Nursery Habitat Characteristics of Great Lakes Fishes J.A. Lane , C.B. Portt

Nursery Habitat Characteristics of Great Lakes Fishes J.A. Lane , C.B. Portt
Nursery Habitat Characteristics of Great Lakes Fishes
J.A. Lane1, C.B. Portt1 and C.K. Minns2
1. C. Portt and Associates, 56 Waterloo Avenue, Guelph, Ontario,
Canada N1H 3H5
2. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Great Lakes Laboratory for
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Bayfield Institute, 867 Lakeshore
Road, PO Box 5000, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 Canada
January 1996
Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and
Aquatic Sciences No. 2338
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CANADIAN MANUSCRIPT REPORT
OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES 2338
NURSERY HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF
GREAT LAKES FISHES
by
1
1
J.A. Lane , C.B. Portt and C.K. Minns
2
1. C. Portt and Associates, 56 Waterloo Avenue, Guelph, Ontario, N1H 3H5
2. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences, Bayfield Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, PO Box 5000, Burlington, Ontario, L7R
4A6 Canada
 Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1996
Cat No. FS97-4/2338 ISSN 0707-6473
Correct citation of this publication:
Lane, P.A., C.B. Portt and C.K. Minns. 1996. Nursery habitat characteristics of Great
Lakes fishes. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2338:v+42p.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES AND APPENDICES ................................................................................iv
ABSTRACT/RÉSUMÉ......................................................................................................…...v
1.0 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 1
2.0 METHODS ............................................................................................................................. 2
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ............................................................................................. 3
4.0 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 28
Appendix A Great Lakes Basin Fish Species List ....................................................................... 39
Appendix B Riverine Species. ..................................................................................................... 42
iii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Depth strata utilized and strength of association with vegetation by young-of-theyear fishes. Presence within a depth stratum is indicated according to season:
spring = spring-early summer, fall = late summer-fall and year = no indication of
seasonal differences. A dash (-) indicates that no information was found to
indicate that the species utilizes a particular depth stratum, or vegetation type. For
species marked with an asterisk (*), inferences have been drawn, the bases for
which are provided in the 'Comments' column. A c indicates additional
information is given, also in the 'Comments' column. ...................................................... 8
Table 2 Strength of association with substrate types and the importance of lake (versus
stream) habitat for young-of-the-year of Great Lakes fishes. A dash (-) indicates
that no information was found to indicate that the species utilizes a particular
substrate type. For species marked with an asterisk (*) inferences about
relationships have been made, the basis for which are provided in Table 1..................... 18
Table 3 Number of species occurring within each depth stratum, by season. ............................. 27
Table 4 Number of species associated with each substrate and with submergent and
emergent aquatic vegetation, by strength of association............................................................... 27
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix A Great Lakes Basin Fish Species List ....................................................................... 39
Appendix B Riverine Species. ..................................................................................................... 42
iv
ABSTRACT
Lane, J.A., C.B. Portt and C.K. Minns. 1995. Nursery habitat requirements of Great Lakes fishes.
Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2338.
An extensive review of the literature was performed to compile knowledge of nursery habitat
characteristics of Great Lakes fishes. Water depth, substrate and aquatic vegetation were the
three characteristics considered. Seasonal shifts in habitat were also documented. The literature
indicates that most species resident in the Great Lakes basin spend at least part of their first year
of life in lentic habitats. Young-of-the-year of the majority of these species inhabit habitats less
than two metres deep during at least part of the year. Most species were associated with a variety
of substrates in their first year of life, but sand and silt were the most commonly used.
Vegetation, particulary submergent vegetation, was also an important factor. The combination of
these characteristics emphasizes the importance of wetlands, and other relatively low energy
near-shore environments, for nursery habitat. This is in contrast to areas of bedrock and hard-pan
clay, which are used by few species.
RÉSUMÉ
Lane, J.A., C.B. Portt et C.K. Minns. 1995. Besoins des poisons des Grands Lacs en matière de
zones d’alevinage. Rapport manuscript canadien des sciences halieutiques et aquatiques. 2338
Une vaste étude des ouvrages publiés a été effectuée dans le but de recueillir des données sur les
caractéristiques des zones d’alevinage des poissons des Grands Lacs. L’étude a porté sur trois
caractéristiques, soit la profondeur des cours d’eau, le substrat et la végétation aquatique. Des
données ont aussi été recueillies sur l’effet des changements saisonniers sur les habitats. L’étude
révèle que la majorité des espèces qui habitent le basin des Grands Lacs passent la première
année de leur vie dans des habitats lénitiques. Chez la plupart de ces espèces, les jeunes passent
au moins une partie de leur première année dans un habitat de moins de deux mètres de
profondeur. Bien que la plupart de ces espèces vivent dans des substrats durant leur première
année, elles trouvent le plus souvent refuge dans le sable et l’argile des limons. La végétation,
surtout partiellement submergée, représente aussi un facteur important. La somme de ces
caractéristiques souligne l’importance, pour les zones d’alevinage, des terres humides et autres
milieux à faible énergie situés près des rives. En revanche, très peu d’espèces vivent dans les
secteurs caractérisés par la roche en place et l’argile dure.
v
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The guiding principle of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans 'Policy for the
Management of Fish Habitat' (DFO, 1986) is 'NO NET LOSS OF THE PRODUCTIVE
CAPACITY OF HABITATS', and development proposals are to be evaluated on the basis of pre
and post-development fish production. In the scientific literature, fish production is usually defined
as the total elaboration of fish tissue in a unit of time, regardless of whether or not the tissue is alive
at the end of the time period (Ricker 1946; Balon, 1974). Production is typically calculated on a
species by species basis, and the values for individual species are summed to determine total fish
production (e.g. Mahon and Balon, 1977; Portt et al, 1986). The calculation of production requires
detailed knowledge of fish populations (abundance, growth and mortality rates) which are rarely
available. Measurement of the types and quantities of habitats available, and knowledge of the
relationships between these habitats and fish populations and communities, can provide a practical
surrogate for fish productivity (Minns et al, 1995).
