Place granules in a 7-in. band over the row directly behind the planter shoe in front of press wheel.

Place granules directly in the seed furrow behind the planter shoe. Rotation is advised.

Stink bug pyrethroid, MoA 3 methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 90SP

0.5 lb

12 hrs

48 hrs 0

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Re-entry interval is 48 hr.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 133

tAbLE 2-10. INSECt CONtrOL FOr CUCUMbEr (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days) Precautions and remarks

Insecticide applications on cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Aphid acetamiprid MoA 4A 2.5 to 4.0 oz 12 hrs 0 Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.

(Assail) 30SG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar)

2 to 2.8 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

7 (foliar)

0

Soil application at plant only.

flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

7 to 10.5 fl oz

10 to 24 fl oz

2.75 oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

1.5 to 3 oz

6.75 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

21

0

30

0

1

Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface side-dress; or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application methods. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies.

Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed

5.5 oz per acre per season.

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

May be applied to the soil at planting and/or via drip irrigation.

Do not make more than two drip chemigation applications per crop per season, or one if an application is made at planting.

Cucumber beetle,

Flea beetle acetamiprid MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG pyrethroid, MoA 3

2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 hrs

12 hrs

0 Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.

12 hrs 0

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

on foliage as needed. Beetles are most destructive to seedlings. they also spread bacterial wilt disease.

carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG

2 lb

1.25 lb

1 qt

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 fl oz

(foliar)

12 hrs 7 (foliar) Soil application at plant only.

Cutworm dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pyrethroid, MoA 3

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

21

21

Foliar applications should not be made after plants have started to bloom. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil application may be applied by:

1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or 3) drip irrigation.

See application method under Aphid.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Leafminer abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC 1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

5 to 7.5 fl oz

2.7 oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

7

1

0

Soil, foliar, or drip chemigation. See label for application instructions.

Do not make more than six applications per season.

Pickleworm, Melon worm, Cabbage looper chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyromazine, MoA 17

(trigard) 75 WS spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG

6 to 8 fl oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

1.5 fl oz

2.5 to 6 oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

1

1

3

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Do not apply more than 4.5 fl oz per crop per season.

134 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-10. INSECt CONtrOL FOr CUCUMbEr (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Insecticide applications on cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Pickleworm, Melon worm, Cabbage looper

(cont’d) pyrethroid, MoA 3 chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC

3.5 to 5 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs 1

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

5 to 10 fl oz 4 hrs 1

Spider mite spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC bifenazate, MoA UN

(Acramite) 50 WS

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

0.75 to 1 lb

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

3

No more than two applications.

Do not make more than one application per season.

extoxazole, MoA 10B

(Zeal) 72 WSP fenpyroximate, MoA 21A

(Portal) 4eC

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

2 to 3 oz

2 pts

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

1

Precautions and remarks

Do not apply within 75 ft of fish-bearing waters. Do not make more than two applications per crop per season, and allow 14 days between applications.

thrips spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SG dinotefuran, MoA 4A

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

1

Foliar applications should not be made after plants have started to bloom. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil application may be applied by:

1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or 3) drip irrigation.

Whitefly methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC acetamiprid MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG buprofezin, MoA 16

1.5 pt

6 to 10 fl oz

2.5 to 5.3 oz

9 to 13.6 fl oz

48 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

1

0

7

Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.

Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than twice per crop cycle.

(Courier) 40 SC chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

5 to 7.5 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

1

1

For foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Verimark is for soil application. Applications may be made at planting or via drip chemigation. See label for application options.

(exirel) 0.83Se

13.5 to

20.5 fl oz

12 hrs 1 exirel is for foliar application only imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pyriproxyfen, MoA 7C

(Knack) 0.86 eC spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon), 2 SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

8 to 10 fl oz

7 to 8.5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

21

7

7

30

See comments under Aphids.

Do not make more than two applications per season, and do not make applications closer than 14 days apart.

Do not make more than 3 applications per season.

Platinum is for soil applications. See comments under Aphids.

(Actara) 25WDG

3 to 5.5 oz 0 Actara is for foliar applications.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 135

tAbLE 2-11. INSECt CONtrOL FOr EggPLANt (cont’d)

Insect

Aphid

Blister beetle

Colorado potato beetle

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

2 to 4 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

Precautions and remarks

thoroughly cover foliage to effectively control aphids. Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed a total of

7 oz per season.

Soil application at planting only.

clothianidin,

(Belay) 50 WDG 4.8 to 6.4 oz

(Soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(Foliar)

2 to 4.8 oz

12 hrs 7 (Foliar) flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

7 to 10.5 oz

16 to 24 fl oz

12 hrs 0

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2 SC chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC clothianidin,

(Belay) 50WDG

1.3 to 2.2 fl oz

3.75 fl oz

2.75 oz

4 to 5 fl oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(Soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(Foliar)

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

0

14

1

1

7 (Foliar)

Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5 oz per acre per season.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Platinum) 75 SG

Foliar treatment

(Actara) 25 WDG pyrethroid, MoA 3

1.66 to 3.67 oz

2 to 3 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

30

0

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 8 oz per acre per season.

Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of plants.

Actara is for foliar application.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Resistance too many insecticides is widespread in Colorado potato beetle. To reduce risk of resistance, scout fields and apply insecticides only when needed to prevent damage to the crop. Crop rotation will help prevent damaging Colorado potato beetle infestations. If control failures or reduced levels of control occur with a particular insecticide, do NOT make a second application of the same insecticide at the same or higher rate. If an additional insecticide application is necessary, a different insecticide representing a different MOA class should be used. Do NOT use insecticides belonging to the same class 2 years in a row for Colorado potato beetle control.

abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG pyrethroid, MoA 3

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

2 to 4 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

7

Apply when adults and small larvae are present but before large larvae appear. For resistance management, use the higher rate.

Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 7 oz of formulation per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Soil application at planting only.

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

21

1

21

See label for soil application instructions. For short-term protection of transplants at planting, apply Admire Pro (0.44 oz/10,000 plants) not more than 7 days before transplanting by 1) uniformly spraying on transplants, followed immediately by sufficient overhead irrigation to wash product into potting media; or 2) injection into overhead irrigation system with adequate volume to thoroughly saturate soil media.

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil application may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or

3) drip irrigation.

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

1.3 fl oz

3.75 fl oz

9 to 12 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

21

0

1

See application methods under Aphids, thrips.

136 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-11. INSECt CONtrOL FOr EggPLANt (cont’d)

Insect

Colorado potato beetle

(cont’d) eggplant lace bug

Flea beetle

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F malathion, MoA 1B

(various brands) 57 eC pyrethroid, MoA 3

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

5 to 10 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

2 to 3 oz

1.3 to 2.2 fl oz

3.8 to 6.2 fl oz

3 pt

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

1

Precautions and remarks

30

0

0

3

See application methods under Aphids.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50WDG

2 lb

1.25 lb

1 lb

4.6 to 6.8 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 fl oz

(foliar)

12 hrs

12 hrs

3

7 (foliar) Soil application at planting only.

cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

6.75 to

13.5 fl oz

4 hrs 1

Hornworm, european corn borer, Beet army worm, Corn earworm dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

(exirel) 0.83Se

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

2 to 3 oz

3.5 to 4 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

7 to 13.5 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

21

1

30

0

1

1

1

Verimark for soil application only. Apply at planting or via drip chemigation. See label for application options.

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil application may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or

3) drip irrigation.

See application methods under Aphids.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Verimark is for soil application only. Applications made at planting and/or via drip chemigation. See label for application options.

exirel is for foliar application only.

flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F

1.5 fl oz

2.5 to 3.5 oz

1.5 to 3 pt

4 to 16 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

4 hrs

1

3

5

1

Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per season.

Apply at rates of 4 to 8 fl oz early in season when plants are small.

Apply at rates of 8 to 16 oz to large plants or when infestations are heavy. During periods of continuous moth flights, retreatments at 7 to 14 days may be required. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per application or 64 fl oz of Intrepid 2F per acre per season.

Leafminer spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3 abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.15 eC chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC oxamyl, MoA 1A

(Vydate) 2 L spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

5 to 10 fl oz

8 to 16 fl oz

5 to 7.5 fl oz

1 to 2 qt

5 to 10 fl oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

48 hrs

4 hrs

1

7

1

7

1

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Use low rates for low to moderate infestations, and high rates for severe infestations

Foliar, soil, or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for application instructions.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 137

tAbLE 2-11. INSECt CONtrOL FOr EggPLANt (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Stink bug, leaffooted bug pyrethroid, MoA 3

Spider mite thrips

Whitefly

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days) Precautions and remarks

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Actara) 25 WDG abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

3 to 5.5 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

21

0

7

Do not exceed 11 oz Actara per acre per season.

Use low rates for low to moderate infestations, and high rates for severe infestations.

acequinocyl, MoA 20B

(Kanemite) 15SC bifenazate, MoA UN

(Acramite) 50 WS etoxazole, MoA 10B (Zeal) fenpyroximate MoA 21

(Portal) 0.4eC

hexakis, MoA 12B

(Vendex) 50 WP spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SG dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

31 fl oz

0.75 to 1.0 lb

2 to 3 oz

2 pts

2 to 3 lb

7 to 8.5 fl oz

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

3

7

3

3

7

1

Do not make more than one application per season.

Do not make more than one Zeal application per season.

Do not make more than two applications per season.

See Whitefly for application instructions. Soil applications are more effective against thrips than foliar applications are.

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Admire Pro 4.6 F

(various) 2 F methomyl, MoA 1A

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

1.5 to 3 pt

12 hrs

48 hrs

21

21

3

See Aphids for application instructions.

(Lannate) 2.4 LV spinetoram, MoA 5 chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

6 to 10 fl oz

5 to 7.5 fl oz

6.75 to

13.5 fl oz

4 hrs

(Radiant) 1 SC

Where whitefly resistance is an issue (or any other insect with a high potential for resistance to Group 4A MOA insecticides), avoid making foliar applications of Group 4A insecticides when a soil-applied Group 4A program is used – i.e., do not make both foliar and soil applications of Group 4A insecticides. Also, if using a foliar-applied program, avoid using a block of more than three consecutive applications of any products belonging to Group 4A insecticides.

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG

2.5 to 4 oz 12 hrs 7 Begin applications when significant populations of adults appear.

Do not wait until heavy populations have become established.

Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed

4 applications per season. Do not apply more than 7 oz per season.

12 hrs

4 hrs

1

1

1

For foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Verimark for soil application only. Apply at planting or via drip chemigation. See label for application options.

(exirel) 0.83Se

13.5 to

20.5 fl oz

12 hrs 1 exirel for foliar application only.

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

12 hrs

1

21

Use only one application method (foliar or soil) of Group 4A insecticides. Soil applications may be applied in a narrow band on the plant row in bedding operations, as a post-seeding or transplant drench, as a side-dress after planting and incorporated

1 or more inches, or through a drip irrigation system.

138 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-11. INSECt CONtrOL FOr EggPLANt (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Whitefly

(cont’d) imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pyriproxyfen, MoA 7C

(Knack) 0.86 eC

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

8 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 to 5 fl oz 24 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

21

Precautions and remarks

Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid insecticides (Assail or Venom). See Aphids for application methods and restrictions.

14

1

Knack prevents eggs from hatching. It does not kill whitefly adults. Applications should begin when 3 to 5 adults per leaf are present. Do not make more than 2 applications per season, and do not apply a second application within 14 days of the first application. Do not exceed 20 fl oz of Knack per acre per season.

Check label for plant-back restrictions.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25WDG

7 to 8.5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

3 to 5.5

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

30

0

Do not exceed 3 applications or 25.5 fl oz per season.

Platinum is for soil applications and may be applied to directseeded crops in furrow at seed or transplant depth, at post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of plants.

Actara is for foliar application.

tAbLE 2-12. INSECt CONtrOL FOr LEttUCE (cont’d)

Insect

Aphid

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 2.13 SC

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

2 to 4 oz

4.8 to 6.8 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar)

0.5 pt

2 to 2.8 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

4.4 to 10.5 fl oz

10 to 24 fl oz

12 hrs

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F

1.3 fl oz

3.8 fl oz

2.75 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG

4 to 5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

1.5 to 3 oz

24 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

Armyworm chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

(exirel) 0.83Se

emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC

3.5 to 5 fl oz

5 to 13.5 fl oz

7 to 13.5 fl oz

2.4 to 4.8 oz

1.5 fl oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

Precautions and remarks

Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 4 applications per season.

7 (foliar) Soil application at planting only.

14

0

21

7

7

3

30

7

1

1

1

7

1

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. See label for soil application instructions.

Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5 oz per acre per season.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

Do not follow applications of Platinum with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at the seeding or transplant depth, or as a narrow surface band above the seedling and followed by irrigation. Post seeding, it may be applied as a transplant or through drip irrigation. Actara is applied as a foliar spray.

Foliar or drip chemigation.

Verimark is for soil application only. Applications made at planting and/or via drip chemigation. See label for application options.

exirel is for foliar application only.

Do not make more than two sequential applications without rotating to another product with a different mode of action.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 139

tAbLE 2-12. INSECt CONtrOL FOr LEttUCE (cont’d)

Insect

Armyworm

(cont’d)

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

3.5 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

4 to 10 oz

4 to 8 fl oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

3

1

Precautions and remarks

For control of low numbers of beet armyworm and not for corrective treatments of higher numbers of larvae. Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. the minimum interval between sprays is 3 days.

Use low rates for early-season applications when plants are small. For mid- and late-season applications, use 10 to 16 oz.

1

Cabbage looper,

Corn earworm, tobacco budworm methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11A

(Crymax) WDG

(Dipel) DF chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

(exirel) 0.83Se

0.5 to 1.5 lb

8 oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

5 to 13.5 fl oz

7 to 17 fl oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

0

1

1

1

Foliar or drip chemigation.

Verimark is for soil application only. Applications made at planting and/or via drip chemigation. Use higher rates (>10 fl oz) where cabbage looper is a concern. See label for application options.

Exirel is for foliar application only. Use higher rates (>13.5 fl oz) for Cabbage.

Leafhopper emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG pyrethroid, MoA 3 methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC dinotefuran, MoA 4A

(Venom) 70 SG dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(various) 1.6 F pyrethroid, MoA 3 thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Actara) 25 WDG

3.2 to 4.8 oz

1.5 fl oz

2.5 to 3.5 lb

1.5 to 3 pt

4 to 10 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

1 to 3 oz

(foliar)

5 to 6 oz (soil)

0.5 pt

3.75 fl oz

1.5 to 3 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

1

3

Do not make more than two sequential applications without rotating to another product with a different mode of action.

Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. the minimum interval between sprays is 3 days.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

7 to 10

1

1

Low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants.

For mid- and late-season applications, use 6 to 10 oz.

7

21

14

7

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre (foliar) or 12oz per acre (soil).

Soil applications may be applied by: 1. Narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; 2. post seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation; or 3. drip irrigation.

14-day interval for leaf lettuce.

there is a 12-month plant-back restriction for a number of crops.

Check label for restrictions.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

7

140 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-13. INSECt CONtrOL FOr OKrA (cont’d)

Insect

Aphid

Blister beetle, Flea beetle,

Japanese beetle

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC malathion, MoA 1B

(various brands) 8 F

(various brands) 25 WP carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus pyrethroid, MoA 3

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

1.3 to 2.2 fl oz

3.8 fl oz

2 to 2.8 oz

4 to 5 fl oz

1.5 pt

6 lb

4 lb

2.5 lb

2 qt

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

Corn earworm, tobacco budworm, european corn borer carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

4 lb

2.5 lb

2 qt

2 to 3.5 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days) Precautions and remarks

See label for soil treatment instructions.

21

0

0

3

1

3

3

1

1

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Not for flea beetle.

Requires surfactant.

on foliage as needed.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

on foliage as needed.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

(exirel) 0.83Se

7 to 17 fl oz 12 hrs 1

Verimark is for soil application only. Applications made at planting and/or via drip chemigation. See label for application options.

Exirel is for foliar application only. Rates >13.5 for loopers only.

Spider mites

Stink bug, leaffooted bug

Whitefly flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3 bifenazate, MoA UN

(Acramite) 50 WP fenpyroximate MoA 21

(Portal) 0.4eC

pyrethroid, MoA 3 buprofezin, MoA 16

(Courier) 40 SC chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

(exirel) 0.83Se

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F pyriproxyfen, MoA 7C

(Knack) 0.86 eC spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC

1.5 fl oz

8 to 16 fl oz

9 to 12 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

0.75 to 1 lb

2 pt

9 to 13.6 fl oz

2 to 3.5 fl oz

6.75 to

13.5 fl oz

13.5 to

20.5 fl oz

7 to 14 fl oz

16 to 32 fl oz

1.3 to 2.2 fl oz

3.8 oz

8 to 10 fl oz

4 to 5 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

1

1

1

1

3

3

21

0

1

3

1

1

1

1

For corn earworm only.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Do not make more than one application per season.

Do not make more than two applications per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Apply Verimark to at planting and/or later via drip irrigation or soil injection. See label for application options.

exirel is for foliar application.

See label for soil application instructions.

Do not make more than two applications per season.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Not for flea beetle.

Requires surfactant.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 141

tAbLE 2-14. INSECt CONtrOL FOr ONION

Insect

Armyworm,

Cutworm

Leafminer onion maggot,

Seed corn maggot thrips

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

methoxyfenozide MoA 18

(intrepid) 2F pyrethroid, MoA 3

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

4 to 8 fl oz

8 to 12 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

1

Precautions and remarks

Green onion only. Use lower rates in early season on small plants; use higher rates in late season and heavy infestations.

12 hrs See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC cryomazine, MoA 17

(trigard) 75 WS

5 to 10 fl oz

2.66 oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

1

7 spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

6 to 8 fl oz 4 hrs onion seed pre-treated with cyromazine (trigard) can be used to control onion and seed corn maggot.

chlorpyrifos, MoA 1B

(Lorsban) 4 e

32 fl oz

24 hrs Apply as in-furrow drench at planting. Use a minimum of 40 gal per acre and incorporate to a depth of 1 to 2 in. Do not make more than one application per year.

diazinon, MoA 1B

(Diazinon) (AG 500) pyrethroid, MoA 3

2 to 4 qt

3 days

12 hrs

1

Furrow application; drench the seed furrow at planting time.

Apply as a furrow treatment at time of planting. Use separate hoppers for seed and chemical.

See

table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

acetamiprid MoA 4A 2.1 to 3.4 oz 12 hrs 7

(Assail) 70 WP methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

1.5 pt

6 to 8 fl oz

48 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

7

1

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

tAbLE 2-15. INSECt CONtrOL FOr PEA (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

PEA, ENgLISH ANd SNOW PEA (SUCCULENt ANd drIEd)

Aphid acetamiprid MoA 4A

(Assail) 70 WP pyrethroid, MoA 3

1 to 2.3 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days) Precautions and remarks

12 hrs

12 hrs

7 Also controls leafhoppers. Succulent peas only.

dimethoate, MoA 1B

(Dimethoate) 400 (4e)

0.33 pt 48 hrs

12 hrs

0

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Do not make more than one application per season, and do not feed or graze if a mobile viner is used, or for 21 days if a stationary viner is used. Re-entry interval is 48 hr.

See label for soil application instructions.

Armyworm, Cloverworm,

Cutworm, Looper imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F chlorantraniliprole MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

1.2 fl oz

3.5 fl oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

21

7

1

Leafhopper, Lygus bug,

Stink bug spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinosad, MoA 5

(Blackhawk) dimethoate, MoA 1B

(Dimethoate) 400 (4e) methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV pyrethroid, MoA 3

4 to 8 fl oz

2.2 to 3.3 oz

0.33 to 1 pt

1.5 to 3 pt

4 hrs

4 hrs

48 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

See label

3

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Not for cutworm.

Do not make more than one application per season. Do not feed or graze if a mobile viner is used, or for 21 days if a stationary viner is used.

Apply to foliage as needed.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Seedcorn maggot See beans for control

142 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-15. INSECt CONtrOL FOr PEA (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

PEA (COWPEA, SOUtHErNPEAS)

Aphid, thrips acetamiprid MoA 4A

(Assail) 70 WP pyrethroid, MoA 3

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

1 to 2.3 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days) Precautions and remarks

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

21

Also controls leafhoppers. Succulent peas only.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

See label for soil application instructions.

Bean leaf beetle imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinosad, MoA 5

(Blackhawk) carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 4 L

(Sevin) 80 S pyrethroid, MoA 3

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

1.3 fl oz

3.5 fl oz

5 to 8 fl oz

2.2 to 3.3 oz

0.5 to 1 qt

0.625 to 1.25 lb

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

3

Radiant is not effective against aphids.

Blackhawk is not effective against aphids.

Do not feed treated foliage to livestock.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Corn earworm, Loopers, european corn borer,

Armyworm chlorantraniliprole MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F

3.5 to 5 fl oz

4 to 16 fl oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

1

Cowpea curculio spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3 methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 90SP pyrethroid, MoA 3

3 to 6 fl oz

0.5 to 1 lb

4 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

7

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

1

Use lower rates on smaller plants and higher rates for mid- to late season applications, against corn earworm. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz (0.25 lb a.i.) per acre per season.

Do not apply more than 12 fl oz (0.188 a.i.) per acre per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Re-entry interval is 48 hr.

