Study of Smart Grid Technology and Its Development in Indian Scenario

Study of Smart Grid Technology and Its Development in Indian Scenario
Study of Smart Grid Technology and Its Development in Indian
Scenario
A Thesis
Submitted for the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in Electrical Engineering
By
Shiban Kanti Bala
Department of Electrical Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela-769 008 (ODISHA)
May, 2013
Study of Smart Grid Technology and Its Development in Indian
Scenario
A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In
Electrical Engineering
By
Shiban Kanti Bala
Roll No.: 109EE0253
Under the Guidance of
Prof. B.Chitti Babu
Department of Electrical Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela-769 008 (ODISHA)
May, 2013
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROURKELA- 769 008
ODISHA, INDIA
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis titled “Study of Smart Grid Technology and Its Development in
Indian Scenario”, submitted to the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela by Mr. Shiban Kanti
Bala, Roll No. 109EE0253 for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering, is a
bonafide record of research work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.
The candidate has fulfilled all the prescribed requirements.
The Thesis which is based on candidate’s own work, has not submitted elsewhere for a
degree/diploma.
In my opinion, the thesis is of standard required for the award of a Bachelor of Technology in Electrical
Engineering.
Prof. B. Chitti Babu
Supervisor
Department of Electrical Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela – 769 008 (ODISHA)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
With my gratitude and authenticity of my work I am thankful to my project guide Prof. B.Chitti Babu,
Department of Electrical Engineering, NIT Rourkela for his esteemed guidance during my long academic
career.
I am also thankful to Mr. Shyamal Bala (Chief Manager), PGCIL, Jabalpur (M.P), Mr. I.C. Jaiswal (Ex.
Engineer), PGCIL, Shujalpur (M.P), K. Srihari (Dy. Manager), HVDC Talcher (Odisha), G. Chakraborty (Sr.
Manager), ERLDC, Kolkata (W.B) for their kind cooperation and giving me precious time during my training
periods at various locations. With their and many other’s help, I have learned about the subject matter with
practical experience about the technical and non-technical aspects of Indian Power Grids and its function. I am
greatly thankful to the organizations like Power Grid Corporation of India Limited along with HVDC TalcherKolar Bipole Link and Power System Operation and Control, Eastern Regional Load Dispatch Center, Kolkata
for a compelling and captivating practical tour of the power sector development of our nation.
With this, I also thank Miss Tulika Dutta Roy, Masters in Electrical Engineering from NIT, Rourkela for
helping me in simulation and modelling of the required designs.
Finally, and most importantly, I would like to express my deep appreciation to my beloved mother, for all her
encouragement, understanding, support, patience, and true love throughout my ups and downs.
As always, I thank and praise the almighty God by my side.
(SHIBAN KANTI BALA)
Department of Electrical Engineering
NIT, Rourkela
Dedication
This thesis is dedicated to my parents and for the
service to my Nation.
ABSTRACT
India is truculent to meet the electric power demands of a fast expanding economy. Restructuring of the power
industry has only increased several challenges for the power system engineers. The proposed vision of
introducing viable Smart Grid (SG) at various levels in the Indian power systems has recommended that an
advanced automation mechanism needs to be adapted. Smart Grids are introduced to make the grid operation
smarter and intelligent. Smart grid operations, upon appropriate deployment can open up new avenues and
opportunities with significant financial implications. This work presents various Smart grid initiatives and
implications in the context of power market evolution in India. Various examples of existing structures of
automation in India are employed to underscore some of the views presented in this report. It also reviews the
progress made in Smart grid technology research and development since its inception. Attempts are made to
highlight the current and future issues involved for the development of Smart Grid technology for future
demands in Indian perspective.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of figures…………………………………………………………………………………………..........v Page | i
List of tables…………………………………………………………………………………………..........vii
Chapter 1: Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………....1
1.1. Research Motivation………………………………………………………………………….....1
1.2. Indian Energy Scenario…............................................................................................................4
1.3. The Energy Revolution Key Principles…...................................................................................11
1.4. The Energy Revolution Key Results…………………………………………………………...12
1.5. Policy Changes..…………………………………………………………………….………....15
Chapter 2: Renewable Energy System (RES) in Indian Scenario..........................................................17
2.1. Renewable Energy….................................................................................................................17
2.2. Renewable Energy Distribution in India……………………………………………………....18
2.3. Wind Power…………………………………………………………………………….……..21
1. Wind Power Design and Technology………………………………………….…….….….21
2. Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbine…………………………………………….….….….24
2.4 Solar (Photovoltaic or PV)..................................................................................................…...25
1. Photovoltaic Technology………………………………………………………..….……...27
2. PV System………………………………………………………………………...….…….28
Chapter 3: The Indian Power Grid, Power Market and Reforms.........................................................31
3.1. The Indian Power Grid……………………………………………....………………….……31
3.2. Indian Renewable Guidelines.......................................................................................…........32
a. Electricity Act 2003………………………………………………………...........................34
b. National Electricity Policy 2005……………………………………...….……....................34
c. Tariff Policy 2006……………………………………………………………………….....34
d. Renewable Energy Certificate 2010………………………………………………………..35
Chapter 4: Smart Grid Technology………………………………………………………………...……38
4.1.Global Outline of Smart Grids………………………………………………………….…..…40
4.2.Smart Grid Technology……………………………………………………………………..…42
1. Smart Transmission Grid……………………………………………..…………………….42
2. Information and Communication Technology……………………………………………..44
3. Smart Metering Technology………………………………………………………………..46
4. Smart Control and Monitoring System……………………………………………….…….48
i.
Self-Healing………………………………………………………………………..50
ii.
Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC)………………………………….….50
iii.
Power System Islanding………………………………………………………..…..52
4.3.Further Advancement in Smart Grid Technology……………………………………………..53
Chapter 5: Vision of India towards Smart Grid Technology…………………………………….….....56
5.1.Smart Grid Initiatives in India……………………………………………………………....…58
1. Renewable energy Integration………………………………….…………………………..59
2. Rural Electrification……………………………………………………………………..…61
3. Microgrid…………………………………………………………………………….…….62
Chapter 6: Challenges in Implementation of Smart Grid…………………………………..………….64
6.1.Technical Challenges for Development of Smart Grid in India……………………………….65
1. Integration of RES in India………………………………………………………………....65
2. Energy Storage System………………………………………………………………….....65
3. Consumer Participation…………………………………………………………………….66
4. Automation, Protection and Control……………………………………………………….66
5. Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)………………………………………………………66
Page | ii
6. Telecommunication………………………………………………………………...………67
7. Power Quality…………………………………………………………………...………….67
8. Reliability…………………………………………………………...……………………...67
9. Power Market Tools……………………………………………………………………......67
10. Demand Side Management (DSM)…………..………………………………………….…68
Chapter 7: Grid Connection Planning………………………………………………………………..….69
7.1. Common Requirements for Grid Codes related to DG………………………….….……..70
7.2. The Indian Power Grid………………………………………………………...…………71
7.3. Proposed grid codes for wind power in India……………………………………….……72
1. Active Power Control…………………………………………………………………...73
2. Frequency Requirement…………………………………………………………………75
3. Reactive Power Control…………………………………………………………………76
4. Fault Ride Through Capability (LVRT/HVRT)…………………………………………78
5. Power Quality…………………………………………………………………………...80
6. Flicker…………………………………………………………………………...............80
7. Harmonics……………………………………………………...………………………..81
8. Communication Requirements……………………………………..…………………...81
9. Other requirements…………………………………………..………….……………....82
7.4. Grid Connection and withdrawal planning ………………………………...…………….83
7.5. Operational Issues…………………………………………………………...…………...83
Chapter 8: Micro grid and Hybrid Energy System………………………………………..……….........86
8.1. Microgrid control arrangement…………………………………………………………....87
8.2. Microgrid Agent Control System (MGAS) framework……………………………….....88
8.3. Concept of Hybrid Energy System…………………………………………………...…..90
Page | iii
Chapter 9: Energy Storage Systems……………………………………………………………...………91
9.1. Pumped storage in hydroelectric plant……………………………………………...……..91
9.2. Battery Storage………………………………………………………………….……........92
9.3. Flywheel (FW) storage………………………………………………………………….....92
9.4. Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage (SMES)…………………………………...…...93
9.5. Ultra-capacitor (UC) storage…………………………………………………………...….93
9.6. Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) storage…………………………………………………………....93
9.7. Hydrogen gas (H2) storage……………………………………………………………...…93
9.8. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)………………………………………………….94
Chapter 10: Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………..…...95
10.1. Summary and Conclusion…………………………………………..…………………...95
10.2. Suggestion for Future Work……………………………..………………………………96
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………97
Publication(s)......................................................................................................................................…...105
Page | iv
LIST OF FIGURES
Page | v
I.1: Indian Final Energy Demand.
I.2: Indian Generation Structure.
I.3: Development of CO2 emission in India.
I.4: Comparative study under two scenario upon costs.
I.5: Total investment in power sector in India.
II.1: Wind Reference scenario in India.
II.2: Solar Reference scenario in India.
II.3: Prototype of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT).
II.4: Basic components present inside a wind turbine of a modern HAWT.
II.5: MPPT for Photovoltaic (PV) system.
II.6: MPPT for Photovoltaic (PV) System Simulation Results.
II.7: Photovoltaic (PV) technology.
II.8: Stand-alone PV power system with an MPPT converter and battery backup.
II.9: Grid connected PV power system with an MPPT converter and battery backup.
III.1: Indian RES strategy.
IV.1: A paradigm of Smart Electricity Grid or Smart Grid.
IV.2: Features and characteristics of Smart Transmission Grid.
IV.3: Types of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
IV.4: Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI).
IV.5: Components of Wide Area Monitoring and Control.
V.1: Smart Electricity System.
V.2: Hierarchy of Indian Smart Grid.
V.3: Renewable in Smart Grid Technology.
VII.1: Variation of active power output of wind farms with respect to frequency.
VII.2: Operating Range of power with voltage of wind turbine in India.
VII.3: LVRT of wind turbine as per IEGC.
VIII.1: Microgrid Agent Control System.
VIII.2: Hybrid Energy System.
Page | vi
LIST OF TABLES
Table II.1: Definition of types of energy resource potential.
Table II.2: Growth in size of typical commercial HAWT.
Table II.3: Offshore wind turbine development.
Table II.4: Major PV technologies.
Table IV.1: Smart Grid Initiatives in Major Nations.
Table IV.2: Smart Grid Network Topologies.
Table IV.3: Smart Metering System using In-Home Display (IHD) units.
Table IV.4: Innovative Control Technologies using GDO (CI and ADCs based).
Table V.1: Smart Grid Initiatives in India by Various Organizations.
Table V.2: Installed capacity of renewable energy in Indian according to five year plan.
Table V.3: Rural Electrification schemes implemented by Govt. of India.
Table V.4: Micro grid Projects in India.
Table VI.1: Challenges of Smart Grid Technology.
Table VII.1: Common Grid Code Requirements (GCRs) for grid operation and connection for RESs.
Table VII.2: Grid Codes related to DG involving RESs integration of various nations.
Table VII.3: Grid voltage operating limits.
Table VII.4: Fault clearing time and voltage limits.
Table VII.5: THD of voltage.
Table VII.6: Voltage imbalance limit for wind farms.
Table IX.1: Benefits of Energy Storage Systems.
Page | vii
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
1.1.
Research Motivation
The global energy deficiency has directly foiled the economics, society, development of the nations, and
environments through greenhouse gases (GHGs) and by gaining carbon credits. The growing demand of
power across the globe is being envisaged and logged to be exponential. Lack of asset with outdated
network infrastructure, climate change, rising fuel costs, has resulted inefficient and increasingly unstable
electric system. With this, the global concern has raised certain critical points upon which the energy
revolution for a green and sustainable future are guaranteed and ensued.

Fossil fuel deadlock: Raising energy demand is knocking pressure on fossil fuel supply and now oil
exploration towards “unconventional” oil resources. Switching from fossil fuels to renewables also offers
substantial benefits such as independence from world market fossil fuel prices and the creation of millions
of new green jobs. It can also provide energy to the two billion people currently without access to energy
services. A closer look at the measures required to phase-out oil faster in order to save the Arctic from oil
exploration, avoid dangerous deep sea drilling projects and to leave oil shale in the ground are wellthought-out. The changeover from the fossil-driven based energy sources to the renewable energy sources
(RES) is being addressed globally according to significant benchmarks. The dynamic characteristics of
the RESs and its developing sparingly sustainable means to produce energy with less environmental
challenges, is one of its foremost.

Climatic change threat: The threat of climate change, caused by rising global temperatures, is the
most significant environmental challenge being encountered by the world since the beginning of the 21st
century. It has major implications for the world’s social and economic stability, its natural resources and
in particular, the way we produce our energy. In order to avoid the most catastrophic impacts of climatic
1|Page
change, the global temperature increase must be kept as far below 2°C as possible. The main greenhouse
gas is carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by using fossil fuels for energy and transport. Keeping the global
temperature until 2°C is often referred to as a ‘safe level’ of warming; beyond which unacceptable risks
to the world’s key natural and human systems might occur. Even with a 1.5°C warming, increase in
drought, heat waves and floods, along with other adverse impacts such as increased water stress for up to
1.7 billion people, wildfire frequency and flood risks, are projected in many regions. Partial de-glaciation
of the Greenland ice sheet, and possibly the West Antarctic ice sheet, could even occur from additional
warming within a range of 0.8 – 3.8°C above current levels. If rising temperatures are to be kept within
acceptable limits then we need to significantly reduce our GHG emissions.

Global negotiation: In 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade, a forum of countries
committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences,
seek answers to common problems like global warming, and identify good practices and co-ordinate
domestic and international policies of its members, like fortification of renewable energy. This lead to the
formation of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the member
nations are high income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded
as developed countries. Also, recognizing the global threats of climate change, the signatories to the 1992
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed to the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The
Protocol entered into force in early 2005 and its 193 members meet continuously to negotiate further
refinement and development of the agreement. In 2009, the UNFCCC were not able to deliver a new
climate change agreement towards ambitious and fair emission reductions. At the 2012 Conference, there
was agreement to reach a new agreement by 2015 and to adopt a second commitment period at the end of
2012. The proposed mitigation pledges put forward by governments are likely to allow global warming to
at least 2.5 to 5 degrees temperature increase above pre-industrial levels.
2|Page

Nuclear issues: To both climate protection and energy security, however their claims are not
supported by data. The most recent Energy Technology Perspectives report published by the International
Energy Agency (IEA) includes a Blue Map scenario including a quadrupling of nuclear capacity between
current years and 2050. To achieve this, the report says that on average 32 large reactors (1,000 MW each)
would have to be built every year from now until 2050. According to the IEA’s own scenario, such massive
nuclear expansion would cut carbon emissions by less than 5%. More realistic data analysis shows the
past development history of nuclear power and the global production capacity make such expansion
extremely unviable. With a temperament of its catastrophic aftermath and its indispensable biohazard
activities, during the past situations and the future valuations, many reactors has been terminated and
slowdown in various expanses across the sphere. Japan’s major nuclear accident at Fukushima in March
2011 following a tsunami came 25 years after the devastating explosion in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power
Plant, illustrating the inherent risks of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is simply unsafe, expensive, has
continuing waste disposal problems and cannot reduce emissions by a large enough amount. In contrast,
renewable energy is also a viable solution for replacing the world’s elusive, hazardous and intolerably
expensive nuclear energy.

Climate change and security of supply: Access to both supplies and financial stability is now at the
top of the energy policy agenda. Rapidly fluctuating oil prices are lined to a combination of many events,
however one reason for these price fluctuations is that supplies of all proven resources of fossil fuels are
becoming infrequent and more expensive to produce. Some ‘non-conventional’ resources such as shale
oil have become economic, with devastating consequences for the local environment. Uranium, the fuel
for nuclear power, is also a finite resource. By contrast, the reserves of renewable energy that are
technically accessible globally are large enough to provide more than 40 times more energy than the world
currently consumes, forever, according to the latest IPCC Special Report Renewables (SRREN). Cost
reductions in just the past two years have changed the economics of renewables fundamentally, especially
3|Page
wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) along with the common features like, emission of little or no GHG and
are a virtually inexhaustible fuel. Some technologies are already competitive; the solar and the wind
industry have maintained double digit growth rates over 10 years now, leading to faster technology
deployment worldwide.

