Spawning Habitat Characteristics Of Great Lakes Fishes J.A. Lane , C.B. Portt

Spawning Habitat Characteristics Of Great Lakes Fishes J.A. Lane , C.B. Portt
Spawning Habitat Characteristics Of Great Lakes Fishes
J.A. Lane1, C.B. Portt1 and C.K. Minns2
1. C. Portt and Associates, 56 Waterloo Avenue, Guelph, Ontario,
Canada N1H 3H5
2. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Great Lakes Laboratory for
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Bayfield Institute, 867 Lakeshore
Road, PO Box 5000, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 Canada
October 1996
Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences No. 2368
Fisheries
Pêches
and Oceans
et Océans
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CANADIAN MANUSCRIPT REPORT
OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES 2368
SPAWNING HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS
OF GREAT LAKES FISHES
by
1
1
J.A. Lane , C.B. Portt and C.K. Minns
2
1. C. Portt and Associates, 56 Waterloo Avenue, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1H 3H5
2. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences, Bayfield Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, PO Box 5000, Burlington, Ontario, L7R
4A6 Canada
© Minister of Supply and Services 1996
Cat. No. Fs97-4/2368 ISSN 0707-6473
Correct citation of this publication:
Lane, J.A., C.B. Portt and C.K. Minns. 1996. Spawning habitat characteristics of Great
Lakes fishes. Can. MS Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2368: v+48p.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................................................. iv
ABSTRACT/RÉSUMÉ ...................................................................................................................... v
1.0 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................... 1
2.0 METHODS.................................................................................................................................... 2
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION................................................................................................... 3
4.0 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................. 33
APPENDIX A Great Lakes Basin Fish Species List........................................................................ 45
APPENDIX B Riverine spawners..................................................................................................... 48
iii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Depth strata utilized and use of cover by spawning fishes. Presence within a depth
stratum is indicated with an X. A dash (-) indicates that the species was not reported
to utilize a particular depth stratum or cover. For species marked with an asterisk
(*), inferences have been drawn, the bases for which are provided in the 'Comments'
c
column. The notation indicates additional information is given, also in the
'Comments' column................................................................................................................ 10
Table 2. Strength of association with substrate types, the importance of lake (versus stream)
habitat . A dash (-) indicates that no information was found to indicate that the
species utilizes a particular substrate type. For species marked with an asterisk (*)
inferences about relationships have been drawn, the bases for which are provided in
c
the 'Comments' column. The notation ' ' indicates additional information is given,
also in the 'Comments' column. References are listed in Table 1........................................ 17
Table 3. Season, range of water temperature and reproductive guild for Great Lakes fishes.
Ranges given indicate temperatures above and below which a species will not
spawn. Reproductive guilds correspond to Balon (1975) as follows: A.1 open
substratum spawners = broadcast; A.2 brood hider = hide; B.2 nest spawners = nest.
c
Other information is indicated with the notation and details are given in the
'Comments' column. For species marked with an asterisk (*) inferences about
relationships have been drawn, the bases for which are also provided in the
'Comments' column. n/a = not available................................................................................ 26
Table 4 Number of species that spawn within each depth stratum. ................................................. 32
Table 5 Number of species associated with each substrate and with cover, by strength of
association.............................................................................................................................. 32
iv
ABSTRACT
Lane, J.A., C.B. Portt and C.K. Minns. 1996. Spawning habitat characteristics of Great Lakes
fishes. Can. MS Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2368 :v+48p.
A review of the literature was conducted to compile knowledge of spawning habitat characteristics
of 139 species of Great Lakes fishes. Water depth, substrate, and vegetation/cover were the habitat
variables examined. Nineteen Great Lakes species spawn exclusively in rivers, and one spawns in
the marine environment. The majority of the remaining 120 species spawn in shallow water. Most
(105) spawn in the spring. Gravel and sand are the most commonly utilized substrates. Bedrock
and hard-pan clay are utilized by few species. Aquatic vegetation is an important component of
spawning habitat for many species, as are other forms of cover. The majority of these species
scatter their eggs, usually over a specific substrate, but 32 species guard nests, and 23 construct
redds in which the eggs are concealed. The precision with which spawning habitats are selected by
many species cannot be reflected with the limited number of variables which we have used to
describe nearshore habitats.
RÉSUMÉ
J.A. Lane, C.B. Portt et C.K. Minns, 1996. Caractéristiques de la zone de frai des poissons des
Grands Lacs. Can. MS Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2368 : v+48p.
Une analyse documentaire a été effectuée pour rassembler les données connues sur les
caractéristiques de la zone de frai des poissons des Grands Lacs. Les paramètres étudiés étaient la
profondeur de l'eau, le substrat et la couverture végétale. Dix-neuf espèces pondent seulement dans
les rivières, une dans un environnement marin. La majorité des 120 autres espèces déposent leurs
oeufs dans l'eau peu profonde. Pour la plupart (105 espèces), le printemps est la saison du frai. Les
substrats les plus fréquemment utilisés sont le gravier et le sable. Quelques espèces déposent leurs
oeufs sur un substrat rocheux ou une carapace d'argile. Pour bon nombre d'espèces, la végétation
aquatique, tout comme les autres formes de substrat, est une composante importante de la zone de
frai. La majorité de ces espèces dispersent leurs oeufs, normalement au-dessus d'un substrat
particulier. Trente-deux espèces, par contre, surveillent un nid et 23 construisent un nid de frai dans
lequel elles dissimulent les oeufs. De nombreuses espèces ont des besoins particuliers en ce qui
concerne la zone de frai, qui ne sont pas décrits en détail en raison du nombre limité de variables
étudiées.
v
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The nearshore areas are crucial in providing habitat for most of the fish species in the Great
Lakes, during at least one life stage. Nearshore areas are also the locations of greatest human
interaction with the lakes, and include some of the most degraded habitats in the Great Lakes basin.
Effective management strategies of nearshore areas must integrate the preservation of fish habitat
and fish populations, and human activity which is concentrated there.
'NO NET LOSS OF THE PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF FISH HABITAT' is the guiding
principle of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) 'Policy for the Management of Fish
Habitat' (DFO 1986). The ultimate objectives of this policy are: 1) conservation of habitat; 2)
restoration of damaged habitat; and 3) development of new habitat resulting in a net gain of
productive capacity (Minns et al. 1995). The difficulty in assessment of individual development
projects lies in the lack of a common, quantitative protocol that can be used both by project
proponents and habitat managers to assess individual projects.
