DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR DRIVES

DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR DRIVES
DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF SWITCHED
RELUCTANCE MOTOR DRIVES
A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Technology
in
Electrical Engineering
(Power Control & Drives)
By
AMALENDU DASH
Roll No-210EE2225
Department of Electrical Engineering
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROURKELA
PIN-769008
ODISHA, INDIA
DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF SWITCHED
RELUCTANCE MOTOR DRIVES
A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Technology
in
Electrical Engineering
(Power Control & Drives)
By
AMALENDU DASH
Roll No-210EE2225
Under the Supervision of
Prof. Anup Kumar Panda
Dept. of Electrical Engineering,
NIT Rourkela
&
Co-Guidance of
Er. Manoranjan Biswal
Manager Maintenance Division,
OHPC
Department of Electrical Engineering
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROURKELA
PIN-769008
ODISHA, INDIA
Dedicated to my beloved parents and sisters
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled “DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF
SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR DRIVES” submitted by AMALENDU DASH
bearing Roll No.210EE2225 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the
degree of “Master of Technology” in Electrical Engineering specializing in "Power Control
and Drives" at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela is an authentic work carried
out by his under my supervision. To the best of my knowledge and belief, the matter
embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University / Institute for the award
of any Degree or Diploma.
Date:
Place:
Prof. Anup Kumar Panda
Department of Electrical Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela-769008
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With due regards and profound respect, I would like to express my deep sense of
gratitude and indebtedness to my honorable, esteemed supervisor, Prof. Anup Kumar Panda,
Electrical Engineering Department, NIT, Rourkela for his guidance, constructive criticism
and constant support over the time he has introduced me to the academic world. His
perspective on my work has inspired me to go on. I am glad to work with him. I would also
like to express my deep regards to my co-supervisor, Er. Manoranjan Biswal, Manager,
Maintenance Division, Odisha Hydro Power Corporation Limited, for his valuable support
and inspiring guidance. I am grateful to Power Electronics Laboratory staff Mr. Rabindra
Nayak, without him the work would have not progressed.
I would like to thank all my friends of NIT, Rourkela and especially Susant Panigrahi ,
Sushree Sangita Patnaik, Subarni Pradhan, T. Ramesh kumar, for their endless encouragement
and support in completing this project work.
I cannot finish without thanking my lovely parents, elder sisters and my brother in laws
on whose encouragement, support, love and noble devotion to my education. I would like to
thank to all those who directly or indirectly supported me in carrying out this project work
successfully.
Last but not the least; I am sure this project work would not come to an end without
remaining gratitude to God Almighty, the guide of all guides who has helped me a lot for
completing this project work. I dedicate this thesis to my beloved parents, elder sisters
Satyasmita, Debiprava, brother in laws Satyaballav, Suryanarayan and my two beautiful niece
Sunu and Tweety.
Amalendu Dash
i
CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ii
LIST OF FIGURES
iv
LIST OF TABLES
vii
ABBREVIATIONS
viii
ABSTRACT
ix
Introduction
1
1.1
Overview
2
1.2
Advantage, Limitations and Applications of SRM
2
1.2.1
Advantages
2
1.2.2
Limitations of SRM
4
1.2.3
Applications of Switched Reluctance Motor
4
1.2.4
Direct Torque Control of Switched Reluctance Motor
4
Motivation
4
1.3.1
Switched Reluctance Motor
4
1.3.2
Direct Torque Control of Switched Reluctance Motor
5
1.4
Objectives
5
1.5
Thesis Outline
6
Principle of Operation of the SRM
7
2.1
Introduction
8
2.2
Switched Reluctance Motor Configuration
8
2.3
Principle of Operation
10
2.4
Elementary Operation of Switched Reluctance Motor
12
2.5
The Relation Between Inductance and Rotor Position
14
2.6
Converters for Switched Reluctance Motor Drive
15
2.7
Asymmetric Bridge Converter
15
2.8
Stator Current Control by Modified Hysteresis Band Control
15
Mathematical Modelling and Control of SRM
16
CHAPTER 1.
1.3
CHAPTER 2.
CHAPTER 3.
ii
3.1
Mathematical Modelling of SRM
17
3.2
PID Controller
18
3.3
Function of Proportional-Integral and Derivative Controller
19
3.3.1
Proportional Gain Constant
19
3.3.2
Integral Gain Constant
24
3.3.3
Derivative Gain Constant
24
Block Diagram Representation of Switched Reluctance Motor Drive
27
Modelling and Simulation of SRM Drive
31
4.1
Switched Reluctance Motor Specification
32
4.2
Modelling of Three Phase Switched Reluctance Motor Drive
33
Simulation Results for Three Phase SRM
33
Modelling of Four Phase Switched Reluctance Motor Drive
34
Simulation Results for Four Phase SRM
34
Modelling of Five Phase Switched Reluctance Motor Drive
34
Simulation of Five Phase SRM
34
Direct Torque Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Drive
43
5.1
Introduction
44
5.2
Direct Torque and Flux Control
44
5.2.1
Mathematical Model of Switched Reluctance Motor Drive
44
5.2.2
Voltage Source Inverter
44
5.2.3
Direct Torque Control Techniques and Its Objectives
3.4
CHAPTER 4.
4.2.1
4.3
4.3.1
4.4
4.4.1
CHAPTER 5.
(A) Flux Hysteresis Control Loop
44
(B) Torque Hysteresis Control Loop
5.2.4
Voltage Vector Switching Selection
45
5.3
Simulation Results
46
5.4
Summary
59
CHAPTER 6. Conclusion & Scope for Future Work
60
6.1
Conclusion
61
6.2
Scope for Future Work
62
REFERENCES
63
iii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No
Page No
2.1
6/4 Switched Reluctance Motor Configuration
6
2.2
Operation of SRM(a) phase ‘c’ aligned (b) phase ‘a’ aligned
7
2.3
Basic Rotor Position in A Two Pole SRM
8
2.4
Inductance Profile for Switched Reluctance Motor
9
2.5
Asymmetric H-Bridge Drive Circuit for SRM
12
2.6
(a) Positive voltage Mode
13
2.6
(b) Negative Voltage Mode
14
2.6
(c) Return Current Mode
14
3.1
Single Phase Equivalent Circuit for Switched Reluctance Motor
16
3.2
Structure of PID Controller
18
3.3
Block Diagram of Traditional Feedback Control
20
4.1
Voltage v/s Time Characteristics of Three Phase SRM
22
4.2
Torque v/s Time Characteristics of Three Phase SRM
22
4.3
Flux Linkage v/s Time Characteristics of Three Phase SRM
23
4.4
Current v/s Time Characteristics of Three phase SRM
23
4.5
Speed v/s Time Characteristics of Three Phase SRM
24
4.6
Inductance v/s Time Characteristics of Three Phase SRM
24
4.7
Voltage v/s Time Characteristics of Four Phase SRM
25
4.8
Torque v/s Time Characteristics of Four Phase SRM
25
4.9
Flux Linkage v/s Time Characteristics of Four Phase SRM
26
4.10
Current v/s Time Characteristics of Four Phase SRM
26
4.11
Speed v/s Time Characteristics of Four Phase SRM
27
4.12
Inductance v/s Time Characteristics of Four Phase SRM
27
4.13
Voltage v/s Time Characteristics of Five Phase SRM
28
4.14
Torque v/s Time Characteristics of Five Phase SRM
29
4.15
Flux Linkage v/s Time Characteristics of Five Phase SRM
29
4.16
Current v/s Time Characteristics of Five Phase SRM
30
4.17
Speed v/s Time Characteristics of Five Phase SRM
30
iv
4.18
Inductance v/s Time Characteristics of Five Phase SRM
31
5.1
Direct Torque and Flux Control of SRM
34
5.2
Two-Level Voltage Source Inverter
36
5.3
Two-Level Hysteresis Controller for Controlling the Flux Error
37
5.4
Three-Level Hysteresis Controller for Controlling the Torque Error
38
5.5
α-β axis for motor voltage
39
5.6
Sectors and voltage vectors
41
5.7