Minns et al (1995) have proposed a methodology for evaluating development proposals at
the fish community level. Their method requires knowledge of the habitat requirements at the
various life stages. To date, this methodology encompasses spawning and adult habitat only. The
nearshore areas of the Great Lakes are recognized as providing critical nursery habitat for most of
the fish species present. One of the recommendations of Minns et al. (1995) was to develop a
model incorporating young-of-the-year habitat characteristics.
Toward this end, this report
summarizes water depth, substrate and aquatic vegetation characteristics of young-of-the-year
habitats for species resident in the Great Lakes.
1
2.0 METHODS
The information presented in this report was acquired principally through an extensive
review of the literature. Two computer databases, Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (1978March 1995) and Waves (1970-June 1995), were searched and the relevant publications were
examined. Secondary sources were relied upon for summaries of earlier literature.
The Great Lakes basin provides suitable habitat for both lake and river-dwelling fishes.
This report is concerned only with those that utilize the lakes at some time during their first year of
life. The mouths of streams tributary to the lakes, and river deltas, where water velocities are low,
often resemble lentic habitats, and were treated as such.
Three habitat characteristics are considered:
water depth (0-1, 1-2, 2-5, 5+ metres),
substrate (bedrock, boulder, boulder + cobble, rubble, gravel, sand, silt, clay, hard-pan clay) and
structure (submergent vegetation, emergent vegetation and other). If detritus was mentioned as a
substrate type in the literature, it was included with silt in the tables.
Seasonal changes in use of depth strata are identified, if well documented in the literature.
'Spring', 'fall' and 'year' indicate presence of a species at a given depth in spring-early summer, late
summer-fall, and year-round respectively. The strength of the association with vegetation or other
structure was estimated, based on available documentation. For the purposes of this report 'high'
indicates a species is nearly always associated with, 'medium' indicates a species is frequently
associated with, and 'low' indicates a species is infrequently encountered in emergent and/or
submergent vegetation. A dash (-) is used when no information has been found to indicate that a
species utilizes vegetation. This information is presented in Table 1.
2
As with vegetation, the strength of association with each substrate category (low, medium,
high) was estimated. Similarly, for each species, an index of the utilization of lake, as compared
with stream, habitat was prepared.
Table 2 contains the information for both of these
characteristics.
Literature which dealt specifically with young-of-the-year fish habitat was unavailable for
several species. In some cases, relationships were inferred using associations with other phases of
the life cycle. Thus, if spawning, and adult fish habitat were similar, the assumption was made that
young-of-the-year fish habitat was comparable. In other cases, hybridization provided information
from which inferences could be drawn. Species for which habitat preferences were inferred are
marked with an asterisk (*) in the accompanying tables and the basis for the inference is noted in
the 'Comments' column.
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A total of 142 species, and three hybrids, were initially considered, based on the distribution
information in Mandrak and Crossman (1992), and information on recently discovered exotics
(Appendix A). Three of these species are considered extirpated from the Great Lakes (deepwater
cisco, Coregonus johannae [Parker, 1989a]; blackfin cisco, Coregonus nigripinnis [Parker, 1989b];
gravel chub, Erimystax x-punctata [Holm, pers. comm.]). The American eel (Anguilla rostrata), is
marine during its first year (Heffman et al., 1987). These four species were eliminated from the list.
The three hybrids were also eliminated because they are either stocked (splake, Salvelinus
fontinalis x S. namaycush) or, if naturally reproducing, young-of-the-year occur in the same habitat
3
as the parent species (tiger muskellunge, Esox lucius x E. masquinongy; carp x goldfish, Cyprinus
carpio x Carassius auratus). Information on nursery habitat was obtained, or inferred, for 137 of
the remaining 138 species. No information was located for the rudd (Scardinius erythrothalmus), a
recent introduction to the Great Lakes.
The majority of fish species residing in the Great Lakes basin have populations which spend
at least part of their first year in the lake environment. Even primarily riverine species (e.g.
lampreys, Family: Petromyzontidae) have populations that are found in the lakes (Morman, 1979;
Lee, 1989). In all, 59 species occur primarily, if not exclusively, in lake habitats during their first
year of life. Young-of-the-year of 30 species are commonly found in both lakes and streams, while
those of another 38 species are most often found in streams, but have been reported from lake
habitats. The ten species listed in Appendix B, based on the available information, spend their first
year of life exclusively in riverine habitats. One of these species, the northern madtom (Noturus
stigmosus) occurs in both the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, and probably occurs in lake habitats, but
its presence has not been confirmed (Jude, pers. comm.).