Stink bug methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 90 SP pyrethroid, MoA 3

0.5 to 1 lb

0.5 to 1 lb

48 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

1

1

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals. Control may be poor in areas where resistant populations occur, primarily in parts of Georgia. in areas where resistance is a problem, pyrethroid insecticides should be used at the highest labeled rate and synergized by tank-mixing with 1 pint piperonyl butoxide synergist per acre. In fields where resistance is a problem, applications every 3 to 5 days may be necessary to maintain control of the cowpea curculio population.

Re-entry interval is 48 hr. Not effective against resistant cowpea curculio populations.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals . Control may be poor in areas where resistant populations occur, primarily in the Gulf Coast areas.

Re-entry interval is 48 hr.

Leafminer methomyl, MoA1A

(Lannate) 90SP spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinosad, MoA 5

(Blackhawk)

5 to 8 fl oz

2.5 to 3.3 oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

3 (succulent)

28 (dried)

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 143

tAbLE 2-16. INSECt CONtrOL FOr PEPPEr (cont’d)

Insect

Aphid, Flea beetle

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 70 WP clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50WDG cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

0.8 to 1.2 oz

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1oz

(foliar)

6.75 to 13.5 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hr

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

7

Precautions and remarks

Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 4 applications per season.

Soil application at planting only.

1 dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

2 to 4.8 oz

7 to 14 fl oz

16 to 32 fl oz

1.3 fl oz

3.8 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

21

0

21

0

Apply to soil at planting, as a transplant tray drench, in transplant water or hill drench. After planting may be applied via drip irrigation.

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications may be applied by 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or 3) drip irrigation. For flea beetle control only.

Will not control flea beetle.

Where whitefly resistance is a concern, do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid. See label for soil application instructions. For short-term protection of transplants at planting, apply Admire Pro (0.44 oz/10,000 plants) not more than 7 days before transplanting by 1) uniformly spraying on transplants, followed immediately by sufficient overhead irrigation to wash product into potting media; or 2) injection into overhead irrigation system using adequate volume to thoroughly saturate soil media. oxamyl, MoA 1A

(Vydate) 2 L pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Platinum) 75 SG

Armyworm,

Corn earworm, Looper,

Hornworm

Foliar treatment

(Actara) 25 WDG

Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11A

(Dipel) DF

(Xentari) WDG chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

(exirel) 0.83Se

1 to 2 qt

2.75 oz

4 to 5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

2 to 4 oz

0.5 to 1.5 lb

0.5 to 1 lb

2 to 3.5 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

7 to 13.5 fl oz

48 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

7

0

1

30

0

0

1

1

1

Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5 oz per acre per season. Not for flea beetle.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant. Will not control flea beetle.

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Actara is applied as a foliar spray. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum or Actara. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Verimark is for soil application only. Applications made at planting and/or via drip chemigation. See label for application options.

exirel is for foliar application only.

emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4 SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC

2.4 to 4.8 oz

1.5 fl oz

2.5 to 3.5 oz

4 to 16 fl oz

9 to 12 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

7

1

3

1

1

Apply when larvae are first observed. Additional applications may be necessary to maintain control.

Use only higher rate for control of armyworm and corn earworm.

Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i. per acre per crop). Minimum interval between sprays is 5 days.

Apply at rates of 4 to 8 fl oz early in season when plants are small. Apply at rates of 8 to 16 oz to large plants or when infestations are heavy. During periods of continuous moth flights re-treatments at 7 to 14 days may be required. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per application or 64 fl oz of Intrepid per acre per season.

The use of a surfactant/adjuvant with Rimon is prohibited on pepper.

144 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-16. INSECt CONtrOL FOr PEPPEr (cont’d)

Insect

Armyworm,

Corn earworm, Looper,

Hornworm

(cont’d)

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

5 to 10 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

4 hrs

12 hrs

Blister beetle, Stink bug, Leaffooted bug pyrethroid, MoA 3 12 hrs dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

12 hrs european corn borer

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

1

Precautions and remarks

1

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Do not combine foliar applications with soil applications, or vice versa. Use only one application method.

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

12 hrs

21

(Actara) 25WDG 3 to 5.5 oz 0

For all insecticides, begin applications at first fruit set when European corn borer moths are flying, as indicated by light trap catches.

Applications should be made at 5- to 7-day intervals as long as moths continue to fly or egg masses are present on the plants.

acephate, MoA 1B

(orthene) 97 Pe chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC

0.75 to 1 lb

2 to 3.5 fl oz

24 hrs

4 hrs

7

1

For use on bell-type peppers only. Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC 10 oz 4 hr 1 Verimark should be applied via drip irrigation or soil injection only.

(exirel) 0.83Se

emamectin benzoate

(Proclaim) 5SG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV pyrethroid, MoA 3

7 to 13.5 fl oz

2.4 to 4.8 oz

1.5 fl oz

1.5 pt

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

1

7

1

3 exirel is for foliar application only.

Do not allow animals to graze in treated areas.

See table 2-26 for registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Leafminer abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC 1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

2.66 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

0

Pepper maggot cyromazine, MoA 17

(trigard) 75 WP dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC acephate, MoA 1B

(orthene) 97 Pe dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B pyrethroid, MoA 3

0.5 pt

6 to 10 fl oz

0.75 to 1 lb

0.5 to 0.67 pt

48 hrs

4 hrs

24 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

0

1

7

0

Re-entry interval is 48 hr.

See comments under european corn borer.

See table 2-26 for registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Pepper weevil acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG oxamyl, MoA 1A

(Vydate) 2 L thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Actara) 25 WP pyrethroid, MoA 3

4 oz

2 to 4 pt

3 to 4 oz

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

7

0

7

Do not exceed 8 oz of Actara per acre per season.

See table 2-26 for registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

on foliage as needed. effective against broad mite.

Spider mite, Broad mite abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC acequinocyl, MoA 20B

(Kanemite) 15SC bifenazate, MoA UN

(Acramite) 50 WS etoxazole, MoA 10B

(Zeal) fenpyroximate MoA 21

(Portal) 0.4eC

31 fl oz

0.75 to 1 lb

2 to 3 oz

2 pt

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

3

7

3

Will not control broad mite.

Do not make more than one application per season. Will not control broad mite.

Do not make more than one Zeal application per season. Will not control broad mite.

Do not make more than two applications per season. effective against broad mite.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 145

tAbLE 2-16. INSECt CONtrOL FOr PEPPEr (cont’d)

Insect

Spider mite, Broad mite

(cont’d) thrips

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SG dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

7 to 8.5 fl oz

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

7 to 14 fl oz

16 to 32 fl oz

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

Precautions and remarks

Do not exceed 3 applications per season. effective against broad mite.

See label for application instructions and restrictions.

1

21

21

See Aphids for application instructions. treating transplants before setting in the field, followed by drip irrigation may suppress incidence of tomato spotted virus. imidacloprid is ineffective against western flower thrips.

methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

1.5 pt

6 to 10 fl oz

48 hrs

4 hrs

3

1 Do not exceed 29 fl oz per acre per season. Control of thrips may be improved by adding a spray adjuvant. See label for instructions.

tAbLE 2-17. INSECt CONtrOL FOr POtAtO, IrISH (cont’d)

Insect

Aphid

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG clothianidin MoA 4A

Belay 50 WDG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

1.5 to 4 oz

1.0 to 1.5 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

7 Do not make more than 4 applications per season. thorough coverage is important. Assail belongs to the same class of insecticides

(neonicotinoid) as Admire Pro, Provado, Actara, and Platinum and

Colorado potato beetle populations have the potential to become resistant to this class.

7 Apply Belay 50 WDG as foliar spray when populations reach threshold levels. Do not apply more than 3 applications. Belay belongs to the same class of insecticides (neonicotinoid) as Admire

Pro, Provado, Actara, and Platinum and Colorado potato beetle populations have the potential to become resistant to this class.

flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6F

(various) 1.6 F

2 to 2.8 oz

0.5 to 1 pt

1.2 fl oz

3.75 fl oz

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

7

0

7

Do not apply more than 2 pints total per year.

to minimize selection for resistance in Colorado potato beetle, do not use acetamiprid, imidacloprid, or thiamethoxam for aphid control if either of these compounds was applied to the crop for control of

Colorado potato beetle. See comments on insecticide rotation under

Colorado potato beetle.

Allow at least 7 days between applications. Do not exceed a total of

5.5 oz (0.17 lb a.i.) per acre per season.

pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG

2.75 oz 12 hrs 14 thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Actara) 25 WDG

3 oz 12 hrs 14 to minimize selection for resistance in Colorado potato beetle, do not use imidacloprid or thiamethoxam for aphid control if either of these compounds was applied to the crop for control of Colorado potato beetle.

Colorado potato beetle

Colorado potato beetle populations in most commercial potato-growing areas have developed resistance to many insecticides. As a result, insecticides that are effective in some areas, or were effective in the past, may no longer provide control in particular areas. Colorado potato beetle readily develops resistance to insecticides. The following practices help to reduce the risk of resistance developing:

CROP ROTATION AND INSECTICIDE ROTATION: The use of insecticides representing different modes of action IRAC MOA class number in different years and against different generations of potato beetle within a year are essential if insecticide resistance is to be managed and the risks of control failures due to resistance minimized. If control failures or reduced levels of control are observed with a particular insecticide, do NOT make a second application of the same insecticide at the same or higher rate. If an additional insecticide application is necessary, a different insecticide representing a different IRAC MOA class number should be used. Because potato beetle adults will move between adjacent and nearby fields from one year to the next, It is important to maintain the same rotation schedule of insecticide MOA classes in adjacent fields are groups of nearby fields.

SCOuT FIELDS: All insecticide applications to the potato crop, regardless of the target insect pest, have the potential to increase the resistance of the Colorado potato beetle to insecticides. Unnecessary insecticide applications should be avoided by scouting fields for insect pests and applying insecticides only when potentially damaging insect populations are present.

SPOT TREATMENTS: Because overwintered potato beetles invade rotated fields from sources outside the field, potato beetle infestations in rotated fields occur first along field edges early in the season. Limiting insecticide applications to infested portions of the field will provide effective control and reduce costs. Growers are advised to keep accurate records on which insecticides have been applied to their potato crop for control of Colorado potato beetle and on how effective those insecticides were at controlling infestations. This will make choosing an insecticide and maintaining insecticide rotations easier. Monitoring the insecticide resistance status of local populations will also make insecticide selection easier.

146 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-17. INSECt CONtrOL FOr POtAtO, IrISH (cont’d)

Insect

Colorado potato beetle

(cont’d)

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 70 WP

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

0.6 to 1.7 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

14 Apply when adults and/or small larvae are present but before large larvae appear. Do not exceed two applications per season. Apply in at least 20 gal water per acre.

7

14

Apply when most of the egg masses have hatched and many small but few large larvae are present. An additional application should be used only if defoliation increases. Allow at least 7 days between foliar applications. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. See comments on insect rotation under Colorado potato beetle.

Do not apply more than 15.4 oz Coragen per acre per crop season.

chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67

clothianidin MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG

3.5 to 5 oz

1.9 to 2.8 fl oz 12 hrs 7 cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

(Venom) 70 SG imidacloprid seed piece treatment, MoA 4A

(Genesis) 240 g/L imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2.0 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6

(various) 1.6 F imidacloprid F cyfluthrin premix, MoA 4A and 3

(Leverage) 2.7 Se

6.75 to 13.5 fl oz

1 to 1.5 oz

(foliar)

6.5 to 7.5 oz

(soil)

0.4 to 0.6 fl oz/100 lb of seed tubers

0.74 fl oz/

1,000 ft row

1.3 fl oz

3.75 fl oz

3 to 3.75 fl oz

4 hr

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

NA

7

7

7

Apply Belay 50 WDG as foliar spray. Apply when adults and/or small larvae are present but before large larvae appear. Do not apply more than 3 applications. Belay belongs to the same class of insecticides

(neonicotinoid) as Admire Pro, Provado, Actara, and Platinum and

Colorado potato beetle populations have the potential to become resistant to this class.

Apply in-furrow at planting. Do not apply any other MoA Group 28 insecticide for Colorado potato beetle control following an at-plant application for cyantraniliprole. When applied at 10-13.5 fl oz per acre will provide control of european corn borer in most years, except possibly in very early planted potatoes.

Soil treatment for preplant, preemergence, or at ground crack only application only. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle.

See label for specific instructions. For early planted potatoes control may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application and Colorado potato beetle emergence. Limit use to locations where

Colorado potato beetles were a problem in the same or adjacent fields during the previous year. Do not apply other iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides to a field if seed pieces were treated with Genesis. See product label for restrictions on rotational crops.

Admire Pro applied in-furrow at planting time may provide season-long control. However, for early planted potatoes control may be marginal due to the prolonged time between application and Colorado potato beetle emergence. Use only in potato fields that have a history of potato beetle infestations. If potatoes are rotated to a field adjacent to one planted in potato last year, a barrier treatment may be effective.

Admire Pro may also be applied as a seed treatment. Check label for instructions regarding this use. Check label for restrictions on planting crops following Admire Pro treated potatoes. there have been reports of low levels of resistance to imidacloprid. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. See comments on insecticide rotation under

Colorado potato beetle.

Apply when most of the egg masses have hatched and most larvae are small (1/8 to 3/16 in.). An additional application should be made only if defoliation increases. Allow at least 7 days between foliar applications. Do not exceed 5.6 fl oz of Admire Pro per field per acre per season. Regardless of formulation, do Not apply more than a total of 0.31 lb imidacloprid per season. Foliar applications of imidacloprid should not be applied if soil application was used. there have been reports of resistance to imidacloprid. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. See comments on insecticide rotation under

Colorado potato beetle.

Apply when most of the egg masses have hatched and most larvae are small (1/8 to 3/16 in.). An additional application should be made only if defoliation increases. Leverage will control european corn borer if application coincides with egg hatch and presence of small corn borer larvae. Leverage should not be used in fields treated with

Admire Pro. there have been reports of low levels of resistance to imidacloprid. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments.

See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 147

tAbLE 2-17. INSECt CONtrOL FOr POtAtO, IrISH (cont’d)

Insect

Colorado potato beetle

(cont’d) european corn borer

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

novaluron, MoA 15

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

14

(Rimon) 0.83 eC spinosad, MoA 5

(Blackhawk) 36WG spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC thiamethoxam seed piece treatment, MoA 4A

(Cruiser) 5 FS thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG

1.7 to 3.3 oz

6 to 8 fl oz

0.11 to 0.16 fl oz/100 lb

1.66 to 2.67 oz

3 oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

3

7

7

7

Apply when most egg masses have hatched and both small and large larvae are present. thorough coverage is important. Do not apply more than a total of 0.33 lb a.i. (14.4 oz of Blackhawk or 21 oz of Radiant) per crop. Do not apply in consecutive generations of

Colorado potato beetle and do not make more than two applications per single generation of Colorado potato beetle. Do not make successive applications less than 7 days apart. to minimize the potential for resistance, do Not use spinosad or spinetoram if it either product was applied to a potato crop in the field or an adjacent field within the last year.

See label for specific instructions. For early planted potatoes control may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application and Colorado potato beetle emergence. Limit use to locations where

Colorado potato beetles were a problem in the same or adjacent fields during the previous year. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle.

Platinum applied in-furrow at planting time may provide season-long control. For early planted potatoes control may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application and Colorado potato beetle emergence. Limit use to locations where Colorado potato beetles were a problem in the same or adjacent fields in the previous year. To minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle. See product label for restrictions on rotational crops.

Actara is applied as foliar spray. Apply when most of the eggs have hatched and most of the larvae are small (1/8 to 3/16 in.). An additional application should be made only if defoliation increases.

Allow at least 7 days between applications. Do not make more than 2 applications of Actara per crop per season. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. See label for rotational restrictions.

thiamethoxam, MoA 4A F chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Voliam Flexi)

4 oz 14 Voliam Flexi is applied as a foliar spray. Apply when most of the eggs have hatched and most of the larvae are small (1/8 to 3/16 in.). An additional application should be made only if defoliation increases.

Allow at least 7 days between applications. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. Do not exceed 8 oz of Voliam Flexi. See label for rotational restrictions Voliam Flexi can be expected to provide control of european corn borer if application is timed correctly (see european corn borer for correct timing).

The Atlantic variety of potato is very tolerant of injury by European corn borer larvae. Consequently, control is not recommended on Atlantic unless more than 30 percent of the stems are infested. Control on all other varieties is recommended when infestations reach 20 percent infested stems. Application timing is critical. Scout for eggs and treat when eggs hatch or at the first sign of larvae entering petioles. Several days of cool wet weather will kill larvae and may eliminate the need for insecticide applications. If this occurs, flag additional egg masses and apply insecticide at hatch.

pyrethroid, MoA 3

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

9 to 12 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs 14

Apply when threshold is reached (usually during the first half of May).

A second application may be needed if the percentage of infested stems increases substantially 7 to 10 days after the first application.

Ground applications are usually more effective than aerial applications.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Do not apply more than 15.4 oz Coragen per acre per crop season.

chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67

thiamethoxam, MoA 4A F chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

Premix

(Voliam Flexi)

3.5 to 5 oz

4 oz 12 hrs 14 Voliam Flexi is applied as a foliar spray. Apply when most of the eggs have hatched and most of the larvae are small (1/8 to 3/16 in.). An additional application should be made only if defoliation increases.

Allow at least 7 days between applications. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. Do not exceed 8 oz of Voliam Flexi. See label for rotational restrictions Voliam Flexi can be expected to provide control of Colorado potato beetle if application is timed correctly (see

Colorado potato beetle section for correct timing).

148 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-17. INSECt CONtrOL FOr POtAtO, IrISH (cont’d)

Insect

european corn borer

(cont’d)

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

3.5 to 6.0 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

Flea beetle spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2.0 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6

(various) 1.6 F thiamethoxam seed piece treatment, MoA 4A

(Cruiser) 5 FS

6 to 8 fl oz

0.74 fl oz/

1,000 ft row

1.3 fl oz

3.75 fl oz

0.11 to 0.16 fl oz/100 lb

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

7 Apply when threshold is reached (usually during the first half of May).

A second application may be needed if the percentage of infested stems increases substantially 7 to 10 days after the first application.

Ground applications are usually more effective than aerial applications.

Do not apply more than 24 oz of Avaunt per acre per crop.

7 Do not apply more than a total of 0.25 lb a.i. (32 fl oz product) per crop.)

— imidacloprid applied in-furrow at planting time may provide seasonlong control. However, for early planted potatoes control may be marginal due to the prolonged time between application and crop emergence. Check label for restrictions on planting crops following Admire Pro treated potatoes. See comments on resistance in

Colorado potato beetle to imidacloprid. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments.

See comments for imidacloprid resistance in Colorado potato beetle.

7

Leafhopper

Leafminer thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 2 SC

(Actara) 25 WDG thiamethoxam MoA 4A F chlorantraniliprole MoA 28

(Volium Flexi) pyrethroid, MoA 3 carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV pyrethroid, MoA 3

5 to 8 fl oz

3 oz

4 fl oz

1 to 2 lb

0.625 to

1.25 lb

1 pt

0.5 to 1 pt

1.5 pt

0.5 to 1 pt

3.5 to 5 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

48 hrs

48 hrs

4 hrs

7

7

14

7

0

14

0

6

See label for specific instructions. For early planted potatoes control may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application and flea beetle emergence. Limit use to locations where Colorado potato beetles were a problem in the same or adjacent fields during the previous year. to minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of any iRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments.

See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle.

Platinum applied in-furrow at planting time may provide season-long control. However, for early planted potatoes control may be marginal due to the prolonged time between application and crop emergence.

See product label for restrictions on rotational crops.

Actara is applied as foliar spray.

Do not exceed a total of 8.0 fl oz/acre Volium Flexi or 0.094 lb a.i./ acre of thiamethoxam-containing products or 0.2 lb a.i./acre of chlorantraniliprole-containing products per growing season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

On foliage when leafhoppers first appear. Repeat every 10 days as needed. often a problem in the mountains.

Do not apply more than 2 pints total per acre per year.

See

table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Do not apply more than 2 pints total per acre per year.

Blister beetle, Leaffooted bug, Plant bug,

Stink bug, Vegetable weevil dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) XLR Plus pyrethroid, MoA 3

2 to 4 lb

1 to 2 qt

12 hrs

12 hrs

7 on foliage as needed.

Potato tuberworm chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV pyrethroid, MoA 3

3.5 to 5 fl oz

1.5 to 3 pt

4 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

14

6

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Do not exceed 4 applications per acre per crop. Do not apply more than 15.4 oz Coragen per acre per crop season. Minimum interval between applications is 5 days.

Prevent late-season injury by keeping potatoes covered with soil. t o prevent damage in storage, practice sanitation.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

thrips dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC spinosad, MoA 5

(Blackhawk) 36WG

0.5 pt

6 to 8 fl oz

2.25 to 3.5 oz

48 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

0

7

3 Control may be improved by addition of an adjuvant to the spray mixture.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 149

tAbLE 2-17. INSECt CONtrOL FOr POtAtO, IrISH (cont’d)

Insect

Wireworm

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

Planting in fields previously in corn, soybean, or fallow may increase risk of wireworm.

25.5 fl oz in furrow at planting.

bifenthrin, MoA 3

(Capture LFR) clothianidin

(Belay) 50 WDG ethoprop, MoA 1B

6 oz

1.4 lb per

1,000 row ft

12 hrs

48 hrs 90 in-furrow at planting.

in-furrow at planting.

(Mocap) 15 G fipronil, MOA 2B

(Regent) 4 SC phorate, MoA 1B

(thimet) 20 G

3.2 fl oz

Row treatment: 10 to 20 oz (38 in. row spacing)

0 hrs

12 hrs

90

90 in-furrow at planting. Do Not use t-banding over the top of a closed furrow.