Voltage v/s Time Characteristics for Three Phase SRM with DTC
43
5.8
Torque v/s Time Characteristics for Three Phase SRM with DTC
43
5.9
Speed v/s Time Characteristics for Three Phase SRM with DTC
44
5.10
Flux v/s Time Characteristics for Three Phase SRM with DTC
45
5.11
Trajectory of Stator Flux Vector
45
v
LIST OF TABLES
Table No
Page No
3.1 Effects of Kp , Kd , Ki on a Closed Loop System
20
5.1 Switching Logic for Flux error
38
5.2 Switching Logic for Torque Error
38
5.3 Switching Table of Inverter Voltage Vectors
26
5.4 Flux and Torque Variation Due to application of Voltage Vectors
42
vi
ACRONYMS
NS
No. Of Stator Pole
Nr
No. Of Rotor Pole
m
No. Of Phases
La
Aligned Inductance
Lu
Un-aligned Inductance
βs
Stator Pole Arc
βr
Rotor Pole Arc
Pr
No. Of Rotor Pole
ψ
Flux linkage per phase
e
Induced emf
Kb
Emf constant
Pi
Instantaneous power input
Pa
Air gap power
Te
Electromagnetic torque
kp
Proportionality Gain
kd
Derivative Gain
ki
Integral Gain
Vαs
α- axis Stator Voltage
Vβs
β- axis Stator Voltage
Vαr
α- axis Rotor Voltage
Vβr
β- axis Rotor Voltage
iαs
α- axis Stator Current
iβs
β- axis Stator Current
iαr
α- axis Rotor Current
iβr
β- axis Rotor Current
Ls
stator inductance
Lr
Rotor inductance
Lm
Mutual inductance
RS
Stator Resistance
Rr
Rotor inductance
vii
ψαs
α- axis Stator Flux Linkage
ψβs
β- axis Stator Flux Linkage
ψαr
α- axis Rotor Flux Linkage
ψβr
β- axis Stator Flux Linkage
⃗
Voltage space vector
Vds
DC link voltage of inverter
σ
Leakage co-efficient of the motor
p
Number of pole pairs
viii
ABSTRACT
The Switched Reluctance Motor is an old member of the electric machine family. It
receives the significant response from industries in the last decade because of its simple
structure, ruggedness, high reliability, inexpensive manufacturing capability and high torqueto-mass ratio. The Switched Reluctance Motor consists a salient pole stator with concentrated
coil and salient pole rotor, which have no conductors and magnets. The motor’s doubly
salient structure makes its magnetic characteristics highly nonlinear. This work briefly
describes the constructional features, principle of operation and mathematical model of
Switched Reluctance Motor. However the application of SRM has been limited because of
their large torque ripple, which produces noise and vibration in the motor.
In order to solve these problems, a Direct Torque control (DTC) technique is used in
order to control the torque of the Switched Reluctance Motor. By using this method we can
well
regulate
the
torque
output
of
the
ix
motor
with
in
hysteresis
band.
CHAPTER 1
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview:
The functionality of Switched Reluctance Motor is already known for more than 150
years, but only some vast improvements of the power electronics drive technologies have
made a great success of adjustable speed drives with Switched Reluctance Motor.
Due to enormous demand for variable speed drives and development of power
semiconductors the conventional reluctance machine has been come into picture and is
known as Switched Reluctance Machine. The name “Switched Reluctance”, first used by one
of the authors of [1], describes the two features of the machine configuration (a) switched,(b)
reluctance.
Switched word comes into picture because this machine can be operated in a continuous
switching mode. Secondly reluctance word comes into picture because in this case both stator and
rotor consist of variable reluctance magnetic circuits or we can say that it have doubly salient
structure.
A SRM has salient poles on both stator and rotor. Each stator pole has a simple
concentrated winding, where the rotor does not contain any kind of winding or permanent magnet
[2]-[4]. It is made up of soft magnetic material that is laminated steel. Two diametrically opposite
windings are connected together in order to form the motor phases. During the rotor rotation a
circuit with a single controlled switch is sufficient to supply an unidirectional current for each
phase. For forward motoring operation the stator phase winding must be excited when the rate of
change of phase inductance is positive. Otherwise the machine will develop breaking torque or no
torque at all. As SRM has simple, rugged construction, low manufacturing cost, fault tolerance
capability and high efficiency the SRM drive is getting more and more recognisation among the
electric drives. It also have some disadvantages that it requires an electronic control and shaft
position sensor and double salient structure causes noise and torque ripple. SRMs are typically
designed in order to achieve a good utilization in terms of converter rating.
1
1.2 Advantages, Limitations and Applications of SRM.
1.2.1 Advantages:
In a SRM, only stator consists of phase windings while rotor is made of steel
laminations without any conductors or permanent magnet. So, the SRM has several
advantages over conventional motors.
(a) SRM drive maintain high efficiency over wide speed and load range because as
there is no winding present on rotor. So, cu loss, heat loss reduces in this case. So,
efficiency of SRM drive increases.
(b) As there is no windings or permanent magnets on its rotor, and there are no brushes
on its stator, along with its salient rotor poles make the SRM’s rotor inertia less than
that of its conventional motor. So, SRM can accelerate more quickly.
(c) As it does not have a brush commutator mechanical speed limit, no winding or
permanent magnet present on rotor. So, it can run up to high speeds. It can also
operate at low speeds providing full rated torque.
(d) As there are no windings or permanent magnet present on rotor so, the cost of the
SRM drive reduces.
(e) It follows four quadrant operations; it can run forward or backward direction. We can
call it as motoring or generating mode of operation.
(f) Rugged construction suitable for high temperature and vibrating zone.
(g) Most losses that will occur in SRM that must be in stator which can easily be cooled.
(h) Torque produced by SRM is independent of the polarity of the phase current,
allowing the use of simplified power converters with a reduced number of semi
converter switches.
1.2.2 Limitations of SRM:
Along with the above advantages SRM drives also has some limitations. Following
are some of the limitation of SRM drive.
(a) As SRM drive is having doubly salient structure which causes inherent torque ripple
and acoustic noise.
(b) The converter which is used in case of SRM drive that requires high KVA rating.
(c) As the inductance of the winding is very high and it is required to remove the stored
energy after excitation so, a large energy removal period is usually required limiting
the maximum current to relatively low range.
(d) SRM drive cannot operate directly from ac or dc supply and require current pulse
2
signal for torque production.
The requirement of rotor position sensor, higher torque pulsation [5-7] and acoustic
noise [8-10] are the major drawbacks of SRM drive and that may limit the SRM in some
application.
1.2.3 Application of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives:
SRM drive has greater potential in motion control because it will give high
performance in harsh condition like high temperature and dusty environment [11-13].
(1) Electric Vehicles
(2) Aerospace [14,15]
(3) Household appliances like washing machine and vacuum cleaners [16].
(4) Variable speed and servo type application
1.2.4 Direct Torque Control of Switched Reluctance Motor:
As SRM drive is having doubly salient structure thus it has high torque ripple and
acoustic noise problem. Various proposed methods are used in order to reduce the torque
ripple. One of the methods is by skewing the rotor which can minimize the torque ripple [20],
[21]. Similarly another method is direct torque control method of SRM. DTC is the advanced