Energy efficiency: The most cost competitive way to reform the energy sector. There is enormous
potential for reducing our consumption of energy, while providing the same level of energy services. New
business models to implement energy efficiency must be developed and must get more political support.
The challenge ahead will require an innovative power system architecture involving both new
technologies and new ways of managing the network to ensure a balance between fluctuations in energy
demand and supply. The key elements of this new power system architecture are micro grids, smart grids
and an efficient large scale super grid, which could play a dynamic role in remodeling the global energy
scenario with factors like policies, regulation, and efficiency of market with costs, benefits and services
which also normalizes the power and energy market with the reduction of carbon footprints and footdragging the GHG emissions.
1.2.
Indian Energy Scenario
The economic growth of a nation, depends heavily on reliability and eminence of its electric power supply.
Global energy demands are expected to grow by 60% over the next 25 years subjected to three significant
factors; population growth, rate of gross domestic product (GDP) and energy intensification. This has the
potential to cause a significant increase in GHG emissions associated with climate change. Secure, reliable
and affordable energy sources are fundamental to economic stability and development. Rising energy
demand poses a challenge to energy security given increased reliance on global energy markets. The
electricity industry, in particular in the industrialized world, holds an important and pro-active role in
providing solutions to security of supply and to reduction of GHG emissions with economically feasible
solutions. Achieving this transition, the power industry has only increased several challenges for the power
4|Page
system. Innovative power system architectures at various level in power system involving both new
technologies and new ways of managing the network to ensure a balance fluctuations in energy demand
and supply are incorporated. In addition, RES which continued to cultivate strongly in all end-use
segments, delivering close to 20% of global electricity supply in 2010, and expected to procure 39% and
77% of the global power supply from all sources by 2030 and 2050 as per recent market policy. It will
play an essential role in advancing development by improving the access of millions to energy, whilst
helping ensure energy security, and mitigating the existential risk of climatic change by reducing emission.
The power market in India is characterized with poor demand side management (DSM) and consequences
on technical and non-technical aspects with response to lack of proper infrastructure and awareness. In
order to mitigate these preventable challenges, the innovative power system architecture with
incorporation of RES can acknowledge reduction in line losses to overcome prevailing power shortages,
improve the reliability of supply, power quality improvement and its management, safeguarding revenues,
preventing theft etc.. The future pathways for India’s energy demand has been shown in Fig. I.1 [1].
Energy Revolution
Energy Reference
35000
60000
30000
50000
40000
20000
PJ/a
PJ/a
25000
15000
30000
20000
10000
10000
5000
0
2009
2015
2020
2030
2040
2050
0
2009
2015
Years
TRANSPORT
INDUSTRIES
Fig I.1 (a)
5|Page
2020
2030
2040
Years
OTHERS
TRANSPORT
INDUSTRIES
Fig I.1 (b)
OTHERS
2050
25000
PJ/A
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2035
2040
2045
2050
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2055
% AGE
Energy Savings and Efficiency
YEARS
SAVINGS
EFFICIENCY
Fig I.1 (c)
Fig. I.1: Indian Final Energy Demand.
(a) Indian energy demand as per Energy Revolution (ER)* Scenario.
(b) Indian energy demand as per Energy Reference (RE)* Scenario.
(c) Comparative study shows the results in change in energy consumption projected as savings** and efficiency**.
**efficiency corresponds the reduction compared to the Energy Reference.
PJ/a is Peta Joules per annum.
*POINT TO REMEMBER
Energy Revolution is projected to achieve certain policy target designed by Nation’s policy maker to build a sustainable world with implication of RES.
Energy Reference is reflecting the current trends and policy as similar to classical times.
The development of the electricity supply market is characterized by dynamically growing RES market
and an increasing share of renewable electricity. It preferably acts and will compensate for the phasing
out of the nuclear energy and reduce the number of fossil fired power plants required for grid stabilization.
By 2050, around 92% of electricity power generation would be by renewable energy fired power station,
where wind, PV and solar thermal would contribute 71% of electricity generation. The installed capacity
would rise from 52 % in 2030 to 94% in 2050 by 1149 GW.
This would therefore marks the expansion of smart grids, DSM and storage capacity with the increase
share of electric vehicles (EVs) for a better grid integration and power generation management. The
generation structure of India has been shown in Fig. I.2.
6|Page
Percentage of RES in Total Generation
5000
6000
4000
5000
4000
3000
TWh/a
TWh/a
Generation Structure
2000
3000
2000
1000
1000
0
2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2055
0
2000
2010
2020
FOSSIL
NUCLEAR
2030
2040
2050
2060
Years
Years
RES
HYDROGEN
Fig I.2 (a)
RES
TOTAL
Fig I.2 (b)
Fig. I.2: Indian Generation Structure.
(a) Indian generation structure based on various sources.
(b) Comparative study on RES share w.r.t total generation.
*fossil includes coal, lignite, oil, natural gas and diesel.
TW/h is Tera Watt per annum.
In account, considering the rise in distribution by 27.8 %, 53.6 % rise in own consumption electricity, and
the electricity required for the production of hydrogen estimated around 99.7 %, the so estimated electricity
generation reduces to 4053 TWh/a.
Whilst India’s emissions of CO2 will decrease from 1,704 million tons in 2009 to 426 million tons in 2050.
Annual per capita emissions will fall from 1.4 tons to 1 ton in 2030 and 0.3 tons in 2050. In the long run,
efficiency gains and the increased use of renewable electricity in vehicles will also significantly reduce
emissions in the transport sector. With a share of 34% of CO2 emissions in 2050, the transport sector will
remain the largest energy related source of emissions. By 2050, India’s CO2 emissions are 72% of 1990
levels. Fig. I.3 depicts a clear idea of the development of the CO2 emission as per sectors.
7|Page
Development of CO2 emission
CO2 emission reduction rate w.r.t population
growth
400
1.5
300
Mnt/a
Mnt/a
1500
1000
1
200
0.5
100
500
0
2000
0
2009
2015
2020
2030
2040
2050
2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
t/capita
2000
0
2060
Years
Years
% of emmision reduction w.r.t 1990
TRANSPORT
INDUSTRY
POWER GENERATION
OTHERS
Fig I.3 (a)
CO2 emmision pC (t/C)
Fig I.3 (b)
Fig. I.3: Development of CO2 emission in India.
(a) By sector-wise.
(b) Reduction of CO2 emission w.r.t 1990 and per capita analysis.
Mnt/a is Million ton per annum.
Around 81% of the remaining demand (including non-energy consumption) will be covered by renewable
energy sources. The phases out coal and oil about 10 to 15 years faster than the previous Energy
Revolution scenario published in 2010. This is made possible mainly by replacement of coal power plants
with renewables after 20 rather than 40 years lifetime and a faster introduction of electric vehicles in the
transport sector to replace oil combustion engines. This leads to an overall renewable primary energy share
of 48% in 2030 and 81% in 2050. Nuclear energy is phased out just after 2045.
The introduction of renewable technologies under the Energy Revolution scenario slightly increases the
costs of electricity generation in India compared to the Reference scenario. This difference will be less
than $ 1 cent/kWh up to 2020, however. Because of the lower CO2 intensity of electricity generation,
electricity generation costs will become economically favorable under the Energy Revolution scenario
and by 2050 costs will be $ 7.2 cents/kWh below those in the Reference version. Under the Reference
scenario, by contrast, unchecked growth in demand, an increase in fossil fuel prices and the cost of CO 2
emissions result in total electricity supply costs rising from today’s $100 billion per year to more than $
8|Page
932 billion in 2050. But, the Energy Revolution scenario not only complies with India’s CO 2 reduction
targets but also helps to stabilize energy costs. Increasing energy efficiency and shifting energy supply to
renewables lead to long term costs for electricity supply that are 23% lower than in the Reference scenario.
Fig. I.4 illustrates the total electricity supply cost and total electricity generation costs under two scenario.
ELECTRICITY GENERATION COST
1000
20
800
15
600
ct/KWh
Bn$/a
ELECTRICITY SUPPLY COST
400
10
5
200
0
2009
2015
2020
2030
2040
2050
0
2000
2010
2020
2030
RE
ER
Fig I.4 (a)
2040
2050
2060
Years
Years
RE
ER
Fig I.4 (b)
Fig. I.4: Comparative study under two scenario upon costs.
(a) Total electricity supply costs
(b) Specific electricity generation costs.
Bn$/a is Billion $ per annum and ct/kWh is cents per kWh.
It would require about $ 4,775 billion in additional investment for the Energy Revolution scenario to
become reality (including investments for replacement after the economic lifetime of the plants) approximately $ 119 billion annually or $ 69 billion more than in the Reference scenario ($ 1,905 billion).
Under the Reference version, the levels of investment in conventional power plants add up to almost 56%
while approximately 44% would be invested in renewable energy and cogeneration (CHP) until 2050.
Under the Energy Revolution scenario, however, India would shift almost 97% of the entire investment
towards renewables and cogeneration. Until 2030, the fossil fuel share of power sector investment would
be focused mainly on CHP plants. As, renewable energy has no fuel costs, however, the fuel cost savings
in the Energy Revolution scenario reach a total of $ 5,500 billion up to 2050, or $ 138 billion per year.
The total fuel cost savings here fore would cover 200% of the total additional investments compared to
9|Page
the Reference scenario. These renewable energy sources would then go on to produce electricity without
any further fuel costs beyond 2050, while the costs for coal and gas will continue to be a burden on national
economies. The future investments shares of different sources are shown in Fig. I.5.
INVESTMENTS AS PER RE
INVESTEMENTS AS PER ER
450000
400000
350000
Million $
Million $
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
2011-2020
2021-2030
2031-2040
2000000
1800000
1600000
1400000
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
200000
0
2011-2020
2041-2050
2021-2030
FOSSIL AND NUCLEAR
2031-2040
2041-2050
Periods
Periods
FOSSIL AND NUCLEAR
RENEWABLES
Fig I.5 (a)
RENEWABLES
Fig I.5 (b)
Million $
TOTAL INVESTMENT IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
1600000
1400000
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
200000
0
2011-2020
2021-2030
2031-2040
2041-2050
2011-2050
Average (2011-50)
Periods
Biomass
Hydro
Wind
PV
Geothermal
Solar Thermal
Ocean energy
Fig I.5 (c)
Fig. I.5: Total investment in power sector in India.
(a) Total investment in Reference Energy Scenario.
(b) Total investment in Energy Revolution Scenario.
(c) Total investment in Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in Energy Revolution scenario.
The Indian Electricity Grid Code (IEGC) outlines the minimum technical grid connection requirements
that new and renewable energy and associate systems at the connection point to the transmission network
10 | P a g e
have to provide safe and reliability operation of the system. The new connection shall not cause any
adverse effect to the electric grid which shall continue to perform with specified reliability, security, and
quality as per the central electricity authority (CEA) regulations, as and when they come into force. These
developments must clearly indicate the need to search for effective solutions to alleviate the negative
impacts, if any, of the large scale integration of renewable energy (like wind power) to the grid so that the
benefit of the renewable energy source can be maximized.
These grid code requirements and specific grid codes (like Indian electricity grid code for wind farm,
IEGCWF) must be read in conjunction with the following:
(a) Indian electricity grid code (IEGC) issued by central electricity regulatory commission CERC,
(b) Technical standards for connectivity to the grid, Regulations 2007, issued by CEA, and
(c) State electricity grid codes issued by respective states of India.
Incorporation of RES into the existing bulk generation power system can be accomplished through smarter
power grid when integration also includes complex, end-to-end control strategies and consumer incentives
to participate. These kind of involvement leads to decentralization of power. As such, a new concept of
micro grid, virtual power plant (VPP) and hybrid energy system develops, integration and optimization of
grid control logic are areas that stand as key enablers to rapid growth of renewable generation [2-5].
1.3.
The Energy Revolution - Key Principles
The study says that this fundamental shift in the way we consume and generate energy must begin
immediately and be well ongoing within the next ten years in order to avert the worst impacts of climate
change. The scale of the challenge requires a complete transformation of the way we produce, consume
and distribute energy, while maintaining economic growth. The five key principles behind this Energy
Revolution will be to:
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• Implement renewable solutions, especially through decentralized energy systems and grid
expansions.
• Respect the natural limits of the environment.
• Phase out dirty, unsustainable energy sources.
• Create greater equity in the use of resources.
• Decouple economic growth from the consumption of fossil fuels.
Decentralized energy systems, where power and heat are produced close to the point of final use, reduces
grid loads and energy losses in distribution. Investments in ‘climate infrastructure’ such as smart
interactive grids and transmission grids to transport large quantities of offshore and onshore wind and
concentrating solar power and PV are essential. Building up clusters of renewable micro grids, especially
for people living in remote areas, will be a central tool in providing sustainable electricity to the almost
two billion people around who currently don’t have access to electricity.
The Energy Revolution – Key Results
1.4.
Renewable energy sources account for 25.4% of the India’s primary energy demand in 2009. The main
source is biomass, which is mostly used in the heat sector. For electricity generation renewables contribute
about 13% and for heat supply, around 55.4%, much of this is from traditional uses such as firewood.
About 86.9% of the primary energy supply today still comes from fossil fuels and 1.95% from nuclear
energy.
The Energy Revolution scenario describes development pathways to a sustainable energy supply,
achieving the urgently needed CO2 reduction target and a nuclear phase-out, without unconventional oil
resources. The results of the Energy Revolution scenario upon Indian context, which will be achieved
through the following measures:
Curbing Indian Energy Demand: The Indian energy demand is projected by combining population
development, GDP growth and energy intensity. Under the Reference scenario, total primary energy
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demand increases by 206.2% from about 29 EJ (Exajoules) per year in 2009 to 88 EJ per year in 2050. In
the Energy Revolution scenario, demand increases by only 23.7% compared to current consumption until
2020 and increases slightly afterwards to 2050.
Controlling Indian Power Demand: Under the Energy Revolution scenario, electricity demand is
expected to increase disproportionately, the main growth in households and services. With adequate
efficiency measures, however, a higher increase can be avoided, leading to electricity generation of around
4,258 TWh/a in 2050. Compared to the Reference scenario, efficiency measures avoid the generation of
812 TWh/a.
Reducing Indian Heating Demand: Efficiency gains in the heat supply sector are even larger than in
the electricity sector. Compared to the Reference scenario, consumption equivalent to 3,562 PJ/a. is
avoided through efficiency measures by 2050. The lower demand can be achieved by energy-related
renovation of the existing stock of buildings, introduction of low energy standards; even ‘energy-plushouses’ for new buildings, with same comfort and energy services.
Development of Indian Industry Energy Demand: While the economic growth rates in the Reference
and the Energy Revolution scenario are identical, the growth of the overall energy demand is different due
to a faster increase of the energy intensity in the alternative case. Decoupling economic growth with the
energy demand is key to reach a sustainable energy supply by 2050, the Energy Revolution scenario saves
40% less energy per $ GDP than the Reference case.
Electricity generation: A dynamically growing renewable energy market compensates for phasing
out nuclear energy and fewer fossil fuel-fired power plants. By 2050, 92% of the electricity produced
worldwide will come from renewable energy sources. ‘New’ renewables – mainly wind, PV and ocean
energy – will contribute 40% of electricity generation. The Energy Revolution scenario projects an
immediate market development with high annual growth rates achieving a renewable electricity share of
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32% already by 2020 and 62% by 2030. The installed capacity of renewables will reach almost 718 GW
in 2030 and 1,446 GW by 2050.
Future costs of electricity generation: Under the Energy Revolution scenario the costs of electricity
generation increase slightly compared to the Reference scenario. This difference will be less than $1
cent/kWh up to 2020. However, if fossil fuel prices go any higher than the model assumes, this gap will
decrease. Electricity generation costs will become economically favorable under the Energy Revolution
scenario by 2025 and by 2050, costs will be significantly lower: about 7.2 $cents/kWh – or 45% below
those in the Reference version.
Future investment in power generation: The overall level of investment required in new power plants
up to 2020 will be in the region of $ 11.5 trillion in the Reference case and $ 20.1 trillion in the Energy
Revolution. For the Energy Revolution scenario until 2050 to become reality would require about $ 4,775
billion investment in the power sector (including investments for replacement after the economic lifetime
of the plants). Under the Reference scenario, total investment would be split 48% to 52% between
conventional power plants and renewable energy plus CHP up to 2050.
Fuel costs savings: As, renewable energy has no fuel costs, however, the fuel cost savings in the
Energy Revolution scenario reach a total of $ 5,500 billion up to 2050, or $ 138 billion per year. The total
fuel cost savings here fore would cover 200% of the total additional investments compared to the
Reference scenario.
Heating supply: Renewables currently provide 55.4% of the Indian energy demand for heat supply,
the main contribution coming from the use of biomass. In the Energy Revolution scenario, renewables
provide 61% of the world’s total heat demand in 2030 and 91% in 2050.
Future investments in the heat sector: The heat sector in the Energy Revolution scenario would
require a major revision of current investment strategies in heating technologies. In particular enormous
increases in installations are required to realize the potential of the not yet common solar and geothermal
14 | P a g e
technologies and heat pumps. Installed capacity needs to increase by a factor of 60 for solar thermal and
by a factor of over 1,000 for geothermal and heat pumps which requires around $ 18.48 billion investment
in renewable heating technologies up to 2050.
Primary energy consumption: Under the Energy Revolution scenario the overall primary energy
demand will be reduced by 80.2% in 2050 compared to the Reference scenario. In this projection almost
the electricity supply, including the majority of the energy used in buildings and industry, would come
from renewable energy sources. The transport sector, in particular aviation and shipping, would be the last
sector to become fossil fuel free.
Development of CO2 emissions: CO2 emissions under the Energy Revolution scenario they will
decrease from 1,704 million tons in 2009 to 426 million t in 2050. Annual per capita emissions will drop
from 1.4 tons CO2 to 1.0 tons CO2 in 2030 and 0.3 tons CO2 in 2050. Even with a phase out of nuclear
energy and increasing demand, CO2 emissions will decrease in the electricity sector. With a share of 33%
of CO2 emissions in 2050, the transport sector will be the main source of emissions ahead of the industry
and power generation.
1.5.
Policy Changes
To make the Energy Revolution real and to avoid dangerous climate change, Greenpeace, GWEC, EREC,
MoP, MNRE, Smart Grid Task Force, Smart Grid Forum, CERC, CEA etc. demand that the following
policies and actions are implemented in the energy sector:
1. Phase out all subsidies for fossil fuels and nuclear energy.
2. Internalize the external (social and environmental) costs of energy production through ‘cap and trade’
emissions trading.
3. Mandate strict efficiency standards for all energy consuming appliances, buildings and vehicles.
4. Establish legally binding targets for renewable energy and combined heat and power generation.
15 | P a g e
5. Reform the electricity markets by guaranteeing priority access to the grid for renewable power
generators.
6. Provide defined and stable returns for investors, for example by feed-in tariff programme.
7. Implementation of grid connection planning for steady interconnection of RES into the existing grid.
8. Development of standalone system, microgrid, hybrid energy system along with energy storage system.
9. Incorporation of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) in the prevailing power grid.
The thesis proposes a serious discussion of the significant renewable energy generation which can wage
against the existing power system and how sophisticated smart grid control elements can address its
integration into distributed energy systems in India. In addition, it has also address various grid code
strategies, requirements and codes for wind power and PV integration in India and discusses several
technical and operational issues arising due to high penetration of renewable power generation in Indian
power systems. The role of enabling technologies, automation and communication for sustainable
development of smart grid is also explained here. In addition, this study designates about the microgrid
initiatives and development of hybrid energy system, along with various examples of existing structures
of automation in India. It also reviews the encroachment made in such technology in R&D, initiated by
various public and private sector organizations supported by prominent institutions across the globe.
Limelight on the current and future issues involved for the development of Smart Grid technology for
future demands has also been contested.
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CHAPTER 2
Renewable Energy Systems in Indian Scenario
2.1.
Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is “a form of energy from solar, geophysical or biological sources that is replenished
by natural process at a rate that equals or exceed its rate of use.” These covers a range of natural sources
which are constantly renewed and therefore, unlike fossil fuels and uranium, will never be exhausted.
They are obtained from the continuing and repetitive flows of energy occurring in the natural environment
and includes resources such as biomass, solar energy, geothermal heat, hydropower, tide and waves
and ocean thermal energy, and wind energy.
The RES exploitation is mainly a question of how to convert solar, wind, biomass or hydro into electricity,
heat or power as efficiently, sustainably and cost-effectively as possible. So as a consequence, it is worth
understanding the upper limits of their potentials and by when this potential can been exploited. The
typical potentials under which RES are subjected for utilizations is categorized in table II.1.
Table II.1
Definition of types of energy resource potential.
Theoretical Potential
ENERGY RESOURCE POTENTIALS
The physical upper limit of the energy available from a certain source or maximum power point (MPP)
Conversion Potential
This is derived from the annual efficiency of the respective conversion technology. It is therefore not a strictly defined
value, since the efficiency of a particular technology depends on technological progress.
Technical Potential
This takes into account additional restrictions regarding the area that is realistically available for energy generation.
Technological, structural and ecological restrictions, as well as legislative requirements, are accounted for.
Economic Potential
Sustainable Potential
The proportion of the technical potential that can be utilized economically.
This limits the potential of an energy source based on evaluation of ecological and socioeconomic factors.
The overall technical potential of renewable energy is huge and several times higher than current total
energy demand. Technical potential is defined as the amount of renewable energy output obtainable by
full implementation of demonstrated technologies or practices that are likely to develop. It takes into
account the primary resources, the socio-geographical constraints and the technical losses in the
17 | P a g e
conversion process. Calculating renewable energy potentials is highly complex because these technologies
are comparatively young and their exploitation involves changes to the way in which energy is both
generated and distributed. The technical potential is dependent on a number of uncertainties, e.g. a
technology breakthrough, for example, could have a dramatic impact, changing the technical potential
assessment within a very short time frame i.e. the intermittent nature of the RES. Further, because of the
speed of technology change, many existing studies are based on out of date information. More recent data,
e.g. significantly increased average wind turbine capacity and output, would increase the technical
potentials still further.
2.2.
Renewable Energy Distribution in India
