Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide Natural Resources Ressources naturelles

Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide Natural Resources Ressources naturelles
Energy Efficiency Planning
and Management Guide
Natural Resources
Canada
Ressources naturelles
Canada
Leading Canadians to Energy Efficiency at Home, at Work and on the Road
The Office of Energy Efficiency of Natural Resources Canada
strengthens and expands Canada’s commitment to energy efficiency
in order to help address the challenges of climate change.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Aussi disponible en français sous le titre :
PEEIC Guide de planification et de gestion de l’efficacité énergétique
ISBN 0-662-31457-3
Cat. No. M92-239/2001E
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2002
To receive additional copies of this publication, write to
Industrial, Commercial and Institutional Programs
Office of Energy Efficiency
Natural Resources Canada
580 Booth Street, 18th Floor
Ottawa ON K1A 0E4
Telephone: (613) 995-6950
Fax: (613) 947-4121
You can also view or order several of the Office of Energy Efficiency’s publications on-line.
Visit our Energy Publications Virtual Library at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/infosource.
The Office of Energy Efficiency’s Web site is at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca.
Printed on recycled paper
table of contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
How to use this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . vii
PART 1
Energy efficiency management
in the Canadian context . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.5 Assistance for energy
management programs and
environmental improvements . . . . . . 42
1.2 The Canadian Industry Program for
Energy Conservation (CIPEC) . . . . . . . 7
Activities of the Government
of Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1.3 Setting up and running an effective
energy management program . . . . . . 10
Provincial and territorial
government activities . . . . . . . . . . 46
1.3.1 Strategy considerations . . . . . 10
Associations and utilities . . . . . . . . 49
1.3.2 Defining the program. . . . . . 11
Other sources of assistance . . . . . . 57
1.3.3 Environmental management
program – How to
implement it . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3.4 Energy management
training assistance . . . . . . . . . 21
1.4 Energy auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.4.1 Audit initiation . . . . . . . . . . 24
PART 2
Technical guide to
energy efficiency planning
and management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.1 Managing energy resources
and costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
1.4.3 Audit execution . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.1.1 Energy market
restructuring in Canada . . . . 59
1.4.4 Audit report . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.1.2 Monitoring and targeting . . 61
1.4.5 Post-audit activities –
Implementing energy
efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.2 Process insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
1.4.2 Audit preparation. . . . . . . . . 29
1.4.6 Audit assistance . . . . . . . . . . 36
Economic thickness
of insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Keep moisture out . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Environmental considerations . . . . 64
More detailed information . . . . . . 64
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
i
2.3 Lighting systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
The Energy Efficiency Act . . . . . . . . 68
2.7 Heating and cooling equipment
(steam and water) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Environmental considerations . . . . 69
Cleanliness of heattransfer surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
2.4 Electrical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Removing condensate . . . . . . . . . 90
Understanding electrical billings . . . 72
Insulating heating and cooling
equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Time-of-use rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Time-shifting consumption
and real-time pricing . . . . . . . . . . 72
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Reducing peak demand . . . . . . . . 73
Reducing energy consumption . . . 73
Improving the power factor . . . . . 74
Environmental considerations . . . . 91
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
More detailed information . . . . . . 92
2.8 Heating, ventilating and
air-conditioning systems . . . . . . . . . 95
2.5 Boiler plant systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Heat lost in flue gas . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Cost-reduction measures. . . . . . . . 96
Fouled heat-exchange surfaces . . . 79
Reduce humidification
requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Hot blowdown water . . . . . . . . . . 80
Heat loss in condensate. . . . . . . . . 80
Environmental considerations . . . . 80
Low NOx combustion . . . . . . . . . 81
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
More detailed information . . . . . . 82
Other low-cost EMOs . . . . . . . . . 97
Retrofit EMOs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Ground-source heat pumps . . . . . 99
Radiative and evaporative
cooling; thermal storage . . . . . . . 100
Waste heat from process streams . . 100
2.6 Steam and condensate systems . . . . 85
Other retrofit EMOs . . . . . . . . . 100
Pipe redundancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Environmental considerations . . . 101
Steam leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
More detailed information . . . . . 101
Steam trap losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Heat loss through uninsulated
pipes and fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.9 Refrigeration and heat
pump systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Environmental considerations . . . . 86
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Cost-reduction measures . . . . . . 108
More detailed information . . . . . . 87
Ground-source heat pumps . . . . . 109
Retrofit EMOs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Other retrofit EMOs. . . . . . . . . . 111
Environmental considerations . . . 111
More detailed information . . . . . 111
ii
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.10 Water and compressed
air systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
2.14 Automatic controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Water systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Environmental considerations . . . 148
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2.15 Architectural features . . . . . . . . . . 151
Compressed air systems. . . . . . . . 118
Reducing heat transfer . . . . . . . . 151
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Environmental considerations . . . 120
Energy recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
More detailed information . . . . . 120
Central building energy
management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
2.11 Fans and pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Control equipment . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Reducing air leaks . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Motors and drives . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Other energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Environmental considerations . . . 154
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Other energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2.16 Process furnaces, dryers
and kilns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Heat losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Controls and monitoring . . . . . . 158
Environmental considerations . . . 128
Drying technologies . . . . . . . . . 159
More detailed information . . . . . 128
Heat recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
2.12 Compressors and turbines . . . . . . . 131
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Compressors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Environmental considerations . . . 162
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
More detailed information . . . . . 162
Turbines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Environmental considerations . . . 135
More detailed information . . . . . 135
2.13 Measuring, metering
and monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Environmental considerations . . . 143
More detailed information . . . . . 143
2.17 Waste heat recovery . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Heat recovery technologies . . . . . 166
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Environmental considerations . . . 170
More detailed information . . . . . 170
2.18 Combined heat and power
(CHP – “cogeneration”) . . . . . . . . 173
Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Energy management
opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Environmental considerations . . . 176
More detailed information . . . . . 176
iii
2.19 Alternative approaches to
improving energy efficiency . . . . . 177
Renewable energy . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Wastewater treatment plant
(WWTP) EMOs . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Miscellaneous –
Where applicable . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Appendix A
Global warming potential of
greenhouse gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Appendix B
Energy units and conversion
factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Appendix C
Technical industrial publications
available from the Canada Centre
for Mineral and Energy
Technology (CANMET) . . . . . . . . . . 183
iv
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Evaluation Worksheets
Audit mandate checklist . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Process insulation evaluation worksheet. 66
Lighting systems evaluation worksheet . 70
Electrical systems evaluation worksheet . 76
Boiler plant systems evaluation
worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Steam and condensate systems
evaluation worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Heating and cooling equipment
evaluation worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning
systems evaluation worksheet . . . . . . . 102
Refrigeration and heat pump systems
evaluation worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Water and compressed air systems
evaluation worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Fans and pumps evaluation worksheet . 129
Compressor and turbines
evaluation worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Measuring, metering and monitoring
evaluation worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Automatic controls evaluation
worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Architectural features evaluation
worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Process furnaces, dryers and kilns
evaluation worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Waste heat recovery evaluation
worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
preface
The purpose of this Guide is to stimulate thinking about the ways energy
efficiency-enhancing measures could be implemented in a plant and to help
put these measures in place.
Canadian industry is under increasing economic pressure, the result of working
to correct the environmental impacts of production processes (an obligation that
raises product costs) while struggling to compete in a global market of falling
product prices.To help industry meet this double challenge, the Canadian Industry
Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) is issuing this new edition of the
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide, produced by the Office of
Energy Efficiency (OEE) of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). First published
in 1981 and revised in 1993, this edition of the Guide was extensively rewritten
and updated with the newest information available at the time of printing.
Reflecting the 27 years of energy efficiency experience, the 2002 edition
of the Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide focuses on reducing
energy-related greenhouse gases and – through profit-enhancing energy efficiency
measures – on improving the competitiveness of Canadian industry, issues first
covered in the 1993 edition.
Part 1 reflects changes in programs offered by utility companies and all levels
of government.The chapter on energy auditing has been expanded. In addition,
sources of available assistance such as programs and contacts have been updated
and expanded and include e-mail and Internet addresses.
Please note: Every effort has been made to obtain the most up-to-date contact
information possible.
Part 2 covers many aspects of industrial energy management. It has also been
enhanced with knowledge gained from progress technology made since 1993.
New energy efficiency developments and recent innovations are mentioned,
including some of the ideas from Canada’s Energy Efficiency Awards competitions
in 1999 and 2000.The energy management opportunities shown in individual
sections of the Guide list these ideas.
Improving energy efficiency can be a highly creative and satisfying process, for
example when applying a solution known in one field to another.This Guide
should facilitate that process. Naturally, the very broad subject of energy management and energy efficiency far exceeds the extent of this Guide. For reasons of
space, the various topics are dealt with only briefly. Nevertheless, every effort
has been made to assist the reader by giving directions to other sources of
information, in all forms, throughout the Guide.
Preface
v
Several sections of Part 2 recommend manuals from NRCan’s Energy
Management Series.The following titles are currently available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Process Insulation (M91-6/1E)
Energy Accounting (M91-6/04E)
Boiler Plant Systems (M91-6/6E)
Process Furnaces, Dryers and Kilns (M91-6/7E)
Steam and Condensate Systems (M91-6/8E)
Heating and Cooling Equipment (Steam and Water) (M91-6/9E)
Heating,Ventilation and Air Conditioning (M91-6/10E)
Refrigeration and Heat Pumps (M91-6/11E)
Water and Compressed Air Systems (M91-6/12E)
Fans and Pumps (M91-6/13E)
Compressors and Turbines (M91-6/14E)
Measuring, Metering and Monitoring (M91-6/15E)
Materials Handling and On-Site Transportation Equipment (M91-6/17E)
Thermal Storage (M91-6/19E)
Waste Heat Recovery (M91-6/20E)
Note that these manuals have many worked-out examples of calculations used
in implementing various energy efficiency opportunities that can help with
projects.The purchase price is $4 per manual + 7% GST. Please make your
cheque payable to the Receiver General for Canada.To order, fax us or write
to the following address:
Industrial, Commercial and Institutional Programs Division
Office of Energy Efficiency
Natural Resources Canada
580 Booth Street, 18th Floor
Ottawa ON K1A 0E4
Fax: (613) 947-4121
The OEE also offers the following products and services:
• case studies on food-and-beverage, metals, non-metals, chemical
processes and general industries;
• training workshops;
• information and advice on energy auditing; and
• technical data and training.
vi
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Information about these products and services and the contacts are listed in the
relevant sections of this Guide.
Finally, the OEE’s Industrial Energy Efficiency program produces and distributes
Heads Up CIPEC, a bilingual, twice-monthly newsletter, in electronic and hard-copy
versions, read by more than 2500 subscribers in more than 1300 organizations
and which boasts a total readership of almost 10 000. Heads Up CIPEC covers
client successes, technologies, other product lines of the OEE and other NRCan
programs related to energy efficiency.
Heads Up CIPEC can be accessed at
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/cipec/ieep/newscentre/newsletter.cfm.
How to use this Guide
First, read all of the Guide, even though some sections may not apply specifically
to your operations. All sections may contain ideas that are easily transplantable
to a particular situation. Innovative, imaginative thinking while reading will help.
Modern energy management involves many interrelated energy-consuming
systems, just as individual sections of the Guide are interconnected by mutual
references, and an overall view should be obtained.
There are evaluation worksheets for each energy topic at the end of each section.
The worksheets take the reader step by step through your facilities and processes,
looking at each aspect with an eye to improving energy efficiency. Readers
can add further questions to the evaluation worksheets that are specific to their
operations. Experienced users will find Part 2 a valuable review, whereas the
novice energy manager should find the self-guiding style of the text useful for
completing the evaluation worksheets.
In Appendix C, various other NRCan publications are listed.We strongly suggest
reading carefully the list of technical reports and fact sheets that are available.We
want industries to succeed!
Preface
vii
part 1
Energy efficiency management
in the Canadian context
1.1
Climate change
Greenhouse gas emissions and efforts to reduce them
Scientists have determined that the Earth’s atmosphere is changing as a result
of emissions of greenhouse gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. One key
greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2), which is emitted primarily from the
burning of fossil fuels. Other contributors to global warming are methane (CH4),
nitrogen oxides (NOx) and halogenated substances. Compared with CO2, CH4
has 24.5 times as much global warming potential; NO2 has 310 times as much;
and halogenated substances have 93 to 24 900 times as much. However, CO2
contributes more to global warming than all these other substances combined.
(See Appendix A – Global warming potential of greenhouse gases.)
The precise effects of this change in the atmosphere are not yet known, but
more and more people believe that substantial changes in the world’s climate
and weather patterns, such as the following, are likely:
• Global temperatures could increase, leading to melting polar ice caps, rising
sea levels, flooding of low coastal areas and endangering fresh water supplies.
• Weather extremes could become more severe, and precipitation patterns
could shift, disrupting essential weather-dependent activities such as forestry,
agriculture and hydro-electric power generation.
Such changes would have enormous social and economic consequences and, if
action is taken only when extreme effects begin to appear, significant problems
may be unavoidable.
The global response
The United Nations has led an international response to this challenge through
its Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Kyoto Protocol). Canada signed
this convention in December 1997, making the following commitments:
• by January 1, 2000, to stabilize its emissions of greenhouse gases at 1990 levels;
• between 2008 and 2012, to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases by
6 percent of 1990 levels; and
• to keep the United Nations informed about Canada’s CO2 emissions levels
and Canadian programs to limit them.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
1
Canadian activities
Canadian energy efficiency efforts in the manufacturing and mining industries
show clearly that volunteerism works. Since 1990, the more than 3000 companies
involved in the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC)
have made important contributions to achieving Canadian goals, especially by
decreasing energy intensity and reducing greenhouse gas production. Between
1990 and 1998, Canada’s mining and manufacturing companies improved their
average annual energy intensity by 1.26 percent. At the same time, although the
economy was expanding vigorously, these companies limited the increase of
related CO2 emissions to less than 0.4 percent above 1990 levels by using
energy efficiently.
Equally important, investments and efforts designed to improve energy efficiency
also helped participating companies to reduce costs and improve profitability, vital
components of the business strategy of any successful enterprise.The achievements
of CIPEC participants demonstrate that responsible environmental action does not
have to be an expense but can contribute significantly to a healthy bottom line.
Through its Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE), Natural Resources Canada
(NRCan) has committed itself to deliver new and established energy efficiency
initiatives and to foster energy management in Canadian industry. NRCan
carries out these activities through voluntary programs, such as the Industrial
Energy Innovators Initiative and through partnerships with private sector
organizations such as Canada’s Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and
Registry Inc. (VCR Inc.).
Impact of energy efficiency measures on greenhouse gas emissions
Improved energy efficiency reduces greenhouse gas emissions in two ways:
• Energy efficiency measures for on-site combustion systems (e.g. boilers,
furnaces and ovens) reduce emissions in direct proportion to the amount
of fuel not consumed.
• Reductions in consumption of electricity lower demand for electricity and,
consequently, reduce emissions from thermal electrical power generating stations.
Although the following examples may seem specialized, the method used to
calculate emissions reductions applies to any energy management project that
reduces consumption of fuel or electricity.
On-site combustion systems
Use the data in Table 1.1 (page 3) and the information on page 4 to calculate
the amount of CO2, CH4 and NOx produced by combustion systems in the
following example.To perform this calculation for your own facilities, obtain
precise data from your natural gas utility.
2
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
TABLE 1.1
Greenhouse gas emissions factors – Combustion source
Fuel type
Gaseous fuels
CO2
CH4
NOx
t/ML
t/TJ
kg/GL
kg/TJ
kg/ML
kg/TJ
Natural gas
1.88
49.68
4.8-48
0.13-1.27
0.02
0.62
Still gas
2.07
49.68
–
–
0.02
0.62
Coke oven gas
1.60
86.00
–
–
–
–
Liquid fuels
t/kL
t/TJ
kg/kL
kg/TJ
kg/kL
kg/TJ
Motor gasoline
2.36
67.98
0.24-4.20
6.92-121.11
0.23-1.65
6.6-47.6
Kerosene
2.55
67.65
0.21
5.53
0.23
6.1
Aviation gas
2.33
69.37
2.19
60.00
0.23
6.86
1.11-1.76
59.84-61.38
0.03
1.18
0.23
9.00-12.50
Diesel oil
2.73
70.69
0.06-0.25
1.32-5.7
0.13-0.40
3.36-10.34
Light oil
2.83
73.11
0.01-0.21
0.16-5.53
0.13-0.40
3.36-10.34
Heavy oil
3.09
74.00
0.03-0.12
0.72-2.88
0.13-0.40
3.11-9.59
Aviation jet fuel
2.55
70.84
0.08
2.00
0.23
6.40
Petroleum coke
4.24
100.10
0.02
0.38
–
–
Solid fuels
t/t
t/TJ
g/kg
kg/TJ
g/kg
kg/TJ
Anthracite
2.39
86.20
0.02
varies
0.1-2.11
varies
US bituminous
2.46-2.50
81.6-85.9
0.02
varies
0.1-2.11
varies
CDN bituminous
1.70-2.52
94.3-83.0
0.02
varies
0.1-2.11
varies
1.74
94.30
0.02
varies
0.1-2.11
varies
1.34-1.52
93.8-95.0
0.02
varies
0.1-2.11
varies
Coke
2.48
86.00
–
–
–
–
Fuel wood
1.47
81.47
0.15-0.5
0.01-0.03
0.16
8.89
Slash burning
1.47
81.47
0.15
0.01
–
–
Municipal waste
0.91
85.85
0.23
0.02
–
–
Wood waste
1.50
83.33
0.15
0.01
–
–
LPGs
Sub-bituminous
Lignite
Abbreviations: t – tonne; kg – kilogram; g – gram; ML – megalitre;TJ – terajoule; kL – kilolitre; GL – gigalitre.
(See Appendix B – Energy units and conversion factors.)
Source: Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program Participant’s Handbook, August 1995, and its addendum,
issued in March 1996. Data supplied by Environment Canada.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
3
• When the soaking pit in a steel mill was re-insulated, the original natural gas
burners were retrofitted with high-efficiency burners. Annual fuel savings are
estimated at 50 terajoules (TJ).What would be the corresponding reductions
in CO2, CH4 and NOx emissions?
• The emissions factors for natural gas fuel are CO2: 49.68 t/TJ;
CH4: 0.13-1.27 kg/TJ; NOx: 0.62 kg/TJ. A range of 0.13-1.27 kg/TJ has
been indicated for CH4, so we will assume 0.6 kg/TJ for this calculation.
CO2 reduction = 50 TJ/yr. 3 49.68 t CO2/TJ = 2484 t/yr.
CH4 reduction = 50 TJ/yr. 3 0.6 kg CH4/TJ = 30 kg/yr.
NOx reduction = 50 TJ/yr. 3 0.62 kg NOx/TJ = 31 kg/yr.
Process
Using the data in Table 1.2 (page 5) and the information given in the following,
calculate the amount of CO2, CH4 and NOx emitted during processing.
• A cement plant improved several of its processing techniques and realized a
10 percent reduction in fuel consumption. Calculate the reduction in CO2
emissions if the plant’s processing capacity is 50 000 tonnes per year.
• The CO2 emission factor for cement production is 0.5 t/t cement.
CO2 emissions from plant before improvements:
= 50 000 t/yr. 3 0.5 t CO2 /t = 25 000 t/yr.
CO2 emissions from plant after improvements:
= 25 000 t/yr. 3 10% reduction = 22 500 t/yr.
Impact of reductions in electrical consumption
Energy management projects that reduce electrical consumption also have a
positive effect on the environment. However, the emissions reductions occur
at the electrical generating station rather than at the site of the efficiency
improvements.To calculate the emissions reduction, use the method outlined
in the preceding, and then calculate the energy saved at the generating station.
This is done by adjusting the figure that represents energy saved at the site to
account for losses in the electrical distribution system.
Using Table 1.3 and the information given on page 6, calculate emissions
reductions. To perform this calculation for your own facilities, obtain precise
data from your electrical utility.
4
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
TABLE 1.2
Greenhouse gas emissions factors – Process source
CO2
CH4
NOx
Process
t/t
t/TJ
g/kg
t/TJ
g/kg
kg/TJ
Cement production
0.50
–
–
–
–
–
Lime production
0.79
–
–
–
–
–
Ammonia production
1.58
–
–
–
–
–
Spent pulp liquid
production
1.43
102.10
–
–
–
–
Adipic acid
production
–
–
–
–
–
–
Nitric oxide
production
–
–
–
–
0.03
–
Natural gas
production
0.07
–
2.67
–
–
–
Coal mining
–
–
1.20–16.45
–
–
–
Non-energy use
t/kL
t/TJ
g/kg
t/TJ
g/kg
kg/TJ
Petrochemical
feedstock
0.50
14.22
–
–
–
–
Naphthas
0.50
14.22
–
–
–
–
Lubricants
1.41
36.01
–
–
–
–
Other products
1.45
28.88
–
–
–
–
Coke
2.48
86.00
–
–
–
–
t/ML
t/TJ
Natural gas
1.26
33.35
–
–
–
–
Coke oven gas
1.60
86.00
–
–
–
–
Agriculture
kg per head/year
kg per head/year
g/kg
kg/TJ
36–3960
0.01–120
–
–
–
–
1-50
–
Miscellaneous
kg/t
kg/T
g/kg
kg/TJ
Landfills
182
66
–
–
Livestock
Fertilizer use
Abbreviations: t – tonne; kg – kilogram; g – gram; ML – megalitre;TJ – terajoule; kL – kilolitre; GL – gigalitre.
(See Appendix B – Energy units and conversion factors.)
Source: Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program Participant’s Handbook, August 1995, and its addendum,
issued in March 1996. Data supplied by Environment Canada.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
5
TABLE 1.3
Average CO2 emissions for 1998, by unit of electricity produced
t/MWh
t/TJ
Atlantic provinces
0.25
68.4
Quebec
0.01
2.5
Ontario
0.23
65.2
Manitoba
0.03
8.2
Saskatchewan
0.83
231.7
Alberta
0.91
252.1
British Columbia
0.03
7.4
Nunavut, Northwest Territories and Yukon
0.35
98.5
Canada
0.22
61.3
• At a large manufacturing plant in Saskatchewan, the energy management
program involved replacing fluorescent light fixtures with metal halide
fixtures and replacing several large electric motors with high-efficiency
motors.The total annual energy saving was 33 600 MWh. Calculate the
corresponding reduction in emissions.
• Table 1.3 shows that, in Saskatchewan, the average CO2 emissions from
electrical power generation is 0.83 t/MWh.
• Convert to equivalent energy saving at the generating station using a
transmission efficiency of 96 percent.
Annual energy savings at generating station:
= 33 600 MWh/0.96 = 35 000 MWh
CO2 reduction:
= 35 000 MWh/yr. 3 0.82 t/MWh = 28 700 t/yr.
6
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
1.2
The Canadian Industry Program for
Energy Conservation (CIPEC)
The following is CIPEC’s mission statement:
To promote effective voluntary action that reduces industrial energy use per
unit of production, thereby improving economic performance while participating in meeting Canada’s climate change objectives.
CIPEC has been helping Canadian industry to improve energy efficiency for more
than a quarter of a century. It is the most important part of the Industrial Energy
Efficiency program at NRCan’s OEE. CIPEC is an alliance between industry and
the Government of Canada to increase energy efficiency, limit emissions of
greenhouse gases and improve the competitiveness of Canadian industry.
CIPEC provides a focus for setting energy efficiency improvement targets and
the development and implementation of action plans at the industry sector and
sub-sector levels. CIPEC works with industry sector task forces and trade associations to track and report energy efficiency improvements and related reductions
in emissions. It works to help the implementation of energy efficiency
programs – for example, by publishing this Guide.
Background
Following the first world oil crisis of 1973, the Government of Canada became
more and more concerned with energy security, pricing and usage issues. In 1975,
it mandated the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources (which became
NRCan in 1990) to establish CIPEC.The CIPEC initiative was designed to
stimulate and coordinate the voluntary efforts of Canadian industry to improve and
monitor energy efficiency and exchange non-proprietary technical information
on energy use. It delivered results: the initial 14 industrial sectors, accounting for
70 percent of Canadian industrial use, achieved cumulated energy savings of
26.1 percent per unit of production between 1973 and 1990. CIPEC also helped
the energy efficiency effort substantially by publishing and disseminating helpful
information on technical improvements and energy management practices. By
the end of the 1980s, a deregulated energy market led to a decline in interest in
energy efficiency. CIPEC participation waned and the program went into decline.
Two external forces in the early 1990s spurred a revival in interest in CIPEC’s
promotion of energy efficiency and facilitation facilities: international commitment to control the amount of greenhouse gases produced in Canada and the
dramatic increase in worldwide industrial competitive pressures.
In its Green Plan (December 1990), the Government of Canada formulated
directives to deal with the environmental impacts of energy use – especially
the burning of fossil fuels.Two years later, Canada became a signatory of the
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, pledging to stabilize CO2
emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. As a result, CIPEC modified its approach
to industrial energy efficiency to deal with the global warming challenge.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
7
CIPEC already had a list of proud achievements on which to build:
• The 26.1 percent improvement in energy efficiency realized by CIPEC
members between 1973 and 1990 represented an ongoing reduction of
30.4 percent in Canada’s industrial emissions.
• The industrial energy efficiency network comprised more than 3000 companies.
• It enlisted commitments from companies that represented three quarters
of industrial energy use to set targets, develop action plans and implement
energy efficiency improvement projects.
• It developed a world-class industrial energy efficiency tracking and reporting
system based on energy-per-unit output.
CIPEC’s enhanced approach to industrial energy efficiency
Apart from the key activity of setting progressive sector-specific energy efficiency
improvement targets and action plans that produced earlier successes in reducing
energy use, CIPEC, as part of its plan for the 2000–2010 period, also continues
to do the following:
• enlist voluntary commitments from individual companies to improve their
energy efficiency and reduce their output of emissions;
• coordinate the establishment of consolidated energy efficiency improvement
commitments and individual sub-sector-level targets;
• encourage sub-sector-level implementation of action plans;
• focus on action at the sector level and provide interveners, such as NRCan,
with a framework for responding to sector task force recommendations
by adapting energy efficiency programs and practices;
• use good data and analyses to track progress;
• consolidate energy efficiency improvements and emissions reduction and
report accomplishments;
• use sector task forces to encourage industries to exchange technical
information and promote synergy among sectors; and
• encourage, facilitate and provide energy management training.
Current CIPEC organization
CIPEC is a dedicated, cost-effective, proactive organization that concentrates
on achieving specific results. It comprises vertical associations, voluntary task
forces and companies. It achieves synergy through the Task Force Council of
Sector Task Force Chairs (currently more than 20 sectors with 25 task forces
supported by more than 40 trade associations and growing).The Task Force
Council receives leadership and direction from the Executive Board, many
of whose members are on the Board of Directors and Council of Champions
of Canada’s Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. (VCR Inc.).
See Figure 1.1 on page 9 for the basic structure of the program.
The Industrial Energy Efficiency program provides CIPEC with financial and
in-kind support, including administrative services. NRCan is the principal fundprovider as well as its program manager. CIPEC also receives financial and in-kind
support from other levels of government and utility companies. Participant
companies and associated vertical associations provide in-kind support as well.
8
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
FIGURE 1.1
CIPEC’s structure (simplified)
Provide direction
Provide funding and administrative support
Coordinate program promotion and activities
NRCan
OEE
Industrial Energy
Efficiency program
Ensure delivery of training and workshops
Provide general support
Provide contacts to senior government
officials
Provide industry with leadership
CIPEC
Executive
Board
Receive and review data collection,
benchmarking, progress tracking, reporting
Issue CIPEC Annual Report
Suggest and define support requirements
Assist in plans development
Ensure consistency of approach
Facilitate dissemination of knowledge
Task Force
Council
Stimulate synergies by integration
Receive and review data collection,
benchmarking, progress tracking, reporting
Issues reports
Define energy efficiency opportunities
Promote formation of sector task forces
Set targets
Implement strategies
Provide information and advice
Sector
Task Forces
Assist in improving data collection efficiency
and accuracy
Contribute stories and data to CIPEC
Annual Report
Promote energy efficiency programs
Maintain focus, monitor programs,
adjust approach
Indicate assistance required
Promote new ideas and opportunities
Encourage members to commit to improvements in energy efficiency, reduction of
emissions, optimization of production costs
Industry Sector/
Sub-Sector
Associations
Issue reports on data collection,
benchmarking, progress tracking
Provide success stories and other information
Implement energy efficiency improvement
and emissions reduction measures
Individual
Companies
Participate actively in CIPEC activities
Ensure data collection and progress reporting
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
9
1.3
Setting up and running an effective energy
management program
Energy should be viewed as any other valuable raw material resource required to
run a business – not as mere overhead and part of business maintenance. Energy
has costs and environmental impacts.They need to be managed well in order
to increase the business’ profitability and competitiveness and to mitigate the
seriousness of these impacts.
All organizations can save energy by applying the same sound management
principles and techniques they use elsewhere in the business for key resources
such as raw materials and labour.These management practices must include full
managerial accountability for energy use.The management of energy consumption and costs eliminates waste and brings in ongoing, cumulative savings.
1.3.1 Strategy considerations
The purpose of this chapter is to convince upper management of the value of
systematic energy management in achieving the organization’s strategic objectives.
In essence, the strategic goal of most corporations is to gain a competitive advantage
by seizing external and internal opportunities so as to improve the profitability
of their operations, products and sales and their marketplace position. Developing
a successful corporate strategy requires taking into account all of the influences
on the organization’s operation and integrating the various management functions
into an efficiently working whole. Energy management should be one of
these functions.
In the process, an organization may wish to first conduct a review of its strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) that would also include
various legal and environmental considerations (such as emissions, effluent, etc.).
Inevitably, this analysis would identify future threats to profitability, and ways to
reduce costs should be sought. Energy efficiency improvement programs should,
therefore, become an integral part of the corporate strategy to counter such
threats.They will help to improve profit margins through energy savings. Applying
good energy management practices is just as important to achieving these savings
as the appropriate process technology. It should be remembered that any operational savings translate directly to bottom-line improvement, dollar for dollar.
With concern for the environment currently increasing, it is likely that energy
efficiency improvement programs would be driven by the company’s environmental
policy.They would become a part of the organization’s overall environmental
management system. This would ensure that energy issues would be raised
at the corporate level and receive proper attention.
Examples of the benefits of a consistent and integrated approach to achieving
energy savings are prevalent throughout the world. Often, production can be
increased without using extra energy if existing technologies have been managed
within a company’s energy management scheme.That scheme should form an
integral part of the company’s quality and environmental management systems,
providing a comprehensive tool for managing and implementing further savings.
10
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
The integration of energy into the overall management system should involve
evaluation of energy implications in every management decision in the same
way as economic, operational, quality and other aspects are considered.
1.3.2 Defining the program
Setting up an effective energy management program follows proven principles
of establishing any management system.These principles fit any size and type
of organization. As defined by Dr.W. Edwards Deming, the process should have
four steps:
Continual
improvement
Check
Act
Do
Plan
These steps, broken down, require several essential activities (see Figure 1.2,
next page).
The points depicted in the diagram are generic. As each of the energy
efficiency improvement programs is site-specific, the actual approaches to
their development will vary.
The following brief examination of these individual points will provide
a simplified blueprint to energy management program implementation.
1.3.3 Energy management program – How to implement it
Obtain insight
The first step in implementing an energy management program is the energy audit.
It consists of documentary research, surveys (including interviews and observations)
and analysis to determine where and how energy is used and may be lost.
The energy audit is the cornerstone of the energy management program.This
is why an entire chapter in this Guide is devoted to this important subject
(see Section 1.4,“Energy auditing,” page 24).The energy audit is necessary in
order to identify opportunities for energy management and savings. It establishes
“ground zero,” the base from which the progress and success of energy
management can be measured.
Several resources are available to help you conduct the audit and perform the
calculations. Experienced auditors require little or no support and can conduct
an energy audit on short notice. Most auditors will find Part 2 of this Guide
useful. Its technical information will help them to evaluate sources of energy
loss and to decide which areas require detailed examination.
More information about available assistance is listed later on in this section.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
11
FIGURE 1.2
Energy management plan at a glance
Plan
Do
Check
Act
Obtain insight
(energy audit)
Create awareness
Review results
Correct
deficiencies
Get management
commitment
Train key
resources
Verify
effectiveness
Review original
energy policy
Nominate energy
champion
Implement
projects
Examine
opportunities for
continual
improvement
Review objectives
and targets
Policy, objectives,
structure
Monitor progress
Review energy
program
Assign
responsibilities
Lock in the gains –
Set new targets
Update action
plans
Develop
program(s)
Communicate
results
Start the cycle
anew
Set targets and
measures
Celebrate success
Set priorities
Develop action
plans
© Lom & Associates Inc., 2000
Get management commitment
Energy management must be a matter of concern to everybody in the company
before it can succeed.Without strong, sustained and visible support of the company’s top management, the energy management program is doomed to failure.
Employees will apply their best efforts to the program only when they see that
their supervisors are fully committed. Hence, it is crucial that top management
rally to the cause and provide full support and enthusiastic participation. Because
the program involves everybody, the support of union officials should be secured
very early on.
12
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Nominate an energy champion
A senior manager in the role of energy management champion should head the
energy management structure.The person will give the program enough clout
and stature to indicate to the entire workforce that energy management is a
commitment that everyone must take seriously.The champion should demonstrate a high level of enthusiasm and deep conviction about the benefits of the
energy efficiency program.
Set energy policy, objectives and structure
The launch of the energy management program should start with a strong policy
statement from the chief executive to the employees, followed up immediately by
a presentation that explains the benefits of efficient energy use.The energy policy
should be developed in step with the company’s strategic goals and in agreement
with other policies (quality, production, environment, etc.) and the company’s
vision and mission statements.
In order to give the program legitimacy – apart from showing strong, sustained
and visible support – top management must make and keep other important
commitments:
• to view the energy management program to be as important as production;
• to provide the resources necessary; and
• to report on progress to shareholders and employees.
The effectiveness of an energy management program depends on the time and
effort allowed to be spent by those who are charged with its implementation.
Therefore, adequate operational funding is essential.
In setting the objectives, the organization should consider its priorities and its
financial, operational and business requirements and make them specific.The
objectives should be measurable, realistic and clearly defined and should be
communicated to all.
Assign responsibilities
The champion chairs the Energy Management Committee (EMC) and takes
overall personal responsibility for the implementation and success of the program
and accountability for its effectiveness.The energy champion should have the
appropriate technical knowledge and training as well as free access to senior
management. Beyond these requirements, the ideal person will have skills in
leadership, motivation, communication, facilitating and mediation, persistence,
determination and the willingness to advocate for the cause of energy efficiency.
The person should also have an excellent follow-through on issues and with
members of the EMC.
The other part of the champion’s duties is to report regularly and frequently
on the status of the energy management program, especially when a project has
reached its energy-saving target.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
13
Specific responsibilities and accountabilities for the energy management program
may be assigned to area managers. Line managers must also learn why effective
energy management is needed and how they can contribute to it. As well, with
the concept of energy being a managed resource and its use spanning several
operational departments, their managers must be made accountable for its use
within their area.That may not happen overnight, though, as monitoring equipment and consumption measurements are not often available at first.
The EMC should include representatives from each major energy-using department,
from maintenance, from production operators, as well as from various functions,
including finance, purchasing, environment and legal. Members should be prepared
to make recommendations that affect their areas and to conduct investigations
and studies. Energy management generally works best when specific tasks are
assigned and people are held responsible.
In smaller organizations, all management staff should have energy consumption
reduction duties.
Develop program(s) for energy efficiency management
A successful approach to developing an energy efficiency improvement
program would include the following items:
•
•
•
•
a long-term savings plan;
a medium-term plan for the entire facility;
a first-year detailed project plan; and
action to improve energy management, including the implementation
of an energy monitoring system.
The last point should also capture the energy savings that will assuredly result
from improved housekeeping practices alone. Companies around the world
report that these measures alone can save 10 to 15 percent of energy costs
merely through the elimination of wasteful practices.
The energy management plan should be ongoing and have a number of
energy-saving projects coordinated together, rather than be implemented
haphazardly or in a bit-by-bit fashion.
The energy management champion should share with the EMC members all
the available information about energy use and challenge them to explore ways
to conserve energy in their respective areas or departments.
Using this information, define realistic energy-saving goals that should offer
enough incentive to challenge the employees.
Establish a reporting system to track progress toward these goals, with
adequate frequency.
14
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Set targets and measures
What you can measure, you can control. Often, there is only rudimentary measuring
equipment in place, particularly in smaller facilities.That should not be an impediment to starting an energy efficiency improvement project, however. More gauges,
sensors and other equipment can be added as the energy management effort
accelerates. In fact, early successes with energy-saving projects will provide strong
justification for acquisition of new metering equipment.
Targets should be measurable and verifiable.To ensure that they are realistic,
apply standards that indicate how much energy should be used for a particular
application. Measure current performance against industry standards or calculated
practical and theoretical energy requirements.Wherever possible, attempt to express
the targets in relation to the unit of production. Always set targets and standards
in familiar energy consumption units (e.g. MJ, GJ, Btu, therms, kWh – for
explanation of the units, see Appendix B). Use MJ or GJ (these are preferred,
as are all SI units) or Btu units to permit comparison across energy sources.