vector control method. This method is used to control the torque of SRM through the control
of the magnitude of flux linkage and change in speed (acceleration or deceleration) of the
stator flux vector.
1.3 Motivation
1.3.1 Switched Reluctance Motor:
It works under reluctance principle. The main difference between the synchronous
reluctance machine and switched reluctance machine is that, if the excitation of
synchronous machine gets fail then it will act like synchronous reluctance machine. So
synchronous reluctance machine can only run if both the stator and rotor poles are same.
But the beauty of Switched Reluctance Motor is that even though the poles of stator and
rotor are different then also it will rotate by following the reluctance principle. The first
aim of SRM model is that whether it is capable of representing both flux linkage and
inductance profile characteristics. The second aim is to design the machine which is
capable of operating over a wide speed range in all four-quadrants of the torque-speed
graph. We can also achieve high performance with SRM drives which offers high
efficiency by using one of the optimization technique [11,12]. The third aim of the
3
research is to improve the reliability, accurate positioning and evaluation of performance
characteristics.
1.3.2 Direct Torque Control of Switched Reluctance Motor:
In order to improve the dynamic performance of switched reluctance motor drives vector
control technique is preferred. But the main disadvantage of vector control technique is
complexity of coordinate transformation. This problem can be solved by using advanced vector
control technique which is known as direct toque control technique.
1.4 Objectives
i. To study principle of operation of switched reluctance motor drive and obtain the
mathematical model of SRM.
ii. In order to design the various phases of SRM and observe what are the major changes
that may be occurred in various phases of SRM.
iii. To observe by changing the turn-on and turn-off angle how its characteristic changes.
iv. To observe by using PID controller how the reference speed track the actual speed.
v. To implement an advance vector control technique known as DTC technique in order to
reduce the torque ripple in case of SRM.
1.5 Thesis Outline
This thesis contains six chapters and that are given below.
Chapter 1
Presents a brief idea about switched reluctance motor drive. It contains the
introduction, advantages, disadvantages, application, control strategy, motivation
and objectives.
Chapter 2
The principle of operation of SRM, elementary operation of SRM, Converter
topology for SRM drive, various voltage state.
Chapter 3
Mathematical modelling of SRM, its torque equation, PID controller, block
diagram representation of SRM.
Chapter 4
Simulation modelling and results of 3-phase,4-phase,5-phase switched reluctance
motor drive.
Chapter 5
Direct Torque Control of 3-phase switched reluctance motor drive and its
simulation results.
Chapter 6
Gives the overall conclusion and scope for future work of the project.
4
CHAPTER 2
2. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF THE SWITCHED
RELUCTANCE MOTOR
2.1 Introduction
The machine operation and salient feature can be deduced from the torque expression.
The torque expression is nothing but the relationship between machine flux linkages or
inductance and rotor position. The torque v/s speed characteristics of the machine operation
in all of its four quadrants can be derived from the inductance v/s rotor position
characteristics of the machine. Switched Reluctance Machine can be designed of any phases.
For single phase machine it have low performance but high volume application.
2.2 Switched Reluctance Motor Configuration
Switched Reluctance Motor can be made up of laminated stator and rotor cores with
Ns =2mq poles on the stator and Nr poles on rotor.
Where m is number of phases and each phase made up of concentrated windings
placed on 2q stator poles. Switched reluctance motor is having salient pole stator with
concentrated winding and salient pole rotor with no winding or permanent magnet. As both
stator and rotor have salient pole structure, hence we can say that switched reluctance motor
is having doubly salient structure which is single excited with different number of stator and
rotor poles. It is constructed in such a manner that in no way the rotor poles in a position
wher the torque due to current in any phase is zero. The common stator/rotor pole
configuration are 6/4,8/6,10/8. In stator the coils on two diametrically opposite poles are
connected in series in order to form single phase. So, 6/4 stator/rotor pole configuration
means that represent the 3-phase configuration of switched reluctance motor drive. Similarly
8/6 and 10/8 stator/rotor pole configuration represents the 4 and 5 phase configuration of
switched reluctance motor drive.
5
Fig.2.1 6/4 switched reluctance motor configuration
Similarly for 8/6 SRM configuration it have 8 stator and 6 rotor poles and in 10/8 SRM
configuration it have 10 stator pole and 8 rotor poles are present.
2.3 Principle of operation:
An electromagnetic system in order to form stable equilibrium position gives rise to
minimum magnetic reluctance is the main principle of operation of switched reluctance
motor. When the two diametrically opposite poles are excited, the nearest rotor poles are
attracted towards each other, in order to produce torque. When the two rotor poles gets
aligned with the stator pole then it gets de energise and the adjacent stator pole gets energise
to attract another pair of rotor poles. According to this principle switched reluctance motor
gets run.
When both the stator and rotor poles gets aligned with each other then that position is
known as aligned position. The phase inductance during the aligned position reaches its
maximum value known as La as the reluctance reaches its minimum value. The phase
inductance decreases gradually as the rotor poles move away from its aligned position. When
the rotor poles get completely unaligned or misaligned from stator poles then the phase
inductance at that moment reaches its minimum value known as Lu. Reluctance in this case
reaches its maximum value.
6
2.4 Elementary Operation of Switched Reluctance Motor:
a
a
b
c'
b
b'
c
b'
c
c'
a'
a'
(a)
(b)
Fig.2.2 Operation of SRM (a) Phase ‘c’ aligned (b) Phase ‘a’ aligned
'
’
 In the fig.(a) the rotor poles r & r and stator poles C & C are aligned. By applying
1
1
the current to phase ‘a’ with current direction as shown in fig. the flux is established
‘
'
through stator poles a & a and rotor poles r & r which tend to pull the rotor poles r
2
'
2
2
‘
& r towards the stator poles a & a respectively. When they are aligned then stator
2
current of phase a gets turned off as shown in fig. (b).
'
'
 Now the stator winding b is excited, pulling r & r towards b & b in a clockwise
1
1
’
direction. Likewise, energization of c phase winding results in the alignment of r2 & r
2
’,
with c & c respectively.
0
 It takes 3 phase energization to move the rotor by 90 , and one revolution of rotor
movement is affected by switching currents in each phase as many times as there are
7
no. of rotor poles. The switching of currents in the sequence of acb results in the
reversal of the rotor rotation.
2.4 The Relation Between Inductance And Rotor Position (Non Linear
Analysis):
Fig.2.3 Basic Rotor Position in A Two Pole SRM
The relationship between the flux linkages and the rotor position as a function of
current gives rise to the characteristics of torque. The stator and rotor pole arc and the number
of rotor poles helps to determine the changes in the inductance profile.
Followings are some angles that can be derived from figures 2.3 and figure 2.4.
8
1
1  2


