CHARACTERIZATION OF FERROCHROME SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND PAVEMENT MATERIAL

CHARACTERIZATION OF FERROCHROME SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND PAVEMENT MATERIAL

CHARACTERIZATION OF FERROCHROME

SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND

PAVEMENT MATERIAL

Master of Technology (Research)

In

Civil Engineering

By

BIBHUTI BHUSAN DAS

Department of Civil Engineering

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela

– 769008, India

September, 2014

CHARACTERIZATIONOF FERROCHROME

SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND

PAVEMENT MATERIAL

A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

Degree of

Master of Technology (Research)

in

Civil Engineering

[Specialization: Geotechnical Engineering]

By

BIBHUTI BHUSAN DAS

Under the Guidance of

Dr. Sarat Kumar Das

Associate Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela

– 769008, India

September, 2014

National Institute of Technology Rourkela

Odisha– 769008, India

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “CHARACTERIZATION OF

FERROCHROME SLAG AS AN EMBANKMENT AND PAVEMENT

MATERIAL” submitted by BIBHUTI BHUSAN DAS in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master of Technology (Research) Degree in Civil

Engineering with specialization in Geotechnical Engineering to the National

Institute of Technology, Rourkela is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.

To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University / Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Date: (Dr. Sarat Kumar Das)

Dept. of Civil Engineering

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela - 769008

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives me immense pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude Dr. Sarat

Kumar Das, my guide and supervisor for his invaluable guidance, motivation and constant inspiration. I also express my sincere thanks to him for his help and cooperation starting from suggesting the problem for my M. Tech (Research) project to processing of the samples and subsequently to finish the work.

I am extremely thankful to Prof. Sunil Kumar Sarangi, Director, NIT

Rourkela, and Prof. N. Roy, former Head of the Department of Civil Engineering,

NIT Rourkela for permitting me to register in M. Tech (Research) course at NIT

Rourkela.

I extend my sincere thanks to Prof. S. K. Sahu, Head of the Department and other professors of Civil Engineering Department and all M.S.C member Prof. S. P.

Singh, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Prof. B. K. Pal, Department of Mining Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Prof. Md. Equeenuddin, Department of

Mining Engineering, NIT Rourkela of their great blessing.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank Prof. D. Chaira, Department of

Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, NIT Rourkela and Prof. (Mrs) A. Patel,

Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Rourkela for giving kind permission and providing all the necessary laboratory facilities to carry out my project work very smoothly and also thanks to all Laboratories staff members of Department of Civil

Engineering as well as Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, NIT

Rourkela for their kind cooperation.

I would also like to express my sincere thanks to my parents, brother-in-law, sister, Mrs. S. S. Das and my best friend Mr. A. K. Sethi for their encouragement and support throughout my life.

I am greatly thankful to all the staff members of the department and all my well-wishers, class mates and friends for their inspiration and help.

Date: BIBHUTI BHUSAN DAS

Roll No. - 612CE302

(Geotechnical Engineering)

Dept. of Civil Engg.

National Institute of Technology

Rourkela - 769008

ABSTRACT

Various efforts are being made to use the industrial wastes as an alternate construction material to conserve the natural resources and effective utilization of the industrial waste to sustain the industrialization. But limited attempts have been made to characterize Indian ferrochrome slag as a construction material. In the work an effort has been made to characterize the ferrochrome slag as an embankment and pavement material. Different laboratory tests pertaining to Geotechnical and highway material characterization has been made and the results have been compared with other industrial wastes like fly ash, red mud and natural soil. An effort also has been made to use stabilize the low strength, residual soil in terms of increasing its strength and

California bearing ratio values.

Keywords: Ferrochrome slag, Red mud, Fly ash, Red soil, Specific Gravity, Grain size classification, compressive strength, Shear strength, CBR, Durability, XRD, SEM,

EDX.

CONTENTS

Chapter Title

I INTRODUCTION

II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

III

IV

MATERIALS AND METHODS

BASIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Page

1-4

5-13

14-23

24-36

V CHARACTERIZATION AS A SUB-GRADE

MATERIAL

37-47

VI CHARACTERIZATION AS A HIGHWAY MATERIAL 48-57

VII GENERAL OBSERATION, CONCLUSION AND

FUTURE STUDY

REFERENCES

58-60

61-65

LIST OF TABLES

Table Particulars

3.1 List of Ferrochrome Manufacturers in Odisha

3.2 Comprehensive list of experimental tests performed

4.1 Chemical Composition of ferrochrome slag

4.2 pH value of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash and red soil

4.3 Comparison percentage of chemicals present in ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil from EDX analysis

4.4 The specific gravity of fine and coarse grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil

4.5 The values of C u

and C c of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil

4.6 Particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other industrial wastes (red mud, fly ash) based on USCS

4.7 Particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other industrial wastes (red mud, fly ash) based on IS Classification (IS: 1498 –

1970)

5.1 The LL, PL and PI values of fine grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,

50%) of ferrochrome slag.

5.2 The values of O.M.C and M.D.D for both light and heavy weight compaction of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag

5.3 The CBR value of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag

5.4 The values of cohesion and angle of internal friction values of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%,

40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

5.5 The compressive strength and cohesion value of red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

5.6

The coefficient of permeability values of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

6.1

The mix proportion for GSB in percentage

6.2 The OMC and Density values of ferrochrome slag mix (20mm down 27%,

10mm down 13% and 4.75mm down 60%) for GSB

6.3 The values of CBR of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%,

40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

6.4 The values of cohesion and internal friction for GSB of ferrochrome slag mix, ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion

(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,

50%)

of red soil with ferrochrome slag

6.5 The bulk Density of ferrochrome slag

6.6 The water absorption of ferrochrome slag

6.7

The void ratio of ferrochrome slag

6.8 The abrasion value of ferrochrome slag

6.9 The soundness value of ferrochrome slag

6.10

The shape test value of ferrochrome slag

6.11 The properties of coarse grained material as a pavement material and corresponding allowable values.

Page

14

23

24

25

28

34

35

35

36

38

42

44

45

46

47

50

51

52

53

54

54

54

55

56

56

57

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Particulars

3.1 Ferrochrome Slag, Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd., Somonathpur

3.2 Dumping yard of ferrochrome slag, Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd.,

Somonathpur

Page

15

15

3.3 Red mud, Damanjodi, Koraput, Odisha

3.4 Discharge of red mud as slurry into the red mud pond

3.5 Fly ash, Jindal Steel Plant (JSP), Raigard, Chhattisgarh

3.6 Red soil, NIT, Rourkela campus

16

16

17

17

18 3.7 SEM model JEOL JSM-6480LV for SEM and EDX analysis, NIT

Rourkela

3.8 XRD model PW3040 for the mineralogical analysis

4.1 EDX plot for fine grain ferrochrome slag

4.2 EDX plot for coarse grain ferrochrome slag

4.3 EDX plot for red mud

4.4

4.5

EDX plot for fly ash

EDX plot for red soil

4.6 Scanning electron micrograph of fine grain ferrochrome slag at 500 magnification

4.7 Scanning electron micrograph of fine grain ferrochrome slag at 1000 magnification

4.8 Scanning electron micrograph of coarse grain ferrochrome slag at 250 magnification

4.9 Scanning electron micrograph of coarse grain ferrochrome slag at 1000 magnification

19

26

26

27

27

27

29

29

29

30

4.10

4.11 Scanning electron micrograph of fly ash at 1000 magnification

4.12 Scanning electron micrograph of red soil at 3500 magnification

4.13

Scanning electron micrograph of red mud at 200 magnification

XRD plot for fine grain ferrochrome slag

4.14 XRD plot for coarse grain ferrochrome slag

4.15 XRD plot for red mud

4.16 XRD plot for fly ash

4.17 Grain size analysis of fine and coarse grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil

5.1 Plasticity Chart

32

33

33

35

30

30

31

32

38

Figure Particulars

5.2 Lightweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash

5.3 Heavyweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash

Page

40

40

41 5.4 Lightweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag

5.5 Heavyweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag

5.6 Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash after 4 days soaking in water

41

43

43 5.7 Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag after 4 days soaking in water

5.8 The comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear stress of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash

5.9 The comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear stress of ferrochrome slag and comparison with red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,

50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

5.10 The Stress v/s Strain curve of red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%,

20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

6.1

To evaluate mix proportion for GSB following the Rothfutch ’ s

Graphical method

45

45

46

50

6.2 Density curve of ferrochrome slag mix (20mm down 27%, 10mm down

13% and 4.75mm down 60%) for GSB

6.3 Load v/s Settlement curve of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion

(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag after four days soaking

6.4 Comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear stress of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

51

52

53

NALCO

MT

OPC m mg

NH4 kg

RM

P

°C

XRD g mm

%

EDXRF

SEM

Mpa kW

SiO

2

Al

2

O

3

CO

2

CO

NaOH

Hr

φ

Cc

K

Cv

0

LL

PI

PL

GS

LIST OF SYMBOL

Notational Aluminium Company

Million Ton

Ordinary Portland cement

Meter

Milligram

Ammonium

Kilogram

Red mud

Phosphorous

Degree centigrade

X-Ray Diffraction

Gram

Millimeter

Percentage

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

Scanning Electron Microscope

Mega Pascal

Kilo Watt

Quartz

Iron oxide

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon monoxide

Sodium hydroxide

Hour

Angle of internal friction

Compression index

Potassium

Coefficient of consolidation

Degree

Liquid limit

Plasticity index

Plastic limit

Specific gravity

Si

Al

Ti

Na

µm

Cs

Ca

Fe

Micrometer

Swelling Index

Calcium

Iron

Silicon

Aluminum

Titanium

Sodium

C

Mg

JSP

Cu

ρ

Carbon

Magnesium

Jindal steel & power

Copper

Na

2

O

MgO

K

2

O

SO

3

Bulk density

Sodium oxide

Magnesium oxide

Potassium oxide

MnO

Cr

2

O

3

P

2

O

5

H, Fe

B

2

O

3

Sulfur trioxide

Manganese oxide

Chromium(III) Oxide

Phosphorus pentoxide

Hematite

Boehmite

Gb

R, TiO

2

Go, FeO(OH)

Gibbsite

Rutile

Goethite

S, Na

4

(Si

3

Al

3

)O

12

Cl Sodalite

SW

CBR

Well graded sand

California bearing ratio

IRC

CFS

FFS

RM

FA

RS

Indian Road Congress

Coarse grain Ferrochrome Slag

Fine grain Ferrochrome Slag

Red Mud

Fly Ash

Red Soil

CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

Large quantities of natural materials are traditionally used in the construction of roads, embankments and other similar civil engineering structures. Due to the depletion of natural materials, there is a need to find suitable alternative material, which will replace the conventional materials. The large scale industrialization has resulted accumulation of huge amount of by products or industrial waste, endangering the environment in terms of land, air and water pollution. The sustainability of industries now depends upon the effective management and utilization of it’s by- products. In order to use the industrial waste in huge quantities efforts are being made to use the same as a substitute of natural resources. Various efforts have been made to use industrial wastes like fly ash, blast furnace slag, red mud etc. in some civil engineering construction works. Ferrochrome slag is the by-product of waste generated from the ferrochrome steel plant. Globally, generation of Ferrochrome slag is 6.5 to 9.5 million tons and increased by 2.8 to 3 % per annum (Kauppi and Peka,

2007). It contains 13-39% of SiO

2

, 10-29% of MgO, 16-43% of Al

2

O

3

, 1-6% of CaO,

6-18% of Chromium, 3-11% of Iron and other minerals. The present work focuses to characterize the largely available ferrochrome slag in the geotechnical applications and to find the applicability of such material as fill in Geotechnical structures such as embankment and other similar structures etc.