A prototype methodology developed by Minns et al. (1995) requires pre- and postdevelopment characterizations of fish habitats, and predictions of their relationship to fish
populations and communities. These predictions are based on knowledge of spawning, nursery and
adult habitat characteristics. To date, reports have been prepared documenting habitats of adult and
young-of-the year fishes in the Great Lakes (Lane et al. 1996a, 1996b). This report summarizes the
spawning habitat characteristics required for the defensible methods assessment process.
1
2.0 METHODS
The computer database Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (1978-December 1995)
was searched and relevant literature was examined. Secondary sources (Scott and Crossman, 1973;
Becker, 1983) were relied upon for summaries of earlier literature. This report presents data for
those species which spawn in the lake environment or in estuaries at the mouths of tributary streams
or river deltas, which were treated as lentic habitat.
As was done for nursery and adult habitats (Lane et al, 1996a,b), spawning habitat
characteristics are characterized by three variables: water depth (0-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5+ metres), substrate
(bedrock, boulder, cobble, rubble, gravel, sand, silt, clay, hard-pan clay), and structure/cover
(emergent vegetation, submergent vegetation and other e.g. logs, rocks). The depth strata used for
spawning are indicated (Table 1), but no attempt was made to assess relative importance. The
estimated strength of association with various substrate materials is indicated (low, medium, high;
Table 2). Substrate described as detritus or mud in the literature is included in the silt category.
The significance of vegetation or other cover for spawning (Table 1) was estimated based
on the available documentation. 'High' indicates a species always, or nearly always, spawns where
there is a particular form of cover; 'medium' indicates a species often spawns, and 'low' indicates a
species sometimes spawns where a given cover type is present. A dash (-) indicates that cover is
discerned to be of no importance. When vegetation is an essential component of spawning habitat,
the comments column notes that eggs adhere to vegetation. An index of the utilization of lentic, as
opposed to lotic, habitat for spawning is also provided (Table 2).
The range of water temperatures at which spawning occurs is provided, or if this
2
information was unavailable the temperature at which spawning peaks or commences is given
(Table 3). The season during which spawning occurs is also indicated for each species (Table 3).
The dates of spawning vary, due primarily to north-south climatic gradients. For the purposes of
this report spring is defined as the period during which water temperatures are increasing, fall is
defined as the period during which water temperatures are declining, and winter is defined as the
period during which water temperatures are at their minimum, and more or less stable.
The spawning behaviour of each species is broadly characterized (Table 3), based on the
reproductive guilds of Balon (1975). Species are described as a) broadcast spawners which release
their eggs over a given area and do not guard; b) hiders, which typically bury their eggs in redds,
and do not guard; and c) nest-builders, which guard their nests.
Information on spawning habitat was readily available for most fish species in the Great
Lakes. Those few for which inferences were made are indicated with an asterisk (*). The basis for
the inference is indicated in the 'Comments' column.
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The species list used in this report (Appendix A) is the same as was used for the
compilations of nursery and adult habitats (Lane et al, 1996a,b). This information is based on the
distribution information in Mandrak and Crossman (1992) and information obtained on recently
discovered exotics. No information is presented for three species which are considered extirpated
from the Great Lakes (deepwater cisco, Coregonus johannae; blackfin cisco, C. nigripinnis; gravel
chub, Erimystax x-punctata), or for hybrids. The American eel (Anguilla rostrata), which returns
3
to the marine environment to spawn (Tesch and Greenwood 1977), was also excluded. Information
was compiled on the spawning habitat characteristics of 131 species. Inferences were drawn for an
additional 8 species based on adult habitat or on the spawning habitat of species with which they
are known to hybridize.
Sixty-nine of the species resident in the Great Lakes spawn primarily, if not exclusively, in
lentic habitats. Twenty-three species commonly utilize both lake and stream habitats for spawning;
28 species are normally stream spawners but some spawning is known to occur in the lake
environment. The remaining nineteen species apparently spawn only in streams and rivers; these
species are listed in Appendix B.
Most fish species resident in the Great Lakes spawn on only one occasion during the year,
although some species (e.g. fathead minnow, gobies, ruffe) can produce more than one brood
during a breeding season. It appears that for most species, the photoperiod determines the overall
reproductive state, but water temperature ultimately determines when spawning will occur. Of the
species examined, 105 spawn in the spring, twelve spawn in the fall and three spawn during the
winter (Table 3). Spawning dates for the same species often differ by more than a month between
the upper and lower Great Lakes, and spawning dates in one location can vary by two to three
weeks between years for some species, depending upon weather conditions. Sheltered shallow
areas and tributaries warm more quickly in the spring than more exposed areas in the lakes.
Consequently, water temperature also plays an important role in determining where some species
spawn.
Thirty-two of the 120 lake spawning species guard their broods (Table 3). Some of these
4
species conceal their eggs in existing cavities (i.e. brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus) or under
objects (i.e. fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas). Sticklebacks construct a nest of algae or plant
material. In the case of the centrarchids the nest is usually only a shallow depression from which
fine sediments have been fanned.
All of these species were considered guarding nest spawners
(guild B.2.) by Balon (1975) except white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), which he considered to be a
guarding substratum chooser (guild B.1.). Based on descriptions of the spawning behaviour of
white crappie, we consider its reproductive tactics to be similar to those of the other centrarchids
and have placed it with them in guild B.2.
Two non-guarding guilds are represented. The majority of the non-guarding species (65)
broadcast their eggs rather than actively concealing them. These are, in Balon's terminology, nonguarding open-substratum spawners (guild A.1.). In most cases these eggs settle to the bottom, or
onto vegetation which overlies the bottom. Exceptions include freshwater drum (Aplodinotus
grunniens), whose eggs are positively buoyant and float at the surface, and yellow perch (Perca
flavescens) whose eggs are contained in gelatinous strings or tubes which attach to vegetation or the
bottom. Spawning habitat requirements for this group can be quite precise; for example, northern
pike spawn almost exclusively over the previous year's flooded terrestrial or emergent aquatic
vegetation; lake trout require shoals with sufficient wave action to remove fine sediment. For other
species, such as white perch (Morone americana), neither substrate nor vegetation appear to be
important.
The remaining twenty-three non-guarding species either bury their eggs in redds (trouts,
salmons and charrs) or clear depressions or construct mounds of pebbles over which they spawn,
5
and among which the eggs are concealed (several cyprinids). This group corresponds to Balon's
(1975) non-guarding brood-hiding lithophils (guild A.2.1; the third level of the classification can be
included in this case, since all utilize similar substrates). We have included two species in this
guild, common shiner (Luxilus cornutus) and cutlips minnow (Exoglossum maxilingua), which
Balon (1975) considered to be guarders. Although the males of both species are territorial during
spawning, we interpret the descriptions of spawning behaviour to indicate that neither guards its
brood.