2 p
 r

     ....................................... (2.1)
s

   
2
1
 
3
s
and

r
     ............................................. (2.3)
r
s
   
1
5


.............................................. (2.2)
s
   
4
Where
2
3
4
r
s
............................................ (2.4)

2
p
............................................ (2.5)
r
are stator and rotor pole arcs respectively and
p
r
is the number
of rotor poles.
Fig.2.4 Inductance Profile for Switched Reluctance Motor
9
1. 0-θ1 and θ4-θ5: In this region both the stator and rotor poles are not aligned with each
other. Thus inductance in this case is minimum and almost constant. The inductance in
this portion is minimum and is known as unaligned inductance which is also called as
Lu. This region does not contribute any role in torque production.
2. θ1-θ2: In this region the rotor pole starts overlapping on to the stator pole. So, the flux
path in this region is predominantly through stator and rotor laminations. So, the
inductance gets increased with respect to rotor position and that gives rise to positive
slope. During this period the current produced in the winding produces the motoring
torque or positive torque. When the rotor pole completely overlaps the stator pole at that
period this region comes to an end.
3. θ2-θ3: In this region the rotor pole completely overlap the stator pole. This region gives
rise to predominantly high flux path. So, effect on inductance in this region is very high
and it is constant. This inductance is also known as aligned inductance and can be
represented as La. As torque is the function of rate of change of inductance with respect
to rotor position and in this region inductance is constant . So, torque is zero in this case
even though current present in this interval.
4. θ3-θ4: In this region the rotor pole is moving away from the stator pole. This region is
very much similar with the region like θ1-θ2 but in reverse manner. In this case as the
misalignment of rotor pole increases with respect to stator pole the inductance get
decreases and it gives rise to negative slope. So, the negative torque will be produced in
this region, which is nothing but the generation of electrical energy from the mechanical
input to the switched reluctance machine.
So, from the above analysis we will get that it is not possible to achieve the ideal
inductance profile in actual motor due to saturation.
10
2.5 Converters For Switched Reluctance Motor Drive:
2.5.1 Power Converter Topology:
In order to achieve the smooth rotation and optimal torque output the phase-to-phase
switching in the switched reluctance motor drive is required with respect to rotor
position. The phase-to-phase switching logic can only be realized by using the semi
converter device. We can also say that the power semi converter device topology put a
great impact on switched reluctance motor’s performance.
As the torque produced in the switched reluctance motor drive is independent of the
excitation current polarity. So, it requires only one switch per phase winding. Where as
for other ac machine it requires two switches per phase in order to control the current.
For ac motor the winding is also not present in series with the switches, which gives rise
to irreparable damage in shoot-through fault. But in case of switched reluctance motor as
the winding is present in series with the switch, so, during shoot-through fault the rate of
rise in current can be limited or reduced by using winding inductance and provides time
to protective relay in order to isolate the faults. Switched reluctance motor drive is more
reliable because in this case all the phases are independent of each other. Even though if
some problem will occur to switched reluctance motor and one winding gets damaged
then also switched reluctance motor can provide the uninterrupted operation with
reduced power output.
2.6 Asymmetric Bridge Converter:
In case of switched reluctance motor, we are using the number of half bridge
converters which are same as the number of phases. So, as one phase of the switched
reluctance motor is connected with the asymmetric bridge converter, similarly the rest are
also connected. For example for three phase switched reluctance motor we are using three
half bridge converter because from three half bridge converter we are getting six outputs and
at the input of switched reluctance motor it have six input ports. As shown in figure below for
each phase we are using asymmetric bridge converter which contain two IGBT’s and two
diodes and the phase winding is connected between them. When both Sa1 and Sa2 switch gets
turn on then current will circulate through phase ‘A’. But when current exceeds the
commanded value then Sa1 and Sa2 gets turned off. At that moment energy stored in the
winding will keep the current in the same direction by making D1 and D2 forward bias. So,
the winding gets discharge and this will decrease the current below the commanded value.
11
Similarly the other phases are also operated like phase ‘A’ operated. Following is the
complete diagram of the inverter circuit that is used for switched reluctance motor drive.
Sa1
Sb1
Sc1
Lc
La
Lb
E
Ra
Rb
Rc
Sc2
Sb2
Sa2
Fig.2.5 Asymmetric H-bridge Drive Circuit For SRM
The above fig. represent the asymmetric H-bridge for SRM.’L’ and ‘R’ denote inductance
and resistance of the phase winding. The operation of the above fig. can be explained below.
Let say the rotor pole r1 and r1’ is aligned with the stator pole c and c’ then now Sa1 and Sa2
are turned on in order to excite the a-phase so as to produce the rotation in the positive direction.
Reluctance torque is generated so that stator pole a, a’ and rotor pole r2, r2’ face each other, and the
rotor rotates in clockwise direction. Then other phases are excited so as to align the next stator pole
to rotor pole and in this manner the switched reluctance motor starts rotating.
The switched reluctance motor torque ‘T’ is generally expressed as follows assuming a
linearly magnetic circuit with ia, ib and ic denoting the respective phase currents.
T 
1  L

2  
a
i
2
a

L

b
i
2
b

L

c
i
2
c

 ……………………… (2.6)

This equation effective only when the magnetic circuit is linear.
12
2.7 Stator Current Control By Modified Hysteresis Band Control:
The asymmetric H-bridge shown in figure can apply a three level voltage to the stator
winding i.e. (+E,0,-E).
Positive voltage mode: When both switches Sa1 and Sa2 are turned on, source voltage E is applied
to the winding. As a result winding current increases. In this case voltage V=E and current flows in
downward direction as shown in the below figure.
Sa1
La
V
E
Ra
Sa2
Fig.2.6(a) Positive voltage mode
Negative Voltage Mode: When both switches Sa1 and Sa2 are turned off while current flows in the
winding, the two diodes conduct electricity voltage –E is applied to the winding and the current
decreases. In this case voltage V=-E and current direction remains same but its value reduces.
Return Current Mode: Either of switches Sa1 and Sa2 is turned off while current flows in the
winding. When Sa1 turned off, the diode shown in the above diagram conducts electricity. Zero
voltage is applied across the winding and current decreases. However this decrease is smaller than
in the negative voltage mode.
As inductor is a storing device in this mode it discharges through one of the switch and
diode. So voltage applied across phase winding is zero, but the current direction remains same. So
only unipolar current produces inside switched reluctance motor in order to produce unidirectional
torque.
13
Sa1
La
V
E
Ra
Sa2
Fig.2.6(b) Negative Voltage Mode
Sa1
La
E
Ra
Sa2
Fig. 2.6(c) Return Current Mode
14
V
CHAPTER 3
3. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND CONTROL OF SWITCHED
RELUCTANCE MOTOR DRIVE
3.1 Mathematical Modeling of Switched Reluctance Motor Drive
The equivalent circuit for the switched reluctance motor can be derived by neglecting
the mutual inductance between the phases as follows. Applied voltage to a phase can be
derived as the sum of the resistive voltage drop and the rate of change of flux linkages with
respect to time and it is given as
V  Rs i 
d ( , i )
……………………… (3.1)
dt
Where ‘Rs’ is the resistance per phase and ‘ ’ is flux linkage per phase.
  L(,i)i
……………………………………………….. (3.2)
Where ‘L’ is the inductance dependent on the rotor position & the phase current. The
phase voltage equation is given by,
V  Rsi 
d{L( , i)i}
di d dL( , i)
 Rsi  L( , i)  i .
dt
dt dt d
di dL( , i)
 Rsi  L( , i) 
mi
dt
d
(3.3)
In this equation all the three terms on the right hand side represent the resistive
voltage drop, inductive voltage drop and induced emf respectively and the result is equivalent
to the series excited dc motor voltage equation.
The induced emf ‘e’ is obtained as,
e
dL( , i )
i
i ................................. (3.4)
d  m k b m
15
Where Kb may be construed as an emf constant similar to that of dc series excited
machine and is given as,
k
b

dL ( , i)
........................................ (3.5)
d
Substituting for flux linkages in the voltage equation and multiply with the current results in
instantaneous i/p power given by,
Pi  Vi  Rs i 2  i 2
dL( , i )
di
 L( , i )i
............. (3.6)
dt
dt
So, the equivalent circuit diagram for single phase SRM is given by,
Fig.3.1 Single-Phase Equivalent circuit of Switched Reluctance Motor
In order to get meaningful inference the above equation need to express with known variables
d 1
di 1 2 dL( , i )
2
......... (3.7)
 L( , i)i   L( , i)i  i
dt  2
dt 2
dt

Substituting the above equation into (3.6) then we will get,
P Ri
i
s
2

d 1
1 2 dL( , i )
2
....... (3.8)
 L( , i )i   i
dt  2
dt
 2
16
Where, ‘ P i ’ is the instantaneous power input which can be expressed as the sum of
Ri
the winding resistive losses represented as
2
s
, the rate of change of field energy i.e
1 2 dL( , i )
d 1
2
.
 L( , i)i  and air gap power ‘ P a ’ i.e represented as i
dt  2
2
dt

Time can also be represented in terms of rotor position and speed which is given below,
t


............................................ (3.9)
m
The air gap power can be represented as,
P
a

1 2 dL( , i ) 1 2 dL ( , i) d 1 2 dL ( , i )
 i


(3.10)
2i
dt
2
d
dt 2 i d  m
The air gap power can also be represented as the product of the electromagnetic torque and
rotor speed and is given by,
P  T
a
m
e
...................................... (3.11)
By equating the above two equation we will get,
T
e