Can contribute to insecticide-resistance problems with Colorado potato beetle.

tAbLE 2-18. INSECt CONtrOL FOr PUMPKIN, SQUASH (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

Insecticide applications on cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Aphid acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50WDG

2.5 to 4 oz

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(Soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar)

12 hrs

12 hrs

0

At planting

7

Soil applications may only be applied at planting. Will also control cucumber beetle. Do not apply Belay during bloom or if bees are actively foraging.

cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG

10 to 13.5 fl oz

2 to 2.8 oz

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

2.75 oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

0

21

14

Applied to the soil at planting or later via drip irrigation system.

See label for application options.

Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for approved application methods.

Will also control whitefly and cucumber beetles.

Apply before populations reach damaging levels. Do not exceed

5.5 oz per acre per season.

thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Platinum) 75 SG

1.66 to 3.67 oz

1.5 to 3.0 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

30

0

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

Armyworm

Foliar treatment

(Actara) 25 WDG chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F

2 to 3.5 fl oz

1.5 fl oz

4 to 10 fl oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

1

1

3

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Do not exceed 4 applications per season, and do not reapply in less than 7 days.

Cucumber beetle spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

5 to 10 fl oz 4 hrs 3

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S

(Sevin) XLR Plus acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG

2 lb

1.25 lb

1 qt

2.5 to 5.3 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

3

0

Phytotoxicity may occur following application of carbaryl during hot, humid weather.

150 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-18. INSECt CONtrOL FOr PUMPKIN, SQUASH (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

Insecticide applications on cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Cucumber beetle

(cont’d) clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50WDG

4.8 to 6.8oz

(soil);

1.6 to 2.1oz

(foliar)

12 hrs At Planting

7

See application instructions and precautionary bee statement under above under aphids.

Cutworm

Corn earworm, Looper,

Pickleworm, Melonworm dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

1

21

21

1

1

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications may be applied by 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or 3) drip irrigation.

See application methods under Aphid.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F pyrethroid, MoA 3

1.5 fl oz

2.5 to 6 oz

4 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

1

3

3 Do not exceed 4 applications per season, and do not reapply in less than 7 days.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Spider mite

Squash bug spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC bifenazate, MoA UN

(Acramite) 50 WS etoxazole, MoA 10B (Zeal) spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SG acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50SDG

5 to 10 fl oz

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

0.75 to 1.0 lb

2 to 3 oz

7 to 8.5 oz

5.3 oz

4.8 to 6.8oz

(soil);

1.6 to 2.1oz

(foliar)

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

3

7

3

7

7

0

At planting

7

Do not make more than one application per season.

Do not make more than one Zeal application per season.

Do not exceed 3 applications per season.

Assail is most effective against newly laid eggs and nymphs.

See application instructions and precautionary bee statement above under aphid. dinotefuran, MoA 4A

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35 SL pyrethroid, MoA 3

3 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

1 Do not exceed 6 oz Venom per acre per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Squash vine borer acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

5.3 oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

1.5 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

0

1

1

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

See

table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 151

tAbLE 2-18. INSECt CONtrOL FOr PUMPKIN, SQUASH (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

Insecticide applications on cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

thrips

Whitefly dinotefuran, MoA 4A

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35 SL spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

6 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

1

3

Where whitefly resistance is an issue (or any other insect with a high potential for resistance to Group 4A MOA insecticides), avoid making foliar applications of Group 4A insecticides when a soil-applied Group 4A program is used – i.e., do not make both foliar and soil applications of Group 4A insecticides. Also, if using a foliar-applied program, avoid using a block of more than three consecutive applications of any products belonging to Group 4A.

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG

5.3 oz 12 hrs 0 buprofezin, MoA 16

(Courier) 40 WP chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

9 to 13.6 oz

5 to 7.5 fl oz

6.75 to 13.5 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

7

1

1

Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than twice per crop cycle or 4 applications per year total.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Apply Verimark at planting and/or later via drip irrigation or soil injection. See label for application options.

(exirel) 0.83Se

13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 hrs 1 exirel is for foliar application.

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pyriproxyfen, MoA 7C

(Knack) 0.86 eC spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

8 to 10 fl oz

7 to 8.5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

1.5 to 3.0 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

21

30

0

7

7

Admire Pro must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application methods. Will also control aphids and cucumber beetle.

Do not make more than two applications per season, and do not make applications closer than 14 days apart.

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season.

Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

tAbLE 2-19. INSECt CONtrOL FOr rAdISH

Insect

Aphid, Flea beetle,

Leafminer

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

pyrethroid, MoA 3

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

imidacloprid

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75SG

(Actara) 25WDG flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 30SG

Root maggot, Wireworm chlorpyrifos, MoA 1B

(Lorsban) 4e

1.2 fl oz

3.5 fl oz

1.7 to 2.17 oz

1.5 to 3 oz

2 to 2.8 oz

1 fl oz/1,000 linear ft diazinon, MoA 1B

(AG 500)

50 WP

3 to 4 qt

6 to 8 lb

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days) Precautions and remarks

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Will not control leafminer.

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

3 days

7

30

7

0

See label for soil application instructions.

Water-based drench in-furrow planting. Use a minimum of 40 gal of water per acre.

Broadcast just before planting and immediately incorporate into the upper 4 to 8 inches of soil.

152 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-20. INSECt CONtrOL FOr SPINACH

Insect

Aphid

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

2 to 4 oz

4.8 to 6.0 oz (soil)

1.6 to 2.1 fl oz

(foliar)

6.75 to 10 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

Precautions and remarks

Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed

5 applications per season.

7 Soil application at planting only.

1

Soil applications made at planting only. See label for application options. flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC sulfoxaflor, MOA 4C

(transform) 50WG thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Platinum) 75SG

Leafminer

Armyworm, Beet webworm, Corn earworm,

Cutworm, Looper

Foliar treatment

(Actara) 25WDG chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cryomazine, MoA 17

(trigard) 75 WP spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 SG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 SG methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 90 SP

(Lannate) 2.4 LV methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

2 to 2.8

4.4 to 10.5 fl oz

10 to 24 fl oz

1.2 fl oz

3.8 fl oz

2.75 oz

4 to 5 fl oz

0.75 to 1.5 oz

1.7 to 2.17 oz

1.5 to 3 oz

5 to 7.5 fl oz

2.66 oz

6 to 10 fl oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

2.4 to 4.8 oz

1.5 fl oz

2.5 to 3.5 oz

0.5 lb

1.5 pt

4 to 10 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

12 hr

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

0

21

7

1

7

7

7

3

7

30

1

3

7

1

3

7

1

1

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticides. See label for soil application instructions.

Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

See label for soil application instructions.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Spray adjuvants may enhance efficacy against leafminers.

See label for information on adjuvants.

Air temperature should be well above 32 degrees F. Do not apply to seedlings less than 3 in. in diameter.

Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants and 6 to 10 oz for mid- to late-season applications.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 153

tAbLE 2-21. INSECt CONtrOL FOr SWEEtPOtAtO

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Aphids, Leafhopper,

Whitefly

Aphids, leafhoppers, and whiteflies are rarely a problem. acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30SG 1.5 to 4 oz

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

9 to 12 oz

(soil)

2 to 2.8 oz

1.2 fl oz

3.5 fl oz

2.75 to 5.5 oz

7 Do not make more than 4 applications per season. Do not apply more frequently than once every 7 days. Use 2.5 to 4 oz for aphids.

Soil application as an in-furrow or sidedress application. For sidedress applications, immediately cover with soil.

Armyworm, Looper, Corn earworm, Hornworm

10.5 fl oz or

0.75 fl oz per

1,000 ft

1 gal/100,000 cu ft

14

1 methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F

6 to 10 fl oz 4 hrs 7 Damaging earworm infestations may occur in August or September. If significant infestations are present on foliage during harvest, larvae may feed on exposed root. Do not make more than 3 applications or apply more than 30 fl oz of Intrepid per acre per season.

Do not make more than 2 applications per crop per season.

Cucumber beetle (adults),

Japanese beetle (adults), tortoise beetle novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC

9 to 12 fl oz 12 hrs 14 spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

6 to 8 fl oz 4 hrs 7

Cucumber beetle larvae (diabrotica) are a serious pest of sweetpotato in LA and MS. Controlling adult cucumber beetles in areas with a history of diabrotica damage can reduce damage to roots. Foliage feeding by beetles rarely causes economic loss, and control is not warranted unless defoliation is severe.

pyrethroid, MoA 3 12 hrs See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and pre-harvest intervals.

Flea beetle, Wireworm,

White grub

Fruit fly

(vinegar fly)

Sweetpotato weevil chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC carbaryl, MoA 1A

(Sevin) 50 WP

(Sevin) 80 S, WSB

(Sevin) XLR Plus spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC bifenthrin, MoA 3

(various) 2 eC chlorpyrifos, MoA 1B

(Lorsban) 15 G

(Lorsban) 4 e

(Lorsban Advanced) imidacloprid

(Admire Pro) 4.6SC

pyrethrins, MoA 3

(Pyrenone)

3 oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

4 lb

2.5 lb

2 qt

6 to 8 fl oz

9.6 to 19.2 fl oz

13.5 lb

4 pt

4 pt

1.33 lb

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

24 hrs

3 days

12 hrs

12 hrs

5 days

7

7

21

125

(60 in NC for

Lorsban Advanced only)

60 days

(NC only)

7 two applications of Actara may be needed to control heavy populations. Allow 7 to 10 days between applications. Do not exceed a total of 6 oz of Actara per crop per season.

Foliar application only on sweetpotato.

Treat for tortoise beetles only if significant defoliation is observed. tortoise beetles are frequently present but rarely reach levels requiring treatment.

Apply as broadcast, preplant application to the soil and incorporate

4 to 6 in. prior to bed formation. this use has been demonstrated to control overwintered wireworm populations and reduce damage to roots at harvest. Chlorpyrifos will not control whitefringed beetle or other grubs that attack sweetpotato. Research has shown that best control is achieved when chlorpyrifos is applied as a preplant application incorporated 4 to 6 in. deep prior to bed formation, followed by 1 or more soil-directed, incorporations of bifenthrin during routine cultivation. Bifenthrin should be directed onto each side of the bed from the drill to the middle of the furrow and incorporated with cultivating equipment set to throw soil toward the drill. the objective is to provide a barrier of treated soil that covers the bed and furrows. Foliar sprays of various insecticides that target adults to prevent egg laying have not been shown to provide any reduction in damage to roots by wireworm larvae at harvest.

Postharvest application in storage. Apply as a space fog with a mechanical or thermal generator. Do not make more than 10 applications.

See table 2-26 for registered and pre-harvest intervals.

thrips

Whitefringed beetle clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 2.13 SC flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat MoA 23

(Movento) 2 SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Actara) 25 WDG pyrethroid, MoA 3 phosmet, MoA 1B

(imidan) 70 W spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC phosmet, MoA 1B

(imidan) 70 W

4 to 5 fl oz

6 to 8 fl oz

1.33 lb

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

4 hrs

5 days

21

7

7

14

7

7

7 two applications may be needed to control heavy populations.

Allow 5 to 7 days between applications.

Will not control leafhopper. Requires surfactant.

Do not make more than five applications per season. Whitefringed beetle adults are active in July and August. Do not plant in fields with a recent history of whitefringed beetles.

154 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-22. INSECt CONtrOL FOr tOMAtO (cont’d)

Insect

Aphid, Flea beetle

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

2 to 4 oz

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar) cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

6.75 to 13.5 fl oz

0.5 to 1 pt

2 to 4.8 oz

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F

1.2 fl oz

3.75 fl oz

2.75 oz pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

4 to 5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

4

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

Armyworm

2 to 3 oz 12 hrs

4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

7

7

Precautions and remarks

Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 5 applications per season.

Soil applications at planting only.

0

0

1

7

0

21

0

0

1

30

Soil applications at planting will control aphids and flea beetles. See label for application options.

Do not exceed rate with dimethoate as leaf injury may result.

Will not control flea beetle.

For short-term protection at planting. Admire Pro may also be applied to transplants in the planthouse not more than 7 days before planting at the rate of 0.44 (4.6 F formulation) or 1 oz

(2 F formulation) per 10,000 plants. See label for soil application instructions.

For aphids only.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

Actara is for foliar applications.

Start applications when larvae are small, and continue at 5- to

7-day intervals during periods of infestation.

Colorado potato beetle

(Actara) 25 WDG

Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11A

(Crymax) WDG

(Dipel) 2X

(Xentari) chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 DG methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

(exirel) 0.83Se

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant)1SC

0.5 to 1.5 lb

0.5 to 1 lb

0.5 to 1 lb

3.5 to 4 fl oz

2.4 to 4.8 oz

1.5 fl oz

3.5 oz

4 to 10 fl oz

9 to 12 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

1.5 to 2.5 oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

7 to 13.5 fl oz

7 fl oz

16 fl oz

1.2 fl oz

3.75 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

1

7

1

3

1

1

1

7

1

1

1

21

0

1

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Apply when larvae are first observed.

Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. the minimum interval between sprays is 5 days.

Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants and 6 to 10 oz for mid- and late-season applications.

Do not make more than 3 applications per season.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Apply Verimark to soil via drip irrigation or soil injection.

exirel is for foliar application.

Use Admire Pro for soil or transplant drench treatment and 1.6

F formulation for foliar applications.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 155

tAbLE 2-22. INSECt CONtrOL FOr tOMAtO (cont’d)

Insect

Colorado potato beetle

(cont’d)

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

1.66 to 3.67 oz

Cabbage looper,

Hornworm, tomato fruitworm, Pinworm

(Actara) 25 WDG

Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11A

(Dipel) DF, MoA

(Crymax) WDG pyrethroid, MoA 3

2 to 3 oz

0.5 to 1 lb

0.5 to 1.5 lb

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

30

0

0

Precautions and remarks

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

Actara is for foliar applications.

chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

3.5 to 5 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

7 to 13.5 fl oz

2.4 to 4.8 oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

1

1

7

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Verimark is for soil application only. Applications made at planting and/or via drip chemigation after planting. See label for application options.

exirel is for foliar application only.

Cutworm

(exirel) 0.83Se

emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4 SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV methoxyfenozide, MoA 18 (intrepid) 2 F novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC pyrethroid, MoA 3

1.5 fl oz

2.5 to 3.5 oz

1.5 to 3 pt

4 to 10 fl oz

9 to12 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

1

3

1

1

1

1

Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. the minimum interval between sprays is 5 days.

Methomyl may induce leafminer infestation.

Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants and 6 to 10 oz for mid- and late-season applications. intrepid provides suppression of pinworm only.

Do not make more than 3 applications per season.

Leafminer

Spider mite

Stink bug abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC cryomazine, MoA 17

(trigard) 75 WP spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC acequinocyl, MoA 20B

(Kanemite) 15SC bifenazate, MoA UN

(Acramite) 50 WS cyflumetofen, MOA 25

(Nealta) 1.67 SC fenpyroximate MoA 21

(Portal) 0.4eC

spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SG pyrethroid, MoA 3

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

5 to 7.5 fl oz

2.66 oz

6 to 8 fl oz

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

31 fl oz

0.75 to 1.0 lb

13.7 fl oz

2 pts

7 to 8.5 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

1

0

1

7

1

3

3

3

7

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Do not exceed 48 fl oz per acre per season, or more than two sequential applications.

Foliar or soil chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for soil application instructions.

See label for plant-back restrictions.

Do not exceed 29 fl oz per acre per season.

Do not exceed 48 fl oz per acre per season, or more than two sequential applications.

The use of a surfactant/adjuvant with Kanemite on tomatoes is prohibited.

Do not make more than one application per season.

Do not make more than one application before using an effective miticide with a different mode of action.

Do not make more than two applications per season.

Do not exceed 3 applications per season.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

12 hrs

21

1

156 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-22. INSECt CONtrOL FOr tOMAtO (cont’d)

Insect

Stink bug

(cont’d) thrips

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Actara) 25 WDG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

3 to 5.5 oz

0.5 to 1 pt dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

Whitefly

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval (PHI)

(days)

0

Precautions and remarks

Do not exceed 11 oz Actara per acre per season.

7

1

21

See comments under Whitefly for application instructions and restrictions.

methamidophos, MoA 1B (Monitor) 4 e methomyl, MoA 1A

(Lannate) 2.4 LV

1.5 to 2 pt

1.5 to 3 pt

72 hrs

48 hrs

7

1

Check 24c label for state registration.

on foliage as needed.

novaluron, MoA 15

(Rimon) 0.83 eC spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC

9 to12 fl oz

6 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

1

1

Do not make more than 3 applications per season.

Will control thrips on foliage, not in flowers.

For resistance management of whiteflies, do not follow a soil application of a neonicotinoid (MOA group 4A) with a foliar application of any neonicotinoid.

acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG buprofezin, MoA 16

(Courier) 40 SC

2.5 to 4 oz

9 to 13.6 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

1

Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 5 applications per season.

Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than twice per crop cycle, and allow 28 days between applications.

chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

5 to 7.5 fl oz

6.75 to 13.5 fl oz

4 hrs

4 hrs

1

1

Foliar or soil application. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for soil application instructions.

Apply Verimark to at planting and/or later via drip irrigation or soil injection. See label for application options.

Wireworm

(exirel) 0.83Se

dinotefuran MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35 SL

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35 SL imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pyriproxyfen, MoA 7C

(Knack) 0.86eC

spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SC spirotetramat, MoA 23

(Movento) 2SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG diazinon, MoA 1B

(Diazinon) AG 500 or 50 WP

13.5 to 20.5 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

7 to 10.5 fl oz

8 to 10 fl oz

7 to 8.5 fl oz

4 to 5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

3 to 5.5 oz

2 to 4 qt

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

48 hrs

1

21

1

21

1

7

1

30

0

— exirel is for foliar application.

Soil applications of Venom or Scorpion may be made in a narrow band under the plant row as a post-transplant drench, as a soil incorporated sidedress after plants are established, or in drip irrigation water. See label for instructions.

Apply through a drip irrigation system or as a transplant drench with sufficient water to reach root zone. As a sidedress, apply 2 to 4 in. to the side of the row and incorporate

1 or more in. Residual activity will increase with increasing rates applied. Use higher rate for late-season or continuous infestations. trickle irrigation applications will also control aphids and stinkbugs.

Do not apply more than two applications per growing season, and do not make applications closer than 14 days.

Do not make more than 3 applications per season.

Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. Actara is for foliar applications.

Broadcast before planting and incorporate. Wireworms may be a problem in fields previously in pasture, corn, or soybean.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 157

tAbLE 2-23. INSECt CONtrOL FOr tUrNIP

Insect

Aphid,

Flea beetle

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar) cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

6.75 to 13.5 fl oz

0.5 pt

2 to 2.8 oz dimethoate 4 eC, MoA 1B flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 30SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

4.4 to 10.5 fl oz

10 to 24 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

12 hrs

4 hrs

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

7 (Foliar) Soil application as in in-furrow, side dress application, seed or transplant drench, or chemigation. See label for application instructions.

4

14

0

21

Soil applications made at planting only. See label for application options.

See label for soil application instructions.

Harlequin bug,

Vegetable weevil, yellow margined leaf beetle

Cabbage looper,

Diamondback moth

Root maggot

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 1.6 F pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50 WDG

1.2 fl oz

3.8 fl oz

2.75 oz

1.7 to 4.01 oz

1.5 to 3 oz

4.8 to 6.0 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1 oz

(foliar)

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

7

Apply at planting

7

7 (Foliar)

Will not control flea beetle.

Platinum is for soil application and Actara for foliar application.

Soil application as in in-furrow, side dress application, seed or transplant drench, or chemigation. See label for application instructions.

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6F

(Various) 2F

2 to 2.4 fl oz

2.5 to 3.5 oz

1 to 2 pt

1.1 to 1.8 oz/

1,000 ft row

8

3

Soil applications of imidacloprid will not control harlequin bug past 20 days after application.

Foliar treatment

(Admire Pro) 4.6F

(Various) 2F

1.2 fl oz

2.8 fl oz

7 thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG

1.7 to 4.01 oz

1.5 to 3 oz

Platinum is for soil application and Actara for foliar application.

pyrethroid, MoA 3

Insecticide-resistant Diamondback moth populations, widespread in the Southeast, may not be controlled with some registered insecticides. T o manage resistance, avoid transplants from Georgia and Florida, and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides often aggravates diamondback moth problems. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are initiated.

Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11A

(Crymax) WDG

(Dipel) 2 X

(Dipel) 4 L

(Xentari) WDG chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen)

0.5 to 1.5 lb

8 oz

1 to 2 pt

0.5 to 1 lb

3.5 to 5.0 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

0

1

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

on foliage every 7 days as needed.

For turnip greens or root turnips.

cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

5 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

Apply at planting

7

1

Verimark and exirel are for greens only, not root turnips. Verimark is for soil application only. Applications made at planting and/or later via drip chemigation. See label for application options.

(exirel) 0.83Se

7 to 13.5 fl oz 12 hrs 1 exirel is for foliar application only.

emamectin benzoate, MoA 6

(Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4 SC indoxacarb, MoA 22

(Avaunt) 30 WDG spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC chlorpyrifos, MoA 1B

(Lorsban) 4 e

(Lorsban) 75 WDG

4.4 to 10.5 fl oz

10 to 24 fl oz

2.4 to 4.8 oz

3 to 6 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

24 hrs

21

14

1

21

For turnip greens only.

For turnip greens only

Avaunt may be applied only to turnip greens, not root turnips.

irrigation or rainfall after application will enhance activity.