Very limited efforts have been made worldwide to use ferrochrome slag as an alternate civil engineering material. The characterization of Indian slag is not reported. Hence, an effort is being carried out to characterize the local ferrochrome slag as an alternate civil engineering material. The findings based on the limited laboratory tests of the basic material properties, physical properties suggest that ferrochrome slag has the potential to be used as an alternate geotechnical material.

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Figure 1.1 Ferrochrome plant around the world (www.ferro-alloys.net)

1.2 Scope of Present Investigation, Research Objective

From the above, it can be seen that although ferrochrome slag is a waste inorganic material but it can be utilized in various work to develop on economical point of view and making the environment as pollution free. In the present study, characterization of ferrochrome slag to be used as a fill and embankment material and also used as a pavement material in road construction. However, it has the potential to be used as an alternate civil engineering material for filling and embankment as well as pavement material for road construction.

The scope of the present thesis consists of the laboratory tests for finding out the morphology, mineralogy, chemical properties, index properties and shear characteristics (for both Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering point of view)of ferrochrome slag using procedure as that for soil. The geotechnical laboratory investigations were conducted as per Indian Standards (IS: 2720 – 1985 and SP36, Part 1) for soil and transportation laboratory investigations were conducted as per IS: 2386 and MORTH for aggregate. The comparison of some geotechnical properties has been made with other industrial waste materials like red mud, fly ash and also local red soil for using as sub-grade material. Hence, the present research will be helpful to use the Ferro-chrome slag as a fill and embankment material and pavement material.

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1.3 Thesis Outline

After the brief introduction (Chapter 1), the review, based on the use of ferrochrome slag both in geotechnical and transportation engineering as well as its other aspects has been discussed in Chapter 2.

Chapter 3 describes the different materials which are used for present study. Different methods for finding the characteristics of ferrochrome slag with other industrial waste products like red mud, fly ash and also with local red soil has been discussed in this chapter. The experimental methods used to characterize ferrochrome slag as a fill and embankment material and pavement material are discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 4 pertains to presentation and discussion of material properties of ferrochrome slag and the results are compared with other geotechnical engineering material like, red mud, fly ash and local soil.

Chapter 5 describes the characterization of ferrochrome slag as a sub-grade material using experimental methods and comparison test results for finding the compaction, shear strength and California bearing ratio (CBR) values of the local red soil mixed with different proportion of ferrochrome slag.

Chapter 6 describes the characterization of slag as a highway material using experimental methods on ferrochrome slag like compaction, shear strength and CBR values.

Chapter 7 conclusions drawn from various studies made in this thesis presented and scope for the future work is indicated. The general layout of the thesis work based on each chapter is shown in flow diagram (Figure 1.2).

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Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Materials

Introduction

Literature

Review

Materials and Methods

Experimental

Analysis

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Basic Material Properties

Characterization as a Sub-grade

Material

Characterization as a Highway

Material

Conclusion

Figure 1.2 Flow diagram showing the organization of the thesis

CHAPTER - 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

This chapter discussed about the literature review for the ferrochrome slag. In this, some studies related to characterization of other industrial waste like red mud, fly ash and quarry dust is discussed, in order to pave the methodology for the characterization of ferrochrome slag. Then limited study available of characterization of ferrochrome slag is enclosed. Since 2001’s various efforts have been made towards characterization and utilization of ferrochrome slag for different engineering purpose.

This chapter discusses about the different investigation for effective use of ferrochrome slag in different applications in general. There, specific literature pertains to geotechnical engineering application is presented.

2.2 Different Experimental and Geotechnical Study on Ferrochrome Slag

Lind (2001) investigated that “leaching tests with salt seawater and P

H

adjusted water reveal low leachability from the slag for most elements. It was also reported that in road construction, there was a low migration of particles from the slag to the under lying soil and that the leaching from the Ferrochrome slag to the groundwater was low for the elements analyzed, with the exception of potassium.

Shao-peng et al., (2003) analyzed to use steel slag stone matrix aggregate (SMA) is usable as a concrete materials for design. This material was found to highly rigid and excellent friction resistance on the basis of its characteristics.

Tossavainen (2005) noted that the extraction of rock material and ore for construction and metal production involves large quantities of wastes and by-products such as iron and steel making slag has durability qualities and latent cementious properties which are positive in construction.

Nkohla (2006) investigatedthat the best practices for the characterization of ferrochrome smelter slag by following the robust and accurate analytical techniques which is essential for process control, and he discussed its implications to the

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performance of the smelting process. Slag samples from a ferrochrome smelter were analysed using an XRF powder pellet an analytical technique in contrast to the ICP technique used at the plant laboratory, to determine their composition.

Kauppi et al., (2007) reported that the structure of the slag is partly crystalline and partly glassy. Significant phases are amorphous glass, Fe-Mg-Cr-Al-spinels, forsterite, Mg-Al-silicate and metal alloy. The ferrochrome slag products are chemically very stable.

Kok et al., (2009) reported the properties of hot bituminous mixtures containing ferrochromium slag with neat and strong-butadiene styrene modified binders used in flexible pavements. Based on experimental results, use of ferrochromium slag as total aggregate did not exhibit good performance in terms of stability and stiffness.

However the mixture prepared entirely with ferrochromium slag showed good resistance to moisture damage.

Yilmaz et al., (2009) reported the results of experiments, to use ferrochromium slag as an aggregate for granular layers of flexible pavements. The results indicate that the physical and mechanical properties of air-cooled ferrochromium slag are as good as or better than those of natural aggregates. Therefore, FeCr slag and SiFeCr slag have potential to be used as a pavement base layer material in applications where crushed limestone aggregate materials are traditionally used.

Konarbaeva et al., (2010) mineralogical composition of low-carbon ferrochrome slags was studied by means of petrographic analysis. Ferrochrome was produced with ferrosilicon-aluminum used as a reductant. Petrographic analysis of slags indicates the presence of helenite in various forms. Isolated impregnations of melilite, larnite and vitreous phase are distinctly separated which proves the possibility of their separation from helenite phase in further processing.

2.3 Utilization of fly ash in particular, can be broadly grouped into three categories.

The Low Value Utilizations includes, Road construction, Embankment and dam construction, back filling, Mine filling, Structural fills, Soil stabilization, Ash dykes etc. The Medium Value Utilizations includes Pozzolana cement, Cellular cement,

Bricks/Blocks, Grouting, Fly ash concrete, Prefabricated building blocks, Light

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weight aggregate, Grouting, Soil amendment agents, etc. The High Value Utilizations includes Metal recovery, Extraction of magnetite, Acid refractory bricks, Ceramic industry, Floor and wall tiles, Fly ash Paints, and distempers etc.

Since 1970’s various effort have been made in utilization of fly ash in geotechnical engineering field.

Sherwood and Ryley (1970) studied that, the fraction of lime present in fly ash, behaves self-hardening properties of fly ash, in the form of calcium oxide.

Mclaren and Digioia (1987) studied that the fly ashes have low values of specific gravity as compared to soil, so it can use as backfill material for embankments, weak foundation soil. Hence, earth pressure exerted by fly ashes are small.

Martin et al., (1990) stated that fly ash in moist and partial saturated conditions, shows apparent cohesion values, due to capillary rise and it is not to be used as long term stability of fly ash. For shear criteria shear strength is the major one.

Yudbir and Honjo (1991) found that lime content of fly ash behaves as selfhardening properties, depends upon availability of free lime and carbon content in the samples.

Wesche (1991) studied that, the loss of ignition percentage on fly ash, determine the presence of unburnt carbon in fly ash.

Rajasekhar (1995) found that fly ashes are mainly consists of cenosphere and plerosphere. The low values of specific gravity are due to spherical particle present in which the entrapped air bind within it.

Singh (1996) studied that the unconfined compressive strength is a function of free lime content and apparent cohesion.

Singh and Panda (1996) shows that shear strength of a sample of freshly compacted fly ash is a function of and of internal friction angle, which in turn depends upon the maximum dry density of fly ash sample.

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Pandian (1998) reported the low specific gravity, good draining nature, ease way of compaction, good frictional properties etc., can easily gain the use of any geotechnical engineering applications.

Pandian and Balasubramonian (1999) the coefficient permeability was found to decrease upto 200% with 30% increase in MDD value. However, this depends upon the origin of the coal, plant type and collection of sample. Another aspect is that the main emphasis of this thesis was on characterization of ferrochrome slag.

Cokca (2001) fly ash consists of hollow spherical cells of silicon, aluminium and iron oxide, so it provides an array of bivalent and trivalent cation like Ca

+2

, Al

+3

anf Fe

+3 in ionized state, which can promotes the disperse clay minerals.

Das and Yudhbir (2005) found that the lime content, iron content, loss on iginition, morphology and mineralogy affect the geotechnical properties of fly ashes.

Sridharan et al., (1998) conducted direct shear box test under as compacted condition, fly ashes exhibits apparent cohesion, due to capillary stresses as a consequence of partial saturation.

Prasad and Bai (1999) studied that due to high reactive silica present in fly ash, fly ash exhibit greater lime reactivity than bottom ash or pond ash.

Sridharan and Prakash (2000) Fly ashes show negative free swell indices due to, low values of specific gravity and due to flocculation and as a consequence of their free lime content.

Sridharan et al., (2001) found that the principal constituents of fly ashes are silica

(SiO

2

), alumina (Al

2

O

3

), and ferric oxide (Fe

2

O

3

). Oxides of calcium, magnesium and sodium are also present in fly ashes. If carbon particles do not burn in furnace of boiler, then unburnt carbon particles are also present in fly ashes, and this can be determined from loss on ignition test. He also studied that the pH of fly ashes vary in the range of low value 3 to high value about 12. About 50% of Indian fly ashes are alkaline in nature.

