THE LEARNING CIRCLE

THE LEARNING CIRCLE
THE LEARNING CIRCLE
classroom activities on
first nations in canada
Ages 12 to 14
Indian and Northern
Affairs Canada
Affaires indiennes
et du Nord Canada
A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s
a n d C r e d i t s
The Learning Circle: Classroom Activities on First Nations in Canada, Ages 12 to 14
Researched and written by Harvey McCue and Associates
for the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Special thanks to:
The First Nations Confederacy of Cultural Education Centres
The National Association of Friendship Centres
Published under the authority
of the Minister of Indian Affairs
and Northern Development,
Ottawa, 2000
www.inac.gc.ca
QS-6127-002-EE-A1
Catalogue No. R72-279/2000 E
ISBN 0-662-28449-6
©
Minister of Public Works and
Government Services Canada
Cette publication peut aussi être obtenue en français sous le titre :
« Le Cercle d’apprentissage : Activités d’apprentissage
pour la classe sur les Premières nations du Canada,
destinées aux jeunes de 12 à 14 ans. »
table of
contents
INtroduction .................................................. 1
Unit 1 - Urban Fir st Nations .......................... 3
U n i t 2 - W h at ’s I n A N a m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Unit 3 - Fir st Nations
Organizations .................................... 12
Unit 4 - Hunting and Trapping ...................... 17
Unit 5 - Residential Schools
.......................... 28
table of contents
Unit 6 - Literary Images
of Fir st Nations ................................ 34
Unit 7 - Indian Treaties .................................. 41
Unit 8 - Fir st Nations
Self-Government ................................ 48
Resources ........................................................ 55
Cultural Education Centres .......................... 60
Friendship Centres .......................................... 66
INTRODUCTION
The Learning Circle is designed to help meet Canadian educators’ growing need for
elementary-level learning exercises on First Nations. It is the third in a series of three classroom
guides on First Nations in Canada.
Because First Nations are culturally diverse, the information in this activity book does not necessarily
apply to all groups. To learn more about particular First Nations, and to get help with learning
activities, teachers are encouraged to consult local Aboriginal Elders, Cultural Education Centres
or Friendship Centres. Some key addresses and contact numbers are listed at the end of this guide.
The Learning Circle is organized in thematic units, each with its own teaching activities. Units
are designed to give teachers and students simple but effective exercises, projects and activities
that will encourage students to learn more about First Nations. Educators can follow some of
the exercises as stand-alone units on First Nations topics, or integrate them with existing curricula
on Aboriginal peoples.
Most exercises in The Learning Circle can be completed in one period. Certain others will take
several periods, days or weeks.
GENERAL INFORMATION ON
FIRST NATIONS
Many academics maintain that people inhabited North America some 30,000 years ago, and possibly
earlier. This is confirmed by archaeological research. As more and more archaeological data have
become available, some academics are of the opinion that this date should be revised.
However, many First Nations dispute the claims about their arrival in North America. Most First
Nations origin and creation stories reinforce the belief that the First People lived in North America
since time immemorial.
page 1
introduction
Teachers and other users should note that several units in this kit include some activities that are
designed for classes and schools that are located near or in First Nations communities.
The term First Nation came into common usage in the 1970s to replace the word “Indian,” which
many people found offensive. Although the term First Nation is widely used, no legal definition
of it exists, unlike “Indian.” The word “Indian” is still used to describe one of three groups of people
recognized as Aboriginal in the Constitution Act, 1982. The other two groups are the Métis
and Inuit.
There are six major cultural regions of First Nations in Canada. From east to west, these are the Woodland
First Nations, the Iroquois First Nations of southeastern Ontario, the Plains First Nations, the Plateau
First Nations, the First Nations of the Pacific Coast and the First Nations of the Mackenzie and
Yukon River basins.
Each Nation possesses its own unique culture, language and history. Their collective presence in
North America does not diminish their distinctiveness any more than the collective presence of nations
in Europe lessens the distinctions between the cultures of Poland and Italy, for example. The practice
of identifying all First Nations as one homogeneous group obscured the unique and rich traditions
that each Nation developed and nurtured.
First Nations today retain their cultural and linguistic distinctiveness. As with other cultures throughout
the world, many contemporary First Nations result from a long series of influences, some peaceful
and some arising out of conflict. Some First Nations merged with others. Some were simply absorbed
over time by larger Nations, and some disappeared altogether. The cultures and languages evident
today are the products of complicated, centuries-old processes that shaped the evolution of most,
if not all, cultures everywhere.
Another commonality is that all First Nations lived in organized societies with their own governments,
religions and social and economic institutions. Individuals, families and larger groups of people
such as clans, tribes and Nations behaved according to a broad range of agreed-upon social, political
and economic values.
A third commonality was trade. All First Nations in Canada and North America as a whole traded
extensively throughout the continent. Expansive trading practices contributed to the growth and
development of First Nations cultures. These practices also enabled many First Nations to respond
to the fur trade as competitive, efficient trading partners with Europeans.
page 2
introduction
Although there are many differences between First Nations, there are commonalities as well.
For example, all First Nations were dependent on the land for survival and prosperity. All First Nations
were hunters and gatherers. Some were also farmers. Without the skills and knowledge to hunt
and fish and to gather food and medicines, First Nations would not exist today.
unit 1
URBAN FIRST
NATIONS
MAIN IDEA
Not all First Nations people reside in their own communities and reserves. Many live in towns or cities
throughout Canada.
OBJECTIVE
•
to introduce students to challenges faced by First Nations people living in urban areas
Over 40 percent of the Registered Indian population in Canada reside in an urban setting: either
a town, a medium-sized city such as Prince George, Brandon, Barrie or Halifax, or a large metropolitan
city such as Toronto or Vancouver. In some large cities such as Winnipeg, Regina and Edmonton,
First Nation residents make up a large portion of the downtown or inner city populations.
First Nations people have been moving from their traditional reserve communities to urban centres
since urban communities first developed in Canada. However, the shift to urban life began in earnest
in the 1950s immediately after World War II. At that time, many First Nations servicemen moved
to towns and cities that were expanding, both in size and economically, during the decade immediately
after the war. There were then subsequent generations of First Nations people who lived exclusively
in a non-reserve location. Many others, however, returned to their reserve communities after several
months or years of working and residing in the city. Some of these men began a pattern of migrating
back and forth from the reserve to the city — a lifestyle followed by many First Nations people today.
There are many reasons why First Nations people continue to live in urban environments. The main
reasons have remained fairly constant for the past 40 years. They include opportunities for employment,
education, a different lifestyle and better access to accommodation.
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urban first nations
TEACHER INFORMATION
In addition to greater employment prospects, towns and cities have always offered First Nations people
the chance to further the basic education provided by reserve schools. Few First Nation communities
have high schools or colleges. None has a university. First Nations students who wish to further their
studies usually reside in an urban area for the duration of their secondary and post-secondary education.
The urban lifestyle is an added incentive for many First Nations people to leave the reserve. Few
First Nations communities can offer the consumer choices, recreational conveniences and leisure
outlets found in most towns and cities.
Occasionally, physical conditions in First Nation communities force residents to relocate to towns and
cities. These conditions include housing shortages, inadequate houses for a family’s size or a land
base that is too small.
But not all First Nations people who move to the city stay there indefinitely. Research on urban
First Nation populations shows that many First Nations people move back and forth from their
traditional communities to the city. The research also indicates that many First Nations people who
live, however temporarily, in an urban environment, often visit their traditional communities on
weekends and holidays. They thus maintain strong links with family, friends and their homes.
Numerous towns and cities to which First Nations people have relocated have a wide range
of organizations and agencies that offer programs and services to assist First Nations people who
experience difficulty in the city. Many of these organizations are staffed by First Nations people.
Friendship Centres, for example, offer cultural programs, as well as services that address health,
employment and accommodation issues. In the past 20 years, these centres have become prominent
agencies for urban First Nations people. In certain cities, municipal programs have been adapted
to meet the special needs of First Nations people wherever a significant number have relocated.
These centres, agencies and programs tend to address the difficulties of First Nations people who
live in the inner city. Unemployment, health, accommodation and related social services are these
populations’ leading concerns.
In addition, several elementary and secondary schools have been developed during the past three
decades in various cities to provide an educational program for First Nations children and youth.
These schools emphasize traditional culture in the curricula.
The large populations of First Nations people in some cities have contributed to discussions on
the creation of urban First Nations self-government. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
explored this issue in its final report.
unit 1
page 4
urban first nations
Whatever the reasons for First Nations people moving to an urban setting, there is evidence
that they encounter many problems in the city. Although the gap is narrowing, First Nations youth
generally lack job experience and suitable education or training compared with the general Canadian
population. This makes finding employment more challenging. Finding suitable accommodation
can also become a problem for individuals or families who are unemployed.
ACTIVITIES
1.
F r i e n d s h i p C e n t r e s : W h at A r e T h e y ?
There are over 100 Friendship Centres across Canada and seven provincial and territorial associations
of Friendship Centres (see the Friendship Centres section at the end of this guide). Ask students to write
to the director of a local Friendship Centre for information about its programs and activities. Some
questions that students may want to consider are:
•
what special programs are offered to First Nations youth?
•
what cultural activities take place at the Friendship Centre?
•
how many First Nations clients does the Friendship Centre serve?
•
does the number of clients vary from year to year?
•
what links exist between the Friendship Centre and municipal social agencies?
Visit to a Friendship Centre
If a Friendship Centre is located in your town or city and is reasonably accessible to your school,
organize a visit. Teachers can draw up a list of responsibilities for organizing the visit to be shared by
the students. This would include the responsibility for contacting the director of the Friendship Centre,
arranging the format of the visit, and preparing questions. Another responsibility would be recording
the visit with a journal or a report based on students’ comments. Students could also take photographs,
shoot video footage, or conduct interviews to post on your school’s website. The final responsibility
is thanking the centre’s director and the staff. Many First Nations continue the traditional practice of
offering a gift in thanks for something that has been provided, such as knowledge, health, kindness
or generosity. Often, a simple, hand-made gift is suitable. Students may want to offer a gift that
they have prepared to the director and the staff of the centre as a thank-you for their time and effort.
If a class visit is not possible, teachers may consider inviting the director or any of the centre staff
to visit the class, if a centre is located in your town or city. Students can be assigned the responsibility
for the invitation. Teachers may want to organize a class discussion to identify the purpose of the
visit. This can then be included in the invitation. A simple goal would be to learn as much as possible
about the Friendship Centre’s programs and activities. Students should be encouraged to prepare
a list of questions for the visitor. Because most Friendship Centres address youth issues, the class
may want to focus on these. Students may want to consider making a gift with their own resources
to offer to the visitor.
unit 1
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urban first nations
2.
3 . F i r s t N at i o n s a n d U r ba n I s s u e s
After any of these activities, organize a student discussion on what the presence of a Friendship Centre
indicates about the following issues:
•
the integration of First Nations into urban areas
•
the importance of culture to First Nations
•
possible differences between First Nations communities and cities
•
other resources in addition to Friendship Centres for urban First Nations people.
4.
Alike But Different
Many towns and cities that include an identifiable First Nations population offer programs and services
for First Nations people. These programs may be part of specific departments or agencies maintained
by the city. Students can write to the Chief Administrative Officer or Principal Administrator of any large
city in the province and request a list of the programs that the city maintains for the benefit of urban
First Nations people. The request may identify the following areas — housing, employment, social
assistance, recreation, culture, health and legal services.
5.
Being a Student
Each province has one or more universities and colleges that have developed programs and
departments that focus on First Nations issues. Usually, these institutions have a number of First Nations
students taking courses and degrees and a First Nations student club or association. For your class
to understand these or other difficulties, some First Nations students experience when they are
required to live in a town or city to complete their formal education, students can contact a First
Nations students club or association. If the university or college is nearby, one or several First Nations
students could be invited to visit your class. Or your students could correspond with someone in the
association or use e-mail. Here are some questions your students may wish to present to an individual
who is studying away from his/her community:
•
what was the biggest obstacle you faced in the city?
•
how did you overcome it?
•
what are some of the differences between the city and your home community?
•
what do you miss most about your community and home? Why?
•
where do you plan to live after you finish your studies? Why?
unit 1
page 6
urban first nations
Once the class receives the information and students have examined the material, organize a discussion
that focuses on the possible reasons why these programs and services are needed.
6.
Back and Forth
As mentioned earlier, many urban First Nations people move back and forth from their First Nations
communities to the city. Organize a class discussion on some of the reasons that might explain these
urban-reserve migrations. Encourage students to focus on issues such as culture, accommodation,
language, employment, family, the land.
unit 1
page 7
urban first nations
Teachers may wish to use the Canadian Encyclopedia to help students understand the importance
of traditional communities to First Nations or for additional background for this activity. Students
can also use the Internet to establish contact with First Nations communities throughout Canada. Many
of them can be located through the sites listed in the Resources section at the end of this guide.
UNIT 2
WHAT ’S IN
A NAME?
MAIN IDEA
Before contact with Europeans, all First Nations identified themselves and their neighbours by their own
terms and names. Since contact, several names or terms have been used to identify all First Nations
and these different labels have blurred the distinctions and differences among them.
OBJECTIVES
1.
to learn why the term “Indian” is not considered appropriate to identify First Nations
2.
to explore some traditional names of several First Nations
3.
to gain an appreciation of some of the issues that surround the names and terms that identify
groups in society
Before contact with Europeans, all of the original inhabitants of Canada referred to themselves
and the other nations and tribes with whom they traded, shared land or fought, by terms or
names in their own languages. For example, the people of the Ojibway, Saulteaux and Mississauga
Nations referred to themselves as the Anishnabek, “the people.” The people of the Iroquois Nation
called themselves the Haudenasaunee. On the East Coast, the Maliseet used the term, Welustuk,
“the people of the beautiful river,” to describe themselves. The people of the Blackfoot Nation were
the Siksika. On the West Coast, the people of the Beaver Nations called themselves Dunneza,
“the real people” and the members of the Gitskan Nation called themselves the Gitsxan, “the people
of the Skeena.”
page 8
what’s in a name
TEACHER INFORMATION
Each tribe or nation had a term that set themselves apart from others with whom they had
regular contact.
Some of the tribal names that exist today originated with the early explorers and traders who found
it necessary to identify the people with whom they traded and interacted. Unable to speak with
the numerous tribes and nations they encountered during their expeditions, the early Europeans
named some of the people they met in their own language. Some newcomers simply Europeanized
the tribal names they encountered. Thus, the Odawa became the Ottawa and the Mi’kmaq became
known as the Micmac.
Other tribal and nation names have not changed from their traditional First Nations language
and pronunciation.
Despite the enormous variation among the names of the different First Nations in Canada, they
all gave way gradually and eventually to the name that newcomers used to identify them: Indian.
This name, a misnomer, originated with Christopher Columbus, who first applied the name to
the Arawak people he encountered in the Caribbean in 1492. He mistook them for the inhabitants
of India. The name took root and has been used for centuries throughout North America to identify
the First Nations.
The constant use of the term “Indian” during the past centuries has helped to obscure the cultural,
political and historical richness and diversity among the First Nations in Canada. It has also contributed
to a misconception in Canada that First Nations are a homogeneous population.
These terms included “Natives” and “Native people.” Although many people regarded these terms
as less pejorative than “Indian,” there was no consensus among First Nations about their
appropriateness. Soon other terms such as Amerindian, indigenous people and Aboriginals
or Aboriginal people appeared.
Today, there is no single term that is acceptable to all. With few exceptions, however, the terms First
Nations most often use to refer to themselves as a single group include First Nation or First Nations,
Aboriginal peoples, Native, Native peoples, and finally, Indian.
unit 2
page 9
what’s in a name
By the 1960s, “Indian” took on a pejorative meaning for many First Nations as a result of their negative
stereotyping in the media and in films. Over time, new terms and names, such as First Nation,
gradually emerged to partially displace the word “Indian.”
ACTIVITIES
1.
Traditional Names
The Canadian Encyclopedia and the Internet are useful sources for students who are examining
traditional First Nations names and their translations. To encourage students to learn about the different
tribal and nation names, have them consult the Canadian Encyclopedia and several directories
on the Internet and examine the meaning of several of the following names:
Abenaki
Assiniboine
Carrier
Chipewyan
Cree
Innu
Kootenay
Malecite (Maliseet)
Micmac (Mi’kmaq)
Onondaga
Siksika
Slavey
The Encyclopedia and the Internet directories include many other tribal and nation names that students
may want to include.
Exploring Communities: Then and Now
The Internet includes several sites that describe First Nation communities and their cultures. Using
the Canadian Encyclopedia and the Internet, a class or group activity could focus on one or
several nations or tribes. The objective of the activity is to research thoroughly the traditional and
contemporary history of the people. The traditional history would include language, economy,
location and social structure.
The contemporary history would include the size of the community or tribe, features of the community,
local political structures, programs and services for members and residents, and economic activities.
unit 2
page 10
what’s in a name
2.
3.
Stereotypes
Names such as the Black Hawks, the Tomahawk Chop and Pontiac automobiles are well-known
and part and parcel of the cultural and economic landscape. Students will be familiar with some
or all of these names and terms, as well as others. In a class discussion on the importance of names,
ask students to consider some of the following questions:
•
do names and terms such as these affect people’s perceptions of First Nations? In what ways
are our perceptions affected?
