SIMULATION OF NITROGEN LIQUEFICATION CYCLES

SIMULATION OF NITROGEN LIQUEFICATION CYCLES
SIMULATION OF NITROGEN LIQUEFICATION
CYCLES
A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
Master of Technology
in
Thermal Engineering
by
SHAILESH PRASAD
Roll-207ME313
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela
2008-2009
SIMULATION OF NITROGEN LIQUEFICATION
CYCLES
A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
Master of Technology
in
Thermal Engineering
by
SHAILESH PRASAD
Roll-207ME313
Under The Guidance of
Prof. Sunil Kumar Sarangi
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela
2008-2009
Dedicated to
my
mom & dad
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “simulation of nitrogen liquefication cycles”
submitted by Shailesh Prasad in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY Degree in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in
“Thermal Engineering” at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University)
is an authentic work carried out by him/her under my/our supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any
other University/ Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.
Date:
Prof. S.K.Sarangi
Department of Mechanical Engg.
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela - 769008
I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First I would like to express my deep appreciation and gratitude to Prof. S.K. Sarangi for his
constant support and exceptionally helpful guidance throughout this study. Working under his
supervision greatly contributed to improving the quality of the thesis and to developing my
general engineering and management skills.
Further I greatly appreciate the help from Prof. R.K.Sahoo whose technical expertise in the heat
transfer area constituted a valuable asset.
I also want to take this opportunity to express my appreciation toward Prof. A.K.Sathpathy. for
his valuable suggestions and encouragement throughout the project work.
I thank all my friends in Mechanical Engineering for making my stay at N.I.T.Rourkela a
pleasant and memorable experience.
SHAILESH PRASAD
Roll No. 207ME313
Department of Mechanical Engg
National Institute of technology
II
CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE
I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
II
CONTENTS
III
ABSTRACT
VI
LIST OF FIGURES
VII
LIST OF TABLES
IX
NOMENCLATURE
X
1. INTRODUCTION
1
1.1 Gas liquefaction systems
2
1.2 System performance parameters
3
1.3 Refrigeration efficiency
3
1.4 The thermodynamically ideal system
4
1.5 Production of low temperatures
6
2. LITERATURE SURVEY
8
2.1 Simple Linde-Hampson systems
9
2.1.1 Working principle
10
2.1.2 Performance of system
11
2.2 Claude system
11
2.1.1 Performance of system
13
III
2.3 The Kapitza system
15
2.4 The Heylandt system
15
3. ASPENONE
18
3.1 Introduction
18
3.2 Aspen-ONE engineering
19
3.3 Introduction to Aspen Hysys
19
3.4 Equation of state
20
3.4.1 Peng-Robinson
21
3.4.2 BWRS
23
3.5 Simulation Environment
23
3.6 The components or the blocks or the equipments
24
3.6.1 HYSYS object
24
A. Mixer.
24
B. Compressor
25
C. Cooler/Chiller
25
D. Heat Exchanger / LNG
25
E. Separator
25
IV
3.6.2
Logical Units
27
A. Set
27
B. Spreadsheet
27
C. Recycle
28
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Simulation of Linde cycle
4.1.1
30
Figure of merit
33
4.2 Simulation of Claude cycle
34
4.3 Simulation of Kapitza cycle
42
4.4 Simulation of Claude cycle for Haylent
46
4.5 Simulation of Haylent system
47
5. SIMULATION OF LN2 PLANT
50
5.1 LN2 plant at NIT-Rourkela
51
6. CONCLUSION
55
REFERENCE
57
V
Abstract
System simulation is the calculation of operating variables such as pressure, temperature and
flow rates of energy and fluids in a thermal system operating in a steady state. The equations for
performance characteristics of the components and thermodynamic properties along with energy
and mass balance form a set of simultaneous equations relating the operating variables. The
mathematical description of system simulation is that of solving these set of simultaneous
equations which may be non-linear in nature. Simulation is not needed in design conditions
because in the design process the Engineer probably chooses reasonable values of the operating
variables and selects the components that correspond to operating variables.
Cryogenics is the branch of engineering that is applied to very low temperature refrigeration
applications such as in liquefaction of gases and in the study of physical phenomenon at
temperature of absolute zero. The various cryogenic cycles as Linde cycle, Claude’s cycle ,
Stirling cycle etc govern the liquefaction of various industrial gases as Nitrogen, Helium etc. We
have the operating conditions and operating variables which can be solved numerically which is
tedious. The following work aims to simulate the nitrogen liquefication cycles with the help of
the simulation tool ASPEN HYSYS where all calculations are done at steady state and the results
hence obtained.
VI
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
Title
page
1.1
The thermodynamically ideal liquefication system
5
(a) Thermodynamic cycle T-S plane,
(b) Apparatus setup
2.1
Linde-Hampson liquefication system
9
2.2
Linde-Hampson liquefication cycle (T-S plot)
10
2.3.
The Claude system
12
2.4
Claude cycle (T-S) plot
12
2.5.
The Kapitza system
15
2.6.
The Haylent system
16
3.1
Industries and Business Areas of aspenONE
18
3.2
aspenONE engineering classification
19
3.3
Simulation environment
23
4.1
PFD of Linde cycle
30
4.2
Yield vs pressure plot for linde system
42
4.3
variation of yield with minimum approach of heat exchanger
32
4.4
Claude PFD
34
4.5
Work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the Claude system
36
(a) Full plot
(b) Magnify plot
VII
Figure
Title
page
4.6
Temperature profile in heat exchanger at optimum value
37
4.7
Claude PFD with effectiveness in first HX
38
4.8
Optimum work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the
40
Claude system
4.9
Kapitza PFD
43
4.10
Optimum work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the
44
Kapitza system
4.11
Comparison of work required to liquefy unit mass of nitrogen
45
4.12
Optimum work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the
47
claude-Haylant System
4.13
Haylent PFD
48
4.14
Optimum work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the
49
Haylent system
5.1
LN2 plant PFD
51
VII
List of table
Table
Title
Page
4.1
Variation of yield with pressure
31
4.2
Variation of yield with minimum approach of heat exchanger
32
4.3
Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x without
35
effectiveness
4.4
Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x with
39
effectiveness
4.5
Temperature across heat exchanger at different value of x
41
4.6
Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x for
43
kapitza system
4.7
Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x for
46
Claude system
4.8
Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x for
48
Haylent system
5.1
Optimum work required at various combination of efficiency of
turbine, minimum approach and effectiveness of heat exchange
of LN2 plant
IX
54
Nomenclature
= mass flow rate
= heat transfer
= work transfer
f=
liquid mass flow rate
T = temperature
y = yield
ε = effectiveness
C = heat capacity rate
p = pressure
v = volume
R= universal gas constant
Geek Symbols
ρ = density
γ = adiabatic index
Subscripts
C= cold fluid
h = hot fluid
Abbreviations
HX = heat exchanger
X
CHAPTER: 1
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1 Gas liquefaction systems
Liquefaction of gases includes a number of phases used to convert a gas into a liquid state.
The processes are used for scientific, industrial and commercial purposes. Many gases can be put
into a liquid state at normal atmospheric pressure by simple cooling; a few, such as carbon
dioxide, require pressurization as well. Liquefaction is used for analyzing the fundamental
properties of gas molecules (intermolecular forces), for storage of gases, for example: LPG, and
in refrigeration and air conditioning. There the gas is liquefied in the condenser, where the heat
of vaporization is released, and evaporated in the evaporator, where the heat of vaporization is
absorbed. Ammonia was the first such refrigerant, but it has been replaced by compounds
derived from petroleum and halogens.
Liquid oxygen is provided to hospitals for conversion to gas for patients suffering from
breathing problems, and liquid nitrogen is used by dermatologists and by inseminators to
freeze semen. Liquefied chlorine is transported for eventual solution in water, after which it is
used for water purification, sanitation of industrial waste, sewage and swimming pools,
bleaching of pulp and textiles and manufacture of carbon tetrachloride, glycol and numerous
other organic compounds.
Liquefaction
of helium (4He)
with
the Hampson-Linde
cycle led
to
a Nobel
Prize for Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1913. At ambient pressure the boiling point of liquefied
helium is 4.22 K (-268.93°C). Below 2.17 K liquid 4He has many amazing properties, such as
climbing the walls of the vessel, exhibiting zero viscosity, and offering no lift to a wing past
which it flows.
2
The liquefaction of gases is a complicated process that uses various compressions and
expansions to achieve high pressures and very low temperatures; using for example turbo
expanders. The liquefaction of air is used to obtain nitrogen, oxygen and argon by separating the
air components by distillation.
This chapter discusses several of the systems used to liquefy the cryogenic fluids. We shall be
concerned with the performance of the various systems, where performance is specified by the
system performance parameters or payoff functions.
1.2 System performance parameters
There are three payoff functions we might use to indicate the performance of the liquefaction
systems:
1. Work required per unit mass of gas compressed ,
2. Work required per unit mass of gas liquefied ,
3. Fraction of the total flow of gas that is liquefied.
1.3 Refrigeration Efficiency
It is desirable to have a method of comparing real refrigerators with the ideal refrigerator. It
is of intrest to know the maximum efficiency that can be achieved by such an engine operating
between two reservoir at different temperatures. The French engineer Carnot describe an engine
operating in particularly simple cycle knows as Carnot cycle.
3
The performance of real refrigerator is measured by the coefficient of performance (COP),
which is define as the ration of refrigeration effect to the work input, the inverse of the efficiency
term.
Thus,
=
COP =
(1.1)
The figure of merit (FOM) is still another means of comparing the performance of
practical refrigeration and is define as
FOM =
=
Where COP is the coefficient of performance of the actual refrigerator system and
COPideal and COPcarnot is the coefficient of performance of the thermodynamically ideal system
and Carnot refrigerator, respectively. The figure of merit for a liquefier is generally written as
FOM =
1.4 The thermodynamically ideal system
In order to have a means of comparison of liquefaction systems through the figure of
merit, we shall first analyze the thermodynamically ideal liquefaction system. This system is
ideal in the thermodynamic sense, but it is not ideal as far as practical system is concerned. The
perfect cycle in thermodynamics is the Carnot cycle. Liquefaction is essentially an open system
process, therefore for an ideal liquefaction we shall choose the first two processes in the Carnot
cycle; a reversible isothermal compression followed by a reversible isentropic expansion. The
gas to be liquefied is compressed reversibly and isothermally from ambient conditions to some
high pressure. This high pressure is selected so that gas will become saturated liquid upon
4
reversible isentropic expansion through the expander. The final condition is taken as the same
pressure as the initial pressure. The pressure attained at the end of isothermal compression is
extremely high in the order of 70Gpa and it is highly impracticable to attain this pressure in a
liquefaction system, which is the reason it is not an ideal process for a practicable system.
Temp
Entropy
(a)
(b)
Figure: 1.1 The thermodynamically ideal liquefication system
(a) Thermodynamic cycle T-S plane, (b) Apparatus setup
The First law of thermodynamic for steady flow may be written as:
net -
net =
-
(1.1)
Applying the First law to the system shown in figure:
R
-
1
=
(hf-h1) = -
(h1-hf)
(1.2)
5
The heat transfer process is reversible and isothermal in the Carnot cycle. Thus, from the second
law of Thermodynamics
R=
T1 (s2-s1) = -
T1 (s1-sf)
(1.3)
Because of process form point 2 to f is isentropic, s1=sf where s is the entropy of the fluid.
Substituting
R
from equation (1.3) into equation (1.2) we may determine the work requirement
for the ideal system.
= T1 (s1-sf) – (h1-hf)
(1.4)
1.5 Production of low temperatures
Joule Thompson effect
Most of the practical liquefaction systems utilize an expansion valve or a Joule Thomson valve
to produce low temperatures. If we apply the first law for steady flow to the expansion valve, for
zero heat transfer and zero work transfer and for negligible kinetic and potential changes, we fine
h1= h2 .Although the flow within the valve is irreversible and is not an isenthalpic process, the
inlet and the outlet do lie on the same enthalpy curve. We note that there is a region in which an
expansion through the valve produces an increase in temperature, while in another region the
expansion results in a decrease in temperature. Obviously we should operate the expansion valve
in a liquefaction system in the region where there is a net decrease in temperature results. The
curve that separates two regions is called the inversion curve. The effect of change in
temperature for an isenthalpic change in pressure is represented by the Joule-Thompson
coefficient.
6
Adiabatic expansion
The second method of producing low temperatures is the adiabatic expansion of the gas
through a work producing device, such as an expansion engine. In the ideal case, the expansion
would be reversible and adiabatic and therefore isentropic. In this case we can define the
isentropic coefficient which expresses the temperature change due to a pressure change at
constant entropy.
Existing Gas liquefaction systems
Of the various gas liquefaction techniques developed by various cryogenic experts, some
of them are listed below:1: Simple Linde Hampson system
2: Precooled Linde Hampson system
3: Linde dual pressure system
4: Cascade system
5: The Claude system
6: The Kaptiza system
7: The Collins liquefaction system
7
CHAPTER: 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
8
2.1 Simple Linde-Hampson system
The Linde-Hampson system was the second used to liquefy gases (the cascade system
was the first ), although it is the simplest of all the liquefication system is show in figure 2.1 and
cycle is show in T-S plane in figure2.2
Fig: 2.1 Linde-Hampson liquefication system
A basic differentiation between the various refrigeration cycles lies in the expansion
device. This may be either an expansion engine like expansion turbine or reciprocating
expansion engine or a throttling valve. The expansion engine approaches an isentropic process
and the valve an isenthalpic process. Isentropic expansion implies an adiabatic reversible process
while isenthalpic expansions are irreversible. In the Linde system, the basic principle of
9
isenthalpic expansion is also incorporated where as in Claude‟s cycle involves both isentropic
and isenthalpic expansion procedure.
Fig: 2.2 Linde-Hampson liquefication cycle (T-S plot)
2.1.1 Working principle
The air enters the compressor through air pump which forced into compressor and
compressed thereby being heated. The heat is removed in the cooling apparatus may be air
cooled or water cooled and the compressed air finally reach to ambient temperature. Then it pass
through counter flow heat exchanger where it temperature decrease below inversion temperature
of working fluid. The air therefore reaches the J-T valve so that it expand through valve , so that
10
it constantly falling in temperature, reaches at lower and lower temperature and eventually the
critical temperature of the liquid air is reached and liquid air begins to collect in chamber .
2.1.2 Performance of system
In order to analyze the performance of the system, let us assume ideal condition: no
irreversible pressure drops (except for the expansion valve), no heat inleak from ambient
conditions, and 100 percent effective heat exchanger.
Applying the first law for steady flow to the combine heat exchanger, expansion valve,
and liquid receiver, we obtain
0=( -
f)
h1 +
fhf
-
h2
(4.1)
Solving for the fraction of the gas flow that is liquefied
=y=
(4.2)
The fraction of gas liquefied (the liquid yield) thus depend upon:
1) The pressure and temperature at ambient condition (point 1), which fix h1 and hf
2) The pressure after the isothermal compression, which determines h2
because the
temperature at state points 2 is specified by the temperature at point 1
2.2 Claude system
The expansion through an expansion valve is an irreversible process, thermodynamically
speaking. Thus if we wish to approach closer to the ideal performance, we must a better process
to produce low temperatures. In the Claude system, energy is removed from the gas stream by
11
allowing it to do some work in an expansion engine or expander. The Claude cycle is shown in
figure2.3
Fig: 2.3. The Claude system
Fig: 2.4 Claude cycle (T-S) plane
12
An expansion valve is still necessary in the Claude system because much liquid cannot be
tolerated in the expander in the actual system. The liquid has much compressibility than the gas,
therefore, if liquid were formed in the cylinder of an expansion engine (positive displacement
type), high momentary stress would result. Some rotary turbine expanders (axial-flow type) have
developed that can tolerate as much as 15% liquid by weight without damage to the turbine blade
In some Claude systems, the energy output of the expander is used to help compress the
gas to be liquefied. In most small scale system, the energy is dissipated in the brake or in an
external air blower .whether the energy is wasted or not does not affect the liquid yield; however,
it does increase the compression work requirement when the expander work is not used
2.2.1 Performance of system
Applying the first law for steady flow to the heat exchangers, the expansion valve, and
liquid receiver as a unit, for no external heat transfer
0=( -
f)
h1 +
fhf +
ehe
-
h2
-
eh3
(5.1)
If we define the fraction of the total flow passes through the expander as x, or
x=
(5.2)
Then liquid yield can be obtain form equation (5.1) as
=y=
+x
(5.3)
Again we see that the second term represent the improvement in performance over the simple
Linde-Hampson system.
13
The work requirement per unit mass compressed is exactly the same as that of the LindeHampson system if the expander work is not utilized to help in the compression. If the expander
work is used to aid in the compression, then the net work requirement is given by
=
(5.4)
Applying the first law for steady flow to the expander, we obtain the work expression
e=
(h3- he)
(5.5)
If the expander work is utilize to aid I compression, the net work is given by
= [T1 (s1-s2) – (h1-h2)] – x (h3-he)
(5.6)
In claude system of 3 heat exchanger setup we can find that there is phase change in second and
thirds heat exchanger so that we can apply effectiveness term directly , only first heat exchanger
have freedom to use effectiveness and minimum temperature approach to solve it, so
effectiveness of heat exchanger is define as:
“The ratio of the actual heat transfer to the heat transfer attainable in an infinitely long
counter flow exchanger”
ε=
=
(5.7)
14
2.3 The Kapitza system
Kapitza (1939) modified the basic Claude system by eliminating the third heat exchanger or low
temperature heat exchanger. Several notable practical modifications were also introduced in this
system a rotary expansion engine was instead of reciprocating expander. The first or high
temperature heat exchanger in the kapitza system was actually a set of valved regenerators,
which combined the cooling process with the purification process. The incoming warm gas was
cooled in one unit and impurities were deposited there, while the outgoing stream warmed up in
the other unit and flushed out the frozen impurities deposited in it.
Fig: 2.5. The Kapitza system
2.4 The Haylent system
Helandt (Davies 1949) noted that for high pressure of approximately 20Mpa (200 atm) and an
expansion engine flow ratio of approximately 0.60, the optimum value of temperature before
expansion through the expander was nearly ambient temperature. Thus one could eliminate the
first heat exchanger in Claude system by compressing the gas to 200 Mpa. Such a modified
15
Claude system is called the Heylandt system after its originator, and is use extensively in highpressure liquefication plant for air
Fig: 2.6. The Haylent system
16
Chapter: 3
ASPEN-One
17
3. AspenONE
3.1 Introduction
aspenONE is AspenTech‟s comprehensive set of software solutions and professional services
designed to help process companies achieve their operational excellence objectives. It leverages
the value of simulation models to help process companies increase operational efficiency and
profitability across their global enterprise. Aspen-one cover four major field as shown in
figure:2.1 , Chemical , Energy , Polymer , Pharmaceuticals.
Pharmaceuticals
Polymers
aspenONE
Chemicals
Energy
Fig: 3.1 Industries and Business Areas of aspenONE
18
3.2 Aspen-ONE engineering
Aspen
Plus
Aspen
APLE
Aspen
Dynamics
Aspen
FIHR
Aspen
PIPE
aspenONE
Engineering
Aspen
MUSE
Aspen
ACOL
Aspen
HYSYS
Aspen
HTFS
Aspen
TASC
Aspen
FRAN
Fig: 3.2 aspenONE engineering classification
3.3 Introduction to Aspen Hysys
The simulations of the Nitrogen liquefaction cycle have been carried out using Aspen Hysys,
which is chemical process simulation modeling software.
The flow sheet (PFD) includes a library of standard unit operation blocks and logical units (e.g.
cooler, mixer, Heat-exchangers, separator, splitters, compressor, Recycle, spreadsheet, set,
adjust), which represent processes taking place in an actual liquefaction plant. HYSYS is a
combination of tools that are used for estimating the physical properties and liquid-vapour phase
19
Equilibrium of various inbuilt components. These components are the substances that are used
within the plant for the feeds, within the reaction and separation sections. The program is such
that it will converge energy and material balances and has standard unit operations typical of any
processing plant. HYSYS updates the calculations as the user enters information and does as
much as it can at that time. The successful completion of an operation is seen by the changes in
colour on screen. HYSYS is not just a steady state program. A case can be transferred into a
dynamic simulation where process controllers can be added, and hence, realistically evaluate a
plant wide control philosophy
For the Liquefaction process to be modelled in HYSYS, there must be a foundation on which the
components must be modeled. In this process, there are one components involved in the
chemistry that is nitrogen. Nitrogen is selected as pure components within the simulation basis
manager. The next task is to assign a fluids package, which is used by the software to calculate
the component streams as they change within the HYSYS flow sheet. The selection of the fluids
package is critical. There are dangers of using an incorrect thermodynamics package. They state,
“Everything from the energy balance to the volumetric flow rates to the separation in the
equilibrium-stage units depends on accurate thermodynamic data”. For simulation of nitrogen
liquefaction cycle, BWRS equation of state is used in this project work.
3.4 Equation of state
In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a relation between state variables.
More specifically, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation describing the state of
matter under a given set of physical conditions. It is a constitutive equation which provides a
20
mathematical relationship between two or more state functions associated with the matter, such
as its temperature, pressure, volume, or internal energy. Equations of state are useful in
describing the properties of fluids, mixtures of fluids, solids, and even the interior of stars.
Aspen HYSYS contain various property packages, but for simulation of Nitrogen liquefication
cycle BWRS equation of state is used and for helium liquefication cycle peng-Robinson equation
of state is used because it doesn‟t allow for helium gas.
3.4.1 Peng-Robinson:
Peng-Robinson is a Cubic equation of state
P=
a=
b =
α = (1+(0.37464+1.54226ω – 0.26992 ω2) (1-Tr0.5))2
Tr =
In polynomial form:
A=
21
B=
Z3 – (1-B) Z2 + (A-3B2-2B) Z - (AB-B2-B3) = 0
where, ω is the acentric factor of the species and R is the universal gas constant.
The Peng-Robinson equation was developed in 1976 in order to satisfy the following goals:
1. The parameters should be expressible in terms of the critical properties and the acentric
factor.
2. The model should provide reasonable accuracy near the critical point, particularly for
calculations of the compressibility factor and liquid density.
3. The mixing rules should not employ more than a single binary interaction parameter,
which should be independent of temperature pressure and composition.
4. The equation should be applicable to all calculations of all fluid properties in natural gas
processes.
For the most part the Peng-Robinson equation exhibits performance similar to the Soave
equation, although it is generally superior in predicting the liquid densities of many materials,
especially nonpolar ones. The departure functions of the Peng-Robinson equation are given on a
separate article.
22
3.4.2 BWRS (Benedict-Webb-Rubin):
BWRS is an non-cubic equation
P = ρRT + ( B0RT-A0 -
+
-
)ρ2 + (bRT – a - )ρ3 + (a + )ρ6 +
(1+γρ2)exp(-γρ2)
3.5 Simulation Environment
The Simulation environment contains the main flow sheet where you do the majority of your
work (installing and defining streams, unit operations, columns and sub flow sheets). Before
entering the Simulation environment, you must have a fluid package with selected components in
the component list and a property package.
Fig: 3.3 simulation environment
23
The flow sheet in Aspen HYSYS shows the various components and the material streams
needed to bring about the liquefaction of the nitrogen gas. It consists of various apparatus(Object
Palette) but few object which are in our use are as mixer, an isentropic compressor, a chiller, a
LNG countercurrent heat exchanger, an isenthalpic J-T valve, a separator which performs flash
separation operations and logical operation units Set, Spreadsheet and Recycle.
3.6 The components or the blocks or the equipments
The description of the various components and the conditions at which they operate are
described subsequently.
3.6.1 HYSYS object
A. Mixer
The Mixer operation combines two or more inlet streams to produce a single outlet stream.
A complete heat and material balance is performed with the Mixer. That is, the one unknown
temperature among the inlet and outlet streams is always calculated rigorously. If the properties
of all the inlet streams to the Mixer are known (temperature, pressure, and composition), the
properties of the outlet stream is calculated automatically since the composition, pressure, and
enthalpy is known for that stream.
24
B. Compressor
There are various type of compressor that are available in market but in Aspen Hysys
option of isentropic centrifugal compressor is available. The Centrifugal Compressor operation is
used to increase the pressure of an inlet gas stream with relative high capacities and low
compression ratios. Depending on the information specified, the Centrifugal Compressor
calculates either a stream property (pressure or temperature) or a compression efficiency.
C. Cooler/Chiller
The Cooler operations are one-sided heat exchangers. The inlet stream is cooled (or
heated) to the required outlet conditions, and the energy stream absorbs (or provides) the
enthalpy difference between the two streams. These operations are useful when you are
interested only in how much energy is required to cool or heat a process stream with a utility, but
you are not interested in the conditions of the utility itself.
D. Heat Exchanger / LNG
The LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) exchanger model solves heat and material balances for
multi-stream heat exchangers and heat exchanger networks. The solution method can handle a
wide variety of specified and unknown variables. For the overall exchanger, you can specify
various parameters, including heat leak/heat loss, UA or temperature approaches. Two solution
approaches are employed; in the case of a single unknown, the solution is calculated directly
from an energy balance. In the case of multiple unknowns, an iterative approach is used that
25
attempts to determine the solution that satisfies not only the energy balance, but also any
constraints, such as temperature approach or UA.
Heat Transfer Theory of LNG
The LNG calculations are based on energy balances for the hot and cold fluids. The following
general relation applies any layer in the LNG unit operation.
where:
m (hin –hout ) + Qinternal + Qexternal = ρ
E. Separator
Multiple feeds, one vapour and one liquid product stream. In Steady State mode, the
Separator divides the vessel contents into its constituent vapour and liquid phases
3.6.2 Logical Units
A. SET
SET is used to set the value of a specific process variable (P V in the manuals) in relation to
another PV. The relation must be of the form Y = mX + b and the process variables must be of the
same type. For example, you could use the SET to set one material streams temperature to always be
20 degrees hotter than another material stream's temperature. SET may work both ways (i.e. if the
target is known and not the source, the target will "set" the source).
26
B. SPREADSHEET
The Spreadsheet applies the functionality of Spreadsheet programs to flowsheet modeling.
With essentially complete access to all process variables, the Spreadsheet is extremely powerful
and has many applications in HYSYS. The HYSYS Spreadsheet has standard row/column
functionality. You can import a variable, or enter a number or formula anywhere in the
spreadsheet.
The Spreadsheet can be used to manipulate or perform custom calculations on flowsheet
variables. Because it is an operation calculations are performed automatically; Spreadsheet cells
are updated when flowsheet variables change.
One application of the Spreadsheet is the calculation of pressure drop during dynamic
operation of a Heat Exchanger. In the HYSYS Heat Exchanger, the pressure drop remains
constant on both sides regardless of flow. However, using the Spreadsheet, the actual pressure
drop on one or both sides of the exchanger could be calculated as a function of flow. Complex
mathematical formulas can be created, using syntax which is similar to conventional
Spreadsheets. Arithmetic, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions are examples of the
mathematical functionality available in the Spreadsheet. The Spreadsheet also provides logical
programming in addition to its comprehensive mathematical capabilities
27
C. RECYCLE
Use this operation every time you need to recycle a stream. The logical block connects the
two streams around the tear (remember the tear does not have to be the official "recycle" stream
itself, but instead should be the best place in the loop to make the break for convergence purposes).
Before you can install the REC YCLE the flow sheet must have completed. That means there need
to be values for both the assumed stream and the calculated stream. Once the Recycle is attached
and running, HYS YS compares the two values, adjusts the assumed stream, and runs the flow
sheet again. HYSYS repeats this process until the two streams match within specified tolerances.
Those tolerances are set on the Parameters Page. There are tolerances for Vapour Fraction,
Temperature, Pressure, F low, Enthalpy, and Composition. The tolerances you enter are not
absolute. They are actually multipliers for HYSYS' internal convergence tolerances. For example,
the internal value for Temperature is .01 degrees (note that is in Kelvin, because HYSYS does all
of its calculations in an internal unit set), so a multiplier often means the two streams must be
within a tenth of a degree of each other.
On the Numerical Page, among other things, you may set the RECYC LE to either Nested
(the Op is called whenever it is encountered in the flow sheet) or Simultaneous (all of the
RECYCLEs are invoked)
28
Chapter: 4
RESULT
29
4.1 Simulation of Linde cycle
Problem specification: 1
To solve Linde cycle, (using ASPEN-HYSYS) as simulation tool.
Given condition:
Tambient = 300K,
Pambient = 1 bar,
Pmax = 100 bar, 150bar, 200bar, 250bar, 300bar, 350bar, 400bar, 450bar, 500bar, 550bar, 600bar
Minimum temperature approach in HX= 10K,
Pressure drop (except valve) is zero
Fluid package = BWRS
Fluid = pure nitrogen
Fig: 4.1 PFD of Linde cycle
30
Pressure
100
150
200
250
300
350
Yield
1.89E-02
3.40E-02
4.22E-02
5.18E-02
5.65E-02
5.89E-02
Pressure
400
450
500
550
600
Yield
5.97E-02
5.91E-02
5.75E-02
5.48E-02
5.14E-02
Table: 4.1 variation of yield with pressure
7.00E-02
6.00E-02
Yeild (Kg/s)
5.00E-02
4.00E-02
3.00E-02
2.00E-02
1.00E-02
0.00E+00
0
100
200
300
400
500
Pressure ( bar )
Fig: 4.2 Yield vs pressure plot for linde system
31
600
700
Problem specification: 2
To solve Linde cycle, (using ASPEN-HYSYS) as simulation tool.
Given condition:
Tambient = 300K,
Pambient = 1 bar,
Pmax = 200bar
Minimum temperature approach in HX= 0 K to 50K,
Pressure drop (except valve) is zero
Fluid package = BWRS
Fluid = pure nitrogen
Min approach
(k)
0
3
5
10
15
20
25
29
Yeild (%)
6.68E-02
6.02E-02
5.59E-02
4.47E-02
3.31E-02
2.12E-02
9.26E-03
0.00
Table: 4.2 variation of yield with minimum approach of heat exchanger
8.00E-02
7.00E-02
6.00E-02
yeild(%)
5.00E-02
4.00E-02
3.00E-02
2.00E-02
1.00E-02
0.00E+00
0
5
10
15
20
25
minimum approch(K)
Fig: 4.3 variation of yield with minimum approach of heat exchanger
32
30
35
4.1.1 Figure of merit:
FOM for linde cycle is given as :
FOM =
*
Case- 1: FOM for minimum approach of 0 K
FOM =
*
=
=
*
*
= 0.11
Case- 2: FOM for minimum approach of 10 K
FOM =
=
*
*
= 0.07689
33
4.2 Simulation of Claude cycle
Problem specification: 3
To solve Claude cycle, (using ASPEN-HYSYS) as simulation tool to find the value of x the
minimum work required to liquefy a unit mass of nitrogen
Given condition:
Tambient = 300K,
Pambient = 1.1 bar,
Pmax = 8 bar,
Minimum temperature approach in HX1= 3K, HX2= 2K, HX3= 1K
Pressure drop in heat exchange is 0.1 bars in each stream is zero
Fluid package = BWRS
Fluid = pure nitrogen
Efficiency of turbine = 40 %
Fig: 4.4 Claude PFD
34
Wcomp
Wchiller
Wturbine
(KW)
(KW)
(KW)
313
311.4
313
χ
Wnet (KW)
Y
Wnet /Y
3.849
0.1
309.151
5.46E-03
56613
311.4
6.065
0.2
306.935
1.05E-02
29331
313
311.4
7.842
0.3
305.158
1.42E-02
21561
313
311.4
9.167
0.4
303.833
1.76E-02
17284
313
311.5
10.25
0.5
302.75
2.01E-02
15029
313
311.5
11.33
0.6
301.67
2.26E-02
13371
313
311.5
12.94
0.7
300.06
2.65E-02
11334
313
311.5
14.58
0.8
298.42
2.99E-02
9979
313
311.5
16.2
0.9
296.8
3.37E-02
8809
313
311.6
16.53
0.92
296.47
3.45E-02
8604
313
311.6
16.69
0.93
296.31
3.49E-02
8494
313
311.6
16.85
0.94
296.15
3.54E-02
8354
313.1
311.6
17.02
0.95
296.08
3.58E-02
8260
313
311.6
16.61
0.96
296.39
3.49E-02
8501
Table: 4.3 Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x without effectiveness
35
60000
Wnet/Y
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
X
(a)
8900
8800
Wnet/Y
8700
8600
8500
8400
8300
8200
0.89
0.9
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97
X
(b)
Fig: 4.5 Work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the Claude system
(a) Full plot , (b) magnify plot
36
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig: 4.6 Temperature profile in heat exchanger at optimum value
(a) First HX (b) second HX (c) third HX
37
Problem specification:4
To solve Claude cycle, (using ASPEN-HYSYS) as simulation tool to find the value of x where
minimum work required to liquefy a unit mass of nitrogen
Given condition:
Tambient = 300K,
Pambient = 1.1 bar,
Pmax = 8 bar,
Minimum temperature approach in, HX2= 2K, HX3= 1K
Effectiveness in heat exchanger1 = 0.99
Pressure drop in heat exchange is 0.1 bars in each stream is zero
Fluid package = BWRS
Fluid = pure nitrogen
Efficiency of turbine = 40 %
Fig: 4.7 Claude PFD with effectiveness in first HX
38
Wcomp
Wchiller
Wturbine
(KW)
(KW)
(KW)
313.7
312.9
313.3
χ
Wnet (KW)
Y
Wnet /Y
3.608
0.1
310.092
6.24E-03
49730
312.1
5.934
0.2
307.366
1.07E-02
28739
313.1
311.6
7.679
0.3
305.421
1.46E-02
20958
312.9
311.9
9.094
0.4
303.806
1.74E-02
17488
312.8
311
10.21
0.5
302.59
1.97E-02
15370
312.7
310.8
11.26
0.6
301.44
2.15E-02
14007
312.6
310.7
12.86
0.7
299.74
2.53E-02
11836
312.6
310.7
14.47
0.8
298.13
2.91E-02
10233
312.6
310.7
16.1
0.9
296.5
3.25E-02
9116
312.6
310.7
16.58
0.93
296.02
3.39E-02
8738
312.6
310.7
16.74
0.94
295.86
3.43E-02
8636
312.6
310.7
16.9
0.95
295.7
3.47E-02
8533
312.6
310.6
16.77
0.96
295.83
3.40E-02
8711
Table: 4.4 Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x with effectiveness
39
60000
50000
Wnet/Y
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
X
(a)
9200
9100
Wnet/Y
9000
8900
8800
8700
8600
8500
0.89
0.9
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97
X
(b)
Fig: 4.8 Optimum work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the Claude system
(a) Full plot , (b) magnify plot
40
Stream
Heat Exchanger 1
Heat Exchanger 2
Inlet Temp
Outlet Temp
Inlet Temp Outlet Temp
Hot
300
234.9873817
234.98738
Cold
230.74357
297.0000374
Hot
300
Cold
Heat Exchanger 3
Inlet Temp
Outlet Temp
205.9133847
205.9134
99.98329836
203.91339
230.7448434
80.47354
204.9133785
187.3291029
187.3291
160.0016677
160.0017
99.98144135
180.955608
297.0000094
158.0017
180.9626182
80.4751
159.001674
Hot
300
162.5113138
162.51131
136.6633889
136.6634
99.97988856
Cold
154.184043
297.0000084
134.66339
154.1590752
80.47787
135.6633934
Hot
300
145.4887875
145.48879
120.9300694
120.9301
99.98121968
Cold
135.290818
297.0000094
118.93013
135.2908181
80.47548
119.9300976
Hot
300
132.4287429
132.42874
108.6749137
108.6749
99.98286489
Cold
120.376241
297.0000092
106.67491
120.3839175
80.47557
107.6749112
Hot
300
123.045602
123.0456
100.1715691
100.1699
99.98172878
Cold
109.237594
297.000013
97.817001
109.2201367
80.47701
99.16990122
Hot
300
120.6106759
120.55241
100.1692879
100.1724
99.98317238
Cold
105.634559
296.9999948
95.859474
105.6462591
80.47463
99.17244586
Hot
300
118.7951288
118.86473
100.1713003
100.1703
99.9814977
Cold
102.833055
296.9999937
94.013849
102.8272339
80.47565
99.17025042
Hot
300
117.397003
117.4815
100.1684378
100.1681
99.98197968
Cold
100.41723
296.9999835
92.086632
100.4349266
80.47534
99.16810968
Hot
300
117.1572037
117.24192
100.1721626
100.1709
99.9823053
Cold
99.9907895
297.0000659
91.701077
99.99891265
80.47624
99.17094508
Hot
300
117.0580251
117.1267
100.1683684
100.1691
99.98173797
Cold
99.7919159
297.0001304
91.510632
99.78421232
80.47505
99.1691329
Hot
300
116.9583199
116.95832
100.17144
100.1694
99.98222408
Cold
99.5655898
297
91.260588
99.56968262
80.47504
99.16941655
Hot
300
116.8946362
116.89464
100.1717553
100.1699
99.98159411
Cold
99.3743943
297.000008
91.061583
99.36409725
80.47577
99.16983826
Hot
300
112.7289117
112.72891
88.84143951
88.84144
88.44846541
Cold
94.5922938
297.0000087
86.841458
94.59229383
80.47536
87.84143917
Table: 4.5 Temperature across heat exchanger at different value of x
41
χ
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.96
For low pressure Claude system we can see from above table it can be seen that at optimum
valve (0.95) temperature drop in hot stream of cold heat exchanger is 0.39297K (negligible) and
temperature increase in cold stream is 18.694K. So third heat exchanger or low temperature heat
exchanger of Claude system if neglected it not cause any appreciable difference in output of
Claude system at optimum operating condition. This modified Claude system with two (first and
second) heat exchanger system is known as kapitza system.
4.3 Simulation of Kapitza cycle
Problem specification: 5
To solve kapitza system, (using ASPEN-HYSYS) as simulation tool to find the value of x where
minimum work required to liquefy a unit mass of nitrogen
Given condition:
Tambient = 300K,
Pambient = 1.1 bar,
Pmax = 8 bar,
Minimum temperature approach in HX1= 3K, HX2= 2K,
Pressure drop in heat exchange is 0.1 bars in each stream is zero
Fluid package = BWRS
Fluid = pure nitrogen
Efficiency of turbine = 40 %
42
Fig: 4.9 Kapitza PFD
Wcomp (KW)
Wchiller (KW)
Wturbine (KW)
χ
Wnet (KW)
Y
Wnet /Y
313
311.4
3.245
0.1
309.755
3.79E-03
81671
313
311.4
5.119
0.2
307.881
8.22E-03
37463
313
311.4
6.669
0.3
306.331
1.16E-02
26393
313
311.4
8.195
0.4
304.805
1.51E-02
20137
313
311.5
9.763
0.5
303.237
1.87E-02
16215
313
311.5
11.35
0.6
301.65
2.25E-02
13419
313
311.5
12.95
0.7
300.05
2.62E-02
11449
313
311.5
14.56
0.8
298.44
3.01E-02
9916
313
311.5
16.2
0.9
296.8
3.36E-02
8837
313
311.6
16.53
0.92
296.47
3.41E-02
8698
313
311.6
16.4
0.94
296.6
3.53E-02
8403
313
311.6
17
0.95
296
3.58E-02
8267
313
311.6
16.54
0.96
296.46
3.45E-02
8595
Table: 4.6 Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x for kapitza system
43
90000
80000
70000
Wnet/Y
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
X
(a)
8900
8800
Wnet/Y
8700
8600
8500
8400
8300
8200
0.89
0.9
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97
X
(b)
Fig: 4.10 Optimum work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the Kapitza system
(a) Full plot , (b) magnify plot
44
If we compare Claude Table 4.2 and kapitza Table 4.5 we can see that at initial or when mass
flow through turbine is less work required to liquefy unit mass of nitrogen is more in kapitza
system (two heat exchange system) as compare to Claude system (three heat exchanger)
while it can be observed that at optimum value work required to liquefy unit mass is almost
same as of Claude system as well as optimum value is also same. It can be seen in overlap
plot for kapitza and Claude net work require to liquefy nitrogen
8900
kapitza
8800
Wnet/Y
8700
Claude
8600
8500
8400
8300
8200
0.89
0.9
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
X
Fig: 4.11 comparison of work required to liquefy unit mass of nitrogen
45
0.96
0.97
4.4 Simulation of Claude cycle for Haylent
Problem specification: 6
To solve Claude system, (using ASPEN-HYSYS) as simulation tool to find the value of x where
minimum work required to liquefy a unit mass of nitrogen
Given condition:
Tambient = 300K,
Pambient = 1.1 bar,
Pmax = 150 bar,
Minimum temperature approach in HX1= 3K, HX2= 2K, HX3= 1K
Pressure drop in heat exchange is 0.1 bars in each stream is zero
Fluid package = BWRS
Fluid = pure nitrogen
Efficiency of turbine = 70 %
Wchiller
Wturbine
χ
Wcomp (KW)
Wnet
Y
Wnet /Y
(KW)
(KW)
(KW)
1247
1270
29.71
0.2
1217.29
0.122327
9951
1247
1270
44.56
0.3
1202.44
0.156666
7675
1248
1270
58.41
0.4
1189.59
0.18643
6380
1248
1271
69.39
0.5
1178.61
0.212245
5553
1248
1271
78.16
0.6
1169.84
0.23242
5033
1248
1271
78.89
0.61
1169.11
0.234236
4991
1248
1271
79.52
0.62
1168.48
0.232441
5027
Table: 4.7 Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x for Claude system
46
5040
5035
5030
5025
Wnet/Y
5020
5015
5010
5005
5000
4995
4990
4985
0.595
0.6
0.605
0.61
0.615
0.62
0.625
X
Fig: 4.12 Optimum work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the claude system
4.5 Simulation of Haylent system
Problem specification: 7
To solve Claude system, (using ASPEN-HYSYS) as simulation tool to find the value of x where
minimum work required to liquefy a unit mass of nitrogen
Given condition:
Tambient = 300K,
Pambient = 1.1 bar,
Pmax = 150 bar,
Minimum temperature approach in HX2= 2K, HX3= 1K
Pressure drop in heat exchange is 0.1 bars in each stream is zero
Fluid package = BWRS
Fluid = pure nitrogen
Efficiency of turbine = 70 %
47
Fig: 4.13 Haylent PFD
Wchiller
Wturbine
(KW)
(KW)
1212
1235
29.72
0.2
1212
1236
44.58
1202
1222
1170
Wcomp (KW)
χ
Wnet
Y
Wnet /Y
1182.28
0.122264
9669
0.3
1167.42
0.156643
7452
59.4
0.4
1142.6
0.184114
6205
1182
74.3
0.5
1095.7
0.198412
5522
1147
1152
81.73
0.55
1065.27
0.200576
5311
1116
1113
89.16
0.6
1026.84
0.198115
5183
1101
1093
92.13
0.62
1008.87
0.195474
5161
1092
1083
93.62
0.63
998.38
0.193757
5152
1081
10.68
95.1
0.64
985.9
0.190023
5188
1067
1051
96.59
0.65
970.41
0.184731
5253
997.3
962
104
0.7
893.3
0.158495
5636
(KW)
Table: 4.8 Net works required to liquefy nitrogen at different value of x for Haylent system
48
5190
5185
5180
Wnet/Y
5175
5170
5165
5160
5155
5150
5145
0.595
0.6
0.605
0.61
0.615
0.62
0.625
0.63
0.635
0.64
0.645
X
Fig: 4.14 Optimum work required liquefying a unit mass of nitrogen in the Haylent system
49
Chapter: 5
Simulation of LN2 liquefication
plant at
NIT-Rourkela
50
5.1 LN2 plant at NIT-Rourkela
A future plan at cryogenic centre at NIT-Rourkela is to setup a second nitrogen liquefication
plant which produce liquid nitrogen whose working principal is based on Kapitza cycle.