158 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-24. INSECt CONtrOL FOr WAtErMELON (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Insecticide applications on cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Aphid acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG

2.5 to 4 oz 12 hrs 0 clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50WDG

4.8 to 6.4oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1oz

(foliar)

12 hrs

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

At planting

7 (foliar)

Soil application at planting only.

dimethoate, MoA 1B

2 e

2.67 e flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pymetrozine, MoA 9B

(Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

2 pt

1.5 pt

2 to 2.8 oz

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

2.75 oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

48 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

3

0

21

0

30

Admire Pro must be applied to soil. May apply preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using lowpressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application method. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies.

Apply before populations reach damaging levels. Do not exceed

5.5 oz per acre per season.

Armyworm,

Cabbage looper

(Actara) 25 WDG

Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11A

(Xentari) DF

(Dipel) DF chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

1.5 to 3 oz

0.5 to 2 lb

0.5 to 2 lb

3.5 to 5 fl oz

5 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

0

0

1

1

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

Actara is for foliar applications.

on foliage as needed.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Verimark is for soil application only. Applications made at planting and/or later via drip chemigation. See label for application options.

(exirel) 0.83Se

flubendiamide, MOA 28

(Belt) 4 SC methoxyfenozide, MoA 18

(intrepid) 2 F pyrethroid, MoA 3

7 to 13.5 fl oz

1.5 fl oz

4 to 10 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

1

1

3 exirel is for foliar application only.

Use higher rates against large larvae.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Cucumber beetle spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

5 to 10 fl oz

2.5 to 5.3 oz

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

3

0

1

Dinotefuran may be applied foliarly or to the soil. See labels for soil application instructions.

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL clothianidin, MoA 4A

(Belay) 50WDG

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

4.8 to 6.4 oz

(soil)

1.6 to 2.1oz

(foliar)

12 hrs

21

At planting

21 (foliar)

Soil application at planting only.

imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F pyrethroid, MoA 3

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

21 Admire Pro must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using lowpressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application method. Will also control aphids and whiteflies.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 159

tAbLE 2-24. INSECt CONtrOL FOr WAtErMELON (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

6 to 10 fl oz

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

3.5 to 5 fl oz

1.75 to 3.5 fl oz

0.75 to 1.0 lb

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

Insecticide applications on cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Cucumber beetle

(cont’d)

Cutworm thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

Soil treatment

(Platinum) 75 SG

Foliar treatment

(Actara) 25 WDG pyrethroid, MoA 3

1.66 to 3.67 oz

3 to 5.5 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

30

0

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

thrips

Leafminer

Spider mite

Squash bug, Leaffooted bug dimethoate, MoA 1B

(various brands and formulations) dinotefuran, MoA 4A

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35 SL spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC chlorantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Coragen) 1.67 SC cyromazine, MoA 17

(trigard) 75 WP spinetoram, MoA 5

(Radiant) 1 SC abamectin, MoA 6

(Agri-Mek) 0.7 SC bifenazate, MoA UN

(Acramite) 50 WS etoxazole, MoA 10B

(Zeal) 72 WSP fenpyroximate MoA 21

(Portal) 0.4eC

spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 2 SG acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG dinotefuran MoA 4A

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35 SL pyrethroid, MoA 3

See label

2.66 oz

8 fl oz

2 to 3 oz

2 pts

7 to 8.5 fl oz

5.3 oz

48 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

3

1

3

7

1

0

3

7

3

7

3

7

0

1

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

Do not feed or graze vines.

Do not make more than one application per season.

Do not make more than two applications per season.

Do not exceed 3 applications per season.

Foliar use only.

See table 2-26 for a list of registered pyrethroids and preharvest intervals.

Whitefly acetamiprid, MoA 4A

(Assail) 30 SG buprofezin, MoA 16

(Courier) 40 SC cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(Verimark) 1.67SC

(exirel) 0.83Se

2.5 to 5.3 oz

9 to 12.5 fl oz

6.75 to 13.5 fl oz

13.5 to 20.5 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

4 hrs

12 hrs

0

1

1

1

Allow at least 7 days between applications.

Apply Verimark to at planting and/or later via drip irrigation or soil injection. See label for application options.

exirel is for foliar application.

pyriproxyfen, MoA 7D

(Knack) 0.86eC

dinotefuran, MoA 4A

Foliar treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

Soil treatment

(Venom) 70 SG

(Scorpion) 35SL

8 to 10 fl oz

1 to 4 oz

2 to 7 fl oz

5 to 6 oz

9 to 10.5 fl oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

1

21

Do not make more than two applications per growing season.

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications may be applied by a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting, by a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation into the soil, or by drip irrigation.

160 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-24. INSECt CONtrOL FOr WAtErMELON (cont’d)

Insect

Insecticide, Mode of Action

Code, and Formulation

Amount of

Formulation

Per Acre restricted

Entry

Interval (rEI)

Pre harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

Insecticide applications on cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.

Whitefly

(cont’d) imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(various) 2 F

7 to 10.5 fl oz

16 to 24 fl oz

12 hrs

21

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticides. Must be applied to the soil. Do not use a foliar application of any neonicotinoid insecticide if using Admire

Pro. May apply preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application method. Will also control aphids and cucumber beetles.

spiromesifen, MoA 23

(oberon) 70 SC thiamethoxam, MoA 4A

(Platinum) 75 SG

(Actara) 25 WDG

7 to 8.5 fl oz

1.66 to 3.67 oz

3 to 5.5 oz

12 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

7

30

0

Apply Platinum to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

Actara is for foliar applications. Do not use a foliar application of any neonicotinoid insecticide if using Admire Pro.

Wireworm diazinon, MoA 1B

(Diazinon) AG 500

3 to 4 qt 3 days — Broadcast on soil before planting and thoroughly work into upper

6 inches.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 161

Not all insecticides listed below are registered on all vegetable crops. Refer to the label before applying to a specific crop. Ratings are based on a consensus of vegetable entomologists in the southeastern United States.

(“E” very effective; “G” effective; “F” somewhat effective; “-” ineffective or insufficient data)

1A

1B

Common name

carbaryl methamidophos methomyl oxamyl malathion chlorpyrifos acephate diazinon dimethoate permethrin alpha cypermethrin zeta cypermethrin cyfluthrin lambda cyhalothrin 3 esfenvalerate gamma cyhalothrin fenpropathrin bifenthrin imidacloprid acetamiprid clothianidin 4A thiamethoxam dinotefuran

4C sulfoxaflor

5 spinosad spinetoram

6 emamectin benzoate abamectin

Example Product

Sevin

Monitor

Lannate

Vydate

Malathion

Lorsban orthene

Diazinon

Dimethoate

Pounce

Fastac

Mustang Max

Baythroid/Renounce

Karate

Asana XL

Proaxis

Danitol

Brigade

Admire

Assail

Belay

Platinum/Actara

Venom/Scorpion

Closer

Blackhawk/Entrust

Radiant

Proclaim

Agri-Mek

F

F e F G F G F

F G F F

F

G

G

-

F

-

F

-

F F

G

-

G

-

G

-

G

-

G

-

G

-

-

G F G F F

F F

-

F

F

F

F

G

G

F e G F G -

F

F

F

-

-

-

G -

-

F -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

G F G G G F G e F e e F e G e G G e F e

-

e F e G e G G e F e

G F G G G F G e F e e F e G e G G e F e

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F G -

F e e G G -

-

F G G F e G F

F F G G F -

-

F F

-

-

-

F

G

F

F

G -

-

-

-

-

F

F e

-

-

G F e e F G

F G F F

F G F F

F G F G -

F G F F

F G F G

-

-

-

-

F

F

F

F

F

-

-

-

-

-

G

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F

F

-

-

-

-

F

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F

F G -

-

-

-

G G G -

-

-

-

-

-

e e

F G F

-

G -

G e

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

G G G G G F G e F G e F e G e G G e F e -

-

G G G G F e F e G G F

F

F e e

F

F

G e

-

F

F

F

F

G

G

F

F

F

F

G

F

G G F G -

-

-

e G e

G e G e e G

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F -

-

-

F

F

-

G

F

e e

G

G

G

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

e G G e e G

e -

e

e

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

G G G G e G G G

-

-

e e G G e G G G -

G G G e e e G e -

-

-

-

F

F

F

-

-

-

-

-

G e

F G

G G

F

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F

F -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F F

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F G -

-

F

-

G -

-

-

-

F

F F F e G F F

F G

G

-

F

-

G G e F e e F G -

-

-

e

-

-

G G e

F G G

F G

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

e

G

G

-

F e

F e

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

e

-

-

-

-

7C pyriproxyfen

9B pymetrozine

9C flonicamid

10 etoxazole

11 Bt

15 novaluron

16 buprofezin

17 cyromazine

18 methoxyfenozide

20B acequinocyl

21 fenpyroximate

22 indoxacarb

23 spiromesifen spirotetramat

Knack/Distance

Fulfill

Beleaf

Zeal

Dipel, various

Rimon

Courier trigard intrepid

Kanemite

Portal

Avaunt oberon

Movento

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

e

-

G

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F F F G e G F F

-

e e e G e F G e F F

-

-

G G e e e F G e

-

-

F G F e G G e e G G e

-

-

25 cyflumetofen chlorantraniliprole

28 cyantraniliprole flubendiamide

Nealta

Coragen

Verimark/Exirel

Belt

-

-

G

-

e e

G

-

-

-

-

e e e

e e e

e e

G

e e e

e e e

e e e

-

G

G

G

e e e

UN bifenazate Acramite -

*Denotes that insecticide-resistant populations may occur in some areas and can affect the performance of insecticides.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

e

-

e -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

G G G -

-

-

-

-

G -

-

-

G F F e

F

-

-

F

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F

-

-

-

-

e

e

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

G

G

-

-

G -

F -

-

-

F

-

G -

-

G -

G -

-

-

-

F

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F e

G

-

-

-

-

-

-

G

-

-

-

-

G

e

162 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-26. PrEHArvESt INtErvALS (IN DAYS) FOr PyrEtHrOId INSECtICIdES IN vEgEtAbLE CrOPS.

See Table 2-25 to compare relative efficacy of these products against specific insect pests. Read the pesticide label for specific rates and application instructions.

Common Name/Example Product (restricted Entry Interval – rEI)

Bulb Vegetables

Brassica Leafy Vegetables

Cereal Corn

Cucurbits

Fruiting Vegetables

Legumes

Leafy Vegetables, except Brassica

Root and tuber Vegetables

Asparagus onions, Green onions, Dry Bulb

Broccoli, Brussels Sprout, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi

Collard, Mustard Green

Sweet Corn

Cantaloupe, Watermelon

Cucumber, Pumpkin, Summer Squash, Winter Squash eggplant, Pepper tomato okra edible-podded

Succulent Shelled Pea and Bean

Dried Shelled Pea and Bean

Head and Leaf Lettuce

Spinach

Celery

Beet, Carrot, Radish. turnip

Potato

Sweet Potato

NR Not registered

A

Head lettuce only

1

1

21

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

Alpha cypermethrin/ Fastac (12 hrs)

NR

NR

NR

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

14

7

40

NR

7

3

3

21

21

21

7

1

3

3

7

7

1

bifenthrin/ b

NR

NR

NR

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

NR

NR

beta cyfluthrin/ b

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

5

A

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

1

1

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

cypermethrin/ Ammo (12 hrs)

NR

7

7

0

7

0

0

0

0

0

NR

NR

cyfluthrin/ tombstone (12 hrs)

NR

NR

NR

0

0

0

0

0

7

0

NR

NR

7

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

3

3

7

7

7

NR

NR

fenpropathrin/ d

NR

NR

NR

NR

3

3

21

7

A

NR

NR

7

NR

NR

7

1

3

3

3

7

1

esfenvalerate/ Asana

NR

NR

NR

NR

7

7

21

1

NR

NR

NR

7

7

5

5

1

1

1

NR

1

lambda cyhalothrin/ Karate (24 hrs)

NR

NR

14

NR

7

7

21

1

NR

NR

NR

NR

NR

1

NR

1

NR

NR

5

5

gamma cyhalothrin/ Proaxis (24 hrs)

NR

NR

14

1

1

21

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

zeta cypermethrin/ Mustang Max (12 hrs)

NR

7

7

NR

NR

NR

NR

1

1

3

1

14

NR

3

0

0

0

1

1

1

permethrin/ Pounce (12 hrs)

1

NR

1

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 163

tAbLE 2-27. LISt OF gENErIC INSECtICIdES by ACtIvE INgrEdIENt.

Active Ingredient

Abamectin

Original Product and Formulation

(Manufacturer)

Agri-Mek 0.15eC

generics and Formulation (Manufacturer)

Abba 0.15 eC (Makhteshim) Reaper 0.15 eC (Loveland)

Abba Ultra 0.3 eC (Makhteshim)

Agri-Mek 0.7 eC (Syngenta) epi-Mek 0.15 eC (Syngenta)

Reaper Advance 0.15 eC (Loveland) temprano 0.15 eC (Chemtura) timectin 0.15 eC (tide intl.)

Acephate

Bifenthrin

Carbaryl

Chlorpyrifos

Cyfluthrin esfenvalerate

Gamma-cyhalothrin imidacloprid

Lambda-cyhalothrin

Permethrin

Zeta-cypermethrin orthene 90SP (Valent)

Brigade 2 eC, Capture 2 eC (FMC

Sevin 50 WP 4 L, 80 S, SL , XLR (Bayer)

Lorsban 4 e, 15 G, 75 WDG, Advanced 3.76 e

(Dow AgroSciences)

Brigade XL, 1 eC, Renounce 20 WP (Bayer)

Asana XL 0.66eC (DuPont)

Proaxis 0.5 eC (Loveland)

Admire 2 F, Pro 4.6 F, Provado 1.6 F (Bayer)

Karate 2 Me, Warrior 2 Me (Syngenta)

Pounce 3.2 eC (FMC)

Mustang Max 1.5 eW (FMC)

Nufarm Abamectin 0.15 eC (Nufarm)

Acephate 90 Prill (Makhteshim)

Acephate 90 WDG (Loveland)

Acephate 90 WSP (Loveland)

Bifen 2AG Gold (Direct AG Source)

Bifenture 2 eC (United Phosphorous)

Discipline 2 eC (Amvac)

Fanfare 2 eC (Makhteshim)

Carbaryl 4 L (Drexel, Loveland)

Chloryrifos 4 e (Makhteshim, Drexel)

Govern 4 e (tenkos)

Hatchet 4 e (Dow AgroSciences)

Nufos 4e (tenkos)

Saurus 15 G (Helena) tombstone 2 e (Loveland)

S-FenvaloStar 0.66 eC (LG Life Sciences)

Declare insecticide 0.5 eC (Cheminova)

Advise 2 FL (Winfield)

Mana Alias 2 F, 4 F (Makhteshim)

Amtide imidacloprid 2 F (Amtide)

Couraze 2 F, 4 F (Cheminova)

Macho 2 FL, 4 F (Albaugh)

Malice 75 WSP (Loveland)

Midash 2 SC (Sharda USA)

Grizzly Z 1 CS (Winfield)

Kiaso 24 WG (Nufarm)

Lambda t 1 CS (Helena)

Lambda Cy 1 eC (United Phosphorous)

Lambda-Cyhalothrin 1 eC (Nufarm)

LambdaStar 1 eC, 1 CS (LG Life Sciences)

Arctic 3.2 EC (Winfield)

Perm-Up 3.2 eC (United Phosphorous)

Respect 0.8 eC (BASF)

Zoro 0.15 eC (Cheminova)

Acephate 97 UP (United Phosphorous)

Bracket 90 WDG (Winfield) orthene 97 (Amvac)

Sniper 2 eC (Loveland) tailgunner 2 eC (Makhteshim)

Tundra 2 EC (Winfield)

Prokoz Sevin SL (Prokoz)

Vulcan 3.76 e (Makhteshim)

Warhawk 4 e (Loveland) yuma 4 e (Winfeild)

Whirlwind 4 e (Helena) tombstone Helios 2 e (Loveland)

Proaxis insecticide 0.5 eC (Cheminova)

Montana 2 F, 4 F (Rotam NA)

NuPrid 2 F, 2 SC, 4 F Max, 4.6 F, (Nufarm)

Pasada 1.6 F (Makhteshim)

Prey 1.6 F (Loveland)

Sherpa 1.6 F (Loveland)

Widow 2 F (Loveland)

Wrangler 4 F (Loveland)

Lamcap 1 CS (Syngenta)

Paradigm 1 eC (Makhteshim)

Province 1 SC (teNKoz)

Silencer 1 eC (Makhteshim)

Willowood Lambda-Cy 1 eC (Willowood)

PermaStar 3.2 eC (LG Life Sciences)

Permethrin 3.2 eC (Loveland, teNKoz, Helena)

tAbLE 2-28. COMPONENtS OF INSECtICIdE MIxtUrES

Premix trade Name Components (Legacy trade name)

Athena abamectin (Agri-Mek) + bifenthrin (Brigade)

Agri-Flex

Gladiator

Hero, Steed

Voliam Xpress, Besiege

Cobalt, Bolton

Kilter endigo ZC

Leverage 360

Leverage 2.7

Brigadier, Swagger

Durivo, Voliam Flexi

Vetica triple Crown abamectin (Agri-Mek) + thiamethoxam (Actara) avermectin B1 (Agri-Mek) + zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang Max) bifenthrin (Brigade) + zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang Max) chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) + lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate) chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) + gamma-cyhalothrin (Proaxis) imidacloprid (Admire) + lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate) lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior, Karate) + thiamethoxam (Actara) imidacloprid (Admire) + beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid XL) imidacloprid (Admire) + cyfluthrin (Baythroid) bifenthrin (Brigade) + imidacloprid (Admire) chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) + thiamethoxam (Actara, Platinum)

Flubendiamide (Belt) + buprofezin (Applaud)

Zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang Max), bifenthrin (Brigade), imidacloprid (Admire)

164 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-29. ALtErNAtIvE & bIOrAtIONAL INSECtICIdES FOr INSECt PESt CONtrOL StrAtEgIES IN vEgEtAbLE

CrOPS. (cont’d)

NOTE: Results of many specific control tactics listed below are highly variable. Many have not been tested thoroughly in commercial vegetable systems.

target Pest

Cropping

System

Systems-based Practices

(for pest prevention)

Mechanical & Physical tactics

(for pest prevention) biorational Insecticides

(before pests reach outbreak status)

Natural Enemies (NE)

Aphid

Multiple crops timely planting and harvest.

Reduce water stress; trap crop of okra, sorghum, etc.; removal of alternative hosts

Use of reflective mulches to protect transplants or use row covers after transplanting; use water jet or frequent irrigation to dislodge aphids & reduce plant stress insecticidal soap & oil, neem,

Pyrethrin, Chromobacterium

(Grandevo), Azera (insecticide premix)

Lady beetles, Lacewings

Midges, Parasitic wasps †

,

,

Predatory stink bugs,

Syrphid fly larvae

Asparagus beetle bean leaf beetle

Asparagus

Snap, lima, pole beans

Use some portion of field as trap crops; use insecticides on trap crops (repeated sprays)

Sanitation (removal of crop debris), site selection (away from wooded areas), delayed planting date.

Manually remove beetles from trap crops

Hand-pick beetles off the leaves

Pyrethrin, Spinosad,

Chromobacterium (Grandevo) insecticidal soap, Pyrethrin, Neem

Lady beetles, eulophid wasps tiphidae (parasitoids)

beet armyworm blister beetle

Cabbage looper

Colorado potato beetle

Corn earworm/ tomato fruitworm

Cowpea curculio

Cucumber beetle

Cutworm

Multiple crops

Multiple crops

Multiple crops

Multiple crops

Multiple crops

Snap, lima, pole beans timely harvest

Crop rotation, tolerant varieties

Crop rotation, sanitation

Multiple crops trap crop of Hubbard squash

Multiple crops

Vigorously growing plant varieties; timely planting

Destroy egg masses and caterpillars

Hand-picking, insect netting

Sanitation (remove crop debris).

Remove alternate host plants (wild mustard, shepherd’s purse)

Hand-picking

Hand-picking timely or early harvest of crop insect netting to block beetles

(early season protection)

Plant collars, floating row covers.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Xentari, Di- pel), Spinosad, Chromobacterium

(Grandevo), viruses (Spod-X)

Spinosad

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, insecticidal soap & oil, Spinosad,

Neem, Chromobacterium (Grandevo) insecticidal soap, Neem, Pyrethrin

(use for larval control)

Bacillus thuringiensis, insecticidal soap & oil, spinosad, Neem, Chro-

mobacterium (Grandevo) insecticidal soap & oil, Pyrethrin,

Neem (adults are difficult to kill)

Pyrethrin, neem, parasitic nema- todes (weekly soil drench)

Bacillus thuringiensis (Xentari,

Dipel) directed spray to plant base.

