DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER AIDED GAUSS POLLUTANTS

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER AIDED GAUSS POLLUTANTS
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER AIDED GAUSS
MODEL TO STUDY THE DISPERSION OF AIR
POLLUTANTS
A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
BY
BISWABIKASH ROUT
(10301031)
AND
SOURAVA KUMAR SETHY
(10301006)
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ROURKELA, ORISSA - 769008
2007
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER AIDED GAUSS
MODEL TO STUDY THE DISPERSION OF AIR
POLLUTANTS
A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
BY
BISWABIKASH ROUT
(10301031)
AND
SOURAVA KUMAR SETHY
(10301006)
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Mr. SOMESH JENA
(Dept of civil engineering)
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ROURKELA, ORISSA - 769008
2007
2
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ROURKELA
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled, “DEVELOPMENT OF
COMPUTER AIDED GAUSS MODEL TO STUDY THE DISPERSION OF AIR
POLLUTANTS” submitted by Sri Biswabikash Rout and Sourava Kumar Sethy in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology Degree in Civil
Engineering at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) is an
authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the project report has not
been submitted to any other University/ Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.
Date:
Prof. Somesh Jena
Dept. of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Rourkela, 769008
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Prof. Somesh Jena,
Department of Civil Engineering, N.I.T Rourkela for introducing the present topic and
for their inspiring guidance, constructive criticism and valuable suggestion throughout
this project work.
I would like to express my gratitude to Dr.K.C.Patra (Head of the Department), for
his valuable suggestions and encouragements at various stages of the work.
I am also thankful to all the staffs in Department of Civil Engineering for providing
all joyful environments in the lab and helping me out in different ways.
Last but not least, my sincere thanks to all my friends who have patiently extended
all sorts of help for accomplishing this undertaking.
Date:
Biswabikash Rout
Sourava kumar sethy
4
CONTENTS
Page no:
Abstract
List of Tables
7
List of Figures
8
Chapter 1
Introduction
10
Chapter 2
Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
12
2.1
Concept and definition of environmental impact
13
2.2
Purpose of environmental assessment
13
2.3
Steps involved in prediction and assessment of impact
14
2.4
Assessment methodology
14
2.5
Criteria for selection of assessment methodology
15
2.6
Information required for air quality impact analysis
15
Chapter 3
Dispersion of air pollutants
16
3.1
Source characteristics
17
3.2
Nature of pollutant material
17
3.3
Meteorological characteristics
18
3.4
Terrain effect
20
Process description
22
4.1
Historical background
23
4.2
Present process technology of steel manufacturing
23
4.3
The technology of power generation
24
Impact of air pollutants
29
Particulates
30
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
5.1
5
5.2
Sulphur dioxide
32
5.3
Nitrogen oxide
33
Chapter 6
Air quality modeling
35
6.1
Different types of air quality models
36
6.2
Dispersion coefficients
38
6.3
Pasquill’s stability categories
39
6.4
Effective stack height
40
Chapter 7
Model program
42
Programme
43
Chapter 8
Results
58
Chapter 9
Contour plotting
69
Chapter 10
Practical study report
76
6.1
Conclusion
80
References
81
6
ABSTRACT
Gaussian plume concept and formula (model) is one example of computational modes in
which if and when the exact conditioned specified by parameters occur then Gaussian
plume formulas will give fair approximation of the isopleths contours and the orders of
magnitude of the concentration be expected. Dispersion co-efficient, pasquill’s stability
categories were taken into account and GAUSS MODEL (C++ program) is created to
find ground level concentration around RSP. The result obtained is validated with
existing records and error is found out. The contours for concentration of various
pollutants were drawn. With help of cleanvironment Pvt. Ltd. Field monitoring was done
using respirable dust sampler at Kuarmunda area.
7
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:
Effect on human health of particulates
Table 2:
Effects of So2 on humans
Table 3:
Effect of No2 on humans
Table 4:
Dispersion coefficients
Table 5
Pasquill’s chart
Table 6:
Concentration of pollutant SPM
Table 7
Concentration of pollutant So2
Table 9:
concentration of pollutant Nox
Table 10:
Ambient air quality around kuarmunda area
8
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure1:
wind flow field around edge of building.
Figure2:
behavior of plume in a valley.
Figure 3: Contour showing concentration of SPM
Figure 4: Contour showing concentration of Nox
Figure 5: Contour showing concentration of So2
9
CHAPTER:
1
Introduction
10
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The rapid industrialization, fast urbanization and various other activities of
making have disturbed the balance of natural atmosphere. The survival of any living
organism is on the breathing of pure natural air and if it gets polluted due to any reason,
various undesirable and serious effects become prominent and noticeable. The air
pollution may be defined as “ the presence in such a quantities and of such duration as
may be or may tent to be injurious to human, plants, animals or property which
unreasonably interferers with the comfortable enjoyment of life property or conduct of
business”.
Most economic activities, involving the use and conversion of energy,
transportation is prominently accompanied by emissions of air pollutants, degrading the
environment, and in particular the urban environment. Urban air pollution, in turn is the
source of a range of problems, including heaths risks with inhalation of gas and particles,
accelerated corrosion and deterioration of materials, damage to historical monuments
And buildings, and damage to vegetation in and near the city.
Many different substances and compounds are consideration as air pollution.
They are generally of anthropogenic origin, and result in their majority, from combustion
process of fossil fuels. The most common gaseous contaminants in the urban atmosphere
are sulphur dioxide, carbon mono-oxide, ozone and oxidants, oxides of nitrogen,
11
hydrocarbons and aldehydes. There are also natural pollutants such as gases and dust
from volcanoes, forest fires or dust entrained by storms. While these may be of
considerable importance on a global scale, it is the anthropogenic pollutants we are most
concerned with in the urban environmental context. Emission of pollutants may be from
fixed, mobile, point, lined or area sources.
In recent years, as the public has become increasingly concerned with
environmental problems, air has come to be regarded as a resource within the public
domains. Hence air pollution is concern not only of those who discharge the pollution,
but also of those who may suffer as a result. In particular, air pollution is as issue of
global concern as the problem is not restricted to boundaries of any single country or
continents.
12
CHAPTER
2
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT (EIA)
13
CHAPTER 2
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)
2.1 CONCEPT AND DEFINITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
Environment is the whole complex of physical, social, cultural, economic and
aesthetic factors which affect individuals and communities and ultimately determine their
form, character, relationship and survival. Thus “environmental impact” may be defined
as any alteration of environmental conditions or creation of a new set of environment
conditions, adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the actions or set of actions under
consideration. These impacts are identified and qualified for the prediction and
assessment of impact on air environment. Impacts can be categorized as either primary or
secondary. Project “inputs” generally cause primary impacts and project “output”
generally causes secondary impacts. This distraction is important for consideration of
alternatives and ways to minimize adverse impacts in performing an environmental
impact analysis generally varies according to types of project, development, or action
under evolution.
2.2 PURPOSE OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT:
14
Environmental impact assessment is the key to providing information is support
of the decision making process which is an objectives analysis conducted to identify
measure there likely economic, social, aesthetic and environmental effects of the
proposed action and the various reasonable alternatives. This requires the identification,
measurements, and aggregation of the impact to provide “total” assessment. In context of
air pollution, purpose of EIA is to predict the impacts of air pollution and also obtain data
on existing pollution levels and therefore assess the impact on the air quality due to new
or old both the sources.
2.3 STEPS INVOLVED IN PREDICTION AND ASSESSMENT OF
IMPACT:
1) Identification of air pollutants from sources.
2) Basic level ambient air quality of the area determination.
3) Estimation of the air pollution dispersion potential with help.
(a)
Monthly variation of mean mixing depth.
(b)
Wind speed.
(c)
Inversion height.
(d)
High air pollution potential.
4) Collection of micro meteorological data, summaries, and rainfall pattern.
5) Identification of major air pollution sources.
6) Air quality standards or emission standards along with time required to meet
them.
