CHARACTERIZATION OF FERROCHROME SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND PAVEMENT MATERIAL

CHARACTERIZATION OF FERROCHROME SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND PAVEMENT MATERIAL
CHARACTERIZATION OF FERROCHROME
SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND
PAVEMENT MATERIAL
Master of Technology (Research)
In
Civil Engineering
By
BIBHUTI BHUSAN DAS
Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela – 769008, India
September, 2014
CHARACTERIZATIONOF FERROCHROME
SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND
PAVEMENT MATERIAL
A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of
Master of Technology (Research)
in
Civil Engineering
[Specialization: Geotechnical Engineering]
By
BIBHUTI BHUSAN DAS
Under the Guidance of
Dr. Sarat Kumar Das
Associate Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela – 769008, India
September, 2014
National Institute of Technology Rourkela
Odisha– 769008, India
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled “CHARACTERIZATION OF
FERROCHROME SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND PAVEMENT
MATERIAL” submitted by BIBHUTI BHUSAN DAS in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of Master of Technology (Research) Degree in Civil
Engineering with specialization in Geotechnical Engineering to the National
Institute of Technology, Rourkela is an authentic work carried out by him under my
supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been
submitted to any other University / Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.
Date:
(Dr. Sarat Kumar Das)
Dept. of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela - 769008
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives me immense pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude Dr. Sarat
Kumar Das, my guide and supervisor for his invaluable guidance, motivation and
constant inspiration. I also express my sincere thanks to him for his help and
cooperation starting from suggesting the problem for my M. Tech (Research) project
to processing of the samples and subsequently to finish the work.
I am extremely thankful to Prof. Sunil Kumar Sarangi, Director, NIT
Rourkela, and Prof. N. Roy, former Head of the Department of Civil Engineering,
NIT Rourkela for permitting me to register in M. Tech (Research) course at NIT
Rourkela.
I extend my sincere thanks to Prof. S. K. Sahu, Head of the Department and
other professors of Civil Engineering Department and all M.S.C member Prof. S. P.
Singh, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Prof. B. K. Pal, Department
of Mining Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Prof. Md. Equeenuddin, Department of
Mining Engineering, NIT Rourkela of their great blessing.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank Prof. D. Chaira, Department of
Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, NIT Rourkela and Prof. (Mrs) A. Patel,
Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Rourkela for giving kind permission and
providing all the necessary laboratory facilities to carry out my project work very
smoothly and also thanks to all Laboratories staff members of Department of Civil
Engineering as well as Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, NIT
Rourkela for their kind cooperation.
I would also like to express my sincere thanks to my parents, brother-in-law,
sister, Mrs. S. S. Das and my best friend Mr. A. K. Sethi for their encouragement and
support throughout my life.
I am greatly thankful to all the staff members of the department and all my
well-wishers, class mates and friends for their inspiration and help.
Date:
BIBHUTI BHUSAN DAS
Roll No. - 612CE302
(Geotechnical Engineering)
Dept. of Civil Engg.
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela - 769008
ABSTRACT
Various efforts are being made to use the industrial wastes as an alternate construction
material to conserve the natural resources and effective utilization of the industrial
waste to sustain the industrialization. But limited attempts have been made to
characterize Indian ferrochrome slag as a construction material. In the work an effort
has been made to characterize the ferrochrome slag as an embankment and pavement
material. Different laboratory tests pertaining to Geotechnical and highway material
characterization has been made and the results have been compared with other
industrial wastes like fly ash, red mud and natural soil. An effort also has been made
to use stabilize the low strength, residual soil in terms of increasing its strength and
California bearing ratio values.
Keywords: Ferrochrome slag, Red mud, Fly ash, Red soil, Specific Gravity, Grain
size classification, compressive strength, Shear strength, CBR, Durability, XRD, SEM,
EDX.
CONTENTS
Chapter
Title
Page
I
INTRODUCTION
1-4
II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
5-13
III
MATERIALS AND METHODS
14-23
IV
BASIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
24-36
V
CHARACTERIZATION AS A SUB-GRADE
MATERIAL
37-47
VI
CHARACTERIZATION AS A HIGHWAY MATERIAL
48-57
VII
GENERAL OBSERATION, CONCLUSION AND
FUTURE STUDY
58-60
REFERENCES
61-65
LIST OF TABLES
Table
3.1
3.2
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
Particulars
Page
List of Ferrochrome Manufacturers in Odisha
14
Comprehensive list of experimental tests performed
23
Chemical Composition of ferrochrome slag
24
pH value of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash and red soil
25
Comparison percentage of chemicals present in ferrochrome slag, red mud, 28
fly ash, red soil from EDX analysis
The specific gravity of fine and coarse grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly 34
ash, red soil
The values of Cu and Cc of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil
35
Particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other 35
industrial wastes (red mud, fly ash) based on USCS
Particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other 36
industrial wastes (red mud, fly ash) based on IS Classification (IS: 1498 –
1970)
The LL, PL and PI values of fine grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, 38
red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,
50%) of ferrochrome slag.
The values of O.M.C and M.D.D for both light and heavy weight 42
compaction of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with
different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag
The CBR value of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different 44
proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag
The values of cohesion and angle of internal friction values of ferrochrome 45
slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%,
40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
The compressive strength and cohesion value of red soil and different 46
proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
The coefficient of permeability values of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, 47
red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil
with ferrochrome slag
The mix proportion for GSB in percentage
50
The OMC and Density values of ferrochrome slag mix (20mm down 27%, 51
10mm down 13% and 4.75mm down 60%) for GSB
The values of CBR of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with 52
ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%,
40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
The values of cohesion and internal friction for GSB of ferrochrome slag mix, 53
ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,
50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
The bulk Density of ferrochrome slag
54
The water absorption of ferrochrome slag
54
The void ratio of ferrochrome slag
54
The abrasion value of ferrochrome slag
55
The soundness value of ferrochrome slag
56
The shape test value of ferrochrome slag
56
The properties of coarse grained material as a pavement material and corresponding 57
allowable values.
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
Particulars
Page
3.1
Ferrochrome Slag, Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd., Somonathpur
15
3.2
Dumping yard of ferrochrome slag, Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd.,
Somonathpur
15
3.3
Red mud, Damanjodi, Koraput, Odisha
16
3.4
Discharge of red mud as slurry into the red mud pond
16
3.5
Fly ash, Jindal Steel Plant (JSP), Raigard, Chhattisgarh
17
3.6
Red soil, NIT, Rourkela campus
17
3.7
SEM model JEOL JSM-6480LV for SEM and EDX analysis, NIT
Rourkela
18
3.8
XRD model PW3040 for the mineralogical analysis
19
4.1
EDX plot for fine grain ferrochrome slag
26
4.2
EDX plot for coarse grain ferrochrome slag
26
4.3
EDX plot for red mud
27
4.4
EDX plot for fly ash
27
4.5
EDX plot for red soil
27
4.6
Scanning electron micrograph of fine grain ferrochrome slag at 500
magnification
29
4.7
Scanning electron micrograph of fine grain ferrochrome slag at 1000
magnification
29
4.8
Scanning electron micrograph of coarse grain ferrochrome slag at 250
magnification
29
4.9
Scanning electron micrograph of coarse grain ferrochrome slag at 1000
magnification
30
4.10
Scanning electron micrograph of red mud at 200 magnification
30
4.11
Scanning electron micrograph of fly ash at 1000 magnification
30
4.12
Scanning electron micrograph of red soil at 3500 magnification
31
4.13
XRD plot for fine grain ferrochrome slag
32
4.14
XRD plot for coarse grain ferrochrome slag
32
4.15
XRD plot for red mud
33
4.16
XRD plot for fly ash
33
4.17
Grain size analysis of fine and coarse grain ferrochrome slag, red mud,
fly ash, red soil
35
5.1
Plasticity Chart
38
Figure
Particulars
Page
5.2
Lightweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly
ash
40
5.3
Heavyweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly
ash
40
5.4
Lightweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil
with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of
ferrochrome slag
41
5.5
Heavyweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red
soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of
ferrochrome slag
41
5.6
Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash
after 4 days soaking in water
43
5.7
Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil
with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of
ferrochrome slag after 4 days soaking in water
43
5.8
The comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear stress of ferrochrome slag,
red mud and fly ash
45
5.9
The comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear stress of ferrochrome slag and
comparison with red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,
50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
45
5.10
The Stress v/s Strain curve of red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%,
20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
46
6.1
To evaluate mix proportion for GSB following the Rothfutch ’ s
Graphical method
50
6.2
Density curve of ferrochrome slag mix (20mm down 27%, 10mm down
13% and 4.75mm down 60%) for GSB
51
6.3
Load v/s Settlement curve of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and
comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion
(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag after
four days soaking
52
6.4
Comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear stress of ferrochrome slag mix
for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different
proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with
ferrochrome slag
53
LIST OF SYMBOL
NALCO
MT
Notational Aluminium Company
Million Ton
OPC
Ordinary Portland cement
m
Meter
mg
Milligram
NH4
Ammonium
kg
Kilogram
RM
Red mud
P
Phosphorous
°C
Degree centigrade
XRD
X-Ray Diffraction
g
Gram
mm
Millimeter
%
Percentage
EDXRF
Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence
SEM
Scanning Electron Microscope
Mpa
Mega Pascal
kW
Kilo Watt
SiO2
Quartz
Al2O3
Iron oxide
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
CO
Carbon monoxide
NaOH
Sodium hydroxide
Hr
Hour
φ
Angle of internal friction
Cc
Compression index
K
Potassium
Cv
Coefficient of consolidation
0
Degree
LL
Liquid limit
PI
Plasticity index
PL
Plastic limit
GS
Specific gravity
µm
Micrometer
Cs
Swelling Index
Ca
Calcium
Fe
Iron
Si
Silicon
Al
Aluminum
Ti
Titanium
Na
Sodium
C
Carbon
Mg
Magnesium
JSP
Jindal steel & power
Cu
Copper
ρ
Bulk density
Na2O
Sodium oxide
MgO
Magnesium oxide
K2O
Potassium oxide
SO3
Sulfur trioxide
MnO
Manganese oxide
Cr2O3
Chromium(III) Oxide
P 2 O5
Phosphorus pentoxide
H, Fe2O3
Hematite
B
Boehmite
Gb
Gibbsite
R, TiO2
Rutile
Go, FeO(OH)
Goethite
S, Na4(Si3Al3)O12Cl
Sodalite
SW
Well graded sand
CBR
California bearing ratio
IRC
Indian Road Congress
CFS
Coarse grain Ferrochrome Slag
FFS
Fine grain Ferrochrome Slag
RM
Red Mud
FA
Fly Ash
RS
Red Soil
CHAPTER - 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Introduction
Large quantities of natural materials are traditionally used in the construction of
roads, embankments and other similar civil engineering structures. Due to the
depletion of natural materials, there is a need to find suitable alternative material,
which will replace the conventional materials. The large scale industrialization has
resulted accumulation of huge amount of by products or industrial waste, endangering
the environment in terms of land, air and water pollution. The sustainability of
industries now depends upon the effective management and utilization of it’s byproducts. In order to use the industrial waste in huge quantities efforts are being made
to use the same as a substitute of natural resources. Various efforts have been made to
use industrial wastes like fly ash, blast furnace slag, red mud etc. in some civil
engineering construction works. Ferrochrome slag is the by-product of waste
generated from the ferrochrome steel plant. Globally, generation of Ferrochrome slag
is 6.5 to 9.5 million tons and increased by 2.8 to 3 % per annum (Kauppi and Peka,
2007). It contains 13-39% of SiO2, 10-29% of MgO, 16-43% of Al2O3, 1-6% of CaO,
6-18% of Chromium, 3-11% of Iron and other minerals. The present work focuses to
characterize the largely available ferrochrome slag in the geotechnical applications
and to find the applicability of such material as fill in Geotechnical structures such as
embankment and other similar structures etc.