Spinosad foliar and stem spray;

Seduce(spinosad) bait

Lady beetles, Lacewing larvae, Soldier bugs

— trichogramma, encyrtid&

Pteromalid parasitoids,

Lacewings

Lacewing, ichneumonid wasp

Flower bugs, Lacewings, ichneumonid and Ptero- malid parasitoids

Soldier beetle, Braconid wasps

Braconid wasps

Lady beetle, Ground beetles

diamondback moth

& Imported cabbageworm

European corn borer Multiple crops

Flea beetle

Collard &

Mustard greens

Multiple crops

Use pheromone traps to moni- tor moths

Use tolerant cultivars when possible timely planting of crops, trap crops

Destroy caterpillar clusters on leaves; pheromone mating disruption

Remove caterpillars on foliage

Use row covers to protect trans- plants

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, insecticidal soap, Neem, Pyrethrin,

Chromobacterium (Grandevo), Azera

(insecticide premix)

Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, insecticidal soap, Neem, Pyrethrin,

Chromobacterium (Grandevo) insecticidal oil, Neem, Spinosad,

Parasitic nematodes (drench in soil),

Azera (insecticide premix)

Trichogramma bras-

sicae Parasitic wasp † ,

Macrolophus caliginosus

(Predatory beetle

)

Trichogramma wasps encourage native Parasitic flies and Wasps

Braconid wasps

grasshopper

Multiple crops

Maintain a grassy patch away from main crop and use insecticidal bait

Hand-picking, sweep netting

Pyrethrin (multiple applications), Nolo

Bait (nosema locustae)

Nematode bait (Sema- spore)

Hornworm

Japanese beetle

Lace bug

tomato

Multiple crops eggplant

— timely harvest; trap crops to deter feeding on main crop

Hand-picking

Manual removal of beetles by sweep netting or other means.

Spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis

kurstaki, Pyrethrin, Neem,

Chromobacterium (Grandevo)

Pyrethrin, Neem (multiple sprays),

Milky spore disease

Parasitic nematodes (drench in soil weekly)

Lacewings, Lady beetles, trichogramma and Braco- nid wasps tiphid parasitoids

Braconid

Leaffooted bug

Fruiting vegetables

(tomato, okra, eggplant) timely planting of main crops, trap crop of Peredovik sunflower & silage sorghum

nK300 provides significant reduction

Hand-pick and destroy adults; bug vacuum may be used for removing nymphs

Pyrethrin —

Leafhopper

Leafminer

Mealy bugs

Multiple crops

Multiple crops

Multiple crops

Pick and destroy mined leaves; remove egg clusters

Hand-picking insecticidal soap & oil, Pyrethrin,

Neem

Neem, spinosad,Chromobacterium

(Grandevo) insecticidal soap and oil

Flower bugs, Lacewings eulophid wasps (Digly-

phus, Dacnusa)

Leptomastix parasite

,

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

predatory beetle

Onion maggot

onion

Use well-composted manure; soil tillage exposes maggots

†Denotes natural enemies that can be purchased from commercial insectaries.

— — Braconid parasitoid

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 165

tAbLE 2-29. ALtErNAtIvE & bIOrAtIONAL INSECtICIdES FOr INSECt PESt CONtrOL StrAtEgIES IN vEgEtAbLE

CrOPS. (cont’d)

NOTE: Results of many specific control tactics listed below are highly variable. Many have not been tested thoroughly in commercial vegetable systems.

target Pest

Cropping

System

Systems-based Practices

(for pest prevention)

Mechanical & Physical tactics

(for pest prevention) biorational Insecticides

(before pests reach outbreak status)

Natural Enemies (NE)

Parsleyworm (black swallowtail)

Parsley, dill, carrot

— Hand-pick and destroy caterpillars Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki trichogramma wasps

Pepper weevil

Pepper Crop rotation Hand-pick insects insecticidal soap, Neem, Pyrethrin,

Parasitic nematodes (drench in soil weekly)

Lady beetles, Predatory mites, Lacewings

Pickleworm

Seedcorn maggot

Spider mite

Squash vine borer

Squash bug

Cantaloupe, muskmelon

Snap, lima, pole beans

Multiple crops

Pumpkin, squash

Pumpkin, squash

Reduce organic matter

Plant and harvest timely; pro- vide irrigation; problem could be severe in drought years; tolerant varieties timely planting, tolerant variet- ies, sanitation (remove crop debris) trap cropping with Hubbard squash; plant tolerant variet- ies, sanitation (remove crop debris)

Practice de-worming, insect net- ting at plant base (early season) insect netting early in season

Paraffinic oil, Neem oil, Sulfur dust or spray (check label before use); do not use pyrethrin

Pyrethrin, Spinosad (early season spray after detecting moths or eggs at plant base)

Pyrethrin weekly spray at low population levels

Lady beetles, Predatory mites, Lacewings

Parasitoid, Parasitic nematodes

Amblyseius californicus

Phytoseiulus persimilis

&

(Predatory mites), Feltiella

acarisuga gall midge

Stink bug &

Harlequin bug

Multiple crops trap crop of sorghum, okra Hand-picking insecticidal oil, Pyrethrin

thrips

Whitefly

Multiple crops

Multiple crops trap crops

Crop rotation

Spinosad, insecticidal soap, Paraf- finic oil insecticidal soap, Neem oil,Chromobacterium (Grandevo) eucoliid & Scelionid parasitoids

Orius insidiosus

& O.

majusculus (flower bugs),

Lacewings, Hypoaspis

miles & Amblyseius swir-

skii (predatory mites)

Lacewings, Encarsia

formosa

& Eretmocerus

eremicus (parasitoids),

Amblyseius swirskii

(Predatory mite)

Wireworms

Multiple crops

Crop rotation is a major iPM strategy

— None —

yellow-striped armyworm

Hand-picking eggs and larvae

Bacillus thuringiensis (Xentari, Dipel),

Neem (azadirachtin), Spinosad,

Chromobacterium (Grandevo), Azera

(insecticide premix)

Spined soldier bugs

†Denotes natural enemies that can be purchased from commercial insectaries.

166 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

INSECt CONtrOL FOr grEENHOUSE vEgEtAbLES

Sound cultural practices, such as sanitation and insect-free transplants, help prevent insect establishment and subsequent damage.

Separate plant production houses, use of yellow sticky traps, and timely sprays will help prevent whitefly buildup. Use of Encarsia parasites for whitefly and other biological control agents in conjunction with use of pesticides is encouraged. Unless a pesticide label specifically states that a product cannot be used in a greenhouse vegetable crop, the product can be used on those crops for which it is registered. However, pesticides behave differently in the field and the greenhouse, and for many products, information is not available on greenhouse crop phytotoxicity and residue retention.

If unsure of the safety of a product to a crop, apply to a small area before treating the entire crop.

tAbLE 2-30. INSECt CONtrOL FOr grEENHOUSE vEgEtAbLES (cont’d)

CrOP

Insect

Insecticide and

Formulation

Amount of

Formulation re

Entry

Interval

Pre Harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

INSECt CONtrOL FOr CUCUMbEr

Aphid flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 30SG

0.065 to 0.1 oz per

1000 sq ft

12 hrs 0 malathion, MoA 1B

(various)

10 A

57 eC

25 WP imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

1 lb/50,000 cu ft

1 qt/100 gal water

4 lb/100 gal water

0.6 fl oz/1,000 plants

24 hrs

12 hrs

1

0

Apply as needed in the closed greenhouse in air above the plants. Spray when the temperature is 70 to 85°F. Keep ventilator closed for 2 hr or overnight. Ventilate before reentry. Hazardous to honey bees.

Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches, micro-irrigation, or drip irrigation. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur. Make only one application per crop per season.

insecticidal soap

(M-Pede) 49 eC

Cabbage looper Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11

(various)

2 tbsp/gal water

0.5 to 1 lb oR

3 pt/100 gal water

12 hrs 0

Spider mite

Whitefly,

Leafminer spinosad, MoA 5

(entrust) SC insecticidal soap

(M-pede) 49 eC mineral oil

(tritek) flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 30SG malathion, MoA 1B (various)

10 A

50 WP

25 WP imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

3 fl oz/100 gal

2 tbsp/gal water

1 to 2 gal/100 gal

0.065 to 0.1 oz per

1000 sq ft

1 lb/50,000 cu ft

1 qt/100 gal water

4 lb/100 gal water

0.6 fl oz/1,000 plants

2 tbsp/gal water

4 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

24 hrs

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

0

0

1

0

0

Do not make more than two consecutive applications.

Use predatory mites.

Begin applications when mite populations are low, and repeat at weekly intervals.

For whitefly only.

For details see Cucumber — Aphid

Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches, micro-irrigation, or drip irrigation. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur.

Make only one application per crop per season.

May be used alone or in combination. Acts as an exciter.

insecticidal soap

(M-Pede) 49 eC

Beauveria bassiana

(Mycotrol WP)

INSECt CONtrOL FOr LEttUCE

Aphid,

Leafminer,

Whitefly pyrethrins and PBo, MoA 3

(Pyrenone) malathion, MoA 1B (various)

10 A

57 eC

25 WP insecticidal soap

(M-Pede) 49 eC

0.25 lb/20 gal water

12 oz/20 gal water

1 lb/50,000 cu ft

1 qt/100 gal water

4 lb/100 gal water

2 tbsp/gal water

0.25 lb/20 gal water

24 hrs

12 hrs

0

0

10

14

14

0

0

May be used alone or tank mixed with a companion insecticide (see label for details).

May be used alone or in combination. Acts as an exciter. insecticidal soaps can cause phytotoxicity under high temperatures or slow drying conditions. if unsure, apply to a small area before treating the entire crop.

Under high aphid or whitely pressure, apply at 2 to 5 day intervals.

Beauveria bassiana

(Mycotrol WP)

Cabbage looper Bacillus thuringiensis, MoA 11

(Javelin) WG spinosad, MoA 5 entrust SC

0.5 to 1.25/

100 gal water

3 fl oz/100 gal

4 hrs

0

Do not make more than two consecutive applications.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 167

tAbLE 2-30. INSECt CONtrOL FOr grEENHOUSE vEgEtAbLES (cont’d)

CrOP

Insect

Insecticide and

Formulation

Amount of

Formulation re

Entry

Interval

Pre Harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

INSECt CONtrOL FOr LEttUCE (cont’d)

Slugs iron phosphate F spinosad

(Sluggo)

0.5 to 1 lb/1,000 sq ft 1 Scatter the bait around the perimeter of the greenhouse to provide a protective barrier. if slugs are within the crop, then scatter the bait on the ground around the plants. Do not make more than 3 applications within 21 days. Will also control earwigs, cutworms, sowbugs and pillbugs.

Spider mite 2 tbsp/gal water 12 hrs 0 insecticidal soap

(M-Pede) 49 eC mineral oil

(tritek)

1 to 2 gal/100 gal 0 Begin applications when mite populations are low, and repeat at weekly intervals.

INSECt CONtrOL FOr tOMAtO ANd PEPPEr

Aphid flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 30SG imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

0.065 to 0.1 oz per

1000 sq ft

0.6 fl oz/1,000 plants

12 hrs

12 hrs

0

0 Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches, micro-irrigation, or drip irrigation. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur. Make only one application per crop per season. Also controls whiteflies.

malathion, MoA 1B (various)

10 A

57 eC

25 WP insecticidal soap

(M-Pede) 49 eC

1 lb/50,000 cu ft

1 qt/100 gal water

4 lb/100 gal water

2 tbsp/gal water

12 hrs

12 hrs

15 hr

1

1

0 May be used alone or in combination. Acts as an exciter.

0.25 lb/20 gal water 0 Apply when whiteflies are observed. Repeat in 4-to 5-day intervals.

Armyworm,

Fruitworm,

Cabbage looper,

Cutworm,

Pinworm

Beauveria bassiana

(Mycotrol WP) malathion, MoA 1B (various)

10 A

57 eC

25 WP

Bacillus thuringiensis , MoA 11

(Javelin) WG

(Agree) WP

(Dipel) DF

Xentari DF chlorfenapyr MoA 13

(Pylon) 2SC,

1 lb/50,000 cu ft

1 qt/100 gal water

4 qt/100 gal water

0.5 lb to 1.25 lb/100 gal water

1 to 2 lb

0.5 to 1.25

0.5 to 1.5

6.5 to 13 fl oz/100 gal water or per acre area

3 fl oz/100 gal

12 hrs

4 hrs

4 hrs

15 hr

1

1

0

0

1

See instructions for Aphids (above). Hazardous to honey bees.

For use on tomatoes more than 1 inch in diameter at maturity. Do not make more than two applications at 5 to 10 day intervals before rotating to an insecticide with a different mode of action.

Do not make more than two consecutive applications. Do not apply to seedling tomatoes or peppers grown for transplants.

Leafminer

Millipede,

Cricket

Slug

Spider mite, broad mite spinosad, MoA 5 entrust SC malathion, MoA 1B

(various) 10 A diazinon, MoA 1B

(Diazinon, Spectracide)

(AG 500) 50 WP spinosad, MoA 5

(entrust) SC malathion, MoA 1B

(various) 5 D metaldehyde

(various) bait bifenazate

(Floramite) SC, mineral oil

(tritek) chlorfenapyr, MoA 13

(Pylon) 2SC

1 lb/50,000 cu ft 12 hrs

4 to 8 oz/100 gal water 48 hrs

10 fl oz/100 gal 4 hrs

Follow label directions 12 hrs

Follow label directions

4 to 8 fl oz/100 gal water

(1/4 to 1/2 tsp/gal)

1 to 2 gal/100 gal

9.8 to 13 fl oz/100 gal water or per acre area

15 hr

3

1

3

0

0

See toMAto—Aphid

Keep ventilators closed for 2 hr or overnight. Plant injury may result if labeling directions are not followed. For use by members of N.C. Greenhouse

Vegetable Growers Association only.

Do not apply to seedlings grown for transplants.

Apply to soil at base of plants. Do not contaminate fruit.

Apply to soil surface around plants. Do not contaminate fruit.

For use on tomatoes >1” in diameter at maturity. Not registered on pepper.

Not for rust mite

Begin applications when mite populations are low, and repeat at weekly intervals.

For use on tomatoes more than1 inch in diameter at maturity. Do not make more than two applications at 5 to 10 day intervals before rotating to an insecticide with a different mode of action.

insecticidal soap

(M-Pede) 49 eC

2 tbsp/gal water 12 hrs 0

168 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 2-30. INSECt CONtrOL FOr grEENHOUSE vEgEtAbLES (cont’d)

CrOP

Insect

Insecticide and

Formulation

Amount of

Formulation re

Entry

Interval

Pre Harvest

Interval

(PHI) (days) Precautions and remarks

INSECt CONtrOL FOr tOMAtO ANd PEPPEr (con’td)

thrips, including western flower

Beauveria bassiana

(Mycotrol WP) chlorfenapyr, MoA 13

(Pylon) 2SC

0.25 lb/20 gal water

9.8 to 13 fl oz/100 gal water or per acre area

0

0

Use screens on intake vents. Apply when whiteflies observed. Repeat in

4- to 5-day intervals.

Whitefly spinosad, MoA 5

(entrust) SC imidacloprid, MoA 4A

(Admire Pro) 4.6 F

5.5 fl oz/100 gal

0.6 fl oz/1,000 plants

4 hrs

12 hrs

1

0

For use on tomatoes more than1 inch in diameter at maturity. Do not make more than two applications at 5 to 10 day intervals before rotating to an insecticide with a different mode of action.

Do not make more than two consecutive applications, and do not apply more than 6 times in a 12 month period against thrips. Do not apply to seedlings grown for transplants.

Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches, micro-irrigation, or drip irrigation. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur. Make only one application per crop per season. Also controls aphids.

cyantraniliprole, MoA 28

(exirel) 0.83Se

13.5 to 20.5 fl oz/

100 gal water or per acre area

0.065 to 0.1 oz per

1000 sq ft

12 hrs

12 hrs

1

0 For use on tomato only.

flonicamid, MOA 9C

(Beleaf) 30SG insecticidal soap

(M-Pede) 49 eC pyrethrins and PBo, MoA 3

(Pyrenone)

2 tbsp/gal water

12 oz/ 20 gal water

12 hrs 0

0 May be used alone or tank mixed with a companion insecticide (see label for details.)

0.25 lb/20 gal water 0 Apply when whiteflies are observed. Repeat in 4- to 5-day intervals.

Beauveria bassiana

(Mycotrol WP) buprofezin, MoA 16

(talus) 40SC pyriproxyfen, MoA 7C

(Distance) 0.86eC

9 to 13.6 oz/100 gal water or per acre area

6 fl oz/100 gal water

1

<1

Insect growth regulator that affects immature stages of whiteflies. Will not kill adults. F or use on tomatoes only.

Insect growth regulator that affects immature stages of whiteflies. Will not kill adults. Do not use on tomatoes <1” diameter. Do not apply on non-bell pepper.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 169

PAGe iNteNtioNALLy LeFt BLANK

disease Control for Commercial vegetables

Caution: At the time these tables were prepared, the entries were believed to be useful and accurate. Not all products are registered in every state. Check the registration status of a product in your state before using it. Tables constitute materials available and labeled for use but do not necessarily constitute recommendations as to their efficacy. Labels change rapidly and errors are possible, so the user must follow all directions on the product label. Federal tolerances for fungicides may be canceled or changed at any time.

Information in the following tables must be used in the context of an integrated disease management program. Many diseases are successfully managed by combined strategies—using resistant varieties, crop rotation, deep-turn plowing, sanitation, seed treatments, cultural practices, and fungicides. Always use top quality seed and plants obtained from reliable sources. Seeds are ordinarily treated by commercial producers for control of decay and damping-off diseases.

Preplant fumigation of soils, nematode control chemicals and greenhouse disease control products are provided in separate tables following the crop tables. The efficacy tables will help you select the appropriate disease control materials for some vegetable crops. These tables are located at the end of each crop table.

Rates: Some foliar rates are based on mixing a specified amount of product in 100 gal of water and applying the finished spray for complete coverage of foliage just to the point of run off with high pressure (over 250 psi) drop nozzle sprayers. Actual amount of product and water applied per acre will vary depending on plant size and row spacing. Typically 25 to 75 gallons (gal) per acre of finished spray are used. Concentrate spray (air blast, aircraft, etc.) rates are based on the amount of product per acre. Caution: With concentrate sprays, it is easy to apply too much product. Some fungicides are adversely affected by pH of water; adjust pH of water if specified on label. Some fungicides will cause damage to the plant if applied at temperatures above 90°F.

Do not feed treated foliage to livestock unless allowed by the label. Do not reenter fields until sprays have dried; some fungicides may have a reentry requirement of one to several days. Read the label. Do not exceed maximum number of applications on the label. Do not exceed maximum limit of fungicide per acre per application or per year as stated on the label. See label for rotational crops. In all cases, follow directions on the label. The label is the law.

tAbLE 3-1. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr ASPArAgUS

E. Sikora, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University disease

Crown rot

Material

mancozeb 80W

rate of Material to Use

Formulation Active Ingredient

Minimum days

Harv. reentry

1 lb/100 gal 0.8 lb/100 gal — —

Phytophthora crown rot, spear rot

Rust mefenoxam (Ridomil

Gold) SL fosetyl-AL (Alliette) myclobutanil (Rally 40W)

1 pt/acre

5 lb/A

5 oz/A

0.5 lb/A

4 lb a.i.

2.0 oz a.i.

1

110

180

2

0.5

1

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Soak crowns 5 min in burlap bag with gentle agitation, drain, and plant.

Apply over beds after seeding or covering crowns,

30 to 60 days before first cutting, and just before harvest.

Begin applications to developing ferns after harvest has taken place. Repeat on a schedule not to exceed 14 days. Do not supply to harvestable spears.

Rust, Cercospora leaf spot sulfur (generic) tebuconazole

(Folicur) 3.6F (orius 3.6F)

(toledo 3.6F) chlorothalonil (Bravo

Weather Stik)

See label

4 to 6 fl oz/A

2 to 4 lb/A

0.11 to 0.17 lb

1.5 to 3.0 lb a.i.

0

180

190

1

0.5

0.5

Purple spot mancozeb 80W azoxystrobin (Quadris,

Satori) chlorothalonil (Bravo

Weather Stik) trifloxystrobin (Flint 50

WDG)

2 lb/A

6 to 15.5 fl oz

2 to 4 lb/A

3 to 4 oz/A

1.6 lb/A

0.10 to 0.25 lb a.i.

1.5 to 3.0 lb a.i.

1.5 to 2 oz/A

180

100

190

180

1

4 hr

0.5

12 hr

Apply to developing ferns at first sign of rust and repeat on a 14 day interval; no more than 3 applications per season.

Repeat applications at 14 to 28 day intervals depending on disease pressure. Do not apply more than 12 pints/aces during each growing season.

Apply to ferns after harvest; spray first appearance,

7 to 10 day intervals. Do not exceed 8 lb product per acre per crop.

Do not apply more than 1 foliar application of Quadris (or other group 11 fungicide) before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action.

Repeat applications at 14 to 28 day intervals depending on disease pressure. Do not apply more than 12 pints/aces during each growing season.

Make no more than one application before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Begin applications preventively when conditions are favorable for disease and continue as needed on a 7 to 14 day interval.

2014 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 171

tAbLE 3-2. IMPOrtANCE OF ALtErNAtIvE MANAgEMENt PrACtICES FOr dISEASE CONtrOL IN ASPArAgUS

E. Sikora, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University; A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University

Scale: “E” excellent; “g” good; “F” fair; “P” poor; “NC” no control; “Nd” no data.