Sridharan et al., (2001) study that the morphology of fly ash contains glassy solid spheres, hollow spheres, sub rounded porous grains, irregular agglomerates and irregular porous grains of unburned carbon (black in colour). If iron particles are

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present, they can be spotted as angular grains of magnetite (dark gray in colour). The low reactivity of fresh sample indicates low reactive silica or free lime content or high unburned carbon content in fly ash. The particle size distribution and grain characteristics of fly ashes, determine the constitutive behavior and other physical and engineering properties of fly ashes. As fly ashes are predominantly silt size particles, specific surfaces of fly ashes are quite low as compared to kaolinite. The range of specific surface of Indian fly ashes are 130-530 m

2

/kg.

Sridharan and Pandian (2001) studied that compacted fly ash tested in un soaked condition, have higher CBR values, than soaked condition of most of the fine grained soils. Such higher CBR value is due to capillary force that exists in the partly saturated state.

Das and Kalidas (2002) found that the specific surfaces of fly ash, subjected to grain size in ESP hoppers may vary considerably.

Trivedi and Sud (2004) found that the specific gravity increases, with increase in fineness and finest fly ash has maximum specific gravity. Table shows that, some of variation in specific gravities.

Prakash and Sridharan (2006) proposed a classification scheme for fly ash if more than 50% of fines (i.e., fraction of size finer than 75

 m) belongs to either coarse silt size category or the medium silt size category or (fine silt+clay) size category, then the ash is represented as MLN or MIN or MHN respectively.

Prakash and Sridharan (2007) found that the fly ashes exhibit lower

 dmax

and higher OMC. This is due to their low specific gravity, poorly graded particles and presence of more cenospheres. The coarser fly ashes higher OMC and lower

 dmax

, while finer fly ashes exhibits a lower OMC and higher

 dmax

. The coefficient of permeability is a function of grain size distribution, degree of compaction and pozzolanic property of fly ashes. For compacted ashes, k decreases with the degree of compaction increases. Fly ashes fall in the range of k of silts. For partially saturated compacted fly ash, exhibits some UCC strength due to capillary stress induced some apparent cohesion and pozzolanic action.

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Miners (1973) observed that red mud consists of sand and silt size particles with clay size up to 20-30%, with complete absence of quartz minerals. He classified coarse grained fraction as red sand and fine grained fraction as red mud.

Vogt (1974) described in situ undrained shear strengths are typically very high compared to uncemented, clayey soils at equivalent liquidity indices. The sensitivities vary from 5 to 15 with very high friction angles (φ) of 38-42 0 are also found for red mud.

Parekh and Goldberger (1976) observed that red mud is highly alkaline and its mineral components are generally hematite, goethite, gibbsite, calcite, sodalite.

Somogyi and Gray (1977) described red mud is highly alkaline, having 20-30% clay sized particles, with the majority of particles in the silt range. One-dimensional compression tests indicate the values for C c

= 0.27-0.39, permeability k = 2-20 x10

7 cm/s and C v

= 3 – 50 x 10

3 cm

2

/s.

Vick (1981) observed that red mud is of low plasticity with liquid limit (LL) of 45% and plasticity index (PI) of 10% with relatively high specific gravity (G

S

) of 2.8-3.3.

Due to its lack of clay mineralogy, these wastes show many geotechnical properties similar to clayey tailings found in other mineral processing [e.g., mineral sands, gold, etc].

Li (1998) found that red mud is highly alkaline (pH = 11-13) waste material, whose mineral components includes hematite, goethite, gibbsite, calcite, sodanite and complex silicates and some red mud have been found to have greater than 50% of the particles less than 2µm. The cation exchange capacities of red mud are comparable with kaolin or illite minerals.

Newson et al., (2006) carried out the investigation on physiochemical and mechanical properties of red mud at a site in the United Kingdom. Based on a set of laboratory tests conducted on the red mud, the material has compression behavior similar to clayey soils, but frictional behavior closer to sandy soils. The red mud appears to be

“structured” and has features consistent with sensitive, cemented clay soils. Chemical testing suggests that the agent causing the aggregation of particles is hydroxylsodalite and that the bonds are reasonably strong and stable during compressive loading and

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can be broken down by subjecting the red mud to an acidic environment. Exposure of the red mud to acidic conditions causes dissolution of the hydroxysodalite and a loss of particle cementation. Hydration of the hydroxysodalite unit cells is significant, but does not affect the mechanical performance of the material. The shape, size, and electrically charged properties of the hydroxysodalite, goethite, and hematite in the red mud appear to be causing mechanical behavior with features consistent with clay and sand, without the presence of either quartz or clay minerals.

Liu et al., (2006) observed that the pH value of red mud decreases with increase in duration of storage time and Oxygen(O) accounted for about 40% with the other major elements included Calcium (CA), Iron(Fe), Silicon(Si), Aluminum(Al),

Titanium(Ti), Sodium(Na), Carbon, Magnesium(Mg) and Potassium(K) . XRD analysis shows calcite, perovskite, illite, hematite and magnetite are present in red mud and the old red mud also contained some kassite and portlandite. In addition, there are about 20% of amorphous materials in all red mud.

Sundaram and Gupta (2010) have made some in-situ investigation on the red mud to be used as a foundation material and they have observed that red mud is highly alkaline (9.3-10.2) with liquid limit of 39-45 %, plastic limit of 27-29% and shrinkage limit of 19-22%. They also found that undrained shear strength is 0.4 to 1.4 kg/cm

2

, specific gravity is 2.85-2.97, cohesion is 0.1 to 0.2 kg/cm

2

and angle of internal friction is 26-28

0

. Table 2.2, shows the comprehensive work done on geotechnical characterization of red mud.

Rout et al., (2013) Characterized red mud as a pavement and tailing dam material and found that it has the potential to be used as a fill and embankment material.

2.4

Different experimental study on quarry dust

Quarry dust can be defined as residue, tailing or other non-voluble waste material after the extraction and processing of rocks to form fine particles less than 4.75mm, which is abundantly available to the extent of 200 million tons per annum. Quarry dust is fine rock particles. It is gray in color and it is like fine aggregate. The utilization of quarry fines is seen as a way to minimize the accumulation of unwanted material which has landfill disposal problems and health and environmental hazards

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and at the same time to maximize resource use and efficiency in different constructional work.

Ali and Koranne (2011) investigated the effect of stone dust & flyash combine at different percentage on expansive soil, the test results such as index properties,

Proctors compaction, swelling and unconfined compression strength obtained on expansive clays mixed at different proportions of fly ash and stone dust admixture.

From the results, observed that at optimum percentages, i.e., 20 to 30% of admixture found the swelling of expansive clay is almost controlled and also improved in the other properties of soil.

Koustuvee et al. (2013) attempted to understand the influence of the quarry dust content on the shear strength of sandy soil that the addition of quarry dust increases the shear strength of the sandy soil significantly. The added advantage is that this helps in the saving of sand availability in the variance in shearing strength of sand and quarry dust and the shearing behaviour of quarry dust-sand mixes having different fractions of natural sand and quarry dust.

Patel and Pitroda (2013) evaluated various properties of quarry dust and its suitability in conventional concrete and used as surface dressing in highway work, manufacturing of building material, such as lightweight aggregates, bricks, tiles, autoclave blocks, synthetic rock and kerbs, embankment construction, landfill capping, filler applications, manufactured sand, cement making, green roofs, straw and clay blocks.

Satyanarayana et al. (2013) evaluated the geo-technical properties of compacted crusher dust along with the recycled aggregate. The strength characteristics of compacted crusher dust are evaluated through a series of CBR tests and compaction tests varying the crusher dust dosage from 60% to 10% with respect to recycled aggregate and observed that crusher dust of 20-40% has greater strengths and can be used as a road base and sub-base material.

Sarvade and Nayak (2014) used quarry dust as a stabilizer to improve the geotechnical properties of lithomargic clay which is a dispersive type of soil and highly susceptible to erosion abundantly available in the western coastal belt of

Southern India. The lithomargic clay blended with the quarry dust results showed that

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the geotechnical parameters of the lithomargic clay are improved substantially by the addition of quarry dust with good improvement in the consolidation values, permeability and also the variation in water content does not seriously affect its desirable properties. The settlement analysis of the lithomargic clay and the lithomargic clay blended with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% quarry dust for a square footing by using Plaxis 3D and found that there is a decrease in the settlement and increase in the load carrying capacity when blended with quarry dust.

Subbulakshmi and Vidivelli (2014) investigated the effect of quarry dust towards the performance of High performance concrete and focused on its mechanical properties. Also used quarry dust in concrete as a partial replacement of sand. The strength characteristics such as compressive strength and flexural strength were investigated to find the optimum replacement of quarry dust of 0%, 50%, and 100% at

3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 60 days of curing.

Based on the above studies, it was observed that various studies have been conducted to utilize industrial wastes like fly ash, red mud, and quarry dust as an alternate construction material in general and as a construction and fill material in particular.

Though, above industrials wastes do not have constituents similar to that of soil but have properties similar to that of soil. Among them fly ash has been well investigated and are being used widely as construction and fill material followed by red mud and quarry dust. However, to best knowledge of the author no systematic study on ferrochrome slag have been made to use it as an embankment and pavement material.

Hence, in this study an attempt has been to characterize the ferrochrome slag as an embankment and pavement material.

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CHAPTER - 3

MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses about the materials used and the methodology followed in the present study. Though the main material characterized in the present study is ferrochrome slag, other materials like fly ash, red mud and red soil are also used to compare the results of ferrochrome slag with these materials. In this work completely experimental methodology followed for characterization of these materials is also discussed. A brief introduction about the above materials and methodology is presented as follows.

3.2 Materials

3.2.1 Ferrochrome slag (FS)

The raw material in the production of ferrochrome is chromite and iron oxides. The chromite is used as lumpy ores or fine concentrates, which must be generally agglomerated to make them useable charge for the furnace. Fine concentrate is first ground and made into pellets in the sintering plant and then the pellets are sintered in the furnace at a temperature of 1400°C. Different minerals like quartzite, bauxite, dolomite, corundum, lime and olivine are used as fluxing materials to get the right composition of slag. The smelted products obtained from the smelting furnaces are ferrochrome alloy and slag. The slag production is 1.1-1.6 t / t FeCr depending on feed materials. In Odisha there are nearly ten ferrochrome plants and some are shown in Table 3.1. In the present study ferrochrome slag from Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd.,

Somonathpur, in the district of Balasore of Odisha, India, was collected. Figure 3.1 shows the industries from which is collected and Figure 3.2 shows the dumping yard of ferrochrome slag.