When a target level is reached and the results level off, the target should be
reset at a new, progressive value.
Set priorities
Certainly, do pay due consideration to business needs. But remember that one
has to walk before one can run; start with small, easily and quickly achievable
targets.That will be a great source of motivation to employees – seeing that it
can be done and that progress is being made will lead them to feel that they are
successful. As well, EMC members will gain experience and confidence before
tackling more complex or longer-horizon targets.
Develop action plans
Be specific – an action plan is a project management and control tool. It should
contain identification of personnel and their responsibilities, the specific tasks,
their area and timing. It should also indicate specified resource requirements
(money, people, training, etc.) and timelines for individual projects and their
stages. Several project management software packages are on the market to
facilitate the creation of Gantt charts, which are used to monitor and control
project fulfilment, costs and other data.
When selecting energy efficiency projects for implementation, look for energy
management opportunities (EMOs).This term represents the ways that energy
can be used wisely to save money.Typically, in most areas, these can be divided
into three categories, as seen in the diagram on page 16.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
15
Energy
Management
Opportunities
Housekeeping
This refers to an energy management action
that is repeated on a regular basis and never
less than once per year.
Low cost
This type of energy management action is
done once and for which the cost is not
considered great.
Retrofit
This energy management action is done
once, but the cost is significant.
It should be noted that the division between low cost and retrofit is normally
a function of the size, type and financial policy of the organization.
$
In Part 2 of this Guide, the EMOs will be accompanied by this symbol:
Create awareness
The entire workforce should be involved in the energy efficiency improvement
effort.Therefore, everybody should be aware of the importance of reducing energy
consumption in bringing about savings, as well as of the broader environmental
benefits of energy efficiency improvements – how the reductions in energy use
translate into a decrease of CO2 emissions, for example.Various means can be
employed (seminars, quizzes, demonstrations, exhibits) to convey the message. An
excellent publication entitled Toolkit for Your Industrial Energy Efficiency Awareness
Program is available from NRCan (e-mail: [email protected]).
A well-executed awareness campaign should optimally result in heightened
personal interest and willingness of people to get involved. Employees should know
their roles and responsibilities in the overall energy management effort and how
their own personal performance can influence the outcome.That should include
knowledge of the potential consequences of not improving to the company’s and
society’s well-being.
Creating awareness about the importance of saving energy will help substantially
in the implementation of virtually-no-cost energy-saving measures through
better housekeeping.
16
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Train key resources
Members of the EMC, line managers and others who will be involved in the
energy management program – and have a greater influence upon energy consumption than others – should receive appropriate training.That could include
energy-saving practices pertinent to these employees’ jobs or essential energy
monitoring and measuring techniques. NRCan sponsors a number of specific
energy efficiency improvement courses. Other sources of training are available
through utility companies and other organizations. For a list of training
resources, see pages 21 to 23.
Training can be organized in two stages.The first stage involves specific training
for selected employees.The second – following in due course – is a strategy
for integrating energy management training into the existing company training
matrix in order to ensure that energy training is regularly covered. General
team training (e.g. in conflict management and problem solving) should also
be provided to the EMC members.
Implement projects
The implementation of energy-saving projects should involve a coordinated,
coherent set of projects linked together for the energy efficiency improvement
program to be most effective. If several energy projects are contemplated, the
interactions between them must also be considered. For example, imagine an
office building with two energy management opportunities: installation of highefficiency boilers and draft-proofing of windows. If the current (pre-boiler
conversion) cost of energy is used to calculate payback on the window project,
an estimate of 2.4 years results; however, with new boilers, payback on the
window project may take 3.1 years.
Start capitalizing on your selected energy management opportunities as soon
as possible. Start with projects that yield modest but quickly obtainable savings,
especially projects to correct the obvious sources of waste found in the initial
energy audit.The savings thus achieved will encourage the EMC to seek greater
savings in the areas of less obvious energy consumption, such as energy used by
machinery and in processes.
Do not overlook the importance of improving energy housekeeping practices in
the overall energy management program (see “Create awareness” in the preceding).
During the first six months of an energy management program, a target
of 5 percent savings is generally acceptable. A longer first phase, and a correspondingly higher target, may cause enthusiasm to wane. Hence, start with
projects that are simpler and bring results quickly to boost the confidence
and interest of the EMC members.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
17
Follow up on activities of individuals charged with specific responsibilities and
be mindful of the implementation schedule.The energy management champion
should meet with the committee regularly to review progress, update project lists,
evaluate established goals and set new goals as required.To sustain interest, the
EMC should run a program of activities and communications, and the champion
should make periodic progress reports to management, reviewing the program
and re-establishing support for it with each report.
Monitor progress
By continuously monitoring the energy streams entering the facility and their
usage, the EMC can gather much information that will help it assess progress of
its program and plan future projects. Energy-use monitoring produces data for
activities such as the following:
• determining whether progress is being made;
• managing energy use on a day-to-day basis to make prompt corrections
of process conditions that have caused sudden excessive consumption;
• determining trends in energy usage and using that information in the
budgeting process;
• calculating the return on investment (i.e. the cost savings achieved from
data gathered by the energy monitoring system);
• providing positive reinforcement that helps employees to willingly adopt
the new energy-saving practices;
• comparing the results of an implemented energy-saving measure to the
projections in order to identify problems with the project’s performance
and improve techniques for estimating costs and benefits of energy efficiency
improvements for future projects;
• tracking the performance of projects in which suppliers made
performance guarantees;
• reporting energy improvements accurately to senior management,
thus ensuring management commitment;
• setting future energy use reduction targets and monitoring progress
toward new goals; and
• selecting areas of the facility for a future detailed energy audit.
In a large facility with many different functions, energy monitoring is done
with metering equipment installed at strategic points to measure the flow of
energy sources – such as steam, compressed air or electricity – to each major
user. Energy performance is then gauged by calculating the amount of energy
consumed per unit of production. Measurement expressions in SI units are
preferred, as they enable global comparisons (e.g. MJ or GJ used per tonne
of steel produced in a steel plant, or kWh per automobile assembled in an
automotive plant).
Calculating energy performance helps managers identify wasteful areas of their
facility and lets managers take responsibility for energy use in their areas.When
monitoring shows that energy consumption is declining as improvements are
being made, attention can be turned to the next area of concern.
18
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Lock in the gains – set new targets
Without vigilant attention to energy management, the gains could fade away and
the effort could disintegrate.To make the new energy-saving measures stick, pay
sustained attention to the implemented project until the measure has become a
well-entrenched routine.
Remember that energy management is an issue of technology as well as people.
If practices and procedures have been changed as the result of the project, take
the time and effort to document it in a procedure or work instruction. That
will ensure the future consistency of the practice, as well as serve as a training
and audit tool.
Once a target has been met on a sustained basis over a period of several weeks,
it is time to review it. It can become the new standard, and a new, progressive
target can be set.Target-setting helps to involve the entire workforce in energy
projects by giving them goals to achieve. By setting targets in a step-wise,
improving fashion, managers will learn to treat energy as a resource that must
be managed with attention equal to that for other process inputs, such as labour
and raw materials.
Communicate the results
This extremely important step needs to be well executed in order to foster the
sense that everybody is a part of the energy management effort. Regular reports
taken from the monitored data encourage staff by showing them that they are
progressing toward their goals.The emphasis should be on simplified graphical,
visual representation of the results – use charts, diagrams or “thermometers” of
fulfilment posted prominently on bulletin boards where people can see them.
Someone should be in charge of posting the information and updating it
regularly.The format and colours may be changed from time to time in order
to maintain the visual interest of the information. Stay away from a dry format
of reporting – use a representation that people can understand. For example,
express savings in dollars, dollars per employee or dollars per unit of production.
Show it on a cumulative basis, i.e. how it contributes to the company’s profit picture.
Celebrate the success
This is often an overlooked yet very important segment of a program. People
crave and value recognition. A myriad of ways can be employed to recognize
the achievement and highlight the contribution of teams (rather than the contribution of individuals, which can be divisive!). Giveaways of thematic T-shirts,
hats and other merchandise; dinners; picnics; company-sponsored attendance
at sporting events; cruises – the possibilities are endless. Celebrating success
is a motivational tool that also brings psychological closure to a project.The
achievement of a target should be celebrated as a milestone on the way to
continual improvement of energy efficiency in the plant.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
19
Review results
In order to keep the energy management issue alive and to sustain interest,
regular reporting to the management team is necessary. Energy management
updates should be a permanent agenda item of regular operations management
review meetings, just as quality, production, financial and environmental matters
are. Results of the implemented project are reviewed, adjustments are made,
conflicts are resolved and financial considerations are taken into account.
Verify effectiveness
Has the project lived up to the expectations? Is the implemented energy efficiency
improvement really effective? Is it being maintained? To support the credibility
of the energy management effort, the effectiveness of measures taken must be
verified, so adjustments could be made and the future project managed better.
Examine opportunities for continual improvements
Often one project opens the door to another idea.The energy efficiency
improvement program is an ongoing effort.The EMC and all employees should
be encouraged to examine and re-examine other opportunities for further
gains as a matter of course.That is the essence of continual improvement, which
should be promoted in the interest of any organization. In some companies, this
is a permanent item on the agenda of EMC meetings.
Correct deficiencies
Information gained from monitoring data, from the input from EMC and
others, from the review of results and from the verification of the project’s
effectiveness may indicate that a corrective action is required.The energy management champion is responsible for arranging this action with the EMC team
and the personnel from the respective area.The root cause of the deficiency will
be determined, and the required corrective action will be initiated. Remember
to document it, as necessary. Future energy efficiency projects will benefit from
the lessons learned.
Review original energy policy, objectives and targets,
energy efficiency improvement program and action plans
These steps ensure the continued relevancy and currency of the energy policy.
Objectives and targets support the policy. As they change in time, they must be
reviewed to ensure that priorities are maintained in view of present conditions.
This review should take place annually or semi-annually.
The energy efficiency improvement program and action plans are “living”
documents. Frequent updating and revisions are necessary as old projects are
implemented and new ones initiated and as business conditions change.The
energy management champion leads that activity. She/he needs to get input
from the EMC and others and seek approval of the updates from the
management team.
20
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
1.3.4 Energy management training assistance
Managers, technical staff and operations staff with energy management responsibilities
will need training in energy management skills and techniques.Through the OEE,
NRCan currently delivers two major energy management training programs:
• “Dollars to $ense” workshops:
– Energy Master Plan
– Energy Monitoring and Tracking
– Spot the Energy Savings Opportunities
• Energy Efficiency Skills Development Program
“Dollars to $ense”
The “Dollars to $ense” workshops, delivered by the Industrial Energy Efficiency
program of the OEE, cover subjects of interest to the industrial sector.
Energy Master Plan
This workshop prepares participants to plan energy efficiency in their respective
fields, helps them develop a thorough understanding of energy and gives them
a step-by-step guide to reach their objectives.
Energy Monitoring and Tracking
Participants are trained to divide total energy consumption into its logical
segments, and the intricacies of each energy segment are explained. It also
covers the following:
•
•
•
•
what measurements to use for each type of energy;
what measuring instruments to use;
how to record energy use;
techniques for understanding energy use trends and identifying
variations from norms; and
• how to identify opportunities to improve energy management,
save money and help the environment.
Spot the Energy Savings Opportunities
This workshop shows participants how to identify energy savings opportunities
in their own electrical and thermal processes from point of purchase to end-use,
covering the following topics:
•
•
•
•
•
•
a review of energy basics;
the incremental cost of energy;
the potential for change in thermal combustion processes;
end-use inventories;
the benefits and costs associated with opportunities; and
preparation for deregulation by recognizing the value of analysing
energy consumption patterns.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
21
The workshops are geared to give participants practical, hands-on training to
enable them to expertly prepare energy efficiency programs, carry out energy use
monitoring and tracking and uncover other opportunities for energy efficiency.
They also show where energy consumption can be cut without compromising
system performance.
The low-subscription-cost “Dollars to $ense” workshops are delivered continuously
across Canada.The teaching approach promises the following:
•
•
•
•
•
coordinated, cost-effective training in all regions;
sustainable delivery process;
expertise available in-house and from industry;
consistently excellent teaching methods; and
continuing relationship between NRCan’s OEE and Canadian industry.
The workshops are designed for experienced industrial and commercial
professionals and tradespeople, such as
•
•
•
•
•
plant engineers and operators;
technicians;
maintenance supervisors;
energy managers; and
gas and electricity utility representatives.
For further information, contact
Industrial Energy Efficiency
Office of Energy Efficiency
Natural Resources Canada
580 Booth Street, 18th Floor
Ottawa ON K1A 0E4
Telephone: (613) 996-2494
Fax: (613) 947-4121
Energy Efficiency Skills Development Program
Training on energy use in buildings in all sectors is delivered through the
Energy Efficiency Skills Development Program (EE Skills).
EE Skills training is delivered all over Canada in both official languages, through
federal and provincial training programs, energy service companies (ESCos),
educational institutions and private training establishments. Designed to promote
energy efficiency awareness, disseminate energy efficiency information and
encourage energy efficiency education, EE Skills courses cover energy efficiency
in buildings and the use of energy from alternative sources such as solar, waste,
biomass, geothermal, small hydro and wind.
22
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
EE Skills training is intended for professionals and tradespeople with several
years of experience in the building industry:
•
•
•
•
•
building engineers and operators;
technicians;
maintenance supervisors;
energy managers; and
gas and electricity utility representatives.
For further information, contact
Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology
1750 Finch Avenue East
Toronto ON M2J 2X5
Telephone: (416) 491-5050, ext. 5050 or 1 800 572-0712 (toll-free)
Web sites: http://senecac.on.ca and http://www.senecac.on.ca/parttime
Seneca College is allied with the OEE and members of an eight-country
consortium that is developing an international energy-training network.
Information about the OEE and its various programs is available on the
Internet at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca.
The programs are listed at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/english/programs.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
23
1.4
Energy auditing
Previous sections explained that obtaining insight through an energy audit
usually precedes the establishment of an energy efficiency program. Indeed, it is
the key step that determines the current situation and the base on which energy
efficiency improvements will be built. However, an energy audit can also be
performed at any time during the program’s life to verify results or uncover
other energy efficiency opportunities.
As with any other type of audit, the activity can be defined as follows:
A systematic, documented verification process of objectively obtaining and
evaluating audit evidence, in conformance with audit criteria and followed
by communication of results to the client.
Naturally, in a general energy audit the focus and the techniques used are
intended to get the picture of energy balance in a facility – the inputs, uses and
losses. More focused and detailed audits (diagnostic audits) may be carried out
to verify the conclusions of a general audit or to get a detailed analysis of
energy use and losses in a specific process or facility. Diagnostic audits will
be described later on.
The general energy audit comprises four main stages:
•
•
•
•
Initiating the audit
Preparing the audit
Executing the audit
Reporting the audit results
These four steps have several sub-steps with associated activities and are shown
in a graphical representation on Figure 1.3 (page 25).
The steps shown on the diagram apply to a formal energy audit in a large,
complex facility.The applicability is the same whether an organization is
performing the energy audit with in-house resources or whether an outside
consultant has been hired to do the audit.The audit structure has been designed
as a step-by-step, practical guide that can be easily followed, even by those who
have not previously been exposed to energy auditing.
For smaller organizations with limited resources, an experienced manager can
take shortcuts through this audit outline and modify it, simplifying the process,
to fit his/her particular circumstances.
1.4.1 Audit initiation
Decide to conduct an energy audit
Top management of an organization takes this logical first step early in the
process of establishing an energy management program. As such, those ordering
(commissioning) an audit are in the role of a client and will normally be the
recipients of the final audit report.The auditee is the organization to be audited.
24
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
FIGURE 1.3
Energy audit step-by-step
STEP 1
Audit initiation
STEP 2
Audit preparation
STEP 3
Audit execution
Decide to conduct
energy audit
Obtain auditee’s
input
Conduct opening
meeting
Carry out detailed
analysis and evaluation
Define audit
objective
Define audit date
and approximate
duration
Conduct initial
walk-through tour
Formulate
recommendations
Audit facility
as per plan
Write draft of
audit report
Collect information
Review with
auditee’s
representative
Select auditor(s)
Determine
approach to audit
Define audit
criteria
Form audit team
Define audit scope
Gather data and
information
Carry out
diagnostic audit(s)
Advise the auditee
Secure resources
and cooperation
Conduct
preliminary analysis
Prepare audit plan
Conduct pre-audit
visit to auditee
Prepare checklist
and working
documents
Determine if audit
can go ahead
STEP 4
Audit report
Finalize audit
report
Analyse information
Distribute report
Evaluate audit
findings
Identify main
EMOs
Post-audit
activities:
Implement
energy
efficiency
improvements
Review EMOs
with auditee’s
representative
Conduct closing
meeting
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
25
The selection of an audit site is also done at this point. Choose buildings or
areas to cover in the energy audit – these are usually obvious to an outside
auditor who has researched the operation with engineering, production and
maintenance staff who are familiar with the facility. Outside auditors working
in unfamiliar circumstances would use one of the following two methods to
prioritize facilities for energy audits:
a) Priority according to energy consumption:This method seems most likely
to focus on problem areas but is inadequate for operations in which several
locations have similar energy consumption profiles or in which process use
of energy inflates consumption in particular areas.
b) Priority according to energy consumption per unit floor area:This method
works well for operations in which facilities of various sizes and types consume
energy at similar rates; however, it does not differentiate peak-period energy
use from off-peak use, and it treats one-, two- and three-shift operations alike.
Define the audit objectives
Again, it is the role of top management to clearly define one or more objectives
of the audit. Consider carefully what the energy audit is to achieve.The objective
may be, for example, to identify and quantify energy losses through the building
envelope, to point out opportunities for energy efficiency, to verify compliance
with the organization’s internal energy management policies, or to make specific
recommendations for corrective action.
Select auditor(s)
Is there a competent professional in-house? Or is it necessary to hire an
experienced outside consultant to do the audit? That decision must be made
early, as the auditor needs to be involved right from the start.That person will
drive the determination of audit scope and criteria and the rest of the audit
preparations.
Note: It is understood that the use of the singular “auditor” in this and the
following text is for simplification only; an entire team of auditors may be
involved, as appropriate to the circumstances.
The auditor needs not only to be a competent professional but also to be familiar
with the auditing process and techniques, particularly that of an energy audit. In
the case of an outside consultant, it pays to shop around and get references first.
The energy audit process and its results must be credible.Therefore, key
considerations in selecting an auditor are his/her independence and objectivity.
This must be both factual and perceived.To assure that, choose an auditor who is
• independent from audited activities, both by organizational placement
and as a function of personal goals;
• likely to be free from personal bias;
• known for high personal integrity and objectivity; and
• known to apply due professional care to his/her work.
26
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
The auditor’s conclusions should not be influenced by considerations of such
factors as impact on business units or schedules of production. One way to
ensure the independent, unbiased and fresh view of the auditee’s operations
is to use an independent consultant or staff from different business units.
Define the audit criteria
This step, if applicable, calls for determination of criteria such as policies,
practices, procedures or requirements against which the auditor would compare
collected audit evidence about the state of energy management in the organization.The requirements may include standards, guidelines, specified organizational
requirements and legislative or regulatory requirements.
Define the audit scope
This is another key point.The audit scope describes the extent and boundaries of
the audit in terms of factors such as physical location and organizational activities,
as well as manner of reporting.
The client must sit down with the auditor and establish the scope of the work.
Using the Audit Mandate Checklist (see pages 38 to 41) is a convenient way to
complete this essential task.
Set audit boundaries limiting the scope of an audit in a large, complex facility.
It may help to visualize the audit boundary as a “black box” enclosing the audit
area and then to focus on the energy streams flowing into and out of the box.
For example, when auditing the steam system in a brewery, setting an audit
boundary around the bottling plant would mean assessing the efficiency of the
steam distribution system in the bottling area rather than calculating boiler
efficiency in the powerhouse.
Measurement of these energy flows may play a large part in determining the
audit boundary. For example, if the meter system in the facility includes energy
used to light the parking lot together with the energy consumed in the associated
buildings, the parking lot should be inside the audit boundary. However, the
physical boundaries of the audit site are often the most logical audit boundaries.
Wherever possible, start small.Trying to cover too many facilities or processes
with a limited number of resources will surely lower the effectiveness of the
energy audit.
Other practical considerations in setting the energy audit’s scope include the
auditee’s staff size, the staff ’s capability and availability, the outside consultant’s
capability, and money and time available. Attempts to stretch the audit’s scope
beyond any of these resources may compromise the quality of the audit. Audit
quality should never be sacrificed in pursuit of greater geographic scope or
new subject coverage.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
27
Advise the auditee
Sometimes the client, who orders the audit, and the auditee (the facility to be
audited) are the same entity.Where this is not the case – for example, a large
corporation ordering an energy audit in one of its subsidiaries – the auditee
should be advised and/or consulted about the forthcoming audit.This is
done in the interest of common courtesy as well as to ensure that good
communication will help in carrying out the audit successfully.
The auditee should learn about the objectives and should be consulted
about the scope of the audit.
Secure resources and the auditee’s cooperation
This is another vital component of ensuring that an audit will reach its objectives:
a voluntary, ample cooperation of the auditee with the auditor must be secured.
Also, resources should be committed to adequately serve the needs of the intended
audit’s scope.The allocation of resources to the energy audit should be consistent
with its objectives and scope.That includes such things as
• provision of the necessary working space for the auditor;
• assignment of responsible and competent guides to accompany the auditor on
her/his rounds;
• unrestrained access to the facilities, personnel, relevant information and
records as requested by the auditor;
• facilitation of measurements and data collection; and
• informing the auditor about the organization’s health, safety and other
such requirements and potential risks.
The auditee should inform employees about the forthcoming energy audit,
its objective and scope.
Conduct a pre-audit visit to the auditee
A familiarization visit to the facility before proceeding with other audit preparations serves several purposes: personal contacts and lines of communication are
established; a clearer picture of the facility and the scope emerges; issues may be
clarified; resources may be identified and secured; and adjustments to the planned
audit scope, date and duration may be made.
The auditee is a valuable source of criticism for the audit program. The
insights gained can greatly improve the audit process and help to produce
better-quality results.
Also, pre-audit questionnaires/checklists may be administered during the pre-audit
visit.This will help to minimize the time spent at the site during the actual energy
audit and maximize the auditor’s productivity. On-site time is costly for both the
auditor and the operation being audited.
28
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
1.4.2 Audit preparation
Obtain the auditee’s input
For an energy audit to be successful it should be approached in the spirit
of collaboration. Members of the auditee’s staff need to feel that they are participating constructively in the process – that it is not something simply imposed on
them.The auditor should consult the auditee about the scope of the audit, seek
information regarding areas of concern that need priority consideration and
discuss the planned audit methodology, among other tasks.
Define the audit date and approximate duration
With the auditee’s concurrence, schedule the audit at the time when
• it is convenient for their operations (e.g. avoid scheduling when staff is
away on courses, vacations, during shutdowns and overhauls, etc.); and
• conditions represent typical operational regime and conclusions drawn
can reasonably be extrapolated for an entire year.
Determine an approach to the audit
Decide, on the basis of available information, whether the energy survey
of the facility will be carried out by examining either
• the entire facility (within the scope of the audit) area by area; or
• the various energy-using systems one at a time.
Also confirm, in accordance with the stated objectives, the extent of work
anticipated and the size and complexity of the facility to be audited, whether
the energy audit is merely to outline potential energy management opportunities
(EMOs), or also includes more detailed, specific diagnostic audits that confirm
and quantify these opportunities.
Form an audit team
Once substantial information is available about the facility to be audited, and if
the size of the facility warrants it, the appropriate size of the audit team can also
be determined.The same criteria that were discussed earlier under the point
“Select auditor(s)” also apply for selection of audit team members.The lead
auditor (audit team leader) forms the team – giving due consideration to auditors’ qualifications and potential conflicts of interest – determines the roles and
responsibilities of the individual audit team members, and seeks an agreement on
the team’s composition with the client.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
29
Gather data and information
The collection of historical data is a critical phase of an energy audit. The
reliability of the data is crucial; it directly affects the quality of calculations
and of the decisions based on results. Auditors should choose data from the
following sources:
•
•
•
•
•
utility bills;
production records;
architectural and engineering plans of the plant and its equipment;
Environment Canada weather records; and
locally generated company energy consumption records.
The audit team would require utility invoices for all energy sources – electricity,
natural gas, fuel oil and water – for at least 12 months, preferably ending at the
audit period.To be a reliable baseline from which future energy consumption is
to be monitored, the data must represent the facility’s current operations.
Production records are required to account for variations in the data gathered
from utility bills (e.g. annual shutdowns will show up as reductions in energy
consumption lasting one or two weeks). Plans and drawings familiarize the
auditors with the facility and help them locate critical energy-using equipment.
Plans are also useful for
•
•
•
•
calculating floor, wall and window areas;
identifying building envelope components, such as thermal insulation;
locating, routing and identifying the capacity of building services; and
locating utility meters (present and planned).
Equipment capacity data, available from the data plate, are needed to calculate
the energy consumption of equipment for which specific meter data are not
available.To calculate the energy consumed by a piece of equipment from data
plate information, the correct load factor must be determined.The load factor
is a fraction of the rated full-load energy consumption that the equipment
actually uses.
Weather data (monthly or daily degree-days) are required when the audit
examines systems that are influenced by ambient temperatures, such as building
heating or cooling equipment. Records kept by building and process operators
are useful for explaining short-term process variations, such as steam flows to
batch processes.
Conduct preliminary analysis
A preliminary data analysis is performed to assess the overall plant and to establish
the scope of the remaining work, including investigation and analysis.The following
are the key tasks in the preliminary analysis process:
• reconcile utility data with plant operating information;
• identify the main areas of energy consumption; and
• establish a work plan for gathering information at the audit site, analysing
all data and producing an audit report.
30
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Natural gas and electricity bills: Data from invoices for purchases of natural gas
and electricity are easy to reconcile with plant process data because the customer
is billed only for the amount consumed, and natural gas and electricity are both
consumed as they are delivered.
Fuel oil and coal (coke) bills: Because fuel oil and coal are stored on-site,
sometimes for long periods, oil and coal bills are of limited use to the auditor
unless deliveries are made at least once per month and it is established that,
between each of the last two deliveries, the entire amount received at the earlier
period was consumed.That, however, is unlikely to happen frequently. Coal
consumption can be reliably estimated only from measurements of the combustion
efficiency and energy output of coal-fired equipment. Precise oil consumption
data can be obtained in facilities where meters are installed on the outflow from
oil storage tanks and records of meter readings are kept.
Energy balance: By finding the facility’s energy balance, the auditor can see
where energy is consumed most and can identify areas to examine closely during
subsequent phases of the audit.To obtain the energy balance, follow the plant’s
energy use as it disintegrates into its constituent components; the results are best
illustrated by a Sankey diagram, a pie chart or a bar graph.
Prepare the audit plan
An audit plan is a “living” document that must be flexible enough to permit
immediate adjustments to emphasis on account of information gathered during
the audit or changed conditions. Nevertheless, an audit plan is a vital planning
and communicating tool that ensures consistency and completeness of audit
coverage of the subject matter and effective use of resources.
The audit plan should spell out the following:
• details of the auditee (the organizational and functional units to be
audited, addresses, contacts);
• dates and places where the audit is to be conducted;
• audit objectives and criteria, if applicable;
• audit scope;
• identification of the energy audit elements that are of high priority;
• expected time and duration for major audit activities;
• identification of audit team members;
• schedule of meetings to be held with the auditee’s management;
• confidentiality requirements; and
• audit report content and format, expected date of issue and distribution.
The preparation of the audit plan is the duty of the lead auditor.The plan
should be communicated to all parties concerned, i.e. the client (who should
approve it), the audit team and the auditee.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
31
Prepare checklists and working documents
Using an audit checklist may be likened to a car driver using a road map: it
ensures that the goal will be reached in the minimum amount of time and that
no important points of the journey will be missed. Sometimes, instead of
“checklist,” the term “audit protocol” is used.
Checklist questions, geared to various types of energy-using equipment and
physical facilities, are contained in or can be formulated from evaluation worksheets in Part 2 of this Guide. It is well worth the effort to prepare the checklists,
no matter how extensive the experience of the auditors.The quality of the audit
conclusions will be supported by their use.The checklists provide objective
evidence that all relevant aspects were covered. The lead auditor coordinates
the preparation of the checklist.
The purpose of a checklist is to stimulate thinking and systematically guide the
auditor.The use of a checklist encourages these energy audit steps:
• list the existing measuring, metering and monitoring equipment;
• examine the suitability of the existing equipment;
• examine the function, management and energy performance of
systems and processes;
• establish what additional information is needed and the steps to be taken;
• list upgrades that would be useful and help estimate their costs; and
• estimate savings or increased throughput.
Other working documents may include meeting and meeting attendance record
forms, audit record forms (auditor’s notes), plan of the facility and the like.
The purpose of using all of the above-mentioned checklists and working
documents is to ensure a consistent and systematic approach to and execution of
an audit.The uniformity aspect is all the more important when an organization
wishes to conduct an energy audit of several of its facilities.
Determine if the audit can go ahead
The lead auditor can give a formal go-ahead to the energy audit only when the
three following essential conditions for conducting an audit are present:
• adequate resources are available;
• sufficient information is available; and
• auditee’s cooperation is secured.
32
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
1.4.3 Audit execution
Conduct an opening meeting
The opening meeting sets the tone of the audit.Therefore, it is a very important
part of the energy audit.
Spend time and effort on the opening meeting – if the auditee’s staff gains
confidence about the audit process, they will have confidence in the results, too.
Audit team members and the facility staff meet, perhaps for the first time, so as to
•
•
•
•
•
•
review the purposes (objectives), scope and plan of the audit;
make changes to the audit plan as required;
describe and understand audit methodologies;
define communications links during the audit;
confirm availability of resources and facilities;
confirm the schedule of meetings with the management group
(including the closing meeting);
• inform the audit team about relevant site health and safety and
emergency procedures;
• answer questions; and
• establish a comfort level between the two groups.
The auditee’s staff is encouraged to participate actively in the audit and keep
notes on their own observations.
The lead auditor should also point out the limitations of the audit, the chief
one being that the examination is based on limited-time observations.
Conduct an initial walk-through tour
The initial walk-through tour of the facility should be done especially for the
benefit of the team members who may not have seen the facility before. It helps
the orientation and outlines areas of high concern and major issues.These can be
revisited for in-depth examination and observation later. Dangerous areas and
those that are off limits to visitors will also be pointed out during the initial tour.
Before the tour, and during the subsequent audit proper, ensure that you wear
appropriate personal protection equipment (safety glasses, safety shoes, hard hats,
hearing protection, respirators, etc.).
Audit facility as per the audit plan
The audit team disperses with their guides to conduct the audit according to
the plan.The energy audit may include techniques normally used to gather audit
evidence – interviews, gathering objective evidence (records) and observations –
complemented by the auditors’ own measuring and recording activities, as
circumstances dictate. For these activities, ensure that the facility’s staff is available
to help them.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
33
An audit should be carried out during normal operating conditions. However,
to find out about equipment left running or compressed air lines leaks when the
facility is not occupied, the auditors should visit the facility during off-hours.
Collect information
During the audit – through interviews and the examination of records and
observations – the checklists are used to identify problem areas and EMOs.These
are to be examined more closely in subsequent detailed, diagnostic audits.
Carry out the diagnostic audit(s)
A diagnostic audit is done to verify the data collected from plant records and to
gather additional information through detailed observations and discussions with
plant personnel.This may also include requests for demonstrations and taking
additional measurements and recordings.This detailed data gathering helps the
auditor detect and account for operational variances, transients and other irregularities. From this information, the achievable energy utilization per discrete item
of equipment or system can be calculated on an “as found” basis. It shows the
current status that will formulate the basis for justification and subsequent
implementation of changes to improve energy efficiency.
Analyse the information; Evaluate audit findings;
Identify main EMOs
Toward the close of the audit, all information gathered during the audit is
reviewed by the auditors, and tentative findings and observations are formulated.
The team, under the lead auditor’s guidance, obtains consensus on the draft of
main audit conclusions, recommendations and EMOs. If possible, a rough
quantification of anticipated energy savings should accompany this stage.
Review the EMOs with the auditee’s representative
As the last check, the audit results are briefly discussed with the appointed
auditee’s representative and agreement secured. This is done both as a courtesy
as well as in the interest of time management by limiting the amount of
discussion necessary at the closing meeting.
Conduct a closing meeting
This step brings some closure to the audit process on site, although other
activities still need to follow. A closing meeting is essentially a communication
meeting that serves to present the audit findings and conclusions to the facility’s
management team. At the end, there should be a clear understanding and
acknowledgement of the result. Also at this stage, disagreements should be
resolved, if possible.The management team should now have a clear picture,
albeit without all the details, of what measures can be put into place to improve
operational energy efficiency.
34
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
1.4.4 Audit report
Carry out detailed analysis and evaluation
Often, the limited time for on-site audit activities does not allow the auditors
to carry out a detailed analysis of the energy audit information. Remember the
on-site audit costs issue. At this point in the process, the data collected during
the general and diagnostic audits are used to calculate the amounts of energy
used in, and lost from, equipment and systems. By calculating the value of this
energy, the auditors produce more accurate estimates of the savings to be expected
from an energy project. Analysis of the energy surveys will indicate the energy
services with the most potential for immediate improvement. A cost-benefit
analysis based on future energy costs will show the merit of each potential
improvement and help to set priorities.
The least complicated approach to evaluating a potential energy project is to
calculate the project’s simple payback – that is, the installed costs of the project
divided by the annual savings it produces.The result is a figure that represents
the number of years it will take for the accumulated savings from the project
to equal the cost.
Energy intensity ratios (i.e. energy used per unit of output) should be calculated
quarterly or monthly for the entire plant, every operating department and each
significant process.The energy intensity ratio will also indicate unfavourable
energy consumption trends. In other words, this process lays the foundation
for a systematic energy management approach.
Formulate conclusions and recommendations, write a draft of the
audit report, and review the draft with the auditee’s representative
At this point in the audit process, the selection of EMOs can be confirmed
and finalized, with proper cost-benefit evaluations.The audit conclusions and
recommendations can now be firmed up and a final report can be drafted.The
content of the report should be shared with, and agreed on, by the auditee’s
representative – for the same reasons that were stated earlier in the context of
the closing meeting.
Finalize and distribute the audit report
It is only at this point that the audit report can be finalized. Following that,
it can be distributed to the client and the auditee, subject to previously
received directives.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
35
1.4.5 Post-audit activities – Implementing energy efficiency
The process of key importance – an energy audit – has been concluded. As soon
as possible after the audit, the management team should review the results and
decide on the course of action to be taken. At this point in the process, the
facility is ready to act on EMOs and develop new operating scenarios.What
follow then are the steps described previously in Section 1.3, “Setting up and
running an effective energy management program” (page 10).
1.4.6 Audit assistance
The following sources of information will assist in carrying out an energy audit.
Energex is a software tool developed at West Virginia University with support from
the U.S. Department of Energy. It is a useful supplement to the evaluation process
set out in this Guide. For information about Energex, contact the address below:
Dr. B. Gopalakrishnan
Assistant Director
Industrial Assessment Center
West Virginia University
P.O. Box 6070
Morgantown WV 26506-6070
U.S.A.
Telephone: (304) 293-4607, Ext. 709
Fax: (304) 293-4970
Energy Audit Software Directory 1997 is an excellent compendium of some
100 energy audit packages, available from international sources.The Industrial,
Commercial and Institutional Programs Division of the OEE prepared this
directory, which describes functions and hardware requirements, prices and
supplier data. Every facet of energy auditing is covered from a multitude of
views. Computer software can help auditors with many aspects of an energy
audit, from simulating complex processes to analysing energy use data for
trends and anomalies. For information, or to obtain a copy of the directory,
fax your request to (613) 947-4121.
36
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Other sources of assistance
Plant staff can often perform energy audits. If this is not possible, consultants can
help identify opportunities to improve efficiency and save energy. Other energy
audit program assistance may be available from some of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
natural gas utilities;
fuel oil suppliers;
provincial electricity utilities;
municipal electricity utilities; and
private electricity utilities.
Most energy suppliers will also provide advice and guidance for more detailed
audits and give information on the latest technologies for improving energy
efficiency and reducing emissions. Provincial and territorial energy and environmental departments also provide energy efficiency improvement information.
For more information, see Section 1.5 of this Guide, “Assistance for energy
management programs and environmental improvements” (page 42).