Very limited efforts have been made worldwide to use ferrochrome slag as an
alternate civil engineering material. The characterization of Indian slag is not
reported. Hence, an effort is being carried out to characterize the local ferrochrome
slag as an alternate civil engineering material. The findings based on the limited
laboratory tests of the basic material properties, physical properties suggest that
ferrochrome slag has the potential to be used as an alternate geotechnical material.
1|Page
Figure 1.1 Ferrochrome plant around the world (www.ferro-alloys.net)
1.2 Scope of Present Investigation, Research Objective
From the above, it can be seen that although ferrochrome slag is a waste inorganic
material but it can be utilized in various work to develop on economical point of view
and making the environment as pollution free. In the present study, characterization of
ferrochrome slag to be used as a fill and embankment material and also used as a
pavement material in road construction. However, it has the potential to be used as an
alternate civil engineering material for filling and embankment as well as pavement
material for road construction.
The scope of the present thesis consists of the laboratory tests for finding out the
morphology,
mineralogy,
chemical
properties,
index
properties
and
shear
characteristics (for both Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering point of
view)of ferrochrome slag using procedure as
that for soil. The geotechnical
laboratory investigations were conducted as per Indian Standards (IS: 2720 – 1985
and SP36, Part 1) for soil and transportation laboratory investigations were conducted
as per IS: 2386 and MORTH for aggregate. The comparison of some geotechnical
properties has been made with other industrial waste materials like red mud, fly ash
and also local red soil for using as sub-grade material. Hence, the present research
will be helpful to use the Ferro-chrome slag as a fill and embankment material and
pavement material.
2|Page
1.3
Thesis Outline
After the brief introduction (Chapter 1), the review, based on the use of ferrochrome
slag both in geotechnical and transportation engineering as well as its other aspects
has been discussed in Chapter 2.
Chapter 3 describes the different materials which are used for present study. Different
methods for finding the characteristics of ferrochrome slag with other industrial waste
products like red mud, fly ash and also with local red soil has been discussed in this
chapter. The experimental methods used to characterize ferrochrome slag as a fill and
embankment material and pavement material are discussed in this chapter.
Chapter 4 pertains to presentation and discussion of material properties of
ferrochrome slag and the results are compared with other geotechnical engineering
material like, red mud, fly ash and local soil.
Chapter 5 describes the characterization of ferrochrome slag as a sub-grade material
using experimental methods and comparison test results for finding the compaction,
shear strength and California bearing ratio (CBR) values of the local red soil mixed
with different proportion of ferrochrome slag.
Chapter 6 describes the characterization of slag as a highway material using
experimental methods on ferrochrome slag like compaction, shear strength and CBR
values.
Chapter 7 conclusions drawn from various studies made in this thesis presented and
scope for the future work is indicated. The general layout of the thesis work based on
each chapter is shown in flow diagram (Figure 1.2).
3|Page
Chapter 1
Introduction
Chapter 2
Literature
Review
Materials and Methods
Chapter 3
Experimental
Analysis
Materials
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Basic Material Properties
Characterization as a Sub-grade
Material
Characterization as a Highway
Material
Conclusion
Figure 1.2 Flow diagram showing the organization of the thesis
4|Page
CHAPTER - 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1
Introduction
This chapter discussed about the literature review for the ferrochrome slag. In this,
some studies related to characterization of other industrial waste like red mud, fly ash
and quarry dust is discussed, in order to pave the methodology for the characterization
of ferrochrome slag. Then limited study available of characterization of ferrochrome
slag is enclosed. Since 2001’s various efforts have been made towards
characterization and utilization of ferrochrome slag for different engineering purpose.
This chapter discusses about the different investigation for effective use of
ferrochrome slag in different applications in general. There, specific literature pertains
to geotechnical engineering application is presented.
2.2
Different Experimental and Geotechnical Study on Ferrochrome Slag
Lind (2001) investigated that “leaching tests with salt seawater and PH adjusted water
reveal low leachability from the slag for most elements. It was also reported that in
road construction, there was a low migration of particles from the slag to the under
lying soil and that the leaching from the Ferrochrome slag to the groundwater was low
for the elements analyzed, with the exception of potassium.
Shao-peng et al., (2003) analyzed to use steel slag stone matrix aggregate (SMA) is
usable as a concrete materials for design. This material was found to highly rigid and
excellent friction resistance on the basis of its characteristics.
Tossavainen (2005) noted that the extraction of rock material and ore for construction
and metal production involves large quantities of wastes and by-products such as iron
and steel making slag has durability qualities and latent cementious properties which
are positive in construction.
Nkohla (2006) investigatedthat the best practices for the characterization of
ferrochrome smelter slag by following the robust and accurate analytical techniques
which is essential for process control, and he discussed its implications to the
5|Page
performance of the smelting process. Slag samples from a ferrochrome smelter were
analysed using an XRF powder pellet an analytical technique in contrast to the ICP
technique used at the plant laboratory, to determine their composition.
Kauppi et al., (2007) reported that the structure of the slag is partly crystalline and
partly glassy. Significant phases are amorphous glass, Fe-Mg-Cr-Al-spinels,
forsterite, Mg-Al-silicate and metal alloy. The ferrochrome slag products are
chemically very stable.
Kok et al., (2009) reported the properties of hot bituminous mixtures containing
ferrochromium slag with neat and strong-butadiene styrene modified binders used in
flexible pavements. Based on experimental results, use of ferrochromium slag as total
aggregate did not exhibit good performance in terms of stability and stiffness.
However the mixture prepared entirely with ferrochromium slag showed good
resistance to moisture damage.
Yilmaz et al., (2009) reported the results of experiments, to use ferrochromium slag
as an aggregate for granular layers of flexible pavements. The results indicate that the
physical and mechanical properties of air-cooled ferrochromium slag are as good as or
better than those of natural aggregates. Therefore, FeCr slag and SiFeCr slag have
potential to be used as a pavement base layer material in applications where crushed
limestone aggregate materials are traditionally used.
Konarbaeva et al., (2010) mineralogical composition of low-carbon ferrochrome
slags was studied by means of petrographic analysis. Ferrochrome was produced with
ferrosilicon-aluminum used as a reductant. Petrographic analysis of slags indicates the
presence of helenite in various forms. Isolated impregnations of melilite, larnite and
vitreous phase are distinctly separated which proves the possibility of their separation
from helenite phase in further processing.
2.3
Utilization of fly ash in particular, can be broadly grouped into three
categories.
The Low Value Utilizations includes, Road construction, Embankment and dam
construction, back filling, Mine filling, Structural fills, Soil stabilization, Ash dykes
etc. The Medium Value Utilizations includes Pozzolana cement, Cellular cement,
Bricks/Blocks, Grouting, Fly ash concrete, Prefabricated building blocks, Light
6|Page
weight aggregate, Grouting, Soil amendment agents, etc. The High Value Utilizations
includes Metal recovery, Extraction of magnetite, Acid refractory bricks, Ceramic
industry, Floor and wall tiles, Fly ash Paints, and distempers etc.
Since 1970’s various effort have been made in utilization of fly ash in geotechnical
engineering field.
Sherwood and Ryley (1970) studied that, the fraction of lime present in fly ash,
behaves self-hardening properties of fly ash, in the form of calcium oxide.
Mclaren and Digioia (1987) studied that the fly ashes have low values of specific
gravity as compared to soil, so it can use as backfill material for embankments, weak
foundation soil. Hence, earth pressure exerted by fly ashes are small.
Martin et al., (1990) stated that fly ash in moist and partial saturated conditions,
shows apparent cohesion values, due to capillary rise and it is not to be used as long
term stability of fly ash. For shear criteria shear strength is the major one.
Yudbir and Honjo (1991) found that lime content of fly ash behaves as selfhardening properties, depends upon availability of free lime and carbon content in the
samples.
Wesche (1991) studied that, the loss of ignition percentage on fly ash, determine the
presence of unburnt carbon in fly ash.
Rajasekhar (1995) found that fly ashes are mainly consists of cenosphere and
plerosphere. The low values of specific gravity are due to spherical particle present in
which the entrapped air bind within it.
Singh (1996) studied that the unconfined compressive strength is a function of free
lime content and apparent cohesion.
Singh and Panda (1996) shows that shear strength of a sample of freshly compacted
fly ash is a function of and of internal friction angle, which in turn depends upon the
maximum dry density of fly ash sample.
7|Page
Pandian (1998) reported the low specific gravity, good draining nature, ease way of
compaction, good frictional properties etc., can easily gain the use of any geotechnical
engineering applications.
Pandian and Balasubramonian (1999) the coefficient permeability was found to
decrease upto 200% with 30% increase in MDD value. However, this depends upon
the origin of the coal, plant type and collection of sample. Another aspect is that the
main emphasis of this thesis was on characterization of ferrochrome slag.
Cokca (2001) fly ash consists of hollow spherical cells of silicon, aluminium and iron
oxide, so it provides an array of bivalent and trivalent cation like Ca+2, Al+3 anf Fe+3
in ionized state, which can promotes the disperse clay minerals.
Das and Yudhbir (2005) found that the lime content, iron content, loss on iginition,
morphology and mineralogy affect the geotechnical properties of fly ashes.
Sridharan et al., (1998) conducted direct shear box test under as compacted
condition, fly ashes exhibits apparent cohesion, due to capillary stresses as a
consequence of partial saturation.
Prasad and Bai (1999) studied that due to high reactive silica present in fly ash, fly
ash exhibit greater lime reactivity than bottom ash or pond ash.
Sridharan and Prakash (2000) Fly ashes show negative free swell indices due to,
low values of specific gravity and due to flocculation and as a consequence of their
free lime content.
Sridharan et al., (2001) found that the principal constituents of fly ashes are silica
(SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and ferric oxide (Fe2O3). Oxides of calcium, magnesium and
sodium are also present in fly ashes. If carbon particles do not burn in furnace of
boiler, then unburnt carbon particles are also present in fly ashes, and this can be
determined from loss on ignition test. He also studied that the pH of fly ashes vary in
the range of low value 3 to high value about 12. About 50% of Indian fly ashes are
alkaline in nature.