There are numerous accounts of more than one minnow species spawning over a particular
area at the same time. Male common shiners defended spawning territory on most hornyhead chub
(Nocomis biguttatus) redds observed by Vives (1990). Although some antagonistic encounters
between the two males were observed, most of the common shiners' aggressive behaviour was
directed toward other common shiners and female chubs.
Rosyface shiners (Notropis rubellus)
were also observed spawning over chub redds (Vives, 1990).
Goff (1984) reported finding longnose gar (Lepisosteus osseus) eggs in association with a
significant proportion (14%) of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) nests. The redfin shiner
(Lythrurus umbratilus) usually spawns over the nests of actively spawning sunfish especially green
sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus; Hunter & Hasler 1965; Noltie 1989). Spawning activity of the shiners
appears to be initiated by the odour of milt and ovarian fluid from sunfish (Hunter & Hasler 1965).
In these cases, the eggs of both species are guarded by the centrarchid. More than one species
defending the same spawning territory, or more than one species spawning over the same redd,
could be attributed simply to selection of similar spawning habitats. An obligate symbiotic or
6
parasitic relationship apparently does not exist, as all of these species are reported to spawn
independently, but such relationships may be evolving.
Gravel and sand are the most commonly used substrates for spawning. Cobble and silt are
also frequently utilized (Table 4), although the number of species using silt is influenced by species
which spawn on vegetation, which often grows in silt substrates. Bedrock and hard-pan clay are
utilized by few species (Table 4). Many species spawn on, or amongst, both emergent and
submergent vegetation. Strong association with cover is also common, with emphasis on fixed
objects such as rocks and logs.
For a number of reasons, spawning is typically the most intensively studied aspect of a
fishes' life-history. Because they move into either the nearshore areas of the lakes or the tributaries,
the adults of many species are more readily observed during spawning than at any other time. They
are often also most susceptible to capture during spawning or pre- and post-spawning migrations,
when many individuals are concentrated in relatively small areas.
The reproductive behaviour of a species is one component of an evolved 'optimum' strategy
for survival, which is bounded by genetic and environmental constraints. As Kryzhanovsky (1949)
stated "adaptations of fishes for spawning and development reflect not only the essential ecological
factors of the embryonic period, but also the essential factors of all other intervals of life." This is
true, but an individual's ability to actively select advantageous habitats and avoid those that are
disadvantageous increases with age.
Embryos are passive and thus at the mercy of their
surroundings. Once exogenous feeding begins, a readily available food supply is essential, or death
ensues. The precision of reproductive behaviour and spawning habitat selection exhibited by many
7
species reflects the vulnerability of the early life stages and the need to position them, in time and in
space, where environmental conditions are most conducive to survival and growth.
The characterization of spawning habitats which is provided here does not reflect factors
which, for some species, are essential. For example, brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) select areas
of upwelling for spawning (Hartley & Kelso 1991; Scott & Crossman 1973). In fact, the preference
for groundwater is so pronounced that substrates of silt and detritus, or even old beaver lodges, will
be utilized if seepage is present (Wetzel & MacCrimmon 1983; Webster & Eiriksdotter 1976,
Fraser, 1982). Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) spawning shoals usually are moderately exposed
to wave action and associated currents; this is attributed to the need to maintain interstices within
the substrate which are free of fine sediments. In contrast, the reproductive success of smallmouth
bass is negatively correlated with exposure to strong wind (Goff, 1986).
The homing exhibited by many fish species may be the ultimate in precise spawning habitat
'selection'. For some species, however, precise homing could be a liability. Northern pike typically
spawn in shallow water over flooded terrestrial or emergent aquatic vegetation, and the location of
these habitats can vary from year to year due to water level fluctuations. There are, of course,
species which appear to be true habitat generalists, such as yellow perch and white perch.
As with the reports concerning adult and nursery habitat (Lane et al, 1996a,b), certain
conclusions regarding the utilization of various habitats can be drawn from the information
compiled, but its limitations must be noted.
Our assessment of the relative significance of
particular habitats to individual species was necessarily subjective. Even though spawning habitat
has often received a disproportionate amount of attention from biologists, relative to other life
8
stages, descriptions of spawning habitat for some species are vague. The precision with which
spawning habitats are selected by many species cannot be reflected with the limited number of
variables which we have used to describe nearshore habitats. These limitations notwithstanding,
the data contained in this report are useful in assessing the relative significance of various habitats
to spawning fishes, particularly when applied at the guild or community level (Lane et al, 1996a;
1996b).
Acknowledgements
We gratefully acknowledge the constructive comments provided by J.Leslie and D. Bodaly,
Department of Fisheries and Oceans; A. Mathers and S.J. Nepszy, Ontario Ministry of Natural
Resources; and E. Holm, Royal Ontario Museum.
9
Table 1. Depth strata and type of cover utilized by spawning Great Lakes fishes. Presence within a depth stratum is
indicated with an X. A dash (-) indicates that the species was not reported to utilize a particular depth stratum or
cover. For species marked with an asterisk (*), inferences have been drawn, the bases for which are provided in the
c
'Comments' column. The notation ' ' indicates additional information is given, also in the 'Comments' column.