With the study, in India it has been proven under Energy Revolution scenario that, around 67,076 km2
area is intended to support for the 3,300 PJ of energy production per region and 542 PJ of energy
production per capita by wind power, subjected to mean wind speed of 14-17 mph at 80m by 2050 as
shown in Fig. II.1. Similarly, around 44,105 km2 area is projected to support for the 12,254 PJ of energy
production per region and 2,011 PJ of energy production per capita by solar power, subjected to horizontal
irradiance level of 180-200 Wm-2 by 2050 as shown in Fig. II.2.
Upon such geophysical and climatic studies, the section further organizes the renewable energy sources
(only wind and PV) and their technologies being used in India for the implementation and incorporation
new and renewable energy to achieve a sustainable and promising energy revolution scenario.
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2.3.
Wind Power
Wind energy has grown faster than all other electricity sources in the last 20 years and turbine technology
has advanced sufficiency that a single machine can power about 5,000 homes. The total potential for wind
power in India was first estimated by the Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) at around 45
GW, and was recently increased to 48.5 GW. This Fig. was also adopted by the government as the official
estimate.
The C-WET study was based on a comprehensive wind mapping exercise initiated by MNRE, which
established a country-wide network of 1050 wind monitoring and wind mapping stations in 25 Indian
States. This effort made it possible to assess the national wind potential and identify suitable areas for
harnessing wind power for commercial use, and 216 suitable sites have been identified.
Prior to the installation of a wind turbine or a wind farm, a specific test programme must be agreed with
the area regarding the capability of the wind turbine or wind farm to meet the requirements in this
connection code. As a part of the test programme, a simulation model of the wind turbine or wind farm
must be provided in a given format and the model shall show the characteristics of the wind turbine or
wind farm in both static simulations (load flow) and dynamic simulations (time simulations). The model
shall be used in feasibility studies prior to the installation of the wind turbine or wind farm and the
commissioning tests for the wind turbine or the wind farm shall include a verification of the model. These
requirements are similar to the conventional power sources and mentioned in detail in IEGC and respective
state electricity grid codes.
1.
Wind Turbine Design and Technology
The wind measurements were carried out at lower hub heights and did not take into account technological
innovation and improvements and repowering of old turbines to replace them with bigger ones. At heights
of 55-65 meters, to replace them with bigger ones. At heights of 55-65 meters, the Indian Wind Turbine
Manufacturers Association (IWTMA) estimates that the potential for wind development in India is around
21 | P a g e
65-70 GW. The World Institute for Sustainable Energy, India (WISE) considers that with larger turbines,
greater land availability and expanded resource exploration, the potential could be as big as 100 GW. The
wind resource out at sea is particularly productive and is now being harnessed by offshore wind parks
with foundations embedded in the ocean floor.
As of now, the horizontal axis design dominates, and most designs now center on the three blade, upwind
rotor; locating the turbine blades upwind of the tower prevents the tower from blocking wind flow and
avoid extra aerodynamic noise and loading as shown in Fig. II.3. Also, basic components present inside a
wind turbine of a modern HAWT with gearbox is shown in Fig. II.4.
BLADES
NACELLE
HUB
TOWER
GROUND LEVEL
FOOTING
Fig. II.3: Prototype of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT).
22 | P a g e
Fig. II.4: Basic components present inside a wind turbine of a modern HAWT.
Modern wind turbine typically operate at variable speed using full-span blade pitch control. With the
significant growth of advance science and turbine technology, onshore wind turbine has ominously
increased from 3.5 to 7.5 MW, with 50-100 m high towers, along with 50-100 m rotor diameter. The
typical speed of the rotor varies from 12-20 RPM. Eventually turbines are deigned larger in size to reduce
cost of generation by improving power coefficient, reduce investment per unit of capacity and reduce
operation and maintenance cost. Upon theoretical maximum limit of aerodynamic efficiency, modern
turbine has proven the power coefficient to be near about 0.54-0.57 by 2015. Table II.2 shows a special
report on growth in the size of typical wind turbines prepared by IPCC on global basis.
Table II.2
Growth in size of typical commercial HAWT.
YEAR
1980-90
1995-2000
2005-10
2010Beyond 2030/2050
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POWER RATING (in kW)
75
750
1800
5000
20000
TOWER HEIGHT (in m)
20
50
80
125
180
ROTOR DIAMETER (in m)
17
50
80
125
250
In India, currently power rating of 1800kW i.e. 1.8 MW is specifically used for onshore wind power
generation. The forthcoming section explains about the offshore and onshore wind energy technology
being employed or even expected to be implemented in near future both on global context and Indian too.
Their up to date installed and potential capacity, along with issues and challenges has been briefly
discussed certainly.
2.
Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms
Onshore wind turbines are grouped together in a large specified area resulting in huge generating
capacity of around 10-100 MW, called wind farms. These kind of wind farms are active since the inception
of the wind power technology in 1880 for non-electrical applications in Denmark. Eventually the wind
power generation has stepped in electric power generation which has shaped the future of power and
energy application. Since then large number of wind power generation plants are being set up across the
world with optimization of technologies in every step of implementation. India has an installed capacity
of around 17.64 GW of wind power generation which is purely onshore wind generation power.
But, for such kind of installation, there are engineering and logistics constraints to size because the
components are transported via road. In that case, the evolution of offshore wind turbine has made its
progression since 1977 in Europe, as the name suggest that they are setup on the sea generally in shallow
water less than 30 m in depth. Apart from this, the higher value (>25 % than on onshore) of mean wind
speed, reduction in fatigue loads (lower shear near hub height) with longer life span with dominant and
stable wind direction adds to its advantages over onshore wind power.
However, only 1.3% of the installed wind capacity is being shared by offshore wind power, across the
globe. Considerable interest and implementation of the offshore wind power technology is being
envisaged, likewise in Demark (around 209 MW offshore wind generation), despite of higher costs
24 | P a g e
relative to onshore wind energy. Table II.3 show the development of offshore wind power since the
inception to modern times.
Table II.3
Offshore wind turbine development.
YEAR
1970
2000 (1st generation MW class WT)
REGION
Netherlands, Germany and Denmark
Denmark and Germany
POWER RATINGS (in MW)
0.5
1
2000 (2nd generation MW class WT)
US, Denmark and Germany
3-5
2000 (3rd generation MW class WT)
US, Denmark and Germany
>5
REMARKS
1st prototype designed and tested OK.
Anti-corrosion feature, ship
maintenance
Anti-corrosion feature with rotor dia.
90-115m, robust design, high
dependability and efficiency
Rotor dia. 120m with higher energy
yield.
Offshore wind turbine technology has been very similar to onshore designs, with some structural
modifications and special foundation viz. HVDC electrical transmission sea link using UG cables,
traditional concrete foundation, gravity and steel foundation, monopole foundation and tripod foundation.
Other design features include marine navigational equipment and monitoring and infrastructure to
minimize expensive servicing.
At present, the global manufacturers like Vestas (Denmark), Bonus (Denmark), NEG-Micon (Denmark),
GE Wind Energy (United States), Nordex (Germany), Enercon (Germany), REpower (Germany) are
playing major role in R&D of the offshore wind power.
2.4.
Solar Power (Photovoltaic or PV)
There are more than enough solar radiation available all over the world to satisfy a vastly increased
demand for solar power systems. The total installed for solar power (PV) in India is estimated by the
National Solar Mission (NSM) at around 1095 MW, projected on January 2013. This Fig. was also adopted
by the government as the official estimate. Upon the projected installment of PV, Gujarat shares highest
of 41 % which counts 214 MW of the total PV generation in the country.
The overall efficiency of the conversion of solar power into usable electrical energy by the PV power
system, comprising PV arrays, converters, cable connections, etc., is quite low (<6%). Because of the
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specific nature of its I-V characteristics, the output power is maximized at a specific load for a given level
of solar insolation and cell temperature. Moreover, unlike a conventional power generating system, where
the fuel input can be controlled depending on the power demand, the input can be controlled depending
50% of the total cost. Under these circumstances, it makes good economic sense to operate the solar array
in such a way as to extract the maximum power for any isolation level and operating temperature.
A typical MPPT algorithm is being designed based upon incremental conductance method to track the
maximum power upon voltage at maximum power point (VMPP) and current at maximum power point
(IMPP). The algorithm and the results are being simulated in MATLAB environment as shown in Fig. II.5.
The maximum power of the PV module has been estimated at various level of irradiance and temperature
as shown in Fig. II.6. Such kind of algorithm implementation helps to track maximum power at any
variable environmental conditions.
P-V curve of PV panel
Power (W)
60
40
20
0
0
5
10
15
20
Voltage (V)
Fig. II.5 (b)
I-V curve of PV panel
Current (A)
4
Fig. II.5 (a)
3
2
1
0
0
5
10
Voltage (V)
Fig. II.5 (b)
Fig. II.5: MPPT for Photovoltaic (PV) System.
(a) MPPT algorithm on incremental conductance method.
(b) P-V curve for PV system with PMPP and VMPP
(c) I-V curve for PV system with IMPP and VMPP.
26 | P a g e
15
20
Temprature effect on P-V curve at constant irradiance (1000W/m2)
Irradiance effect on P-V characteristics at constant temprature (25°C)
70
60
1000W/m2
25°C
60
900W/m2
40
55°C
Power (W)
Power (W)
50
800W/m2
700W/m2
30
20
50
85°C
40
115°C
30
20
10
0
0
10
5
10
15
20
25
0
0
Voltage (V)
5
10
15
20
25
Voltage (V)
Fig. II.6 (a)
Fig. II.6 (b)
Fig. II.6: MPPT for Photovoltaic (PV) System Simulation Results
(a) For different value of irradiance level and constant temperature (25℃).
(b) For different value of temperature and constant irradiance level (1000 W/m2).
1.
Photovoltaic (PV) Technology
As the most important part of a PV system are the cells which form the basic building blocks, converting
directly the light energy into electrical energy. The PV technology varies accordingly depending upon the
geographic location of installation and mode of application, either independent homes, colony, offices or
public buildings. The major PV technologies are being described in table II.4.
Table II.4
Major PV technologies.
Crystalline Silicon Technology
Mono-crystalline Silicon PV cell
Poly-crystalline PV cell
Thin slices cut from single crystal of silicon
Block of silicon crystals
Thin Film Technology
TFT PV cell
Thin layer of photosensitive material on a
substrate such as glass, stainless steel or
flexible plastic
Other Technologies
Amorphous PV cell
Spherical PV cell
Concentrated PV
Organic PV cell
Cells built into concentrating collectors
using lens to focus sunlight onto the cells
Active material consists at least partially of
organic dye, small, volatile organic
molecules or polymer.
Cell thickness of 200-400 μm,
conversion efficiency 16-18%,
used in satellite powering
system
TFT modules of Silicon (amp.),
CdTe, CuI/CuGa, Se2/S2, used
in building integration and endconsumer purposes.
-----
A common photovoltaic (PV) technology has been illustrated with brief detailing about its basic
components present inside a PV unit shown in Fig. II.7.
27 | P a g e
Fig. II.7: Photovoltaic (PV) technology.
The functioning of PV technology are so designed that they function in system depending upon the
installation type. PV installation that operate in isolated locations are known as stand-alone systems. In
commercial buildings, likewise BAPV (Building Adapted PV) systems are incorporated by mounting PV
systems on roof-tops. Whereas, BIPV (Building Integrated PV) system are integrated in to the roof or
building facade. In order to provide reliable supply from stand-alone generating systems using renewable
energy sources, it is necessary to provide battery backup. If the extracted power during daytime is higher
that the demand, the balance is used to charge batteries, which are in turn used to meet the demand when
solar power is insufficient or unavailable. When the batteries are fully charged, the extra power is disposed
of into dummy loads.
The next sub-section examines about chief PV system used in present days and expected to be employed
upon future energy demand.
2.
PV Systems
PV SYSTEMS
Industrial and utility-scale power plant system
For RE
kW-MW generation of power, for energy intensive consumer
Connected to local AC distribution grid, use as grid support and use of
battery or any storage devices.
Remote areas, mini-grids for individual homes or a small locality
For Industrial
Application
Used in repeater stations, traffic and remote lighting; cost effective
approach relatively
Grid connected
Residential and commercial
system
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Stand-alone or off
grid
Consumer goods and portable systems
Hybrid systems
Electrical and electronic appliances like cell phone chargers etc.
Combination of different power source like- DG set, Wind-PV etc.
As per explained earlier, the PV output voltage of the solar array is generally not the same as the voltage
of the dc-link connected to the battery, which operates at an almost constant voltage. Self-adapted dc-dc
converters converts the photovoltaic panel output voltage into the dc-link voltage, as required by the
battery or load. So a change in the converter’s duty cycle alters the input voltage to the converter, which
is also the panel’s output voltage. The controller, through its adaptive action, can then adjust the input
voltage to be equal to the panel’s maximum power point voltage. A typical stand-alone PV system with
an integrated maximum power point tracking (MPPT) converter and battery back-up is shown in Fig. II.8.
Such kind of step are practically used in individuals or in group with same integrated arrangement. The
merits and limitations are judged in terms its simplicity, accuracy, adaptability to temperature and
irradiance variations, control circuit complexity, and relative implementation cost.
Fig. II.8: Stand-alone PV power system with an MPPT converter and battery backup.
Typically the battery bank is used to store energy for emergency purposes for the continuity of the supply
during outage. This battery does usually have fast response time in few milliseconds to few micro seconds
depending upon the application type and requirement. Likewise, the capacitor at in best applicable for
29 | P a g e
integrated PV based power supply. Another typical grid connected PV system with an integrated
maximum power point tracking (MPPT) converter and battery back-up is shown in Fig. II.9 for more
reliability and tenacity of power [5-13].
Fig. II.9: Grid connected PV power system with an MPPT converter and battery backup.
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CHAPTER 3
The Indian Power Grid, Power Market and Reforms
3.1.
Indian Power Grid
The re-evaluation of the Indian Electricity Supply Act, 1948 and Indian Electricity Act, 1910, has led the
Electricity Act 2003 which has facilitated government and many non-government organizations to
participate and to alleviate the electricity demand. The act redefines the power market economy, protection
of consumer’s interest and provision of power to urban, sub-urban and rural regions across the country.
The act recommends the provision for national policy, Rural Electrification (RE), open access in
transmission, phased open access in distribution, mandatory state electricity regularity commission
(SERCs), license free generation and distribution, power trading, mandatory metering, and stringent
penalties for theft of electricity [14]. In addition to these guidelines, a concept called as Availability Based
Tariff (ABT) has also been implemented to bring effective day ahead scheduling and frequency sensitive
charges for the deviation from the schedule for efficient real-time balancing and grid discipline. Exclusive
terms like fixed cost and variable cost, and unscheduled interchange (UI) mechanism in ABT acts as a
balancing market in which real-time price of the electricity is determined by the availability and its
capacity to deliver GWs on day-to-day basis, on scheduled energy production and system frequency [1518].
Indian power system has an installed capacity of around 164 GW and meets a peak demand of 103 GW.
According to the current five year plan (2007-2012) by the year 2012, the installed capacity is estimated
to be over 220 GW and the peak demand is expected to be around 157 GW and is projected to reach about
800 GW by next two decades [19-20]. However certain complexities are envisaged in integrating IPPs
into grid such as, demarcation, scheduling, settlement and gaming [21]. But these issues are being
addressed by proper technical and regulatory initiatives. In addition to that, the transmission sector has
31 | P a g e
progressed in a very subsequent rate, currently at installed capacity of 325,000 MVA at 765, 400, 220kV
voltage levels with 242,400 circuit kilometers (ckt-km) of HVAC and HVDC transmission network,
including 765kV transmission system of 3810 ckt-km. On distribution sector, the Ministry of Power has
also maneuvered to leverage the digital technology to transform and reshape the power sector in India to
make an open and flexible architecture so as to meet the core challenges and burning issues, and get the
highest return on investment for the technology [19].
The Electricity Act 2003, created a liberal and competitive environment, facilitating investments by
removal of energy barriers, redefining the role of system operation of the national grids. New transmission
pricing, loss allocation schemes, introduction of ULDC scheme and Short Term Open Access (STOA)
schemes have been introduced based on distance and direction so that power could be traded from any
utility to any utility across the nation on a non-discriminatory basis [12]. Currently, Indian transmission
grid is operated by a pyramid of 1 NLDC, 5 RLDCs and 31 SLDCs, monitoring round the clock with
SCADA system enabled with fish as well as bird eye view, along with advance wideband speech and data
communication infrastructure. In addition, other key features like smart energy metering, CIM,
Component Interface Specification (CIS), Synchrophasor technology, Wide Area Monitoring (WAM)
system using phasor measurements, enhanced visualization and self-healing functions are being
exclusively employed [22].
3.2.
Indian Renewable Energy Guidelines
India has over 25.86 GW of installed renewable power generating capacity. Installed wind capacity is the
largest share at over 18.55 GW, followed by small hydro at 2.8 GW. The remainder is dominated by
bioenergy, with solar contributing only 1.2 GW. JNNSM targets total capacity of 20 GW grid-connected
solar power by 2022. Fig. III.1 shows the current and future perspective RES in India. Renewable energy
technologies are being deployed at industrial facilities to provide supplemental power from the grid, and
over 70% of wind installations are used for this purpose. Biofuels have not yet reached a significant scale
32 | P a g e
in India. India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) supports the further deployment of
renewable technologies through policy actions, capacity building, and oversight of their wind and solar
research institutes.
RES GENERATION
RES SHARE
Wind
PV
Biomass
Geothermal
Solar Thermal
Ocean/Tidal
%age share
5000
TWh/a
4000
3000
2000
1000
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2009
2015
2020
0
2009
2015
2020
2030
2040
2050
Years
Fig. III.1 (a)
2030
2040
2050
Year
Upon generation
Upon demand
Fig. III.1 (b)
Fig. III.1: Indian RES strategy.
(a) Indian RES generation statistics (2009-50).
(b) RES shared upon generation and demand until 2050.
The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) provides financial assistance for renewable
projects with funding from the Indian government and international organizations; they are also
responsible for implementing many of the Indian government’s renewable energy incentive policies.
There are several additional Indian government bodies with initiatives that extends into renewable energy,
and there have been several major policy actions in the last decade that have increased the viability of
increased deployment of renewable technologies in India, ranging from electricity sector reform to rural
electrification initiatives.
Several incentive schemes are available for the various renewable technologies, and these range from
investment-oriented depreciation benefits to generation-oriented preferential tariffs. Many states are now
establishing Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPOs), which has stimulated development of a tradable
Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) program. This is in a way laying foundation of a new economy that
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is inclusive, sustainable and aspires for de-carbonization of energy in a definite time frame. In order to
create an enabling environment, the Ministry as a policy maker will have a significant contribution to
make. While policy and budgetary support for renewable energy have progressively increased over the
years, particularly for large scale grid connected power, there continue to exist many barriers that hinder
up-scaling of renewable energy deployment. And perhaps more importantly, some critical gaps remain,
particularly for decentralized distribution in the areas of access to capital, technology development &
adaptation, innovation induction, and strategies to up-scale deployment. Nevertheless, India is currently
one of the few top attractive destinations for renewable energy investments, which implements policies
regarding grid support for grid interactive and integrative renewable power also [24].
a. Electricity Act 2003
Section 86. (1); the state commission shall discharge the following functions. . . (e): promote cogeneration
and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy by providing suitable measures for
connectivity with the grid and sale of electricity to any person, and also specify, for purchase of electricity
from such sources, a percentage of the total consumption of electricity in the area of a distribution licensee.
The particular term for such activity is regarded as “renewable purchase obligation.”
b.
National Electricity Policy 2005
The national electricity policy 2005 specifies that gradually the share of electricity from non-conventional
sources would need to be increased; such purchase by distribution companies shall be through competitive
bidding process; considering the fact that it will take some time before non-conventional technologies
compete, in terms of cost, with conventional sources, the commission may determine an appropriate
deferential in prices to promote these technologies.
c.
Tariff Policy 2006
The tariff policy announced in January 2006 has the following provisions:
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• Pursuant to provisions of Section 86 (1) (e) of the Act, the appropriate commission shall fix a minimum
percentage for purchase of energy from such sources taking into account the availability of such resources
in the region and its impact on retail tariffs. Such percentages of energy purchase should be made
applicable for the tariffs to be determined by the state electricity regulatory commission (SERCs) latest
by April 01, 2006.
• It will take some time before non-conventional technologies can compete with conventional sources in
terms of cost of electricity. Therefore, the procurement by distribution companies shall be done at
preferential tariffs determined by the appropriate commission.
• Such procurement by distribution licensees for future requirements shall be done, as far as possible,
through competitive bidding process under Section 63 of the Act within suppliers offering energy from
the same type of non-conventional sources. In the long-term, renewable energy technologies based power
generation would need to compete with other sources in terms of full costs.
• The central commission should lay down guidelines within 3 months for pricing non-firm power,
especially from non-conventional sources, to be followed in cases where such procurement is not through
competitive bidding.
d.
Renewable Energy Certificate 2010
The Renewable energy certificate mechanism entitles under the terms and conditions of Central Electricity
Regulatory Commission (CERC) for the recognition and issuance of Renewable Energy Certificate for
Renewable Energy Generation to the states of India. This mechanism is expected to overcome
geographical constraints and provide flexibility for effective implementation of RPO compliance, reduce
risks for local Discom by limiting its liability to only electricity purchase, reduce transaction costs and
create competition among different RE technologies. Explicitly, there are two types of REC viz., solar
certificates issued to eligible entities for generation of electricity based on solar as renewable energy
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source, and non-solar certificates issued to eligible entities for generation of electricity based on
renewable energy sources other than solar [24]. Above all these, risk assessment and allocation is at the
center of project finance preferably for any developing nation like India. Accordingly, project structuring
and expected return are directly related to the risk profile of the project. The four main risk factors to
consider when investing in renewable energy assets are:

Regulatory Risk
It refers to adverse changes in laws and regulations, uncomplimentary tariff setting and change or breach
of contracts. As long as renewable energy depend on government policy dependent tariff schemes, it will
remain vulnerable to changes in regulation. However a diversified investment through regulatory
jurisdictions, geographies, and technologies can help mitigate those risks.

Construction Risk
It relates to the delayed or expensive delivery of an asset, the default of a contracting party, or an
engineering/design failure. Construction risks are less prevalent for renewable energy projects because
they have relatively simple design, however, construction risks can be mitigated by selecting high-quality
and experienced turnkey partners, using proven technologies and established equipment suppliers as well
as agreeing on retentions and construction guarantees.

Financing Risk
It refers to the inadequate use of debt in the financial structure of an asset. This comprises the abusive use
of leverage, the exposure to interest rate volatility as well as the need to refinance at less favorable terms.

Operational Risk
It includes equipment failure, counterparty default and reduced availability of the primary energy source
(e.g. wind, heat, radiation). For renewable assets a lower than forecasted resource availability will result
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in lower revenues and profitability so this risk can damage the business case. Indeed, technically grid
connection planning and requirement also being encountered for the integration and interconnection with
grid.
In the past, grid connection requirement (GCR) for renewable power generators was not necessary due to
low level of RES power penetration. IEEE Standard 1001 ‘IEEE Guide for Interfacing Dispersed Storage
and Generation Facilities with Electric Utility Systems’ was the only guideline for the connection of
generation facilities to the distribution networks. The standard included the basic issues of power quality,
equipment protection and safety. The standard expired and, therefore, in 1998, the IEEE Working Group
SCC21 P1547, the IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
started to work on a general recommendation for the interconnection of distributed generation. The
interconnection rules are continuously reformulated because of the increasing RES penetration
(specifically, wind power) in to the grid and the rapid development of RES power generation system
technology.
The main focus in the electricity grid codes has been on the fault ride-through issue, where the
Transmission System Operators (TSO) requires wind power generators to stay connected to the grid
during and after a fault in the transmission system. In the several countries, new grid codes are already in
place for the RES power integration and these specifications have to be met. Indian Government policy
and regulatory framework both at the state and central levels are encouraging power generation from new
and renewable energy sources. In the next section a common grid code requirements have been suggested
and some technical and operational issues of high penetration of wind power and PV for Indian power
system are addressed.
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CHAPTER 4
Smart Grids
With the growing ultimatum of electrical power, Quality of Service (QoS) and continuity of supply has
been the utmost primacy for all major power utility sectors across the world, prior to the global market
strategy. Smart Grid is predominantly proposed as the quantum leap in harnessing communication and
information technologies to enhance grid reliability, and to enable integration of various smart grid
resources such as renewable energy, demand response, electric storage and electric transportation. It allow
greater competition between the providers, enabling greater use of intermittent power resources,
establishing the wide area automation and monitoring capabilities needed for both bulk transmission over
wide distances and distributed power generation, empowering more efficient outage management,
streamline back office operations, aiding the use of market forces to drive retail demand response and
energy conservation [25]. Smart Grid technology underscores factors like policies, regulation, and
efficiency of market, costs and benefits, and services that normalizes the marketing strategy, by
restructuring the global power scenario in a very dynamic approach. In addition to this, the concerns like
secure communication, standard protocols, advance database management and efficient architecture with
ethical data exchange, adds to its requisites.
The development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has updated the technology by
supporting dynamic real-time two-way energy and information flow, facilitating the integration of
renewable energy sources into the grid, empowering the consumer with tools for optimizing their energy
consumption, by introducing Advance Metering Infrastructures (AMI), Virtual Power Plant (VPP) and
other such incipient implements [26]. In addition, it helps grid to continuously self-monitor and self-adjust
to achieve self-healing function, so as to monitor all kinds of turbulences, carry on compensations,
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redeploy the power flow, avoid the intensification of accident and make each kind of different intelligent
devices to realize the network communication topologies.
Power engineers across the rondure have developed a curiosity in decarbonizing the electrical power while
minimizing the dependency of the fossils [27]. Such interest has fortified the growth of renewable energy
by ensuing the efficiency and economy of the power grids. Integrated distributed power sources, includes
renewable energy such as Fuel cells, Photovoltaic cells, Wind turbine, Micro hydro generators etc. could
prolific the needs like power stability, improve grid efficiency, recruit use of the Plug-in EVs, support
customer in changing their energy usage patterns, by reduction in power consumption and saving money.
High power electronics is also a key technology to build the smart grid technology in an eventual way by
adding new DC grids and AC Var sources at the T&D level, serving as backbones and additional stability
pillars to existing grids [28]. Fig. IV.1 visualizes a typical paradigm of Smart Grid Technology and its
distinctive feature.
Fig. IV.1. A paradigm of Smart Electricity Grid or Smart Grid
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Unlike such inevitable benefits, Smart Grid technology does have some burgeoning issues in both
technical and non-technical aspects. Researchers and power engineers are encroached to eliminate these
key issues for the proper and sound implementation of the technology across a large network. Such
approach is being initiated under the department of R&D in partnership with numerous world-class
institutes and multi-national companies in a due course of time.
4.1.
Global Outline of Smart Grids
To augment the socio-economic development and meet the energy demand, large power plants were being
installed and are being transmitted over HV transmission lines across different power deprived regions.
But, such engrossment not only surges huge investment, but also invites numerous non-technical issues
based on environment and judiciary matters [29]. In order to regulate the world-wide power market and
bringing down the ambiguous events in power system, power sectors are flourishing with new
advancement in technology, by initiation of non-technical principles such as Energy Management System
(EMS), Demand Side Management (DSM), optimized Assets Management etc. [30]. In addition to this,
the new emerging technologies like Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS), Phase Measurement Units
(PMUs), Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) etc. enriches
the modern power system and buzzes to new opportunities [31-32].
In the nearest future the world will overcome a major problem, the issue of demographic deviation in
developing and developed countries. The development goes hand in hand with an unremitting reduction
in non-renewable energy resources. It has been anticipated that the global population will be escalated by
a factor of 1.4 billion with a power consumption expectancy of 27,000 TWh by next decade. The statistics
is being shared by both developing and developed countries with a percentage of 45% and 55%
respectively [33].
For the needs of dramatically growing world population with the simultaneous reduction in fossils, we
have to deal with an area of conflicts between reliability of supply, environmental sustainability and
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economic efficiency. These can be resolved with the help of ideas, intelligent solutions as well as
innovative technologies, which are today’s and tomorrow’s challenges for the planning and power
engineers worldwide.
Smart Grid Visions, Roadmaps and Developments
In spite of the common view that the power industry would enter the smart grid development stage, the
smart grid research is still on evolutionary stage. Different development environment and drive force,
different countries’ power grid enterprise and organizations comprehend the smart grid concept in their
own way. In fact, the smart grid concept itself is being developed, enriched and cleared every day. As a
result of which, the research and practical approaches, methodologies and key points are quite different,
depending upon the factors like geographical locations as well as their advancement in sciences and
technology. Table 1 characterizes the comparison of development and advancement of Smart Grid among
the major nations in details [29].
Table IV.1
Smart Grid Initiatives in Major Nations
COUNTRIES
IMPROVEMENTS
IMPLEMENTABLITY
OUTCOMES
CONSORTIUMS/
SMART GRID
PROGRAM
UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA (US)
Smart Metering, AMI,
VPP, WAMS etc.
Smart Grid related projects to be
around $13bn per year, estimated
$20bn per year to be spent on T&D
projects, pilot studies on WAMS etc.
Reduction in annual electricity
bill by 10%, savage up to
$200bn in capital expenditure
on new plant and grid
investments by $30bn.
EPRI’s IntelliGrid
Program, DOE’s
GridWise Alliance,
Pacific Northwest
National
Laboratory (PNNL)
EUROPE
Renewables, Smart
meters, Plug-in EVs,
Energy Storage etc.
Development of RES, Smart metering
with ToU pricing, intelligent appliances
etc.
Load Management, power
quality improvement, grid
stability, energy efficiency.
ETP, EEGI,
EERA, IEA DSM
Task XVII, ENEL.
INDIA
Reduction in T&D losses,
WAMS, SGMM, QoS etc.
Using DSM to selectively curtail
electricity use, improving power quality,
increase use of renewables, intelligent
energy efficiency in the form of DG etc.
Rural Electrification, on-line
condition monitoring,
improvised market strategy by
real-time pricing technique.
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PGCIL’s and
REC’s RGGVJY,
APDRP; MNRE’s
APP Programme,
GE Smart Grid,
Tata Power, CGL
India etc.
CHINA
FINLAND
4.2.
Expand T&D capacity,
reduce line losses,
uplifting transmission
voltage, installing high
efficiency distribution
transformer etc.
Development of UHVAC and UHVDC,
use efficient distribution transformer,
more stress on HV transmission
network
Wide area power network,
efficient and economical
transmission and distribution
of power across the country
AMI, IHDs, ICTs, Smart
Meters etc.
Installation of AMI and smart meters
equipped with advance ICTs like RF,
PLC, Broadband, GPRS, 3G, Zigbee,
Wi-Fi, HAN etc.,
Fault diagnosis, fault location,
service restoration, voltage
and reactive power control
and network reconfiguration.
China State
Cooperation’s
Strengthened
Smart grid Plan
--
Smart Grid Technology
Smart Grid has been deployed across various nations with the impact of cutting edge technology; still
there are some more essentials to be accentuated to endeavor an ingrained operative system. Three very
incipient and crucial technologies are being discussed vividly in this section with detail analysis.
1.
Smart Transmission Grid
The backbone to deliver electric power from the generation station to the loads and consumers’ side, the
transmission network has frolicked vital role and has been highly recognized entity of power system
engineering. Commencing of the transmission of electric power to be a direct current (DC) transmission,
the scope of the transmission has been diversified to HVAC, HVDC transmission at various voltage levels
along with profuse complex network topologies. Up-gradation of transmission network by increasing high
capacity multi-circuit/bundle conductor lines, High Surge Impedance Loading (HSIL) Line, high capacity
HVDC system, High Temperature Low Sag (HTLS) Line, etc. facilitates the quality of power transmission
with the crux of reliability and economy of the system [34]. But still thriving challenges and issues which
are being faced off by todays’ transmission network such as; environmental challenges, market/customer
needs, infrastructure challenges and innovative technologies.
With the state of art technology advances in the areas of sensing, communication, control, computing and
information technology, it has quarried a unique vision of the future smart transmission grids by
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identifying the major smart characteristics and performance features to handle the challenges. Fig. IV.2
depicts the features and their characteristics of a Smart Transmission Grid [35]. A detailed analysis on the
smart transmission grid development is being described under three main interactive and smart
components; smart control centers, smart transmission networks and smart substations [36].
Fig. IV.2. Features and characteristics of Smart Transmission Grid
With this unique vision of smart transmission grid, it aims in promoting technology innovation to achieve
an inexpensive, reliable, flexible and sustainable delivery of electric power. It also enables some of the
key features such as:
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
Increased flexibility in control, operation and expansion.

Development of embedded intelligence

Foster resilience and sustainability of the grids.

Improve customer benefits and quality of service.
2.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
In the smart grid, consistent and RT information is the key factor for the reliable delivery of electric power
from the generation unit to the end-users. Lack of automated analysis, poor visibility, sluggish response
of mechanical switches, and dearth of situational awareness were some of the drawbacks of the classical
power system. With the incorporation of advance technologies and applications, the smart grid
architecture increases the capacity and flexibility of the network and provides advance sensing and control
through modern communication protocols and topologies.
Wired and Wireless modes are being complied for the transmission and communication of data and
information between the smart consumers and the utility sectors. Each of the modes of the communication
has its own advantages and disadvantages over each other, depending on the various factors such as
geographical location, capital investment, economy of use etc. Fig. VI.3 exemplifies some of the types of
wired and wireless type of communication [37].
Fig. IV.3. Types of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
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Two-way flows of electricity and information lay the infrastructure foundation for the smart grid. Smart
communication subsystem or the ICT are a dynamic sector of the Smart Grid infrastructure. The
infrastructure mainly visualizes the communication pattern in two conduits viz. sensor and electrical
appliance to smart meters, moreover between smart meters and utility data center. The communication
infrastructure between energy generation, transmission, and distribution and utilization requires two-way
communications; interoperability between advanced applications and end-to-end reliable and secure
communication with low-latencies and sufficient bandwidth. Along with advancement of system security
and robustness towards cyber-attacks which provides system stability and reliability with advanced
control adds to its essentials. Table IV.2 articulates some of the important communication topologies along
with their brief details, with emphasis on its advantages and disadvantages [38].
Table IV.2
Smart Grid Network Topologies
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
ZIGBEE COM
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATIONS *
2.4 GHz – 915Mhz,
250Kbps, 30-50 m
NA
WIRELESS MESH
NETWORK
GSM (900-1800MHz,
14.4Kbps, 1-10km)
CELLULAR NETWORK
GPRS (900-1800MHz,
170Kbps, 1-10km)
3G (1.92 – 2.17 GHz,
2Mbps, 1-10km)
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ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
Simplicity, mobility,
robustness, low bandwidth
requirement, load control
and reduction, demand
response, real-time
pricing, real-time system
monitoring and advance
metering support
Low processing capability,
small memory size, small
delay requirement, noise
and EMI, shares common
frequency band ranging
from IEEE 802.11 WLANs,
Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and
Microwave
Cost effective solution,
dynamic self-organization,
self-healing, selfconfiguration, high
scalability services,
improved network
performance, balanced
load network, extended
network coverage
Cost-effective,
widespread, sufficient
bandwidth, strong security
control, excellent
coverage, low
maintenance cost, quick
installation, authentication,
demand response
APPLICATIONS
Advance Metering
Infrastructure (AMI) and
Home Area Network (HAN)
Network capacity, EMI,
Urban coverage issue,
complex infrastructure,
bandwidth reduction, high
maintenance
Advance Metering
Infrastructure (AMI), Home
Energy Management and
Home Area Network (HAN)
Network congestion, poor
emergency response,
involvement of various
private ventures for use of
various spectrum band
Advance Metering
Infrastructure (AMI), Home
Area Network (HAN),
Outage management,
Demand side management
WiMAX (2.5-5.8GHz,
75Mbps, 10-50 km (LOS)
and 1-5 km (NLOS))
POWERLINE
COMMUNICATION (PLC)
1-30 Mhz, 2-3Mbps, 1-3 km
DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER
LINE (DSL)
1.1-4 MHz, 256Kbps40Mbps, 2-16km
Cost-effective, ubiquitous
nature, widely available
infrastructure, wide range,
enhanced system security
EMI, noise, low-bandwidth,
device sensitivity towards
disturbances and quality of
signal, multilevel protocols
Advance Metering
Infrastructure (AMI), Fraud
Detection, System
monitoring and control
Widespread availability,
low-cost, high bandwidth
data transmission
Distance dependency, lack
of standardization, costly
set-up, high maintenance,
Advance Metering
Infrastructure (AMI) and
Home Area Network (HAN)
* Technical specification specifies bandwidth (Hz), speed (bps) and network coverage (km).
In one hand wired technologies like DSL, PLC, optical fiber, are costly for wide area deployment but they
elites communication capacity, reliability and data security. On other hand, wireless technologies aids
reduced installation costs, but accolades constrained bandwidth and security. Although reliable and
effective information exchange is a key to the success of the future smart grid technologies, as
communication infrastructure must gratify QoS of data, reliability in data exchange, wide coverage,
fidelity of signal, and security and privacy of information.
3.
Smart Metering Technology
Smart metering system has been considered as an effective method for improving the pattern in power
consumption and efficiency of energy consumers thus reducing the financial burden of electricity. It is the
combination of power system, telecommunication and several other technologies. Indisputably, with the
development of science and cutting edge technology, more facilities have been added to this area.
Smart meter is an advance energy meter that measures the energy consumption of a consumer and provides
added information to the utility company compared to a regular energy meter. The bidirectional
communication of data enables the ability to collect information premeditated with communication
infrastructure and control devices. In addition, the meter is used to monitor and control home appliances
and devices, collect diagnostics information about the utility grid, support decentralized generation
sources, energy storage devices, and consolidate the metering units.
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Advanced metering Infrastructure (AMI), an appellation of smart metering technology which consists of
set of smart meters, communication modules, LAN, data collectors, WAN, network management system
(NMS), Outage Management System (OMS), Meter Data Management Systems (MDMS), and other
subsystems [39]. With an advance feature of data collection, the system procures a safe, secure, fast and
self-upgradable with developed vision of reliable and flexible access to electricity consumption of the
subscribers using power and distribution grid. A proposed architecture of open smart metering system has
been illustrated in Fig. IV.4 which also gives and brief view of application of AMI and other subsystems.
The model planned results and unified system for acquisition and control of power distribution systems.
The Data Model shown contains Virtual Meters which is a part of a wider concept called Virtual Power
Plant (VPP).
Fig. IV.4. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
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An important technological device called the In-Home Display (IHD) is an imperative development for
the advancement and implementation of smart metering system. A briefing has been revealed in table
IV.3. The proposed architecture was implemented within a Meter Data Management system, thereby
proving it worth.
Table IV.3
Smart Metering System using In-Home Display (IHD) units.
SMART METERING
PRINCIPLE OR NORM
OBJECTIVES
FACILITIES
LOCATIONS/REGIONS
AMI-Related System
Induces power savings by
time-varying tariff
Improvement in efficiency of power
distribution network by control of
power peak and demand response
Information of power
consumption and price
rate change in a
simple form
Australia and United
States
EMS-type System
Induces self-power savings
by offering detailed
information of energy
consumption w.r.t time
Improvement in efficiency of power
distribution network by control of
consumption level of power by the
consumers
Information of power
consumption, higher
resolution colour
display, multiple
information of other
utilities
Japan
SYSTEM
In the view of the wide range of advantages and applications, smart meter systems are being under large
scale development and deployment across the globe. Renowned power utilities organizations like Austin
Energy (US), Centerpoint Energy (Houston), Enel (Italy), Govt. of Ontario (Canada), KEPCO (Korea)
etc. are on a rapid fire temperament to implement the smart metering technology within its expected and
as-per planned dates [40]. Around $50 billion has been invested in North America with a target reach of
89% by 2012. Still huge investments are being arrayed across various developing and developed countries
supported by various organizations and venture capitalist firms.
4.
Smart Control and Monitoring System
With the invasion of very complex adaptive system of smart power grid; a dynamic, stochastic,
computational and scalable (DSCS) with innovative control technologies can be a promising trait for a
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reliable, secure and efficient power network [41]. This complexity and interconnectivity of the electric
power grid is aggregating with distributed integration of renewable sources of energy and energy storage
of all kinds. In contrary, different approaches to traditional modelling, control and optimization can be
augmented or relieved with in the grids for rapid adaptation, dynamic foresight, self-healing, power system
islanding, fault-tolerance, and robustness to disturbances and randomness. Global Dynamic Optimization
(GDO) is an important aspect to achieve for a DSCS strategy for smart control of the grid, where
Computational Intelligence (CI) and Adaptive Critic Designs (ADCs) are referred as the promising and
potential approaches. These are an adaptive mechanism inspired from natural phenomena and AI
paradigm which facilitates intelligent and smart behavior during complex, uncertain and changing
environments [42]. These paradigms of CI inter-combine to form hybrids viz. neuro-fuzzy systems, neuroswarm systems, fuzzy-PSO systems, fuzzy-GA systems, neuro-genetic systems etc., and ensuing superior
than any specific paradigm. In addition, the ADCs are based on the combined concept of reinforcement
learning and approximate dynamic programming using neural network-based designs for optimization
[43]. Table IV.4 exemplifies the control technologies using the GDO.
Table IV.4
Innovative Control Technologies using GDO (CI and ADCs based)
CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CI and ADCs based)
OUTCOMES
Neural Networks and Fuzzy System
Captures non-linearity in power systems and smart grids
Neural Networks
Behavioral modelling, fast, dynamic decision in smart grids
Fuzzy and Neuro-Fuzzy
Fast and accurate decision making during uncertainty and invariability in the system
Artificial Immune Systems
Immunizes against transients that results from disturbances and fault in smart grids, thus
provides fault-tolerance
Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary
Computation
Allows offline, large scale optimization of smart grid operation
Adaptive Critic Designs (ACDs)
Allows design of robust, adaptive and optimal controllers in a dynamic, uncertain and variable
smart grid environment, dynamic optimization and scheduling.
Computational Intelligence (CI)
Self-healing characteristics in power grids
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Some of key features of Smart Grid control and monitoring have been discussed as follows:
i.
Self-Healing
To ensure grid stability and improve the supply quality, avoid or mitigate power outages, power quality
problem, and service disruption using real-time information from embedded sensor and automated control
to anticipate, detect and respond to system problem, is conferred to be a self-healing power network. Such
systems are independent of user interaction, where decisions making are based on the knowledge from the
pre-estimated and pre-monitored results. In general, the self-healing is distinguished in two levels: selfhealing in the physical (monitored hardware) layer and the logical (monitored application/system) layer,
according to situation of concerns [43].
ii.
Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC)
Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) and Wide-area monitoring, protection, and control
(WAMPAC) encompasses the use of system-wide information and the communication of specific local
information to a remote location to counteract the propagation of large disturbances in a system. With the
invasion of adaptive system of smart power grid; a dynamic, stochastic, computational and scalable
(DSCS) with innovative control technologies can be a promising trait for a reliable, secure and efficient
functioning of WAMPAC. Synchrophasor Measurement Technology (SMT) is an important element to
WAMPAC which includes both short-term objectives such as enhanced visualization of the power system,
post disturbance analysis, and model validations, and long-term objectives such as the development of a
WAMPAC system. Such type of conceptual architecture has been employed in Eastern Interconnect
Phasor Project (EIPP) in United States.
With the increased international research and development, several monitoring and control application are
based on Synchrophasor-based Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control System (WAMPAC).
Though with small scale adoption, it has played a major role in some large transmission system operators.
The WAMPAC system consist of a measurement device, the Phase Measurement Units (PMUs), their
50 | P a g e
supporting infrastructure which is formed by communication networks and computer systems capable of
handling PMU data and other information, usually called the Phase Data Concentrators (PDCs). The set
PMUs and their aiding ICT infrastructure are termed as Synchrophasor Measurement Technology (SMT)
[44].
The basic components of a WAMC system are the following: PMUs, PDCs, a PMU-based application
system, and a communication network to connect the interfaces. Similar to traditional SCADA systems,
there are three layers in a WAMC system. Fig. IV.5 illustrates a typical schematic of different layers and
components of a basic WAMC system.
In Layer 1, the WAMC system interfaces with the power system on substation bars and power lines
where the PMUs are placed, this is called the Data Acquisition layer.
Layer 2 is known as the Data Management layer, in this layer the Synchrophasor measurements are
collected and sorted into a single time synchronized dataset.
Finally, Layer 3 is the Application Layer; it represents the real-time PMU data-based application
functions that process the time-synchronized PMU measurements provided by Layer 2.
Fig. IV.5. Components of Wide Area Monitoring and Control.
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The architecture depends on specific system needs, its topology, generation profile, and the quality of the
communication infrastructure. Accordingly, several applications are being design as per requirements and
system understanding using the desired WAM architecture and components as discussed. The application
of the WAM system and control, are based on mainly two aspects viz. online application and offline
application. As per the name goes, an online application entitles continuous up-gradation of data over a
data link from client to server and vice-versa, measured at every pre-specified intervals. Whereas, an
offline data application is archived and stored, and the process incorporated quarrying as per batches or
sets defined as per data volume. The WAMPAC demonstrates some applications namely, dynamic
recording, real-time system state determination, tuning of system parameters, congestion management,
phase angle and disturbance propagation monitoring, estimation of load model parameters, as well as
protection and control related applications [45-46].
These applications that route real-time sub-second incoming continuous streams of measurement data
have a greater number of challenges and constraints. If the data was inaccurate or distorted this could lead
to an application failure or worst, producing misleading results which could deceive the operators. Another
aspect is the overwhelming volume of incoming data that a client system has to process, which could
inhibit performance. As a foremost concern, future works are being focused on implementing more
algorithms and evaluating such ICT challenges and constraints.
iii.
Power System Islanding
When interconnected power system out-of-step occurs, it is authoritative to sense it rapidly, and islanding
should be taken to prevent widespread blackout of the system. Due to system transient instability, which
causes large separation of generator rotor angles, large swings of power flows, large fluctuations of
voltages and currents, and eventually lead to a loss of synchronism between groups of generators or
between neighboring utility systems, for certain severe disturbances, shall be intentionally spilt into two
or more ‘islands’ to preserve as much of the generation and load as possible.
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An islanding scheme has widespread application in Microgrid, significantly in distribution grids that can
operate in controllable, intentional islanding conditions, decoupled from the main grid. In addition,
islanding detection is also employed in order to switch the control modes of distributed generators from
power injection to voltage and frequency control during disconnection and opposite during reconnection
to the main grid. In order to endure a seamless islanding scheme, some restraints are to be satisfied for
splitting operation as such;

Pre-planned splitting should be procured as well as system should be isolated at pre-determined
splitting points during fault.