Strategy

Avoid overhead irrigation

rust

F

Cercospora blight Stemphylium blight Fusarium root rot

F F NC

Phytophthora crown/spear rot

NC

Crop rotation (5 years or more)

Clip and bury infected ferns

Destroy infected ferns

Encourage air movement/wider row spacing

Plant in well-drained soil

Destroy volunteer asparagus

Pathogen-free planting material

Resistant/tolerant cultivars

NC

G e

P

NC

F

NC

G

NC

G e

P

NC

NC

NC

G

NC

G e

G

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

F

NC e

G

P

NC

NC

NC

F

NC e

NC

tAbLE 3-3. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr bASIL

M. L. Lewis Ivey, Plant Pathologist, Louisiana State University, LSU AgCenter disease

Leaf spots, fungal

(Botrytis, Alternaria,

Fusarium)

Material

cyprodinil + fludioxonil

(Switch) 62.5WG

rate of Material to Use

Formulation Active Ingredient

Minimum days

Harv. reentry

11 to 14 oz/acre 6.87 to 8.75 oz/acre 7 0.5

Downy mildew (Peronos-

pora belbahrii) cyazofamid

(Ranman) Fungicide mandipropamid

(Revus)

2.75 to 3 fl oz/acre

8 fl oz/acre

0.071 to 0.078 lb/ acre

0.13 lb/acre

0

1

0

0.5

4 hr

4 hr

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Limit of 56 fl oz per acre per season. Make no more than two consecutive applications before rotating to another effective fungicide with a different mode of action.

Limit of 27 fl oz per acre per season. Alternate with a fungicide with a different mode of action. May be applied through sprinkler irrigation system.

Limit of 32 fl oz per acre per season. Make no more than two consecutive applications before rotating to another effective fungicide with a different mode of action.

NOtE: this is a supplemental label (EPA reg.

No. 100-1254) that expires on 12/19/2016.

Do not apply at less than 3 day intervals.

Fusarium wilt and Pythium and Rhizoctonia root rots phosphorous acid

(Confine Extra, K-Phite) potassium phosphite

(Fosphite, Fungi-Phite,

Helena ProPhyte) phosphorous acid

(Confine Extra, K-Phite) potassium phosphite

(Fosphite, Fungi-Phite,

Helena ProPhyte)

1 to 3 qt/20 to 100 gal water/acre

1 to 3 qt/100 gal water/acre

1 to 3 qt/20 to 100 gal water/acre

1 to 3 qt/100 gal water/acre

0.53 to 1.59 qt/20 to

100 gal water/acre

0.53 to 1.59 qt/100 gal water/acre

0.53 to 1.59 qt/20 to

100 gal water/acre

0.53 to 1.59 qt/100 gal water/acre

0

0

0

4 hr

4 hr

4 hr

Do not apply at less than 3 day intervals.

Do not apply at less than 3 day intervals.

Do not apply at less than 3 day intervals.

tAbLE 3-4. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr bEAN (cont’d)

E. Sikora, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University disease Material rate of Material to Use

Formulation Active Ingredient

Minimum days

Harv. reentry Method, Schedule, and remarks bEAN, dry (Catjang, Chickpea, Fava, Garbanzo, Lentil, Lima, Lupine, Mung, May pea, Southernpea, Soybean)

Anthracnose, Alternaria leaf spot and blight, Ascochyta leaf and pod spot, rust (Phakopsora) azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Priaxor)

6.2 to 15.4 fl oz

4.0 to 8.0 fl oz

0.10 to 0.25 lb

0.13 to 0.25 lb

0

21

4 hr

12 hr

Do not apply more than three sequential applications.

Begin prior to disease development and continue on a

7 to 14 day spray schedule.

Anthracnose, Botrytis gray mold, white mold

(Sclerotinia) picoxystrobin (Aproach) boscalid (endura) 70 WG picoxystrobin (Aproach)

6 to 12 fl oz

8 to 11 oz

8 to 12 fl oz

1.8 to 2.5 fl oz

5.6 to 7.7 oz

1.8 to 2.5 fl oz

14

21

14

0.5

0.5

0.5

Do not apply more than three sequential applications.

Use 6 oz rate for chickpeas and lentils. Many other dried and succulent beans on label.

Do not apply more than three sequential applications.

For white mold, make preventive applications beginning at bloom (see label)

Botrytis gray mold, white mold (Sclerotinia) thiophanate-methyl

(topsin M) 70 WP fludioxonil (Cannonball WG)

30 to 40 fl oz

7 oz

5.6 to 8.4 fl oz

3.5 fl oz

28

7

3

0.5

For multiple applications: Make first application when

10-30% of plants have at least one open bloom and continue on 7 day intervals.. Do not apply more than

80 fl oz/ season.

Begin before disease develops and continue on 7 day intervals until conditions no longer favor disease development. Do not apply more than 28 oz//A. Do not use on cowpeas.

172 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 3-4. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr bEAN (cont’d)

E. Sikora, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University

azoxystrobin + mefenoxam

(Uniform)

rate of Material to Use

0.34 fl oz/1,000 row ft

0.0071 + 0.0028 lb/ acre

Minimum days disease Material Formulation Active Ingredient Harv. reentry Method, Schedule, and remarks bEAN, dry (Catjang, Chickpea, Fava, Garbanzo, Lentil, Lima, Lupine, Mung, May pea, Southernpea, Soybean) (cont’d)

Botrytis gray mold, white mold (Sclerotinia)

(cont’d)

Pythium damping off iprodione (Rovral) 50 WP

4 F mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold)

4 SL

1.5 to 2 lb/acre

1.5 to 2 pt/acre

0.75 to 1 lb/acre

0.5 to 1 pt/trt acre 0.25 to 0.5 lb/trt acre

0

1

2

Do not use on cowpea. two applications maximum per season with last application no late than peak bloom. Do not feed dry bean hay to live stock until 45 days after last application.

Preplant incorporate. See label for row rates.

— in-furrow spray. See label directions.

Rhizoctonia root rot azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F azoxystrobin + mefenoxam

(Uniform)

PCNB (Blocker)

0.4 to 0.8 fl oz/

1,000 row feet

0.34 fl oz/1,000 row ft

2.3 to 3.3 fl oz/1000 row ft

0.006 to 0.013 lb

0.0071 + 0.0028 lb/ acre

1.0 to 1.5 lb/acre

4 hr

Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence.

in-furrow spray. See label directions.

in-furrow spray. See label directions.

Rust (Uromyces) azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F boscalid (endura) 70 WG

6.2 fl oz

8 to 11 oz

0.10 lb

5.6 to 7.7 oz

0

21

4 hr

0.5

Do not apply more than three sequential applications.

pyraclostrobin (Headline)

2.09F

tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.6F

5.5 to 8 fl oz

4 to 6 fl oz/acre

1.5 to 2.4 lb

1.5 to 2 lb/acre

30

14

0.5

0.5

Use 6 oz rate for chickpeas and lentils. Many other dried and succulent beans on label.

All dry beans except soybeans. Make no more than

2 applications per season

Apply before disease appears when conditions favor rust development and repeat at 14 day intervals; maximum 12 fl oz per season.

bEAN, SNAP

Anthracnose, Botrytis,

Sclerotinia azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Ultrex)

82.5 WDG dicloran (Botran) 75 W

6.2 to 15.4 fl oz

2.7 lb/acre

2.25 to 4 lb/acre

0.10 to 0.25 lb

2.2 lb/acre

1.7 to 3 lb/acre

0

7

2

4 hr

2

For anthracnose only. Do not apply more than three sequential applications.

Spray first appearance, 11 lb limit per acre per crop,

7 day intervals. Not for Sclerotinia control.

Ascochyta blight, Botrytis gray mold, white mold

Botrytis gray mold, white mold (Sclerotinia)

Bacterial blights

Powdery mildew

Rhizoctonia root rot

Rust (Uromyces) thiophanate-methyl (topsin

M) 70 WP fluazinam (Omega 500) fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Priaxor) boscalid (endura) 70 WG penthiopyrad (Fontelis) fludioxonil (Cannonball WG) fixed copper (generic) sulfur (generic) azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F myclobutanil Rally 40 WSP dichloropropene (telone)

C-17

C-35 metam-sodium (Vapam)

42 HL azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F pyraclostrobin (Headline)

1 to 2 lb/acre

0.5 to 0.85 pts

4.0 to 8.0 fl oz

0.7 to 1.4 lb/acre

0.26 to 0.44

0.13 to 0.25 lb

8 to 11 oz 5.6 to 7.7 oz

14 to 30 fl oz/acre 0.18 to 0.4 oz/acre

7 oz —

See label

See label

0.4 to 0.8 fl oz/1,000 row feet

4 to 5 oz/acre

10.8 to 17.1 gal/acre

13 to 20.5 gal/acre

37.5 to 75 gal/ trt acre

6.2 to 15.4 fl oz/ acre

6.0 to 9.0 fl oz

0.006 to 0.013lb/

1,000 row feet

1.6 to 2 oz/acre

107 to 169 lb/acre

139 to 220 lb/acre

160 to 320 lb/ trt acre

0.10 to 0.25 lb/acre

0.09 to 0.18 lb/acre

14

0

14

7

7

0

7

1

0

0

0.5

1

For Sclerotinia only. Use low rate for bush varieties and high rate for pole varieties.

Spray at 25% bloom, repeat at full bloom. Do not exceed 4 lb product per season.

Apply at 10 to 30% bloom.

3

12 hr Begin prior to disease development and continue on a

7 to 14 day spray schedule.

0.5

Many other dried and succulent beans on label.

12 hr Begin sprays prior to disease development.

0.5

Begin before disease develops and continue on 7 day intervals until conditions no longer favor disease development. Do not apply more than 28 oz/A. Do not use on cowpeas.

1

1

4 hr

1

5

Spray first appearance, 10 day intervals.

Spray at first appearance, 10 to 14 day intervals.

Avoid days over 90°F.

Apply in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence.

For Rhizoctonia only.

Rate is based on soil type; see label for in-row rates.

4 hr

12 hr

Rate is based on soil properties and depth of soil to be treated; apply 14 to 21 days before planting.

Make no more than three sequential applications.

Make no more than two sequential applications.

White mold (Sclerotinia) boscalid (endura) 70 WG chlorothalonil (Bravo Ultrex)

82.5 WDG myclobutanil Rally 40 WSP sulfur (generic) tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.6F

botran 75 W

8 to 11 oz/acre

1.25 to 2.7 lb/acre

4 to 5 oz/acre

See label

4 to 6 fl oz/acre

2.5 to 4 lb/acre

5.6 to 7.7 oz/acre

1.1 to 2.2 lb/acre

1.6 to 2 oz/acre

2 to 4 lb/100 gal

1.5 to 2 lb/acre

1.9 to 3 lb/acre

0

0

7

7

7

2

0.5

2

1

1

0.5

0.5

Many other dried and succulent beans on label.

Spray first appearance, 11 lb limit per acre per crop, 7-day intervals.

Spray at first appearance.

Spray at 7 to 10 day intervals.

Apply before disease appears when conditions favor rust development and repeat at 14 day intervals; maximum 24 fl oz per season.

Use low rate for bush varieties and high rate for pole varieties.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 173

tAbLE 3-4. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr bEAN (cont’d)

E. Sikora, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University

Material rate of Material to Use

Formulation Active Ingredient disease bEAN, LIMA

Botrytis, Sclerotinia, leaf spots

Botrytis gray mold, white mold (Sclerotinia) azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F thiophanate-methyl (topsin

M) 70 WP iprodione (Rovral)

50 WP 4 F fluazinam (Omega 500) penthiopyrad (Fontelis) pyraclostrobin (Headline) fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Priaxor) fludioxonil (Cannonball WG)

6.2 to 15.4 fl oz/ acre

1.5 to 2 lb/acre

1.5 to 2 lb/acre

1.5 to 2 pt/acre

0.5 to 0.85 pts

14 to 30 fl oz/acre

6.0 to 9.0 fl oz

4.0 to 8.0 fl oz

7 oz

0.10 to 0.25 lb/acre

1.05 to 1.4 lb/acre

0.75 to 1 lb/acre

0.26 to 0.44

0.18 to 0.4

0.09 to 0.18 lb/acre

0.13 to 0.25 lb

3.5 oz

Damping off, Pythium,

Rhizoctonia azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold)

4 SL azoxystrobin + mefenoxam

(Uniform)

0.4 to 0.8 fl oz/1,000 row feet

0.5 to 2 pt/trt acre

0.34 fl oz/1,000 row ft

0.006 to 0.013 lb/

1,000 row feet

0.25 to 0.5 lb/trt acre

0.0071 + 0.0028 lb/ acre

Minimum days

Harv. reentry Method, Schedule, and remarks

0

30

0

21

21

7

0

14

4 hr

1

1

3

12 hr

12 hr

12 hr

0.5

4 hr

2

Leaf spots only; do not make more than three sequential applications.

4 lb limit per acre per crop.

Apply at 10 to 30% bloom.

Begin sprays prior to disease development.

Make no more than two sequential applications.

Begin prior to disease development and continue on a 7 to 14 day spray schedule.

Begin before disease develops and continue on 7 day intervals until conditions no longer favor disease development. Do not apply more than 28 oz/A. Do not use on cowpeas.

Rhizoctonia only. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence.

For Pythium only. Soil incorporate. See label for row rates. Use proportionally less for band rates.

Limit of one application per season. in-furrow spray.

See label directions.

tAbLE 3-5. EFFICACy OF PrOdUCtS FOr FOLIAr dISEASE CONtrOL IN bEANS

E. Sikora, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University

Scale: “E” excellent; “g” good; “F” fair; “P” poor; “NC” no control; “Nd” no data.

Product

1

azoxystrobin (Quadris) azoxystrobin + mefenoxam (Uniform) boscalid (endura) penthiopyrad (Fontelis) dicloran (Botran) fluazinam (Omega 500) chlorothalonil (Bravo, echo, equus)

11

11+4

14

29

7

7

M

Preharvest interval (d

14

7 to 21

0

30

7

G

F

ND

ND

NC

ND

P

G

F

ND

ND

NC

ND

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

G

G

ND

ND

NC

NC

G

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC e

ND

ND

ND

NC

NC

G

ND

ND

NC

NC

NC

ND

F

P

NC

F

G

G

G

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

ND

ND

NC

NC

P

F

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

G

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

G

G

ND

ND

NC

ND

NC

NC

NC

F

G e e

NC cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) fixed copper

2 iprodione (Rovral) mefenoxam (Ridomil) pyraclostrobin (Headline)

9+12

M

2

4

11

7

0

7 to 21

ND

NC

P

NC

G

ND

P

NC

NC

G

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

ND

P

NC

NC

G

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

ND

P

NC

NC e

NC

F

NC

G

ND

G

P

G

NC

P

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

ND

P

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

F

F

R

NC

NC

NC

G R

NC

ND

NC

F

NC

F e

NC

G

NC

NC fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Priaxor) sulfur tebuconazole (Folicur) thiophanate-methyl (topsin M)

7+11

M

3

1

7 to 21

0

7

14 to 28

G

NC

NC

P

G

F

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

G

F

F

G

NC

NC

NC

NC e

F

G

ND

ND

P

NC

NC

G

P

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

F

NC

ND

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

P

P e

NC

NC

F

F

NC

G

NC

1 Efficacy ratings do not necessarily indicate a labeled use for every disease.

2

Fixed coppers include: Basicop, Champ, Champion, Citcop, Copper-Count-N, Kocide, Nu-Cop, Super Cu, tenn-Cop, top Cop with Sulfur, and tri-basic copper sulfate.

F to prevent resistance in pathogens, alternate fungicides within a group with fungicides in another group. Fungicides in the “M” group are generally considered “low

R risk” with no signs of resistance developing to the majority of fungicides.

Resistance reported in the pathogen.

P

NC

NC

NC

F e

NC

P

F

NC

F

NC

174 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 3-6. IMPOrtANCE OF ALtErNAtIvE MANAgEMENt PrACtICES FOr dISEASE CONtrOL IN bEANS

E. Sikora, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University

Scale: “E” excellent; “g” good; “F” fair; “P” poor; “NC” no control; “Nd” no data.

Strategy

Avoid field operations when leaves are wet

Avoid overhead irrigation

Change planting date

Cover cropping with antagonist

Crop rotation

Deep plowing

Destroy crop residue encourage air movement increase between-plant spacing increase soil organic matter insecticidal oils pH management

Plant in well-drained soil

Plant on raised beds

Plastic mulch bed covers

Postharvest temperature control

Reflective mulch

Reduce mechanical injury

Rogue diseased plants

Row covers

Soil solarization

Pathogen-free planting material

Resistant cultivars

Weed control

NC

NC

G

G

NC

F

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

F

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

ND

P

NC

NC e e

F

NC

NC

F

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC e

P e e e e

F

NC

G

NC

NC

F e

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

F

P

F

F e

P

NC

F

NC

P

NC

NC

F

F

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC e

P e e e e

NC

NC

F

NC

F

NC

G

F e e

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

F

NC

NC

P

F

NC

F

NC

NC

G

NC

F

NC

NC e e

F

F

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC e

P e e e e

F

NC

G

NC

NC

NC e

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC e

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

P

F

NC

G e e

G

P

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

P

NC

G

NC

NC

NC e e

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

P

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC e

NC

F

NC

F

NC

NC

NC e e

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

F

F

P

NC

P e

NC

F

NC

F

NC

NC

P

P

P

NC

NC

NC

P

P e

G

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

NC e

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC e e

G (early)

NC

NC

NC

F

F

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC e

F

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

G

G

NC

G

NC

F

F

P

NC

F

F e

F

F

NC

NC

NC

G

G e e

NC

G

NC

NC e

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 175

tAbLE 3-7. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr brOCCOLI, brUSSEL SPrOUt, CAbbAgE, ANd CAULIFLOWEr (cont’d)

A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University disease

Alternaria leaf spot

Alternaria and gray mold

Black leg

Black rot, downy mildew

Clubroot

Downy mildew

Material

azoxystrobin + difenoconazole (Quadris top

2.72 SC) boscalid (endura 70 eG) cyprodinil + difenoconazole

(inspire Super 2.82 SC) cyprodinil + fludioxonil

(Switch 62.5WG) fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Priaxor

500 SC) triflumizole (Procure 480SC) penthiopyrad

(Fontelis 1.67 SC) iprodione (Rovral 4F) fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Priaxor

500 SC) acibenzolar-S-methyl

(Actigard 50WG) fixed copper (generic) cyazofamid (Ranman)

34.5 SC fluazinam (Omega 500F) amectoctradin + dimethomorph (Zampro)

rate of Material to Use

Formulation

14 fl oz/acre

6 to 9 oz/acre

16 to 20 fl oz/acre

11 to 14 oz/acre

6.0 to 8.2 fl oz/ acre 0.20 to 0.27 lb/acre

6 to 8 fl oz/acre

14 to 30 fl oz/acre

2 pt/acre

6.0 to 8.2 fl oz/ acre 0.20 to 0.27 lb/acre

0.5 to 1 oz/acre

See label

transplant:

12.9 to 25.75 fl oz/100 gal water

banded:

20 fl oz/acre

transplant:

6.45 fl oz/100 gal water

banded:

2.6 pts/acre

14 fl oz/acre

0.3 lb/acre

4.2 to 6.3 oz/acre

5.6 to 7.1 oz/acre

6.9 to 8.7 oz/acre

3 to 4 oz/acre

0.18 to 0.39 lb/acre

0.8 pt/acre

0.25 to 0.5 oz/acre

0.333 to 0.665 lb/100 gal water

0.52 lb/acre

0.002 lb/gal water

1.36 lb/acre

0.48 lb/acre

Minimum days

Active Ingredient Harv. reentry

1

0

7

7

3

1

0

0

3

7

0

0.5

50

0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Apply prior to disease, but when conditions are favorable, on 7 to 14 day schedule. Alternate to a non-Qoi fungicide after 1 application. No more than 4 applications per season.

Begin applications prior to disease development, and continue on a 7 to 14 day interval. Make no more than

2 applications per season.

Begin applications prior to disease development, and continue on a 7 to 10 day interval. Make no more than

2 sequential applications before rotating to another effective fungicide with a different mode of action. Do not exceed 80 fl oz per season.

0.5

0.5

0.5

Apply when disease first appears, and continue on 7 to

10 day interval. Do not exceed 56 oz of product per acre per year.

Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Maximum of 3 applications.

do not apply to turnip greens or roots.

Apply when disease first appears and continue on 14 day interval. Do not exceed 18 fl oz per season.

0.5

0.5

0.5

Do not exceed 72 fl oz of product per year. Make no more than 2 sequential applications per season before rotating to another effective product with a different mode of action.

Apply to base of plant at 2- to 4-leaf stage. A second application may be made up to the harvest date. Do not use as a soil drench.

For broccoli only.

Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Maximum of 3 applications.

do not apply to turnip greens or roots.

Begin applications 7 to 10 days after thinning, not to exceed 4 applications per a season.

1 to 2 Apply on 7 to 10 day intervals after transplanting or shortly after seeds have emerged. Some reddening on older broccoli leaves and flecking of cabbage wrapper leaves may occur. Check label carefully for recommended rates for each disease on each crop.

0 Either apply immediately after transplanting with 1.7 fl oz of solution per transplant, or as a banded application with soil incorporation of 6 to 8 inches prior to transplanting. Do not apply more than 39.5 fl oz/ acre/season; or 6 (1 soil + 5 foliar) applications per season. Do not make more than 3 consecutive applications without rotating to another fungicide with a different mode of action for 3 subsequent applications.

50 either apply directly as a drench to transplants or as a banded application with soil incorporation of 6 to

8 inches prior to transplanting. Use of product can delay harvest and cause some stunting without adverse effects on final yields.

cyazofamid (Ranman 400

SC) fluopicolide (Presidio 4 SC) fosetyl-AL (Aliette 80 WDG)

2.75 fl oz/acre

3 to 4 fl oz/acre

2 to 5 lb/acre

0.072 lb/acre

0.09 to 0.125 lb/acre

1.6 to 4 lb/acre

0

2

3

0.5

0.5

1

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Addition of an adjuvant may improve performance (see label for specifics).