7) Estimations of impact caused by the project by various alternative methods.
8) Determination of ground level concentration of air pollutants from the alternative
under varied meteorological conditions.
2.4 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY:
15
An air quality impact analysis must include the following five elements
1. Existing environment: A description of existing environment in the area of
proposed project.
2. Environmental impact: A description of future year impact on the air quality as a
result of completion and use of proposed project.
3. Mitigation procedures: A description of procedures that may be implemented to
reduce degradation of the air quality associated with the proposed project.
4. Alternatives: A description charges in design of the project that may be adopted to
reduce the degradation the air quality associated with the proposed project.
5. Growth inducing consideration: A description of growth inducing potentials of the
proposed project and boundary impact on air quality resulting from the induced
growth.
Methodologies selected should fulfill the requirement of such element mentioned above.
2.5
CRITERIA
FOR
SELECTION
OF
ASSESSMENT
METHODOLOGY:Selection of methodologies depends on :
a) Source type and location.
b) Experience and engineering judgment.
c) Requirements of regulatory and review process.
2.6 INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR AIR QUALITY IMPACT
ANALYSIS:
An air quality impact analysis must be founded upon appropriate and adequate
information. Analyses are often based upon “available” information as it is not always
readily available. Efforts should be made to utilize best available information.
16
CHAPTER
3
17
DISPERSION OF AIR
POLLUTANTS
CHAPTER 3
DISPERSION OF AIR POLLUTANTS
Before going to the dispersion models it is important that we understand the
factors that are responsible the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. The factors that
affect the transport, dilution, and dispersion of air pollutants can be grouped into:
™ Emission or source characteristics
™ The nature of the pollutant material
™ Meteorological characteristics
™ The effects of terrain and anthropogenic structures.
3.1 SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS
Most industrial pollution is discharged vertically from a stack or dust into the
open air. As the contaminated gas stream is emitted the plume (body of polluted air)
expands and plume means the body of pollution air, Wind that is horizontal air movement
will bend the plum in the downwind direction. At some distance from the source, the
plume will level off. While the plume is rising, bending and starting to move with the
18
wind in the downwind direction the flue gas is being mixed and diluted by the ambient
air. As the gas is being diluted by increasing volumes of air, the contaminate will
eventually reach the ground. The initial rise of the plume is due to the upward inertia of
the gas stream exiting the stack, and by its buoyancy. The vertical inertia is related to the
exit velocity and mass of the gas. The buoyancy is related to the density relative to the
surrounding air, primarily determination by temperature. Increasing exit velocity and
increasing exit temperature will increase the plume rise.
3.2 NATURE OF POLLUTANT MATERIAL
If the particles are of the order of 20 micron or smaller in diameter, they have
such a low setting velocity that they are essentially in the same manner as the gas in
which they are immersed. Larger particles however cannot be treated in the same way,
they have a significant settling velocity.
3.3 METEOROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The degree to which air pollutant discharged from various sources concentrate in
a particular area depends largely on meteorological conditions. Even through the total
discharge of contaminants into the atmospheric in a given area remains constant from day
to day the degree of air pollution may very widely because of difference in
meteorological conditions.
A. DOWNWIND DISTANCE
The greater the distance from the discharge point, the greater the volume of air
available for dilution. However, since the plume starts above the ground and needs some
time to reach the ground (by bending and spreading), there is no concentration observable
in the immediate vicinity of the stack, then we can observe an increases for some distance
as the plume approaches the ground. After this, the ground-level concentration will
decreases with increasing distance from the emission source.
B .WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION
19
The wind direction will determine the direction in which the plume will move
across local terrain. Wind speed affects the plume rise (fast wind will bend the plume
faster), and will increases the rate of dilution.
C. ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY
The tendency of the atmosphere to resist or enhance vertical motion and thus turbulence
is termed stability. Stability is related to both the charge of temperature with height (the
lapse rate) and wind speed.
A natural atmosphere neither enhances nor inhibits mechanical turbulence. An
unstable atmosphere enhances turbulence, where a stable atmosphere inhibits mechanical
turbulence. The turbulence of the pollutant. The more unstable the atmosphere, the
greater the dilution. Stability classes are defined for different meteorological situations,
characterized by wind speed and solar radiation (during the day) and cloud cover during
the night. Stability classes are defined for different meteorological situations,
characterized by wind speed and solar radiation (during the day) and cloud cover during
the night. The so called Pasquill Turner Stability Classes (based on D. Bruce Turners
Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates include six stability classes:
1. A : very unstable
2. B : unstable
3. C : slightly unstable
4. D : neutral
5. E : stable
6. F : very stable
D. MIXING HEIGHT
It is defined as that height above the earth’s surface to which related pollution will
extend, primarily through the action of atmospheric turbulence. It is usually related to one
or more of the three factors wind direction, winds speed, and wind turbulence.
E .LAPSE RATE
20
It is defined as the vertical temperature gradient is given by T=-dz /dt in deg C/m. the
different types of lapse rate are:
1.
Environmental lapse rate : It is the actual lapse rate in the atmosphere.
2.
Adiabatic laps rate: The laps rate of parcel of dry air as it moves upward in
hydrostatically statically stable environment and expands slowly to lower
environmental pressure without exchange of heat.
3.
Saturated lapse rate: when a saturated air parcel changes elevation adiabatically,
water vapor condenses. This condensation process releases the enthalpy of
condensation from the water, and the result is the lowering of the temperature.
4.
Negative Environmental lapse rate (Inversion): It is the condition in the
atmosphere in which air temperature increases with elevation. Under this
condition, the atmosphere is said to be in stable condition. The different types of
inversion are:
a.
Radiation Inversion: It usually occurs at night, when the earth loses heat
by radiation and cools the air in contact with it.
b.
Subsidence Inversion: It occurs at modest altitudes and often remains foe
several days. It is caused by sinking or subsiding of air in anti-cyclone. As
the air sinks, it is compressed and gets heated to form a warm dense layer,
which acts as a lid to prevent the upward movement of contaminants.
c.
Drainage inversion: Nighttime flow of cold air down the valleys often
leads to inversion at the bottom of the valley, with cold air flowing in
under warmer air. If condensation results, forming a fog, then the sun
cannot get to the ground during the day and the inversion will persist for
days units a major storm cleans it out.
3.4 TERRAIN EFFECT:
If an industry is located close to a barrier like mountain then it will disturb the
airflow a great deal and can make a plume behave differently from from what one would
predict from the Gaussian equation. This will be results in high ground level
concentration in the windward side known as Aerodynamic Downwards. Downwash is a
21
situation during which a plume emitting from a stack located in a deep valley is carried to
the ground when the wind over a cliff as shown in the figure.
A plume may also get sucked into a low pressure wake behind a building.
Leading to a high local concentration. This wake is caused by the wind flowing over the
building. The simple rule for avoiding this problem is to make the stack height at least 2.5
times the height of the tallest nearby building.
22
CHAPTER
4
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
23
CHAPTER 4
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
4.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:
Rourkela steel plant (RSP) is one of the three steel plants set up in the public
sector in the late fifties, the other two being at Bhilai and Durgapur. Among the three
RSP was the only one designed to produce flat rolled products such as hot or cold rolled
coils and sheets. The original annual capacity of the plant was 1.0 million tone ingot
steel. The plant capacity was subsequently expanded during the mid sixties to 1.8 million
ingot tons per year. High quality products such as galvanized sheets and electrolytic tine
plates were added to the product mix during the expansion. This plant has the distinction
of being among the early applicators of the LD process of steel making on a commercial
basis.
4.2
PRESENT
PROCESS
TECHNOLOGY
OF
STEEL
MANUFACTURING
The plant uses conventional blast furnaces for producing hot metal. The coke
required for the blast furnace operation is produced in conventional coke oven batteries.