Specific information regarding nursery habitat was available for 102 of the 127 species
which are known to spend at least a portion of their first year of life in the Great Lakes. For 25
species, habitat characteristics were inferred from other associations as mentioned above. This
information is presented in Tables 1 and 2.
Young-of-the-year of most species occur in water depths of 2 metres or less (Table 3), with
some exceptions.
For example, the spoonhead and deepwater sculpins (Cottus ricei,
Myoxocephalus thompsoni), and the deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus johannae, C. nigripinnis, C.
4
reighardi, C. zenithicus) migrate to shallower waters to spawn, their young-of-the-year are seldom
found at depths of less than 5 metres (Becker, 1983; Scott and Crossman, 1973). The lampreys
normally spend their larval phase in shallow streams. When the larvae are found in lakes, however,
they are at depths greater than 3 metres, where water movement does not agitate the substrate and
interfere with their burrowing habit (Morman, 1979; Lee, 1989).
Young-of-the-year bass (Micropterus spp.), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and lake
whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) are found in shallow water in spring and summer where an
abundant food supply exists and the water is warm. With the onset of cooler temperatures these
young fish move to deeper waters to overwinter (Goodyear et al., 1982; Reckahn, 1970). Similar
movements are probably undertaken by other species, but are undocumented.
Most species occur in association with a variety of substrates (Table 2), but more species
utilize areas of sand and silt than any other type (Table 4). This relationship may reflect, in part, the
strong affinity which young-of-the-year of many species have for aquatic vegetation (Table 4).
Plant material provides protection from predators as well as harbouring prey (Herdendorf et al.,
1986; Becker, 1983). The shallow coastal marshes and wetlands of the lakes are thus prime habitat
for young-of-the-year fish, and the substrates within these habitats are mainly sand and silt (Leslie
and Timmins, 1993). Areas of gravel substrate also provide nursery habitat for many species. In
some cases, occurrence in these areas reflects young-of-the-year fish remaining near the spawning
bed for a time after hatching. Also, some species that are not typically lake inhabitants are found in
area of gravel substrate at the mouths of tributary streams, as a result of downstream drift or early
migration (Carl, 1984; Becker, 1983). Examples include some of the redhorse species (Moxostoma
5
spp.; Becker, 1983), and salmonid fry (Oncorhynchus spp.; Carl, 1984). Other substrate types in
which young-of-the-year fish are commonly found are boulder, cobble and rubble, the crevices of
which provide suitable cover. Few fishes use bedrock or hard-pan clay as nursery habitat.
The information assembled in this report illustrates the importance of the Great Lakes
littoral zone as habitat for young-of-the-year fishes.
In particular, vegetated areas and their
corresponding substrate provide abundant food and protection for this life phase. All of the
substrate types considered, however, were used by some species.
While certain conclusions regarding the utilization of various habitats can be drawn from
the information compiled, its limitations must be noted. Our assessment of the relative significance
of particular habitats to individual species was necessarily subjective. Much of the information was
derived from studies in which specific habitats, rather than a range, were sampled. Undoubtedly,
some habitats which are difficult to sample with traditional gear (e.g. boulders) have received less
attention than others for which this equipment is better suited. As indicated, documentation dealing
specifically with nursery habitats was not available for several species. Clearly, there is a need to
acquire this information. These limitations notwithstanding, the data contained in this report are
useful in assessing the relative significance of various habitats to young-of-the-year fishes,
particularly when applied at the guild or community level.
6
Acknowledgements
We gratefully acknowledge the constructive comments provided by E. Holm, Royal Ontario
Museum; D.J. Jude, University of Michigan; J.K. Leslie and R.G. Randall, Dept. of Fisheries and
Oceans; S. Nepszy and A. Mathers, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.
7
Table 1 Depth strata utilized and strength of association with vegetation by young-of-the-year fishes. Presence within a depth stratum is indicated according to season:
spring = spring-early summer, fall = late summer-fall and year = no indication of seasonal differences. A dash (-) indicates that no information was found to indicate
that the species utilizes a particular depth stratum, or vegetation type. For species marked with an asterisk (*), inferences have been drawn, the bases for which are
c
provided in the 'Comments' column. A indicates additional information is given, also in the 'Comments' column.