1 2 dL( , i )
.............................. (3.12)
2 i d
So, this shows that the electromagnetic torque is independent of current direction as
directly proportional to
i
2
e
is
. So, whatever may be the current value positive or negative the
torque it will produce the unidirectional torque. But
So, if
T
T
e
is directly proportional to
dL( , i )
.
d
dL( , i )
> 0 then, it will produce positive torque and electrical power is converted into
d
mechanical power output (motoring) and if
dL( , i )
< 0 then, it will produce the negative
d
torque and mechanical power is converted into electrical power (generating).
This completes the development of the equivalent circuit and equation for evaluating
electromagnetic torque and input power to the switched reluctance motor for both dynamic
and steady state operation [1].
17
3.2 PID Controller:
Due to simple control structure, Easy of design and inexpensive cost the conventional
proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is most widely used in the industry. More
than 90% of the control loops were of the PID types. As the formulas of PID controller are
very simple and can be easily adopted by various controlled plant.
PID controller helps to correct the error between the reference variable and the actual
variable. So, that the system can adjust the process accordingly. The general structure of PID
controller is given below.
Fig.3.2 Structure of PID controller
For PID control the actuating signal consists of proportional error signal added with
derivative and integral of the error signal.
The transfer function for the above block diagram i.e for PID controller is given as,
G

k i  ……………. (3.13)

1

s


k
k
PID
p
d
s 

18
Where ‘ k p ’ can be represented as proportionality gain, ‘ k d ’ as derivative gain
constant and ‘ k i ’ as the integral gain constant.
3.3 Function of Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller:
3.3.1 Proportional Gain Constant:
In proportional control the actuating signal for the control action in control system is
proportional to the error signal. The error signal is being the difference between the reference
input signal and the feedback signal obtained from the output.
For satisfactory performance of a control system a convenient adjustment has to be
made between the maximum overshoot and steady state error. By the help of proportional
constant without sacrificing the steady state accuracy, the maximum overshoot can be
reduced to same extent by modifying the actuating signal.
3.3.2 Integral Gain Constant:
For integral control action the actuating signal consists of proportional-error signal
added with integral of the error signal.
By the help of an integrator, it reduces the steady state errors through low frequency
compensation. By the help of this integral term the actual variable will track the reference
variable more quickly.
3.3.3 Derivative Gain Constant:
For the derivative control action the actuating signal consists of proportional error
signal added with derivative of the error signal.
By the help of a differentiator it improves the transient response through high
frequency compensation. The steady state error is not affected by derivative control action.
As the derivative of the error is used in actuating signal and as such if the error varies with
time, then in that case the derivative control reduces the error.
So, PID control combines the advantages of proportional, derivative and integral
control actions. In a closed loop system by changing one of the variable from
k ,k ,k
p
d
how the effect of other two variables will change that can be summarized in the table below.
19
i
Gain/Effect
Rise Time
Over Shoot
Settling Time
Steady State
Error
k
p
k
i
k
d
Decrease
Increase
Small change
Decrease
Decrease
Increase
Increase
Eliminate
Small change
Decrease
Decrease
Small change
Table 3.1 Effects of
k ,k ,k
p
d
i
on a closed loop system
3.4 Block Diagram Representation of Switched Reluctance Motor Drive:
Figure.3.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRADITIONAL FEEDBACK CONTROL
This will give the closed loop control of switched reluctance motor. So, the actual
speed will track the reference speed. So, machine will always remain in synchronism. In
place of speed controller we are using PID controller and the output of this we are getting the
error signal. That will move to the multiplexer along with
which gives the reference current
signal, this should be compared with the actual current signal in order to get the error current
signal that is to be used as the gate pulse to the power converter. For 3-phase machine we are
using 3 half bridge converters, for 4-phase ‘4’ and for 5-phase ‘5’ half bridge converters are
used in order to get required amount of input to switched reluctance motor.
20
CHAPTER 4
4. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF SRM DRIVE
4.1. Switched Reluctance Motor Specification:
Stator Resistance
Friction
: 0.01 ohm/phase
: 0.01 N m s
: 0.0082 kg.m2
Inertia
Initial Speed
: 0 rad/sec
Position
: 0 rad
Unaligned Inductance
: 0.7 mH
Aligned Inductance
: 20 mH
Maximum Current
: 450 Amps
Maximum Flux Linkage : 0.486 Weber-turn
4.2 . Modelling of Three Phase Switched Reluctance Motor Drive:
In figure 3.3 that is the block diagram of switched reluctance motor, we are using the
speed controller. Here the speed controller is nothing but the PID controller whose input is
the speed error that is the difference between the speed reference and the filtered speed
feedback signal and its output is unmodified torque command. Then that torque command
goes to current command controller and feedback from position sensor gives rise to reference
current that compare with the actual current signal that will feedback from Switched
reluctance motor output gives the current error signal that goes to hysteresis band controller.
That signal acting as the gate signal for converter. A dc supply has given to converter that
converts to 2 level ac signals. Here we use 3 half bridge converters in order to produce 3
phase ac signal. That should be the input for Switched reluctance motor. At Switched
21
reluctance motor output we are getting flux linkage, current, output torque as well as actual
speed of motor.
4.2.1 Simulation Results for Three Phase Switched Reluctance Motor:
Various characteristics for 3-phase switched reluctance motor has given below,
Voltage(volts)
500
0
-500
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
Time(secs)
0.05
0.06
0.08
Figure.4.1. Voltage v/s Time characteristics
This is nothing but the output voltage of converter which becomes the
input voltage for the three phase switched reluctance motor drive. This shows
that the three phase voltages are 1200 apart from each other.
200
Torque(N.m)
150
100
50
0
-50
0
0.02
0.04
Time(secs)
0.06
Figure.4.2 Torque v/s Time characteristics
22
0.08
Here torque is directly proportional to square of the current, so, torque is independent
of current direction but it depends upon the
dL
. If it is positive then torque is positive
d
otherwise the torque is negative. This torque contains lots of noise and harmonics.
0.45
fa vs t
fb vs t
fc vs t
0.4
F lu x L i n k a g e (v .s )
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Time(secs)
Figure.4.3 Flux Linkage v/s Time characteristics
50
Ia vs t
Ib vs t
Ic vs t
current(am p)
40
30
20
10
0
-10
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
Time(sec)
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Figure.4.4 Current v/s Time characteristics
Here as flux linkage and currents are proportional to each other so as flux linkage will
vary according to that current will vary. Initially current is very high because of inrush
current, then it lies within 10 to 20 ampere.
23
1200
Actual Speed
Reference Speed
1000
Speed(rpm )
800
600
400
200
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Time(secs)
Figure4.5 Speed v/s Time characteristics
La vs t
Lb vs t
Lc vs t
0.2
I n d u c ta n c e (H )
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Time(secs)
Figure.4.6 Inductance v/s Time characteristics
Here the relation between the speed and inductance is that when the actual speed will
track the reference speed at that moment the inductance remains constant. Initially inductance
gets varies when it track at that moment inductance gets settle down and remains constant.
Figure 4.6 shows that the inductance of stator phase winding is the function of angular
position of the rotor. It can also be observed that the unaligned inductance is 0.8 mH and
aligned inductance is 18 mH.
24
4.3 Modelling Four Phase Switched Reluctance Motor Drive:
It is similar to 3 phases SRM, the only difference is that inside of the power converter
block in order to produce 4 phase ac supply it will use 4 half bridge converters. Which helps
to produce 4 phase voltages which are 900 apart from each other and that becomes the input
voltage for four phase switched reluctance motor drive? The advantage is that we can track
the reference speed as quickly as possible if the no. of phases increases.
4.3.1 Simulation Results for Four Phase Switched Reluctance Motor:
Va
200
0
-200
Vb
200
0
-200
Vc
200
0
-200
Vd
Voltage (volts)
Various characteristics for 4-phase switched reluctance motor has given below,
200
0
-200
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
Time(secs)
Figure.4.7 Voltage v/s Time characteristics
Here the four output voltage of inverters Va, Vb, Vc and Vd are 900 apart from each
other, which gives supply to the 4-phase switched reluctance motor.
800
700
600
Torque (N .m )
500
400
300
200
100
0
-100
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
Time(secs)
Figure.4.8 Torque v/s Time characteristics
25
0.18
0.2
Here torque is directly proportional to square of the current, so, torque is independent
of current direction but it depends upon the
dL
. If it is positive then torque is positive
d
otherwise the torque is negative. This torque contains lots of noise and harmonics but that
must be less than 3-phase switched reluctance motor.
0.9
fa vs t
fb vs t
fc vs t
fd vs t
0.8
F lu x L in k a g e (v . s )
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Time(secs)
Figure.4.9 Flux Linkage v/s Time characteristics
50
Ia vs t
Ib vs t
Ic vs t
Id vs t
C u rrent(a m p )
40
30
20
10
0
-10
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
Time(secs)
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Figure.4.10 Current v/s Time characteristics
The flux linkage and currents are proportional to each other so that they will vary
almost similarly with respect to time axis. Initially current is very high because of inrush
current, then it lies within 5 to 10 ampere.
26
1200
ActualSpeed
Reference Speed
1000
Speed(rpm)
800
600
400
200
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Time(secs)
Figure.4.11 Speed v/s Time characteristics
La vs t
Lb vs t
Lc vs t
Ld vs t
Inductance (H )
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
Time(secs)
Figure.4.12 Inductance v/s Time characteristics
Here the relation between the speed and inductance is that when the actual speed will
track the reference speed at that moment the inductance remains constant. Initially inductance
gets varies when it track at that moment inductance gets settle down and remains constant. As
it’s a 4-phase machine so, it consists of four inductances having some phase difference. But
this will fluctuate till actual speed track the reference and finally its settle down. As it is a 4phase switched reluctance motor, so in this case the reference speed will track the actual
speed more quickly in comparision to 3-phase switched reluctance motor. In this case the
actual speed will track the reference speed nearly 0.1 sec.
Figure 4.12 shows that the inductance of stator phase winding is the function of
angular position of the rotor. It can also be observed that the unaligned inductance is nearly
0.8 mH and aligned inductance is 17 to 18 mH.
27
4.4 Modelling Five Phase Switched Reluctance Motor Drive:
Here the speed controller is nothing but the PID controller whose input is the speed
error that is the difference between the speed reference and the filtered speed feedback signal
and its output is unmodified torque command. Then that torque command goes to current
command controller and feedback from position sensor gives rise to reference current that
compare with the actual current signal that will feedback from SRM output gives the current
error signal that goes to hysteresis band controller. That signal acting as the gate signal for
converter. A dc supply has given to converter that converts to 2 level ac signals. Here we use
5 half bridge converters in order to produce 5 phase ac signal. That should be the input for
switched reluctance motor. At switched reluctance motor output we got flux linkage, current,
output torque as well as actual speed of motor. It helps to produce 5-phase voltage which is
720 apart from each other. The advantage is that we can track the reference speed as quickly
as possible if the no. of phases increases.
4.4.1 Simulation Results for Five Phase Switched Reluctance Motor:
Various characteristics of 5 phase switched reluctance motor has given below,
Figure.4.13 Voltage v/s Time characteristics
Here the 5 output voltage of inverters Va, Vb, Vc, Vd and Ve are 720 apart from each
other, which gives supply to the 5-phase switched reluctance motor.
28
1200
1000
T o r q u e (N .m )
800
600
400
200
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Time(secs)
Figure.4.14 Torque v/s Time characteristics
Here torque is directly proportional to square of the current, so, torque is independent
of current direction but it depends upon the
dL
. If it is positive then torque is positive
d
otherwise the torque is negative. This torque contains lots of noise and harmonics but that
must be less than 3-phase and 4-phase switched reluctance motor.
0.9
fa vs t
fb vs t
fc vs t
fd vs t
fe vs t
0.8
Flu x L in k a g e (v .s )
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
Time(secs)
Figure.4.15 Flux Linkage v/s Time characteristics
29
0.2
50
Ia vs t
Ib vs t
Ic vs t
Id vs t
Ie vs t
Current(am p)
40
30
20
10
0
-10
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Time(secs)
Figure.4.16 Current v/s Time characteristics
The flux linkage and currents are proportional to each other so that they will vary
almost similarly with respect to time axis. Initially current is very high because of inrush
current, then it lies within 5 ampere.
1200
Actual speed
Reference speed
S p e e d (r p m )
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Time(secs)
Figure.4.17 Speed v/s Time characteristics
As it is a 5-phase switched reluctance motor, so in this case the reference speed will
track the actual speed more quickly in comparision to 4 and 3-phase switched reluctance
motor. In this case the actual speed will track the reference speed nearly 0.02 sec.
30
0.02
I n d u c ta n c e (H )
0.015
0.01
La vs t
Lb vs t
Lc vs t
Ld vs t
Le vs t
0.005
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Time(secs)
Figure.4.18 Inductance v/s Time characteristics
Here the relation between the speed and inductance is that when the actual speed will
track the reference speed at that moment the inductance remains constant. Initially inductance
gets varies when it track at that moment inductance gets settle down and remains constant. As
it’s a 4-phase m/c so it consists of 4 inductances having some phase difference. But this will
fluctuate till actual speed track the reference and finally its settle down.
Figure 4.18 shows that the inductance of stator phase winding is the function of
angular position of the rotor. It can also be observed that the unaligned inductance is nearly
0.8 mH and aligned inductance is 18 mH.
31
CHAPTER 5
5. DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF SWITCHED RELUCTANCE
MOTOR DRIVE
5.1 Introduction
In recent years the frequency control of asynchronous motor is widely used. When we
will compare it with the switched reluctance motor then, it has more advantages in respect of
cost, efficiency, reliability, Speed control performance, heat dissipation [40]. However, the
switched reluctance motor has limited application because of its large torque ripple. Due to
large amount of ripple in the torque it produces high noise and vibration. Therefore, in order
to minimize the ripple in the torque various techniques have been proposed in switched
reluctance motor drives. These techniques are mainly classified into two main categories that
is design of motor shape and the optimization of control technique.
By using various mechanical design techniques just like by skewing the rotor, by
increasing air gap between the stator and rotor, by pole shaping technique we can be able to
minimize the torque ripple [20] [21]. But the main drawbacks of this technique are that it will
reduce the maximum achievable torque due to increase in effective air gap.
In juxtaposition to these constructive methods, we can also be able to minimize the
ripple in the torque over a wide operating range by using electronic control techniques. The
most popular electronic control techniques in order to reduce ripple in the torque includes the
supply voltage, turn-on and turn-off angles of the converters and current levels. But this
method can also have some limitation that it will reduce the overall torque [23]. So, in order
to improve the performance of the switched reluctance motor it is required to apply the
advanced control strategy.
In the mid of the 1980s a high performance asynchronous motor frequency control
system was developed which is known as direct torque control system or DTC [32]. This
method is directly control the torque of the switched reluctance motor by controlling the
magnitude of flux linkage and the change in speed of the stator flux vector.
32
5.2 Direct Torque and Flux Control (DTFC or DTC)
In case of switched reluctance motor the production of the torque depends upon the
reluctance principle, where the phase operates independently and in succession. Due to
nonlinear characteristics of the magnetic circuit the expression for the phase torque is given
by,
T ( , i )  i
 ( , i )
………..…………… (5.1)