•
are there other groups or segments of the population whose names are used in the same
way as the above examples?
•
if students identify one or some, ask them the same question about the effects on how
that group or groups are perceived by others?
•
if they are unable to identify any, ask them why only First Nations names are used in this way?
•
why do sports teams, in particular, use First Nations names and figures?
•
what messages, if any, are conveyed in the use of First Nations names for sports teams?
4.
Other People
unit 2
page 11
what’s in a name
Each First Nation tribe and culture has a term in its language for non-First Nations people. Students
can contact different First Nation classes through the Internet to identify what those various terms
are and what they mean in the First Nations language.
UNIT 3
FIRST NATIONS
ORGANIZATIONS
MAIN IDEA
A wide variety of organizations exist to assist the political, social, economic, cultural and health
objectives and interests of the First Nations. These organizations play vital roles in the daily lives
of all First Nations.
1.
to learn about some First Nations organizations and their objectives
2.
to learn some of the legal impediments that prevented First Nations from forming organizations
during the last century
TEACHER INFORMATION
Throughout the history of First Nations, successful alliances, partnerships and societies among
and between tribes and nations enabled members to pursue specific goals and objectives in trade,
politics or culture. There are numerous examples across Canada that involve most, if not all, of the
traditional First Nations before and after European contact. Specific examples include the Council
of the Three Fires, the military and political alliance that the Ojibway Nation maintained near
the present city of Sault Ste. Marie; the trading alliance that the Plains Cree and Assiniboine Nations
forged to maximize their trading interests during the westward expansion of the fur trade during
the 1700s and 1800s; and the traditional carving fraternities and societies that flourished in many
West Coast First Nations.
In similar fashion to other cultures and nations throughout the world, traditional First Nations saw
the advantages of combining numbers to address strategic or critical interests.
Unfortunately, several factors beyond the control of First Nations in the mid- and late 1800s converged
to reduce the effectiveness of their traditional organizations. The steady decline of the fur trade,
epidemics of small pox and measles, and the gradual but inexorable westward expansion of Canadian
settlement, all combined to undermine the traditional and customary alliances and partnerships
among the First Nations. The introduction of the reserve system and the Indian Act around this same
time had an impact on most of the traditional organizations that had managed to survive the turn
of the century.
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first nations organizations
OBJECTIVES
One of the earliest attempts at a modern First Nations organization took place as the traditional
ones were disappearing. The Grand General Indian Council of Ontario came into being in the
1870s and continued until 1938. In British Columbia, the Allied Tribes of British Columbia emerged
in 1916. In 1919, an attempt to establish a national First Nations organization, the League of Indians,
fell short of its objective. By the 1920s, efforts were under way to create the Union of Ontario Indians,
which still exists today.
In addition to the Indian Act, the presence of a pass system hampered the establishment and
development of First Nations organizations. For many years after Confederation, Indian agents maintained
an informal pass system that required any First Nation individual who wished to leave the community
for any amount of time to obtain a written pass from them. It was often difficult to enforce, and there
is evidence that this system was not official government policy regarding the movements of First
Nations peoples. The existence of the system, however informal it may have been in some jurisdictions,
was well-known to most First Nations. It served to remind them that any undertaking to establish
a First Nations organization, particularly one with political objectives, faced numerous hurdles and
legal roadblocks.
By 1945, at least three new First Nations organizations had emerged in Canada: the Indian Association
of Alberta, the Saskatchewan Indian Association (which became the Federation of Saskatchewan
Indian Nations several years later) and the North American Indian Brotherhood — later the first attempt
to create a First Nations labour union. Each of these organizations pursued political and economic
objectives on behalf of their members.
In 1961, the federal government recognized the benefit of having a national voice for First Nations.
Accordingly, it financed and organized the National Indian Advisory Council. The government appointed
Council members from across Canada to meet regularly to advise it on a wide range of First Nations
issues. It was short-lived because of its perceived lack of independence and because its role was limited
to advising the government.
The 1960s and 1970s represented a period of remarkable political advocacy by First Nations. The
National Indian Brotherhood (NIB) soon emerged in 1965 to replace the National Indian Advisory Council.
The appearance of the NIB was matched by numerous other provincial and regional organizations
that pursued a broad range of interests and goals. Many of them had political objectives, but there
were also organizations involved with urban issues, health concerns and other special interests.
By the end of the 1970s, every province and territory had at least one political organization. There
were also numerous other national organizations such as the Canadian Native Communications Society,
the Native Women’s Association of Canada and the Canadian Indian Youth Council.
unit 3
page 13
first nations organizations
These four efforts to create new political First Nations organizations were hampered by a lack of money
and certain sections of the Indian Act. One provision in the Indian Act made it an offence for
three or more First Nation persons to make “threatening demands” on any civil servant. This provision
effectively undermined any meaningful attempt to create an organization to bring pressure to bear
on the federal government to address the concerns of First Nations. Furthermore, from 1927 until
1951, the Indian Act outlawed any solicitation of funds by or on behalf on any First Nation to advance
any First Nation claim unless permission to do so had been granted by the federal government.
Today, there are many national Aboriginal organizations that pursue a broad range of political,
cultural, social, economic, legal, education, and health-related goals. The Assembly of First Nations,
which subsumed the National Indian Brotherhood in 1980, the National Association of Friendship
Centres, the Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, the Native Women’s Association of Canada, the Indigenous
Bar Association, the First Nations Confederacy of Cultural Education Centres, the Aboriginal Nurses
Association and the National Aboriginal Forestry Association, are examples.
In addition to national organizations, each province and territory has one or more political
organizations. Examples include the Dene Nation, the Chiefs of Ontario, the Council of Yukon Indians,
the Union of British Columbia Chiefs, the Union of Nova Scotia Chiefs and the Grand Council of
the Crees of Quebec. There are many other associations, bodies and groups that represent economic,
cultural, educational and social interests and objectives of their First Nation members.
Together, the national, provincial, territorial and regional bodies provide effective and continuous
advocacy on a broad range of First Nations issues.
ACTIVITIES
E x a m i n e a n Or g a n i z at i o n
Select a national First Nations organization such as the Native Women’s Association of Canada.
Prepare a class project to examine the organization in detail. Encourage students to include
the following points:
•
why and when the organization was created
•
its mandate
•
any changes to the mandate since its founding
•
its membership and how it selects a leader
•
brief profiles of the current and recent leaders
•
its governing structure
•
its administrative structure
•
recent policies
•
programs that it maintains
•
its location
•
provincial or territorial offices or affiliates.
unit 3
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first nations organizations
1.
To complete the project, the class can be divided into small groups, each covering various points
or subject areas; i.e., mandate, policies, structures, etc. Once the groups have completed their work,
students can organize the material into one report or description.
2.
A Visit
Use the Internet or the telephone directory to see if there is a First Nations organization in the vicinity
of the school. If one or several exist, contact the organization to arrange a visit — either the class
to the organization, or a representative of the organization to the class. In either case, students
will need to compile information about the organization before the visit. Consult the Internet or
communications material from the organization for background information.
Students should share the final list of questions during the visit. If a visitor comes to the class, the class
should express its appreciation with a gift, preferably one that students have prepared using their own
resources and creativity.
3.
Politics and Programs
In this activity, students will undertake a comparison of a chiefly political First Nations organization
(such as the Chiefs of Ontario or the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations) or a national
organization (such as the Assembly of First Nations) with a First Nations organization that is chiefly
non-political. The National Association of Friendship Centres, the National Aboriginal Forestry
Association and the Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada are some examples.
4.
A Clipping Project
To help students appreciate the range of issues that some First Nations political organizations deal
with, teachers can organize a project to gather news about a particular national or provincial political
organization. Students can use several sources for their information: local newspapers, magazines
and the Internet. The Internet includes a selection of First Nations publications and newspapers
that may be useful.
Students can use the Internet to select several potential organizations for the project. Once a list is
made, students can decide which organization they are going to study. Most national, provincial and
territorial First Nations political organizations receive regular coverage in the national or provincial media.
Therefore the final choice should not be a problem. Some teachers may want to review the final list
of organizations beforehand to ensure that they do have a reasonable political profile.
unit 3
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first nations organizations
Once the information is distributed to the class, set aside some time for students to brainstorm
questions for the visit, or visitor. Record the questions and encourage students to refine them. Students
could reduce the number of questions, for example, put them into categories or revise them so
that they are more precise.
After a time line for the project is decided (e.g. three months), students should decide how often
they are going to report on the activities of the organization and how often, (daily, weekly or bi-weekly),
they will research its activities. At the conclusion of the project, students can organize the accumulated
information into a journal or a poster board demonstration for the classroom or the school bulletin board.
5.
M a k i n g C o m pa r i s o n s
It may be useful for students to compare one or several First Nations organizations to non-Aboriginal
organizations in the community, region, province or territory that have similar goals and objectives.
This exercise will help students appreciate the different roles that organizations play in our communities,
and the similarities and differences between First Nations and non-First Nations organizations.
The Internet and the Canadian Encyclopedia will provide students with a list of potential organizations
for the activity.
After either the teacher or students have selected several categories, students should decide which ones
they want to investigate. Students will then be required to locate the First Nations and non-First
Nations organizations that fit the categories selected. Once these have been located, students should
begin to retrieve as much information, through as many sources as they can manage, about these
organizations’ goals and objectives. Any information on the organizations’ recent issues or activities
will also be helpful.
Once the information is assembled, students should begin to analyze the data by focusing
on the organizations’ similarities and differences.
unit 3
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first nations organizations
One way to begin the exercise is to identify categories of organizations such as political, cultural,
women, youth, sports, recreation or business.
UNIT 4
HUNTING AND
TRAPPING
MAIN IDEA
Hunting and trapping are essential to the way of life of many First Nations. Issues such as resource
development, land claims, furs for clothing and sport hunting have profound effects on First Nations
who pursue traditional lifestyles.
1.
to learn how hunting and trapping affect the economies, laws, social organization and spirituality
of First Nations hunting societies
2.
to explore the role of hunting and trapping in contemporary First Nations communities
TEACHER INFORMATION
Hunting and trapping have always been essential to the way of life of First Nations and other Aboriginal
societies. More than simply a means of providing food, hunting and trapping are central features
of many First Nations’ economic, social and cultural lives. Wildlife harvesting is a form of sustainable
use that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs. Hunting and trapping encompass all wildlife harvesting, including marine
mammals such as whales and seals.
It may be difficult for students in urban schools to appreciate the importance of hunting and trapping
to the First Nations way of life. Indeed, many Canadians assume that the hunting and trapping
lifestyle is a thing of the past. By putting hunting and trapping in an historical context only, the images
of First Nations are frozen in the past. For this reason, the role of hunting and trapping in today’s
First Nations economies and cultures is largely ignored. Many people in Canada are only discovering
now what Aboriginal people have been practicing for millennia — that sustainable use of resources
is important to our community’s well-being.
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OBJECTIVES
In this unit, students will learn why hunting and trapping are important to First Nations societies
and how they remain an integral feature of life in many First Nations communities today.
The importance of hunting and trapping to First Nations varies because First Nations have diverse
cultures and different historical circumstances.
Over thousands of years, each First Nation developed its own methods of surviving on their traditional
lands. The Iroquois Confederacy had sophisticated farming skills and all First Nations relied upon
fishing. But every First Nation depended on hunting and trapping as the primary means of subsistence.
Although resources and environments varied, large game and fur-bearing animals provided the food,
shelter and clothing that were vital to survival.
The historical circumstances of First Nations have also affected the role hunting and trapping play
in community life. Today, many First Nations who live in southern Canada are unable to make a living
from hunting and trapping because of urban settlement. First Nations in the relatively remote northern
regions of Canada continue to rely on hunting and trapping for food and income. Hunting and trapping
are therefore part of the social fabric of these communities.
First Nations who regard hunting and trapping as important reflect this throughout their cultures.
First Nations have always had a close relationship with the animals and the land that support them.
As a result, the importance of hunting and trapping is reflected in many of their traditional structures.
hunting territories of families or clans. Others based their movements on the patterns of the animals
they pursued.
Hunters often hold a great deal of influence in First Nations societies. Hunters who have proven
their skills and knowledge of the land are consulted about many issues in the community.
Hunting and trapping also shape the traditional laws and customs of many First Nations. Here
are some examples:
•
Where families or clans have their own hunting territory, an essential law for some First Nations
is that others may not hunt on the family’s territory without permission.
•
Plains peoples, such as the Blackfoot, had special societies responsible for managing the buffalo
hunt. Individuals who interfered with the buffalo hunt, by disrupting it or not obeying the orders
of the lead hunters, were punished.
•
An important custom in some First Nations cultures is that the bones of an animal must be returned
to the land or water, or hung in a tree.
These customs and laws are based on an attitude of respect that is required in First Nations traditions
to manage the land and its resources properly.
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hunting and trapping
For example, many First Nations’ traditional systems of land use are defined by their hunting
and trapping practices. Some First Nations had patterns of land use that reflected the well-defined
Women play crucial roles in First Nations hunting societies. The work of men and women in hunting
societies is both separate and overlapping. Generally, men hunt large game animals; women hunt
smaller animals. Men’s work focuses on killing and butchering, while women prepare the food
and the skins. Some First Nations women work their own traplines. They snare, trap and skin,
and prepare hides for trade.
In most First Nations hunting societies, none of these roles is exclusive. However, they do tend
to be separated. One role or activity is not viewed as any less important than the other.
Many First Nations have maintained the cultural practices of their ancestors, and hunting and trapping
continue to play a critical role in the First Nations way of life of today.
Also, in many First Nations communities, hunting and trapping are critical to the economy. Some
communities have estimated that bush or country food, (food taken from the land) provides anywhere
from 25 to 50 percent of the food needs of the community.
Hunting and trapping also have tremendous social value. The traditional concepts of sharing
are preserved, as families who live in the bush provide bush food to those who hunt less, or who
are unable to hunt. Traditional hunting territories and concepts of stewardship have adapted to
increasing First Nation populations, and to the growth of “non-traditional” employment in communities.
Finally, hunting and trapping continue to play an important role in the education of many First
Nations youth.
First Nations are using land claims settlements to establish co-management boards so hunters
and trappers can have more say in how wildlife and the environment are managed in their territories.
Some First Nations have created income security programs for hunters and trappers, so that families
can pursue hunting and trapping as a way to earn income. And First Nations are increasingly sharing
the hunters’ traditional knowledge of the land to teach society as a whole how to relate to the
environment in a more respectful manner.
First Nations hunters and trappers face a number of obstacles in pursuing their livelihood.
The biggest threat to the continued existence of hunting and trapping in First Nations communities
is a shrinking land base. The land base of many southern First Nations has all but disappeared. Even
in remote and less populated northern areas, resource companies are having an impact on traditional
hunting territories.
Forestry, mining, oil and gas, and hydro developments are not the only intrusions on the traditional
territories of First Nations hunters. With the extension of access roads deep into First Nations hunting
territories and traplines, the popularity of sports hunting has also grown. First Nations hunters find
themselves competing with other Canadians for game. The activities of groups opposed to the
harvesting of animals for fur have also affected First Nations communities across Canada, by drastically
reducing the value of furs.
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hunting and trapping
Many First Nations are seeking to protect and revitalize hunting and trapping in their communities.
This unit may be more difficult to implement for teachers in southern, urban environments than it will
be for teachers in northern, remote communities. Where hunting and trapping remain an important
way of life for a community, teachers should seek to involve hunters and trappers in the classroom.
Even more importantly, they should give the students an opportunity to incorporate life on traplines
into their studies.
However, teachers who do not have ready access to hunters and trappers can still benefit from this unit.
Teachers can guide students through the available research on hunting and trapping. They can
have them consider how issues such as resource development, land claims, fur bans and sports
hunting affect First Nations who seek to pursue traditional lifestyles.
ACTIVITIES
1.
A H u n t e r ’s S tory
Read the following account of a First Nations Elder to your class.
It’s hard to hunt moose. You have to follow the tracks until you find the animal. Moose are smart.
You have to be careful because they watch everything, and they run away fast. I shot my first moose
when I was fifteen. I didn’t know a lot about hunting, so an old man took me out in the bush.
I saw some moose tracks, I was real excited because I wanted to shoot that moose. The old man
ignored those tracks. He didn’t even say anything, he just kept on walking. We walked for a long
time, and we found more moose tracks. The old man said there was a moose here, so we went
into the bush, and we found it and I shot it. I was happy. It was a good feeling because we
took it back and everyone had fresh meat. That old man knew how to hunt and he showed
me how to hunt.
In those days, everyone used to travel together and everyone would help each other. If someone
killed a moose, they would share it with everybody. Today, people don’t share as much as they
used to. That was important in the old days — if you had meat, you never refused to share it with
anybody. If you didn’t share, then the hunting was no good. That’s why people respected a good
hunter, because he always shared everything.
We were trappers, too. That’s how we used to make money. We trapped beaver, lynx, muskrat, minks.
We used to take our furs to the store. We traded the money for groceries and then we would
go back in the bush again.
I remember in the old days, my mother used to trap. She used to set snares for rabbits. She used
to walk a long way, and come back with some rabbits in a bag. Sometimes she even set a trap
for muskrat. I taught my granddaughter how to set a snare, and she brought me a rabbit last week.
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hunting and trapping
“When I was young, we used to hunt all the time. We used to hunt moose, bear, caribou,
ducks, geese. We hunted all the time, you had to hunt until you killed something. Sometimes
we went hungry, but mostly we had country food all the time.