Sridharan et al., (2001) study that the morphology of fly ash contains glassy solid
spheres, hollow spheres, sub rounded porous grains, irregular agglomerates and
irregular porous grains of unburned carbon (black in colour). If iron particles are
8|Page
present, they can be spotted as angular grains of magnetite (dark gray in colour). The
low reactivity of fresh sample indicates low reactive silica or free lime content or high
unburned carbon content in fly ash. The particle size distribution and grain
characteristics of fly ashes, determine the constitutive behavior and other physical and
engineering properties of fly ashes. As fly ashes are predominantly silt size particles,
specific surfaces of fly ashes are quite low as compared to kaolinite. The range of
specific surface of Indian fly ashes are 130-530 m2/kg.
Sridharan and Pandian (2001) studied that compacted fly ash tested in un soaked
condition, have higher CBR values, than soaked condition of most of the fine grained
soils. Such higher CBR value is due to capillary force that exists in the partly
saturated state.
Das and Kalidas (2002) found that the specific surfaces of fly ash, subjected to grain
size in ESP hoppers may vary considerably.
Trivedi and Sud (2004) found that the specific gravity increases, with increase in
fineness and finest fly ash has maximum specific gravity. Table shows that, some of
variation in specific gravities.
Prakash and Sridharan (2006) proposed a classification scheme for fly ash if more
than 50% of fines (i.e., fraction of size finer than 75m) belongs to either coarse silt
size category or the medium silt size category or (fine silt+clay) size category, then
the ash is represented as MLN or MIN or MHN respectively.
Prakash and Sridharan (2007) found that the fly ashes exhibit lower dmax and
higher OMC. This is due to their low specific gravity, poorly graded particles and
presence of more cenospheres. The coarser fly ashes higher OMC and lower dmax ,
while finer fly ashes exhibits a lower OMC and higher dmax. The coefficient of
permeability is a function of grain size distribution, degree of compaction and
pozzolanic property of fly ashes. For compacted ashes, k decreases with the degree of
compaction increases. Fly ashes fall in the range of k of silts. For partially saturated
compacted fly ash, exhibits some UCC strength due to capillary stress induced some
apparent cohesion and pozzolanic action.
9|Page
Miners (1973) observed that red mud consists of sand and silt size particles with clay
size up to 20-30%, with complete absence of quartz minerals. He classified coarse
grained fraction as red sand and fine grained fraction as red mud.
Vogt (1974) described in situ undrained shear strengths are typically very high
compared to uncemented, clayey soils at equivalent liquidity indices. The sensitivities
vary from 5 to 15 with very high friction angles (φ) of 38-420 are also found for red
mud.
Parekh and Goldberger (1976) observed that red mud is highly alkaline and its
mineral components are generally hematite, goethite, gibbsite, calcite, sodalite.
Somogyi and Gray (1977) described red mud is highly alkaline, having 20-30% clay
sized particles, with the majority of particles in the silt range. One-dimensional
compression tests indicate the values for Cc = 0.27-0.39, permeability k = 2-20 x107
cm/s and Cv = 3 – 50 x 103 cm2/s.
Vick (1981) observed that red mud is of low plasticity with liquid limit (LL) of 45%
and plasticity index (PI) of 10% with relatively high specific gravity (GS) of 2.8-3.3.
Due to its lack of clay mineralogy, these wastes show many geotechnical properties
similar to clayey tailings found in other mineral processing [e.g., mineral sands, gold,
etc].
Li (1998) found that red mud is highly alkaline (pH = 11-13) waste material, whose
mineral components includes hematite, goethite, gibbsite, calcite, sodanite and
complex silicates and some red mud have been found to have greater than 50% of the
particles less than 2µm. The cation exchange capacities of red mud are comparable
with kaolin or illite minerals.
Newson et al., (2006) carried out the investigation on physiochemical and mechanical
properties of red mud at a site in the United Kingdom. Based on a set of laboratory
tests conducted on the red mud, the material has compression behavior similar to
clayey soils, but frictional behavior closer to sandy soils. The red mud appears to be
“structured” and has features consistent with sensitive, cemented clay soils. Chemical
testing suggests that the agent causing the aggregation of particles is hydroxylsodalite
and that the bonds are reasonably strong and stable during compressive loading and
10 | P a g e
can be broken down by subjecting the red mud to an acidic environment. Exposure of
the red mud to acidic conditions causes dissolution of the hydroxysodalite and a loss
of particle cementation. Hydration of the hydroxysodalite unit cells is significant, but
does not affect the mechanical performance of the material. The shape, size, and
electrically charged properties of the hydroxysodalite, goethite, and hematite in the
red mud appear to be causing mechanical behavior with features consistent with clay
and sand, without the presence of either quartz or clay minerals.
Liu et al., (2006) observed that the pH value of red mud decreases with increase in
duration of storage time and Oxygen(O) accounted for about 40% with the other
major elements included Calcium (CA), Iron(Fe), Silicon(Si), Aluminum(Al),
Titanium(Ti), Sodium(Na), Carbon, Magnesium(Mg) and Potassium(K) . XRD
analysis shows calcite, perovskite, illite, hematite and magnetite are present in red
mud and the old red mud also contained some kassite and portlandite. In addition,
there are about 20% of amorphous materials in all red mud.
Sundaram and Gupta (2010) have made some in-situ investigation on the red mud
to be used as a foundation material and they have observed that red mud is highly
alkaline (9.3-10.2) with liquid limit of 39-45 %, plastic limit of 27-29% and shrinkage
limit of 19-22%. They also found that undrained shear strength is 0.4 to 1.4 kg/cm2,
specific gravity is 2.85-2.97, cohesion is 0.1 to 0.2 kg/cm2 and angle of internal
friction is 26-280. Table 2.2, shows the comprehensive work done on geotechnical
characterization of red mud.
Rout et al., (2013) Characterized red mud as a pavement and tailing dam material and
found that it has the potential to be used as a fill and embankment material.
2.4
Different experimental study on quarry dust
Quarry dust can be defined as residue, tailing or other non-voluble waste material
after the extraction and processing of rocks to form fine particles less than 4.75mm,
which is abundantly available to the extent of 200 million tons per annum. Quarry
dust is fine rock particles. It is gray in color and it is like fine aggregate. The
utilization of quarry fines is seen as a way to minimize the accumulation of unwanted
material which has landfill disposal problems and health and environmental hazards
11 | P a g e
and at the same time to maximize resource use and efficiency in different
constructional work.
Ali and Koranne (2011) investigated the effect of stone dust & flyash combine at
different percentage on expansive soil, the test results such as index properties,
Proctors compaction, swelling and unconfined compression strength obtained on
expansive clays mixed at different proportions of fly ash and stone dust admixture.
From the results, observed that at optimum percentages, i.e., 20 to 30% of admixture
found the swelling of expansive clay is almost controlled and also improved in the
other properties of soil.
Koustuvee et al. (2013) attempted to understand the influence of the quarry dust
content on the shear strength of sandy soil that the addition of quarry dust increases
the shear strength of the sandy soil significantly. The added advantage is that this
helps in the saving of sand availability in the variance in shearing strength of sand and
quarry dust and the shearing behaviour of quarry dust-sand mixes having different
fractions of natural sand and quarry dust.
Patel and Pitroda (2013) evaluated various properties of quarry dust and its
suitability in conventional concrete and used as surface dressing in highway work,
manufacturing of building material, such as lightweight aggregates, bricks, tiles,
autoclave blocks,
synthetic rock and kerbs, embankment construction, landfill
capping, filler applications, manufactured sand, cement making, green roofs, straw
and clay blocks.
Satyanarayana et al. (2013) evaluated the geo-technical properties of compacted
crusher dust along with the recycled aggregate. The strength characteristics of
compacted crusher dust are evaluated through a series of CBR tests and compaction
tests varying the crusher dust dosage from 60% to 10% with respect to recycled
aggregate and observed that crusher dust of 20-40% has greater strengths and can be
used as a road base and sub-base material.
Sarvade and Nayak (2014) used quarry dust as a stabilizer to improve the
geotechnical properties of lithomargic clay which is a dispersive type of soil and
highly susceptible to erosion abundantly available in the western coastal belt of
Southern India. The lithomargic clay blended with the quarry dust results showed that
12 | P a g e
the geotechnical parameters of the lithomargic clay are improved substantially by the
addition of quarry dust with good improvement in the consolidation values,
permeability and also the variation in water content does not seriously affect its
desirable properties. The settlement analysis of the lithomargic clay and the
lithomargic clay blended with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% quarry dust for a square
footing by using Plaxis 3D and found that there is a decrease in the settlement and
increase in the load carrying capacity when blended with quarry dust.
Subbulakshmi and Vidivelli (2014) investigated the effect of quarry dust towards
the performance of High performance concrete and focused on its mechanical
properties. Also used quarry dust in concrete as a partial replacement of sand. The
strength characteristics such as compressive strength and flexural strength were
investigated to find the optimum replacement of quarry dust of 0%, 50%, and 100% at
3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 60 days of curing.
Based on the above studies, it was observed that various studies have been conducted
to utilize industrial wastes like fly ash, red mud, and quarry dust as an alternate
construction material in general and as a construction and fill material in particular.
Though, above industrials wastes do not have constituents similar to that of soil but
have properties similar to that of soil. Among them fly ash has been well investigated
and are being used widely as construction and fill material followed by red mud and
quarry dust. However, to best knowledge of the author no systematic study on
ferrochrome slag have been made to use it as an embankment and pavement material.
Hence, in this study an attempt has been to characterize the ferrochrome slag as an
embankment and pavement material.
13 | P a g e
CHAPTER - 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1
Introduction
This chapter discusses about the materials used and the methodology followed in the
present study. Though the main material characterized in the present study is ferrochrome
slag, other materials like fly ash, red mud and red soil are also used to compare the results
of ferrochrome slag with these materials. In this work completely experimental
methodology followed for characterization of these materials is also discussed. A brief
introduction about the above materials and methodology is presented as follows.
3.2
Materials
3.2.1
Ferrochrome slag (FS)
The raw material in the production of ferrochrome is chromite and iron oxides. The
chromite is used as lumpy ores or fine concentrates, which must be generally
agglomerated to make them useable charge for the furnace. Fine concentrate is first
ground and made into pellets in the sintering plant and then the pellets are sintered in
the furnace at a temperature of 1400°C. Different minerals like quartzite, bauxite,
dolomite, corundum, lime and olivine are used as fluxing materials to get the right
composition of slag. The smelted products obtained from the smelting furnaces are
ferrochrome alloy and slag. The slag production is 1.1-1.6 t / t FeCr depending on
feed materials. In Odisha there are nearly ten ferrochrome plants and some are shown
in Table 3.1. In the present study ferrochrome slag from Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd.,
Somonathpur, in the district of Balasore of Odisha, India, was collected. Figure 3.1
shows the industries from which is collected and Figure 3.2 shows the dumping yard
of ferrochrome slag.
14 | P a g e
Table 3.1 List of Ferrochrome Manufacturers in Odisha
Name of Manufactures
BALASORE FERRO ALLOYS
LTD.