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Table 3.1 List of Ferrochrome Manufacturers in Odisha

Name of Manufactures

BALASORE FERRO ALLOYS

LTD.

FACOR

IMFA

ICCL

ROHIT FERROTECH

VISA STEELS

JINDAL STAINLESS

TATA

MAITHAN

Place

BALASORE

BHADRAKH

THERUBALI

CHOUDWAR

J.K.ROAD

J.K.ROAD

J.K.ROAD

BRAHMANIPAL

J.K.ROAD

Figure 3.1 Ferrochrome Slag, Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd., Somonathpur

Figure 3.2 Dumping yard of ferrochrome slag, Balasore Ferro Alloys Ltd.,

Somonathpur

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Above Figure 3.2 shows the disposal of ferrochrome slag from the plant to the open area as a solid form where the materials are collected in two types i.e. (i) Fine grain ferrochrome slag (FFS) and (ii) Coarse grain ferrochrome slag (CFS) on the basis of particle size. In the present study both fine and coarse grain FS were collected.

3.2.2 Red Mud (RM)

In this work the red mud used was collected from NALCO, Damanjodi, Koraput in the state of Odisha, India. Red mud is the waste industrial material that is obtained during extraction of alumina from bauxite ore. Alumina production process consists of crushing and grinding of bauxite with caustic liquor in ball mills. The slurry after desilication is pumped to large tanks/autoclaves/tubes for digestion at 110°C to 300°C depending upon the mineralogy of bauxite. The digested slurry is diluted and classified in thickeners. The overflow (aluminate liquor) is pumped for controlled filtration and underflow containing red mud is washed and disposed to red mud pond.

Depending upon the quality of bauxite, the quantity of red mud generated varies from

55-65% of the bauxite processed. The production of 1 ton of alumina generally results in the creation of 1.2-1.4 tons of red mud. Figure 3.3 and Figure 3.4 show the collected material red mud in the laboratory.

Figure 3.3 Red mud, Damanjodi,

Koraput, Odisha

3.2.3 Fly Ash (FA)

Figure 3.4 Discharge of red mud as slurry into the red mud pond

The fly-ash is light weight coal combustion by product, which results from the combustion of ground or powdered bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal or lignite coal. Fly ash is generally separated from the exhaust gases by electrostatic precipitators before the flue gases reach the chimneys of coal-fired power plants. In the present study the fly ash was collected from hopper of JSP, Jindal Steel Plant

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(JSP), Raigard, of Chhattisgarh. In this JSP plant the fly ash is collected through the hopper and is transformed through trucks. Hence, the fly ash in dry state was collected from the plant shown in Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.5 Fly ash, Jindal Steel Plant (JSP), Raigard, Chhattisgarh

3.2.4 Red Soil (RS)

The residual soil collected from the NIT Rourkela campus defined here as Red soil.

The red soil shown in Figure 3.6 is the red coloured fine grained residual soil collected from the shallow surface, which is not suitable for the construction of pavements. The red soil is used in the present study for comparison of properties as sub-grade soil to the ferrochrome slag and also characterization of stabilized red soil with ferrochrome slag as sub-grade soil for the construction of pavement.

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Figure 3.6 Red soil, NIT, Rourkela campus

3.3 Methods

The present study consists of experimental methods for characterization of ferrochrome slag. The experimental methods refer to investigation of ferrochrome slag in terms of morphological, chemical, mineralogical, geotechnical and pavement material properties, which are elaborated as follows.

Material Characterization Method

3.3.1.1 Scanning Electron Microscope

Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray micro analyser is used in the present study. The chemical and mineralogical characterization of ferrochrome slag is not only beneficial for knowing its composition, but also helps in its classification for its possible utilization as an engineering material. The particle morphology of the ferrochrome slag is analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope

(SEM) fitted with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) micro analyser. The particle shape is quantified by using image analysis and documented with micrographs. The SEM used in the present study is JEOL-JSM-6480 LV model. SEM is used to scan a finely focused beam of kilovolt energy. An image is formed by scanning electrode ray tube in synchronism with the beam and modulating the brightness of this tube with beam excited signals. The samples are prepared with carbon coating before being putting in the SEM. Figure 3.7 shows the layout of SEM set up with EDX microanalyses.

Figure 3.7 SEM model JEOL JSM-6480LV for SEM and EDX analysis, NIT

Rourkela

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3.3.1.2 X-ray Diffractometer Analysis

The mineral phases present in the collected ferrochrome slag is identified by X-Ray

Diffraction (XRD) technique. X-ray diffraction method used to carry out on the samples for qualitative identification of the mineral phases and quantitative estimates of mineralogical composition using Rietveld refinement methods. The samples were dried at 110°C for 24 Hrs and mainly taken into powered form for X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray powder diffraction was initially carried out on the powders for qualitative identification of mineral phases. The sample is analysed by passing through a Philips diffractometer with a Cu Kα radiation source and a single crystal graphite monochromatic. An angular range of 10–70° of 2θ value (where

 is the incident/glancing angle of X-ray beam) in 0.1° increments was used throughout.

Figure 3.8 shows the XRD assembly used in the present study.

Figure 3.8 XRD model PW3040 for the mineralogical analysis

3.3.2 Study of geotechnical properties

Some of the geotechnical properties that are of particular interest on ferrochrome slag are particle size distribution, specific gravity, and bulk density etc. All the geotechnical properties of ferrochrome slag have been found as per IS: 2720 and SP:

36 (Part 1). The pH values are found out by Electronic pH meter and conducted as per

SP: 36 (Part 1).

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3.3.2.1 Determination of pH value

The acidic or alkaline characteristics of a soil sample can be quantitatively expressed by hydrogen ion-activity commonly designated as pH, which is conveniently expressed by the following:

+

) = log

10

[

1

H+

] where, H

+

is the hydrogen ion-concentration in moles/litre.

The P

H

values are found out by Electrometric pH meter by means of an electrode assembly consisting of one glass electrode and one calomel reference electrode with a saturated potassium chloride solution. Potassium chloride is used for salt bridge because of the fact that the transference of the K

+

and Cl

-

ions takes place at the rate in true solution. In this experiment buffer Solutions of pH 4.0 (at 25

C) dissolve 5.106 g of potassium hydrogen phthalate in distilled water and dilute to 500 ml with distilled water. Then 30 g of the sample was taken as prepared as IS: 2720 (Part 1) -1983 in a

100-ml beaker with 75 ml of distilled water and stirred for a few seconds following as per SP 36(Part I) of IS: 2720 (Part 26) - 1987.

3.3.2.2 Determination of specific gravity

The specific gravity experiment is done in pycnometer method as per IS 2720 Part III

Sec 2 1980 for fine grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil, red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag and IS

2386(Part III) – 1963 for coarse grain ferrochrome slag.

3.3.2.3 Determination of particle size analysis

The percentage of various sizes of particles in a given dry sample is found by the mechanical analysis which performed in two stages, i.e. sieve analysis and hydrometer analysis. In this work particle size analyzed by wet sieve analysis method following as per IS: 2720 (Part 4) – 1985.

3.3.2.4 Determination of Compaction characteristics

Compaction test determine the moisture content and dry density relationship as per IS

2720 (1980) conducting two types of compaction i.e. (i) light compaction and (ii) heavy compaction.

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3.3.2.5 Consistency Limits Analysis

The values of liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index help in classifying the cohesive soil. In this work, the consistency limits are determined or analyzed as per the following of the IS: 2720(Part 5) – 1985.

3.3.2.6 Determination of permeability

The permeability of soil sample is determined by falling head parameter and constant head parameter. The permeability of ferrochrome slag is determine by constant head parameter under condition of laminar flow of water as per IS: 2720 (Part 17) - 1987.

3.3.2.7 Determination of shear strength

Direct shear test is conducted to measure the shear strength of soil. The test is conducted as per IS: 2720 (Part 13) - 1986. Normal stress is given to the different soil samples are 0.5kN, 1kN, 1.5kN.

3.3.2.8 Determination of California bearing ratio

The CBR test is conducted on soil specimen as per IS: 2720(part16) - 1961. For all samples, unsoaked samples are tested for freshly and soaked samples are tasted after 4 days preparation of sample. The soaked samples are subjected 2.5kg surplus load.

3.3.2.9 Determination of unconfined compressive strength

The UCS test is performed as per IS: 2720 (Part 10) - 1991.The test specimen are prepared from freshly in different material with using 20 kN proving ring according to their strength.

3.3.3 Study of other properties as pavement material

Loose and compacted bulk densities of ferrochrome slag are determined in the laboratory as per the IS: 2386 (Part 3) – 1963.

The ratio of loose bulk density to the compacted bulk density lies usually between 0.87 and 0.96.

3.3.3.2 Void ratio

For this present study for the coarse grained FS, void ratio was found in laboratory as per the IS: 2386 (Part 3) – 1963.

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3.3.3.3 Shape test

The evaluation of shape of the FS coarse grained particles made in terms of flakiness index, elongation index, and angularity number. This shape test was done in laboratory as per IS: 2386 (Part 1) -1963.

3.3.3.4 Soundness value

The soundness test is intended to study the resistance of aggregates to weathering action by conducting accelerated weathering test cycle as per IS: 2386 (Part 5) –

1963. The resistance to disintegration of aggregate is determined 0.21% by using saturated solution of sodium sulphate taking five numbers of cycle. The average loss in weight of aggregates to be used in pavement construction after 10 cycles should not exceed 12% when tested with sodium sulphate and 18% when tested with magnesium sulphate. In the present study the soundness test was conducted for coarse grained FS.

3.3.3.5 Abrasion value

In order to check the hardness of coarse grained FS, Los Angeles abrasion tests are carried as per IS: 2386 (Part 1) -1963.

The Los Angeles Abrasion value of good aggregates acceptable for cement concrete, bituminous concrete and other high quality pavement materials should be less than 30%.

Values up to 50% are allowed in base courses like water bound and bituminous macadam.

3.3.3.6 Crushing Strength

To achieve a high quality of pavement aggregates possessing high resistance to crushing or low aggregate crushing value are preferred. This experiment was done in laboratory as per IS: 2386 (Part 4) -1963.

The aggregate crushing value for good quality aggregate to be used in base coarse shall not be exceed 45% and the value for surface coarse shall be less than 30%.

3.3.3.7 Impact Value

This experiment was done in laboratory as per IS: 2386 (Part 4) -1963.As per code, the aggregate impact value should not normally exceed 30% for aggregate to be used

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in wearing coarse of pavements. The maximum permissible value is 35% for bituminous macadam and 40% for water bound macadam base coarse.