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
37
Audit mandate checklist
Organization: __________________________________________________________________
Address: ______________________________________________________________________
Audit location: ________________________________________________________________
Energy audit objective(s): _______________________________________________________
Audit scope – boundaries: ______________________________________________________
Audit criteria: _________________________________________________________________
Areas to be examined
Entire site
Individual buildings (describe): ____________________________________
________________________________________________________________
External on-site services
Lighting
Heating
Other (describe): ____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Individual services
Boiler plant
Distribution systems
Domestic and process water
Process refrigeration
Production and process operations (describe): _____________________
_____________________________________________________________
Lighting
Electrical
Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC)
Building envelope
Rate structures
38
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Resources
In-house staff
Technical
Clerical
Other (describe): ____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
External
Consultants
Utility companies
Energy service companies
Government organizations
Contractors
Details: _______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Measuring and monitoring equipment available
Describe: ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Building characteristics
Remaining life of
Building structure: _____ years
Envelope system: _____ years
HVAC system: _____ years
Interior partitions: _____ years
Changes and renovations planned (details): ______________________________
________________________________________________________________
Building conditions
Current problems:
Comfort
Breakdowns
Lack of capacity
Appearance
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
39
Noise
Other (describe): ____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Data available
Drawings
None
Some
Comprehensive
Production records
None
Some
Comprehensive
Energy usage records
None
Some
Comprehensive
Investment and operational needs and desires
Save energy
Reduce use of fuel (describe): _____________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Reduce time systems operating under maximum-demand conditions
Accommodate increased load
Charge energy costs directly to consumers
Reduce requirement for manual operation
Other (describe): _______________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Will audit recommendations be applied to other buildings?
Yes
No
Explain: __________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
40
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Deadlines
Audit dates (from, to): ______________________________________________
Date completion required: ___________________________________________
Date preliminary findings required: ____________________________________
Date final report required: ___________________________________________
Report distribution: ________________________________________________
Implementation
Housekeeping deadlines: ____________________________________________
Low-cost deadlines: ________________________________________________
Financial limits: ___________________________________________________
Retrofit deadlines: _________________________________________________
Financial limits: ___________________________________________________
Reporting format
Level of detail required: _____________________________________________
Financial analysis required: ___________________________________________
Acceptable payback period: __________________________________________
Tax advantages
Details: __________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Grants and subsidies available
Details: __________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Agreements
Organization’s representative, name, title, signature:
________________________________________________________________
Date: ____________________________________________________________
Lead auditor – name, company, signature:
________________________________________________________________
Date: ____________________________________________________________
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
41
1.5
Assistance for energy management programs
and environmental improvements
Industries that want to evaluate and improve the energy efficiency of their
operations have many sources of assistance, including CIPEC (through NRCan’s
OEE), other federal and provincial agencies, utilities, engineering firms
and equipment suppliers.
This section consists of brief descriptions of the types of assistance currently
available, with information about contacts where you should be able to get
additional information and training, updated to March 2002.
Activities of the Government of Canada
Natural Resources Canada
NRCan consolidated its energy efficiency and alternative fuel programs into
the OEE on April 1, 1998. There are currently 17 energy efficiency programs
run by the OEE. Of these, the following initiatives apply specifically to
industrial energy efficiency:
• the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC); and
• the Industrial Energy Innovators Initiative.
The OEE’s Industrial Energy Efficiency program, which runs these two initiatives
and is an industry-led, voluntary program to increase the efficiency of energy use in
Canada’s goods-producing industries.
Recently, the Industrial Energy Efficiency program has published a series of
industrial sector-specific guidebooks, Energy Efficiency Opportunities in… Industry.
To date, guidebooks have been published for the following industries: dairy
processing, rubber, brewery, aluminum smelters, solid wood, lime, cement,
heaters and boilers, and pulp and paper.
These guidebooks contain current information on energy-saving measures
and audit checklists.They are an excellent source of help in setting up an energy
management program. These guidebooks can be obtained from the appropriate
industry association or from the OEE. Also, benchmarking studies have been
sponsored by the OEE and are currently available for the dairy, cement and
pulp and paper industries.
The Energy Management Series of technical manuals, available from the OEE,
deals with energy use, energy efficiency improvement and energy recovery in all
areas of industrial operation. Each manual contains worksheets that are especially
useful for calculating energy use and savings for topic-specific projects. Completed
samples show how to use the worksheets. Some of these manuals were produced
in the 1980s, and many technical advances have been made since then. However,
the principles have not changed, and the manuals remain useful for most practical
purposes. The list of manuals and contact information are given in the preface
of this Guide (see page vi).
42
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC)
CIPEC, which receives core funding and administrative support from
NRCan’s OEE, provides industry with a mechanism for obtaining the
following types of assistance:
•
•
•
•
•
setting energy efficiency improvement targets for each sector and its sub-sectors;
publishing reports of accomplishments in energy efficiency improvements;
encouraging implementation of action plans at the sub-sector level;
promoting synergy among sectors through sectoral task forces;
providing a framework for organizations (such as NRCan) to identify and
respond to task forces’ recommendations for energy efficiency programs
and practices at the sub-sector level;
• obtaining commitments to energy efficiency activities from individual
companies participating as Industrial Energy Innovators in Canada’s Climate
Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. (VCR Inc.);
• giving energy managers a way to share expertise and contribute to the setting
and meeting of energy efficiency goals for their sector and their companies; and
• sector benchmarking.
For details on the background and current activities of CIPEC, see Section 1.2
(page 7).
Industrial Energy Innovators (IEI)
The IEI is a voluntary program to foster individual companies’ efforts to
improve energy efficiency and take action on climate change.When the
president or chief executive officer of a company signs a letter of commitment
to implement energy-saving measures in the organization, NRCan registers the
company as an Industrial Energy Innovator. As part of its commitment, each
participating company develops and implements an energy efficiency improvement
target or goal-setting process and action plan, nominates an energy efficiency
champion, and tracks and reports the results of its energy efficiency activities
annually. NRCan provides registered Innovators with support services such as
energy management workshops, seminars on new technologies and operating
practices, sector-specific energy efficiency guidebooks, an international technical
information network, an employee awareness toolkit and energy management
newsletters.
For further information on CIPEC and the Industrial Energy Innovators, contact
Philip B. Jago
Chief, Industrial Energy Efficiency
Office of Energy Efficiency
Natural Resources Canada
580 Booth Street, 18th Floor
Ottawa ON K1A 0E4
Telephone: (613) 995-6839
Fax: (613) 947-4121
E-mail: [email protected]
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
43
Apart from the OEE, the CANMET Energy Technology Centre of NRCan also
has programs to promote the energy efficiency development.They are outlined
in the following.
CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC)
The CETC works with industry, trade and professional associations, utilities,
universities and other levels of government to develop and deploy leadingedge technologies in the areas of residential, commercial and industrial energy
efficiency and alternative, renewable and transportation energy technologies.
The CETC provides leadership in its energy-related technology areas through
its repayable and cost-shared contract funding programs. Following are two of its
funding programs:
• the Emerging Technologies Program (ETP); and
• the Industry Energy and Research Development (IERD) program.
These programs are listed under “Funding Programs” at the following Web site:
http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/etb/cetc/cetchome.htm.
Emerging Technologies Program (ETP)
The ETP helps industries identify and develop emerging energy-efficient
technologies with significant potential to reduce energy consumption, limit
emissions of greenhouse gases, improve manufacturing competitiveness and
reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing processes.Through alliances
with public and private sector partners, including other governments and utility
companies, the ETP supports sector studies, technological assessments, field trials
of technologies and research and development (R&D) activities. Contributions
are repayable either from revenues or from cost savings realized from successful
projects.The ETP also helps companies claim the 30 percent capital cost
allowance on eligible energy-conserving and renewable-energy equipment.
Sector studies: A sector study identifies established, new and emerging energy
technologies specific to particular industry sectors and ranks them for their merit in
• improving productivity;
• improving energy efficiency; and
• reducing the environmental impact of production and energy use.
The ranking produced by a sector study should form the starting point for that
sector’s R&D activities for the next 20 years. Studies for some of the industrial
sectors that are currently available are listed in Appendix C (page 183).
Technology assessments: A technology assessment is a detailed evaluation of a
specific R&D project. It describes the potential energy benefits, environmental
impacts, markets and implementation economics of the subject technology and
identifies the R&D activities and participants needed to bring the subject technology to commercial acceptance.Technology assessment fact sheets that are
currently available are listed in Appendix C (page 183).
44
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Follow-on R&D activities: Follow-on R&D activities are the development and
testing of products and processes covered by technology assessments, using
prototypes or pilot plants.
Technical field trials:Technical field trials are conducted with promising technologies and techniques that have yet to be used or proven in Canada.The results
are summarized in fact sheets and distributed to all interested parties. Fact sheets
that are currently available are listed in Appendix C (page 183).
For information or to discuss a possible initiative in a particular sector, contact
Norman Benoit
Program Manager
Emerging Technologies Program
CANMET Energy Technology Centre
1 Haanel Drive
Nepean ON K1A 1M1
Telephone: (613) 996-6165
Fax: (613) 995-7868
E-mail: [email protected]
Industry Energy & Research Development Program (IERD)
The IERD program supports Canadian companies engaged in energy efficiency
R&D. It focuses on promoting the development of products, processes or
systems that will increase the efficiency of energy use by industry. IERD support
generally takes the form of loans of up to 50 percent of the cost of the project,
repayable when the product or process goes on the market.To find out whether
a project is eligible for IERD support, to obtain instructions for applying to
IERD or for general information, contact
Jacques Guérette
Program Manager
IERD Secretariat
Natural Resources Canada
1 Haanel Drive
Nepean ON K1A 1M1
Telephone: (613) 943-2261
Fax: (613) 995-7868
E-mail: [email protected]
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
45
Provincial and territorial government activities
Following is a list of provincial and territorial government officials responsible
for delivering programs to promote energy efficiency at the sector, sub-sector
and company levels of the economy.
Where applicable, information about programs or other types of assistance is
provided to indicate the type and range of programs currently available. Please
contact the following for the latest update.
Please note: Every effort has been made to obtain the most up-to-date contact
information possible.
Alberta
Manitoba
Andy Ridge
Senior Analyst, Climate Change Group
Alberta Department of Environment
14th Floor, North Petroleum Plaza
9945 108th Street
Edmonton AB T5K 2G6
Terry E. Silcox
Technical Advisor
Manitoba Conservation
1395 Ellice Avenue, Suite 360
Winnipeg MB R3G 3P2
Telephone: (403) 422-7862
Fax: (403) 427-2278
E-mail: [email protected]
Energy efficiency and encouraging sustainable
energy use is the key focus of this group,
which provides technical and educational
assistance and may develop appropriate
programs.
British Columbia
Denise Mullen-Dalmer
Director, Electricity Development Branch
Economic Development Division
Ministry of Employment and Investment
4-1810 Blanshard Street
Victoria BC V8W 9N3
Telephone: (250) 952-0264
Fax: (250) 952-0258
E-mail:
[email protected]
Currently no industry-oriented assistance
programs are available.
46
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Telephone: (204) 945-2035
Fax: (204) 945-0586
E-mail: [email protected]
Manitoba Conservation maintains a
Technical Advisory Service for the
industrial, commercial and institutional
sector. It provides advice and technical
information and disseminates appropriate
publications and brochures. No grants or
rebates are available through this program.
Limited information from the Energy
Audit Database is also available.
New Brunswick
Darwin Curtis
Director, Minerals and Energy Division
New Brunswick Natural Resources
and Energy
P.O. Box 6000
Fredericton NB E3B 5H1
Telephone: (506) 453-3720
Fax: (506) 453-3671
E-mail: [email protected]
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nova Scotia
Brian Maynard
Assistant Deputy Minister
Department of Mines and Energy
P.O. Box 8700
St. John’s NF A1B 4J6
Scott McCoombs
Energy Engineer
Nova Scotia Department
of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 698
Halifax NS B3J 2T9
Telephone: (709) 729-2349
Fax: (709) 729-2871
E-mail: [email protected]
Telephone: (902) 424-7305
Fax: (902) 424-7735
E-mail: [email protected]
Northwest Territories
Lloyd Henderson
Manager, Energy Programs Branch
Resources,Wildlife and Economic
Development
Government of the Northwest Territories
600-5102 50th Avenue
Yellowknife NT X1A 3S8
Telephone: (867) 873-7758
Fax: (867) 873-0221
E-mail: lloyd_[email protected]
The Arctic Energy Alliance (AEA) is
co-funded by the Resources,Wildlife
and Economic Development (RWED)
Department. It assists energy users to reduce
consumption, expenditures and environmental impacts of energy usage.The AEA delivers
an energy management program on behalf
of RWED, also aimed at industry. It includes
provision of energy assessments, audits and
public awareness assistance.
Rob Marshall
Executive Director, Arctic Energy Alliance
205-5102 50th Avenue
Yellowknife NT X1A 3S8
Telephone: (867) 920-3333
Fax: (867) 873-0303
E-mail: [email protected]
Ontario
John Rinella
Efficiency Advisor
Energy Division
Ministry of Energy, Science
and Technology
3rd Floor, 880 Bay Street
Toronto ON M7A 2C1
Telephone: (416) 325-7064
Fax: (416) 325-7023
E-mail: [email protected]
Nick Markettos
Manager, Science and Technology
Awareness and Innovation
Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology
11th Floor, 56 Wellesley Street West
Toronto ON M7A 2E7
Telephone: (416) 314-2527
Fax: (416) 314-8224
E-mail: [email protected]
Gabriela Teodosiu
Manager, Environmental Technology Services
Ministry of the Environment
Government of Ontario
2 St. Clair Avenue West, 14th Floor
Toronto ON M4V 1L5
Telephone: (416) 327-1253
Fax: (416) 327-1261
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.ene.gov.on.ca
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
47
Prince Edward Island
Yukon Territory
Mike Proud
Energy Information Officer
Energy and Minerals Branch
Prince Edward Island Economic
Development and Tourism
P.O. Box 2000
Charlottetown PE C1A 7N8
Scott Milton
Energy Management Analyst
Department of Economic Development
Government of Yukon
P.O. Box 2703
Whitehorse YT Y1A 2C6
Telephone: (902) 368-5019
Fax: (902) 368-6582
E-mail: [email protected]
Quebec
Line Drouin
Directrice des programmes
Agence de l’efficacité énergétique
Ministère des Ressources naturelles
5700, 4e Avenue ouest, bureau B-405
Charlesbourg QC G1H 6R1
Telephone: (418) 627-6379
Fax: (418) 643-5828
E-mail: [email protected]
Among the programs available to industrial
users is one for promotion of energy efficiency
in Quebec that offers professional and
financing help of up to 50 percent for
eligible projects that demonstrate energy
efficiency in the framework of sustainable
development in the province.
Saskatchewan
Howard Loseth
Energy Conservation Engineer
Energy Development Branch
Saskatchewan Energy and Mines
2101 Scarth Street
Regina SK S4P 4V4
Telephone: (306) 787-3379
Fax: (306) 787-2333
E-mail: [email protected]
Technical and general information only
is available from Saskatchewan Energy
and Mines.
48
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Telephone: (867) 667-5387
Fax: (867) 667-8601
E-mail: [email protected]
Robert Collins
Energy Resource Analyst
Department of Economic Development
Government of Yukon
P.O. Box 2703
Whitehorse YT Y1A 2C6
Telephone: (867) 667-5015
or 1 800 661-0408 (toll-free) within Yukon
Fax: (867) 667-8601
E-mail: [email protected]
A publication that outlines programs
available to industry is available. It includes
Yukon infrastructure support policy,
loans for resource development and energy
management program, including financial
contributions, training and energy auditor
training, and a large number of other
programs of interest to industry.
Associations and utilities
Electrical utilities
The following list of program types indicates the assistance that electrical utilities
were providing at the time of writing.To find out what assistance is available in
your area, contact your utility; a list of names and addresses appears at the end
of this section.The list has been updated, as was the information about assistance
programs, where available.
Please note: Every effort has been made to obtain the most up-to-date contact
information possible.
Electro-technology programs: Utilities are urging some large industrial customers
to adopt new high-performance electro-technologies such as microwaves, variablespeed drives, high-frequency heating and drying and infrared heat treatment.
The utilities are promoting these technologies to foster technology innovation
by sharing the investment risk with their customers. Some utilities provide loans
for initial demonstrations of electro-technologies or for new applications of
established technologies.
Energy awareness seminars: Many utilities offer seminars on energy management
topics of interest to industry, as well as energy efficiency programs.
Energy audits: Utilities provide walk-through audits of industrial facilities to
identify for their customers the points where electrical demand could be
reduced. Case studies are sometimes provided.
Interruptible rates: A utility may offer reduced rates for customers who can
adapt to a reduced electricity supply at times when the utility’s system is at peak
load. A variety of rates may be offered, based on the length of time the customer
agrees to reduce its demand. Interruptible rates permit industries to reduce
demand charges by as much as 30 percent.
Time-of-use rates:Time-of-use rates encourage large industrial customers to
shift their demand for electricity away from the utility’s daily peak periods. For
example, high-demand processes could be changed to the night shift.
Real-time pricing: A utility may allow high-demand customers to cut costs by
shifting all or part of their load to periods when the utility’s generation cost is
relatively low. In a real-time pricing plan, the utility usually quotes prices for
every hour of energy use one day in advance.
Industrial energy efficiency award programs: Some utilities have award programs
to recognize industries that significantly improve their energy productivity. By
promoting energy efficiency awards, utilities raise awareness of energy-efficient
equipment, electro-technologies and energy management techniques.
Provincial electrical associations: In many provinces, contractors, equipment
suppliers and others in the electrical industry have established trade associations
to provide trade-specific advice, guidance, technical support and training.
PowerSmart® Inc.: Available through electrical utilities in British Columbia,
Manitoba and Newfoundland, PowerSmart® offers a number of programs and
products, as locally applicable. Check the appropriate listings below.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
49
Alberta
Dave Hunka
EnVest™ Program Manager
EPCOR
10065 Jasper Avenue, 9th Floor
Edmonton AB T5J 3B1
Telephone: (780) 412-3044
Fax: (780) 412-3384
E-mail: [email protected]
EPCOR started EnVest™ in 1997 as a comprehensive, three-stage energy and
water efficiency program, designed specifically for industrial and commercial
facilities. It starts with a detailed audit of the facility to identify opportunities to
reduce utility cost related to water, natural gas and electricity.The second stage is
the implementation of the recommendations of the audit. EnVest™ offers project
management services.The final stage of the program is a financing option for the
execution of water and energy cost reduction projects.
Mark Antonuk
Program Manager, ATCO Energy Sense
ATCO Gas
1052 – 10 Street SW
Calgary AB T2R 0G3
Telephone: (403) 310-7283
Fax: (403) 245-7784
E-mail: [email protected]
ATCO Energy Sense has these programs available:
• energy efficiency publications, including Energy Sense guides on numerous
energy-efficient technologies such as lighting, motors, compressors, etc.;
• Energy Efficiency Assessment Program, a no-cost service that includes a
walk-through auditing service, written report with recommendations and
a provision of specific tools to help the customer to determine equipment
operating costs and savings potential;
• training services; and
• tools and equipment, such as light meters and load loggers, available
on loan to customers who wish to perform some tests themselves.
50
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
British Columbia
Grad Ilic, P.Eng.
PowerSmart Technology Centre
BC Hydro
Suite 900 – 4555 Kingsway
Burnaby BC V5H 4T8
Telephone: (604) 453-6455
Fax: (604) 453-6285
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.bchydro.bc.ca
Carmelina Sorace
Program and Sector Manager
Business Development and Management
Public Affairs and Power Smart
BC Hydro
Suite 900 – 4555 Kingsway
Burnaby BC V5H 4T8
Telephone: (604) 453-6442
Fax: (604) 453-6285
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.bchydro.com/business
PowerSmart can help businesses save energy and money. Following are highlights
of the PowerSmart resources available.
Investigate energy efficiency opportunities:
• Resources include detailed on-line technical guides on energy-efficient
technologies, workshops and training sessions on energy-efficient practices and
“e.Catalogue” – a single on-line source for finding energy-efficient products.
Identify energy savings:
• Programs and tools are available to provide businesses with a profile of their
energy use and recommendations for energy-saving opportunities.
Implement energy-saving projects:
• PowerSmart Alliance – connects customers with qualified contractors and
engineers who can help them select, install and maintain their facility’s energyrelated systems.
• PowerSmart Partner Program – for qualified customers who commit to reduce
their energy consumption. Provides access to matching funding and educational resources to help them implement energy-saving projects.
For more information on current PowerSmart programs and initiatives, call
(614) 453-6400 (Lower Mainland); 1 866 453-6400 (elsewhere); or visit the
Web site at http://www.bchydro.com/business.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
51
Manitoba
New Brunswick
Brian Gaber
Energy Management Coordinator
Manitoba Hydro
223 James Avenue
Winnipeg MB R3B 3L1
George Dashner
Energy Management Specialist
New Brunswick Power
P.O. Box 2000
Fredericton NB E3B 4X1
Telephone: (204) 986-2339
Fax: (204) 942-7804
E-mail: [email protected]
Telephone: (506) 458-3285
Fax: (506) 458-4000
E-mail: [email protected]
Manitoba Hydro offers a free information
service through the PowerSmart® Program.
No rebates are available.
Gerry Rose
Vice-President, Customer Services
and Marketing
Manitoba Hydro
P.O. Box 815
Winnipeg MB R3C 2P4
Telephone: (204) 474-3341
Fax: (204) 452-3976
E-mail: [email protected]
Dave Thomas
Manager, Customer Services
Manitoba Hydro
223 James Avenue
Winnipeg MB R3B 3L1
Telephone: (204) 986-2214
Fax: (204) 942-7804
52
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Blair Kennedy
Director
Wholesale, Industrial and
Commercial Accounts
New Brunswick Power
P.O. Box 2000
Fredericton NB E3B 4X1
Telephone: (506) 458-3131
Fax: (506) 458-4223
E-mail: [email protected]
Mike Keays
Account Specialist
New Brunswick Power
P.O. Box 2000
Fredericton NB E3B 4X1
Telephone: (506) 458-4252
Fax: (506) 458-4223
E-mail: [email protected]
Newfoundland and Labrador
Northwest Territories
Al Ballard
Manager, Customer Services
Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro
P.O. Box 12400
St. John’s NF A1B 4K7
Gerd Sandrock, P.Eng.
Director, Engineering
Northwest Territories Power Corporation
4 Capital Drive
Hay River NT X0E 1G2
Telephone: (709) 737-1754
Fax: (709) 737-1902
E-mail: al_ballard/[email protected]
Telephone: (867) 874-5276
Fax: (867) 874-5286
E-mail: [email protected]
David Woolridge
Customer Service Specialist
Newfoundland Power
P.O. Box 8910
St. John’s NF A1B 3P6
Rob Marshall
Executive Director
Arctic Energy Alliance
205 – 5102 50th Avenue
Yellowknife NT X1A 3S8
Telephone: (709) 737-5650
Fax: (709) 737-2903
E-mail: [email protected]
Telephone: (867) 920-3333
Fax: (867) 873-0303
E-mail: [email protected]
Nova Scotia
Ontario
Bob Boutilier
Industrial Market Management
Nova Scotia Power Inc.
P.O. Box 910
Halifax NS B3J 2W5
Scott Rouse
Manager, Energy Efficiency
Ontario Power Generation Inc.
700 University Avenue, 19th Floor
Toronto ON M5G 1X6
Telephone: (902) 428-6531
Fax: (902) 428-6066
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.nspower.ca
Telephone: (416) 592-8044
Fax: (416) 592-4841
E-mail: [email protected]
Zak van Vuren
Industrial Market and Technical Analysis
Nova Scotia Power Inc.
P.O. Box 910
Halifax NS B3J 2W5
Current energy efficiency information is
maintained at
http://www.energy-efficiency.com
Telephone: (902) 428-6137
Fax: (902) 428-6066
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.nspower.ca
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
53
Dean Jordan
Ontario Hydro Energy
Director of Commercial Industrial Marketing
8177 Torbram Road, 2nd Floor
Brampton ON L6T 5C5
Telephone: (905) 458-3114
Fax: (905) 458-3148
Cell: (416) 523-6990
Ontario Hydro Energy Service Package
Ontario Hydro Energy is committed to developing business relationships that
increase competitiveness and maximize the value received from electricity,
natural gas and water services. Its primary focus is to deliver comprehensive
utility management programs to multi-residential, commercial and industrial
markets throughout Ontario and Canada. Services are strategically designed
to deliver utility cost savings, reduce building operating costs and add value to
clientele portfolios where applicable. Its services provide all up-front analysis
and engineering, installation, project financing, post-project monitoring and
verification at exceptional levels.
PowerSelect
This service performs on-site power quality analysis and recommends power
protection solutions. PowerSelect will supply required equipment, including
UPSs, emergency back-up generation, power factor correction, surge suppression,
power conditioners and voltage regulators.
MeterSelect
MeterSelect offers services to help customers identify and manage their real-time
energy. New, intelligent meters can provide a single-point data collection for
multiple measurement points (i.e. electricity, gas and water consumption; temperature). MeterSelect assesses the need, recommends the metering requirements and
manages the procurement and installation of metering solutions. MeterSelect
also offers an independent monitoring and verification service for validating
procurement and performance contracts.
Custom Solutions
This program is designed to ensure that customers receive optimal value in their
use of energy through engineering solutions to reduce operating costs and facilitate
infrastructure renewal.This may involve implementation of improvements to
HVAC, lighting, controls, the building envelope and water-consuming systems.
Custom Solutions provides audits, feasibility studies, equipment procurement
and installation to ensure that the physical plant is operating efficiently. Financing
options are also available, including performance guarantees and feasibility studies
to verify calculations of energy savings.
54
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Prince Edward Island
Angus Orford
Manager, Marketing and Corporate
Communications
Maritime Electric Company Limited
P.O. Box 1328
Charlottetown PE C1A 7N2
Telephone: (902) 629-3628
Fax: (902) 629-3665
E-mail: [email protected]
Quebec
Ronald Martineau
Chef, Mise en marché
Hydro-Québec
1010 Sainte-Catherine Street West, 9th Floor
Montréal QC H3C 4S7
Telephone: (514) 392-8000, Ext. 8471
Fax: (514) 392-8806
E-mail: [email protected]
Nicolas Nadeau
Mise en marché
Distribution et Services à la clientèle
Hydro-Québec
1010 Sainte-Catherine Street West, 7th Floor
Montréal QC H3C 4S7
Telephone: (514) 392-8000, Ext. 8107
Fax: (514) 392-8546
E-mail: [email protected]
Electro-technology implementation
support, which involves technical assistance
to identify and select the most efficient
electrical technology to meet a customeridentified need.The service is free of charge.
Financial assistance may be available.
Jean Bertin-Mahieux
Hydro-Québec
1010 Sainte-Catherine Street West, 7th Floor
Montréal QC H3C 4S7
Telephone: (514) 392-8000, Ext. 8163
Fax: (514) 392-8045
E-mail: [email protected]
Electromagnetic compatibility study service
helps a customer to identify the source of
electrical signal pollution in its facility and
suggest the solution to it. A charge may
apply for the service.
Saskatchewan
Randy Graham
Manager, Key Accounts
SaskPower
2025 Victoria Avenue
Regina SK S4P 0S1
Telephone: (306) 566-2832
Fax: (306) 566-3305
E-mail: [email protected]
Yukon Territory
John Maissan
Director,Technical Services
Yukon Energy Corporation
P.O. Box 5920
Whitehorse YT Y1A 5L6
Telephone: (867) 667-8119
Fax: (867) 393-6353
E-mail: [email protected]
Steve Savage
Manager, Customer Service
The Yukon Electrical Company Limited
P.O. Box 4190
Whitehorse YT Y1A 3T4
Telephone: (867) 633-7034
Fax: (867) 633-5797
E-mail: [email protected]
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
55
Petroleum industry
The Canadian petroleum industry helps its industrial customers improve their fuel
efficiency. Many suppliers provide technical expertise and evaluation services. Ask a
sales representative for information on energy-saving programs and technologies.
Natural gas utilities
Natural gas utilities offer industrial customers a variety of programs to help them
reduce energy costs and improve operating efficiencies.Working individually and
through the Canadian Gas Research Institute, natural gas utilities also distribute
many publications on energy efficiency.To find out what assistance is available in
a particular area, contact the utility; a list of names and addresses appears at the
end of this section.The list has been updated, as has the information about
assistance programs, where available.
Technical assistance: Many utilities offer their industrial customers advice on
applying new technologies.They may also support feasibility studies, small-scale
cogeneration projects, energy audits and energy-use monitoring projects.
Training: Some utilities provide courses themselves or in conjunction with
other organizations.
Interruptible and time-of-use rates: By offering lower rates to industries that
accept a lower volume gas supply during their utilities’ peak demand periods
or by informing industrial customers of impending variations in energy prices,
these pricing-plan programs encourage high-demand customers to shift energy
consumption to off-peak times and seasons.
Alberta
Manitoba
Mark Antonuk
Supervisor, Commercial Industrial Marketing
Canadian Western Natural Gas
909 11th Avenue South West
Calgary AB T2R 1L8
Gerry Rose
Vice-President, Customer Services
and Marketing
Manitoba Hydro
P.O. Box 815
Winnipeg MB R3C 2P4
Telephone: (403) 245-7199
Fax: (403) 245-7698
E-mail: [email protected]
Telephone: (204) 474-3341
Fax: (204) 452-3976
E-mail: [email protected]
British Columbia
Gary Hamer, P.Eng.
Energy Efficiency Manager
Market Development, BC Gas
4190 Lougheed Highway, 2nd Floor
Burnaby BC V5C 6A8
Telephone: (604) 293-8473
Fax: (604) 293-8850
E-mail: [email protected]
No energy efficiency programs are currently
available through BC Gas.
56
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Ontario
Masoud Almassi
Enbridge Consumers Gas
2235 Sheppard Avenue East
Atria II, 17th Floor
North York ON M2J 5B5
Telephone: (416) 496-7110
Fax: (416) 496-7182
E-mail: [email protected]
Ed Seaward
Union Gas Limited
200 Yorkland Boulevard
Toronto ON M2J 5C6
Telephone: (416) 496-5267
Fax: (416) 496-5303
E-mail: [email protected]
Marc St. Jean
Senior Marketing Specialist
Union Gas Limited
200 Yorkland Boulevard
Toronto ON M2J 5C6
Telephone: (416) 491-1888, Ext. 319
Fax: (416) 496-5303
E-mail: [email protected]
Quebec
Robin Roy
Chef de service, Ingénierie
géomatique et technologie
Gaz Métropolitain
1717 du Havre Street
Montréal QC H2K 2X3
Telephone: (514) 598-3812
Fax: (514) 598-3461
E-mail: [email protected]
Two forms of assistance from Gaz
Métropolitain to industry are available:
• technical assistance to identify
optimum gas technology for a
specific application; and
• financial programs to improve the
project profitability when converting
to natural gas.
Saskatchewan
Bernard Ryma
Director,Technology and
Engineering Standards
SaskEnergy/TransGas
1945 Hamilton Street, 6th Floor
Regina SK S4P 2C7
Telephone: (306) 777-9368
Fax: (306) 525-3422
E-mail: [email protected]
SaskEnergy/TransGas carries out studies to
determine the probable savings to industry
when converting process equipment from
electricity to natural gas, and other opportunities for reduction of power consumption.
As well, a provincial Building Energy
Management Program is available to
industrial customers and is delivered by the
Saskatchewan Research Council in Saskatoon.
Other sources of assistance
Technical ideas and assistance with the development of energy efficiency projects,
testing and other projects can often be obtained from a research institute that
serves the particular industrial sector. As an example, PAPRICAN (Pulp and
Paper Research Institute of Canada) could help with information about electrical
impulse drying of wood.This is yet another option that should be considered in
searching for a specific solution to a problem.
The Internet is an excellent source of information on energy efficiency. Numerous
Web sites are available.The OEE carries a list of links to international sources
of information accessible from its home page (http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca). Among
them, the site for the Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated
Energy Technologies (CADDET) at http://caddet-ee.org is especially worthwhile
investigating. Canada is a participant in a multinational group that collaborates in
exchanging energy-related information through CADDET, which maintains the
site. As a service to readers, Part 2 of this Guide includes references to various
up-to-date energy-efficient technologies, developed by CADDET member
countries.Various reports, analyses and technical brochures can be obtained in
Canada through the OEE.
Part 1 – Energy efficiency management in the Canadian context
57
part 2
Technical guide to energy efficiency
planning and management
2.1
Managing energy resources and costs
The first part of this Guide dealt with general principles of establishing and
running an effective energy management system in a facility – focusing
mainly on organizational and people issues.This section looks at how, within
that management system, the cost and the utilization of energy resources can
be systematically and methodically controlled.
2.1.1 Energy market restructuring in Canada
Electricity
In Canada, several provincially owned and regulated electric utilities are
being restructured to meet the challenges of a more competitive, increasingly
integrated North American electricity market.The Government of Canada
supports continued efforts of provinces to liberalize trade and establish
competition in electricity markets.
Given the extensive role of the provinces and territories in the electricity sector,
the first decisions in restructuring the industry must be taken by them.The
urgency of addressing restructuring issues varies across provinces, and progress
varies among provinces as a result of regional cost, supply and social factors.
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec allow wholesale access to
their transmission systems. Alberta implemented retail access in January 2001.
Ontario has opened the wholesale and retail markets.
Restructuring requires a complex transition from a regulated utility to competitive
markets. In some jurisdictions, the transition to competitive markets has been
very difficult. However, there are other models of restructuring that appear to be
more successful and have brought competition to the market, enhanced energy
efficiency and resulted in savings to consumers. Provinces will continue to watch
closely as competitive markets are introduced in other markets.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
59
Natural gas
Prior to 1985, federal and provincial regulators were involved in establishing
natural gas prices and in deciding how much gas could be exported.The
change to market-determined pricing of natural gas created greater competition,
especially in the 1990s.
The idea behind such deregulation is simple. If competition increases at the
retail level, residential and commercial energy consumers will benefit through
competitive prices and services and greater choice.This approach illustrates
a major trend in North America: there is more competition for the energy
consumer’s dollar as increasingly sophisticated companies begin marketing
energy (not just natural gas) to consumers.
Producing companies now sell to many different kinds of buyers.These include
industrial customers, independent marketers, local distribution companies,
marketing companies such as affiliates of pipeline companies and other sales
organizations. Further, since 1990, gas futures contracts offer buyers and sellers
the means to manage price risk.
Purchasing energy – playing the spot market
Since the energy market is inherently volatile and volatility is the bane of the
industry, companies must look for ways of reducing their risk. It means that
energy efficiency and demand side management will be increasingly valuable
tools for business to manage costs. Individual customers will have to become
more savvy in the ways that they purchase and use energy.They will have to pay
closer attention to energy market conditions so that they can budget for energy
and spend the money wisely.There are parallels to the stock market, and there
are also implications for energy efficiency improvements.The reader should
be aware that some large industrial users of energy in Canada already find it
profitable to assign resources to follow the energy market constantly and to take
advantage of the spot prices in making their purchasing decisions. Software
packages are available for this purpose. As elsewhere in the Guide, specific service
providers or product manufacturers are not mentioned by name.
This subject has been noted for a reason: to maximize the use of a finite
resource – the company’s energy budget. If smart energy purchases under these
new, fluctuating market conditions can save money, there will be more to
spend on energy efficiency improvements, and vice versa. Conversely, as more
companies may consider combined heat and power generation (CHP, or
cogeneration) in the future, the energy market would also interest them from
a revenue point of view.
60
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.1.2 Monitoring and targeting
Monitoring and targeting (M&T) is a very important tool for practical, hands-on
and goals-oriented energy management. It was made possible by developments in
computer technology and in instrumentation, measuring and monitoring equipment.The use of the method is relatively new to Canada. It uses a disciplined
and structured approach, which ensures that energy resources are provided and
used as efficiently as possible. It is applicable to other utilities, such as water and
gas as well as to a range of process raw materials and products-in-process streams.
The installation of an M&T system can bring a fast payback – usually within
the first year of operations.
The fundamental principle of M&T is that energy and other utilities are direct
and controllable costs that should be monitored and controlled in the same way
as other direct, production-related costs such as labour and raw materials, parts
and supplies.This principle is expressed as a board-level policy in companies,
which embraced M&T in order to derive benefits from it.
Control implies responsibility and accountability.The M&T process begins with
dividing a plant into energy-accountable centres (EACs), some of which convert
energy and others that use it. For practical reasons, EACs should correspond to
existing management accounting centres and should not straddle different managers’ jurisdictions.Within each EAC, energy consumption (i.e. electricity, gas,
steam) is monitored. For additional control, energy may be monitored in specific
areas within an EAC.The plant controller should also be involved since this
person will want to know how these controllable costs are managed.
Managers are responsible and accountable for energy use.The review of usage of
energy (and other utilities) against the standards and budgets becomes a constant
agenda item on monthly operational review meetings of the management team.
As well, energy usage (or savings) may be included in the managers’ personal key
performance objectives and evaluations. As a result, energy matters receive the
same level of attention as production and financial performance indicators.
The cost of implementing an M&T system will depend on the extent of installed
metering, the coverage desired and the methods used for recording and analysing
energy use.The scope can be adjusted in line with the savings expected. Measuring
requires installation of meters at key points in the plant, especially at equipment
with large energy consumption.The M&T system should be optimally developed
hand-in-hand with a site-wide energy management computerized system that
encompasses condition monitoring and automation. However, experience proves
that the cost of installing these meters and the associated monitoring equipment
and computers will soon be offset by the energy efficiency gains from the M&T
program. For example, one Canadian plant spent $200,000 on the system and
realized savings of $1.5 million in the first year alone.