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
Comments
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Emergent
american brook lamprey
-
-
year
year
low
low
68, 88
northern brook lamprey
-
-
year
year
low
low
68, 88
silver lamprey
-
-
year
year
low
low
68, 88
sea lamprey
-
-
year
year
low
low
68, 88
lake sturgeon
-
-
year
year
low
low
39, 44, 51, 50,
117, 118
longnose gar
spring
fall
-
-
high
-
39, 118
spotted gar
spring
fall
-
-
high
high
39, 100
bowfin
spring
fall
-
-
high
-
39, 53, 118
open water when
accompanied by male
alewife
spring
spring
year
year
low
-
39, 45, 112, 118,
123
-function of upwelling
year
year
fall
-
high
-
12, 39, 108, 123,
125
gizzard shad
c
8
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
Comments
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Emergent
pink salmon
-
-
year
year
-
-
64, 66, 118
coho salmon
spring
spring
fall
fall
-
-
39, 41, 64, 118
chinook salmon
spring
spring
fall
-
-
-
7, 15, 37, 39, 64
rainbow trout
spring
spring
fall
-
low
-
3, 10, 23, 39, 123
use log jams for cover
brown trout*
spring
spring
-
fall
-
-
3, 39, 118
*brook trout habitat
arctic charr*
year
year
-
-
-
-
4, 56
brook trout
year
year
year
-
-
-
39, 110
-
spring
year
year
-
-
27, 39, 76, 89
lake whitefish
spring
spring
year
year
-
low
cisco
spring
spring
fall
fall
low
-
17, 29, 39, 119
bloater
-
-
-
year
-
-
39, 129
kiyi*
-
-
-
year
-
-
39, 46
*adult habitat
shortnose cisco*
-
-
-
year
-
-
39, 95
*adult habitat
shortjaw cisco*
-
-
-
year
-
-
39, 52
*adult habitat
pygmy whitefish
-
-
spring
fall
-
-
28, 39
lake trout
9
use log jams for cover
*riverine habitat
8, 29, 39, 72, 112
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Emergent
round whitefish
-
spring
spring
year
-
-
29, 39, 93
rainbow smelt
-
spring
spring
fall
-
-
29, 39, 70, 94,
118
northern pike
spring
spring
fall
-
high
-
39, 74, 123
muskellunge
year
year
-
-
high
-
19, 24, 25, 26,39
grass pickerel
year
year
-
-
high
high
26, 37, 39
central mudminnow
year
year
-
-
-
high
39, 123
mooneye*
-
-
year
year
-
-
7, 32, 118, 128
quillback
year
year
-
-
medium
-
38. 39
longnose sucker
year
year
-
-
high
-
36, 39
white sucker
year
year
year
-
high
-
2, 39, 79, 123
lake chubsucker
year
year
-
-
high
high
39, 69
northern hogsucker
year
year
-
-
high
-
1, 7, 39
c
c
10
Comments
caught at surface over
deep water
taken at surface
*adult habitat, stomach
contents
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
Comments
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Emergent
bigmouth buffalo
year
year
-
-
medium
-
14, 33, 39
spotted sucker*
year
year
-
-
high
-
7, 101
*feeding habits, adult
habitat
silver redhorse*
year
year
-
-
-
high
7, 39
*adult habitat, other
redhorse species
black redhorse
year
year
-
-
-
high
13, 39
golden redhorse
year
year
-
-
high
-
1, 118
shorthead redhorse*
year
year
-
-
-
-
7, 39
*adult habitat, other
redhorse species
greater redhorse*
year
year
-
-
-
-
7, 39
*adult habitat, other
redhorse species
goldfish
year
year
-
-
-
high
39, 69
northern redbelly dace*
year
year
-
-
-
-
55, 122
finescale dace
year
year
-
-
-
-
122
lake chub
year
year
-
-
-
-
7, 39, 69
common carp
year
year
-
-
high
high
11
16, 39, 123
*hybridization with
finescale dace
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
Comments
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Emergent
cutlips minnow*
year
year
-
-
-
-
118
*adult habitat
brassy minnow*
year
year
-
-
medium
-
7
*adult habitat
eastern silvery minnow *
year
year
-
-
-
medium
7
*adult habitat
-
-
-
year
low
-
7
golden shiner
year
year
-
-
high
high
18, 39, 123
pugnose shiner
year
year
-
-
high
high
39, 71, 103
emerald shiner
spring
spring
fall
-
medium
medium
bridle shiner
year
year
-
-
low
-
common shiner
year
year
-
-
medium
medium
blackchin shiner
year
year
-
-
high
-
39, 60
blacknose shiner
year
year
-
-
high
high
39, 69
spottail shiner
year
year
year
year
high
high
16, 39, 112, 123
rosyface shiner*
year
year
-
-
-
low
7, 69, 113
spotfin shiner
year
year
-
-
low
-
sand shiner
year
year
-
-
medium
medium
silver chub
12
39, 57, 71, 123
also captured in open
water
7, 39
16, 39, 123
1, 7
39, 69
*adult habitat
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
Comments
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Emergent
redfin shiner
year
year
-
-
high
high
81, 91, 118
mimic shiner
year
year
year
-
high
high
1, 16, 39, 71,
pugnose minnow
year
year
-
-
high
high
39, 104
bluntnose minnow
year
year
-
-
medium
medium
16, 39, 123
fathead minnow
year
year
-
-
medium
medium
39, 111, 123
blacknose dace
year
year
-
-
-
-
longnose dace
year
year
-
-
low
low
creek chub
year
year
-
-
medium
-
fallfish
year
year
-
-
low
low
39, 118
pearl dace*
year
year
-
-
low
low
7, 118
*adult habitat
stoneroller*
year
year
-
-
medium
medium
7, 69, 82
*adult habitat
striped shiner
spring
spring
fall
fall
-
medium
7, 34, 69
black bullhead
year
year
-
-
-
medium
7, 39
yellow bullhead
year
year
-
-
high
high
7, 39
brown bullhead
year
year
-
-
high
high
16, 39, 123
13
7, 39
1, 39, 118
pelagic, then benthic
1, 2, 39, 123
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Emergent
-
-
spring
fall
low
low
39, 118
stonecat
year
year
-
-
low
low
1, 39
tadpole madtom
year
year
-
-
high
high
1, 39
brindled madtom*
year
year
-
-
-
high
39, 102
banded killifish
year
year
year
-
high
high
16, 39, 60
burbot
spring
spring
spring
fall
-
-
17, 29, 39, 80
brook stickleback
spring
spring
fall
fall
medium
-
39, 131
threespine stickleback
spring
spring
fall
fall
low
-
39, 131
ninespine stickleback
spring
spring
fall
fall
medium
-
39, 131
fourspine stickleback*
spring
spring
fall
fall
medium
-
48
trout-perch
spring
spring
fall
-
-
-
16, 39
white perch
spring
spring
spring
fall
medium
-
39, 71, 72, 121,
123
white bass
year
year
year
-
medium
-
39, 69
channel catfish
14
Comments
* spawning and
hybridization with
tadpole madtom
*adult habitat, other
stickleback species
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
Comments
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Emergent
rock bass
year
year
year
-
high
-
green sunfish
year
year
-
-
high
high
39, 67
pumpkinseed
year
year
-
-
high
high
18, ,39, 123
bluegill
year
year
-
spring
high
high
18, 39
pelagic 6-7 weeks, then
littoral
longear sunfish*
year
year
-
-
medium
medium
7, 118
*hybridizes with other
Lepomis spp.