FACOR
IMFA
ICCL
ROHIT FERROTECH
VISA STEELS
JINDAL STAINLESS
TATA
MAITHAN
Place
BALASORE
BHADRAKH
THERUBALI
CHOUDWAR
J.K.ROAD
J.K.ROAD
J.K.ROAD
BRAHMANIPAL
J.K.ROAD
Figure 3.1 Ferrochrome Slag, Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd., Somonathpur
Figure 3.2 Dumping yard of ferrochrome slag, Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd.,
Somonathpur
15 | P a g e
Above Figure 3.2 shows the disposal of ferrochrome slag from the plant to the open
area as a solid form where the materials are collected in two types i.e. (i) Fine grain
ferrochrome slag (FFS) and (ii) Coarse grain ferrochrome slag (CFS) on the basis of
particle size. In the present study both fine and coarse grain FS were collected.
3.2.2
Red Mud (RM)
In this work the red mud used was collected from NALCO, Damanjodi, Koraput in
the state of Odisha, India. Red mud is the waste industrial material that is obtained
during extraction of alumina from bauxite ore. Alumina production process consists
of crushing and grinding of bauxite with caustic liquor in ball mills. The slurry after
desilication is pumped to large tanks/autoclaves/tubes for digestion at 110°C to 300°C
depending upon the mineralogy of bauxite. The digested slurry is diluted and
classified in thickeners. The overflow (aluminate liquor) is pumped for controlled
filtration and underflow containing red mud is washed and disposed to red mud pond.
Depending upon the quality of bauxite, the quantity of red mud generated varies from
55-65% of the bauxite processed. The production of 1 ton of alumina generally results
in the creation of 1.2-1.4 tons of red mud. Figure 3.3 and Figure 3.4 show the
collected material red mud in the laboratory.
Figure 3.3 Red mud, Damanjodi,
Koraput, Odisha
3.2.3
Figure 3.4 Discharge of red mud as
slurry into the red mud pond
Fly Ash (FA)
The fly-ash is light weight coal combustion by product, which results from the
combustion of ground or powdered bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal or lignite
coal. Fly ash is generally separated from the exhaust gases by electrostatic
precipitators before the flue gases reach the chimneys of coal-fired power plants. In
the present study the fly ash was collected from hopper of JSP, Jindal Steel Plant
16 | P a g e
(JSP), Raigard, of Chhattisgarh. In this JSP plant the fly ash is collected through the
hopper and is transformed through trucks. Hence, the fly ash in dry state was collected
from the plant shown in Figure 3.5.
Figure 3.5 Fly ash, Jindal Steel Plant (JSP), Raigard, Chhattisgarh
3.2.4
Red Soil (RS)
The residual soil collected from the NIT Rourkela campus defined here as Red soil.
The red soil shown in Figure 3.6 is the red coloured fine grained residual soil
collected from the shallow surface, which is not suitable for the construction of
pavements. The red soil is used in the present study for comparison of properties as
sub-grade soil to the ferrochrome slag and also characterization of stabilized red soil
with ferrochrome slag as sub-grade soil for the construction of pavement.
Figure 3.6 Red soil, NIT, Rourkela campus
17 | P a g e
3.3
Methods
The present study consists of experimental methods for characterization of
ferrochrome slag. The experimental methods refer to investigation of ferrochrome
slag in terms of morphological, chemical, mineralogical, geotechnical and pavement
material properties, which are elaborated as follows.
Material Characterization Method
3.3.1.1 Scanning Electron Microscope
Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray micro analyser is used
in the present study. The chemical and mineralogical characterization of ferrochrome
slag is not only beneficial for knowing its composition, but also helps in its
classification for its possible utilization as an engineering material. The particle
morphology of the ferrochrome slag is analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope
(SEM) fitted with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) micro analyser. The particle shape
is quantified by using image analysis and documented with micrographs. The SEM
used in the present study is JEOL-JSM-6480 LV model. SEM is used to scan a finely
focused beam of kilovolt energy. An image is formed by scanning electrode ray tube
in synchronism with the beam and modulating the brightness of this tube with beam
excited signals. The samples are prepared with carbon coating before being putting in
the SEM. Figure 3.7 shows the layout of SEM set up with EDX microanalyses.
Figure 3.7 SEM model JEOL JSM-6480LV for SEM and EDX analysis, NIT
Rourkela
18 | P a g e
3.3.1.2 X-ray Diffractometer Analysis
The mineral phases present in the collected ferrochrome slag is identified by X-Ray
Diffraction (XRD) technique. X-ray diffraction method used to carry out on the
samples for qualitative identification of the mineral phases and quantitative estimates
of mineralogical composition using Rietveld refinement methods. The samples were
dried at 110°C for 24 Hrs and mainly taken into powered form for X-ray diffraction
analysis. X-ray powder diffraction was initially carried out on the powders for
qualitative identification of mineral phases. The sample is analysed by passing
through a Philips diffractometer with a Cu Kα radiation source and a single crystal
graphite monochromatic. An angular range of 10–70° of 2θ value (whereis the
incident/glancing angle of X-ray beam) in 0.1° increments was used throughout.
Figure 3.8 shows the XRD assembly used in the present study.
Figure 3.8 XRD model PW3040 for the mineralogical analysis
3.3.2
Study of geotechnical properties
Some of the geotechnical properties that are of particular interest on ferrochrome slag
are particle size distribution, specific gravity, and bulk density etc. All the
geotechnical properties of ferrochrome slag have been found as per IS: 2720 and SP:
36 (Part 1). The pH values are found out by Electronic pH meter and conducted as per
SP: 36 (Part 1).
19 | P a g e
3.3.2.1 Determination of pH value
The acidic or alkaline characteristics of a soil sample can be quantitatively expressed
by hydrogen ion-activity commonly designated as pH, which is conveniently
expressed by the following:
1
pH = - log10 (H+) = log10 [H+]
(1)
where, H+ is the hydrogen ion-concentration in moles/litre.
The PH values are found out by Electrometric pH meter by means of an electrode
assembly consisting of one glass electrode and one calomel reference electrode with a
saturated potassium chloride solution. Potassium chloride is used for salt bridge
because of the fact that the transference of the K+ and Cl- ions takes place at the rate
in true solution. In this experiment buffer Solutions of pH 4.0 (at 25C) dissolve 5.106
g of potassium hydrogen phthalate in distilled water and dilute to 500 ml with distilled
water. Then 30 g of the sample was taken as prepared as IS: 2720 (Part 1) -1983 in a
100-ml beaker with 75 ml of distilled water and stirred for a few seconds following as
per SP 36(Part I) of IS: 2720 (Part 26) - 1987.
3.3.2.2 Determination of specific gravity
The specific gravity experiment is done in pycnometer method as per IS 2720 Part III
Sec 2 1980 for fine grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil, red soil with
different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag and IS
2386(Part III) – 1963 for coarse grain ferrochrome slag.
3.3.2.3 Determination of particle size analysis
The percentage of various sizes of particles in a given dry sample is found by the
mechanical analysis which performed in two stages, i.e. sieve analysis and
hydrometer analysis. In this work particle size analyzed by wet sieve analysis method
following as per IS: 2720 (Part 4) – 1985.
3.3.2.4 Determination of Compaction characteristics
Compaction test determine the moisture content and dry density relationship as per IS
2720 (1980) conducting two types of compaction i.e. (i) light compaction and (ii)
heavy compaction.
20 | P a g e
3.3.2.5 Consistency Limits Analysis
The values of liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index help in classifying the
cohesive soil. In this work, the consistency limits are determined or analyzed as per
the following of the IS: 2720(Part 5) – 1985.
3.3.2.6 Determination of permeability
The permeability of soil sample is determined by falling head parameter and constant
head parameter. The permeability of ferrochrome slag is determine by constant head
parameter under condition of laminar flow of water as per IS: 2720 (Part 17) - 1987.
3.3.2.7 Determination of shear strength
Direct shear test is conducted to measure the shear strength of soil. The test is
conducted as per IS: 2720 (Part 13) - 1986. Normal stress is given to the different soil
samples are 0.5kN, 1kN, 1.5kN.
3.3.2.8 Determination of California bearing ratio
The CBR test is conducted on soil specimen as per IS: 2720(part16) - 1961. For all
samples, unsoaked samples are tested for freshly and soaked samples are tasted after 4
days preparation of sample. The soaked samples are subjected 2.5kg surplus load.
3.3.2.9 Determination of unconfined compressive strength
The UCS test is performed as per IS: 2720 (Part 10) - 1991.The test specimen are
prepared from freshly in different material with using 20 kN proving ring according to
their strength.
3.3.3
Study of other properties as pavement material
Loose and compacted bulk densities of ferrochrome slag are determined in the
laboratory as per the IS: 2386 (Part 3) – 1963.

The ratio of loose bulk density to the compacted bulk density lies usually
between 0.87 and 0.96.
3.3.3.2 Void ratio
For this present study for the coarse grained FS, void ratio was found in laboratory as
per the IS: 2386 (Part 3) – 1963.
21 | P a g e
3.3.3.3 Shape test
The evaluation of shape of the FS coarse grained particles made in terms of flakiness
index, elongation index, and angularity number. This shape test was done in
laboratory as per IS: 2386 (Part 1) -1963.
3.3.3.4 Soundness value
The soundness test is intended to study the resistance of aggregates to weathering
action by conducting accelerated weathering test cycle as per IS: 2386 (Part 5) –
1963. The resistance to disintegration of aggregate is determined 0.21% by using
saturated solution of sodium sulphate taking five numbers of cycle. The average loss
in weight of aggregates to be used in pavement construction after 10 cycles should not
exceed 12% when tested with sodium sulphate and 18% when tested with magnesium
sulphate. In the present study the soundness test was conducted for coarse grained FS.
3.3.3.5 Abrasion value
In order to check the hardness of coarse grained FS, Los Angeles abrasion tests are
carried as per IS: 2386 (Part 1) -1963.
The Los Angeles Abrasion value of good aggregates acceptable for cement concrete,
bituminous concrete and other high quality pavement materials should be less than 30%.
Values up to 50% are allowed in base courses like water bound and bituminous
macadam.
3.3.3.6 Crushing Strength
To achieve a high quality of pavement aggregates possessing high resistance to
crushing or low aggregate crushing value are preferred. This experiment was done in
laboratory as per IS: 2386 (Part 4) -1963.
The aggregate crushing value for good quality aggregate to be used in base coarse
shall not be exceed 45% and the value for surface coarse shall be less than 30%.
3.3.3.7 Impact Value
This experiment was done in laboratory as per IS: 2386 (Part 4) -1963.As per code,
the aggregate impact value should not normally exceed 30% for aggregate to be used
22 | P a g e
in wearing coarse of pavements. The maximum permissible value is 35% for
bituminous macadam and 40% for water bound macadam base coarse.
Table 3.2 Comprehensive list of experimental tests performed
SL No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Tests Performed
SEM
EDX
XRD
pH value
Sp. Gravity
Particle size analysis
Consistency Limits Analysis
i. Liquid limit
ii. Plastic limit
iii. Plastic index
Compaction
i. Light weight
ii. Heavy weight
CBR
i. soaking
10
Direct shear
i. Saturated
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
UCS
Permeability
i.