For each item monitored, such as boiler efficiency, a suitable index is needed
against which to assess performance. For each index, a performance standard
needs to be derived from historical data that take into account factors that can
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
61
significantly affect efficiency. If historical data are not available, for example
because of the prior lack of instrumentation, six or eight months of data
gathering must precede the establishment of a standard. Again, the managers
involved must agree upon the derived standards.
Targets are derived, just as are standards.They represent improvements in energy
use efficiency.To ensure that the process will work, the managers having their
consumption targeted must agree that the targets are realistic.The gradual but
progressive resetting of targets in time toward better energy efficiency levels
is the start to continual improvement.
Several firms are marketing M&T software and hardware packages and are
available to assist with implementation. Further information may be obtained
from the OEE’s Web site at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca.
62
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Process insulation
FIGURE 2.1
Thermal conductivity
Thermal insulation on process equipment and piping
has several functions:
•
•
•
•
preventing losses and gains of heat;
maintaining consistent process temperatures;
protecting employees from burns and frostbite;
preventing condensation from forming on cold
equipment surfaces; and
• maintaining comfortable working environments
around hot or cold process equipment.
0.06
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.01
Polyphenolic
Rock wool
0.00
Glass wool
The benefits of installing or increasing insulation on process
equipment and piping are particularly attractive if fuel
costs have increased since the equipment was designed
and installed.Thermal insulation deteriorates over time, and
re-evaluation of long-established systems may show that the
insulation is inadequate or damaged. See Figure 2.1 for
information on thermal conductivity.
0.04
Calcium silicate
Conductivity (W/m ˚C)
2.2
Economic thickness of insulation
The key step in an analysis of insulation involves determining the most economic
thickness to install, which means the thickness of insulation that saves the most
energy per dollar in installation cost. For more information on economic thickness, refer to the technical manual Process Insulation (Cat. No. M91-6/1E); see
page vi of the preface for ordering instructions.
Keep moisture out
Insulation that depends on air-filled voids to function effectively
must be kept dry. Exposure to moisture, particularly in the
case of loose-fibre or open-cell foam insulation types, causes the
displacement of insulating air by heat-conducting water or ice.
Protecting insulation from moisture/water ingress is just as important
as selecting the most effective type of insulation and installing an
economic thickness.The practical requirement, then, is to make
waterproofing an integral part of any insulating job.
Waterlogged insulation
transfers heat 15–20
times faster than dry
insulation!
• Install adequate, leak-proof vapour barriers on the interior (warm) side
of walls, ceilings or floors.
• Weatherproof exterior walls by cladding or other treatment that prevents
water infiltration.
• Maintain the integrity of water-impervious roof membrane by regular
inspection and maintenance.
• Cover insulated pipes with suitable cladding (whether for indoor or outdoor
applications) with sealed joints, and maintain its integrity by inspection and
prompt repair of damaged sections.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
63
• For high-temperature applications, choose a vapour-permeable covering that
will allow moisture to pass outward.
The economic thickness of insulation is the thickness that provides the highest
insulation for the lowest cost. One way of improving cost savings through insulation
is to upgrade to the levels of insulation shown in the recommended thickness
tables (see the manual Process Insulation, Cat. No. M91-6/1E), which can be
used for guidelines.
Environmental considerations
Whether we insulate to prevent heat loss or heat gain, we help to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions. Except for nuclear power and hydro-electricity, energy
is produced by burning fossil fuels. Insulating against heat loss (e.g. steam pipes
and pipes carrying hot liquids) reduces the amount of fuel needed to fire the
boilers that produce the heat – and the emissions. Insulating against heat gain
(e.g. refrigerated spaces or pipes carrying cold fluids) reduces the amount of
electrical energy needed to operate the chillers that provide the cooling.Thus,
wherever electricity is used, reducing consumption leads to a reduction of
emissions from thermo-electricity-generating stations. See Section 1.1,“Climate
change” (page 1) for a discussion of pollutant reductions due to energy efficiency
improvements and instructions for calculating them.
Material choice based on
• Halocarbons-free
• Flammability
• Performance
More detailed information
Tip
Process Insulation (Cat. No. M91-6/1E), published by NRCan, contains
information that can be complemented by the use of computer-assisted design
software, some of which is listed in NRCan’s Energy Audit Software Directory
(Cat. No. M27-01-570E). Note also that the materials specifications date from
the mid-1980s, when the manual was first issued.
Consider an NPS 6 steel
pipe operating at 121ºC,
in ambient conditions of
21.1ºC. Left uninsulated,
it will lose 700 Wh per
metre of length per hour.
With 76 mm of mineral
$
Energy management opportunities
It bears repeating: “Energy management opportunities” (EMOs) is a term that
represents the ways that energy can be used wisely to save money.
Some of the EMOs in this category can be outlined as follows:
fibre insulation, the loss
would drop to 37 Wh/m/h,
Housekeeping EMOs
and the temperature of
• Repair damaged insulation.
• Repair damaged coverings and finishes.
• Maintain safety requirements.
the outer surface would
be 23ºC.
64
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Low-cost EMOs
• Insulate uninsulated pipes.
• Insulate uninsulated vessels.
• Add insulation to reach recommended thickness.
Retrofit EMOs
• Upgrade existing insulation levels.
• Review economic thickness requirements.
• Insulate major uninsulated equipment/
process areas.
• Limited budget upgrade.
Ice-filled insulation
transfers heat
50 times faster than
dry insulation!
Work in this category usually requires detailed analysis by specialists.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
65
evaluation worksheet
Process insulation evaluation worksheet
Insulation
Locate and note the condition of insulation on pipes, equipment
and containers.
Are pipes and equipment insulated?
Yes
Check condition of insulation periodically.
No
Arrange to insulate with economic thickness.
Use the manual Process Insulation (Cat. No. M91-6/IE) to estimate savings.
Done by: __________________________
Is the insulation dry?
Yes
Check condition of insulation periodically.
No
Locate source of moisture; in particular, establish whether the pipe or
equipment is leaking.
Replace wet insulation; it has very little insulating value.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is the insulation thick enough? (Insulation of hot surfaces should be
cool to the touch.)
Yes
No action required.
No
Consider adding more insulation; ask the manufacturer or an insulation
contractor whether increasing the amount would be economical.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is the insulation protected against mechanical damage by suitable
cladding/covers?
Yes
Check condition of insulation covers/cladding periodically.
No
Repair/install appropriate cladding/covers as soon as possible.
Check underlying equipment for moisture damage.
Replace damaged insulation.
Done by: __________________________
66
Date: _______________________
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Yes
Check condition of insulation periodically.
No
Choose appropriate type of jacketing/cladding.
In places prone to mechanical damage, consider using more
resilient insulation.
Consider placing outside mechanical protection (barriers, bulwarks,
shields, bridges, etc.) to minimize chances of damage.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
On insulated outdoor pipes, equipment and vessels, are the vapour barrier
and weatherproof jackets intact?
Yes
Check condition of insulation periodically.
No
Repair as soon as possible.
Check underlying equipment for moisture damage.
Replace damaged/wet insulation.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are the insulation accessories that secure, fasten, stiffen, seal or caulk
the insulation and its protective cover or finish compatible with each
other and with the environment?
Yes
Check condition of insulation periodically.
No
Replace non-compatible parts to ensure system’s integrity, prevent
corrosion, cracking, etc.
Use proper installation and insulation methods for hangers or supports
to minimize energy losses.
Pay particular attention to proper insulation of valves, flanges, elbows, etc.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note: Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
evaluation worksheet
Has the compressive strength of the insulation material been considered
when assessing mechanical protection?
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
67
Tip
Bulb efficiency, %:
Incandescent = 100
Fluorescent = 300
Metal halides = 400–600
HP sodium = 450–700
Tip
Buying the most efficient
lighting system available
today does not have to
cost more than using
standard fixtures and
standard design. In fact,
the project’s first cost
may be reduced by using
the most efficient available fixtures and designs.
To achieve that, three
key concepts should
be noted:
• use only recommended
lighting levels;
• use parabolic fixtures
with T-lamps and
electronic ballasts; and
2.3
Lighting systems
Lighting technology has produced many recent developments in energy-use
reduction; many industries have upgraded their lighting systems, and lighting
manufacturers have brought more efficient products onto the market. However, in
most facilities, the lighting system still presents significant opportunities to reduce
electricity costs.
The first step in reducing electricity costs related to lighting is to survey your
facility to find out whether the lighting equipment in each area is appropriate for the
work performed there and whether it is the most energy-efficient type available
for the task.
The Energy Efficiency Act
In 1996, new regulations under the Energy Efficiency Act required that lighting
systems in major buildings, including industrial buildings, be evaluated.The Act
sets minimum requirements for lamp efficacy (expressed in lumens per watt) and
for lighting quality (measured against a colour-rendering index).The goal of the
new regulations is to reduce national annual energy consumption by 134 petajoules
by 2020. Already, several inefficient lighting products have been removed from
the Canadian market.
Your facility survey should also determine whether your lighting system conforms
to the Energy Efficiency Regulations. Help with interpreting and complying with the
requirements is available from lighting design consultants, electricity suppliers and
manufacturers of lighting products.
Lighting surveys often reveal one or more of the following energy management
opportunities:
• Lights left on in unoccupied areas: Even the most efficient lights waste
energy when they are left on unnecessarily.The best way to ensure that lights
are turned off when they are not needed is to develop the occupants’ sense of
responsibility so that they take care of turning off unneeded lights.You may
also consider installing timers, photocells and occupancy sensors or integrating
the lighting system into an energy management control system. Lights (and other
powered equipment, such as fans) left on unnecessarily in refrigerated areas add
substantially to the refrigeration load.The same applies to air-conditioning systems.
• Dirty lamps, lenses and light-reflecting surfaces: Dust and grease deposits on
lighting fixtures can reduce the light that reaches the target area by as much as
30 percent. Lighting fixtures should be cleaned at least once every two years, and
more often when they are installed in greasy, dusty or smoky locations and when
they are part of a heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system.
• take advantage of lower
A/C size and costs.
68
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
• Overlit areas: In areas with more lighting than the activities require, remove
some lights or install dimming systems. Lighting requirements vary widely
within a building, and a reduction in general area lighting combined with
an increase in task or workstation lighting often increases the occupants’
comfort while decreasing electricity costs.When delamping areas that are
lit with fluorescent and high-intensity discharge fixtures, ensure that the
ballasts are disconnected; they consume electricity even when the bulb is
removed. Dimming systems are useful for areas where several types of
activity take place. For example, plant production areas can be fully lit
during production periods and dimmed when cleaning and security staff
are on duty.
• Obsolete lighting equipment: Updating your lighting system with more
energy-efficient equipment is usually cost-effective. Retrofitting should be
considered to improve the overall energy efficiency of the facility as well as
to bring the lighting system into compliance with the Energy Efficiency
Regulations.
Tip
Turn off
• incandescent lights when
they are not needed;
• fluorescent lights when
they will remain off for at
least 15 minutes; and
• high-intensity discharge
lights when they will
remain off for at least
an hour.
Consider increasing the use of daylighting, where feasible. Cutting energy use
for lighting reduces not only the cost of electricity but also the load on your
air-conditioning system.
Environmental considerations
Measures taken to reduce electricity consumption by lighting systems
help reduce emissions from thermo-electricity-generating stations. See
Section 1.1, “Climate change” (page 1), for a discussion of emissions reductions
and instructions for calculating them.
Need more information about lighting issues? Visit the Web site of the
International Association for Energy-Efficient Lighting (http://www.iaeel.org)
or the ENERGY STAR® Web site (http://www.energystar.gov/products).
Tip
Establish a regular
cleaning program for your
skylights and windows.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
69
evaluation worksheet
70
Lighting systems evaluation worksheet
Operation
Walk through the facility after hours, noting whether lights are off
in unoccupied areas.
Are lights off in unoccupied areas?
Yes
Check periodically.
No
Train staff to turn lights off when they leave for the day.
Ask security or cleaning staff to ensure that lights are turned off.
Consider installing timers or occupancy sensors that turn lights
off automatically.
Consider installing a lighting management system for the facility.
Consider installing motion-detector switches for the outside yard
and building perimeter lighting.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are light fixtures clean?
Yes
Check periodically to maintain standard.
No
Wash lamps, lenses and reflecting surfaces to remove accumulated
dirt and grease.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Survey the facility with a light meter and compare readings with
standard lighting requirements for tasks.
Are light levels appropriate for the work performed in each area?
Yes
Check periodically to maintain standard.
No
If light levels are too high, consider removing lamps or retrofitting
with high-efficiency low-wattage lamps.
If light levels are too low, consider installing task lighting; if task lights
are not feasible, consult a lighting expert.
Done by: __________________________
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Note the various types of lights and fixtures used throughout the facility.
Are any areas lit with incandescent lights?
Yes
No
Consider replacing lights with Energy Efficiency Act (EEA)compliant high-efficiency lamps, such as fluorescent or high-intensity
discharge lamps, whichever is more appropriate.
Consult a lighting expert.
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are large, high interior spaces lit with inefficient fluorescent lights?
Yes
No
Consider replacing fluorescent lights with EEA-compliant highintensity discharge lighting, such as metal halide or high-pressure
sodium fixtures.
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are large areas lit with mercury vapour lights?
Yes
No
If the colour-rendering qualities of the mercury vapour lights are
not required, consider installing EEA-compliant metal halide or
high-pressure sodium lights, which are more energy efficient.
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Do all light fixtures in the facility meet EEA requirements?
Yes
No
No action required.
Consult a lighting expert who can recommend suitable equipment
that meets the EEA requirements.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
evaluation worksheet
Application of lighting types
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
71
2.4
Electrical systems
Electricity is the most widely used form of energy in most facilities,
yet electrical systems are among the least understood of all plant systems.
In most industrial operations, four kinds of opportunities for reducing
electrical costs are available:
• reduce peak demand, i.e. the maximum power (in kW/kVA), required
by the facility;
• reduce the total energy (measured in kWh) consumed in the facility;
• improve the power factor of the facility; and
• shift energy consumption to a time when energy costs are lower.
Understanding electrical billings
Understanding the billing rate structure used by your utility is an important first
step in taking control of electrical costs. Most industrial and commercial facilities
are billed for electricity according to a general-service rate schedule in which the
customer pays for the peak power demand (kW/kVA) and energy consumption
(kWh). Most general-service rate structures also impose financial penalties on
plants that have a low power factor.
Time-of-use rates
Many utilities have time-of-use or time-differentiated rates for customers whose
peak demand exceeds 5000 kW.These pricing schemes offer very low rates to
customers who can shift high-demand operations away from the times of day
when the utility receives its peak demand for energy.The utility benefits from
a more consistent daily load pattern, and the customer pays less.
Time-shifting consumption and real-time pricing
Some utilities now offer their major customers real-time pricing, a scheme in
which, each day, the utility gives the customer the rates proposed for each hour of
the following day. Because of fluctuations in demand, electricity rates vary widely
through the day, and the customer that can schedule its high-consumption activities
to low-cost times of day can realize substantial savings.
Software is available for estimating energy costs in a variety of situations.
These estimates usually require complex analyses to arrive at the best mode of
use, depending on operational restraints imposed by factors such as equipment
requirements. Some software will even estimate control capabilities based on the
consumption pattern decided after analysis. For information about available
software and analysis tools, consult your electrical utility.
72
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
$
Energy management opportunities
Look at the electrical load analysis and, using some of the ideas shown in the
following, develop a systematic management approach to electrical power usage.
Consider using one of the predictive, “smart” demand side management (DSM)
programs that are available on the market. DSM refers to installing efficiency
devices to lower or manage the peak electric load or demand. (Note: other DSM
programs are also available, e.g. for natural gas usage.) A network of on-line electrical metering enables real-time data to be collected from the meters and the
computerized energy management system to predict and control the electrical
demand.When the demand approaches preset targets, non-essential operations
are cut off and held back to shave the peak demand (see the following).
Remember also that the effort must be broad-based and have the support of the
operators. An awareness campaign should be the start. Are the employees aware
of the energy and utilities cost and of the level of those expenditures in the plant?
Is there an effective communications system in place to share the results of the
conservation efforts with everybody?
Peak demand
The maximum demand
Reducing peak demand
on electric power that
A facility’s peak demand is the sum of the power (kW/kVA) required to run all the
electrical equipment currently in operation.Thus, the demand peak increases and
decreases as equipment is turned on and off and as the load goes up and down.
Peak demand charges are based on the highest peak occurring in the billing
period, even if that peak lasts for only one or two hours. Since demand peaks
are usually predictable, they can be lowered by:
• shedding loads – shutting off non-essential equipment during the peak
period (see Figure 2.2 on page 74);
• shifting loads – re-scheduling operations so that some activities take place
during off-peak times of the day (see Figure 2.3 on page 74); and
• improving processes to reduce electrical power requirements.
occurs in a timed period
(e.g. 30 minutes).
Capacity charge (kVA)
A charge intended as
payment for the cost of
providing the service to
the site; it represents the
If, after the implementation of all peak-reducing measures, the peak demand
still continues to be unacceptably high, consider installing on-site, engine-driven
generators to kick in and help shave the peak load.
maximum possible demand
from the supply system.
Reducing energy consumption
Reducing energy consumption is the simplest
part of an electricity cost-reduction plan. First,
implement all the usual cost-saving methods,
such as the following:
• turning off unnecessary lights and retrofitting lighting systems with appropriate
energy-efficient fixtures;
Is there a procedure
in place to shut off
production and auxiliary
equipment when not in
use? Is it implemented?
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
73
FIGURE 2.2
Load shedding
Load (kW)
kW
saving
• shutting down unneeded equipment;
• replacing drives between motor and driven equipment with more
energy-efficient variable speed drives (VSDs), investigating the use of
hydraulic drives and converting motors to soft-start technology;
• replacing driven equipment with more energy-efficient equipment; and
• replacing old electric motors with new, high-efficiency motors.
Then, look at processes and examine the power usage in various sub-systems
(e.g. HVAC, refrigeration, conveying and material handling and compressed
air, as detailed in the subsequent chapters in this Guide) so as to reduce
electricity consumption.
Time
Noon
FIGURE 2.3
Load shifting
Load (kW)
kW
saving
Installing a power monitoring system, such as one automotive manufacturer
did in Canada, coupled with monitoring and targeting methodology of
managing electricity consumption, can in itself lead to a drop in electrical
energy use (in this particular case, 5.6 percent, worth more than $1 million
annually).
Another company tracked and trended power consumption based on
production and non-production days.This revealed that large amounts of
energy were wasted on weekends. Shutdown sheets were then developed
for all plant areas to enforce and document that equipment shutdowns
were taking place.
Improving the power factor
Time
74
Noon
The power factor (PF) of an industrial facility is calculated as a ratio of kW
(resistive power) divided by kVA (resistive plus reactive power). Remember
that the resistive component of the electrical power does the useful work.
A low PF is normally caused by inductive loads used by equipment such as
transformers, lighting ballasts and induction motors, particularly under-loaded
motors. Electrical utility companies penalize customers whose PF is less than
90 percent.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
It is in the interest of the facility to maintain a high PF so that the capacity
charge (kVA) by the utility does not exceed the established value.
Power factor
The most common way to improve the PF is to add capacitors to the electrical
system. Capacitors are normally installed in one of three configurations:
The ratio of power passing
• as a bank at a main switchboard or central distribution location;
• in smaller groups at a motor control centre; or
• individually, on large power users.
product of voltage and
through a circuit to the
current. Electric utilities
charge customers a penalty
Multiple-capacitor installations usually include a controller that monitors the
plant PF and switches capacitors into the circuit as needed to keep the PF high.
However, one large company in Canada replaced all power capacitors in four of
their plants with new, microprocessor-based LRC tuning circuits, sized for each
specific plant and power load, for its power distribution system. Improved PF
correction resulted in energy savings of 9 to 12 percent. Adding a device for
intermittent supply failure protection helped to eliminate most of the downtime
due to power failures and helped to shorten the payback by 73 percent.
A paper mill installed unity PF multi-motor drives that solved the problem
of maintaining a suitable PF over a range of speeds that multiple-motor VSDs
could not maintain.
if the PF is lower than a
value specified (e.g. 0.9)
because difficulties arise
in supply and distribution
systems when the PF is
significantly lower
than unity.
Tip
Newly developed adaptive
voltage-amps-reactive
(VAR) compensator (AVC)
can instantly detect
changes in reactive
demand and insert
exactly the right amount
of capacitance to restore
the PF to unity within
one cycle. The PF and
equipment life are
improved. (See the
CANMET publications
list – Appendix C.)
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
75
evaluation worksheet
Electrical systems evaluation worksheet
Demand
Develop an electrical load profile of the facility. This information may
be available from the electrical utility. If it is not, you may have to install
electronic recording ammeters and collect data for several months. Analyse
the load profiles to determine how the operation of plant equipment
affects the profile.
Can equipment use be rescheduled to off-peak hours?
Yes
Reschedule operations.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Can any of your equipment be shut down during peak-load periods?
Yes
If the equipment is manually operated, have the operator shut it down
according to a peak-load schedule.
If the equipment is automatic, set the controls accordingly or install
a programmed timer.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Can any of your equipment be downsized to use less electricity?
Yes
Upgrade equipment at the first opportunity; this will also reduce
consumption of electrical energy.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Consumption
Examine all electrical systems, including lighting, with a view to retrofits
or operational modifications that will reduce electrical consumption.
Can equipment be shut off when not in use without disturbing the process?
Yes
Inform operators that the equipment must be shut off when not in use.
Consider using timers, photocells or occupancy sensors to ensure that
equipment is shut off when feasible.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
76
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Yes
Replace the motors with energy-efficient units at the first opportunity.
No
Examine the possibility of replacing worn-out motors with energyefficient motors.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Can existing lighting be economically replaced with energyefficient lighting?
Yes
Replace the lighting with energy-efficient fixtures and bulbs at the
first opportunity.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Examine the drive system and driven equipment to find out whether their
efficiency can be improved.
Can lower-efficiency drives and mechanical equipment be retrofitted?
Yes
Replace the items that are feasible for retrofitting at the first opportunity.
No
Examine the possibility of replacing old drives and mechanical equipment.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Power factor
Is the power factor at or above 90 percent (0.9)?
Yes
Check periodically to maintain standard.
No
Consider installing capacitors to increase the power factor; this usually
requires a study and design by an electrical engineer.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note: Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
evaluation worksheet
Can equipment be fitted with energy-efficient motors economically?
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
77
2.5
Boiler plant systems
In many industrial facilities, the boiler plant system is the largest fuel user.
A boiler plant program of energy management should begin with an assessment
of current boiler efficiencies. Boiler performance monitoring should then be
done regularly to gauge the effect of established energy-saving measures and to
set improvement targets.
The simplest way to calculate fuel-to-steam efficiency is the direct method of
calculation, using steam generation and fuel consumption data from operating logs.
Direct method for calculating boiler efficiency
• Measure steam flow (in kg) over a set period (e.g. one hour). Use steam
integrator readings if available.
• Measure the flow of fuel over the same period, using the gas or oil integrator.
• Convert both steam and fuel flow to identical energy unit (e.g. MJ or kJ).
• Calculate the efficiency using the following equation:
Efficiency = [steam energy / fuel energy] 100.
The objective of improving boiler efficiency is to reduce heat losses from the
boiler system. Heat losses occur in many forms, such as
•
•
•
•
flue gas;
fouled heat-exchange surfaces;
hot blowdown water; and
hot condensate.
Heat lost in flue gas
Excess air
Tip
The amount of heat
rejected by flue gases
can be calculated from
measurements taken of
flue gas temperature and
oxygen or carbon dioxide
content.
This is the most important
control parameter of
boiler operations.
Combustion air is the amount theoretically needed to achieve complete
combustion of a given fuel. It is fixed by the oxygen content required to convert
all of the carbon and hydrogen in fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Air supplied
to the boiler over this theoretical amount is called excess air. In practice, some
excess air is always required to ensure complete combustion, but most burners
operate with more excess air than they need. Hence, it must be controlled.
Excess air reduces boiler efficiency by absorbing heat that would otherwise be
transferred to the boiler water and carrying it up the stack. Excess air can be
measured with a flue gas analyser. If the flue gas contains too much excess air, a
qualified burner technician should adjust the burner and combustion air dampers
to reduce excess air levels over the boiler operating range.The boiler should
operate in the “zone of maximum combustion efficiency” (see Figure 2.4, page 80).
Remember also that along with controlling the excess combustion air in the
burner, it is just as important to guard against infiltration (ingress) of unwanted
air into the boiler combustion cavity or the flue system through cover leaks,
observation ports, faulty gaskets and other openings.
Deploying of modern combustion technology, including electronic control,
oxygen regulations, flue gas analysers and economizers will bring significant
overall energy savings.
78
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Heat-recovery methods
Heat loss in flue gas can be substantially reduced by equipment that diverts the
thermal energy in flue gases to other parts of the boiler plant. For example, heat
exchangers called economizers transfer heat from flue gas to boiler feedwater, and
combustion-air preheaters use the energy in hot flue gases to heat combustion air.
A particularly energy-efficient heat recovery option is the direct-contact flue gas
condensing unit, which sprays water through the flue gas stream and passes the
heated spray water through a heat exchanger to transfer the heat to boiler makeup water or other plant processes. Flue gas condensers recover the latent heat of
vaporization and much of the sensible heat from water vapour in the flue gas,
and can reduce the flue gas temperature to 38ºC. An incidental advantage of
direct-contact flue gas condensing is that it removes particles and acid gases
(such as SO2) from exhaust.
A recently designed system is working on the condensing heat recovery and heat
exchange principles; it has, additionally, produced superior air pollution control
results. Recovery of 80 to 90 percent of heat in the flue gas previously exhausted
to the atmosphere is possible. It is reported that the system can reduce fuel
consumption by the facility by up to 50 percent.
Another option is to add a heat pump to convert the low-temperature heat
into high-temperature heat for other uses in the plant, thus further increasing
boiler efficiency.
Other boiler installations deploy heat-reclaim burners to preheat the combustion
air.The burners that contain compact beds of heat-storing material cycle rapidly
to allow short-time heat storage and reclamation.The combustion air is preheated
to within 85 to 95 percent of the flue gas temperature.
All boilers would benefit from adding an economizer, air heater or flue
gas condenser; however, a comparative analysis of the options is needed to
determine which would be most effective.
Tip
Determine if there are
gaseous process byproducts (e.g. waste
oxygen, hydrogen, CO,
biogas or hydrocarbon
streams) available in the
plant that could be used
as no-cost/low-cost boiler
fuel supplements.
A 20°C reduction in
flue gas temperature
will produce a 1 percent
improvement in boiler
efficiency.
A scale buildup of 1 mm can
increase fuel consumption
Fouled heat-exchange surfaces
by 2 percent.
Soot and scale
The transfer of heat to boiler water is inhibited by the accumulation of soot on
the fireside of a heat-exchange surface and scale on the waterside. Fouled heatexchange surfaces also raise flue gas temperatures and increase heat loss from
the stack.To keep heat-exchange surfaces clean of soot and scale, ensure that
• both fireside and waterside surfaces are inspected carefully whenever
the boiler plant is shut down;
• boiler feedwater is treated as required to reduce deposits; and
• soot blowers, brushes or manual lances are used as required.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
79
Figure 2.4
Zone of maximum combustion
efficiency
Fuel gas loss
Maximum
combustion efficiency
Unburned
fuel loss
Excess
air loss
Total air
Hot blowdown water
Boiler water must be blown down periodically to prevent scale from forming. If
blowdown is too excessive, however, heat, water and water-treatment chemicals
are wasted. Often, more water is blown down than required to prevent scale
formation; in addition, the blowdown is usually scheduled once a day or once a
shift, so the amount of dissolved solids immediately after blowdown is far below
the maximum acceptable.Total dissolved solids should be tested and the blowdown
rate should be adjusted periodically, as minimum measures. If blowdown can be
done more often, and in smaller amounts, the solids content can be maintained
much closer to the maximum desired.
Once optimum blowdown rates are established, attention can be given to
recovering heat from blowdown water.This is usually accomplished in two stages:
• Use a flash tank to generate low-pressure steam from the blowdown
(flash steam can be used in other heating applications such as the de-aerator).
• Use the remaining water in a heat exchanger to preheat make-up water.
Heat loss in condensate
Tip
Rather than use a settime blowdown initiation
(e.g. daily at 8:00 a.m.)
or continuous blowdown,
which may be wasteful,
it may be more effective
to start the blowdown
when boiler water
Whenever possible, hot condensate from steam-using equipment should be
returned to the boiler.The loss of condensate from the steam system increases
consumption of water, water-treatment chemicals and the thermal energy needed
to heat the make-up water.
Heat may be lost in the form of flash steam that develops when the process
pressure – under which the condensate is returned – is released.This may be
partly recovered by submerging the condensate return inlet in the tank or by
installing a spray condenser fitted to the top of the tank.
A more efficient way is to employ a steam-condensate closed system that allows
condensate to return in a closed pressurized loop to be reboiled. Such a system
uses less equipment for the steam process and does not suffer any losses. In one
particular installation in a Quebec mining company, the energy consumption was
reduced by 18 percent when compared with a conventional steam-condensate
open system.
conductivity rises to a
specific level. Automatic
Environmental considerations
controls that continuously
Energy-saving measures that reduce consumption of boiler fuel reduce emissions
of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere in direct proportion to the
amount of the fuel reduction. See Section 1.1, “Climate change,” on page 1
for a practical method for calculating emissions reductions resulting from
fuel economies.
measure boiler water
conductivity are
now available.
80
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Dumping of condensate also has undesirable environmental impacts:
• Water, chemicals, electrical power and fuel are wasted.
• Water-treatment chemicals are introduced into the environment.
• Hot effluent accelerates the deterioration of sewer pipes and is, therefore,
forbidden in most municipalities.
Poor condensate drainage
leads to
• water hammer
(see page 90);
Low NOx combustion
• increased maintenance;
Nitrogen oxides, referred to collectively as NOx, are generated by the reaction
of nitrogen and oxygen at high temperature in the boiler combustion chamber.
The main source of reactants is fresh combustion air, which is high in oxygen.
NOx production will not necessarily decrease in direct proportion to fuel
economies.The most common way to reduce NOx production is to reduce
the flame temperature by one of several techniques, such as the following:
• poor heat transfer; and
• staged-air combustion, in which combustion air is added to fuel in the
burner progressively from several locations; and
• flue gas recirculation, in which some flue gas is returned to the burner,
thus reducing the flue temperature and the amount of reactants available
to the NOx reaction.
• energy waste.
Employing the fuel direct
injection (FDI) technology, a
full-time FDI regenerative
(FFR) burner reduces NOx
emissions by about
Much research in the low-NOx technology done in recent years resulted in
the development of burners that reduce NOx but do not affect thermal
efficiency appreciably.The appropriate techniques are fuel type-specific.
With exceptions (see tip at right), the techniques to control NOx are not designed
to save energy, but they do reduce stack emissions, an equally important goal.
90 percent compared
with ordinary regenerative
burners. The compact
FFR burner allows simplification and downsizing,
$
Energy management opportunities
The following opportunities are in addition to those previously mentioned in
this section.
along with energy consumption reduction by
40 to 50 percent and
Housekeeping EMOs
a payback period of
• Regularly check water treatment procedures.
• Operate at the lowest steam pressure (or hot water temperature) that is
acceptable to the demand requirements.
• Minimize load swings and schedule demand where possible to maximize
the achievable boiler efficiencies.
• Check the boiler efficiency regularly.
• Monitor and compare performance-related data to established standards regularly.
• Monitor the boiler excess air regularly.
• Keep burners in proper adjustment.
• Replace or repair any missing or damaged insulation.
• Periodically calibrate measurement equipment and tune the combustion
control system.
two years.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
81
Low-cost EMOs
•
•
•
•
Install performance monitoring equipment.
Relocate the combustion air intake.
Add insulation.
Reduce boiler excess air.
Retrofit EMOs
Could radiation heat
from the boiler shell be
used for combustion air
preheating as well?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Install an economizer.
Install a flue gas condenser.
Install a combustion air heater.
Incorporate a heat pump.
Install a new boiler.
Upgrade the burner.
Install the turbulator in the fire tube boiler.
Convert from oil to gas (more a financial
saving than an energy saving).
• Install an electric coil burner.
More detailed information
The technical manual Boiler Plant Systems (Cat. No. M91-6/6E), available from
NRCan, is a useful reference, although its coverage of automation is not
current. See page vi of the preface of this Guide for ordering information.
82
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Excess air
Measure the flue gas oxygen with a flue gas analyser.
Oxygen content: _____%; Excess air: _____%
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is the gas content of the excess air less than 10 percent? Is the oil content of
the excess air less than 20 percent?
Yes
Check monthly to maintain standard.
No
Consult a burner technician to determine whether the burner can be
adjusted to reduce excess air.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is the flue gas free of combustibles?
Yes
Check monthly to maintain standard.
No
Ensure that a burner technician adjusts the burner to eliminate combustibles.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Flue gas heat recovery
Measure flue gas temperature at average boiler load.
Temperature: _____ºC; load: _____kg/h
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is the system fitted with an economizer or air heater?
Yes
At next shutdown
• ensure that the unit is operating and not bypassed;
• calculate the heat recovered and compare against design;
• check fins and tubes for damage, especially from corrosion; and
• remove accumulated soot.
No
Contact economizer suppliers to evaluate the potential of installing
an economizer.
Done by: __________________________
evaluation worksheet
Boiler plant systems evaluation worksheet
Date: _______________________
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
83
evaluation worksheet
Blowdown heat recovery
Have your water-treatment chemical supplier assess the content of
dissolved solids in the boiler water and the frequency of blowdown.
Blowdown rate: _____ kg/h
Temperature: _____ºC
Frequency: every _____ hours
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is there potential for recovering heat from the remaining blowdown water
and using it for other purposes?
Yes
Consult an engineer.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Would it be a good idea to change the blowdown rate?
Yes
Adjust the blowdown rate and frequency.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Return condensate to the boiler
Calculate the percentage of condensate that returns to boilers from
steam-using equipment.
Is less than 80 percent of condensate returned to boilers?
Yes
Determine whether
• the condensate is clean (i.e. will not contaminate the boiler plant); and
• returning the condensate to the boiler would be economical.
If yes, consider options for returning more condensate to the boiler system.
No
Check periodically to see whether situation improves.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note: Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
84
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.6
Steam and condensate systems
A steam-distribution and condensate-return system should deliver steam efficiently
from the boiler plant to heating systems and processing equipment and return
condensate to the boiler for re-use. Some energy is always lost from a steam and
condensate system, most significantly in steam trap loss. Others include heat loss
from piping and fittings (insulated and uninsulated), leaks and flash losses, condensate loss to drain and overall system losses. This section is intended to help
you find and correct the sources of energy loss.
Pipe redundancy
Redundant steam pipes serve little or no purpose, yet they are at the same
temperature as the rest of the system and so the heat loss per length of pipe
remains the same. Moreover, the redundant pipes receive scant maintenance of
insulation, leaks and steam traps. In addition, the heat losses from the extra
piping add to the space heat load of the facility and thus to the ventilation
and air-conditioning requirements.
In any review and rationalization of the steam and condensate network, the
first step should be to eliminate redundant pipework. It is estimated that in
older facilities it is possible to reduce the length of piping by 10 to 15 percent.
Redundant pipework wastes energy.
Over-sized pipes
• increase capital and
insulation costs; and
• result in higher surface
heat losses.
Under-sized pipes
• require higher pressure;
• result in higher leakage
losses; and
Steam leaks
Steam leaks at pipe fittings, valves and traps can result in substantial energy
losses. Also, water leaked from the system must be replaced and chemically
treated, which is a less apparent but still expensive consequence.
• require extra pumping
energy.
Figure 2.5 (page 86) indicates how to calculate the hourly loss from a steam
leak by measuring the length of the steam plume, which is the distance from
the leak to the point at which water condenses out of the steam.
Steam trap losses
Steam traps are key components of an efficient steam and condensate system.
However, because defective traps are difficult to detect, they are also among the
chief causes of energy loss. Energy losses from steam traps occur for several reasons:
•
•
•
•
the
the
the
the
trap fails in the open position and permits live steam to escape;
wrong type or size of trap is installed;
trap is installed in the wrong place; and
method used to install the trap was faulty.
Throw condensate away –
throw money away!
All facilities that use steam for heating or process should implement a regular
steam trap inspection and maintenance program.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
85
FIGURE 2.5
Hourly steam loss from leaks as
a function of steam plume length
120
Steam loss (kg/h)
100
Heat loss through uninsulated pipes and fittings
Bare or improperly insulated steam pipes are a constant source of wasted
energy because they radiate heat to the surroundings instead of transporting
it to steam-using equipment. The heat losses reduce the steam pressure at the
terminal equipment. This situation increases the boiler load because extra
steam is required to make up the losses.
All steam pipes should be inspected frequently. Uninsulated steam pipes
should be insulated, and the insulation should be inspected and replaced
when damaged. Loose-fibre insulation (e.g. mineral and glass fibre, cellulose)
loses effectiveness when wet, and outdoor pipes are particularly vulnerable
to moisture.Therefore, pipe inspections should cover vapour barriers and
weatherproof jackets.