Table 3.2 Comprehensive list of experimental tests performed

SL No. Tests Performed

1 SEM

2

3

EDX

XRD

4

5

6

7

8

9 pH value

Sp. Gravity

Particle size analysis

Consistency Limits Analysis i. Liquid limit ii. Plastic limit iii. Plastic index

Compaction i. Light weight ii. Heavy weight

CBR i. soaking

Materials used

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil

+ Different percentage(10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,

50% respectively) of Ferrochrome Slag

10

11

Direct shear i. Saturated

UCS

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red Soil

+ Different percentage(10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,

50% respectively) of Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red soil, Red Soil + Different percentage(10%,

20%, 30%, 40%, 50% respectively) of

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag, Red Mud, Fly ash, Red soil, Red Soil + Different percentage (10%,

20%, 30%, 40%, 50% respectively) of

Ferrochrome Slag

Red soil, Red Soil + Different percentage

(10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% respectively) of

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag

12 Permeability i. Constant head ii. Variable head

13 Bulk density

14 Void ratio

15 Water absorption

16 Impact value

17 Crushing value

18 Abrasion value

19 Soundness value

20 Shape test i. Flakiness ii. Elongation iii. Angularity number

21 Relative density

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag

Ferrochrome Slag

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CHAPTER - 4

BASIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES

4.1 Introduction

The results of basic material properties of FS are discussed in this chapter. Though the main aim is to characterize the FS as a structure of fill and pavement material, it is required to know its basic properties like chemistry, mineralogy, morphology etc. for better characterization. Hence in this chapter chemistry, mineralogy, morphology, particle size distribution and specific gravity are presented. The above properties of

FS are compared to that with other industrial waste like fly ash, red mud and also with local soil.

4.2 Chemical Analysis

The total chemical analysis of FS is presented in Table 4.1. Ferrochrome slag consists of silica, aluminium, oxides of iron, calcium, chromium and magnesium. It can be observed that the values are comparable to that reported in literature (Kauppi and

Keppa, 2007). It may be mentioned here that high magnesium (MgO) is a matter of concern as it may lead to expansion.

Constituents

Al

2

O

3

Table 4.1 Chemical Composition of ferrochrome slag

Present study

(% by Weight)

26

Kauppi and Keppa(2007)

(% by Weight)

16-43

SiO

2

MgO

30

23

13-39

10-29

CaO

Cr

2

O

FeO

3

2

15

4

1-6

6-18

3-11

4.3 pH value of ferrochrome slag and other materials

The P

H value of coarse grain and fine grain ferrochrome slag are found to 9.88 and

9.79 respectively. Hence, this sample reacts with alkali in nature and the high pH

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value is due to high MgO value. The pH values of other material like red mud, fly ash, red soil are also given in Table 4.2. It can be seen that fly ash and red soil are slightly acidic, due to presence of less CaO content and more silica content (Yudhbir and

Honjo, 1991).

Table 4.2 pH value of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash and red soil

Samples P

H

value

Fine grain ferrochrome slag

Coarse grain ferrochrome slag

9.79

9.88

Red mud

Fly Ash

Red soil

10.43

6.65

6.78

4.4 Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis

The particles chemistry of the ferrochrome slag was determined through EDX is shown in Figure 4.1, for fine grain ferrochrome slag and Figure 4.2 with presence of chemicals like silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) etc.. It was observed that there is some variation in the chemical composition of the slag based on different size fraction. The percentage by weight of chemical present in ferrochrome slag from EDX test is presented in Table 4.3. Similarly, the particles chemistry of the red mud, fly ash, red soil was determined through EDX and are shown in Figure 4.3,

Figure 4.4 and Figure 4.5 respectively Finally, the percentage of chemicals present in ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil from EDX test is presented in Table 4.3. It can be seen that these are major difference between different materials particularly the

Mg content and chromium content. But it may be mentioned here that the EDX result refers to any particle chemistry and not the gross chemical analysis.

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Figure 4.1 EDX plot for fine grain ferrochrome slag

Figure 4.2 EDX plot for coarse grain ferrochrome slag

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Figure 4.3 EDX plot for red mud

Figure 4.4 EDX plot for fly ash

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Figure 4.5 EDX plot for red soil

Table 4.3 Comparison percentage of chemicals present in ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil from EDX analysis

Elements

Elements%

(by weight)

CFS

Elements%

(by weight)

FFS

Elements%

(by weight)

RM

Elements%

(by weight)

FA

Elements%

(by weight)

RS

O

Mg

Si

Ca

Cr

Fe

Zr

Al

Na

Ti

C

K

42.39

8.78

24.52

12.43

---

---

---

11.78

---

---

---

---

22.09

---

12.03

---

31.49

11.56

14.47

8.36

---

---

---

---

46.70

---

3.65

---

---

16.86

---

7.74

23.98

1.07

---

---

57.47

---

18.92

---

---

---

---

15.54

---

1.39

2.54

0.94

43.82

---

3.84

---

---

32.60

---

13.62

4.36

1.76

---

---

4.5 Scanning Electron Microscope Test

The micro morphology of materials is tested using Scanning Electron Microscope

(SEM). The SEM is used to scan a specimen with a finely focused beam of kilovolt energy. The SEM micrograph of fine grain FS at different magnification is presented in figures 4.6 to 4.7. It can be seen that FS contains very irregular particles. The magnified irregular particles as shown in Figure 4.7 that particles, the FS particles are not plate like, rather like spinal structure. Similarly the SEM micrograph of coarse grain FS is shown in Figure 4.8 and 4.9. For comparison the micro photograph of red mud, fly ash and red soil are shown in Figures 4.10, 4.11 and 4.12 respectively.

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Figure 4.6 Scanning electron micrograph of fine grain ferrochrome slag at 500 magnification

Figure 4.7 Scanning electron micrograph of fine grain ferrochrome slag at 1000 magnification

Figure 4.8 Scanning electron micrograph of coarse grain ferrochrome slag at 250 magnification

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Figure 4.9 Scanning electron micrograph of coarse grain ferrochrome slag at 1000 magnification

Figure 4.10 Scanning electron micrograph of red mud at 200 magnification

Figure 4.11 Scanning electron micrograph of fly ash at 1000 magnification

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Figure 4.12 Scanning electron micrograph of red soil at 3500 magnification.

4.6 X-ray Diffraction Analysis:

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) test was used to determine the phase compositions of ferrochrome slag particles of both fine grain and coarse grain FS. The basic principles underlying the identification of minerals by XRD technique is that each crystalline substance has its own characteristics atomic structure which diffracts X-ray with a particular pattern. In general the diffraction peaks are recorded on output chart in terms of 2

, where

is the glancing angle of X-ray beam. The values are then converted to lattice spacing “d” in Angstrom unit using Bragg’s law.

 d =

2nSin

 where

= wave length of X-ray specific to target used n = an integer

The XRD test results of fine grain and coarse grain ferrochrome slag sample are shown in Figure 4.13 and Figure 4.14 below. From these figures it can be observed that quartz, forsterite, olivine and spinel are predominantly present. Similarly, the test results of red mud and fly ash samples are shown in Figure 4.15 and Figure 4.16, respectively and from these figures hematite, boehmite, gibbsite, rutile, goethite, sodalities are found in red mud and soil and quartz, hematite, mullite, aluminium silicate are found in fly ash.

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500

400

300

200

100

0

10

B

C

B

C

A= Quartz

B= Forsterite

C= Olivine

D= Spinel

B

C

B

C

A

15

D A C

B

C

D

A

B

D

C

20 25 30 35 40

Angle(2 

0

)

C

A D A

A

45 50

D

A

55

D

B A

60

C

A

A

DAB

D

65 70

Figure 4.13 XRD plot for fine grain ferrochrome slag

1200

B

1000

A= Quartz

B= Forsterite

C= Olivine

D= Spinel

800

C

A

600

400

200

A

B

A

D

A

C

A

A A

A

D

A

D

C

B

B

B

B

0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

Angle(2 

0

)

Figure 4.14 XRD plot for coarse grain ferrochrome slag

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Figure 4.15 XRD plot for red mud

500

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

10

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

10

B

C

20

A,E,D

A=hematite, B=Boehmite

C=Gibbsite, D=Rutile

E=Goethite, F=Sodalite

C

C

D C

E,D,A

A,E

E,D,A

C,E,A

C

B,A

C

D,E,A

D,F,B,A,C

F,C,A F,A,D,E

30 50 60 40

Angle, 2  o

70

Q

Mu

20

Q

Mu

30

H

Al

H

Mu

Mu

Q H

H

Q

H

Q

H

Al Q

Al

Q

Al

Q

Al

40

Angle, 

0

H-Hematite-Fe

2

O

3

Q-Quartz-SiO

2

Mu-Mullite-Al

6

Si

2

O

13

Al-Aluminium Sillicate-Al

2

Si

5

50 60 70

Figure 4.16 XRD plot for fly ash

4.7 Specific Gravity

The specific gravity is determine by the experiment by using pycnometer following as per IS: 2720-1980 (Part 3, Sec 2) for red mud, fly ash, red soil and IS: 2386 - 1963 for ferrochrome slag. Here, the values of specific gravity of fine and coarse grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil are given in Table 4.4 below. The specific

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gravity of fine and coarse grained ferrochrome slag are 3.27 and 3.21 respectively and the specific gravity of other materials like red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with ferrochrome slag (i.e. proportion varies from 10% to 50%) are 2.99, 2.26, 2.77, 2.79,

2.81, 2.82, 2.86, 2.9, respectively also presented here. Here the higher specific gravity found for FS than other materials. So, it indicates, ferrochrome slag is heavy weight material than others. The lowest specific gravity of 2.26 was obtained for fly ash and the specific gravity of red soil, FS mixture increased with increase in FS content.

Table 4.4 The specific gravity of fine and coarse grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil

Samples

Specific Gravity

IS: 2386-1963

(Part 3)

Specifications

FFS 3.27

CFS

RM

3.21

2.99

FA

RS

RS + 10% FFS

RS + 20% FFS

RS + 30% FFS

RS + 40% FFS

RS + 50% FFS

2.26

2.77

2.79

2.81

2.82

2.86

2.9

2.4 to 2.9

4.8

Grain Size Analysis

Figure 4.17 shows the grain size analysis of coarse grain ferrochrome slag following as per IS: 2386-1963 (Part 1), and fine grain of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil as per IS: 2720 (Part 4) - 1985 of sieve analysis method. Here, the values of C u and C c of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil are given in Table 4.5 below.

Also particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other industrial wastes (red mud, fly ash) are presented based on USCS and IS Classification (IS:

1498 – 1970) in Table 4.6 and Table 4.7 respectively. The C u

value of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil are 2.79, 1.89, 1.50, 3.04, 1.60, respectively and the C c

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value of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil are 0.95, 1.75, 1.42, 1.26, 1.43, respectively. Hence the FS is a poorly graded material.