Synchronism of the generators at each island and isolation of asynchronous groups of generators into
different islands should be incorporated, and

Balance of the power should be maintained in each island.
Different adaption strategies and multi-functionality (voltage, frequency and power) algorithms are being
deployed for the islanding of the power system for the proficient and steadfast control of the power grid
resulting in smart operations. Few of such incorporative techniques are being described in.
As mentioned earlier the smart power grid becomes much more complex than the classical grid as timevarying sources of energy and integration of new technologies. Apparently, numerous organizations and
institutional aids are being associated for the design and development of optimized and reckless dynamic
response control algorithms for the smart operation of the grid networks.
4.3.
Further Advancements in Smart Grid Technology
Modern power system and the future ones are none different than the classical ones, as the system includes
some of the advance and smart devices with the use of state-of-art technology such as RES Integration,
Energy Storages, Microgrid and Hybrid energy system control, super smart grids, along with wide spread
application of information and communication technology.
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The Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) of US has reported in 2005 an estimation that around 2100
TWh/year of power capacity can be generated by tidal or wave energy, near Northern Europe, Southern
Chile, South Africa, South-Western Australia, and Alaska due to high value of wave power flux [47].
However, greater challenges are being confronted as the tremendous and catastrophic impact of such
energy can cost billions of investment in both technical and non-technical aspects. Still researchers and
power engineers are intensifying their optimization techniques with their extensive ideas. Also, biomass
and fuel cell development are also at the forefront of the evolution due to the impact of chemical, material
and biological sciences. An elegant perception of “Super Smart Grid (SSG)”, a hypothetical wide area
network of electric power with the unification of various national grids and renewable sources initiated in
the European countries including the Northern Africa, Middle East, Turkey and the IPS/UPS system of
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries [48]. It initiates a large scale utilization of
alternative energy, and as well as advocates of enhanced energy security for Europe.
Due to the proliferation and propagation of advance technologies, smart grid has been taken over by
various developing and developed nations across the globe, with initiatives undertaken with the assistance
of the government and non-government organizations. Huge investments have been committed by
different countries to initiate and establish distributed demand side management, smart metering,
substation automation, PHEVs etc.
Countries like China are moreover transmission-centric, with the procurement of WAMS and PMU
sensors at all generators units and substations to be established by near future. Comparing, countries like
US and Europeans, are concerned about the development of Smart Grid Technology Platform for
electricity network nationwide [51]. An around, $100 million is being funded to build smart grid, and
create Grid Modernization Commissions to assess the benefits of demand response and to recommend
needed protocol standards. The Smart Grid Maturity Model (SGMM), Smart Grid Task Force (SGTF) and
Smart Grid Forum are being initiated by India, for the transformation of entire power grid forward towards
54 | P a g e
smarter grid [52]. Of around, $370 billion is being estimated to be spent for the deployment of smart grid
technology with an overall conjecture of 130 million smart meters to be installed at various consumer
levels by 2030 [53]. Still huge headway investments and planning are being done by nations like Korea
and Saudi Arabia. The next section discusses about the deployment of smart grid in Indian sub-continent
in detail and its future perspectives.
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CHAPTER 5
Vision of India towards Smart Grid Technology
Due to the consequence of cutting edge technology, buzzwords like energy conservation and emission
reduction, green energy, sustainable development, safety factor, reduction of T&D losses, optimal
utilization of assets, have turn out to be the core of discussion. As India is struggling to meet its electricity
demands, both in terms of Energy and Peak Load, Smart Grids can help better manage the shortage of
power and optimize the power grid status in the country. A “Smart Grid” is a perception of remodeling
the scenario of the nation’s electric power grid, by the convergence of information and operational
technology applied to electrical grid, allowing sustainable option to the customers and upgraded security,
reliability and efficiency to utilities [54]. The elite vision of Smart Grid (SG) Technology allows energy
to be generated, transmitted, distributed and utilized more effectively and efficiently.
Demand Side Management (DSM) is an essential practice for optimized and effective use of electricity,
particularly in the developing countries like India where the demand is in excess of the available
generation. Such kind of non-technical losses can be overcome by electricity grid intelligence [55], which
focuses on advanced control and communication protocols integrated with the utility providing a complete
package for the requirement of “Smart Grid”.
With the introduction of the Indian Electricity Act 2003, the APDRP was transformed to restructured
APDRP (R-APDRP) which has improvised the operation and control, and has attempted a seamless
integration of generation (including distributed energy resources (DER), transmission and distributed
system through usage of intervening information technology (IT) that uses high speed computers and
advance communication network, and employing open standard with vendor-neutrality is deemed a
cornerstone for embracing the up-and-coming conceptualization of Smart Grid for India scenario.
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A vivid study of the power scenario has been illustrated each classified rendering to the timeline in brief.
Introducing with the power strategy management in the past, the whole system was monitored and
controlled using telephonic medium which was purely a blue-collar job. The system was solely dependent
on a single generation unit or the interconnected substations. On further progress in science and
technology, the system is monitored round the clock using advance data communication protocols. As
well the substation has the islanding facility with immediate power backups to maintain the grid stable.
India as a developing country, the scenario of the power system changes in exponential basis. Moreover
the system is expected to be more reliable and flexible with its advancement in data communication and
data analysis facility. Fig. V.1 illustrates about the advancement and it immediate results during its
implementation in future. The conclusive approach for the Indian Smart Grid would be visualized
accordingly, with latest technological advancement and extensive features as shown in Fig. V.2 [56].
Fig. V.1. Smart Electricity System
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Fig. V.2. Hierarchy of Indian Smart Grid
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5.1.
Smart Grid Initiatives in India
As it has been acknowledged earlier that, Smart Grid Technology has a widespread overview of
transforming the Indian power grid from technology based standard to performance based standard. The
Ministry of Power (MoP) participated in the SMART 2020 event with “The Climate Group” [57] and
“The Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI)” in October 2008 which aimed to highlight the reports
relevant to key stakeholders in India. Unfortunately, the possible “way forward” has not yet been drilled
out and is still a question mark for the Government. But to facilitate demand side management distribution
networks has been fully-augmented and upgraded for IT enabling, which has enhanced the grid network
with amended customer service. Table V.1 provides a brief analysis of some of the initiative which has
been taken under the supervision of many government and private bodies and allies [58-63].
In the view of multitude that could be accrued, it is suggested that there should be ample Government
regulatory support and policy initiatives to move towards Smart Grids. India is in its nascent stage of
implementing various other controls and monitoring technology, one of such is ADA [64]. Further
researches are being carried out in some of the elite institutes in the country in collaboration with some of
the various multinational companies and power sectors across the nation.
Table V.1
Smart Grid Initiatives in India by Various Organizations.
SMART GRID INITIATIVES IN INDIA
REGION/LOCATION OF
IMPLEMENTATION
Northern Region (NR-I and NR-II)
Power Grid Corporation Of India Limited
(PGCIL)
Western Region (WR-1 and WR-II)
Crompton Greaves Limited (CGL)
NA
North And West Delhi
North Delhi Power Limited (NDPL)
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REGION/LOCATION OF
IMPLEMENTATION
PMUs with GPS system, PDC at
NRLDC, smart load control, on-line
condition monitoring, data
communication using fibre link
Intelligent monitoring and control of
the interconnected electric power grid
using Wide Area Monitoring (WAM)
Integrated SCADA solution, Smart
bay control, Smart protection IEDs,
Smart Metering solution, Smart load
break switches etc.
SCADA controlled grid station,
automatic meter infrastructure, GSM
based street lightning, GIS platform
with fault management system
REGION/LOCATION
OF
IMPLEMENTATION
M/s SEL group
TCS, IIT Mumbai,
Tata Power
Project funded by
CSIR under NMITLI
Govt. of India
Tata Power, GE
SmartGrid
Technologies and
Govt. of Delhi
Development of SGMM, hi-tech
automation control and monitoring,
integration of grids, improvise market
strategy
T&D Loss reduction, ensuring reliable
and quality power with least
interruption, quick turnaround,
intelligent grid monitoring
North And West Delhi
Bangalore Electricity Supply Company
(BESCO)
8 Districts Of Karnataka
IBM, IUN Coalition
KPTCL
Due to advent of advance information and communication technology (ICT) and proliferation of green
energy, it’s liable that Smart Grid technology transforms to more superior and advanced form. Some the
newly innovated prospects like renewable energy integration, rural electrification and micro grid are to be
featured in it [65].
1. Renewable Energy Integration
Present-day environmental awareness, resulting from coal fired power station, has fortified interest in the
development of the modern smart grid technology and its integration with green and sustainable energy.
Table V.2 provides and brief analysis of the renewable energy development in India which has been
planned according to Five year Plans by the Indian Government and the Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy (MNRE) [66]. With the perception of renewable energy, the energy converges to; reduction in
carbon footprints, cleaner environment, plug-in EV, decentralized power which increases the quality of
living standard and enhances the power system quality along with the stability of the grid network.
Table V.2
Installed capacity of renewable energy in Indian according to five year plan.
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
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2007-2012
(in GW)
THROUGH 2012
(in GW)
THROUGH 2022
(in GW)
Wind
10.5
17
40
Hydro
1.4
3.5
6.5
Biomass
2.1
3
7.5
Solar
1
1.5
20
TOTAL
15
25
74
But in contrary to that the power quality also bids some of the potential challenges such as; voltage
regulation, power system transient and harmonics, reactive power compensation, grid synchronization,
energy storage, load management and poor switching action etc., [67]. These problems are mainly
visualized for major renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy. Other energy sources like
biomass, hydro and geothermal sources have no such significant problem on integration of grid.
Integration of renewables with the Smart Grids makes the system more reliable and flexible in economic
load dispatch, not only in a specified location but in a wide area, even between the nations. Nordic
countries have practiced such grid integration among its neighboring nations and still future
implementations are being focused on [68]. However, forecasting approaches, design algorithm and other
models are being developed by many research analysis teams and are to be established in many regions
across the nationwide. Fig. V.3 below represents a brief analysis of solicitation of renewables in smart
grid technology in its whole network of power system engineering.
Fig. V.3. Renewable in Smart Grid Technology.
The volatility of fossil fuels has opened the ground for new and renewable energy sources. With the
inherent unpredictability, the wind and the photo voltaic cell should be supported by upcoming
technologies like Micro Grid and ICT. Such emerging technologies will play a major role in sustainable
standard of living with economical insolence. Large scale implementation of the renewables need to have
motivating government policies and well established standards. Proper financial support is the governing
factor for a generation deficient and developing country like India.
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2. Rural Electrification
Technologies are advancing day-by-day, Smart distribution technologies allowing for increased levels of
distributed generation have a high potential to address rural electrification needs and minimize the erection
costs, transmission losses and maintenance costs associated with large transmission grids. Rural
Electrification Corporation Limited (REC) is a leading public infrastructure finance company in India’s
power sector which finances and promotes rural electrification projects across the nation, operating
through a network of 13 Project offices and 5 Zonal offices. Along with the government of India has
launched various programs and schemes for the successful promotion and implementation of rural
electrification. One such major scheme is Rajiv Gandhi Gramen Vidyutkaran Yojana (RGGVY). Other
schemes like, Pradhan Mantri Garmodaya Yojana (PMGY), Three phase feeders-single phasing and
Smart metering, Kutir Jyoti Program (KJP), Accelerated Rural Electrification Program (AREP), Rural
Electricity Supply Technology Mission (REST), Accelerated Electrification of one hundred villages and
10 million households, Remote Village Renewable Energy Programme (RVREP) and Grid-connected
Village Renewable Programme (GVREP) [5], [69-70]. Some of them have got a remarkable success but
some of them got trapped in for their own interest due to various non-technical issues [71-72]. Some of
the key features of such projects are; to achieve 100% electrification of all villages and habitation in India,
provide electricity access to all households, free-of-cost electricity to BPL households, DDG system,
smart based metering, promote fund, finance and facilitate alternative approaches in rural electrification,
single light solar lightning system for remote villages and its hamlets. Table-3 provides a detail analysis
of various rural electrification initiatives taken under the guidance of govt. of India.
Table V.3
Rural Electrification schemes implemented by Govt. of India.
RURAL
ELECTRIFICATION
SCHEMES
Rajiv Gandhi Grameen
Vidyutikaran Yojana
(RGGVY)
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YEAR OF
IMPLEMENTATION
2005
OBJECTIVES OF THE SCHEME
GOVERNING BODY
To achive 100% electrification of all villages and habitation
in India to provide electricity access to all households, to
provide free-of-cost electricity connection to BPL
households
Rural Electrification
Coorporation (REC)
Three phase feedersingle phasing and
Smart card metering
Pradhan Mantri
Gramodaya Yojna
(PMGY)
Govt. of India
NA
Reliable service that meets the needs of agriculture,
household supply, irrigation facility etc
2000-2001
NA
Rural Electrification Corporation
(REC) and State Electricity
Board
Kutir Jyoti Program
(KJP)
1988-89
Provide single point light connection, provide electricity
access under-developed villiages
Govt. of India, later merged with
RGGVY under REC
Minimum Needs
Program (MNP)
NA
Targeted states with less than 65% RE and provide 100%
loan for last mile connectivity
Govt. of India, later merged with
RGGVY under REC
Accelerated Rural
Electrification Program
(AREP)
2003-2004
Electrification of non-electrified villages/electrification of
hamlets/dalit bastis/ tribal villages and electrification of
households in the villages through conventional and nonconventional source of energy
State utilities, Govt. of India,
later merged with RGGVY
under REC
Rural Electricity Supply
Technology Mission
(REST)
2002
Identify and adopt technological solutions, promote fund,
finance and facilitate alternative apporach to RE,
coordinates with various ministries, apex institutions and
research organizations to facilitate meeting national
objectives, etc.
Govt. of India, later merged with
RGGVY under REC
2007-2012
Development of solar thermal system and biogas plant
Planning Commision of India,
Govt. of India
2004-2005
Merging interest subsidy scheme AREP and KJP, 40%
capital subsidy was provided for RE projects and balance
amount as a soft term loan through REC
Govt. of India, later merged with
RGGVY under REC
2007-2012
Decentralized renewable electricity system, remote village
solar lightning programme (RVSLP)
Planning Commision of India,
Govt. of India
Grid-connected Village
Renewable Energy
Programme (GVREP)
Accelerated
Electrification of one
hundred villages and 10
million households
Remote Village
Renewable Energy
Programme (RVREP)
The present rural electrification scenario in the nation is still uncertain, and is yet to be put on more
exploration and verified by the Ministry of Power (MoP) and Ministry of New and Renewable MNRE).
Over 500,000 thousand of India’s 600,000 thousand villages are deemed to be electrified [73]. As in such
case, the Indian Government and Indian businesses sector would need to invest on more such projects and
schemes, for low-footprint technologies, renewable sources of energy, smart metering and resource
efficient infrastructure.
3. Micro Grid
The renewable resources in absolutely stand-alone mode do not perform reasonable due to reliability
issues subjected to asymmetrical behavior and disturbance in weather conditions. As in such cases, the
generators are supported by another generating technology and/or storage devices consist of two or more
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distributed generation system like; wind-PV, wind-diesel etc., to supply a common load. Such a
technology is called Hybrid energy [34]. Hybrid connection of different resources and/or storage devices
improves the reliability of the system, as well as is technically and economically sustainable a more ethical
approach is to congregate all such technology into Micro Grid. There are some similarities between Smart
Grid and Micro Grids or smart Micro Grids. But, the scale, the type of decision makers involved and the
impending rate of growth are different for both. Smart Grid are realized at the utility and national grid
level, concerning large transmission and distribution lines, while the smart Micro Grid integrates various
DG technologies into electricity distribution networks and have faster implementation [74]. Smart Micro
Grid are to create perfect power system with smart technology, redundancy, distributed generation and
storage, cogeneration or combines heat and power, improve voltage profile, cost reduction, reduction in
carbon credits, smart regulation of appliances and load etc.. India has just initiated their effort in this
direction with two small Micro Grid projects as described in Table V.4, with brief analysis of the projects
along with the technology used, installed capacity and its remarks. These projects are supported by the
public-private partnerships.
Table V.4
Micro grid Projects in India.
MICRO GRID PROJECTS
Sagar Island Micro Grid
Sundarban Region
Asia Pacific Partnership
(APP) Programmes or AsiaPacific Partnership
Development on Clean
Development and Climate
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JOINT VENTURES
Funded by MNRE, Govt.
of India, Indo-Canadian
Enviornment Facility
(ICEF) and West Bengal
Renewable Energy
Developmnet Agency
(WBREDA)
Leadership of US
alongwith 6 nation
(Japan, Australia, Korea,
China, India and
Canada)
TECHNOLOGY USED/
OBJECTIVES
INSTALLED CAPACITY
REMARKS
Solar Power Plant
300kW
Serving more than 1500
consumers
Solar Home Lightning
3200kW approx.
6000 nos. serving about
10,000 people
Bio-mass Gasifier
1000kW
Serving around 1000
consumer
Wind Farm
1000kW
Grid connected
Formation of Renewable
Energy and Distributed
Generation Task Force
(REDGTF) to conduct
preliminary and feasiblity
studies of development of SE
NA
Facilitate cost-effective,
cheaper, cleaner, more
efficient technologies and
practices, pollution
reduction , energy security
etc.
CHAPTER 6
Challenges in Implementation of Smart Grid
The key features of smart grid offers lots of advantages and future perspectives in power dominion,
revitalizing the socio-economic strategies of the realms. But, in contrary the wide-spread applications of
up-and-coming technologies summons vulnerabilities which may result in perilous catastrophe, like longterm blackout, economic breakdown, terrorist attacks etc., if not taken care of. Table VI.1 provides a brief
study on some of the challenges of smart grid technology [75].
Table VI.1
Challenges of Smart Grid Technology.
TECHNOLOGY
CHANLLENGES
OBLIGATIONS
Security
Exposed to internet attacks (spams, worms, virus etc.), question of National
security
Reliability
Failure during natural calamities, system outages and total blackout
Wind/PV generation and forecasting
Long-term and un-predictable intermittent sources of energy, unscheduled
power flow and dispatch
Power Flow Optimization
Transmission line congestions and huge investments
Power System Stability
Decoupling causes system stability issues causes reduced inertia due to high
level of wind penetration
Cost
Expensive energy storage systems like Ultra capacitors, SMES, CAES etc.
Complexity
Complex customary design module and networks
Non-flexibility
Unique designs for all individual networks not ease adaptation.
Security
Malware, data intercepting, data corruption, illegal power handling and
smuggling
Privacy
Sharing of data cause privacy invasion, identity spoofing, eavesdropping etc.
Consumer awareness
Corruption and system threats like security and privacy issues
Grid Automation
Need of strong data routing system, with secure and private network for
reliable protection, control and communication
Grid Reconfiguration
Generation demand equilibrium and power system stability with grid complexity
Disturbance Identification
Grid disturbances due to local faults in grids, load centers or sources
Harmonics Suppression
System instability during sags, dips or voltage variation such as over-voltages,
under voltages, voltage flickers etc.
Self-Healing Action
Renewable Energy
Integration
Energy Storage Systems
Consumers’ Motivation
Reliability
Power Quality
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With these aforementioned challenges; metrics, cost and benefits analysis of Smart Grid field projects has
also been some major challenges [76]. These includes; enabling a fair comparison of baseline performance
and smart grid performance, collecting proper data at appropriate frequency and location, determining
societal benefits, monetizing benefits, using appropriate assumption and estimation methods etc.
Extensive researches are being initiated by various universities towards this technology in order to
overcome its multiple multi-levels challenges. Power system and design engineers are being trained, to
understand and investigate about system variables and reconFig. the power grids to a smarter way. Being
a corner stone in future power system network configuration, it has been anticipated that a strong and
viable solution can be envisioned to contempt the energy market challenges [77].
6.1.
Technical Challenges for Development of Smart Grid in India
A proper coordination among the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of the power is
essential for proper and reliable functioning of the grid. For a developing nation like India, possible
challenges that represent the main obstacles for development of smart grid in India are as follows:
1) Integration of RES in India: For better implementation of smart grid share of renewable energy sources
must be increased to 30% to 40% of total generating capacity which requires large investment with high
technical knowledge. Renewable energies such as small hydro plants, solar PV, wind, biomass, and tidal
based generations have many technical and commercial challenges viz., forecasting and dependency,
reliability, grid connection requirements, power flow optimization and stability issues, reactive power
compensation, involvement of power electronic devices etc. To eradicate such issues the government and
power agencies has amended an optimized grid connection codes for the reliable and flexible operation of
RES and integration in to classical grid. This is explained in successive section in details.
2) Energy Storage System (ESS): With the incorporation of RES in forthcoming times, it is desirable to
integrate energy storage devices such as batteries, flywheel, electrical vehicles etc. due to the intermittent
behavior of the RES and uphold the endurance of the power network. Such increases the efficient and
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maximum utilization of renewable energy sources when available. Being at the prolific stage of
development in India we often face issues like; complexity and non-flexibility, design considerations, high
capital investment, and lack of technical conscience about ESS.
3) Consumer Participation: Active participation of consumers is the foremost concern for the
development of smart grid. A smart grid incorporates consumers’ equipment and behavior in grid design,
operation and communication. A bi-directional data link enables consumers to better control of smart
appliances and equipment in homes and business. Even though challenges in consumer’s participation in
smart grid implementations viz., lack of bidirectional communication data link between consumers and
utilities, security of consumers, reliability of supply authority, awareness about the use of energy efficient
smart appliance and energy management, complication in billing process and, high capital investment
involved for designing smart building.
4) Automation, Protection and Control: Automation facilitates high level quality and reliable power for
both consumer as well as utility sectors. For consumers, automation means receiving hourly electricity
price signals and for utility sector, automation means automatic islanding of distribution feeder with local
distributed energy sources in an emergency. In developing nation like India, million dollar investment is
required with high design skills. Automation, protection and control will benefit for proper operational
utilities of smart grid. Complex distribution network, lack of satisfactory sensors and actuators,
communication link delay, aging of the devices etc. are few dire challenges faced by Indian power grid.
5) Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs): Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) are the electronic based
multipurpose meters used in existing grids. IEDs receive data from sensors and power equipment, and can
issue control commands, such as tripping circuit breakers if they sense voltage, current, or frequency
anomalies, or raise/lower voltage levels in order to maintain the desired level. Unlike other measurement
devices, it issues challenges in IEDs like conversion from electromechanical to static metering,
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standardization in design, Fast data acquisitions and its management with advance state-of-art
communication data wiring.
6) Telecommunication: The fundamental of the smart grid transformation is the use of intelligent
communications networks or the implication of information and communication technology with systems
as the platform that enables grid instrumentation, analysis and control of utility operations from power
generation to trading, and from transmission and distribution to retail. In India such as power line carrier
communication (PLCC), land line, and other wired and wireless communications are installed. The major
challenges of telecommunication in smart grids are evaluation of system reliability, security and
availability, collection of data, storage, design of architecture and monitoring system, physical and cyber
security, threat defense and access control.
7) Power Quality: Proper knowledge of power quality issues and its low cost mitigation measures is
required in India. The power quality problems are broadly classified into two categories viz. variations
and events. As the advent of power electronic based circuits is essential part of smart grids, quality of
power must be analyzed. The technical challenges of power quality like analysis of discharge of new
devices connected in smart grid and its allocation, measurement of power quality indices, reduced voltage
support and large problem of voltage sag, weak transmission system, lack of awareness in consumers, and
high cost of mitigation methods are the foremost concerns.
8) Reliability: In India, due to lack of energy available, problems like blackouts and brownouts are
common, which is required to reduce effectively within niche timeline. The following are possible
challenges in achieving improved reliability; grid automation, grid reconfiguration, dwindling human
interaction, high speed fault locators and repairing, preserving generation-demand equilibrium.
9) Power Market Tools: To accommodate changes in markets of retail power, market-based mechanisms
are need. This will offer incentives to market participants in ways that benefit all stakeholder. In India,
there is lack of co-ordination in suppliers and service providers. Following are the challenges of power
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market: Financial management, open access of data, development of data and communication standards
for emerging market, development of market simulation tools.
10) Demand Side Management (DSM): DSM is widely recognized as a definitive and practical source of
information. DSM is the planning, implementation and monitoring of those utility activities designed to
influence customer use of electricity in ways that will produced desired changes in utility’s load shape.
The challenges subjects are; smart metering, load research and dispatch, Load control and scheduling and
development of software for DSM.
As the existing power grid has professed aforementioned technical challenges and issues so to prevail
such, smart grid is essential in India. While developing smart grid, various technical problems might occur
as discussed above. The solution of these challenges is possible through a proper research initiatives under
the collaboration of government and state-of-art highly equipped skill test facility. In addition, power
system engineers have to now be trained more deeply about the smart grid and its related challenges,
which would able to resolve these technical challenges.
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CHAPTER 7
Grid Connection Planning
As a result, the level of integration of distributed generation (DG) technologies, especially in distribution
networks has increased. In order to counteract the impact of DG on the stability and reliability of power
systems, the transmission and distribution systems operators have started to reconsider and update their
national grid codes. The grid codes differed from country to country due to the different regulations, laws
and different characteristics of their national power systems. These grid codes are set of technical
guidelines and operation specification upon which large conventional power plants needed to comply with
in order to maintain grid stability and avoid hostile grid disturbances like excessive line loading.
At distribution power system (DPS) level, grid codes were mainly used to specify and design the
guidelines which the distribution network operators (DNOs) will apply in the planning and development
of DPSs, with the compliance of end users (loads).In today’s context, when generation had moved, also
to lowest levels of the power systems (medium and low voltage levels), the loads have transformed into
active ones and power systems into entities with a bidirectional energy and informational flow. When this
change occurred in the DPS, the DNOs assessed normally the DG integration by conducting simple
integration studies (load flow, basic power quality studies) because the amount of DG integration was
small and the stipulated technical guidelines were simple or even absent.
In the last years, a harmonization work of grid codes related to DG has been carried out at international
level and the results are being shaped into a set of standards and recommendations. Most of them have
become part of the national policies regarding DG or reference points for developing new ones (e.g.:
IEEE-1547, IEC-62109, IEC- 62477, ENTSO-E draft grid code). The grid codes elaborated at DPS level
are basically regarding, frequency and voltage operation areas, active and reactive power control, voltage
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grid support during balanced disturbances, synthetic inertial capability or inertia emulation, oscillation
damping in DPS and reactive current injection and absorption for fast acting voltage control.
7.1.
Common Requirements for Grid Codes related to DG
The common grid connection requirements for RES integration being scrutinized by several countries
upon which the grid codes are framed as per the nation’s power grid requirement. The following table
IV.1 exemplifies set of common technical connection requirement upon which operation states in which
DPS is functioned.
Table VII.1
Common Grid Code Requirements (GCRs) for grid operation and connection for RESs.
OPERATATION STATE
REQUIREMENTS
Voltage operating range
Frequency operating range
Active power control
STEADY STATE OPERATION
Frequency control
Voltage control
Reactive power control
Low Voltage Ride Through
(LVRT)
DYNAMIC OR TRANSIENT
STATE OPERATION
High Voltage Ride Through
(HVRT)
Voltage control
Inertia Emulation
Damping of oscillation
ASSETS
To operate at typical grid voltage variations.
To operate within typical grid variations.
To provide active power control to ensure a stable frequency, respond to
desired range of ramp rates and prevent overloading of lines, etc.
To provide frequency regulation capability to help maintain the desired
network frequency.
To control their own terminal voltage to a constant value by means of an
Automatic Voltage regulator (AVR)
To provide dynamic reactive power control capability to maintain reactive
power balance and the power factor in the desired range.
To remain connected for the specific amount of time before being allowed to
disconnect during voltage sag and also to support grid voltage for certain
utilities during faults.
To stay on line for the given length of time during voltage rise (above upper
limit)
To inject reactive current into the grid or absorb upon desired requirement
for fast acting voltage control
To generate active power variations w.r.t the derivation of frequency in the
PCC.
To be equipped with power system stabilizers in order to damp power
oscillations in a predefined frequency range
The following table IV.2 are the important grid codes related to DG of few major countries which has
been interconnecting DG under certain norms and regulations which also involve penetration of RES [78].
Table VII.2
Grid Codes related to DG involving RESs integration of various nations.
COUNTRY
Hydro Québec (February,
Canada
2009)
Manitoba Hydro (January,
2003)
Germany (June, 2008)
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GRID CODES
“Requirements for the Interconnection of Distributed Generation to the HydroQuébec Medium-Voltage Distribution System ̎
̎ Interconnection Guideline for Connecting Distributed Resources to the Manitoba
Hydro Distribution System ̎
Guideline for generating plants connection to and parallel operation with the
medium voltage network
Ireland (March, 2011)
Spain (October, 2008)
United Kingdom (June, 2009)
India (April, 2006)
ENTSO-E (January, 2012)*
IEEE -1547 (July, 2003)*
EirGrid Grid Code
Technical requirements for wind power and photovoltaic installations and any
generating facilities whose technology does not consist on a synchronous
generator directly connected to the grid
The Grid Code and The Distribution Code
Indian Electricity Grid Code (IEGC)
Requirements for Grid Connection Applicable to all Generators
Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
*international grid codes
7.2
The Indian Power Grid
As per the IEEE 519 standard, it recommends that with maximum current distortion for ISC/IL (<20) for
current harmonics ≥ 35th is 0.3%, however this requirement of 0.3% refers to “weak” grid. As per this,
the Indian grid is regarded as weak grid. Upon such circumstances, it is highly essential to maintain the
grid parameters into desired normal level in order to avoid brownouts and blackouts. In order, to maintain
power system stability and avoid local impacts like voltage and frequency fluctuations etc., technical grid
connection requirement and codes has been developed in conjunction with
i.
Indian electricity grid code (IEGC) issued by Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC).
ii.
Technical standard for connectivity to the grid, Regulations 2007, issued by CEA.
iii.
State electricity grid codes issued by respective states of India.
With this, the interconnection rules are continuously reformulated because of the increasing wind power
penetration and other new and renewable energy sources in to the grid, including PV. The main focus in
the electricity grid codes has been focused on FRT analysis, where TSOs and DSOs requires wind power
generators to stay connected to the grid during and after a fault in the transmission system. Another
important requirement to the wind power installation is on active and reactive power control capability,
to make the wind power installation able to support the control of grid frequency and voltage. In this work,
a common grid code requirements has been suggested and some technical and operational issues of high
penetration of wind power for Indian power system are addressed.
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7.3.
Proposed grid codes for wind power in India
The Indian electricity grid code for wind farms (IEGCWF) proposed in this section outlines the minimum
technical grid connection requirements that new wind turbines and associate systems at the connection
point to the transmission network have to provide safe and reliability operation of the system as per CEA
regulations, which when enforced. The full capabilities of wind farms may not be exploited at all times.
Therefore, the connection codes should be such that it should provide the maximum power output from
the wind farm without affecting the existing grid operation [23]. The following grid behavior of the wind
turbines are taken into consideration for large-scale grid integration of wind power in India:

Majority of wind turbines use induction generators, unlike the conventional generators which are
synchronous.

Induction generator need VAR support, for which capacitor banks are provided.

Inadequate reactive power support will lead to drawl from grid, and affect the voltage profile at the
point of common coupling (PCC).

Wind turbine using synchronous generators don’t need reactive power support but, they need to deal
with other issues like harmonics.

Grid codes set a standard operating practice for different type of generators.

Wind turbines disconnect from the grid when voltage at PCC drops.

Wind turbines can remain connected to the grid during a fault, only if adequate reactive power support
is provided.

Wind is variable in nature (intermittent), hence wind generation cannot be scheduled.
Henceforth, the following aspects are taken into consideration for large-scale grid integration of wind
power in India:
o Active power control,
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o Reactive power control,
o Fault ride through capability,
o Power Quality,
o Flickers,
o Harmonics,
o Communication requirements,
o Others (voltage unbalance, metering, modeling and validation).
1.
Active Power Control
The wind power generating units are normally operated to maximum power using maximum power point
tracking algorithm and remain connected to the network even if the system frequency deviates from
specified one. Active (real) power control is used to control the system frequency by changing the power
injected into the grid. The active power production from the wind farm must be controllable, to prevent
overloading of the transmission lines, to avoid large voltage steps and in-rush currents during start up and
shut down of wind turbine and to maintain the security and stability of the electric grid.
Active power control may have been implemented;
 Depending on frequency of the system,
 To regulate in rush currents during startup of the turbine,
 During a fault, if the turbine may have to remain online to avoid generator tripping.
 During post-fault, the rate at which the power is being ramped should not cause power surges in the
system
The following functions must be available for the active power control in wind based power generation.
An adjustable upper limit to the active power production from the wind farm shall be available
whenever the wind farm is in operation. The upper limit control of active power production, does not
73 | P a g e
exceed a specified level and the limit shall be adjustable by remote signals. It must be possible to set
the limit to any value with an accuracy of ±5%, in the range from 20% to 100% of the wind farm rated
power. Also, Fig. IV.1 shows the variation of active power output of the wind farm with respect to
frequency, where the shaded portion shows the IEGC specified frequency band of operation for Indian
power grid.
Ramping control of active power production must be possible to limit the ramping speed of active
power production from the wind turbine in upwards direction (increased production due to increased
wind speed or due to changed maximum power output limit) to 10% of rated power per minute. There
is no requirement to down ramping due to fast wind speed decays, but it must be possible to limit the
down ramping speed to 10% of rated power per minute, when the maximum power output limit is
reduced by a control action.
Fast down regulation should be possible to regulate the active power from the wind turbine down from
100% to 20% of rated power in less than 5 s. This functionality is required for system protection
schemes. Some system protection schemes implemented for stability purposes require the active power
to be restored within short time after the down regulation. For that reason, disconnection of a number
of wind turbines cannot be used to fulfill this requirement.
Immediate disconnection of the wind turbine is advised and is obligatory when the frequency breaches
its IEGC limit i.e. more than 50.2 Hz (over-frequency), or else perilous effect might cause generator
to damage and might trounce wind turbine due to over-speed. This causes when there is sudden
elimination of the load or islanding occurs mainly due to transmission line failure.
Automatic control of the wind turbine active production as a function of the system frequency must
be possible. The control function must be proportional to the frequency deviations with a dead-band.
The detailed settings can be provided by the state utilities (SU).
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During under-frequency (it shows the deficit in the generation), wind power can increase the power
output without affecting the network congestion.
In India, the system frequency has controlled by the state load dispatch centers (SLDC) in coordination
with regional load dispatch centers (RLDC) at about 50 Hz, within the range of 49.5-50.2 Hz band. Wind
farms must be capable of operating continuously for 49.5–50.2 Hz frequency band and allowed to be
disconnected during over frequency as per the wind turbine specifications. In addition, the wind turbines
can reduce power at frequency of above 50.2 Hz as detailed settings provided by the SU.
Active Power Regulation
120
Active Power (in % age)
100
80
60
40
20
0
47
47.5
48
48.5
49
49.5
50
50.5
51
51.5
52
Frequency (in Hz)
Fig. VII.1 Variation of active power output of wind farms with respect to frequency.
2.
Frequency Requirement
System frequency is a major indicator of the power balance in the system. A decrease in generation with
respect to the demand causes the frequency to drop below the nominal frequency and vice versa. This
imbalance can be mitigated by primary control and secondary control of conventional synchronous
generators. High penetration of wind turbines can have a significant impact on the frequency of the grid.
Power output of the wind turbine can be regulated during high frequency.
75 | P a g e
As per IEGC, the grid frequency tolerance limit is specified to be 49.5–50.2 Hz, where the wind farm
should be able to withstand change in frequency up to 0.5 Hzs-1.
3.
Reactive Power Control
Wind turbines with induction generators need reactive power support. The reactive power control
requirement is used for generating units to supply lagging/leading reactive power at the grid connection
point. Wind farms should be capable of supplying a proportion of the system’s reactive capacity, including
the dynamic capability and should contribute to maintain the voltage profile by providing reactive power
support.
Capacitor banks are the preferred method of reactive power compensation in wind farms. Reactive power
drawl from the system can cause increased losses, overheating and de-rating of the lines. Doubly fed
induction generators and synchronous generator based wind turbines don’t have any constraints with
respect to reactive power.
Requirements of the grid codes for reactive power support that the power factor is to be maintained in the
specified range. Wind farms are required to balance voltage deviations at the connection point by adjusting
their reactive power exchange and, moreover, by setting up predetermined power factors. Wind farms
shall be capable of operating at rated output for power factor varying between 0.9 lagging (overexcited)
to 0.95 leading (under-excited). Fig. IV.2 shows the operating range of wind farms at different voltage
levels. The above performance shall also be achieved with voltage variation of ±10% of nominal,
frequency variation of +1.6% and −0.06% and combined voltage and frequency variation of ±10%.
76 | P a g e
Fig. VII.2 Operating Range of power with voltage of wind turbine in India.
Wind farms are required to have sufficient reactive power compensation to be neutral in reactive power
at any operating point. In India the SLDC (and users), ensure that the grid voltage remains within the
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operating limits as specified in IEGC 5.2, as show in Table IV.3, and hence it isVisitrequired
from
the wind
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turbine to remain connected and deliver power for the specified voltage ranges and put efforts to maintain
it. Also, wind farms shall make available the up-to-date capability curves indicating restrictions to the
SLDC/RLDC, to allow accurate system studies and effective operation of the state transmission system.
Table VII.3
Grid voltage operating limits.
NOMINAL SYSTEM VOLTAGE
GRID VOLTAGE TOLERANCE
MAXIMUM VOLTAGE LIMIT
(kV)
VALUE
(kV)
400
220
132
110
66
33
+5% to -10 %
-9% to -11%
-9% to +10%
-12.5% to +10%
-9% to +10%
-10% to +5%
420
245
145
121
72.5
34.65
MINIMUM VOLTAGE LIMIT (kV)
360
200
120
96.25
60
29.7
The reactive power output of the wind farm must be controllable in one of the two following control modes
according to SU specifications.

The wind farm shall be able to control the reactive exchange with the system at all active power
production levels. The control shall operate automatically and on a continuous basis.
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
The wind farm must be able to automatically control its reactive power output as a function of the
voltage at the connection point for the purpose of controlling the voltage.
The detailed settings of the reactive power control system will be provided by the respective SU. The wind
farm must have adequate reactive power capacity to be able to operate with zero reactive exchange with
the network measured at the connection point, when the voltage and the frequency are within normal
operation limits. The following points are the standards being framed by the IEGC for reactive power
exchange within the network;
VAR drawl from the grid at voltages below 97 % of nominal will be penalized.
VAR injection into the grid at voltages below 97 % of nominal will be given incentive.
VAR drawl from the grid at voltages above 103 % of nominal will be given incentive.
VAR injection into the grid at voltages above 103 % of nominal will be penalized.
4.
Fault Ride Through Capability (LVRT/HVRT)
Fault-ride through (FRT) requirement is imposed on a wind power generator so that it remains stable and
connected to the network during the network faults. Disconnection from grid may worsen the situation
and can threaten the security standards at high wind penetration. The wind farm must be able to operate
satisfactorily during and after the disturbances in the distribution/ transmission network, and remain
connected to the grid without tripping from the grid for a specified period of time during a voltage drop
(LVRT) or voltage swell (HVRT) at the PCC. The period and intensity of the fault ride through depends
upon parameters like;
 Magnitude of voltage drop/voltage swell at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) during the fault.
 Time taken by the grid system to recover to the normal state.
This requirement applies under the following conditions:
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
The wind farm and the wind turbines in the wind farm must be able to stay connected to the system
and to maintain operation during and after clearing faults in the distribution/transmission system.

The wind farm may be disconnected temporarily from the system, if the voltage at the connection
point during or after a system disturbance falls below the certain levels.