80
60
40
20
0
0
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20
Steam plume length (mm 100)
FIGURE 2.6
Determination of economic
thickness of insulation
The economic thickness of insulation for steam pipes (i.e. the best compromise
between the cost of insulation and the potential savings in energy) is based on
the size of the pipe and the temperature of the environment (see Figure 2.6).
This concept is discussed in detail in the technical manual Process Insulation
(Cat. No. M91-6/1E, available from NRCan).
However, energy loss is not restricted to the piping system. Process equipment
and terminal heating units can also represent a major source of energy loss.
Total costs
Environmental considerations
Dollars/year
Insulation
costs
3 Layers
2 Layers
Lost energy costs
Energy-saving measures that reduce steam leaks and heat loss will reduce the
requirement for steam generation.This will, therefore, cut fuel consumption
by the boiler and thus also the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. For
instructions on calculating the reduction in pollutant emissions from the
boiler, see Section 1.1, “Climate change,” on page 1.
1 Layer
Insulation thickness
86
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
$
Energy management opportunities
A 10-ft. length of
Housekeeping EMOs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
uninsulated 10-cm steam
Set up steam trap maintenance program and procedures.
Check and maintain proper equipment operation.
Check and correct steam and condensate leaks.
Maintain good steam quality (i.e. maintain chemical treatment program).
Check control settings.
Repair damaged insulation.
Shut down equipment when not needed.
Shut down steam and condensate branch systems when not needed.
pipe will waste more than
twice as much money in
steam costs per year than
it would cost to insulate it
with a mineral fibre and
aluminum jacket.
Low-cost EMOs
• Improve condensate recovery.
As little as 1 percent
• Overhaul pressure-reducing
stations.
by volume of air in
• Operate equipment efficiently.
steam can reduce the
• Insulate uninsulated pipes,
heat transfer efficiency
flanges, fittings and equipment.
• Remove redundant steam and
by up to 50 percent.
condensate piping.
• Reduce steam pressure where
possible.
• Re-pipe systems or relocate equipment to shorten pipe lengths.
• Repair, replace or add air vents.
• Optimize location of sensors.
• Add measuring, metering and monitoring equipment.
Retrofit EMOs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A single steam trap,
leaking 100-psig steam
through an orifice only
0.16 cm in diameter,
will lose approximately
48 t of steam per year.
That is about 3.4 t/yr.
(or 830 imperial gallons)
of fuel oil. How much
would it cost you?
Upgrade insulation.
Eliminate steam use where possible.
Institute a steam trap replacement program.
Optimize pipe sizes.
Recover flash steam.
Stage the depressurization of condensate.
Recover heat from condensate.
Install closed-loop pressurized condensate return.
Meter steam and condensate flows.
Ten pairs of uninsulated
NPS 6 flanges will cause
an annual heat loss of
$1,000.
More detailed information
The technical manual Steam and Condensate Systems (Cat. No. M91-6/8E, available
from NRCan) is a comprehensive treatment of the subject. See page vi of the
preface of this Guide for ordering information.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
87
evaluation worksheet
Steam and condensate systems evaluation worksheet
Redundant piping
Examine updated plant piping drawings, if available, or walk through the
facility and look for opportunities to rationalize and streamline the steam
and condensate network (SCN).
Did you find any unused, redundant piping?
Yes
First, ensure that the piping can be isolated from the rest of the system.
Then plan on removing the parts that are no longer required.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is the SCN optimized relative to location of the steam-using equipment,
pipe sizing and steam delivery requirements?
Yes
No action required.
No
Have a qualified contractor redesign the SCN to optimize it. If required,
consider localization of steam generation/delivery closer to steam-using
equipment.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Steam leaks
Walk through the facility with appropriate detection equipment
(e.g. ultrasonic detector, listening rods, pyrometer, stethoscope)
and look and listen for steam leaks.
Did you find any leaks?
Yes
Using Figure 2.5 (page 86), estimate the steam loss from leaks.
Arrange to repair all leaks at the first opportunity.
No
Check monthly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Can you tell whether any steam is escaping from steam traps and valves?
Yes
If steam is escaping, have the leaks repaired as soon as possible.
No
Verify correct function by having a qualified contractor or a representative
from the manufacturer of your steam traps and valves check the system with
an ultrasonic leak detector.
If no steam is escaping, check monthly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
88
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Walk through the facility and note the existence and condition of
pipe insulation.
Are steam pipes insulated?
Yes
No action required.
No
Have an economic thickness of insulation installed at the first opportunity
(refer to the technical manual Process Insulation to estimate potential savings).
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is insulation dry?
Yes
Check monthly to maintain standard.
No
Locate the source of the moisture and correct the problem – for example,
if the pipe is leaking, repair it.
Replace the insulation.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are the insulation, vapour barrier and jacket intact?
Yes
Check monthly to maintain standard.
No
Replace damaged material.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is there a more effective insulation material available?
Yes
Evaluate the economics of replacing present insulation with another type.
Consult with an unbiased professional.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is the insulation thick enough? (Insulation should be cool to the touch.)
Yes
No action required.
No
Consider adding more insulation (consult the manufacturer or an
insulation contractor for advice on whether increasing the amount
would be economical).
Done by: __________________________
evaluation worksheet
Insulation
Date: _______________________
Note: Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
89
2.7
Heating and cooling equipment (steam and water)
In this section, only the indirect heating or cooling will be considered; this
refers to situations where steam or cooling water is separated from a receiving
product by a membrane.
Steam-heated and water-cooled equipment performs many important process
functions, and efficient heating and cooling of process equipment depends on
several factors:
• unimpeded heat transfer, both from the steam to the process and from the
process to the cooling water, which requires clean heat-transfer surfaces and
exclusion of air and condensate from steam;
• rapid removal of condensate from process equipment;
• control of heat losses and gains from process equipment;
• use of process equipment only when necessary; and
• prompt detection and repair of steam and water leaks.
Cleanliness of heat-transfer surfaces
The surfaces between the steam and the product being heated should be kept
as clean as possible. Buildup of scale on the steam side or sludge on the process
side dramatically reduces the efficiency of heat transfer. In water-cooled equipment, buildup on heat-transfer surfaces causes similar problems.
The sign of this condition in a heating system is an increase in steam pressure;
in a cooling system, it is an increase in the flow rate of cooling water. In both
cases, the system is working to overcome the reduction in heat-transfer efficiency
caused by scale or sludge.
Removing condensate
Steam and condensate
must always flow in
the same direction.
90
Problems caused by condensate usually arise because the condensate is prevented
from draining away as it forms. Accumulations of condensate inhibit process
heating by preventing steam from entering the equipment.
Faulty steam traps, steam coils and heat exchangers are usually the source of
condensate problems.With steam traps, the right type and size must be installed,
and they must be installed correctly and kept in good working order. Steam coils
and heat exchangers also must be installed correctly to ensure that condensate
drains efficiently; in a heat exchanger, efficient drainage also ensures that accumulated condensate does not cause water hammer. Water hammer refers to a pressure
rise in a pipeline caused by a sudden change in the rate of flow or stoppage of
flow in the line – such as flash steam being obstructed by poorly draining condensate.The steam pushes the condensate in “slugs” which act like a battering
ram. It is accompanied by a sharp “hammering” sound and vibrations that
mechanically stress the pipework system, often causing serious damage.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Insulating heating and cooling equipment
Uninsulated heating equipment increases the load on the steam system, which
must make up for the heat loss to the surroundings. Applying insulation to the
exterior surface of heating equipment reduces the rate of heat loss to the surroundings.To calculate heat loss from equipment and piping, use Figure 2.5 and
Figure 2.6 (page 86) and consult Worksheet 9-4 and Worksheet 9-5 in the technical
manual Heating and Cooling Equipment: Steam and Water (Cat. No. M91-6/9E,
available from NRCan).
Uninsulated cooling equipment similarly increases cooling load because the
cooling system must also remove heat gained from the environment. Applying
insulation to the exterior surfaces of the equipment reduces the rate of heat
transfer from surroundings.
Environmental considerations
Efficiency improvements to heating and cooling systems save energy, thus
reducing the pollutants emitted by heat-generating boilers at the plant and by
boilers at electricity thermal generating stations. For more information, see
Section 1.1, “Climate change,” on page 1.
$
Energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Repair leaks.
Check and maintain the integrity of insulation.
Maintain the correct function of instruments.
Check and maintain steam separators and steam traps.
Clean heat-transfer surfaces.
Check and maintain steam quality.
Reduce steam temperature and pressure where possible.
Slope heating coils to remove condensate.
Low-cost EMOs
•
•
•
•
•
•
Shut down equipment.
Lock controls.
Operate equipment at capacity.
Install thermostatic air vents.
Add measuring and monitoring devices.
Access control device locations.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
91
Retrofit EMOs
•
•
•
•
Convert from indirect to direct steam heating where justified.
Install/upgrade insulation.
Use equipment heat for building heating.
Stabilize steam and water demand by reviewing process scheduling
so as to flatten the peak demands.
• Recover heat from waste streams – choose from options available
(including heat pumps).
More detailed information
The technical manual Steam and Condensate Systems (Cat. No. M91-6/8E)
is available from NRCan. See page vi of the preface of this Guide for
ordering information.
92
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Heat transfer
Inspect the condition of heat-transfer surfaces at the next opportunity,
and note the steam temperature and pressure and the cooling water
temperature and flow.
Are heat-transfer surfaces clean and free of scale?
Yes
Check periodically to maintain standard.
No
Remove scale and fouling at the first opportunity to restore heat-transfer
effectiveness.
Institute a regular cleaning program and procedure.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
If the steam pressure or temperature seems higher than the process requires,
can it be reduced without affecting other steam equipment?
Yes
Check that process requirements have not changed.
Check that heat-transfer surfaces are clean.
If possible, reduce the supply pressure.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Condensate system
Inspect steam traps on steam-heated equipment.
Are the traps the right size and type for the application? Are they installed
according to the manufacturer’s specifications?
Yes
Check each steam trap to ensure that it is not leaking and is
operating correctly.
No
Replace inappropriate traps with traps of the correct type.
Re-install traps that are incorrectly installed.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
evaluation worksheet
Heating and cooling equipment evaluation worksheet
Observe heat exchanger and steam-coil installation.
Are coils and heat exchangers oriented to permit condensate to drain
correctly? Are the gaskets intact?
Yes
No action required.
No
Ensure that coils and heat exchangers are re-oriented as soon as possible.
Replace gaskets and institute a preventive maintenance program.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
93
evaluation worksheet
Insulation
Check the condition of the insulation on all steam-heated and
water-cooled equipment.
Is all steam-heated and water-cooled equipment insulated?
Yes
Ensure that the equipment is covered with an economic thickness
of insulation.
No
Install an economic thickness of insulation on all uninsulated equipment
(refer to Process Insulation, Cat. No. M91-6/1E).
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is insulation clean, dry and intact?
Yes
Check periodically to maintain standard.
No
Locate source of moisture and repair leaks.
Repair or replace damaged insulation.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Operation and maintenance
Observe the equipment in operation.
Is steam or cooling water flowing to equipment that is not in use?
Yes
Shut off the steam or water supply to idle equipment.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Does steam, condensate or cooling water leak from any equipment or
any supply pipes?
Yes
Repair leaks as soon as possible.
No
Check frequently to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Can well water be substituted for chilled water?
Yes
Have an expert design a well-water-based cooling system.
Consider integrating a ground-source heat pump instead.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
94
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.8
Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems
Facilities are served by many different kinds of heating, ventilating and airconditioning (HVAC) systems, both for human comfort and to meet process
requirements. HVAC systems are generally designed to compensate for heat
loss and heat gain and to provide ventilation and control of temperature
and humidity.
An energy management program for an HVAC system should begin with an
assessment of the established HVAC systems to determine their type, function
and operating procedures.This assessment will help identify areas of energy
waste and opportunities to improve efficiency.
Since HVAC systems vary widely from plant to plant, performance improvements and energy cost savings will also vary widely.Three important factors
determine the energy use of an HVAC system:
• the required indoor thermal quality and air quality;
• the internal heat generation from lighting and equipment; and
• the design and layout of the building.
$
Aspects of HVAC and building design cannot really be dealt with separately
since they affect one another.This is reflected in other programs offered
by Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency, such as the
Commercial Building Incentive Program and the C-2000 Program for
Advanced Commercial Buildings.
In some cases, more
energy cost savings
will be realized from
HVAC improvements
than from any other
improvements made
in the facility.
It takes 40 kW of
energy to heat 1 m3
of air from 12°C
to 21°C.
Energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
Improving energy-related housekeeping practices is the obvious place to start
an energy cost-reduction plan.This happens, to a large degree, by changing
people’s habits and promoting awareness of energy savings. Here are some of
the activities, which cost little or nothing in capital outlay:
• Shut down unneeded equipment during idle or unoccupied periods.
• Shut off lights, computers, photocopiers and other heat-producing equipment
when not required; upgrade lighting technology.
• Consider increased use of (northern) daylighting, where possible.
• Check and recalibrate control components such as room thermostats, air
and water temperature controllers, set them properly and verify setting
of time clocks.
• Establish minimum and maximum temperatures for heating and cooling
during occupied and unoccupied periods and re-adjust controls accordingly.
• Adjust airflow rates to suit changing occupancy conditions and use of
building space.
• Ensure that vents are open in summer and closed in winter.
• Adjust and tighten damper linkages.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
95
• Check and adjust motor drives on fans and pumps for belt tension and
coupling alignment.
• Prevent restrictions of airflow by checking/replacing air system filters.
• Shut off exhaust and make-up air systems to areas such as kitchens and
laundries when they are not in use.
• Replace damaged or missing insulation on piping and duct systems.
• Replace or repair crushed or leaking ducts in the air system.
• Clean heat exchange surfaces, heating units and heating coils.
Cost-reduction measures
Tip
One of the major sources of waste is heating or cooling excess amounts of
outdoor air. Excess outdoor air enters buildings by infiltration and through
HVAC systems.
Implement a planned
maintenance program
to minimize an HVAC
system’s component
failures.
Tip
Reduce heat gain
Reducing heat gain in air-conditioned spaces will reduce the energy used for
cooling. Heat gain can be reduced by the following measures:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Improve building fabric (e.g. insulation, solar shading).
Shield the building with shade trees.
Reduce lighting where possible (i.e. upgrade the lighting system).
Consider increased use of daylighting (particularly northern light).
Add insulation to hot surfaces.
Isolate heat-generating equipment and provide local exhaust and make-up air.
Block unneeded windows.
Consider upgrading
Reduce heat losses
windows and doors:
Reducing losses of space heat saves heating energy and leads to improved
working conditions and higher worker productivity.Where they apply, the
following measures work well:
double- or triple-glazed
low-emissivity insulating
windows, reflective
coating on windows,
and insulated doors.
•
•
•
•
•
Improve building insulation.
Insulate cold conduits such as pipes and ducts.
Block unneeded windows.
Upgrade windows and doors (see tip at left).
Control air leakage out of the facility (exfiltration).
Reduce humidification requirements
The amount of humidification required in an
industrial environment is usually dictated by the
process and may require considerable energy.
• Examine current humidification levels for
human comfort and production requirements
– can they be lowered?
In winter, it takes
14.6 kW of energy to
increase the humidity
of 1 m3 of outdoor air
to 40 percent relative
humidity at 21°C.
96
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
• Make frequent cleaning and monitoring of water used for humidification
a part of routine maintenance to ensure efficient operation and to avoid
damage to other HVAC components.
• Consider using high-pressure water atomization instead of compressed
air humidification for substantial energy savings (e.g. a company replaced
a 140-hp compressor dedicated to humidification with a 7.5-hp pump
required for atomization).
In Ontario alone,
more than $600 million
is spent annually to
heat make-up air for
buildings.
Implement an energy management system
For most plants, warehouses and offices that operate less than 24 hours per day
or seven days per week, energy savings can be realized from temperature setbacks
and reductions in ventilation rates. Depending on the complexity of the HVAC
system, implementing an energy management system may be as simple as installing
programmable thermostats or as elaborate as installing full direct digital controls.
• Install self-regulating controls for the lighting and ventilation systems.
• Interconnect the controls for spaces with separate heating and cooling systems
to prevent simultaneous heating and cooling.
• Install load analysers in the controls of multi-zone and dual duct systems to
optimize hot and cold deck temperatures.
• Install load analysers in the controls of terminal reheat systems to optimize
the supply air temperature and minimize the reheat load.
Other low-cost EMOs
• Install time clocks to shut down the air system or switch to 100 percent
recirculation when the space served is unoccupied.
• Install control interlocks to shut down heating or cooling system pumps
when no output is required.
• Install economizer controls on the central air handling system to use
outdoor air to replace refrigerated cooling when appropriate.
• Add automatic control valves at unit heaters and fan-coil heaters to shut
off the flow of water or steam when fans are not running.
• Consider installing variable-speed drives to a centrifugal chiller – savings
of up to 40 percent versus a conventional chiller may be possible.
• Provide lockable covers on automatic controls and thermostats to prevent
unauthorized adjustment or tampering.
CANMET assisted a
small Canadian firm
to develop a system
that uses a heat
pump for reclaiming
low-grade heat lost
through ventilation
and returning it to
service. The system
reached a seasonal
coefficient of
performance (COP)
of up to 5.2.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
97
Retrofit EMOs
Heat recovery
An effective way to cut HVAC energy costs is to apply heat recovery technology.
However, the biggest problem with these systems is maintenance. Often in a plant
environment, the prime effort goes into maintaining production to the detriment
of everything else, and that includes the maintenance of heat recovery systems.
A poorly maintained heat recovery system may eliminate energy savings and lead
to deterioration of indoor air quality.
Heat recovery involves reclaiming heat from the building and from process
exhaust air and using it to heat make-up air in winter and to cool make-up air
in summer. Both latent heat and sensible heat can be recovered and, if the plant
is humidified, may provide considerable savings.The following conditions produce
the highest payback with a heat recovery system:
•
•
•
•
high-volume, high-temperature differential exhaust, especially if localized;
high indoor humidity requirements;
low internal heat generation in the plant; and
existence of a ducted make-up air system.
A heat recovery system should be considered if at least one of these conditions is
fulfilled; it may then be economical. Usually, recovery of 65 percent of exhaust
heat can be accomplished with a reasonable payback period. However, recent
developments now allow heat recovery from even small temperature-gradient
streams, and a suitable application should be investigated.
Among the major types of heat recovery equipment are:
In a situation where
quick response to
heating/cooling
demands was
•
•
•
•
•
heat-recovery wheel;
heat-pipe heat exchanger;
stationary surface air-to-air heat exchanger;
run-around glycol-loop heat recovery; and
heat pump-based systems.
required, electric
reversible heat pumps
were installed – each
pump capable of
working as a heater
or chiller – together
with a heat recovery
unit. Capital, operational costs and energy
consumption were
greatly reduced.
98
Each type has advantages and disadvantages.The most suitable type should
be selected after a thorough analysis of the proposed application.
Equipment upgrades
Modifying or converting an established, inefficient HVAC system to improve
efficiency will save energy. Here are some examples:
• Utilizing adjustable speed drives for fans and pumps will improve the HVAC
system’s operating efficiency and reduce costs.
• Converting constant volume, terminal reheat systems into variable air
volume (VAV) systems saves fan energy as well as heating and cooling
energy. Multi-zone and dual-duct systems also present opportunities
for savings by conversion to VAV systems.
• In areas where heat losses are high, such as in shipping and receiving areas
and vehicle repair bays, replacing conventional convection heating systems
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
with gas-fired infrared heaters will save energy.With the radiant heating
system, space temperatures can be kept much lower without reducing
occupants’ comfort.
• Replace electric resistance heaters – the most expensive form of space
heating – with an alternative source, such as direct or indirect gas firing
or (where possible) boilers.
• For chilled water systems, several options exist:
– Cooling towers and plate-type heat exchangers can be installed.
– In Canada, well water is generally cold enough to replace chilled water;
this year-round supply of constant-temperature water can provide
energy savings of about 75 percent. In new systems, this method may
also save capital costs.
– Increasingly, the application of ground-source heat pumps may provide
the most efficient system with several side benefits.
Free cooling in the
form of economizers
for rooftop units and
air-handling systems
can be used to eliminate the need for
refrigeration in winter.
Alternative energy sources
Energy costs can be reduced if expensive sources can be replaced with cheaper
forms.Very often, this option is overlooked. Certainly, alternative sources of energy
should be investigated in light of the advances made in the various technologies
worldwide, and by NRCan’s Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology
(CANMET), which offers a wealth of information (see Appendix C of this
Guide on page 183).
Solar energy
“Solar walls” and similar new devices use solar energy to temper outdoor air
in winter with reasonable payback periods.The Canadian-developed, patented
Solarwall® is a metal collector designed to provide preheated ventilation (makeup air) for buildings that have large south-facing walls. It captures solar energy,
provides additional insulation to the building and de-stratifies indoor air.
Paybacks as short as one year are possible.
Ground-source heat pumps
The heat contained in ground water may be used at little or no cost for both
the HVAC and process heating purposes.There have been many developments
that employ ground-source heat pumps singly or in combination with other
systems.The use of the systems range from heating water in a fish hatchery in
Canada to providing up to 88 percent of heating and cooling needs of a large
hospital and housing development in Sweden and Norway respectively.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
99
Radiative and evaporative cooling; thermal storage
During no-frost periods in Canada, cooling water from HVAC systems can be
chilled through radiation and evaporation by spraying it over a flat or low-slope
surface, particularly at night.The chilled water is subsequently filtered, stored and
delivered for next day cooling, thereby enabling downsizing of conventional
cooling systems. Net cooling-energy savings of more than 50 percent have
been reported.
Note:This should not be confused with the practice of spraying or flooding
hydrant water over flat roofs of buildings on hot days to provide evaporative
cooling for the interior. Such practices waste water.
Waste heat from process streams
A fresh look at this kind of opportunity in a plant may lead to surprising savings.
For example, a chemical manufacturer was able to modify its processes and recover
a portion of heat from process cooling water normally sewered and use it in
preheating make-up air in a number of buildings.The simple payback period
was less than four years.
Other retrofit EMOs
• Install local air treatment units (e.g. electronic air cleaners, activated charcoal
odour-absorbing filter, high-efficiency filters) to allow increased (perhaps up
to 100 percent) recirculation of indoor air and reduction of outdoor air
required for ventilation.
• Install a separate air system to serve an area that has a unique requirement that
would affect the operation of a large central system (e.g. areas that have large
heat gain or fluctuating occupancy).
• To reduce overall ventilation, reduce building airflow rates by moving
conditioned air from spaces that require a high-quality environment through
spaces that have less demanding requirements.
• Install a computerized energy management system to monitor and integrate the
control function of the building’s energy systems including lighting and HVAC.
• Consider a new heat pump system instead of a new air-conditioning system
if winter heating is required.The higher equipment costs will be offset by
reduced heating costs during the winter season.
100
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Environmental considerations
Energy savings in HVAC systems – and thus reduced pollutant emissions – result
from reducing energy consumption for space heating and cooling, humidification
and dehumidification, and driving fans and pumps. See Section 1.1, “Climate
change,” on page 1 for information about calculating reductions.
When designing the plant for an HVAC system, pay particular attention to the
cooling plant.This typically involves more capital investment than the heating
plant, and the refrigerants used may also pose an environmental problem. Canada,
as a signatory to the 1987 Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances, is
committed to regulating and phasing out emissions of chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) that include common refrigerants.
Due care must be taken in selecting and handling the refrigerants and repairing
the leaks (perhaps uncovered by an energy audit of an HVAC system), as per
federal and provincial regulations.
This Guide does not cover CFCs because they are released into the environment through leakage and are, therefore, a maintenance issue rather than an
energy-use issue.
More detailed information
The technical manual Heating,Ventilation and Air Conditioning (Cat. No. M91-6/10E,
available from NRCan) is dated, but it remains a good reference. See page vi of
the preface of this Guide for ordering information.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
101
evaluation worksheet
Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems
evaluation worksheet
Housekeeping
Check operation of supply and exhaust fans, air-conditioning units,
pumps and make-up air units.
Is any equipment operating in unoccupied areas?
Yes
Shut down equipment when it is not needed.
Install timer controls to turn equipment off after working hours.
No
Check monthly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Check thermostat settings.
Are settings appropriate for the season (e.g. 22°C in winter and
24°C in summer)?
Yes
Calibrate thermostats in the spring (beginning of air-conditioning season)
and in the fall (beginning of heating season).
No
Set the thermostats at the lowest acceptable setting in winter and the
highest acceptable setting in summer.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Do thermostats have night setback capability?
Yes
Check setback temperatures: in winter, they should be 2–3°C lower than
the daytime setpoint temperature; in summer, they should be 2–3°C higher
than the daytime setpoint temperature.
No
Install setback thermostats in areas that are not occupied overnight or
on weekends.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check belt tension on fans and pumps.
Are belts properly tensioned and aligned?
Yes
Check monthly to maintain standard.
No
Adjust belt tension and align couplings.
Done by: __________________________
102
Date: _______________________
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Are vents closed? Do dampers close tightly?
Yes
Check at least once each season to maintain standard.
No
Repair or replace linkages that do not work and dampers that
do not seal tightly.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Energy cost reduction measures
Check for negative pressures and infiltration.
Is the building under negative pressure?
Yes
Check for an imbalance between exhaust and make-up air; if you
find an imbalance, consider installing a make-up air system.
No
Check for stratification.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is infiltration present?
Yes
Find the leaks and close them with caulking or weatherstripping.
Consider installing low-leakage dampers at air inlets and air locks, or
air curtains at entrances.
No
Check at least once per year to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review outdoor air quantity.
Is the outdoor air quantity more than what the American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
recommends or more than is required for process or dilution of contaminants?
Yes
Consider steps to reduce outdoor air quantity.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
evaluation worksheet
Check seasonal vents, dampers and damper linkages.
Check for stratification.
In winter, does the indoor temperature vary more than 6°C from floor
to ceiling?
Yes
Consider steps to reduce stratification.
No
Check at least once per year to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
103
evaluation worksheet
Check for pressure losses in fan and pump systems; compare with
original design specifications.
Are pressure losses greater than indicated in manufacturer’s specifications?
Yes
Replace filters.
Clean heating and cooling coils and strainers.
Identify and correct bottlenecks in ducts and pipes.
No
Check monthly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check for excessive cooling load in air-conditioned areas.
Are insulation and solar shading adequate? Are all the windows needed?
Yes
No action necessary.
No
Consider upgrading insulation and improving shading of windows.
Block unneeded windows.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are any surfaces hot to the touch? Does any equipment generate
so much heat that you can feel it?
Yes
Add insulation.
Consider isolating heat-generating equipment in an area that can be
specially exhausted and supplied with make-up air.
No
No action necessary.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check for excessive heating load.
Is building insulation adequate? Are all the windows needed?
Yes
Add insulation.
Block unneeded windows.
Upgrade window and door quality.
No
No action necessary.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Retrofit
Review plant operations and HVAC systems.
Are savings achievable by temperature and ventilation rate setback?
Yes
Consider implementing an energy management system or adding
these functions to an existing system.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
104
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Is there high-volume exhaust at room temperature or higher?
Yes
Consider installing a heat-recovery system to preheat and precool
make-up air.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check the feasibility of using a variable air volume system.
Is the existing HVAC system a constant-volume, terminal reheat type?
Yes
It may be economical to convert the system to a variable air
volume type (consult an engineer).
No
No action required; check again when fuel or equipment costs change.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check the feasibility of cooling with a ground-source heat pump.
Does your air-conditioning system consume a great deal of energy?
Yes
Consider obtaining expert engineering advice on using a ground-source
heat pump for space cooling and heating needs.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Do your process cooling chillers consume a great deal of energy?
Yes
Consider obtaining expert engineering advice on using a ground-source
heat pump for process cooling.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check alternative energy sources.
Is electric space heating widely used? Do you use large quantities of energy
to heat intake air?
Yes
evaluation worksheet
Check heat recovery opportunities.
Consider changing to natural gas-fired heating.
Consider using a ground-source heat pump and/or solar heating and/or
waste heat from process streams and/or off-peak thermal storage to
warm intake air.
No
No action required; check again when fuel or equipment costs change.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
105
2.9
Refrigeration and heat pump systems
Industry uses refrigeration for storage and for processing. The main purpose
of a refrigerating system is to remove heat from a process and discharge it to
the surroundings.
An energy management program for a refrigeration system should begin with
an assessment of the local temperatures, process requirements, refrigeration equipment and systems to identify areas of energy waste and opportunities to improve
efficiency. In refrigeration, there are only a few basic ways to save energy, and the
following questions should be asked:
•
•
•
•
•
Can
Can
Can
Can
Can
we
we
we
we
we
do away with some refrigeration needs?
remove/reduce some of the refrigeration loads?
raise the refrigeration temperatures?
improve the way the refrigeration plant operates?
reclaim waste heat?
The purpose of the following brief mention of industrial heat pumps (IHPs) is to alert the
reader to the many advantages that this relatively new technology offers and to stimulate
the integration of IHPs into the wider process heating system.
It is commonly found
that refrigeration
systems in service
are using 20 percent
more energy than
they should.
IHPs are devices that use low-grade heat (such as waste-process heat or water, or
ground heat) as the heat sources and deliver this heat at higher temperatures for
industrial process for heating or pre-heating. Some IHPs can also work in reverse,
as chillers, dissipating process heat as well.
The types of heat pumps include
•
•
•
•
air-to-air;
water-to-air;
air-to-water; and
water-to-water.
The latter category, used in ground-source heat extraction (or dissipation)
applications, is increasingly being considered for applicability.
Perhaps because of the newness of the technology – or the lack of IHP knowledge
among engineering firms and target industries or the small numbers of available
demonstration projects – the wider use of IHPs is only beginning.Yet, using an
IHP system is a valuable method of improving the energy efficiency of industrial
processes, which contributes to reducing primary energy consumption. Its application should be considered by Canadian industry. Some very interesting and
remarkably efficient systems have been devised in countries as diverse as Canada,
Sweden and Japan for a range of industrial applications.
106
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
The major categories of IHPs can be described as follows:
Tip
• closed compression cycle, driven by
– electric motor
– diesel engine;
• absorption cycle, of two types:
– heat pump
– heat transformer;
• mechanical vapour recompression (MVR); and
• thermal vapour recompression (TVR).
Review your refrigeration
plant regimen frequently
as process requirements
and ambient weather
conditions change.
To discuss these systems is beyond the scope of this Guide. However,
a knowledgeable consulting engineer can help in selecting and designing the
most suitable system for a given application.
Tip
$
Energy management opportunities
Ensure that defrosting
Housekeeping EMOs
operates only when neces-
There are numerous opportunities for energy and dollar savings in industrial
refrigeration.Typically, industrial refrigeration merits little attention and is
poorly understood compared with boiler plants.To improve the situation –
i.e. learning to identify the losses of energy and then reducing these losses –
is good energy management.
Improving energy-related housekeeping practices is the obvious place for
an energy cost-reduction plan to start. Housekeeping measures generally
involve the following activities, which cost little or nothing in capital outlay:
• Operators may lack proper understanding of refrigeration efficiency
issues – educate and train them first.
• Be vigilant in addressing operation and maintenance issues as they arise.
• Establish a regular testing program so that problems are quickly identified.
• Establish maintenance and preventive maintenance programs.
• Clean heat-transfer surfaces (evaporator, condenser) frequently.
• Inspect insulation on suction lines frequently and repair damage promptly.
• Calibrate controls and set temperatures to the highest acceptable levels.
• Keep refrigerant charges at specified levels; eliminate leaks.
• Ensure free circulation of air around condensing units and cooling towers.
• Ensure that heating and cooling systems are run simultaneously only when
absolutely necessary.
• Eliminate ingress of moisture to refrigerated rooms from ambient air and
water hoses (remember that to evaporate one litre of water requires approximately
500 kg of refrigeration energy).
• Keep the doors to refrigerated areas closed.
• Ensure that controls for defrosting are set properly and review the setting regularly.
• If water for condensers is supplied from cooling towers, ensure that they are
effectively maintained to obtain the lowest water temperature possible.
• Measure the compressor coefficient of performance (COP) and the overall
system’s COP, which includes auxiliary equipment.
sary and for as short a
period as necessary.
Tip
Reduce the power peak
demand charge by operating the refrigeration
system during off-peak
hours where possible.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
107
In a typical centrifugal chiller installation
that uses a cooling
• Check for buildup of non-condensable gases and air on a regular basis
to ensure that the plant operates at high COP.
• Check for the correct head pressure control settings.
• Use low ambient temperatures to provide free cooling to suitable loads
during winter and shoulder seasons.
tower to chill water
to 4°C, power
Cost-reduction measures
requirements can
A refrigeration system is analogous to a pumping system that pumps water from
a low level to a high level.The higher the pump has to lift the water, the more
energy it consumes per unit volume of water. Most cost-reduction measures for
refrigeration systems are designed to increase the difference between the temperatures at which condensation and evaporation take place, thereby increasing the
COP.The following cost-reduction measures increase the COP by reducing or
allowing the reduction of condensing temperatures:
be reduced by about
17 percent if the
temperature of the
entering water is
reduced from 29.4°C
to 23.9°C.
A 1°C increase in
• De-superheat vaporized refrigerant by use of a heat exchanger or by
injecting liquid refrigerant into the hot gas discharge (enhances condenser
efficiency).
• Use floating head pressure.
• Use liquid pressure boost to allow further reduction in condensing pressure.
• Move the outdoor condenser coil into a clean, cool exhaust-air system.
• Equip the cooling tower with an automatic water-treatment system.
condensing temperature will increase
costs 2–4 percent.
A 1°C reduction in
evaporating tempera-
The following cost-reduction measures increase the COP by increasing
evaporation temperature:
• Set the evaporator temperature as high as the process permits.
• Install automatic controls to use higher evaporator temperatures under
part-load conditions.
ture will increase
costs 2–4 percent.
Incorrect control of
compressors may
increase costs by
20 percent or more.
Poor control of
auxiliary equipment
can increase costs by
Other cost-reduction measures are designed to fine-tune controls to operate the
system at peak efficiency, thus reducing heat gain and peak electricity demand.
Some of these cost-reduction measures are as follows:
• Upgrade automatic controls in refrigeration plants to provide accurate
readings and to permit flexible operation.
• Reschedule production cycles to reduce peak electricity demand.
• Install variable-speed drive fan motors on cooling towers, evaporative
coolers and air-cooled condensers.
• Upgrade insulation.
• Replace inadequate doors to cold areas.
• In winter, operate evaporative coolers and condensers with dry coils to
eliminate heat tracing and pan heating.
• Consider eliminating hot gas bypass by cycling the refrigeration system.
• Avoid the use of compressor capacity control systems, which throttle the
inlet gas flow, raise the discharge pressure or use hot gas bypass.
20 percent or more.
108
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Other low-cost tips for increasing energy
efficiency in refrigeration are as follows:
Gas bypassing
expansion valves
• Consider installing an automatic purge system
for air and non-condensable gases. A purger
may add 30 percent
will not only save energy but reduce refrigerant
or more to your costs.
loss and the running hours of the compressor
with consequent savings in maintenance costs.
• Install and maintain traps to remove oil and water from the ammonia in
such systems. Contaminants in the ammonia raise the boiling point.
• Provide lockable covers on automatic controls and thermostats to prevent
unauthorized adjustment or tampering.
Ground-source heat pumps
Another way to increase system efficiency is to use ground-source heat
pumps to chill water for use in refrigeration compressors instead of using
cooling towers. It can improve the COP significantly.
Tip
Install an automatic
suction pressure control
system to modulate
Retrofit EMOs
Retrofitting may present opportunities for the greatest energy savings but it
requires a more detailed energy analysis and the capital cost is usually higher.
Retrofitting permits more radical ways to save energy, such as the following:
the suction to match
production requirements
and yield savings.
Matching the compressor to the required duty
Use the best compressors suited for duty at any given time.
Sequence the compressors on the basis of the load and their respective efficiencies.
Correct sequencing is most important in the case of part loads.
Ensure that only one compressor operates at part load.
If a choice of compressors exists for part-load operation, use a reciprocating
compressor instead of a screw or centrifugal compressor, which has poor
part-load performance.
Switching to a different energy source
Internal combustion engines or turbines fuelled with natural gas, diesel or other
fuels can replace electric motors to drive refrigeration compressors.This may
provide a less expensive energy input and has a better part-load efficiency than
electrical motors. Moreover, it may help to reduce the peak power demand.The
capital and maintenance costs of replacing prime motors are often too high to
justify; however, since the combustion-driven unit affords heat recovery from the
engine/turbine jacket and exhaust to supply other heating loads, overall cost
savings can be achieved.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
109
Tip
Consider installing split
suction for high-and lowtemperature requirements.
Absorption refrigeration
The most promising alternative to mechanical refrigeration is absorption chilling,
which does not require electrical energy input. It becomes more economical
when reject heat from plant processes or a cogeneration system is available.
Energy savings may offset the comparatively high cost of absorption equipment.