The by products from the coking process are recovered in a plant attached to the coke
oven section. The hot metal is smelted to different qualities of steel. The smelting is
largely in basic oxygen vessels (LD converters) and balance in fuel fired open hearth
24
furnaces, more commonly in use at the time of the initial installation. The converters are
lined with dolomite bricks using calcined dolomite produced in a rotary kiln Lime
required for fluxing is produced in vertical shaft kilns. The steel so produced is cast into
ingots, which are taken to a slabbing cum blooming mill for conversion into slabs. These
slabs form the starting material for further conversion to hot rolled coils and plates. A
sizeable part of the hot rolled coils are in turn converted to various products in further
downstream units such as the cold rolling mill complex, the pipe plants and the silicon
steel plant, which produces cold rolled grain oriented and non grain oriented silicon steel
sheets. A fertilizer plant was also installed initially to produced calcium ammonium
nitrate utilizing hydrogen from coke oven gas from the plant’s coke ovens, nitrogen from
the plant’s air separation units and also some cracked naphtha purchased from outside.
The main saleable products of RSP are:
•
Heavy plates
•
Hot rolled coils
•
Hot erolled plates
•
Hot rolled sheets
•
Cold rolled coils
•
Cold rolled sheets
•
Hot deep galvanized sheets
•
Electrolytic tin plates
•
Hot rolled electrical sheets
•
ERW pipes
•
Spirally welded pipes
•
Cold rolled grain oriented silicon steel sheets
•
Cold rolled non grained oriented silicon steel sheets
•
Pig iron
•
By products from coke ovens
•
Calcium ammonium nitrate
25
4.3 THE TECHNOLOGY OF POWER GENERATION
A thermal power station using steam as working fluid works basically on the
Rankine cycle. Steam is generated in a boiler, expanded in the prime mover and
condensed in condenser and fed into the boiler again. However, in practice, there are
numerous modifications and improvements in this cycle with the aim of affecting heat
economy and to increase the thermal efficiency of the plant.
Coal received in coal storage yard of power station is transferred to the furnace by
coal handling equipment. Heat produced due to burning of coal is utilized in
converting water contained in the boiler drum into steam at suitable pressure and
temperature. The steam generated is passed through the super heater. Super heated
steam then flows through the turbine. After doing work in the turbine the pressure of
the steam is reduced. Steam leaving the turbine passes through the condenser which
maintains the low pressure steam at the exhaust of the turbine. Steam pressure in the
condenser depends upon the flow rate and temperature of cooling water and on
effectiveness of air removal equipment. Water circulating through the condenser
generally taken from the various sources such as rivers, or lakes etc. in case of nonavailability of sufficient quantity of water, the hot water coming out of the condenser
can be cooled in colling towers and circulated again through the condenser. Bled
steam taken from the turbine at suitable extraction points is set to low pressure and
high pressure water heaters. Air taken from the atmosphere is first passed through the
air preheated, where it is heated by the gases. The hot air then passes through the
furnace. The flue gas after passing over boiler and super heater tubes, flow through
the dust collector, economizer, and air preheated at various stages and finally
exhausted to the atmosphere through the chimney.
The main components in thermal power plant are:
a. Intake pump house:
This houses pumps to draw the total raw water requirement of the plant.
b. Water treatment plant:
26
This clarifies raw water to feed the DM plant and meet other requirements of cooling
water. Present day installation clarifies the total raw water less the fire fighting water
requirement.
c. Demineralizer plant:
This demineralizes the clarified water for feed to boiler, cooling etc. as make up
water.
d. Cooling Tower:
This cools the recalculating condenser cooling water where once through cooling
or pond cooling is not feasible or it inadequate
e) C.W. Pump house
This houses the circulating water pumps circulating the cooling water through the
condenser and the cooling water through the condenser and the cooling tower where
provided.
f) Coal Handling Plant:
It receives raw coal, unloads, stores, reclaims, crushes, and feeds to the boiler raw
coal bunker in the main building.
g) Ash handling plant:
It extracts coal ash from hoppers, conveys and discharges to disposal area or ash
silos.
h) Fuel oil handling plant:
This comprises of large oil storage tanks, oil wagon unloading facilities and a
pump house for pumping oil from storage tanks to boiler house.
i) Boiler and Auxiliaries:
It converts chemical energy in fuel to heat energy in steam.
j) Turbine and Auxiliaries:
It converts heat energy in steam to kinetic energy through controlled expansion in
stages and drives and generator.
27
k) Generator and Auxiliaries:
Coupled to the turbine, it transforms kinetic energy to electric energy.
l) Transformers:
Electrical power produced is stepped up in voltage through transformer and fed to
the grid system. Start up and reserve auxiliary power is availed from the system or
other sources trough step down transformer. In normal operation TG units supply
their own auxiliaries through unit auxiliary transformers tapped from generator
terminal or bus duct. All these transformers and located outside the main building
front wall. Smaller auxiliary supply transformers and spread over the plant area.
m) Switchyard:
This connects the power station to the power system for power evacuation.
n) Instrumentation and control:
All inputs and intermediate and final products are controlled and measured in very
stage of the process with parameters indicated, recorded and automatically adjusted to
set values.
o) Compressor house:
This houses the services compressors required for pneumatic operated equipments
and valves and the instrument air compressors for the pneumatic system
instrumentation.
p) Miscellaneous Pumps:
These are the bearing cooling water pumps, services water pumps, lubricating oil
pumps, drainage pumps, colony water supply pumps, chemical dozing pumps and the
like.
q) Stack:
This throws the builder discharge gas up in the atmosphere to minimize dust
concentration in the vicinity and adds to the draft.
28
r) Environmental control
Provision of EP for dust extraction, tall stack, recycling of ash water, treatment of
oil and chemical effluents before discharge and sewage treatment are required.
Plantation of trees and socioeconomic upliftment of neighboring population are
essential part of such work. Flora and fauna and wild life are to be preserved.
s) Fire Fighting system:
Separate electric motor driven and diesel engine drive fire water pumps with
storage tanks and water mains running through all operation area, multi fire engines
in the plant area round the clock manning are part of the system.
t) Laboratory:
A set of laboratories for oil, water, coal analysis, relay and instrument testing,
communication equipment testing, soil and concrete testing, radiography and weld
test, vibration analysis, metallurgical test is provided.
u) Workshops:
Workshops for electrical repair and maintenance, machining and fabrication work
are provided. A motor vehicle repair shop is also included.
v) Heavy Repair Shop:
This shop provides maintenance to dozers, dumpers, cranes, locos (separately)
mainly required in coal handling ash handling and heavy maintenance work.
w) Stores:
A set of stores both open and closed with rail siding facility is erected .
x) Ancillary Facilities:
Facilities like security posts at gates and in vulnerable area, round the clock
manned first-aid posts, safety check units, canteen, and time office are other service
requirement.
29
CHAPTER
5
IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION
30
CHAPTER 5
IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION
The variety of matter emitted into the atmosphere by nature and anthropogenic
sources is so diverse that it is difficult to classify air pollutants neatly. However,
usually they are divided into two categories of primary and secondary pollutions. The
primary pollutants are those that are emitted directly from the source and the
secondary pollutants are those that are formed in the atmosphere by chemical
interactions among primary pollutants and normal atmospheric constituents. Of the
large number of primary pollutants emitted into the atmosphere, only few are present
in sufficient concentration to be of immediate concern. Theses are the five major
types. Particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and
hydrocarbons. Of the five major types the first three are of major concern with
environment pollution, therefore the effects and preventive measures taken for the
first three are discussed in detail.
5.1 PARTICULATES:
Particulate air pollution includes:
™ Smoke …….fine carbon particles from combustion
™ Dust ……….from crushing and grinding etc.
31
™ Fumes………created when solids are volatilized by high temperature and
condensed less than 1 micron.
™ Mist…………formed when vapour condensed or through chemical reaction.
5.1.1 EFFECT ON HEALTH:
Concentration
Accompanied by
µg/m3
SO2
715 µg/m3
750
Time
24 – hr average
Effect
Considerable
increase
in
illness.