Constant head
ii. Variable head
Bulk density
Void ratio
Water absorption
Impact value
Crushing value
Abrasion value
Soundness value
Shape test
i. Flakiness
ii. Elongation
iii. Angularity number
Relative density
23 | P a g e
Materials used
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil
+ Different percentage(10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,
50% respectively) of Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil
+ Different percentage(10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,
50% respectively) of Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red
soil, Red Soil + Different percentage(10%,
20%, 30%, 40%, 50% respectively) of
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red
soil, Red Soil + Different percentage (10%,
20%, 30%, 40%, 50% respectively) of
Ferrochrome Slag
Red soil, Red Soil + Different percentage
(10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% respectively) of
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
Ferrochrome Slag
CHAPTER - 4
BASIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
4.1
Introduction
The results of basic material properties of FS are discussed in this chapter. Though the
main aim is to characterize the FS as a structure of fill and pavement material, it is
required to know its basic properties like chemistry, mineralogy, morphology etc. for
better characterization. Hence in this chapter chemistry, mineralogy, morphology,
particle size distribution and specific gravity are presented. The above properties of
FS are compared to that with other industrial waste like fly ash, red mud and also with
local soil.
4.2
Chemical Analysis
The total chemical analysis of FS is presented in Table 4.1. Ferrochrome slag consists
of silica, aluminium, oxides of iron, calcium, chromium and magnesium. It can be
observed that the values are comparable to that reported in literature (Kauppi and
Keppa, 2007). It may be mentioned here that high magnesium (MgO) is a matter of
concern as it may lead to expansion.
Table 4.1 Chemical Composition of ferrochrome slag
4.3
Constituents
Present study
(% by Weight)
Kauppi and Keppa(2007)
(% by Weight)
Al2O3
26
16-43
SiO2
30
13-39
MgO
23
10-29
CaO
2
1-6
Cr2O3
15
6-18
FeO
4
3-11
pH value of ferrochrome slag and other materials
The PH value of coarse grain and fine grain ferrochrome slag are found to 9.88 and
9.79 respectively. Hence, this sample reacts with alkali in nature and the high pH
24 | P a g e
value is due to high MgO value. The pH values of other material like red mud, fly ash,
red soil are also given in Table 4.2. It can be seen that fly ash and red soil are slightly
acidic, due to presence of less CaO content and more silica content (Yudhbir and
Honjo, 1991).
Table 4.2 pH value of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash and red soil
Samples
PH value
Fine grain ferrochrome slag
9.79
Coarse grain ferrochrome slag
9.88
Red mud
10.43
Fly Ash
6.65
Red soil
6.78
4.4
Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis
The particles chemistry of the ferrochrome slag was determined through EDX is
shown in Figure 4.1, for fine grain ferrochrome slag and Figure 4.2 with presence of
chemicals like silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) etc.. It was
observed that there is some variation in the chemical composition of the slag based on
different size fraction. The percentage by weight of chemical present in ferrochrome
slag from EDX test is presented in Table 4.3. Similarly, the particles chemistry of the
red mud, fly ash, red soil was determined through EDX and are shown in Figure 4.3,
Figure 4.4 and Figure 4.5 respectively Finally, the percentage of chemicals present in
ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil from EDX test is presented in Table 4.3. It
can be seen that these are major difference between different materials particularly the
Mg content and chromium content. But it may be mentioned here that the EDX result
refers to any particle chemistry and not the gross chemical analysis.
25 | P a g e
Figure 4.1 EDX plot for fine grain ferrochrome slag
Figure 4.2 EDX plot for coarse grain ferrochrome slag
26 | P a g e
Figure 4.3 EDX plot for red mud
Figure 4.4 EDX plot for fly ash
Figure 4.5 EDX plot for red soil
27 | P a g e
Table 4.3 Comparison percentage of chemicals present in ferrochrome slag, red mud,
fly ash, red soil from EDX analysis
Elements
Elements%
(by weight)
CFS
Elements%
(by weight)
FFS
Elements%
(by weight)
RM
Elements%
(by weight)
FA
Elements%
(by weight)
RS
O
42.39
22.09
46.70
57.47
43.82
Mg
8.78
---
---
---
---
Si
24.52
12.03
3.65
18.92
3.84
Ca
12.43
---
---
---
---
Cr
---
31.49
---
---
---
Fe
---
11.56
16.86
---
32.60
Zr
---
14.47
---
---
---
Al
11.78
8.36
7.74
15.54
13.62
Na
---
---
23.98
---
4.36
Ti
---
---
1.07
1.39
1.76
C
---
---
---
2.54
---
K
---
---
---
0.94
---
4.5
Scanning Electron Microscope Test
The micro morphology of materials is tested using Scanning Electron Microscope
(SEM). The SEM is used to scan a specimen with a finely focused beam of kilovolt
energy. The SEM micrograph of fine grain FS at different magnification is presented
in figures 4.6 to 4.7. It can be seen that FS contains very irregular particles. The
magnified irregular particles as shown in Figure 4.7 that particles, the FS particles are
not plate like, rather like spinal structure. Similarly the SEM micrograph of coarse
grain FS is shown in Figure 4.8 and 4.9. For comparison the micro photograph of red
mud, fly ash and red soil are shown in Figures 4.10, 4.11 and 4.12 respectively.
28 | P a g e
Figure 4.6 Scanning electron micrograph of fine grain ferrochrome slag at 500
magnification
Figure 4.7 Scanning electron micrograph of fine grain ferrochrome slag at 1000
magnification
Figure 4.8 Scanning electron micrograph of coarse grain ferrochrome slag at 250
magnification
29 | P a g e
Figure 4.9 Scanning electron micrograph of coarse grain ferrochrome slag at 1000
magnification
Figure 4.10 Scanning electron micrograph of red mud at 200 magnification
Figure 4.11 Scanning electron micrograph of fly ash at 1000 magnification
30 | P a g e
Figure 4.12 Scanning electron micrograph of red soil at 3500 magnification.
4.6
X-ray Diffraction Analysis:
The X-ray diffraction (XRD) test was used to determine the phase compositions of
ferrochrome slag particles of both fine grain and coarse grain FS. The basic principles
underlying the identification of minerals by XRD technique is that each crystalline
substance has its own characteristics atomic structure which diffracts X-ray with a
particular pattern. In general the diffraction peaks are recorded on output chart in
terms of 2, where  is the glancing angle of X-ray beam. The values are then
converted to lattice spacing “d” in Angstrom unit using Bragg’s law.

d = 2nSin
where  = wave length of X-ray specific to target used
n = an integer
The XRD test results of fine grain and coarse grain ferrochrome slag sample are
shown in Figure 4.13 and Figure 4.14 below. From these figures it can be observed
that quartz, forsterite, olivine and spinel are predominantly present. Similarly, the test
results of red mud and fly ash samples are shown in Figure 4.15 and Figure 4.16,
respectively and from these figures hematite, boehmite, gibbsite, rutile, goethite,
sodalities are found in red mud and soil and quartz, hematite, mullite, aluminium
silicate are found in fly ash.
31 | P a g e
500
A= Quartz
B= Forsterite
C= Olivine
D= Spinel
B
400
B
C
C
Intensity (a.u)
300
B
C
B
200
100
D A
C
A
B
C
D
C
A
B D
C
C
A A
B A
D
D
DAB
D
A
A DA
A
C
0
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
0
Angle(2 )
Figure 4.13 XRD plot for fine grain ferrochrome slag
1200
B
A= Quartz
B= Forsterite
C= Olivine
D= Spinel
Intensity (a.u)
1000
C
800
A
600
400
A
200
D
A
A
C
A
A A A
B
D
0
10
15
20
25
30
35
A
D
40
C
B
B
45
B
50
B
55
60
0
Angle(2 )
Figure 4.14 XRD plot for coarse grain ferrochrome slag
32 | P a g e
65
70
Figure 4.15 XRD plot for red mud
400
A=hematite, B=Boehmite
C=Gibbsite, D=Rutile
E=Goethite, F=Sodalite
350
Intensity (a.u)
300
C
250
A,E,D
200
150
E,D,A
100
B
50
C
C
D
C
A,E
E,D,A
C,E,A
C
D,E,A
B,A
C
D,F,B,A,C
F,C,A F,A,D,E
0
10
20
30
40
Angle, 2
50
60
70
o
500
H-Hematite-Fe2O3
450
Q-Quartz-SiO2
Q
Mu
400
Mu-Mullite-Al6Si2O13
Al-Aluminium Sillicate-Al2Si5
intensity (a.u)
350
300
Q
Mu
250
H H
Mu
Al
200
150
Mu
QH H
100
Q
Q H
50
Al
H
Q
Al Q
Q
Al Al
0
10
20
30
40
Angle, 
50
60
70
0
Figure 4.16 XRD plot for fly ash
4.7
Specific Gravity
The specific gravity is determine by the experiment by using pycnometer following as
per IS: 2720-1980 (Part 3, Sec 2) for red mud, fly ash, red soil and IS: 2386 - 1963 for
ferrochrome slag. Here, the values of specific gravity of fine and coarse grain
ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil are given in Table 4.4 below. The specific
33 | P a g e
gravity of fine and coarse grained ferrochrome slag are 3.27 and 3.21 respectively and
the specific gravity of other materials like red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with
ferrochrome slag (i.e. proportion varies from 10% to 50%) are 2.99, 2.26, 2.77, 2.79,
2.81, 2.82, 2.86, 2.9, respectively also presented here. Here the higher specific gravity
found for FS than other materials. So, it indicates, ferrochrome slag is heavy weight
material than others. The lowest specific gravity of 2.26 was obtained for fly ash and
the specific gravity of red soil, FS mixture increased with increase in FS content.
Table 4.4 The specific gravity of fine and coarse grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly
ash, red soil
IS: 2386-1963
Specific Gravity
Samples
(Part 3)
Specifications
FFS
3.27
CFS
3.21
RM
2.99
FA
2.26
RS
2.77
RS + 10% FFS
RS + 20% FFS
RS + 30% FFS
RS + 40% FFS
RS + 50% FFS
4.8
2.79
2.4 to 2.9
2.81
2.82
2.86
2.9
Grain Size Analysis
Figure 4.17 shows the grain size analysis of coarse grain ferrochrome slag following
as per IS: 2386-1963 (Part 1), and fine grain of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red
soil as per IS: 2720 (Part 4) - 1985 of sieve analysis method. Here, the values of Cu
and Cc of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil are given in Table 4.5 below.
Also particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other industrial
wastes (red mud, fly ash) are presented based on USCS and IS Classification (IS:
1498 – 1970) in Table 4.6 and Table 4.7 respectively. The Cu value of ferrochrome
slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil are 2.79, 1.89, 1.50, 3.04, 1.60, respectively and the Cc
34 | P a g e
value of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil are 0.95, 1.75, 1.42, 1.26, 1.43,
respectively. Hence the FS is a poorly graded material.