100

80

C.F.S

F.F.S

R.M

F.A

60

40

20

0

1E-3 0.01

0.1

1

Particle size (mm)

10 100

Figure 4.17 Grain size analysis of fine and coarse grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil

Table 4.5 The values of C u

and C c of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil

Samples

Fine grain ferrochrome slag

Coarse grain ferrochrome slag

Red mud

Fly Ash

Red soil

Value of C

2.79

1.89

1.50

3.04

1.60 u

Value of C

0.95

1.75

1.42

1.26

1.43 c

Table 4.6 Particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other industrial wastes (red mud, fly ash) based on USCS

Gravel (%) Type of sample

Based on Unified soil

Classification system

Fine grain ferrochrome slag

76.2 to 4.75mm

4.04

Sand (%) Silt & Clay (%)

4.75 to

0.075mm

95.94

<0.075mm

0.014

Coarse grain ferrochrome slag

Red mud

96.9

2.08

3.1

33.02

0.0

64.9

Fly ash

Red soil

0

0.04

27.52

10.47

72.48

89.49

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Table 4.7 Particle size classifications of ferrochrome slag and red soil with other industrial wastes (red mud, fly ash) based on IS Classification

(IS: 1498 – 1970)

Gravel Sand

Type of sample Boulder Cobble Silt Clay

Coarse Fine Coarse Medium Fine

As per IS

Classification (IS:

1498 – 1970)

>300mm

≥80mm to

≤300mm

≥20mm to

≤80mm

≥4.75mm to

≤20mm

≥2mm to

≤4.75mm

≥0.425mm to

≤2mm

≥0.075mm to

≤0.425mm

≥0.002mm to

≤0.075mm

<0.002mm

Fine grain ferrochrome slag

Coarse grain ferrochrome slag

Red mud

00

00

00

00

00

4.92

4.04

91.98

52.52

3.1

40.8

00

2.236

00

0.404

00

00

00

Fly ash

Red soil

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

2.08

00

00

4.02

00

1.28

4.24

0.02

1.99

24.76

27.5

7.2

64.9

72.48

89.49

00

00

00

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CHAPTER - 5

CHARACTERIZATION AS SUBGRADE

MATERIAL

5.1 Introduction

Flexible pavements are generally adopted for construction of roads in India. Subgrade soil is an integral part of the road pavement structure as it provides the support to the pavement from beneath. Design of the various pavement layers is very much dependent on the strength of the sub-grade soils over which the pavement is going to be laid. The sub-grade soil and its properties are important in the design of pavement structure. The main function of the sub-grade soil is to give adequate support to the pavement and for this; the sub-grade should possess the sufficient stability under adverse climate and loading conditions. The formation of waves, corrugations, rutting and shoving in black top pavements and the phenomena of pumping, blowing and consequent cracking of pavements are generally attributed due to the poor sub-grade conditions. Generally, in highway engineering, California bearing ratio (CBR), test is performed to determine the strength of sub-grade soil and these CBR values will be helpful to design the thickness of flexible pavement. This chapter presents laboratory study of FS and FS stabilized red soil as sub-grade soil. Here, the CBR values are determined under both unsoaked and soaked condition and compaction, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), consistency limits, specific gravity values are also determined by taking red soil with different proportions of ferrochrome slag from

10% to 50%, so that of different proportion of ferrochrome slag red soil mixture can be used as subgrade material.

5.2 Properties of ferrochrome slag as a subgrade material

5.2.1 Consistency Limits

5.2.1.1 Liquid limit (LL), Plastic limit (PL) and Plastic index of ferrochrome slag

The liquid limit was determined by using cone penetration method following the code

IS: 2720 (Part 5) - 1985. The values of liquid limit, plastic limit, plastic index of fine grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag are presented in

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Table 5.1. It can be seen that the liquid limit and plastic limit of red soil decreased with addition of FS. Also found that FS and FA have no plasticity in nature. So both are in cohesion less type material and red mud and red soil have low and medium plasticity in nature according to (Das, 2007). The classification of red soil with FS along with other industrial waste are shown in Figure 5.1.

Table 5.1 The LL, PL and PI values of fine grain ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag.

Types of sample LL (%) PL (%) PI (%) Description

Fine grain ferrochrome slag

Red mud

Fly ash

17.22

24.75

30.37

0

17.5

0

0 Non plastic

7.25 Low plasticity

0 Non plastic

Red soil 31.26 17.22 14.04 Medium plasticity

Red soil + 10% Fine grain ferrochrome slag

Red soil + 20% Fine grain ferrochrome slag

Red soil + 30% Fine grain ferrochrome slag

Red soil + 40% Fine grain ferrochrome slag

Red soil + 50% Fine grain ferrochrome slag

30.47 17 13.47 Medium plasticity

28.19 16.304 9.88 Low plasticity

24.65 15.715 8.93 Low plasticity

22.31 15.099 7.21 Low plasticity

19.16 13.544 5.61 Low plasticity

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Figure 5.1 Plasticity Chart

5.2.2 Compaction Characteristics

This compaction characteristic was found with the help of Proctor test of both light and heavy weight compaction following as per code IS 2720:1986(Part-III). Figure

5.2 shows the light weight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash, Figure 5.3 shows the heavy weight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash, Figure 5.4 shows the light weight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag and Figure 5.5 shows the heavy compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag are given below. From the compaction curve graph, the value of light weight compaction are 2.18g/cc, 1.93g/cc, 1.27g/cc, 1.89g/cc, 1.91g/cc,

2.02g/cc, 2.05g/cc, 2.16g/cc, 2.22g/cc respectively and the value of heavy weight compaction are 2.44g/cc, 2.05g/cc, 1.45g/cc, 1.94g/cc, 2.09g/cc, 2.11g/cc, 2.16g/cc,

2.22g/cc, 2.28g/cc respectively. Also got the maximum Optimum Moisture Content

(%) of light weight compaction of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag are

8.03%, 16.74%, 22.89%, 13.26%, 11.29%, 11%, 10.87%, 10.10%, 9.61% respectively and maximum Optimum Moisture Content (%) of heavy weight compaction of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion

(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag are 24.01%, 20.10%, 14.30%,

19.06%,20.51%, 20.71%, 21.17%, 21.83%, 22.36% respectively. From the comparative values of maximum dry density (g/cc) and optimum moisture content

(%) of for both light and heavy weight compaction of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag are given in Table 5.2, got that the decrease of moisture content (%) with increase of dry density (g/cc). The water content was determined at three points of the mould and only upto 15%, the average value is reported. Hence, the reported value is representative.

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3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

FS

RM

FA

Z av(FS)

1.0

0 5 10 15 20

Water Content (%)

25 30

Figure 5.2 Lightweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash

0 2 4 6

3.2

8

FS

RM

FA

Zav(FS)

10

10

8

6

2.4

4

2

1.6

0

0 10 20

Water Content (%)

30

Figure 5.3 Heavyweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash

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3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

FS

RS

RS 90% + FS 10%

RS 80% + FS 20%

RS 70% + FS 30%

RS 60% + FS 40%

RS 50% + FS 50%

Z av(FS)

Z av(RS)

1.0

0 5 10 15 20

Water Content (%)

25 30 35

Figure 5.4 Lightweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag

3.0

2.5

2.0

FS

RS

RS 90% + FS 10%

RS 80% + FS 20%

RS 70% + FS 30%

RS 60% + FS 40%

RS 50% + FS 50%

Z av(RS)

Z av(FS)

1.5

1.0

0 5 10 15 20

Water Content (%)

25 30 35

Figure 5.5 Heavyweight compaction curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag

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Table 5.2 The values of O.M.C and M.D.D for both light and heavy weight compaction of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag

Light weight compaction Heavy weight compaction

Description

OMC(%) MDD(g/cc) OMC(%) MDD(g/cc)

Ferrochorme Slag 8.03 2.18 7.64 2.44

Red Mud

Fly Ash

Red Soil

16.74

22.89

13.26

1.93

1.27

1.89

12.82

21.32

12.67

2.05

1.45

1.94

Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 % 11.29

Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 % 11.00

Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 % 10.87

Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 % 10.10

Red Soil 50 %+FS 50% 9.61

1.91

2.02

2.05

2.16

2.22

10.65

10.28

9.88

8.63

8.10

2.09

2.11

2.16

2.22

2.28

5.2.3 California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test of Ferrochrome Slag

The ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with a circular plunger of 50mm diameter at the rate of 1.25mm/min to that required for corresponding penetration of 2.5mm and 5mm. Where the ratio at 5mm is consistently higher than that at 2.5mm. This test is arbitrary and the results give an empirical strength number, which may not be directly related to fundamental properties governing the strength of soils such as cohesion and angle of internal friction etc.

But the CBR value is related to the properties of soil such as the bearing capacity and the plasticity Index. Its value is used for design of flexible pavement. Here, the experimental studies of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag including conventional four days soaked CBR test as per IS: 2720 (Part 16) – 1986 are given in Table 5.3 below for using as sub-grade material. The Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash after 4 days soaking in water are given in Figure 5.6 and the Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag after 4 days soaking in water are given in Figure 5.7. From the experimental study, it was observed that the ferrochrome slag has a very high CBR value and the red soil is

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a very low CBR value. The CBR value of the red soil increased with increase in the percentage of ferrochrome slag.

25

20

15

10

40

35

30

FS

RM

FA

5

0

0 5

Settlement (mm)

10 15

Figure 5.6 Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash after 4 days soaking in water

35

30

25

20

FS

RS

RS 90% +FS 10%

RS 80% +FS 20%

RS 70% +FS 30%

RS 60% +FS 40%

RS 50% +FS 50%

15

10

5

0

0 5

Settlement (mm)

10 15

Figure 5.7 Load v/s settlement curve of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag after 4 days soaking in water

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Table 5.3 The CBR value of ferrochrome slag, red soil and red soil with different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of ferrochrome slag

Description CBR (%) Soaking

Ferrochrome Slag(Fine grain) 34.62

Red Mud

Fly Ash

Red Soil

Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 %

Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 %

Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 %

Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 %

Red Soil 50 %+FS 50%

18.1

14.56

1.56

4.44

10.1

10.34

11.42

30.06

5.2.4 Direct Shear Strength of Ferrochrome Slag

The shear strength is one of the most important engineering properties of a soil, for determining the stability of slopes or cuts, finding the bearing capacity for foundations, and calculating the pressure exerted by a soil on a retaining wall. Here, the direct shear test as per IS 2720(Part-39) – 1977 of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag has been investigated. The values of cohesion (C) in kPa and angle of internal friction (ⱷ) in degree(

0

) of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are given in Table 5.4 below. Figure 5.8 shows the comparison of Normal stress v/s

Shear strength of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash and Figure 5.9 shows the comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag and with red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag. From the experimental study, it was observed that ferrochrome slag is having high cohesion and internal friction compared to other material.