630 µg/m3
300
24 – hr average
Acute worsening of chronic
bronchitis patients.
250 µg/m3
200
24 – hr average
Increased
absence
of
industrial workers
100-130
120 µg/m3
Annual mean
Increased incidence of disease
in children
Sulfation
rate Annual mean
above
Increased death rate for those
over 50 likely
30 mg/cm2 mo
80-100
…….do………
2- yr mean
Increased death rate for those
50-69 yrs.
5.1.2 PARTICULATE EMISSION CONTROL
1. BAG FILTER
It is form of a tubular medium made of woven or felted fabric. The diameter of
bag is 1 m and height is 7 m to 10 m. it has got the collecting efficiency of 99%. The
bags are connected to a dust hopper fitter with discharge device. It is necessary to
have low gas velocities of the order of about 1 to 3 m per minute.
32
2. CYCLONE COLLECTOR:
The effluent gases flow through a light circular spiral which produces centrifugal
force on the suspended particles which in turn are forced to move outward through
the gas stream gets collected. This device has the efficiency of 95% removal for the
particulates having the size varying from 5µ to 10µ.
3. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR:
It work on the principle that when the particles move through a region of high
electric potential, they become charged and then they are attracted to an oppositely
charged area where they are collected and removed. It can be operated at a high
temperature at efficiency of about 95 to 98%.
4. WET SCRUBBER:
Theses are the collecting devices in which the particles are washed out of the gas
flow by a water spray. Extreme care should be taken to see that the collected
wastewater does not become a source of water pollution. It requires special settling
tanks, chemical flocculation or filtration units.
5.2 SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2)
The pollution of air by sulphur dioxide (SO2) is widespread because it exists
wherever fossil fuels are burnt. The largest contribution of (SO2) is from the thermal
power stations. The oxides of sulphur emitted in air are potentially harmful because
of their following effects.
1. They are harmful to stones and marble works.
2. They can cause damage to plant tissues.
3. They promote corrosion of metal works.
33
5.2.1 EFFECTS OF SO2 ON HUMANS:
Concentration (ppm)
Effects
0.2
Lowest concentration causing a human response
0.3
Threshold for taste recognition
0.6
Threshold for odor recognition
1.6
Threshold for inducing reversible broncho-constriction
in healthy
8-12
Immediate throat irritation
10
Eye irritation
20
Immediate coughing
5.2.2 OPTIONS FOR REDUCTION OF EMISSION:
Besides using fuels low in sulphur contents, three possible methods or alternative
individually or in combination may be used to reduce sulphur dioxide emission from fuel
combustion. These are:
(a) Use of tall stacks to increase atmospheric dispersion.
(b) Removal of sulphur from solid fuel
(c) Cleaning of combustible gases from hydrogen sulphide.
(d) Flue gas purification from lime or limestone.
(e) Flue- gas desulphurization.
5.3 NITROGEN OXIDES (NOx)
34
The nitrogen oxides result from air oxidation, electrical discharge and solar
radiations. The high temperature process like welding operation, steam generating
equipments, smelting and other metallurgical operations etc yield oxides of nitrogen.
5.3.1 EFFECTS OF NOx:
1. Acid rains
2. Toxin and produce a sharp irritating effects, specially on mucus membrane of
eyes.
3. Poorly soluble in liquid and can penetrate deep into lungs.
4. Even at low concentration can reduce respiratory functions.
5. Nitrogen oxide in concentration of 4-6 mg/m3 can cause heavy injuries to
6. Low concentration through being apparently harmless for plants can inhibit
7. Their growth.
8. Promote the formation of smog and reduce visibility.
5.3.2 EFFECTS OF NO2 IN HUMANS:
Effects
No2 conc. (ppm)
Exposure
Increased in acute respiratory disease.
0.06-1
2-9-3 years
Increased in acute bronchitis in school children
Up to 0.1
6 months
Human olfactory threshold
0.12
< 24 hrs
Increased in airway resistance
5.0
10 min
Pulmonary edema
90
90
5.3.3 OPTION FOR REDUCTION:
A major method employed in NOx control is flue gas recirculation. A portion of
cooled flue gas is injected back into the combustion zone. This additional gas acts as a
thermal sink and reduces the overall combustion temperature. Recently developed
35
fluidized bed boilers are known to produce about one half the NOx that is emitted by
conventional boilers firing pulverized coal. Other method includes application of special
burner into two-stage combustion, injection of water and stream into combustion zone,
etc.
CHAPTER
6
AIR QUALITY MODELING
36
CHAPTER 6
AIR QUALITY MODELING
Models are used in all aspects of air quality planning where predication is a major
component from episode forecasting to long term planning. It also allow us to predict the
concentration that would results from any specified set of pollutant emission for any
specified meteorological conditions, at any location, for any time period, with total
confidence in our predication. The best currently available models are from this idea.
As measurement technology, computer technology and knowledge of atmosphere and the
process that takes placer in the atmosphere and have been improved, theses models have
more and more computer models in order to meet the requirements of mathematical
modeling following points are to be considered.
i.
Meteorological; data utilized wherever available or the analysis is modified it
either is not possible. It is regarded to collect meteorological data.
ii.
Source data is not possible. It is regarded to collect meteorological data.
iii.
The background air quality data is collected and if not available the same may
be monitored.
6.1 DIFFERENT TYPES OF AIR QUALITY MODELS:
6.1.1 BOX MODEL: It consider that pollutants are emitted into a volume of air in space
of an imaginary base having depth D, width W and infinite length.
37
ASSUMPTIONS:
1. Atmospheric turbulence produces complete and total mixing of pollutants up to
the mixing height H and no mixing above this height.
2. The turbulence is strong enough in the upwind direction that pollutant
concentration is uniform in the whole volume of air over the city and not higher at
the down wind side than upwind side.
3. The concentration of pollutant entering the city is constant.
4. The velocity is constant and independent of time, location and elevation above the
ground. Taken average of ground level and at height H.
Considering the assumption at steady state condition accumulation rate is zero
All flow rate in = all flow rate out
Cj = Qj / UWD
Where
Cj = concentration of pollutant species in gm/m3
Qj = emission rate of pollutants in gm/ sec.
W = width of the box normal to
D = depth of the box normal to wind direction in m.
ADVANTAGES:
Great simplification in its application. It reminds us that a limited resource of air
available for diluting pollutants. It tells us that the concentration will increases as the
volume of air is reduced or as emission rate is increases. Although the box model is not
usually acceptable for formal air quality analysis, it is useful for qualitative estimates of
source impact.
DISADVANTAGE:
It can’t account for dispersion of pollutants laterally and vertically.
6.1.2 DISPERSION MODEL:
38
These models are formulated from fundamental differential equation governing
the conservation species. They are more appropriate for prediction of air quality because
theses models consider the point-by-point transport, dispersion, generation and removal
of pollutants species and provide for spatial temporary variation of theses processes.
6.1.3 GAUSSIAN PLUME MODEL:
Box models and proportion models lacking in reality. They fail to account for
dispersion of pollutants in atmosphere. Computational model most often arrive by
deductive arguments at mathematically formulas, which need first an adequate amount of
meterological input above the state of atmosphere (wind velocity and direction thermal
stability, turbulence etc). Gaussian plume concept and formula (model) is one example of
computational modes in which if and when the exact conditioned specified by parameters
occur (perhaps the most important cases are when wind direction is correctly specified,
when plume rise formula which nearly app. The real situation is used or when the
stability is evaluated correctly) then Gaussian plume formulas will give fair
approximation of the isopleths contours and the orders of magnitude of the concentration
be expected. But how often and for how long the given set of parameters appears in the
surrounding is beyond Gaussian concept.