Where ‘  ’ is the rotor angular position and ‘ i ’ is the phase current. So, from the
above equation we can tell that the phase torque ‘ T ( , i ) ’ is directly proportional to
 ( , i )
.

So, in order to produce a positive torque the change in the stator flux amplitude must be
increasing with respect to rotor position and in order to produce negative torque change in
stator flux amplitude must be decreasing with respect to rotor position.
The block diagram representation of the direct torque control technique has given
below in figure 5.1. This direct torque control technique consists of three important functions:
hysteresis control of torque and flux, an optimal switching vector look-up table and a motor
model. In this method the actual or estimated speed is compared with the reference speed, the
output of this two is known as error signal. That goes to the speed controller which is nothing
but the PID controller whose output gives the reference value of electromagnetic torque
which is known as
T
ref
. In this case the reference value of torque and flux can be compared
with its actual value and the control signal can be produced by using a torque and flux
hysteresis control method. The output of hysteresis band controller has given as the input
signal for the vector look-up table. For all the possible stator flux-linkage space vector
positions that provides the optimum selection of the switching vectors has given by the
switching vector look-up table that is table 5.3. The angle of the calculated flux which
determines the region where the flux vector is excited and then the output signal is also
passes through the switching table.
The signals of switching table provide the gate pulse to the inverter circuit. So, from
this we can conclude that the space vector of inverter is mostly depends upon the three
factors.
i. Flux hysteresis control signal.
ii. Torque hysteresis control signal.
iii. The angle of flux vector and the direction of the flux vector rotation.
33
Fig.5.1 Block Diagram of Direct Torque and Flux Control
5.2.1 Mathematical Model of Switched Reluctance Motor Drive :
The dynamic model of the switched reluctance motor is derived by transforming the
three-phase quantities into a stationary orthogonal two axis reference frame or we can say it
as alpha(  ) and beta(  ) axes quantities. The transformation of three-phase rotational frame
into orthogonal two-phase stationary frame is known as park’s transformation.
Transformation of three-phase rotational frame to two-phase stationary frame is done by
using following equation:
V s 
1

 2
V s    0

 3
V0 s 
1 2



1 2
1 2  Va 
  
3 2  3 2  * Vb 
   ……………………… (5.2)
12
1 2  Vc 
The mathematical model in compact form can be given in the stationary reference frame.
34
0
Lm p
0
 R  Ls p
 i
V s   s
  s 

 
 
0
Rs  Ls p
0
Lm p  i s 
V s  
*
V   
 
r Lm
Rr  Lr p
r Lr  i r 
  r   Lm p
(5.3)

V r  
i r 



Lm p
r Lm Rr  Lr p   
 r Lm
The flux equation of motor is as follows:
L
  s   s

 
  s   0
   
  r   Lm
  r  


 0
0
Lm
Ls
0
0
Lr
Lm
0
0 
 i s 
 
Lm  i s 
*
 
0  i r 
……………………….. (5.4)



i
Lr    r 
Where V s , V s , V r , V r , i s , i s , i r , i r , Ls , Lr , Lm , Rs , Rr ,   s ,   s ,   r ,   r
are    axes voltages, currents, stator inductance, rotor inductance, mutual inductance
between stator and rotor windings, stator resistance, rotor resistance, stator and rotor flux
linkages respectively.
5.2.2 Voltage Source Inverter (VSI):
From the above figure that is figure 5.12 S a, Sb, and S c are consider as the Voltage
Source Inverter’s inputs and this S a, Sb, Sc signal we will get from the sector selection block
for which torque hysteresis band, flux hysteresis band and the angle between the flux vector
and the direction of the flux vector rotation are the inputs. In order to control the torque and
flux command in a conventional switched reluctance motor drive six active voltage vectors
are available. In figure 5.13 we will consider Sa, Sb, and Sc are the switching function which
may either logic ‘0’ or logic ‘1’. In this figure the lower switches are always in the
complementary state in order to prevent the inverter from short circuit. When the state of the
switch is ‘1’ then we consider it as ‘on’ and when it is ‘0’ we consider it as ‘off’. Therefore
there are eight possible inverter output which can supply voltage to the switched reluctance
motor [25].
35
Fig.5.2 Two-level Voltage Source Inverter
If we will consider that the inverter will generate a symmetrical star connected phase
voltages Va , Vb and Vc then it must satisfy the following condition.
Va  Vb  Vc  0 ……………………………….. (5.5)
If we will write the phase voltages in terms of switching states then, the equation is
given by,
2
2

j
j

2 
Vs  Vdc  S a  Sb e 3  Sc e 3  …………… (5.6)
3 


Where Vs is the voltage space vector and Vdc is the dc link voltage of inverter.
The above equation can also be represented in terms of matrix and it is given as,
Va 
  V
Vb   dc
3
 
Vc 
 
 2 1 1  Sa 

  
 1 2 1 *  Sb 

   ……………. (5.7)
 1 1 2   Sc 

  
5.2.3 Direct Torque Control Technique And Its Control Objectives:
By using the space vector we can analyze the direct torque control technique. By the
help of stator co-ordinate system we can directly calculate and control the torque of the
motor. The control method of the switched reluctance motor has following two control
objectives:
i.
The amplitude of the motor stator flux vector should be constant in order to make the
trajectory of the stator flux linkage be sub circular.
36
ii.
By accelerating and decelerating the stator flux linkage vector we can be able to
control the torque.
In case of direct torque control of switched reluctance motor drive our main aim is to
control the flux linkage and electromagnetic torque directly by selecting the proper switching
state of inverter. By doing this we can be able to reduce the loss due to switches and
harmonic distortion in the stator currents. For controlling the torque and flux of the switched
reluctance motor independently, we need two controlling loops that is flux hysteresis control
loop and torque hysteresis control loop.
A) Flux Hysteresis Control Loop:
The flux hysteresis loop control has two levels of digital output which is shown in
Fig.5.14 with relations shown in Table 5.2. In this case our main aim is to control the flux
error. The difference between the reference flux and actual flux gives rise to flux error. By
using a 2-level hysteresis comparator the stator flux will follow the reference value of flux
within the hysteresis band. The stator flux in the stationary reference frame ( s   s ) can be
estimated as:
 V  i R dt ………………………. (5.8)
 V  i R dt ………………………… (5.9)

 s s 
 s s
s
s
s
s
s
s s
s
s s
Generally, the stator flux linkage can be obtained from the stator voltage vector as from
equation 5.6 and 5.7. By neglecting stator resistance Rs, it may be simplified as:
Vs 
d
 s 
dt
 s  Vs t
or
(5.10)
The change in input to the flux hysteresis controller can be written as:
  s   s*   s
(5.11)
1
ψ*
+
−
– Fn
Fn
∆ψ s
–1
ψs
Fig.5.3 Two-level hysteresis controller for controlling the flux error
37
Fig.5.14 shows the two-level hysteresis controller for controlling the flux error. The flux
hysteresis loop controller has two level of digital output according to the relation shown in
Table 5.1.
Table 5.1 Switching Logic for Flux error
State
Flux Hysteresis (ψ)
(ψs*–ψs) >∆ ψs
1 ↑
(ψs*–ψs) < –∆ ψs
-1 ↓
B) Torque Hysteresis Control Loop:
In this case the loop consists of a three-level hysteresis controller in order to control the
torque error. The difference between the reference torque and estimated torque gives rise to
torque error. The torque hysteresis loop control has three levels of digital output which is shown
in Fig.5.15 with relations shown in Table 5.2. When the torque hysteresis band is Tn=1
increasing torque, when Tn=0 means no need to change and Tn= –1 decreasing the torque.
1
Te*
+
– Tn
−
∆Te
Tn
Te
–1
Fig.5.4 Three-level Hysteresis Controller for Control of Torque Error
Table 5.2 Switching Logic for Torque Error
State
Torque Hysteresis (T)
(Te*–Te) > ∆Te
1
↑
–∆Te< (Te*–Te) < ∆Te
0
═
(Te*–Te) <–∆Te
-1
↓
The change in input to the flux hysteresis controller can be written as:
Te  Te*  Te ……………………….. (5.12)
The electromagnetic torque ‘Te’ can be expressed as
Te 


3
L
p m  s  r ' ………………………………. (5.13)
2  Ls Lr
38
Where Lm = mutual inductance, Ls = stator self inductance, Lr = rotor self inductance,
σ= leakage co-efficient of the motor, ψs = stator flux linkage vector and ψr’ = rotor flux
linkage vector in the stationary reference frame.
In the above equation we can observe that the torque of switched reluctance motor is
directly proportional to the scalar product between the stator and rotor fluxes in the stationary
reference frame.