Begin applications on a 7 to 10 day schedule when disease first appears or weather is conducive. Do not apply more than 39.5 fl oz/acre/season; or 6 (1 soil +

5 foliar) applications per season. Do not make more than 3 consecutive applications without rotating to another fungicide with a different mode of action for 3 subsequent applications.

No more than 2 sequential applications before rotating to another effective product of a different mode of action.

Limited to 4 applications, 12 fl oz/ acre per season.

Apply when disease first appears; then repeat on 7 to

21 day intervals. Do not tank mix with copper fungicides.

A maximum of 7 applications can be made per season. Also for loose-heading Chinese cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, and greens (collard, mustard, and rape).

176 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 3-7. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr brOCCOLI, brUSSEL SPrOUt, CAbbAgE, ANd CAULIFLOWEr (cont’d)

A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University disease

Downy mildew

(cont’d)

Downy mildew, Alternaria leaf spot

Material

mandipropamid (Revus

2.08 SC) potassium phosphite azoxystrobin (Quadris

2.08 F) chlorothalonil (generic) cyprodinil + difenoconazole

(inspire Super 2.82 SC) fenamidone

(Reason 500 SC) mancozeb

(Manzate Pro-Stick 75

WDG) mefenoxam + chlorothalonil

(Ridomil Gold/Bravo)

rate of Material to Use

Formulation

8 fl oz/acre

Minimum days

Active Ingredient Harv. reentry

0.13 lb/acre 1 0.5

2 to 4 pt/acre

6.0 to 15.5 fl oz/ acre

See labels

16 to 20 fl oz/acre

5.5 to 8.2 fl oz/acre 0.178 to 0.267 lb/ acre

1.6 to 2.1 lb/acre

1.5 lb/acre

2.1 lb/acre

0.1 to 0.25 lb a.i./ acre

See labels

5.6 to 7.1 oz/acre

1.2 to 1.6 lb/acre

0

0

7

7

2

10

7

4 hr

4 hr

2

0.5

0.5

1

2

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Apply prior to disease development and continue throughout season at 7 to 10 day intervals; maximum

32 fl oz per season.

Apply when weather is foggy as a preventative. Do not apply to plants under water or temperature stress.

Spray solution should have a pH greater than 5.5. Apply in at least 30 gal water per acre.

Do not make more than 2 applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Do not apply more than 92.3 fl oz per acre per season.

Apply after transplanting, seedling emergence, or when conditions favor disease development. Repeat as needed on a 7 to 10 day interval.

Begin applications prior to disease development, and continue on a 7 to 10 day interval. Make no more than

2 sequential applications before rotating to another effective fungicide with a different mode of action. Do not exceed 80 fl oz per season.

Begin applications on a 5 to 10 day schedule when disease first appears or weather is conducive. Do not apply more than 24.6 fl oz/acre/season. Do not make more than 1 application without rotating to another fungicide with a different mode of action.

Spray at first appearance of disease and continue on a 7 to 10 day interval. No more than 12.8 lbs/ acre per season.

Powdery mildew

Pythium damping off,

Phytophthora basal stem rot

Rhizoctonia bottom rot azoxystrobin + difenoconazole

(Quadris top 2.72 SC) boscalid (endura 70 eG) cyprodinil + difenoconazole

(inspire Super 2.82 SC) cyprodinil + fludioxonil

(Switch 62.5WG) fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Priaxor

500 SC) penthiopyrad (Fontelis 1.67

SC) sulfur (Microthiol Disperss

80 MWS) triflumizole

(Procure 480 SC) fluopicolide (Presidio 4 F) mefenoxam

(Ridomil Gold 4 SL) metalaxyl (MetaStar 2 e AG) boscalid (endura 70 WP)

14 fl oz/acre

6 to 9 oz/acre

16 to 20 fl oz/acre

10 to 12 oz/acre

3 to 10 lb/acre

6 to 8 fl oz/acre

3 to 4 fl oz/acre

0.25 to 2 pt/acre

4 to 8 pt/trt acre

6 to 9 oz/acre

0.3 lb/acre

4.2 to 6.3 oz/acre

5.6 to 7.1 oz/acre

6.25 to 7.5 oz/acre

6.0 to 8.2 fl oz/ acre 0.20 to 0.27 lb/acre

14 to 30 fl oz/acre 0.18 to 0.39 lb/acre

2.4 to 8 lb/acre

3 to 4 oz/acre

0.09 to 0.125 lb/acre

0.12 to 1.0 lb/acre

0.5 to 1 lb/acre

4.2 to 6.3 oz/acre

1

0

7

7

3

0

0

1

2

0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

0.5

0.5

2

2

0.5

Begin applications when conditions favor disease but prior to symptoms. Under severe disease pressure use additional fungicides between 14 day intervals.

Do not make more than four applications per crop.

Apply prior to disease, but when conditions are favorable, on 7 to 14 day schedule. Alternate to a non-Qoi fungicide after 1 application. No more than 4 applications per season.

Begin applications prior to disease development, and continue on a 7 to 14 day interval. Make no more than

2 applications per season;

disease suppression only.

Begin applications prior to disease development, and continue on a 7 to 10 day interval. Make no more than

2 sequential applications before rotating to another effective fungicide with a different mode of action. Do not exceed 80 fl oz per season.

Apply when disease first appears, and continue on 7 to

10 day intervals. Do not exceed 56 oz of product per acre per year.

Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Maximum of 3 applications.

do not apply to turnip greens or roots.

Do not exceed 72 fl oz of product per year. Make no more than 2 sequential applications per season before rotating to another effective product with a different mode of action.

Apply when disease first appears; then repeat as needed on a 14 day interval. Avoid applying on days over 90°F. Also for use on greens (collard, kale, and mustard), rutabaga, and turnip.

Apply when disease first appears and continue on a

14 day interval. Do not exceed 18 fl oz per season.

Apply as a soil drench at transplant. As plants enlarge, use apply directly to soil by chemigation on a 7 to 10 day schedule as conditions favor disease, but prior to disease development. No more than 2 sequential applications before rotating to another effective product of a different mode of action. Limited to 4 applications, 12 fl oz/ acre per season.

Apply 1 to 2 pt per acre as a broadcast, preplant application to soil and incorporate in top 2 in. of soil. For

Pythium control, use only 0.25 to 0.5 pt per acre.

Preplant incorporated or surface application.

Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7 to 14 day interval. Make no more than

2 applications per season;

disease suppression only.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 177

tAbLE 3-7. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr brOCCOLI, brUSSEL SPrOUt, CAbbAgE, ANd CAULIFLOWEr (cont’d)

A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University disease

Rhizoctonia stem

(wire stem) and root rot

Sclerotinia stem rot

(white mold)

Material

azoxystrobin (Quadris 2.08

SC) boscalid (endura 70 eG) penthiopyrad

(Fontelis 1.67 SC)

Coniothyrium minitans

(Contans WG)

rate of Material to Use

Formulation

5.8 to 8.7 fl oz/ acre on 36-in. rows

Minimum days

Active Ingredient Harv. reentry

0.1 to 0.25 lb/acre 0 4 hr

6 to 9 oz/acre

1 to 4 lb/acre

4.2 to 6.3 oz/acre

16 to 30 fl oz/acre 0.21 to 0.39 lb/acre

0.05 to 0.2 lb/acre

0

0

0

0.5

0.5

4 hr

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Rate is equivalent to 0.4 to 0,6 fl oz per 1000 row feet.

Apply at planting as a directed spray to the furrow in a band 7 inches wide. See label for other row spacings.

Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7 to 14 day interval. Make no more than

2 applications per season.

Do not exceed 72 fl oz of product per year. Make no more than 2 sequential applications per season before rotating to another effective product with a different mode of action.

OMrI listed product. Apply to soil surface and incorporate no deeper than 2 inches. Works best when applied prior to planting or transplanting. Do not apply other fungicides for 3 weeks after applying Contans.

tAbLE 3-8. EFFICACy OF PrOdUCtS FOr dISEASE CONtrOL IN brASSICAS

E. Sikora, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University

Scale: “E” excellent; “g” good; “F” fair; “P” poor; “NC” no control; “Nd” no data.

Product 1,2

azoxystrobin (Amistar, Quadris) boscalid (endura) chlorothalonil (Bravo, echo, equus) cyazofamid (Ranman) tebuconazole (Folicur, tebuzol, tegrol) cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) dimethomorph (Forum) fenamidone (Reason) fluopicolide (Presidio) amectoctradin + dimethomorph (Zampro) fixed copper 3 fosetyl-Al 4 (Aliette) iprodione (Rovral)

5 difenoconazole + cyprodinil (inspire Super) penthiopyrad (Fontelis) mandipropamid (Revus) mancozeb (Manzate, Penncozeb, Dithane) mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold eC) pre-plant mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo) fluazinam (Omega 500)

6

Potassium phosphite pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) sulfur

11

7

M

21

3

9+12

40

11

43

45+40

M

33

2

3+9

7

40

M

4

4+M

29

M

11

M

0 to 14

7

0

0

2

7

7

2

0 to 7

0

3

7

0

1

7

7

20 to 50

0

0 e

G

F

NC

F

F

NC

F

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

G e

NC

F

NC

F

NC

NC e

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

ND

F

NC

NC

ND

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

ND

ND

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

ND

NC

ND

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

F

NC

F

F

NC

F

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

G

ND

NC

F

NC

F

NC

NC e

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

F

P

F

G

NC

NC

F e e e

F

F

NC

NC

NC e

F

F

F

NC

G

F

P

F

P

F

NC

ND

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

F

G

NC

P

NC

F

NC

NC

F

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

P

P

G

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

1 Efficacy ratings do not necessarily indicate a labeled use for every disease.

2 Fungicides registered specifically on Cole crops (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli) include chlorothalonil, iprodione, maneb, and mefenoxam + chlorothalonil. Pyraclostrobin is labeled only on turnip tops. Fosetyl-Al is not labeled on turnips. Always refer to product labels prior to use.

3 Phytotoxicity is seen when fosetyl-Al is tank-mixed with copper.

4

When used in combination with fosetyl-Al or maneb.

5

Applications of iprodione made for black leg may suppress Alternaria, Sclerotinia, and Wirestem on broccoli.

6

Use a 20 day PHi for omega 500 on leafy greens and a 50 day PHi for Cole brassicas. Use a zero day PHi for Zampro on leafy greens and a 7 day PHi on Cole crops.

F to prevent resistance in pathogens, alternate fungicides within a group with fungicides in another group. Fungicides in the “M” group are generally considered “low risk” with

R no signs of resistance developing to the majority of fungicides.

Resistance reported in the pathogen.

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

F

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F R

NC R

NC

NC

NC

NC

178 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 3-9. IMPOrtANCE OF ALtErNAtIvE MANAgEMENt PrACtICES FOr dISEASE CONtrOL IN brASSICAS

E. Sikora, Plant Pathologist, Auburn University

Scale: “E” excellent; “g” good; “F” fair; “P” poor; “NC” no control; “Nd” no data.

Strategy

Avoid field operations when leaves are wet

Avoid overhead irrigation

Change planting date

Cover cropping with antagonist

Crop rotation

Deep plowing

Destroy crop residue encourage air movement increase between-plant spacing increase soil organic matter

Hot water seed treatment pH management

Plant in well-drained soil

Plant on raised beds

Plastic mulch bed covers

Postharvest temperature control

Reflective mulch

Reduce mechanical injury

Rogue diseased plants

Row covers

Soil solarization

Pathogen-free planting material

Resistant cultivars

Weed control

P

NC

NC

NC

F

F

NC

NC

F

F

F

P

F e

P e

NC e

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

P

NC

P

NC

P

NC

F

F

F

F

P e

P

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

F

NC

F

P

NC

G

NC

P

NC

NC

F e

NC

NC

G

G

G

P

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

P e

NC

F

P

NC e

NC

P

P

NC

G e

NC

NC

G

G

G

P

NC

NC

G

NC

NC

NC e e

F

F

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

P e

NC

NC

F

F

F

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

G

G

F

F

P

NC

NC

NC

P

F

F

F

F

F

P

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

F

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

F

F

NC

NC

NC

P

P

NC

P

G

NC

NC

F

F

F

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

F

NC

P

NC e e e

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

G

P

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

F

F

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

P

Pythium damping-off

NC

NC

P

F

NC

NC

NC

F

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

F

P

F

NC

NC

F

NC

NC

P

P

NC

F

NC

P

NC

NC

G

G

NC

NC

NC

F

NC

P

F

P

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

F

F

P

NC

CANtALOUPE - SEE CUbUrbItS tAbLE 3-10. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr COrN, SWEEt (cont’d)

N. dufault, Plant Pathologist, University of Florida (last updated 2013) disease Material

Various seedling diseases mefenoxam + PCNB +

Bacillus subtilis GB03

(System 3) pyraclostrobin (Stamina)

rate of Material to Use

Formulation

3 oz/bu of seed

Active Ingredient

_

Minimum days

Harv. reentry

_ 1

_ _

Soilborne diseases

Rust, Helminthosporium

Leaf blight (Northern and

Southern Blight)

Rust, Northern and

Southern Blight, Gray Leaf

Spot, Northern leaf spot fludioxonil (Maxim 4FS) fluoxastrobin (Aftershock) chlorothalonil (generic) mancozeb 80W

Koverall 75% W

Roper DF tebuconazole (generic)

1.6 fl oz/100 lbs of seed

0.16 fl oz/100 lbs of seed

0.16 to 0.24 fl oz/

1000 row feet

0.75 to 2 pt/acre

1 to 1.5 lb/acre

1.5 lb/acre

1.5 lb/acre

4 to 6 oz/acre

_

0.07 to 0.10 oz/ 1000 row feet

0.6 to 1.5 lb/acre

0.8 to 1.2 lb/acre

1.2 lb/acre

1.2 lb/acre

1.5 to 2.3 oz/acre

_

7

7

7

14

7

7

0.5

0.5

1

1

2

1

0.5

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Seed treatment.

Seed treatment.

Seed treatment.

May be applied as a banded or in-furrow spray. Consult label for specifics.

Spray at first appearance, 4 to 14 day intervals.

Start applications when disease first appears and repeat at 4 to 7 day intervals.

For optimum results use as a preventative treatment.

Folicur 3.6 F must have 2 to 4 hr of drying time on foliage for the active ingredient to move systemically into plant tissue before rain or irrigation occurs.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 179

tAbLE 3-10. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr COrN, SWEEt (cont’d)

N. dufault, Plant Pathologist, University of Florida (last updated 2013) disease

Anthracnose, Gray leaf spot, Northern and southern corn leaf blights and spots, southern rust, rust

Material

propiconazole (tilt) penthiopyrad (Vertisan)

rate of Material to Use

Formulation Active Ingredient

Minimum days

Harv. reentry

2 to 4 fl oz/acre

10 to 24 fl oz/acre

14

0

1

0.5

fluoxastrobin (Aftershock) pyraclostrobin (Headline

SC & eC)

3.8 fl oz/acre

6 to 12 fl oz/acre

7

0.5

0.5

azoxystrobin (Quadris) 6.0 to 15.5 fl oz/ acre

0.1 to 0.25 lb/acre 7 4 hr fluoxastrobin + tebuconazole (evito t) pyraclostrobin + metconazole (Headline

AMP) azoxystrobin + propiconazole (Quilt) azoxystrobin + propiconazole (Quilt XCeL) azoxystrobin + propiconazole (Avaris) trifloxystrobin

+propiconazole (Stratego) trifloxystrobin

+propiconazole (Stratego yLD) fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Priaxor) tebuconazole

+prothioconazole

(Prosaro 421SC)

4 to 9 fl oz/acre

10 to 14.4 fl oz/acre

10.5 to 14 fl oz/acre

7 to 14 fl oz/acre

10 fl oz/acre

4 to 5 fl oz/acre

4 to 8 fl oz/acre

6.5 fl oz/acre

0.052 to 0.163 lb/ acre

10.5 to 14 fl oz/acre 0.14 to 0.18 lb/acre

1.7 to 3.4 oz/acre

7

7

14

14

14

14

14

7

7

19

0.5

1

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Method, Schedule, and remarks

16 fl oz per acre per crop maximum.

No more than 2 sequential applications of the fungicide before switching to a fungicide with another mode of action.

Soil and foliar treatments.

Do not exceed 2 sequential applications of this fungicide or with other group 11 fungicides.

Use lower rate for rust. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Apply no more than

2.88 qt per crop per acre per season.

No more than 2 sequential applications before alternating with a different mode of action.

No more than 2 sequential applications before alternating with a different mode of action.

Apply when disease first appears; continue to apply on a 14 day interval if favorable conditions persist.

Alternate Quilt Xcel sprays with another mode of action than a group 11 fungicide.

Alternate Avaris sprays with another mode of action than a group 11 fungicide.

Apply Stratego when disease first appears and continue on a 7 to 14 day interval. Alternate applications of Stratego with another product with a different mode of action than Group 11 fungicides.

Alternate Stratego yLD sprays with another mode of action than a group 11 fungicide.

Do not make more than two sequential applications of

Priaxor before switching to a fungicide with a different mode of action. May be used with adjuvants (consult label for specifics).

Check label for restrictions and information about adjuvants. effective on eye Spot.

CUCUMbErS - SEE CUbUrbItS tAbLE 3-11. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr CUCUrbItS (cont’d)

L. Quesada-Ocampo, Plant Pathologist, NCSU; A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University; S. bost, Plant Pathologist, Ut; M. Paret, Plant Pathologist, UF disease

Angular leaf spot,

Bacterial leaf spot

Material

fixed copper (generic) acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) 50 WP

rate of Material to Use

Formulation Active Ingredient

Minimum days

Harv. reentry

See label — 0 0

0.5 to 1 oz/acre 0.25 to 0.5 oz/acre 0 0.5

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.

Bacterial fruit blotch

Bacterial wilt

Belly (fruit) rot,

Rhizoctonia fixed copper (generic) acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) 50 WP

— azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F fluopyram + tebuconazole

(Luna experience) 3.3 F thiophanate-methyl (topsin

M) 70 WP

See label

0.5 to 1 oz/acre

See label

17 fl oz/acre

0.5 lb/acre

0.25 to 0.5 oz/acre

See label

0.27 to 0.44 lb/acre

0.35 lb/acre

0

0

1

7

0

0

0.5

4 hr

0.5

0.5

Apply to healthy, actively growing plants. Do not apply to stressed plants. Apply no more than 8 oz per acre per season.

Start applications at first bloom; ineffective once fruit reaches full size. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.

Apply to healthy, actively growing plants. Do not apply to stressed plants. Apply no more than 8 oz per acre per season.

See insect Control section for Cucumber Beetles.

Make banded application to soil surface or in-furrow application just before seed are covered.

APPLy ONLy tO WAtErMELON. Make no more than 2 applications before alternating to a fungicide with different active ingredients. Do not rotate with tebuconazole.

Apply in sufficient water to obtain runoff to soil surface.

180 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 3-11. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr CUCUrbItS (cont’d)

L. Quesada-Ocampo, Plant Pathologist, NCSU; A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University; S. bost, Plant Pathologist, Ut; M. Paret, Plant Pathologist, UF disease

Cottony leak (Pythium)

Damping off (Pythium) and fruit rot

Material

metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 e mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold)

4 SL

(Ultra Flourish) 2 eL

rate of Material to Use

Formulation Active Ingredient

Minimum days

Harv. reentry

4 to 8 pt/treated acre

0.5 to 1 lb/treated acre

0 2

0.5 to 1 lb/acre 0 2

1 to 2 pt/treated acre

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Soil surface application in 7 in. band.

Preplant incorporated (broadcast or band); soil spray

(broadcast or band); or injection (drip irrigation).

metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 e propamocarb

(Previcur Flex) 6 F

2 to 4 pt/treated acre

4 to 8 pt/treated acre

12.8 fl oz/100 gal

0.5 to 1 lb/acre

0.6 lb/100 gal

0

2

2

0.5

Preplant incorporated or surface application.

Downy mildew ametoctradin + dimethomorph

(Zampro) 4.38 SC azoxystrobin (Quadris)

2.08 F chlorothalonil 6 F chlorothalonil + potassium phosphite (Catamaran)

5.27 SC cyazofamid (Ranman)

400 SC

14 oz/A

11 to 15.4 fl oz/acre 0.18 to 0.25 lb/acre

1.5 to 3 pt/acre

6 pints/acre

2.1 to 2.75 fl oz/ acre

0.48 lb/acre

0.8 to 1.6 pt/acre

3.3 pints/acre

0.054 to 0.071 lb/ acre

0

1

0

0

0

0.5

4 hr

2

0.5

0.5

Rates based on rock wool cube saturation in the greenhouse. See label for use in seed beds, drip system, and soil drench.

Make no more than 2 applications before alternating to a fungicide with different active ingredients. Do not rotate with Forum. Maximum of 3 applications per crop per season.

Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. Apply no more than 2.88 qt per crop per acre per season.

Resistance reported.

Spray at first appearance and then at 7 to 14 day interval. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.

Apply no more than 50 pints per crop per acre per season.

cymoxanil (Curzate) 60 DF dimethomorph (Forum)

4.17 SC famoxadone + cymoxanil

(tanos) 50WP fenamidone (Reason) 500

SC fixed copper (generic) fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F fosetyl-AL (Aliette)

80 WDG mandipropamid (Revus)

2.08 F mancozeb

3.2 oz/acre

6 fl oz/acre

8 oz/acre

5.5 fl oz/acre

See label

3 to 4 fl oz/acre

2 to 5 lb/acre

8 fl oz/acre

2 to 3 lb/acre

1.9 oz/acre

3.13 oz/acre

4 oz/acre

0.178 lb/acre

0.09 to 0.125 lb/acre

1.6 to 4 lb/acre

0.13 lb/acre

1.6 to 2.4 lb/acre

3

0

3

14

0

2

0.5

1

5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group.