GAUSSIAN DISPERSION MODEL – GROUP LEVEL POINT SOURCE
Cj (x,y,z) = Qj / (sypUsz) exp[-y2 /2 (sy)2- (z2/ 2 (sz)2)]
GAUSSIAN DISPERSION MODEL –ELEVETED POINT SOURCE
Cj (x,y,z) = Qj / (Usyszp) exp[-y2 /2 (sy)2{ exp [Z-H)2/2(sz)2] + exp [(Z+h)2 / 2 (sz)2 ]}
GAUSSIAN DISPERSION MODEL –GROUND LEVEL LINE SOURCE
Cj (x,z) = 2QjL[exp(-Z2/2(sz)2](2p)1/2 Usz
Where
Qj = emission rate of pollutants species in gm/sec.
Sz = vertical Gaussian dispersion coefficient in m.
Sy = horizontal Gaussian dispersion coefficient in m.
U = wind in x- direction in m/sec.
H = height of the elevated source in m.
L = length of line source in m.
39
6.2 DISPERSION CO-EFFICIENTS:
The modal requires information on values of dispersion co-efficient (sy, sz) and
the variation of theses co-efficient with atmospheric stability class and downward
distance. Hence different set of (sy,sz) variable has been developed.
6.2.1 Brigg’s equations for various stability class for dispersion coefficients:
Required stability class
Sy (meters)
Sz (meters)
A
0.22x (1+0.0001 x) -1/2
0.2x
B
0.16x (1+0.0001 x) -1/2
0.12x
C
0.11x (1+0.0001 x) -1/2
0.08x (1+0.0002x) -1/2
D
0.08x (1+0.0001 x) -1/2
0.06x (1+0.0015 x) -1/2
E
0.06x (1+0.0001 x) -1/2
0.03x (1+0.0003 x) -1/2
F
0.04x (1+0.0001 x) -1/2
0.016x (1+0.0003 x) -1/2
6.3 PASQUILL’S STABILITY CATEGORIES:
Formalize the relation between atmosphere surface stability and those factors controlling
stability isolation nocturnal radiation and meteorology. This classification is done in
accordance with the wind speed and incoming solar radiation for a day or down cover for
night.
40
6.3.1 PASQUILL’S chart:
Surface wind
speed (m/s)
Day incoming Radiation
Strong
Moderate
Slight
Night cloud conditions
Thinly overcast
3/8 low cloud
4/8 low cloud
2
A
A-B
B
….
….
2-3
A –B
B
C
E
F
3-5
B
B –C
C
D
E
5-6
C
C –D
D
D
D
>6
C
D
D
D
D
Neutral class D should be assumed for overcast conditions during day or night.
Stability class
Class description
A
Extremely stable
B
Unstable
C
Slightly unstable
D
Neutral
E
Slightly stable
F
Stable to Extremely stable
6.4 Effective stack height (He):
He = ho + plume rise
Where
He = effective stable height which is height from ground level at which the pollutant is
emitted into atmosphere from the stack.
Ho = stack height in m.
Plume rise:
It is defined as the vertical motion of a plume from an elevated source to the
height when it becomes horizontal. The rise is a result of momentum and thermal forces.
Momentum forces results from vertical velocity of stack gases that give upwardly
41
directed momentum. The thermal process result from the buoyancy of effluent gases,
when stack gas exhaust temperature exceeds surrounding ambient temperatures.
Brigg’s plume rise equation:
a) For stable conditions (viz E,F):
X < 2US -1/2, plume rise = 1.6 F 1/3 X 2/3/U
X < 2US-1/2, plume rise = 2.9 (F/ US)1/3)
b) for unstable and neutral conditions (viz, A,B,C, D):
X<=3.5 Xd, plume rise = 1.6 F 1/3 Xd 2/3 )/U
Where
S= stability factor = 9.8 [Tg +0.98]/Ta
F = buoyancy factor in m4 / sec3
= gVsD2 [(Ts-T3)/Ts]/4
D = internal stack diameter in m.
Vs = exit gas velocity in m/sec.
U = mean wind speed at height of emission from stack in m/sec.
Ts = stack gas exit temperature, degree Kelvin.
T3 = ambient atmospheric temperature in degree Kelvin.
X = distance of receptor from source in m.
Xd = 14 F 5/8 (F,55)
Or 34 F 2/5
( F, 55)
42
CHAPTER:
7
AIR IMPACT MODELLING
(PROGAMMING)
43
#include<iostream.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<math.h>
#include<process.h>
#include<graphics.h>
#include<dos.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<string.h>
struct stack
{
double vs,d,u,p,ts,ta,hg,h;
double vsn,dn,un,pn,qhn,hn;
double vss,ds,us,ps,qhs,hs;
double vsu,du,uu,pu,qhu,hu;
}so;
float general();
float neutral();
float subadia();
float superadia();
float valueH(float);
void point(float,float);
void main()
{
float g,h,n,s,u,hpg,hpn,hps,hpu;
int ch=0;
clrscr();
while (ch!=5)
{
cout<<"\n\t\t\t EFFECTIVE HEIGHT EQUATION";
cout<<"\n\t\t\t---------------------------";
cout<<"\n\n\n\n\n1:GENERAL";
cout<<"\n2:NEUTRAL";
cout<<"\n3:SUBADIABATIC";
cout<<"\n4:SUPER ADIABATIC";
cout<<"\n5:EXIT";
cout<<"\n\n ENTER YOUR CHOICE:-";
cin>>ch;
44
if(ch==1)
{
g=general();
hpg=valueH(g);
point(g,hpg);
exit(0);
}
if(ch==2)
{
n=neutral();
hpn=valueH(n);
point(h,hpn);
exit(0);
}
if(ch==3)
{
s=subadia();
hps=valueH(s);
point(s,hps);
exit(0);
}
if(ch==4)
{
u=superadia();
hpu=valueH(u);
point(u,hpu);
exit(0);
}
if(ch==5)
{
exit(0);
}
}
}
float general()
{
clrscr();
cout<<"\n\t\t\t GENERAL:";
cout<<"\n\t\t\t---------";
cout<<"\n\nEnter stack velocity in m/sec(Vs):-";
cin>>so.vs;
cout<<"\nEnter stack diameter in m (D):-";
cin>>so.d;
cout<<"\nEnter wind speed in m/sec(u):-";
cin>>so.u;
cout<<"Enter pressure in millibars(P):-";
45
cin>>so.p;
cout<<"\nEnter stack gas temperature in kelvin(Ts):-";
cin>>so.ts;
cout<<"\nEnter air temperature in kelvin(Ta):-";
cin>>so.ta;
so.hg=((so.vs*so.d)/so.u)*((1.5+(2.68*(1/pow(10,3))*so.p*so.d)*((so.ts-so.ta)/so.ts)));
cout<<"\nPLUME RISE IN GENERAL CASE:";
cout<<so.hg;
return(so.hg);
}
float neutral()
{
clrscr();
cout<<"\n\t\t\tNEUTRAL STABILITY:";
cout<<"\n\t\t\t------------------";
cout<<"\n\n\n\n\nEnter stack exit velocity in m/sec(Vsn):-";
cin>>so.vsn;
cout<<"\nEnter stack diameter in m(Dn):";
cin>>so.dn;
cout<<"\nEnter wind speed in m/sec(Un):-";
cin>>so.un;
cout<<"\nEnter stack heat(Qn):-";
cin>>so.qhn;
so.hn=((0.35*so.vsn*so.dn)/so.un)+(2.64*(pow(so.qhn,.5)/so.un));
cout<<"\nPLUME RISE FOR NEUTRAL STABILITY:";
cout<<so.hn;
return(so.hn);
}
float subadia()
{
clrscr();
cout<<"\n\t\t\tSUB ADIABATIC:";
cout<<"\n\t\t\t--------------";
cout<<"\n\n\n\n\nEnter stack exit velocity in m/sec(Vssub):-";
cin>>so.vss;
cout<<"\ENTER STACK DIAMETER IN m(Dsub):-";
cin>>so.ds;
cout<<"\nEnter wind speed in m/sec(Usub):-";
cin>>so.us;
cout<<"\nEnter stack heat(Qhs):-";
cin>>so.qhs;
so.hs=(2.24*(pow(so.qhs,.5)/so.us))-((1.04*so.vss*so.ds)/so.us);
cout<<"\nPLUME RISE FOR SUBADIABATIC:";
46
cout<<so.hs;
return(so.hs);
}
float superadia()
{
clrscr();
cout<<"\n\t\t\tSUPER ADIABATIC:";
cout<<"\n\t\t\t----------------";
cout<<"\n\n\n\n\nEnter stack exit velocity in m/sec(Vsu):-";
cin>>so.vsu;
cout<<"\nEnter stack diameter in m(Du):-";
cin>>so.du;
cout<<"\nEnter wind speed in m/sec(Uu):-";
cin>>so.uu;
cout<<"\nEnter stack heat(Qhu):-";
cin>>so.qhu;
so.hu=((3.47*so.vsu*so.du)/so.uu)+(5.15*(pow(so.qhu,0.5)/so.uu));
cout<<"\nPLUME RISE FOR SUPERADIABATIC :-";
cout<<so.hu;
return(so.hu);
}
float valueH(float a)
{
float H,hp;
cout<<"\n\n\n\nTO FIND THE EFFECTIVE STACK HEIGHT";
cout<<"\n------------------------------------";
cout<<"\n\n\nEnter the value of of physical height";