Fig: 5.1 LN2 plant PFD
Simulation of LN2 system
Problem specification:
To solve LN2 system, (using ASPEN-HYSYS) as simulation tool to find the value of x where
minimum work required to liquefy a unit mass of nitrogen
Given condition:
Tambient = 310K,
Pambient = 1.1 bar,
Pmax = 8 bar,
Effectiveness of HX1= 0.9, 0.95, 0.97, 0.98, 1.0
Minimum temperature approach in HX2= 0.5K, 1.0K, 2.0K
Pressure drop in heat exchange is 0.1 bars in each stream is zero
Fluid package = BWRS
Fluid = pure nitrogen
Efficiency of turbine = 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 100 %
51
% of
S.No
ηturbine
ε HX1
∆T HX2
Yield (Kg/s)
Wcomp/Y
yeild
Kwh/lit
1
40
100
0.5
4.16E-03
8662
3.99
19.17
2
40
100
1
4.08E-03
8822
3.915
19.52
3
40
100
2
4.11E-03
8766
3.944
19.39
4
40
98
0.5
3.21E-03
10765
3.08
23.82
5
40
98
1
3.23E-03
10987
3.099
24.31
6
40
98
2
3.20E-03
11101
3.071
24.56
7
40
97
0.5
2.80E-03
12612
2.687
27.91
8
40
97
1
2.78E-03
12679
2.667
28.05
9
40
97
2
2.81E-03
12578
2.686
27.83
10
40
95
0.5
1.95E-03
17861
1.871
39.52
11
40
95
1
1.92E-03
18185
1.369
40.24
12
40
95
2
1.91E-03
18222
1.362
40.32
13
40
90
0.5
0
0
0
0
14
40
90
1
0
0
0
0
15
40
90
2
0
0
0
0
16
50
100
0.5
5.22E-03
6898
3.723
15.26
17
50
100
1
5.17E-03
6965
3.687
15.41
18
50
100
2
5.15E-03
6989
3.673
15.46
19
50
98
0.5
4.36E-03
8257
3.1098
18.27
20
50
98
1
4.33E-03
8202
3.088
18.15
21
50
98
2
4.31E-03
8242
3.074
18.24
22
50
97
0.5
3.95E-03
8935
2.817
19.77
23
50
97
1
3.93E-03
8997
3.771
19.91
24
50
97
2
3.91E-03
9037
3.752
19.99
25
50
95
0.5
3.15E-03
11057
3.023
24.47
52
yield
S.No
ηturbine
ε HX1
∆T HX2
26
50
95
1
27
50
95
28
50
29
(Kg/s)
Wcomp/Y
% of yeild
Kwh/lit
3.08E-03
11305
2.955
25.01
2
3.06E-03
11393
2.936
25.21
90
0.5
1.00E-03
33522
0.959
74.18
50
90
1
9.48E-04
35508
0.909
78.18
30
50
90
2
8.57E-04
39265
0.822
86.89
31
60
100
0.5
6.31E-03
5707
6.055
12.62
32
60
100
1
6.29E-03
5720
6.036
12.65
33
60
100
2
6.23E-03
5778
5.978
12.78
34
60
98
0.5
5.49E-03
6477
5.268
14.33
35
60
98
1
5.46E-03
6515
5.239
14.41
36
60
98
2
5.39E-03
6589
5.182
14.58
37
60
97
0.5
5.12E-03
6899
4.93
15.26
38
60
97
1
5.11E-03
6911
4.9
15.29
39
60
97
2
5.04E-03
7012
4.836
15.51
40
60
95
0.5
4.29E-03
8067
4.117
17.85
41
60
95
1
4.27E-03
8134
4.097
18.00
42
60
95
2
4.24E-03
8226
4.069
18.2
43
60
90
0.5
2.31E-03
14588
2.21
32.28
44
60
90
1
2.30E-03
14652
2.2
32.42
45
60
90
2
2.24E-03
15038
2.149
33.28
46
70
100
0.5
7.43E-03
4843
7.13
10.71
47
70
100
1
7.40E-03
4865
7.1
10.76
48
70
100
2
7.33E-03
4910
7.034
10.86
49
70
98
0.5
6.65E-03
5345
6.381
11.82
50
70
98
1
6.61E-03
5377
6.343
11.89
53
yield
% of
S.No
ηturbine
ε HX1
∆T HX2
(Kg/s)
Wcomp/Y
yeild
Kwh/lit
51
70
98
2
6.55E-03
5434
6.285
12.02
52
70
97
0.5
6.34E-03
5577
6.084
12.34
53
70
97
1
6.22E-03
5678
5.969
12.56
54
70
97
2
6.21E-03
5692
5.959
12.59
55
70
95
0.5
5.55E-03
6288
5.32
13.91
56
70
95
1
5.51E-03
6332
5.287
14.01
57
70
95
2
5.41E-03
6446
5.191
14.26
58
70
90
0.5
3.70E-03
9129
3.55
20.20
59
70
90
1
3.60E-03
9366
3.454
20.72
60
70
90
2
3.43E-03
9558
3.291
21.15
61
100
100
0.5
1.11E-02
3248
10.65
7.18
62
100
100
1
1.10E-02
3271
10.55
7.23
63
100
100
2
1.09E-02
3312
10.46
7.33
64
100
98
0.5
1.04E-02
3407
9.98
7.53
65
100
98
1
1.04E-02
3426
9.98
7.58
66
100
98
2
1.01E-02
3510
9.692
7.76
67
100
97
0.5
1.02E-02
3475
9.788
7.69
68
100
97
1
1.01E-02
3509
9.692
7.76
69
100
97
2
9.99E-03
3542
9.587
7.83
70
100
95
0.5
9.47E-03
3692
9.088
8.17
71
100
95
1
9.50E-03
3678
9.11
8.14
72
100
95
2
9.40E-03
3719
9.021
8.23
73
100
90
0.5
7.99E-03
4241
7.667
9.38
74
100
90
1
7.91E-03
4282
7.591
9.47
75
100
90
2
7.77E-03
4356
7.456
9.63
Table: 5.1 Optimum work required at various combination of efficiency of turbine, minimum
approach and effectiveness of heat exchange of LN2 plant
54
Chapter: 6
Conclusion
55
Conclusion
The above project work presents a cycle simulation for the Nitrogen liquefaction cycle
with a compressor, heat exchanger and a J-T valve. It gives us the design data in terms of nodal
temperature across the heat exchanger, compressor, chiller etc. and mass flow rates through all
the equipments. The above simulation work for
Claude‟s liquefaction cycle for Nitrogen
eliminate time and cost expenditure by successfully proven that for low working pressure for
Claude system it is useless to use last or low temperature heat exchanger as well as for high
working pressure of Claude cycle first heat exchanger is worth. The simulation can be adapted to
bring about any changes in the configuration of the liquefaction cycle and can be successfully
applied for other complicated cycle.
56
References
1) Randall F Barron, „Cryogenic Systems‟, second edition , New York, Oxford University
Press, 1985
2) Flynn Thomas M., „Cryogenic Engineering‟, Colorado, Oxford University Press, 1992.
3) Steven W. Van Sciver, “Helium cryogenics” , New York , Pentium publishing
corporation , 1986
4) AspenONE 2006 Documentation- provided with licenses package of AspenONE 2006.
5) Rice university: http://www.rice.edu/
57
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