Trapping is different from the old days. Now, they only stay one or two nights when they go check
their traps. In the old days, we were gone a long time when we checked our traps. We travelled
on snowshoes. We went really slow when there was lots of snow. Now they got skidoos and
they check their trapline in one or two days.
Some of my kids would rather go to work than go trapping. It’s hard on them going out in
the bush and trying to make a living. But it’s a good life. Even the tea tastes better in the bush.”
When you have finished reading this short story to the students, encourage them to discuss their
impressions of the Elder who was speaking. You may ask them some of the following questions:
•
Why is it difficult to hunt moose? How did the Elder learn to hunt moose?
•
How has trapping changed from when the Elder was young?
•
Do you think that hunting and trapping are still important to the Elder?
•
How are women involved in hunting and trapping?
•
Why does the Elder feel it is important to share?
•
Do you believe it is important to share? Why?
•
What have you learned from this story?
T r e at y H u n t i n g R i g h t s
The Chiefs who signed treaties with the Crown did not enter into the treaty-making process without
a great deal of discussion and debate.
An important feature of many of the treaties was that the Crown agreed that Indians would continue
to hunt and fish in the manner to which they were accustomed. For example, the Robinson Superior
Treaty of 1850, which covers much of Northern Ontario, contains the following provision:
“Her Majesty and the Government of this Province hereby promises and agrees...to allow the said
Chiefs and their tribes the full and free privilege to hunt over the territory now ceded by them,
and to fish in the waters thereof as they have heretofore been in the habit of doing...”
During the signing of Treaty 8, the treaty commissioners reported that the Chiefs would not sign until
they had been assured that their freedoms to hunt, trap and fish would not be restricted:
“Our chief difficulty was the apprehension that the hunting and fishing privileges were to be
curtailed. We had to solemnly assure them that only such laws as to hunting and fishing as were
in the interests of the Indians or were found to be necessary to protect the fish and fur-bearing
animals will be made, and that they would be as free to hunt and fish after the treaty as they
would be, if they never entered into it.”
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2.
Some historical treaties may be accessed on the Internet (see Resource section at the end of this guide).
Once you have reviewed some of the treaties with the class, ask students to enact a play, taking
the parts of the Chiefs, and the representatives of the Crown, during the late nineteenth century.
Select six students to prepare a short skit in which three leaders discuss their hunting rights with
three representatives of the Crown.
Perform the skit in class, with half the class acting as community members who will be affected
by the proposed treaty and half as non-Aboriginal settlers. Both parties may have questions
as to their own rights according to the treaty’s provisions on hunting.
3.
The Hunter as a Steward
In First Nations hunting societies, stewards are responsible for managing and regulating their hunting
territories. Not everyone can be a steward: stewards must hunt and trap for many years before they
can assume such a role. A steward must be familiar with the conditions of the animals in the territory,
and he will discuss these trends with other stewards and Elder hunters. Stewards will decide when
the territory can be used, how many people may use it, which species may be hunted and where.
If a steward neglects these responsibilities, and over-hunting occurs, future hunting will be unsuccessful
and the family and community will suffer.
Managing the land through stewardship is an example of traditional First Nations wildlife management
practices. Another way that many First Nations societies traditionally managed game levels was
by the selective use of fire. Hunters would burn small land fires in carefully chosen areas. The fires
encouraged new growth in the spring. The new growth would attract the small animals, birds,
and berries necessary to support greater numbers of larger food animals. Some of the species which
benefited from controlled burning were moose, deer, beaver, muskrat, bear, and different species
of waterfowl.
To illustrate the discussion about First Nations stewardship, you may choose to have the class watch
the National Film Board video, Cree Hunters of Mistassini. How does the family in the video
show its responsibilities to the land? Do students think that this knowledge could be used to benefit
Canadians as a whole?
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hunting and trapping
Students will likely be familiar with the image of a farmer cultivating the land, through hard work
and careful attention. This image of a farmer may also be a good way for students to understand
the role of hunters and trappers in First Nations societies, often described in English as “stewardship.”
A steward is usually someone who is entrusted with managing the affairs of someone else.
4.
S h op p i n g L i s t I n v e s t i g at i o n
Because of its cultural significance, hunting remains an important part of the livelihood of many
First Nations. It is also an economical way of providing food. Wild game is a key feature of the traditional
diets of some First Nations, who often prefer it to domestic foods like beef and chicken. Large game
such as moose, deer and caribou may feed several families for weeks. When compared to the cost
of purchasing groceries at a supermarket, particularly meat products, it is easy to see why hunting
is crucial where jobs for First Nations are scarce.
To understand the importance of hunting to contemporary First Nations economies, it is worth asking
students to give some thought to the costs of the food on their tables each night.
Begin by asking students where their families get their food. Many students will simply say the
supermarket. Encourage them to explore other sources, such as gardens, berry-picking, farms or fishing.
There may be some students in your class whose families rely on hunting for some or all of their
meat supply. They should be encouraged to share their insights during this discussion.
Once you have recorded this information on the board, tell students to prepare a short report on the
cost of the food they eat. Over the course of a week, they are to record the meals eaten at dinnertime,
and approximately how much it cost. It is not necessary for the students to add up all of the ingredients
that went into the preparation of the meal: the focus of this shopping list investigation should be
on meat, or whatever main course protein source the family prefers.
DATE
MEAL
PRIMARY INGREDIENT
COST
Monday
Chicken Stir-fry
Chicken
$5.75
Tuesday
Tuna Casserole
Tinned Tuna
$2.29
Wednesday
Frozen Lasagna
Beef
$3.49
Thursday
Lentil Loaf
Lentils, Vegetables
$2.29
The last line of the chart should indicate the total costs of the primary ingredients of their family’s
foodstuff over the past week.
Students do not need to display these charts, or share the amount with the rest of the class. You
need only ask them to consider the total amount spent by their family on meat or meat substitutes,
and imagine what else the money could be used for. The point to emphasize is that hunters who
provide wild game for their family and others have a tremendous impact on household income.
This is especially important in areas where employment income is low, and the cost of living high.
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At the end of a week, ask the students to prepare a simple chart that totals the amount of money
spent on meat, or meat substitutes. The chart may look like this:
Students should not be left with the impression that the sole value of hunting to First Nations is
economic. Nor should they be left with the impression that wild game is “free.” Traditional First Nations
hunting practices emphasize the hunter as a guardian of the land, and animals are honoured as
sacred gifts for the nourishment of people. If the land is not managed wisely, the gifts will be taken
away. Furthermore, like all self-employed individuals, hunters have associated costs, such as guns,
clothing, transportation and gasoline.
5.
Classroom Visit
Invite a First Nations hunter or trapper to speak to the class about the role of hunting and trapping
in First Nations cultures. You may also wish to invite a First Nations woman who is familiar with hunting
lifestyles to discuss a woman’s role in a hunting camp. Or invite a First Nations person who is involved
in contemporary styles of ecological management. Many First Nations administer their own wildlife
management programs and there will be people such as wildlife officers who are very knowledgeable
about contemporary and traditional First Nations conservation practices.
Be sure that students prepare some questions for the speaker. The students should also present
the speaker with a gift, preferably one that they have created themselves.
6.
H u n t i n g a n d T r a p p i n g : O u r W ay o f L i f e
If students in the class are involved in hunting and trapping, teachers may wish to complement the
activities in this unit by creating a wall display which shows the students’ hunting and trapping knowledge.
Items in the display could include:
•
a map by the students showing their families’ traditional hunting territories
•
a display of animal pelts, with a description of the animal and its characteristics
•
photos and drawings of hunting trips
•
stories and poems about the students’ experiences in the bush
•
descriptions of methods of snaring or trapping particular animals; i.e., a step-by-step account
of how to set a rabbit snare
•
recipes for the preparation of traditional foods.
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If your school is in the city and it is difficult to reach people who are familiar with traditional hunting
lifestyles, contact someone from the local Friendship Centre. Another option is to contact a provincial
environment ministry, which will have various wildlife and natural resources departments. It may
be possible to invite a conservation officer to the classroom who has some knowledge of First Nations
hunting and trapping issues.
7.
The Hunting Committee
Students who live in communities where hunting and trapping are practised will understand,
and likely be very respectful of, the variety of skills of hunters and trappers. Wherever possible, students
should be encouraged to spend time with hunters and trappers so they can observe these skills
first-hand.
Skillful hunters or trappers must know a great deal about the animals they are hunting or trapping,
but this is only one of many skills they must master. They must be able to build shelters when
they and their families are in the bush. They must be prepared to repair their snowmobiles, trucks
and outboard motors, if they break down.
Trappers must be sensitive to the price of furs in the larger economy, and what types of fur will fetch
the highest price. They must be prudent businesspersons, to ensure that their income will meet their
families’ needs. First Nations trappers and hunters are often also highly sensitive to the spiritual teachings
of their people, which may include being responsive to dream teachings. Hunters are occasionally
required to practise their medicinal skills, both traditional and modern, when they or members of their
families are ill out on the trapline or hunting territory. Hunters can also pass on a great deal of traditional
knowledge of the land from one generation to the next through stories.
Tell students that they are going to simulate a decision that must be made by one hunter and one
trapper. The hunter is hunting for a moose, and the trapper is planning to set his or her traps for beaver
(feel free to change these animals to any large game animal or any fur-bearing animal common
in your area). The families of the hunter and trapper would like to leave for the bush seven days
from the date of the assignment.
Divide the class into two committees, the Moose Committee and the Beaver Committee. It is the
responsibility of the committees to gather all of the information required for the hunter and trapper
to make a decision as to whether or not the family should depart seven days from now.
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This activity is designed to encourage students to explore, albeit in an artificial way, the variety of factors
which a hunter or trapper must consider in making a sound and wise hunting choice.
On each committee, you will need a student to provide the following information:
•
animal expert — provides a report on the animal being pursued, including its habits and habitat
•
weather person — provides a report on the weather seven days from now, and a prediction
of what the weather will be for the duration of the two-week trip
•
businessperson — provides a report on the current cost of furs or hides
•
storyteller — provides a legend or story regarding the animal being pursued
•
mechanic — provides a report of the steps taken to prepare the pick-up truck and the snowmobile
or outboard, and the cost of the necessary fuel for a two-week trip
•
carpenter — provides a report of the tools and wood required to build a 7x7 storage shed
at the camp, and a rough estimate of the costs
•
dreamer — (in some hunting cultures, a good hunter is someone who can interpret dreams)
this student should provide a report on how his or her dreams can assist the hunting trip.
Once all of the students have gathered their information, they should prepare it in a brief summary
to present to the rest of the committee. After hearing all the reports, it is up to the committee to reach
consensus as to whether or not they should depart on the designated day.
8.
The Fur War s
In recent years, First Nations hunters and trappers have found themselves at the centre of a highly
controversial debate: the use of animal fur for fashion. Animal rights groups have launched campaigns
to try and stop the use of animal fur in the fashion industry. In some markets, the anti-fur lobby has
been very effective, resulting in either import restrictions or a lessening of the appeal for fur as a fashion
item. Many First Nations people have found this controversy to be perplexing, as some of the third
groups which present Aboriginal people as “the original environmentalists” then criticize their traditional
hunting and trapping of wildlife. As a result, First Nation communities who rely on wildlife harvesting
have become actively involved in lobbying for their own rights to hunt and trap.
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Some of this information is not conventional library research, and students may have to use their
ingenuity. For example, the student who is doing the report on carpentry may have to phone a local
lumber store; the students researching the weather forecast or the fur rates may find the Internet
useful; the student assigned to interpret dreams will have to research some First Nations mythologies.
From the perspective of animal rights groups, non-human animals have a right to live according
to their own natures. This includes a right to be free from any human use. Animal rights groups have
particularly focused on the use of “leg-hold traps,” which at one time was the most common type
of animal trap used by trappers. While there are over a thousand different types of leg-hold traps,
the “steel-jawed” type has been the one used most often in anti-trapping ads. This type of trap has
not been widely used in Canada since the 1970s. Their use has been banned in most provinces
and territories for most terrestrial fur-bearing animals since that time. Animal rights groups have
called for a ban on all traps, and ultimately, an end to the use of furs for fashion.
Aboriginal hunters and trappers argue that their traditional hunting practices are based upon respect.
In traditional First Nations hunting societies, animals are more than food that sustains people’s bodies.
Animals are considered to possess intelligence, are capable of independent action and they have
their own way of living. A successful hunt is not simply the result of the work of the hunter. It also
rests with the intention of the animal to be slain. In this way, animals are “received” and are considered
gifts from the Creator. In fact, many Aboriginal communities believe that to refuse these gifts — i.e. not
to hunt them — would be seen by the Creator as ingratitude and result in some retribution against
the community. This belief is found in all Aboriginal cultures across Canada. To view an animal in
this way means that hunters have special obligations. For example, they must share this gift with others;
they must manage the land wisely and they must maintain a spiritual balance. If they are sensitive to
all of these responsibilities, hunters believe that they will receive what they want when they are in need.
Students will likely have strong views on this subject. Students could be asked to share their views
on the following question: Do you think people (specifically First Nations) should be allowed to trap
animals for their fur?
If students have not had exposure to the role of hunting and trapping in First Nations, it may be difficult
for them to appreciate the First Nations perspectives. The National Film Board video, Pelts: Politics
of the Fur Trade, may serve as a basis for discussion before beginning this activity.
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Trappers – both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal — have responded by using quick-killing traps specially
designed for each species, which are much more selective and humane than older methods. Nonetheless,
the anti-fur activities of the animal rights groups threaten to undermine the ability of many First
Nations communities which have depended on trapping to provide some of their cash income.
UNIT 5
RESIDENTIAL
SCHOOLS
MAIN IDEA
The residential school system had devastating effects upon many First Nations children. First Nations
communities are still healing from the abuse many of their members suffered at the residential schools.
OBJECTIVES
1.
to introduce students to the history of the residential school system
2.
to explore how residential schools have affected First Nations communities
3.
to discuss what can be done to redress the wrongs associated with the residential schools
Residential schools started operating in Canada prior to Confederation. The churches established
the first schools as part of their missionary work. The Government of Canada played a role in
the administration of the residential school system as early as 1874. The reason was mainly to meet
its obligations, under the Indian Act, to provide an education to Aboriginal people, and to assist
with their integration into the broader Canadian society. The last of the federally run schools closed
in 1996. It is now widely understood that this system has contributed to weakening the identity
of First Nations. It did this by separating children from their families and communities, and preventing
them from speaking their own languages, and from learning about their heritage and cultures.
Residential schools had a tragic effect upon many First Nations families. They disrupted the smooth
transmission of beliefs, skills and knowledge from one generation to the next. The schools separated
the children of First Nations from their culture and prevented them from speaking their language
and learning about their cultures and traditions. This system reflected mainstream attitudes of racial
and cultural superiority. The experience of these schools has left a legacy of personal pain for former
residents that continues to reverberate in communities today.
Many of those First Nations children who attended residential schools underwent a devastating
process of enforced assimilation. For some of the children in certain schools, the normal and healthy
process of change and growth slowed, because conditions were physically, psychologically
and spiritually unhealthy.
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TEACHER INFORMATION
By the 1950s, the federal government began to realize that the residential school system could not
be maintained. Many of the children leaving the schools did not have the proper education or skills
to fit into mainstream Canadian society and they found it difficult to readjust to their own communities.
The effects of the residential schools did not stop when the children finally left the school. The physical,
sexual and spiritual abuse suffered by many children at the schools spilled back into some First Nations
communities. At residential schools, many children learned that adults wielded power and control
through abuse. As a result of these childhood lessons, many former students have inflicted abuse
upon their own children. The incidents of physical and sexual abuse are often higher in certain First
Nations communities than the rest of Canada. Many former students also find themselves struggling
with their identities, after being taught for so long that their own culture was worthless. Finally, many
former students found it difficult to raise their own children, because they had been deprived of any
parental role models.
In its report released in 1996, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples recommended that the
government and churches offer apologies to residential school survivors, that people be compensated
for the abuse they suffered and that a public inquiry be struck to examine the treatment of First
Nations students at residential schools. In response to the Report, the federal government issued
a statement of reconciliation in which it apologized to those individuals who suffered abuse while
at residential school. The government also granted $350 million to the Aboriginal Healing Foundation
to support healing initiatives that address the legacy of abuse left by the residential school system.
The government has also been investigating the merits of various dispute resolution approaches
for resolving the civil claims being brought against the Crown and the churches involved.
Today, most First Nations run their own schools. They are reclaiming the education of their children
and attempting to put the residential school experience in the past.
ACTIVITIES
1.
Trying to Adjust
First Nations children were forced to make serious adjustments when they arrived at residential school.
Often children were sent far away to a residential school, and siblings were separated according
to age level. Children were often punished for speaking their First Nations languages. Those
who did not speak English or French were therefore often unable to communicate verbally to anyone
in authority. They were forced to deal with loneliness, sickness, confusion and abuse on their own.
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residential schools
The federal government and churches have acknowledged the damage done to Aboriginal communities
as a result of the residential school system. First Nations have demanded, and received, apologies
from the federal government and a number of churches. Some former students are also seeking redress
through the criminal justice system.