cin>>hp;
H=hp+a;
cout<<"The value of effective stack height(H):-";
cout<<H;
return(H);
}
/* FUNCTION DECLARATION */
char sclassd();
char sclassn();
float sws;
char sr;
int nc;
int main()
{
47
//FILE *fpt;
float d[12],ht[12],vs[12],ta[12],ts[12],dx[12][10],tg[12],f[10],rin,maxx[12],maxy[12];
float s[12],ran[12],pr[12][10],u[12],eht[12][10],x[10],x1[10],x2[10];
float y[10],y1[10],y2[10],ax,sigy[20][10],sigz[20][10],rl[10][10];
float ay,t1,t2,bm[9],beht[9][10],xd[10],er[9][2],bg[12];
char sc,nam[5][10],dn,ni[30],seas[10],loc[10],wid[10],cat,std[12][10][10][10];
int nos,xs,ys,nop,countx,county,countp,counts,i;
float conc[9][2][7][10],max[12],tconc[2][10][10];
clrscr();
/* GENERAL ASPECT OF INDUSTRY FOR THE REPORT ONLY */
printf("/n enter the catesory of the area :\nI:Industry ans mixed use\nR:Residential and
rural\nsensitive(hills,etc)");
fflush(stdin);
scanf("%c",&cat);
printf("\nEnter the name of industry:\n");
scanf("%s",ni);
printf("\nEnter the location of industry->");
scanf("%s",loc);
printf("\nEnter the no of stacks in the area->");
scanf("%d",&nos);
printf("\nEnter the no pollutents->");
scanf("%d",&nop);
for(countp=1;countp<=nop;countp++)
{
printf("\nEnter the name of pollutant %d",countp);
scanf("%s",nam[countp]);
printf("\nEnter the backgroundvalue of the pollutant %s ",nam[countp]);
scanf("%f",&bg[countp]);
}
printf("\nleft moststack is origin .Wind direction is X-axix");
for(counts=1;counts<=nos;++counts)
{
printf("\nEnter the co cards of stack %d ",counts);
scanf("%f %f",&x1[counts],&y1[counts]);
}
printf("\nEnter the no of points in the downwind direction ,X->");
scanf("%d",&xs);
printf("\nEnter the time of day as day or night \n");
fflush(stdin);
scanf("%c",&dn);
printf("\nEnter the name of season\n");
scanf("%s",seas);
printf("\nEnter the prevailing max wind direction as,N,S,.W,NE,SE,SW,NW ");
48
scanf("%s",wid);
if(dn=='n')
sc=sclassn();
else
sc=sclassd();
for(counts=1;counts<=nos;counts++)
{
printf("\nEnter the data asked for stack no. %d\n",counts);
printf("==========================================================
========================\n");
printf("Enter the internal diameter of the stack in m\n");
scanf("%f",&d[counts]);
printf("\nEnter the exit velocity in m/s\n");
scanf("%f",&vs[counts]);
printf("\nEnter the stack height in m\n");
scanf("%f",&ht[counts]);
printf("\nEnter the mean wind speed at height of emision from stack in m/s:");
scanf("%f",&u[counts]);
printf("\nEnter the stack gas exit temprature indeg.K\n");
scanf("%f",&ts[counts]);
printf("\nEnter the ambient temprature in deg.K\n");
scanf("%f",&ta[counts]);
printf("\nEnter the atmospheric temprature gradient in deg/100 m\n");
scanf("%f",&tg[counts]);
f[counts]=9.81*vs[counts]*d[counts]*d[counts]*(ts[counts]-ta[counts])/(4*ts[counts]);
s[counts]=9.81*(tg[counts]+0.98)/ta[counts];
if(f[counts]<55.0)
xd[counts]=14*pow(f[counts],0.625);
else
xd[counts]=34*pow(f[counts],0.4);
x[1]=500;
/* PLUME RISE CALCULATION STARTS */
for(countx=1;countx<=xs;++countx)
{
x2[countx]=x[countx]-x1[counts];
if(x2[countx]>0)
{
if((sc=='e')||(sc=='f'))
{
if(x2[countx]<=2*u[counts]*pow(s[counts],-0.5))
pr[counts][countx]=1.6*pow(f[counts],0.33)*pow(x2[countx],0.67)/u[counts];
else
49
{
ran[counts]=f[counts]/(u[counts]*s[counts]);
pr[counts][countx]=2.9*(pow(ran[counts],0.33));
}
}
else if(x2[countx]<=3.5*xd[counts])
{
pr[counts][countx]=1.6*pow(f[counts],0.33)*pow(x2[countx],0.67)/u[counts];
}
else
{
if(x2[countx]>3.5*xd[counts])
pr[counts][countx]=1.6*pow(f[counts],0.33)*pow(3.5*xd[counts],0.67)/u[counts];
}
eht[counts][countx]=ht[counts]+pr[counts][countx];
printf("\nEffective height of stack %d for point %d->
%f",counts,countx,eht[counts][countx]);
}
x[countx+1]=x[countx]+500;
}
}
/* PLUME RISE CALCULATION IS OVER */
/* CALCULATION OF DISPERSION COEFF STARTS */
x[1]=500;
for(counts=1;counts<=nos;++counts)
{
for(countx=1;countx<=xs;++countx)
{
x2[countx]=x[countx]-x1[counts];
if(x2[countx]>0)
{
ax=1+0.0001*x2[countx];
if(sc=='a')
{
sigy[counts][countx]=0.22*x2[countx]*pow(ax,-0.5);
sigz[counts][countx]=0.2*x2[countx];
}
else if(sc=='b')
{
sigy[counts][countx]=0.16*x2[countx]*pow(ax,-0.5);
sigz[counts][countx]=0.12*x2[countx];
}
else if(sc=='c')
{
sigy[counts][countx]=0.11*x2[countx]*pow(ax,-0.5);
ay=1+0.0002*x2[countx];
50
sigz[counts][countx]=0.08*x2[countx]*pow(ay,-0.5);
}
else if(sc=='d')
{
sigy[counts][countx]=0.08*x2[countx]*pow(ax,-0.5);
ay=1+0.0015*x2[countx];
sigz[counts][countx]=0.06*x2[countx]*pow(ay,-0.5);
}
else if(sc=='e')
{
sigy[counts][countx]=0.06*x2[countx]*pow(ax,-0.5);
ay=1+0.0003*x2[countx];
sigz[counts][countx]=0.03*x2[countx]*pow(ay,-1);
}
else
{
sigy[counts][countx]=0.04*x2[countx]*pow(ax,-0.5);
ay=1+0.0003*x2[countx];
sigz[counts][countx]=0.016*x2[countx]*pow(ay,-1);
}
printf("\nsigy %d %d=%f,\nsigz %d
%d=%f",counts,countx,sigy[counts][countx],counts,countx,sigz[counts][countx]);
}
else
{
sigy[counts][countx]=0.0;
sigz[counts][countx]=0.0;
}
x[countx+1]=x[countx]+500;
}
}
/* CONCENTRATION CALCULATION */
/*************************************************/
ys=xs+1;
for(county=1;county<=ys;++county)
{
for(countx=1;countx<=xs;++countx)
{
printf("\nEnter the terrian conditions i.e. inputthe R.L. of ground at this point%d ,%d
with respect to bench mark",countx,county);
scanf("%f",&rl[county][countx]);
}
}
for(counts=1;counts<=nos;++counts)
{
printf("\nEnter the R.L. of ground from bench mark from stack %d",counts);
51
scanf("%f",&bm[counts]);
for(countp=1;countp<=nop;countp++)
{
printf("\nEnter the emittiion rate for %s pollutant from stack no
%d",nam[countp],counts);
scanf("%f",&er[counts][countp]);
y[1]=0;
for(county=1;county<=ys;++county)
{
for(countx=1;countx<=xs;countx++)
{
x2[countx]=x[countx]-x1[counts];
y2[county]=y[county]-y1[counts];
if(x2[countx]>0)
{
/* TERRIAN CONDITIONS */
/******************************************************************/
beht[counts][countx]=bm[counts]+eht[counts][countx];
if(rl[county][countx]<beht[counts][countx])
{
rin=pow((beht[counts][countx]-rl[county][countx]),2);
t1=exp(-(y2[county]*y2[county])/(2*pow(sigy[counts][countx],2)));
t2=exp(-(rin)/(2*pow(sigz[counts][countx],2)));
conc[counts][countp][county][countx]=(er[counts][countx])*t1*t2/(2.0*3.14*u[counts]*s
igy[counts][countx]*sigz[counts][countx])*1000.0*1000.0;
}
else
{
t1=exp(-(y2[county]*y2[county])/(2*pow(sigy[counts][countx],2)));
conc[counts][countp][county][countx]=(er[counts][countp]*t1)/(3.14*sigy[counts][count
x]*sigz[counts][countx]*u[counts])*pow(10,6);
}
}
else
conc[counts][countp][county][countx]=0;
x[countx+1]=x[countx]+500;
}
y[county+1]=y[county]+50;
}
}
}
/* TOTAL CONCENTRATION AT A POINT */
for(countp=1;countp<=nop;countp++)
{
max[countp]=0;
for(county=1;county<=ys;county++)
52
{
for(countx=1;countx<=xs;++countx)
{
tconc[countp][county][countx]=bg[countp];
for(counts=1;counts<=nos;++counts)
{
tconc[countp][county][countx]=tconc[countp][county][countx]+conc[counts][countp][co
unty][countx];
}
if(max[countp]<tconc[countp][county][countx])
{
max[countp]=tconc[countp][county][countx];
maxx[countp]=x[countx];
maxy[countp]=y[county];
}
x[countx+1]=x[countx]+500;
}
y[county+1]=y[county]+50;
}
}
/* AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS */
/***********************************************************************
******************************/
for(countp=1;countp<=nop;++countp)
{
for(county=1;county<=ys;++county)
{
for(countx=1;countx<=xs;countx++)
{
switch(cat)
{
case 'I':
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"SPM")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>500)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
{
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"SO2")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>120)
53
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
{
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"NOx")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>120)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
{
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"CO")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>5000)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"NA");
}
}
}
break;
case 'R':
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"SPM")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>200)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
{
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"SO2")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>80)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
54
{
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"NOx")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>80)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
{
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"CO")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>2000)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"NA");
}
}
}
break;
case 'S':
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"SPM")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>100)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
{
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"SO2")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>30)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
{
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"NOx")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>30)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
55
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
{
if(strcmp(nam[countp],"CO")==0)
{
if(tconc[countp][county][countx]>1000)
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"unsafe");
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"safe");
}
else
strcpy(std[countp][county][countx],"NA");
}
}
}
break;
default:
printf("\nfault in category of area ");
}
}
}
} getch();
return 0;
}
/* FUNCTION STSRTS FOR STABILITY CLASS IN DAY TIME */
/******************************************************************/
char sclassd()
{
char sclass1;
printf("\nEnter the surface wind speed at 10 mts from ground level not less than 2
mt/s\n");
scanf("%f",&sws);
printf("\nEnter the incoming solar radiation during day time as t:for strong,m:for
maderte,or l:for slight");
fflush(stdin);
scanf("%c",&sr);
if(sws==2.0)
{
if(sr=='t')
sclass1='a';
else
{
if((sr=='m')||(sr=='l'))
56
sclass1='b';
}
}
else
{
if(((sws>2.0)&&(sws<=3.0))&&((sr=='t')||(sr=='m')))
sclass1='b';
else if(((sws>2.0)&&(sws<=3.0))&&(sr=='l'))
sclass1='c';
else if(((sws>3.0)&&(sws<=5.0))&&((sr=='t')||(sr=='m')))
sclass1='c';
else if(((sws>3.0)&&(sws<=5.0))&&(sr=='l'))
sclass1='b';
else if(((sws>5.0)&&(sws<=6.0))&&((sr=='t')||(sr=='m')))
sclass1='d';
else if(((sws>5.0)&&(sws<=6.0))&&(sr=='l'))
sclass1='c';
else if((sws>6.0)&&((sr=='m')||(sr=='l')))
sclass1='d';
else if((sws>6.0)&&(sr=='t'))
sclass1='c';
}
printf("\nthe sclass is =%c",sclass1);
return(sclass1);
}
/* STABILITY CLASS CALCULATION STARTS FOR NIGHT TIME */
/********************************************************************/
char sclassn()
{
char sclass;
printf("\nEnter the urface wind speed at 10 mts from the ground level not less than 2mt/s
");
scanf("%f",&sws);
printf("\nEnter the niht cloud condition as 1:for 4/8 low cloud or 2:for 3/8 cloud ");
scanf("%d",&nc);
if((sws>2)&&(sws<=3))
{
if(nc==1)
sclass='e';
else
sclass='f';
}
else if((sws>3)&&(sws<=5))
57
{
if(nc==1)
sclass='d';
else
sclass='e';
}
else if((sws>5)&&(sws<=6))
sclass='d';
else
sclass='e';
printf("\nThe stability class=%c",sclass);
return(sclass);
}
58
CHAPTER:
8
RESULTS
59
Result of the model for prediction of air pollutant dispersion
Name of the industry:- Rourkela steel plant
Location of the industry:- Rourkela
Number of pollutants from the industry:- 2
Name of the season:- summer
Number of stacks in the area:- 9
Number of points in x direction:- 10
Number of points in y direction:- 10
Maximum wind prevails in the direction:- NW
The ambient air quality standards
Sl no.
1
category
SPM
Industrial and mixed 500
SO2
NOX
120
120
use.
2
Residential and rural
200
80
80
3
Sensitive(hills etc.)
100
30
30
60
CONCENTRATION OF POLLUTANT SPM
CO-ORD IN X
mts
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
CO-ORD IN Y
Mts
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
4000
CONC. IN
microgram/cub.mts
7.943
15.345
35.275
42.643
55.432
38.784
22.543
18.521
10.890
5.567
7.762
17.087
35.321
42.783
53.590
34.223
20.789
15.341
9.065
5.519
9.567
13.782
14.778
20.960
35.345
28.112
20.340
19.151
7.893
4.349
11.987
14.905
16.654
20.976
19.007
16.076
10.876
6.224
5.915
3.668
19.891
STATUS
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
61
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
20.864
21.998
23.876
20.228
17.760
13.765
6.220
3.918
1.456
15.761
18.003
18.876
16.245
14.221
9.207
6.689
3.943
1.654
1.567
13.678
15.974
17.532
24.760
32.289
57.893
25.112
3.765
2.911
1.562
10.765
8.561
9.083
7.441
3.985
1.224
1.207
0.819
0.659
0.571
5.456
6.005
7.216
7.654
4.965
3.234
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
62
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
8000
8000
8000
8000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
0.675
0.498
0.765
0.225
0.950
0.760
0.761
0.784
0.054
0.651
0.441
0.175
0.154
0.221
0.981
0.654
0.342
0.974
0.227
0.338
0.275
0.176
0.169
0.131
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
63
CONCENTRATION OF POLLUTANT NOX.