During a fault that causes a voltage drop at the wind turbine terminals, active power demand of
induction generators increases, as a result of which the reactive power will be drawn from the grid
unless active power support is available at the generator terminals, which further causes instability.
The fault, where the voltage at the connection point may be zero, duration is 100ms for 400 kV and 160ms
for 220 kV and 132 kV. Fig. IV.3 shows the fault clearing time and voltage limit for FRT of wind power
as per IEGCWF, where region ABCDA is the restrain zone. In India, the SU and the RLDC ensures
reliable operation of the grid under specified limit of voltage and fault clearing time, as shown in table
IV.4. Prevalent practice shall be followed according to Regulations 2007.
Restrain
Fig. VII.3 LVRT of wind turbine as per IEGC.
Table VII.4
Fault clearing time and voltage limits.
NOMINAL SYSTEM VOLTAGE (kV)
400
220
132
110
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FAULT CLEARING TIME (in ms)
100
160
160
160
66
*minimum voltage for normal operation of the wind turbine
** 15% of nominal system voltage
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Vf (kV)**
or call 1-800-768-3729.
360
60
200
33
120
19.8
96.25
16.5
60
9.9
The wind turbines are required to be equipped with relay protection system which should take into
account; normal operation of the system and support to network during and after the fault, and secure wind
farms from damage origination from faults in the network.
Wind turbines are required to be equipped with under/over-frequency protection, under/over-voltage
protection, differential protection of the generator transformer, over current and earth fault protection,
load unbalance (negative sequence) protection, capacitor bank protection, tele-channel protection and
backup protection (including generator over-current protection, voltage-controlled generator over-current
protection, or generator distance protection).
5.
Power Quality
It is an ability of a power system to operate loads, without damaging or disturbing them. It is mainly
concerned with voltage quality at points of common coupling & ability of the loads to operate without
disturbing or reducing the efficiency of the power system, a property mainly, but not exclusively,
concerned with the quality of current waveform.
Assessment of power quality of wind farms IEC 61400-21: Wind Turbine Generator Systems, Part 21:
“Measurement and Assessment of Power Quality Characteristics of Grid Connected Wind Turbines”
describes the power quality management of a wind farm.
6.
Flicker
Flicker, is the visual fluctuation in the light intensity as a result of voltage fluctuations (at 1-10 Hz). It is
mainly caused due to; shadowing effect of the turbine which regards 1-2 Hz and switching operation
causing power fluctuation at both active and reactive part. For variable wind turbines based system, it not
a matter of concern.
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With this, IWGC has incorporated IEC 61000-3-7 for voltage flicker limits and IEC 61000-4-15 for the
guideline on measurement of flicker in the grid.
7.
Harmonics
Harmonics are basically generated by variable speed turbines with power converters, like DFIG based WT
and full variable speed wind turbine. IEC 61400-21 recommends measurement of harmonics emission
only for variable speed turbines. As per IEGC, table IV.5 shows the THD at certain voltage levels. It is
mandatory that the harmonic content of the supply current i.e. ITHD should be less than 5% for supply
voltage less than 69 kV and 2.5% for supply voltage greater than 69 kV as per IEEE STD-519-1992.
Table VII.5
THD of voltage.
SYSTEM
VOLTAGE (kV)
765
400
220
132
8.
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
(THD in %)
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
INDIVIDUAL HARMONICS AT ANY PARTICULAR
FREQUENCY (in %)
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.0
Communication Requirement
Wind farms must be controllable from remote locations by telecommunication system. Supervisory
control and data acquisition (SCADA) is recommended for the remote control of wind power and
telemetry of the important parameters for scheduling and forecasting is obtained. Control functions and
operational measurements must be made available to the SLDC/RLDC. The SU in each area specifies the
required measurements and other necessary information to be transmitted from the wind farm. Information
required generally from wind farms are voltage, current, frequency, active power, reactive power,
operating status, wind speed, wind direction, regulation capability, ambient temperature and pressure,
frequency control status and external control possibilities.
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9.
Other requirements
Voltage Unbalance
Voltage unbalance refers to the ratio of the deviation between the highest and lowest line voltage to the
average of the three line voltage. It is susceptible and affects the generator performance as negative
sequence current is generated and flows in the rotor. Table IV.6 gives the voltage imbalance limits for
wind farms at desired supply voltage level.
Table VII.6
Voltage imbalance limit for wind farms.
VOLTAGE LEVEL (in kV)
400
220
<220
UNBALANCE LIMIT (in %)
1.5
2
3
Metering
Recording instruments such as data acquisition system/ disturbance recorder/event logger/fault locator
(including time synchronization equipment) shall be installed at each wind farms for recording of dynamic
performance of the system. Agencies shall provide all the requisite recording instruments as specified in
the connection agreement according to the agreed time schedule. These requirements are similar for
conventional power sources and mentioned in detail in CEA (Installation and operation of meters,
Regulation 2006), IEGC, and respective state electricity grid codes.
Modelling and Validation
Prior to the installation of a wind turbine or a wind farm, a specific test programme are conducted and
must be agreed with the SU in the area regarding the capability of the wind turbine or wind farm to meet
the requirements in this connection code. As a part of the test programme, a simulation model of the wind
turbine or wind farm must be provided to the SU in a given format and the model shall show the
characteristics of the wind turbine or wind farm in both static simulations (load flow) and dynamic
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simulations (time simulations). These requirements are similar to the conventional power sources and
mentioned in detail in IEGC and respective state electricity grid codes.
7.4. Grid connectivity and withdrawal planning
Grid connectivity has posed a major challenge in harnessing the renewable energy as most of the
renewable energy sources, particularly wind and small hydro sites are in remote areas where in
transmission and distribution network is sparse. As per the provisions of Electricity Act 2003, it is the
responsibility of concerned licensee or respective state utility (SU) to provide grid connectivity to the
generating stations. Further, Electricity Act 2003 under Section 86(1) (e) specifically empowers state
electricity regulatory commission (SERC) to take suitable measures for ensuring the grid connectivity to
the renewable energy projects or wind farms. However in most of the cases, responsibility of licensee and
wind farm developer in developing the evacuation infrastructure varies across the states. For wind energy
projects, inter connection point is to be located and specified by the respective SU.
General connectivity conditions elaborated in Regulations 2007 must be held valid for wind farms.
Therefore, it is preferred that evacuation infrastructure from generator terminal up to grid inter connection
point shall be developed by the wind farm developer and beyond inter connection point the concerned
licensee shall develop the network. The concerned licensee or SU shall be responsible for providing grid
connectivity to the wind farms from the inter connection point, on payment of wheeling or transmission
charges as the case may be, in accordance with the regulations of the respective SERC.
7.5. Operational issues
With increasing penetration of wind power, it is equally important to address concerns of grid operations.
In case, information about likely wind power generation forecast is available then, it will facilitate grid
operation. Accordingly, it is obligatory that Indian system that in near future should be make mandatory
for all non-firm renewable energy generating sources (RES), especially wind power, shall furnish the
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tentative day-ahead hourly generation forecast (MWh) for the energy availability at inter connection point
to the concerned RLDC/SLDC to facilitate better grid co-ordination and management like present day
conventional power generation.
Further, it has been clarified that above forecasts shall be used for calculating deviation from such
scheduled forecasts and must be subjected to unscheduled interchange (UI) mechanism outlined under
CERC UI Regulations 2009, but with suitably selected price cap on wind power generation decided in
conjunction with fixed price paid for wind power [79].
Wind farm owners are in-charge of balancing his own production balance by market-based means or by
developing technical capabilities. Unscheduled interchange mechanism is a best mechanism, exercised in
India, can make wind power (or other non-firm renewable energy sources) semi-competitively
dispatchable. In this proposed manner, wind farm owners continually get fixed return on wind power they
accurately dispatched and get paid/charges for UI power. Wind farm owners can optimally schedule their
generation slightly lower than actually forecasted wind power to avoid any charges. Sufficient return on
wind power will ensure promotion to wind power in longer term and UI mechanism will ensure the
competiveness and technological innovation. As there is huge demand–supply gap prevails in India,
frequency remains mostly in lower side of range specified for UI mechanism and hence remunerate much
more, for UI injection of power, compare to fixed price received by wind power in next future.
As wind penetration is forecasted to increase significantly in the short to medium term, it is essential that
grid code harmonization process is to be done immediately. It will help the manufacturers to
internationalize their products/services, the developers to reduce the cost and the system operators to share
experience, mutually, in operating power systems [80].
As a result, GCR should be harmonized at least in the areas those have little impact on the overall costs
of wind turbines. In other areas, GCR should take into account the specific power system robustness, the
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penetration level and/or the generation technology. Harmonization in GCR will help in achieving
following goals:
 For setting of proper regulations for the connection of wind power technology to the electricity grid,
 For facilitating the internationalization of manufacturers and developers, and
 For developing new standards, codes and verification procedures, interaction between GCR issuing
working groups.
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CHAPTER 8
Microgrid and Hybrid Energy System
Adding renewable energy resources into the existing bulk generation power system can be accomplished
through a smarter power grid when the integration includes complex, end-to-end control strategies and
consumer incentives to participate. Successful application of distributed generation requires an enterprise
level system perspective which views generation and associated loads as an integrated and autonomous
subsystem or a “Microgrid”.
A Microgrid is a localized, scalable, and sustainable power grid consisting of an aggregation of electrical
and thermal loads and corresponding energy generation sources. It includes; distributed energy resources
(including both energy storage and generation), control and management subsystems, secure network and
communications infrastructure, and assured information management. When renewable energy resources
are included, they usually are of the form of small wind or solar plants, waste-to-energy, and combined
heat and power systems.
Microgrid perform dynamic control over energy resources enabling autonomous and automatic selfhealing operations. During normal operations, peak load, or grid failure the Microgrid can operate
independently from the larger grid and isolate its internal assets and associated loads without affecting the
larger grid’s integrity. A technical complexity for Microgrid is the sensing, monitoring and resultant
control of distributed energy resources.
Microgrid will need to perform complex system control functions such as;
 Dynamically adding or removing new energy resources without modification of existing components,
 Automating demand response, autonomous and self-healing
 Operations connect to or isolate from the transmission grid in a seamless fashion, and
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 Manage reactive and active power according to the changing need of the loads.
Microgrid will fundamentally need to interoperate with legacy bulk power systems and their associated
data and network infrastructure [81]. Microgrid deployments can take several forms and sizes, such as a
utility run metropolitan area grid, industrial park, college campus or a small energy efficient community.
Once Microgrid controls are operational at a local level on the distribution grid, they become resources
for the larger bulk renewable generators.
8.1.
Microgrid control arrangement
The independent role of specific Microgrid and the varying specific control needs of the attached resources
require deployment of a control system that considers a hierarchy of control objectives.
 At the grid level, optimization and overall grid stability goals are paramount.
 At the device level, efficient energy production and device optimization are key.
 At the load level, efficient energy consumption, cost and reliability are the critical elements.
This broad set of requirements creates an implicit Microgrid control hierarchy. It indicates that a single
controller cannot effectively make decisions for all attached elements and draws the conclusion that a
distributed control system supporting multiple and cooperative goals must be provided. Two critical areas
arise as primary control logic requirements for orchestrating a Microgrid;
1. Control logic managing power stability of the grid else Analog-centric, and
2. Control logic managing the digital information and automation layer of the grid else Digital-centric.
ANALOG CENTRIC CONTROL
Voltage stability
Frequency stability
Rotor-Angle stability
Transient stability
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DIGITAL CENTRIC CONTROL
Demand Response
Distributed Generation
Energy Storage
Energy Metering
Energy Forecasting
Energy Market Trading
System Monitoring
The analog-centric control power distribution and transmission infrastructure monitors and balances the
stability of power. It also regulates dynamic price and performance attributes of the distributed energy
generation as well as information reflecting the energy consumption, cost, environmental and reliability
desires of the distributed loads. It also includes analyzing and orchestrating voltage level consistency,
voltage frequency stability and the underlying power signal phase relationships.
Whereas, the digital centric control computes the need for power and where to procure it based on price,
reliability and grid situational awareness. It also scrutinize cyber security, distributed information
management, process automation, workflow orchestration and advanced resource forecasting for smart
and reliable operation of a grid.
8.2.
Microgrid Agent Control System (MGAS) framework
Fig. VIII.1 Microgrid Agent Control System
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As discussed earlier, integrating renewable and variable resources will require new and novel control
systems technology. Integration of DER will require control logic that addresses both the unique
characteristics of the DER units as well as provide capability to coordinate control in a highly distributed
environment. To address this need, Microgrid design has been developing is an agent based, cooperative
control system. In this capacity, we have been developing the Microgrid Agent Control System (MGAS),
shown in Fig. V.1. MGAS is a modular platform for performing distributed Microgrid control. It is
specifically designed to support a variety of Microgrid classes via its service oriented design and hierarchy
of agent families.
MGAS services consist of cooperative agents that compose distributed energy resource control and
automation as well as Microgrid switching and self-healing operations. MGAS agents collaborate as a
cooperative control system to execute distributed control protocols and services for automated demand
management, energy storage and energy generation. MGAS applies the OpenADR standard for DR
control signals, IEEE 1547 for interconnect and the IEC Common Information Model (CIM) standard to
exchange information metadata. FIPA compliant agent communication protocols and lifecycle
management technology are also applied to facilitate standards based agent interoperability. This
collaborative and semi-autonomous agent architecture enables true distributed control and mitigates single
point of failure risk.
The primary system goal of MGAS is to create an adaptive and intelligent control system enabling
collaboration and cooperation between DER nodes. Three core families of agent behaviors are established:
Grid-Level Agents, Site-Level Agents and Device-Level Agents. From these three primary sets of
behaviors a variety of agent types are sub-cast and implemented. The three core behaviors are inherited
by all sub-cast agents and serve to promote common mechanisms of decision behavior and functionality
[82].
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8.3.
Concept of Hybrid Energy System
The renewable resources in absolutely stand-alone mode do not perform reasonable due to reliability
issues subjected to asymmetrical behavior and disturbance in weather conditions. As in such cases, the
generators are supported by another generating technology and/or storage devices consist of two or more
distributed generation system like; wind-PV, wind-diesel etc., to supply a common load. Such a
technology is called Hybrid energy.
Hybrid connection of different resources and/or storage devices improves the reliability of the system, as
well as is technically and economically sustainable a more ethical approach is to congregate all such
technology into Micro Grid. Smart Micro Grid are to create perfect power system with smart technology,
redundancy, distributed generation and storage, cogeneration or combines heat and power, improve
voltage profile, cost reduction, reduction in carbon credits, smart regulation of appliances and load etc.
Fig. V.2 gives an idea of hybrid energy system with several different AEDGs split DC and AC buses with
centralized and de-centralized control system.
Fig. VIII.2 Hybrid energy system
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CHAPTER 9
Energy Storage System
As mentioned before, renewable energy sources, such as wind and PV, are intermittent in nature because
of the dependence on weather conditions (and the time of the day) and therefore require storage of surplus
energy to match with the energy demand curve on the grid. As mentioned before, to avoid expensive grid
energy storage, the smart grid concept can be used, where smart metering can condition the demand curve
(demand-side energy management) to match with the available generation curve by offering lower tariff
rate. In contrary, suitable energy storage devices can be incorporated with these DG system to store energy
and then discharge be providing power back to the network which when the RES power generation sources
are out [83]. The following are few major energy storage devices which are preferred to be used in the
energy storage facility and an optimized research are made on it for efficient and reliable operation.
 Pumped storage in hydroelectric plant
 Battery storage
 Flywheel (FW) storage
 Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage (SMES)
 Ultra-capacitor (UC) storage
 Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) storage
 Hydrogen gas (H2) storage, and
 Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
9.1.
Pumped storage in hydroelectric plant
In this method, hydro-generators are used as motor pumps to pump water from “tail” to “head” and store
at high level using the off-peak grid period. During the peak demand, the head water runs the generators
91 | P a g e
to supply the demand. It is possibly the cheapest method of energy storage but is applicable only with
proper site facilities. Otherwise, it may be expensive. The typical cycle energy efficiency may be 75%,
and cost may be less than $0.01/kWh. Currently, there is over 90 GW of pumped storage facility around
the world. A new concept in this method is to use wind turbines or solar cells to directly drive water pumps
for energy storage.
9.2.
Battery storage
It has been the most common form of energy storage for the grid. In this method, electrical energy from
the grid is converted to dc and stored in a battery. Then, the stored energy is retrieved through the same
converter system to feed the grid. Although very convenient with high cycle efficiency (typically 90%),
battery storage is possibly the most expensive (typically > $0.1/kWh). Lead–acid battery has been used
extensively, but recently, NiCd, NaS, Li-ion, and flow batteries (such as vanadium redox) are finding
favor. For example, General Electric (GE) installed 10-MVA lead–acid battery storage in the Southern
California Edison grid in 1988. The world’s largest battery storage was installed by ABB in Fairbank,
Alaska, in 2003 that uses NiCd battery with a capacity of 27 MW for 15 min. Flow batteries have fast
response and can be more economical in large-scale storage.
9.3.
Flywheel (FW) storage
In FW storage, electrical energy from the grid is converted to mechanical energy through a converter-fed
drive system (operating in motoring mode) that charges a FW, and then the energy is recovered by the
same drive system operating in generating mode. The FW can be placed in vacuum or in H2 medium, and
magnetic bearing can be used to reduce the energy loss. Steel or composite material can be used in FW to
withstand high centrifugal force due to high speed. FW storage is more economical ($0.05/kWh) and has
been used, but mechanical storage has the usual disadvantages. Recently, wind turbines have been used
with direct coupling to FW system to achieve better efficiency.
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9.4.
Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage (SMES)
In this method, grid energy is rectified to dc, which charges SMES coil to store energy in magnetic form
(0.5LI2). Then, energy is retrieved by the reverse process. The coil is cooled cryogenically so that
dissipation resistance tends to be zero, and the energy can be stored indefinitely. Either liquid helium (0
K) or high-temperature superconductor (HTS) in liquid nitrogen (77 K) can be used. The cycle efficiency
can be higher than 95%. SMES storage is yet very expensive.
9.5.
Ultra-capacitor (UC) storage
A UC (also called super capacitor or electrical double layer capacitor) is an energy storage device like an
electrolytic capacitor (EC), but with energy storage density (Wh or 0.5CV2/kg) as high as 100 times higher
than that of EC. UCs are available with low-voltage rating (typically 2.5 V) and capacitor values up to
several thousand farads. The units can be connected in series–parallel for higher voltage and higher
capacitance values. However, the Wh/kg of UC is low compared to that of a battery (typically 6:120 ratio
for a Li-ion battery). The power density (W/kg) of UC is very high, and large amount of power can cycle
through it without causing any deterioration. In the present state of technology, UCs are yet expensive for
bulk grid energy storage.
9.6.
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) storage
This a new concept for bulk energy storage assuming that a large number of battery EVs are plugged in
the grid. A plugged-in EV can transmit electricity to the grid during peak demand and then charge the
battery during off-peak hours. V2G technology can be used, turning each vehicle with its 20–50-kWh
battery pack into a distributed load balancing device or emergency power source. However, the main
disadvantage is that the battery life is shortened by charge–discharge cycles.
9.7.
Hydrogen (H2) gas storage
H2 gas can be used as bulk energy storage medium and then used in FC or burned as a fuel in IC engine.
This idea has generated the recent concept of hydrogen economy, i.e., H2 as the future clean energy source.
93 | P a g e
As mentioned before, H2 can be generated easily from abundantly available sporadic sources like wind
and PV and stored as compressed or liquefied gas with high density amassable fuel. It can be generated
also from hydrocarbon fuels with underground sequestration of undesirable CO2 gas. The overall energy
efficiency of H2 storage cycle may be 50% to 60%, which is lower than battery or PSP.
9.8.
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
CAES is another grid energy storage method, where off-peak or renewable generated electricity is used
to compress air and store underground. When electricity demand is high, the compressed air is heated with
a small amount of natural gas and then burned in turbo expanders to generate electricity. CAES system
has been used in Europe. The idea of using wind turbines to compress air directly is floating around.
The development and implementation of the electrical energy storage system could drive groundbreaking
changes in the design and operation of the electric power system. Such facilitates peak load issues,
electrical stability, power quality disturbances elimination etc. Power plants are also nowadays equipped
with such systems.
Energy storage system is the combination of advanced power electronics incorporated with the grid
playing a major role in both technical and financial benefits. Table IX.1 summarizes the following
benefits.
Table IX.1
Benefits of Energy Storage Systems.
TECHNICAL BENEFIT
FINANCIAL BENEFIT
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Grid voltage support
Grid frequency support
Grid Angular (Transient) stability
Load Levelling
Spinning Reserve
Power Quality Improvement
Power Reliability
Rode Through Support
Unbalanced load compensation
Revenue increase of Bulk Storage Arbitrage
Revenue increase of Central Generation Capacity
Revenue increase of Ancillary Services