Using thermal coolant storage
Thermal coolant storage saves energy by permitting the use of smaller refrigeration
equipment operated at peak efficiency for long periods.
Tip
Consider using an expert
computer control system
for management of the
refrigeration system – see
Thermal storage is most useful in facilities where the cooling load tends to peak.
A plant where the cooling load is constant for more than 16 hours per day cannot
benefit from thermal storage.
Coolant storage, using ice tanks, eutectic salts or supercooled secondary refrigerant
will maximize the use of night-rate power. It will also reduce the requirement for
additional chiller capacity if increased cooling demand is needed.Thermal storage
reduces compressor cycling and allows continuous operation at full-load and
higher efficiency.
Section 2.13 (page 140).
Reclaiming condenser heat
Heat reclaimed from the refrigeration cycle can be used for domestic water
heating, space heating or process heating. Also, the system COP may improve
when a cooler condenser medium is available. Here are some ways to use
reclaimed heat:
• Recover heat from superheated refrigerant vapour to offset energy
required for process heat or to heat make-up water.
• Preheat domestic or process water.
• Melt snow.
• Provide heat under slab-based buildings such as garages and rinks,
thus preventing frost damage to the slab.
Other methods
Providing decentralized systems in which loads are distributed according
to local requirements can usually save energy. For example, if a large system
operates at a low evaporator temperature when only a small portion of the
load requires low temperature, a small low-temperature system can be installed
to serve the special area; the main system can operate at a higher evaporator
temperature, improving its COP.
110
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Other retrofit EMOs
• Segregate refrigeration systems according to temperature; optimize the
thermodynamic balance of the refrigeration cycle to dedicate equipment
to the minimum required conditions for each process.
• For refrigeration systems that use hairpin coils, consider the use of computercontrolled expansion valves and a monitoring system to substantially save
electrical energy.
• Consider installing a closed loop system for cooling compressors and
condensers.
• Consider replacing shell-and-tube exchangers with high-efficiency plate
heat exchangers.
• Make a reasoned, forward-looking choice between 1) using well, river or lake
water (where available) as a lower-temperature cooling medium to reduce
condensing temperatures and 2) a ground-source heat pump system.
• Use a heat pump to upgrade the low temperature waste heat to a temperature
suitable for building heating or process uses.
• Consider adapting an ice-pond system for reliable, low-cost, non-CFC industrial
process cooling, at less than 20 percent of the operating energy costs associated
with conventional mechanical compression systems. It integrates the benefits
of biological ice-nucleators, optimized water atomizing and microcomputer
process automation with conventional outdoor ice-manufacturing techniques.
• Consider using only water as a refrigerant for process cooling water
(e.g. plastic injection). Energy savings of 20 to 50 percent are possible.
• Consider deriving a “free cooling” capacity directly from cold open air (e.g. in
the winter), thus avoiding the use of a compressor and therefore electricity.
• Consider installing secondary refrigeration using volatile fluids at low
temperatures.
It is estimated that
10 percent of all
energy consumed in
Canada is used to
produce cold.
Environmental considerations
Energy savings in refrigeration or heat pump systems involve reducing purchases
of electricity, usually for compressors, fans and pumps.The reduced electrical
load means that boilers at thermo-electricity-generating stations can fire at a
slightly reduced rate, which lowers pollutant emissions. See Section 1.1, “Climate
change,” on page 1 for more information on emissions reductions.
An energy audit may reveal refrigerant leaks from HVAC equipment.
Repairing the leaks reduces the quantity of harmful CFCs or HCFCs used as
refrigerants that may leak into the atmosphere and damage the Earth’s ozone
layer. See Section 2.8, “Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems,” on
page 95 for more information.
More detailed information
The technical manual Refrigeration and Heat Pumps (Cat. No. M91-6/11E, available
from NRCan) is rather dated, but it remains a good reference. See page vi of the
preface of this Guide for ordering information.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
111
evaluation worksheet
Refrigeration and heat pump systems evaluation worksheet
Housekeeping
Check heat-transfer surfaces (e.g. evaporators and condensers).
Are tubes and surfaces clean?
Yes
Check periodically to maintain standard, more frequently if the operating
environment is not clean.
No
Clean surfaces; schedule regular cleaning.
Done by: __________________________
Check insulation on refrigerant piping and exterior of evaporators.
Is insulation adequate, dry and intact?
Yes
Check every six months to maintain standard.
No
Repair or replace damaged insulation; if necessary, add more insulation
to reduce heat gain.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check thermostat settings.
Are settings correct?
Yes
Calibrate thermostats every six months.
No
Set the thermostat to the highest acceptable operating temperature.
Calibrate every six months.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check refrigerant charge.
Is refrigerant charge correct?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
Add or remove refrigerant.
Recheck periodically.
Done by: __________________________
112
Date: _______________________
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Is airflow around the condenser restricted?
Yes
Remove restriction or relocate condenser.
Follow manufacturer’s recommendations.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check operation of heating and cooling systems.
Do heating and cooling systems operate simultaneously in the same area?
Yes
Relocate thermostat, isolate process, etc.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Low-cost measures
Investigate possibility of de-superheating.
Can de-superheating be used to reduce condensing pressures?
Yes
Implement the most cost-effective method.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Investigate possibility of using floating head pressure.
Can head pressure be reduced without adversely affecting the system?
Yes
Determine the lowest pressure that can be used and reset accordingly.
No
Investigate limiting factors.
Consider using refrigerant liquid pressure booster pumps to overcome
line pressure losses and thermal expansion valve pressure drop.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
evaluation worksheet
Check air movement around condensing units and cooling towers.
Examine location of outdoor condenser coil.
Is there a cool air exhaust opening?
Yes
Consider moving condenser coil into cool air stream.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
113
evaluation worksheet
114
Review evaporator temperature.
Can evaporator temperature be increased without adversely affecting
the process?
Yes
Reset evaporator temperature as high as possible.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review cooling loads.
Does system operate at part load for part of the day?
Yes
Install automatic controls to provide flexibility and to use higher
evaporator temperatures during part-load conditions.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review production cycle.
Can the production cycle be rescheduled to off-peak hours?
Yes
Change schedule to run the system during off-peak hours.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Consider using ground-source heat pumps for condensers instead
of cooling-tower water.
Can ground-source heat pump be used to condense refrigerant instead
of cooling-tower water?
Yes
Hire an engineering consultant to evaluate use of a ground-source heat pump.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.10 Water and compressed air systems
Water systems
A facility may have several water systems, some for process use (process cooling
water, chilled water) and some for building services (potable water, domestic hot
water).Whatever their function, water systems tend to have similar inefficiencies
and energy management opportunities.Water losses are detailed in Table 2.1.The
energy cost in operating water systems can be reduced with proper attention to
the following areas:
• detecting and eliminating leaks;
• examining water use patterns and reducing water consumption to the
minimum necessary;
• imaginative re-use and recirculation of process and cooling waters;
• reduction of friction losses and the associated pressure drops;
• reduction of heat loss from hot water systems and heat gain to chilled water
system; and
• correct choice and sizing of pumps and reduction of pump operating time.
Table 2.1
Amount of water lost due to leakage
Leakage rate
Daily loss
Monthly loss
Yearly loss
One drop/second
4L
129 L
1.6 m3
Two drops/second
14 L
378 L
4.9 m3
Drops into stream
91 L
2.6 m3
31.8 m3
1.6 mm stream
318 L
9.4 m3
113.5 m3
3.2 mm stream
984 L
29.5 m3
354.0 m3
4.8 mm stream
1.6 m3
48.3 m3
580.0 m3
6.4 mm stream
3.5 m3
105.0 m3
1260.0 m3
(Note: 1 imperial gallon = 4.546 L; 1 m3 = 1000 L = 220 imperial gallons)
Knowing the local rates, you can calculate the unnecessary costs above. Chances
are that there may be several leaks in a plant at the same time.
Tip
Monitor and control the
Cooling water
cooling-water temperature
A cooling-water system should be designed to recirculate water through the
cooling tower or a ground-source heat pump system so that the water can be
re-used rather than dumped after a single pass.This will drastically reduce water
purchases, treatment costs and the cost of disposal down the sewer. Evaluate the
economics of a cooling tower or a ground-source heat pump installation from a
long-range perspective.Take into account the costs of electricity to operate fans
and pumps, water treatment and make-up water to compensate for evaporation
and blowdown, and maintenance.
so that the minimum
quantity of water required
to perform the cooling
is used.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
115
Consider the alternatives, described more fully in Section 2.7, “Heating and
cooling equipment (steam and water)” on page 90. Among them is recovering
heat from cooling water for other processes with a heat exchanger or a heat pump.
Hot and chilled water systems
Pipes carrying hot or chilled water should be well insulated to prevent heat loss
or heat gain. Chilled-water piping should also have a vapour barrier to prevent
condensation from saturating the open-fibre insulation. See Section 2.2, “Process
insulation,” on page 63.
Other water systems
Water pumps should be shut off when the systems they are serving are not
operating.This measure will reduce the electricity costs for pumping and, in
the case of cooling water, the cost of water treatment.
Strainers and filters should be checked regularly to ensure that they do not
become clogged. Clogged filters cause losses in pipeline pressure.To prevent
water losses, inspect pipes frequently and repair leaks promptly; also, reduce
evaporation from tanks by installing covers.
$
Energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
Tip
As the first step in
setting up water system
energy management,
review current operation
• Instil good housekeeping practices in all employees, maintain awareness
and transform the newly acquired knowledge into habit.
• Do not let water run unnecessarily (taps, hoses, eyewash fountains,
drinking fountains, etc.).
• Check and adjust as necessary the appropriate water heating set points,
aiming at the minimum required temperature levels.
• Prevent or minimize (particularly hot) water tank overflow occurrences.
• Maintain proper control over water treatment to ensure that design
flows are maintained.
• Maintain properly monitoring and control equipment.
practices. Develop a
Low-cost EMOs
mass and heat balance
• Install water meters in different process areas to monitor consumption on
an ongoing basis. Use the data to identify zones, equipment and crews with
either inconsistent or inefficient performance to correct deficiencies and
to set progressively tighter consumption targets.
• Review the areas where high-volume, low-pressure rinsing or flushing makes
sense (e.g. at the bottle filler) and where the use of low-volume, high-pressure
water flow (nozzles) is called for.
• Identify all hoses and ensure that the smallest diameter necessary is used
for the task.
• Fit hoses with automatic cut-off valves (guns) where appropriate.
diagram of water use
in different areas of
the plant to prepare
a water and energy
conservation program.
116
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
• Re-use all rinse water from cleaning operations, with due regard to product
quality implications, wherever possible (for example, during the cleaningin-place last rinse).
• Collect uncontaminated cooling water for re-use.
• Install adequate holding tanks to suit the requirements of a water re-use system.
• Install water system expansion tanks to serve two purposes. When the water
is hot, wastage through relief valves will be prevented.When the water is cold,
the contracted volume would demand make-up water to keep the system filled.
• Ensure that hot and cold pipes and water systems are properly and adequately
insulated.
• Install flow regulators for sanitary uses: delayed closing/timed flow taps on
hand washbasins in restrooms and reduced-flow shower heads.
• Reduce water leakage/waste by bringing the water pressure down in areas
where high pressure is not needed.
Tip
Consider replacing old hot
water boilers with highefficiency units.
Tip
Retrofit EMOs
• Segregate the hot water system according to the various temperature requirements to reduce unnecessary tampering. Consider setting up a system where
discrete hot water boilers feed loads of similar temperature so that the highest
temperature does not dictate all loads.
• Install water meters in different process areas to monitor consumption on an
ongoing basis. Use the data to identify zones that have equipment and either
inconsistent or inefficient performance to correct deficiencies and to set
progressively tighter consumption targets.
• Can a once-through system be converted to a circulating system? Revise the
water distribution system to incorporate multiple re-use (recirculation) of
process water wherever possible, employing suitable heat recovery regimes,
and implement the measures.
• Make water management part of a computer-monitored and controlled system
of overall brewery utilities management.
• Review pump sizing, water pressure requirements and delivery distances versus
the piping diameter. Often, smaller pumps but larger diameter piping to reduce
friction losses provide for more energy efficiency and make better economic
sense when all costs are considered.
• Streamline piping systems. Remove redundant, unused branches.
• Upgrade pumps. See Section 2.11, “Fans and pumps,” on page 124.
Calculate annual heat
(energy) loss in warm or
hot waste water streams
being sewered. Consider
options for heat recovery.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
117
Compressed air systems
Compressed air is the
Leaks of compressed air are the most common
most expensive utility
and major cause of inefficiency, typically
accounting for about 70 percent of the total
in a plant!
wastage.The cost of inefficiently produced and
distributed air may reach $1.00/kWh! Energy
losses in a poorly maintained air system arise from the additional energy
needed to overcome equipment inefficiencies since the air may not be
delivered at the correct pressure.
Long-term cost of compressed air generation is typically 75 percent electricity,
15 percent capital and 10 percent maintenance. Simple, cost-effective measures
can save 30 percent of generating electric power costs. Consequently, the effort
to make a compressed air system energy efficient is highly profitable.
The work should include a thorough audit of the compressed air system
(i.e. examinations of compressed air generation, treatment, control, distribution,
end use and management). The costs of operating a compressed air system can
be reduced in several ways, as described in the following.
$
Energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
• Commit to a plant-wide awareness program about compressed air management
and energy efficiency.
• Shut off compressed air delivery when not required.
• Avoid the expensive and wasteful practice of using compressed air for cleaning
(“dusting off ”) and cooling duties.
• Prevent leaks in the distribution system. Losses usually occur at joints, valves,
fittings and hose connections.Table 2.2 (page 119) shows the amount of air
leakage and monthly cost for air leaks of different sizes.
• Generate compressed air at the lowest pressure suitable for the task; never
generate at too high a pressure only to reduce it to a lower operating pressure
later. Higher pressures are often used to compensate for poor air tool maintenance or undersized air lines.
• Check that the system is not faulty (it requires higher than design pressure).
• Maintain air filters.
• Implement regular maintenance, inspection and preventive maintenance
programs of the system as well as of the control and monitoring equipment.
118
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
TABLE 2.2
Typical compressed air leakage
Hole diameter
Air leakage at
600 kPa (gauge)
Cost per month
at 5¢/kWh
1 mm
0.8 L/s
$9
3 mm
7.2 L/s
$81
5 mm
20.0 L/s
$225
10 mm
80.0 L/s
$900
Low-cost EMOs
• Institute compressed air management, parts of which are
– instituting metering of the usage by end-point users;
– instituting user’s fiscal accountability for the compressed air usage; and
– requiring the users to justify the compressed air use.
• Eliminate items such as hoses and couplings on air systems wherever practical
in order to reduce the possibility of leakage.
• Ensure proper maintenance program for the compressed air-using equipment
as well (proper lubrication, etc.).
• Check that there are no problems with piping that might cause system pressure
drops, particularly if the system is to be expanded.
• Use intake air from the coolest location, possibly by direct ducting of fresh
intake air from the outside.
• In air-cooled compressors, discharge the cooling air outdoors during the
summer and use it indoors for space heating during the winter.
• Ensure that the system is dry: correct slopes of the piping, drainage points,
and take-off points (always on top of piping). Beware of piping corrosion; it
increases internal piping resistance and can lead to pitting and leaks. In winter,
it may cause equipment freeze-ups.
• Remove obsolete compressed air piping to eliminate air losses, leak repair costs
and other ongoing maintenance costs.
• Switch off compressors when production is down. If compressed air is needed
for instrumentation, install a separate compressor for this function; it will save
wear on the main compressors as well.
• When reciprocating compressors and screw compressors are used in parallel,
always maintain screw compressors at full load.
When partial loads are required, use the
Review all operations
reciprocating compressor and shut down
where compressed air
the screw compressor.
• Minimize the air dryer regeneration cycle
power is being used
by installing a controller based on dew point
and develop a list of
measurement.
• Enclose compressors (if applicable) to prevent
alternative methods.
heat infiltration into buildings if not desired.
Tip
Avoid using compressed
air where low-pressure
blower air will do the
job as well.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
119
Tip
Consider using largediameter distribution
• If compressors are water-cooled, look for ways to recover heat from
the cooling water circuit and/or for recycling the water for use elsewhere.
• Make piping changes necessary to shut off production areas where and
when there is no demand (off shifts, weekends).
• Minimize the system’s constant losses through minor leaks and continuous
consumption of various pieces of measuring equipment by fitting section valves.
network piping that could
double as compressed
air storage to reduce
friction losses, avoid
pressure fluctuations
in the system, serve a
sudden demand and
avoid the need for the
compressor to operate
continuously loaded.
The improved pressure
regulation may allow for
the overall system pressure to be reduced.
Retrofit EMOs
• Consider improving the efficiency of the total system by integrating
independent compressed air generating/distributing circuits where possible.
• Consider installing an intelligent control system to control air compression
installations and to achieve about 10 percent energy savings by maintaining the
compressor’s output pressure at the lowest possible level and minimum
idle running time.
• Evaluate installation of a combustion engine-driven compressor unit as it
provides a less expensive energy input and has a better part-load efficiency
than electrical motors. It also affords heat recovery from the engine jacket
and exhaust.
• Upgrade the compressed air dryer for an energy-efficient version (energy
savings of up to 85 percent may be possible).
• On older compressors, consider installing a generously sized buffer tank to
improve compressor loading.
• In large facilities, consider installing an automatic leak-measuring scheme
run by a central control, regulation and monitoring system.
• Consider installing an airtight plastic pipe distribution network to replace
old steel pipe and corroded and leaking circuits, particularly for buried
installations. This served one large user in Winnipeg, Manitoba, very well.
Environmental considerations
Operating water and compressed air systems at peak efficiency reduces electrical
consumption and thus pollutant emissions from thermo-electricity-generating
stations. For information on how reducing electricity consumption reduces
pollution and for instructions for calculating reductions, see Section 1.1, “Climate
change,” on page 1.
More detailed information
Although it was published in the 1980s, the technical manual Water and Compressed
Air Systems (Cat. No. M91-6/12E), available from NRCan, remains a good
reference. See page vi of the preface of this Guide for ordering information.
120
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Water systems: Hot water
Inspect insulation on all hot water pipes.
Is all piping insulated?
Yes
Check every six months.
No
Install insulation as soon as possible.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is all insulation dry and intact?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
As soon as possible, find and eliminate sources of moisture and
replace insulation.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check water temperature.
Can water temperature be reduced without affecting users?
Yes
Reduce water temperature to the lowest level that does not compromise
the process it serves.
No
Evaluate again when processes change.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Water systems: Cooling water
Examine the operation of cooling-water systems.
Does cooling water pass through the equipment more than once before
being discharged to the sewer?
Yes
No action required.
No
Consider using well water for cooling or recirculating the water through
a cooling tower.
Done by: __________________________
evaluation worksheet
Water and compressed air systems evaluation worksheet
Date: _______________________
Does cooling water circulate when equipment is idle?
Yes
Shut off cooling water supply to idle equipment.
Consider installing an interlock to shut off cooling water automatically.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
121
evaluation worksheet
Could the flow of cooling water be reduced without compromising
the process?
Yes
Reduce the flow of cooling water to the lowest level that will provide
adequate cooling.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Water systems: General
Inspect all strainers and filters in the water system.
Are strainers and filters clean?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
Clean or replace partially or totally clogged strainers and filters to prevent
pipe pressure losses.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Inspect heated tanks, noting thickness of insulation and number
of open tanks.
Are heated tanks insulated?
Yes
Check that insulation is adequate (cool to the touch).
No
Apply an economic thickness of insulation (refer to the technical manual
Process Insulation, Cat. No. M91-6/1E, available from NRCan).
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are heated process tanks covered?
Yes
No action required.
No
To reduce evaporation, consider installing covers or covering the water
surface with plastic balls.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Inspect pipes and equipment for leaks.
Do you find any leaks?
Yes
Repair leaks as soon as possible.
No
Check regularly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
122
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Inspect pipes, hoses, connections and fittings for leaks (best done
after the end of a shift).
Are there any leaks?
Yes
Repair leaks as soon as possible (using Table 2.2 on page 119, calculate the
cost of lost compressed air).
No
Check regularly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Conduct a general inspection of the entire compressed air system.
Is compressed air required after the work shift is over?
Yes
If only instrument air is required, use a separate, smaller compressor
to supply it and shut off the plant air compressor.
No
Shut off plant air compressor at the end of the work shift.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is compressed air supplied to areas of the plant where it is not used?
Yes
Disconnect air service in those areas (leaks are more likely to go
unnoticed in low-use areas, such as storage areas and warehouses).
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are air filters clean?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
Replace clogged filters to reduce losses in system pressure.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Equipment operation
Inspect air-using equipment.
evaluation worksheet
Compressed air systems: Air distribution and use
Does equipment need repair or maintenance?
Yes
To ensure maximum efficiency and minimum use of compressed air,
have all air-using equipment maintained and lubricated regularly.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
123
2.11 Fans and pumps
Motors and drives
While the power
efficiency of an electric
motor may be in the
80–90 percent range,
high-efficiency electric
motors may reach
97 percent.
When one takes
into account longer
equipment lifetime,
reduced maintenance
and reduced downtime,
the return on investment
on the VSD becomes
much higher.
With VSDs, energy
savings of 40 to
60 percent are often
possible.
124
Fans provide the motive force to move air against the resistance of an airconveying system. Pumps serve a similar function, moving liquids against the
resistance of a piping system and against changes in elevation. Fans and pumps
both use a common element: the electric motor and its drive.The energy
efficiency of a system – whether fans, pumps or compressors – can be achieved
only when the motor, motor drive and load are all considered as a unit and its
components are optimized.
It is said that up to one half of the potential energy savings in a motor and drive
can be achieved through installation improvements, including correct selection
and sizing of a motor and its drive, removing/minimizing unnecessary loads and
minimizing idling times.This is underlined by proper attention to maintenance.
Replacing obsolete or burned-out motors with high-efficiency units should
become the norm. An economical evaluation will certainly be made in each
situation. As a general rule, though, when more than half of all electric power
in a facility is consumed by electric motors, a retrofit with high-efficiency motors
is probably economically justified.
High-efficiency electrical motors offer many advantages.They
• save energy (i.e. money);
• contribute to reducing consumption of primary energy sources (hence, to
reducing greenhouse gas emissions);
• generate less internal heat;
• are cooler and quieter;
• have a longer life because they are more reliable;
• reduce process downtime; and
• reduce maintenance requirements (e.g. bearings replacement).
Variable speed drives (VSDs) are relatively recent developments in control
electronics.They work as frequency inverters and can regulate, with considerable
flexibility, the speed of a motor to fit the process load demand.VSDs are deployed
to improve the interaction between the process or equipment and the drive system. See also a note on VSDs under Section 2.4,“Electrical systems” (see page 74).
VSDs offer other benefits besides electric power consumption reduction.They
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
enable a wider range in speed, torque and power;
enable improvements to process flow and control characteristics;
enable shorter response times;
reduce noise and vibration levels of the ventilating equipment;
enable replacing pump systems based on throttling and temperature control;
contribute to reduction of maintenance and downtime; and
lengthen the equipment lifetime (e.g. pump wear).
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Fans
Centrifugal fans are most commonly used for industrial air handling and HVAC
applications. All centrifugal fans operate according to laws related to performance
variables, as follows:
• Airflow varies in proportion to fan speed.
• Total differential pressure is proportional to the square of fan speed.
• Power requirement is proportional to the cube of fan speed.
The fan laws show that changes in airflow and resistance to airflow can significantly
affect the amount of power required by the fan.This highlights the importance of
ducting that does not restrict airflow.
Energy consumption by fans is influenced by many other variables, some of
them related to operating and maintenance tasks. Other factors that affect energy
use by fans are related to the air-conveying system in which the fan is installed.
Correcting inefficiencies in the air-conveying system can be expensive; however,
such measures tend to pay back quickly. (For information on retrofit measures,
refer to the technical manual Fans and Pumps, Cat. No. M91-6/13E, which
includes worked examples.)
The energy consumed by the driving motor represents the total of the energy
required by the fan to move air and the energy lost in the fan, the motor and the
drive.Therefore, it is desirable to choose high-efficiency fans, drives and motors.
$
Energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
• Implement a program of inspection and preventive maintenance to minimize
component failures.
• Check and adjust belt drives regularly.
• Clean and lubricate fan components.
• Correct excess noise and vibration.
• Clean or replace air filters regularly.
• Clean ductwork and correct duct and component leaks to reduce energy costs.
• Shut down fans when no longer required.
Low-cost EMOs
• Streamline duct connections for fan air entry and discharge to reduce losses.
• Optimize or reduce fan speed to suit optimum system airflow, with balancing
dampers in their maximum open positions for balanced air distribution.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
125
Retrofit EMOs
• Add a variable speed motor to add flexibility to the fan’s performance in line
with changing requirements.
• Replace outdated units with more efficient equipment, correctly sized.
• Replace oversized motors with high-efficiency motors, correctly sized.
• Where a central system must satisfy the requirements of the most demanding
sub-system, consider decentralizing the major system into local sub-systems,
each serving its own unique requirements.
• Consider controlling the local ventilation system with ultrasonic occupancy
sensors; it saved one manufacturer 50 percent of operating costs.
Pumps
Pumps belong to one of two types, depending on their operating principle:
• centrifugal or dynamic pumps, which move liquids by adding kinetic energy
to the liquid; and
• positive displacement pumps, which provide a constant volumetric flow for a
given pump speed by trapping liquid in cavities in the pump and moving it
to the pump outlet.
Pump operation resembles fan operation in that both devices move a substance
through a distribution network to an end user. See Figure 2.7 (page 127) for
options on energy-efficient pumps. Both pumps and fans, and their drives, must
be large enough to overcome the resistance imposed by the distribution system.
However, the size of a pump must also take into account the difference in
elevation between the pump and the end user, which influences the power
requirement of the pump significantly.
As in fan systems, the cost of energy to operate a pump system can be reduced
by installing high-efficiency pumps, motors and drives.
Pump seals
The type of shaft seals installed on a pump and the quality of maintenance
performed on the seals can have a significant effect on energy consumption.
The two most common types of seals are mechanical and packing-gland seals.
Both increase shaft friction and, hence, the amount of power the pump requires;
however, the increase in power requirement imposed by packing-gland seals is,
on average, six times greater than that imposed by mechanical seals.
126
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Figure 2.7
Options for energy-efficient pump operation
Flow control
needed
Dedicated variable
speed systems
Miscellaneous flow
control systems
Selective pump
switching
Cyclic control
Recirculation
Control valve
Switching and
two-speed motor
Squirrel cage motor and
hydraulic coupling
Squirrel cage motor and
eddy current coupling
Speed controlled
synchronous motor
Special induction
motor and voltage control
Electro-mechanical
drive systems
Switched reluctance
motor and drive
Squirrel cage
motor and inverter
DC motor and
speed control
Commutator
motor
Electrical drive
systems
Flow control
Pumps should be carefully sized to suit the flow requirements. If a review shows
that a pump is capable of producing more flow or head than the process requires,
consider the following measures:
• In applications where the flow is constant, reduce the size of the impeller
on a centrifugal pump, if possible.This usually permits use of a smaller motor.
• Install a variable speed drive on pumps where the load fluctuates.
• Optimize pump impellers (change-out) to ensure that the duty point is within
the optimum zone on the pump curve.
• Maintain pumps through regular inspection and maintenance to monitor
performance for an early indication of failure.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
127
$
Other energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
•
•
•
•
Shut down pumps when they are not required.
Ensure that packing glands on pumps are correctly adjusted.
Maintain clearance tolerances at pump impellers and seals.
Check and adjust the motor driver regularly for belt tension and
coupling alignment.
• Clean pump impellers and repair or replace if eroded or pitted.
• Implement a program of regular inspection and preventive
maintenance to minimize pump component failures.
Low-cost EMOs
• Replace packing gland seals with mechanical seals (see preceding).
• Trim the pump impeller to match system flow rate and head requirements.
Retrofit EMOs
•
•
•
•
•
Install a variable speed drive to address demand for liquid flow with flexibility.
Replace outdated/unsuitable equipment with correctly sized new units.
Replace oversized motors.
Consider installing a computerized energy management control system.
Consider installing variable voltage, variable frequency inverters to allow
motor speed to be continuously varied to meet load demand (power savings
range from 30 to 60 percent).
Environmental considerations
Measures taken to reduce electricity consumption by fans and pumps help
reduce emissions from thermo-electricity-generating stations. For information
about reduction of emissions and for instructions for calculating reductions,
see Section 1.1, “Climate change,” on page 1.
More detailed information
Although it was published in the 1980s, the technical manual Fans and Pumps
(Cat. No. M91-6/13E, available from NRCan) remains useful. See page vi of the
preface of this Guide for information on ordering.
128
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Operating and maintenance
Inspect the mechanical drives on all fans and pumps.
Are drive belts in good condition and adjusted to the correct tension?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
Replace worn belts, using matched sets in multiple-belt drives;
adjust tension correctly.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Do fans or pumps produce excessive vibration or noise?
Yes
Locate and correct the problem as soon as possible.
No
Check regularly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Inspect all air filters.
Are air filters clean?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
Clean or replace clogged filters as soon as possible.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Inspect the conveying system.
Are there any design flaws, such as bottlenecks that restrict flow?
Yes
Consider bringing in a consultant to evaluate the system.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review flow requirements.
Do flows vary?
Yes
If flow rates vary consistently, consider using variable speed drives
or two-speed motors.
No
If flow rates are consistently lower than the rated capacity of your
equipment, consider using lower-capacity equipment.
Done by: __________________________
evaluation worksheet
Fans and pumps evaluation worksheet
Date: _______________________
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
129
evaluation worksheet
130
Pump seals
Inspect all pump seals.
Do seals leak excessively?
Yes
Replace leaking seals as soon as possible.
No
Check regularly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are any pumps fitted with packing-gland seals?
Yes
Consider replacing these pumps with new units with mechanical seals.
No
Inspect seals frequently for leaks.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Drives
Identify the types of drives installed on large fans and pumps and
find their typical efficiencies.
Are drive efficiencies excessively low?
Yes
Consider replacing low-efficiency drives with new, higher
efficiency equipment.
No
No action required; however, watch for equipment improvements
and update drives when it makes economic sense to do so.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.12 Compressors and turbines
Compressors
Section 2.10 dealt with water and compressed air systems, mainly from the
distribution system and end-use viewpoints.This section will look at the
generating equipment. Compressors are widely used in industrial settings to
supply motive power for tools and equipment and, in controls, as the source of
air for transmitting signals and actuating valves and other devices. Like steam,
water and electricity, compressed air is a plant utility that is easily wasted if
certain basic precautions are not taken, such as the following:
• Use as little compressed air as possible.
• Use compressed air at the lowest functional pressure.
• Maintain compressors at maximum efficiency.
The energy consumed by the driving motor of a compressor represents the total
power required by the compressor to compress the air or gas, plus energy losses
from the compressor, drive and driver.Therefore, it is desirable to select the
compressors, drives and driving motors with the highest energy efficiency to
obtain the most efficiently operating whole.
Reduce compressed air consumption
Reducing consumption of compressed air reduces the amount of energy
required to run the compressor. This is accomplished by maintenance measures
such as promptly repairing leaks in the distribution system and by ensuring that
compressors and compressed air equipment are shut off when not in use.
Reduce pressure in the compressed air system
Since the power required by the compressor is directly proportional to the
operating pressure, operating at the lowest pressure needed to satisfy system
requirements can reduce energy costs.
$
Energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
The following operating and maintenance items should be reviewed
regularly to ensure that compressors are operating at maximum efficiency:
• Inspect and clean compressor air-intake filters regularly to maintain the lowest
resistance (pressure drop) possible and reduce the compressor’s energy use.
• Ensure that the compressor is supplied with the coolest intake air possible.
• Check the operation of compressed air system coolers – maintain cleanliness
of heat-transfer surfaces on both air- and water-cooled compressors to ensure
that they do not run hot.
• Monitor the compressor plant’s coefficient of performance (COP) regularly
and correct deviations from the standard.
Tip
Implement a program
of regular inspections and
preventive maintenance
to minimize compressor
component failures.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
131
Tip
Use a pressure switch
or time clock to shut
down the compressor
automatically when
there is no demand for
compressed air.
Tip
• Maintain mechanical adjustments – ensure that drive belts are kept at the
correct tension, that sheaves and couplings are aligned (correct vibrations),
and that drive components are properly maintained and lubricated.
• In multiple-compressor installations, schedule the use of the machines to suit
the demand, and sequence the machines so that one or more compressors are
shut off rather than having several operating at part-load when the demand is
less than full capacity.
Low-cost EMOs
• Modify or relocate air intakes to cooler locations.
• Modify or replace outdated components with high-efficiency units
(e.g. lower-resistance air intake filters, larger-diameter piping).
• Install flow-control devices on cooling system heat exchangers to provide
stable operating temperatures and prevent excess water flow.
• Invest in a leak detector or air leak tester to measure total volumetric leakage
throughout the compressed air system and the compressor capacity.
Integrate air compressor
Retrofit EMOs
control within a comput-
Other efficiency improvement measures for compressors involve capital
expenditures, and most of these require a detailed analysis by specialists.
erized energy management control system of
the facility.
Tip
In large facilities,
consider installing an
automatic leak-measuring
scheme run by a central
control, regulation and
monitoring system.
132
• Replace energy-inefficient units such as single-stage air compressors with
higher efficiency two-stage compressors.
• Review the compressor plant in use, the type and output of the compressors
and the structure of the end-use demand, and consider upgrading them to
the most energy-efficient units.This may include a mix of smaller and larger
compressors of different types fitted with variable speed drives.
• Consider the economics of decentralizing a major compressed air distribution
system that supplies air at the highest pressure required and instead using a
sub-system with multiple compressors located near the end-use points, which
may have lower pressure requirements.
• If only low-pressure air is needed, replace air compressors with pressure blowers.
• Install variable speed controls on compressors to optimize energy consumption.
• Use a large-capacity air receiver or install large-diameter distribution piping in
part of the system to serve the same purpose so as to improve air compressor
efficiency under fluctuating loads.
• Recover heat from compressor inter-cooler and after-cooler systems and use
the heat elsewhere in the facility.
• Consider installing air-cooled compressed air after-coolers in series with
water-cooled units to reduce cooling water consumption and assist the plant
heating system.
• Where required, enclose the compressor to trap and exhaust unwanted hot
or moist air directly outdoors.
• Review and upgrade compressor control (particularly the unloading systems)
for situations when its full output is not required.
• In large facilities with massive compressed air requirements and large compressor
plants, consider outsourcing the production of compressed air, as some large
organizations have done profitably, with attendant energy savings.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Turbines
For many years, steam turbines have been used instead of electric motors; in
plants with suitable supplies of high-pressure steam, steam turbines are significantly less expensive to run than large electric motors.
As in a compressor system, the energy consumed by a turbine represents the total
power required by the driven equipment (e.g. a generator) and the energy losses
from the driven equipment, the drive and the turbine.Therefore, it is desirable to
select high-efficiency turbines, drives and driven equipment.
Gas turbines are used in applications that require their particular operating
characteristics:
•
•
•
•
•
small size with a high power-to-weight ratio;
no requirement for external cooling;
low requirement for maintenance;
low failure rate; and
relatively clean emissions.
Operating and maintenance
Well-maintained, correctly operated steam and gas turbines generally improve
the energy efficiency and reduce energy costs. Operating and maintenance
improvements usually cost little or nothing.
The efficiency of gas turbine operation is influenced by the installation altitude,
inlet air temperature and pressure and outlet pressure, as shown in the following.
Although little can be done about altitude, the other factors can be affected by
ancillary equipment such as intake filters, silencers and waste heat boilers.
• Inlet temperature – each 10 K rise will decrease power output (PO) by
9 percent.
• Inlet pressure – each 10 Pa drop will reduce PO by 0.2 percent.
• Outlet pressure – each 10 Pa increase will reduce PO by 0.12 percent.
• Altitude – each 100 m increase will reduce PO by 1.15 percent.
A gas turbine can generate more power when the intake air is cold.To improve
the performance of a gas turbine installed indoors, simply route the combustion
air intake to use outdoor air. In warm conditions, chillers and evaporative coolers
can also be effective.
Both gas and steam turbines should be insulated to reduce heat losses and,
consequently, the volume and pressure of the steam or combustion gases.
Gas turbines present several opportunities to recover heat for other uses.The hot
gas may be used directly for drying and other applications, or a heat recovery
boiler may be used to generate steam or hot water.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
133
$
Energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
• Shut steam and gas turbines down when conditions are less than
optimum – that is, when the turbines must operate at less than
50 percent capacity (gas turbines) or 30 percent capacity (steam turbines).
• Check and maintain turbine clearances at turbine rotating elements
and seals to minimize leakage and ensure maximum energy extraction
from the steam or gas stream.
• Check and clean or replace air intake filters regularly.
• Regularly check for vibrations.
• Ensure that steam turbines are operated at optimum steam and
condensate conditions.
• Ensure that gas turbines are operated at optimum inlet and
outlet conditions.
• Ensure that all speed control systems are functioning properly.
Low-cost EMOs
•
•
•
•
Modify or relocate air intake to provide cool air to gas turbines.