100
Percentage of passing (%)
80
C.F.S
F.F.S
R.M
F.A
60
40
20
0
1E-3
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
Particle size (mm)
Figure 4.17 Grain size analysis of fine and coarse grain ferrochrome slag, red mud,
fly ash, red soil
Table 4.5 The values of Cu and Cc of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil
Samples
Fine grain ferrochrome slag
Coarse grain ferrochrome slag
Red mud
Fly Ash
Red soil
Value of Cu
2.79
1.89
1.50
3.04
1.60
Value of Cc
0.95
1.75
1.42
1.26
1.43
Table 4.6 Particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other
industrial wastes (red mud, fly ash) based on USCS
Type of sample
Based
on
Unified
soil
Classification system
Fine grain ferrochrome slag
Silt & Clay (%)
4.04
Sand (%)
4.75 to
0.075mm
95.94
Coarse grain ferrochrome slag
96.9
3.1
0.0
Red mud
2.08
33.02
64.9
Fly ash
0
27.52
72.48
Red soil
0.04
10.47
89.49
35 | P a g e
Gravel (%)
76.2 to 4.75mm
<0.075mm
0.014
Table 4.7 Particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other industrial wastes (red mud, fly ash) based on IS Classification
(IS: 1498 – 1970)
Gravel
Type of sample
Boulder
Sand
Cobble
Silt
Coarse
Fine
Coarse
Medium
Clay
Fine
As per IS
Classification (IS:
1498 – 1970)
>300mm
Fine grain
ferrochrome slag
00
00
00
4.04
52.52
40.8
2.236
0.404
00
Coarse grain
ferrochrome slag
00
00
4.92
91.98
3.1
00
00
00
00
Red mud
00
00
00
2.08
4.02
4.24
24.76
64.9
00
Fly ash
00
00
00
00
00
0.02
27.5
72.48
00
Red soil
00
00
00
00
1.28
1.99
7.2
89.49
00
36 | P a g e
≥80mm to ≥20mm to ≥4.75mm to
≤300mm
≤80mm
≤20mm
≥2mm to
≤4.75mm
≥0.425mm to ≥0.075mm to ≥0.002mm to
≤2mm
≤0.425mm
≤0.075mm
<0.002mm
CHAPTER - 5
CHARACTERIZATION AS SUBGRADE
MATERIAL
5.1
Introduction
Flexible pavements are generally adopted for construction of roads in India. Subgrade soil is an integral part of the road pavement structure as it provides the support
to the pavement from beneath. Design of the various pavement layers is very much
dependent on the strength of the sub-grade soils over which the pavement is going to
be laid. The sub-grade soil and its properties are important in the design of pavement
structure. The main function of the sub-grade soil is to give adequate support to the
pavement and for this; the sub-grade should possess the sufficient stability under
adverse climate and loading conditions. The formation of waves, corrugations, rutting
and shoving in black top pavements and the phenomena of pumping, blowing and
consequent cracking of pavements are generally attributed due to the poor sub-grade
conditions. Generally, in highway engineering, California bearing ratio (CBR), test is
performed to determine the strength of sub-grade soil and these CBR values will be
helpful to design the thickness of flexible pavement. This chapter presents laboratory
study of FS and FS stabilized red soil as sub-grade soil. Here, the CBR values are
determined under both unsoaked and soaked condition and compaction, unconfined
compressive strength (UCS), consistency limits, specific gravity values are also
determined by taking red soil with different proportions of ferrochrome slag from
10% to 50%, so that of different proportion of ferrochrome slag red soil mixture can
be used as subgrade material.
5.2
Properties of ferrochrome slag as a subgrade material
5.2.1
Consistency Limits
5.2.1.1 Liquid limit (LL), Plastic limit (PL) and Plastic index of ferrochrome slag
The liquid limit was determined by using cone penetration method following the code
IS: 2720 (Part 5) - 1985. The values of liquid limit, plastic limit, plastic index of fine
grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different
proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag are presented in
37 | P a g e
Table 5.1. It can be seen that the liquid limit and plastic limit of red soil decreased
with addition of FS. Also found that FS and FA have no plasticity in nature. So both
are in cohesion less type material and red mud and red soil have low and medium
plasticity in nature according to (Das, 2007). The classification of red soil with FS
along with other industrial waste are shown in Figure 5.1.
Table 5.1 The LL, PL and PI values of fine grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash,
red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of
ferrochrome slag.
Types of sample
LL (%) PL (%)
PI (%) Description
Fine grain ferrochrome slag
17.22
0
0
Non plastic
Red mud
24.75
17.5
7.25
Low plasticity
Fly ash
30.37
0
0
Non plastic
Red soil
31.26
17.22
14.04
Medium plasticity
Red soil + 10% Fine grain
ferrochrome slag
30.47
17
13.47
Medium plasticity
Red soil + 20% Fine grain
ferrochrome slag
28.19
16.304
9.88
Low plasticity
Red soil + 30% Fine grain
ferrochrome slag
24.65
15.715
8.93
Low plasticity
Red soil + 40% Fine grain
ferrochrome slag
22.31
15.099
7.21
Low plasticity
Red soil + 50% Fine grain
ferrochrome slag
19.16
13.544
5.61
Low plasticity
Figure 5.1 Plasticity Chart
38 | P a g e
5.2.2 Compaction Characteristics
This compaction characteristic was found with the help of Proctor test of both light
and heavy weight compaction following as per code IS 2720:1986(Part-III). Figure
5.2 shows the light weight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly
ash, Figure 5.3 shows the heavy weight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red
mud and fly ash, Figure 5.4 shows the light weight compaction curve of ferrochrome
slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%)
of ferrochrome slag and Figure 5.5 shows the heavy compaction curve of ferrochrome
slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%)
of ferrochrome slag are given below. From the compaction curve graph, the value of
light weight compaction are 2.18g/cc, 1.93g/cc, 1.27g/cc, 1.89g/cc, 1.91g/cc,
2.02g/cc, 2.05g/cc, 2.16g/cc, 2.22g/cc respectively and the value of heavy weight
compaction are 2.44g/cc, 2.05g/cc, 1.45g/cc, 1.94g/cc, 2.09g/cc, 2.11g/cc, 2.16g/cc,
2.22g/cc, 2.28g/cc respectively. Also got the maximum Optimum Moisture Content
(%) of light weight compaction of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red
soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag are
8.03%, 16.74%, 22.89%, 13.26%, 11.29%, 11%, 10.87%, 10.10%, 9.61% respectively
and maximum Optimum Moisture Content (%) of heavy weight compaction of
ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion
(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag are 24.01%, 20.10%, 14.30%,
19.06%,20.51%, 20.71%, 21.17%, 21.83%, 22.36%
respectively. From the
comparative values of maximum dry density (g/cc) and optimum moisture content
(%) of for both light and heavy weight compaction of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly
ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of
ferrochrome slag are given in Table 5.2, got that the decrease of moisture content (%)
with increase of dry density (g/cc). The water content was determined at three points
of the mould and only upto 15%, the average value is reported. Hence, the reported
value is representative.
39 | P a g e
3.5
FS
RM
FA
Zav(FS)
Dry density(g/cc)
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Water Content (%)
Figure 5.2 Lightweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash
0
2
4
6
8
3.2
3
Dry Density (kN/m )
10
10
FS
RM
FA
Zav(FS) 8
6
2.4
4
2
1.6
0
0
10
20
30
Water Content (%)
Figure 5.3 Heavyweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash
40 | P a g e
3.0
FS
RS
RS 90%
RS 80%
RS 70%
RS 60%
RS 50%
Zav(FS)
Dry density(g/cc)
2.5
+
+
+
+
+
FS
FS
FS
FS
FS
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
Zav(RS)
2.0
1.5
1.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Water Content (%)
Figure 5.4 Lightweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil
with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag
3.0
FS
RS
RS 90% + FS 10%
RS 80% + FS 20%
RS 70% + FS 30%
RS 60% + FS 40%
RS 50% + FS 50%
Zav(RS)
Dry density(g/cc)
2.5
Zav(FS)
2.0
1.5
1.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Water Content (%)
Figure 5.5 Heavyweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil
with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag
41 | P a g e
Table 5.2 The values of O.M.C and M.D.D for both light and heavy weight
compaction of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different
proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag
Light weight compaction
Heavy weight compaction
Description
OMC(%) MDD(g/cc) OMC(%)
MDD(g/cc)
Ferrochorme Slag
8.03
2.18
7.64
2.44
Red Mud
16.74
1.93
12.82
2.05
Fly Ash
22.89
1.27
21.32
1.45
Red Soil
13.26
1.89
12.67
1.94
Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 %
11.29
1.91
10.65
2.09
Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 %
11.00
2.02
10.28
2.11
Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 %
10.87
2.05
9.88
2.16
Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 %
10.10
2.16
8.63
2.22
Red Soil 50 %+FS 50%
9.61
2.22
8.10
2.28
5.2.3
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test of Ferrochrome Slag
The ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with a circular
plunger of 50mm diameter at the rate of 1.25mm/min to that required for
corresponding penetration of 2.5mm and 5mm. Where the ratio at 5mm is consistently
higher than that at 2.5mm. This test is arbitrary and the results give an empirical
strength number, which may not be directly related to fundamental properties
governing the strength of soils such as cohesion and angle of internal friction etc.
But the CBR value is related to the properties of soil such as the bearing capacity and
the plasticity Index. Its value is used for design of flexible pavement. Here, the
experimental studies of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different
proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
including conventional four days soaked CBR test as per IS: 2720 (Part 16) – 1986
are given in Table 5.3 below for using as sub-grade material. The Load v/s settlement
curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash after 4 days soaking in water are given
in Figure 5.6 and the Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red
soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag
after 4 days soaking in water are given in Figure 5.7. From the experimental study, it
was observed that the ferrochrome slag has a very high CBR value and the red soil is
42 | P a g e
a very low CBR value. The CBR value of the red soil increased with increase in the
percentage of ferrochrome slag.
40
FS
RM
FA
35
30
Load (kN)
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
Settlement (mm)
Figure 5.6 Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash after 4
days soaking in water
35
FS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
30
Load (kN)
25
20
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
+FS
+FS
+FS
+FS
+FS
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
15
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
Settlement (mm)
Figure 5.7 Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with
different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag after 4 days
soaking in water
43 | P a g e
Table 5.3 The CBR value of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different
proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag
Description
CBR (%) Soaking
Ferrochrome Slag(Fine grain)
34.62
Red Mud
18.1
Fly Ash
14.56
Red Soil
Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 %
1.56
4.44
Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 %
10.1
Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 %
10.34
Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 %
11.42
Red Soil 50 %+FS 50%
30.06
5.2.4
Direct Shear Strength of Ferrochrome Slag
The shear strength is one of the most important engineering properties of a soil, for
determining the stability of slopes or cuts, finding the bearing capacity for
foundations, and calculating the pressure exerted by a soil on a retaining wall. Here,
the direct shear test as per IS 2720(Part-39) – 1977 of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly
ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with
ferrochrome slag has been investigated. The values of cohesion (C) in kPa and angle
of internal friction (ⱷ) in degree( 0) of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and
different proportion(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
are given in Table 5.4 below. Figure 5.8 shows the comparison of Normal stress v/s
Shear strength of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash and Figure 5.9 shows the
comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag and with red soil
and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome
slag. From the experimental study, it was observed that ferrochrome slag is having
high cohesion and internal friction compared to other material.