Revenue increase for transmission access
Reduced demand charges
Reduced Reliability-related Financial Losses
Increased revenue from RES
CHAPTER 10
Conclusions
10.1. Summary and Conclusions
India’s energy generation and consumption are on high growth rate. Climatic change concerns due to
emission combined with resource and infrastructure constraints are dampers. With nearly 40 % of its 1.22
billion population deprived of grid electricity, present 186 GW installed power capacity may have to be
doubled by the end of this decade to meet energy need of its growing population and expectations of a
high GDP growth economy. An overview of Indian Power Market along with brief analysis about the
power system units is described. Power market in India is generally characterized by the poor demand
side management and response for lack of proper infrastructure and awareness.
Smart Grid Technology can intuitively overcome these issues. In addition to that, it can acknowledge
reduction in line losses to overcome prevailing power shortages, improve the reliability of supply, power
quality improvement and its management, safeguarding revenues, preventing theft etc.. Integration of RES
is expected to play significant influence on the operation of the power system for sustainable energy in
future. Grid codes are set up to specify the relevant requirements for efficient and secure operation of
power system for all network users and these specifications have to be met in order to integrate wind
turbine into the grid. Several technical and operational issues with increased power penetration has
discussed for emerging Indian power system.
In addition, Microgrid are creating new smart grid technology requirements in the areas of automation,
management and control of alternative energy sources with energy storage devices. The call for dynamic
and distributed control methodologies has been discussed using MGAS framework in the above report.
With this, the report may guide future policies which to lead Indian power system to take several steps to
implement Smart grid with RES integration.
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The thesis presents a discussion on Indian Power Strategy along with its pitfalls in various technical and
non-technical themes, with an organized approach to evolve the conceptualization of Smart Grid. Model
architecture as well as India’s Smart Grid initiatives taken by the government and many private bodies,
are presented in the thesis. Further, various prospects of sustainable energy and off-grid solutions, Rural
Electrification (RE) and evolution of Micro Grid along with various policies and regulatory affairs of India
is also presented here. Currently, the nation ranks to be 4th largest in installed power generation capacity
using RES and 3rd largest in investment and implementation of smart grids, which will be a trend setter
for emerging economies to pursue “green” and sustainable energy. In this connection, the thesis should
act as advocate to bring forth the significance and fortification of Smart Grid philosophy and implanting
it on the basis of proposed ideology in Indian subcontinent.
10.2. Suggestions for Future Works
As the report only had pulled the grid connection requirement for wind power generation, which has been
planned to stretch upon to the study of photovoltaic (PV) and its grid connection planning in Indian
scenario. Also, few more work related to micro grids and hybrid energy with energy storage system are
premeditated to complete by near future. Upon the finalizing of the entire study, the further research
perspective would deliberately act as an advocate to discover the rank and strategy of nation’s
development in power and energy with respect to current and future energy demand.
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104 | P a g e
A Review on Development of Smart Grid
Technology in India and its Future Perspectives
Shiban Kanti Bala, Student Member, IEEE, B. Chitti Babu, Member, IEEE, and Shyamal Bala
Abstract-- India is truculent to meet the electric power demands
of a fast expanding economy. Restructuring of the power
industry has only increased several challenges for the power
system engineers. The proposed vision of introducing viable
Smart Grid (SG) at various levels in the Indian power systems
has recommended that an advanced automation mechanism
needs to be adapted. Smart Grids are introduced to make the
grid operation smarter and intelligent. Smart grid operations,
upon appropriate deployment can open up new avenues and
opportunities with significant financial implications. This paper
presents various Smart grid initiatives and implications in the
context of power market evolution in India. Various examples of
existing structures of automation in India are employed to
underscore some of the views presented in this paper. It also
reviews the progress made in Smart grid technology research and
development since its inception. Attempts are made to highlight
the current and future issues involved for the development of
Smart Grid technology for future demands in Indian perspective.
Index Terms-- Smart Grid; Indian Electricity Act 2003;
Availability Based Tariff (ABT); Demand Side Management
(DSM); Renewable Energy; Rural Electrification (RE); Micro
Grid.
I. INTRODUCTION
T
HE economic growth of developing countries like India
depends heavily on reliability and eminence of its electric
power supply. Indian economy is anticipated to grow at 8 to
9% in 2010- 2011 fiscal year, which in the impending years is
set to reach double digit growth (10%+) [1]. But India suffers
from serious power shortage which is likely to worsen over
the next few decades. India has a power sector characterized
by deficient generation and high distribution losses. In
addition to that, abhorrent geological and environmental
factors have encouraged carbon footprints since its grass roots
level of CO2 emissions, greenhouse effect and the adverse
effect of globalization in the country [2]. This may cause
instability in the power system and problems like brownout
and blackout might arise. In order to prevent the occurrence of
instability, it is essential to upgrade the prevailing power
systems.
One of such incipient technology, Smart Grid (SG) plays a
very vital role in achieving the key technical benefits like
power loss reduction; refining quality of supply, peak
reduction, economic load dispatch etc. Smart Grid technology
has been a high priority topic of research and development in
many developing as well as developed countries. This
technology also has a dynamic role in remodelling the energy
scenario of the global market. Factors like policies, regulation,
efficiency of market, costs and benefits and services
normalizes the marketing strategy of the Smart Grid
technology. Other concerns like secure communication,
standard protocol, advance database management and efficient
architecture with ethical data exchange add to its essentials
[3]. Such technology has a potential to prolific other
technologies like Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)
and Wide Area Monitoring (WAM) to redefine the capability
of power system engineering and unite the necessity of the
rural, suburban and urban regions across the globe under
single roof [4]. In addition, the technology employs the
reduction of carbon footprints and foot-dragging the
greenhouse gas emission. This paper designates about the
Smart Grid initiatives along with various examples of existing
structures of automation in India. It also reviews the
encroachment made in Smart Grid technology in R&D,
initiated by various public and private sector organizations
supported by prominent institutions across the globe.
Limelight on the current and future issues involved for the
development of Smart Grid technology for future demands has
also been debated.
The organization of the paper is as follows: In section II, an
overview of the Indian Power market along with its current
strategy of power system is presented. Section III describes
the vision of India on Smart Grid (SG) technology along with
section IV debriefing about the prevailing units and its future
enactments. Section V reveals some of the required focus
areas and advent of enhanced smart grid technologies. Section
VI is dedicated to general conclusion followed by references.
II. OVERVIEW OF INDIA POWER MARKET AND ITS STRATEGY
Shiban Kanti Bala and B.Chitti Babu are with the Department of Electrical
Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourklea-769008, India ([email protected], [email protected]).
Shyamal Bala is with Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL),
Western Region (WR-II), Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India (e-mail:
[email protected])
978-1-4673-0455-9/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE
The re-evaluation of the Indian Electricity Supply Act, 1948
and Indian Electricity Act, 1910, has led the Electricity Act
2003 which has facilitated government and many nongovernment organizations to participate and to alleviate the
electricity demand. The act redefines the power market
economy, protection of consumer’s interest and provision of
power to urban, sub-urban and rural regions across the
country. The act recommends the provision for national
policy, Rural Electrification (RE), open access in
transmission, phased open access in distribution, mandatory
state electricity regularity commission (SERCs), license free
generation and distribution, power trading, mandatory
metering, and stringent penalties for theft of electricity [3]. In
addition to these guidelines, a concept called as Availability
Based Tariff (ABT) has also been implemented to bring
effective day ahead scheduling and frequency sensitive
charges for the deviation from the schedule for efficient realtime balancing and grid discipline. Exclusive terms like fixed
cost and variable cost, and unscheduled interchange (UI)
mechanism in ABT acts as a balancing market in which realtime price of the electricity is determined by the availability
and its capacity to deliver GWs on day-to-day basis, on
scheduled energy production and system frequency [5-7].
Indian power system has an installed capacity of around 164
GW and meets a peak demand of 103 GW. According to the
current five year plan (2007-2012) by the year 2012, the
installed capacity is estimated to be over 220 GW and the peak
demand is expected to be around 157 GW and is projected to
reach about 800 GW by next two decades [8-9]. However
certain complexities are envisaged in integrating IPPs into grid
such as, demarcation, scheduling, settlement and gaming [10].
But these issues are being addressed by proper technical and
regulatory initiatives. In addition to that, the transmission
sector has progressed in a very subsequent rate, currently at
installed capacity of 325,000 MVA at 765, 400, 220kV
voltage levels with 242,400 circuit kilometers (ckt-km) of
HVAC and HVDC transmission network, including 765kV
transmission system of 3810 ckt-km [8], [11]. On distribution
sector, the Ministry of Power has also maneuvered to leverage
the digital technology to transform and reshape the power
sector in India to make an open and flexible architecture so as
to meet the core challenges and burning issues, and get the
highest return on investment for the technology [8].
The Electricity Act 2003, created a liberal and competitive
environment, facilitating investments by removal of energy
barriers, redefining the role of system operation of the national
grids. New transmission pricing, loss allocation schemes,
introduction of ULDC scheme and Short Term Open Access
(STOA) schemes have been introduced based on distance and
direction so that power could be traded from any utility to any
utility across the nation on a non-discriminatory basis [12].
Currently, Indian transmission grid is operated by a pyramid
of 1 NLDC, 5 RLDCs and 31 SLDCs, monitoring round the
clock with SCADA system enabled with fish as well as bird
eye view, along with advance wideband speech and data
communication infrastructure. In addition, other key features
like smart energy metering, CIM, Component Interface
Specification (CIS), synchrophasor technology, Wide Area
Monitoring (WAM) system using phasor measurements,
enhanced visualization and self-healing functions are being
exclusively employed [11].
III. VISION OF INDIA ON SMART GRID (SG) TECHNOLOGY
Due to the consequence of cutting edge technology,
buzzwords like energy conservation and emission reduction,
green energy, sustainable development, safety factor,
reduction of T&D losses, optimal utilization of assets, have
turn out to be the core of discussion. As India is struggling to
meet its electricity demands, both in terms of Energy and Peak
Load, Smart Grids can help better manage the shortage of
power and optimize the power grid status in the country. A
“Smart Grid” is a perception of remodeling the scenario of the
nation’s electric power grid, by the convergence of
information and operational technology applied to electrical
grid, allowing sustainable option to the customers and
upgraded security, reliability and efficiency to utilities [14].
The elite vision of Smart Grid (SG) Technology allows energy
to be generated, transmitted, distributed and utilized more
effectively and efficiently.
Demand Side Management (DSM) is an essential practice
for optimized and effective use of electricity, particularly in
the developing countries like India where the demand is in
excess of the available generation. Such kind of non-technical
losses can be overcome by electricity grid intelligence [15],
which focuses on advanced control and communication
protocols integrated with the utility providing a complete
package for the requirement of “Smart Grid”.
With the introduction of the Indian Electricity Act 2003, the
APDRP was transformed to restructured APDRP (R-APDRP)
which has improvised the operation and control [7], [15], and
has attempted a seamless integration of generation (including
distributed energy resources (DER), transmission and
distributed system through usage of intervening information
technology (IT) that uses high speed computers and advance
communication network, and employing open standard with
vendor-neutrality is deemed a cornerstone for embracing the
up-and-coming conceptualization of Smart Grid for India
scenario.
A vivid study of the power scenario has been illustrated
each classified rendering to the timeline in brief. Introducing
with the power strategy management in the past, the whole
system was monitored and controlled using telephonic
medium which was purely a blue-collar job. The system was
solely dependent on a single generation unit or the
interconnected substations. On further progress in science and
technology, the system is monitored round the clock using
advance data communication protocols. As well the substation
has the islanding facility with immediate power backups to
maintain the grid stable.
India as a developing country, the scenario of the power
system changes in exponential basis. Moreover the system is
expected to be more reliable and flexible with its advancement
in data communication and data analysis facility. Fig. 1
illustrates about the advancement and it immediate results
during its implementation in future. The conclusive approach
for the Indian Smart Grid would be visualized accordingly,
with latest technological advancement and extensive features
as shown in Fig. 2 [16].
Fig.1. Smarter electricity systems
Further researches are being carried out in some of the elite
institutes in the country in collaboration with some of the
various multinational companies and power sectors across the
nation.
V. ENHANCED SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY
Due to advent of advance information and communication
technology (ICT) and proliferation of green energy, it’s liable
that Smart Grid technology transforms to more superior and
advanced form. Some the newly innovated prospects like
renewable energy integration, rural electrification and micro
grid are to be featured in it [25].
Fig.2. Hierarchy of Indian Smart Grid
IV. SMART GRID INITIATIVES IN INDIA
As it has been acknowledged earlier that, Smart Grid
Technology has a widespread overview of transforming the
Indian power grid from technology based standard to
performance based standard. The Ministry of Power (MoP)
participated in the SMART 2020 event with “The Climate
Group” [17] and “The Global e-Sustainability Initiative
(GeSI)” in October 2008 which aimed to highlight the reports
relevant to key stakeholders in India [7]. Unfortunately, the
possible “way forward” has not yet been drilled out and is still
a question mark for the Government. But to facilitate demand
side management distribution networks has been fullyaugmented and upgraded for IT enabling, which has enhanced
the grid network with amended customer service.
Table-1 provides a brief analysis of some of the initiative
which has been taken under the supervision of many
government and private bodies and allies [18-23].
In the view of multitude that could be accrued, it is
suggested that there should be ample Government regulatory
support and policy initiatives to move towards Smart Grids.
India is in its nascent stage of implementing various other
controls and monitoring technology, one of such is ADA [24].
A. Renewable Energy Integration
Present-day environmental awareness, resulting from coal
fired power station, has fortified interest in the development of
the modern smart grid technology and its integration with
green and sustainable energy. Table-2 provides and brief
analysis of the renewable energy development in India which
has been planned according to Five year Plans by the Indian
Government and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(MNRE) [26].
TABLE-2: INSTALLED CAPACITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN
INDIA ACCORDING TO FIVE YEAR PLAN
RENEWABLE
ENERGY
RESOURCES
2007-2012
(in GW)
THROUGH 2012
(in GW)
THROUGH 2022
(in GW)
Wind
10.5
17
40
Hydro
1.4
3.5
6.5
Biomass
2.1
3
7.5
Solar
1
1.5
20
TOTAL
15
25
74
TABLE-1: SMART GRID INITIATIVES IN INDIA BY VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS
SMART GRID INITIATIVES IN INDIA
REGION/LOCATION OF IMPLEMENTATION
FACILITIES
NORTHERN REGION (NR-I and NR-II)
PMUs with GPS system, PDC at
NRLDC, smart load control, online condition monitoring, data
communication using fibre link
POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED
(PGCIL)
WESTERN REGION (WR-1 and WR-II)
CROMPTON GREAVES LIMITED (CGL)
NA
NORTH AND WEST DELHI
NORTH DELHI POWER LIMITED (NDPL)
NORTH AND WEST DELHI
BANGALORE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY COMPANY
(BESCO)
8 DISTRICTS OF KARNATAKA
Fig.3. Renewable Power in India by 2022 (by end of Thirteenth Five Year
Plan)
With the perception of renewable energy, the energy
converges to; reduction in carbon footprints, cleaner
environment, plug-in EV, decentralized power which
increases the quality of living standard and enhances the
power system quality along with the stability of the grid
network. But in contrary to that the power quality also bids
some of the potential challenges such as; voltage regulation,
power system transient and harmonics, reactive power
compensation, grid synchronization, energy storage, load
management and poor switching action etc., [27]. These
problems are mainly visualized for major renewable energy
sources like wind and
Intelligent monitoring and control
of the interconnected electric
power grid using Wide Area
Monitoring (WAM)
Integrated SCADA solution,
Smart bay control, Smart
protection IEDs, Smart Metering
solution, Smart load break
switches etc.
SCADA controlled grid station,
automatic meter infrastructure,
GSM based street lightning, GIS
platform with fault management
system
Development of SGMM, hi-tech
automation control and
monitoring, integration of grids,
improvise market strategy
T&D Loss reduction, ensuring
reliable and quality power with
least interruption, quick
turnaround, intelligent grid
monitoring
CONSORTIUMS & JOINT
VENTURES
M/s SEL group
TCS, IIT Mumbai, Tata Power
Project funded by CSIR under
NMITLI
Govt. of India
Tata Power, GE SmartGrid
Technologies and Govt. of Delhi
IBM, IUN Coalition
KPTCL
solar energy. Other energy sources like biomass, hydro and
geothermal sources have no such significant problem on
integration of grid.
Integration of renewables with the Smart Grids makes the
system more reliable and flexible in economic load dispatch,
not only in a specified location but in a wide area, even
between the nations. Nordic countries have practised such
grid integration among its neighbouring nations and still future
implementations are being focused on [28]. However,
forecasting approaches, design algorithm and other models are
being developed by many research analysis teams and are to
be established in many regions across the nationwide. Fig. 4
below represents a brief analysis of solicitation of renewables
in smart grid technology in its whole network of power system
engineering.
The volatility of fossil fuels has opened the ground for new
and renewable energy sources. With the inherent
unpredictability, the wind and the photo voltaic cell should be
supported by upcoming technologies like Micro Grid and ICT
[27]. Such emerging technologies will play a major role in
sustainable standard of living with economical insolence.
Large scale implementation of the renewables need to have
motivating government policies and well established
standards. Proper financial support is the governing factor for
a generation deficient and developing country like India.
BPL households, DG system, smart based metering, promote
fund, finance and facilitate alternative approaches in rural
electrification, single light solar lightning system for remote
villages and its hamlets.
The present rural electrification scenario in the nation is
still uncertain, and is yet to be put on more exploration and
verified by the Ministry of Power (MoP) and Ministry of New
and Renewable Energy (MNRE). Over 500,000 thousand of
India’s 600,000 thousand villages are deemed to be electrified
[33]. As in such case, the Indian Government and Indian
businesses sector would need to invest on more such projects
and schemes, for low-footprint technologies, renewable
sources of energy, smart metering and resource efficient
infrastructure.
Fig.4. Renewable energy sources in Smart Grid Technology
B. Rural Electrification
Technologies are advancing day-by-day, Smart distribution
technologies allowing for increased levels of distributed
generation have a high potential to address rural electrification
needs and minimize the erection costs, transmission losses and
maintenance costs associated with large transmission grids.
Rural Electrification Corporation Limited (REC) is a leading
public infrastructure finance company in India’s power sector
which finances and promotes rural electrification projects
across the nation, operating through a network of 13 Project
offices and 5 Zonal offices. Along with the government of
India has launched various programs and schemes for the
successful promotion and implementation of rural
electrification. One such major scheme is Rajiv Gandhi
Gramen Vidyutkaran Yojana (RGGVY). Other schemes like,
Pradhan Mantri Garmodaya Yojana (PMGY), Three phase
feeders-single phasing and Smart metering, Kutir Jyoti
Program (KJP), Accelerated Rural Electrification Program
(AREP), Rural Electricity Supply Technology Mission (REST),
Accelerated Electrification of one hundred villages and 10
million households, Remote Village Renewable Energy
Programme (RVREP) and Grid-connected Village Renewable
Programme (GVREP) [5], [29-30]. Some of them have got a
remarkable success but some of them got trapped in for their
own interest due to various non-technical issues [31], [32].
Some of the key features of such projects are; to achieve 100%
electrification of all villages and habitation in India, provide
electricity access to all households, free-of-cost electricity to
C. Micro Grid
The renewable resources in absolutely stand-alone mode do
not perform reasonable due to reliability issues subjected to
asymmetrical behaviour and disturbance in weather
conditions. As in such cases, the generators are supported by
another generating technology and/or storage devices consist
of two or more distributed generation system like; wind-PV,
wind-diesel etc., to supply a common load. Such a technology
is called Hybrid energy [34]. Hybrid connection of different
resources and/or storage devices improves the reliability of the
system, as well as is technically and economically sustainable
a more ethical approach is to congregate all such technology
into Micro Grid. There are some similarities between Smart
Grid and Micro Grids or smart Micro Grids. But, the scale, the
type of decision makers involved and the impending rate of
growth are different for both. Smart Grid are realized at the
utility and national grid level, concerning large transmission
and distribution lines, while the smart Micro Grid integrates
various DG technologies into electricity distribution networks
and have faster implementation [25], [34]. Smart Micro Grid
are to create perfect power system with smart technology,
redundancy, distributed generation and storage, cogeneration
or combines heat and power, improve voltage profile, cost
reduction, reduction in carbon credits, smart regulation of
appliances and load etc.. The Fig. 5 gives and overview of
Smart Micro grid architecture with several different AEDGs
split DC and AC buses with centralized and de-centralized
controlsystem.
Fig.5. Smart Micro Grid Architecture
CONCLUSIONS
The paper presents a discussion on Indian Power Strategy
along with its pitfalls in various technical and non-technical
themes, with an organized approach to evolve the
conceptualization of Smart Grid. An overview of Indian
Power Market along with brief analysis about the power
system units is described. Power market in India is generally
characterized by the poor demand side management and
response for lack of proper infrastructure and awareness.
Smart Grid Technology can intuitively overcome these issues.
In addition to that, it can acknowledge reduction in line losses
to overcome prevailing power shortages, improve the
reliability of supply, power quality improvement and its
management, safeguarding revenues, preventing theft etc..
Model architecture as well as India’s Smart Grid initiatives
taken by the government and many private bodies, are
presented in the paper. Further, various prospects of
sustainable energy and off-grid solutions, Rural Electrification
(RE) and evolution of Micro Grid along with various policies
and regulatory affairs of India is also presented here. In this
connection, the paper should act as advocate to bring forth the
significance and fortification of Smart Grid philosophy and
implanting it on the basis of proposed ideology in Indian
subcontinent.
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