Recover the heat produced by the oil cooler on a gas turbine.
Install optimum insulation on equipment.
Optimize the system’s operation by adding or relocating control components
(e.g. temperature and pressure sensors).
Retrofit EMOs
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tip
•
•
Optimize turbine
controls with the most
appropriate control
•
devices and systems.
•
134
Preheat gas turbine combustion air with exhaust gas (e.g. with a regenerator).
Utilize heat from the exhaust of gas turbines.
Utilize heat from the surface of turbines.
Modify inlet and outlet pipework to reduce pressure (i.e. flow) losses.
Upgrade turbine components for improved efficiency.
Consider installing an active clearance control system to maintain
tolerances and improve the heat-rate efficiency by 0.3 to 0.5 percent.
Install a back pressure turbine to act as a steam pressure reducing device.
Increase the efficiency and capacity of a steam turbine, for example, by
– rebuilding the steam turbine to incorporate the latest steam path technology;
– letting low-pressure steam directly into the turbine; and
– using a portion of the warm condenser cooling exhaust stream for boiler
make-up water rather than cold water from the mains.
Consider innovative uses of exhaust heat recovery for such purposes as steam
generation or absorption refrigeration for sub-cooling.
Where practicable, consider upgrading the gas turbine system to a full-fledged
combined heat and power (CHP) (i.e. cogenerating) plant.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Environmental considerations
Measures taken to reduce electricity consumed by compressors reduce emissions
from thermo-electricity-generating stations, as described earlier. Energy-saving
measures that reduce fuel consumption by gas turbines also reduce emissions
from the turbine.
Reductions in steam use by steam turbines reduce emissions from the boiler that
generates the turbine steam. Refer to Section 1.1, “Climate change,” on page 1
for information about calculating emissions reductions.
Stringent NOx regulations in some countries led to developments of a two-step
combustion process in a gas turbine, which reduces the flame temperature and
thereby lowers the emissions levels.The net output is unaffected, but substantial
energy savings have been achieved because steam injection is unnecessary. In
another installation, a gas turbine was fitted with a catalytic apparatus to reduce
NOx emissions, with similar energy savings.
More detailed information
A technical manual, Compressors and Turbines (Cat. No. M91-6/14E), is available
from NRCan. See page vi of the preface of this Guide for ordering information.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
135
evaluation worksheet
136
Compressors and turbines evaluation worksheet
Use of compressed air
Tour the facility when it is not occupied.
Is there audible hissing of compressed air leaks?
Yes
Repair leaks as soon as possible.
No
Check regularly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is unneeded air-using equipment turned off?
Yes
Check regularly.
No
Shut off unneeded air-using equipment.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are unneeded compressors running?
Yes
Shut off unneeded air compressors.
No
Check regularly.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review compressed air requirements.
Is the system pressure higher than necessary?
Yes
Check the maximum air pressure required in the facility and reduce
system pressure, if possible.
No
Check regularly to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Review compressor maintenance procedures and schedules.
Is the intake air as cool as possible?
Yes
No action required.
No
Consider ducting cool outside air to the compressor intake.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Inspect compressor drives and cooling systems.
Are drive belts in good condition, correctly aligned and set at the
correct tension?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
Replace worn belts.
Align sheaves on all drives.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are cooling system heat-transfer surfaces clean?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
Clean heat-transfer surfaces as soon as possible.
Add cleaning to scheduled maintenance.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are intake air filters clean?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
Clean or replace intake air filters.
Add cleaning to scheduled maintenance.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
evaluation worksheet
Compressor efficiency
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
137
evaluation worksheet
138
Compressor retrofits
Compare air pressure requirements with the pressure supplied
by the compressor.
Does some equipment require only low-pressure air (i.e. 10 psig or less)?
Yes
Consider replacing the compressor with a pressure blower.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review compressed air demand.
Does the demand for compressed air vary widely throughout the day?
Yes
Consider installing variable speed controls on the compressor drive.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are there many short-term variations in demand?
Yes
Install an air receiver to help the compressor operate at maximum
efficiency under fluctuating loads.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review drive efficiency.
Is the efficiency of the drive excessively low?
Yes
Consult drive manufacturers about replacing it with a high-efficiency drive.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Review steam turbine inlet and outlet conditions.
Do inlet and outlet conditions match design specifications?
Yes
Check regularly to maintain standard.
No
Determine and correct the difference.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review turbine loads.
Do turbine drives operate at less than 50 percent capacity (gas) or
30 percent capacity (steam)?
Yes
Shut down the turbine drive.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Turbine retrofits
Review drive efficiency.
Is the efficiency of the drive excessively low?
Yes
Consult drive manufacturers about high-efficiency drives.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
evaluation worksheet
Turbines: Operating conditions
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
139
2.13 Measuring, metering and monitoring
These truisms are worth repeating:
• Measurement is the first step that leads to control and improvement.
• If you can’t measure something, you can’t understand it. If you can’t understand it, you can’t control it. If you can’t control it, you can’t improve it.
• A measurement has real meaning only if it is compared to a standard.
For measurement to be meaningful, it must be combined with monitoring.
Measuring, metering and monitoring various flows of energy and materials
in a facility are essential for reducing energy use.These functions have the
following benefits:
• producing process information, such as temperature, pressure and quantity;
• determining energy performance for comparison when evaluating the progress
of energy projects;
• setting up new standards of performance and operational targets;
• day-to-day management and correction of unacceptable performance
(i.e. achievement of consistency of operations);
• exposing the misuse of energy;
• facilitation of decision-making related to improving operations;
• planning future energy management initiatives;
• communication of progress made in energy-efficiency performance –
stimulating involvement and boosting energy awareness among employees;
• justification of new plant and equipment purchases and/or modifications; and
• integration of the data output into a computerized energy management system
in the facility.
Metering of energy-consuming equipment should be a priority so that operators
can keep equipment running at peak efficiency and can detect diminishing efficiency. The measurements most useful for monitoring energy use are flow,
temperature, humidity, calorific value, enthalpy and electrical quantities such as
voltage and current. These variables should be measured at the point of supply
to a plant area or a single large energy user, thus permitting observation and
recording of energy-use patterns that will allow managers to target energy
inefficiencies directly. Energy management requires data that are reliable
and accurate.
140
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Accuracy
It is important to know how measurement accuracy is expressed so that the
measuring instruments can be matched to process requirements.The common
measurement terms are described as follows:
• Measured variable – the variable the instrument was selected to measure,
such as temperature or pressure.
• Lower range value – the minimum measurement of the variable that the
instrument can display.
• Upper range value – the maximum measurement of the variable that the
instrument can display.
• Range of the instrument – the region between the lower-range value and
the upper-range value.
The accuracy of an instrument is expressed in terms of the measured variable
and may be expressed as a percentage of
• the range of the instrument;
• the upper range value; or
• the indicated value or range.
Accuracy is often improved by reducing the range, so the range of an instrument
should be kept to a minimum that is consistent with the expected variations
of the measured variable. However, repeatability is often more important than
absolute accuracy. System accuracy depends on the accuracy of its components
and can be determined only by system calibration.
The integration of measuring and monitoring devices into a computerized
management system requires signal amplification and digitalization in an
analogue digital converter. Although there are plenty of applications for analogue
instruments and basic digital instruments, computer-based instruments (with an
embedded computer) provide additional flexibility and power to a system.
Digital input is processed by the instrument’s computer (e.g. single-chip), and
outputs can be obtained through a strip-chart recorder, an oscilloscope or a
printer or be displayed on a monitor.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
141
$
Energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
• Regular calibration and maintenance programs are necessary if
instruments are to produce reliable data.With the use of electronics today,
many instruments are now self-calibrating, saving time and effort and offering
continuous accuracy. However, the supporting system must also be taken care
of (e.g. ensuring that the compressed air is free of moisture and dirt and that
the line filters are maintained regularly).There is an example of how important
this item is – in one Canadian paper mill, an out-of-calibration temperature
sensor caused a loss of $56,000 per year.
The management of instrumentation, measuring and testing equipment –
which includes applicable test software – is well covered under the broadly used
international standards for quality (ISO 9001) and environmental (ISO 14001)
management systems. Even facilities that have not yet implemented these standards
would be well advised to adopt the principles for sound management of their
instrumentation, metering and monitoring equipment.
• Records. Measuring, metering and monitoring equipment is not of much use
without good record keeping. Record keeping is particularly important to the
process of identifying deviations from normal operation and changes in energy
efficiency. Important information should be logged at regular intervals, either
manually or automatically. Inexpensive electronic data-loggers with many
desirable features and capabilities are now available, and collecting and
recording data reliably has never been easier.
• Analysis and follow-up. For the measuring or monitoring activity to make
sense, there must be an analysis of the monitored equipment’s performance
records (conveniently facilitated by many software packages available on the
market) and a follow-up on deviations from optimal state. Sometimes, of
course, a suitable period must first pass in order to confirm that the deviation
is systemic in order to establish a trend and to confirm the need for a corrective
or preventive action. At other times, as in a case of simple process inattention,
the follow-up must be prompt.
Low-cost EMOs
• Acquisition of new measuring and monitoring equipment and
instrumentation with an optimum accuracy. For example, boiler plants and
other facilities using combustion processes consume significant quantities of
fuel. For these, purchase of an oxygen and combustibles analyser is justifiable
because a regularly adjusted boiler combustion system can quickly pay back
the equipment cost. Similarly, equipment that detects compressed air leaks is a
worthwhile investment. Chances are that it will pay for itself in a short time.
142
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
• Correct installation. One should not assume that an existing installation is
functioning correctly just because it has been in use for years. Often, measuring
inaccuracies result from improper installation that must be corrected. Nonintrusive measurement techniques are now available, with correspondingly
easier installation requirements.
• Develop a proper design of instrument-measuring systems.
• Detectors of abnormal conditions (e.g. doors to refrigerated warehouse left
ajar; tank overflow level situation).
• HVAC monitoring sensors.
Retrofit EMOs
Retrofit opportunities in measuring and monitoring equipment and
instrumentation exist in these broad categories (and their combinations):
• replacement of pneumatic controls with direct digital controls;
• a specific process equipment or application (e.g. boiler, peak demand
regulation); and
• an upgrade or development of a measuring, monitoring and instrumentation
system and/or its integration into an overall computerized energy management
system in the facility.
Environmental considerations
Measuring, metering and monitoring equipment helps identify energy wastage –
that means inefficient energy-using equipment (and, incidentally, allows better
justification for the need for improvements, including capital purchases). By
ensuring that equipment is operating at peak efficiency – directly or indirectly –
fuel consumption and emissions are minimized. For information about the
relationship between energy efficiency and emissions, see Section 1.1, “Climate
change,” on page 1.
Monitoring and targeting (M&T) methodology, using these tools, helps to
manage energy and utilities usage to the same effect.
More detailed information
The technical manual Measuring, Metering and Monitoring (Cat. No. M91-6/15E,
available from NRCan) was published in the 1980s. It covers pneumatic controls well but is limited in its treatment of electronic controls. See page vi of
the preface of this Guide for ordering information.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
143
evaluation worksheet
Measuring, metering and monitoring evaluation worksheet
Extent of instrumentation
Observe the level of instrumentation in the facility.
Are energy supplies to all major energy-using equipment metered?
Yes
Calibrate the instruments regularly.
No
Consider dividing the overall energy supply system into logical energy
accounting centres to facilitate management of and accountability for
energy use.
Done by: __________________________
Are instruments inspected and calibrated regularly?
Yes
No action required.
No
Implement a program of regular inspection and calibration.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are the measurements incorporated into a computerized energy
management system?
Yes
No action required.
No
Consider purchasing and installing a system to manage the energy use
in the facility.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Boiler systems
Inspect boilers for the presence of monitoring equipment (note that,
by law, many operating variables must be monitored, with alarms and
cut-outs for abnormal conditions).
Are boilers equipped with flue-gas analysers?
Yes
Inspect and calibrate them regularly.
No
Consider installing them to measure oxygen and combustibles in flue gas.
Done by: __________________________
144
Date: _______________________
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Date: _______________________
Yes
Measure the temperature of the feedwater and flue gas entering
and leaving the economizer.
Thermometers should be either the recording type or part of the boiler
automation system.
No
Consider installing equipment to measure flue-gas and feedwater
temperature.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review the extent of data-logging.
Is data-logging equipment widely used?
Yes
No action required.
No
Consider installing more data-logging equipment.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Electrical monitoring
Review status of metering.
Are all buildings and major equipment metered?
Yes
Record readings monthly and check against utility bills; follow up
with actions to improve the power factor and reduce peak demand, and
implement other measures outlined in Section 2.4, “Electrical systems,”
on page 72. Also consider energy management actions stated earlier in
Section 2.1.2, “Monitoring and Targeting” (see page 61).
No
Consider installing kW/kVA and kWh meters to monitor all major
energy users.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Review the extent of data-logging.
Is data-logging equipment widely used?
Yes
No action required; use the output for energy usage management.
No
Consider installing more data-logging equipment.
Done by: __________________________
evaluation worksheet
Is the boiler equipped with an economizer?
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
145
2.14 Automatic controls
Automatic controls take the data produced by monitoring instruments and use
these data to control everything from processing equipment to space heating and
cooling systems. Many manufacturing processes that used to be manually controlled
are now controlled automatically.This innovation has several benefits:
• immediate correction of unpredictable changes;
• simultaneous adjustment of many functions; and
• highly consistent control.
The benefits realized from the use of automatic controls in process equipment
are evident in quality and productivity improvements. When used for energy
management applications, automatic controls can reduce energy costs by strictly
controlling temperatures and flow rates and by adjusting lighting, motor speeds,
and fluid and gas flows as required by the process.
Control equipment
Even a casual stroll by the relevant shelves in a reference library or at a trade
show will reveal the enormous progress made in this technology in the last
decade and in the vast range of devices available.The following discussion will
be, therefore, brief and generic.
Programmable logic controllers
The automatic devices most commonly used in process control are programmable
logic controllers (PLCs). A PLC system has three main components:
• Input module: devices such as limit switches, push buttons, pressure switches,
sensors, electrodes and even other PLCs provide incoming control signals
(digital or analogue) to the input module.The module converts the signal to a
level that can be used by the central processing unit (CPU) of the controller.
It then electrically isolates it and sends it to the CPU.
• Controller: a programmable memory in the controller that stores instructions
for implementing specific functions and converts the inputs into signals that
go out of the PLC to the output module.
• Output system: this system takes the CPU’s control signal (programmed
instructions), isolates it electrically and energizes (or de-energizes) the
module’s switching device to turn on or off the output field devices
(e.g. motor starters, pilot lights and solenoids).
An example of a simple PLC used for energy management is one for an air-supply
system.The PLC system controls variables such as temperature, airflow to various
zones, humidity, filtering, shut-off of airflow to unoccupied areas and exhaust
volume. Larger, more complex applications require more sophisticated PLCs,
including ancillary data-entry equipment with trouble-shooting capabilities.
146
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
To control critical variables more closely, closed-loop PLCs of various degrees
of complexity and configurations use a feedback from field devices.This provides
more accurate and more adaptive control.
A PLC can be programmed through a hand-held device or downloaded from
a personal computer (PC). Conveniently, a programmer can often be used for
developing documentation that describes the system’s configuration and operation.
Sometimes this step is neglected. Documentation should be added to a user
program for many reasons. Especially in energy management situations, the
documentation will assist in the following ways:
• Operators will receive system information to understand how the
system operates.
• Maintenance personnel will be able to troubleshoot and maintain the system.
• Upgrading decisions will be simplified.
• It will help answer questions, diagnose problems and make system modifications
if requirements change.
• It will allow easy reproduction of the system if another installation is needed.
Industrial automation controllers
These devices are a new breed of controllers that do not fit neatly into the PLC
or PC classification.They are often used for special application controls such as
motion and process control, particularly in complex closed-loop servo controls,
such as those in robotic systems.
Direct digital controls
Direct digital control (DDC) systems are generally used in large, complex
operations where the operations of many devices must be coordinated. Like
PLCs, DDC systems include sensors and output devices. A DDC system, however,
has a computer instead of a logic controller.The computer makes DDC systems
flexible and capable of managing complex processes because the setpoints can be
changed dynamically and remotely.They also permit operators to start and stop
specific equipment remotely. Another strength of DDC systems is that they can
store, analyse and display data.
PC process control
Individual PLCs can be replaced by fully integrated PC process control packages.
The energy manager profits from consistent, repeatable process control that integrates operations.Various packages are available, and their application can assist
energy-saving efforts in, for example, the boiler house, refrigeration and packaging.
They can be complemented by simulations packaged to test various “if ” scenarios.
In the integration of the system, various means of electronic signal transmission
are employed and may include, for example, radio frequency (RF).
Investment in a process optimizer will reduce the specific energy consumption
in a plant through the use of a sampling system and a control computer so that
the factory operates with the minimum amount of energy.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
147
Expert computer control systems (also called artificial intelligence systems)
An expert computer control system (ECCS) uses specialized knowledge, usually
obtained from a human expert, to perform problem-solving tasks such as diagnosis,
advice, analysis and interpretation. By capturing and formalizing human expertise, such systems can
• improve productivity and reduce delivery time;
• improve the quality of advice given or analyses made, thus improving
operating efficiency and product quality; and
• make rare expertise readily available, thereby alleviating skills shortages
(especially when valued, experienced professionals retire).
ECCSs are not yet used extensively in Canada but are commercially available.
They incorporate enhanced computer control to coordinate and optimize process
operations with significant energy conservation potential. Examples of applications
include heavy industry, refrigeration control and manufacturing controls, especially
linked utilities usage.Their deployment within an M&T system puts energy and
utilities management on par with the management of any other resource in the
plant. For example, one U.K. plant, faced with steadily increasing refrigeration
energy costs, installed a refrigeration fault diagnosis expert system, which continually monitors performance, assesses the plant’s current performance, suggests
possible causes for below-par performance and recommends remedial actions.
Environmental considerations
Automatic controls affect emissions of pollutants indirectly; use of automatic
controls can reduce energy consumption by a process or equipment, thus reducing
emissions at the point of power generation. See Section 1.1, “Climate change,”
on page 1 for information about the effect of energy use reductions on emissions
and for instructions for calculating reductions.
148
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Systems that can be converted to automatic control
Tour the facility, noting how energy-using operations are controlled.
Are some operations still controlled manually?
Yes
Obtain advice from an engineer on installing PLC or DDC systems.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Are PLC or DDC systems used?
Yes
Calibrate sensors, check controller setpoints and final control devices and
verify integrity of programming.
Institute preventive maintenance program.
No
Consider suitable applications through a retrofit of control systems.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Do you have several PLC-controlled processes that conflict?
Yes
Consider replacing them with a DDC system that can supervise and
control the entire process.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is there a potential for ECCS installation?
Yes
Obtain expert advice on the potential application.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is all process and space heating and cooling equipment controlled
with thermostats?
Yes
Check controls to ensure that they are working correctly.
No
Install (programmable) thermostatic controls on uncontrolled
equipment (use setback-type thermostats on space-heating and
cooling units where applicable).
evaluation worksheet
Automatic controls evaluation worksheet
Consider integration of controls in a building energy management system.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
149
evaluation worksheet
150
Is outdoor lighting manually controlled?
Yes
Consider installing either photocell controls or timers to ensure that
lights are shut off during daylight hours.
Consider installing motion detectors to ensure that lights are on only
when needed during the night.
No
Check photocells or timer controls to ensure that they are working
correctly.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is indoor lighting manually controlled?
Yes
Consider installing occupancy sensors, timers or both.
No
Check controls to ensure that they are working correctly.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.15 Architectural features
A comprehensive energy management program is not complete until the buildings
themselves are evaluated for their impact on overall energy use. Older buildings,
erected before 1980, when energy was comparatively cheap, are often inadequately
insulated and sealed. Modern building codes set minimum requirements for
energy conservation in new buildings. See, for example, the introduction to
the Model National Energy Code for Buildings, obtainable from the Web site at
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/english/programs/energycode.cfm.These new requirements also apply in full to repair, renovation or extensions of older buildings.
Energy efficiency must be designed to good engineering practice as described in
the preceding and in the ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1999 – “Energy efficient
design of new buildings.”
These and many other regulations and standards that cover industrial buildings’
construction and operation (e.g. insulation, heating and ventilation) also ensure
that health, safety and occupational comfort requirements are met. In any
consideration of building energy efficiency improvements, these aspects must
be carefully examined.
The heat lost from a building in winter and gained in summer must be overcome
by the HVAC systems, which adds to the cost of operating the facility. Heat loss
and gain through the building envelope can be reduced in two major ways:
• reducing heat transfer (gain or loss) through building components (e.g. walls,
roof and windows); and
• reducing air leaks – both infiltration and exfiltration – through openings
(e.g. doors and windows).
Reducing heat transfer
Walls and roofs
In many buildings, upgrading wall insulation is difficult and expensive because
of the original construction technique or because activities inside the building
would be disrupted. In such cases, it is often possible to add insulation to the
exterior of the building and cover it with new weatherproof cladding. Buildings
with large south- or southwest-facing walls can be retrofitted with a type of
“solar wall” (see Section 2.8, “Heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems,”
page 99) for even greater energy efficiency. Industrial buildings that have large,
flat roofs benefit particularly from roof insulation upgrades because most of the
winter heat loss and summer heat gain occur through the roof. A new, insulated
roof membrane can be covered with heat-reflecting silver-coloured polymeric
paint to help minimize the heat transmission. See Table 2.3 on page 152 for
information on thermal resistance. Good construction practices must be
observed, such as provision for ventilation of ceiling and roof cavities and prevention of water vapour from entering the insulated cavity as specified in
building codes.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
151
TABLE 2.3
Minimum thermal resistance of insulation
Zone 1
< 5000
degree-days
RSI (R) value required
Zone 2
> 5000
degree-days
Electric
space heating
Zones 1 and 2
5.40 (R-31)
6.70 (R-38)
7.00 (R-40)
3.52 (R-20)
3.52 (R-20)
3.87 (R-22)
Wall other than foundation wall 3.00 (R-17)
3.87 (R-22)
4.70 (R-27)
Foundation wall enclosing
heated space
1.41 (R-8)
2.11 (R-12)
3.25 (R-19)
Floor other than
slab-on-ground
4.40 (R-25)
4.40 (R-25)
4.40 (R-25)
Slab-on-ground containing
pipes or heating ducts
1.76 (R-10)
1.76 (R-10)
1.76 (R-10)
Slab-on-ground not containing
pipes or heating ducts
1.41 (R-8)
1.41 (R-8)
1.41 (R-8)
Building element
exposed to the exterior
or unheated space
Ceiling below attic
or roof space
Roof assembly without attic
or roof space
Based on degree-day zones. See your local building permit office for guidance.
Source: Ontario Building Code, 1997.
Windows
Many older buildings, especially factories, have single-glazed, inadequately sealed
windows. Short of replacing them with modern sealed-glass windows, plastic or glassfibre window panels can be used. Some panels are manufactured as double-glazed
units that allow the passage of light but are unbreakable and more energy efficient
than single-glazed glass windows. See Table 2.4 on page 153 for some details on
insulation values.
First seal the building
to prevent air infiltration and exfiltration
and then look at
your insulation and
HVAC system.
152
In the past decade, there have been many improvements in window technology
over the typical double glazing with an air space width of 12 mm, which gives an
insulation value of RSI 0.35 (R-2).
• Standard triple glazing adds an extra air space (and also weight) and thus insulation.
• Glass coatings reduce heat emissivity and reflection. Low-emissivity (Low-E)
coating reduces radiant heat through the glass and achieves about the same
insulation as uncoated triple glazing.
• Gas fill – filling the inter-pane space with argon or krypton – further increases
the insulation.
• High-performance triple glazing may utilize Low-E as well as gas fill.The
insulating value is almost five times as great as that of a single-paned window.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
TABLE 2.4
RSI/R insulation values for windows
Glazing layers
Glazing type
RSI/R value
Double – one air space of 12 mm
Conventional, air
RSI 0.35 / R-2
Low-E
RSI 0.52 / R-2.9
Low-E with argon gas fill
RSI 0.62 / R-3.5
Conventional, air
RSI 0.54 / R-3
Tip
Low-E
RSI 0.69 / R-3.9
• Double glazing is the
Low-E with argon gas fill
RSI 0.76 / R-4.3
Triple – two air spaces of 12 mm
minimum standard
in Ontario.
Windows can also be shaded, curtained inside or shuttered outside to keep
out summer heat and winter chill (this is also governed by building codes and
ASHRAE regulations).
• Choose improved sealed
units for north-facing
and highly exposed
Reducing air leaks
windows.
Examine all openings (vents, windows and outside doors) for cracks that
allow air to leak in and out of the building. Block the cracks with caulking
or weatherstripping.
• Low-E coatings work
best with gas fill.
Vestibules, revolving doors and automatic door closers all help reduce losses from
open doors. Door seals at loading docks should be inspected regularly; worn or
damaged seals leave large gaps between the dock and the trailer.
Insulated doors have an RSI value of about 1.2 (R-7), compared with an
RSI value of 0.35 (R-2) for a traditional solid wood door.The most energyefficient door is an unglazed insulated door with double weatherstripping.
Refrigerated spaces require special doors.
An average factory door
with a 3.2-mm crack
has an infiltration rate
Energy recovery
of 5 L/s per metre
Building codes recommend that systems that recover energy should be considered when rejected fluid, including air, is of adequate temperature and a simultaneous need for energy exists for a significant number of operating hours.
Recently, many case studies have been posted on the Internet to show that commercial and industrial buildings can reduce energy consumption significantly
by applying heat exchangers and heat pumps (including ground-source heat
pumps), often achieving savings of greater than 50 percent.
length of crack. A poorly
At a minimum, the design and installation of ground- and water-source heat
pumps must comply with the requirements of Canadian Standards Association
(CSA) standards CAN/CSA C748, C13256-1 and C13256-2.
installed door with a
6.4-mm crack allows
twice as much
infiltration. Reducing
the infiltration will save
money in heating or
air-conditioning costs.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
153
Central building energy management
Building codes also recommend that a central energy monitoring and control
system in a building should, as the minimum, provide readings and retain daily
totals for all electric power and demand and for external energy, water and fossil
fuel use.
Some facilities must combat the effects of harsh Canadian winters by installing
external heating cables to prevent the formation of ice (e.g. in gutters and
downpipes, on glass roofs and flat roofs with internal heated downpipes and in
parking lots, driveways and entranceways). Often, the power stays on all winter.
Elsewhere, manual control tends to be crude and imprecise, increasing energy
consumption unnecessarily. An intelligent control system, as part of the central
building energy management system, will provide an effective solution.
$
Other energy management opportunities
In addition to the examples and ideas discussed in the preceding, consider using
the following, if applicable:
• a thermography consultant to discover areas that need (additional) insulation or
air-leakage control;
• additional insulation as economically feasible, with a long-range view to saving
energy costs; and
• innovative use of passive or active solar heating technology for space
and/or water heating, especially when combined with improved
insulation, window design and heat recovery from vented air.
Environmental considerations
Insulating and sealing a building against winter cold and summer heat reduces
the energy required for the heating and cooling systems and thus reduces the
pollutant emissions associated with operating these other primary energy generating systems. See Section 1.1, “Climate change,” on page 1 for information on
quantifying the reduction of emissions due to reduced energy consumption.
154
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Wall insulation
Check wall construction, particularly the type and thickness of insulation.
Is the wall adequately insulated? Look for frost or condensation on the
inside of outer walls in winter.
Yes
No action required.
No
Increase insulation by adding a layer either inside or outside the building.
Consult an insulation contractor for information about suitable upgrades.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is there a properly installed, adequate water vapour barrier over
insulated surfaces?
Yes
No action required.
No
Install water vapour barrier or vapour-impervious internal wall cladding.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Check roof construction, particularly the type and thickness of insulation.
Is the roof adequately insulated? Snow accumulates on a well-insulated roof.
Yes
No action required.
No
Consider upgrading roof insulation as soon as possible (consult an
insulation contractor).
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Windows
Check windows for type and condition.
Do you have any single-glazed windows?
Yes
Replace them with double- or triple-glazed windows or install exterior
storm windows (consult a contractor).
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
evaluation worksheet
Architectural features evaluation worksheet
Date: _______________________
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
155
evaluation worksheet
Are any windows cracked or broken? Are there any gaps between window
frames and walls?
Yes
Replace cracked and broken windows.
Caulk gaps in and around window frames.
No
Check every six months to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Do many windows face east, south or west?
Yes
To reduce summer heat gain, consider installing reflective glass
in the windows or covering them with blinds or curtains.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Infiltration and exfiltration of air
Check for leaks around vents, windows and doors, including loading dock
doors; check for windows and doors left open unnecessarily.
Did you detect drafts around any vents, windows and doors?
Yes
Install weatherstripping on doors.
Caulk vents and windows where the frames meet building walls.
No
No action required, provided all is in order; however, consider hiring a
weatherizing expert who will depressurize the building to confirm the
integrity of your building envelope.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Do outside doors have vestibules?
Yes
No action required.
No
Consider installing vestibules, revolving doors or automatic door closers to
minimize the passage of air through outside doors.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Do loading dock doors have dock seals?
Yes
Check frequently to ensure that they are well maintained.
No
Install dock seals to reduce air leakage.
Consider installing air curtains.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
156
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.16 Process furnaces, dryers and kilns
Many facilities contain fired equipment (e.g. furnaces, dryers and kilns) that
consumes fuel directly to heat the process, rather than transferring it from a
medium such as water or steam. In these units, the heat is applied directly or
indirectly from the flame to the process material.
Furnaces, dryers and kilns, which operate at very high temperatures, may
offer many heat-recovery and energy-saving opportunities. Before considering
heat-recovery options, however, consider the following:
• Examine current practices – is the high heat actually needed?
• Ensure that these systems are operating at maximum efficiency. First, deal
with energy losses through excess air, flue-gas temperatures, radiation
and conduction.
Here is an example of the first point: A bicycle manufacturer switched from
solvent-soluble primer to water-based paint. Apart from obvious environmental
benefits, this allowed the manufacturer to lower drying and curing temperatures
considerably.The energy consumption of the drying furnace was reduced, too.
Integrating a muffling furnace with the drying tunnel of the priming section
produced additional savings.
After examining the above points, consider applying one of the many methods
available today to minimize energy requirements and extract heat from exhaust air.
Heat losses
Excess air
The amount of excess air used in a furnace, dryer or kiln varies according to
the application; for example, a direct-fired drying oven requires large quantities of
excess air to remove vapours quickly from it (see the example preceding). Excess
air carries heat away from the process and up the stack, so this air should be
monitored and adjusted to the minimum quantity necessary to do the job.
Even small (0.16-cm, or 1/8-in.) gaps around doors, etc. quickly add up to a large
open area, and substantial amounts of cold air can infiltrate.The excess air takes
away from the heat required to heat the product. Savings will result when the
excess air is reduced. Proper maintenance can reduce but seldom eliminate cold
air infiltration (except in new equipment); instead, use furnace pressurization and
burner flame management and control. Maintaining positive pressure at all times
inside the furnace will prevent cold air infiltration through leaks.Technologies
that regulate the chimney stack opening and a variety of pulse-fired combustion
methods, together with maintaining steady heat levels (high fire is on most of the
time), can also prevent cold air from entering. Combined energy savings may be
as high as 60 percent along with substantial emissions reductions.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
157
FIGURE 2.8
Energy loss from furnace walls
versus outside wall temperature
Energy loss (MJ/m2h)
50
Radiation and convection heat loss
Heat losses due to radiation and convection from a furnace, dryer
or kiln can be high if the enclosure is not properly maintained.
Heat loss can occur because of deficiencies such as
• damaged or missing insulation;
• missing furnace doors and covers;
• damaged, warped or loose-fitting furnace doors and
covers; and
• openings in the furnace enclosure that allow passage of air.
40
30
20
10
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Figures 2.8 and 2.9 illustrate the relationship between outside
furnace wall temperature and energy loss from the furnace walls,
and between furnace temperature and energy loss through
openings in furnace walls.
Outside wall temperature (°C)
Controls and monitoring
FIGURE 2.9
Energy loss by radiation through
opening versus furnace temperature
Energy loss (MJ/m2h)
2500
Furnace efficiency can often be improved by upgrading burner
controls and their type, as mentioned above. Automating systems
that include fuel and airflow meters, gas pressure control, flue
damper control through pressure sensors, and tight in-furnace
conditions monitoring for sloping control will permit closer
energy consumption control and lower levels of excess air.
Systems with oxygen trim allow for even better control of
excess air.
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0
Without adequate controls, energy efficiency improvement
efforts will fail. Monitoring equipment should be installed so
that operators can determine energy consumption per unit of
output.They can then identify deviations from this standard and
take corrective action.
250
500
750 1000 1250 1500
Furnace temperature (°C)
In drying or kilning, the meters can measure final moisture
content of dried solids, product quality and heat and power
input to the equipment.
The controlling and monitoring technologies incorporate proportional integral
derivative controllers, feedback and feedforward control, process integration
control, dynamic modelling and expert computer control systems.
Generally, the benefits of monitoring and controlling industrial furnaces, ovens
and kilns include the following:
•
•
•
•
158
reduced product losses;
improved product quality and consistency;
improved operational reliability; and
energy efficiency improvements of 50 percent or more.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Drying technologies
This section points out briefly the range of technologies currently available
for upgrading or retrofitting existing equipment to improve process energy
efficiency.To remove water or organic solvents by evaporation, a gas (normally
air) is used to transfer the necessary heat to the substrate to be dried in a variety
of industrial equipment.The air also carries away the vapour produced.The heating is usually indirect. Drying heat can also be supplied by other means such as
dielectric heating (including microwave and radio frequency techniques), electromagnetic induction, infrared radiation, heat conduction through the walls of the
dryer and combinations of these methods.
Direct heating
Direct heating incorporates a mixture of hot combustion gases from a burner,
recycled air and fresh air. It eliminates the use of heat-transfer equipment in indirect drying. Hence, the conventional heat losses are reduced from about 40 to
50 percent in steam-using systems to 10 percent in direct heating. Employing hot
exhaust gases from a gas turbine in a combined heat and power system further
improves the overall efficiency. Since natural gas is the most commonly used fuel,
products are not contaminated with exhaust gases; direct heating may be used to
dry food products.
Direct heating can be cost-effective. It may be included at the process design
stage or retrofitted into an existing dryer.The benefits include more precise
temperature control, improved uniformity of heating, increased throughput
(i.e. reduction of energy use per unit of production) and the possibility of
integrating it into an existing control system.
Electric heating
This method aims the heating effect of electromagnetic energy precisely to the
solid or to the moisture in the solid, thereby avoiding the need to heat a stream
of drying air. Efficiency is 100 percent at the point of use, and the efficiency of
generation from AC power is 50 percent for radio frequency and 60 percent for
microwave energy. Induction drying can be used only when a substrate is an electrical conductor.The benefits of electric heating include precise control of oven
temperatures, improved product quality, short start-up times, simpler maintenance
of the ovens and reduced environmental impact from the overall process.
The speed of drying also improves dramatically (e.g. to as little as 3 percent of
what a conventional process would take, as in ceramics drying).That fact results
in short payback periods of one to three years.
The energy savings derived from installing an electrically heated dryer depend
on the energy efficiency of the dryer being replaced.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
159
Other measures
To improve the efficiency of dryers and kilns, supplemental processes
can be employed:
• mechanical dewatering, such as with presses;
• desaturation – by gravity draining, centrifuging or use of an air knife to
remove surface moisture; and
• thermal insulation to system parts that are not insulated or that have insufficient
insulation (e.g. burner compartments, ductworks, heat exchangers).
Using superheated steam as the drying medium eliminates the use of air and
allows the evaporated water to be used as a source of heat for other processes.
Compared with a conventional dryer, the use of superheated steam results in
20 percent less energy being used.With heat recovery techniques, the energy
savings can reach 80 percent.
Heat recovery
Estimate the economics of a heat recovery system for the given dryer by
following these steps:
• Determine the input/output air temperatures and humidities.
• Evaluate the quantity of heat recoverable through process integration.
• From the contractor’s quotations, derive value for total cost per kWh of heat
recovered to estimate the total cost of the project.
• From local prices, determine the value of each saved kWh.
• Derive the simple payback period.
In a dryer installation, heat recovery may apply to the transfer of exhaust heat to
the input air (e.g. by a heat exchanger or by mixing part of the recycled exhaust
with fresh input air), to the product or to another process stream or operation.
Each heat recovery system must be correctly selected for a given application
and for the dryer used. Such systems may include heat pumps (electrically or
gas engine-driven), exhaust air recycle systems, heat pipes, direct contact heat
exchangers, gas-to-gas plate and tubular recuperators, runaround coils and heat
wheels. Seek the advice of a knowledgeable and unbiased consultant for the best
solution to your particular problem because you may not receive unbiased advice
from a vendor.
Furnace and kiln stack temperatures are generally higher than boiler stack
temperatures. Higher temperatures provide several opportunities to recover
and re-use heat.
