WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MINING AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES SUNIL KACHHAP Roll: 10605036

WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MINING AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES SUNIL KACHHAP Roll: 10605036
WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MINING AND
ALLIED INDUSTRIES
THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
Bachelor of Technology
in
Mining Engineering
By
SUNIL KACHHAP
Roll: 10605036
Session: 2009-10
Under the guidance of
Prof. D.P.TRIPATHY
DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled “WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MINING AND
ALLIED INDUSTRIES” submitted by Sri Sunil Kachhap, Roll No. 10605036 in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree in Mining
Engineering at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) is an
authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any
other University/Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.
Date:
(Prof. D.P. TRIPATHY)
Dept. of Mining Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela-769008
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Dr. D.P.Tripathy, Professor
Department of Mining Engineering, N.I.T., Rourkela for introducing the present topic and for his
inspiring guidance, constructive criticism and valuable suggestions throughout the project work.
I am thankful to all staff members of Department of Mining Engineering, NIT, Rourkela.
I am also thankful to Sri A.M.Pujari, DGM of EED Department Rourkela Steel Plant for giving
me permission to carry out my project works in Rourkela Steel Plant. I am grateful to Sri
S.N.Xess, AGM of EED Department for providing me all relevant information and have
patiently extended all sorts of help for accomplishing my undertaking.
Thanks to Sri D.Chattopadhyay, General Manager (HRD) of Mahanadi Coalfields Limited for
giving me permission to carry out my project work in two different mines of MCL.
Thanks to Sri A.Barik, Manager of BSL Mines for giving me permission and necessary support
to carry out my project work in the mines.
Lastly, I would like to thank and express my gratitude towards my friends who at various stages
had lent a helping hand.
Date:
Sunil Kachhap
10605036
i
ABSTRACT
Waste management is the systematic assessment of potential hazards, disposal and proper
utilization of waste in mining and allied industries. Due to waste there is a great environmental
concern and resource constraint. These wastes can affect the environment through it intrinsic
property. Proper planning is essential to manage the waste. Management indicates managing
wastes in such a way that it would be beneficial in any way. In view of associated environmental
hazards and their impacts on public health and safety, efforts must be made to minimize waste
generation, systematic disposal practices must be followed and sound waste management
methodologies need to be adopted.
In mining and steel industry, wastes are generated in every stage of the operations and are
required to handle properly. The types of waste generated from both the industries are solid,
liquid and gaseous wastes. So, waste management involves solid, liquid and gaseous waste
management. Therefore the waste generated can be utilized or can be reused as raw material for
other processes if not has to be disposed safely so that it will not affect the environment.
The objective of the waste management in mining and steel industry is to assess the waste
disposal techniques used in both the industries as well as their waste management techniques.
Field studies have been carried out on waste management in different industries, which include
an open-cast limestone and dolomite quarry (BSL) mine, an opencast coal mine ( Basundhara
OCP) as well as an underground coal mine (Hirakhand Bundia) of Mahanadi Coalfields Limited
(MCL) and Rourkela Steel Plant. In the BSL opencast mines that major waste problem is from
the generation of the overburden and dust emission. In open cast coal mines due to high
production and high mechanization the volumes of waste generated is more. The waste generated
is managed by efficient methods. Solid wastes that are generated in the mines are being
efficiently utilized for backfilling and the mine waste water generated is used for fighting fire
and used for dust suppression measures. In underground coal mines waste type generated is
different, so technique of waste management differs. Depending on the types of various
processes to produce steel, diverse amount of wastes are generated in RSP as compared to waste
generated from mining industry. In steel industry wastes contain some valuable resource in it,
generally for solid waste. These solid wastes generated can be raw material for other process and
in many cases can be reused. Water analysis for the R.S.P. and a mine was carried out to
ascertain impact of waste generation by the two industries on the quality of the water that has
been tested. Similarly soil samples from two different mines were analyzed and their
characteristics have been reported.
ii
Water samples of BSL mines and RSP were analyzed. For BSL mine water it was found from the
result that concentration of magnesium and ammonia in the water was found to be excess. For
RSP water magnesium, ammonia and total hardness of the water was found to be in excess.
It was observed from the field that the mines as well as RSP were lacking somewhere in the
waste management practices. Mines pay less attention in waste management as they are much
concern with their production of ore or coal. Due to use of outdated technology in the mines
management of waste generated is a problem. In steel plant disposal of fly ash was a big
problem. The reasons were that their generation was very high as compared to its disposal, as
land is a constraint and in other case they were not efficiently utilized.
Waste management scenario in the above industries can be improved by following best practices.
These practices are to improve production methods to mitigate all types of waste, exploit the
value of waste. There should be implementation of strategies to reuse, recycle and to prevent
waste from being harmful and manage waste properly. Regulations should be followed strictly
for disposal and management of waste.
iii
CONTENTS
Sl. No.
Title
Page No.
1
Acknowledgement
i
2
Abstract
ii
3
List of Figures
vii
4
List of Tables
ix
Chapter: 1
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1 Overview
2
1.2 Objectives of the Project
3
LITERATURE REVIEW
4
2.1 Waste Management in Mining Industry
5
Chapter: 2
2.1.1 Environmental Impacts of Mining Wastes
7
2.1.2 Mining Waste Disposal Techniques
8
2.1.3 Management of Mining Wastes
9
2.2 Waste Management in Steel Industry
9
2.2.1 Major Steel Players in India
10
2.2.2 Steel Production from Iron Ore
12
2.2.3 Solid Waste Generation in Steel Plants and its Reutilization
14
2.2.4 Major Solid Wastes Generated in Steel Plant
15
2.2.5 Solid Waste Management
18
2.2.6 Environmental Impacts of Steel Plant Waste
18
2.2.7 Waste Management in Steel Plant
20
iv
Chapter: 3
Waste management in Mining and Allied Industries: Case Studies
21
3.1 Waste Management in The Bisra Stone Lime Company Limited
22
3.1.1 Introduction
22
3.1.2 Patpahar Quarry of BSL Mines
25
3.1.3 Waste Generation in Patpahar Quarry
26
3.1.4 Waste Disposal in the Mines
32
3.1.5 Waste Management in the Mines
38
3.2 Waste Management in Basundhara Open Cast Coal Mine, MCL
41
3.2.1 Introduction
41
3.2.2 Waste Generation in Basundhara (West) Opencast Mines
43
3.2.3 Waste Disposal in Basundhara Mines
50
3.2.4 Waste Management in the Mines
55
3.3 Waste Management in Hirakud Bundia Underground Coal Mine
58
3.3.1 Introduction
58
3.3.2 Waste Generation of Hirakud Bundia Mines
62
3.3.3 Waste Management in Hirakhand Bundia Mines
64
3.4 Waste Management in Rourkela Steel Plant
67
3.4.1 Introduction
67
3.4.2 Steel Production
69
3.4.3 Waste Generation in R.S.P.
75
3.4.4 Disposal of Wastes R.S.P.
100
3.4.5 Waste Management
108
v
Chapter: 4
CONCLUSION
116
REFERENCES
120
vi
LIST OF FIGURES
Sl. No.
Title
Page No.
Fig 2.1
Fig 2.2
Fig 2.3
Fig 3.1.1
Tailing Pond
Steel Making Flowchart
Schematic Diagram of Steel Making
Location of BSL Mines
8
13
15
22
Fig 3.1.2
View of Patpahar Quarry
25
Fig 3.1.3
Flow Diagram of Crusher
28
Fig 3.1.4
Waste Water of Mine
29
Fig 3.1.5
Formation of Dust during Loading
30
Fig 3.1.6
Air Pollution in the Crusher Area
31
Fig 3.1.7
Northern Dump of Patpahar Quarry
33
Fig 3.1.8
Southern Dump of Patpahar Quarry
33
Fig 3.1.9
Layout of Patpahar Dolomite Quarry
34
Fig 3.1.10
Water Stored in the Sump
35
Fig 3.2.1
Location of Basundhara Mines
42
Fig 3.2.2
View of Basundhara Mines
43
Fig 3.2.3
Sump Area of the Mines
46
Fig 3.2.4
Flow Diagram for Separation of Waste Water from the Mines
47
Fig 3.2.5
Flow Diagram of Waste Water Separation from the Oil & Grease Trap
48
Fig 3.2.6
Oil & Grease Trap in the Workshop
48
Fig 3.2.7
Flow Diagram of Water Separation from Waste Dump
49
Fig 3.2.8
Internal Dump of Basundhara Mines
51
Fig 3.2.9
External Dump of Basundhara
51
Fig 3.2.10
Layout of Basundhara Mines
52
Fig 3.2.11
East Basundhara Mines
53
Fig 3.3.1
Location of Hirakhand Bundia Mines
59
Fig 3.3.2
Aerial View of Hirakhand Mines
61
Fig 3.3.3
Settling Tank on the Surface
65
Fig 3.4.1
Location of Rourkela Steel Plant
68
Fig 3.4.2
View of Rourkela Steel Plant
68
Fig 3.4.3
Coke Oven Battery
69
Fig 3.4.4
Flow Diagram of Coke Oven
72
vii
Fig 3.4.5
General Flow Diagram of Iron & Steel Making
74
Fig 3.4.6
General Schematic Diagram of SMS Slag Production
79
Fig 3.4.7
General Schematic Diagram of Blast Furnace Slag Production
80
Fig 3.4.8
84
Fig 3.4.9
Flow Chart of Linking Pollutants & Principle Operation in an Integrated
Steel Plant
Solid Waste Generation in an Integrated Steel Plant
85
Fig 3.4.10
Layout of the Rourkela Steel Plant
102
Fig 3.4.11
Sitalpara Dump 1 of R.S.P
103
Fig 3.4.12
Sitalpara Dump 2 of R.S.P
108
viii
LIST OF TABLES
Sl. No.
Title
Page No.
Table 2.1
Table 2.2
Table 2.3
Table 3.1.1
Table 3.1.2
Table 3.1.3
Table 3.1.4
Table 3.1.5
Table 3.1.6
Table 3.1.7
Table 3.1.8
Crude Steel Production
Production Plan & Achievement of SAIL
Solid Waste Generation in SAIL
Composition of Limestone
Composition of Dolomite
Specification of Machineries
Details of Patpahar Quarry
Ore and Waste Production of BSL Mines
Details of Crusher No 4 & 5
Estimation of Solid Waste Generation of Patpahar Quarry
AAQ Standards of Central Pollution Control Board
10
12
18
23
23
24
25
26
27
28
31
Table 3.1.9
AAQ Data of Patpahar Mines Area
32
Table 3.1.10
Details of Waste Dumps of Patpahar Quarry
33
Table 3.1.11
Soil Analysis Data of BSL Mines
36
Table 3.1.12
Water Analysis of BSL Mine Water
37
Table 3.2.1
Production of Coal Vs Overburden
45
Table 3.2.2
Generation Data of Grease & Oil
49
Table 3.2.3
Details of Waste Dumps of Basundhara Mines
50
Table 3.2.4
Soil Analysis Data of Basundhara Mines
54
Table 3.3.1
Water Bodies Near to the Mines
61
Table 3.3.2
Liquid Effluents from Coal Mining
63
Table 3.4.1
Production Performance of R.S.P
67
Table 3.4.2
Raw Coke Oven Gas Composition
70
Table 3.4.3
Production of By- Products from Coke Oven
73
Table 3.4.4
77
Table 3.4.5
Physical and Chemical Properties of Typical BF Flue Dust
Sample
Chemical Composition of the BOF Sludge Sample
Table 3.4.6
Chemical Composition of Steel Slag
79
Table 3.4.7
Constituents of Slag
81
Table 3.4.8
Types of Solid/Liquid Waste Generated from Steel Plants
83
Table 3.4.9
Water Pollution after Processing
87
ix
78
Table 3.4.10
Generation of Water Pollution
88
Table 3.4.11
Generation of Air Pollution
93
Table 3.4.12
Generation of Products from Coal Chemical Department
95
Table 3.4.13
Generation of Products from Cold Rolling Mill
96
Table 3.4.14
Generation of Products from Silicon Steel Mill
96
Table 3.4.15
Generation of Products from Traffic And Raw Material
96
Table 3.4.16
Generation of Products from Foundry Department
97
Table 3.4.17
Generation of Products from Special Plate Plant
97
Table 3.4.18
Generation of Products from Hot Strip Mill
97
Table 3.4.19
Data of Solid Wastes Generation from Steel Making in RSP
99
Table 3.4.20
Details of Fly Ash Pond
101
Table 3.4.21
Distance of Fly Ash Pond from Power Plant
101
Table 3.4.22
Details of SMS Dump Yard
103
Table 3.4.23
Data for Generation Hazardous Waste
105
Table 3.4.24
Water Analysis of RSP
107
x
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview
Waste generation is a major issue in every country, and waste quantities are generally growing.
Total waste quantities continue to increase the problem in mining and allied industries.
Unfortunately Waste is generated by activities in extraction of coal or ore from the mines and in
steel industries by production of steel, which generates products which is generally regarded as
an unavoidable by-product of economic activity waste generated from inefficient production
processes, low durability of goods and unsustainable consumption patterns. The generation of
waste reflects a loss of materials and energy and imposes economic and environmental costs on
society for its collection, treatment and disposal. The impact of waste on the environment,
resources and human health depends on its quantity and nature. The generation and of waste
include emissions to air (including greenhouse gases), water and soil, all with potential impacts
on human health and nature.
Waste management has assumed importance due to environmental hazard and depletion of the
resource of all most all the minerals. Considering the bulk quantity which forms the wastes in the
mining industries, its utilization is posing a challenge to the environment and our natural
resources. So, there is an accompanying need of recovering and utilization resource from waste
material and to minimize the impact of waste on the environment.
Waste from the mining or extractive operations (i.e. waste from extraction and processing of
mineral resources) is one of the largest waste streams in the world. It involves materials that
must be removed to gain access to the mineral resource, such as topsoil, overburden and waste
rock, as well as tailings remaining after minerals have been largely extracted from the.
Mining waste from the exploration and removal of the minerals cast challenges for many local
inhabitants. Mining extraction and beneficiation can create environment problems including acid
mine drainage, erosion and sedimentation, chemical release, fugitive dust emission, habitat
destruction, surface- and ground water contamination, and subsidence.
Steel making from steel industry gives rise to toxic gases, liquids and solid wastes from various
operations. These operations include the subcategories: coke-making, iron-making (blast furnace,
sintering, etc.), steel-making, casting, hot-forming and finishing. In steel industries the waste
generated is during the extraction process of the metals in each process described above. Air
emissions are generated as both particulate and gaseous emissions in the transportation of raw
2
materials and in processing operation, liquid waste is generated during quenching process and
solid waste is the by-product that are generated during steel making.
Effective waste management can help us to meet regulatory requirements, recycling targets and
reduce disposal costs. We also work to eliminate or reduce waste at source, to increase the ability
to recover, reuse and recycle as well as reduce hazardous content.
Advantages of waste utilization:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The recovery of addition raw material through the resources recovery.
Extending the mineral resources.
Development of useful product from recounted material.
Reduce pollution and balance ecology.
Source of addition income.
Employment of persons in small scale industries using wastes.
1.2 Objectives of the Project:
To study the waste disposal and management practices in coal and non-coal mines.
To study the waste disposal and management practices in Rourkela steel plant.
To analyse water quality of BSL mine and Rourkela steel plant.
To analyse soil quality of the BSL mine and Basundhara mine.
To suggest best practices in waste management in mines and steel plant under study.
3
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
4
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MINING INDUSTRY
Operation of the mining industry includes mining, mineral processing and metallurgical
extraction produce solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Mines waste can be further classified as
solid mining, processing and metallurgical wastes and mine waste water.
Mining waste: Mining wastes either do or do not contain ore mineral, industrial minerals,
metals, coal or mineral fuels, or the concentration of the mineral, metals, coal or mineral
fuels is sub economic. For example, the criterion for the separation of waste rock from
the metalliferrous ore and for the classification of material as economic or sub economic
is the so-called “cut-off grade”. It is based on the concentration of the ore element in each
unit of the mined rock and on the cost of the mining that unit. As a result, every mine has
different criterion for separating mine waste from ore. Mining waste includes overburden
and waste rock excavated and mined form surface and underground operation. Waste
rock is essentially wall rock material removed to access and mine ore. In coal mining,
waste rocks are referred to as “spoils”.
Mining waste is heterogeneous geological material and may consist of sedimentary,
metamorphic or igneous rock, soil and loose sediments. As a consequence, the particle
sizes ranges from the clay size particles to boulder size fragments. The physical and
chemical characteristic of mining waste vary according to their mineralogy and
geochemistry, type of mining equipment, particle size of the mined material, and
moisture content. The primary sources for these materials are rock, soil, sediments from
the surface mining operation, especially open pits and to a lesser degree rock removed
from the shaft, haulage ways and underground workings. Once the metalliferous ore,
coal, industrial minerals or mineral fuels are mined, they are processed to extract the
valuable commodity. In the contrast, mining wastes are placed in the large heaps on the
mining lease. Nearly all mining operations generate mining waste, often in very large
amounts.
Processing wastes: Ore are usually treated in physical process called beneficiation or
mineral processing prior to any metallurgical extraction. Mineral processing techniques
may include: simple washing of the gravity, magnetic, electrical or optical sorting; and
the addition of process chemicals to crushed and sized ore in order to aid the separation
of the sought after mineral from gangue during flotation. These treatment method results
5
in production of “processing wastes”. Processing wastes are defined herein as the portion
of the crushed, milled, ground washed or treated resource deemed too poor to be treated
further. The definition thereby includes tailings, sludges and waste water from the
mineral processing, coal washing and mineral fuel processing. “Tailings” are defined as
the processing wastes from a mill, washery or concentrate that removed the economic
metals, minerals, mineral fuels or coal from the mined resource.
The physical and the chemical characteristic of the processing waste varies accordingly to
the mineralogy and the geochemistry of the treated resource, type of processing
technology, particle size of the crushed material and the type of process chemicals. The
particle of the processing waste can range in size from colloidal size to fairly coarse,
gravel size particles. Processing waste can be used.
For back filling mine workings or reclamation of mined areas, but alternatively method of
disposal must be found for most of them. Usually this disposal simply involves dumping
the waste at the surface next to the mine workings. Most processing waste accumulates in
the solution or as sediment slurry. These tailings are generally deposited in the tailing
dam or pond which has been constructed using mining waste or other earth material
available on or near the mine site.
Metallurgical wastes: Processing of metal and industrial ores produces an intermediate
product, a mineral concentrate, which is the input to the extractive metallurgy. Extractive
metallurgy is based on hydrometallurgy (e.g. Au, U, Al, Cu, Zn, Ni, P) and
pyrometallurgy (e.g. Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Fe), and to the lesser degree on
electrometallurgy (e.g. Al, Zn). Hydrometallurgy leaching of the ore with cyanide
solution is a common hydrometallurgical process to extract the gold. The process
chemical dissolves the gold particle and a dilute, gold-laden solution is produce which is
then processed further to recover the metal. In contrast, pyrometallurgy is based on the
breakdown of the crystalline structure of the ore mineral by heat whereas
electrometallurgy uses electricity. These metallurgy processes destroy the chemical
combination of the element and result in production of the various waste products
including atmospheric emission, flue dust, slag, roasting products, waste water and
leached ore.
Mine waste water: It includes mine and mill water. Mining, mineral processing and
metallurgical extraction not only involves the removal and processing of rock and the
production and the disposal of solid waste, but also the production, use and disposal of
mine water. “Mine water” originates as a ground or meteoric water which undergoes
compositional modifications due to the mineral water reaction at the mine site including
surface water and the subsurface ground water.
6
Water is needed at the mine site for dust suppression, mineral processing, coal, washing
and hydrometallurgical extraction. The term “mining water” is used here in a general
sense to refer to water which run off or flow though a portion of a mine site and had
contact with any of the mine workings. “Mill water” is that water that is used to crush and
size the ore. “Processing water” is water that is used to process the ore using
hydrometallurgical extraction techniques. The water commonly contains process
chemical. At some stage of mining operation, water is unwanted and has no value to the
operation. Such mine water is generated and disposed of at various stages during mining,
mineral processing and metallurgical extraction. Water of poor quality requires
remediation as it is uncontrollable discharge, heat, suspended solid, bases, acids and
dissolves solids including process chemical, metals, metalloids, radioactive substances or
salts. Such a release count results in a pronounced negative impact on the environment
surrounding the mine site.
“Acid mine drainage” (AMD) refers to the particular process whereby low pH mine
water is formed from the oxidation of sulfide minerals. In fact, the acid stream draining
such ores and rock can contain high levels of metals and metalloids that exceed water
quality standards and result in toxic effect to the aquatic life.
2.1.1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF MINING WASTES
Mining operations, both open-pit and underground, typically produce large volumes of tailings
deposits and waste rock piles. They may cause air pollution, water pollution and land
degradation problems. These wastes can affect the environment through the following intrinsic
criteria:
its chemical and mineralogical composition,
its physical properties,
its volume and the surface occupied,
The waste disposal method.
climatic conditions liable to modify the disposal conditions,
geographic and geological location,
Existing targets liable to be affected (man and his environment).
Thus, identification of the environmental risks associated with the exploitation of mines and
quarries and with ore processing not only requires the characterization and quantification of the
different types of waste, as well as a knowledge of the processes used, but also an assessment of
the vulnerability of the specific environments contingent upon the geological and hydrogeological conditions and peripheral targets. Since this is a generic description, it is important to
7
keep in mind that not all plants or deposits will release pollutants. Meteoric precipitation can
transfer pollutant from a tailings dam or a processing plant to the river if the waste management
is not efficient. If there is no impermeable layer, below the deposit, the infiltration of meteoric
precipitation through deposit can transfer the pollutants to the river via groundwater flow.
2.1.2 MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES
Disposal of coarse mining waste consists in conversing large areas with dumps or in filling
abandoned open-pits. There are two major problems encountered during waste dump
construction. First is the availability of suitable land (which is technically, environmentally and
economically viable) then the control over its construction. Technically suitability means the
land have the capacity to accommodate the quantity of waste and can withstand the ground
bearing pressure. Environmentally suitability means allowable contamination to ground/surface
water; restoration of top soil both area of disposal and area of mining etc. Tailing and other finer
waste can be disposed in various ways. By order of importance, the disposal of tailings is
generally by:
•
•
•
•
Terrestrial impoundment (tailings ponds),
Underground backfilling,
Deep water disposal (lakes and sea), and
Recycling.
Figure 2.1. Tailing Pond [22]
8
2.1.3 MANAGEMENT OF MINING WASTES
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste
materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human
health or local aesthetics or amenity. A sub focus in recent decades has been to reduce waste
materials' effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover resources from them.
Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous substances with different methods and
fields of expertise for each.
Proper planning is essential to manage the mining wastes. Mining wastes generated in every
stage of the operations are required to handle immediately. The objectives should be aimed
towards – minimization of waste generation, prevention of wastes to become hazardous,
alternative use of the generated wastes and systematic waste disposal.
2.2 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN STEEL INDUSTRY
Introduction
Iron and steel industry characteristically is a heavy industry. All its raw materials are heavy and
colossal. They encompass iron-ore, coking coal and limestone. Location of this industry is thus
governed by its proximity to raw materials, predominantly coking coal.
Crude steel production in the 66 countries reporting to the World Steel Association totaled
1326.5 (mmt) in 2008. In 2007, total world crude steel production was 1,351.3 million metric
tonnes (mmt). The biggest steel producing country is currently China, which accounted for
36.6% of world steel production in 2007. India stands fifth position in the list of the steel
production accounting 55.2 million tons of steel production in 2008.
9
This is a list of countries by steel production in 2007 and 2008, based on data provided by the
World Steel Association, accessed in May 2009.
Table 2.1 Crude Steel Production (million tonnes)
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steel_production_by_country)
Rank
—
1
—
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Country/Region
2007
1,351.3
494.9
209.7
120.2
98.1
72.4
53.1
51.5
48.6
42.8
33.8
31.6
World
People's Republic of China
European Union
Japan
United States
Russia
India
South Korea
Germany
Ukraine
Brazil
Italy
2008
1326.5
500.5
198.0
118.7
91.4
68.5
55.2
53.6
45.8
37.1
33.7
30.6
With the increase in steel production, solid waste i.e. its slag production also increased in the
world and in 2008 it was 400 million tones. Actual production data in India are unavailable but
may be estimated as being in the range of 17 to 23 million tons in 2008.
2.2.1 MAJOR STEEL PLAYERS IN INDIA
Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is the leading steel-making company in India. It is
groups of fully integrated steel plants producing both basic and special steel for domestic
construction, engineering, power, railway, automotive and defense industries and for sale in
export markets. The Government of India owns about 86% of SAIL’s equity and retains volting
control of the company. Major units of SAIL are as under.
•
•
•
•
•
Integrated steel plant
Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) in Chhattisgarh
Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) in West Bengal
Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Orissa
Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) in Jharkhand
SAIL Special Steel Plant
10
•
•
•
Alloy Steel Plant (ASP) in West Bengal
Salem Steel Plant (SSP) in Tamil Nadu
Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel plant (VISL) in Karnataka
Subsidiaries
•
•
•
Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO) in West Bengal
Maharashtra Electro smelt Limited (MEL) in Maharashtra
Bhilai Oxygen Limited (BOL) in New Delhi
Others major steel producers are
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tata Steel
Essar Steel
Jindal Vijaynagar Steels Ltd
Jindal Strips Ltd
JISCO
Saw Pipes
Uttam Steels Ltd
Ispat Industries Ltd
Mukand Ltd
Mahindra Ugine Steel Company Ltd
Tata SSL Ltd
Usha Ispat Ltd
Kalyani Steel Ltd
Electro Steel Castings Ltd
Sesa Goa Ltd
NMDC
Lloyds SteeI Industries Ltd
STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED (SAIL)
Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is a company registered under the Indian Companies
Act, 1956 and is an enterprise of the Government of India. It has five integrated steel plants at
Bhilai (Chhattisgarh),
Rourkela (Orissa),
Durgapur (West Bengal),
Bokaro (Jharkhand) and
Burnpur (West Bengal).
11
Table 2.2 Indian Iron & Steel Production of SAIL (in Million Tonnes)
(http://steel.nic.in/development.htm#LINKD1)
Item
Pig Iron
Carbon Steel
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
4.99
5.314
5.28
(Apr-Dec)
4.30
55.146
58.233
59.02
48.11
2.2.2 STEEL PRODUCTION FROM IRON ORE
Steel is an alloy of iron usually containing less than 1% carbon. It is used most frequently in the
automotive and construction industries. Steel can be cast into bars, strips, sheets, nails, spikes,
wire, rods or pipes as needed by the intended user.
Steel production at an integrated steel plant involves three basic steps.
1. The heat source used to melt iron ore is produced i.e. coke making.
2. Next the iron ore is melted in a furnace.
3. Finally, the molten iron is processed to produce steel.
These three steps can be done at one facility; however, the fuel source is often purchased from
off-site producers.
Coke making
Coke is a solid carbon fuel and carbon source used to melt and reduce iron ore. Coke production
begins with pulverized, bituminous coal. The coal is fed into a coke oven which is sealed and
heated to very high temperatures for 14 to 36 hours. Coke is produced in batch processes, with
multiple coke ovens operating simultaneously.
Heat is frequently transferred from one oven to another to reduce energy requirements. After the
coke is finished, it is moved to a quenching tower where it is cooled with water spray. Once
cooled, the coke is moved directly to an iron melting furnace or into storage for future use.
12
Iron making
During iron making, iron ore, coke, heated air and limestone or other fluxes are fed into a blast
furnace. The heated air causes the coke combustion, which provides the heat and carbon sources
for iron production. Limestone or other fluxes may be added to react with and remove the acidic
impurities, called slag, from the molten iron. The limestone-impurities mixtures float to the top
of the molten iron and are skimmed off, after melting is complete.
Sintering products may also be added to the furnace. Sintering is a process in which solid wastes
are combined into a porous mass that can then be added to the blast furnace. These wastes
include iron ore fines, pollution control dust, coke breeze, water treatment plant sludge, and flux.
Sintering plants help reduce solid waste by combusting waste products and capturing trace iron
present in the mixture. Sintering plants are not used at all steel production facilities.
Figure 2.2. Steel Making Flowchart [25]
Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, BOF, Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren, LD-converter) is a method
of primary steel making in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel. The LDconverter is named after the Austrian place names Linz and Donawitz (a district of Leoben). The
vast majority of steel manufactured in the world is produced using the basic oxygen furnace.
Modern furnaces will take a charge of iron of up to 350 tons and convert it into steel in less than
40 minutes. The LD converter is a refined version of the Bessemer converter where blowing of
air is replaced with blowing oxygen.
Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it
into low-carbon steel.
13
The process is known as basic due to the pH of the refractories - calcium oxide and magnesium
oxide - that line the vessel to withstand the high temperature of molten metal.
2.2.3 SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN STEEL PLANTS AND ITS
REUTILIZATION
The operations in an integrated steel plant are very complex. Several other activities such as
power generation and production of refractories are also performed in varying degree inside the
steel works. A vast quantity of raw material are handled and processed and solid wastes are
generated at every stage of operation. These wastes have wide ranging impact on the
environment. These solid wastes contain valuable material which can be recovered and recycled
in the process.
Various steel industries in the country in the area of waste utilization which includes production
of cement from BF slag, use of LD slag as a soil conditioner, LD slag recycling through sinter
routes, manufacture of fly ash bricks and light weight aggregates, agglomeration and recycle of
lime fines, reuse of refractory wastes products and use of coke breeze in sinter making.
Production of steel involves several operations. It starts from the naturally occurring raw material
like iron ore, coal and flux stones to produce hot metal in blast furnace, conversion of hot metal
into steel and the subsequent rolling of steel in finished product in the rolling mills. Several other
activities such as power generation and production of refractories are also performed in varying
degree inside the steel works. Large quantities of wastes are generated in view of the above
activities. These wastes have wide ranging impacts on the environment. These solid wastes are
classified into three basic categories:
1) Wastes which are hazardous and must be treated suitably before throwing them as waste.
2) Wastes which are not hazardous and recovery recycle and reuse of valuable in it could be
done economically.
3) Wastes which are not hazardous but recovery recycle and reuse may not be economical.
In many cases, these solid wastes contain valuable material which can be recovered and recycled
in the process. Recycling and utilization of these solid wastes through an integrated waste
management has gained special significance due to several factors such as economic advantage
of the primary resources, better and cleaner environment, conservation of energy and water and
compliance with the law.
14
To make one tone of crude of steel even with the good raw materials and efficient operation, 5
tonnes of air, 2.8 tonnes of raw material and 2.25 tonnes of water are required. These will
produce in addition to one tonnes of crude steel, 8 tonnes of moist dust laden gases and 0.5
tonnes of solid wastes. However, in SAIL plants, this figure varies from 820 kg/tcs to 1045kg/tcs
which are still very high. Solid wastes generated at various stages of operation in steel industries
of other countries as well as in India in table 1. The schematic presentation of steel making is
shown in Fig 1. From the above it is clear that the main solid waste comprises:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
Blast furnace slag.
Steel making slag.
Sludge from sinter plant and blast furnace gas cleaning systems.
Dust recovered from dedusting system.
Mill scale.
Fly ash
Waste refractories.
Raw material spilled out of the carrying system.
Waste consumables
Figure 2.3 Schematic Diagram of Steel Making (Agarwal, 1999)
2.2.4 MAJOR SOLID WASTES GENERATED IN STEEL PLANT
•
Iron making
The major solid wastes generated from iron making process are as follows:
i.
Air cooled BF slag.
15
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
Granulated BF slag.
Desulphurization slag.
Flue dust.
GCP sludge.
Pig iron.
•
Steel making
i.
BOF slag.
ii.
BOF sludge.
iii. Lime dust.
iv.
Steel scrap.
•
Rolling mills:
i.
Mill scale.
ii.
Silicon steel mill sludge.
•
Coke Oven
Coke breeze
•
Coal Chemical department
i.
Sulphur sludge.
ii.
Tar sludge.
•
Power generation
i.
Fly ash.
ii.
Bottom ash/clinker.
•
Others
i.
Used refractory.
ii.
Oil refining sludge.
iii. Machine shop turning.
Category of Solid Waste
There are basically three categories of solid wastes. They are as follows:
1. Ferruginous solid wastes.
2. Non-ferruginous solid wastes.
3. Fly ash.
16
Ferruginous Solid Wastes
Solid waste which contain more amount of iron particles are considered as ferruginous solid
wastes. These solid wastes are of more demand. They can be recycled and reused in various
ways. These wastes contain more percentage of iron particles.
Example: Blast furnace flue dust, gas cleaning plant (GCP) sludge, LD sludge, sinter plant
sludge, mill scale are some of the major ferruginous solid wastes.
Non-Ferruginous Solid Wastes
Solid wastes which do not contain iron particles are considered as non-ferruginous solid waste.
Example: acetylene sludge, refractory brick, limes fines etc.
Acetylene Sludge
Acetylene sludge is composed of SiO2 = 4 to 6, CaO = 60 to 70, Al2O3 = 1 to 3.
There are two acetylene plants for production of acetylene gas from calcium carbide.
Entire quantity of acetylene sludge which is generated from these plants is being sold to
private parties.
Acetylene sludge can be utilized gainfully for the neutralization of acidic effluent and
white washing of buildings.
Refractory Bricks
Refractory bricks have a major role in processes which take place in the steel plant.
They are of a great use as a container for hot metal whose temperature is approximately
950-1300 degrees.
They have a high melting point.
Refractory bricks are highly heat resistant.
They are mostly generated from furnace, coke oven, LD converters, kilns etc.
These refractory bricks (used and broken both) are further recycled and sold for further
use.
Lime Fines
Lime fines are mostly generated from lime, dolomite and brick plant, calcining plant etc.
They are used as a neutralizing agent in coal rolling mills (CRM).
They are also used in trimming addition in sinter making process.
17
Fly Ash
Major source of fly ash generation are the coal based thermal power plants.
It is the byproduct of the combustion of pulverized coal in thermal power plants.
It is used in manufacturing cement.
Used in making fly ash based bricks.
Helps in raising ash pond dyke height.
Used in plastering process.
It plays a major role in conditioning of soil.
Helps in filling land or mines.
Helps in making roads and tiles.
Helps in making cellular concrete.
Helps in making fly ash lime gypsum products.
2.2.5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
With the production of 15.58 MT of crude steel during 2007-08, the steel plants have generated
5.8 MT of BF slag, 1.4 MT of SMS slag and 0.8 MT of other process wastes. SAIL has
effectively adopted waste minimization strategies including conservation at source, recovery and
recycling. The solid waste generation over the years has been reducing and that of utilization has
been increasing, as is evident from the following table:
Table 2.3 Solid Waste Generation in SAIL (http://www.sail.co.in/), [28]
Year
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
Solid Waste
Generation (in million tonnes) Utilization (%)
7.841
70
7.816
75
8.029
79
8.028
78.6
2.2.6 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF STEEL PLANT WASTE
Iron making in the BF produces a slag that amounts to 20 to 40 percent of hot metal production.
BF slag is considered environmentally unfriendly when fresh because it gives off sulfur dioxide
and, in the presence of water, hydrogen sulfide and sulphuric acid are generated. These are at
least a nuisance and at worst, are potentially dangerous. Fortunately, the material stabilizes
rapidly when cooled and the potential for obnoxious leachate diminishes rapidly. However, the
generation of sulphuric acid causes considerably corrosion damage in the vicinity of blast
furnace. In Western Europe and Japan, Virtually all slag produced is utilized either in cement
18
production or as a road filling. In Egypt, almost two-thirds of the BF slag generated is utilized in
cement production. Some 50 to 200 kg of BOF slag is produced for every metric ton of steel
made in the basic oxygen furnace, with an average value of 120kg/metric ton. At present about
50 percent of BOF slag is being utilized worldwide, particularly for road construction and as
addition to cement kiln.
Recycling of slag has become common only since the early 1900s. The first documented use of
BF slag was in England in 1903, slag aggregates were used in making asphalt concrete. Today,
almost all BF slag is used either as aggregate or in cement production. Steel for making slag is
generally considered unstable for use in concrete but has been commercially used as road
aggregates for over 90 years and as asphalt aggregates since 1937, steel-making slag can contain
valuable metal and typical processing plant are designed to recover this metal
electromagnetically. These plants often include crushing units that can increase the metal
recovery yield and also produce material suitable as construction aggregates. Although BF slag is
known to be widely used in different civil engineering purposes, the use of steel slag has been
given much less encouragement.
BF dust and sludge are generated from the processing and cleaning, either by wet or dry means,
the dust and sludge typically are 1 to 4 percent of hot metal production, these material are less
effective utilized than BF slag. In some cases, they are recycled through the sinter plant, but, in
most cases, they are dumped and land filled. Finding better solution for the effective utilization
of BF slag and sludge is an important problem. BOF dust and sludge are generated during the
cleaning of gases emitted from the basic oxygen furnace. The actual production rate depends on
the operation circumstances. It may range from about 4 to 31 kg/metric ton of steel produced,
and has a mean value of about 18 kg/metric ton. The disposal or utilization of BOF dust and
sludge is one of the critical environmental problems in some countries.
Electrical arc furnace produces about 116 kg of slag for every metric ton of molten steel.
Worldwide, about 77 percentage of the slag produced in EAFs is reused or recycled. The
remainder is land filled or dumped. Due to the relatively high iron content in EAF slag, screens
and electromagnetic conveyors are used to separate the iron to be reused as raw material. The
EAF slag remaining is normally aged for at least six months before being reused or recycled in
different application such as road building. All efforts in Egypt have focused on separating the
iron from EAF slag without paying enough attention to the slag itself. However, pilot research
work conducted at Alexandria University in Egypt has investigated the possibility of utilizing
such slag. The test result proved that slag asphalt concrete could, in general fulfill the
requirements of the road-paving design criteria.
19
2.2.7 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN STEEL PLANT
From the name itself, it indicates managing wastes in such a way that it would be beneficial in
any way. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of
waste material, usually one produced by human activities with an effort to reduce their effect on
human health or local aesthetics or amenity. Waste management involves solid, liquid and
gaseous waste management.
Solid Waste Management
Solid waste generation is controlled by efficient and optimum use of raw material.
Solid wastes should be disposed properly through a proper disposal system.
New technologies should be adopted for eco-friendly solid waste disposal.
Transportation of solid waste from generation point to disposal point should be in a
controlled and proper way.
Displaying the area as solid waste disposal area.
If possible, selling some of the solid wastes to be further used in some other ways
converting waste into wealth.
Liquid Waste Management
All major and maximum liquid wastes should be recycled.
Monitoring of the reclaimed water drawn from the respective plants.
Liquid wastes should be disposed properly through the proper and efficient disposal
system.
Transportation of liquid wastes from the generation point to disposal point should be in a
controlled and proper way.
Displaying the area as liquid waste disposal area.
Selling some of the liquid waste to be used in beneficial ways.
Gaseous Waste Management
Recycling of dust product to the respective process.
Online monitoring of combustion products such as SOx, CO, NOx analyzer at stack dust
emission level.
Monitoring ESP efficiency & stack volume.
Measuring and monitoring of ambient air quality.
20
CHAPTER 3
WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
MINING AND ALLIED
INDUSTRIES: CASE STUDIES
21
CHAPTER 3
3.1 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE BISRA STONE LIME COMPANY
LIMITED
3.1.1 Introduction
Bisra Stone Lime Company Limited Mines is an opencast mine located at Birmitrapur DistrictSundargarh Orissa on NH-23 and towards North of Rourkela at a distance of 30 KM and it is well
connected by rail also. The lease hold area of mines is 1961.93 Acres or 793.966 Hectares
Location:-The geographical location of the mines falls between
Latitude:
Longitude:
22o24’19.7 to 22o25’00
84o40’56.6 to 84o45’24
Figure 3.1.1 Location of BSL Mines
22
Geology of the mines
The rocks of this area belong to the Birmitrapur stage of the Gangpur series of middle
Dharwarian age. All the rocks of this series are meta-sedimentary in nature. In the lease hold
proper Limestone overlies Dolomite i.e. the limestone is younger than dolomite. The general
strike of the mineral body is nearly east-west and average dip is 60o towards North. Limestone is
crystalline and gray in colour but dolomite is fine grain shows gray to white varieties. Both are
suitable for steel making.
Reserve and grade: Limestone: The total reserve of Limestone to be around 400 Million Tonnes. During mining it
has been found 60% is good stone (BF Grade) so total BF grade is about 240 Million Tonnes.
Table 3.1.1 Composition of Limestone (in %) [14]
Ins
SiO2
Al2O3:
Fe2O3:
CaO
MgO
8.00 – 12.00
5.00 – 9.00
1.50 – 2.50
0.60 – 1.50
43.50 – 46.50
3.50 – 5.50
Dolomite:
The Dolomite reserve will be approx. 240 million tonnes. From the quality
control in the mines it has been noticed that 70% is good stone (BF Grade). So based on the
calculation total B.F.Grade Dolomite will be around 170 million tones.
Table 3.1.2 Composition of Dolomite (in %) [14]
Ins
SiO2
Al2O3:
Fe2O3:
CaO
MgO
5.00 – 7.50
3.00 – 5.50
0.80 – 1.20
0.50 – 0.80
28.00 – 29.50
19.50 – 21.00
Mining Plan
For convenience of mining, the deposit has been divided into four mines, viz. Kaplas East,
Kaplas West, Gurpahar and Patpahar. There are very low grade stones in between the limestone
23
and dolomite bands which mean mining has to be carried out in a selective manner. The
estimated reserves of limestone and dolomites are 375 MT and 265 MT respectively.
Mining technology
Jack-hammer drill system is being used for overburden removal. Limestone extraction is done by
conventional drilling & blasting manual sizing of the limestone at the mine site.
Limestone wining and transportation
Total limestone production is done by drilling & blasting with dumper loading and transportation
system. Blasted coal is loaded by loaders on to dumpers and transported to the apron feeder of
feeder breaker. Part of sizing in done on the mine site manually so as to obtain the apron feeder
feed size. Further crushing is done in the crusher from which various product of different sizes
are obtained and are then directly transported to the railway sidings and from there to the
customers.
Table 3.1.3 Specification of Machineries [14]
Dumpers: Tata Movers
Capacity
25 tons
Power
395 hp
Total number
5 Nos.
Loader: JCB 3d
Bucket capacity
0.8 m3
Power
50 hp
Total number
3 Nos.
Loader: HM 2021
Bucket capacity
1.7 m3
Power
124
Total number
2 Nos.
24
3.1.2 PATPAHAR QUARRY OF BSL MINES
The waste management practices in Patpahar quarry, one of the quarries of the BSL mines.
Mineral deposit found: - Dolomite
Table 3.1.4 Details of Patpahar quarry [14]
Length of Patpahar Quarry
712.5 m
Breadth of Patpahar Quarry
297.0 m
Depth of Patpahar Quarry
46 m
Area of Patpahar Quarry
2999812.5 m2
Production 2009-10
145600 MT
Stripping ratio
1: 0.048
Bench height
5m
Width of the bench
5m
Figure 3.1.2 View of Patpahar Quarry [14]
25
3.1.3 WASTE GENERATION IN PATPAHAR QUARRY
There are two main sources of waste generation in the Patpahar quarry these are: 1) Mines quarry
2) Crusher
Waste from mines
The waste generated in the mines is basically the overburden. This overburden is removed to
extract the dolomite from the mines.
Types of waste generated in the mines are:1. Solid waste:
a) Soil
b) Epidiorite and
c) Intercalated waste
2. Liquid waste: Waste water from various operations.
3. Air pollution: Emission of particulate from loading, crushing, hauling.
Solid Waste from Mines
The waste produced from opencast limestone mining which is at present the dominant extraction
for mining of mineral deposits comprise the overburden which needs to be removed during the
opening up and development operations as well as during actual extraction of the deposit over
the mine life. Staggering volumes of waste low in ultimate value are produced over the lifecycle
of a mine posing disposal and environmental problems. Environmentally, opencast mining is
more harmful than underground mining as large tracts of land on the earth are divested, though
temporarily disturbing all components of neutral ecosystem.
Table 3.1.5 Ore and Waste Production of BSL Mines [14]
Dolomite
Production for 2008 – 09
Production for 2009 – 10
Ore (MT)
145600
156000
Sub-grade ore
7000
7500
Intercalated waste
7000
7500
26
The winning of the dolomite again needs drilling, blasting and handling of dolomite. The Mining
generates some valuable constituents like soil and green mass transformed to waste material,
because of mishandling drilling, blasting, crushing, sizing
Each ton of limestone or dolomite on an average is associated with the removal of 4 tons of
waste rock; this mass is being shifted from mine quarry to the dumping yard.
Waste from Crusher
There are two numbers of crusher and also there is one number of Mini crusher in the Patpahar
area. The crushing operation of dolomite in the crusher gives various sizes of dolomite product,
using different screens. Both the crushers operating have the production capacity of 120 tons per
hour.
Table 3.1.6 Details of Crusher No 4 & 5 [14]
Sl. No
Crusher
Feed material
Feed size (mm)
Output
1
SCH: 5
Dolomite
300
2
R.M.M
Limestone
300
+25mm, -50mm,
-25mm, +10mm,
-10mm, +6mm
+25mm, -50mm,
-25mm, +10mm,
-10mm, +6mm
Dolomite and limestone are sorted and bring to the crusher and sized in the crusher for the
specification of user industry. After the crushing various products are obtained, ultimately fines
of dolomite is also produced which can be considered as waste in the short term as they are
further utilized in the long run.
27
Apron feeder
Feed size
Dolomite
Crusher (4 & 5)
Fines
Product size
Product size
Product size
(+25mm, -50mm)
(-25mm, +10mm)
(-10mm, +6mm)
Figure 3.1.3 Flow diagram of crusher [14]
It has been estimated that the generation of solid waste generated will be at around 34,100 m3 in
the Patpahar dolomite quarry. Therefore the waste will be generated during scheme period will
be: Table 3.1.7 Estimation Solid Waste Generation of Patpahar Quarry [14]
Sl. No.
Year
Quantity (m3)
1
2009 – 10
7000
2
2010 – 11*
7500
3
2011 – 12*
9300
4
2012 – 13*
11300
Total
34100
Note: * Proposed value indicated for future waste generation.
28
Liquid waste from the mines
There is no large dam or pond or river in existing limestone mine. In the area water supply is
mainly tube wells. The ground water is at 60 to 65 meters below the surface while the mining is
generally carried upto 15-40m.depth. Hence there is not much problem of water pollution.
Further, the ground water level is not adversely affected due to the mining activities as there is
no harmful effluent from the mining activities.
Surface water effects of opencast mining and related infrastructure can be characterised as
altered or diverted natural drainage lines, reduced natural runoff, concentration of runoff, mixing
of clean runoff with contaminated runoff and creation of large open water bodies.
.
Figure 3.1.4 Waste Water of Mine [14]
Waste water is generated during various operations in the mines such as drilling, dust
suppression. Mine water means any water that enters the mine and is discharged from the mine.
Mine water generally comes from the washing of the dolomite in the quarry itself as they are
generally in the pure form. Some of the water comes from the ground water as a spring in the
mines.
Air Pollution
Air pollution from mines
Air pollution in this small limestone mine is caused from different sources of dust formation at
mines as well as due to movements of trucks for transportation exploitation of limestone cause
29
air pollution by dust particles and gases. Particles results from the disintegration and their
suspension in the atmosphere causes pollution, which ultimately leads to ecological disturbances.
Blasting causes noxious fumes which are harmful to health.
Figure 3.1.5 Formation of Dust during Loading [14]
Nitrogen oxides are formed during blasting of high explosives. They are also found in exhaust
fumes of fuel combustion engines used in transportation
Fugitive dust is particulates of finely divided solid and liquid particles which are airborne. They
form a major part of the air pollutant emissions produced from both stationary and mobile
sources such as crushing, screening etc.
Air pollution from Crusher
Crushing generates particulate material highly air-borne limestone and dolomite dust in micro
size. The discharge of the crusher is at a height of 10-12 m. Therefore while falling of the
product especially the finer particle which is when come in contact with the air cause lots of dust
in the atmosphere.
In the crusher area one can find the dolomite dust of fines scattered in the ground. Transportation
of the dolomite chips or stone by the trucks and dumper from crusher contributes to the airpollution. Even the loading and hauling process contributes to the disturbance of the fine which
is settled in the ground and making them air-borne creating serious dust problem by making the
environment difficult for breathing.
30
Figure 3.1.6 Air Pollution in the Crusher area [14]
Similarly in the mini-crusher area there the discharge height is at about 8-10m. Due the discharge
height the fine of the product after processed from the crusher becomes air-borne. In case of the
transportation, loading anyone can see in the atmosphere huge dust cloud.
Table 3.1.8 AAQ standards of Central Pollution [18]
Sampling area
SPM
SO2
NOx
(µg/m3)
(µg/m3)
(µg/m3)
Industrial
500 (24 hr)
120 (24 hr)
120 (24 hr)
Residential area
360 (Annual average)
200 (24 hr)
80 (Annual)
80 (24 hr)
80(Annual average)
80 (24 hr)
Sensitive area
140 (Annual average)
100 (24 hr)
60 (Annual)
30 (24 hr)
60 (Annual average)
30 (24 hr)
70 (Annual average) 15 (Annual average l)
15 (Annual average l)
Annual Average: Annual Arithmetic Mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice
a week 24-hourly at uniform interval
24 Hours Average: 24-hourly/8-hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. However
2% of the time, it may exceed but not two consecutive days.
31
Table 3.1.9 AAQ data of Patpahar Mines Area [14]
Sampling area
SPM
SO2
NOx
(µg/m3)
(µg/m3)
(µg/m3)
(annual average value)
135.8
(annual average value)
4.50
(annual average value)
11.48
AAQ Standards
Crusher area
360
80
80
328
4.00
17.87
AAQ Standards
Residential area
360
80
80
115.7
3.80
2.60
140
218
60
Below 4.00
60
19.17
80
80
Mining area
AAQ Standards
Mines (Patpahar Weigh
bridge)
360
AAQ Standards
Discussion
The AAQ data of the patpahar mines area has been given in the above Table 3.1.11. The result
found for SPM, SO2 and NOx are below the AAQ standard prescribed by Central Board Control
Board. Hence there is no problem of gaseous emission.
3.1.4 WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE MINES
Disposal of Solid Waste
The waste generated for the mines quarry will be dumped in two places which are:1) One is nearby active dump towards north of Patpahar dolomite quarry.
2) Second dump is proposed toward the southern side of Kurpani dolomite quarry.
The solid waste generated from the mines quarry i.e. overburden is disposed in the two dumps
which is mentioned above. These two dumps are adjacent to the mines. The southern dump
presently not in use as it is fully-filled. Further the southern dump will be cleared and then can be
re-used. The northern dump is presently is in use and overburden which is generated from the
mines quarry is dumped here. The details of the mines are given in the table below.
32
Table 3.1.10 Details of waste dumps of Patpahar Quarry [14]
Dumps
Area of dumping
(hectare)
Height of dump
(m)
Distance from the
quarry (km)
Northern dump
4.90
5
0.5
Southern dump
4.30
5
0.75
Figure 3.1.7 Northern Dump of Patpahar Quarry [14]
Figure 3.1.8 Southern dump of Patpahar Quarry [14]
From the above table we know that the area of the northern dump is greater in comparison to the
southern dump of the mines quarry. The height of the dumps which has maximum is 10m. But
the mine has constantly kept the height of the dumps to about 5m.
The overburden which is dump is generally the top soil and the clay. The deposit of the dolomite
is not much deep as it is found in the depth maximum of 10-20m below the ground. Therefore
the dump is generally filled by the waste that is basically top-soil and clay and other similar
waste.
33
Figure 3.1.9 Layout of Patpahar Dolomite Quarry [14]
In layout of the patpahar can we can see that there are two solid waste dumps northern and the
southern dump. Solid waste generated from the mine is disposed in these two dumps. Till now
backfilling process is not carried out, so this waste is not being used as a backfilling material.
Currently the waste which is in the dumps is being utilized for plantation and paddy harvesting.
Disposal of Liquid Waste
In this limestone mines there are no water problem. The water which is generated from the mines
is directly discharged in the mines. As the quantity generation of water is very less so there is no
problem of water pollution.
34
As the mine is small and manually operated, the waste water generated is discharged in the site
itself. Further the mine waste is drained-off by making suitable drains. The drains leads the waste
water to the bottom of the pit where is stored.
Figure 3.1.10 Water stored in the Sump
As the water stored in the pit bottom is below the pollution norm. So water pollution is not a big
problem in the mining area.
Soil Analysis
The soil sample was collected from the mines and it was tested
Sampling: Soil was taken from the waste dump of the mine.
Analysis of soil: Soil taken from the mines was tested with Field Soil Testing Kit
Model: Orlab soil testing kit.
Soil analysis was done in the lab and the results obtained are given in the Table below:
35
Table 3.1.11 Soil analysis data of BSL Mines
Sl. No Test
Rating
1
pH
6 (medium)
2
Organic Carbon
0.3 % (low)
3
Soil Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3- N)
210 Kg/Hec (low range)
4
Soil Ammonical Nitrogen (NH4- N)
17 Kg/Hec
5
Phosphorous (P2O5)
30 Kg/Hec
6
Ca + Mg
60 meq/100gm
7
Sulphur (SO4 –S)
15 ppm
8
Potassium as K2O
180 Kg/Hec (medium)
9
Potassium as K
33.65 Kg/Hec
10
Calcium as Ca
40 meq/100gm
11
Magnesium as Mg
20 meq/100gm
Result of soil analysis
The different parameters of the collected soil sample were analyzed and are presented in the
Table 3.1.10. It may be observed that the pH value is slightly acidic. Organic carbon content in
the soil is low. Similarly Soil Nitrate Nitrogen content in the soil is also low. The parameters like
Soil Ammonical Nitrogen (NH4- N), Phosphorous (P2O5), (Ca & Mg), Sulphur (SO4 –S),
Potassium as K2O are in medium concentration.
36
Discussion
The survey of the soil quality is important and of great concern as because of it pollution levels
as it affect the vegetation and growth of the plants. Further the soil can be used for reclamation
purpose so it was important to assess the quality of the soil. The value obtained from the testing
of the soil shows that the soil can be used for the reclamation. Soil should be treated with
nitrogen rich fertilizer to bring back the quality of the soil before reclamation.
Water sample analysis
Water sample collected from the mines and analyzed.
Sampling: - Water sample was collected from the sump of the mines.
Analysis of soil: Water sample taken from the mines was tested with Field Water Testing Kit.
Model of the Kit: Orlab Water Testing Kit.
Water analysis was done in the lab and the results obtained are given in the Table below:
Table 3.1.12 Water analysis of BSL Mine Water
Sl. No
Mine Water
Permissible Limit
7.52
(IS: 10500-1991)
5.50-9.00
Unobjectionable
-
Parameter
1
pH Value
2
Odour
3
Total hardness (as CaCO3), mg/l
118.5
600
4
Iron (as Fe), mg/l
0.05
1.0
5
Chloride (as Cl), mg/l
60
1000.00
6
Residual Chlorine, mg/l
Nil
1
7
Total alkalinity, mg/l
178
200
37
8
Calcium (as Ca), mg/l
47.4
200
9
Calcium (as CaCO3), mg/l
118.5
600
10
Magnesium (as Mg), mg/l
276.08
100
11
Ammonia, mg/l
2.4
1.2
12
Phosphate, mg/l
0.0156
5
13
Sulphate, mg/l
Below 40
400
Result
The result obtained from the analysis of the water was that the pH level of the water was
appropriate as per norms. Similarly Iron (as Fe), Chloride (as Cl), Total alkalinity, Calcium,
Phosphate, Sulphate was found to be below tolerance limit. Magnesium and Ammonia
concentration in the water was found to be excess and both concentration are above the norm.
Discussion
The analysis of the water is of great concern because of its high potential toxicity to the various
biological forms. Magnesium and other alkali earth metals are responsible for water hardness. So
the concentration of magnesium is higher so the water is hard water. Ammonia is extremely toxic
and even relatively low levels pose a threat to fish health. Since the level of ammonia is high the
water tested is toxic.
3.1.5 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE MINES
Solid waste management
The solid waste generated from the mines is used for:
1) Plantation as the top-soil is beneficial of the growth of the plants.
2) Used in agricultural land, the pockets of loamy soil is suitable for paddy harvesting.
3) Land filling.
38
Management of crusher waste
The waste which is generated from the crusher i.e. the dolomite fines generated is temporarily is
considered to be waste. These fine generated is further utilized as a flux in the steel plant. It is
used in the sintering plant for making suitable flux.
Liquid waste management
The liquid waste can be managed by the following:
a) Settling or treatment pond before discharge to the water sources.
b) The water present in the mine sump is reused in the mines for dust suppression measures.
Depending upon the nature of pollutant, the process could be settling or filtering for physical
treatment of chemical pollutant and quality improvement by biological means. The waste
materials in the water body are the following:•
•
Leaching and mixing: calcium and magnesium salt making water hard.
Oil, Grease, mixing: from machine, tar product.
Formation of garland drain, diversion of drain and rivulets and maintenance of favorable gradient
of dumps are some of the physical means to minimize water pollution. Leaching erosion of the
dumps can be binding grass, plantation, terrace formation or carpeting.
Water management by way of forming water pools and lagoons in the void area or dumps serves
as settling pond and meet the requirement of the flora and fauna. The damaging impact of the
surface mining in form of lowering water table of the region, loss of portable water, loss in the
soil moisture etc. could be taken care of by water management, which otherwise could be a
pollutant of the surface water streams. The water pool could be used for the fish culture after
water treatment, eradication of weeds and amendment of water body and stocking of the pond.
Water Pollution Control Management
The following management techniques are proposed for the effective control of water pollution:
Suitable drainage system will be provided to prevent surface water from entering
into mines directly, to reduce soil wash off.
Sufficient number of retaining walls/Check walls will be provided to OB dump and other
areas in order to avoid the soil wash out
39
Management of Particulate Material
The mining area of the Patpahar area is greatly facing air pollution from particulate emission,
similarly is the situation in the Patpahar crusher area.
The gaseous discharge to a great extent can be controlled or minimized by proper maintenance of
operating machines; control and maintenance of mine haul road and dumps. The transport system
should be streamlined by the use of electricity operated machines. The dust suppression is
possible by proper layout of haul road including water sprinkling dust extractor at the transfer
points, on crushing and conveyor system, dust system, dust extractor unit on blast hole drills, and
hoods on all transfer points and conveyors.
In Patpahar quarry special explosive is used in the blasting. Explosive used has special
characteristics that after charging, the blasting occurs with making less sound and there are lesser
fumes. So, regarding blasting practices there is less air pollution.
40
3.2 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BASUNDHARA OPEN CAST MINE, MCL
3.2.1 Introduction
Basundhara (West) OCP mine is located in north-central part of Ib Valley coalfield, which
started operation during 2003-04. The project or mining lease covers an area of 401.10 ha.
Location
The project is located in the north-west of Basundhara East block and east of Chaturdhara block
of Ib Valley coalfield in Sundargarh district of Orissa. It falls within: Latitude: - 22O 03’ 32” & 22O 04’ 11” (N) and
Longitude: - 83O 42’ 18” & 83O 44’ 08” (E).
Communication
The block under reference is well connected by road. It is accessible by an all weather black
topped road from district headquarter, Sundargarh, located about 48 km.
Topography
The topography of the block is generally flat. The general slope is towards south. The surface
elevation of the block varies from 262 m to 288 m above MSL. Main drainage of the area is
controlled by the perennial Basundhara River demarcating western and part of southern
boundaries of the block and its feeder streams.
Geology
There are two coal seams (Ib seam & Rampur seam) which is in the process of extraction. The
grade of coal is F (Avg.). The mineable reserve is 25.32 million tons (as on 01.03.2010).
Targeted output
The project has a production of 6.0 Million Tons/Year. The overall stripping ratio works out to
be 0.81 cum/t.
Life of the mine
The life of the mine has been estimated to be 4 years from 01.04.2009.
41
Figure 3.2.1. Location of Basundhara Mines
Manpower the mines
Manpower requirement for this project is 603 including existing manpower of 447 persons.
Mining technology
Shovel-dumper system is being used for overburden removal. Coal extraction by surface miner
technology (blast free mining) and conventional drilling & blasting with shovel dumper system.
42
Coal wining, OB removal and transportation
About 40% of total coal production shall be excavated by drilling & blasting with shovel dumper
system. Blasted coal is loaded by shovel on to dumpers and transported upto receiving pit of
feeder breaker. Balance 60% coal output shall be excavated by surface miner. Part of production
is being dispatched to small customers through road and rest is being dispatched by rail.
Coal handling
The coal handling plant of Basundhara (West) OCP will handle an output of about 3.0 MT per
year of ROM coal produced through conventional drilling / blasting. Balance coal shall be
excavated by blast free mining (by surface miner) with (-) 100 mm size. The ROM coal is
expected to have lump size upto 1200mm, which will be crushed by feeder breakers to (-)
200mm size.
Figure 3.2.2. View of Basundhara Mines
3.2.2 WASTE GENERATION IN BASUNDHARA (WEST) OPENCAST MINES
There are three main sources of waste generation in the Basundhara west opencast mines these
are: 3) Mines quarry
4) Workshop
43
5) Overburden Dump
Waste from mines
The waste generated in the mines is basically the overburden. This overburden is removed to
extract the coal from the mines. The different types of waste generated from the mines are as
follows:1. Solid waste: Soil & OB.
2. Liquid waste: Waste water from various operations.
3. Gaseous waste: Emission of particulate from loading, crushing, hauling.
Solid Waste from Mines
The waste produced from opencast mining which is at present the extraction for mining of
mineral deposits comprise the overburden which needs to be removed during the opening up and
development operations as well as during actual extraction of the deposit over the mine life. In
Basundhara Opencast mines the deposit of the coal in found in the shallow depth, even outcrop
of the coal deposit in some where present in the surface of the land. Therefore the thickness of
the overburden above the coal is not very much. So the generation of the overburden in the mines
compared to the coal is not very much.
Environmentally, opencast mining is more harmful than underground mining as large tracts of
land on the earth are divested, though temporarily disturbing all components of neutral
ecosystem.
The winning of the coal again needs drilling, blasting and handling of coal. The Mining
generates some valuable constituents like soil and green mass transformed to waste material,
because of mishandling drilling, blasting, crushing, sizing. Production of coal and overburden is
given in the Table 3.2.1.
44
Table 3.2.1 Production of Coal Vs overburden [15]
Month
Production of coal in
2009-10 (tons)
Production of in overburden
2009-10 in (m3)
April
640588.2
199530
may
629351.92
200646
June
568193.90
199470
July
453671.06
1448574
August
425990.98
137760
September
437636.95
138327
October
520722.99
130512
November
580102.55
137130
December
614877.32
148075
January
598216.33
134250
February
556562.60
138555
March
642295.58
155370
Each ton of coal on an average is associated with the removal of 2 tons waste rock is removal.
The overburden generated from the mines is directly disposed in the external dump of the mines.
Liquid waste from the mines
Water in the mines is collected in the bottommost part of the mines. Used water of the mines,
rainwater, water seepage all goes to the sump. This water which is collected in the sump has to
be removed so that the coal in the particular area to be exposed. Further, coal is exposed after the
45
removal of water and then coal is extracted. The water which is in the sump is temporarily
stored; sump water with the help of Pump is drained out and is transferred to different place.
Figure 3.2.3 Sump area of the mines
Water transferred is disposed to abandon mine which is nearby. Further water is disposed in the
natural water source or nullah so as to minimize the impact of water on the environment.
Waste water from mine
Open pit mining sometimes intercepts highly permeable zones, with resulting high inflows of
water into the excavation area. This remains a major problem in the west Basundhara opencast
mines. The water which is collected in the mines is stored in the sump of the mine. The water
which is stored in the sump has to be removed so as to expose the coal. In these mines the water
which is stored in the mines is dewatered through the pumping system. The pump transfers the
mine water through pipeline to another area. This area where the water is transferred is de-coaled
area; it is an abandoned mine, earlier known as East Basundhara open cast mines.
The flow diagram for the mine water to be disposed is given in the figure below. In there, first of
all water that is present in the mine is through pump is dewatered and is transferred to the
abandoned mines. Due to the time variation as it is a vast land area it requires time to fill the decoaled area. Therefore due to natural process sedimentation of the water takes place. Finally
there takes place separation of mine water from the sediments, which ultimately give clear water
46
Mine sump
Abandon mines
Settling of water in
the stored area
Sediments &
Clear water
sludge
.
Figure 3.2.4 Flow diagram for Separation of Waste Water from the Mines [15]
Waste water from the workshop
Mine effluent treatment plant is constructed in the mines the water is treated here and circulates
back for washing purpose. Mine effluent is from the mines are stored in the de-coaled void and
there is no need for further treatment. Deployment of heavy earth moving machineries (HEMM)
is required for carrying out the various mining operations. These HEMMs are brought to the
workshop for the purpose of washing and repairs. During washing operations, the suspended
solids as well as some oil and grease are mixed into the water and they are led outside the
workshop.
The workshop effluent is thus, generated by washing of HEMMs like dumpers, grader, dozers
and pay-loaders etc. and floor/road washings. The effluent is mainly contaminated with silt,
suspended solids and oil and grease. Workshop Effluent Treatment Plant (WETPs) has been
constructed in mines for separation of free oil and grease in the oil and grease trap. WETP
consist of pre-sediment tank, chemical house, flash mixer, secondary tank and pump house for
re-circulation of the treated water.
47
Washing platform
Settling tank
Oil & Grease trap
Oil & Sludge
Waste Water
Figure 3.2.5 Flow diagram of Waste water separation from the Oil & Grease trap [15]
Figure 3.2.6 Oil & Grease trap in the workshop [15]
The water which is obtained by the process is directly disposed in the nullah of the mine and it is
never reused for any other purpose.
48
The oil and grease which is finally obtained is collected and stored in the workshop. The grease
and oil obtained is finally sold to private parties.
Table 3.2.2 Generation data of Grease & Oil [15]
Generating material
Quantity generated
Management of the material
Grease & Oil
2 barrel/year
Sold to private parties
Waste water containing
explosive content
Garland drain
Sediment + Water
Settling tank
Clear water
Sediments
Figure 3.2.7 Flow diagram of Water Separation from Waste Dump [15]
49
Air pollution from mines
Air pollution in this mine is caused from different sources of dust formation at mines as well as
due to movements of trucks for transportation exploitation of coal cause air pollution by dust
particles and gases. Particles results from the disintegration and their suspension in the
atmosphere causes pollution, which ultimately leads to ecological disturbances. Blasting causes
noxious fumes which are harmful to health.
Nitrogen oxides are formed during blasting of high explosives. They are also found in exhaust
fumes of fuel combustion engines used in transportation
Fugitive dust is particulates of finely divided solid and liquid particles which are airborne. They
form a major part of the air pollutant emissions produced from both stationary and mobile
sources such as crushing, screening etc.
3.2.3 Waste Disposal in Basundhara Mines
Disposal of Solid Waste
The waste generated for the mines quarry will be dumped in two places which are:1. External dump
2. Internal dump
The solid waste generated from the mines quarry i.e. overburden is disposed in the two dumps
which is mentioned below. These two dumps are adjacent to the mines. The external dump is
adjacent to the mines and the internal dump is basically used in the mines which means it is used
for back-filling area of the mines
Table 3.2.3 Details of Waste Dumps of Basundhara Mines [15]
Dumps
Area of dumping
(hectare)
Height of dump
(m)
Distance from the
face (m)
External dump
11.37
20
200
Internal dump
6.30
25
100
50
The overburden which is dump is generally the top soil and the clay. The deposit of the coal is
not much deep as it is found in the depth maximum of 10-20m below the ground. Therefore the
dump is generally filled by the waste that is basically top-soil and clay and other similar waste.
Figure 3.2.8 Internal Dump of Basundhara Mines
Figure 3.2.9 External Dump of Basundhara Mines
In the mines Internal dump which is used is other word we can say that it is used for mine
reclamation purpose. Solid waste is which generated from the mine is directly dump in these
dumps. Further technical reclamation is carried out by the use bulldozers and other machineries.
Presently dumping is not carried out in the external dump. It was used at the starting of the mine
to access the coal deposit. The external dump which is now present in the mines is now
biologically reclaimed. Plant saplings have been planted on the upper surface of dump, which is
first done by spreading loamy soil as per norms.
In layout of the mines we can see two solid waste dumps, external and internal dumps. Solid
waste generated from the mine use as a backfilling in the mine. In the figure dumps No1 is the
external dump and the dump No.2 is internal dumps which is being used for backfilling the
mines. Presently the eastern part of the Basundhara (west) open cast mines is being used as an
internal dump as the extraction of the coal has already been carried out. In the eastern side of the
mines is Basundhara (east) mine which is an abandoned mine. Half part of this mine has been
backfilled and half is utilized as water reservoir. Mine waste water that is generating from the
mines is taken or pumped to this area to store it. Further the water stored is utilized for various
purposes.
51
Figure 3.2.10 Location of Basundhara OCP [15]
Disposal of Liquid Waste
In this mine there are no water problems. The water which is generated from the mines is directly
discharged in other abandoned mines i.e. East Basundhara Mines. Coal from this mine is
extracted now it has been partial backfilled and partially it is used as water reservoir of the
Basundhara West mines.
52
Figure 3.2.11 East Basundhara Mines [15]
Whatever water that is produces in the mines is dewatered by the help of pump and it is
transferred to another area. The area where waste water is taken is an abandoned mine. This
abandoned mines is known as Basundhara (East) mine, since the area is large it takes time to
filling. After filling of this land with water, there is an arrangement made that it will discharge
the clear water to the nullah. The nullah is attached to the abandoned mines. The sediment of or
sludge which is ultimately settled at the bottom will not come out and in this way water is
discharged in the environment.
Soil Analysis of the mine
The soil sample was collected from the mines dump and it was tested
Sampling: Soil was taken from the mines. Soil taken was Top-soil near to the external dump
Analysis of soil: Soil taken from the mines was tested with Field Soil Testing Kit.
Model: Orlab soil testing kit.
Water analysis was done in the lab and the results obtained are given in the Table below:
53
Table 3.2.4 Soil analysis data of Basundhara Mines
Sl. No
Parameter
Rating
1
pH
6.5
2
Organic Carbon
3
Soil Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3- N)
4
Soil Ammonical Nitrogen (NH4- N)
34 Kg/Hec
5
Phosphorous as (P2O5)
35 Kg/Hec
6
Calcium & Magnesium (Ca + Mg)
40 meq/100gm
7
Sulphur
44.80 Kg/Hec
8
Potassium as (K)
195 Kg/Hec
9
Potassium as (K2O)
265 Kg/Hec
10
Calcium
15 meq/100gm
11
Magnesium
25 meq/100gm
0.3%(low)
150 Kg/Hec(low)
Result
The different parameters of the collected soil sample were analyzed and are presented in the
table 3.2.4. It may be observed that the pH value is slightly acidic. Organic carbon content in the
soil is low. Similarly Soil Nitrate Nitrogen content in the soil is also low. The parameters like
Soil Ammonical Nitrogen (NH4- N), Phosphorous (P2O5), (Ca & Mg), Sulphur (SO4–S),
Potassium as K2O is well present in the soil, and they are almost medium in concentration.
54
Discussion
The result from the analysis of the soil was that the concentration of the organic carbon and the
soil nitrogen content found was below the desirable limit. All the other parameters found was
appropriate. Further the soil can be used for reclamation purpose. But the soil should be treated
with fertilizer to regain its nitrogen and organic carbon before the reclamation process.
3.2.4 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE MINES
Solid Waste Management
The solid waste generated from the mines is used for:
a) Plantation as the top-soil is beneficial of the growth of the plants.
b) Used in agricultural land, the pockets of loamy soil is suitable for paddy harvesting.
c) Land filling.
Control measures
Attempt has been made to minimize the land requirement for the project. Various measures
which have been taken into account are as follows:1. Diversion of forest land for mining and its associated activities has been restricted to the
minimum as far as possible.
2. Sound land resource management is being followed.
3. The backfilled area will be reclaimed both technically and biologically.
4. Proper reshaping of dumps and drainage arrangement for precipitation runoff are being
done.
5. The topsoil is progressively and concurrently utilized during physical/technical
reclamation of the backfilled area.
Waste Dumps
During rainy season there is run-off water which carries soil from the water dumps i.e. External
dump. The dumps water is hazardous as it contains explosive particle which come after the
blasting, during the process of removal of overburden from the mines.
55
Control measures
1. Drains will be made on the dump top to regulate uncontrolled descent of water during
rainy season down the slope through specially made chutes to finally discharge into
garland drains.
2. Plantation along the periphery of dump top. Small pits of 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.3 m will be cut on
dump slopes and seedlings will be planted to prevent erosion stabilize dump slopes.
3. A stone toe wall will be constructed all around the waste dump base to prevent waste
dump material being carried out to the general drainage system of the area.
4. A garland drain will be constructed all around the waste dump area for smooth flow of
water.
5. Dump slopes will be kept at < 260 considering the optimum bench height.
Liquid Waste Management
The liquid waste can be managed by the following:
a. At the generation stage,
b. During drainage or pumping stage.
Water that is generated from the mines is taken to settling or treatment pond before discharge to
the water sources with the help of sufficient number of pumping and drainage arrangement for
dewatering of mine.
Control measures
1. In Basundhara OC project, suitable mitigatory measures are being/will be taken to
minimize the impact on surface water sources by realignment/re-coursing of the
drainages in the core zone for avoiding flooding, siltation, choking and pollution of water
sources.
2. The continuity of aquifers in the excavation area is being/will be restored to the extent
possible by backfilling of de-coaled area.
3. The final left-out void will act as conduits for recharging the aquifers.
4. Recycling of wastewater at some sources after appropriate treatment to achieve "zero
discharge" to the extent possible.
5. Conforming to the limits of the Environment (Protection) Amendment Rules, 2000
("Schedule-VI", General Standards for discharge of environmental pollutants, Part-A:
Effluents) for the quality of the treated effluents.
56
The water which the mine authority ultimately disposing in the abandoned mine is further
utilized. The water which is stored in the de-coaled area is use for different purposes which are:1. Sprinkling of water for haul road dust separation.
2. For fire fighting in the mines.
Management of Particulate Material
The mining area of the Basundhara mines is greatly facing air pollution from particulate
emission. The gaseous discharge to a great extent can be controlled or minimized by proper
maintenance of operating machines; control and maintenance of mine haul road and dumps. The
transport system should be streamlined by the use of electricity operated machines. The dust
suppression is possible by proper layout of haul road including water sprinkling dust extractor at
the transfer points, on crushing and conveyor system, dust system, dust extractor unit on blast
hole drills, and hoods on all transfer points and conveyors.
Air quality control measures
Ambient air quality will is affected due to presence of RPM, SPM, SO2 and NOX which are
generated due to various activities in the mines. Appropriate air control measures are being
adopted and will be adopted to maintain the ambient air quality within the stipulated standard.
The control measures will be adopted for various operations like drilling operation, blasting
operation, loading and transport, coal handling plant, fires at coalfaces and coal stock yard, OB
dump(s) and workshop and stores, etc. The measures which are taken by the mines are as
follows:1) Dust extractor in drill machines, 3 nos. of drill has been equipped with dust extractors.
Additional 1 nos. of drill will be provided with dust extractor.
2) Fixed sprinkler at CHP, for haul road 100 nos. additional 50 nos. of sprinkler will be
installed.
3) Mobil water sprinkler for haul roads, transportation 50 nos. of fixed sprinkler will be
installed.
4) Cleaning/sweeping of dust from coal transportation road Manual Mechanical sweeper is
proposed.
57
3.3 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HIRAKHAND BUNDIA UNDERGROUND
COAL MINE
3.3.1 Introduction
Location
Hirakhand Bundia U/G Mine is located in Orient area of Ib Valley coalfield. The nearest town is
Brajrajnagar. The state highway passes at a distance of 10 km from the project. The nearest rail
head on Howrah- Mumbai main line of South Eastern Railways is Brajrajnagar which is about 4
km from the block. Jharsuguda – the district headquarter is about 16 km. away from the area and
is well connected by all season motor able road. Sambalpur - headquarter of Mahanadi Coalfield
is about 70 km. away from the block and is well connected by rail and road (NH 200 & NH-10).
It falls within the
Latitude: - 20O 48’ 45” & 21O 48’ 30” N and
Longitude: - 83O 54’ 00” & 83O 56’ 00” E.
Topography & drainage
The area is characterized by undulating topography with general slope towards Ib River which
flows from north to south. The average elevation of the area is about 30 m from mean sea level.
Lilari nullah flows in the south. The drainage system of the area is mainly controlled by Ib River
which flows from north to south towards the eastern part of the block.
Geology
There are three seams viz. Lajkura, Rampur and Ib seams. Rampur seam (4 sections) and Ib
seam (middle section) are being extracted in this mine. The grade of coal is ‘D’. The mineable
reserves are 28.245 Mt for HR seam and 6.310 Mt for Ib Middle seam.
Mining technology
Coal is exploited by mechanized bord and pillar method using LHD with roof stitching and
bolting. However, there is proposal for deployment of continuous minor for the incremental
production.
58
Figure 3.3.1 Location of Hirakhand Bundia Mines
Coal winning and transportation
Coal from the face is loaded by LHDs on the pony belt conveyor which transfers coal to the gate
belt conveyor. The gate belt conveyor transports coal out of the district and loads on to the trunk
belt conveyor in 1 DN in the main dip. Incline No.2, where it transfers coal to main belt
conveyor installed in the incline. The main belt carries coal to the surface bunker (2 x 75 tons)
for truck loading. The coal from the surface bunker is loaded into 16 tons capacity trucks and
transported to railway siding which is at a distance of 8 km.
Output of the mines
The project will have a targeted sustained output of 0.95 million ton per year with Continuous
miner.
59
Life of the mine
The balance life of the mine has been estimated to be 26 years.
Manpower
The existing manpower of the mine is 986. No additional manpower is required for the
augmentation of the production.
Coal handling & dispatch arrangement
The blasted coal is loaded into belt conveyor by LHD. The gate belt feeds to trunk belt installed
in main dip up to surface bunker. Coal is loaded into the trucks of 16 t capacity from bunker and
transported to Orient railway siding by double lane black topped road [16].
Main consumer
Coal from this project will meet the demand of Rourkela Steel Plan and Power Houses of Tamil
Nadu State Electricity Board.
Project Profile
(a) Project Boundary
North: - Himgir-Rampur colliery and Unit-2 of Brajrajnagar lies in the northern side of the mine.
East: - V.S.S. Nagar and Telen Kacchar basti are located adjustment to eastern boundary.
South: - Ainlapali, Kantatikira and Budhihali villages are on southern side of area.
West: - Samaleswari OCP and Chingriguda village are on western side of the mine.
(b) Distance From Water Bodies
In the Table 3.3.1 it gives the distance of the water bodies near to the mines water. These bodies
source are river, nullah and water reservoir.
60
Table 3.3.1 Water Bodies Near To the Mines
Distance from
River bank
other water bodies
sea/creek/lake/nullah, etc.
(specify)
Mining lease boundary
1. Ib River
2.0 km
2. Lilari nullah
2.5 km
3. Bagachhara nullah
2.4 km
4. Hirakud reservoir
10.0 km
Figure 3.3.2 Aerial view of Hirakhand Mines (www.googleearth.com)
61
3.3.2 WASTE GENERATION OF HIRAKHAND BUNDIA MINES
Hirakud Bundia mines is an underground coal mines. Wastes generated in the mines are
basically of two types these are: 1. Gaseous waste
2. Liquid waste.
Gaseous waste
The gaseous waste product during the coal mining has been recognized by the miners as: a. Firedamp (methane) -Methane is not poisonous but explosive in nature with the
concentration from 5.5-15%. Since the grade of coal is low, therefore the methane
produce is in very less in quantity and can be easily diluted by proper ventilating air
current. Early miners prepared suicide squadron to take care of this menace. There is no
danger of the methane Hirakud Bundia Mines.
b. Carbon monoxide: - This is another waste product generated due to oxidation of coal in
confinement environment is CO, which is known as White damp. This is highly
poisonous and generated by spontaneous heating of coal. This is also regarded as one of
the green house gases, responsible for global warming. The CO, which is known as
black-damp is generated with slow oxidation of coal in the sealed grooves. Due to failure
of stopping many a time it flooded the mine. Through poisonous in character, it dilutes
mine environment and reduce oxygen causing asphyxiation in confined environment.
But still the level of hazard of the carbon monoxide is below and also there is no such
danger of this gas in this mine.
c. Nitrogen Oxide: - Blasting is the main cause of the production of nitrogen fumes in the
underground mines of the Hirakud Bundia mines.
d. Particulate matter: - In the mine due to various operation of stationary as well as
operation of the mobile machinery, emission of the particulate matter occurs. These are
generated at the time of movement of the L.H.D, Conveyors and at the time of loading
and unloading of the coal in the mines.
The haul roadways of the mines is not properly maintained, one can see that the dust
there is scattered in very large quantity. Further the ventilating current can to cause the
dust to be air-borne and can produce dusty atmosphere. Movement of the machinery to
causes the dust to be air borne.
62
In the Hirakud Bundia mines we can now conclude that the Air pollution in coal mines is mainly
due to the fugitive emission of particulate matter and gases including methane (CH4), sulfur
dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The use of explosives releases carbon monoxide
(CO), which poses a health risk for mine workers. Dust and coal particles stirred up during the
mining process, as well as the soot released during coal transport, can cause severe and
potentially deadly respiratory problems. The mining operations like drilling, blasting, movement
of the heavy earth moving machinery on haul roads, collection, transportation and handling of
coal, screening, sizing and segregation units are the major sources of emissions and air pollution.
Under-ground mine fire is also a major source of air pollution in some of the coal fields.
High levels of suspended particulate matter increase respiratory diseases such as chronic
bronchitis and asthma cases while gaseous emissions contribute towards global warming besides
causing health hazards to the exposed population.
Methane emission from coal mining depends on the mining methods, depth of coal mining, coal
quality and entrapped gas content in coal seams.
Liquid waste from the mines
Wastewater includes mine waters. Mine water means any water that enters the mine and is
discharged from the mine. In Hirakhand Bundia Mines the liquid waste is the waste that is
generated from the water that has been used for the purpose of dust suppression measure in the
haulage road as well as in the conveyor belt sprinkling.
During drilling and site preparation for the blasting water is needed for controlling of the dust. It
is to be noted that the water used in the mines is mostly required for suppression of dust in the
mines. The major source of water pollution in the coal mines is the carryover of the suspended
solids in the drainage system of the mine sump water and storm water drainage.
Table 3.3.2 Liquid Effluents from Coal Mining (milligrams per liter, except for pH) [16]
pH
6–9
TSS
50
Oil and grease
10
Iron
3.5
Total metals
10
63
Liquid waste which is generated from the mines is pumped from the mines from different levels
and taken to the sumps present inside the mines. Further the liquid waste is pumped to the
surface and treated.
3.3.3 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HIRAKUD BUNDIA MINES
Gaseous waste management
The gaseous wastes generated in the mines are managed efficiently. The gaseous wastes which
are tackled are as follows:1. Firedamp (methane):- Hirakhand Bundia mines produces low grade of coal. The grade of
coal that is mined out is of D grade. Therefore the emission of the methane in the ambient
air is negligible. Whatever is generated is easily diluted by the ventilating air current.
Therefore firedamp is not a big problem in the mines.
2. Carbon monoxide: - This is highly poisonous and generated by spontaneous heating of
coal. The measure for controlling the spontaneous heating of coal is making stopping in
the mines, preventing the entry of oxygen from entering the particular area. This curbing
of spontaneous heating ultimately controls the generation of the carbon monoxide in the
air. Hirakhand Bundia Mines is a mechanized mine. In this mine trackless mining is
done. The machines such as L.H.D, which is used for the production of coal in the mines,
are electrically powered. Therefore the emission of gases such as CO, CO2 is reduces
3. Nitrogen Oxide: - Proper blasting techniques are used in the mines. The explosive used in
the mines has a special property as it can emit less nitrous fumes compared to other
mines.
4. Particulate matter: - The ambient air quality of this mine is being monitored regularly.
The air quality With respect to the SPM, RPM concentration levels at all the station
levels located in the different points in the mines is found to be within limits. Various
dust sprinklers is used in the area such as loading unloading and in transfer points.
Various measures are taken to suppers dust such as sprinkling of water and proper
cleaning of the haul road. So, different method that is employed in the mines for the
suppression of the particulate emission are : Regular cleaning of spillages of material such as coal to prevent the dust being air
borne.
Water spraying at transfer points.
Provision of proper ventilation in the underground mine to prevent accumulation
of pollutants at work places.
Regular ventilation survey as per statutory requirement.
Careful removal of all loose coal from the abandoned coal face.
Adequate steps like water spraying arrangement at statutory distances and places.
64
Prompt removal of wood cuttings, oil and grease from underground workings.
Strict compliance of all preventive measures against underground mine.
Liquid waste management
The waste liquid which is generated during various operations from the mines is first of all taken
to the underground sump where it is stored temporarily. Second stage the waste liquid from the
underground is taken to the surface where it is stored in the settling tank. Alum and various
chemicals are added to the water, the purpose of adding the alum is to settle the unwanted
particles which is present in the water. Thirdly, water after settling, taken to another water tank
where it is added with various chemical to purify the water. Water after purification is supplied
to another tank where it is used for the various purposes.
Figure 3.3.3 Settling Tank on the Surface [16]
Control measures that are taken for mine discharge water
Treatment of effluent quality (mine discharge water) before discharge to surface water
course.
Recycling of treated mine discharge water to achieve "zero discharge" to the extent
possible.
Provision of oil & grease trap, provision of drains around coal dump / stock yard.
On surface water sources
65
There is no significant or conspicuous drainage traversing the area except first order or over land
flow slope. The subsidence on the surface of the core zone area after depillaring of the mine may
create feature like micro-basin locally. The major impacts are water pollution due to oil &
grease, contamination of water bodies due to discharge of mine water/effluents, pollution from
domestic & sewage effluents.
Control measures
Domestic waste water is treated in soak pit and septic tank combination provided to each
unit.
Recycling of treated mine discharge water to achieve "zero discharge" to the extent
possible.
.
66
3.4 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ROURKELA STEEL PLANT
3.4.1 Introduction
Rourkela Steel plant is situated in Rourkela, District Sundargarh of Orissa State at an elevation
of about 219 meters above mean sea level. The area of Rourkela is 200 square kilometers
approximately. Red and laterite soils are found here which are quite rich in minerals. The area
near Rourkela is rich in iron-ore hence a steel plant is situated in Rourkela.
Location
Rourkela Steel Plant is located in the Rourkela, District Sundargarh (Orissa). Geographically the
area falls under following co-ordinates:
22.12o N
84.54o E
Latitude:
Longitude:
Steel Plant Description
Rourkela Steel plant is one of the integrate steel plant of SAIL
Table 3.4.1 Production performance of R.S.P [24], [27]
Expected production
2008-09
2009-10
(in MT)
Apr to Nov
(in MT)
(In million tonnes)
Hot metal
2.00
1.5
2.27
Crude steel
1.90
1.42
2.13
Total saleable steel
1.67
1.98(Annual value)
1.989
Products
Salient Features of Steel Plant
It is the first plant in Asia to adopt LD process of steel making.
It is the only plant producing large diameter ERW/SW pipes.
It is the first steel plant in India to adopt external desulphurization of hot metal by
calcium carbide injection process.
67
It is the only steel plant in SAIL producing Cold Rolled non-oriented (CRNO) steel
sheets for use in the electrical industries.
It is the first integrated steel plant of SAIL which adopted the cost effective and quality
centered continuous casting route to process 100% of steel produced
Figure 3.4.1 Location of Rourkela Steel Plant
Figure 3.4.2 View of Rourkela Steel Plant
68
3.4.2 STEEL PRODUCTION FROM IRON ORE IN RSP
Steel production at Rourkela steel plant involves three basic steps.
1. The heat source used to melt iron ore is produced i.e. coke making.
2. Next the iron ore is melted in a furnace.
3. Finally, the molten iron is processed to produce steel
Coke making
Coke is a solid carbon fuel and carbon source used to melt and reduce iron ore. Coke production
begins with pulverized, bituminous coal. The coal is fed into a coke oven which is sealed and
heated to very high temperatures for 14 to 36 hours. Coke is produced in batch processes, with
multiple coke ovens operating simultaneously.
Heat is frequently transferred from one oven to another to reduce energy requirements. After the
coke is finished, it is moved to a quenching tower where it is cooled with water spray. Once
cooled, the coke is moved directly to an iron melting furnace or into storage for future use.
Figure 3.4.3 Coke Oven Battery [19]
Coke oven / by-product plant interface
In a by-product coke oven the evolved coke oven gas leaves the coke oven chambers at high
temperatures approaching 2000F. This hot gas is immediately quenched by direct contact with a
spray of aqueous liquor (flushing liquor). The resulting cooled gas is water saturated and has a
temperature of 176F. This gas is collected in the coke oven battery gas collecting main. From the
gas collecting main the raw coke oven gas flows into the suction main. The amount of flushing
69
liquor sprayed into the hot gas leaving the oven chambers is far more than is required for
cooling, and the remaining unevaporated flushing liquor provides a liquid stream in the gas
collecting main that serves to flush away condensed tar and other compounds. The raw coke
oven gas and the flushing liquor are separated using a drain pot (the down comer) in the suction
main. The flushing liquor and the raw coke oven gas then flow separately to the by-product plant
for treatment.
Composition of coke oven gas
Raw coke oven gas coming from the coke oven battery has the following typical composition:
Table 3.4.2 Raw Coke Oven Gas composition [18]
Generated product
Dry
Actual composition
basis
(water saturated at
176°F)
Water vapor
-
47%
Hydrogen
55%
29%
Methane
25%
13%
Nitrogen
10%
5%
Carbon Monoxide
6%
3%
Carbon Dioxide
3%
2%
Hydrocarbons (ethane,
2%
1%
propane etc.)
70
Raw coke oven gas also contains various contaminants, which give coke oven gas its unique
characteristics. These consist of:
Tar vapors
Light oil vapors (aromatics), consisting mainly of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX)
Naphthalene vapor
Ammonia gas
Hydrogen sulfide gas
Hydrogen cyanide gas
Duties of the by-product plant
In order to make raw coke oven gas suitable for use as a fuel gas at the coke oven battery and
elsewhere in the steelmaking facility the by-product plant must:
Cool the coke oven gas to condense out water vapor and contaminants
Remove tar aerosols to prevent gas line/equipment fouling
Remove ammonia to prevent gas line corrosion
Remove naphthalene to prevent gas line fouling by condensation
Other duties may include:
Remove light oil for recovery and sale of benzene, toluene and xylene
Remove hydrogen sulfide to meet local emissions regulations governing the combustion
of coke oven gas.
In addition to treating the coke oven gas, the by-product plant must also condition the flushing
liquor that is returned to the coke oven battery, and treat the waste water that is generated by the
coke making process. By direct contact with re-circulated water spray, with the contact cooling
water being itself cooled externally in heat exchangers. In the tubular type, the coke oven gas is
cooled indirectly by flowing across horizontally mounted tubes through which cooling water is
pumped. In this case, the cooling water does not come into contact with the coke oven gas and so
it can be cooled in a cooling tower for example. As the coke oven gas is cooled, water, tar and
naphthalene condense out. The condensate collects in the primary cooler system and is
discharged to the tar & liquor plant.
71
Coke oven battery
Gas collecting main
Primary cooler
Tar separator
Flushing tar
Tar
ESP
Recycling gas
Claus-plant
Sulphur
Exhauster
Still deacifier
H2S/NH3scrubber
BTX washer
Steam
Biology
waste waster
Desorber
BTX
Underlining gas
Figure 3.4.4 Flow Diagram of Coke Oven [18]
72
Table 3.4.3 Production Of By- Products from Coke Oven [18]
Stream
Destination
Typical
quantities, based
on 1 million tons
Coke Oven Gas
per year coke
Used as fuel gas at the coke 50 million cu.
oven
ft./day
battery and steel
works
Re-circulated back
Varies with plant
to the coke oven
design
battery
Discharged to
Varies with plant
treatment plant
design
Tar
Sold as product
29,000 gallons/day
Ammonia/
Sold as product
12 tons/day (as
Flushing Liquor
Waste Water
Ammonium Sulfate
ammonia)
Light Oil (i
Sold as product
12,500 gallons/day
recovered)
Sulfur/Sulfuric
Sold as product
Varies with coal
Acid (if gas is
properties and
desulfurized)
local requirements
73
Iron making
In an integrated iron and steel mill, iron is made directly from iron ore. Ores are agglomerated
into pellets, nodules, sinter, or briquettes for further processing. The main component of iron
making worldwide is the blast furnace. Agglomerated ore is charged with coke and crushed
limestone that provides both the intense heat and chemical reduction necessary to produce
molten iron.
COKE
ORE BEDDING &
OXYGEN
BENDING PLANT
PLANTS
OVEN
(TOP#1 & 2
(OBBP
SINTER
SINTER
PLANT#1
PLANT#2
BLAST
FURNACE
PIG CASTING
MACHINE
STEEL MELTING
SHOP (# 1 & 2)
HOT STRIP
PLATE MILL
MILL
SWPP
ERWPP
CRM
Figure 3.4.5 General Flow Diagram of Iron & Steel Making (Das, 2003)
74
SSM
3.4.3 WASTE GENERATION IN R.S.P.
Types of Waste Generated in RSP
The operations in an integrated steel plant are very complex. Several other activities such as
power generation and production of refractories are also performed in varying degree inside the
steel works. Vast quantities of raw material are handled and processed and different wastes are
generated at every stage of operation. These wastes have wide ranging impact on the
environment. These wastes generated pollute the environment. The different types of wastes
which are encountered in the steel plant are as follows: 1. Solid waste
2. Liquid waste
3. Gaseous waste
Generation of Solid Waste from RSP
To make one tone of crude of steel even with the good raw materials and efficient operation, 5
tonnes of air, 2.8 tons of raw material and 2.25 tones of water are required. These will produce in
addition to one tones of crude steel, 8 tones of moist dust laden gases and 0.5 tones of solid
wastes. However, in SAIL plants, this figure varies from 820 kg/tcs to 1045kg/tcs which are still
very high. From the above it is clear that the main solid waste comprises [8]:
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)
o)
p)
q)
r)
Blast furnace slag.
Steel making slag.
Sludge from sinter plant and blast furnace gas cleaning systems.
Dust recovered from de-dusting system.
Mill scale.
Fly ash
Waste refractories.
Raw material spilled out of the carrying system.
Waste consumables
Categories of Solid Waste
There are basically three categories of solid wastes. They are as follows:
4. Ferruginous solid wastes.
5. Non-ferruginous solid wastes.
6. Fly ash.
75
Ferruginous Solid Wastes: Solid waste which contain more amount of iron particles are
considered as ferruginous solid wastes. These solid wastes are of more demand. They can be
recycled and reused in various ways. These wastes contain more percentage of iron particles.
Example: Blast furnace flue dust, gas cleaning plant (GCP) sludge, LD sludge, sinter plant
sludge, mill scale are some of the major ferruginous solid wastes.
Non-Ferruginous Solid Wastes: Solid wastes which do not contain iron particles are considered
as non-ferruginous solid waste.
Example: acetylene sludge, refractory brick, limes fines etc.
Ferruginous Wastes
The iron bearing wastes, generated at different stages steel making are suitable for recycling
back and reusing in place of raw materials after suitable processing. The recycling of ferruginous
wastes back to process are not only replacing iron ore but also other raw materials like Iron ore
(fines), Lime stone and coke breeze (coal).
Mill Scale: The mill scale which is nothing but oxides of iron, is generated when the hot slab,
plates, coils are cleaned with water during rolling. Mill scale is generated from Steel Melting
Shops, Hot Rolling Mills and Cold Rolling Mills. Mill scale is generated at a rate of 2% of steel
rolled in rolling mills. The mill scale coming along with waste water is separated in waste water
treatment plants. As mill scale is nothing but iron oxides, its recycling back to ore bedding and
blending plant is replacing Iron ore (fines) to an extent of 115%. All the mill scales generated in
Rourkela Steel Plant are recycled back and gainfully utilized.
Blast Furnace Flue Dust: The dust coming along with Blast furnace gas is first separated in dry
form at Dust Catchers, is called Blast Furnace Flue Dust. The BFc Flue dust is generated at a rate
of 50gms per one Tonnes of Hot Metal production. The chemical composition of BFc flue dust
shows, these wastes can replace Iron Ore (fines) and Coke Breeze when it is recycled back or
making base mix. Recycling of 1T of Blast Furnace flue dust is replacing 0.63T of fresh Iron ore
(fines) and 0.37T of coke. All the Blast Furnace Flue Dusts are recycled back and gainfully
utilized in Rourkela Steel Plant.
Furthermore, in some cases the dust contains toxic elements (Cd, Cr and As), which make it
hazardous and unacceptable for landfill. Therefore, proper characterization followed by a
suitable beneficiation method has to be evaluated in order to recycle within the plant [11].
76
Table 3.4.4 Physical and Chemical Properties of Typical BF Flue Dust Sample (Prakash,
2007)
Constituents
Mean (%)
Carbon
29.90
Fe2O3
51.10
SiO2
6.31
Al2O3
5.12
CaO
4.90
MgO
0.88
Pb
0.024
Zn
0.042
MnO
0.58
K2O
1.22
Na2O
0.47
Fe(T)
35.7
Bulk density (g/cc)
1.42
Specific gravity
2.59
Porosity (%)
45.17
BFc sludge/SMS sludge: The micro fine particles separated from Blast Furnace Gas and BOF
gas at Gas Cleaning Plant in the form of sludge is called BFc sludge/SMS sludge. The rate of
generation of sludge is 0.018T of Tonnes of crude steel. The composition of sludges show, it can
replace Iron Ore (fines) and Lime stone, when the sludges are recycled back for making sinter in
Ore Bedding Blending Plant. One tones of Sludge replace 0.62T of Iron Ore (fines) and 0.38 T of
lime stone, when it is recycled back for making base mix for sinter.
In order to meet the strict environmental requirements, it has become necessary for steel plants to
develop a process of recycling this waste material. The sludge contains appreciable quantities of
iron and lime and is therefore quite suitable for recycling in the sinter plant [11].
77
Table 3.4.5 Chemical Composition of the BOF Sludge Sample (Prakash, 2007)
Constituents
Percent
Fe (total)
64.12
FeO
79.58
Fe2O3
2.79
CaO
8.9
MgO
0.38
SiO2
0.71
Al2O3
0.32
P
0.101
MnO
0.10
Handling and transportation of sludges are posing environmental problems. The spillages on
roads during transportation, is the main problem with sludges recycling. Recycling throughout
the year is not possible particularly during rainy season, as the sludges become wet and cause
jamming in unloading facilities. In Rourkela Steel Plant, these sludges are utilized to an extent of
25%.
SMS Slag: Steel slag, a by-product of steel making, is produced during the separation of the
molten steel from impurities in steel-making furnaces. The slag occurs as a molten liquid melt
and is a complex solution of silicates and oxides that solidifies upon cooling.
Virtually all steel is now made in integrated steel plants using a version of the basic oxygen
process or in specialty steel plants (mini-mills) are using an electric arc furnace process. The
open hearth furnace process is no longer used.
There are many grades of steel that can be produced, and the properties of the steel slag can
change significantly with each grade. Grades of steel can be classified as high, medium, and low,
depending on the carbon content of the steel. High-grade steels have high carbon content. To
reduce the amount of carbon in the steel, greater oxygen levels are required in the steel-making
process. This also requires the addition of increased levels of lime and dolime (flux) for the
removal of impurities from the steel and increased slag formation.
78
Figure 3.4.6 General Schematic diagram of SMS Slag Production [24]
Pit slag and clean out slag are other types of slag commonly found in steel-making operations.
They usually consist of the steel slag that falls on the floor of the plant at various stages of
operation, or slag that is removed from the ladle after tapping.
Table 3.4.6 Chemical Composition of Steel Slag (Prakash, 2007)
Constituent
Composition (%)
CaO
40-52
SiO2
10 – 19
FeO
10 – 40
MnO
(70 – 80% FeO, 20 – 30% Fe2O3
5- 8
MgO
5 – 10
Al2O3
1-3
P2O5
0.5 – 1
S
< 0.1
Metallic Fe
0.5 - 10
79
All the railway tracks inside Rourkela Steel Plant (190 kms) are laid on SMS slag ballast. SMS
slag is used for making all roads inside the Steel Plant and in Townships in Rourkela. Rourkela
Steel Plant is gainfully utilizing SMS slags up-to an extent of 40-20% only. The high volumes of
SMS slag generation is leading to its disposal on ground.
Blast Furnace Slag: In the production of iron, iron ore, iron scrap, and fluxes (limestone and/or
dolomite) are charged into a blast furnace along with coke for fuel. The coke is combusted to
produce carbon monoxide, which reduces the iron ore to a molten iron product. This molten iron
product can be cast into iron products, but is most often used as a feedstock for steel production.
Blast furnace slag is a nonmetallic co-product produced in the process. It consists primarily of
silicates, aluminosilicates, and calcium-alumina-silicates. The molten slag, which absorbs much
of the sulfur from the charge, comprises about 20 percent by mass of iron production. Figure- 3
presents a general schematic, which depicts the blast furnace feedstock and the production of
blast furnace co-products (iron and slag).
Figure 3.4.7 General Schematic diagram of Blast Furnace Slag Production [24]
Types of blast furnace slag
1. Air-Cooled Blast Furnace Slag
If the liquid slag is poured into beds and slowly cooled under ambient conditions, a
crystalline structure is formed, and a hard, lump slag is produced, which can subsequently
be crushed and screened.
2. Expanded or Foamed Blast Furnace Slag
80
If the molten slag is cooled and solidified by adding controlled quantities of water, air, or
steam, the process of cooling and solidification can be accelerated, increasing the cellular
nature of the slag and producing a lightweight expanded or foamed product. Foamed slag
is distinguishable from air-cooled blast furnace slag by its relatively high porosity and
low bulk density.
3. Pelletized Blast Furnace Slag
The molten slag is cooled and solidified with water and air quenched in a spinning drum,
pellets, rather than a solid mass, can be produced. By controlling the process, the pellets
can be made more crystalline, which is beneficial for aggregate use, or more vitrified
(glassy), which is more desirable in cementitious applications. Rapid quenching of slag
results in greater vitrification and less crystallization.
4. Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
If the molten slag is cooled and solidified by rapid water quenching to a glassy state, little
or no crystallization occurs. This process results in the formation of sand size (or frit-like)
fragments, usually with some friable clinker like material. The physical structure and
gradation of granulated slag depend on the chemical composition of the slag, its
temperature at the time of water quenching, and the method of production. When crushed
or milled to very fine cement-sized particles, ground granulated blast furnace slag
(GGBFS) has cementitious properties, which make a suitable partial replacement for or
additive to Portland cement.
Table 3.4.7 Constituents of Slag (Prakash, 2007)
Constituent
Percentage
Mean
Range
(CaO)
41
34-48
(SiO2)
36
31-45
(Al2O3)
13
10-17
(MgO)
7
1-15
(FeO or
Fe2O3)
0.5
0.1-1.0
81
(MnO)
0.8
0.1-1.4
(S)
1.5
0.9-2.3
Non Ferruginous Wastes
The non iron bearing materials used in steel industry for various purposes like refractory lining
of converters, furnaces, making of acetylene, calcinations of lime and dolomite and boiler coal
for captive power generation are generating various wastes, called Non Ferruginous Wastes They
are,
Used Refractory bricks
Acetylene sludge
Lime fines
Dolomite fines
Fly ash
Used Refractory Bricks: There is 60 thousand tonnes of refractory bricks used in the RSP per
year. Out of which 1500T of used refractory bricks are salvaged for reuse and rest consisting
mainly magnetite and chrome magnetite bricks are being sold. The rejected refractory bricks are
used for pavement making in RSP.
Acetylene sludge: There are 2 acetylene plants for production of acetylene gas from calcium
carbide. About 1700T of acetylene sludge is generated from these plants. This sludge is highly
alkaline in nature and can be used for neutralization purposes. This sludge can also be used for
white washing purpose. Presently the acetylene sludge is being sold out.
Dolomite and lime fines: During calcinations of dolomite and lime stone in calcining plant 2
and LDBP of Rourkela Steel plant, lot of dolomite and lime fines are generated from screening
and captured in various dust extraction systems in the plant. The CaO content of these lime fines
is ranging from 85-87% and gainfully utilized for neutralization purposes as well as white
washing.
These lime fines are gainfully utilized as trimming addition in sinter plant 2. The lime fines are
also being used for neutralization purposes in water treatment plants for township, neutralization
units of Cold Rolling Mill.
Fly Ash: RSP is having two coal based captive power plant. The ash generated during the
burning of coal called fly ash is disposed of by dry and wet methods. The fly ash generation is
36000T/month. Presently most of the fly ash is disposed off in wet condition in Ash ponds. The
82
disposed fly ash is presently used for raising dyke height of ash ponds only. Arrangements were
made MP Boiler-3 for disposal of fly ash in dry form and the response from cement
manufacturers is very good for taking this fly ash in dry form. RSP is working on a project for
installation of dry fly ash disposal facilities for other High Pressure Boilers also.
It is planned to sell Blast furnace sludge and SMS sludge to outside parties to increase utilization
and get away from land pollution. Installation of in-house slag granulation at Blast Furnace 1 and
strengthen the facilities at Slag granulation plant as per decided plan, will augment the Blast
furnace slag granulation and increase the overall utilization of solid wastes in future.
Table 3.4.8 Types of Solid/Liquid Waste Generated From Steel Plants [17]
Solid/liquid wastes
Hot metal (kg/t)
Source of generation
Coke breeze
–
Coke oven
Nut coke
–
Coke oven
Coke dust/sludge
–
Coke oven
Blast furnace slag
340–421
Blast furnace
Blast furnace dust/sludge
28
Blast furnace
Sintering plant sludge
–
Sintering plant
LD slag
200
Steel melting shop
LD sludge
15–16
Steel melting shop
Lime fines
–
Steel melting shop
ACP/GCP sludge
–
Steel melting shop
Carbide sludge
–
Acetylene plant
Mill scale
22
Mills
Mill sludge
12
Rolling mills
Sludges/scales
–
Water treatment plant
Fly ash
–
Power plant
83
TRANSPORT &
STORAGE
CRUSHING
Particulate, Noise
COAL
LIME
Particula
tes,
of
NOx,
SOx
Fugitive dust
ORE
STONE
Particulate,
LIME BURNING
COKING
SINTERING &
CO,
SOx,
Hydrocarbons
PELLETING
, Noise
CRUSHING OR
SCREENING
Particulates
Particulate, CO, SO2, NOx , ZnO
COOLING OR
IRON MAKING
GRANULATION
S.S, S.O.D, NH3,
chloride, cyanide.
CRUSHING
PRE-TREATMENT
Particulates
SCRAP
Slag
PREPARATION
STEEL MAKING
CRUSHING
Particulates, Zn,
S.S, S.O.D,
Co, SOx, NOx,
chloride
Sludge
Steel
furnace
slag
LADLE
TREATMENT
Particulate, Noise
Slag
Legend
Sludge
INGOT OR
CONTINUOUS
CASTING
Air pollutant
REHEATING
Water pollutant
Solid waste
Sludge, Mill scale,
oily wastes
SCRAFING
HOT &COOL
Steam
S.S, Oil
SOx,
particulates
NOx,
Particulates. Noise
Noise
ROLLING
STEEL
84
s.s, sod, chromates.
Phosphates,
oil,
chlorides, sulphates
PRODUCTS
Figure 3.4.8.Flow Chart of Linking Pollutants & Principle Operation in an Integrated Steel Plant (Agarwal, 1999)
STEEL
ROLLING
MELTING
MILL
BLAST
FURNACES
SHOP
FLUE
SLUDGE
DUST
MILL
SCALE
BFc
SELLING
SLAG
SLAG
CAST HOUSE
DUMPING
GRANULATION
SELLING
OBBP
CRUSHING
SALE
SLAG
DUMP
GRANULAT
ED PLANT
ZINC
DROSS
SALE
PALM OIL
SLUDGE
Figure 3.4.9 Solid Waste Generation in an Integrated Steel Plant (Das, 2003)
85
Generation of Liquid Waste from RSP
The Rourkela steel industry consumes much water. In order to produce one ton of steel it
effectively pumps in from 100 to 200 m3, viz. 150 m3 on average, of which approximately 2 to 4
m3 have disappeared at the end of the cycle, either by evaporation, or consumption in the course
of manufacture or incorporation in the wastes. For the manufacture of one million tons of ingot
steel a year, this corresponds to:
Pumped water 100—200 x 106 m3/year or 12500—25000 m3/h
Waste water 2—4 x 106 m3/year or 250—500 m3/h
Per plant, the breakdown of the quantities pumped in is approximately as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Sintering 0—20 m3/t sinter
Blast furnace 50—80 m3/t pig iron
Steel plant 2—20 m3/t steel
Rolling mills 2—80 m3/t rolled
Coke plant 2—5 m3/t coke
Blast furnace gas cleaning 3—7 m3/1 000 m3 gas.
Qualitatively
Water has many varied uses in the iron and steel industry—cooling (the most important use),
power transfer, gas cleaning, matter removal—to mention only the main ones. The types of use
are varied since one may find cooling circuits open, closed, with atmospheric coolant, with air
convector and totally closed, with low pressure steam, with medium or high steam pressure,
wasted or recovered, with natural or forced circulation. The water qualities vary according to the
requirements of each circuit, and extend from raw water to treated water, from removal of carbon
to a complete demineralization and conditioning.
86
Table 3.4.9 Water Pollution after Processing (Dohen, 1985)
Plant
Raw material
used
Nature of
finished product
Manufacturing
process
Coke oven plant
Coal
Coke. Coke oven
gas, byproduct
Cast iron plant
Ore or Sinter
Pig iron for steel
making
Steel
manufacture
Pig iron, scrap
Steel, slag
Hot rolling
Liquid steel or
ingot
Blooms, billets
slab
Coal heating in
closed cells and
at controlled
rates
Iron ore
reduction by
carbon at high
temp.
Combustion of
impurities
contained in pig
iron
Continuous
casting
Cold rolling
sheets
Thin sheets
Cold rolling
Nature of waste
introduced in
water
Phenols,
cyanides, various
tars, ammonia
Cyanides,
phenols,
ammonia
Suspended
solids, lime
Lime, suspended
solids, oils
Oils, suspended
solids
Rourkela Steel Plant gets water from river Brahmani through Tarkera Pump House. The raw
water pumped from the river is distributed through a ring main to different departments for use
in the process and for cooling purposes. RSP has adopted a 2-tier system of wastewater
treatment. The effluent generated from the process is first treated in the department itself in the
effluent treatment plant so that the all statutory norms are met before discharging into drains.
The captive drains carry the total treated wastewater from different departments to a final
treatment system i.e., an oxidation pond, called as Lagoon. Lagoon is a shallow aerobic
oxidation pond where the pollutants are oxidized by bacteria. The treatment in lagoon is
basically due to equalization, sedimentation, and photochemical oxidation. The final effluent
from lagoon is periodically monitored for different parameters to ensure meeting the statutory
norms before discharging into to river Brahmani. The various pollutants generated from
different process and the method of treatment adopted in RSP is given below:
87
Table 3.4.10 Generation of Water Pollution (Dohen, 1985)
Norm
Sl. No.
1.
Pollutant
Acidity/Alkalini
ty
(Parameter
is pH)
Source
•
CCD – Sulphuric
acid plant
•
DM plants in
CPP, CRM, and
SMSs etc.
CRM – Pickling
lines
SSM – Pickling
line
BFc – Gas
Cleaning Plants
SMS – Gas
cleaning plants
Rolling Mills –
Descaling
operations
•
•
•
•
2.
Suspended
Solids
•
•
•
•
3.
Oil & Grease
•
•
•
4.
Phenol
5.
Cyanide
6.
Ammonical –
Nitrogen
Treatment System
•
•
•
•
(CPCB)
guideline
Catch pits along with BOD
plant
Neutralization plant
6-8.5
•
•
Neutralization plant
Neutralization plant
•
Sedimentations
tanks/Clarifloculators/Vacuu
m filters/Drum filters/Belt
filter systems
Rolling Mills
return water
SSM return water
SMS#2 return
water
T&RM – Loco
shed
CCD
•
CCD – By
product plant
•
CCD – By
product plant
•
CCD – By
product plant
•
Oil skimmers – Trough type,
Endless rope type, Belt type
oil skimmers & Dissolved
air floatation system with oil
skimmers in BOD plant of
CCD
BOD plant – Activated
Sludge Process
100 mg/l
10 mg/l
1.0 mg/l
BOD plant – Trickling filter
0.20 mg/l
88
BOD plant – Activated
sludge process
50 mg/l
•
7.
All departments
Organic matter BOD &
COD
•
Lagoon - a shallow aerobic
oxidation pond
BOD – 30
mg/l
COD – 250
mg/l
Generation of Gaseous Waste form RSP
The different processes which add to the gaseous wastes in the steel industry are as follows:1. Coke production
2. Sinter production
3. Iron making
4. Steel making
5. Finishing
6. Alloying
7. Casting and shaping
Coke production
Coke is coal from which the volatile components have been removed by heating to high
temperatures in the absence of oxygen. Nearly all coke produced in the integrated iron and steel
industry is manufactured using the "byproduct" coke process. Byproduct coke ovens may release
volatile organic compounds (e.g. benzene, butane, butylene, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen cyanide,
methane, propane, propylene, toluene, and xylene) through leaks in any part of the system,
including the coke oven lids and doors; through the standpipes and within the plant, itself; and
while the coke is being removed, or "pushed," from the oven.
Sinter production
Sinter is an agglomerate of materials recovered from the iron and steel making process that is
recycled into the iron making process at the blast furnace. Many sinter plants have shut down in
recent years, in part because of difficulties associated with keeping the sinter operations in
compliance with ‘environmental regulations. A wide variety of organic and heavy metal HAPs
may be released at the sinter operation; organic HAPs can be released from coal and coke on the
sinter grate and from organic solvents frequently found on scrap metals. Heavy metal HAPs may
be released (as particulate) from the iron ore. Total HAPs releases from individual sinter
manufacturing operations may exceed 10 tons per year.
89
Iron making
In steel industry practice, coke, iron ore and other materials are heated in a blast furnace to
produce molten iron. Most of the HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollution) generated in the blast furnace
are heavy metals, including cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel. Emissions from
the blast furnace are controlled by a wet venturi scrubber or another control device and may total
several tons per year per blast furnace. Pollution prevention opportunities for the reduction of
heavy metals at the blast furnace are somewhat limited, because heavy metals are an inherent
part of the iron ore material stream and because iron production is directly proportional to the
amount of ore used.
Steelmaking
In typical practice at integrated iron and steel operations, steel is made by blowing oxygen into a
blend of molten iron and scrap steel in a basic oxygen process furnace (BOF). As in the case for
the blast furnace, most of the HAPs generated in the BOF are heavy metals, including cadmium,
chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel. Emissions from the BOF are controlled by an
electrostatic precipitator or venturi scrubber and may exceed 10 tons per year per BOF. Pollution
prevention opportunities for the reduction of heavy metals at the BOF are also somewhat limited,
because heavy metals are an inherent part of the iron ore material stream and because iron
production is directly proportional to the amount of ore used. Factors affecting HAPs emissions
from the BOF include the degree of oxidation of the molten steel and the amount of time
required to process the melt. Iron oxide emissions increase with the amount of time the hot metal
is exposed to air and agitated by the heating process or during transfer.
Alloying
After steel is removed from the BOF, additional purification and alloying steps can be conducted
at a metallurgical station. HAPs emissions from these processes are considered to be relatively
low; few HAPs P opportunities have been identified. Refinements in the alloying process,
particularly the process of ladle-metallurgy, do provide the P benefit of reducing energy
requirements and reducing wasted steel by virtue of increased accuracy and speed in creating the
desired steel composition.
Casting and Shaping
Two principal methods are used to form molten steel into solid form are: 90
1. ingot casting and
2. Continuous casting.
In ingot casting: - molten steel is poured into molds where it cools into an ingot which is later
machined into final form.
Continuous casting: - This method eliminates the ingot step, thereby reducing the degree of
reheating and rolling necessary to manufacture semi-finished products.
More importantly, continuous casting greatly reduces the amount of energy required to create
semi-finished steel. Continuous casting saves energy because much less scrap is generated in the
manufacture of semi-finished steel. Yields from continuous casting are 15 to 20 percent greater
than from ingot casting. The largest material savings comes from eliminating crop losses
associated with the top and bottom ends of ingots cast in molds. Other benefits include shorter
pouring times and transfer times from the BOF to the caster as compared to teeming steel to
multiple molds. Also, continuous casting eliminates much of the reheating required to process
ingots produced from molds. Most companies have converted from ingot casting to continuous
casting, and more plan to do so in the near future. It is estimated that approximately 80 percent of
the semi-finished slab steel in the world is manufactured via continuous casting. Not all steel can
or should be manufactured by continuous casting, for reasons such as small batch sizes for
specialty steels, or for the desired shape or size of the end product. For those operations that cast
steel in molds, some operational changes such as bottom pouring instead of top pouring may
reduce total emissions. Bottom pouring exposes much less of the molten steel to the atmosphere
than top pouring, thereby reducing the formation of particulate or the air pollutants that are
generating from the casting of the steel.
Finishing
Finishing steps include pickling and galvanizing to treat the surfaces of semi-finished metal
products. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) bath pickling is the most common method used to remove
iron oxide from the surface of semi-finished steel products; hydrofluoric acid (HF) is also used in
some specialty steel applications. Hydrogen chloride is the primary hazardous air pollutant
(HAP) associated with pickling, with emissions from surface pickling typically well over 10 tons
per year per facility.
The integrated iron and steel industry encompasses all the steps included in the manufacture of
steel from iron ore and other materials. Major processes in the production of finished steel
include coke production, sinter production, ironmaking, steelmaking, alloying, casting and
shaping, and finishing. The basic oxygen furnace, sinter plant, electric arc furnace, and
91
hydrochloric pickling lines were considered to have the greatest potential to emit heavy air
pollution (HAP).
Gaseous wastes are the wastes which are gaseous in nature. These wastes are produced during
different operation in the steel making. These are gaseous and particulate emissions. The gaseous
emissions are carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide. They are also found in exhaust
of electricity generation, emission from the stacks and through chimney emission (Marsosudiro,
1995).
Air pollutants are coming into environment from various operations in different departments.
The air pollutants are further divided into Suspended particulate Matter (SPM) and Gaseous
pollutants. The air pollutants, which are not gases, are called as SPM. Depending up on the size
of the particle and their process of origin, these SPMs are further categorized as;
•
•
•
•
•
Dust – Particle size up to 10 microns, formed mainly due to sedimentation and
crushing.
Fumes – Particle size less than 1 micron, formed mainly due to metallurgical
operations.
Smoke – Particle size less than 1 micron, formed mainly due to chemical
operations.
Fog – Particles size upto 10 microns, primarily containing water droplets.
Mist – Particle size upto 10 microns, primarily containing chemical droplets.
The list of air pollutants, their source of generation, pollution control technology adopted by
RSP is given below;
92
Table 3.4.11 Generation of Air Pollution (Marsosudiro, 1995)
Sl. No.
Pollutant
Source
Pollution Control
Equipment
Process
Stack emissions from
•
•
•
•
Coke Ovens
Sinter Plants
•
•
Flue gas firing
Sinter Making &
gas firing
Fuel firing in
boilers
Power Plant
•
•
-ESPs
•
•
ESPs and Bag
houses
ESPs and Bag
Houses
--
•
Bag houses
•
Scrubbers
•
1.
Suspended
Particulat •
e Matter
(SPM) –
Dust
•
Steel Melting
Shops
•
•
•
Rolling Mills
•
Material Transfer
Points (Conveyor
belt transfer
points)
•
Sulphuric Acid
Plant
Nitric Acid Plant
Metallurgical
operations
Flue gas firing in
reheating furnaces
Crushing,
sedimentation
Gaseous
pollutant
s
2.
•
•
SO2
NOx
•
93
Waste Generation from Various Units of R.S.P
A. Blast Furnace
1. Blast furnace slag
Quantity generated: - 75000 t/month.
Utilization: - On an average 80% is utilized
Utility: - Sold to cement industry.
2. Blast furnace flue dust
Quantity generated: - 1000 t/month
Utility: - Recycled in steel manufacturing process
3. Blast furnace sludge
Quantity generated: - 300 t/month
Utility: - Partially recycled.
B. Steel Melting Shop
1. S.M.S Sludge
C 3500 t/month
Utility: - Recycled for steel making
2. S.M.S Slag
Quantity generated: - 30,000 t/month
Utility: - Recycled approximately 3.5%
- It is sold.
- Land rehabilitation purpose.
- Proposed to be used in cement kiln.
C. Lime Dust
Source: - limestone calcining plant
Quantity: - 3000 t/month
Utility: - Recycled and Sold
Used in water treatment plant and in White washing.
94
D. Acetylene Sludge
Source: - Acetylene plant.
Quantity: - 200t/month.
Utilization: - Sold.
E. Mill Scale
Quantity: - 3000 t/month.
Utilization: - 100% recycled.
F. Used Fire Clay Bricks
Quantity: - 150 t/month.
Utility: - 100% recycled.
G. Fly Ash
Source: - Power plant.
Quantity: - 1500 t/day.
Utility: - Low lying area filling sold to brick manufacturer and is used for embankment.
H. Department Coal Chemical Plant
Table 3.4.12 Generation of products from Coal Chemical Department [17]
Generated product
Quantity Generated
Tar sludge
50 tons/year.
Acid tar
3 tons/year.
Sulphur Muck;
250 tons/year.
V2O5 catalyst;
2 tons/year.
BOD plant sludge;
8 tons/year.
Catch pit sludge;
50 ton/year
95
I. Department Of Cold Rolling Mill
Table 3.4.13 Generation of products from Cold Rolling Mill [17]
Generated product
Quantity Generated
Oily sludge;
Zinc Dross;
Tin ash;
Dichromate sludge
Pickling sludge;
0.2 t/ year
1000 t/ year
0.1 t/ year
0.5 t/ year
40 t/ year
J. Department Of Silicon Steel Mill
Table 3.4.14 Generation of products from Silicon Steel Mill [17]
Generated product
Quantity Generated
Pickling bath sludge;
15 t/year
E.T.P sludge;
40 t/year
Waste oil;
80 t/year
K. Department Of Traffic and Raw Material
Table 3.4.15 Generation of products from Traffic and Raw Material [17]
Generated product
Quantity Generated
Used oil;
12 t/year
Oily sludge
5 t/year
Contaminated filter waste;
5 t/year
96
L. Foundry Department
Table 3.4.16 Generation of products from Foundry Department [17]
Generated product
Quantity Generated
Non ferrous waste;
0.5 t/year
Rejected sand;
15 t/ year
Back filter dust;
2 t/ year
M. Department Of Special Plate Plant
Table 3.4.17 Generation of products from Special Plate Plant [17]
Quantity Generated
Generated product
Sand blasting filter dust
1 t/year
Grinding waste;
0.5 t/year
Oil quenching sludge;
1 t/year
N. Electrical Repairing Shop Department
-
Cleaning solvent sludge; Quantity generated: - 0.5 t/year
O. Department of Hot Strip Mill
Table 3.4.18 Generation of products from Hot Strip Mill [17]
Generated product
Quantity Generated
Rejected sand from filter unit;
Oily sludge;
60 t/year
10 t/year
P. Department E.R.W & S.W. Pipe Plant
-
Oily sludge;
Quantity generated: - 2 t/year
97
(H – P) Department are generating hazardous waste, partially the waste are sold mainly Zinc
dross, used oil, tin ash and partially recycled inside the pant for heat recovery. Again there is
plant to neutralize the hazardous waste and ultimately will be managed through secured land
filling.
Wastes are categorized into two types on the basis of their hazardous characteristics, which are
as follows:
1) Hazardous waste
2) Non- Hazardous waste
Hazardous waste inventory are done based on schedule (1) and schedule (2) of hazardous waste
management & handling rule 2008.
The hazardous wastes are sold to the authorized recycler, those who have got the authority from
Ministry-of-Environment and forest.
98
Table 3.4.19 Data of Solid Wastes Generation from Steel Making in RSP (Das, 2003)
Sl. No.
1.
SOLID WASTE
BFc slag
SOURCES OF
GENERATION
QUANTITY
OF
GENERATION IN
(TONNES)
Blast furnace
881897
QUALITY
Fe=46-52%; CaO=22-30
UTILIZATION
(%)
2008-09
82.47%
MgO=4-10%; MnO=2-6%
SiO2=26-31%
2.
SMS slag
Steel melting shop
345534.9
FeO=18-21%; SiO2=16-18%
45.05%
CaO=47-53%
3.
Blast furnace
flue dust
Blast furnace dust
catcher
15960
C=2.13%,; LOI=19.4-43.6%
Fe=30-40.5%;
11.6%
4.
SMS sludge
Waste water treatment
plant of SMS
366917
SiO2=7.4-
CaO=2.3-4.6%;MgO=0.5-1.2
C=2.13%,Fe=51.8%;
MgO=2.0
S=0.21%;
CaO=12.8
100%
20.29%
SiO2=2.1;
LOI=6.7%
Mixture of iron oxides
5.
Mill scale
Rolling Mill waste
water treatment plants
34960
6.
Acetylene sludge
Acetylene plant
2502
SiO2=4-6%;
CaO=60-70%
7.
Calcined lime
Fine
Calcinations Plant#2
& LDBP
33181
CaO=70-80%; MgO=3.5%
100%
4359
SiO2=1.7%; Al2O3=3.5%
Basically CaO, Al2O3 and
traces of Fe2O3 and MgO
100%
8.
Used refractory
bricks
From relining of
convertors, furnace
and ovens
99
Al2O3=1-3%
97.71%
100%
Discussion
The solid waste generated from the Rourkela steel plant in given the Table 3.4.19. Some of the
solid waste generated from the steel plant such as blast furnace flue dust, acetylene sludge,
calcined lime Fine, Used refractory bricks are 100% utilized within the steel plant. Some of the
solid waste such as blast furnace slag, SMS slag and SMS sludge are not fully utilized, among
which SMS slag and sludge utilization is below 50%.
3.4.4 DISPOSAL OF WASTE IN RSP
Steel plant on the process of manufacturing steel emits and produces several harmful gases,
liquid and solid wastes. Waste produced may be hazardous and non – hazardous in nature
depending upon the characterization and properties of the waste. Further, different waste
generated is disposed in the environment. Disposal of the waste is done in a very scientific way,
in the steel industry such that these discharges do not contaminate and damages inland waters,
environment, air quality, country side, food, human settlement and even flora and fauna. These
wastes are classified into three different basic categories:a) Wastes which are not hazardous and recovery and recycle and reuse of valuables in it
could be done successfully.
b) Wastes which are hazardous in nature and must be treated suitably.
c) Wastes which are not hazardous but recovery recycle and reuse may not be economical.
Waste disposal of Non-Hazardous Waste
Solid waste disposal
Disposal of blast furnace slag: It is estimated that a relatively small percentage (less than 10
percent) of the blast furnace slag generated is disposed of in landfills, dump yard and may be
further reused as per the condition.
Disposal of steel slag: While most of the furnace slag is recycled for use as an aggregate, excess
steel slag from other operations (raker, ladle, clean out, or pit slag) is Pollution Sources and
Prevention in the BOF Slag is a major component of the waste produced in BOFs. Because of its
composition, this slag, unlike that from the blast furnace, is best used as an additive in the
sintering process. As its metallic content is lower, it does not make a good raw material for the
construction industry these usually are sent to landfills for disposal as well as in the dump yard.
100
Various dumping yard here are as follows:
Sitalpara dump yard.
Ash pond A.
Ash pond B.
Ash pond C.
Dump yard of Rourkela steel plant
Fly ash
There are presently there are three fly ash ponds for the disposal of the fly ash, these are as
follows:1. Pond A.
2. Pond B.
3. Pond C.
Table 3.4.20 Details of Fly Ash Pond [17]
Sl. No
Pond
Capacity in Acers
Life (in Years)
1
2
A
B
47
35
1-2
2
3
C
36.5
1- 2
Table 3.4.21 Distance of Fly Ash Pond from Power plant [17]
Sl. No
Pond
Distance from CPP1 (in km)
Distance from CPP2 (in km)
1
A
4
1
2
B
4.5
1.5
3
C
4.8
1.8
On an average 1500 ton/ month of fly ash is being generated by both the power plant (CPP1,
CPP2). The dry fly ash collected in the ESP is disposed to ash pond in the slurry form by adding
water in the dry ash. The filled up ponds are excavated and filled in the low-lying area. After
filling the pond, the top surface is covered with sweet soil or slag to protect it from becoming airborne. Presently few brick manufacturer are being explored who are regularly lifting the dry fly
ash from the ESP for brick manufacturing, to enhance the ash utilization. RSP has taken a
strategic decision to use only the fly ash bricks in the o going modernization of the plant
101
The transportation of the fly ash from the power plant to the ash pond is through pipes in slurry
form. Generally the maximum height of the pond has gone up from RL – 211 to 235m. These
levels are obtained gradually by raising the embankment height of the pond.
Figure 3.4.10 Layout of the Rourkela Steel Plant [17]
SMS Slag (Sitalpara dump yard)
SMS Slag is dumped outside the factory premises, at the western side of the plant. However the
materials are processed by an outside public sector agency to use the material for plant use as
well as to sole outside parties. Presently the utilization of slag is around 40 – 45% of the
generation. As per the narrative by the Ministry of Environment and Forest the utilization is in
phases.
102
Table 3.4.22 Details of SMS Dump Yard [17]
Sl. No
SMS dump yard
Area ( in Acer)
Dis. from SMS shop
(in km)
1
Sitalpara dump yard
80
Figure 3.4.11 Sitalpara Dump 1 of R.S.P
2–3
Figure 3.4.12 Sitalpara Dump 2 of R.S.P
Therefore, these wastes are disposed or kept even before recycling, with taking adequate care.
The different wastes which are disposed or discharged in the environment using different method
and techniques are: Disposal of Gaseous waste
Various states of art and technologies are adopted in both the Coke Oven and Blast Furnace or
BOF Furnace. Further, to keep environment clean, many technologies had also been
incorporated.
103
Hot gases are also produced by the BOF. Furnaces are equipped with air pollution control
equipment that contains and cools the gas. The gas is quenched and cooled using water and
cleaned of suspended solids and metals. This process produces air pollution control dust and
waste.
Proper measures are being adopted with regard to control of emission during the whole process
of steel making to reduce fugitive emission. Air pollutant, which is produced are emitted to the
atmosphere after arresting maximum hazardous substance. The discharge of the pollutant i.e. air
pollutant is done through chimney which are built in accordance with the norm.
Disposal Liquid Waste Disposal and Effluent Management
Waste water from the steel making process is being treated with best available physio-chemical
methods as well as being recycled. Waste water from the coke plant is treated biologically where
organic pollutants are oxidized and decomposed by micro organisms. Proper measures are taken
at different units. The wastes after usage is further treated and are released from the steel plant to
natural water bodies, nearby to the plant. The liquid waste or waste water is discharged through
proper channels with the help of different outfalls.
Waste disposal of Hazardous Waste
The wastes which are falling under Schedule #1 and Schedule #2 of Hazardous Waste (Handling
and Management) Rules, 1989 amended in May, 2003 are termed as Hazardous Wastes. These
wastes can only be disposed in scientifically designed hazardous pits as per the guidelines of
Central Pollution Control Board. The steel plant has to obtain prior authorization for handling
and management of these wastes under Hazardous Waste Rule, 1989. Rourkela Steel Plant
constructed 3 no. of scientifically designed hazardous waste pits at SSM complex, near CCD
area and SSD area. The list of the wastes management by RSP is given in Table
104
Table 3.4.23 Data for Generation Hazardous Waste [17]
Sl.
No
1.
2.
UNIT
COAL
CHEMICALS
DEPT.
3.
(CCD)
4.
5.
6.
7.
BLAST
FURNAC
E
8.
ROLLIN
G MILLS
WASTE
DESCRIPTION
CATCH
PIT
SLUDGE
V2O5
CATALYST
WATER
TREATMENT
SLUDGE
DECANTER
TAR SLUDGE
DRAIN
SLUDGE
SULPHUR
MUCK
DRAIN
SLUDGE
PALM
SLUDGE
SCHEDULE
QTY.
1
WAST
E
STREA
M/
CLASS
SN 13
35
1
SN 17
0.8
Disposed in hazardous waste
pit at CCD
-do-
2
-
4
-do-
1
SN 13
350
400
Sold to outside parties who
are having authorization with
SPCB/ MoEF/ CPCB earlier.
It has been decided to recycle
this waste back to Coke
Ovens.
Disposed in hazardous waste
pit at CCD
-do-
40
-do-
300
•
2
D1
2
OIL 1
SN 13
•
9.
ZINC DROSS
2
C14
105
WASTE
T/YEA
R
40
2
HAZARDOUS
MANAGEMENT
1400
Sold to parties who are
having authorization from
SPCB/CPCB/MoEF.
Presently Palm oil system
is replaced with semi
synthetic oil system in
CRM.
There is no
generation of palm oil
sludge at present.
Sold to parties who are having
authorization
with
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
SIICON
STEEL
MILL
17.
18.
19.
SWPP
20.
21.
ERWPP
ORRP
22.
SPCB/MoEF/CPCB
Tanks are cleaned only once
in 7 years. No sludge arising
during 2004-05.
OILY SLUDGE 1
FROM
OIL
STORAGE
TANK
USED OIL
1
SN 5
0
SN 5
120
TIN
BATH
SLUDGE
SODIUM
DICHROMATE
SLUDGE
PICKLING
BATH SLUDGE
PICKLING LINE
SLUDGE
ACID
TREATMENT
PLANT OIL
CLARIFIER
SLUDGE
DRAIN
CLEANING
SLUDGE
OILY SLUDGE
2
B7
5
2
A5
10
Sold to parties who are having
authorization
with
SPCB/MoEF/CPCB
Disposed in hazardous waste
pit.
-do-
1
SN 13
40
-do-
1
SN 13
10
1
SN 12
80
1
SN 12
30
Disposed in hazardous waste
pit at SSM
Sold to parties who are having
authorization
with
SPCB/CPCB/MoEF
Disposed in hazardous waste
pit inside SSM.
-do-
2
10
1
SN 13
2
OIL SLUDGE
1
OIL
1
CONTAMINATE
D CLAY
TOP-I & USED OIL & 1
TOP-II
SLUDGE
SN 13
SN 13
3
40
Disposed in hazardous waste
pit
-do-do-
SN 5
8
•
•
106
Used oil sold to parties
who
are
having
authorization
with
SPCB/MoEF/CPCB
Oil sludge disposed in
hazardous waste pit.
23
LOCO
SHED
USED OIL
1
SN 5
20
24.
BATTERIES
A
1170
604
25.
ASBESTOS
2
B-21
0.1
Presently the waste oil is
stored in drums. The parties
with valid authorization are
being explored by RSP for
selling.
Sold to parties who are having
authorization
from
SPCB/CPCB/MoEF
Disposed in hazardous waste
pit in CCD
Water analysis of RSP
The water sample was collected from the Rourkela steel plant clarifier and it was tested
Water sampling: Water was collected from the SSM clarifier.
Analysis of water: Water sample taken from the R.S.P. was tested with Water Testing Kit
Model: Orlab Water testing kit.
Table 3.4.24 Water Analysis of RSP
Parameter
R.S.P. Water
value
Permissible limit Standard
(IS: 10500-1991)
1
pH Value
7.1
5.50-9.00
2
Odour
Unobjectionable
-
3
Total hardness (as CaCO3), mg/l
1256.1
600
4
Iron (as Fe), mg/l
0.8
1.0
5
Chloride (as Cl), mg/l
101.2
1000.00
7
Total alkalinity, mg/l
153
200
8
Calcium (as Ca), mg/l
47.4
200
9
Calcium (as CaCO3), mg/l
118.5
600
10
Magnesium (as Mg), mg/l
276.43
100
Sl. No
107
11
Ammonia, mg/l
4.8
1.2
12
Phosphate, mg/l
0.459
5
13
Sulphate, mg/l
Below 40
400
14
Chloride dioxide
Nil
1
Result
The result obtained from the analysis of the water was that the pH level of the water was
appropriate as per norms. Similarly Iron (as Fe), Chloride (as Cl), total alkalinity, Calcium,
Phosphate, Sulphate was found to be below tolerance limit. Magnesium, Ammonia and total
hardness of the water was found to be excess and values of both the parameters are all above the
norm.
Discussion
The above report of water analysis indicates that the water quality is not totally safe as some of
the parameters like magnesium and total hardness is approximately thrice and twice than the
normal permissible limit respectively. Other parameters found in the water were found below the
permissible limit. Some of the parameter like the concentration of magnesium as well as the total
hardness of the water is exceeding the norm. Presence of ammonia found to be above the limit,
this makes the water little toxic. Overall the water tested was found to be hard and little bit
toxic.
3.4.5 WASTE MANAGEMENT IN R.S.P.
One of the major concerns of world steel industry is the disposal of wastes generated at various
stages of processing. The global emphasis on stringent legislation for environmental protection
has changed the scenario of waste dumping into waste management. Because of natural drive to
be cost-effective, there is a growing trend of adopting such waste management measures as
would convert wastes into wealth, thereby treating wastes as by-products. This has led to aiming
at development of zero-waste technologies. The technologies developed to economically convert
wastes of steel plants into wealth provide new business opportunities for prospective
entrepreneurs. Such technologies which have been identified in the report through adequate
deliberations are indicated below in two categories, namely technologies for gainful utilization of
wastes in manufacture of conventional products and those for gainful conversion of wastes into
altogether new products. Besides reutilization they are also reduced by taking mitigation
measures and new technologies, for different waste or pollutants they are as follows: 108
Gaseous waste management
A. Sinter production: - Pollution prevention opportunities for sinter manufacturing may
include selecting feed materials to reduce the amount of organics introduced to the sinter
process. However, these practices may not be a cost-feasible option, due to the large
effort required to identify and segregate oily materials from less-oily materials. Wiling of
mill scale using caustic solutions may be a better P2 option for reducing the oil content in
the feed stream before its addition to the sinter grate. De-oiling and dewatering of sludges
delivered to the sinter process also reduce the amount of organics released to the
atmosphere and reduce the total energy required to produce the sinter from recovered
materials.' Waste materials generated at iron and steel mills without sinter lines are either
sent off-site for processing. Off-site processors may take the waste byproducts and
separate zinc for reuse elsewhere and iron-rich materials for reuse at the iron and steel
mill.
B. Iron making: - However, two changes in ironmaking technology, direct reduction
ironmaking (DRI) and pulverized coal injection (PCI) can indirectly reduce HAPs
emissions from the industry by reducing or eliminating the need for coke in the
ironmaking process. Reducing the need for coke reduces the emission of HAPs from coke
manufacturing, since many of the HAPs that could be released (and not recovered) from
coal in the coke oven process are instead combusted in the blast furnace. Both of these
ironmaking technologies are being incorporated into the industry for their contributions
to reducing product cost and air pollution. An additional P2 benefit is that these
techniques reduce the energy required to produce iron, thereby reducing air pollutant
emissions from energy production. Direct Reduction Ironmaking (still under development
in many countries and in early use elsewhere) represents a radical change in ironmaking
practice. DIU creates iron from coal or gas, iron ore, and other materials, eliminating the
need for coke in iron manufacture and thereby eliminating virtually all of the HAPs
emissions associated with the production of coke that would have been required for
ironmaking. However, DRI does not necessarily reduce the amount of metallic HAPs
emissions associated with making iron, since the iron ore consumption (from which
metallic HAPs are generated) is not changed. In the DRI process, coal, iron ore and
limestone are charged into a liquid bath. Carbon and heat reduce the iron ore, generating
CO and molten iron. HAPs volatilized from coal during the direct reduction process are
presumably destroyed within the iron-making vessel
C. Steel making management: - One suppression method in current practice is to use
natural gas to suppress oxidation of the steel in the tapping area while the steel is being
transferred from the BOF to the transfer ladle. Some early advances are being made in
109
direct steelmaking, which extends the DRI process from the manufacture of iron to the
manufacture of steel. As currently conducted, the final output of the DIU process is iron
that must still be converted to steel in a BOF. Direct steelmaking, like DRI, would greatly
reduce the need for coke in the manufacture of steel, thereby reducing emissions from
coke manufacture. Direct steelmaking also promises to reduce the total energy
requirement for steel production.
D. Finishing :- Some suppression opportunities for the HAP generating from the finishing
of the steel have been identified for this process area; most have to do with minimizing
the use of acid or the prevention of excess HC1 or HF losses to the atmosphere.
Liquid waste management
The waste water which has been generated is first of used to extract some of the useful product
from themselves and are further treated and disposed in the environment or in the river nearby or
to any water source. Natures of products extracted during treatment of water are:A. First, the suspended matter: sinter plant dust, flue dust, steel plant dust and mill scale.
This is of variable grain size, but generally small— from 0 to 100 Jim—settling well
down to 10 Jim and containing much iron (30 to 60 per cent). This dust is collected,
treated and returned to the fabrication line, except that from blast furnace gas when it
contains elements which are harmful to the blast furnace, particularly zinc. Granulated
slag. Soaked silicate, occurs in the form of grains a few millimeters in size, the bulk
density of which may be less than one.
B. Clarifier separation, a conventional settling process in rectangular or circular tanks is used.
Considering the outputs, flocculation is only seldom used: withdrawal of sludge is
performed by means of pumps or, in the case of mill scale, by clamshells. The settled
sludge is either thickened or dried in vacuum filters, according to its final use. Effluent
containing oils to collect current oils, the conventional processes of natural filtration and
collection by mobile troughs are implemented. The reclaimed oils are generally
incinerated.
C. Cold rolling mill, In the case of cold rolling mill oils, there is not yet any satisfactory
process. A flotation technique by hydrogen micro-bubbles originating from electrolysis is
being developed, and a plant is in operation on an industrial scale.
D. Slag granulation effluent an efficient and commonly used means consists in directing the
granulation waste waters into a filtering-bottom tank which removes the granulated slag
grains whose bulk density is lower or higher than that of water. Blast furnace flue dust
effluent containing cyanides it is difficult to apply the conventional cyanide treatments as
110
the outflows are large (400 to 1300 m3/h per blast furnace, depending on its size) and the
water contains much carbonate. If recycling is important with a passage across an
atmospheric cooling agent, one benefits by a natural elimination which is accelerated by
the polyphosphates, according to a process as yet unknown.
E. Coke plant effluent Biological treatment coupled with the conventional settling tank
seems to be the only efficient process for coke plant wastes, but the investment and
operating costs make even those with the best intentions shrink from it. In several coke
plants, these waters were used for coke quenching by the wet method. Many drawbacks
have contributed to the abandonment of this way of operation. In conjunction with the
Basin Agencies, the iron and steel industry has resumed the study of biological processes,
trying to find an economically valid compromise.
Solid waste
Solid waste utilization: Various steel industries in the country in the area of waste utilization
which includes production of cement from BF slag, use of LD slag as a soil conditioner, LD slag
recycling through sinter routes, manufacture of fly ash bricks and light weight aggregates,
agglomeration and recycle of lime fines, reuse of refractory wastes products and use of coke
breeze in sinter making utilization of blast furnace slag.
A. The blast furnace slag can be used in the preparation of materials such as ceramic glass,
silica gel, ceramic tiles, bricks, etc. The devitrification behavior of different sizes of slagderived glass was investigated using differential analytical techniques to determine the
possibility of preparing glass–ceramic materials. The crystalline phases of slag were
identified as gehlenite, diopside pyroxene and barium aluminium silicate. The difference
in the glass–ceramic texture was observed by treating the sample at different
crystallization temperatures. Both acicular and dendritic morphology have been identified
in the sample heat-treated at 1050 °C. A slight variation in peak crystallization
temperature with particle size indicated a bulk crystallization mechanism (Francis, 2004).
The recovery of silica gel from blast furnace slag has been attempted by leaching with
H2SO4, separation of gypsum, precipitation of silica gel at pH 3.2, followed by the
washing of the raw precipitate. The ceramic tile was prepared from granulated blast
furnace slag and common clay by mixing calcia-silica ratio at different proportions. The
optimum compositions were found to be where calcia–silica ratio was in the range of
0.1–0.3. The mechanical strength and water absorption of the fired specimen were in the
range of 28–38 MPa and 2.5–0.1%, respectively. The physical properties of the sintered
specimen are explained on the basis of XRD and SEM analysis. Formation of
wollastonite in the sintered compacts with finer grain size was found to be an important
parameter for increase in strength. Crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slag can be
111
used as an adsorbent of phosphate from water solutions. The adsorption kinetics
measurements confirmed that a model involving pseudo-second-order reactions could
describe the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slag. The
phosphorus sorption follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption
characteristics of blast furnace slag on the removal of lead have been investigated as a
function of pH, the metal ion concentration, the particle size and the amount of sorbent. It
has been established that the process occurs with increasing pH and the efficient lead
removal by granulated slag occurs at pH values lower than precipitation pH values. The
equilibrium in the slag lead solution system is described by the Freundlich adsorption
isotherm. The percentage of lead removal at equilibrium increases with increasing slag
amount but the sorption capacity decreases. Depending on the conditions, a percent lead
removal of 97–98% can be achieved. The results obtained could be useful for the
application of granulated slag for the Pb-ions removal from industrial waste .
C. Utilization of blast furnace flue dust and sludge
The reuse of blast furnace flue dust in sintering plant or blast furnace has been hampered
due to the presence of Na, K, Zn, Pb, Cd, S, cyanides, oils, etc. In blast furnace Na, K, S
can cause operational difficulties or unacceptable hot metal composition. The
performance of blast furnace is strongly affected for presence of alkali due to lowering
down the softening and melting temperature of iron ore and sinters. Alkaline elements
accumulate in blast furnace due to cyclic reactions and hinder the normal operations, loss
of permeability of the burden, cracking of refractory bricks, etc. In addition to this alkali
cyanides is likely to be formed cause environmental problems. Zinc has been regarded as
a problem because it forms a circuit in the furnace resulting in extra coke consumption.
The volatility of zinc and its condensation in cooler region of blast furnace cause serious
problems. For dealkalification of blast furnace dust, acid leaching has been suggested to
promote increased recycling of iron making. Besides that scrubbing, washing, leaching
with CaCl2, NH4Cl, etc. has been carried out. The study carried out at Regional Research
Laboratory, Bhubaneswar, India reveals that it was possible to remove around 75% of Na
values by reducing the particle size. However the removal of potassium was restricted to
22% only [11].
D. Utilization of Steel slag
In the basic oxygen process, hot liquid blast furnace metal, scrap, and fluxes, which
consist of lime (CaO) and dolomite lime (CaO.MgO or “dolime”), are charged to a
converter (furnace). A lance is lowered into the converter and high-pressure oxygen is
injected. The oxygen combines with and removes the impurities in the charge. These
112
impurities consist of carbon as gaseous carbon monoxide, and silicon, manganese,
phosphorus and some iron as liquid oxides, which combine with lime and dolime to form
the steel slag. At the end of the refining operation, the liquid steel is tapped (poured) into
a ladle while the steel slag is retained in the vessel and subsequently tapped into a
separate slag pot.
Because the ladle refining stage usually involves comparatively high flux additions, the
properties of these synthetic slag’s are quite different from those of the furnace slag and
are generally unsuitable for processing as steel slag aggregates. These different slags
must be segregated from furnace slag to avoid contamination of the slag aggregate
produced.
In addition to slag recovery, the liquid furnace slag and ladle slag are generally processed
to recover the ferrous metals. This metals recovery operation (using magnetic separator
on conveyor and/or crane electromagnet) is important to the steelmaker as the metals can
then be reused within the steel plant as blast furnace feed material for the production of
iron.
The use of steel slag as an aggregate is considered a standard practice in many
jurisdictions, with applications that include its use in granular base, embankments,
engineered fill, highway shoulders, and hot mix asphalt pavement.
E. Utilization of LD slag
LD slag can be utilized in many areas such as soil conditioners, fertilizers, recovery of
metal values, etc. Experiments were conducted using pulverized LD slag for growing
vegetables like tomato, potato, onion, spinach, and crops like wheat, in the acidic soil
.The results show that by adding a concentration of slag of between 1.5 and 5.0 t/ha,
according to soil type and its agricultural use, it is possible to achieve a proportional
increase in the soil's pH as well as changes to the exchange complex. The result is
improved quality and soil productivity. Production of fertilizers from steel manufacturing
byproducts such as LD slag, semi-calcined dolomite and ammonium sulfate and their
application in agricultural systems, viz. pasture farming, agro-forestry and forestry have
been studied. Influence of these materials on the chemical composition of soil, grass and
to the potential economic benefits of applying these new fertilizers to the soil were also
evaluated.
113
Recycling of metal values
In addition to the fluxing characteristics of LD slag, the recovery of metal values from
slag was carried out by different techniques. Smelting reduction technique was applied
for the recovery of valuable metals such as vanadium and chromium from LD slag using
a Tamman furnace. The degree of metallization of slag was 98% at 1600 °C at 30 min of
time. The slag is also reduced in an electric furnace to separate the slag and metal. The
recovery of metal values from steel slag was carried out by addition of small quantity of
mineral additive into the molten slag followed by crystallization of the slag. The additive
acts as nuclei for the crystallization of dicalcium silicate in the slag. The breaking of slag
produces 65–80% slag and 10–15% chips.
Other applications
The LD slags are suitable materials for the base and sub-base layer of road because of the
hard characteristics. Investigations on the mineralogy and physical properties of LD slag
have shown that it would make an excellent road stone. Experiments on the weathering of
slag, both on the laboratory scale and in stockpiles, have shown that the free lime levels
will drop to a near-constant nonzero value after 9–12 months. The LD slag of various
ages has been used in the construction of the wearing course of several works and public
roads. Nippon Slag Association in Japan is researching converter slag utilization in port
and harbor construction and the use of EAF oxidizing slag as concrete aggregate. A
major area for utilization of LD slag is in ballast for railway tracks. The slag sample from
Indian steel plants have been tested and found to satisfy the railway satisfaction for
ballasts
F. Utilization of LD sludge
In order to maximize the use of LD sludge in sinter making, pre pelletisation of LD
sludge is highly essential. Pilot plant trials successfully demonstrated the viability of
recycling million of tons of steel plant dusts and sludge that are now typically land filled,
and typically converting them into useful products, i.e., hot metal for steel production,
zinc-rich raw material for the nonferrous metal industry, and slag for road bed and
cement production. The pilot plant trials and subsequent feasibility study showed that
steel plant waste oxides could be smelted in an environmentally sound manner for an
attractive return on investment.
The carbothermic reduction of sludges without addition of coal under nitrogen
atmosphere for conversion to metallic iron has been reported. The results indicated that
increasing the weight ratio of sludge, size of solid sample, carbon content, and density of
114
solid sample or reaction temperature could increase the reduction rate However for direct
use of this type of sludge briquetting or pelletisation is important to agglomerate the
fines.
The agglomeration studies carried out at Regional Research Laboratory indicated that,
LD sludge as such do not give enough strength of the briquettes. However it was possible
to get adequate green strength as well as the crushing strength so as to recycle in the plant
by using LD sludge in combination with mill scale. The combination of binders plays a
vital role in the formation of the agglomerates. In order to have sufficient green strength
for pellet making, a minimum of 2% lime and 6% of organic binder is required. Drying of
pellets at 110 °C for 1 h, the crushing strength of the pellets increased considerably. It
was also observed that around 8–9% of inorganic binder is required for making pellets.
115
CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION
116
CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION
Waste management in mining and allied industries has presently assumed greater importance. It
is a technique in managing wastes in such a way that it would be beneficial in any way. Waste
management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste material,
usually one produced by human activities with an effort to reduce their effect on human health or
local aesthetics or amenity. Waste management involves solid, liquid and gaseous waste
management.
The types of waste generated by mining and allied industries can pollute the environment
because of to its chemical (or physical) nature in particular media as water, soil, vegetation, and
targets like the fauna and human. Waste management helps in reducing pollution by
environmental friendly waste disposal system is possible due to the implementation of these
processes. Disposal of mining and steel plant wastes demands due attention in planning and
execution in order to achieve environmentally acceptable disposal practice so that environmental
problems can be eliminated. Waste management helps in effective managing the waste generated
and helps in better utilization of raw materials.
Field study was carried on waste management in the different mines and in Rourkela steel plant.
The objective of the study was to know the status of waste management practices in the mining
and steel industries, to know the sources of waste generation and whether the waste management
practices followed was sound and benign.
From the field study of BSL mines it was concluded that major waste problem for the mine is the
generation of the overburden and dust emission from mines and from the crusher area. These
waste generated from the mines are not hazardous in nature. For the disposal of overburden they
were using two waste dumps. The management of the solid waste generated i.e. overburden is
disposed in the two dump of the mine, further this waste is used for paddy harvesting or in
plantation. For the management of particulate matter water sprinklers were used in the mines for
the dust suppression. Water sample of BSL mine was analyzed. In the result it was found that the
concentration of magnesium and ammonia in the water sample was in excess. Soil sample of
BSL mine was analyzed. BSL mines soil sample result shows that the soil lacks organic carbon
and soil nitrogen.
Suggestions for improvement for waste management practices in the BSL mines are the
overburden generated should be directly used for the landfilling or reclamation of the mines.
More Number of water sprinklers should be used and there should be utilization of mine water.
117
In Basundhara open cast mines the main sources of waste or area for waste generations are mine
quarry, excavation workshop, overburden dumps. The major problem of waste is from the
effluent water and discard batteries of the HEMMs from the excavation workshop, these waste
generated are hazardous and need proper treatment before disposal. Effluents containing
hazardous substance are treated and disposed into impermeable pit and the discarded waste
batteries of HEMMs are sold to the authorized persons.
Soil sample of Basundhara mines was analyzed. From the result of Basundhara mine soil sample
analysis it was concluded that the soil sample lacked organic carbon and soil nitrate nitrogen. As
in Basundhara open cast mine, dust control was ineffective in the mines, it can be improved by
using special chemical sprinkling for the dust suppression that will arrest the dust to become airborne and eliminated efficiently.
In Hirakhand Bundia underground coal mines the major waste problem is from waste water. The
liquid waste generated from the mines is not properly handled. The surface oil and grease trap is
not working properly in the mines as they are using settling tank for separation of grease and oil
from the water. Mine should use oil and grease trap specifically to efficiently separate the water
from the effluents that are mixed in the water. Some of the part in the mine is face dust problem.
To control dust regular cleaning of travelling roadway floor should be done to avoid dust
problem. The suggestion for improvement of waste management practices in the Hirakhand
Bundia mine underground coal mine as coal dust and treatment of water were major problems.
Regular cleaning of the mine and proper dust suppression measure should be taken at coal face,
travelling and loading point. Oil and grease trap should be used for the treatment of mine water.
In Rourkela Steel industry there are significant quantities of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes are
generated as a waste material or byproduct every day from steel industries. These wastes can be
hazardous or non-hazardous depending on their characteristics. Disposal of these wastes into the
environment can pose serious threat. So, proper management of waste is required in the steel
industry. Different techniques are used for the disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous waste in
RSP. Solid waste usually contains considerable quantities of valuable metals and materials. This
solid waste from one form to another to be reused either by the same production unit or by
different industrial installation is very much essential not only for conserving metals and mineral
resources and also for protecting the environment.
The main sources of hazardous waste generation in RSP are from coal chemical department,
rolling mill, silicon steel mill and loco shed etc. Disposal of the hazardous waste generated from
these departments are disposed in scientifically designed hazardous pits as per the guidelines of
Central Pollution Control Board. Some of waste that are generated such as zinc dross, palm
118
sludge, used oil and acids which are hazardous in nature but further can be utilized are sold to
private parties who have authorization from SPCB/CPCB/MoEF.
In case of non-hazardous waste the major problem is by fly ash, SMS slag and sludge. These
solid waste generated from the Steel Plant cannot be utilized due to various constraints and
limitation. Due to their lack of utilization, their disposal is becoming a great concern. Among the
three solid wastes fly ash disposal in RSP is a big problem. As fly ash rate of generation is very
high as compared to the other two wastes and therefore the area required for the disposal of fly
ash is very large. However the fly ash and SMS sludge generated are disposed in the fly ash pond
and SMS sludge pond respectively. RSP presently, is unable to utilize 100% of SMS Slag and
sludge. The percentage utilization of the SMS Slag and Sludge is below 50%. So various
research works are going in the R&D unit of RSP to utilize these two wastes. Water sample of
RSP was analyzed. For RSP water sample magnesium, ammonia and total hardness was found to
be in excess.
The suggestions for improvement of waste management practices in RSP are that the fly ash can
be utilized for brick manufacturing and can be supplied to the nearby mines and low-lying areas
for backfilling. SMS slag can be used in rehabilitation of the land. So initiative should be taken
to promote and utilize the SMS slag by supplying it to the areas that needs rehabilitation.
119
REFERENCES
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Bandhopadhyay, pp. 177-191.
120
&
waste
management”.
Editor
A.
14. Discussion with mining officials on waste management visit to mine, data collected,
photograph taken of BSL mines from 24/02/10 to 25/02/10.
15. Discussion with mining officials on waste management visit to mine, data collected,
photograph taken of Basundhara west OCP mines from 09/04/10 to 11/04/10.
16. Discussion with mining officials on waste management visit to mine, data collected,
photograph taken of Hirakhand Bundia mines from 26/03/10 to 28/03/10.
17. Discussion with Environmental Executive on waste management, visit to different units
of steel plant and data collection of Rourkela Steel Plant from 22/01/10 to 24/01/10.
18. http://dpcc.delhigovt.nic.in/airstd.htm.
19. www.accci.org/Byproduct.pdf
20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biramitrapur
21. www.ifc.org/ifcext/enviro.nsf/
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agement/Tailings_&_Waste_Management
23. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/biz/india-business/Rourkela-steel-plant-to-set-recordproduction/articleshow/2868481.cms
24. http://www.sail.co.in/pdf/plants&unit.pdf
25. http://www.coalportal.com/images/blast_furnace.gif
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27. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/blnus/03031705.htm
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+SAIL+year+2008-09&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=in
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