Many former students have reported that they had to cope with the suffocating heat or fierce cold
of the buildings. They missed their parents and other adult members of their families. Some also suffered
because of inadequate food, rigid discipline, mental and physical abuse and the loss of personal
freedoms and individual will. They were often punished for engaging in any cultural and spiritual
ceremonies and practices.
Ask students to recall an experience in which they had to make a major adjustment. Ask them to write
a short essay or story (2-3 pages), or start a class discussion in which they compare their experiences
to those of First Nations children at residential school.
2.
H at e d S t r u c t u r e
Consider the poem by Rita Joe, a Mi’kmaq poet, called Hated Structure: Indian Residential School,
Shubenacadie, N.S. The poem can be found in Rita Joe’s book, Song of Eskasoni.
In the poem, the poet returns to the residential school in Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia. Ask students
what they think the poem means. What is the poet’s opinion of the residential school? What memories
does the school stir in the poet? What type of emotions is she expressing when she remembers
the school? What does the school represent to the poet?
The Role of the Elders
First Nations had well-developed systems of education before the arrival of Europeans. The bases
of traditional education were the lessons and teachings of First Nations Elders and parents. They
educated their children in the skills necessary to survive on the land; their family and tribal history;
language, fine arts such as music and storytelling; the appropriate social and political behaviour;
and moral and religious values.
Residential school disrupted the transmission of beliefs, skills, and knowledge from one generation
to the next. Despite residential schools, Elders continue to be respected in First Nations communities for
their wisdom and experience. Ask students to write a journal entry that explores their relationship with
their grandparents or an Elder/senior who played an important role in their lives. Ask them to remember
the lessons and values they learned from that person. If students have not had such a relationship,
encourage them to describe their feelings about not having such a connection with an Elder.
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residential schools
3.
4.
A New School
Students may ask why many of the First Nations students did not fit into the regular school system.
Ask students to consider a situation where, as seven-year-old students, they would be separated
from their parents for most of the year and placed in a school where no one spoke their language.
In this situation, the language spoken to you is written very differently from your native tongue.
Your teachers don’t understand many of the things that are very important to you, such as hockey
or ringette, snowboarding and skateboarding, burgers and fries, music videos and computer games.
Would it mean that you are a failure if you had a difficult time in that school system?
5.
Going Home
When children returned to their communities after several years at residential schools, they often found
it hard to fit back into family life, and parents found that the children had changed. Some parents
also found that the children argued with them frequently, and with other children and family members.
Also, some children seemed unconcerned about hurting others and often appeared unwilling
to respect Elders.
From a First Nations perspective, the most damaging part of residential schools was that children
were taught their culture was unimportant. They were told that the values with which they had
been raised were primitive, and that non-Aboriginal people in Canada were part of a more “advanced”
society. The schools’ organization and the curriculum content gave First Nations children the impression
that the beliefs, political institutions, religious practices and the economic system of non-Aboriginal
people in Canada were superior to the traditional ways of First Nations.
Ask students to create a short skit in which a family is adjusting to having their children return from
residential school after a three-year absence. Students will need at least two characters (a residential
school student and a parent), but they may have more: one or more students, a mother, a father,
a grandparent, brothers and sisters. Encourage students to put themselves in the shoes of the character
they are portraying. What were some of the problems experienced by the children and their parents
when the students arrived home? What effect did the residential schools have on the way First
Nations felt about themselves, as students and parents?
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residential schools
Also difficult for many parents was their children’s loss of their language. At residential school, many
students were often punished for speaking their own language. After several years away at school,
children generally found it difficult to speak their mother tongue.
6.
R e co n c i l i at i o n
In 1998, as part of its response to the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
(see Resources section), the federal government delivered a Statement of Reconciliation
to Aboriginal peoples.
The churches have also apologized for the role they played in residential schools. Students can
read about them on the Internet (see Resources section). Ask students if they believe that the apologies
are important. Why?
S tat e m e n t o f R e c o n c i l i at i o n
L e a r n i n g f r o m t h e Pa s t
“As Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians seek to move forward together in a process of
renewal, it is essential that we deal with the legacies of the past affecting the Aboriginal peoples
of Canada, including the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Our purpose is not to rewrite history but,
rather, to learn from our past and to find ways to deal with the negative impacts that certain
historical decisions continue to have in our society today.
Diverse, vibrant Aboriginal nations had ways of life rooted in fundamental values concerning
their relationships to the Creator, the environment, and each other, in the role of Elders as the
living memory of their ancestors, and in their responsibilities as custodians of the lands, waters
and resources of their homelands.
The assistance and spiritual values of the Aboriginal peoples who welcomed the newcomers to
this continent too often have been forgotten. The contributions made by all Aboriginal peoples to
Canada’s development, and the contributions that they continue to make to our society today, have
not been properly acknowledged. The Government of Canada today, on behalf of all Canadians,
acknowledges those contributions.
Sadly, our history with respect to the treatment of Aboriginal people is not something in which
we can take pride. Attitudes of racial and cultural superiority led to a suppression of Aboriginal
culture and values. As a country, we are burdened by past actions that resulted in weakening
the identity of Aboriginal peoples, suppressing their languages and cultures, and outlawing
spiritual practices. We must recognize the impact of these actions on the once self-sustaining
nations that were disaggregated, disrupted, limited or even destroyed by the dispossession of
traditional territory, by the relocation of Aboriginal people, and by some provisions of the
Indian Act. We must acknowledge that the result of these actions was the erosion of the political,
economic and social systems of Aboriginal people and nations.
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residential schools
The ancestors of First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples lived on this continent long before
explorers from other continents first came to North America. For thousands of years before this
country was founded, they enjoyed their own forms of government.
Against the backdrop of these historical legacies, it is a remarkable tribute to the strength and
endurance of Aboriginal people that they have maintained their historic diversity and identity.
The Government of Canada today formally expresses to all Aboriginal people in Canada our profound
regret for past actions of the federal government which have contributed to these difficult pages
in the history of our relationship together.
One aspect of our relationship with Aboriginal people over this period that requires particular
attention is the Residential School system. This system separated many children from their families
and communities and prevented them from speaking their own languages and from learning
about their heritage and cultures. In the worst cases, it left legacies of personal pain and distress
that continue to reverberate in Aboriginal communities to this day. Tragically, some children were
the victims of physical and sexual abuse.
The Government of Canada acknowledges the role it played in the development and administration
of these schools. Particularly to those individuals who experienced the tragedy of sexual and
physical abuse at residential schools, and who have carried this burden believing that in some
way they must be responsible, we wish to emphasize that what you experienced was not your
fault and should never have happened. To those of you who suffered this tragedy at residential
schools, we are deeply sorry.
No attempt at reconciliation with Aboriginal people can be complete without reference to the
sad events culminating in the death of Métis leader Louis Riel. These events cannot be undone;
however, we can and will continue to look for ways of affirming the contributions of Métis people
in Canada and of reflecting Louis Riel’s proper place in Canada’s history.
Reconciliation is an ongoing process. In renewing our partnership, we must ensure that the
mistakes which marked our past relationship are not repeated. The Government of Canada
recognizes that policies that sought to assimilate Aboriginal people, women and men, were not
the way to build a strong country. We must instead continue to find ways in which Aboriginal
people can participate fully in the economic, political, cultural and social life of Canada in a
manner which preserves and enhances the collective identities of Aboriginal communities, and
allows them to evolve and flourish in the future. Working together to achieve our shared goals
will benefit all Canadians, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal alike.”
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residential schools
In dealing with the legacies of the Residential School system, the Government of Canada proposes
to work with First Nations, Inuit and Métis people, the Churches and other interested parties to
resolve the longstanding issues that must be addressed. We need to work together on a healing
strategy to assist individuals and communities in dealing with the consequences of this sad era
of our history.
unit 6
LITERARY IMAGES
OF FIRST NATIONS
MAIN IDEA
OBJECTIVES
1.
to introduce students to First Nations authors and First Nations literature
2.
to discuss Canadian literary works about First Nations
3.
to introduce students to First Nations oral traditions
TEACHER INFORMATION
When studying Canadian literature, students should understand that stories, legends and songs
of the First Nations were the first literature of Canada. They should also learn that non-First Nations
writers have shaped the images of First Nations in Canadian literature, even though there is a very
large body of oral stories that have been passed down from generation to generation among First
Nations. Students should also be made aware of the increasingly large body of written works
by First Nations authors.
The Fir st Nations Oral Tradition
A work is usually defined as literature when it is a written story that displays creative imagination
and artistic skill. Thus, many people assume that the study of literature is about books. But each
culture has its own unique literary expression. Literature can be defined more broadly to include
songs, speeches, stories and invocations.
The literature of First Nations was based in oral traditions best described as “orature.” Individuals
who were eloquent and had a strong command of the language were highly respected in First
Nations communities. They were often storytellers. A good storyteller could transport listeners
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literary images of first nations
For centuries, non-Aboriginal writers have contributed to the shaping of the image of First Nations
in North American literature. The literary “voices” of First Nations are now emerging and are gradually
displacing the often stereotypical image of the “Indian” in Canadian literature.
to a particular piece of hunting territory — the lapping of the water on the lake shore and the smell
of the trees. A storyteller could evoke the lessons of ancestors long passed away. A storyteller could
shape the opinions of people by reminding them of past actions and historical events. In any oral
tradition, spoken words had the power to capture the imagination and transform reality.
In this way, First Nations used songs, legends and stories to express their understanding of their world
and to pass on the histories of their people to succeeding generations. In particular, storytelling
was a vital ingredient in teaching young children and youths. Stories were often used to discipline
children. This was generally done in a humorous way because teasing and joking served as a more
effective social mechanism in many First Nation cultures than direct reproof, pointing out mistakes.
Many of the old stories have slipped away with the passing of Elders and through the loss of culture
because of assimilation. The precarious state of many First Nations languages also presents a challenge
to storytelling traditions. Nevertheless, the oral traditions of First Nations continue today. First Nations
storytellers are reclaiming the stories of their people, and in many cases, relating them in the context
of the contemporary lives of First Nations. Contemporary storytellers are also expanding their audiences,
by adapting oral traditions to radio, television, theatre, music and books.
T h e I n d i a n a s a S ym b o l
First Nations frequently appear as characters in Canadian literature. The “Indian” is a commonplace
figure in Canadian literature. While some of these portrayals have been sympathetic, the “Indian”
has come to be associated with meanings that are often not defined by First Nations themselves.
In many instances, their voices have been ignored.
In many early Canadian literary works, First Nations characters did not speak. If they did, they expressed
themselves in broken English or with romantic eloquence. If First Nations characters moved, they
acted according to Euro-Canadian concepts of plot. They were portrayed as faithful allies or cruel
enemies, but most often as marginal figures who could be ignored.
Rather than complex human beings with a range of emotions, intellect and experience, First Nations
peoples were portrayed in a purely symbolic way. First Nations characters displayed “good” traits
(living in harmony with nature, simplicity, hospitality, noble, wise, acquiescent or compliant to Europeans),
or “bad” traits (violence, cruelty, instinctive rather than rational, uncommunicative, independent).
When these characters appeared, they were marginal to the plot in Canadian literary works.
Ultimately, many Canadian authors failed to look beyond the pervasive early European perspectives
of First Nations when creating First Nations characters. By treating them as little more than symbols,
Canadian literature denied First Nations’ history and humanity and perpetuated the powerful but
unrealistic mythic images of the “Indian.”
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literary images of first nations
Some European newcomers considered First Nations cultures to be inferior because they lacked
written forms of communication. However, many earlier colonial administrators soon came to appreciate
the verbal skill and artistry of First Nations leaders and orators. At treaty sessions and council
meetings, government officials found themselves having to adapt to the complex oratory of First
Nations spokespersons.
Fir st Nations Voices
While First Nations have continued to maintain their oral traditions, printed texts by First Nations
authors generally did not exist until the 1970s. Today, First Nations authors, playwrights and poets
are flourishing. The emergence of creative art schools for First Nations people, First Nations publishers,
bookstores which specialize in First Nations literature, and First Nations educators, have all contributed
to the “renaissance” of First Nations writers.
As their collective voices emerge, Canadian literature is being transformed. First Nations writers are
sharing their experiences, their beliefs, and their perspectives on human relationships, the spirit world
and the land. In the process, centuries of scholars and authors’ misinformation and misunderstandings
about First Nations are being corrected. Canadians finally have the opportunity to learn about First
Nations and their stories from the First Nations people themselves.
1.
Return of the Trickster
Storytelling has always been a communal activity for First Nations. Traditionally, stories and legends
brought people together to pass on their history to the next generation, to entertain each other,
and to teach their children. They told stories about their ancestors, about every aspect of the land
around them and about the magnificent beings who were part of their mythology.
One of the central figures in First Nations mythologies is a character often referred to as the “Trickster.”
The Trickster can be either male or female. It is called different names in different First Nations cultures —
Raven by the people of the West Coast, Wee-sak-ee-chak by the Cree, Nana’b’oozoo by the Ojibway
of the Eastern Woodlands, Kluskap by the Mi’kmaq. The Trickster is known as Coyote, Hare, Crow,
Badger or Old Man among other First Nations in North America.
Generally, the Trickster is a half-human and half-spirit figure who roams from one adventure to another,
assuming the form of animals or humans of either gender. The Trickster is an amusing character
whose enormous curiosity frequently leads to trouble. The Trickster regularly displays contradictory
behaviour such as charm and cunning, honesty and deception, kindness and mean tricks. It is
unpredictable — one minute a hero, the next a foolish clown.
Above all, the Trickster is a teacher. Listeners are invited to draw their own conclusions about traditions
and proper behaviour from the Trickster’s exploits. The Trickster is a remarkably self-important individual.
Like all humans, the Trickster is imperfect: it is capable of violence, deception and cruelty. Listeners
learn as much through the Trickster’s mistakes as through its virtues.
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literary images of first nations
ACTIVITIES
There are those who say that the Trickster left the First Nations when the Europeans arrived. Among
the Ojibway, it is said that Nana’b’oozoo paddled away from his people in a canoe, accompanied
only by his grandmother, upset that his people had rejected him for the ways of the newcomers.
But it is also said that Nana’b’oozoo would return when the people were ready to welcome him
again. Given the number of contemporary First Nations authors who employ the Trickster in their works,
it appears that the Trickster has returned and is roaming the Canadian landscape once again.
•
“The One About Coyote Going West” by Thomas King in All My Relations
•
“Nana’b’oozoo” by Basil Johnson in The Manitous
•
“Weaver Spider’s Web” by Peter Blue Cloud in All My Relations
•
“Legends of the Supernatural Wee-Sa-Kay-Jac” by Carl Ray and James Stevens in Sacred
Legends of the Sandy Lake Cree
•
“This Is A Story” by Jeanette Armstrong in All My Relations
•
“Trickster Cycles” in Our Bit of Truth: An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature
•
“The Shivering Tree” by John McLeod in Native Voices: The Issues Collection
When students have read one or more of the Trickster stories, ask them some of the following questions:
•
Is the Trickster a character you admire? If not, what have you learned from its behaviour?
•
Have you heard any other stories about someone who is vain? How was that person treated
in the story?
•
Do you ever play tricks on people? How do people react when they’ve been tricked?
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literary images of first nations
There are many compilations of First Nations myths and legends that feature the Trickster. Early
translators of First Nations myths and legends tended to modify the stories to resemble European
fairy tales, with a linear plot and a moral. Contemporary versions of the Trickster stories better reflect
the complexity and humour of the original storytellers. Introduce students to the Trickster character
by reading and comparing Trickster stories. Here is a brief list of stories you may wish to use:
2.
In The Eye of the Beholder
Many European newcomers assumed that without the written word, First Nations were not literate.
In reality, the oral traditions of the First Nations were intricate and full of meaning. First Nations orators
were highly respected, and words had a great deal of power. Orators used wit, metaphor, irony,
emotion, imagery and eloquence to enrich their orature. Storytelling, political oratory, invocations
and songs served as forms of literary expression which were passed on from generation to generation.
Without understanding the language of the orator or the context of the oratory, it may be difficult
for students familiar with Western literary structures to appreciate First Nations orature. However,
ask students to consider the words from the following two songs [for these and other examples
of Native orature, see Penny Petrone, Native Literature in Canada, (Oxford: Toronto, 1990)].
“Wau wau tay see!
Wau wau tay see!
E mow e shin
Tahe bwau ne baun-e wee!
Be eghaun - be eghaun - ewee!
Wau wau tay see!
Wau wau tay see!
Was sa koon ain je gun.
Was sa koon ain je gun.”
Translated literally by Henry Schoolcraft, the singer is saying:
“Flitting-white-fire-insect!
Waving-white-fire-bug!
Give me light before I go to bed!
Give me light before I go to sleep!
Come, little dancing white-fire-bug!
Come, little dancing white-fire-beast!
Light me with your bright white-flame-instrument — your little candle.”
Next is a translated version of a Sekani medicine song:
“I need your help, O caribou
Come swiftly to me.
You see I have laid my hands on the sufferer.
Come and lay your hoofs where I have laid my hands,
I need your help.
Without your help there is no healing in my hands today.
Come so quickly that your tail stands erect.”
Do you think these songs have “literary” elements to them? Is there imagery, rhythm, structure,
symbolism or allegory? What are these songs expressing?
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literary images of first nations
The first is a Chippewa song:
3.