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Table 5.4 The values of cohesion and angle of internal friction values of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%,

50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

Cohesion (C), kPa 25

Angle of internal friction(ф),

37.52

40

24.36

4.1

21.38

130

15.06

170

17

190

21.38

170

24.9

160

27.2

150

29.35

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

FS

RM

FA

40 60 80 100 120

Normal Stress (kN/m

2

)

140 160

Figure 5.8 The comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag, red mud and fly ash

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

40

FS

RS

RS 90% + FS 10%

RS 80% + FS 20%

RS 70% + FS 30%

RS 60% + FS 40%

RS 50% + FS 50%

60 80 100 120

Normal Stress (kN/m

2

)

140 160

Figure 5.9 The comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag and comparison with red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

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5.2.5 Determination of unconfined compressive Strength (UCS)

Here, the experimental studies of red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion

(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are carried out as per the IS: 2720 (Part 10) - 1991. Figure 5.10 shows the Stress v/s Strain curve of red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag. The compressive strength (q u

) in kN/m

2

and cohesion (C) in kN/m

2 of red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are given in Table 5.5. From the experimental study, it can be seen that the unconfined compressive strength of red soil increased with increased the percentage of ferrochrome slag.

Table 5.5 The compressive strength and cohesion value of red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

Description

Unconfined

Compressive

Strength(q u) kN/m

2

) cohesion ( C )

=q u

/2 (kN/m

2

)

Red Soil 18.66 9.33

Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 % 37.79 18.90

Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 %

Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 %

Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 %

Red Soil 50 %+FS 50%

38.68

49.67

52.38

60.06

19.34

24.84

26.19

30.03

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

Strain (%)

0.10

RS

RS 90% + FS 10%

RS 80% + FS 20%

RS 70% + FS 30%

RS 60% + FS 40%

RS 50% + FS 50%

0.12

0.14

0.16

Figure 5.10 The Stress v/s Strain curve of red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%,

20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

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5.2.6 Permeability Test

Here, the experimental studies of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are carried out as per following IS: 2720 (Part 17). The coefficient of permeability values of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion

(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are given in Table

5.6. From the experimental study, it can be seen that the ferrochrome slag is a high permeable material compared to other material and hence is not suitable material to be used as an embankment material. But as shown in Table 5.6, the coefficient of permeability of red soil is very low and also not suitable for embankment material.

But as the red soil is blended with FS the k valued decreased. Hence, it can be used as an embankment material if red soil is blended with ferrochrome slag.

Table 5.6 The coefficient of permeability values of ferrochrome slag, red mud, fly ash, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

Description

Coefficient of permeability, k

(cm/sec)

Ferrochrome Slag(Fine grain) 1.3 x 10

-3

Red Mud

Fly Ash

Red Soil

2.5 x 10

-7

5 x 10

-4

0.3 x 10

-6

Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 %

Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 %

Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 %

Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 %

Red Soil 50 %+FS 50%

1.4 x 10

-6

1.2 x 10

-5

1.6 x 10

-5

1.4 x 10

-4

1.7 x 10

-4

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CHAPTER - 6

CHARACTERIZATION AS A HIGHWAY

MATERIAL

6.1 Introduction

A highway network is an indicator of economic health of any region or country. For a vast country like India requirement of the highway network is too high, which necessitate huge requirement of crushed stone (coarse and fine) is in millions of tones, fast depleting natural resources lavishly worldwide including India. As per Indian

Road Congress guidelines for design of flexible pavements a granular Sub Base

(GSB) of 150 to 460mm thickness is essential pavement layer (depending upon he commercial traffic, the road will be subjected to during design life and California

Bearing Ratio (CBR) of the sub-grade soil), inevitable pavement layer. Normally crushed sand / stone dust is used as fine aggregate in construction of GSB. This not only increases the cost of flexible pavement, but also puts additional pressure on the environment in the form of energy consumption and pollution for blasting during quarrying operations, crushing rocks, transportation of this material to plants, mixing, laying etc.. On the other hand, locally available industrial waste like ferrochrome slag, soil can be effectively used alone or in combination with other materials with significant economy after studying their physical and engineering properties for their suitability in road construction. Here, in this present study fine grained ferrochrome slag is used in replacement of fine aggregate and coarse grained ferrochrome slag is used replacement of coarse stone aggregate in construction of GSB. Laboratory testing of physical and engineering properties like relative density, bulk density, water absorption, void ratio, impact value, crushing value, abrasion value, shape test, soundness value, compaction, CBR, shear strength and required mixing proportion confirms the suitability of these naturally occurring fine and coarse grained ferrochrome slag in the construction of the GSB layer of flexible pavement is evaluated.

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6.2 Ferrochrome slag use as GSB Material

Basically, this layer is made of broken stones, bound and unbound aggregates.

Sometimes in sub-base course a layer of stabilized soil or selected granular soil is also used. In some places boulder stones or bricks are used as a sub-base or soiling course.

However, in the sub-base course, it is desirable to use smaller size graded aggregates or soil aggregate mixes or soft aggregates instead of large boulder stone soling course of brick on edge soling course, as these have no proper interlocking and therefore have lesser resistance to sinking into the weak subgrade soil when wet. When the subgrade consists of fine grade soil and when the pavement carries heavy wheel loads, there is a tendency for these boulder stones or bricks to penetrate into the wet soil, resulting in the formation of undulations and uneven pavement surface in flexible pavements. The sub-base course primarily has the similar function as of the base course and is provided with inferior materials than of base course. This work shall consist of laying and compacting well-graded material on prepared subgrade in accordance with the requirements of these Specifications should followed as per the specification of MORTH. The material shall be laid in one or more layers as sub-base or lower sub-base and upper sub-base as per the requirement of design. Presently, this ferrochrome slag is not utilized and is dumped on the costly land available near the plants. Ferrochrome slag is highly crushable material. So, it is recommended that it should be crushed by rollers before application in road construction. For that, this study was carried out to utilize the slag in different layers of road construction. Being a cohesion less material, it was used as a granular sub-base materials and determine the feasibility of slag material as a replacement, of coarse aggregate in Granular Subbase (GSB, course graded III, MORTH, 2001), gradation design was carried out by mixing the crushed ferrochrome slag material with conventional 20mm, 10mm aggregates, fine grained ferrochrome slag in different proportions in the range of

23%-17%-60% and their Geotechnical characteristics were evaluated. The aggregates shall conform to the physical requirement set MORTH in Table 400-6. If the water absorption value of the coarse aggregate is greater than 2 percent, the soundness test shall be carried out on the material delivered to site as per IS: 2386 (Part 5). The crushed or broken stone shall be hard, durable and free from excess flat, elongated, soft and disintegrated particles, dirt and other deleterious material.

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In the present study an attempt has been also made to design a GSB layer using different size fraction of FS. The Rothfutch’s graphical method as shown in Figure

6.1 is used to do the mix design. The final mix design with different proportion of FS is presented in table 6.1.

Figure 6.1 To evaluate mix proportion for GSB following the Rothfutch ’ s Graphical method

Sample

Ferrochrome slag

Table 6.1 The mix proportion for GSB in percentage

20mm down

(%)

27

10mm down

(%)

13

4.75mm down

(%)

60

Note: The material passing 425 micron (0.425 mm) sieve for all the three grading’s when tested according to IS : 2720 (Part 5) shall have liquid limit and plasticity index not more than 25 and 6 percent respectively.

6.3 Properties of Designed GSB layer

Different experimental investigation were made on the GSB material as designed above to characterize it as the sub base layer.

6.3.1 Compaction Characteristic

The results of the heavy compaction test on the GSB material is shown in Figure 6.2.

The OMC and the MDD value of the compaction test is presented in Table 6.2.

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25.4

25.2

25.0

24.8

24.6

24.4

24.2

24.0

23.8

23.6

23.4

FS ( 20mm-27%

+10mm-13%

+4.75mm-60%)

4 6 8 10 12

Water Content (%)

Figure 6.2 Density curve of ferrochrome slag mix (20mm down 27%, 10mm down

13% and 4.75mm down 60%) for GSB

Table 6.2 The OMC and Density values of ferrochrome slag mix (20mm down 27%,

10mm down 13% and 4.75mm down 60%) for GSB

Sample OMC (%) MDD (kN/m

3

)

Mix (20mm down 27%, 10mm down 13% and

4.75mm down 60%) of ferrochrome slag

6.58 25.25

6.3.2 California Bearing Ratio (CBR)

It shall be ensured prior to actual execution that the material to be used in the sub– base satisfies the requirements of CBR and other physical requirements when compacted the density achieved is at least 95 per cent of the maximum dry density for the material as determined by the method outlined in IS : 2720 (Part 8). Here, the experimental studies of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB, red soil and different proportion

(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag for four days soaked

CBR test as per IS: 2720 (Part 16) – 1986 are made. Figure 6.3 shows the Load v/s settlement curve Load v/s Settlement curve of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%,

40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag after four days soaking. The values of CBR of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are given in Table 6.3.

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40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

FS

RS

RS 90%+ FS 10%

RS 80%+ FS 20%

RS 70%+ FS 30%

RS 60%+ FS 40%

RS 50%+ FS 50%

FS(for GSB)

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Settlement (mm)

9 10 11 12 13

Figure 6.3 Load v/s Settlement curve of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%,

30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag after four days soaking

Table 6.3 The values of CBR of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

Description CBR (%)

Ferrochrome Slag(Fine grain)

Red Soil

Red Soil 90 %+FS 10 %

34.62

1.56

4.44

Red Soil 80 %+FS 20 %

Red Soil 70 %+FS 30 %

Red Soil 60 %+FS 40 %

Red Soil 50 %+FS 50%

GSB

10.1

10.34

11.42

30.06

74.97

6.3.3 Shear Strength Test

Here, the experimental studies of ferrochrome slag, ferrochrome slag mix for GSB, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag include conventional saturated Direct Shear test as per IS 2720 (Part 39) - 1977. Figure 6.4 shows the comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%,

30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag. The values of cohesion (C) in kPa and angle of internal friction (

) in degree (

0

) of for GSB of ferrochrome slag mix, ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion (i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag are given in Table 6.4 below.