Use only in combination with labeled rate of protectant fungicide (e.g., mancozeb or chlorothalonil).

Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide with a different mode of action. Do not make more than two sequential applications.

Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action.

Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action.

Begin applications when conditions favor disease development, and continue on 5 to 10 day interval. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group, and make no more than 4 total applications of

Group 11 fungicides per season.

Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.

tank mix with another downy mildew fungicide with a different mode of action.

Do not tank mix with copper-containing products.

Mixing with surfactants or foliar fertilizers is not recommended.

For disease suppression only. Resistance reported.

mefenoxam + chlorothalonil

(Ridomil Gold Bravo,

Flouronil) 76.5 WP propamocarb (Previcur

Flex) 6 F

2 to 3 lb/acre

1.2 pt/acre

1.5 lb/acre

0.9 lb/acre

7

2

2

0.5

Labeled on all cucurbits. Apply no more than 24 lb. per acre per season.

Spray at first appearance and repeat at 14 day intervals. Apply full rate of protectant fungicide between applications. Avoid late-season application when plants reach full maturity. Resistance reported.

pyraclostrobin (Cabrio)

20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid

(Pristine) 38 WG

8 to 12 oz/acre

12.5 to 18.5 oz/ acre

1.6 to 2.4 oz/acre

4.8 to 7 oz/acre

0

0

0.5

1

Begin applications before infection; continue on a 7 to 14 day interval. Do not apply more than 6 pt per growing season. Always tank mix with another Downy mildew product.

Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Resistance reported.

Make no more than 4 applications per season.

Resistance reported.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 181

tAbLE 3-11. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr CUCUrbItS (cont’d)

L. Quesada-Ocampo, Plant Pathologist, NCSU; A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University; S. bost, Plant Pathologist, Ut; M. Paret, Plant Pathologist, UF rate of Material to Use Minimum days disease

Downy mildew

(cont’d)

Gummy stem blight,

Black rot

Leaf spots: Alternaria,

Anthracnose

(Colletotrichum),

Cercospora, Gummy stem blight (Didymella), target spot (Corynespora)

Material

trifloxystrobin (Flint)

50 WDG zoxamide + mancozeb

(Gavel) 75 DF tebuconazole (Monsoon) 3.6 F azoxystrobin (Quadris) 2.08 F azoxystrobin + difenoconazole

(Quadris top) 1.67 SC chlorothalonil 6 F chlorothalonil + potassium phosphite (Catamaran) 5.27 SC cyprodinil + fludioxonil

(Switch) 62.5 WG difenoconazole + cyprodinil

(inspire Super) 2.82 SC famoxadone + cymoxanil

(tanos) 50WP fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC fixed copper (generic) mancozeb fluopyram + tebuconazole

(Luna experience) 3.3 F fluopyram + trifloxystrobin

(Luna Sensation) 1.67 F fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Merivon 500 SC) potassium phosphite + tebuconazole (Viathon) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio)

20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid

(Pristine) 38 WG thiophanate-methyl

(topsin M) 70 WP zoxamide + mancozeb

(Gavel) 75 DF

Formulation

4 oz/acre

1.5 to 2 lb

8 oz/acre

11 to 15.4 fl oz/ acre

12 to 14 fl oz/acre

1.5 to 3 pt/acre

6 pints/acre

11 to 14 oz/acre

16 to 20 fl oz/acre

8 oz/acre

5.5 fl oz/acre

See label

2 to 3 lb/acre

8 to 17 fl oz/acre

7.6 fl oz/acre

Active Ingredient Harv. reentry

2 oz/acre 0 0.5

1.13 to 1.5 lb

2 lb/acre

0.18 to 0.25 lb/acre

3.6 to 4.2 fl oz/acre

0.8 to 1.6 pt/acre

3.3 pints/acre

6.9 to 8.9 oz/acre

5.3 to 7.1 oz/acre

4 oz/acre

0.178 lb/acre

1.6 to 2.4 lb/acre

0.27 to 0.44 lb/acre

0.25 lb/acre

4 to 5.5 fl oz/ acre 0.26 to 0.36 lb/acre

4 pints/acre

12 to 16 oz/acre

12.5 to 18.5 oz/ acre

0.5 lb/acre

1.5 to 2 lb

0.21 lb

2.4 to 3.2 oz/acre

4.8 to 7 oz/acre

0.35 lb/acre

1.13 to 1.5 lb

5

7

1

1

0

0

1

7

3

14

0

5

7

0

0

7

0

0

0

5

2

0.5

4 hr

0.5

2

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

1

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

0.5

2

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed alternating applications of Ridomil Gold Bravo on a 7 to 14 day interval. Resistance reported.

Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage, and repeat at 7 to 10 day intervals. Now labeled on all cucurbits. Maximum 8 applications per season.

Maximum 3 applications per season. Apply as a protective spray at 10 to 14 day intervals. Add a surfactant.

Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. Apply no more than 2.88 qt per crop per acre per season.

Do not use for Gummy stem blight where resistance to group 11(Qoi) fungicides exists.

Not for target spot. Make no more than one application before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Apply no more than 56 fl oz per crop per acre per season.

Spray at first appearance and then at 7 to 14 day intervals. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.

Apply no more than 50 pints per crop per acre per season. Do not apply to watermelon fruit when stress conditions conducive to sunburn occur.

only for Alternaria and Gummy stem blight. Make no more than 2 applications before alternating to a different fungicide. Maximum of 4 to 5 applications at high and low rates.

Not for target spot. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Apply no more than

80 fl oz per crop per acre per season.

only for Alternaria and Anthracnose; do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action; must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action

Begin applications when conditions favor disease development, and continue on 5 to 10 day interval. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group, and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season.

Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.

Labeled on all cucurbits. Apply no more than 24 lb per acre per season.

APPLy ONLy tO WAtErMELON. Not for Cercospora or target spot. Make no more than 2 applications before alternating to a fungicide with different active ingredients. Do not rotate with tebuconazole.

APPLy ONLy tO WAtErMELON and only to control

Alternaria and Anthracnose. Make no more than 2 applications before alternating to a fungicide with different active ingredients. Maximum 4 applications per season.

Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Maximum of 3 applications per crop.

A PPLy ONLy tO WAtErMELON. Maximum 3 applications per crop.

Do not use for Gummy stem blight where resistance to group 11 (Qoi) fungicides exists. Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.

Not for target spot. Do not use for gummy stem blight where resistance to group 7 and group 11 fungicides exists. Use highest rate for anthracnose. Make no more than 4 applications per season.

Spray at first appearance and then at 7 to 10 day intervals. Resistance reported in gummy stem blight fungus.

Cercospora and Alternaria only. Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage and repeat at 7 to 10 day intervals. Now labeled on all cucurbits. Maximum

8 applications per season.

182 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 3-11. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr CUCUrbItS (cont’d)

L. Quesada-Ocampo, Plant Pathologist, NCSU; A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University; S. bost, Plant Pathologist, Ut; M. Paret, Plant Pathologist, UF disease

Phytophthora blight

Plectosporium blight

Powdery mildew

Material

ametoctradin + dimethomorph

(Zampro) 4.38 SC cyazofamid (Ranman)

400 SC dimethomorph (Forum)

4.17 SC fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F mandipropamid (Revus)

2.08 F azoxystrobin + difenoconazole

(Quadris top) 1.67 SC fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (Merivon 500 SC) trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50

WDG pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20

WG acibenzolar-S-methyl

(Actigard) 50 WP azoxystrobin + difenoconazole

(Quadris top) 1.67 SC chlorothalonil 6 F chlorothalonil + potassium phosphite (Catamaran) 5.27 SC difenoconazole + cyprodinil

(inspire Super) 2.82 SC cyprodinil + fludioxonil

(Switch) 62.5 WG fixed copper (generic)

rate of Material to Use

Formulation Active Ingredient

Minimum days

Harv. reentry

14 oz/A 0.48 lb/acre 0 0.5

2.75 fl oz/acre

6 fl oz/acre

3 to 4 fl oz/acre

8 fl oz/acre

1.5 to 2 oz/acre

12 to 16 oz/acre

0.5 to 1 oz/acre

1.5 to 3 pt/acre

6 pints/acre

11 to 14 oz/acre

See label

0.071 lb/acre

3.13 oz/acre

0.09 to 0.125 lb/acre

0.13 lb/acre

12 to 14 fl oz/acre 3.6 to 4.2 fl oz/acre

4 to 5.5 fl oz/ acre 0.26 to 0.36 lb/acre

0.75 to 1 oz/acre

2.4 to 3.2 oz/acre

0.25 to 0.5 oz/acre

12 to 14 fl oz/acre 3.6 to 4.2 fl oz/acre

1.1 to 2.25 lb/acre

3.3 pints/acre

16 to 20 fl oz/acre 5.2 to 6.5 fl oz/acre

6.9 to 8.9 oz/acre

0

0

2

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

7

1

0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

2

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

Method, Schedule, and remarks

Make no more than 2 applications before alternating to a fungicide with different active ingredients. Do not rotate with Forum. Maximum of 3 applications per crop per season. Apply at planting as a preventive drench treatment. Addition of a spreading or penetrating adjuvant is recommended.

Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group. Resistant isolates have been found.

Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide with a different mode of action. Do not make more than two sequential applications.

tank mix with another Phytophthora fungicide with a different mode of action. May be applied through drip irrigation to target crown rot phase.

For disease suppression only. Apply as foliar spray with copper based fungicide.

Make no more than one application before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.

Apply no more than 56 fl oz per crop per acre per season.

Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Maximum of 3 applications per crop.

Make no more than one application before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.

Begin applications preventively when conditions are favorable for disease and continue as needed on a 7 to 14 day interval.

Make no more than 1 application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.

Apply to healthy, actively growing plants. Do not apply to stressed plants. Apply no more than 8 oz per acre per season.

Make no more than one application before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.

Apply no more than 56 fl oz per crop per acre per season.

Spray at first appearance and then at 7 to 14 day intervals. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. Does not control PM on leaf undersides.

Apply no more than 50 pints per crop per acre per season. Do not apply to watermelon fruit when stress conditions conducive to sunburn occur.

Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Apply no more than 80 fl oz per crop per acre per season.

Make no more than 2 applications before alternating to a different fungicide. Maximum of 4 to 5 applications at high and low rates. Not for target spot or anthracnose or Cercospora.

Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.

cyflufenamid

(torino) 0.85 SC fluopyram + tebuconazole

(Luna experience) 3.3 F

3.4 oz/acre

8 to 17 fl oz/acre

0.02 lb/acre

0.27 to 0.44 lb/acre

0

7

4 hr

0.5

Do not make more than 2 applications per crop.

fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin

(Merivon 500 SC) myclobutanil (Rally)

40 WP penthiopyrad (Fontelis)

1.67 SC pyraclostrobin + boscalid

(Pristine) 38 WG

4 to 5.5 fl oz/ acre

2.5 to 5 oz/acre

12.5 to 18.5 oz/ acre

0.26 to 0.36 lb/acre

1 to 2 oz/acre

12 to 16 fl oz/acre 0.16 to 0.21 lb/acre

4.8 to 7 oz/acre

0

0

1

0

0.5

1

0.5

1

APPLy ONLy tO WAtErMELON. Make no more than 2 applications before alternating to a fungicide with different active ingredients. Do not rotate with tebuconazole.

Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Maximum of 3 applications per crop.

Apply no more than 1.5 lb per acre per crop. observe a 30-day plant-back interval.

Make no more than 2 sequential applications before switching to another fungicide. Do not rotate with

Pristine or Luna experience.

Make no more than 4 applications per season.

2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States 183

tAbLE 3-11. dISEASE CONtrOL PrOdUCtS FOr CUCUrbItS (cont’d)

L. Quesada-Ocampo, Plant Pathologist, NCSU; A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University; S. bost, Plant Pathologist, Ut; M. Paret, Plant Pathologist, UF disease Material rate of Material to Use

Formulation Active Ingredient

Minimum days

Harv. reentry Method, Schedule, and remarks

Powdery mildew

(cont’d) quinoxyfen (Quintec)

2.08 SC

4 to 6 fl oz/acre 1 to 1.3 fl oz/acre 3 0.5

Scab sulfur (generic) tebuconazole

(Monsoon) 3.6F

triflumizole

(Procure) 50 WS acibenzolar-S-methyl

(Actigard) 50 WP

See label

4 to 6 fl oz/acre

4 to 8 oz/acre

0.5 to 1 oz/acre

1.5 to 2 lb/acre

2 to 4 oz/acre

0.25 to 0.5 oz/acre

0

7

0

0

1

0.5

0.5

0.5

Make no more than 2 applications before alternating to a different fungicide. Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per year.

dO NOt USE ON SUMMEr SQUASH or

CUCUMbEr; labeled on winter squashes, pumpkins, gourds, melon and watermelon.

Do not use when temperature is over 90°F or on sulfur-sensitive varieties.

Apply before disease appears when conditions favor development and repeat at 10 to 14 day intervals; max 24 fl oz per season.

Begin applications at vining or first sign of disease, and repeat at 7 to 10 day intervals.

Apply to healthy, actively growing plants. Do not apply to stressed plants. Apply no more than 8 oz per acre per season.

1.5 to 3 pt/acre 0.8 to 1.6 pt/acre 0 2 chlorothalonil (Bravo

Weather Stik, echo, equus) 6 F chlorothalonil + potassium phosphite

(Catamaran) 5.27 SC

6 pints/acre 3.3 pints/acre 0 0.5

Spray at first appearance and then at 7 to 14 day intervals. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.

Apply no more than 50 pints per crop per acre per season. Do not apply to watermelon fruit when stress conditions conducive to sunburn occur.

tAbLE 3-12. EFFICACy OF PrOdUCtS FOr dISEASE CONtrOL IN CUCUrbItS (cont’d)

L. Quesada-Ocampo, Plant Pathologist, NCSU; A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University; S. bost, Plant Pathologist, Ut; M. Paret, Plant Pathologist, UF

Scale: “E” excellent; “g” good; “F” fair; “P” poor; “NC” no control; “Nd” no data.

Product 1

acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) ametoctradin + dimethomorph (Zampro) azoxystrobin

3

(Quadris) azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil (Quadris opti) azoxystrobin + difenoconazole (Quadris top) chlorothalonil 6 (Bravo/Terranil/ Equus) cyazofamid (Ranman) cyflufenamid (Torino) cymoxanil (Curzate)

21 0

45 + 40 0

11

11 + M

11 + 3

M

21

U6

27

1

0

1

0

0

0

3

NC

ND

G

G

G

ND

NC

NC

NC

ND NC

NC

NC

NC

G

G

G

G

F NC NC ND ND ND NC

NC NC NC ND ND F NC

NC

NC

NC

F

F

ND

NC NC

G

G

ND

G

NC NC NC

R

NC NC NC

R

ND

NC

ND

NC

ND

F

NC

R

F

F

F

NC NC NC

NC NC NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

ND

NC

NC

NC

G

NC

NC

NC

NC NC NC NC NC NC ND ND F NC

ND

G

NC

NC

ND

NC

F

NC

F

ND

G

NC

NC

ND

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC ND NC

NC NC NC

F

F

F

F

NC

R

F

F

F

G

F

ND

G

NC NC NC

NC e NC

NC NC NC cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 9 + 12 1 ND NC F NC ND ND NC NC NC F NC NC F F NC difenoconazole + cyprodinil (inspire Super) dimethomorph (Forum) famoxadone

3

+ cymoxanil (tanos)

3 + 9

40

7

0

ND

NC

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

ND

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

P

F

NC

NC

P

NC

NC

F

NC

F

NC

ND

NC

11 + 27 3 ND NC P NC NC ND NC NC F NC ND NC NC NC NC

1 Efficacy ratings do not necessarily indicate a labeled use for every disease.

2 Control cucumber beetle from emergence to fruit set; bactericidal sprays alone are not effective.

3 Curative activity; locally systemic.

4

Systemic.

5

When used in combination with chlorothalonil or mancozeb, gives increased control.

6

Contact control only; no systemic control.

8

Fixed coppers include: Basicop, Champ, Champion, Citcop, Copper-Count-N, Kocide, Nu-Cop, Super Cu, tenn-Cop, top Cop with Sulfur, and tri-basic copper sulfate.

9

Applications should begin at bloom; after symptoms are observed on watermelon fruit, it is too late to begin a copper spray program.

10 Sulfur products include: Kumulus, Liquid Sulfur Six, Microthiol, Sulfur DF, and thiolux.

11 Check manufacturers label for compatibility with other products.

P Can be phytotoxic at temperatures above 90° F; read the label carefully.

F to prevent resistance in pathogens, alternate fungicides within a group with fungicides in another group. Fungicides in the “M” group are generally considered “low risk” with no

R signs of resistance developing to the majority of fungicides.

Resistance reported in the pathogen.

184 2015 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States

tAbLE 3-12. EFFICACy OF PrOdUCtS FOr dISEASE CONtrOL IN CUCUrbItS (cont’d)

L. Quesada-Ocampo, Plant Pathologist, NCSU; A. Keinath, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University; S. bost, Plant Pathologist, Ut; M. Paret, Plant Pathologist, UF

Scale: “E” excellent; “g” good; “F” fair; “P” poor; “NC” no control; “Nd” no data.

Product

1

fenamidone (Reason) fixed copper P,6,8 fluopicolide (Presidio) fluopyram + tebuconazole (Luna Experience) fluopyram + trifloxystrobin (Luna Sensation) kresoxim-methyl (Sovran) mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb) 6 mancozeb + fixed copper

5

(ManKocide) mandipropamid (Revus) mefenoxam 4 (Ridomil Gold eC, Ultra Flourish) mefenoxam

3

+ chlorothalonil

6

(Ridomil Gold/Bravo, Flouronil) mefenoxam mefenoxam

3

+ copper

6

(Ridomil Gold/Copper)

3

+ mancozeb

6

(Ridomil Gold MZ ) myclobutanil 3 (Rally) penthiopyrad (Fontelis) phosphonate

11

(Aliette, Agri-Fos, Phostrol, ProPhyte) potassium phosphite + tebuconazole (Viathon) propamocarb (Previcur Flex) pyraclostrobin

3

(Cabrio) pyraclostrobin

3

+ boscalid

3

(Pristine) quinoxyfen (Quintec) sulfur P,6,10 tebuconazole (Monsoon) thiophanate-methyl 4 (topsin M) trifloxystrobin 3 (Flint) triflumizole (Procure)

11

M

43

7 + 3

7 + 11

11

M

M + M

40

4

4 + M

11

11 + 7

13

M

3

1

11

3

4 + M

4 + M

3

7

33

33 + 3

28

14

1

2

7

0

0

5

5

0

0

0

F

P

F

NC

F

NC

ND

P

F

NC

F

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

F

ND

NC

NC NC NC NC NC NC NC

ND NC NC NC ND NC NC

ND NC F NC NC NC NC

ND NC ND NC ND ND NC

F NC G NC NC G NC

F

R

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

R

F

F

F

R

P

P R

NC

NC

R

NC

P

NC

G

F

NC ND NC

F

P F P F NC P NC NC

NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC

P

NC R

NC NC NC NC NC NC F R G R

NC

NC

NC NC

F

R

7

1

0

3

0

0

0

0

5

5

0

P

F

P

NC

F

F

P

NC

NC

NC

P

F

F

R

F

R

NC NC NC NC NC NC NC

1 ND NC F NC ND ND NC

0.5

NC NC NC NC NC NC NC

7

2

ND

NC

NC

NC

ND

NC

NC

NC

ND

NC

ND

NC

ND

NC

G

G

NC

NC

G

F

NC NC ND NC

NC ND G NC

NC NC NC NC NC NC NC

NC NC NC NC NC NC NC

NC NC NC NC NC NC NC

F

R

F

R

F

R

F

R

P

F

NC NC NC

NC NC NC

R

NC

ND

P

P

NC

F

ND F

NC NC

R

NC NC

R

ND NC NC NC NC ND NC

F NC F NC F F NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

G NC G NC ND ND NC NC NC R

NC

NC

NC

NC NC NC

NC NC NC

F

F

NC

NC NC NC

R

R

R

F

ND

F

F

F

NC

NC

ND

P

P

F

R

R

P

P

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

ND

G

F

R

F

R

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

F

P

R

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

NC

F

ND

NC

NC

P

NC NC NC

NC

NC

F

NC

P

G

F

ND NC

P

R

NC

P

NC

NC

ND

G

P P F

NC NC NC

NC NC NC

F F F

NC

F

G

NC

P

F

NC

NC

NC

F

P

F

NC

NC F NC

NC NC NC

NC F NC

NC NC NC

G

F

NC

NC

NC

R

F e

G e e

NC

NC

F

NC R

NC

F

R

NC

P

G

NC zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) 22 + M 5 F NC F NC NC F NC NC F F P NC F P F

1

Efficacy ratings do not necessarily indicate a labeled use for every disease.

2

3

Control cucumber beetle from emergence to fruit set; bactericidal sprays alone are not effective.

Curative activity; locally systemic.

4 Systemic.

5 When used in combination with chlorothalonil or mancozeb, gives increased control.

6 Contact control only; no systemic control.

8 Fixed coppers include: Basicop, Champ, Champion, Citcop, Copper-Count-N, Kocide, Nu-Cop, Super Cu, tenn-Cop, top Cop with Sulfur, and tri-basic copper sulfate.

9 Applications should begin at bloom; after symptoms are observed on watermelon fruit, it is too