smallmouth bass
spring
spring
fall
fall
-
-
largemouth bass
year
year
fall
-
high
high
7, 16, 39
white crappie
spring
spring
fall
-
high
high
7, 14, 39, 118
black crappie
year
year
year
-
high
high
7, 16, 18, 39, 108
123
warmouth*
year
year
-
-
high
high
7,118
*hybridizes with other
Lepomis spp.
orangespotted sunfish*
year
year
-
-
high
-
7, 92, 108
*hybridizes with other
Lepomis spp.
spring
spring
spring
fall
medium
medium
16, 39, 123, 130
overwinter here, also
yellow perch
c
c
15
31, 39, 123
31, 39, 90, 116,
118
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Comments
Emergent
pelagic 4-5 weeks
sauger
-
spring
spring
fall
-
-
7, 39, 118
walleye
spring
spring
spring
fall
low
low
39, 75, 114
eastern sand darter
year
year
year
year
low
low
50, 118
greenside darter
year
year
-
-
medium
-
7, 39, 118
rainbow darter
year
year
-
-
-
-
7, 39, 69
Iowa darter
year
year
year
-
medium
-
39, 73
fantail darter
year
year
-
-
medium
-
7, 39
least darter
year
year
-
-
high
-
7, 65
johnny darter
year
year
year
-
medium
-
16, 39, 73, 123
spring
spring
-
fall
medium
medium
39, 69
channel darter
year
year
year
year
low
-
7, 39
blackside darter
year
year
-
-
medium
medium
1, 7
river darter*
year
year
-
-
-
-
7
tesselated darter*
year
year
year
-
medium
-
16, 39, 73, 123
logperch
16
*adult habitat
*hybridizes with johnny
darter
Water Depth (m)
Vegetation
Common Name
References
0-1
1-2
2-5
5+
Submergent
Emergent
brook silverside
year
year
-
spring
low
-
freshwater drum
-
-
year
year
medium
medium
mottled sculpin
year
year
-
year
low
low
slimy sculpin
year
year
-
year
-
spoonhead sculpin*
-
-
-
year
deepwater sculpin
-
-
-
ruffe
-
spring
round goby
spring
tubenose goby
spring
c
39, 70, 118
Comments
yoy at surface over deep
water
7, 14, 39
7, 39, 57, 73
uses rocks, logs for cover
-
7, 39, 118
uses rocks, logs for cover
-
-
7, 39
year
-
-
29, 63, 80
spring
fall
-
-
30, 40, 84, 120
spring
fall
fall
medium
-
57
associated with available
cover
spring
fall
fall
medium
-
57
associated with available
cover
17
*adult habitat
Table 2 Strength of association with substrate types and the importance of lake (versus stream) habitat for young-of-the-year of Great Lakes fishes. A dash (-)
indicates that no information was found to indicate that the species utilizes a particular substrate type. For species marked with an asterisk (*) inferences about
relationships have been made, the basis for which are provided in Table 1.