Common
Name
Water Depth (m)
Cover
References
Comments
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Vegetation
Emergent
Vegetation
Other
lake sturgeon
X
X
X
-
-
-
rocks, logs
11, 47, 57
adhesive eggs
longnose gar
X
-
-
-
high
high
Cladophora
5, 11, 47,
131
eggs adhere
to vegetation
spotted gar
X
-
-
-
high
high
brush, debris
47, 111, 131
eggs adhere to
vegetation
bowfin
X
X
-
-
high
high
-
11, 47, 136
alewife
X
X
X
-
low
low
stones, debris
47, 75, 98,
136
eggs broadcast
over substrate
gizzard shad
X
X
X
-
high
high
brush, debris
8, 47, 75,
136, 138
adhesive eggs
rainbow trout
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
1, 47, 131
Atlantic salmon
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
1, 47, 77,
89, 131
brown trout
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
1, 5, 47, 149
Arctic charr
-
X
X
X
-
-
-
91, 131
brook trout
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
24, 47, 52,
121, 144,
149
areas of
upwelling
lake trout
X
X
X
X
-
-
crevices, cracks
35, 36, 47,
64, 96
depth a function
of race
lake whitefish
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
1, 5, 47, 61,
131
cisco
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
1, 47, 131
bloater
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
1, 5, 47, 109
kiyi
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
47, 54, 110
shortnose cisco
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
47, 107
10
shortjaw cisco
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
47, 58
pygmy
whitefish
X
X
-
X
c
-
-
-
5, 47, 131
round whitefish
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
1, 47, 53,
103
rainbow smelt
X
X
X
X
low
low
-
47, 75, 128
northern pike
X
X
-
-
-
high
flooded
terrestrial
vegetation
19, 47, 131,
136, 146
muskellunge
X
X
-
-
high
high
stumps, logs
32, 33, 47,
131, 146
grass pickerel
X
-
-
-
-
high
flooded
terrestrial
vegetation
22, 47
c
central
mudminnow
X
-
-
-
high
high
-
47, 82, 118
c
quillback
X
X
-
-
-
-
high turbidity
1, 5, 47
longnose sucker
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
5, 47, 131
white sucker
X
X
-
-
low
low
-
5, 23, 47,
122, 131,
136
lake chubsucker
X
X
-
-
high
high
filamentous
algae, grass
stubble
1, 47, 131
northern
hogsucker
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
5, 23, 47,
131
bigmouth
buffalo
X
X
X
-
high
high
high turbidity
43, 47, 62
spotted sucker
X
-
-
-
-
-
depressions
behind rocks
5, 23, 112
silver redhorse
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
5, 47
shorthead
redhorse
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
5, 23, 47
greater
redhorse*
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
5, 47, 131
c
c
c
11
c
spawning &
spent caught at
31-46 m
c
eggs adhere to
vegetation.
eggs adhere to
vegetation
eggs adhere to
vegetation
*possibly
spawn in lakes
goldfish
X
X
X
-
high
-
undersides of
objects, roots
5, 47
northern
redbelly dace
X
X
-
-
high
-
-
1, 5, 30, 47,
131
finescale dace
X
X
-
-
-
-
logs, brush
5, 30, 131,
135
lake chub
X
X
-
-
-
-
under boulders
12, 47, 131
common carp
X
X
-
-
high
high
-
47, 131, 136
cutlips minnow
X
-
-
-
-
-
large rocks,
logs
131, 139
brassy minnow*
X
-
-
-
high
high
-
5, 131
eastern silvery
minnow
X
-
-
-
high
high
-
5, 131
silver chub
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
5, 47, 115,
131
hornyhead chub
X
-
-
-
low
low
-
5, 25, 83,
140
golden shiner
X
X
-
-
high
high
organic debris,
filamentous
algae
14, 47, 60,
146
pugnose shiner
X
X
-
-
high
high
-
5, 47, 76,
114
emerald shiner
X
X
X
X
low
low
-
17, 47, 136
bridle shiner
X
-
-
-
high
high
-
47, 51
common shiner
X
-
-
-
low
low
-
6, 47, 60,
131, 136
often use nests
of other
minnows
blackchin
shiner*
X
-
-
-
high
high
-
5, 47
*adult habitat
blacknose
shiner
X
-
-
-
high
high
roots of aquatic
vegetation
47, 131
spottail shiner
X
X
X
-
medium
medium
-
47, 80, 136
rosyface shiner
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
5, 47, 131,
12
eggs adhere to
vegetation
eggs adhere to
vegetation
*similar to
silvery minnow
to 10 m.
thought to occur
in open water
eggs adhere to
vegetation
uses nests of
140
other minnows
spotfin shiner
X
X
-
-
low
low
undersides of
fixed objects
5, 39, 47,
131
adhesive eggs
sand shiner
X
X
-
-
low
low
roots of aquatic
vegetation
47, 131
adhesive eggs
redfin shiner
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
81, 99, 102,
131
utilizes sunfish
nests
mimic shiner
X
X
X
-
high
high
-
47, 93, 131
eggs scattered
pugnose
minnow*
X
X
-
-
medium
medium
-
47, 76, 116
*adult habitat
bluntnose
minnow
X
X
X
-
medium
medium
undersides of
fixed objects
47, 93, 131,
136
adhesive eggs
fathead minnow
X
X
-
-
medium
medium
undersides of
fixed objects
6, 47, 120,
136
adhesive eggs
blacknose dace
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
4, 6, 47, 131
longnose dace
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
4, 5, 47, 131
creek chub
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
6, 47, 131
fallfish
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
47, 123, 131
pearl dace
X
-
-
-
low
low
-
6, 131
central
stoneroller
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
5, 47, 84,
86, 88
striped shiner
X
-
-
-
low
low
-
5, 44
black bullhead
X
X
-
-
high
high
debris,
overhanging
banks, rocks
5, 47, 131,
146
yellow bullhead
X
X
-
-
high
high
logs, tree roots,
boards, debris
5, 47
brown bullhead
X
X
-
-
medium
medium
logs, tree roots,
boards, debris
7, 47, 136
channel catfish
X
X
X
-
low
low
undercut banks,
log jams, rocks
47, 131
stonecat
X
X
-
-
-
-
nests under
boards, rocks,
logs
47, 131, 142
tadpole madtom
X
X
-
-
medium
medium
under boards,
logs, roots,
47, 131, 145
13
cans
brindled
madtom
X
X
-
-
medium
medium
under boards,
logs, roots,
cans
15, 47, 113
banded killifish
X
-
-
-
high
high
-
47, 59
eggs adhere to
vegetation
burbot
X
X
X
c
-
-
-
47, 79, 131
may also spawn
in deep water
brook
stickleback
X
-
-
-
high
high
sticks
47, 124,
131, 150,
151
threespine
stickleback
X
-
-
-
low
low
-
47, 150, 151
ninespine
stickleback
X
X
X
X
high
high
between rocks
37, 47, 150,
151
fourspine
stickleback
X
-
-
-
high
high
-
21, 127,
150, 151
trout-perch
X
X
X
X
low