CO-ORD IN X
mts
CO-ORD IN Y
mts
CONCENTRATION STATUS
Microgram/cub.mts
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
29.455
44.712
63.785
76.987
94.342
69.234
61.456
54.993
38.915
22.348
27.765
48.487
64.785
77.210
91.542
67.754
59.543
48.234
36.412
20.952
31.487
46.126
54.432
65.437
76.832
69.410
60.112
52.167
38.065
25.255
33.330
44.231
52.945
68.348
65.421
60.763
51.876
46.674
29.549
25.931
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
64
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
38.289
43.674
69.651
85.042
81.664
78.439
66.752
49.566
37.862
26.221
35.022
54.759
57.543
87.498
77.067
56.589
43.674
34.789
27.765
19.893
32.546
48.126
50.432
79.437
72.832
51.410
40.112
29.167
21.065
16.255
30.678
39.543
41.678
68.112
64.456
33.349
31.965
24.564
22.227
16.765
21.745.
34.765
36.431
63.590
59.329
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
65
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
30.487
28.654
20.589
18.453
13.765
15.364
32.143
37.685
46.543
43.767
26.397
20.723
19.106
17.864
12.789
14.623
30.854
35.991
44.784
40.000
21.998
19.827
18.139
15.176
10.365
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
The maximum NOX concentration occurs at the point 5000.00000
0.00000.
The concentration at this point being : 94. 342
66
CONCENTRATION OF POLLUTANT SO2
CO-ORD IN X
mts
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
CO-ORD IN Y
Mts
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
CONCENTRATION
Microgram/cub. mts
27.765
42.732
61.765
75.987
91.342
72.234
60.456
52.993
43.895
22.348
27.645
47.487
59.785
73.290
94.542
71.754
60.113
52.234
41.412
21.952
31.487
46.126
54.432
65.437
76.832
73.410
63.112
54.167
40.065
18.255
33.330
44.231
52.945
68.348
65.421
STATUS
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
67
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
60.763
51.876
46.674
29.549
17.931
38.289
43.674
69.651
85.042
81.664
72.439
64.752
48.566
36.862
24.221
34.022
54.759
57.543
81.452
75.067
53.589
41.674
32.789
26.765
18.893
32.546
48.126
50.432
79.437
72.832
51.410
40.112
29.167
21.065
16.255
28.678
38.543
39.678
67.112
64.456
31.349
27.965
24.564
21.227
15.765
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
68
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
21.745.
34.765
36.431
63.590
60.329
29.487
24.654
20.589
18.453
13.765
15.364
30.243
32.785
44.543
41.767
26.397
18.123
16.106
14.814
10.569
11.623
28.854
31.991
42.784
39.000
21.998
18.327
13.139
11.876
8.365
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
SAFE
The maximum concentration occurs at the point 5000.0000 ,1000.000
The concentration at this point being : 94.542
69
CHAPTER:
9
CONTOUR PLOTTING
70
CONTOUR SHOWING CONCENTRATION OF SPM
71
CONTOUR SHOWING CONCENTRATION OF SPM
72
CONTOUR SHOWING CONCENTRATION OF NOX
73
CONTOUR SHOWING CONCENTRATION OF NOX
74
CONTOUR SHOWING CONCENTRATION OF SO2
75
CONTOUR SHOWING CONCENTRATION OF SO2
76
CHAPTER:
10
PRACTICAL STUDY REPORT
77
APPARATUS USED
1) Respirable dust sampler
MODEL
APM-260-----SPM
APM-211-----NOx,SO2
2) Aquadec----To find concentration of So2 and Nox
Calculation of sample air volume and SPM and RPM concentration
Calculate the air volume sampled,
V= (Qi +Qf)/2)T
Where
V= STP-equivalent(25 deg. C. 1atm) air volume sampled, m3
Qi=Initial air flow rate,m3/min.
Qf= final air flow rate,m3/min.
T= sampling period in minutes.
SPM CALCULATION
SPM concentration,
SPM(µg/m3)= (Wf-Wi) X 106/V
where
Wf= weight of exposed filter, grams.
Wi = fare weight of filter, grams.
NO2 CALCULATION
REAGENT USED- Sodium Hydroxide
NOx(µg/m3) = (µg NOx /ml) X 25/(V X 0.82)
SO2 CALCULATION
REAGENTS USED -0.04 M Potasium Tetrachloromercurate
SO2(ppmv) = SO2(µg/m3) X 0.000382.
78
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AROUND KUARMUNDA AREA
LOCATION
DISTANCE
FROM
SITE
1.5
2.5
1.25
0.75
TAORU
SOHNA
KATIA
KHOTA
KHANDWAL
BIRO
0.25
VEDVYAS
2.75
TUSARA
1.50
GOUDAPALI 3.50
BERUA
6
JASINGA
1.25
TAORU
1.5
SOHNA
2.5
KATIA
1.25
KHOTA
0.75
KHANDWAL
BIRO
0.25
VEDVYAS
2.75
TUSARA
1.50
GOUDAPALI 3.50
BERUA
6
JASINGA
1.25
RPM
SPM
SO2
NOX
DIRECTION
128
137
120
178
273
434
178
230
15.32
29.57
8.03
6.18
11.28
9.99
3.49
18.86
SOUTH
S-W
WEST
S-E
99
117
71
74
134
89
143
110
89
126
208
260
141
149
172
155
226
277
207
265
91.36
0.00
0.00
13.03
4.54
6.01
0..00
0.00
61.7
83.31
14.15
17.98
14.36
10.88
7.54
17.40
14.54
13.23
19.41
24.63
WEST
N-W
N-E
S-E
S-W
WEST
SOUTH
S-W
WEST
S-E
86
93
167
112
184
115
410
201
300
271
237
227
91.41
0.00
5.59
11.23
29.86
60.01
17.77
15.96
11.17
13.90
17.22
28.03
WEST
N-W
WEST
SOUTH
S-W
WEST
79
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AROUND RSP
Class
A
B
C
D
E
F
SPM
58.76(2,2)
90.47(3,3)
95.64(3,3)
87.86(6,6)
117.02(7,7)
99.57(8,9)
SO2
45.77(2,2)
60.46(3,3)
54.79(4,4)
31.49(7,7)
48.02(7,7)
21.82(10.10)
NOx
77.97(3,1)
271.81(3,1)
298.27(3,1)
227.03(4,2)
307.76(4,2)
186.64(6,4)
80
CONCLUSION
1
The program finds out ground level concentration near RSP.
2
It also compares concentration obtained at several points with national ambient
quality standards. At all points concentration obtained were below the standard
values and was thus within safe limits.
3
The percentage error found out was about 42%.
LIMITATIONS
1
The local pollution creating criteria were not taken into account .
2
During the diffusion of the pollutants, the effect of chemical and photo chemicals
reactions was not considered.
3
The ground level was assumed to be level.
81
REFERENCES
1
Environmental impact analysis hand book--- Row and Wooten
2
Air pollution engineering----- Noel De Nevers
3
Environmental impact assessment and environmental management plan for
modernization scheme of RSP-----M.N. Dastur and company
4
Environmental pollution control engineering------ C.S Rao
5
Journals by white young green environmental limited
6
WSDOT environmental procedures manual.
7
National environmental policy act,42 USC 4231.
82
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90
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