Book Review
Daniel David Moses
Bernard Assiniwi
Basil Johnson
Thomas King
Gregory Scofield
Annehareo
Duncan Mercredi
Lee Maracle
Jeanette Armstrong
Rita Joe
Wayne Keon
Jordan Wheeler
Beth Brant
Armand Garnet Ruffo
Lenore Keeshig-Tobias
Beatrice Culleton
Ruby Slipperjack
Harry Robinson
Louise Halfe
Eden Robinson
Brian Maracle
Richard Wagamese
Beth Cuthand
Richard Van Camp
Pauline Johnson
Students may choose any other First Nations author to complete this exercise.
Tell students to write the book review in the first person. Ask them to describe what the book meant
to them and whether it raised (or answered) any questions about First Nations culture. Do they
think that other readers would enjoy the book? Why or why not?
4.
O n t h e S ta g e
First Nations theatre has exploded in popularity during the past decade. Many First Nations playwrights
believe that theatre captures the oral traditions of First Nations cultures more effectively than written
works. Plays also evoke the powerful emotions that have been used as part of the contemporary
healing process for First Nations.
Obtain a play by one of the following playwrights:
Tomson Highway
Drew Hayden Taylor
Daniel David Moses
Monique Mojica
Floyd Favel
Margo Kane
Billy Merasty
John McLeod
Ian Ross
If students have a different First Nations playwright in mind, they may choose that playwright’s work.
Choose a short scene from one of these plays and read it to the class. Explain to the class why
the scene was selected and organize a class discussion about the content of the scene.
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literary images of first nations
Tell students that they have been asked by a national newspaper to write a book review on
a contemporary First Nations author. Teachers may wish to suggest one of the following authors:
5.
Questions to Ask
Introduce students to some of the short stories, essays and poems of First Nations authors. There are several
anthologies of Canadian First Nations literature where you can find selections for the class, including:
King, Thomas (ed.). All My Relations. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1990.
Moses, Daniel David and Terry Goldie (ed.) An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature (2d)
Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Ahenakew, Freda, Brenda Gardipy and Barbara Lafond (ed.) Native Voices: The Issues Collection.
Canada: McGraw Hill Ryerson, 1993.
Brant, Beth. (ed.) A Gathering of Spirit. Toronto: Women’s Press, 1988.
En’okwin International School of Writing. Gatherings: The En’okwin Journal of First North
American Peoples. Penticton: Theytus Books, annual.
Grant, Agnes (ed.) Our Bit of Truth: An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature.
Winnipeg: Pemmican Publications, 1990.
Perrault, Jeanne and Sylvia Vance (ed.) Native Women of Western Canada: Writing the Circle.
Edmonton: NeWest Publishers, 1990.
After they have read the stories, ask students some of the following questions:
•
One of the key themes in First Nations literature is a sense of interconnected family or community
relations. What role do First Nations communities play in the stories or poems? How are individuality
and isolation treated by First Nations authors?
•
How do First Nations authors use humour in their works?
•
In a traditional oral story, the storyteller uses gestures, performance, and language to enhance
the story. In a written story, all you have is the word on the page. How have First Nations
authors demonstrated oral traditions in their writing?
•
Is there anger in any of the First Nations works you have read? Is there healing?
•
How have First Nations authors portrayed the relationship between people and the land?
What about relationships between people and animals?
•
Many non-First Nations authors set their works about First Nations in historical periods such as the
nineteenth century. How do First Nations authors treat the past? What period are their works set in?
•
How are relations with non-First Nations portrayed in works by First Nations authors?
•
How do First Nations authors treat the experience of colonization? For example, do they write
about jails, loss of language, boarding schools or reserves?
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literary images of first nations
Maki, J.T. (ed.) Let The Drums Be Your Heart. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1996.
unit 7
INDIAN
TREATIES
MAIN IDEA
Treaties are an important part of the relationship between the Crown and the First Nations. First Nations
consider treaties to be sacred and enduring agreements. There are different types of treaties in Canada,
although many First Nations have never signed treaty agreements.
OBJECTIVES
1.
to provide students with an historical perspective of the treaties in Canada
2.
to raise awareness of current issues surrounding treaties and First Nations land claims today
TEACHER INFORMATION
Starting in 1701, in what was to eventually become Canada, the British Crown entered into solemn
treaties to encourage peaceful relations between First Nations and non-Aboriginal people. Over the next
several centuries, treaties were signed to define, among other things, the respective rights of Aboriginal
people and governments to use and enjoy lands that Aboriginal people traditionally occupied.
Treaties include historic treaties made between 1701 and 1923 and modern-day treaties known
as comprehensive land claim settlements.
Treaty rights already in existence in 1982 (the year the Constitution Act was passed), and those
that arose afterwards, are recognized and affirmed by Canada’s Constitution.
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indian treaties
The Government of Canada and the courts understand treaties between the Crown and Aboriginal
people to be solemn agreements that set out promises, obligations and benefits for both parties.
T h e R o ya l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1 7 6 3
and the pre-Confederation treaties
In the 18th century, the French and British were competing for control of lands in North America.
The two colonial powers formed strategic alliances with First Nations to help them advance
their respective colonial interests in the continent. For example, in what are now New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia, the British made a series of “Peace and Friendship” treaties with the Mi’kmaq
and Maliseet tribes between 1725 and 1779.
By the early 1760s, the British had established themselves as the dominant colonial power in North
America. The British Royal Proclamation of 1763 prohibited the purchase of First Nation lands by any
party other than the Crown. The Crown could purchase land from a First Nation group that had agreed
to the sale at a public meeting of the group.
Several treaties were signed after the Royal Proclamation and before Confederation in 1867. These
include the Upper Canada Treaties (1764 to 1862) and the Vancouver Island Treaties (1850-1854).
Under these treaties, the First Nations surrendered interests in lands in areas of what are now Ontario
and British Columbia, in exchange for certain other benefits, that could include reserves, annuities
or other types of payment, and certain rights to hunt and fish.
Historic treaties after Confederation
Under these treaties, the First Nations who occupied these territories ceded vast tracts of land
to the Crown. In exchange, the treaties provided for such things as reserve lands and other benefits
like agricultural equipment and livestock, annuities, ammunition, gratuities, clothing and certain
rights to hunt and fish. The Crown also made some promises regarding the maintenance of schools
on reserves, or the provision of teachers or educational assistance to the First Nation parties
to the treaties. Treaty No. 6 included the promise of a medicine chest.
Modern treaties — comprehensive claims
Comprehensive land claim settlements deal with areas of Canada where Aboriginal people’s claims
to Aboriginal rights have not been addressed by treaties, or other legal means. The first of these
modern-day treaties was the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, signed in 1975. To date,
the federal government has settled 13 comprehensive claims with Aboriginal people in Canada.
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indian treaties
Between 1871 and 1921, the Crown entered into treaties with various First Nations that enabled
the Canadian government to actively pursue agriculture, settlement and resource development
of the Canadian West and the North. Because they are numbered 1 to 11, the treaties are often
referred to as the “Numbered Treaties.” The Numbered Treaties cover Northern Ontario, Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, Alberta, and portions of the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and British Columbia.
The contemporary significance of treaties
In Gathering Strength — Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan, announced January 7, 1998, the
Government of Canada affirmed that both historic and modern-day treaties will continue to be key
elements in the future relationship between Aboriginal people and the Crown. The federal government
believes that the treaties, and the relationship they represent, can guide the way to a shared future.
The continuing treaty relationship provides a context of mutual rights and responsibilities that will
ensure Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people can together enjoy Canada’s benefits.
E x p l o r atory d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h F i r s t N at i o n s
The federal government is seeking the views of groups of Treaty First Nations on how the historic
treaties and treaty issues can be understood in contemporary terms. These discussions allow the parties
to develop a common understanding of the issues and consider ways to move into a relationship
oriented to the future. Since many important treaty provisions are of direct interest to them, provincial
governments will also have an important role in this process.
ACTIVITIES
1.
T r e at y M a p
The numerous treaties in Canada cover different areas and affect different First Nations
(see Resources section).
Divide the class into 13 groups, and assign each group a province or territory. Ask each group
to make a brief, five minute oral report to the class on the treaties that affect the province or territory
they have been assigned.
•
the number of treaties in the province or territory
•
the year in which the treaties were signed
•
the First Nations affected by the treaty
•
the types of treaties; i.e., peace and friendship, pre-Confederation, numbered or modern-day.
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indian treaties
Their presentation should include:
2.
T h e R o ya l P r o c l a m a t i o n
When discussing treaties, one of the most important historical documents is the Royal Proclamation
of 1763. It was issued by King George III and was intended to keep Indians as allies during
times of war and to keep them as trading partners. Some of the important principles in the Royal
Proclamation include:
•
the decree that Indians should not be disturbed in their use and enjoyment of the lands reserved
to them by the Royal Proclamation;
•
any lands that the Royal Proclamation reserved to First Nations was to be purchased
by the Crown only and not by individuals;
•
lands reserved to First Nations under the Royal Proclamation could only be purchased with
the consent of the Indians in a public assembly of the Indians held by the Governor or Commander
in Chief of the colonies in which the lands lay.
First Nations still refer to the Royal Proclamation as evidence of their sovereignty and their rights
to land and resources.
Ask the class to design a short skit concerning the Royal Proclamation of 1763. One student will
be required to portray a British representative of King George in 1763. The representative visits
some of the local First Nations in your area, and reads the following portions of the Royal Proclamation
to them. An interpreter must translate the meaning of each paragraph into contemporary English:
(INTERPRETER’s version)
“And, We do further strictly enjoin and require all Persons whatever who have either willfully
or inadvertently seated themselves upon any Lands within the Countries above described, or upon
any other Lands which, not having been ceded to or purchased by Us, are still reserved to
the said Indians as aforesaid, forthwith to remove themselves from such Settlements.”
(INTERPRETER’s version)
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“And whereas it is just and reasonable, and essential to our interest, and the Security of our Colonies,
that the several Nations or Tribes of Indians with whom We are connected, and who live under
our Protection, should not be molested or disturbed in the Possession of such Parts of our Dominions
and Territories as, not having been ceded to or purchased by Us, are reserved to them, or any
of them, as their Hunting Grounds.”
“And Whereas Great Frauds and Abuses have been committed in purchasing Lands of the
Indians, to the Great Prejudice of our Interests, and the Great Dissatisfaction of the said Indians;
In Order, therefore, to prevent such Irregularities for the future, and to the End that the Indians
may be convinced of our Justice and determined Resolution to remove all reasonable Cause
of Discontent, We do, with the advice of Privy Council, strictly enjoin and require, that no private
person do presume to make any Purchase from the said Indians of any Lands reserved to the said
Indians, within those parts of our colonies where, We have thought proper to allow Settlement;”
(INTERPRETER’s version)
“But that, if at any Time any of the said Indians should be inclined to dispose of the said Lands,
the same shall be Purchased only for Us, in our Name, at some public Meeting or Assembly
of the said Indians...”
(INTERPRETER’s version)
When the group is preparing the text for the interpreter, keep in mind that the translator is a First
Nations person who will be translating the text from a First Nations perspective. Students do not need
to memorize their parts; they can simply read them. However,they should practise so that they
know their roles fairly well.
•
What is meant when First Nations refer to British and First Nations dealings as being on
“a nation-to-nation basis”? Has this type of relationship continued?
•
How is it different today? What can be done to change this situation?
•
How important is language in negotiations?
Have students read the text of one of the historical treaties. The Internet has a wide selection of treaties.
Consult the Resources section for sites on this topic. Teachers may wish to have students read the text
out loud, and “translate” some of the more complex language. Remind students that many First Nations
believe that the written versions of the treaties do not reflect the verbal agreements reached by
the negotiators, and that ultimately, the treaties are about peoples living together.
Ask students if they think that a literal interpretation of the treaties is fair. Are the promises of $5 annual
treaty money or a medicine chest a reasonable exchange in today’s terms for Aboriginal land rights?
Or were they gifts to commemorate an agreement, which are most important as symbols?
unit 7
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indian treaties
After the skit, ask the class the following questions:
3.
T wo-Row Wampum
The wampum belt has a long history among First Nations, particularly those of the Eastern Woodlands.
The belt was an item of exchange for gift-giving and diplomacy between nations. Wampum beads,
usually made of shells, were woven into belts and strings. The wampum belts and strings that were
exchanged at treaty conferences were usually made of beads of white or black shell (actually dark
purple). The beads were strung together in graphic patterns that recorded the principal concepts
or agreements of the discussions.
Wampum belts were used in many of the treaty conferences between First Nations and Europeans.
One of the best-known wampum belts is the Iroquois gus-wen-tah, or the “two-row wampum.”
The two-row wampum consists of a bed of white wampum beads, which symbolize the sacred nature
of the treaty agreement between the two parties. Two parallel rows of purple wampum beads
run down the length of the belt. First Nations explain that these represent the separate paths that
the two sides travel on the same river.
Students can get some very detailed information about wampum belts on the Internet, including
photographs, diagrams, weaving techniques, historical background and explanations about symbolism.
4.
T r e at y R e s e a r c h e r
Ask students to write a research report (2-3 pages) about a modern-day land claim in Canada
(e.g. the Labrador Innu, the Yukon First Nations, or the British Columbia Treaty Process). Students
can address some of the following issues in their report:
•
How long have the negotiations been going on?
•
What portion of the resources are the First Nations to control?
•
What forms of First Nation self-government are in the agreement? For example, does
the agreement deal with justice, health or economic development?
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indian treaties
In the settlement of modern land claims, First Nations seek a wide range of opportunities. From a First
Nations perspective, land claims agreements provide a means to rebuild their nations and revitalize
their culture. First Nations want more control over programs in their community, such as education,
child welfare and justice. They want to participate in local renewable resource activities, and to
manage things like fishing and hunting according to their traditional values. They also seek access
to the wider Canadian economy, through enterprises such as logging, commercial fishing, and
mining on their traditional lands.
•
How does the agreement protect and revitalize First Nations cultures? For example, are there
any heritage sites protected? Will portions of the traditional territory be renamed? Will historical
artifacts that are stored in museums be returned to the First Nations?
•
How will the agreement affect non-Aboriginal peoples?
•
How will First Nations and governments work together to manage resources?
Students may wish to complement their research on land claims by creating a wall display, where
they can post newspaper articles about current First Nations land claims.
5.
Classroom Visit
Invite a person knowledgeable about treaties and land claims to speak to the class. If students live
in an area covered by a historical treaty, teachers could ask an Elder to share some of the oral history,
or a First Nations leader to discuss how the treaty affects his or her work. If students live in an area
where claims are being negotiated, teachers could invite a person from a First Nations claims research
office to discuss the type of work that is being done, or federal or provincial workers who work in
the area of treaties. This may include negotiations, mapping, historical research or recording oral history.
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indian treaties
Be sure that students prepare some questions for the speaker. Students should also present the speaker
with a gift, preferably one that they have created with their own resources.
unit 8
FIRST NATIONS
SELF-GOVERNMENT
MAIN IDEA
Canada has recognized the inherent right to self-government as an existing right within the Canadian
Constitution. Self-government means that First Nations will gain more control over their lives
and their communities than they can under current institutions.
OBJECTIVES
1.
to introduce students to the concept of self-government
2.
to learn why self-government is important to First Nations
3.
to learn about traditional modes of self-government
First Nations had been practising their own forms of government for thousands of years before
the arrival of Europeans in Canada. These governments covered a wide variety of systems. First Nations
shaped their forms of government to meet their particular needs — needs defined by their own
economic, social and geographic conditions. Groups’ individual cultures, and their spiritual beliefs tied
to their ancestral lands, have also been important sources of inspiration for their forms of government.
First Nations can trace their systems of government back to the beginnings of their oral history.
They see their powers of government as essential to their existence. This is what is meant by the inherent
right of self-government for First Nations people. From a First Nations perspective, the right to govern
themselves has always belonged to them.
Colonial policies weakened First Nations governments’ authority. When European colonists arrived
in Canada, they established their own colonial governments and signed treaties with many First
Nations people. The aim of these treaties was to ensure friendship between First Nations and European
colonists, and to share lands and resources.
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s e l f- g o ve r n m e n t
TEACHER INFORMATION
The colonial governments gradually began to establish laws and policies aimed at assimilating First Nations
people into non-Aboriginal society. The colonial governments, and (after 1867) the Government
of Canada, passed laws encouraging First Nations people to adopt the social and political ways
of the mainstream, non-Aboriginal population. As part of this process of assimilation, the federal
government set up a system of residential schools for First Nations children. At these schools, First
Nations children were forbidden to speak their own languages or follow their cultural and
spiritual traditions.
These federal government policies of assimilation and control had terrible effects. Traditional First
Nations lifestyles were threatened. The authority of First Nations governments weakened. Over
the past few centuries, First Nations people have become one of the most disadvantaged groups
in Canada. People living in First Nations communities still have one of the lowest standards of living
in the country.
However, First Nations self-government is being re-established. Since the late 1940s, First Nations leaders
have struggled to help their people regain their rightful place in the Canadian federation. They want
recognition of the right to govern themselves and to enter partnerships with the federal and provincial
governments and other partners, including the private sector.
By re-establishing their own governments, First Nations people will once again be able to control
their own lives and lands. They will also be in a better position to continue the process of social
and spiritual healing in their communities.
Self-government is about building self-reliance and establishing a new relationship between governments
and First Nations, based on mutual understanding and trust. It means that First Nations will be able
to take more responsibility and control over decisions affecting their their own lives and communities
than they have now. It means that they will be able to make their own laws in some areas, make
choices about how to spend money, deliver their own programs and services (like education) to their
people, and more easily build partnerships with others to pursue economic development opportunities.