low
between rocks
5, 47, 131
white perch
X
X
X
-
medium
medium
-
9, 47, 136
white bass
X
X
X
X
low
low
-
5, 47, 131,
136
rock bass
X
X
-
-
low
low
under rocks,
logs
47, 49, 101,
136
green sunfish
X
X
-
-
high
high
rocks, logs,
clumps of grass
5, 47, 76,
131
pumpkinseed
X
X
-
-
high
high
-
47, 67, 136
bluegill
X
X
X
-
high
high
-
5, 47
longear sunfish
X
X
X
-
medium
medium
-
5, 67, 87
smallmouth
bass
X
X
-
-
low
low
boulders,
docks, logs
5, 47, 97,
129, 131
largemouth bass
X
X
-
-
medium
high
-
13, 47, 94,
129, 136,
146
white crappie
X
X
X
-
medium
medium
banks, brush,
stumps
47, 50, 131
c
14
c
favours, but is
not restricted to,
open areas
black crappie
X
X
X
-
high
high
-
47, 136, 146
warmouth*
X
X
-
-
high
high
stumps, rocks,
clumps of
vegetation
5, 131
orangespotted
sunfish
X
X
-
-
low
low
-
5, 47, 76,
100
yellow perch
X
X
X
X
medium
medium
rocks, brush,
debris
47, 119,
136, 143
sauger
X
X
X
-
low
low
-
5, 47, 131
walleye
X
X
X
X
low
low
-
47, 52, 105
eastern sand
darter*
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
56, 69
greenside darter
X
-
-
-
low
low
algae-covered
rocks
29, 47, 69
147, 148
rainbow darter
X
-
-
-
low
low
-
47, 66, 69,
147, 148
Iowa darter
X
-
-
-
medium
medium
undercut banks,
fibrous roots
47, 69, 147,
148
fantail darter
X
-
-
-
-
-
undersides of
rocks
47, 69, 147,
148
least darter
X
-
-
-
high
high
-
28, 63, 69,
147, 148
johnny darter
X
-
-
-
-
-
undersides of
rocks, logs
47, 66, 69,
147, 148
logperch
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
47, 66, 69,
147, 148
channel darter
X
X
-
-
-
-
near large rock
47, 69, 148
blackside darter
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
5, 69, 147
river darter*
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
27, 69
tesselated darter
X
-
-
-
-
-
undersides of
objects
46, 69
brook silverside
X
-
-
-
high
high
-
42, 47, 75,
15
*hybridizes
with
pumpkinseed &
bluegill
*adult habitat
*similar to
channel and
blackside
darters
eggs adhere to
95
freshwater drum
X
X
X
X
low
low
-
5, 47, 131
mottled sculpin
X
-
-
-
-
-
crevices, under
rocks, burrows
34, 47, 130
slimy sculpin
X
X
X
X
-
-
under rocks or
logs
47, 133
spoonhead
sculpin
X
X
X
X
-
-
possibly under
rocks or logs
47, 133
deepwater
sculpin
-
-
-
X
-
-
-
79, 133
rudd*
X
X
-
-
high
high
-
14, 76, 125
ruffe
X
X
X
c
-
medium
-
logs, branches,
rocks
48, 104, 134
round goby
X
X
X
-
low
-
undersides of
logs, cans
65, 66
tubenose goby
X
X
X
-
medium
-
undersides of
logs, cans
65, 66
16
vegetation
eggs pelagic
eggs adhesive
*hybridizes
with golden
shiner
c
spawn in
depths of 3m or
less
Table 2 Strength of association with substrate types and the importance of lake (versus stream) habitat for spawning Great Lakes fishes. A dash (-) indicates that no information was found
to indicate that the species utilizes a particular substrate type. For species marked with an asterisk (*) inferences about relationships have been drawn based on adult habitat or
c
hybridization with other species. The notation ' ' indicates additional information is given, also in the 'Comments' column. References are listed in Table 1.
Common Name
Substrate
Lake
Affinity
Bedrock
Boulder
Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
clay
lake sturgeon
-
high
high
high
high
high
-
-
high
low
longnose gar
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
spotted gar
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
bowfin
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
alewife
-
high
high
high
high
high
high
high
-
high
gizzard shad
-
-
-
high
high
high
high
-
-
high
rainbow trout
-
-
-
low
high
-
-
-
-
low
Atlantic salmon
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
-
low
brown trout
-
-
medium
high
high
low
-
-
-
low
arctic charr
-
-
-
-
high
medium
-
-
-
medium
brook trout
-
-
high
high
medium
low
-
-
medium
high
c
high
high
high
low
low
-
-
-
high
lake whitefish
-
high
high
high
high
medium
-
low
-
high
cisco
-
medium
high
high
high
high
medium
medium
medium
high
lake trout
c
17
Comments
c
with scattered
cobble, rubble
Common Name
Substrate
Lake
Affinity
Bedrock
Boulder
Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
clay
high
high
high
high
high
high
high
high
high
high
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
high
shortnose cisco
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
high
high
high
-
high
shortjaw cisco
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
high
medium
high
medium
high
pygmy whitefish
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
-
medium
round whitefish
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
-
high
rainbow smelt
-
medium
medium
high
high
high
low
-
-
medium
northern pike
-
-
-
low
low
high
high
-
-
high
muskellunge
-
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
high
grass pickerel
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
high
central mudminnow
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
high
quillback
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
high
-
high
longnose sucker
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
medium
white sucker
-
-
-
medium
high
medium
-
-
-
medium
lake chubsucker
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
northern hogsucker
-
-
-
-
high
medium
-
-
-
low
bloater
kiyi
18
Comments
eggs adhere to
substrate
near mouths of
Common Name
Substrate
Lake
Affinity
Bedrock
Boulder
Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Comments
Hard-pan
clay
streams
bigmouth buffalo
-
-
-
medium
medium
high
high
-
-
high
spotted sucker
-
-
-
high
medium
medium
-
-
medium
low
silver redhorse
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
-
-
low
shorthead redhorse
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
-
low
greater redhorse*
-
high
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
low
goldfish
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
high
-
high
northern redbelly
dace
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
finescale dace
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
lake chub
-
medium
-
high
high
high
low
-
-
high
common carp
-
-
-
medium
medium
medium
high
-
-
high
cutlips minnow