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
american brook lamprey
-
-
-
-
northern brook lamprey
-
-
-
silver lamprey
-
-
sea lamprey
-
lake sturgeon
Gravel
References
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
medium
high
high
-
-
low
68, 88
-
medium
high
high
-
-
low
68, 88
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
low
68, 88
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
low
68, 88
-
-
-
medium
medium
high
high
-
-
medium
39, 44, 51, 61, 117,
118
longnose gar
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
39, 118
spotted gar
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
high
39, 100
bowfin
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
39, 53, 118
alewife
-
-
-
high
high
high
high
high
-
high
39, 112, 118, 123
gizzard shad
-
-
-
low
low
low
high
-
-
high
12, 39, 123, 125
pink salmon
-
high
medium
medium
-
-
-
-
-
low
64, 66, 118
18
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
References
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
coho salmon
-
high
-
-
-
medium
-
-
-
low
39, 41, 57, 64, 118
chinook salmon
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
low
7, 15, 37, 39, 64
rainbow trout
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
low
3, 10, 23, 39, 123
brown trout*
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
-
low
3, 39, 118
arctic charr*
-
high
high
medium
-
-
-
-
-
medium
4, 56
brook trout*
-
-
-
high
high
high
medium
-
-
low
39, 110
lake trout
-
medium
high
high
high
medium
low
-
-
high
27, 39, 58, 76, 89, 107
lake whitefish
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
-
high
8, 29, 39, 112
cisco
-
medium
high
high
medium
low
-
-
-
high
17, 29, 39, 119
bloater
-
-
high
-
-
high
-
high
-
high
39, 129
kiyi*
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
high
39, 46
shortnose cisco*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
high
39, 95
shortjaw cisco*
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
high
39, 52
pygmy whitefish
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
-
high
28, 39
19
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
References
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
round whitefish
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
high
29, 39, 93
rainbow smelt
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
high
29, 39, 94, 118
northern pike
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
high
39, 74, 123
muskellunge
-
-
-
-
-
medium
high
-
-
high
19, 24, 25, 26,39
grass pickerel
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
high
26, 37, 39
central mudminnow
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
medium
39, 123
mooneye*
-
-
-
-
medium
high
low
-
-
medium
7, 32, 118, 128
quillback
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
medium
38, 39
longnose sucker
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
-
medium
36, 39
white sucker
-
-
low
low
-
high
medium
-
-
low
2, 39, 79, 123
lake chubsucker
-
-
-
-
-
medium
high
medium
-
high
39, 69
northern hogsucker
-
-
low
low
medium
high
high
-
-
low
1, 7, 39
bigmouth buffalo
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
medium
14, 33, 39
spotted sucker
-
-
-
-
-
medium
-
-
-
low
7, 101
20
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
References
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
silver redhorse
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
low
7, 39
black redhorse
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
low
13, 39
golden redhorse
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
low
shorthead redhorse*
-
-
-
-
medium
high
-
-
-
low
7, 39
medium
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
low
7, 39
goldfish
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
high
39, 69
northern redbelly dace*
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
medium
55, 122
finescale dace
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
medium
122
lake chub
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
high
7, 39, 69
common carp
-
-
-
high
high
high
high
high
-
high
16, 39, 123
cutlips minnow*
-
-
-
-
high
medium
-
-
-
low
118
brassy minnow*
-
-
-
low
medium
high
high
-
-
low
7
eastern silvery minnow
-
-
-
-
medium
medium
medium
-
-
low
7
silver chub
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
medium
7, 39
greater redhorse*
21
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
References
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
golden shiner
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
18, 39, 123
pugnose shiner
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
high
39, 71, 103
emerald shiner
-
-
-
high
-
high
high
high
-
high
39, 71, 123
bridle shiner
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
medium
7, 39
common shiner
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
low
16, 39, 123
blackchin shiner
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
medium
39, 60
blacknose shiner
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
high
39, 69
spottail shiner
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
high
16, 39, 112, 123
rosyface shiner*
-
-
-
low
low
medium
medium
medium
-
low
7, 69, 113
spotfin shiner
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
medium
1, 7
sand shiner
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
medium
39, 69
redfin shiner
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
medium
-
low
81, 91, 118
mimic shiner
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
high
1, 16, 39, 71
pugnose minnow
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
39, 104
22
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
References
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
bluntnose minnow
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
16, 39, 123
fathead minnow