It also means that Aboriginal governments will be more accountable to their own people for the decisions
they make.
Self-government does not mean that First Nations will operate as independent countries. First Nations
will co-exist with their neighbours, as they do now. The Canadian Constitution and the Charter of Rights
and Freedoms will apply to First Nations governments. Federal and provincial laws will also continue
to apply, with federal and provincial laws of overriding importance, such as the Criminal Code, prevailing
over First Nation laws in the case of a conflict between them. Self-government is about all levels
of government — First Nations, municipal, provincial, and federal — working together as partners to ensure
that all Canadians have access to the services and opportunities to which they are entitled.
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s e l f- g o ve r n m e n t
In August 1995, the federal government undertook a process to negotiate practical arrangements
to make Aboriginal self-government a reality. This process is based on the idea that the inherent
right of Aboriginal self-government already exists in the Canadian Constitution. Aboriginal groups
will shape their own forms of government to suit their particular historical, cultural, political and
economic circumstances.
ACTIVITIES
1.
The Faces of Self-Government
As First Nations move towards self-government, they will require many talented First Nations individuals
to create institutions and fill jobs in the new government and its public service, such as politicians,
accountants, financial administrators, lawyers and social workers.
In this activity, students will profile an individual who is actively involved in First Nations self-government.
In urban centres or in communities without an adjacent First Nations community, students might
contact the local Friendship Centre to find potential interview subjects. Students may look at many
different areas to identify this person, such as schools, business, government, health clinics, or policing
services. It is important that students be allowed to choose this person themselves, as this will reflect
what self-government means to them on a personal level.
•
How did you first become interested in your career area?
•
What prompted you to choose that path?
•
What is your vision of self-government?
•
What do you think your contribution in assisting your community in moving to self-government
has been/will be?
•
What messages would you give to students about self-government?
When the interviews and any additional research are complete, each student should write a profile
of the person and how he or she is contributing to First Nations self-government. Students should
also include why they believe this person’s contributions are important. Students can then give a brief
oral report to the rest of their classmates.
The class can create a visual display of all the completed biographies, which could include pictures,
or design their own First Nations self-government posters to be posted around the classroom.
Make sure that students send a copy of the biography to the person they interviewed, along with
a letter of thanks for the time he or she volunteered.
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s e l f- g o ve r n m e n t
To complete this activity students will need to become investigative reporters, interviewing and getting
in direct contact with their subject. Once they have selected a First Nations member in or near their
community, they should contact that person and find out if they are willing to be interviewed. In addition
to important personal history details, the interviewer should also include the following questions:
2.
Class Visit
Invite a person from a First Nation who is knowledgeable about self-government issues to speak
to the class. There are several different perspectives the class could take on the issue: a First Nations
Elder to talk about traditional government systems; a politician with a First Nations organization;
a member of a First Nation band council or a First Nations businessperson. If the school is in the city,
a good place to start would be a Friendship Centre, or an urban First Nations organization.
Encourage students to prepare questions for the speaker, such as:
•
What does self-government mean to the person?
•
Does he or she think that there are barriers to First Nations achieving self-government?
If so, how can these be overcome?
•
Have First Nation communities become more self-governing in the lifetime of the person?
Does he or she have a vision for self-government in the future?
The students should have a gift, preferably one they have created themselves, to honour the speaker
after the presentation.
3.
T V Ta l k
•
an Ojibway businessperson in Toronto
•
a Member of Parliament representing one of the political parties
•
a Dene woman living in a Dene village in the Northwest Territories
•
a commercial fisherman in B.C.
•
a new Canadian who owns a shop in Halifax
•
a university student in Québec City
•
a Maliseet Elder from a First Nations community in New Brunswick
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s e l f- g o ve r n m e n t
Select several members of the class to role-play a television special on the evening news with a journalist
interviewing Canadians on their impressions of First Nations self-government. One student will play
the role of the TV interviewer and several others will act as people being interviewed. The following
are examples of characters the students could portray (feel free to create additional characters,
as required):
Ask students portraying the characters to imagine what their character’s perspective on First Nations
self-government might be, and write a short statement that can be used in a documentary. Students
should creatively combine the characters’ statements into a script and perform it for the television
audience (the rest of the class).
In the follow-up discussion, ask students acting as the audience how they felt about the viewpoints
represented by each interviewee. How might each interviewee come to that perspective? Did they
have access to complete information? Were there any stereotypes about First Nations or First Nations
self-government?
4.
F i r s t N at i o n s B u s i n e s s e s
Strong, stable Aboriginal governments are the building block for economic development opportunities.
Traditional First Nations economies were based on hunting, gathering, fishing and trade. However,
as the viability of these activities declined, many First Nations communities became increasingly dependent
on the Canadian government. With the expansion and stimulation of First Nation-run economic
enterprises, First Nations communities can become economically self-supporting.
In this activity, students will be asked to develop a business plan for an economic enterprise in
a First Nations community.
Once students have some familiarity with what goes into running a business, assign them to groups
of three or four. Tell these groups that they will each be designing their own business for a First
Nations community.
Ask each group to brainstorm a business idea. The groups should ask themselves what the community
needs, or what community assets could be transformed into an economic development opportunity.
Once each group has hatched an idea, the next step is to create a successful business plan.
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Before the students develop and design their own First Nations business, ask them to identify
an existing enterprise in a First Nations community; i.e., a co-op grocery, tourism company, gas
station, computer software company, fish cannery or a wild rice manufacturer. Ask students to write
a short essay in which they describe what the enterprise is, who runs it, and what its importance
is to the community. To fill in these details, students may wish to interview the people who administer
the enterprise.
There are four key elements to a basic business plan:
a) summary
In this part of the plan, students will provide a background of their business, a brief outline of
how the company is organized, and who manages it.
b) market need
Give a description of the product, process or service that company has to offer, in order to attract
financial support.
c) amount of capital required
Calculate how much money will be needed to run the business, including items such as wages
or materials.
d) projected financial results
An estimate of how much money the business will make.
An excellent resource for students getting started is the Internet site of the Aboriginal Youth
Business Council: www.aybc.org
5.
A De c l a r at io n o f t h e F i r s t N at io n s
Ask students to read and consider the “Declaration of the First Nations,” adopted in 1980 by all
of the First Nations in Canada at a conference of the Assembly of First Nations.
DECLARATION OF THE FIRST NATIONS
The Creator has given us Laws that govern all our relationships to live in harmony
with nature and mankind.
The Laws of the Creator defined our rights and responsibilities.
The Creator gave us our spiritual beliefs, our languages, our cultures, and a place
on Mother Earth that provided us with all our needs.
We have maintained our freedom, our languages, and our traditions from time
immemorial.
We continue to exercise the rights and fulfill the responsibilities and obligations
given to us by the Creator for the land upon which we were placed.
The Creator has given us the right to govern ourselves and the right to self-determination.
The rights and responsibilities given to us by the Creator cannot be altered or taken
away by any other Nation.”
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s e l f- g o ve r n m e n t
“We the Original Peoples of this Land know the Creator put us here.
A class project should address the following questions: What does this declaration say about how
First Nations see themselves? Where does the right to self-government and self-determination come from?
6.
O c c u pat i o n s
•
negotiators and leaders
•
engineers and scientists
•
teachers, cultural experts and Elders
•
judges and lawyers
•
artists and linguists
•
communicators and storytellers
•
financial administrators, accountants and economists
•
healers, dentists, doctors and nurses
•
program and human resource managers
•
policy analysts.
Many other positions and skills will be required as the process of self-government matures and develops.
Ask students to brainstorm what types of skilled people they believe will be needed to make selfgovernment a reality. They should also consider how they would encourage their peers to pursue
these careers. After they have identified the positions and skills, ask them to develop a campaign
to recruit potential self-government staff to fill these positions. The campaign should also address
youth training and education issues, as part of the overall strategy.
Students could design posters that feature photography or artwork to be posted in the school, or
placed in the school’s or local newspaper. They could design a radio commercial that could be run
over the P.A. system, or even broadcast over the community radio or cable TV. If the class has access
to a video camera, students could develop a short video commercial.
unit 8
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s e l f- g o ve r n m e n t
One challenge of self-government is how to bring together the skilled First Nations people to
operate the administrations and businesses that will be required in First Nations governments. These
governments will need people who have a wide range of formal education, training, skills and
experience. They include:
Resources
GENERAL INTERNET SITES
Cradleboard, curriculum on First Nations issues.
www.cradleboard.org
AMMSA, features classroom editions.
www.ammsa.com/classroom.htm
Native Links
www.johnco.com/nativel
First People’s Homepage (Schoolnet), links to First Nations schools across Canada, curriculum,
Elders and more.
www.schoolnet.ca/aboriginal
Aboriginal Youth Network, Web links, news centre, chatline for First Nations youth and more.
www.ayn.ca
Bill’s Aboriginal Links, an extensive list of First Nations sites.
www.bloorstreet.com/300block/aborl.htm
Jerome and Deborah’s Big Page of Aboriginal Links, First Nations education links.
www.mts.net/~jgreenco/native.html
ENCYCLOPEDIAS
The Canadian Encyclopedia
•
Includes numerous articles on First Nations cultures, figures, history, economies, political and
social issues. Suitable for all grades.
The Canadian Encyclopedia Plus CD-ROM
•
A multi-media tool for student research on a broad range of First Nations topics. It includes
numerous articles on First Nations cultures, figures, history, economies, political and social
issues. Suitable for all grades.
page 55
resources
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, includes a summary of the RCAP report.
www.inac.gc.ca/rcap/report/index.html
URBAN FIRST NATIONS
National Film Board of Canada
•
Urban Elder — 1997
Congress of Aboriginal Peoples
www.abo-peoples.org
National Association of Friendship Centres
www.nafc-aboriginal.com
First Nations communities
www.euronet.nl/~fullmoon/aborig.html
WHAT’S IN A NAME
First Nations communities
www.johnco.com/nativel
www.aboriginalcanada.com/firstnation
First Nations Cultural Educations Centres
www.schoolnet.ca/aboriginal/fnccec/index-e.html
FIRST NATIONS ORGANIZATIONS
•
Forgotten Warriors — 1997
•
Tikinagan — 1991
National Aboriginal Forestry Association
www.sae.ca/nafa
Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada
www.anac.on.ca
Aboriginal Youth Business Council
www.aybc.org
Congress of Aboriginal Peoples
www.abo-peoples.org
Assembly of First Nations
www.afn.ca
page 56
resources
National Film Board of Canada
Newspapers, periodicals and publications
www.johnco.com
Links to national, provincial, territorial and regional political, cultural and educational
organizations and associations:
www.johnco.com/nativel
www.johnco.com/firstnat/dirfnorg.html#1
www.euronet.nl/~fullmoon/aborig.html
www.ammsa.com/ammsalinks.html
www.klingon.org/native/pages/associations.html
HUNTING AND TRAPPING
National Film Board of Canada
•
Indian Middlemen: Natives in the Fur Trade — 1983
•
Trade for Furs: The Beginning — 1983
•
Pelts: Politics of the Fur Trade — 1989
•
Cree Hunters of Mistassini — 1975
•
Flooding Job’s Garden — 1991
Animal Rights, a view of First Nations hunting and fishing, from an animal rights perspective.
arrs.envirolink.org
Native Link, a series of commentaries and exchanges on the use of leg hold traps by First
Nations trappers.
bioc09.uthscsa.edu/natnet/archive/nl/9507/0446.html
Fur Institute of Canada, a non-profit organization that includes trappers associations, Aboriginal
groups, animal welfare agencies and government.
www.fur.ca
Morrison, R.B. and C.R. Wilson. Native Peoples: The Canadian Experience (Toronto: M&S, 1995)
Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and
Services Canada, 1996) - see “Lands and Resources” and “Economic Development” in Restructuring
the Relationship (Volume 2).
page 57
resources
EU Fur Import Restrictions, a report on the European Union’s wild fur import restrictions, and
the impact on First Nations hunters and trappers.
www.inac.gc.ca/pubs/report.html
RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS
First Nations Columnist, writings on the effects of residential schools.
www.firstnations.com/oskaboose/residential-schools.htm
Residential Schools Site, includes a history of the residential schools in Canada, the treatment
and conditions in the schools, the effects upon students, and other web links.
www.sd83.bc.ca/stu/9801/mrl3hp.html
United Church Statement on Residential Schools
www.uccanbc.org/conf/native/residential.html
The Circle Game, essay on residential schools submitted to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.
www.treaty7.org/document/circle/circlint.htm
Residential School Task Force, information about the RCMP’s BC Native Indian Residential School
Task Force.
www.citytel.net/rcmp/nirstf.htm
Cree Residential Schools, photographs of James Bay Cree students at residential schools.
borealis.lib.uconn.edu/HistoryCulture/Cree/creeexhibit.html
Miller, J.R. Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools (Toronto: University
of Toronto Press, 1996)
Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and
Service Canada, 1996) - see “Residential Schools” in Looking Forward, Looking Back (Vol. 1)
National Film Board of Canada
•
The Learning Path - 1991
National Film Board of Canada
•
Duncan Campbell Scott: The Poet and the Indians - 1995
Native Canadian Women Writers
www.nlc-bnc.ca/services/enative.htm
Miller, J.R. Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools (Toronto: University
of Toronto Press, 1996)
Petrone, Penny. Native Literature in Canada (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1990)
Lutz, Hartmut. Contemporary Challenges: Conversations with Canadian Native Authors
(Saskatoon: Fifth House Publishers, 1991)
page 58
resources
LITERARY IMAGES OF FIRST NATIONS
INDIAN TREATIES
Treaty Project, survey of dozens of treaties and includes photographs and transcripts.
aboriginalcollections.ic.gc.ca/database/treatymain.htm
Treaty 7 Nations, the official web site of the Treaty 7 First Nations.
http://www.treaty7.org/info/info.htm
Treaty Texts
http://www.inac.gc.ca/treatdoc
National Film Board of Canada
•
Time Immemorial - 1991
Rauent, Daniel. Without Surrender, Without Consent: A History of the Nishga Land Claim
(Vancouver: Douglas and MacIntyre, 1984)
Price, Richard. Legacy: Indian Treaty Relationships (Edmonton: Plains Publishing, 1991)
Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and
Service Canada, 1996) — see “Treaties” in Restructuring the Relationship (Volume 2).
FIRST NATIONS SELF-GOVERNMENT
Wetum, monthly electronic publication devoted to First Nation business in Canada.
http://www.sae.ca/
First Perspective Online, First Nations newspaper.
http://www.mbnet.mb.ca:80/firstper/index.html
First Nations Statistics
http://www.inac.gc.ca/stats/index.html
•
Dancing Around the Table - 1987
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Partners in Confederation: Aboriginal Peoples,
Self- Government, and the Constitution (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Service Canada, 1993)
Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and
Service Canada, 1996) - see “Governance” in Restructuring the Relationship (Volume 2).