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
-
-
low
brassy minnow
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
eastern silvery
minnow
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
high
silver chub
-
-
-
-
high
medium
-
-
-
medium
19
*adult habitat
Common Name
Substrate
Lake
Affinity
Bedrock
Boulder
Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
clay
hornyhead chub
-
-
high
high
high
medium
low
-
-
low
golden shiner
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
pugnose shiner
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
emerald shiner
-
medium
medium
high
high
high
-
-
-
high
bridle shiner
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
common shiner
-
-
-
medium
high
medium
-
-
-
low
blackchin shiner
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
high
blacknose shiner
-
-
-
-
medium
high
-
-
-
high
spottail shiner
-
-
medium
medium
high
high
-
-
-
high
rosyface shiner
-
-
high
high
high
high
-
-
-
low
spotfin shiner
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
medium
sand shiner
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
medium
redfin shiner
-
-
-
-
high
high
low
-
-
medium
mimic shiner
-
-
-
-
medium
high
low
-
-
high
pugnose minnow*
-
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
high
bluntnose minnow
-
medium
medium
high
high
medium
-
-
-
medium
20
Comments
*adult habitat
Common Name
Substrate
Lake
Affinity
Bedrock
Boulder
Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
clay
fathead minnow
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
medium
blacknose dace
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
-
low
longnose dace
-
-
medium
high
high
medium
-
-
-
low
creek chub
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
-
low
fallfish
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
-
low
pearl dace
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
low
central stoneroller
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
-
low
striped shiner
-
-
-
-
high
high
low
-
-
low
black bullhead
-
-
low
low
low
high
high
-
-
high
yellow bullhead
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
brown bullhead
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
high
channel catfish
-
-
high
high
high
high
high
high
-
medium
stonecat
-
high
high
high
medium
-
-
-
-
medium
tadpole madtom
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
medium
brindled madtom
-
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
high
-
-
medium
banded killifish
-
-
-
high
high
high
medium
-
-
high
21
Comments
Common Name
Substrate
Lake
Affinity
Bedrock
Boulder
Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
clay
burbot
-
high
high
high
high
medium
medium
-
-
high
brook stickleback
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
threespine
stickleback
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
ninespine
stickleback
-
-
medium
high
high
medium
medium
-
-
high
fourspine
stickleback
-
-
medium
medium
medium
high
high
-
-
high
-
-
-
high
high
high
high
-
-
medium
white perch
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
high
white bass
high
high
high
high
high
medium
low
low
medium
high
rock bass
-
-
high
high
high
medium
medium
medium
-
high
green sunfish
-
-
-
high
high
high
medium
medium
-
high
pumpkinseed
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
medium
-
high
bluegill
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
high
longear sunfish
-
-
-
-
high
medium
-
medium
medium
high
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
-
high
trout-perch
c
smallmouth bass
c
medium
22
Comments
c
no apparent
preference
c
with overlying
Common Name
Substrate
Lake
Affinity
Bedrock
Boulder
Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Comments
Hard-pan
clay
gravel
largemouth bass
-
-
-
low
low
high
high
high
-
high
white crappie
-
-
-
-
medium
low
low
high
high
high
black crappie
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
high
warmouth*
-
-
-
medium
high
high
medium
-
-
high
orangespotted
sunfish
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
yellow perch
-
-
-
medium
high
high
medium
medium
-
high
sauger
-
medium
high
high
high
medium
low
low
-
medium
high
high
high
high
high
high
-
-
high
medium
eastern sand darter
-
-
-
-
medium
high
low
-
-
low
greenside darter
-
high
high
high
high
-
-
-
-
low
rainbow darter
-
-
high
high
high
high
-
-
-
low
Iowa darter
-
-
-
high
high
high
high
-
-
medium
fantail darter
-
-
high
high
high
high
-
-
-
low
walleye
c
23
*hybridizes
with
pumpkinseed
& bluegill
c
underlying
Common Name
Substrate
Lake
Affinity
Bedrock
Boulder
Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
clay
least darter
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
medium
johnny darter
-
-
medium
medium
high
high
medium
medium
-
medium
logperch
-
medium
medium
high
high
high
-
-
-
medium
channel darter
-
high
high
high
high
-
-
-
-
low
blackside darter
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
low
medium
medium
medium
high
high
-
-
-
-
low
tesselated darter
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
-
low
brook silverside
-
-
-
medium
medium
high
-
-
-
high
river darter*
c
freshwater drum
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
medium
high
mottled sculpin
-
high
high
high
high
high
-
-
-
medium
slimy sculpin
-
high
high
high
high
low
low
-
-
medium
spoonhead sculpin
high
high
high
high
low
-
-
-
-
high
deepwater sculpin
high
high
high
low
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
rudd*
24
Comments
*similar to
channel and
blackside
darters
c
eggs scattered
randomly
*hybridizes
with golden
Common Name
Substrate
Lake
Affinity
Bedrock
Boulder
Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Comments
Hard-pan
clay
shiner
ruffe
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
high
high
high
round goby
-
-
high
high
high
medium
-
-
-
high
tubenose goby
-
-
high
high
high
medium
-
-
-
high
25
Table 3 Season, range of water temperature and reproductive guild for Great Lakes fishes. Ranges
given indicate temperatures above and below which a species will not spawn. Reproductive guilds