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
39, 123, 111
blacknose dace
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
low
7, 39
longnose dace
-
-
-
medium
medium
high
high
-
-
medium
1, 39
creek chub
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
medium
1, 2, 39, 123
fallfish
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
low
39, 118
pearl dace*
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
low
7, 118
stoneroller
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
high
-
low
7, 69, 82
striped shiner
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
medium
7, 34, 69
black bullhead
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
7, 39
yellow bullhead
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
high
7, 39
brown bullhead
-
-
-
high
high
high
medium
-
-
high
16, 39, 123
channel catfish
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
-
-
medium
39
stonecat
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
-
medium
1, 39
23
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
References
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
tadpole madtom
-
low
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
low
1, 39
brindled madtom*
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
low
39, 102
banded killifish
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
high
16, 36, 60
burbot
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
-
high
17, 29, 36, 80
brook stickleback
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
-
-
medium
39, 131
threespine stickleback
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
-
-
high
39, 131
ninespine stickleback
-
-
-
high
-
-
-
-
-
high
39, 131
fourspine stickleback*
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
-
low
48
trout-perch
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
medium
16, 39
white perch
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
medium
-
high
39, 71, 121, 123
white bass
-
-
-
high
high
high
medium
medium
medium
high
39, 69
rock bass
-
-
-
medium
high
-
high
-
-
high
31, 39, 123
green sunfish
-
-
-
-
-
medium
high
-
-
high
39, 67
pumpkinseed
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
19, 39, 123
24
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
References
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
bluegill
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
18, 39
longear sunfish*
-
-
low
high
high
medium
-
-
-
low
7, 118
smallmouth bass
medium
high
high
high
medium
medium
low
-
-
high
31, 39, 90, 116, 118
largemouth bass
-
-
-
-
-
medium
high
-
-
high
7, 16, 39
white crappie
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
medium
7, 14, 39, 118
black crappie
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
7, 16, 18, 39, 123
warmouth*
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
-
-
medium
7, 118
orangespotted sunfish*
-
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
medium
7, 92
yellow perch
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
high
16, 39, 123, 130
sauger
-
-
-
-
high
high
low
-
-
high
7, 39, 118
walleye
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
-
high
high
39, 75, 114
eastern sand darter
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
-
low
50
greenside darter
-
high
high
high
-
-
-
-
-
low
7, 39, 118
rainbow darter
-
-
-
high
high
low
-
-
-
low
7, 39, 69
25
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
References
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
Iowa darter
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
medium
39, 73
fantail darter
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
low
7, 39
least darter
-
-
-
-
medium
high
high
low
-
medium
7, 65
johnny darter
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
high
16, 39, 73, 123
logperch
-
-
-
medium
high
high
medium
low
-
medium
39, 69
channel darter
-
-
-
-
high
high
medium
-
-
medium
7, 39,118
blackside darter
-
-
-
-
high
high
low
-
-
low
1, 7
river darter*
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
-
medium
7
tesselated darter*
-
-
-
-
high
high
high
-
-
high
16, 39, 73, 118, 123
brook silverside
-
-
-
-
high
high
-
medium
-
high
39, 118
freshwater drum
low
-
-
-
medium
high
medium
medium
-
high
7, 14, 39
mottled sculpin
-
high
high
high
medium
medium
-
-
-
medium
7, 39, 73
slimy sculpin
-
high
high
medium
medium
medium
-
-
high
medium
7, 39, 118
spoonhead sculpin
-
high
high
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
7, 39
26
Common Name
Lake
Presence
Substrate
References
Bedrock
Boulder
Boulder
-Cobble
Rubble
Gravel
Sand
Silt
Clay
Hard-pan
Clay
deepwater sculpin
-
high
high
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
29, 63, 80
ruffe
-
-
-
-
-
-
high
-
-
high
30, 40, 84, 120
round goby
-
high
high
high
high
medium
-
medium
-
high
57
tubenose goby
-
high
high
high
high
medium
-
medium
-
high
57
27
Table 3 Number of species occurring within each depth stratum, by season.
Water depth (m)
Spring
Fall
Year
Not present
0-1
27
0
78
22
1-2
29
3
78
17
2-5
10
18
24
75
5+
2
21
24
80
Table 4 Number of species associated with each substrate and with submergent and emergent aquatic vegetation, by strength of
association.
Occurrence
Substrate
Low
Medium
High
Not Found (-)
Bedrock
1
2
0
124
Boulder
1
2
11
113
Boulder-Cobble
3
2
12
110
Rubble
5
9
19
94
Gravel
2
25
43
57
Sand
3
17
84
23
Silt
5
15
65
42
Clay
2
14
10
101
Hard-pan Clay
0
1
2
124
Submergent Vegetation
22
27
36
42
Emergent Vegetation
15
14
27
71
28
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40
Appendix A
Great Lakes Basin Fish Species List
CODE
Common name
Scientific Name
S011
S012
S013
S014
S031
S041
S042
S051
S061
S062
S063
S071
S072
S073
S075
S076
S077
S078
S079
S080
S081
S082
S091
S093
S094
S095
S096
S097
S099
S100
S101
S102
S121
S131
S132
S133
S136
S141
S152
S161
S162
S163
S164
S165
S166
S167
American brook lamprey
Northern brook lamprey