 
L
d r '  1

 jp  r '  m  s ………..................... (5.14)
dt
 Ls r
  r

Lr
Where  r  R is the rotor time constant.
r
In the s-domain the same relationship can be written as
Lm

Ls
 r' 
 s ……………………………….. (5.15)
1  s r

The control scheme assumes that during changes in the control of the
stator flux, the rotor flux will remain constant. The control scheme can be
operated by keeping the magnitude of the stator flux within the hysteresis band.
The torque is thus controlled by varying the relative angle between the stator
flux and the rotor flux [25].
Fig.5.5 α-β axis for motor voltage
39
In order to resolve these individual phase flux vectors into a single stator
flux linkage vector, the flux vector for the three phase switched reluctance motor
are transformed onto a stationary orthogonal two axis α-β reference frame as
shown in the above figure. By defining the switched reluctance motor stator
phase ‘a’ to lie on the α-axis, the orthogonal flux vector components can be
defined as
    a  b cos 60  c cos 60 ............................ (5.16)
    b sin 60   c sin 60 ……………………… (5.17)
The magnitude ψs and angle θe of an equivalent flux vector are then
determined by,
 s    2   2 ……………………………….. (5.18)
 
 e  arctan    ………………………….. (5.19)
  
The instantaneous torque equation for switched reluctance motor is given
by,
T  p   i   i  ………………………. (5.20)
Where p = number of pole pairs, ψ = stator flux component, i = stator
current component, α-β = transformation components in the stationary reference
frame.
5.2.4 Voltage Vector Switching Selection
The torque hysteresis control loop consists of three level hysteresis controller that is
1,0 and -1 respectively and flux hysteresis control loop consists of two level hysteresis
controller that is 1 and -1. According to the figure 5.12 each phase of switched reluctance
motor consists of three voltage states that is 1,0 and -1,thus it have total of 27 possible
configuration for three phase. In case of direct torque control algorithm for three phase
switched reluctance motor it has six possible voltage vector state shown in figure 3. These
40
voltage state vectors are defined to lie in the centre of six zones. At a time only one of the six
possible states have chosen in order to keep the stator flux linkage and the torque of the
motor within the hysteresis band. If the stator flux linkage lies in the kth zone then, by using
the switching vectors Vk+1 and Vk-1 the magnitude of the flux can be increased and by using
the voltage vector Vk+2 and Vk-2 the magnitude of the flux can be decreased. Whenever the
stator flux linkage reaches its lower limit in the hysteresis band, it is improved by applying
voltage vectors which are directed away from the centre of the flux vector space and viceversa [20]. Fig.5.13 shows the sectors and voltage. Table 5.3 shows the voltage vector
switching selection for Voltage source inverter. Table 5.4 shows the relation between torque
and flux due to the application of voltage vectors. When torque is to be increased at that time
voltage vectors V2, V3, V4 are applied and when torque is to be decreased at that time voltage
vectors V1, V5, V6, V0/V7are applied. When flux is to be increased at that time voltage vectors
V1, V2, V6 are applied and when flux is to be decreased at that time voltage vectors V3, V4, V5
are applied. Voltage vectors V0 and V7 do not affect the flux. V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6 are the
active voltage vectors and V0 and V7 are zero vectors.
Fig.5.6 Sectors and voltage vectors
41
Table 5.3 Switching Table of Inverter Voltage Vectors
Sector Selection θe(K)
Hysteresis Controller
Ψ
1
–1
T
S(1)
S(2)
S(3)
S(4)
S(5)
S(6)
1
↑
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
V1
0
═
V0
V7
V0
V7
V0
V7
–1
↓
V6
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
1
↑
V3
V4
V5
V6
V1
V2
0
═
V0
V7
V0
V7
V0
V7
–1
↓
V5
V6
V1
V2
V3
V4
Table 5.4 Flux and Torque Variation Due to application of Voltage Vectors
Voltage Vector
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
V0 or V7
ψs
↑
↑
↓
↓
↓
↑
0
Te
↓
↑
↑
↑
↓
↓
↓
5.3 Simulation Results
A 3-phase, 5 HP, 400V switched reluctance motor has taken to control its flux and
torque. Machine specifications are given in Appendix-I. A starting torque of 30 N-m, a
reference flux of 1.0 Wb and a reference speed of 105 rad/sec or we can say the reference
speed of 1000 rpm were set. A PID controller was used in order to track the reference speed.
42
A) Results with Load Variation
Va
200
0
-200
1
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
1.25
1.3
1.35
1.4
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
1.25
1.3
1.35
1.4
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
1.25
1.3
1.35
1.4
Vb
200
0
-200
1
Vc
200
0
-200
1
Time(secs)
Figure.5.7 Voltage v/s Time characteristics
This is nothing but the output voltage of converter which becomes the
input voltage for the three phase switched reluctance motor drive. This shows
that the three phase voltages are 1200 apart from each other.
40
30
T o rqu e(N .m )
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
Time(secs)
Figure.5.8 Torque v/s Time characteristics
43
1.8
2
Here torque is directly proportional to square of the current, so, torque is independent of
current direction but it depends upon the
dL
. If it is positive then torque is positive
d
otherwise the torque is negative. In this case we are applying the load torque also. Here a load
torque of 30 N-m was applied at 1sec and removed at 1.3 sec and a negative load torque just
above -20 N-m was applied at 1.5 sec and removed at 1.7 sec. Load torque applied between
the 1.3 sec to 1.5 sec is 0 N-m. By applying this direct torque control technique we reduced
the noise and vibration in the large amount.
1200
Actual Speed
Reference Speed
1000
S peed (rpm )
800
600
400
200
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
Time(secs)
Figure.5.9 Speed v/s Time characteristics
In the above speed v/s time simulation result the actual speed will track the reference speed
more quickly around 0.2 sec. In this case we are using the PID controller in order that actual
speed will track the reference speed. As load torque of 30 N.m was applied between 1 sec to
1.3 sec so, actual speed just deviates slightly from reference speed at the beginning of 1 sec
but after that it will again track the reference speed.
44
1.4
1.2
Flux(wb)
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
Time(secs)
Figure.5.10 Flux v/s Time characteristics
1.5
1
q -a x is
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
d-axis
0.5
1
1.5
Figure.5.11 Trajectory of stator flux vector
The result of the stator flux linkage control can be seen in figure 5.9 and 5.10 severally plot
the amplitude and trajectory of the total stator flux vector. From the above diagram we
observed that the amplitude of stator flux vector is relatively constant and it is nearly 1.0
weber. When we are adopting the direct torque control technique in switched reluctance
motor drive the flux linkage trajectory is nearly sub-circular in nature.
45
5.4 Summary
By using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment, simulation models of speed control of
switched reluctance motor by can be implemented by using the direct torque control
technique. In order to control the limits of the torque and flux two independent torque and
flux hysteresis band controllers were used in direct torque control technique. Simulation
results were taken by varying the load torque and by varying the reference speed.
46
CHAPTER 6
6. CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
6.1 Conclusion:

SRM doubly salient structure makes its magnetic characteristics more nonlinear & flux
linkage also nonlinear function of stator current & rotor position.

In comparison to other ac or dc motors we can conclude that switched reluctance
motor is very simple in construction from the design point of view.

With decrease in switching ‘on’ time the switching frequency increases and as the
switching frequency increases the speed of the motor increases with it.

Even at higher speed this switched reluctance motor provides very good result. This
system is more compact, low cost, vibration and temperature change and does not
require any frequent maintenance.

The torque is developed during change of inductance. For constant inductance
(unaligned position) torque developed is zero. To get positive torque, voltage should
apply during +
region and to get negative torque, voltage should apply during -
47
region.Therefore exact switching of (turn on and turn off angles) is needed. Simulation
helps to get exact switching angles.

PID controller is used in order to track the reference speed at various load condition.
But in this method the torque produced in switched reluctance motor contains high
amount of noise which needs to be controlled.

By applying the direct torque control technique in the switched reluctance motor we
can reduce the ripple in the torque.

By using direct torque control of switched reluctance motor we can directly regulates
the torque output of the switched reluctance motor with in a hysteresis band.

The torque and flux output can be simply controlled with in a hysteresis band by
varying the space vector output.
6.2 Scope for Future Work

Direct Torque Control (DTC) strategy can be employed to four phase and five phase
switched reluctance motor.

Applying sliding mode control strategy in switched reluctance motor drive.
48
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