44 | P a g e
140
RS
Red Soil 90 % +
F.S 10 %
Red Soil 80 % +
F.S 20 %
Red Soil 70 % +
F.S 30 %
Red Soil 60 % +
F.S 40 %
Red Soil 50 % +
F.S 50%
40
4.1
130
170
190
170
160
150
24.36
21.38
15.06
17
21.38
24.9
27.2
29.35
FS
RM
FA
130
120
110
2
Shear Strength (kN/m )
FA
Cohesion (C), kPa 25
Angle of internal
37.52
friction(ф), 
RM
FS
Samples
Table 5.4 The values of cohesion and angle of internal friction values of ferrochrome
slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,
50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
2
Normal Stress (kN/m )
Figure 5.8 The comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag,
red mud and fly ash
FS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
140
130
110
2
Shear Strength (kN/m )
120
100
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
+
+
+
+
+
FS
FS
FS
FS
FS
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
2
Normal Stress (kN/m )
Figure 5.9 The comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag and
comparison with red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil
with ferrochrome slag
45 | P a g e
5.2.5 Determination of unconfined compressive Strength (UCS)
Here, the experimental studies of red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion
(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are carried out as
per the IS: 2720 (Part 10) - 1991. Figure 5.10 shows the Stress v/s Strain curve of red
soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with
ferrochrome slag. The compressive strength (qu) in kN/m2 and cohesion (C) in kN/m2
of red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with
ferrochrome slag are given in Table 5.5. From the experimental study, it can be seen
that the unconfined compressive strength of red soil increased with increased the
percentage of ferrochrome slag.
Table 5.5 The compressive strength and cohesion value of red soil and different
proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
Unconfined
cohesion ( C )
Description
Compressive
2
=q
u/2 (kN/m )
Strength(qu) kN/m2)
Red Soil
18.66
9.33
Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 %
37.79
18.90
Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 %
38.68
19.34
Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 %
49.67
24.84
Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 %
52.38
26.19
Red Soil 50 %+FS 50%
60.06
30.03
65
60
55
2
Axial-Stress (kN/m )
50
45
40
35
30
25
RS
RS 90% + FS 10%
RS 80% + FS 20%
RS 70% + FS 30%
RS 60% + FS 40%
RS 50% + FS 50%
20
15
10
5
0
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
Strain (%)
Figure 5.10 The Stress v/s Strain curve of red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%,
20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
46 | P a g e
5.2.6
Permeability Test
Here, the experimental studies of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and
different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
are carried out as per following IS: 2720 (Part 17). The coefficient of permeability
values of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion
(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are given in Table
5.6. From the experimental study, it can be seen that the ferrochrome slag is a high
permeable material compared to other material and hence is not suitable material to be
used as an embankment material. But as shown in Table 5.6, the coefficient of
permeability of red soil is very low and also not suitable for embankment material.
But as the red soil is blended with FS the k valued decreased. Hence, it can be used as
an embankment material if red soil is blended with ferrochrome slag.
Table 5.6 The coefficient of permeability values of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash,
red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with
ferrochrome slag
Coefficient of permeability, k
Description
(cm/sec)
Ferrochrome Slag(Fine grain)
1.3 x 10-3
Red Mud
2.5 x 10-7
Fly Ash
5 x 10-4
Red Soil
0.3 x 10-6
Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 %
1.4 x 10-6
Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 %
1.2 x 10-5
Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 %
1.6 x 10-5
Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 %
1.4 x 10-4
Red Soil 50 %+FS 50%
1.7 x 10-4
47 | P a g e
CHAPTER - 6
CHARACTERIZATION AS A HIGHWAY
MATERIAL
6.1 Introduction
A highway network is an indicator of economic health of any region or country. For a
vast country like India requirement of the highway network is too high, which
necessitate huge requirement of crushed stone (coarse and fine) is in millions of tones,
fast depleting natural resources lavishly worldwide including India. As per Indian
Road Congress guidelines for design of flexible pavements a granular Sub Base
(GSB) of 150 to 460mm thickness is essential pavement layer (depending upon he
commercial traffic, the road will be subjected to during design life and California
Bearing Ratio (CBR) of the sub-grade soil), inevitable pavement layer. Normally
crushed sand / stone dust is used as fine aggregate in construction of GSB. This not
only increases the cost of flexible pavement, but also puts additional pressure on the
environment in the form of energy consumption and pollution for blasting during
quarrying operations, crushing rocks, transportation of this material to plants, mixing,
laying etc.. On the other hand, locally available industrial waste like ferrochrome slag,
soil can be effectively used alone or in combination with other materials with
significant economy after studying their physical and engineering properties for their
suitability in road construction. Here, in this present study fine grained ferrochrome
slag is used in replacement of fine aggregate and coarse grained ferrochrome slag is
used replacement of coarse stone aggregate in construction of GSB. Laboratory
testing of physical and engineering properties like relative density, bulk density, water
absorption, void ratio, impact value, crushing value, abrasion value, shape test,
soundness value, compaction, CBR, shear strength and required mixing proportion
confirms the suitability of these naturally occurring fine and coarse grained
ferrochrome slag in the construction of the GSB layer of flexible pavement is
evaluated.
48 | P a g e
6.2
Ferrochrome slag use as GSB Material
Basically, this layer is made of broken stones, bound and unbound aggregates.
Sometimes in sub-base course a layer of stabilized soil or selected granular soil is also
used. In some places boulder stones or bricks are used as a sub-base or soiling course.
However, in the sub-base course, it is desirable to use smaller size graded aggregates
or soil aggregate mixes or soft aggregates instead of large boulder stone soling course
of brick on edge soling course, as these have no proper interlocking and therefore
have lesser resistance to sinking into the weak subgrade soil when wet. When the
subgrade consists of fine grade soil and when the pavement carries heavy wheel loads,
there is a tendency for these boulder stones or bricks to penetrate into the wet soil,
resulting in the formation of undulations and uneven pavement surface in flexible
pavements. The sub-base course primarily has the similar function as of the base
course and is provided with inferior materials than of base course. This work shall
consist of laying and compacting well-graded material on prepared subgrade in
accordance with the requirements of these Specifications should followed as per the
specification of MORTH. The material shall be laid in one or more layers as sub-base
or lower sub-base and upper sub-base as per the requirement of design. Presently, this
ferrochrome slag is not utilized and is dumped on the costly land available near the
plants. Ferrochrome slag is highly crushable material. So, it is recommended that it
should be crushed by rollers before application in road construction. For that, this
study was carried out to utilize the slag in different layers of road construction. Being
a cohesion less material, it was used as a granular sub-base materials and determine
the feasibility of slag material as a replacement, of coarse aggregate in Granular Subbase (GSB, course graded III, MORTH, 2001), gradation design was carried out by
mixing the crushed ferrochrome slag material with conventional 20mm, 10mm
aggregates, fine grained ferrochrome slag in different proportions in the range of
23%-17%-60% and their Geotechnical characteristics were evaluated. The aggregates
shall conform to the physical requirement set MORTH in Table 400-6. If the water
absorption value of the coarse aggregate is greater than 2 percent, the soundness test
shall be carried out on the material delivered to site as per IS: 2386 (Part 5). The
crushed or broken stone shall be hard, durable and free from excess flat, elongated,
soft and disintegrated particles, dirt and other deleterious material.
49 | P a g e
In the present study an attempt has been also made to design a GSB layer using
different size fraction of FS. The Rothfutch’s graphical method as shown in Figure
6.1 is used to do the mix design. The final mix design with different proportion of FS
is presented in table 6.1.
Figure 6.1 To evaluate mix proportion for GSB following the Rothfutch ’ s Graphical
method
Table 6.1 The mix proportion for GSB in percentage
Sample
Ferrochrome slag
20mm down
(%)
10mm down
(%)
4.75mm down
(%)
27
13
60
Note: The material passing 425 micron (0.425 mm) sieve for all the three grading’s
when tested according to IS : 2720 (Part 5) shall have liquid limit and
plasticity index not more than 25 and 6 percent respectively.
6.3 Properties of Designed GSB layer
Different experimental investigation were made on the GSB material as designed
above to characterize it as the sub base layer.
6.3.1
Compaction Characteristic
The results of the heavy compaction test on the GSB material is shown in Figure 6.2.
The OMC and the MDD value of the compaction test is presented in Table 6.2.
50 | P a g e
25.4
FS ( 20mm-27%
+10mm-13%
+4.75mm-60%)
25.2
25.0
3
Dry Density (kN/m )
24.8
24.6
24.4
24.2
24.0
23.8
23.6
23.4
4
6
8
10
12
Water Content (%)
Figure 6.2 Density curve of ferrochrome slag mix (20mm down 27%, 10mm down
13% and 4.75mm down 60%) for GSB
Table 6.2 The OMC and Density values of ferrochrome slag mix (20mm down 27%,
10mm down 13% and 4.75mm down 60%) for GSB
Sample
Mix (20mm down 27%, 10mm down 13% and
4.75mm down 60%) of ferrochrome slag
6.3.2
OMC (%)
MDD (kN/m3)
6.58
25.25
California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
It shall be ensured prior to actual execution that the material to be used in the sub–
base satisfies the requirements of CBR and other physical requirements when
compacted the density achieved is at least 95 per cent of the maximum dry density for
the material as determined by the method outlined in IS : 2720 (Part 8). Here, the
experimental studies of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB, red soil and different proportion
(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag for four days soaked
CBR test as per IS: 2720 (Part 16) – 1986 are made. Figure 6.3 shows the Load v/s
settlement curve Load v/s Settlement curve of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and
comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%,
40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag after four days soaking. The values of CBR
of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and
different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are
given in Table 6.3.
51 | P a g e
40
FS
RS
RS 90%+ FS
RS 80%+ FS
RS 70%+ FS
RS 60%+ FS
RS 50%+ FS
FS(for GSB)
35
30
Load (kN)
25
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
20
15
10
5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Settlement (mm)
Figure 6.3 Load v/s Settlement curve of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and
comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%,
30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag after four days soaking
Table 6.3 The values of CBR of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with
ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of
red soil with ferrochrome slag
Description
CBR (%)
Ferrochrome Slag(Fine grain)
34.62
Red Soil
1.56
Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 %
4.44
Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 %
10.1
Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 %
10.34
Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 %
11.42
Red Soil 50 %+FS 50%
30.06
GSB
74.97
6.3.3 Shear Strength Test
Here, the experimental studies of ferrochrome slag, ferrochrome slag mix for GSB, red soil
and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
include conventional saturated Direct Shear test as per IS 2720 (Part 39) - 1977. Figure 6.4
shows the comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB
and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%,
30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag. The values of cohesion (C) in kPa and
angle of internal friction () in degree (0) of for GSB of ferrochrome slag mix, ferrochrome
slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with
ferrochrome slag are given in Table 6.4 below.