page 59
resources
National Film Board of Canada
CULTURAL
EDUCATION
CENTRES
cultural education centres
FIRST NATIONS CONFEDERACY OF
CULTURAL EDUCATION CENTRES
337 Saint-Joseph Boulevard
HULL QC J8Y 3Z2
Tel: 819-772-2331
Fax: 819-772-1826
EEL GROUND INDIAN BAND
47 Church Road
NEWCASTLE NB E1V 4E6
Tel: 506-627-4600
Fax: 506-627-4602
Prince Edward Island
EEL RIVER BAR FIRST NATION
252 Miller Boulevard
DALHOUSIE NB E8C 3A8
Tel: 506-684-6277
Fax: 506-684-6282
LENNOX ISLAND CULTURAL EDUCATIONAL CENTRE
Box 134
LENNOX ISLAND PE C0B 1P0
Tel: 902-831-2087
Fax: 902-831-3153
FORT FOLLY CULTURAL EDUCATION CENTRE
P.O. Box 21
DORCHESTER NB E0A 1M0
Tel: 506-379-3400
Fax: 506-379-3408
N o va S c o t i a
KINGSCLEAR FIRST NATION
77 French Village Road
KINGSCLEAR-FN NB E3E 1K3
Tel: 506-363-3028
Fax: 506-363-4319
MICMAC ASSOCIATION FOR CULTURAL STUDIES
111 Membentoust, P.O. Box 961
SYDNEY NS B1P 6J4
Tel: 902-567-1752
Fax: 902-562-6245
WAGMATCOOK FIRST NATION
P.O. Box 237
BADDECK NS B0E 1B0
Tel: 902-295-2598
Fax: 902-295-3398
New Brunswick
BIG COVE BAND COUNCIL
Site 11, Box 1
BIG COVE NB E0A 2L0
Tel: 506-523-4669
Fax: 506-523-8230
BUCTOUCHE MICMAC BAND
R.R. #2, Site 1, Box 30
BUCTOUCHE NB E0A 1G0
Tel: 506-743-6493
Fax: 506-743-8995
OROMOCTO NATION
P.O. Box 417, R.R. #1
OROMOCTO NB E2V 2J2
Tel: 506-357-2083
Fax: 506-357-2628
PABINEAU INDIAN BAND
Cultural Education Program
1290 Pabineau Falls Road
BATHURST NB E2A 7M3
Tel: 506-548-9211
Fax: 506-548-5348
RED BANK FIRST NATION
Metepenagiag Education Program
1926 MicMac Road
RED BANK NB E9E 2P2
Tel: 506-836-6113 or 506-836-6107
Fax: 506-836-2787
page 60
N AT I O N A L O F F I C E
TOBIQUE INDIAN BAND
13100 Route 105
TOBIQUE-FN NB E7H 3Y2
Tel: 506-273-5546
Fax: 506-273-5436
Quebec
cultural education centres
ALGONQUIN NATION PROGRAM
AND SERVICES SECRETARIAT
Timiskaming Reserve
Box 367
NOTRE-DAME-DU-NORD QC J0Z 3B0
Tel: 819-723-2019
Fax: 819-723-2345
CENTRE CULTUREL AMIKWAN
Conseil de bande du lac Simon
1011 Amik-Wiche Street
LAC-SIMON QC J0Y 3M0
Tel: 819-736-4501
Fax: 819-736-7311
CENTRE CULTUREL DE WANASKOADEMEK
102 Waban-aki Street
ODANAK QC J0G 1H0
Tel: 514-568-2810
Fax: 514-568-3553
CONSEIL DE LA NATION ALGONQUINE ANISHNABEG
314 Hill Street
MANIWAKI QC J9E 2G7
Tel: 819-449-1225
Fax: 819-449-8064
CONSEIL DE LA NATION ATIKAMEKW
317 Saint-Joseph Boulevard, P.O. Box 848
LA TUQUE QC G9X 3P6
Tel: 819-523-6153
Fax: 819-523-8706
CONSEIL DE LA NATION HURONNE-WENDAT
255 Chef-Michel-Laveau Place
VILLAGE-DES-HURONS QC G0A 4V0
Tel: 418-843-2966
Fax: 418-842-1108
CONSEIL DES MONTAGNAIS DU LAC ST-JEAN
Headquarters
1671 Ouiatchouan Street
MASHTEUIATSH QC G0W 2H0
Tel: 418-275-5386
Fax: 418-275-6212
INSTITUT CULTUREL ET ÉDUCATIF MONTAGNAIS
1005 Laure Boulevard, Suite 305.2
UASHAT (Sept-Îles) QC G4R 4S6
Tel: 418-968-4424
Fax: 418-968-1841
JAMES BAY CREE CULTURAL EDUCATION CENTRE
P.O. Box 291
CHISASIBI QC J0M 1E0
Tel: 819-855-2878
Fax: 819-855-2255 or 819-855-2264
KANEHSATAKE CULTURAL CENTRE
664 Sainte-Philomène Street
KANEHSATAKE QC J0N 1E0
Tel: 450-479-1783
Fax: 450-479-8249
KANIEN’KEHAKA RAOTITIOHKWA CULTURAL CENTRE
Box 969
KAHNAWAKE QC J0L 1B0
Tel: 450-638-0880
Fax: 450-638-0920
KITIGAN ZIBI EDUCATION COUNCIL
41 Kikinamage Mikan Street
MANIWAKI QC J9E 3B1
Tel: 819-449-1798
Fax: 819-449-5570
LISTUGUJ ARTS AND CULTURAL CENTRE
Education and Cultural Directorate
Education Complex
2 Riverside Street W.
LISTUGUJ QC G0C 2R0
Tel: 418-788-2248
Fax: 418-788-5980
MICMACS OF GESGAPEGIAG BAND
P.O. Box 1280
MARIA QC G0C 1Y0
Tel: 418-759-3422
Fax: 418-759-5446
page 61
SAINT MARY’S INDIAN BAND
440 Highland Avenue
FREDERICTON NB E3A 2S6
Tel: 506-452-2752
Fax: 506-452-2759
O n ta r i o
Manitoba
BATCHEWANA FIRST NATION
Rankin Reserve
236 Frontenac Street, R.R. #4
SAULT STE. MARIE ON P6A 5K9
Tel: 705-759-0914
Fax: 705-759-9171
BROKENHEAD OJIBWAY NATION
General Delivery
SCANTERBURY MB R0E 1W0
Tel: 204-766-2494
Fax: 204-766-2306
cultural education centres
NATIVE NORTH AMERICAN TRAVELLING COLLEGE
R.R. #3
CORNWALL ISLAND ON K6H 5R7
Tel: 613-932-9452
Fax: 613-932-0092
OJIBWAY AND CREE CULTURAL CENTRE
210 Spruce Street S., Suite 101
TIMMINS ON P4N 2C7
Tel: 705-267-7911
Fax: 705-267-4988
OJIBWE CULTURAL FOUNDATION
P.O. Box 278
West Bay Indian Reserve
WEST BAY ON P0P 1G0
Tel: 705-377-4902
Fax: 705-377-5460
ONEIDA LANGUAGE & CULTURAL CENTRE
R.R. #2
SOUTHWOLD ON N0L 2G0
Tel: 519-652-6227
Fax: 519-652-6397
WIKWEMIKONG INTERPRETIVE / HERITAGE CENTRE
P.O. Box 112
WIKWEMIKONG ON POP 2J0
Tel: 705-859-2385
Fax: 705-859-2980
WOODLAND CULTURAL CENTRE
P.O. Box 1506
BRANTFORD ON N3T 5V6
Tel: 519-759-2653
Fax: 519-759-8912
CROSS LAKE CULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
P.O. Box 10
CROSS LAKE MB R0B 0J0
Tel: 204-676-2218
Fax: 204-676-3155
DAKOTA OJIBWAY TRIBAL COUNCIL
300 - 340 Assiniboine Avenue
WINNIPEG MB R3C 0Y1
Tel: 204-988-5383
Fax: 204-947-5179
EBB & FLOW OJIBWAY NATION EDUCATION BOARD
General Delivery
EBB AND FLOW MB R0L 0R0
Tel: 204-448-2438
Fax: 204-448-2090
INTERLAKE RESERVES TRIBAL COUNCIL
General Delivery
FAIRFORD MB R0C 0X0
Tel: 204-659-4465
Fax: 204-659-2147
KEESEEKOOWENIN FIRST NATION
P.O. Box 100
ELPHINSTONE MB R0J 0N0
Tel: 204-625-2004
Fax: 204-625-2042
MANITOBA INDIAN CULTURAL EDUCATION CENTRE
119 Sutherland Avenue
WINNIPEG MB R2W 3C9
Tel: 204-942-0228
Fax: 204-947-6564
NORWAY HOUSE FIRST NATION
Education, Training & Culture Division
P.O. Box 250
NORWAY HOUSE MB R0B 1B0
Tel: 204-359-6296
Fax: 204-359-6262
O-CHI-CHAK-KO-SIPI FIRST NATION
CRANE RIVER MB R0L 0M0
Tel: 204-732-2490
Fax: 204-732-2596
page 62
LAKE OF THE WOODS OJIBWAY CULTURAL CENTRE
RR #1 Airport Road, P.O. Box 159
KENORA ON P9N 3X3
Tel: 807-548-5744
Fax: 807-548-1591
A l b e r ta
BEAVER LAKE CULTURAL PROGRAM
Bag 5000
LAC LA BICHE AB T0A 2C0
Tel: 780-623-4548
Fax: 780-623-4659
PINE CREEK FIRST NATION
P.O. Box 70
CAMPERVILLE MB R0L 0J0
Tel: 204-524-2478
Fax: 204-524-2832
FROG LAKE INDIAN BAND
FROG LAKE AB T0A 1M0
Tel: 780-943-3918
Fax: 780-943-2336
ROLLING RIVER CULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
P.O. Box 145
ERICKSON MB R0J 0P0
Tel: 204-636-2211
Fax: 204-636-7823
KEHEWIN COMMUNITY EDUCATION CENTRE
Box 6759
BONNYVILLE AB T9N 2H2
Tel: 780-826-6200
Fax: 780-826-2355
SAGKEENG CULTURAL CENTRE, INC.
Box 749
PINE FALLS MB R0E 1M0
Tel: 204-367-2129
Fax: 204-367-4287
MASKWACHEES CULTURAL COLLEGE
Box 360
HOBBEMA AB T0C 1N0
Tel: 780-585-3925
Fax: 780-585-2080
TOOTINAOWAZIIBEENG TREATY RESERVE 63A
SHORTDALE MB R0L 1W0
Tel: 204-546-3334
Fax: 204-546-3090
NINASTAKO CULTURAL CENTRE
Box 232
STANDOFF AB T0L 1Y0
Tel: 403-737-3774
Fax: 403-737-3786
WATERHEN FIRST NATION
Box 106
SKOWNAN MB R0L 1Y0
Tel: 204-628-3373
Fax: 204-628-3289
WEST REGION TRIBAL COUNCIL
Indian Cultural Program
21 - 4th Avenue, N.W.
DAUPHIN MB R7N 1H9
Tel: 204-638-8225
Fax: 207-638-8062
S a s k atc h e wa n
SASKATCHEWAN INDIAN CULTURAL CENTRE
205 - 103B Packham Avenue
SASKATOON SK S7N 4K4
Tel: 306-244-1146
Fax: 306-665-6520
OLDMAN RIVER CULTURAL CENTRE
P.O. Box 70
BROCKET AB T0K 0H0
Tel: 403-965-3939
Fax: 403-965-2289
SADDLE LAKE CULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
Box 130
SADDLE LAKE AB T0A 3T0
Tel: 780-726-3829
Fax: 780-726-4069
SARCEE CULTURAL PROGRAM
Box 135
3700 Anderson Road S.W.
CALGARY AB T2W 1N0
Tel: 403-238-2677
Fax: 403-251-0980
page 63
cultural education centres
PEGUIS CULTURAL CENTRE
Peguis Indian Band
Box 10
PEGUIS MB R0C 3J0
Tel: 204-645-2359
Fax: 204-645-2360
SIKSIKA CULTURAL CENTRE
Box 1730
SIKSIKA AB T0J 3W0
Tel: 403-734-5100
Fax: 403-734-5110
NUXALK NATION CULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
P.O. Box 65
BELLA COOLA BC V0T 1C0
Tel: 250-799-5613
Fax: 250-799-5426
STONEY NATION EDUCATION PROGRAM
P.O. Box 120
MORLEY AB T0L 1N0
Tel: 403-881-3770
Fax: 403-881-2187
SAANICH NATIVE HERITAGE SOCIETY
P.O. Box 28
BRENTWOOD BAY BC V8M 1R3
Tel: 250-652-5980
Fax: 250-652-5957
CANOE CREEK INDIAN BAND
General Delivery
DOG CREEK BC V0L 1J0
Tel: 250-440-5645
Fax: 250-440-5679
cultural education centres
COQUALEETZA CULTURAL EDUCATION CENTRE
P.O. Box 2370, Sardis Main Station
CHILLIWACK BC V2R 1A7
Tel: 604-858-9431
Fax: 604-858-8488
COWICHAN TRIBES
5762 Allenby Road
DUNCAN BC V9L 5J1
Tel: 250-715-1022
Fax: 250-715-1023
EN’OWKIN CENTRE
RR #2, Site 50, Comp. 8
PENTICTON BC V2A 6J7
Tel: 250-493-7181
Fax: 250-493-5302
HEILTSUK CULTURAL EDUCATION CENTRE
Box 880
WAGLISLA BC V0T 1Z0
Tel: 250-957-2626
Fax: 250-957-2544
LAKE BABINE BAND
P.O. Box 879
BURNS LAKE BC V0J 1E0
Tel: 250-692-4700
Fax: 250-692-4790
NAMGIS FIRST NATION
Box 50
ALERT BAY BC V0N 1A0
Tel: 250-974-5556
Fax: 250-974-2475
SECWEPEMC CULTURAL EDUCATION SOCIETY
355 Yellowhead Highway
KAMLOOPS BC V2H 1H1
Tel: 250-828-9779
Fax: 250-372-1127
SKWAH FIRST NATION
P.O. Box 178
CHILLIWACK BC V2P 6H7
Tel: 604-792-9204
Fax: 604-792-1093
SLIAMMON CULTURAL CENTRE
R.R. #2, Sliammon Road
POWELL RIVER BC V8A 4Z3
Tel: 604-483-3996
Fax: 604-483-9769
STÓ:LÔ NATION
Building # 1-7201 Vedder Road
CHILLIWACK BC V2R 4G5
Tel: 604-858-5226
Fax: 604-824-5224
STONEY CREEK ELDERS CULTURAL SOCIETY
Site 12, Comp. 15, R.R. #1
VANDERHOOF BC V0J 3A0
Tel: 250-567-4916
Fax: 250-567-4944
U’MISTA CULTURAL CENTRE
P.O. Box 253
ALERT BAY BC V0N 1A0
Tel: 250-974-5403
Fax: 250-974-5499
XIT’OLACW COMMUNITY SCHOOL
Mount Currie Band
P.O. Box 193
MOUNT CURRIE BC V0N 2K0
Tel: 604-894-6131
Fax: 604-894-5717
page 64
British Columbia
Yukon Territory
Northwest Territories
CHAMPAGNE/AISHIHIK FIRST NATIONS
Box 5309
HAINES JUNCTION YT Y0B 1L0
Tel: 867-634-2288
Fax: 867-634-2108
DENE CULTURAL INSTITUTE
P.O. Box 3054
HAY RIVER NT X0E 1G4
Tel: 867-874-8480
Fax: 867-874-3867
TESLIN TLINGIT COUNCIL
P.O. Box 133
TESLIN YT Y0A 1B0
Tel: 867-390-2532
Fax: 867-390-2204
GWICH’IN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL INSTITUTE
Box 1509
INUVIK NT X0E 0T0
Tel: 867-777-4869
Fax: 867-777-4538
page 65
cultural education centres
YUKON INDIAN CULTURAL EDUCATION SOCIETY
11 Nisutlin Drive
WHITEHORSE YT Y1A 3S5
Tel: 867-667-4616
Fax: 867-667-4616
FRIENDSHIP
CENTRES
Northwest Territories Council of
Friendship Centres (NWTCFC)
#3 Ptarmigan Road
YELLOWKNIFE NT X1A 2W7
Tel: (867) 920-2395
Fax: (867) 920-7026
friendship centres
B.C. Association of Aboriginal
Friendship Centres (BCAAFC)
#3, 2475 Mt. Newton X Road
SAANICHTON BC V8M 2B7
Tel: (250) 652-0210
Fax: (250) 652-3102
Alberta Native Friendship
Centres Association (ANFCA)
#1102, 11th Floor, Baker Centre
10025 - 106 Street
EDMONTON AB T5J 1G4
Tel: (403) 423-3138
Fax: (403) 425-6277
Aboriginal Friendship Centres
of Saskatchewan (AFCS)
# 600, 224 - 4th Avenue S.
SASKATOON SK S7K 5M5
Tel: (306) 665-1267
Fax: (306) 933-4633
Manitoba Association of Friendship Centres (MAC)
P.O. Box 716
410 - 181 Higgins Avenue
WINNIPEG MB R3C 2K3
Tel: (204) 942-6299
Fax: (204) 942-6308
Ontario Federation of Indian
Friendship Centres (OFIFC)
290 Shuter Street
TORONTO ON M5A 1W7
Tel: (416) 956-7575
Fax: (416) 956-7577
Regroupement des centres d’amitié
autochtones du Québec inc. (RCAAQ)
225 Max-Gros-Louis Street
VILLAGE-DES-HURONS QC G0A 4V0
Tel: (418) 842-6354
Fax: (418) 842-9795
FRIENDSHIP CENTRES
YUKON Territory
Skookum Jim Friendship Centre
3159 - 3rd Avenue
WHITEHORSE YT Y1A 1G1
Tel: (867) 633-7680
Fax: (867) 668-4460
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES
Zhahti Koe Friendship Centre
General Delivery
FORT PROVIDENCE NT X0E 0L0
Tel: (867) 699-3801
Fax: (867) 699-4355
Deh Cho Society Centre
10031 - 99B Avenue
P.O. Box 470
FORT SIMPSON NT X0E 0N0
Tel: (867) 695-2577
Fax: (867) 695-2141
Uncle Gabe’s Friendship Centre
112 Conniebear Crescent
P.O. Box 957
FORT SMITH NT X0E 0P0
Tel: (867) 872-3004
Fax: (867) 872-5313
page 66
Provincial/
territorial
associations
(ptas)
Ingamo Hall Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 1293
INUVIK NT X0E 0T0
Tel: (867) 777-2166
Fax: (867) 777-3128
Rae-Edzo Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 85
FORT RAE NT X0E 0Y0
Tel: (867) 392-6000
Fax: (867) 392-6093
The Tree of Peace Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 2667
5009 - 51st Street
YELLOWKNIFE NT X1A 2P9
Tel: (867) 873-2864
Fax: (867) 873-5185
N U N AV U T t e r r i t o r y
friendship centres
Pulaarvik Kablu Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 429
RANKIN INLET NU X0C 0G0
Tel: (867) 645-2600
Fax: (867) 645-2538
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Tansi Friendship Centre Society
5301 South Access Road
P.O. Box 418
CHETWYND BC V0C 1J0
Tel: (250) 788-2996
Fax: (250) 788-2353
Nawican Friendship Centre
1320 - 102nd Avenue
DAWSON CREEK BC V1G 2C6
Tel: (250) 782-5202
Fax: (250) 782-8411
Hiiye’yu LeLum (House of Friendship) Society
#205 - 5462 Trans Canada Highway
P.O. Box 1015
DUNCAN BC V9L 3Y2
Tel: (250) 748-2242
Fax: (250) 748-2238
Fort Nelson-Liard Native Friendship Centre
5012 - 49th Avenue
P.O. Box 1266
FORT NELSON BC V0C 1R0
Tel: (250) 774-2993
Fax: (250) 774-2998
Fort St. John Friendship Society
10208 - 95th Avenue
FORT ST. JOHN BC V1J 1J2
Tel: (250) 785-8566
Fax: (250) 785-1507
Interior Indian Friendship Society
125 Palm Street
KAMLOOPS BC V2B 8J7
Tel: (250) 376-1296
Fax: (250) 376-2275
Ki-Low-Na Friendship Society
442 Leon Avenue
KELOWNA BC V1Y 6J3
Tel: (250) 763-4905
Fax: (250) 861-5514
Lillooet Friendship Centre Society
P.O. Box 2170
357 Main Street
LILLOOET BC V0K 1V0
Tel: (250) 256-4146
Fax: (250) 256-7928
Conayt Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 1989
1999 Garcia Street
MERRITT BC V1K 1B8
Tel: (250) 378-5107
Fax: (250) 378-6676
Mission Indian Friendship Centre
33150-A First Avenue
MISSION BC V2V 1G4
Tel: (250) 826-1281
Fax: (250) 826-4056
Tillicum Haus Native Friendship Centre
927 Haliburton Street
NANAIMO BC V9R 6N4
Tel: (250) 753-8291
Fax: (250) 753-6560
Port Alberni Friendship Centre
3555 - 4th Avenue
PORT ALBERNI BC V9Y 4H3
Tel: (250) 723-8281
Fax: (250) 723-1877
page 67
Soaring Eagle Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 396
HAY RIVER NT X0E 0R0
Tel: (867) 874-6581
Fax: (867) 874-3362
Friendship House Association of Prince Rupert
744 Fraser Drive
P.O. Box 512
PRINCE RUPERT BC V8J 3R5
Tel: (250) 627-1717
Fax: (250) 627-7533
Quesnel Tillicum Society Friendship Centre
319 North Fraser Drive
QUESNEL BC V2J 1Y8
Tel: (250) 992-8347
Fax: (250) 992-5708
Dze L K’ant Indian Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 2920
3955 - 3rd Avenue
SMITHERS BC V0J 2N0
Tel: (250) 847-5211
Fax: (250) 847-5144
friendship centres
Kermode Friendship Centre
3313 Kalum Street
TERRACE BC V8G 2N7
Tel: (250) 635-4906
Fax: (250) 635-3013
Vancouver Aboriginal Friendship Centre Society
1607 East Hasting Street
VANCOUVER BC V5L 1S7
Tel: (604) 251-4844
Fax: (604) 251-1986
First Nations Friendship Centre
2902 - 29th Avenue
VERNON BC V1T 1Y7
Tel: (250) 542-1247
Fax: (250) 542-3707
Victoria Native Friendship Centre
220 Bay Street
VICTORIA BC V9A 3K5
Tel: (250) 384-3211
Fax: (250) 384-1586
Cariboo Friendship Society
99 Third Avenue S.
WILLIAMS LAKE BC V2G 1J1
Tel: (250) 398-6831
Fax: (250) 398-6115
A L B E R TA
Athabasca Native Friendship Centre Society
4915 - 49th Street
ATHABASCA AB T9S 1C5
Tel: (403) 675-3086
Fax: (403) 675-3063
Bonnyville Canadian Native Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 5399
4711 - 50th Avenue
BONNYVILLE AB T9N 2G5
Tel: (403) 826-3374
Fax: (403) 826-2540
Calgary Native Friendship Society
140 - 2nd Avenue S.W.
CALGARY AB T3E 6N7
Tel: (403) 777-2263
Fax: (403) 265-9275
Canadian Native Friendship Centre
11205 - 101st Street
EDMONTON AB T5G 2A4
Tel: (403) 479-1999
Fax: (403) 479-0043
Edson Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 6508
EDSON AB T7E 1T9
Tel: (403) 723-5494
Fax: (403) 723-4359
Nistawoyou Association Friendship Centre
8310 Manning Avenue
FORT MCMURRAY AB T9H 1W1
Tel: (403) 743-8555
Fax: (403) 791-4041
Grande Prairie Friendship Centre
10507 - 98th Avenue
GRANDE PRAIRIE AB T8V 4L1
Tel: (403) 532-5722
Fax: (403) 539-5121
High Level Native Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 1735
HIGH LEVEL AB T0H 1Z0
Tel: (403) 926-3355
Fax: (403) 926-2038
High Prairie Native Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 1448
4919 - 51st Avenue
HIGH PRAIRIE AB T0G 1E0
Tel: (403) 523-4511
Fax: (403) 523-3055
page 68
Prince George Native Friendship Centre
1600 Third Avenue
PRINCE GEORGE BC V2L 3G6
Tel: (250) 564-3568
Fax: (250) 563-0924
Lac La Biche Canadian
Native Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 2338
10004 - 101st Avenue
LAC LA BICHE AB T0A 2C0
Tel: (403) 623-3249
Fax: (403) 623-1846
S A S K ATC H E WA N
Sik-Ooh-Kotoki Friendship Centre
1709 - 2nd Avenue S.
LETHBRIDGE AB T1J 0E1
Tel: (403) 328-2414
Fax: (403) 327-0087
Moose Mountain Friendship Centre
118 Souris Avenue W., Box 207
CARLYLE SK S0C 0R0
Tel: (306) 453-2425
Fax: (306) 453-6777
Sagitawa Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 5083
10108 - 100th Avenue
PEACE RIVER AB T8S 1R7
Tel: (403) 624-2443
Fax: (403) 624-2728
Qu’Appelle Valley Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 240
FORT QU’APPELLE SK S0G 1S0
Tel: (306) 332-5616
Fax: (306) 332-5091
friendship centres
Red Deer Native Friendship Society
4815 - 50 th Street, Unit #99
RED DEER AB T4N 1Z1
Tel: (403) 340-0020
Fax: (403) 342-1610
Rocky Native Friendship Society
P.O. Box 1927
4917 - 52nd Street
ROCKY MOUNTAIN HOUSE AB T0M 1T0
Tel: (403) 845-2788
Fax: (403) 845-3093
Slave Lake Native Friendship Centre
416 - 6th Avenue N.E.
SLAVE LAKE AB T0G 2A2
Tel: (403) 849-3039
Fax: (403) 849-2402
Mannawanis Native Friendship Centre Society
4901 - 50th Street, P.O. Box 1358
ST. PAUL AB T0A 3A0
Tel:
(780) 645-4630
Fax: (780) 645-1980
Ile-A-La-Crosse Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 160
ILE-A-LA-CROSSE SK S0M 1C0
Tel: (306) 833-2313
Fax: (306) 833-2216
Kikinahk Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 254
320 Boardman Street
LA RONGE SK S0J 1L0
Tel: (306) 425-2051
Fax: (306) 425-3359
Northwest Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 1780
MEADOW LAKE SK S0M 1V0
Tel: (306) 236-3766
Fax: (306) 236-5451
Battlefords Indian & Métis Friendship Centre
1080 - 101st Street
NORTH BATTLEFORD SK S9A 0Z3
Tel: (306) 445-8216
Fax: (306) 445-6863
Prince Albert Indian & Métis Friendship Centre
1409 - 1st Avenue E.
PRINCE ALBERT SK S6V 2B2
Tel: (306) 764-3431
Fax: (306) 763-3205
page 69
Napi Friendship Association
P.O. Box 657
622 Charlotte Street
PINCHER CREEK AB T0K 1W0
Tel: (403) 627-4224
Fax: (403) 627-2564
Buffalo Narrows Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 189
BUFFALO NARROWS SK S0M 0J0
Tel: (306) 235-4660
Fax: (306) 235-4544
Regina Friendship Centre Corporation
1440 Scarth Street
REGINA SK S4R 2E9
Tel: (306) 525-5459
Fax: (306) 525-3005
Riverton & District Friendship Centre Inc.
P.O. Box 359
RIVERTON MB R0C 2R0
Tel: (204) 378-2927
Fax: (204) 378-5705
Saskatoon Indian & Métis Friendship Centre
168 Wall Street
SASKATOON SK S7K 1N4
Tel: (306) 244-0174
Fax: (306) 664-2536
Selkirk Friendship Centre
425 Eveline Street
SELKIRK MB R1A 2J5
Tel: (204) 482-7525
Fax: (204) 785-8124
Yorkton Friendship Centre
108 Myrtle Avenue
YORKTON SK S3N 1P7
Tel:
(306) 782-2822
Fax: (306) 782-6662
Swan River Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 1448
1413 Main Street E.
SWAN RIVER MB R0L 1Z0
Tel: (204) 734-9301
Fax: (204) 734-3090
MANITOBA
friendship centres
Brandon Friendship Centre
836 Lorne Avenue
BRANDON MB R7A 0T8
Tel: (204) 727-1407
Fax: (204) 726-0902
Dauphin Friendship Centre
210 - 1st Avenue N.E.
DAUPHIN MB R7N 1A7
Tel: (204) 638-5707
Fax: (204) 638-4799
Flin Flon Indian-Métis Friendship Assoc. Inc.
P.O. Box 188
57 Church Street
FLIN FLON MB R8A 1M7
Tel: (204) 687-3900
Fax: (204) 687-5328
The Pas Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 2638
81 Edwards Avenue
THE PAS MB R9A 1M3
Tel: (204) 623-6459
Fax: (204) 623-4268
Ma-Mow-We-Tak Friendship Centre Inc.
122 Hemlock Crescent
THOMPSON MB R8N 0R6
Tel: (204) 778-7337
Fax: (204) 677-3195
Indian & Métis Friendship Centre
45 Robinson Street
WINNIPEG MB R2W 5H5
Tel: (204) 586-8441
Fax: (204) 582-8261
O N TA R I O
Atikokan Native Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 1510
#307- 309 Main Street
ATIKOKAN ON P0T 1C0
Tel:
(807) 597-1213
Fax: (807) 597-1473
Lynn Lake Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 460
625 Gordon Avenue
LYNN LAKE MB R0B 0W0
Tel: (204) 356-2407
Fax: (204) 356-8223
Barrie Native Friendship Centre
175 Bayfield Street
BARRIE ON L4M 3B4
Tel: (705) 721-7689
Fax: (705) 721-7418
Portage Friendship Centre
20 - 3rd Street N.E.
PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE MB R1N 1N4
Tel: (204) 239-6333
Fax: (204) 239-6534
Pine Tree Native Centre of Brant
25 King Street
BRANTFORD ON N3T 3C4
Tel: (519) 752-5132
Fax: (519) 752-5612
page 70
Lloydminster Native Friendship Centre
Box 1364
4602 - 49th Avenue
LLOYDMINSTER SK S9V 1K4
Tel: (306) 825-6558
Fax: (306) 825-6565
Dryden Native Friendship Centre
53 Arthur Street
DRYDEN ON P8N 1J7
Tel:
(807) 223-4180
Fax: (807) 223-7136
Fort Erie Native Friendship Centre
796 Buffalo Road
FORT ERIE ON L2A 5H2
Tel: (905) 871-8931
Fax: (905) 871-9655
United Native Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 752
516 Portage Avenue
FORT FRANCES ON P9A 3N1
Tel: (807) 274-3207
Fax: (807) 274-4110
friendship centres
Thunderbird Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 430
301 Beamish Avenue W.
GERALDTON ON P0T 1M0
Tel: (807) 854-1060
Fax: (807) 854-0861
Hamilton Regional Indian Centre
712 Main Street E.
HAMILTON ON L8M IK8
Tel: (905) 548-9593
Fax: (905) 545-4077
Kapuskasing Indian Friendship Centre
24 Byng Avenue
KAPUSKASING ON P5N 1X5
Tel: (705) 337-1935
Fax: (705) 335-6789
Ne-Chee Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 241
152 Main Street S.
KENORA ON P9N 3X3
Tel: (807) 468-5440
Fax: (807) 468-5340
Katarokwi Native Friendship Centre
55 Hickson Avenue
KINGSTON ON K7K 2N6
Tel: (613) 548-1500
Fax: (613) 548-1847
N’Amerind Friendship Centre
260 Colborne Street
LONDON ON N6B 2S6
Tel: (519) 672-0131
Fax: (519) 672-0717
Georgian Bay Friendship Centre
175 Yonge Street
MIDLAND ON L4R 2A7
Tel: (705) 526-5589
Fax: (705) 526-7662
Moosonee Native Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 478
MOOSONEE ON P0L 1Y0
Tel: (705) 336-2808
Fax: (705) 336-2929
Niagara Regional Native Centre
R.R. #4
Queenston & Taylor Road
NIAGARA-ON-THE-LAKE ON L0S 1J0
Tel: (905) 688-6484
Fax: (905) 688-4033
North Bay Indian Friendship Centre
980 Cassells Street
NORTH BAY ON P1B 4A6
Tel: (705) 472-2811
Fax: (705) 472-5251
Odawa Native Friendship Centre
12 Stirling Street
OTTAWA ON K1Y 1P8
Tel: (613) 722-3811
Fax: (613) 722-4667
M’Wikwedong Friendship Centre
1723 - 8th Avenue E.
OWEN SOUND ON N4K 3C4
Tel: (519) 371-1147
Fax: (519) 371-6181
Parry Sound Friendship Centre
13 Bowes Street
PARRY SOUND ON P2A 2K7
Tel: (705) 746-5970
Fax: (705) 746-2612
Peterborough Native Friendship Centre
65 Brock Street
PETERBOROUGH ON K9H 3L8
Tel: (705) 876-8195
Fax: (705) 876-8806
page 71
Ininew Friendship Centre
Box 1499
190 - 3rd Avenue
COCHRANE ON P0L 1C0
Tel: (705) 272-4497
Fax: (705) 272-3597
Red Lake Indian Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 244
#1 Legion Road
RED LAKE ON P0V 2M0
Tel: (807) 727-2847
Fax: (807) 727-3253
Indian Friendship Centre
122 East Street
SAULT STE. MARIE ON P6A 3C6
Tel: (705) 256-5634
Fax: (705) 942-3227
Nishnawbe-Gamik Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 1299
52 King Street
SIOUX LOOKOUT ON P8T 1B8
Tel: (807) 737-1903
Fax: (807) 737-1805
N’Swakamok Native Friendship Centre
110 Elm Street W.
SUDBURY ON P3C 1T5
Tel: (705) 674-2128
Fax: (705) 671-3539
Timmins Native Friendship Centre
316 Spruce Street S.
TIMMINS ON P4N 2M9
Tel: (705) 268-6262
Fax: (705) 268-6266
Native Canadian Centre of Toronto
16 Spadina Road
TORONTO ON M5R 2S7
Tel: (416) 964-9087
Fax: (416) 964-2111
Council Fire Native Cultural Centre inc.
439 Dundas Street E.
TORONTO ON M5A 2B1
Tel: (416) 360-4350
Fax: (416) 360-5978
Cree Indian Centre of Chibougamau inc.
95 Jaculet Street
CHIBOUGAMAU QC G8P 2G1
Tel: (418) 748-7667
Fax: (418) 748-6954
Centre d’amitié autochtone La Tuque inc.
P.O. Box 335
544 St-Antoine Street
LA TUQUE QC G9X 2Y4
Tel: (819) 523-6121
Fax: (819) 523-8637
Centre d’amitié autochtone de Québec
234 St Louis Street
LORETTEVILLE QC G2B 1L4
Tel: (418) 843-5818
Fax: (418) 843-8960
Native Friendship Centre of Montréal
2001 Saint-Laurent Boulevard
MONTRÉAL QC H2X 2T3
Tel: (514) 499-1854
Fax: (514) 499-9436
Centre d’amitié autochtone de Senneterre inc.
910 - 10th Avenue
P.O. Box 1769
SENNETERRE QC J0Y 2M0
Tel: (819) 737-2324
Fax: (819) 737-8311
Centre d’amitié autochtone de Val d’Or
1272 - 7th Street
VAL-D’OR QC J9P 6W6
Tel: (819) 825-6857
Fax: (819) 825-7515
NEW BRUNSWICK
Fredericton Native Friendship Centre
96 Regent Street, 2nd Floor
FREDERICTON NB E3B 3W4
Tel: (506) 459-5283
Fax: (506) 459-1756
Can Am Indian Friendship Centre of Windsor
1684 Ellrose Avenue
WINDSOR ON N8Y 3X7
Tel: (519) 258-8954
Fax: (519) 258-3795
page 72
friendship centres
Thunder Bay Indian Friendship Centre
401 Cumberland Street N.
THUNDER BAY ON P7A 4P7
Tel: (807) 345-5840
Fax: (807) 344-8945
QUEBEC
N O VA S C O T I A
Micmac Native Friendship Centre
2158 Gottingen Street
HALIFAX NS B3K 3B4
Tel: (902) 420-1576
Fax: (902) 423-6130
NEWFOUNDLAND
and Labrador
St. John’s Native Friendship Centre
112 Casey Street
ST. JOHN’S NF A1C 4X7
Tel: (709) 726-5902
Fax: (709) 726-3557
page 73
friendship centres
Labrador Friendship Centre
P.O. Box 767, Station “B”
HAPPY VALLEY-GOOSE BAY NF A0P 1E0
Tel: (709) 896-8302
Fax: (709) 896-8731
N O T E S
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