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0

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

210

200

190

180

170

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

40

2

FS

RS

RS 90% + FS 10%

RS 80% + FS 20%

RS 70% + FS 30%

RS 60% + FS 40%

RS 50% + FS 50%

FS ( for GSB )

60

4 6

80 100 120

Normal Stress (kN/m

2

)

8

140

10

160

Figure 6.4 comparison of Normal stress v/s Shear strength of ferrochrome slag mix for GSB and comparison with ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion

(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) of red soil with ferrochrome slag

Table 6.4 The values of cohesion and internal friction for GSB of ferrochrome slag mix, ferrochrome slag, red soil and different proportion

(i.e.10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%)

of red soil with ferrochrome slag

Cohesion (C ),kPa

Angle of internal friction(ф),

250 130 170 190 170 160 150 840

37 15 17 21.38 24.9 27.2 29.35 39

6.4 Properties of ferrochrome slag as a highway material

6.4.1 Relative Density

The values of relative density may vary from a minimum of 0% for very loose soil to a maximum of 100% for very dense soils. In place soils seldom have relative densities less than 20 to 30%. The compacting a granular soil to a relative density greater than about 85% is difficult. This laboratory test of relative density of ferrochrome slag is determined as per the IS: 2386 (Part 3) – 1963 and the value is found to 79.01.

6.4.2 Bulk Density

IS:2386 (Part 3) -1963specifications of Road aggregate the bulk density is used to calculate the bulk density of aggregate. The bulk density of fine and coarse grained

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FS is shown in Table 6.5. It can be seen that the fine grained FS has higher bulk density compared to coarse grained FS.

Table 6.5 The bulk Density of ferrochrome slag

Samples

Fine grain ferrochrome slag

Coarse grain ferrochrome slag

Values of Bulk Density (kg/lit)

1.870

1.785

6.4.3 Water Absorption

Due to porosity of aggregates water can be absorbed into the body of particles is called absorption which affects the w/c ratio of the concrete significantly. If absorption reduces, the w/c ratio increases due to increase of surface moisture. The value of water absorption of Coarse and fine grained ferrochrome slag are 0.8% and

0.801% respectively which is less than 2% as per specification of codeIS: 2386(Part

3) – 1963 as presented in Table 6.6.

Sample

Table 6.6 The water absorption of ferrochrome slag

Coarse grain Ferrochrome slag

Water absorption

(%)

0.8

IS: 2386(Part 3)– 1963

Specifications

Fine grain Ferrochrome slag 0.801

2%

6.4.4 Void Ratio

The ratio of void volume with total volume of aggregate. The void ratio of

Ferrochrome slag is calculated by following IS: 2386 (Part 3) - 1963 and the values are presented in Table 6.7 and the values are comparable.

Table 6.7 The void ratio of ferrochrome slag

Sample

Coarse grain Ferrochrome slag

Fine grain Ferrochrome slag

Void ratio

41.7

45.7

6.4.5 Impact Value

IS: 2386 (Part 4) - 1963 test is designed to evaluate the toughness of stone or the resistance of the aggregates to fracture under repeated impacts, which has a different effect than the resistance to gradually increasing compressive stress. The impact value

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was found to 8.613. As per IS code the aggregate Impact value should not normally exceed 30% for aggregate to be used in wearing coarse of pavements. The maximum permissible value is 35% for bituminous macadam and 40% for water bound macadam base coarse.

6.4.6 Crushing Strength

IS: 2386 (Part 4) - 1963 the strength of coarse aggregate may be assessed by aggregate crushing tests. The aggregate crushing value provides a relative measure of resistance to crushing under gradually applied compressive load. To achieve a high quality of pavement, aggregates possessing high resistance to crushing or low aggregate crushing value are preferred. The crushing strength of FS was found to be 21.65. The aggregate crushing value for good quality aggregate to be used in base coarse shall not be exceed

45% and the value for surface coarse shall be less than 30%.

6.4.7 Abrasion Value

IS: 2386 (Part 4)-1963 Los Angeles abrasion tests are carried out to test the hardness property of stone and decide whether they are suitable for the different road construction works. In the study the FS of two gradation are considered and designated as Type B and

Type C. The abrasion value of both grade is shown in Table 6.8

Table 6.8 The abrasion value of ferrochrome slag

Type of Sample

Ferrochrome slag- Type-B

Ferrochrome slag -Type-C

Abrasion Value (%)

25.84

38.66

The Los Angeles Abrasion value of good aggregates acceptable for cement concrete, bituminous concrete and other high quality pavement materials should be less than 30%. Values up to 50% are allowed in base courses like water bound and bituminous macadam.

6.3.8 Soundness Value

IS: 2386 (Part 5)- 1963 the soundness test is intended to study the resistance of aggregates to weathering action by conducting accelerated weathering test cycle. The resistance to disintegration of aggregate is determined 0.21% by using saturated solution of sodium sulphate taking 5nos of cycle.

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The average loss in weight of aggregates to be used in pavement construction after 10 cycles should not exceed 12% when tested with sodium sulphate and 18% when tested with magnesium sulphate. The soundness test on different size fraction of FS is shown in Table 6.9. It was observed that the values are within the limit.

Table 6.9 The soundness value of ferrochrome slag

Size of Sample (mm)

25-20

20-12.5

12.5-10

10-6.3

6.3-4.75

After 5 Cycle After 10 Cycle

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.60

0.25

0.20

0.24

0.36

2.11

0.75

6.4.9 Shape Test

IS: 2386-1963 (Part 1) the particle shape of aggregate mass is determine by the percentage of flaky and elongated particles contained in it and by its angularity. The evaluation of shape of the particles made in terms of flakiness index, elongation index and angularity number. The elongated and flaky aggregates are less workable; they are also likely to break under smaller loads than the aggregate which are spherical or cubical.

Different shape test on the coarse grained FS is shown in Table 6.10. Based on the values it was found that it is suitable as construction material.

Table 6.10 The shape test value of ferrochrome slag

Different Shapes of Samples

Flakiness Index (%)

Elongation Index (%)

Angularity Number (%)

Experimental results

9.286

14.448

8.159

Notes as Per Code:

The flakiness index of aggregates used in road construction is less than the

15% and normally does not exceed 25%.

Flakiness index and elongation index values in excess of 15% are generally considered undesirable.

However no recognized limits have been laid down for elongation index.

The range of angularity number for aggregates used in constructions is o to 11.

The comprehensive results of above test along the acceptable limit as per Indian standard is shown in Table 6.11. It can be seen that the FS satisfies all the required to be used as a pavement material except specific gravity. The value is marginally higher than the acceptable value and should be considered while designing the macadam.

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Table 6.11 The properties of coarse grained material as a pavement material and corresponding allowable values.

Test results

Present study

Acceptable value as per IS:

2386-1963

Specific gravity

Bulk

Density

(kg/lit)

Water absorption

(%)

Void ratio

3.21

2.4 to 2.9

1.785 0.8

Max. 2

41.7 impact value

( %)

Crushing

Value

( %)

21.64

Abrasion value

(%)

25.84 8.61

Max. 30 for wearing coarse, 35 for bituminous macadam and 40% for water bound macadam base coarse.

Max. 45 for base coarse, and 30 for surface coarse

Max. 30 for water bound and 50 for bituminous macadam base courses

Flakiness

Index (%)

9.286

15

Elongation

Index (%)

14.448

20

Angularity

Number (%)

8.159

0 to 11

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CHAPTER - 7

GENERAL OBSERVATION, CONCLUSION AND SCOPE

OF FUTURE STUDY

7.1 Introduction

In the present study an attempt was made to characterize ferrochrome slag to be used as a construction material. The ferrochrome slag is a byproduct from the ferrochrome steel industry. Approximately 6.5-9.5 million tons of ferrochrome slag being generated worldwide during the extraction of ferrochrome from Ferro alloys industries every year. However, to prevent environmental pollution it is required to be used in huge quantities like filling, embankment and pavement. The fine grained and coarse grained component of the slag was considered. The fine grained soil was characterized like as fill and embankment material and the coarse grained as pavement material. The present study includes the laboratory tests like morphology, chemistry, mineralogy and various geotechnical properties f ferrochrome slag. The comparison of some properties has been made with other industrial waste like red mud, fly ash and local red soil. Based on different experimental investigations and discussions thereof following conclusions can be made.

7.2 General observations and concluding remarks

Based on the limited studies above from Chapter 1 to Chapter 6 following observations and conclusions can be made.

1. The P

H value of coarse grain and fine grain ferrochrome slag has exceeded are

9.88 and 9.79, respectively with alkaline in nature due to presence of high MgO value.

2. The chemical analysis shows that it contains about 56% of alumno silicate compound and 23 % of MgO as the major components.

3. The SEM photographs show the particles are angular to subangular. Based on

XRD analysis it was observed that that quartz, forsterite, olivine and spinel are predominantly present.

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4. The specific gravity of ferrochrome slag found to vary between 3.21 to 3.27. The values of C u

and C c of ferrochrome slag are found to be 2.78 and 0.95, respectively, showing poorly graded.

5. The compaction characteristics of FS show that for light compaction the OMC is

8.32 % and MDD as 2.18g/cc. Similarly for heavy compaction, the OMC is 7.64 and 2.44g/cc, respectively.

6. The high MDD value is due to high specific gravity values. While using FS as a stabilizing agent for red soil it was observed that as the FS % increased, the OMC decreased and MDD increased in comparison to red soil.

7. It was also observed that FS has high CBR value of 34.62 in comparison to 18.1 of red mud and 1.56 of red soil.

8. It was observed that the CBR values of stabilized red soil increased with increase in FS.

The CBR value 10.1 was observed with addition of 10% of FS.

9. The angle of internal friction of fine grained FS is 37

0

.

10. The soundness test on coarse grained slag shows the maximum loss of 2.11% after 10 cycle in sodium sulphate. The bulk density was found to be 1.785 with water absorption of 0.8% and within limits of Indian standard. Similarly the impact value was found to be 8.613 and the crushing value of 21.666. The abrasion value was found to be 25.84.

11. Based on the above tests it can be seen that FS has some advantages over FA and

RM in terms of having good compaction properties and high permeability to be suitable as a pavement material. But it has higher density compared to fly ash, for which it will have higher pressure on soil subgrade.

12. There are advantages of blending red soil with FS as the unconfined compressive strength, shear strength and CBR value of red soil increased with increased the percentage of ferrochrome slag. Similarly ferrochrome slag is a high permeable material compared to other material and permeability of red soil is very low and also not suitable for embankment material. But as the red soil is blended with FS the k valued decreased. However, there is a need to check the leachate analysis due to addition of FS.

7.3 Scope of future studies

There is a vast scope to use ferrochrome slag as fill, embankment and pavement material in huge quantities. The geotechnical characterization of ferrochrome slag

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In this study is limited to a single source and laboratory investigations. Some of the followings are recognized for future studies.

1. More tests and particularly the leachate analysis of the solution required before using the FS in actual construction.

2. It is also required to study its effect stabilizing other problematic soil like expansive soil.

3. It is also required to characterize and study the long term effect of ferrochrome slag in concrete and its effect on the reinforcement.

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