The type of heat-reclaim system implemented is driven by how the reclaimed
heat will be used. Among the methods for furnace or kiln heat reclaim are heat
exchangers (recuperators).They transfer the heat from hot flue gas to combustion
air. Regenerative air heaters use two separate sets of refractory bricks, which are
alternately heated by the hot flue gas and cooled by the incoming combustion
air. In wood-processing plants, which use biomass burners, the heat may also be
used to pre-dry the wet bark to be burned.
160
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Another method to improve energy efficiency, particularly in the cement, lime
and alumina calcination industries, is with dual fuel burners.These can complement temporary shortages of the primary fuel – carbon monoxide (CO) – with
natural gas; plants can therefore avoid energy-wasting kiln shutdowns when CO
supply is low, as one large Canadian operator recently demonstrated.
The energy potential of furnace or kiln waste gases, such as CO, can be put to
good use in a variety of industries (primary metals, petrochemical, recycling) by
recovering the heat from the flares.This heat can be used for boiler combustion
air pre-heating or even for micro-turbine generator operation.
$
Energy management opportunities
These ideas are in addition to the those presented above:
Housekeeping EMOs
• Paying proper attention to the drying equipment and upstream processes can
save 10 percent of the total energy load.
• Implement a program of regular inspection and preventive maintenance.
• Maintain proper burner adjustments and monitor flue gas combustibles
and oxygen.
• Keep heat exchanger surfaces clean.
• Schedule production so that each furnace/kiln or drying oven operates
near maximum output.
• Maintain equipment insulation.
Low-cost EMOs
• Upgrade or add monitoring and control equipment.
• Relocate combustion air intake to recover heat from other processes
(or from within the building).
• Replace warped, damaged or worn furnace doors and covers.
Retrofit EMOs
• Install an air-to-liquid heat exchanger to heat process liquids such as boiler
make-up water (large systems may permit the use of a waste-heat boiler).
• Install a scrubber to recover heat while removing undesirable particles
and gases (captured and recycled particulate matter may help reduce raw
material cost).
• Examine other types of drying heat delivery (i.e. modern product heating/
drying technologies already described), for replacing outdated drying/
curing ovens.
• Examine the use of supplementary fuels for kiln furnace operations (e.g. old tires).
• Integrate and automate operational control for optimum energy efficiency.
• Change the method of conveying product through an oven to facilitate rapid
heat transfer to the product (e.g. exchanging wagons for open heat-resistant
racks/platforms, etc.).
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
161
• Optimize electric arc furnace operations by continuously analysing off-gas
combustible hydrogen and CO and by linking it with the regulation of
burner ratios, oxygen injections and carbon additions.
• In iron foundries, optimize the use of coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and
natural gas by optimizing the distribution system capability, automation and
computer control, to minimize flare-offs and natural gas purchases.
Environmental considerations
Energy-saving measures that reduce fuel consumption also reduce emissions of
carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants. See Section 1.1,“Climate change,”
on page 1 for a practical method of calculating emissions reductions resulting
from fuel savings.
More detailed information
The technical manual Process Furnaces, Dryers and Kilns (Cat. No. M91-6/7E,
available from NRCan) offers much more detailed descriptions of opportunities
to save energy. See page vi of the preface of this Guide for ordering information.
162
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Excess air
Measure flue gas oxygen content and compare with design specifications.
Oxygen content: _____ percent; Excess air: _____ percent
Is the excess air content appropriate for the application?
Yes
Check periodically to maintain standard.
No
Ask a burner technician to determine whether the burner can be adjusted
to operate with less excess air.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Condition of enclosure
Inspect the enclosure of the furnace, dryer or kiln, noting missing or
damaged insulation, doors and covers.
Have any doors or covers been damaged or removed?
Yes
Repair or replace missing or damaged doors and covers.
No
Check periodically to maintain standard.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is the insulation intact?
Yes
Check frequently to maintain standard.
No
Repair or replace missing and damaged insulation.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Is the insulation adequate (i.e. is the exterior of the oven cool to the touch)?
Yes
Check periodically to maintain standard.
No
Add insulation (consult the technical manual Process Insulation,
Cat. No. M91-6/1E, for information about installing an economic thickness).
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
evaluation worksheet
Process furnaces, dryers and kilns evaluation worksheet
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
163
evaluation worksheet
Controls
Examine the burner controls for options such as flue-gas oxygen
sensors, fuel meters and airflow meters.
Is your burner equipped with these options?
Yes
If your excess air is too high, your controls need to be adjusted.
No
Consider upgrading your burner controls to include oxygen trim and
individual fuel and air metering and control.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Flue-gas heat recovery
Measure flue-gas temperatures during normal furnace operations.
Temperature: _____°C
Check for economizers or air heaters.
Is the equipment fitted with any heat-recovery devices?
Yes
At next shutdown, evaluate
• whether fins and tubes are corroded or otherwise damaged; and
• how much soot has accumulated.
Check that the unit is operating and not bypassed.
Calculate the heat recovered and compare performance with
design specifications.
No
Contact equipment suppliers to evaluate the feasibility of installing
heat-recovery equipment.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Use of waste gases in dryers
Investigate the availability and suitability of hot gases from other processes.
Are flue gases from other equipment available at suitable temperatures and
in appropriate quantity and flow rate?
Yes
Consult specialists to design a system to replace prime fuel with waste gases.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
164
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.17 Waste heat recovery
Throughout this Guide, the subject of waste heat recovery has been mentioned,
with many specific examples already mentioned. Heat recovery is a complex
task, and great advances in developing suitable technologies have been made in
recent years. Perhaps no other energy efficiency topic has been reported on
more frequently. Research it thoroughly to find the best application for your
particular situation.
Waste heat (or surplus heat) recovery is the process of recovering and re-using
rejected heat to replace purchased energy. Heat recovery opportunities arise
in the process and environmental systems of almost every facility. Recovery
and re-use of waste heat can reduce energy costs and improve the profitability
of any operation.
Usable energy may be available from
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
hot flue gases;
hot or cold water drained to a sewer;
exhaust air;
hot or cold product or waste product;
cooling water or hydraulic oil;
ground-source thermal energy;
heat collected from solar panels;
superheat and condenser heat rejected from refrigeration equipment; and
other sources.
Waste heat is rejected heat released from a process at a temperature that is higher
than the temperature of the plant air. As it is often available at a temperature that
is lower than the intended level, its temperature must be raised, or “upgraded,”
through the use of suitable equipment.
In contemplating waste heat recovery, take into account the following
considerations:
•
•
•
•
•
Compare the supply and demand for heat.
Determine how easily the waste heat source can be accessed.
Assess the distance between the source and demand.
Evaluate the form, quality and condition of the waste heat source.
Determine whether there are any product quality implications of the waste
heat recovery project.
• Determine the temperature gradient and the degree of heat upgrade required.
• Determine any regulatory limitations regarding the potential for product
contamination, health and safety.
• Perform suitability and economic comparisons (using both the payback period
and annuity method evaluations) on the short-listed heat recovery options.
Tip
Returning the recovered
heat to the process from
which it came should be
the first priority because
such systems usually
require less control
and are less expensive
to install.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
165
Heat recovery technologies
The types of technology that are commonly used to recover waste heat
and make it available for re-use are the following:
• Direct usage and heat exchangers make use of the heat “as is.”
• Heat pumps and vapour recompression systems upgrade the heat so that it can
perform more useful work than could be achieved at its present temperature.
• There are multi-stage operations such as multi-effect evaporation, steam
flashing and combinations of the approaches already mentioned.
Direct usage
Direct usage involves using the waste heat stream as it is for another purpose.
Examples of direct use include using boiler flue gas for drying and using warm
exhaust air from a mechanical room to heat an adjacent area. Direct usage techniques require precautions and controls to ensure that the untreated waste stream
does not cause harmful effects, such as contaminating the product or endangering health and safety.
Heat exchangers
Heat exchangers and heat pumps have the widest range of applications, regardless
of the industry type. Heat exchangers transfer heat from one stream to another
without mixing the streams. Heat exchangers belong to one of the following
categories, according to use:
• gas-to-gas (plate type, heat-wheel type, concentric tube, metallic radiation
recuperator, Z-box, runaround systems, heat pipes, furnace burner heat
recuperation);
• gas-to-liquid, liquid-to-gas (finned tube, spiral, waste-heat boilers);
• liquid-to-liquid (plate type, spiral, shell and tube types); and
• fluidized bed (for severely fouling environments, such as in pulp and
paper mills).
A vast array of designs suited to varied needs is available. Due consideration
should be paid to selecting proper materials to prevent corrosion or fouling;
these may include stainless steel, nickel, special alloys, borosilicate glass, ceramics,
graphite, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), enamels and polyester for some
applications.
The newly released compact heat exchangers (CHEs) are still at the stage of
active development but are being greeted enthusiastically.Their volumes are less
than half of those of comparable shell-and-tube heat exchangers, they are more
versatile, and they allow more energy to be transferred between the streams
(sometimes even multiple streams). A CHE also offers the possibility of combining
functions with other unit operations, thus changing the process design radically.
Through the possibility of combining a CHE with reactors and separators, additional applications of energy efficiency opportunities have arisen in fuel cells,
absorption cycle machines, gas turbines and reformers. A CHE achieves
high heat transfer coefficient in small volumes, usually through extended surfaces.
It offers tighter process control. Other techniques, such as rotation, led to the
166
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
development of compact heat pumps, separators and reactors, also allowing faster
processing – all contributing to making process operations more energy efficient.
The sales of CHEs across the entire range of process industry sectors are increasing about 10 times faster than total sales for heat exchangers. Based on a realistic
rate of integration of this technology over the next 10 years, the CHE’s potential
for energy savings is estimated in Europe alone at US$130 million annually.
Heat pumps
Heat pumps enhance the usefulness of a waste energy stream by raising its
temperature (a mechanical refrigeration system adds mechanical energy to the
stream of recovered heat). A heat pump is most beneficial where heat from a
low-temperature waste stream can be upgraded economically. An industry survey
in 1999 indicated that heat pumps are one of the least-understood categories
of energy efficiency equipment.This may be one reason that this useful method
of waste heat recovery (and of heat dissipation!) is not as widespread as it deserves
to be. It is true that heat pump installations are complex and expensive, requiring
a detailed technical and economic feasibility study.The rewards for heat pump
deployment, however, can be impressive.
Heat pumps are often applied in combination with other means of conserving
energy to improve overall efficiency even further.
Vapour recompression
Vapour recompression systems upgrade the thermal content of low-temperature
vapours by one of two methods:
• Mechanical vapour recompression (MVR) – Centrifugal or positive
displacement compressors are used to raise the pressure (and thus the
temperature) of a vapour stream.
• Thermal vapour recompression (TVR) – The temperature of a vapour
stream is increased by injecting it with hotter vapour.
Multi-stage operations
Multi-stage operations derive greater energy efficiency through the energy
cascading effect in applications that involve heating or cooling. Examples include
the sugar, distilling, petrochemical and food industries. In evaporation, energy
usage can be reduced by two thirds when a single-effect evaporation is replaced
with triple-effect technology.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
167
Absorption heat transformer
The absorption heat transformer (AHT) is the newest heat reclamation
technology, which until now has been deployed mostly in Japan and Europe. As
the difference between electrical energy and fuel prices grows, this technology
will become more widely used in North America.The initial applications were
in the rubber, brewing, alcohol, abattoirs and meat packing and ethyleneamine
production industries; other opportunities are indicated for food, chemical and
pulp and paper industries. Application in other industries is being assessed.
An AHT is driven by waste heat only (i.e. no primary energy is used except
for a small amount of electricity needed to drive pumps).The transfer medium
used is invariably a 60 percent solution of lithium bromide. AHTs have a
remarkably rugged COP of about 0.45 to 0.48 and are practically unaffected
by temperature conditions.
The COP indicates that about one half of the heat in a waste stream can be
upgraded to a usable temperature level. Hence, AHTs are ideally suited to
applications in which
• The supply of waste heat considerably exceeds the demand for heat at the
higher temperature by a factor of at least two.
• The heat source should have a temperature of 60–130°C, with the heat
output approximately 20–50°C higher. Heat can be upgraded to about
15 percent of the temperature gradient. The maximum possible value of
heat demand level is approximately 150°C (because of corrosion concerns).
• Ideally, the heat source is in the form of latent heat and is available in
abundance – in the megawatt range.
AHTs offer excellent performance even under partial load conditions. It can
compete with a boiler and, primarily, with MVR. With due consideration of
megawatt size of the installation, the AHT system is favoured economically in
comparison with MVR when
• the electricity/fuel cost ratio is at or above three;
• the heat source has a temperature of approximately 100°C, with the heat
output approximately 40–50°C higher; and
• there is less sensitivity to temperature conditions.
Simple payback periods of one to four years have been obtained.
A very important consideration that may well enhance the AHT application
potential is the positive impact of the technology on the environment. As
AHTs are driven by waste heat only, emissions from an industrial plant can
be substantially reduced.
168
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
$
Energy management opportunities
Housekeeping EMOs
•
•
•
•
Identify sources of waste heat.
Eliminate as many sources of waste heat as possible.
Reduce the temperature of remaining waste heat.
Improve equipment inspection and maintenance to minimize the production
of waste heat.
Low-cost EMOs
• Capture waste heat from a clean waste stream that is normally discharged to the
atmosphere or drain by piping the waste stream to the point of use.
• Utilize the waste process water as a heat source for a heat pump.
• Utilize the heat of the plant effluent being treated in a wastewater
treatment plant (where applicable) as a heat source for a heat pump.
• Re-use hot exhaust air for drying purposes.
• Install improved automatic controls.
• Consider re-using heat from cooling hydraulic oil circulating (e.g. within
moulding machines and the injection moulds themselves); it reduces the
electrical load on the production process as well.
Retrofit EMOs
• Install waste heat reclamation equipment (e.g. replacing a cooling tower
circulation loop with a shell-and-tube heat exchanger).
• Consider upgrading or replacing outdated waste heat reclamation equipment.
• Consider combining a flue gas heat recuperator with a heat pump and
neutralization of an alkaline effluent by the flue gas.
• Consider deploying AHTs.
• Consider installing a CHE and integrating it with other processes.
• In a large computer centre, consider capturing the heat generated by, for
example, using cold and hot thermal storage, or by using a double-bundle
turbo refrigerator to recover the heat generated by refrigeration.
• Consider converting high-temperature flue gas heat (e.g. from metallurgical
furnaces) into superheated steam for steam turbine power generation.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
169
Environmental considerations
Recovered, re-used heat displaces heat generated with purchased energy. For
example, by displacing steam generated in a boiler, recovered heat reduces boiler
emissions by reducing the requirement for fuel. Also, the environmental benefits
of using AHTs have already been described. See Section 1.1, “Climate change,”
on page 1 for more information on calculating emissions reductions resulting
from energy efficiency improvements.
More detailed information
The comprehensive technical manual Waste Heat Recovery (Cat. No. M91-6/20E,
available from NRCan) provides a usefully detailed understanding of the subject.
See page vi of the preface of this Guide for ordering information.
170
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Boiler stack exhaust
Use the evaluation worksheet in Section 2.5, “Boiler plant systems,”
on page 83.
HVAC system
Use the evaluation worksheet in Section 2.8, “Heating, ventilating
and air-conditioning systems,” on page 102.
Refrigeration and heat pumps
Use the evaluation worksheet in Section 2.9, “Refrigeration and heat pump
systems,” on page 112.
Process furnaces, dryers and kilns
Use the evaluation worksheet in Section 2.16, “Process furnaces,
dryers and kilns,” on page 163.
Exhaust air
Check the temperature and flow rate of exhaust fan discharge.
Can the air be ducted directly into another area for space heating?
Yes
As soon as possible, install ducts and a blower to move air into the
area to be heated.
No
Consider preheating make-up air or recovering heat with an
air-to-air heat exchanger.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Waste water
evaluation worksheet
Waste heat recovery evaluation worksheet
Inventory all process water streams that leave the facility.
Are any process water streams warmer than 38°C when they leave
the facility?
Yes
Consider installing a heat exchanger to recover heat for use in process
or space heating.
No
If the wastewater flow is large, a heat pump or an AHT may be
appropriate (consult an engineer).
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
171
evaluation worksheet
172
Cooling water
Survey plant processes, noting those that require cooling water.
Is cooling water dumped into a drain?
Yes
If possible, consider using the warm water directly in another process.
Consider using a heat exchanger to recover heat for another process.
No
If cooling water is sent to a cooling tower, consider replacing the
cooling tower with a heat exchanger to recover heat from the water
for other processes.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Water vapour exhaust
Survey plant processes for those that emit large amounts of water vapour
(e.g. evaporators, kettles with direct-steam injection heating).
Does any equipment exhaust a large amount of water vapour?
Yes
Consider using either mechanical or thermal vapour compression to
upgrade the exhaust vapour into a more useful energy source.
No
No action required.
Done by: __________________________
Date: _______________________
Note:Add further questions to this evaluation worksheet that are specific to
your facility.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.18 Combined heat and power (CHP – “cogeneration”)
The units for the simultaneous production of heat and power achieve much
greater efficiencies than in the case of separate generation, giving primary fuel
savings of 35 percent, with overall efficiencies of 85 percent and more. Combined
heat and power (CHP) systems employ a single unit to produce electricity and
heat or sometimes provide shaft power to drive other equipment.They can be
economical in situations where heat at an appropriate temperature level is
required and a demand for power also exists.The energy efficiency aspect of
CHP and its environmental benefits in reduction of CO2 and NOx emissions
are reasons for a mounting interest in this rapidly developing technology.The
following outlines the technology and some of the EMOs. See Table 2.5 on
page 174 for CHP comparisons.
The first-generation CHP plants have been around for decades – in Denmark,
48 percent of power demand and 38 percent of heat demand were supplied by
CHP plants in 1996. However, the restructuring of energy generation in a
few provinces of Canada is making it easier for the industry to contemplate
CHP installations with the option of selling surplus electricity to the power
distribution grid. Other provinces are working on or studying deregulation.
A CHP unit typically consists of a prime mover – for generation of electricity –
and a heat recovery steam generator.
Before a decision on CHP project initiation can be made, there must be adequate
knowledge of the following:
• the electrical and thermal load profiles of the facility that also take into
account seasonal variations;
• the price relationship between electricity and fuel;
• the potential for energy conservation and energy efficiency projects;
• the outlook for future energy demand of the facility; and
• investment costs involved and possible financial incentives/assistance.
Tip
If uncertain about the
This will help in selecting the type of prime mover for the system and in
selecting the appropriate size.The greatest energy efficiency is obtained when
a unit is operating at full load. Hence, situations of extended part-load operation or long shutdowns that may result from using an oversized unit should
be avoided.
demand level, select a
smaller unit – probably at
50 percent of the site’s
maximum thermal
demand, with additional
Technology
CHP systems are evolving rapidly, and manufacturers offer units that have
a great range of outputs, from tens of MW all the way down to the 1-kW
level. A lot of effort is devoted to the development of small-scale CHP
technologies.They are based mainly on the Rankin or steam turbine cycle,
reciprocating engine cycle or gas turbine cycle.
heat demand being met
by conventional boilers.
That will ensure high
utilization rates of the
CHP unit.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
173
TABLE 2.5
Small-scale CHP comparisons
Tip
Consider installing more
than one CHP unit – or
adding thermal storage
to the design – to ensure
high utilization level of
the installation and its
flexibility in maintaining
full-load conditions for
the highest energy
efficiency.
174
Technology
NOx (ppm)
Efficiency (%)
Heat
Electric
Total
1 MW natural gas turbine
<20
60–65
20–25
85–90
1 MW natural gas
reciprocating engine
108
50
35–40
85–90
New, utility-sized combined
cycle gas turbine (no transmission and distribution)
n/a
n/a
55
55
Current power grid
(including transmission
and distribution)
n/a
n/a
30
30
New industrial gas boiler
24
85
n/a
85
Average installed
industrial boiler
120
65
n/a
65
Back pressure steam turbine
n/a
65
7–20
75–85
Fuel cells
0.05
–
50
–
Gas and steam turbines are better suited to industries where a steady and
high demand for high-pressure steam exists, such as in wood and paper and
petrochemical facilities. Gas engines are used mostly for <1–3 MW installations
in industries that have a demand for low-pressure steam and/or hot water, such as
in the food industry. Steam turbines are used in locations where steam surplus to
demand is available.
The energy source is mainly natural gas, although waste, biomass, biogas, diesel,
gasoline, coal and oil may be used in some installation configurations.The
power-to-heat ratio of generation is improving, from the earlier value of 0.5
to the current 0.6-0.7 and is still rising, toward 1.0, for a total efficiency of
80 percent. The simple paybacks for CHP installations may range from 11/2 to
10 years, with 41/2 years being the average.
Improvements in automatic monitoring and controls enable most CHP systems
to operate without any permanent staff at the plant; one person can look after
several units.
The biggest potential of CHP systems is in replacing the thousands of small,
aging boilers throughout Canada with units that produce both power and heat
with greater efficiency. As well, companies that have power needs in the range of
300 kW to 1 MW and that must replace their outdated chillers are an important
growth segment. For example, market estimates in the United States call for
multi-billion-dollar sales of CHP systems by the year 2010.
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
New developments are notable in gas microturbines (output of 500 kW or less)
and fuel cells.Their compact size offers the possibility to eliminate transmission
and distribution losses by locating the power/heat source close to the point of
intended use.
The capital costs of microturbines currently well exceed those systems that have
reciprocating engines as prime movers.The higher initial cost of these systems
is offset, however, by their virtually maintenance-free design. Also, their overall
efficiency is further increased because the turbine, compressor and permanent
magnet are mounted on a single shaft, avoiding mechanical losses.
The fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electricity. They are
virtually non-polluting, quiet and have low maintenance requirements. Industrial
installations include 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells and the recently introduced
250 kW proton exchange membrane power unit. Although the heat output is
relatively low grade (80°C), future increases of up to 150°C are expected, which
should allow easier steam generation.
Tip
Improve your electricity
revenue and thus the
economy of the plant by
adding thermal storage
capacity (usually worth
10 hours during daytime)
to the CHP. Heat storage
improves electricity
production during highprice / peak-demand
$
Energy management opportunities
periods by storing heat
Housekeeping EMOs
against future demand.
• Ensure regular inspection and preventive maintenance.
Low-cost EMOs
• Analyse your current heat and power demand situation and perspectives;
evaluate the economic potential of a possible CHP installation.
• Add an economizer for feedwater preheating to improve total efficiency.
Tip
Retrofit EMOs
by high-pressure steam
• Install a CHP unit.
• Upgrade your CHP installation to a combined cycle where, for example, steam
is expanded in a steam turbine to produce additional electricity.
• Complement your CHP with daytime (diurnal) heat storage to improve
electricity production and its profitability during high-tariff and peak demand
periods for use against subsequent demand.
• Consider alternative uses of CHP where the unit’s shaft is used to drive other
equipment (e.g. refrigeration compressor, HVAC compressor or air compressor)
instead of using a steam generator.
• Consider using the recovered heat through an absorption chiller for cooling
purposes instead of water heating or for air heating for dryer or space heating.
• Consider integrating your CHP with a heat pump to utilize a low-temperature
heat source for a highly energy-efficient system.
from the waste heat
A steam expander driven
boiler of a CHP may
be installed to produce
compressed air for the
facility. The low-pressure
steam from the expander
may further be used for
other processes.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
175
Environmental considerations
CHP is clearly an important environmental improvement over existing power
generating, heating and cooling technologies. CHP plants have been proven to
contribute to significant reductions of overall CO2 generation. Also, lower NOx
levels are achieved with some form of control incorporated in most instances
(e.g. lean burning, or based on catalytic reduction techniques using urea or
ammonia). See Section 1.1,“Climate change,” on page 1 for more information on
calculating emissions reductions resulting from energy efficiency improvements.
The use of acoustic enclosures can reduce noise levels from turbines or engines
from about 100 dB(A) to well below the typical legislated limit of 85 dB(A).
More detailed information
Further information is available from Natural Resources Canada’s Office of
Energy Efficiency Web site at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca. Other Internet sites can
also be valuable resources.
176
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
2.19 Alternative approaches to improving energy efficiency
Innovation, imagination and creativity are the hard-to-define but essential
ingredients in the quest for energy efficiency improvements. With some imagination, a solution known in one field may be creatively and innovatively applied
in another area. The world is full of successful energy conservation stories,
yet few people know about them.The following few points are offered to stimulate
thinking and whet our appetite for learning more.
Renewable energy
Consider using one of the following:
• a micro-hydro generating station in Canadian northern and remote locations.
A small dam on a creek to hold eight to 10 hours of full load production and
a Pelton turbine with an alternator and a voltage/frequency regulator may
prove to be an economic alternative to a diesel generator;
• solar heat from the factory attic to heat below-ground storage space via a
ventilation system; and
• wind-generated power to supplement the grid-supplied electricity and to
promote “green” energy use, as a major carpet manufacturer in Canada is doing.
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) EMOs
Consider the following:
• recovering latent heat from plant effluent and/or WWTP mixed liquor,
especially where anaerobic systems exhibit higher temperatures;
• using biogas from the anaerobic WWTP to supplement the factory’s energy needs;
• reviewing dissolved oxygen levels in aerobic WWTP and the method or
aeration (replace inefficient aeration equipment with a fine-bubble dispersal
method. Could a waste oxygen stream be utilized if available?); and
• installing an aeration optimization control system to reduce blower energy use costs.
Miscellaneous – Where applicable
• Installing a micro-filtration process may help in recovering rather than
dumping large volumes of liquid (and the heat contained therein) for re-use.
• Use waste heat from a CHP exhaust to heat greenhouses (could you establish
them as your business sideline venture?) and use the exhaust CO2 to stimulate
plant growth.
• An increase in the number of steps (effects) in an evaporation process may
improve energy efficiency economically.
• The installation of compact immersion tubes to heat pasteurizers, bleachers,
soakers, blanchers, bottle washers, etc. could replace inefficient indirect heating.
• Consider replacing a pneumatic conveying system with a mechanical conveyor.
For these and many other energy-saving ideas, information is available from the
Web site at http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca, from the resources mentioned elsewhere in
this Guide and from other sources on the Internet.
Part 2 – Technical guide to energy efficiency planning and management
177
appendix a
Global warming potential
of greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gas
Chemical formula
Global warming potential*
Carbon dioxide
CO2
1
Chloroform
CHCl3
4
HFC-23
CHF3
HFC-32
CH2F2
650
HFC-41
CH3F
150
HFC-43-10mee
C5H2F10
1300
HFC-125
C2HF5
2800
HFC-134
C2H2F4
1000
HFC-134a
CH2FCF3
1300
Canada’s total emissions
HFC-152a
C2H4F2
140
in 1997. Since most of
HFC-143
C2H3F3
300
the gas is generated by
HFC-143a
C2H3F3
3800
HFC-227ea
C3HF7
2900
HFC-236fa
C3H2F6
6300
HFC-245ca
C3H3F5
560
Methane
CH4
Methylene Chloride
CH2Cl2
Nitrous Oxide
N2O
310
Perfluorobutane
C4F10
7000
Perfluorocyclobutane
c-C4F8
8700
Perfluoroethane
C2F6
9200
Perfluorohexane
C6F14
7400
Perfluoromethane
CF4
6500
Perfluoropentane
C5F12
7500
Perfluoropropane
C3F8
7000
Sulfurhexafluoride
SF6
Trifluoroiodomethane
CF3I
11 700
21
9
CO2 represented
76 percent of 682 Mt of
combustion of fuels,
whether for industrial,
transportation, domestic
or power generation
purposes, the application of energy efficiency
measures, which reduce
fuel consumption, is an
important way to reduce
CO2 emissions.
23 900
<1
* 100-year time horizon.
Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995:The Science of Climate Change.
(Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996),Table 2-9,“Radiative Forcing of Climate Change,” p. 120.
Appendix A – Global warming potential of greenhouse gases
179
appendix b
Energy units and conversion factors
Basic SI units
Length
Mass
Time
Temperature
metre (m)
gram (g)
second (s)
Kelvin (K)
Commonly used temperature units
Celsius (C), Fahrenheit (F)
0°C = 273.15 K = 32°F
1°F = 5/9°C
1°C = 1 K
Fahrenheit temperature = 1.8 (Celsius temperature) + 32
Note: The use of the term “centigrade” instead of “Celsius” is incorrect.
It was abandoned in 1948 to avoid confusion with a centennial arc degree
used in topography.
Multiples
Fractions
101
102
103
106
109
1012
1015
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
deca (da)
hecto (h)
kilo (k)
mega (M)
giga (G)
tera (T)
peta (P)
deci (d)
centi (c)
milli (m)
micro (µ)
nano (n)
Derived SI units
180
Volume:
hectolitre (hL)
cubic metre (m3)
(100 L)
(1000 L)
Mass:
kilogram (kg)
tonne (t)
(1000 g)
(1000 kg)
Heat:
Quantity of heat, work, energy
Heat flow rate, power
Heat flow rate
U-value
Thermal conductivity
joule (J)
watt (W)
watt/m2
watt/m2K
W/mK
Pressure:
Pascal (Pa)
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
Conversion factors
Multiply:
by
to obtain:
metre
3.2808399
feet
metre
39.370079
inches
kg
2.2046226
pounds
tonne (t)
0.9842206
tons (long)
tonne (t)
1.10233113
tons (short)
L
0.219975
gallons (imperial)
L
0.035315
cubic feet
kWh
3.6
MJ
kWh
3412
Btu
MJ
947.8
Btu
Btu
0.001055
MJ
Heat emission or gain
W/m2
0.317
Btu/sq. ft.
Specific heat
kJ/kgK
0.2388
Btu/lb. °F
W
3.412
Btu/h
U-value, heat
transfer coefficient
W/m2K
0.1761
Btu/sq. ft. h °F
Conductivity
W/mK
6.933
Btu in./sq. ft. h °F
Calorific value
(mass basis)
kJ/kg
0.4299
Btu/lb.
Calorific value
(volume basis)
MJ/m3
26.84
Btu/cu. ft.
bar
14.50
lbf/sq. in. (psi)
bar
100
kPa
bar
0.9869
std. atmosphere
mm Hg (mercury)
133.332
Pa
ft. of water
2.98898
kPa
m3/kg
16.02
cu. ft./lb.
m/s
3.281
ft./s
Length
Mass
Volume
Energy
Quantity of heat
Heat flow rate
Pressure
Specific volume
Velocity
Appendix B – Energy units and conversion factors
181
Useful values
1 Therm
=
100 000 Btu
or
29.31 kWh
1 cu. ft. of natural gas
=
1 000 Btu
or
0.2931 kWh
1 m3 of natural gas
=
35 310 Btu
or
10.35 kWh
1 U.S. gal. No. 2 oil
=
140 000 Btu
or
41.03 kWh
1 imperial gal. No. 2 oil
=
168 130 Btu
or
49.27 kWh
1 U.S. gal. No. 4 oil
=
144 000 Btu
or
42.20 kWh
1 imperial gal. No. 4 oil
=
172 930 Btu
or
50.68 kWh
1 U.S. gal. No. 6 oil
=
152 000 Btu
or
44.55 kWh
1 imperial gal. No. 6 oil
=
182 540 Btu
or
53.50 kWh
1 boiler horsepower
=
33 480 Btu/h
or
9.812 kW
1 mechanical horsepower
=
2 545 Btu/h
or
0.7459 kW
1 ton refrigeration
=
12 000 Btu
or
3.5172 kWh
In Canada, the value of 1 Btu (60.5°F) = 1.054615 kJ was adopted for use in the
gas and petroleum industry.The ISO recognizes the value of 1.0545 kJ.
182
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
appendix c
Technical industrial publications available
from the Canada Centre for Mineral and
Energy Technology (CANMET)
Please copy the form below, fill in the required information and fax to the
number indicated.
CANMET
CANMET Energy Technology Centre
Natural Resources Canada
580 Booth Street, 13th Floor
Ottawa ON K1A 0E4
Tel.: (613) 996-6220
Fax: (613) 996-9416
Technical industrial publications order form
Name: __________________________________________________________
Organization: _____________________________________________________
Address: _________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Postal code: __________________ Tel.: _______________________________
Fax: _____________________ E-mail: _______________________________
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Pub. No.: _________; quantity: ______
Appendix C – Technical industrial publications available from CANMET
183
Technical industrial publications
1. Low NOx Demonstration Project – 1991
2. Processes, Equipment and Techniques
for the Energy Efficient Recycling of
Aluminum – 1993
16. Low NOx Technology Assessment and
Cost/Benefit Analysis – 1994
3. Research and Development
Opportunities for Improvement in
Energy Efficiency in the Canadian
Pulp and Paper Sector to the Year
2010 – 1993
17. Application of Artificial Intelligence
Technology to Increase Productivity,
Quality and Energy Efficiency in
Heavy Industry – 1995
4. Present and Energy Efficiency Future
Use of Energy in the Cement and
Concrete Industries in Canada – 1993
18. Energy Efficiency Process for the
Pulp and Paper Industry:Analysis
of Selected Technologies – 1995
5. Present and Future Use of Energy in
the Canadian Steel Industry – 1993
6. Energy Efficiency and Environmental
Impact for the Canadian Meat
Industry – 1993
19. Gas Utilization and Operations RD&D
Needs,Activities and Technology
Enablers: Baseline Data for CGA’s
Natural Gas Technology Development
Plan – 1995
7. Energy Efficiency R&D Opportunities
in the Mining and Metallurgy Sector,
Phase 1 – Scoping Study – 1993
20. Mid-Kiln Injection of Tire-Derived
Fuel at Lafarge Canada Inc. Cement
Plant at St-Constant, Quebec – 1995
8. Energy Efficiency R&D Opportunities
in the Food and Beverage Sector,
Phase 1 – Scoping Study – 1993
21. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Beverage Industry –
1996
9. Energy Efficiency R&D Opportunities
in the Oil and Gas Sector, Phase 1 –
Scoping Study – 1993
22. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Cement Industry – 1996
10. Technical Specifications for an Energy
Management System – 1993
11. Technical and Market Study of a
High Temperature Heat Pump Applied
to Paper Machine Dryer Heat
Recovery – 1993
12. Chemical Pulp Bleaching: Energy
Impact of New and Emerging
Technologies – 1994
13. Toward Energy Efficient Refrigeration –
Industrial Research and
Development Opportunities
to the Year 2010 – 1994
14. Energy Efficiency for the Canadian
Seafood Processing and Aquaculture
Industries – 1994
184
15. Prospects for Energy Conservation
Technologies in Canada – The Steel
Industry Position – 1994
Energy Efficiency Planning and Management Guide
23. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Chemical Fertilizers –
1996
24. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Dairy Industry – 1996
25. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Feed and Alfalfa
Industry – 1996
26. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Food Processing
Industry – 1996
27. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Hydrogen – 1996
28. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Industrial Chemicals –
1996
29. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Iron and Steel Foundries – 1996
38. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Vegetable Oils – 1996
30. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Meat and Poultry Industry – 1996
39. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Wood Board Industry – 1996
31. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Oil Refining Industry – 1996
40. Helical Grooved Pulpstones Research and
Development Project, Final Report – 1996
32. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Overview – 1996
41. Modeling of Black Liquor Recovery Boilers,
Summary Report – December 1996
33. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Plastics Products – 1996
42. Market/Technical Evaluation of Natural Gas
Technologies for Industrial Drying Applications
in Food and Beverage Sectors – 1996
34. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Plastic Resins Industry – 1996
35. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Pulp and Paper – 1996
36. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Sawmills – 1996
37. Natural Gas Applications for Industry –
Final Report – Steel Industry – 1996
43. Implementation of an Effective Mill-Wide
Energy Monitoring System – 1996
44. Advances in the Application of Intelligent
Systems in Heavy Industry – 1997
45. Intelligent Energy Management for Small Boiler
Plants – Metering, Monitoring and Automatic
Control – 1998
Fact sheets
Please circle the title required.
FS-1E
Federal Industrial Boiler Program
FS-13E
Energy-Efficient Refrigeration
FS-2E
Stone Groundwood Process Control
FS-14E
Helically Grooved Pulp Stones
FS-3E
Energy Efficient Lumber Kiln
FS-15E
FS-4E
Water-Based Automotive Paints
Harnessing Artificial Intelligence
in Heavy Industry
FS-5E
Recycling Heat from Ventilation Air
FS-16E
Toward Chlorine-Free Bleaching
FS-6E
Recovery of Phosphate Rejects
FS-17E
Energy-Efficient Recycling of
Aluminium
FS-7E
Locomotive Oil Reclaiming System
FS-18E
FS-8E
Powder Metallurgy
Lubricants for Low Heat
Rejection Engines
FS-9E
Electrical Impulse Drying
FS-19E
FS-10E
High Energy-Efficient AC Motors
Heat Management Technologies –
Heat Smart Solutions
FS-11E
An Automated Manufacturing
Process for Current-Limiting
Low-Voltage Fuses
FS-20E
Gas Technologies for Industry
FS-21E
Industry Energy Research and
Development Program (IERD)
FS-12E
Adaptive VAR Compensator
Appendix C – Technical industrial publications available from CANMET
185
Leading Canadians to Energy Efficiency at Home, at Work and on the Road
The Office of Energy Efficiency of Natural Resources Canada
strengthens and expands Canada's commitment to energy efficiency
in order to help address the challenges of climate change.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement