Reproductive Ecology and Vegetation Association Databases of Lake Ontario Fishes

Reproductive Ecology and Vegetation Association Databases of Lake Ontario Fishes
Reproductive Ecology and Vegetation Association Databases of
Lake Ontario Fishes
Becky Cudmore-Vokey and C.K. Minns
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences, Bayfield Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, PO Box 5050, Burlington ON
L7R 4A6 Canada
February 2002
Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences 2607
Fisheries
and Oceans
Pêches
et Océans
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Canadian Manuscript Report
of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2607
February 2002
Reproductive Ecology and Vegetation Association
Databases of Lake Ontario Fishes
by
Becky Cudmore-Vokey and C.K. Minns
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences, Bayfield Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, PO Box 5050, Burlington ON
L7R 4A6 Canada
iii
Minister of Supply and Services Canada 2001
Cat. No. FS97-4/2596 ISSN 070-6473
Correct citation of this publication:
Cudmore-Vokey, B. and C.K. Minns. 2002. Reproductive ecology and vegetation
association databases for Lake Ontario Fishes. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2607:
ix+42p.
iv
Abstract
An extensive literature review was carried out to compile information on the
reproductive ecology of 42 Lake Ontario fishes that were rated medium to highly
associated with lake habitat and spawned in the first two metres of water. Also,
information was compiled on the vegetation association among various life stages of
these fishes. The resulting databases of information will be used as part of a fish
habitat/fisheries impact assessment model and, later, as part of a multi-factor model using
links to Lake Ontario water level, bathymetry and vegetation patterns to determine
potential for altering the water level-flow regime on the lake.
Several reproductive characteristics were considered and researched, with a
variety of results in variables such as timing, duration, variation, and triggers of
spawning, duration of egg incubation, post-hatch larval behaviour and reproductive guild.
Information gathered with respect to fish-vegetation association among these
fishes included type of vegetation, strength of the association, seasonality differences,
and factors affecting strength of the association.
The database indicated several areas where information was greatly lacking in our
knowledge of the reproductive ecology and vegetation associations of these fishes.
Precise calendar dates, duration and post-hatch behaviour of larvae were most notable, as
well as vegetation association of juvenile fishes.
Résumé
Nous avons réalisé une vaste revue de littérature pour rassembler de l’information
sur l’écologie reproductive de 42 poissons des lacs de l’Ontario qui ont été classés
comme moyennement à fortement associés à l’habitat lacustre et qui frayaient dans les
deux premiers mètres d'eau. De plus, de l’information a été compilée sur l’association
avec la végétation à divers stades de la vie de ces poissons. Les bases de données ainsi
établies serviront dans le cadre d’un modèle d’évaluation des impacts sur l’habitat du
poisson et les pêches et, par la suite, d’un modèle multifacteurs comportant des liens avec
le niveau de l'eau du lac Ontario, la bathymétrie et les peuplements végétaux afin de
déterminer la possibilité de modifier le niveau de l'eau et le régime d’écoulement du lac.
v
Plusieurs traits reproductifs ont été retenus et examinés, ce qui a donné divers
résultats pour des variables comme le calendrier, la durée, la variation et les éléments
déclencheurs de la fraye, la durée de l’incubation des œufs, le comportement des larves
après l’éclosion et la guilde de reproduction.
L’information recueillie en ce qui concerne l’association poissons-végétation
portait sur le type de végétation, la solidité de l’association, les différences saisonnières et
les facteurs qui influent sur la solidité de l’association.
La base de données a fait apparaître plusieurs domaines où notre information est
très lacunaire en ce qui concerne l’écologie reproductive et les associations de ces
poissons avec la végétation. Les lacunes apparaissaient surtout au sujet des calendriers
précis, de la durée et du comportement des larves après l’éclosion, ainsi que de
l’association avec la végétation chez les poissons juvéniles.
vi
Table of Contents
Abstract ............................................................................................................................... v
Résumé................................................................................................................................ v
List of Tables ................................................................................................................... viii
List of Figures .................................................................................................................... ix
1.0 Introduction................................................................................................................... 1
2.0 Methods......................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 Reproductive Ecology Database ............................................................................... 2
2.2 Vegetation Association Database ............................................................................. 3
3.0 Results and Discussion ................................................................................................. 4
3.1 Reproductive Ecology Database ............................................................................... 4
3.2 Vegetation Association Database ............................................................................. 6
4.0 Summary and Conclusions ........................................................................................... 8
5.0 Acknowledgements....................................................................................................... 8
6.0 References................................................................................................................... 10
vii
List of Tables
Table 1. Species found in the reproductive ecology and vegetation association databases.
........................................................................................................................................... 14
Table 2. Reproductive ecology database of selected Lake Ontario fishes....................... 16
Table 3. Vegetation association database - spotted gar. ................................................... 25
Table 4. Vegetation association database - longnose gar. ................................................ 25
Table 5. Vegetation association database - bowfin........................................................... 25
Table 6. Vegetation association database – lake chub...................................................... 26
Table 7. Vegetation association database – spotfin shiner. .............................................. 26
Table 8. Vegetation association database – common carp. .............................................. 26
Table 9. Vegetation association database – brassy minnow. ............................................ 27
Table 10. Vegetation association database – redfin shiner. .............................................. 27
Table 11. Vegetation association database – redfin shiner. .............................................. 27
Table 12. Vegetation association database – pugnose shiner. .......................................... 28
Table 13. Vegetation association database – bridle shiner. .............................................. 28
Table 14. Vegetation association database – blackchin shiner. ........................................ 28
Table 15. Vegetation association database – blacknose shiner......................................... 29
Table 16. Vegetation association database – sand shiner. ................................................ 29
Table 17. Vegetation association database – northern redbelly dace. .............................. 29
Table 18. Vegetation association database – finescale dace............................................. 30
Table 19. Vegetation association database – fathead minnow. ........................................ 30
Table 20. Vegetation association database – blacknose dace. .......................................... 30
Table 21. Vegetation association database – quillback. ................................................... 31
Table 22. Vegetation association database – white sucker. .............................................. 31
Table 23. Vegetation association database – yellow bullhead.......................................... 31
Table 24. Vegetation association database – brown bullhead. ......................................... 32
Table 25. Vegetation association database – stonecat. ..................................................... 32
Table 26. Vegetation association database – tadpole madtom. ........................................ 33
Table 27. Vegetation association database – grass pickerel. ............................................ 33
Table 28. Vegetation association database – northern pike.............................................. 34
Table 29. Vegetation association database – muskellunge............................................... 34
viii
Table 30. Vegetation association database – central mudminnow. .................................. 35
Table 31. Vegetation association database – pirate perch. ............................................... 35
Table 32. Vegetation association database – brook silverside.......................................... 36
Table 33. Vegetation association database – banded killifish. ......................................... 36
Table 34. Vegetation association database – brook stickleback. ...................................... 37
Table 35. Vegetation association database – threespine stickleback. ............................... 37
Table 36. Vegetation association database – rock bass. ................................................... 37
Table 37. Vegetation association database – green sunfish.............................................. 38
Table 38. Vegetation association database – pumpkinseed. ............................................. 38
Table 39. Vegetation association database – smallmouth bass......................................... 39
Table 40. Vegetation association database – largemouth bass. ........................................ 39
Table 41. Vegetation association database – Iowa darter. ................................................ 40
Table 42. Vegetation association database – least darter.................................................. 40
Table 43. Vegetation association database – johnny darter.............................................. 41
Table 44. Vegetation association database – logperch. .................................................... 41
List of Figures
Figure 1. Frequency of strength of fish-vegetation association ratings by life stage. ..... 42
ix
1.0 Introduction
Information on the reproductive ecology and the vegetation association of various
life stages of fish is necessary for the effective management of fish and their habitat.
This knowledge is particularly important when assessing potential impacts on fish and
their habitat resulting from external forces. One of these external forces may be
changing water levels which could influence fish and their habitat by affecting nutrient
concentrations, primary and secondary production, available prey items, accessibility to
and amount of favourable spawning habitat and vegetative cover (Casselman and Lewis
1996).
As part of an International Joint Commission project on the potential for altering
the water level-flow regime on Lake Ontario, a fish habitat/fisheries impact assessment
model is being developed. To support the development of this model, a literature review
was required of the reproductive ecology of some of the fishes occurring in Lake Ontario
that may be affected by water level changes and of the associations between those fishes
and vegetation assemblages.
The literature review was used to develop two databases, one on reproductive
ecology and one on vegetation association. The information contained in the databases
will be used, along with existing habitat requirements databases, to develop a guild-based
impact assessment model which can be linked with models of water level, bathymetry,
and vegetation patterns in Lake Ontario fish habitats. Incorporating all these models will
produce an overall multi-factor assessment of alternate water level regulation schemes.
While the information contained in the database is useful for developing models
and certain conclusions can be made, it is important to note there are limitations. Due to
the lack of specific information on the fishes of Lake Ontario, much of the data compiled
in the databases was supplemented by studies from similar geographic areas to Lake
Ontario. The authors also acknowledge that information on the reproductive ecology and
vegetation association of Lake Ontario fishes may exist in “grey” literature, especially in
the latter in unpublished field records. However, information of this type are difficult to
track down as they rarely occur in standard abstracts. No efficient way of compiling and
locating this material has been developed. Lastly, the assessment of the rating for the
1
vegetation association database was subjective, following definitions laid out by Lane et
al. (1996a).
This report presents a summary of the databases of the reproductive ecology and
the vegetation association of some Lake Ontario fishes.
2.0 Methods
To determine the species to be included in the reproductive ecology and
vegetation association databases, species reported to be established in Lake Ontario were
first compiled using Cudmore-Vokey and Crossman (2000). Only those species with
established populations were included, therefore species extirpated from the Great Lakes
(i.e. bloater (Coregonus hoyi)) and species found in, but don’t spawn in, the Great Lakes
were excluded (i.e. American eel (Anguilla rostrata)) (Lane et al. 1996a, CudmoreVokey and Crossman 2000). From this list, species given an affinity rating of low for
lake habitat according to Lane et al. (1996a) were eliminated. Next, only species
reported to be restricted to the first two metres of water for spawning (Lane et al. 1996a)
were kept.
An extensive literature search was executed using the Aquatic Sciences and
Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) database to obtain information on the reproductive ecology
and fish-vegetation associations for the final compilation of species. The primary source
of information was literature published from 1978 to present. For secondary sources of
information, reference volumes containing summaries of species were used (Scott and
Crossman 1973, Becker 1983), including one government publication (Meisenheimer
1988).
2.1 Reproductive Ecology Database
Several spawning characteristics were researched to develop a better
understanding of the reproductive ecology of the species found in this database. Where
information specifically for Lake Ontario was not found, information for populations as
close geographically to Lake Ontario as possible was used. In many cases this
information was based on Great Lakes’ or provincial populations, but in others,
information was based on the only available knowledge, either other Canadian or
2
northern American populations. Where possible, the location is indicated in the database.
Where there was no information found for a specific spawning characteristic of a species,
the area was left blank.
The spawning characteristics found in the reproductive ecology database are more
fully described below:
i) Time of spawning - the precise time of spawning (preferably in calendar dates for in
Lake Ontario) is listed.
ii) Duration - the duration of the spawning season in days.
iii) Secular variation with respect to environmental variables - any evidence of secular
variation of spawning as it relates to environmental variables was included here.
iv) Triggers - these would include such factors as light, changing temperatures or water
levels.
v) Spawning temperature range - included for most species was a range of
temperatures (in ºC) above and below which spawning will not take place.
vi) Duration of egg incubation - the length of time required for egg incubation was
included along with factors such as temperature or inundation which would affect
duration or success of the incubation.
vii) Immediate post-hatch behaviour of larvae – any information on the activities of the
larvae following hatching, such as movement, position or feeding, including typical
duration of the behaviour, was included here.
viii) Reproductive guild and additional information - Balon classification of reproductive
guild (as found in Lane et al. (1996a)) and any additional details regarding
spawning and egg laying behaviour or physical description of eggs were detailed
here.
2.2 Vegetation Association Database
Information was gathered with respect to the relationship those fishes listed in this
database had to vegetation at all life stages (spawn/egg, young-of-the-year, juvenile, and
adult). Variables of interest were:
3
i) Vegetation - the type of vegetation, preferably to species, associated with a
particular species at a particular life stage.
ii) Strength - the strength of the association between the fish species and vegetation
was based on the following ratings: nil (association of no importance), low
(sometimes associated), medium (often associated), and high (always or nearly
always associated). Where there is no rating, no information could be found to
indicate strength of association.
iii) Seasonality differences - any changes of the type of vegetation a fish species is
normally associated with due to changes in the season.
iv) Factors affecting strength - any variables which change the strength of the fishvegetation association, such as vegetation density.
Literature citations found in the databases were numbered and combined with
citations from the text and are found in the References section of this report.
3.0 Results and Discussion
A total of 42 species are found to occur in Lake Ontario which have a medium or
high affinity for lake habitat and also are restricted to the first two metres of water for
spawning. A complete list of the species in the databases is found in Table 1, using
common and scientific names and order generally following Robbins et al. (1991).
3.1 Reproductive Ecology Database
The following results refer to information contained in Table 2.
Ninety-eight percent of the species listed in this database spawn in the spring.
One species, redfin shiner, spawns in summer during the months of July and August and
one species, grass pickerel, experiences low intensity spawning in the fall as well as
spawning in the spring.
Of the 42 species listed, information on some aspect of the duration of spawning
was found for 15 species. Of these, about six species have a spawning duration of more
than ten days and about five species have a duration of less than ten days.
4
A variety of information on the secular variation with respect to environmental
variables was found for 16 species. The information ranged from timing of spawning
being affected by variables such as spawning of other species, time of day, and presence
of favourable or unfavourable vegetation. Three species were influenced by water levels.
Information on factors that trigger spawning was found for 29 species. Of these,
the spawning of 28 species was influenced solely (22) or in combination (6) by a rise in
or a change in temperature. Of these 28 species, five were also influenced by
photoperiod, and the spawning one species was also influenced by increasing oxygen
levels. One species, central mudminnow, was influenced by rising water levels, which
would flood adjacent lands creating suitable spawning habitat. The only information on
what factor triggers spawning in redfin shiner was the spawning of green sunfish
(information from Wisconsin) (Scott and Crossman 1973, Becker 1983, Noltie 1989,
Lane et al. 1996).
Details on the temperature range in which spawning occurs was found for 32
species, although optimum temperatures were given for an additional five species.
Eighteen species had a wide temperature range of 10 or more degrees apart, while the
temperature range for fourteen species was a difference of less than 10 degrees.
Data on the duration of egg incubation was provided for 31 species. It is difficult
to draw any comparisons from the dataset as the duration was highly dependent on a wide
range of temperatures from both field and aquaria studies.
The behaviour of post-hatch larvae was provided for 22 species. Seventeen of
these species remain relatively inactive near spawning site for several days post-hatch.
Eight species attach to vegetation and four species are guarded by males. Information for
five species state that they begin to actively feed within ten days. Five species (finescale
dace, brook silverside, rock bass, banded killifish, and logperch) move from spawning
site within a few days of hatching.
All species (42) in the database were placed in a reproductive guild using the
Balon classification (from Lane et al. 1996a). Most species (59.5%) were in the
broadcast category, 31% were in the nest category, 7.1% were in the hide category and
2.4% (one species, pirate perch) was categorized as being an external brooder (gill
5
cavities) . The eggs of 24 species are adhesive and 29 species use cover, such as aquatic
vegetation, banks, or under rocks, during spawning.
3.2 Vegetation Association Database
The following results refer to information contained in Tables 3 to 44.
Much of the information found on the vegetation type which these fish species
associate with was general, with words such as submergent, macrophytes, grasses, algae.
More specific information was given where possible, such as a species name (e.g.
Potamogeton spp), or common name (e.g. water lilies).
Of the 42 species in the database, information was found (general and specific)
for at least one life stage for 39 species. Of the remaining three species, lake chub had no
association with vegetation during any of its life stages, blacknose dace had no
association during the spawn/egg and adult life stages (no information was found
concerning vegetation association for the YOY or juvenile life stages), and pirate perch
had no association during the spawn/egg life stage, although was highly associated with
vegetation as an adult but no information was found with respect to type of vegetation as
well as for the YOY or juvenile life stages. For twelve of the 39 species, information
(general and specific) on vegetation type was found for all life stages. Northern pike was
the only species in the database for which specific information on vegetation association
could be found for all four life stages.
By breaking down information by life stage, it became clear that specific
information was less available for YOY (one entry) and for juveniles (two entries). Four
entries had specific information for the spawning life stage and eight entries for the adult
stage.
Looking at general information, it was interesting that more information was
available for YOYs (33 species), followed by the spawning life stage (29 species), and
adults (26 species). Only 12 species had general information listed in the database for the
juvenile life stage. Casselman and Lewis (1996) also noted this discrepancy in the level
of information in the literature for various life stages.
6
As for the rating of the strength of the fish-vegetation association, it was found
that for most species, the four life stages were given a rating of high (22 high ratings for
spawning/egg, 24 for YOY, 16 for juveniles, and 27 for the adult life stage) (Figure 1).
Ten species could be considered highly associated with vegetation throughout
their entire life history. These species are: longnose gar, common carp, golden shiner,
yellow bullhead, grass pickerel, northern pike, banded killifish, green sunfish,
pumpkinseed, and least darter. However, an additional seven species (spotted gar,
bowfin, pugnose shiner, blackchin shiner, blacknose shiner, muskellunge, and central
mudminnow) had a rating of high for all life stages except juvenile. Given the lack of
information regarding the juvenile life stage with respect to vegetation associations, these
additional seven species could also be considered highly associated with vegetation at all
life stages.
Very few species experience differences in their vegetation association due to
seasonal changes. No information was found on seasonality differences for any species
during the spawning/egg life stage. Three species alter the vegetation association in the
YOY life stage. Modification to the vegetation association during the juvenile life stage
for eight species was recorded in the database. All of these modification were due to
seasonal growth of macrophytes. Two species in the adult stage altered their association,
one (brassy minnow) became more associated during the late summer months and the
other (central mudminnow) was more associated with inundated terrestrial vegetation
during the spring, changing to aquatic macrophytes in the summer and to leaf litter in the
autumn.
Factors that can affect the strength of the fish-vegetation association were varied.
Vegetation density was the factor that affected more species (entered six times in
database), mostly in the adult stage. Preference for dense vegetation cover accounted for
half of the entries and the other half was for a preference of moderate cover. Habitat
characteristics also accounted for changes in vegetation association. Two species
(fathead minnow and smallmouth bass) preferred to spawn in non-vegetated areas and
will chose this habitat over vegetated areas. Largemouth bass prefer emergent to
submergent vegetation during the spawn/egg life stage. Adult central mudminnows will
avoid current, decreasing the strength of the vegetation association in vegetated areas
7
with current. Three entries indicated that food was a factor in the strength of the fishvegetation association. The greater the amount of food items available among
macrophytes, the greater the strength of the association. Size of the fish was a factor for
the association between YOY northern pike and adult muskellunge and vegetation. The
larger the fish, the less strongly associated they were with vegetation. Adult male
northern pike were also more strongly associated with Potamogeton sp. than adult female
northern pike.
4.0 Summary and Conclusions
The information contained in this report describes the reproductive ecology and
vegetation association databases. It serves as a compilation of the knowledge concerning
a variety of characteristics of reproductive ecology of some Lake Ontario fishes and
illustrates the importance of vegetation to these fishes at all life stages.
It became evident during the research for the databases that a lot of information
on several aspects of the reproductive ecology and vegetation association is not available
for many species and life stages. Most notably absent in the reproductive ecology
database was information on precise calendar dating of spawning times, duration of
spawning, and the immediate post-hatch behaviour of larvae. Perhaps more surprising
was the lack of information in the vegetation database, particularly the juvenile life stage,
which has also been noted by Lane et al. (1996b) and Casselman and Lewis (1996).
Clearly, there is a need to acquire this information and future research should be aimed at
filling these data gaps.
However, the data contained in this report can be useful in identifying the
reproductive characteristics of Lake Ontario fishes and the association these fishes have
to vegetation. The data can further be used to develop an impact assessment model to
determine the potential for altering water level-flow regimes on Lake Ontario.
5.0 Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank DFO intern Jennifer Bowman for her invaluable
assistance and contribution to this report. Thanks are also extended to E. Holm and E.J.
8
Crossman (Royal Ontario Museum) for providing information. Funding for this project
came from The International Joint Commission.
9
6.0 References
1. Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison,
Wisconsin. 1052pp.
2. Bryan, M.D. and D.L. Scarnecchia. 1992. Species richness, composition, and
abundance of fish larvae and juveniles inhabiting natural and developed shorelines of
a glacial Iowa lake. Environ. Biol. Fishes. 35:329-341.
3. Burr, B.M. and L.M. Page. 1979. The life history of the least darter, Etheostoma
microperca, in the Iroquois River, Illinois. Biological Notes No. 112. Illinois
Institute of Natural Resources and Illinois Natural History Survey. 15pp.
4. Campbell, R. R. 1994. Updated status report on the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus,
in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 13 pp.
5. Casselman, J. M. and C.A. Lewis. 1996. Habitat requirements of northern pike
(Esox lucius). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53(Suppl.1):161-174.
6. Curry, K.D. and A. Spacie. 1984. Differential use of stream habitat by spawning
Catostomids. Am. Mid. Nat. 111(2):267-279.
7. Cudmore-Vokey, B. and E.J. Crossman. 2000. Checklists of the fish fauna of the
Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat.
Sci. 2550:v+39p.
8. Dalton, K.W. 1990. The status of the least darter, Etheostoma microperca, in
Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 104(1):53-58.
9. Das, M.K. and J.S. Nelson. 1990. Spawning time and fecundity of northern redbelly
dace, Phoxinus eos, finescale dace, Phoxinus neogaeus, and their hybrids in Upper
Pierre Grey Lake, Alberta. Can. Field-Nat. 104:409-413.
10. de Vlaming, V.L. and J. Shing. 1977. Effects of long-term exposure to constant
photoperiod-temperature regimes on gonadal activity and energy reserves in the
golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas. Copeia. 1977:774-777.
11. Fontenot, Q.C. and D.A. Rutherford. 1999. Observations on the reproductive
ecology of pirate perch Aphredoderus sayanus. J. Freshwat. Ecol. 14:545-549.
12. Gale, W.F. and C.A. Gale. 1977. Spawning habits of spotfin shiner (Notropis
spilopterus) – a fractional, crevice spawner. Trans. Am. Soc. 106:170-177.
13. Gale, W.F. and G.L. Buynak. 1982. Fecundity and spawning frequency of the
fathead minnow – a fractional spawner. Trans. Am. Soc. 111:35-40.
10
14. Gee, M. 1986. The population biology of Culaea inconstans, the brook stickleback,
in a small prairie lake. Can. J. Zool. 64:1709-1717.
15. Goodchild, C.D. 1990. The status of the brook silverside, Labidesthes sicculus, in
Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 104(1):36-44.
16. Holm, E., P. Dumont, J. Leclerc, G. Roy and E. J. Crossman. 1999. COSEWIC Status
Report on the bridle shiner, Notropis bifrenatus. Committee on the Status of
Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 21 pp.
17. Houston, J. J. P. 1990. The status of the banded killifish , Fundulus diaphanus, in
Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 104(1):45-52.
18. Johnson, B.L. and D.B. Noltie. 1996. Migratory dynamics of stream-spawning
longnose gar (Lepisosteus osseus). Ecol. Freshwat. Fish. 5:97-107.
19. LaChance, S., P. Magnan, and G.J. FitzGerald. 1987. Temperature preferences of
three sympatric sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae). Can. J. Zool. 65:1573-1576.
20. Lane, J.A., C.B. Portt, and C.K. Minns. 1996a. Spawning habitat characteristics of
Great Lakes fishes. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2368:v+48pp.
21. Lane, J.A., C.B. Portt, and C.K. Minns. 1996b. Nursery habitat characteristics of
Great Lakes fishes. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2338:v+42pp.
22. Lane, J.A., C.B. Portt, and C.K. Minns. 1996c. Adult habitat characteristics of Great
Lakes fishes. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2358:v+43pp.
23. Mandrak, Nicholas E. and E. J. Crossman. 1996. The status of the lake chubsucker,
Erimyzon sucetta, in Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 110(3):478-482.
24. Martin-Bergmann, K.A. and J.H. Gee. 1985. The central mudminnow, Umbra limi
(Kirtland), a habitat specialist and resource generalist. Can. J. Zool. 63:1753-1764.
25. Meisenheimer, P. 1988. Descriptions of critical fish habitat for species in the area of
the undertaking. Prepared for Fish Community and Habitat Section, Fisheries
Branch, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 143pp.
26. Meredith, G.N. and J.J. Houston. 1988. The status of the green sunfish, Lepomis
cyanellus, in Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 102(2):270-276.
27. Ming, F.W. and D.L.G. Noakes. 1984. Spawning site selection and competition in
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9:227-234.
11
28. Moodie, G.E.E. 1986. The population biology of Culaea inconstans, the brook
stickleback, in a small prairie lake. Can. J. Zool. 64:1709-1717.
29. Noltie, D.B. and M.H.A. Keenleyside. 1987. Breeding ecology, nest characteristics,
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(Rafinesque). Can. J. Zool. 65:379-390.
30. Noltie, D.B. 1989. Status of the redfin shiner, Notropis umbratilis, in Canada. Can.
Field-Nat. 103(2):201-215.
31. Page, L.M. and C.E. Johnston. 1990. Spawning in the creek chubsucker, Erimyzon
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32. Parker, B.R. and W.G. Franzin. 1991. Reproductive biology of the quillback,
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12
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13
Table 1. Species found in the reproductive ecology and vegetation association databases.
LEPISOSTEIDAE
Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar)
Lepisosteus osseus (longnose gar)
AMIIDAE
Amia calva (bowfin)
CYPRINIDAE
Couesius plumbeus (lake chub)
Cyprinella spiloptera (spotfin shiner)
Cyprinus carpio (common carp)
Hybognathus hankinsoni (brassy minnow)
Lythrurus umbratilis (redfin shiner)
Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner)
Notropis anogenus (pugnose shiner)
Notropis bifrenatus (bridle shiner)
Notropis heterodon (blackchin shiner)
Notropis heterolepis (blacknose shiner)
Notropis ludibundus (sand shiner)
Phoxinus eos (northern redbelly dace)
Phoxinus neogaeus (finescale dace)
Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow)
Rhinichthys atratulus (blacknose dace)
CATOSTOMIDAE
Carpiodes cyprinus (quillback)
Catostomus commersoni (white sucker)
ICTALURIDAE
Ameiurus natalis (yellow bullhead)
Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead)
Noturus flavus (stonecat)
Noturus gyrinus (tadpole madtom)
ESOCIDAE
Esox americanus vermiculatus (grass pickerel)
Esox lucius (northern pike)
Esox masquinongy (muskellunge)
UMBRIDAE
Umbra limi (central mudminnow)
14
APHREDODERIDAE
Aphredoderus sayanus (pirate perch)
ATHERINIDAE
Labidesthes sicculus (brook silverside)
FUNDULIDAE
Fundulus diaphanus (banded killifish)
GASTEROSTEIDAE
Culaea inconstans (brook stickleback)
Gasterosteus aculeatus (threespine stickleback)
CENTRARCHIDAE
Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass)
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)
Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed)
Micropterus dolomieu (smallmouth bass)
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass)
PERCIDAE
Etheostoma exile (Iowa darter)
Etheostoma microperca (least darter)
Etheostoma nigrum (johnny darter)
Percina caprodes (logperch)
15
Table 2. Reproductive ecology database of selected Lake Ontario fishes.
Taxon
Time of Spawning
Duration (days)
Secular Variation
Triggers
Spawning
Duration of
with respect to
Temp. Range
Egg
Environmental
(ºC)
Incubation
Immediate Post-
Reproductive
Sources
Hatch Behaviour Guild and Other
of Larvae
Information
Variables
Spotted gar
spring
21-26
broadcast, eggs
hatch within a
cling to aquatic
week
plants and debris or adhere to
hang from surface
38, 33, 4, 20
vegetation, uses
film by their disc-like abundant
jaws
vegetation, brush
and debris
Longnose gar
late spring-early
3 day periods
summer;
separated
19-29
3-9d
adhere to vegetation broadcast, eggs
(Wisconsin)
vertically by tip of
38, 1, 25, 18, 20
scatter randomly
snout, about 9d after and adhere to
June (Georgian Bay) by a week or more
during breeding
hatching yolk is
vegetation
season
absorbed and they
(especially
cease to hang
Cladophora)
vertically and begin
to hold position
horizontally in water
column
Bowfin
16-19
8-10d
attach to vegetation broadcast,
spring;
temp-nest
May 24-June 1
construction
by tip of snout or lie
adhesive eggs,
(Georgian Bay)
and spawning
on their sides in the
nests built on
bottom of the nest
bottom often
for 7-9d (or until
under logs,
12mm)
stumps or
brushes
16
38, 1, 25, 20
Lake chub
spring,
above 15
10d at 8-19C
broadcast,
late April and May
38, 1, 25, 20
spawns under
boulders
Spotfin shiner
temp; 18-29
5-6d at 22C
hide, adhesive
spring;
generally 5 day
fractional spawners,
late May to mid-
intervals
spawing site depends
eggs on
on current
undersides of
strength, depth, and
fixed objects (logs
availability of
and roots)
August (New York)
38, 12, 1, 25, 20
underwater objects
(crevices)
Common carp
temp
17-28
3-16d (3-5d at typically found on
spring,
intermittent
late May or early
spawning of
20C; 5d at
June (Wisconsin)
several days to
15C)
broadcast,
38, 1, 25, 20
bottom in vegetation randomly
deposited eggs
adhere to
several weeks
vegetation
Brassy minnow
spring;
7-10d at 16-27C
10-13
broadcast
38, 1, 25, 20
21
broadcast, utilizes 38, 1, 30, 20,
May or June
Redfin shiner
July and August
spawning of
green sunfish
sunfish nests
(Wisconsin)
Golden shiner
spring; early June
4-5 distinct peaks
vegetation is essential temperature
(June 11,
during
to spawning
Gananoque River;
spawning period
20-27
20C,
4d at 23.9-
broadcast, eggs
26.7C
adhere to
photoperiod
38, 10, 1, 25, 20,
vegetation,
May to August in
organic debric
NEW YORK)
and filamentous
algae
Pugnose shiner
late spring;
21-29
broadcast
38, 1, 34, 20
hatched embryos
broadcast on
38, 25, 20, 16
remain on bottom
vegetation
early to mid-June
Bridle shiner
late spring;
European watermilfoil temp 14-27
early May-mid Aug
creates unsuitable
14-26
17
Blackchin shiner
spawning habitat by
within weed beds,
reducing the clear
but soon move to
area of water above
shallow open water
plants.
over barren bottoms
spring;
broadcast
38, 1, 25, 20,
38, 25, 20
May-June (Illinois),
June-August
(Wisconsin)
Blacknose shiner
spring;
broadcast, uses
July 26 (Niagara
roots of aquatic
River, New York)
vegetation as
cover
Sand shiner
spring;
21
broadcast,
late May to mid-
adhesive eggs on
August (Wisconsin)
roots of aquatic
38, 1, 25, 20,
vegetation
Northern redbelly dace spring or early
38d (Alberta)
13-18C
21-27
spawning time
summer;
8-10d (at 21.1-
broadcast over
38, 1, 25, 9,35,
26.7C)
mats of
20,
June to July
filamentous algae,
(Ontario)
possible fractional
spawner
Finescale dace
spring;
38d (Alberta)
11-18
possibly
4d
swimming 3 days
broadcast,
associated with
April to June
sudden rise
after hatching,
(Wisconsin)
and
actively feeding after logs and brush
considerable
7d
fluctuation in
water
temperature
after ice
disappears
18
38, 1, 25, 9, 20,
Fathead minnow
38, 13, 1, 27,
spring,
spawn 16-26 times
temperature or 16-29
late May or early
during spawning
photoperiod or
until yolk sac is
eggs found on the 25,35, 20,
June to
period
both
absorbed
undersides of
4.5-6d at 25C
remain near the nest nest, adhesive
mid August
fixed objects(log,
(Wisconsin)
branch, rock),
rarely under lily
pads
Blacknose dace
spring;
fast flowing shallow
temp - 21.1C
May or June to
waters
or photoperiod
12-27
hide
38, 1, 25, 20,
broadcast,
38, 6, 25, 32, 20
early July
(Wisconsin)
Quillback
White sucker
spring;
spawning takes place temperature
April or May
after white suckers
spawns in areas
(Minnesota)
(Indiana)
with high turbidity
7-28
6-23
spring;
spawning usually
Water
early May to early
takes place at dusk
temperature
June
and dawn, peaking in (10C) may be
intensity between
an important
2200 and 2300hr
factor in
11-18d at 16C
14d (8-11d at
remain in gravel 7-
broadcast; eggs
38, 1, 6, 25, 31,
10-15C), 5-7d
14d (12-14mm TL)
adhere to
20,
at 13.9-20C
then move
substrate
downstream at night
determining
peak and
duration of
spawning
migration.
Yellow bullhead
spring;
5-10d
late May to early
guarded until 50mm nest, near logs,
long
June
38, 1, 25, 20,
tree roots, boards,
debris, under tree
bank
Brown bullhead
spring;
water can be as
May or June
shallow as 15cm or as
temp(21.1C)
19
14-29
6-9d at 20.6-
yolk sac too large to nest, adhesive
23.3C
enable them to
eggs, near logs,
38, 1, 25, 20,
deep as several feet,
swim, lie on their
tree roots, boards,
spawn early morning
sides in nest until
debris, inside
to 1400hr
about the seventh
hollow stumps,
day. Then begin to
tires
swim and feed
actively
Stonecat
temp (27.8C)
spring
25
nest, under
summer up to as late
boards, rocks,
as August
logs
38, 1, 25, 20,
peak commences in
June or July
Tadpole madtom
spring
nest, eggs adhere 38, 25, 20
summer, late June
to one another
or July
under boards,
roots, logs, in
dark cavities
including
discarded cans
Grass pickerel
spring,
movement to
temp (change
late March to early
spawning areas after
not increase)
May,
ice is gone
4.4-12
11-15d at 7.8-
inactive near bottom broadcast, slightly 38, 1, 25, 20
8.9C
possibly attached to adhesive eggs
but low intensity
vegetation living off
amongst flooded
yolk for 10-14d
terrestrial
remain inactive
broadcast,
adhesive eggs
vegetation
spawning in fall
Northern pike
spring,
commence April 11, spawns in daylight
immediately
2-18
12-14d
April to early May
peak April 18, ended hours, high water
after ice melt
attached to
(4.4-11.1C)
vegetation by means amongst flooded
April 20 in Lake
levels at time of
Simcoe
spawning and stable
of adhesive glands
terrestrial
levels after incubation
on head for 6-10d
vegetation
associated with large
feeding on yolk.
year-classes
Begin to feed after
20
38, 1, 25, 5, 20
10d (11-12mm),
highly dependent on
plankton pulses.
Muskellunge
spring,
spawning in water 15- combination of 8-18, optimal
late April to early
26cm deep, 1900-
factors:
May
0300hr
temperature,
10d or until yolk is
increasing
consumed. Become
photoperiod,
active and begin
increasing
feeding
temp 12.8C
8-14d at 11.7- remain dormant in
17.2C
broadcast,
38, 1, 25, 20,
vegetation for about amongst stumps
and logs
oxygen levels
Central mudminnow
early spring;
in favourable
high water levels and rise in water
mid to late April
conditions,
low temperatures can temp and
spawning can be
negatively affect
flooding of
completed
spawning
adjacent areas
within several days
(suitable
Breeding season
breeding
can be
habitat)
~13
6d
broadcast,
38, 1, 24, 25, 20,
adhesive eggs
extended with
unfavourable
conditions
Pirate perch
spring,
5-6d at 19-20C
external brooder
May (Wisconsin)
1, 11
(gill cavities),
adhesive eggs
Brook silverside
20-23
8-9d at 22.8-
wiggle to surface
broadcast, eggs
24C
and assemble into
attaches to
schools of 30-200
vegetation by
spring,
protracted: 41d
temperature:
May to July (SE
(June) in Lake
pairing at 18C,
Michigan),
Opinicon, Ont.
spawning at
May (peaking June
20C, peak
individuals. Confine adhesive
and July)
spawning at
themselves to upper filaments
to early August
22.7C
3 cm below surface,
constantly active,
(Wisconsin)
21
38, 1, 25, 15, 20,
and move to pelagic
habitat generally
over water 10-20m
deep
Banded killifish
21-32
spring,
highly
April and May
dependent on
(Newfoundland),
water
June to mid August
temperature
11-12d at 22.2- found in weedy
broadcast, eggs
26.7C
adhere to
shallows
38, 25, 17, 20
vegetation
(Wisconsin)
Brook stickleback
spring,
28d (Manitoba)
late April to July
requires vegetation
temperature
8-19
8-9d at 18.3C
attach to (or remain
for nest construction
still among) nest
and clear water for
materials for several
courtship displays
days, male parent
nest, under sticks 38, 1, 14, 28, 25,
20,
constructs nursery
from nest where
young are kept for 12 more days
Threespine stickleback spring,
June or July
Rock bass
spawn several times
temperature
10-23
7d at 19C
nest, eggs adhere 38, 43, 19, 25, 20
during breeding
to one another in
season
clusters
spring,
temp (15.6-
May-July
21.1)
14-24
3-4d in aquaria rise up out of nest
nest, adhesive
at 20.5-21C
within a few days
eggs under rocks 25
20, 38, 1, 40, 29,
3-5d
yolk absorbed and
nest, adhesive
swim up observed
eggs under rocks
by 145hr after
and logs and near
hatching, feeding
clumps of grass
and logs
Green sunfish
temperatures above
every 8 or 9d, each
mid-May to early
spawning took place 24C may cause
August (Wisconsin)
over a period of 1 or cessation of spawning 15C and long
2d
spring
15-28
greater than
and repression of the photoperiods
gonads
Pumpkinseed
temperatures
spring,
after 5d
(15hr or longer)
temp (20C)
13-29
(into August in
22
38, 1, 25, 20,
3d at 28C
stay in nest for first
nest in depths of
11d
6-12 inches
38, 1, 25, 26, 20,
Georgian Bay)
Smallmouth bass
late spring and early 6-10d
temp rise in
summer;
spring
13-24
4-10d
in an additional 12d, nest, adhesive
young have
eggs under
late May to early
absorbed yolk and
boulders, docks
July
rise off the bottom.
and logs
38, 25, 20
After 5-7d, they are
still guarded by male
Largemouth bass
late spring to mid
in areas where
temp (15.6C
remain on bottom
nest, adhesive
summer
smallmouth bass are
nest; 16.7-
until yolk is
eggs
also present,
18.3C
absorbed, 6-7d, then
largemouth bass will
spawning)
rise, feed and
14-21
3-7d
38, 1, 25, 20,
school, guarded by
spawn a little sooner
male for up to 31d
post-hatch
Iowa darter
spring,
temperature
12-15
May or June
Least darter
spring,
dense beds of
May or June, mid or
filamentous algae
temperature
16-23
38, 1, 25, 20,
9-10d at 13-
broadcast,
16C (Becker
undercut banks
1983: 18-26d
and fibrous root
at 13-16C)
systems
~6d at 18-20C
broadcast, single 38, 3, 1, 25, 8, 20,
adhesive egg per
spawning act
late April
to early July
(Wisconsin)
Johnny darter
spring,
delay or interruption
May
of spawning can be
temperature
17-25
5-8d at 22-24C
nest, undersides
38, 1, 25, 20,
of rocks and logs
caused by changes in
temperature, increase
in amount of silt, or
high water
Logperch
late spring,
spawn early morning
10-15
23
drift freely to lentic
hide, adhesive
38, 1, 25, 20,
June
to early evening;
areas, have been
logperch may leave
collected in open
breeding area if
waters
there is a change in
climatic conditions
24
eggs
Table 3. Vegetation association database - spotted gar.
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
high
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
sub/emerg
20;21;22
high
high
38;20;21;22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 4. Vegetation association database - longnose gar.
Vegetation
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg,
submerg
macro-
submerg
1;2;20;21;22
high
38;1;25;2;20;21
grasses
Strength of Association
1
2
Spawn/Egg
high
phytes
high
Seasonality Differences
high
2
seasonal
growth of
macrophytes
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 5. Vegetation association database - bowfin.
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
high
Sources
submerg
submerg
1;20;21;22
high
high
38;1;25;20;21
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
2
Adult
Seasonality Differences
25
Juvenile
Table 6. Vegetation association database – lake chub.
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
nil
nil
nil
nil
38;1;25; 20;21;22
Adult
Sources
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 7. Vegetation association database – spotfin shiner.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
sub/emerg
submerg
macro-
2
2;20;21
phytes
Strength of Association
1
low
low
high
low
38;1;25;2;20;21;
22
Seasonality Differences
2;20;21
seasonal
growth of
macrophytes
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 8. Vegetation association database – common carp.
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
sub/emerg
high
high
Juvenile
high
2
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
20;21;22
high
38;1;25;20;21;
22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
26
Table 9. Vegetation association database – brassy minnow.
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
submerg
high
medium
Juvenile
Adult
2
Sources
20;21
high
Seasonality Differences
1;25;20;21
late summer 25
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 10. Vegetation association database – redfin shiner.
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Strength of Association
2
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
sub/emerg
21;22
high
high
38;21;22
Vegetation
1
Juvenile
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 11. Vegetation association database – redfin shiner.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg,
sub/emerg
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
25;20;21;22
high
38;1;25;20;21;22
filamentous algae
Strength of Association
1
high
high
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
27
high
Table 12. Vegetation association database – pugnose shiner.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
sub/emerg
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
pondweed
1;20;21;22
species, water
milfoil, Elodea,
eel grass,
coontail,
bullrush, Chara,
filamentous
algae (especially
Spirogyra)
Strength of Association
1
high
high
high
1;34;20;21;22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 13. Vegetation association database – bridle shiner.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg,
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
submerg
submerg
38;25;20;21;22
medium
high
38;25;20;21;22
Adult
Sources
Myriophyllum,
Chara
Strength of Association
1
high
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 14. Vegetation association database – blackchin shiner.
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
YOY
sub/emerg
submerg
submerg
20;21;22
high
high
high
38;1;25;20;21;22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
28
Juvenile
2
Spawn/Egg
Table 15. Vegetation association database – blacknose shiner.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
sub/emerg
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
filamentous
1;20;21;22
algae,
bulrushes, wild
rice,
waterweed,
pondweed,
arrowhead
Strength of Association
1
high
high
high
38;1;25;20;21;
22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 16. Vegetation association database – sand shiner.
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
low
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
rooted veg
38;25;20;21;22
medium
low
38;1;25;20;21;22
density -
38
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
prefers
sparse
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 17. Vegetation association database – northern redbelly dace.
Spawn/Egg
Vegetation
YOY
submerg,
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
38;25;22
high
38;1;25;22
filamentous algae
Strength of Association
1
high
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
29
Table 18. Vegetation association database – finescale dace.
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
2
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
22
high
22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 19. Vegetation association database – fathead minnow.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
sub/emerg
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
floating
1;20;21;22
submerg
(algae),
some rooted
Strength of Association
1
medium
medium
medium
38;1;27;37;20;21
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength prefers non-
38
vegetated surfaces
for spawning site
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 20. Vegetation association database – blacknose dace.
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
nil
38;1
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
nil
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
30
Table 21. Vegetation association database – quillback.
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
nil
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
submerg
submerg
21;22
medium
low
38;1;25;32
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 22. Vegetation association database – white sucker.
Vegetation
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
submerg
pondweed,
emerg
25;20;21;22
medium
38;1;25;20;21;
rushes among
Potamogeton
Strength of Association
1
low
high
high
22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 23. Vegetation association database – yellow bullhead.
Vegetation
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
sub/emerg
macro-
sub/emerg
2;20;21;22
high
38;1;25;2;20;
phytes
Strength of Association
1
high
high
high
21;22
Seasonality Differences
seasonal
growth of
macrophytes
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
31
2;20;22
Table 24. Vegetation association database – brown bullhead.
Vegetation
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
sub/emer
macro-
sub/emer
20;21;22;42
macro-
phytes
macrophytes
phytes
Strength of Association
1
2
Spawn/Egg
medium
high
high
high
38;1;25;20;21;22; 42
possibly
possibly
possibly
20;21;42
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
attracted by attracted by attracted by
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
aggre-
aggre-
aggre-
gations of
gations of
gations of
food items
food items in food items
in macro-
macro-
in macro-
phytes
phytes
phytes
Table 25. Vegetation association database – stonecat.
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Vegetation
Strength of Association
Juvenile
Adult
sub/emerg
1
nil
low
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
32
2
Sources
20
nil
38;1;20
Table 26. Vegetation association database – tadpole madtom.
Spawn/Egg
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
YOY
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
roots of vegetation sub/emerg
sub/emerg
1;20;21;22
medium
high
38;1;25;20;21;
high
22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 27. Vegetation association database – grass pickerel.
Vegetation
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
sub/emerg
grasses
leafy liverworts, 1;25;20;21;22
water lilies,
pondweeds,
filamentous
algae,
broadleaf
cattails
Strength of Association
1
high
high
high
high
38;1;25;20;21;
22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
33
Table 28. Vegetation association database – northern pike.
Vegetation
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
Carex spp.,
Phragmites
Potamogeton cripsus,
Potamogeton
2;5
Calamagrostis
australis, Typha
Ceratophyllum
cripsus,
canadensis
spp.,
demersum and Elodea
Ceratophyllum
Myriophyllum,
canadensis
demersum and
Elodea
Potamogeton
canadensis
Strength of
Association
high
high
high
high
38;1;25;37;
1
2;
5;20;21;22;
39
Seasonality
strength of assoc seasonal growth of
Differences
grew over
2;5
macrophytes
summer
Factors
size of pike
Affecting
inversely related macrophytes (between
Strength
to veg density,
30-80% vegetative
macrophytes
related to cover
cover)
(between 30-80%
prefer moderately dense prefer moderately 39; 5
dense
vegetative cover),
sex (males prefer
Potamogeton
spp.)
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 29. Vegetation association database – muskellunge.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
submerg
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
Potamogeton
25;20;21
spp.
Strength of Association
1
high
high
high
1;25;20;21;22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
size, larger fish 25
less associated
with veg
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
34
Table 30. Vegetation association database – central mudminnow.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
emerg
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
cattail, waterweed,
1;24;20;21
eel grass, bullrushes,
pondweed, yellow
water lily, water
buttercup,
filamentous algae
Strength of
Association
high
high
high
38;1;24;25; 20;21;22
1
Seasonality
inundated terrestrial 24;20;21
Differences
veg (spring), aquatic
macrophytes
(summer) and leaf
litter (autumn)
Factors Affecting
avoid current
24;20;21
Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 31. Vegetation association database – pirate perch.
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
high
1;11
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
nil
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
35
Table 32. Vegetation association database – brook silverside.
Spawn/Egg
Vegetation
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Scirpus,
2
Sources
38
Potamogeton
Strength of Association
1
high
nil
medium
38;1;15
density,
1
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
prefers
sparse
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 33. Vegetation association database – banded killifish.
Vegetation
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg,
sub/emerg
macro-
sub/emerg
25;2;20;21;22
high
38;1;25;17;2;20;21;
phytes
filamentous
algae
Strength of Association
1
high
high
high
22
Seasonality Differences
2;20;21;22
seasonal
growth of
macrophytes
Factors Affecting Strength
density,
prefers
sparse
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
36
38;17;1
Table 34. Vegetation association database – brook stickleback.
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
high
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
submerg
submerg
20;21;22
medium
high
1;25;20;21;22
density,
1
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
prefers
moderately
dense
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 35. Vegetation association database – threespine stickleback.
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
low
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
submerg
sub/emerg
20;21;22
low
low
20;21;22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 36. Vegetation association database – rock bass.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
macrophytes
rooted
Juvenile
Adult
2
Sources
29
macrophytes
Strength of Association
1
low
high
low
1;25;29, 20;21;42
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength density - prefers
29
dense macrophytes
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
37
Table 37. Vegetation association database – green sunfish.
Vegetation
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
sub/emerg
macro-
emerg
38;25;26;2;20;21;22
high
38;1;25;26;2;20;
phytes
Strength of Association
1
high
high
high
21;22
Seasonality Differences
2
seasonal
growth of
macrophytes
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 38. Vegetation association database – pumpkinseed.
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
sub/emerg
macro-
macro-
sub/emerg
38;20;22
phytes
phytes
high
high
high
38;25;20;21;22;
high
42
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
38
Table 39. Vegetation association database – smallmouth bass.
Spawn/Egg
Vegetation
YOY
sub/emerg
2
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
macro-
sub/emerg
2;22
low
38;1;25;2;22;42
phytes
Strength of Association
1
low
high
summer
seasonal
Seasonality Differences
high
2
growth of
macrophytes
Factors Affecting Strength prefers nesting
38
near rocks, logs
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 40. Vegetation association database – largemouth bass.
Vegetation
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
bullrushes,
sub/emerg
macro-phytes
sub/emerg
38;25;2;21;22
waterlillies
including water
lilies, cattails,
pond weeds
Strength of
Association
medium
high
high
1
high
38;1;25;37;2;20;
21;22
Seasonality
summer
Differences
seasonal
2
growth of
macro-phytes
Factors Affecting
prefers emergent
Strength
over submergent
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
20
39
Table 41. Vegetation association database – Iowa darter.
Vegetation
Spawn/Egg
YOY
sub/emerg
submerg
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
rooted veg,
38;1;25;20;21
filamentous
algae
Strength of Association
1
medium
medium
high
38;1;25;20;21
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 42. Vegetation association database – least darter.
Vegetation
2
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Juvenile
Adult
Sources
weeds,
submerg
algae
submerg, filamentous
38;3;1;25;21;22
filamentous
algae, Elodea,
algae
Myriophyllum,
Ceratophyllum,
Potamogeton and other
flowering aquatic plants
Strength of
Association
high
high
high
1
Differences
Factors
Affecting
Strength
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
38;3;1;25;8;20;
21;22
Seasonality
1
high
40
Table 43. Vegetation association database – johnny darter.
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Vegetation
Strength of Association
1
nil
Juvenile
2
Adult
Sources
submerg
sub/emerg
21;22
medium
medium
38;1;21;22
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
Table 44. Vegetation association database – logperch.
Spawn/Egg
YOY
Vegetation
Strength of Association
Juvenile
Adult
sub/emerg
1
nil
medium
Seasonality Differences
Factors Affecting Strength
1
ratings are nil, low, medium or high
2
complete citations found in the references
41
2
Sources
21;22
medium
medium
1;25;21;22
Figure 1. Frequency of strength of fish-vegetation association ratings by life stage.
30
25
20
Frequency
15
of Rating
10
Nil
Low
Medium
High
Life Stage
42
Adult
Juvenile
YOY
0
Spawn/Egg
5
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