correspond to Balon (1975) as follows: A.1 open substratum spawners = broadcast; A.2 brood hider
c
= hide; B.2 nest spawners = nest. Other information is indicated with a and details are given in the
'Comments' column. For species marked with an asterisk (*) inferences about relationships have
been drawn. n/a = not available.
Common Name
Season
Temperature
°C
Reproductive
Guild
lake sturgeon
spring
13-21
broadcast
longnose gar
spring
19-29
broadcast
spotted gar
spring
21-26
broadcast
bowfin
spring
16-19
broadcast
alewife
spring
13-21
broadcast
gizzard shad
spring
16-25
broadcast
rainbow trout
spring
1-18
hide
Atlantic salmon
fall
6.7
hide
brown trout
fall
7-13
hide
arctic charr
fall
0.5
hide
brook trout
fall
2-13
hide
lake trout
fall
3-14
hide
lake whitefish
fall
1-12
broadcast
cisco
fall
2-5
broadcast
bloater
winter
n/a
broadcast
kiyi
fall
n/a
broadcast
shortnose cisco
spring
4-5
broadcast
shortjaw cisco
fall
n/a
broadcast
pygmy whitefish
fall
n/a
broadcast
round whitefish
fall
2-4
broadcast
rainbow smelt
spring
1-18
broadcast
northern pike
spring
2-18
broadcast
muskellunge
spring
8-18
broadcast
c
c
26
Comments
c
peak
c
redd construction begins
Common Name
Season
Temperature
°C
Reproductive
Guild
grass pickerel
spring
6-12
broadcast
central
mudminnow
spring
13 (approx)
broadcast
quillback
spring
19-28
broadcast
longnose sucker
spring
2-15
broadcast
white sucker
spring
6-23
broadcast
lake chubsucker
spring
n/a
broadcast
northern hogsucker
spring
10-16
broadcast
bigmouth buffalo
spring
13-26
broadcast
spotted sucker
spring
12-19
broadcast
silver redhorse
spring
13
c
broadcast
shorthead redhorse
spring
11-21
broadcast
greater redhorse
spring
17-19
broadcast
goldfish
spring
16
c
broadcast
northern redbelly
dace
spring
21-27
broadcast
finescale dace
spring
13-18
lake chub
spring
common carp
c
Comments
c
spawning commences
c
spawning commences
broadcast
c
above 15
broadcast
c
spring
17-28
broadcast
cutlips minnow
spring
n/a
brassy minnow
spring
10-13
broadcast
eastern silvery
minnow
spring
13-21
broadcast
silver chub
spring
19-23
broadcast
hornyhead chub
spring
18-26
nest
golden shiner
spring
20-27
broadcast
pugnose shiner
spring
21-29
broadcast
emerald shiner
spring
20-23
broadcast
c
nest
27
possibly triggered by
temperature fluctuation
commences
Common Name
Season
Temperature
°C
Reproductive
Guild
Comments
bridle shiner
spring
14-26
broadcast
common shiner
spring
14-28
hide
blackchin shiner
spring
n/a
broadcast
blacknose shiner
spring
n/a
broadcast
spottail shiner
spring
18-22
broadcast
rosyface shiner
spring
20-29
broadcast
spotfin shiner
spring
18-29
hide
sand shiner
spring
21
c
broadcast
c
redfin shiner
spring
21
c
broadcast
c
mimic shiner
spring
n/a
broadcast
pugnose minnow*
spring
n/a
broadcast
bluntnose minnow
spring
20-28
nest
fathead minnow
spring
16-29
nest
blacknose dace
spring
12-27
hide
longnose dace
spring
11-24
hide
creek chub
spring
13-27
hide
spring
c
hide
c
c
fallfish
16
c
pearl dace
spring
17-18
broadcast
central stoneroller
spring
12-27
hide
c
striped shiner
spring
15-18
hide
black bullhead
spring
12-25
nest
yellow bullhead
spring
n/a
nest
brown bullhead
spring
14-29
nest
channel catfish
spring
18-29
nest
stonecat
spring
c
25
nest
tadpole madtom
spring
n/a
nest
spring
c
nest
brindled madtom
25
28
commences
commences
*adult habitat
commences
commences
c
commences
c
commences
c
commences
Common Name
Season
Temperature
°C
Reproductive
Guild
banded killifish
spring
21-32
broadcast
burbot
winter
1-10
broadcast
brook stickleback
spring
8-19
nest
threespine
stickleback
spring
10-23
nest
ninespine
stickleback
spring
9-17
nest
fourspine
stickleback
spring
n/a
nest
trout-perch
spring
4-21
broadcast
white perch
spring
11-15
broadcast
white bass
spring
13-26
broadcast
rock bass
spring
14-24
nest
green sunfish
spring
20-28
nest
pumpkinseed
spring
13-29
nest
bluegill
spring
19-27
nest
longear sunfish
spring
22-25
nest
smallmouth bass
spring
13-24
nest
largemouth bass
spring
14-21
nest
white crappie
spring
14-23
nest
black crappie
spring
16-26
nest
warmouth*
spring
21.5
nest
orangespotted
sunfish
spring
18-32
nest
yellow perch
spring
7-22
broadcast
sauger
spring
4-12
broadcast
walleye
spring
4-12
broadcast
eastern sand darter
spring
14-24
broadcast
c
29
Comments
c
commences
*hybridization with bluegill
and pumpkinseed
Common Name
Season
Temperature
°C
Reproductive
Guild
Comments
greenside darter
spring
11-19
hide
rainbow darter
spring
15
c
broadcast
Iowa darter
spring
12-15
broadcast
fantail darter
spring
19-24
hide
least darter
spring
n/a
johnny darter
spring
17-25
logperch
spring
10-15
hide
channel darter
spring
19-22
hide
blackside darter
spring
16
c
hide
c
river darter*
spring
n/a
hide
*similar to blackside and
channel darters
tesselated darter
spring
13-19
nest
brook silverside
spring
20-23
broadcast
freshwater drum
spring
19-22
broadcast
mottled sculpin
spring
6-16
nest
slimy sculpin
spring
5-10
nest
c
commences
broadcast
nest
c
c
c
commences
commences
spoonhead sculpin
fall
4.5
nest
c
deepwater sculpin
winter
11
c
nest
c
rudd*
spring
20-27
broadcast
ruffe
spring
6-18
broadcast
round goby
spring
n/a
nest
tubenose goby
spring
n/a
nest
30
ripe male caught at this
temp.
larvae collected
*hybridizes with golden
shiner
Table 4 Number of species that spawn within each depth stratum.
Water Depth (m)
Present
Not Present
0-1
114
6
1-2
75
45
2-5
38
82
5+
23
97
Table 5 Number of species associated with each substrate and with
cover, by strength of association.
Substrate
Strength of Association
Low
Medium
High
None
Bedrock
0
6
6
108
Boulder
0
13
16
91
Cobble
1
17
26
76
Rubble
4
15
52
49
Gravel
3
21
82
14
Sand
4
25
77
14
Silt
11
32
43
34
Clay
3
8
17
92
Hard-pan Clay
0
6
7
107
Submergent Vegetation
20
16
33
51
Emergent Vegetation
20
13
36
51
Other Cover
N/A
N/A
45
N/A
31
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43
Appendix A
Great Lakes Basin Fish Species List
CODE
Common name
S011
S012
S013
S014
S031
S041
S042
S051
S061
S062
S063
S071
S072
S073
S075
S076
S077
S078
S079
S080
S081
S082
S091
S093
S094
S095
S096
S097
S099
S100
S101
S102
S121
S131
S132
S133
S136
S141
S152
S161
S162
S163
S164
S165
S166
S167
S168
S169