Silver lamprey
Sea lamprey
Lake sturgeon
Longnose gar
Spotted gar
Bowfin
Alewife
American shad
Gizzard shad
Pink salmon
Chum salmon
Coho salmon
Chinook salmon
Rainbow trout
Atlantic salmon(l)
Brown trout
Arctic charr
Brook trout
Lake trout
Splake
Lake whitefish
Cisco(lake herring)
Bloater
Deepwater cisco(chub)
Kiyi
Blackfin cisco
Shortnose cisco
Shortjaw cisco
Pygmy whitefish
Round whitefish
Rainbow smelt
Northern pike
Muskellunge
Grass pickerel
Tiger muskellunge
Central mudminnow
Mooneye
Quillback
Longnose sucker
White sucker
Lake chubsucker
Northern hog sucker
Bigmouth buffalo
Spotted sucker
Lampetra appendix
Ichthyomyzon fossor
Ichthyomyzon unicuspis
Petromyzon marinus
Acipenser fulvescens
Lepisosteus osseus
Lepisosteus oculatus
Amia calva
Alosa pseudoharengus
Alosa sapidissima
Dorosoma cepedianum
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
Oncorhynchus keta
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Onchorhynchus mykiss
Salmo salar
Salmo trutta
Salvelinus alpinus
Salvelinus fontinalis
Salvelinus namaycush
Salvelinus hybrid 080x081
Coregonus clupeaformis
Coregonus artedii
Coregonus hoyi
Coregonus johannae
Coregonus kiyi
Coregonus nigripinnis
Coregonus reighardi
Coregonus zenithicus
Prosopium coulteri
Prosopium cylindraceum
Osmerus mordax
Esox lucius
Esox masquinongy
Esox americanus vermiculatus
Esox hybrid 131x132
Umbra limi
Hiodon tergisus
Carpoides cyprinus
Catostomus catostomus
Catostomus commersoni
Erimyzon sucetta
ypentelium nigricans
Ictiobus cyprinellus
Minytrema melanops
41
S168
S169
S170
S171
S172
S173
S181
S182
S183
S184
S185
S186
S187
S188
S189
S190
S191
S192
S193
S194
S195
S196
S197
S198
S199
S200
S201
S202
S203
S204
S205
S206
S207
S208
S209
S210
S211
S212
S213
S214
S215
S216
S217
S218
S231
S232
S233
S234
S235
S236
S237
S244
S251
S261
Silver redhorse
Black redhorse
Golden redhorse
Shorthead redhorse
Greater redhorse
River redhorse
Goldfish
Northern redbelly dace
Finescale dace
Redside dace
Lake chub
Common carp
Gravel chub
Cutlips minnow
Brassy minnow
Eastern silvery minnow
Silver chub
Hornyhead chub
River chub
Golden shiner
Pugnose shiner
Emerald shiner
Bridle shiner
Common shiner
Blackchin shiner
Blacknose shiner
Spottail shiner
Rosyface shiner
Spotfin shiner
Sand shiner
Redfin shiner
Mimic shiner
Pugnose minnow
Bluntnose minnow
Fathead minnow
Blacknose dace
Longnose dace
Creek chub
Fallfish
Pearl dace
Silver shiner
Stoneroller
Striped shiner
Ghost shiner
Black bullhead
Yellow bullhead
Brown bullhead
Channel catfish
Stonecat
Tadpole madtom
Brindled madtom
Northern madtom
American eel
Banded killifish
42
Moxostoma anisurum
Moxostoma duquesnei
Moxostoma erythrurum
Moxostoma macrolepidotum
Moxostoma valenciennesi
Moxostoma carinatum
Carassius auratus
Phoxinus eos
Phoxinus neogaeus
Clinostomus elongatus
Couesius plumbeus
Cyprinus carpio
Erimystax x-punctata
Exoglossum maxillingua
Hybognathus hankinsoni
Hybognathus regius
Macrohybopsis storeriana
Nocomis biguttatus
Nocomis micropogon
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Notropis anogenus
Notropis atherinoides
Notropis bifrenatus
Luxilus cornutus
Notropis heterodon
Notropis heterolepis
Notropis hudsonius
Notropis rubellus
Cyprinella spiloptera
Notropis stramineus
Lythrurus umbratilis
Notropis volucellus
Opsopoeodus emiliae
Pimephales notatus
Pimephales promelas
Rhinichthys atratulus
Rhinichthys cataractae
Semotilus atromaculatus
Semotilus corporalis
Margariscus margarita
Notropis photogenis
Campostoma anomalum
Luxilus chrysocephalus
Notropis buchanani
Ameiurus melas
Ameiurus natalis
Ameiurus nebulosus
Ictalurus punctatus
Noturus flavus
Noturus gyrinus
Noturus miurus
Noturus stigmosus
Anguilla rostrata
Fundulus diaphanus
S262
S271
S281
S282
S283
S284
S291
S301
S302
S311
S312
S313
S314
S315
S316
S317
S318
S319
S323
S324
S331
S332
S334
S335
S336
S337
S338
S339
S340
S341
S342
S343
S344
S345
S346
S361
S371
S381
S382
S383
S384
S601
S220
S355
S366
S367
Blackstripe topminnow
Burbot
Brook stickleback
Threespine stickleback
Ninespine stickleback
Fourspine stickleback
Trout-perch
White perch
White bass
Rock bass
Green sunfish
Pumpkinseed
Bluegill
Longear sunfish
Smallmouth bass
Largemouth bass
White crappie
Black crappie
Warmouth
Orangespotted sunfish
Yellow perch
Sauger
Walleye(yellow pickerel)
Eastern sand darter
Greenside darter
Rainbow darter
Iowa darter
Fantail darter
Least darter
Johnny darter
Logperch
Channel darter
Blackside darter
River darter
Tessellated darter
Brook silverside
Freshwater drum
Mottled sculpin
Slimy sculpin
Spoonhead sculpin
Deepwater sculpin
CarpxGoldfish
Rudd
Ruffe
Round goby
Tubenose goby
43
Fundulus notatus
Lota lota
Culaea inconstans
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Pungitius pungitius
Apeltes quadracus
Percopsis omiscomaycus
Morone americana
Morone chrysops
Ambloplites rupestris
Lepomis cyanellus
Lepomis gibbosus
Lepomis macrochirus
Lepomis megalotis
Micropterus dolomieui
Micropterus salmoides
Pomoxis annularis
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis humilis
Perca flavescens
Stizostedion canadense
Stizostedion vitreum vitreum
Ammocrypta pellucida
Etheostoma blennioides
Etheostoma caeruleum
Etheostoma exile
Etheostoma flabellare
Etheostoma microperca
Etheostoma nigrum
Percina caprodes
Percina copelandi
Percina maculata
Percina shumardi
Etheostoma olmstedi
Labidesthes sicculus
Aplodinotus grunniens
Cottus bairdi
Cottus cognatus
Cottus ricei
Myoxocephalus thompsoni
Hybrid 181x186
Scardinius erythrophthalmus
Gymnocephalus cernuus
Neogobius melanostomus
Proterorhinus marmoratus
Appendix B Riverine species.
Common Name
References
American shad
39, 124, 125
chum salmon
64,118
Atlantic salmon
11, 42
river redhorse
96, 132
redside dace
7, 105
hornyhead chub
7, 20
river chub
21
silver shiner
5, 118
ghost shiner
7, 49
blackstripe
topminnow
7, 83
northern madtom
57
44
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