52 | P a g e
2
Shear Strength (kN/m )
0
2
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
4
6
8
10
FS
RS
RS 90% + FS 10%
RS 80% + FS 20%
RS 70% + FS 30%
RS 60% + FS 40%
RS 50% + FS 50%
FS ( for GSB )
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
2
Normal Stress (kN/m )
Figure 6.4 comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag mix
for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion
(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag
Red Soil 70
%+F.S 30 %
Red Soil 60
%+F.S 40 %
Red Soil 50
%+F.S 50%
130
170
190
170
160
150
840
Angle of internal
friction(ф), 
37
15
17
21.38
24.9
27.2
29.35
39
FS
6.4
Properties of ferrochrome slag as a highway material
6.4.1
Relative Density
GSB
Red Soil 80
%+F.S 20 %
250
RS
Cohesion (C ),kPa
Samples
Red Soil 90
%+F.S 10 %
Table 6.4 The values of cohesion and internal friction for GSB of ferrochrome slag mix,
ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red
soil with ferrochrome slag
The values of relative density may vary from a minimum of 0% for very loose soil to
a maximum of 100% for very dense soils. In place soils seldom have relative densities
less than 20 to 30%. The compacting a granular soil to a relative density greater than
about 85% is difficult. This laboratory test of relative density of ferrochrome slag is
determined as per the IS: 2386 (Part 3) – 1963 and the value is found to 79.01.
6.4.2
Bulk Density
IS:2386 (Part 3) -1963specifications of Road aggregate the bulk density is used to
calculate the bulk density of aggregate. The bulk density of fine and coarse grained
53 | P a g e
FS is shown in Table 6.5. It can be seen that the fine grained FS has higher bulk
density compared to coarse grained FS.
Table 6.5 The bulk Density of ferrochrome slag
Samples
Values of Bulk Density (kg/lit)
Fine grain ferrochrome slag
1.870
Coarse grain ferrochrome slag
1.785
6.4.3
Water Absorption
Due to porosity of aggregates water can be absorbed into the body of particles is
called absorption which affects the w/c ratio of the concrete significantly. If
absorption reduces, the w/c ratio increases due to increase of surface moisture. The
value of water absorption of Coarse and fine grained ferrochrome slag are 0.8% and
0.801% respectively which is less than 2% as per specification of codeIS: 2386(Part
3) – 1963 as presented in Table 6.6.
Table 6.6 The water absorption of ferrochrome slag
Water absorption
(%)
Sample
Coarse grain Ferrochrome slag
Fine grain Ferrochrome slag
IS: 2386(Part 3)– 1963
Specifications
0.8
2%
0.801
6.4.4 Void Ratio
The ratio of void volume with total volume of aggregate. The void ratio of
Ferrochrome slag is calculated by following IS: 2386 (Part 3) - 1963 and the values
are presented in Table 6.7 and the values are comparable.
Table 6.7 The void ratio of ferrochrome slag
Sample
Coarse grain Ferrochrome slag
Fine grain Ferrochrome slag
Void ratio
41.7
45.7
6.4.5 Impact Value
IS: 2386 (Part 4) - 1963 test is designed to evaluate the toughness of stone or the
resistance of the aggregates to fracture under repeated impacts, which has a different
effect than the resistance to gradually increasing compressive stress. The impact value
54 | P a g e
was found to 8.613. As per IS code the aggregate Impact value should not normally
exceed 30% for aggregate to be used in wearing coarse of pavements. The maximum
permissible value is 35% for bituminous macadam and 40% for water bound
macadam base coarse.
6.4.6
Crushing Strength
IS: 2386 (Part 4) - 1963 the strength of coarse aggregate may be assessed by aggregate
crushing tests. The aggregate crushing value provides a relative measure of resistance to
crushing under gradually applied compressive load. To achieve a high quality of
pavement, aggregates possessing high resistance to crushing or low aggregate crushing
value are preferred. The crushing strength of FS was found to be 21.65. The aggregate
crushing value for good quality aggregate to be used in base coarse shall not be exceed
45% and the value for surface coarse shall be less than 30%.
6.4.7 Abrasion Value
IS: 2386 (Part 4)-1963 Los Angeles abrasion tests are carried out to test the hardness
property of stone and decide whether they are suitable for the different road construction
works. In the study the FS of two gradation are considered and designated as Type B and
Type C. The abrasion value of both grade is shown in Table 6.8
Table 6.8 The abrasion value of ferrochrome slag
Type of Sample
Abrasion Value (%)
Ferrochrome slag- Type-B
25.84
Ferrochrome slag -Type-C
38.66
The Los Angeles Abrasion value of good aggregates acceptable for cement
concrete, bituminous concrete and other high quality pavement materials should be
less than 30%. Values up to 50% are allowed in base courses like water bound and
bituminous macadam.
6.3.8 Soundness Value
IS: 2386 (Part 5)- 1963 the soundness test is intended to study the resistance of
aggregates to weathering action by conducting accelerated weathering test cycle. The
resistance to disintegration of aggregate is determined 0.21% by using saturated
solution of sodium sulphate taking 5nos of cycle.
55 | P a g e
The average loss in weight of aggregates to be used in pavement construction after 10
cycles should not exceed 12% when tested with sodium sulphate and 18% when
tested with magnesium sulphate. The soundness test on different size fraction of FS is
shown in Table 6.9. It was observed that the values are within the limit.
Table 6.9 The soundness value of ferrochrome slag
Size of Sample (mm)
25-20
20-12.5
12.5-10
10-6.3
6.3-4.75
6.4.9
After 5 Cycle
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.60
0.25
After 10 Cycle
0.20
0.24
0.36
2.11
0.75
Shape Test
IS: 2386-1963 (Part 1) the particle shape of aggregate mass is determine by the
percentage of flaky and elongated particles contained in it and by its angularity. The
evaluation of shape of the particles made in terms of flakiness index, elongation index and
angularity number. The elongated and flaky aggregates are less workable; they are also
likely to break under smaller loads than the aggregate which are spherical or cubical.
Different shape test on the coarse grained FS is shown in Table 6.10. Based on the values
it was found that it is suitable as construction material.
Table 6.10 The shape test value of ferrochrome slag
Different Shapes of Samples
Flakiness Index (%)
Elongation Index (%)
Angularity Number (%)
Experimental results
9.286
14.448
8.159
Notes as Per Code:

The flakiness index of aggregates used in road construction is less than the
15% and normally does not exceed 25%.

Flakiness index and elongation index values in excess of 15% are generally
considered undesirable.

However no recognized limits have been laid down for elongation index.

The range of angularity number for aggregates used in constructions is o to 11.
The comprehensive results of above test along the acceptable limit as per Indian
standard is shown in Table 6.11. It can be seen that the FS satisfies all the required to
be used as a pavement material except specific gravity. The value is marginally higher
than the acceptable value and should be considered while designing the macadam.
56 | P a g e
Table 6.11 The properties of coarse grained material as a pavement material and corresponding allowable values.
Test results
Present study
Bulk
Water
Specific
Density absorption
gravity
(kg/lit)
(%)
3.21
Acceptable
value as per IS:
2.4 to 2.9
2386-1963
57 | P a g e
1.785
0.8
Max. 2
Void
ratio
41.7
impact value
( %)
Crushing
Value
( %)
Abrasion
value
(%)
Flakiness
Index (%)
Elongation
Index (%)
Angularity
Number (%)
8.61
21.64
25.84
9.286
14.448
8.159
Max. 30 for wearing
coarse, 35 for
bituminous macadam
and 40% for water
bound macadam base
coarse.
Max. 45 for
base coarse,
and 30 for
surface
coarse
Max. 30 for
water bound
and 50 for
bituminous
macadam
base courses
15
20
0 to 11
CHAPTER - 7
GENERAL OBSERVATION, CONCLUSION AND SCOPE
OF FUTURE STUDY
7.1
Introduction
In the present study an attempt was made to characterize ferrochrome slag to be used
as a construction material. The ferrochrome slag is a byproduct from the ferrochrome
steel industry. Approximately 6.5-9.5 million tons of ferrochrome slag being
generated worldwide during the extraction of ferrochrome from Ferro alloys
industries every year. However, to prevent environmental pollution it is required to be
used in huge quantities like filling, embankment and pavement. The fine grained and
coarse grained component of the slag was considered. The fine grained soil was
characterized like as fill and embankment material and the coarse grained as
pavement material. The present study includes the laboratory tests like morphology,
chemistry, mineralogy and various geotechnical properties f ferrochrome slag. The
comparison of some properties has been made with other industrial waste like red
mud, fly ash and local red soil. Based on different experimental investigations and
discussions thereof following conclusions can be made.
7.2 General observations and concluding remarks
Based on the limited studies above from Chapter 1 to Chapter 6 following
observations and conclusions can be made.
1. The PH value of coarse grain and fine grain ferrochrome slag has exceeded are
9.88 and 9.79, respectively with alkaline in nature due to presence of high MgO
value.
2. The chemical analysis shows that it contains about 56% of alumno silicate
compound and 23 % of MgO as the major components.
3.
The SEM photographs show the particles are angular to subangular. Based on
XRD analysis it was observed that that quartz, forsterite, olivine and spinel are
predominantly present.
58 | P a g e
4. The specific gravity of ferrochrome slag found to vary between 3.21 to 3.27. The
values of Cu and Cc of ferrochrome slag are found to be 2.78 and 0.95, respectively,
showing poorly graded.
5. The compaction characteristics of FS show that for light compaction the OMC is
8.32 % and MDD as 2.18g/cc. Similarly for heavy compaction, the OMC is 7.64
and 2.44g/cc, respectively.
6. The high MDD value is due to high specific gravity values. While using FS as a
stabilizing agent for red soil it was observed that as the FS % increased, the OMC
decreased and MDD increased in comparison to red soil.
7. It was also observed that FS has high CBR value of 34.62 in comparison to 18.1 of
red mud and 1.56 of red soil.
8. It was observed that the CBR values of stabilized red soil increased with increase in FS.
The CBR value 10.1 was observed with addition of 10% of FS.
9. The angle of internal friction of fine grained FS is 370.
10. The soundness test on coarse grained slag shows the maximum loss of 2.11%
after 10 cycle in sodium sulphate. The bulk density was found to be 1.785 with
water absorption of 0.8% and within limits of Indian standard. Similarly the
impact value was found to be 8.613 and the crushing value of 21.666. The
abrasion value was found to be 25.84.
11. Based on the above tests it can be seen that FS has some advantages over FA and
RM in terms of having good compaction properties and high permeability to be
suitable as a pavement material. But it has higher density compared to fly ash,
for which it will have higher pressure on soil subgrade.
12. There are advantages of blending red soil with FS as the unconfined compressive
strength, shear strength and CBR value of red soil increased with increased the
percentage of ferrochrome slag. Similarly ferrochrome slag is a high permeable
material compared to other material and permeability of red soil is very low and
also not suitable for embankment material. But as the red soil is blended with FS
the k valued decreased. However, there is a need to check the leachate analysis
due to addition of FS.
7.3
Scope of future studies
There is a vast scope to use ferrochrome slag as fill, embankment and pavement
material in huge quantities. The geotechnical characterization of ferrochrome slag
59 | P a g e
In this study is limited to a single source and laboratory investigations. Some of the
followings are recognized for future studies.
1. More tests and particularly the leachate analysis of the solution required
before using the FS in actual construction.
2. It is also required to study its effect stabilizing other problematic soil like
expansive soil.
3. It is also required to characterize and study the long term effect of ferrochrome
slag in concrete and its effect on the reinforcement.
60 | P a g e
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