American brook lamprey Lampetra appendix
Northern brook lamprey Ichthyomyzon fossor
Silver lamprey
Ichthyomyzon unicuspis
Sea lamprey
Petromyzon marinus
Lake sturgeon
Acipenser fulvescens
Longnose gar
Lepisosteus osseus
Spotted gar
Lepisosteus oculatus
Bowfin
Amia calva
Alewife
Alosa pseudoharengus
American shad
Alosa sapidissima
Gizzard shad
Dorosoma cepedianum
Pink salmon
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
Chum salmon
Oncorhynchus keta
Coho salmon
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Chinook salmon
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Rainbow trout
Onchorhynchus mykiss
Atlantic salmon
Salmo salar
Brown trout
Salmo trutta
Arctic charr
Salvelinus alpinus
Brook trout
Salvelinus fontinalis
Lake trout
Salvelinus namaycush
Splake
Salvelinus hybrid 080x081
Lake whitefish
Coregonus clupeaformis
Cisco(lake herring)
Coregonus artedi
Bloater
Coregonus hoyi
Deepwater cisco(chub) Coregonus johannae
Kiyi
Coregonus kiyi
Blackfin cisco
Coregonus nigripinnis
Shortnose cisco
Coregonus reighardi
Shortjaw cisco
Coregonus zenithicus
Pygmy whitefish
Prosopium coulteri
Round whitefish
Prosopium cylindraceum
Rainbow smelt
Osmerus mordax
Northern pike
Esox lucius
Muskellunge
Esox masquinongy
Grass pickerel
Esox americanus vermiculatus
Tiger muskellunge
Esox hybrid 131x132
Central mudminnow
Umbra limi
Mooneye
Hiodon tergisus
Quillback
Carpoides cyprinus
Longnose sucker
Catostomus catostomus
White sucker
Catostomus commersoni
Lake chubsucker
Erimyzon sucetta
Northern hog sucker
Hypentelium nigricans
Bigmouth buffalo
Ictiobus cyprinellus
Spotted sucker
Minytrema melanops
Silver redhorse
Moxostoma anisurum
Black redhorse
Moxostoma duquesnei
44
Scientific Name
S170
S171
S172
S173
S181
S182
S183
S184
S185
S186
S187
S188
S189
S190
S191
S192
S193
S194
S195
S196
S197
S198
S199
S200
S201
S202
S203
S204
S205
S206
S207
S208
S209
S210
S211
S212
S213
S214
S215
S216
S217
S218
S231
S232
S233
S234
S235
S236
S237
S244
S251
S261
S262
S271
S281
S282
S283
S284
Golden redhorse
Moxostoma erythrurum
Shorthead redhorse
Moxostoma macrolepidotum
Greater redhorse
Moxostoma valenciennesi
River redhorse
Moxostoma carinatum
Goldfish
Carassius auratus
Northern redbelly dace Phoxinus eos
Finescale dace
Phoxinus neogaeus
Redside dace
Clinostomus elongatus
Lake chub
Couesius plumbeus
Common carp
Cyprinus carpio
Gravel chub
Erimystax x-punctata
Cutlips minnow
Exoglossum maxillingua
Brassy minnow
Hybognathus hankinsoni
Eastern silvery minnow Hybognathus regius
Silver chub
Macrohybopsis storeriana
Hornyhead chub
Nocomis biguttatus
River chub
Nocomis micropogon
Golden shiner
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Pugnose shiner
Notropis anogenus
Emerald shiner
Notropis atherinoides
Bridle shiner
Notropis bifrenatus
Common shiner
Luxilus cornutus
Blackchin shiner
Notropis heterodon
Blacknose shiner
Notropis heterolepis
Spottail shiner
Notropis hudsonius
Rosyface shiner
Notropis rubellus
Spotfin shiner
Cyprinella spiloptera
Sand shiner
Notropis stramineus
Redfin shiner
Lythrurus umbratilis
Mimic shiner
Notropis volucellus
Pugnose minnow
Opsopoeodus emiliae
Bluntnose minnow
Pimephales notatus
Fathead minnow
Pimephales promelas
Blacknose dace
Rhinichthys atratulus
Longnose dace
Rhinichthys cataractae
Creek chub
Semotilus atromaculatus
Fallfish
Semotilus corporalis
Pearl dace
Margariscus margarita
Silver shiner
Notropis photogenis
Stoneroller
Campostoma anomalum
Striped shiner
Luxilus chrysocephalus
Ghost shiner
Notropis buchanani
Black bullhead
Ameiurus melas
Yellow bullhead
Ameiurus natalis
Brown bullhead
Ameiurus nebulosus
Channel catfish
Ictalurus punctatus
Stonecat
Noturus flavus
Tadpole madtom
Noturus gyrinus
Brindled madtom
Noturus miurus
Northern madtom
Noturus stigmosus
American eel
Anguilla rostrata
Banded killifish
Fundulus diaphanus
Blackstripe topminnow Fundulus notatus
Burbot
Lota lota
Brook stickleback
Culaea inconstans
Threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus
Ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius
Fourspine stickleback Apeltes quadracus
45
S291
S301
S302
S311
S312
S313
S314
S315
S316
S317
S318
S319
S323
S324
S331
S332
S334
S335
S336
S337
S338
S339
S340
S341
S342
S343
S344
S345
S346
S361
S371
S381
S382
S383
S384
S601
S220
S355
S366
S367
Trout-perch
White perch
White bass
Rock bass
Green sunfish
Pumpkinseed
Bluegill
Longear sunfish
Smallmouth bass
Largemouth bass
White crappie
Black crappie
Warmouth
Orangespotted sunfish
Yellow perch
Sauger
Walleye
Eastern sand darter
Greenside darter
Rainbow darter
Iowa darter
Fantail darter
Least darter
Johnny darter
Logperch
Channel darter
Blackside darter
River darter
Tessellated darter
Brook silverside
Freshwater drum
Mottled sculpin
Slimy sculpin
Spoonhead sculpin
Deepwater sculpin
CarpxGoldfish
Rudd
Ruffe
Round goby
Tubenose goby
46
Percopsis omiscomaycus
Morone americana
Morone chrysops
Ambloplites rupestris
Lepomis cyanellus
Lepomis gibbosus
Lepomis macrochirus
Lepomis megalotis
Micropterus dolomieu
Micropterus salmoides
Pomoxis annularis
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis humilis
Perca flavescens
Stizostedion canadense
Stizostedion vitreum vitreum
Ammocrypta pellucida
Etheostoma blennioides
Etheostoma caeruleum
Etheostoma exile
Etheostoma flabellare
Etheostoma microperca
Etheostoma nigrum
Percina caprodes
Percina copelandi
Percina maculata
Percina shumardi
Etheostoma olmstedi
Labidesthes sicculus
Aplodinotus grunniens
Cottus bairdi
Cottus cognatus
Cottus ricei
Myoxocephalus thompsoni
Hybrid 181x186
Scardinius erythrophthalmus
Gymnocephalus cernuus
Neogobius melanostomus
Proterorhinus marmoratus
APPENDIX B
Riverine spawners
Common Name
References
American brook
lamprey
1, 78, 132
northern brook
lamprey
1, 78, 92
silver lamprey
1, 78
sea lamprey
1, 47, 78
American shad
77
pink salmon
20, 47, 71
chum salmon
11
coho salmon
47
chinook salmon
18, 47
mooneye
1, 47, 141
black redhorse
10, 47, 72, 108
golden redhorse
23, 47, 72
river redhorse
106
redside dace
86, 113
river chub
26, 47, 83
silver shiner
86
ghost shiner
5, 55
northern madtom
45, 126
blackstripe
topminnow
85
47
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